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Coos County, 

New Hampshire, 


Land of the Forest and the Rock! 

Of dark-blue Lake and mighty River! 

Of Mountains, reared aloft to mock 

The storm's career, the earthquake's shock. 

Our own Coos forever! 

— Adapted. 

W . A . F E R G U S S O N & Co. 


Copyright, 1888, 

By W. A. Fergusson & Co. 

All Rights Reserved. 

1111 JOURNA1 CO., 



TO those who have secured the preparation of this history: to those 
who have so generously and liberally furnished the illustrations; to 
those who have contributed their time and labor to make this a reli- 
able repository of valuable information of the days of "auld Jang syne"; 
to those well-wishers of the enterprise whose cheering words and willing 
assistance have ever been at our service; to these, and those unnumbered 
ones who have extended manifold courtesies to us, we hereby express our 
hearty thanks, and trust that the perusal of this volume will be a pleasure 
and a satisfaction to them during long years to come. To compile even 
the history of a single county requires much time, research, watchful care 
and discrimination in order to record facts and not hearsay. " Out of 
monuments, names, words, proverbs, traditions, records, fragments of 
stone, passages of books, and the like, we doe save and recover somewhat 
from the deluge of time." 




Organization— Towns Included— Extent- 
Boundaries — Population, Agricultural and 
Manufacturing Statistics. Etc., 1880— Loca- 
tions, Grants, and Purchases— Altitudes. 

II Geology 20 

Rock Formations— The Age of Ice— Glacial 
Drift— Upper Till— Lower Till— Champlain 
Drift— Recent or Terrace Period— Modified 
Drift of Connecticut River, Connecticut 
Lake, to West Stewartstown — Upper Con- 
necticut Valley — Karnes— Deltas. 

III. Topography 26 

The Water Sheds— Carriage Roads— Lumber 
Roads— The Water Basins— The Streams, 
Connecticut. Magalloway, Androscoggin — 
Source of the Connecticut— Description and 
Scenery — Second Lake, Connecticut Lake — 
Tributaries of the Connecticut — Lake Ma- 
galloway — Magalloway River — Androscog- 
gin River— Their Tributaries— Ci >untry along 
the Maine Line— Bogs and Peat Swamps. 

IV. Scenery of Coos 34 

Pittsburg — Crown Monument — Megantic 
Mountain —Headwaters of St. Francis and 
Chaudiere Rivers— Along the New Hamp- 
shire and Quebec Boundary— Third Lake— 
Mt. Carmel— Mt. Agizcoos— Cascades— Little 
Diamond Falls— Huggins Branch— Dixville 
Notch— 'The Old Man of Dixville"— The 
Flume— Cascade Brook— Huntington Cas- 
cade—Scenery of Errol— West Stewartstown 
to North Stratford — Groveton— Stark— Mi- 
lan— Lancaster— Jefferson — Randolph— Dal- 
ton — Shelburne — Gorham. 

Y. Indian History 40 

Aboriginal Indians — Iroquois — Mohawks — 
Algonquins — New England Tribes — Wig- 
wams—Social Life, Government, and Lan- 
guage—Food—Religion—The St. Francis In- 
dians — Gen. Amherst —Rogers' Expedition — 
Destruction of St. Francis Village— Retreat 
and Sufferings of tin- "Rangers." 


VI. White Mountains 46 

Topography— Mt. Starr Kin- Group— Mt. 
Carter Group— .Alt. Washington Range- 
Cherry Mountain District— Mt. Willey I. 
—History— Mythology— First Yisited— Win- 
throp's Account—Darby Field's Route up 
the Mountains — Josselyn's Description of 
Scenery— The Crystal Hills— Eater Visits- 
Western Pass, or •'Notch"— First Settlemenl 
— Scientific Visitors — Sceneryofthe Notch 
Nash and Sawyer's Grant— "A Horse through 
the Notch"— Sawyer's Rock— First Articles 
of Commerce— Tenth New Hampshire Turn- 
pike—Scientific Explorations— First Settlers 
Among the Mountains— Nancy's Rock and 
Brook— First House in the Notch— Craw- 
ford's Cabin on the Summit — Summit House 
— Tip-Top House — Carriage Road — Glen 
House — Mt. Washington Railway— Mountain 
Tragedies— ••Among the Clouds" —Signal 
Station— Summer Hotels. 

VII. Flants 58 

Trees — Shrubs— Grasses— Introduced Plants 
— Alpine Plants. 

VIII. Game of Coos Counts 60 

Beaver — Dams— Moose— Description, I 
Etc. — Deer, Caribou, Etc. — Horns — Bear — 
Wolverine — Lynx — Otter- Fisher Sable — 
Raccoon — Gray Squirrel — Wild (feese and 
Ducks — Ruffed Grouse or Partridge Canada 
Grouse or Spruce Partridge— Wild Pigeons. 

IX. Early History 72 

Early Trappers and Hunters -Indian Threats 
— Capture of Stark ami Eastman Powers' 
Expedition — Extracts from Journal — Fort 
Wentworth first Settlers Townships, and 
Date of ( rrants Earlj Population. 

X. Early Settlers 77 

Character of Early Settlers of New Hamp- 
shire — characteristics of Pioneers of < loos- 
Hardships Endured Religion ami Educa- 
tion Traditional stories — Improvement in 
Condition -Primitive Houses. Furniture, 










Etc.— Manners, Customs. Labor, Dress, Fare, 
Etc.— Description of Early Homes, Kitchens, 
Utensils, Stoves, Etc. 
Bevolutionar? Period and Early Roads. . . 85 
"War of the Revolution— Frontier and Scout- 
ing Parties— Proposed Expedition— Conven- 
tion of Towns— Orders. Receipts, Etc.— Early 
Roads— Petitions Concerning Roads and New 
County — Roads in 1797 and 1803 — Tenth 
New Hampshire Turnpike— Jefferson Turn- 
pike, Etc. 
Survey and Marking of New Hampshire 

and Maine Boundary 93 

Boundary Surveys— Smuggling, Etc., 1812- 
1815 — Boundary Commissions — " Indian 
Stream Territory"— Indian Stream War- 
Musters and Militia. 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions. 
Sports, and Policy of Coos Concern- 
ing Fish and Came 106 

Upper Cohos— Coos— Abenaquis— "Captain 
Joe" and "Captain John— King Philip— 
Metallak— Robbins and Hinds —Mountain 
Ranges— Lakes— Rivers— Fish and Game— 
Si „ , S e~-W( lives— Deer— Bear— Fox— Salmon 
—Trout— Summer Travel-Railroad Facihties 
— Protection of Forests — Sports — Game 
Laws— True Legislation . 
The Timber Interests of Northern Coos . 123 
Spruce Belt— Hard Wood Timber— The Sugar 
Maple— Other Woods— Resources and Man- 
ufacture—Opportunities for Investment. 
Coos County Press: Agricultural Socie- 
ties; Railroads • 131 

White Mountain 3Egis— Coos County Demo- 
crat— Coos Republican —Prohibition Her- 
ald—Independent (now Lancaster) Ga- 
zette— Coos Herald. Etc.— Northern Sentinel 
— Colebrook Weekly News— News and S 
nel— Whitefield Blade — Coos Advertiser— 
The Mountaineer. Etc.— Coos Agricultural 
Society— Coos and Essex County Agricultural 
i ity— Railroads: Atlantic and St. Law- 
rence—White Mountains —Portland and 
Ogdensburg— Upper Coos. 

Masi >nry in Coos 139 

North Star Lodge, Lancaster — Templar 
Masonry in Northern New Hampshire- 
North Star Chapter, Lancaster — Evening 
Star Lodge, Colebrook — Gorham Lodge. 
Gorham -White Mountain Lodge, Whitefield 
—Officers of Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter 
and Grand Commandi >s County. 

Tin. Soldiers of Coos 16° 

Public Buildings 195 


XIX. National and State Officers 199 

Early Representatives —Classed Representa- 
tives — Senators — County Officers. 

XX. Bench and Bar 207 

History of the Courts— Bench and Bar- 
Northern Judicial District. 





Origin of Name — Charter— Names of Grant- 
ees — Situation — Scenery. Etc. — Climate, 
Reason of Its Pleasantness— Change of 
Boundaries and Location. 

XXII. Lancaster.— (Continued.) 268 

First Settlements— Corn planted —Frost — 
Difficulty of Travel — Canoes — First White 
Woman — Supplies from Portsmouth or 
Haverhill —"Samp Mortar"— ••Cars"— First 
Mills — Revolution — Emmons Stockwell 
•would stay"— Major Jonas Wilder— Rich 
S,,il— Manure thrown away— Village Plot- 
First two-story house in Coos County— First 
Bridge — First Schools — Early Prices — 
••Alarms During the War"— Early Settlers- 
Residents, Polls, and Stock, 1793— David 
Page petitions for more Land— Why '-Upper 
Coos" did not elect Representative— Edwards 
Bucknam granted mill privilege at North- 
umberland Falls— Petition. Etc., Concerning 

XXIII. Lancaster.— i Continued.) 276 

Lancaster in 1795 and 1804 — Lancaster 
Bridge Co.— Extracts from Joseph Brackett's 
Diary, 1799 to 1801— Gen. Moses Hazen— 
South Lancaster or "Cat Bow"— Lancaster 
in 1810 —First Sabbath-School — 1820 - 
1830 — Stores, Articles of Traffic, Etc.— 
Freight —Mail. Vehicles. Etc. — 1810 — Ex- 
tracts from A. N. Brackett's Diary — The 
Great Hail Storm— Climatic and Weather 
Records— Hon. John W.Weeks on Lancaster 
in 1839—1840 to 1850— J. S. Brackett's Sum- 
mary from 1850 to 1876— Village Streets— 
1870 to 1887— Real Estate and Personal Prop- 
erty— 1886. 

XXIV. Lancaster.— (Continued.) -287 

Brief Extracts from town Records. 1769 to 
1834— First Town Meeting— First Town Clerk 
—First Representative of "Upper Coos"— 
Burying Field— Pound— Vote for President 
and Senator— Assessment for Roads payable 
in Wheat— Standard "half bushel"— Preach- 
in-', Etc.— Concerning building Mills— Em- 
mons Stockwell, Inn Keeper— Town Meet- 



ings, where held— School Districts— Meeting 
House— Rev. Joseph Willard -Early Taverns 
—Prices of Produce paid as Minister's Salary 
— Licenses Granted -Barker's Location An- 
nexed -First Fire Wards— Miscellaneous 
tracts from later Town 1; Action of 

Town in the Rebellion, Etc. — Centennial 
Celebration — Freshets. 

XXV. Lancaster. — (Continued.} 29 1 

The Old Meeting House, Description of— 
Pews — Pulpit— "Singers Seats" Dr 
Foot Stove — Location of Meeting Hoi 
Parson Willard— Members of the Congrega- 
tion, Description of— Choir, Eti . 

XXVI. Lancaster.— (Continued.) 299 

Ecclesiastical — Early Pre a c h ing — First 
Church — Confession of Faith and Covenant — 
Original Members— First Pastor— "Parson" 
Willard's Letter— "Parson" Willard's Dis- 
missal — Other Pastors. — Orthodox Congre- 
gational Church — Organization — Faith and 
Covenant— Original Members -Pastors — New 
Articles of Faith, Etc.— First Unitarian So- 
ciety — Church Covenant — First Members- 
Pastors — Prominent Men in the Church- 
Officers — Ladies' Benevolent Society — Sun- 
day-School — Rev. J. B. Morrison. — Methodist 
Episcopal Church — Early Methodism — Or- 
ganization — Pastors — Financial Condition. 
— Baptist Church, Formation— Original Mem- 
bers — Church Building. -St. Paul's Episco- 
pal Church — Confirmation— Church Edifice 
— Rectors.-— Catholicity in Coos -First Pub- 
lic Service at Lancaster— Priests— Church 
Building — Missions. 

XXVII. Lancaster.— (Continued.) 323 

Chronicles from B. I'. Kent's Diary. 

XXVIII. Lancaster. — (Continued.) 333 

Early Education, Etc. — The Public Library 
— Schools— Union Graded School— Lancaster 
Academy — Sketch of the First Principal— 
•• Raising Men." 

XXIX. Lancaster. — (Continued.) 342 

Merchants — Manufacturers — Physicians, 
Apothecaries and Druggists — Hoti 

XXX. Lancaster. — (Continued.) 350 

Civil List. Town Clerks. Selectmen, and Rep- 
resentatives — Mails. Postoffices and Post- 
masters — Lancaster Bank — White Mountain 
Bank — Lancaster National Bank Lanca 
Savings Bank — Siwooganock Savings Bank— 
The New Cemetery— Societies, Grand Army, 
Belief Corps, Etc. 

XXXI. Lancaster. — (Continued. ) 359 

Brief Personal Sketches— Miscellaneous. 

i II upter. paq 


Name and Territory Embraced—] 
Second Grants Second Charter — Petition 
Incorporation— Record of First Town Meet- 
ing—Names lit' Voters — Roads — J: 
Taverns i:< sidi uts, Polk - and Im- 

provements in 1812. 

XXXIII. Jefferson.— i Continued.) 40 I 

Population in 177.") 1790-1800— Scenery 
ferson Hill — Traditions -Early Propri 
—Col. Joseph Whippli — Early S First 

Child— Pond of Safety— First White Woman 
—Deborah Vieker or "Granny Stalbird" 
First Communication — First Cows — Firs! 
Barrel of Rum— Adino N. Brackett's Descrip- 
tion of. Jefferson in 1821 — Boundaries — Pop- 
ulation -Valuation. 

XXXIV. Jefferson.— (Continued.) 11" 

Civil List — Representatives, Town Clerks. 
Selectmen. Supervisors. 

XXXV. Jefferson. — i ( lontinued.) 113 

Educational Interests— Action of th< Town 
in Relation to Schools 1798-1827— "Old North 
School-House" -School Officers— Superin- 
tending Committee — Board of Education. 

XXXVI. Jefferson. — (Continued.) U5 

Ecclesiastical History— First Sermon -Bap- 
tist Church- -Names of Early Members- Pas- 
tors—Free Will Baptist Church— Mem 1 
Pastors — Elder Morse — Methodism— Prog- 
ress Leaders— Class — Members — Church 
Organized — Pastors— Sabbath-School. 

XXXVII. Jefferson.— (Continued.) 117 

Miscellaneous— Cherry Mountain Slidf — Jef- 
ferson Meadows Postoffices —Lumber — 

Merchants— Physician — Summer Hotels and 
Boarding Houses -Benjamin Hicks— Benja- 
min H.Plaisted— Daniel Austin— A goodstory. 


A.N. Brackett's Description — Settled Por- 
tions Attached to Jeffi i -on. 


Carroll, location of — Boundaries -Bn 
Woods Soil— Pioneers, Etc.- I Early 


XL. Carroll— (Continued. | 130 

First Town Record— Bretton Woods— First 
dents Inventory — Non-resident Land 
Owners — Highway Districts Established — 
School Mi larly Births Recorded. 

XLI. Carroll. (Continued.) 134 

Civil List— Action in the Rebellion— Popula- 
tion Relii Valuation — I 

ness Interests —Hoi 






Whitefield's Petition for Grant — The Grant 
— Charter of Whitefields— Considerations for 
Land Granted — Paul and Benning Went- 
worth — Other Grantees — Gerrish Survey — 
The First Moderator— Capt. Jonas Minot — 
Samuel Minot. 

XLIII. Whitefield.— (Continued.) 455 

Organizing under the Grant — First Recorded 
Civil Officers — Important Sale of Lands, 1795 
— Col. Joseph Kimball— Proprietors' Meet- 
ing, December 3, 1800 — Committee and its 
Powers— Abstract of Proprietors' Records — 
First Draft of Lots— Names of Grantees with 
Number of Lot. 

XLIV. Whitefield.— (Continued. ) ... .460 

"What's in a Name" — Rev. George Whitefield 

— Whitefield — Petition for Incorporation, 
Etc.— First Town Meeting and Officers, 1805 
— Major John Burns — Capt. David Burns, 
Etc. — Col. Josepli Kimball — John McMaster 

— First Innkeeper, Asa King — Col. Joseph 
Colby — First Merchant, William Dodge — 
First Inventory — Early Roads. 

XLV. Whitefield.— (Continued.) 469 

Ecclesiastical. Provisions for Religious Wor- 
ship — Free Will Baptists — Congregationalists 
— Adventists— Union Meeting-Honse — Meth- 
odism — Young Men's Christian Association 
— Catholicism — Temperance — Schools- -Soci- 

XL VI. Whitefield. — (Continued.) 479 

lit cords Concerning School-House, Indian 
Stream Soldiers and Town House — Action of 
the Town Concerning the Rebellion — Repre- 
sentatives—Town Officers. 

XLVTI. Whitefield.— (Continued.) 482 

Physicians — Lawyers, Etc. — Merchants, Man- 
ufacturers, and Mills— White Mountain Lum- 
ber Co. — Present Business Interests — East 
Whitefield Farmers' Club and White Mount- 
ain Grange — White Mountain View House. 


Grantees — Name, Apthorp — Dalton — Tris- 
tram Dalton — Petition for a Division — Moses 
Blake Petitions for a Ferry — Recommenda- 
tion of Bloss — Petitions for Taxing Non- 
i; ( sidents — Petitions for Tax for Repairing 
Roads — Petition of Walter Bloss for a Ferry 
— First Settlers. 

XLIX. Dalton.— (Continued.) 512 

Art Authorizing First Town Meeting — First 
Town Meeting — Dalton — Lands and Live 
Stock, 1809— Town Officers— Town Expenses 
— First Three School Districts — John's River 
Bridge — Extracts from Town Records, 1810- 

chapter. page. 
L. Dalton. — (Continued.) 519 

Early Births— Early Marriages— Early Resi- 
dents— Ear Marks — Dalton in 1821 — Early 
Inn Keepers— Whitefield Road— Bridge across 
the Connecticut — Carriages — Mills — Resi- 
dents' Names, 1849— Civil War, Action of the 
Town, Etc. — Mines — Murder — Personal 

LI. Dalton.— (Continued.) 529 

Ecclesiastical. Organization of Congrega- 
tional Church — Original Members — Addi- 
tional Members — Action in Relation to a 
Church Building— Erection of Church — Dea- 
cons — Ministers — Meeting House — Parson- 
age — Methodist Church. 

LH. Dalton. — (Continued.) 535 

Civil List, Representatives, Selectmen, Town 


Origin of the Name "Northumberland" — 
Township first Granted — Regranted — Incor- 
porated — Soil — Rivers— Cape Horn Mountain 
— Scenery — Early Population — Early Build- 
ings — Charter — ■ Names of Grantees — Diffi- 
culty with Woodbury. 

LIV. Northumberland. — (Continued.) 542 

Early Settlers — Thomas Burnside — Daniel 
Spaulding — Capt. Jeremiah Eames — Early 
Proprietors — Proprietors' Meetings — Action 
of the Same — First Bridges — Last Meeting of 
the Proprietors, 1810. 

LV. Northumberland. — (Continued.) 546 

Petition for Road from Couway 1780 — Report 
of Committee relative to said Road 1780 — 
Petition of Enoch Bartlett 1780— Petition 
for a Ferry 1785— Petition for a Lottery 1791 
— Petition for a New County 1791 — Petition 
to Tax for a Bridge 1799. 

LVI. Northumberland. — (Continued.) 549 

Town Officers — Selectmen — Town Clerks — 
Treasurers — Representatives — -Action of 
Town on Various Matters. 

LVII. Northumberland. — (Continued.) 554 

Ecclesiastical— Methodist Episcopal Church 
— Present Members— Ammonoosuc Lodge, I. 
O. O. F. —Members— Lodge of Good Templars 
— M ember s— S c h o o 1 s — Physicians — Fort 
Wentworth and Revolution — Soldiers of the 
War of 1812 and Mexican War — First Judge 
of Probate — First Register of Probate — Bus- 
iness Interests, Etc. 


Stark— "Devil's Slide"— "Devil's Hop-yard" 
— Christine Lake and Percy Summer Club— 
Soil— Minerals— Percy— Boundaries — Legis- 
lative Acts— Petition for Incorporation — 



N;unes of Grantees— Proprietors' Meeting — 
Records, Etc. 

LIX. Stark.— (Continued.') 570 

i arly Setters— Residents in 1803— E a r 1 y 
Births and Marriages— First Town Meeting 
—Extracts from Records in Relation to 
Schools, Roads. Etc.— Civil List. 

LX. Stabk. — (Continued.) 575 

Union Church — Missionaries— Schools and 
Districts — Town Hall — Town Library — 
Action of Town in the Rebellion — Lumber 

— Business Interests— Brief Sketches. 



I. XI. ( OLEBROOK 583 

Location, Size,Topography and General Feat- 
ures — Soil — Productions — First Settlers- 
Indians, Metallak and Wife— Petition for 
Incorporation— Sketch of Petitioners. 

LXII. Colebrook.— (Continued.) 587 

Colebrook from 1796 to 1815— Road through 
Dixville Notch— Whiskey Manufacture— Con- 
tract of Smith & Pratt— Their Various En- 
terprises — McAllaster Mills — Dagway — 
Amount Invested by Smith & Pratt. 

LXIII. Colebrook. — (Continued.) 590 

Invoice of 1816— Residence of Tax Payers- 
Number of Polls, Horses and Cattle— Taxes 
of 1816— Cold Seasons of 1816 and 1817— 
Burning of Cotton Factory— Rebuilding of 

the Same — Roasting Pigs — John Whitte- 

LXIV. Colebrook.— (Continued ) 594 

Education in Colebrook — The Common 
Schools — Colebrook Academy — Original 
Grantees— Grant of land from the State- 
Mercantile Interests —Traders of former Days 
and Now— Fire of July 24, 1870 -Rebuilding 
of Village— Odd Fellows— Physicians. 

LXV. Colebrook.— (Continued.) 600 

Postoffices and Postmasters in Colebrook — 
Saw-mills —Grist-mills— Starch-mills— Man- 
ufacture of Potasli and Pearlash. 

LXVI. Colebrook.— (Continued.) 604 

The Churches of Colebrook— Organization 
of Congregational Church— Creed and Doc- 
trine -Pastors of the Church— The Metho- 
dist Church— Sketches of Members of the 
Churches— East Colebrook Church. 

LXYII. Colebrook.— (Continued.) 616 

Early Settlers— old Documents. 

LXYIII. Colebrook.— (Continued.) 626 

Civil List — Selectmen, Treasurers, Town 
Clerks and Representatives—*' lusion. 





Roads Boti Is Scenery, i 

Grants and Grantees — Pi tition i 1795) to 

Assi ss Tax on Non-Residen1 Lands -Petition 
to Amend Acl of Incorporation— Call for 
First Town Meeting— Action of Said Meeting 
— Boundaries — Second Town Meeting — 
Election of First Representative First In- 
ventory—Settlers before 1800— Early Times 
— Hardships Endured— First Licenses— War 
of 1812— Historic half-bushel— First River 
Road — Earmarks — Taverns and Hoi 
Corporations -Diamond and Nathan Ponds, 
how named— Metallak— Janus Miner Halliard 
— The Great Hail Storm— Bridges across the 

LXXI. Stewartstown.-- (Continued.) 659 

Description, Lots, and Settlement— West 
Stewartstown -Settled and Unsettled Terri- 
tory — Ponds and Streams— Soil and Minerals 
— Game— Horses, Cattle and Sheep— Grasses 
— Grass Seed — Journeys to Portland — Roads 
and Sleighs— Clothing — Potatoes — Wheat, 
Oats, and other Products. 

LXXII. Stewartstown. — (Continued.) 664 

Settlers prior to 1800— Non-Resident Land 
—Settlers Early in this Century— Settlers in 
1856 — Extracts from Records giving Action 
of Town on Roads, Soldiers. Etc. --Civil List: 
Representatives, Selectmen, Town Clerks - 
Votes for Governor. 

LXXHI. Stewartstown.— (Continued.) 669 

Salts and Pearlashes— Flax — Brick— Leather 
— Shoes and Harnesses — Blacksmiths — Saw- 
Mills— Grist-Mills-Starch Factories-Shingle 
and Clapboard Mills— Planing and Wood- 
turning — Machine Shops — Wheelwrights -- 
Furniture and House Furnishings— Woolen 
and Carding Mills — Foundry and Tinsmith— 
Merchants and Traders— Physicians, Etc. 

LXXIV. Stewartstown.- (('ontinued.) 674 

Ecclesiastical-- Congregational Church — 
Organization— Names of First Membi 
Pastors — Sunday-school. Christian Church - 
Organization Action of the Church 
Original Membership— Extracts from Records 
Organization of "Union" Church — 
Membership and Dal - oi l;< ci ptior E 
tracts from Records and other Bistorj -Ed- 
ucational Intel . 3ts- First School District. I .:■■. 


Boundaries- Origin <<i' Xante- First Propri- 
etors Early Settlers- First Town Meel 
—Early Man 





Pit1 sburg — Boundaries — First Explored — 
To] » tgraphy — Lakes — Streams — Ponds — 
Rocks — Minerals. 

LXXYII. Pittsbdbg. — (Continued.) .700 

Exploration in 1789 — Resources — First 
Settlers — Permanent Settlers — Ebenezer 
Fletcher — Growth of the Settlement. 

LXXVIII. Pittsburg.— (Continued.) 705 

Action and Report of Legislative Com- 
mittees in 1824 Concerning Titles under 
King Philip's Deed. 

LXXIX. Pittrburg.— (Continued.) 707 

Progress and Growth for the Next Decade — 
Independent Government — Blanchard's Ar- 
rest—Incorporation — Kimball B. Fletcher — 

LXXX. Pittsburg. — (Continued.) 712 

Legislative Action Concerning Pittsburg, 
is if 1867— Action of Town in the Rebellion 
—Civil List. 

LXXXI. Pittsburg.— (Continued.) 717 

The First Church — Religious Societies - 
Schools — Agriculture — Connecticut River 
Lumber Co.— Business, Etc.— Upper Con- 
necticut River and Lake Improvement Co. — 
Upper Coos Railroad — Advantages to Pitts- 


Grant of Township — Signers to Petition — 
Wales's Location — Boundaries — Lime Pond- 
First Town Meeting- Resident Tax List — 
Polls and Ratable Estate in 1810— Valuation 
of Buildings in 1824— Schools— Town Offi- 
cers' Fees— Politics— Cemeter 

LXXXIII. Columbia.— (Continued.) 725 

Pioneers. Abel Larnard — Abel Hobart— 
The Wallaces — Noah Buffington — Philip 
Jordan — Benjamin Jordan. 

LXXXIV. Columbia.— (Continued.) 731 

Mills— Pearlashes and Potash— Tanning and 
Shoe-making — Cloth Dressing — Pot- 
Distilleries and Starch-Mills —Ferry and 
Toll Bridge— Merchants- Stores. 

LXXXV.— Columbia.— (Continued.) 735 

Civil List — Representatives, Town Clerks 
and Selectmen — War of tl llion— -Sta- 

tistics of 1S8G. 

LXXXYI. Columbia.— Continued.) 738 

Church History— Early Services— Columbia 
Church — Christian Church— Profession of 
Faith— Preachers— Church Edifice— Deacon 

John Annis. 



Introductory — Woodbury — Names of Gran- 
tees — Difficulty Concerning Boundaries — 
Transfers Prior to 1772— Proprietors' Action 
— Call for Meeting — Gov. Wentworth's De- 

LXXXVIII. Stratford. -( Continued. ) 748 

Stratford — Conditions of Charter — Grantees' 
Names, with Number of Lot — First Settlers 
— First Woman Settler — Contest of Skill- 
Brief Description of Settlers and their 
Families— Description and Topography of 
Town— The First Settlements — Pitches Al- 
lotted — Extracts From Proprietors' Records; 
Concerning Mills, Town Plot, Lots and 
Roads, Trouble about First Grist-Mill— First 
Settlers have First Pitches. 

LXXXIX. Stratford.— (Continued.) 754 

The Revolution— Soldiers' Claims and Orders 
—Condition of Matters, Taxes, Etc., in 1778 
— Petition for Abatement and Incorporation. 
1778 — First Settlers, Improvements and 
Stock, 1777— Petition for a Guard, 1780— 
Certificate, Burnside's Ferry, 1786— Petition 
for a New County, 1791— Petition for Abate- 
ment of Taxes. 

XC. Stratford. — (Continued.) 759 

Development, Growth and Population — 
Early Officers— First Marriage— The Town 
of Stratford— Call for First Town Meeting, 
Etc.— Survey — Extract from Town Records 
—War of 1812— Great Civil War— Stratford 
Hollow; Business, Etc.— Methodist Church. 

XCI. Stratford.— I Continued.) 765 

Civil List: Clerks, Selectmen, Treasurers, 

XCII. Stratford.— (Continued.) 7G7 

North Stratford; Business Interests, Rail- 
road, Postoiliec— Hinman's Island— Baptist 
Church — Education — Hotels— Societies — 
Granite State Stoek-Farm— Mills— Physi- 
cians — Lawyers — Brief Personal Sketches. 



Intrc idue tory— T o p o g r a p h y— S c e n e r y— 
Mountains. Streams, Etc.— Tinkers Brook. 
Minerals, Etc. — Act of Incorporation— Call 
for First Town Meeting— Action of First 
Town Meeting -Residents' Names and Ages, 
1829— Residents, Stock, and Improvements 
in 1830— Name* of Voters, by Decades. 

XCTV. Berlin.— (Continued.) 788 

Early Settlers -First House (William Ses- 
sions) — Second House (The Lowes and 

( '( INTENTS. 



Cates) — Simon Evans —Joseph Wheeler — 
The Thompsons — Samuel Blodgett — Th< 
Wheeler Daniel Davis— The Bean Family — 
Joseph Blodgett- Hazen and John chand- 
ler- Merrill C. Forist John V. Dustin- 
Lorenzo Mason— Past and Present Business 
Interests — Thomas Green -J. D. Horner & 
Co. — Daniel Green — Ira and Oliver H. Mason 
and other Early Traders and Manufactur- 
ers — Railroad, Station Agents, Ere. 

KCV. Berlin.— (Continued.) 795 

Civil List: Town Clerks, Selectmen, Treas- 
urers. Representatives — Extracts from Town 
Records — Berlin in the Rebellion — Action of 
the Town. 

XCVI. Berlin.— (Continued. > 799 

Ecclesiastical: Church of Christ — Forma- 
tion—Original Members — Confession of 
Faith — Action of Church Meetings — Pas- 
tors — Progress of the Church— Young Peo- 
ple's Society of Christian Endeavor — The 
Sunday-School — Organization of Parish — 
Church Structure — Origin, Etc., Universalist 
Church — Meetings— Articles of Faith— Par- 
ish Society Organized— Church Building — 
Sabbath-School— Catholic Church — Priests — 
Church — Parsonage — St. Paul Evangelical 
Lutheran Church Parish —Member s — Pas- 
tor—Second Advent Meetings. 

XCVII. Berlin.— (Continued.) 804 

Education— First School— First Teacher — 
School Districts— Amos Mann — Berlin High 


XCVIII. Berlin.— (Continued, i 808 

Early Roads and Bridges— First Church Or- 
ganization — Unusual Phenomena — Hotels — 
Burial Places— Societies— Berlin Mills — For- 
est Fibre Company — Glen Manufacturing 
Compauy— White Mountain Pulp and Paper 
Ci impany — Physicians — Lawyers — Mercan- 
tile and Business Houses. 1887 — Report of 
Selectmen, 1887. 


Introductory — S u r f a c e— S o i 1— G rant — 
Boundaries — Pioneers — Character of Set- 
tlers — Inventory for 1825— Early Convey- 

C. Milan.— (Continued.) 835 

Act of Incorporation — First Town Meeting- 
Extracts from Town Records— -Action in the 
Rebellion— Civil List: Town Clerks, s 
men, Treasurers, Representatives. 

CI. Milan.— (Continued.) 838 

Mills— Milan Mine— Business Interests. 


CH. Mii.av. (Continued.) 842 

( Ihurch History Mi thodism Pasti 

ent Society Original Members of Methodist 

Church Church Building Calvinist Baptist 

Society Free-Will Bap; ty Civil 


CHI. Milan. (Continued.) 

Physicians, Past and Present A Model Mar- 
riage Certificate. 


B lundaries Origin of Name 1 
Granted Surveyed— Early and Late] 

Inventory of Polls and Personal Prop- 
erty, 1849. 

CV. Dcmmeu (Continued. 1 859 

Petition for Incorporation— Civil List: Town 
Clerks, Treasurers, Selectmen, and Repre- 
sentatives Schoi 


Name -Scenery and Attractions — Bound- 
aries— First Grant Names of Grantees De- 
scriptions of the Original Grant. 

CVII. Shelburne.— (Continued . ) 871 

Early Settlers: Hope Austin — Daniel Ox- 
galls— Stephen Messer— Thomas Green Sam- 
uel Wheeler — Jonathan Evans — Benjamin 
Clemens— Bazeleel Gates— Simeon E\ 
Jonathan Peabody— Jonathan Lary— Peter 
Poor— Nathaniel Loiter. Etc. 

CVHI. Shelburne.— (Continued.) 876 

Industries "Peggy" Davis's Mittens 
Transportation — Mills — First Merchant 
Early Business Interests -Loads -Taverns- 

CIX. Shelburne.— (Continued.) 880 

Religion— Church of Christ- Original Mem- 
bers—Free Chinch -Free-Will Baptist 
Church Reform Club — Union Mei 
House Schools- Teachers White Mount- 
ain Stock-Farm Judge Burbank 
Mine- Hotels Soldiers Town Clerks and 
ctmen from 1839. 


Scenery and Attractions -Boundaries Shel- 
burne Addition Survey First Set: 
Permanent Settler Other Settlers. 

CXI. Gobham. (Continued.) 

Early Difficulties in Way of Settlement 
The "Addition" in 1821 and lal 
School \n icdote Tl shet In- 

crease in Population- Commencemen 
Prosperity Andrew G. and Jonathan I 

First Mills Village Site in 1835 Trade, 
Traffic and Boti 


Contents — Index to Towns. 


CXII. Gorham.— (Continued.) 900 

Act of Incorporation of Gorham— First Town 
Meeting— Town Officers— Tax-payers in 1836 
School Districts Formed— Extracts from 
Records and Civil List. 

( XIII. Gorham — (Continued.) 906 

Ecclesiastical History — Free-Will Baptist 
Society — Congregational Church, Society, 
Pastors— Methodist Episcopal Church— Uni- 
versalist Society— Catholic Church— Schools. 

CXLV. Gorham.— (Continued.) 911 

Railroads— Grand Trunk Railway, Shops, 
and Employes — Gorham Village — Hazen 
Evans— Valentine L. Stiles— Progress of Gor- 
ham— Fires— Buildings— Lawyers and Phy- 
sicians—Business Interests, Manufacturers, 
Bank, Merchants and Tradesmen. 

CXV. Gorham.— (Continued.) 921 

Hotels — Societies — Postmasters — Mascot 
Mine — Thirty Years Changes. 


First Grant — Location — Scenery— Hotels- 
Lots, Ranges, Improvements— Early Settlers. 

chapter. PAGE , 

CXVH. Randolph.— (Continued.) 941 

Act of Incorporation— First Town Meeting 
Called — Representatives— Town Clerks— Se- 
lectmen— Town Treasurers. 

CXVIII. Randolph.— (Continued.) 943 

Schools— Church History — Organization of 
"Union Congregational Society "—War 
Record— Pond of Safety — Prominent Citi- 


Grantees —Lumbering— Soil— Boundaries— 
Umbagog Lake — Androscoggin River Im- 
provement Company— Errol Dam Company 
—Old Families — Petitions of Proprietors, 
Action of Town, Etc. 

CXX. Errol.— (Continued.) 951 

Application for Call of a Town Meeting- 
Call, Notification and Action of First Town 
Meeting— Act of Incorporation— Warrant for, 
and First Town Meeting after Incorporation 
—List of Voters, 1837— Civil List. 











ERROL 948 






MILAN 830 






STARK 562 










ALGER, L. W 683 



BALDWIN, W. L engraving 778 



BEDEL, COL. HAZEN engraving 637 



BERLIN HIGH SCHOOL engraving 806 


BROWN, A. L engraving 493 

BROWN. W. G engraving 194 

BROWNS' LUMBER MILLS engraving 496 




BURNS, HON. WILLIAM engraving 218 

BURT, CHAS. W : 247 


CHAMBERLIN, R. N engraving 237 

COOPER, S. W 247 




DALEY, D.J 240 

DREW, HON. A. W engraving 


DREW. HON. I. W engraving 

DUDLEY. J. II engraving 252 

EATON, GEO. R engraving 

EVANS. A. 1! 233 

EVERETT, R. C 209 




FLINT. L. T 247 


FURBISH. II. II Qgraving. 


GOVE, DR. GEO. S engravin 


14: Biographies and Illustrations. 


GRAY, HOSEA engraving 385 


GREEN, DANIEL engraving 819 

GREEN, S. D 821 

HANNAFORD, S. G engraving 686 



HAZEN. L. T engraving 498 

HEYWOOD. HON. WILLIAM engraving 214 



HITCHCOCK. J. II engraving 927 



HUTCHINSON, T. H engraving 931 

JACOBS. F. C engraving 687 

JORDAN, HON. C. B engraving 233 

KENT, R. F engraving 366 

KENT, HON. H. O engraving 372 

KEYSAR, JOHN engraving 694 



LADD, HON. W. S engraving 227 


LARY, A. G engraving 926 

LOMBARD, DR. LYMAN engraving 635 

LOWE, PROF. T. S. C 425 

LUND, H. W 257 

MARSHALL, A. J engraving 394 

McGREGORY, JOEL engraving 502 

MERRILL, HON. S. R engraving 640 

MERRILL, S. S engraving 646 


NO YES, CAPT. WARREN engraving 929 

PAINE. HON. S. E 815 


PARSONS, HEZEKIAH engraving 629 

PARSONS, HEZEKIAH engraving 633 

PARSONS, JAMES I engraving 251 

PEARSON, S. A 210 

PERKINS, HON. N. R engraving 421 



PHIPPS, P. A. G. W 852 

PICKARD, I. H 687 


RAY, HON. OSSIAN engraving 222 

RAY, O. P 250 

REMICK, S. K 648 

REMICK, D. C 256 

REMICK, J. W 256 

ROGERS, D. A 248 


ROSEBROOK, PH1NEAS engraving 444 

SCRIBNER, E. W engraving 827-828 



SMITH, FRANK engraving 392 

Biographies and [llust ration; 


SOULE, CAPT. GILBERT engraving 559 

SPAULDING. J. II engraving 387 


STUART, C.J 21] 

THOMPSON, ALEX engraving 396 

TRUE, DR. N. T 934 

TWITCHEL, ADAMS engraving 848 



VANDYKE, GEORGE engraving 390 


WEEKS. HON. J. W engraving 382 


WHEELER, DEXTER , engraving 822 

WHEELER, R. H " engraving B24 


WIGHT, I. C engraving 



WILLIAMS. J. 1 221 

WISWALL, B. C engraving 692 






"the county of cooss." 

Organization — Towns Included — Extent — Boundaries — Population, Agricultural and Man- 
ufacturing Statistics, etc., 1880 — Locations, Grants, and Purchases — Altitudes. 

THE act establishing ' ' The County of Cooss " was approved December 
24, 1803, and took effect March 5, 1805. It contained the towns of 
Dalton, Whitefield, Bretton Woods, Bartlett, Adams, Chatham, Shel- 
burne, Shelburne Addition, Durand, Kilkenny, Jefferson, Lancaster, Mills- 
field, Northumberland, Stratford, Wales' Gore, Cockburne, Colebrook, 
Stewartstown, Piercy, Paulsburg, Mainesborough, Dummer, Errol, Cam- 
bridge and Success, with a population of about 3,000 in 1803. 

The General Court had a defective knowledge of the line they under- 
took to make the southern boundary, for, in describing it, it is made to go 
to the northwest corner of Tamworth, and from thence on the line of the 
county of Strafford to the Maine line. To reach the northwest corner of 
Tamworth, it had to follow the west line of Albany south the whole width 
of the town, and then, to reach the north line of Strafford county, which 
it was to follow, it had to go back north on the same west line of Albany 
without including any land. 

June 18, 1805, Nash and Sawyer's Location was annexed to Coos county, 
and January 5, 1853, Bartlett, Jackson (Adams), and Hart's Location were 
annexed to Carroll county. Not long after the formation of Coos county, 
Chatham was annexed to Strafford county, and upon the erection of Carroll 
county, Chatham was included in that county. 

18 History of Coos County. 

Coos was taken from Grafton, one of the five original counties of the 
State — Eockingham, Strafford, Hillsborough, Cheshire. Grafton — and com- 
prises all New Hampshire north of the present counties of Grafton and 
Carroll. Its western boundary is the western bank of the Connecticut 
river, and it extends from latitude 4S° 58' to the extreme north part of 
the State, being seventy- six miles in length, with a mean width of about 
twenty miles. It contains about one million acres of land. The distance 
by traveled highway from the north line of Grafton county at Littleton to 
the Canada line at West Stewartstown is about sixty -two miles. On the 
Maine line, it is seventy-three miles from Carroll county to the iron post 
on the highlands, in the wilderness on the northern boundary. 

It is bounded north and northwest by Canada, east by Maine, south by 
Carroll and Grafton counties, and west by Vermont. 

The census of 1880 gives the total population of the county as 18,580. 
By the same census we learn that in that year Lancaster has a population 
of 2,721; Whitefield, 1,828; Colebrook, 1,580; Gorham, 1,383; Berlin, 
1,114 ; Northumberland, 1,062 ; and Stratford, 1,016. Jefferson only wants 
49 to make a round 1,000, while Stewartstown only 42. The other towns 
exceeding 500 are : Milan, 892 ; Columbia, 762 ; Stark, 690 ; Carroll, 632 ; 
Pittsburg, 5S1 ; Dalton, 570. The remaining towns and grants give the 
following : Dummer, 464 ; Clarksville, 328 ; Shelburne, 252 ; Eandolph, 203 ; 
Errol, 161; Nash and Sawyer's Location, 101; Millsfield, 62 ; Wentworth's 
Location, 55 ; Cambridge, 36 ; Martin's Location, 33 ; Dixville, 32 ; Craw- 
ford's Grant, 28 ; Thompson and Meserve's Purchase, 20 ; Second College 
Grant, 18 ; Green's Grant, 8 ; Dix's Grant, 4 ; and Sargent's Purchase, 2. 
There are in this county 1,939 farms, having a total of 139,089 acres of 
improved land ; aggregate value of said farms, including buildings, fences, 
etc., $4,350,042 ; implements and the machinery thereon, $192,544 ; stock, 
$774,838 ; estimated value of annual farm products, $943,427. The vege- 
table productions : potatoes, 623,183 bushels ; barley, 1,8^3 ; buckwheat, 
43,431; Indian corn, 10,129; oats, 228,698; rye, 923; wheat, 3t,164; tobacco, 
1,000 pounds; hay, 49,734 tons; orchard products, annual value, $3,979. 
The number of horses raised in the county, 3,941; mules and asses, 4; 
working oxen, 1,615; milch cows, 6,47-1; other cattle, 10,723; sheep, 16,832; 
swine, 2,784; wool, 71,504 pounds; butter, 632,822; cheese, 36,795. The 
assessed valuation of real estate and personal property is $5,911 , 552. There 
are 194 manufacturing establishments, using $2,107,250 capital, paying 
$336,010 annually to 1,262 operatives, and turning out products valued at 
$2,490,356. The next census will show a change. 

Locations, Grants and Purchases. — In addition to the towns which are 
organized in this county there are the following unorganized grants, pur- 
chases, locations, etc., which contain between three and four hundred inhabi- 
tants, and lie mostly among wild mountains, and whose chief value is in the 

Organization — Altitudes. l ! » 

timber they produce and the incentive they present of romantic scenery to 
the summer traveler: Bean's Purchase, Carlisle, Cambridge, Hubbard, 
Webster, Chandlers Purchase, Crawford's Grant, Craw lord's Purchase, 
Cutt's Grant, Dix's Grant, Ervin's Grant, Gilmanton and Atkinson Acad- 
emy Grant, Green's Grant, Lowe and Burbank's Grant, Martin's Location, 
Nash and Sawyer's Location, Odell, Pinkham's Grant, Sargent's Purchase, 
Second College Grant, Thompson and Meserve's Purchase, Wentworth's 
Location. Millsfield and Cambridge, after being organized as towns for 
some years, gave up their organization. 

Altitudes.— Mt. Washington, 6,293 ft.; Mt. Adams, 5,794 ft.; Alt. Jef- 
ferson, 5,714 ft.; Mt. Clay, 5,553 ft.; Mt. Monroe, 5,384 ft.; Mt. Little 
Monroe, 5,204 ft.; Mt. Madison, 5,365 ft.; Mt, Franklin, 4,904 it.: 
Mt. Pleasant, 4,764 ft.; Mt. Clinton, 4.320 ft.; Mt, Jackson, 4,100 
ft.; Mt. Webster, 4,000 ft.; Mt. Crawford, 3,134 ft; Giant's Stairs, 
3,500 ft.; Boott Spur, 5,524 ft.; Boott Deception, 2,448 ft.; Carter Dome. 
South Peak, 4,830 ft,; Carter Dome, North Peak, 4,702 ft,; Mt. Moriah, 
4,053 ft.; Mt. Wildcat, 4,350 ft.; Mt. Kearsarge, 3,251 ft,; Mt. Moat, 
North Peak, 3,200 ft.; Mt. Moat, South Peak, 2,700 ft.; Mt. Starr Kin-. 
3,800 ft.; Mt. Pilot, 3,640 ft; Boy mountain, 2,278 ft,; Mt. Prospect. 2,090 
ft.;Mt. Percy, North Peak, 3,336 ft.; Mt. Percy, South Peak, 3,140 ft.; Cape 
Horn, 2,735 ft.; Twin Mountain station, 1,446 ft.; White Mountain House, 
1,556 ft.; Fabyan's, 1,571 ft.; White Mountain notch, 1,914 ft.; base of Mt. 
Washington, 2,668 f t. ; Cherry mountain, 3,500 ft.; Kandolph mountain, 
3,043 ft.; Pliny mountain, 2,1-00 ft.; Mt. Eoyce, 2,600ft.; Pond of Safety, 
1,973ft.; Lake of the Clouds (Blue Pond), 5,009 ft.; Jefferson mills, 1,180 
ft.; Whitefield, 931 ft. ; Jewell hill, 1,467 ft.; Connecticut river at Dalton 
(high water), 832 ft.; Dalton station, 866 ft.; South Lancaster, 867 ft.; 
Lancaster, 870 ft. ; Groveton depot, 901ft.; Stark, 972 ft.; Milan summit, 
1,087 ft.; Berlin falls, 1,035 ft.; Gorham 812 ft.; Shelburne, 723 ft.; Mt. 
Ingalls, 2,520 ft.; Mt. Forest, 1,950 ft.; North Stratford, 915 ft.: Stratford 
Hollow, 877 ft.; Sugarloaf, est,, 3,47o ft.; Mt. Lyon, 2,735 ft,; Dixville 
Notch, 1,858 ft.; Table rock, 2,454 ft.; Colebrook, 1,030 ft.; West Stew- 
artstowm, 1,055 ft.; Mt. Carmel, 3,711 ft ; Crescent mountain, 2,700 ft.; 
Connecticut lake, 1,618 ft.; Mt. Dustan, 2,575 ft.; Half Moon mountain, 
2,526 ft.; South hill, 2,000 ft.; South peak, Kilkenny. 3,827 ft.; Green's 
ledge, 2,708 ft. 

20 History of Coos County. 



Rock Formations— The Age of Ice — Glacial Drift — Upper Till — Lower Till— Chaniplain 
Drift — Recent or Terrace Period — Modified Drift of Connecticut River, Connecticut Lake, to 
West Stewartstown— Upper Connecticut Valley — Karnes— Deltas. 

*7~\OCK FORMATIONS.— The groups of rocks of Coos County, com- 
r*A mencing with the lowest, are the Acidic and Basic of the unstratified, 
X and the Azoic, Eozoic, and Paleozoic of the stratified rocks. The oldest, 
or bed rock, a very coarse granite or gneiss, conceded now to be of eruptive or 
volcanic origin, which varies its name with a different arrangement of the 
same constituents. Ledges of these rocks present large quadrangular patches 
of light-colored feldspar, varying from a fraction of an inch to three inches 
in length. Quartz and feldspar, with black and white mica, and some- 
times hornblende, are the constituent elements of these primitive or acidic 
rocks, which are known as sienite, granite, and porphyry. These funda- 
mental unstratified rocks form the vast volume of the White Mountains, 
and are the oldest rocks in the State. Nowhere in New England is there a 
better opportunity to read extensively in the " Book of Nature " than on 
the granite pages of our wild mountains and precipitous gorges. A mere 
mention of the rock formation is sufficient for our purpose here, but those 
who desire to pursue the subject from a love of science, will find that Prof. 
Hitchcock and his co-laborers have thoroughly and exhaustively treated it 
in that great work, "Geology of New Hampshire." 

The Age of Ice. — It is of great importance that the Glacial and Modi- 
fied Drift periods be treated in detail, for, during the xYge of Ice, the 
removal of the great ice-sheet which extended above the top of Mt. Wash- 
ington, and the subsequent period, the surface, soil, and water-courses of 
the county were formed, and the conditions for civilized occupancy were 
prepared. It is well that all should become conversant with the causes 
which have brought about these conditions, and we make no apology for 
the space we have devoted to this purpose. The indications of a glacial 
period arc probably as well shown in New Hampshire as anywhere in the 
world. Underlying the modified drift are often found masses of rocks and 
earth mingled confusedly together, having neither stratification or any 
appearance of being deposited in water. These are the glacial drift or till. 
This drift frequently covers the slopes or lies on the summits of the highest 
hills and mountains. It contains bowlders of all sizes, up to thirty feet in 
diameter, which have nearly all been carried southward from their native 
ledges, and can be traced, in some instances, for a hundred miles, south- 
ward or southeastward. Wherever till occurs, the ledges have mostly 
been worn to a rounded form, and, if the rock be hard, it is covered with 

Geology. 21 

long scratches or strice, in the direction of the course taken by the bowl- 
ders. Geology now refers these to amoving ice-sheet, which overspread 
this continent from the north, and had formed of sufficieni thickness to 
cover even Mt. Washington. This ice-sheet was so much thicker at the 
north than in this latitude that its great weight pressed the ice steadily out- 
ward to the south-southeast. The termination of this ice-sheet in the 
Atlantic, southeast of New England, was probably like the great ice- wall 
of the Antarctic continent, along which Sir J. C. Ross sailed 450 miles, 
finding only one point low enough to allow the smooth white plain of the 
upper surface to be seen. This extended, dazzling white, as far as the eye 
could see. There was a long, continuous period of glacial action, with 
times of retreat and advance, but never a complete departure and return 
of a continental ice-sheet. The motion of this ice being caused by its own 
weight, must have been very slow indeed Over the highlands between 
the St. Lawrence river and Hudson bay the ice-sheet was three or four 
miles in thickness, over Greenland very much thicker, and over the White 
mountains it reached nearly or quite to the line of perpetual snow. The 
till, or coarse glacial drift, was made by the long-continued wearing and 
grinding of the ice-sheet. As this slowly advanced, fragments were torn 
from the ledges, held in the bottom of the ice, and worn by friction upon 
the surface over which it moved. This material, crushed below the ice 
into minute fragments or fine powder, is called the Loiver Till. While this 
was being made below the ice, large quantities of coarse and fine matter 
were swept away from hill-slopes and mountain-sides, and carried forward 
in the ice. As this melted much of this matter fell loosely on the surface, 
forming an unstratified deposit of gravel, earth and bowlders. This deposit 
is called the Upper Till. This usually is found above the Lower Till, the 
line of separation being at a distance of from two to twenty feet. The 
departure of the ice-sheet was attended by a rapid deposition of the abun- 
dant materials therein contained. The retreat of the ice-sheet was toward 
the northwest and north, and it is probable that its final melting took place 
mostly upon the surface, so that, at the last, great amounts of its deposits 
were exposed to the washing of its many streams. The finer particles were 
generally carried away, and the strong current of the glacial rivers trans- 
ported coarse gravel and bowlders of considerable size. When these streams 
entered the valley from which the ice had retreated, or their currents were 
slackened by less rapid descent, where the channel wasstill walled by ice, 
a deposition took place, in succession of coarse gravel, fine gravel, sand and 
fine silt or clay. These deposits filled the valleys, and increased in depth 
in the same way that additions are now made to the bottom-land or inter- 
vals of our large rivers by the floods of spring. They are called the Modi- 
fied Drift, and geology gives this name to the period from the departure of 
the ice sheet to the present. This modified drift occurs in almost every 

22 History of Coos County. 

valley of New Hampshire, and comprises the intervals, which are annually 
overflowed, and the successive terraces which rise in steps upon the sides 
of the valley, the highest often forming extensive plains. Dr. Dana has 
given the name of Champlain Period to the time of the deposition of the 
modified drift during the melting of the ice-sheet. During the Champlain 
period, the ice became molded upon the surface, by the process of destruc- 
tion, into great basins and valleys; and, at the last, the passages through 
which the melting waters passed off, came gradually to coincide with the 
depressions of the present surface. These lowest and warmest portions of 
the land were first freed from the ice; and, as the melted area slowly 
extended into the continental glacier, its vast floods found their outlet at 
the head of the advancing valley. (In the Connecticut valley this took place 
by a single channel bordered by ice- walls.) In these channels were depos- 
ited materials gathered by the streams from the melting glacier. By the 
low water of winter, layers of sand were formed, and by the strong cur- 
rents of summer, layers of gravel, often very coarse. These layers are 
irregularly bedded, here sand and there gravel accumulating, and inter- 
stratified without much order with each other. These, the oldest of our 
deposits of modified drift, are long ridges or intermixed short ridges and 
mounds, composed of very coarse water- worn gravel, or of alternate gravel 
and sand irregularly bedded, a section of which shows an arched or anti- 
clinal stratification. Wherever the ordinary fine alluvium occurs, it over- 
lies, or partly covers, these deposits. To these ridges geologists give the 
name of Karnes. The extensive level plains and high terraces bordering 
the New Hampshire rivers were also deposited in the Champlain period, as 
the open valleys become gradually filled with great depths of gravel, sand, 
and clay (alluvium), which were brought down by the glacier rivers from 
the melting ice-sheet, or washed from the till after the ice had retreated, and 
which were deposited in the same way, as by high floods at the present 
time. During the recent or terrace period, the rivers have cut deep and 
wide channels in this alluvium. The terraces mark heights, at which, in 
this work of erosion, they have left portions of their successive flood- 
plains. The Connecticut river, along the greater part of its course in this 
state, has excavated its ancient high flood-plain of the Champlain period 
to a depth of from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet for a width 
varying from one-eighth mile to one mile. 

The exploration of the modified drift in this state was principally made 
in IS 75, under direction of the state geologist, C. H. Hitchcock, by War- 
ren Upham. Esq., from whose valuable report we have condensed the 
above and extract the following : — 

Modified Drift of Connecticut Biver, Connecticut Lake to West Stew- 
art stown. — For the first four miles below Connecticut lake the river has a 
rapid descent, with a southerly course. It then bends to the west and 

Geology. 23 

winds with a sluggish current through a narrow swamp three miles in 
length, which is the first aJluvium seen on the river. Its lower end is at 
the mouth of Dead water stream. One half mile farther down, at the out- 
let from Back lake, the road passes over a sand and gravel plain thirty feet 
above the river. This is material deposited in the Champlain period by the 
tributary stream. Much of it has been excavated during the terrace peri< >< 1 ; 
and till extends to the river on the opposite side in a very gentle, regular 

On Indian stream there is a large extent of low alluvial land, compris- 
ing several valuable farms. This consists mainly of a wide interval, from 
ten to fifteen feet high, which is bordered on the east by a narrow lateral 
terrace from thirty to forty feet above the river. In the next four miles 
scarcely anything but glacial drift and ledges is found. The scanty por- 
tions which may be called modified drift consist of very coarse, somewhat 
water worn gravel, in terraces from ten to forty feet above the river, which 
has probably in many places cut its channel to this depth through the till. 
About the mouth of Bishop's brook considerable low alluvium occurs, 
partly brought by the main river and partly by its tributary. Thence we 
have a narrow width of modified drift on the north side of the river to 
Hall's stream, which is bordered by an interval from five to ten feet, and 
two terraces, twenty and thirty-five feet, above the river. On the south 
side here, and on both sides for nearly two miles below, the river is closely 
bordered by hills, and no modified drift is seen. 

The portion of the river which we have now described extends south- 
westerly about eighteen miles from the mouth of Connecticut lake. The 
descent in this distance is 583 feet. High wooded hills border the valley, 
which is destitute of modified drift for half the way. The largest alluvial 
area is on Indian stream; and the highest terraces are from thirty to forty 
feet above the river. 

Upper Connecticut Valley. — Below West Stewartstown the course of 
the river is southerly, having a descent in nearly fifty miles, to the bead 
of Fifteen-mile falls, in Dalton, of only 205 feet; one-half of which takes 
place in nine miles between Columbia bridge and North Stratford. Along 
this whole distance the modified drift is continuous, and, including both 
sides, is usually a half to a mile and a half wide. It is very simple, having 
two heights, and consists of the present flood-plain, bordered by remnants 
of that which filled the valley in the Champlain period. The former is 
about ten feet above low water, being annually overflowed by floods of 
spring. This would be called bottom-land in the western United States. 
In Xew England it is commonly termed interval; but along the Connect i< ut 
river it is frequently known as meadow. On all our large rivers this low- 
est terrace has a firm and well-drained surface, much different from the 
marshy areas bordering small streams, to which the name meadow is 

24 History of Coos County. 

restricted in other parts of the state. It is the most valuable portion of 
these alluvial lands, having a more finely-pulverized and more fertile soil 
than that of the higher terraces. The ancient flood-plain is here repre- 
sented by a lateral terrace from forty to one hundred and twenty feet above 
the river, usually remaining at both sides, and in many places forming 
considerable plains. 

From West Stewartstown to Colebrook the only alluvium of import- 
ance on the New Hampshire side is the interval; but small remnants of 
the upper terrace are found, especially where there is a tributary stream. 
On the Vermont side the upper terrace, composed of sand or fine gravel, is 
usually well shown, having a nearly constant but small elevation of forty 
to sixty feet above the river, with which it slopes. It appears that this 
formerly had possession of the whole valley, and that the channelling of 
the river has swept it away from the area now occupied by the interval or 
meadows. Portions of it still remain, entirely surrounded by the low 
flood-plain. Such a plateau may be seen in Canaan, nearly opposite the 
south side of Stewartstown. The upper terrace and its isolated remnant 
have both a height of forty feet above the river, while the lower level is 
only fifteen feet in height. Northeast from this, in Stewartstown, a rivu- 
let has effected a like result on a small scale in the meadow, cutting a chan- 
nel wholly around a small area which still preserves the height of the rest 
of the meadow. 

Karnes. — At Colebrook we find an interesting gravel-ridge or kame 
portions of which remain north of the junction of Beaver brook and 
Mohawk river, but most noticeably west of the village, extending nearly 
a mile parallel with the river. Its height is about seventy feet above the 
river, and fifty above the low alluvium on each side. Its material is the 
same as that of the long kame farther south in this valley, being princi- 
pally coarse, water- worn gravel, with abundant pebbles six inches to one 
foot in diameter. This ridge was deposited in the glacial channel of the 
river which flowed from the ice-sheet at its final melting. 

We must refer to a similar cause, the slightly modified drift in Leming- 
ton, just northwest from Colebrook bridge; in Columbia, the high gravel 
terrace north of Sims' stream; thence for a mile southward the moraine- 
like, level-topped or irregular drift, slightly modified, at about 100 feet 
above the river; and the coarse drift ridge on the east side of the river a 
half mile above Columbia bridge. The last is a distinct ridge, one-third 
of a mile long, parallel with the river, and from fifty to seventy-five feet 
above it, being from twenty-five to fifty feet above the adjoining lowland. 
This may have been a medial moraine. It contains many angular rock- 
fragments from two to three feet in size, and seems scarcely modified, 
appearing like portions of the kames along Merrimack river. 

Between Columbia bridge and North Stratford the descent is rapid and 

Geology. 25 

the terraces are irregular. At Columbia bridge the highest alluvial banks 
are forty-eight feet above the rive), at North Stratford, 119. Where the 
river now descends 101 feet the stratified drift of the valley shows a slope 
of ouly thirty feet, or about three feet to a mile. After we pass this steep and 
narrow portion, and enter a wide valley again where the river is compara- 
tively level, we find the upper terrace falling much more rapidly, or nine 
feet to a' mile. At Groveton it has again descended to a height fifty feet 
above the river. As we approach Fifteen-mile falls the upper terrace slopes 
very slowly down to the lower and they can scarcely be distinguished as 
separate heights below South Lancaster. The wide river-pJain here rises 
gradually from five to ten to perhaps twenty or thirty feet above the river. 

In Stratford and Brunswick both heights of the alluvium are well 
shown, the highway being on the upper terrace and the railroad on the 
meadow. The former is about 100 feet above the river, and at Brunswick 
springs, and for much of the way through Stratford, is from one fourth 
to one-third of a mile wide. At Stratford Hollow depot the railroad has 
cut through a narrow spur of this terrace, which escaped erosion by water. 
Here the alluvium of the main valley has been excavated into secondary 
terraces by Bog brook. In the south part of Stratford, and in Northum- 
berland, the meadow or interval occupies more space than the terrace, 
which has its greatest extent in the level, swampy plain west of Groveton 

Deltas. — At Lancaster the upper terrace of Connecticut river is only 
fifteen or twenty feet above the interval. The only higher modified drift 
has been brought down by tributaries. Part of Lancaster village is built 
on one of these deltas, formed by Israel's river on its south side, fifty feet 
above the terrace of the main valley. This delta sloped rapidly westward, 
and formerly occupied the whole area of the village; a portion of it, twenty 
feet lower than the former, remains at the cemetery, opposite the court- 
house. Similar deposits also occur two miles southwest from Lancaster, 
and on John's river. 

Between South Lancaster and Fifteen-mile-falls the broad river-plain is 
unterraced. It seems probable that a lake existed here while the original 
high plain northward was being deposited. * 

When this was channelled out by the river, so as to leave only terraces 
as we now see them, the materials excavated were sufficienl to fill up the 
lake. It would be interesting to know the depth of the stratified drift in 
this basin; it is probably deeper than the height of the highest modified 
drift northward above the rivar 

Kame-like materials of small extent were noticed at North Stratford, 

*The Connecticut river, geologists consider, left this lake by a channel which passed up the 
present valley of John's river to Whitefleld, from there across to Lower Ammonoosuc below \Ving 
Road, and struck its present bed at Wells River, by following down the Aimuonoosuc valley. 

26 History of Coos County. 

forming the high bank on the east side of the railroad, one-fourth mile 
southeast from the station, and in Guildhall, about two miles north from 
Lancaster bridge. A remarkable moraine of granite bowlders occurs in 
Stratford, covering a large area of hillside just above the upper terrace, 
one mile south from what was Beattie's station. Two miles northwest from 
Groveton a ridge of till, from sixty to 100 feet above the river, projects half 
a mile westerly into the valley, or half way across it, appearing like a ter- 
minal moraine. Horse-shoe pond, on the northwest side of this ridge, occu- 
pies a portion of a deserted river- channel. These ancient river-beds are 
frequently shown by such ponds, commonly called sloughs or moats, of 
which Baker's pond, near Lancaster, is another example. 



The Water Sheds — Carriage Roads— Lumber Roads — The Water Basins — The Streams, Con- 
necticut, Magalloway, Androscoggin— Source of the Connectirut — Description andScenery — Second 
Lake, Connecticut Lake — Tributaries of the Connecticut— Lake Magalloway — Magalloway River 
— Androscoggin River — Their Tributaries— Country along the Maine Line — Bogs and Peat 

FROM Professor Huntington's elaborate description we extract : The 
extreme northern part of New Hampshire is covered by a continuous 
primeval forest; and the surface of the country is broken by undulat- 
ing ridges, which here and there rise to mountain heights. In these forests, 
almost on the boundary of Quebec, is the source of the Connecticut river; 
and in the extreme northeast corner of the state is a small lake, which is 
the principal source of the Magalloway river. Scarcely anything more is 
known to the dwellers on the banks of the Connecticut as to its source, 
than they know of the source of the Nile. Hence a somewhat minute de- 
scription will be given. 

Water-Sheds — Along the water-shed that separates the headwaters of 
the Connecticut and Magalloway from those of the St. Lawrence, runs the 
boundary-line between New Hampshire and Quebec. Although its general 
direction from Crown monument to the head of Hall's stream is a little 
south of west, yet so crooked is it that in its course it runs towards nearly 
every point of the compass, making the distance nearly twice as great as 
it is in a direct line between these points. At Crown monument the height 
of the water-shed is 2,568 feet. It descends gently for a short distance as 

Topography 27 

we go west, but soon rises again, until, near Lake Magalloway, it has an 
elevation of 2,812 feet. The summit of the ridge here is 587 feel above the 
lake just mentioned. Then, northwest of the lake, there is quite a gap, 
but it soon rises again into a mountain ridge. But two miles west of the 
lake is another depression: in this rises the most northwesterly branch of 
the Magalloway. West of this the ridge rises again, and forms a moun- 
tain range which extends west two miles to the gap near Third lake. 
Extending south from this height of land is the water-shed between the 
Connecticut and Magalloway. The gap at Third lake has a height of 2, 140 
feet. Then there is a slight rise, and again a depression of about the same 
height as the last. Then the water-shed rises again to the summit of Mt 
Prospect, and an elevation of 2,62!) feet. It then descends, but continues 
with varying undulations, until, near the head of Hall's stream, it spreads 
out into an immense plateau. 

The water-shed that separates the waters of the Connecticut from 
the Magalloway, Androscoggin, and Saco rivers, runs as follows: Starting 
from the boundary of Quebec, five miles southwest of Crown monument, 
and not far from three miles east of Third lake, the line runs nearly south 
four miles; then it turns almost directly east, and extends to Mt. Kent, 
on the boundary between New Hampshire and Maine; thence it follows 
the boundary to Mt. Carmel; thence it runs a little south of west, to a 
point two miles south of Second lake; thence south to the Magalloway 
mountain; thence it follows a ridge, west, nearly a mile; thence it 
runs southwest to Mt. Pisgah ; then it bends still to the west, and reaches 
its western limit near the Diamond ponds in the eastern part of Stewarts- 
town; thence it runs southeast to Dixville notch; thence a little east of 
south, through the western part of Millsfield; thence south through Milan, 
Berlin and Randolph; thence over the White Mountains to the Notch. 
Along this water-shed is some of the highest land in New Hampshire; but 
there are occasional gaps where roads are, or can be, constructed. Some 
of these passes are well known. Going north from the Net eh. the first is 
in Randolph: the next is where the Grand Trunk railway passes; then 
there is the road through Dixville notch; but north of this no carriage road 
has ever been constructed, — and there are only three winter roads, and 
these for lumbering purposes. The first of these roads crosses the Con- 
necticut three and a half miles south of Connecticut lake, and runs south- 
east. After passing the height of land, it strikes one of the brandies of 
the Swift Diamond, and following this, it extends down to the Magalloway. 
The second road begins at the last settlement in Pittsburg, crosses the Con- 
necticut one mile north of Connecticut lake, and strikes the Magalloway 
four miles south of Parmachenee lake. It is several } r ears since either of 
these roads was used, but through the evergreen forests they are as dis- 
tinct as when first made, — yet through the deciduous trees the underbrush 

2S History of Coos County. 

has so obstructed the way that it is almost impossible to pass, even on foot. 
Along either of these routes there is nothing to hinder the construction of 
a carriage-road, and probably along the most northern, one will never be 
called for; but it may be opened again as a "tote" road when lumbering 
is carried on along the Upper Magalloway. The third, a "tote' 1 road to 
the Magalloway by the way of Second lake, is the one latest used, and 
strikes farther up the river. (The supplies now are mostly taken from 
Berlin up the Androscoggin and the Magalloway.) The water shed itself, 
and the country east, is broken up into irregular groups of mountains and 
hills, but no two groups have exactly the same kind of rocks. The axis of 
all the higher groups is either gneiss or schist. 

The Water Basins. — The northern portion of the water basin of the 
Connecticut, the Magalloway, the Androscoggin and the Saco is embraced 
in this section. North of latitude 45°, it embraces nearly the whole of 
that of the Connecticut. West of the Connecticut river, and north 
of latitude 45°, there are three nearly parallel ridges. The first, 
going west, is somewhat irregular, and is cut off where Perry's 
stream turns east and flows into the Connecticut. But two, — one 
between Perry's and Indian streams, and the other between Indian and 
HalFs streams, — are more uniform, and they have a mean height of about 
600 feet above the streams. South of latitude 45°, and east of the Con- 
necticut, the ridges are everywhere irregular. North Hill, in Clarksville, 
rises 1,971 feet where the road crosses. South Hill, in Stewartstown, is 
2,000 feet, ascending to Jackson. In Colebrook, and below, the high ridges 
branching from the water-shed have generally a westerly trend. South of 
Sims' stream, the ridge extends nearly to the Connecticut, as, also, the one 
in Stratford, south of Lyman brook. Below North Stratford the ridges 
run more to the south. In Northumberland, south of the Upper Ammo- 
noosuc, they again run more nearly west, and continue thus until we reach 
Dalton, where the principal ridge runs north and south. 

Seven miles south of Crown monument the water-shed touches the 
boundary line of Maine. The portion of the water basin of the Magallo- 
way north of this is a level tract of country, penetrated by spurs from the 
boundary line towards Quebec. South of the point mentioned above, the 
water basin of the Magalloway occupies a large tract of country in New 
Hampshire. It is everywhere broken into irregular mountain ridges, but 
these have generally a southern trend until we reach the Swift Diamond 
in Dartmouth College grant. South of this stream there is a high contin- 
uous ridge from Dixville notch to the Magalloway; then there is a high 
ridge that runs south, parallel with the stream last mentioned. The tri- 
angular area embraced by the Swift Diamond, Clear stream, and the 
Magalloway and Androscoggin, is a succession of hills and mountain 
ridges. The high point north of Dixville notch forms the apex of the tri- 

Topography. 29 

angle; and Mt. Dustan is in the northeast angle. South of Clear stream 
the hills are, if possible, more irregular in their contour than those north- 

The Streams. — The principal streams are the Connecticut, the Magal- 
loway, and the Androscoggin. Almost on the very northern boundary of New 
Hampshire, and nearly on the very summit of the dividing ridge that sep- 
arates the waters of the St. Lawrence from those that flow southward, there 
is a small lake containing only a few square acres; and this is the source of 
the Connecticut river. It has an elevation of 2,551 feet, and is only sev- 
enty-eight below the summit of Mount Prospect; and so remote is it from 
the habitations of men that it is rarely seen. A place more solitary is not 
known in northern New Hampshire. Surrounded as it is by dense forests 
of evergreen, you can see only these and the waters of the lake. Almost 
the only sound that relieves the monotony of the place is the croaking of 
the frogs, and this must be their paradise. A few steps to the summit of 
Mt. Prospect, and we can overlook thousands and thousands of square 
miles of forests in Quebec, while in the extreme distance to the northwest 
can be seen the habitations of men. Southward the view is not extensive. 
This lake is half a mile directly south of the boundary, and has an area of 
three-fourths of a square mile, and its height is 2,038 feet. It is trapezoidal 
in shape, and has its greatest width in the south, while its northern shore is 
not more than a quarter of a mile in length. Its outlet is at the southeast 
corner, and its width is eight feet, and its depth six or seven inches. 
Besides the spruce and firs and cedars of immense size, it has a sub- Alpine 
vegetation. Labrador tea, the led inn pahtstre, is found in abundance 
along its shores. In early summer, before the swarms of insects come, it 
is charming to stand upon its border, when not a ripple disturbs its placid 
waters, and the trees are mirrored along its shores. On every side except 
the south, the hills, which rise to mountain heights, approach almost to 
its very shores. The Connecticut, which is its outlet, is nowhere remark- 
ably rapid. About five miles from the lake it receives a tributary from the 
east, the principal branch of which rises near the boundary. This stream 
is nearly as large as that into which it flows. A mile and a half from 
where it receives this tributary, it flows into Second lake, lis area is about 
oneand three-fourths square miles, and it is two miles and three-fourths in 
length, and in the widest part is a little more than a mile, and I he heighl 
above the sea is 1,882 feet. It is one of the most beautiful of our northern 
lakes. The graceful contour of its shores, the symmetry of its projecting 
points, the stately growth of its primeval forests, (he carpel of green that 
is spread along its border and extends through the long vista of the woods, 
the receding hills and the distant mountains, presenl a combination of the 
wild, the grand, and the beautiful that is rarely seen. Near its northern bor- 
der, besides the Connecticut, it receives two t ributaries, one from 1 lie north- 

30 History of Coos County. 

east and one from the northwest. Its outlet is on the west side, near its 
southern limit; it is forty feet in width, and has a depth of eighteen inches. 
Twenty rods from the lake it has a fall of eighteen feet or more; then its 
descent is quite gradual, but forms here and there deep eddies. A mile 
from the lake it becomes more rapid, and rushes down between precipitous 
walls of rock in a series of wild cascades, which continue for half a mile. 
It receives two tributaries from the west before it flows into Connecticut 
lake. Here we find a sheet of water exceedingly irregular in its outline. 
Its length is four miles, and its greatest width two and three-fourths, and 
it contains not far from three square miles. Its general direction is east 
and west, but near its outlet it turns towards the south. None of these 
lakes contain islands to any extent. Second lake has only one, and this 
has two, but they are very near the southeast shore. On the west shore 
of this lake the country is settled, and the grassy pastures extend down to 
its border; but for the most part it is still surrounded by a primeval forest. 
As many of the neighboring hills are crowned with deciduous trees, par- 
ticularly the maple, in autumn, when the frost comes and these have put 
on their crown of beauty, of crimson and scarlet, of yellow and gold, and 
mingled as they often are with the dark foliage of the spruce and fir, we 
have a scene which, in brilliancy and beauty, is rarely if ever excelled. 
There is another element characteristic of this high elevation, for the lake 
is 1,619 feet above the sea. It often happens, when the forest has put on 
this robe of beauty, that all the neighboring heights are of immaculate 
whiteness from the frozen mist that clings to every spray of the evergreen 
foliage. Embraced in the picture are the blue waters of the lake, the belt 
of deciduous forests, with their brilliant, gorgeous colors, the dark bands of 
the evergreens, and the snow-white summits- The water at the outlet flows 
over a rocky barrier, the stream falling abruptly nearly thirty seven feet. 
The fall is quite rapid for two miles and a half; then the flow is more gen- 
tle for about four miles; then it becomes more rapid again, and continues 
thus until after it passes West Stewartstown. It is then nowhere a slug- 
gish stream, and has rapids in many places until it gets below the falls of 
Northumberland; then it is the most placid of streams until it reaches the 
Fifteen-mile falls, which begin in Dalton. The fall from Connecticut lake 
to Lancaster is 785 feet. In Pittsburg, below Connecticut lake, the Con- 
necticut river receives three large tributaries, — Ferry's stream, which 
rises near Third lake, and has a rapid descent, including two falls, three 
and five miles from its confluence, a mile and a half from the lake; Indian 
stream, which rises on the boundary, has a very rapid descent for five or 
six miles, when it becomes a very quiet stream until it flows into the Con- 
necticut about eleven miles from the lake; Hall's stream, which also rises 
on the boundary, and is the dividing line between New Hampshire and 
Quebec. Besides these there are several smaller streams. The principal 

Topography. ;:i 

streams from the east ai^e Cedar stream in Pittsburg, Labrador brook and 
Dead Water stream in Clarksville, the Mohawk in Colebrook, Sim'sstream 
and Lyman brook in Columbia, Bog brook in Stratford, the Upper Ammo- 
noosuc in Northumberland, Israel's river in Lancaster, and John's river in 

The Magalloway has its principal source in Lake Magalloway, about a 
mile and a half southwest of Crown monument. This lake is one of the 
most romantic in New Hampshire. It has an elevation of 2,225 feet above 
the sea. Its area is not far from 320 square acres, and is surrounded by 
hills that rise to mountain heights, the elevation on the northeast being 587 
feet above the lake, and from its summit we look immediately down upon 
it. The stream which is its outlet forms, a few steps from the lake, a 
beautiful cascade some twenty feet in height. Of all the men who have 
hunted in these forests, I have found only one who had ever seen this lake. 
If it were within the reach of travel, it would no doubt attract many per- 
sons, for in wildness and grandeur it is not surpassed. Its outlet is soon 
augmented by streams both from New Hampshire and Maine. 

The Magalloway, soon after it enters the state of Maine, forms one of 
the peculiar streams in this northern country. It flows for a time with a 
rapid current, and then for a long distance it is the most sluggish of 
streams, often deeper than it is wide, while on either side there are numer- 
ous ponds and bogs. Parmachenee lake, into which it flows, is about the size 
of Connecticut lake. For four miles below Parmachenee the stream is very 
rapid, and then, for almost the entire distance to Escahos falls, the descent 
is slight. Upper Magalloway settlement lies above the falls. The 
Magalloway enters New Hampshire in Dartmouth College grant. 
It flows about a mile and then goes into Maine, but enters New 
Hampshire again in the northeast corner of Wentworth's Location, 
and flows into the Androscoggin a mile and a quarter from Umbagoglake. 
Although the river is very crooked yet the water is of sufficient depth so 
that a steamer runs up nearly to the Maine line, and down the Androscog- 
gin to Errol dam; below this, the Androscoggin is for the most part quite 
rapid, and, in the sixty-six miles of this river in New Hampshire, the fall 
is 464 feet. The tributaries of the Magalloway and Androscoggin from 
New Hampshire are the Little Magalloway, four and a half miles south of 
Parmachenee lake, and the Swift Diamond, which has its source in the 
Diamond ponds in Stewartstown, and has a tributary, the Dead Diamond, 
which rises two and a half miles southeast of Second lake, and flows into 
the Swift Diamond a mile and a half from its confluence with the Magal- 
loway in Dartmouth College grant. Clear stream flows into the Andros- 
coggin in Errol. In Gorham the tributaries are Moose and Peabody rivers, 
the latter of which rises in the Great gulf between Mt. Washington and 
Mt. Adams. A considerable tributary, Wild river, rises in Bean's Purchase. 

32 History of Coos County. 

but flows into the Androscoggin in Maine. Besides these from the west, 
the Androscoggin has three tributaries in New Hampshire from the east, 
the Molichewort in Errol, and the Chick walnepy and Stearns brooks in 

Country Along the Maine Line. - - The northern extremity of New 
Hampshire is a mere point of upland — sterile and comparatively destitute 
of lumber of value. In those townships formed from the Carlisle grant 
large spruces are now standing, and the different branches of the Magal- 
loway are so located as to afford for them egress without excessive expense. 

The tracts on Stearns brook and Chickwalnepy river in Success, afford 
good settling land. Considerable pine is still standing upon the township. 
Standing upon Mt. Ingalls the eye takes in a valuable tract of this land and 
the adjoining town of Riley in Maine, which, situated as they are, near the 
Grand Trunk Railroad, and possessing the advantages of the Androscoggin, 
besides excellent water-power, must at no distant clay be of increased value. 
No better land can be found than some of that in the towns of Chatham 
and Stowe, while more northerly the farms in Errol and Wentworth's 
Location, possess natural advantages, which, together with those of the 
rich bottom meadows on the Diamond in the second grant to Dartmouth 
College, are of a high order. Although the general surface of the ground 
along the line is uneven and broken, yet there are large tracts of fertile 
lands which must at some period yield a handsome remuneration to their 
holders. The eastern portion of New Hampshire lying north of Mt. Royce, 
is drained by the Androscoggin and Magalloway rivers, the former of 
which, after serving as the outlet of those great lakes extending from 
Umbagog far into the wilderness to the northeast, debouches from this lake, 
receiving, one mile below, tribute from the Magalloway, a stream equal in 
size to the Connecticut at Hanover, which, taking its rise on the boundary 
range, drains that whole water-shed north and west of Umbagog. 

The soil along the valley of the Magalloway. Androscoggin, Diamond 
and their branches, is rich and alluvial. The highlands are characterized 
by an argillaceous formation entirely different from the granitic structures 
of the White and other mountain ranges in our State. Mineral wealth 
exists in the township of Riley, Success and Shelburne, and probably along 
that portion of the line lying between Lake Umbagog and the Androscog- 
gin, at the latter town. Spruces of fine proportions were frequently met in 
large tracts north of Umbagog, while the maple, the birch, the beech, and 
those other forest trees indigenous to our latitude flourish in regal lux- 
uriance in the forests north. The cedar is found in great quantities on the 
low lands around Umbagog. In fine, the country and its natural charac- 
teristics are such as to warrant the belief that it will be at some time 
reclaimed from its present state and yield ample remuneration for the labor 

Topography. 33 

Bogs and Swamps. — Bogs and peat swamps are very numerous in the 
northern part of this county. These are often of greal extenl and found 
in every town. Sometimes they present a broad surface, without a tree or 
shrub, except along their borders, the whole surface being covered with a 
luxuriant growth of grass. One of the largest of these bogs is at the head 
of Bog brook, a mile and a half west of Second lake, and has an area of 
fifteen or twenty acres. West of Perry stream there is another extensive 
bog, directly west of the one previously described. Near the head of Perry 
stream there are several, more or less occupied by shrubs and trees; here 
and there a hackmatack or larch rises from the surface covered with lau- 
rels, Labrador tea, and other swamp plants. North of Second lake is a very 
extensive swamp where, besides the laurel, Labrador tea and larch, we fre- 
quently find the cedar and alder. A short distance south of Connecticut 
lake are two small open bogs, on which cranberries grow abundantly. The 
peat here is not more than six feet in depth. One of the most extensive 
swamps in the State is in the Dartmouth College grant. The distance 
across it, north and south, is about three hundred rods, and the distance 
east and west is much greater. Several interesting peat deposits exist 
along the Androscoggin. One in Milan contains many well-preserved 
trunks of fallen trees, principally tamarack. In Shelburne the reclamation 
of a peat-swamp has been quite successfully carried on. 

These bogs when drained and dressed with sand or sand and lime are 
excellent soils, very productive in hay and oats. Many of them may in 
this way be reclaimed, for, in time, the peat will be used as fuel and as a 
fertilizer. Peat makes a valuable fertilizer. It absorbs and retains water 
and ammonia, promotes the disintegration of the rocks, renders light soils 
more productive, and acts valuably in other ways. Those who have experi- 
mented with it, and compared its properties with ordinary stable manure, 
find that it gives, in a certain quantity, an equal amount of lime and nitro- 
gen and one-third more organic matter, but is deficient in magnesia, potash, 
phosphoric and sulphuric acids. These elements may be given by add i ng to one 
hundred pounds of fresh peat one pound of commercial potash, or five 
pounds of unleached wood ashes, one pound of good superphosphate, or 
one pound each of bone-dust and gypsum. 

In view of the small amount and the cheapness of the materials to bring 
peat to the fertilizing standard of stable manure, it would appear as if our 
farmers could greatly enrich their lands at small expense. 

34 History of Coos County 



Pittsburg — Crown Monument— Megantic Mountain— Head waters of St Francis and Chaudiere 
Kivers— Along the New Hampshire and Quebec Boundary— Third Lake— Mt. Carmel— Mt Agiz- 
coos — Cascades— Little Diamond Falls— Hoggins Branch — Dixville Notch— " The Old Man of 
Dixville" — The Flume — Cascade Brook — Huntington Cascade — Scenery of Errol — West Stewarts- 
tow n to North Stratford — Groveton — Stark — Milan — Lancaster — Jefferson — Randolph — Dalton — 
Shelburne — Gorham. 

PROFESSOR HUNTINGTON says that the lovers of the grand, wild 
and picturesque in nature, will especially delight in the primeval for- 
ests of Coos county. A journey of a day and a half in Pittsburg, 
from Connecticut lake through an unbroken forest, will take one to Crown 
monument, which is at the extreme northeast corner of the state. It is 
on the water- shed between the waters of the St. Lawrence and the streams 
running south into the Atlantic, and it is so called because a monument 
was placed there by the commissioners who established the boundary 
between the states and the provinces. From a ridge of land 2,568 feet 
above the level of the sea, where, looking northward, the land slopes 
toward the St. Lawrence, and southward, toward the Atlantic, the view 
must be extensive. In either direction we look over only illimitable for- 
ests, except that in the dim distance, a little to the east of north, there is a 
small settlement, probably at the north end of Megantic lake, — otherwise 
the view embraces a boundless forest. Immediately north, the slope is 
quite gradual, and, as it stretches northward, the country seems like a 
plain extending to the horizon. To the northeast is Saddle mountain, with 
hills and ridges, to the north w r est, Megantic mountain rises as from an 
immense plain. Embraced in the view- northward are the headwaters of 
the St. Francis and Chaudiere rivers, while east and west is the high ridge 
that forms the water-shed. The view directly south is limited, for a moun- 
tain ridge runs from the Magallow^ay directly west into New Hampshire. 
To the southwest, the high ridge that encircles the basin where the many 
branches of the Magalloway have their source, obstructs the view in that 
direction. To the southeast there is nothing, as far as the eye can see, but 
high ridges and mountain peaks, which follow each other in rapid succes- 
sion until in the far distance they seem to pierce the sky. 

If we should follow along the boundary between New Hampshire and 
Quebec, there w~ould be many points where w r e should wish to stop and 
view the grand panorama spread out before us. Two of the most remark- 
able outlooks we will notice. Not far from three and a half miles south- 

Scenery of Coos. 35 

west from Crown monument there is a point of land 2,812 feel in height. 
The distant view is not unlike that from Crown monument,but the immedi- 
ate surroundings are much more grand; among the attractions is a moun- 
tain lake, which lies in a depression to the west 800 feet below the sum- 
mit, and it is so near that we seem to look directly clown upon it. Another 
point of interest is in the vicinity of Third lake. The view northward 
embraces a continuous forest, extending fifty miles or more; and in the 
distance, Megan tic mountain stands massive and alone. The only habita- 
tions to be seen are one or two houses in Ditton (Canada). 

South, half a mile distant, we look down on Third lake. On a bright 
day in early summer, when the stately forests are mirrored in its clear 
waters, it presents a scene of quiet beauty that cannot be surpassed. Gen- 
erally the view southward is not extensive, but on some of the higher 
points we can overlook the nearer hills, and some of the peaks of the 
White Mountains can be seen. 

Mt. Carmel. — Mt. Carmel rises 3,711 feet above the level of the sea. It 
is on the line of New Hampshire and Maine, and consists of a long ridge, 
on which there are two points of nearly equal height, half or three-quar- 
ters of a mile apart; from the point east there is a gradual slope for half a 
mile, then the descent is almost perpendicular down to the debris formed 
from the fallen rocks. Before we reach this precipitous height, there is a 
ridge that branches off and runs towards the northeast; and along the east 
side of this there are perpendicular walls of rock. As Mt Carmel is some- 
what isolated, the view from the summit is extensive. 

Immediately northward is the great basin where rise the many streams 
that unite to form the Magalloway. Beyond is the ridge that forms the 
boundary between the states and the provinces, and, through gaps in this, 
we can see a peak far to the northeast. To the east the view is fine, while 
near at hand you look down into the valley of the Magalloway. Here you 
catch glimpses of the stream, and, save here and there, where the water 
reflects the sunlight, the valley is a dark forest of evergreen. Eastward 
from the summit of Mt. Carmel we can see far beyond the valley, and such 
an array of hills, ridges, and mountain is rarely seen. Hero a mountain, 
irregular in outline and broken abruptly off ; there two, similar in shape, 
while beyond, and farther south, is a mountain summit that has a grace- 
ful contour in its curving lines of beauty. Southward for twenty miles the 
view is unobstructed down the Magalloway; then from the east, Mt. Agiz- 
coos, with its bare summit, extends partly across the valley. Southward, 
sixty-five miles distant from our view-point, wo can see the dim yet per- 
fect outline of the White Mountains. In some respects the view to the 
west and southwest is the most interesting. Here is a succession of undu- 
lating ridges and hills, which, with their shadows and ever-changing color, 
give a peculiar charm to the scene; then, in the midst of the forests we can 

36 History of Coos County. 

see the Connecticut lakes. There is not probably another mountain-peak 
in New Hampshire of this height, where oue feels so entirely away from 
the habitations of men. In every direction, the whole country, embracing 
thousands of square miles, is one vast wilderness, except at the outlet of 
Connecticut lake. From the summit of Magalloway mountain, three miles 
east from Connecticut lake, there is a fine view of mountains, hills and 

Cascades. — Though not numerous in the northern part of Coos county, 
there are two or three cascades that should be mentioned. On one of the 
western branches of Indian stream, near the north line of the Colebrook 
Academy grant, there is a cascade which, on account of its rare beauty, 
deserves especial notice. It is in a deep ravine, and on either side there is 
a, dense forest of evergreens. Here the extreme heat of summer is unknown, 
for the coolness of the water tempers the atmosphere. The cascade has a 
height of forty feet, — the first twelve feet the water is broken by jutting rocks; 
for the remaining twenty-eight it flows over a ledge, which has a descent 
of sixty degrees. At the top the stream is four feet wide, and at the base 
twenty feet. The pure water, the white spray, the dark, moss-covered 
rocks, the cool, delicious atmosphere, the shimmering light through the 
trees, the mossy banks of the stream, the perfect stillness, broken only by 
the music of the waters and the songs of birds, form an attractive combi- 

East from Connecticut lake, and southeast from the summit of Magal- 
loway mountain, the Little Diamond falls in a series of rapid, wide cascades. 
The rapids extend for half a mile; and the fall in that distance is 150 feet, 
with perpendicular falls of from three to ten feet. Southwest of the same 
mountain there is a fall on Huggins's branch. There are rapids for half a 
mile before we come to the falls; then a slope of fifty degrees and a fall of 
fifteen feet; then a fall of twelve feet perpendicular; then a slope of forty- 
two degrees and a fall of about forty feet, confined between nearly perpen- 
dicular strata of rock, and the water finally rests in a great basin at the 
base. Just below the stream turns east, with a fall of ten feet. This is a 
beautiful cascade, and well worthy of a visit. 

Dixville Notch is one of the most remarkable exhibitions of natural 
■scenery in the state, equaling, if not surpassing the White Mountain notch 
in picturesque grandeur. The angular and precipitous appearance of the 
rocks, rising hundreds of feet, almost perpendicularly, on either side, is 
strikingly different from the rounded and water worn appearance of most 
of the crystalline rocks throughout the northern part of the United States, 
and seems to come nearer to the scenery of the Alps than anything else in 
New England. This notch is easy of access, being only ten miles from 
Colebrook village; and although the highest point in the road through the 
notch is 830 feet above that village, yet the ascent is so gradual that few 

Scenery of Coos. 37 

would believe they had reached so great an elevation. It surpasses most 
other notches in the vertical height of its walls, one point being 560 feet 
above the highest part of the road. Sonic of the highest precipitous masses 
stand out in bold relief from the sides. Table rock projects 167 feet, while 
the ragged, serrated edges every where form projecting points. One can 
easily imagine that he sees here the turrets and spires of some ruined cathe- 
dral, or the battlements and towers of castles of the medieval age; or, as 
one stands on Table rock, he can imagine that a bridge once spanned the 
chasm below, and that these masses of rock standing in the debris are the 
ruins of piers on which it might have been built. The rock here differs in 
cleavage from that of similar composition elsewhere in New Hampshire. 
It splits in huge longitudinal fragments; and Nature has here quarried 
posts that equal in just proportion those wrought by human hands. 

On Table rock the view embraces a wide sweep of country. One can see 
quite a distance in Maine, a part of Vermont, and, when clear, places in 
Quebec can be recognized; and from Table rock the view down through 
the Notch is always grand. After passing the height of the Notch, going 
east on the right, we can see a profile, — '' The Old Man of Dixville," — which 
has very fair proportions. On the left, still farther east, there is an excel- 
lent representation of the walls and turrets of a ruined castle. 

The " Flume " shows itself on the north side of the road, thirty or forty 
rods back in the forest. It is a chasm, in granite, about fifteen feet wide 
and fifteen rods long; and the stream running through it falls about thirty 
feet in cascades. In one place there is a pot-hole seven feet deep, with a 
diameter of four feet. The granite is divided try two vertical sets of seams 
or joints, so that large columnar blocks could be taken out without quar- 
rying. The excavated rock seems to have been a trap-dyke, part of which 
may still be seen. Nearly opposite the Flume, but farther down the val- 
ley, is "Cascade brook," a branch of Clear stream. Upon this may be 
seen a series of cascades for more than half a mile. They were named ' ' Hunt- 
ington cascades" by the New Hampshire Press Association. The top of the 
most interesting cascade is 274 feet above its base. Here the stream is 
divided by a trap-dyke two feet wide; and the water falls on each side a 
distance of forty feet. The rock here is the same argillaceous schist as in 
the Notch; besides there is an interesting trap-dyke, containing glassy 
feldspar and basaltic hornblende, which, Dr. Jackson says, resembles more 
a volcanic rock than any other found in the state. Most other notches 
we can see a long distance before wereach them, hut here we have scarcely 
any intimation that there is such a vast rent in the mountain until we are 
almost in the very gap itself. 

Errol. — In Errol there is one of the grandest outlooks in New Hamp- 
shire, which can be seen while driving along the road. In the distance are 
the grandest of mountain summits. After crossing the Androscoggin. 

38 History of Coos County. 

from Errol Dam to Upton, Me., the road winds along and over the ridge 
of land between that river and Umbagog lake. As we ascend the hill the 
grandeur of the scenery begins to unfold itself. On our right, and a little 
south of west, is the Androscoggin, which pours along over rapids until it 
rests in a quiet bay, where the river widens to receive the waters of Clear 
stream. After leaving the bay, the river becomes rapid again, and pours 
along between the hills, and soon is lost to sight. Westward, among the 
hills, is Aker's pond, and, following up the valley of Clear stream, the 
view is limited by the high ridge running through Dixville. A little farther 
south we look over the hills in Errol and Millsfield, and we can see a few 
peaks in Odell. To the southwest there is nearly thirty miles of unbroken 
wilderness. For a distant view, I know not where the White Mountains 
can be seen to such advantage as just south of this height of land; neither 
do I know of any distant point where they appear so high. 

On the Connecticut there are many places where the scenery is enchant- 
ing. At almost every turn in the road, from West Stewartstown to North 
Stratford, there is something that attracts the attention, — a mountain of 
grand proportions, a hill with graceful outline, the trees, the forests, or 
the river, as it runs through grassy meadows or along a wooded hillside. 
There is some remarkable scenery in the vicinity of Groveton. Coming 
from the south towards the village, Percy peaks will attract the attention 
for their symmetrical form and color. The village itself is surrounded by 
mountains. The summits of those that are farthest away are scarcely 
more than ten miles distant, while Mt. Lyon, on the south, is not more 
than four. Although the hills and mountains are so near, yet, on account 
of the broad interval of the Connecticut, we do not feel as though the out- 
look had too narrow limits, but rather that in the whole view there is a 
beautiful symmetry. It is especially grand to watch the moon as it rises 
above the Pilot hills, breaks through the passing cloud, and throws its 
gentle light across the forests. There are hills on every side, climbing 
which we have distant views. From Percy peaks, northward, we have 
forests and wooded summits; southeast, the White hills rise in all their 
grandeur; south, we have the long line of the Pilot hills; and, a little west 
of south, we look down the valley of the Connecticut, and, in the distance, 
Moosilauke rises against the sky. 

The summit of the south peak is easily gained from the southeast, but 
the western slope of this, as well as the north peak, is so steep that it would 
require an expert in climbing to be able to reach the summit of either peak 
from that direction. 

Stark is a town of mountains and hills. Approaching Stark station, 
either from the east or the west, the points of the mountains from the 
opposite sides of the valley, project by each other so that there seems to be 
an impassable barrier across the valley; but we know that the stream 

Scenery of Coos. 39 

must pass through the mountains, and Stark station is in the gap of 1 lie 
mountain through which it passes. On the north is a perpendicular wall 
of rock forming a vast amphitheatre, while on the opposite side of the val- 
ley, and a little east, is Mill mountain. Although in every other din ction 
surrounded by high mountains, yet, looking a little west of south, we can 
see in the distance some of the high peaks of the Pilot range. 

West Milan. — Here the peaks of the White Mountains begin to appear, 
and besides, there is quite an array of mountains westward. In the south- 
east part of Milan, near the line of Berlin, and about a mile east of the 
Androscoggin, we have one of the most striking views of the White 

In Lancaster the view is always grand. Mt. Lyon to the north, and 
thence eastward the broad sweep of the Pilot range, and the group of 
mountains of which Starr King is the culminating point, are so situated 
that every fine sunset gives to them that deep coloring which is the charm 
of mountain scenery. Most of the White Mountain peaks can be seen 
from the village, but two miles east, on the road to Jefferson, to a point 
between three and four hundred feet above the Connecticut, brings them 
out in bolder relief, and at the same time gives a charming view of the 
Connecticut valley and the village of Lancaster. FromMt. Pleasant, which 
is easv of access, the view is more extended, and embraces the mountains 

From Jefferson hill and thence on the road to Randolph, we get a nearer 
view of the mountains. At the Mt. Adams the broad sweep of forests, reach- 
ing from Israel's river almost to the summits of the mountains, gives us 
one of our grandest views. From Dalton mountain we have the sweep of 
the whole horizon; westward, the mountains in Vermont; the Connecti- 
cut valley northward; the mountains of Stratford, Mt. Lyon, the Pilot 
range, Starr King, all of the White Mountains, the chief of the Franconia 
mountains, and Moosilauke, southward. 

Shelburne. — The scenery is varied and lovely to those artistic enough 
to appreciate it. Artists say that nowhere have they seen such rich 
autumnal coloring as in Shelburne. Several picturesque spots may be 
found on the Lead Mine brook, and the little flat called The ( rarden is used 
as a camping ground by tourists. On the north side of Mt. Winthrop is 
Moses 1 rock, so-called, sixty feet high, and rising at an angle of fifty 
degrees. In the winter water trickles over it, forming a beautiful ice cas- 
cade. Near by was the Granny Starbird rock, where the old doctress held 
her horse by the bridle through a stormy night. It has since been split up 
for railroad bridges and underpinnings. On Peabody brook, between Ked 
hill and Baldcap, are Shelburne falls. In the spring they can be seen two- 
thirds the length of the town, appearing like a great drift of snow. The 
Falls are one of the objects of interest to summer visitors. 

40 History of Coos County. 

Baldcap, as its name implies, is a bare ledge at the top, and in height 
ranks next to Moriah. It is easy to ascend and affords a delightful view. 
A little pond of clear, cool water near the summit was christened Dream 
lake by some romantic visitor. 

Gorham. — The mountain scenery here is not surpassed in the whole 
mountain region. At the southeast, distant but a few miles, stand Mounts 
Moriah and Carter, each about 5,000 feet in height; at the west can be seen 
Mt. Madison; at the northwest the Pilot range, while at the east are the 
Androscoggin hills, the most prominent of which is Mt. Hayes. It is only 
eight miles to the Glen House at the base of Mt. Washington. 



Aborigiual Indians — Iroquois — Mohawks — Algonquins — New England Tribes — Wigwams 
— Social Life, Government, and Language — Food — Religion — The St. Francis Indians — Gen. 
Amherst — Rogers' Expedition — Destruction of St. Francis Village — Retreat and Sufferings of 
the "Rangers." 

WHEN the Europeans first landed on the Continent of America, the 
Indians who inhabited the Atlantic slope, and dwelt in the valleys 
of the Connecticut and St. Lawrence, in the basin of the Great 
Lakes, and the fertile valleys of the Alleghany region, were composed of 
two great nations and their sub-divisions. These were soon known to the 
whites under the French appellation of Iroquois and Algonquins. These 
nations differed in language and lineage, in manners and customs, in the 
construction of their dwellings and boats, and were hereditary enemies. 

The Iroquois proper, who gave their name to one division, the ablest 
and most powerful of this family, were the Five Nations, called by them- 
selves the Ho de-no-sau-nee, "the people of the long house.'' They com- 
pared their union of five tribes, stretched along a narrow valley for more 
than two hundred miles in Central New York, to one of their long wig- 
wams containing many families. Among all the Aborigines of America 
there were none so politic and intelligent, none so war-like and fierce, none 
with such a contrasting array of virtues and vices as the true Iroquois. 
All surrounding tribes, whether of their own family, or of the Algonquins, 
stood in awe of them. They followed the war-path, and their war-cry 
was heard on the banks of the Mississippi, on the shores of the Gulf of 

Indian History. 4t 

Mexico, and where the Atlantic breakers dash in Massachusetts Bay. 
"Some of the small tribes were nearly exterminated by their ferocity and 
barbarity. They were more cruel to the Eastern Indians than those [ndians 
were to the Europeans. " The New England tribes, with scarce an excep- 
tion, paid them tribute; and the Montagnais, fai north on the Saguenay, 
called by the French " the paupers of the wilderness, " would start from 
their midnight slumbers at dreams of the Iroquois, and run, terror-st ricken, 
into the forest. They were the conquerors of the Mew World, and justly 
carried the title of "The Romans of the West." The .Jesuit Father. 
Ragueneau, wrote, in 1650, in his " Revelations des Hurons, " "My pen 
has no ink black enough to paint the fury of the Iroquois." The tribe 

which guarded the eastern door of the typical long house, was the si 

active and most blood-thirsty one of this fierce family, the dreaded Mo- 
hawks, to whom the Connecticut River Indians gave the appellation of 
Ma-qua hogs, or Maquas— "Man-eaters." The Mohawk country proper 
was west of the Hudson river, but, by right of conquest, they claimed all 
the country between the Hudson and the sources of the north and easterly 
branches of the Connecticut, and, by virtue of this claim, all the Indians 
of the Connecticut valley paid them annual tribute. 

The few tribes of the Iroquois were surrounded on all sides by the much 
more numerous Algonquins, to which family all the New England trib< - 
belonged, Along the valley of the St. Lawrence dwelt the Algonquins 
proper, the Abinaquis, the Montagnais, and other roving tribes. Th 
tribes were often forced, during the long Canadian winters when game 
grew scarce, to subsist on buds and bark, and sometimes even on the 
wood of forest trees, for many weeks together. From this they were 
called in mockery by their bitter enemies, the Mohawks, "Ad-i-ron-daks" 
tree-eaters. The New England tribes of the Algonquin family dwelt along 
the sea, and on the banks of the larger streams. The Et-it-che-mi-as 
dwelt farthest east in the St. Croix region. The confederation of Abina- 
quis, and their kindred tribes, the Taratines, had their hunting-grounds in 
the valleys of the Penobscot, Saco, and Piscataqua, and held possession of 
Northern New Hampshire. The Anasagunticooks, a powerful tribe, con- 
trolled the territories of the Ameriscoggin (Androscoggin). Savage, and 
given to war, they dwindled away, until in 1747. they could number but 
160 warriors. The Pequawkets (Pigwackets) occupied the Saco valley. In 
the southeastern part of New Hampshire and northeastern Massachusetts 
dwelt the Penobscot or Pawtucket tribe; while the Massachusetts occupied 
the lands around the bay known by their name, and the neighboring islands. 
In what is now the state of Vermont, no permanent home existed of any 
Indian tribe. It was the beaver- hunting country of the [roquois, but also 
claimed, and at times occupied, by the Abenaquis. 

Wigwams. — The Algonquin Indians made their wigwams small and 

42 History of Coos County. 

round, and for one or two families only; while the Iroquois built theirs long 
and narrow, each for the use of many families. The Algonquin wigwam 
was made of poles set up around a circle, from ten to twelve feet across. 
The poles met at the top, forming a circular frame- work, which was cov- 
ered with bark-mats or skins; in the center was the fire, the smoke escap- 
ing from a hole in the top. In these wigwams men, women, children, and 
dogs, crowded promiscuously together in complete violation of all our 
rules of modern housekeeping. 

Social Life, Government, and Language. — The government of the Indian 
was completely patriarchal. The only law was the custom of the tribe; 
conforming to that, he was otherwise as free as the air he breathed to fol- 
low the bent of his own wild will. In his solitary cabin he was the head 
of his family, and his "squaw" was but his slave to do the drudgery. 
Over tribes were principal chiefs called sachems, and lesser ones called 
sagamores. The direct succession was invariably in the female line. The 
war-chiefs were only leaders in times of war, and won their distinction only 
by their valor on the war-path. The Indian language, in the language of 
modern comparative philology, was neither monosyllabic like the Chinese, 
nor inflecting like that of the civilized Caucasian stock, but was agglutin- 
ating, like that of the northwestern Asiatic tribes, and those of south- 
eastern Europe. They express ideas by stringing words together in one 
compound vocable. The Algonquin languages were harsh and gutteral; 
not euphonious like that of the Iroquois. Contrast the Algonquin names 
A-gi-o-cho-ok, Co-os, Squa-ke-ag, Am-os-ke-ag, Win ne-pi-se-o-gee, Waum- 
bek meth-na, with Hi-a-wath-a, O-no-a-la-go-na, Kay-ad-ros-se-ra, Ska- 

Food. — The Indians had fish, game, nuts, berries, roots, corn, acorns, 
squashes, a kind of bean called now "seiva bean," and a species of sun- 
flower, with roots like an artichoke. Fish were speared or taken with 
lines, nets or snares, made of the sinews of deer, or fibres of moose- 
wood. Their fish-hooks were made of the bones of fishes or of birds. 
They caught the moose, the deer, and the bear in the winter season by 
shooting with I tows and arrows, by snaring, or in pitfalls They cooked 
their fish by roasting before the fire on the end of a long stick, or by boil- 
ing in closely woven baskets, or stone or wooden vessels. They made 
water boil, not by hanging over the fire, but by the constant immersion of 
hot stones. The corn boiled alone was "hominy;" with beans, "succo- 

Religion. — The aborigines had but a vaguely crude idea, if an idea at 
all, of religion. They had no priests, no altars, no sacrifice. They had 
"medicine-men " -mere conjurors— who added nothing to the mysterious 
awe and superstition which enveloped the whole race. The Indian spirit- 
ualized everything in nature; heard ' k aery tongues on sands and shores 

Indian History. i:; 

and desert wildernesses," saw "calling shapes and beckoning shadows 
dire" on every hand. The flight or cry of a bird, the humming of a bee, 
the crawling of an insect, the turning of a leaf, the whisper of a breeze, 
all were mystic signals of good or evil import, by which he was guided in 
the most important undertakings. He placed the greatest confidence in 
dreams, which were to him revelations from the spirit-world, guiding him 
to the places where his game lurked, and to the haunts of Ins enemies. 
He invoked their aid on all occasions to instruct him how to cure the sick, 
or reveal to him his enemies. 

Three centuries of contact with our civilization has unchanged him, 
and he is still the wild, untamed child of nature. "He will not."' says 
Parkman, "learn the arts of civilization, and he and his forest must per- 
ish together. The stern, unchanging features of his mind excite our 
admiration from their immutability; and we look with deep interest on 
the fate of this irreclaimable son of the wilderness, the child who will not 
be weaned from the breast of his rugged mother.*' 

St. Francis Indians. — The central metropolis of the Abenaquis Indians 
was situated on the St. Lawrence river at the mouth of the St. Francis. 
This was midway between Montreal and Quebec, and in easy communica- 
tion with the New England frontiers. These St. Francis Indians were 
strong in numbers, power, and enterprise, and the staunch allies of the 
French. Here was planned expedition after expedition against the border 
English settlements, and here was paid the bounties offered for scalps and 
prisoners. Here, too, was a city of refuge for all the outlawed savages 
driven from the English country. Among these were what remained of 
the followers of Philip, Paugus, Mesaudowit, Kancamagus, and Wahawah. 
From this strong protected citadel for many years went out war parties, 
thirsting with revenge, to glut it in the blood of the New Englanders. 
"Hundreds of people had fallen by the rifle and hatchet, burnished and 
sharpened at the hearth-stones of this village " These Indians claimed the 
"Cowasse" country as their own. They enjoyed the rich profusion of 
game and fish of the upper Connecticut. The bear, moose, and feathered 
game were of a superior quality, while from the clear, cold waters of the 
streams they brought ample supplies of those delicate fish— salmon and 
trout. The fertile soil yielded large crops of corn wherever their rude 
planting covered the kernels. It was a select and paradisaical country, 
this "Cowasse"— and no wonder that they stoutly resisted all encroach- 
ments of the English or their attempts to occupy their last hold upon New- 
England. Here the Indians, during the strong rule of the French in 
Canada, and blest by their aid, grew fat and uumerous. Through this 
country passed their trails when they carried death and destruction to the 
frontier settlements of lower New Eampshire, and their jubilant cries, as 
they returned laden with spoils, scalps, and prisoners, resounded along the 

44 History of Coos County. 

"Notch," and other defiles of the White Mountains, and among the tall 
white pines of the upper Connecticut. Until the power of the French was 
broken, and while the St. Francis Indians preserved their strength, no 
paleface, except a captive, was allowed even a lodging, or an occupancy in 
the "Coos." 

After the fall of Louisburg, in 17T.S. Gen. Abercrombie was recalled to 
England, and General Amherst made commander of the British forces 
warring against the French and Indians in America. He took personal 
command at Lake Champlain, brought order out of confusion, called for 
seventeen hundred more recruits from the already depleted numbers of the 
colonists, and gained success by the excellence of his judgment, his circum- 
spection, and other needed qualities for winning conquests and preserving- 
acquisitions. In 1750 Gen. Amherst ordered two measures of great 
importance to New England. One was the construction of a military road 
from Crown Point to Number Four (Charlestown) on the Connecticut 
river. This improvement was of great value, and opened a large territory 
to immediate settlement. The other measure was of full more importance. 
It was the destruction of the chief village of the St. Francis tribe. The 
daring Indian-fighter, Major Robert Rogers, with two hundred of his fam- 
ous Rangers, was selected for the undertaking. A large part of this 
detachment, both of officers and men, was from New Hampshire, and 
chosen, by Rogers himself, for their bravery and experience. Starting 
from Crown Point, they passed down Lake Champlain to Missisquoi Bay, 
and there left their boats in charge of two Indians, who were to remain 
until the party returned, unless the enemy discovered the boats. In such 
case the guard was to follow and inform Rogers of the fact. Major Rogers 
and his party, reduced by casualties to one hundred and forty-two, the 23d 
of September, left the bay and struck boldly into the wilderness, but, on 
the 25th, were overtaken by the Indians left in charge of the boats, with 
the disheartening intelligence that the enemy had discovered them and 
were in pursuit. There was no alternative but to push on, outmarch the 
pursuers, destroy the fated village, return by Lake Memphremagog and 
the Connecticut, and thus accomplish their object and elude their pursuers. 
Lieut. McMillen was sent back across the country to Crown Point, to 
inform Gen. Amherst of their situation, that he might order provisions to 
be sent up the Connecticut to the Lower Coos for the use of the party, 
should they live to return that way. The Rangers then, nothing daunt- 
ed, continued their march through the wet, marshy ground for nine days; 
sleeping nights upon a sort of hammock made of boughs to keep them 
from the water. The tenth day they arrived within fifteen miles of the 
doomed town. The place was reconnoitred by Rogers and two of his 
officers on the 6th of October, and the Indians were discovered in the great- 
est glee, celebrating a wedding. Rogers returned to his part}', and, at 

Indian History. i:. 

three o'clock the next morning, the Rangers advanced to within four hun 
dred yards of the village. Before sunrise the attack was made by an 
advance in three divisions. The surprise was so complete thai the [ndians 
had no time to rally, defend, or escape. Two hundred were killed upon 
the spot; twenty of their women and children were taken prisoners. I ^ay- 
light revealed to the victors the horrible sight of more than six hundred 
scalps of both sexes and ail ages floating from the lodge-poles of the wig- 
wams. Nothing can give us a more vivid picture of the honors of an 
Indian war, or the dangers besetting the early days of the pioneers of this 
country. If the massacre of this village of surprised savages seem a cold 
and blood-thirsty deed, the discovery of these dread trophies of savage 
atrocity showed it to be but a just reprisal. All of the houses were burned, 
except three, and, it was supposed, many Indians. Upon roll-call it was 
found that seven were wounded and one killed. They then commenced 
their march for Connecticut river. It was Rogers' intention to occupy for 
a time the fort he had built in 1755, in what is now Stratford. After 
marching eight days their provisions failed upon the shore of Lake Mem- 
phremagog, and they separated into parties, the better to obtain game, 
and made for " the mouth of the Ammonoosuck" as best they might. It 
was a march for life. Twenty were killed or taken prisoners. Rogers 
took one party with him by the way of Magog lake and the Passumpsic 
river. Another party was to gain the upper Connecticut and follow down 
that stream. Other parties took independent courses. ;: Some, after 
months of weary journeying, reached the settlement, while others perished 
in the wilderness. A Toledo blade, found on Meeting House hill, Lancas- 
ter, no doubt belonged to one of the "Rangers." In the early settlement 
of the country gnus were found on the Fifteen-mile falls, and it is sup- 
posed one of the parties was overtaken by Indians here, that a tight 
ensued in which several were killed, that the whites were victorious, and 
that they put the guns of those who were killed in the river so they would 
not be found by the Indians. One historian says that many died at the 
head of the Fifteen-mile falls from exhaustion and hunger. They had in 
vain tried to appease their hunger by boiled powder-horns, bullet-pouches, 
leather-aprons, bark of trees, ground nuts and lily pads. There can be no 
doubt that some of them even ate human flesh. 

There is a tradition that relics of Rogers' " Rangers" have been found 
on the north side of the White Mountains. (See Jefferson.) The party which 
arrived at the Lower Coos found the fresh embers of the tires Left by the 
party which Gen. Amherst had sent there with provisions, which had.jusl 
a few hours before, returned to Charlestown without leaving supplies. 

* According to James W. Weeks, the old settlers of Co5s had a tradition thai most of the 
parlies, with Major Rogers, met at Fort Wentworth, and waited three days foi stragglers to come 
in, before starting down the river. 

46 History of Coos County. 

Months elapsed before the scattered men were reunited at Crown Point. 
Fifty of the gallant-band were reported lost. From this time the St. Fran- 
cis Indians were scattered in small bands, and in different localities. Their 
spirit was broken, their prestige gone. Major Rogers and his ''Rangers" 
had humbled them, and as the war had made them British subjects, " they, 
with silence and sorrow, permitted new coming whites to live among 
them," and the whole extent of the "Cowasse" was ready for English 
occupancy and settlement. 



Topography — Mt. Starr King Group — Mt. Carter Group — Mt. Washington Ratige — Cherry 
Mountain District — Mt. Willey Range— History — Mythology — First Visited— Winthrop's Account 
—Darby Field's Route up the Mountains — Josselyn's Description of Scenery — The Chrystal 
Hills — Later Visits — Western Pass, or " Notch'"— First Settlement — Scientific Visitors— Scenery 
of the Notch — Nash and Sawyer's Grant — "A Horse through the Notch " — Sawyer's Rock — 
First Articles of Commerce — Tenth New Hampshire Turnpike — Scientific Explorations — First 
Settlers Among the Mountains — Nancy's Rock and Brook — First House in the Notch — Craw- 
ford's Cabin on the Summit — Summit House — Tip-top House — Carriage Road — Glen House — 
Mt. Washington Railway — Mountain Tragedies — "Among the Clouds " — Signal Station — Sum- 
mer Hotels. 

THE White Mountains cover an area of 1,270 square miles, bounded 
by the state line on the east ; the Androscoggin river and the Grand 
Trunk Railway on the northeast and north ; the Connecticut river 
valley, or an irregular line from Northumberland to Warren, on the west ; 
the region of Baker's river on the southwest ; the Pemigewasset river and 
the lake district on the south. The Saco river cuts the White Mountains 
into two nearly equal parts. Prof. Huntington groups the mountains in 
ten sub-divisions : 1. Mt. Starr King group. 2. Mt. Carter group. 3. Mt. 
Washington range, with a Jackson branch. 4. Cherry mountain district. 
5. Mt. Willey range. 6. Mt. Carrigain and Osceola group. 7. Mt. Pas- 
saconnaway range. 8. Mts. Twin and Lafayette group. 9. Mts. Moosi- 
lauke and Profile division. 10. Mt. Pequawket area. The first five em- 
brace all really connected with this county. These mountain groups differ 
much in geological character, age, and topographical features. 

1. Mt. Starr Kin'/ < ! roup is embraced in the remote portions of the towns 
of Gorham, Randolph, Jefferson, Lancaster, Stark, Milan, Berlin, and the 

W'niTK Mountains. 

whole of Kilkenny. It is bounded by the Upper Ammonoosucand Andro- 
scoggin rivers on the north and east, by Moose and [srael's livers on the 
south, and the Connecticut slope on the west. The longest diameter of 
this group is sixteen miles ; the greatest width thirteen miles. The shape 
of the area is oval elliptical, more pointed at the north than south, and 
comprises about 150 square miles. The Upper Ammonoosuc river Hows in 
a broad valley in Randolph and Berlin, and thereby divides the group into 

two parts. The source, called the "Pond of Safety, 1 ' is nearly! feel 

above Milan water-station, and there is a depression in the ridge in the 
south towards Jefferson. Geologists state that the northern portion of the 
Starr King region was once a large plateau through which water has cut 
the numerous valleys now found. Not less than seven streams have cut 
notches into this plateau, — the three most prominent ones being from 
Berlin, Stark (Mill Brook), and Lancaster. There is a central ridge through 
Kilkenny, the Pilot mountain range, connected by a valle} 7 with Mt. Stan- 
King in Jefferson. A branch diverges from this range to Pilot mountain 
in Stark. Green's ledge and Black mountain are spurs to the east from 
the Pilot range. From Mt. Starr King to Berlin Falls runs an irregularly 
curved range, composed of Pliny, Randolph, and Crescent mountains, and 
Mt. Forest. Mts. Starr King, Pilot, and Randolph, are the culminating 
points, being in height 3,800, 3,640, and y>j"'i?> feet respectively. 

2. Mt. Carter Group lies in Shelburne, Bean's Purchase, Chatham, and 
Jackson. There is a heavy range from Gorham to Jackson, quite near the 
Peabody and Ellis valleys, while, on the east, the slope towards the Andros- 
coggin is quite gradual. Mt. Moriah is one of the most northern peaks of 
this chain. Rev. T. Starr King says " Mount Moriah should be seen from 
the bend of the Androscoggin, a little more than a mile north of the hotel 
(in Gorham). Here its charming outline is seen to the best advantage. 
Its crest is as high over the valley as Lafayette rises over the Profile House." 
Mt. Moriah and Mt. Carter are separated by Imp mountain Wild river 
occupies a broad valley in Bean's Purchase, trending northeasterly. The 
highest part of Carter range is next Peabody river. The western slope 
is much steeper than the eastern. Several tributaries How to Wild river 
from the south, from the range which runs easterly to form the entire 
western and southern edge of the Wild river basin. This range curves to 
the north, near the Maine line, where Mt. Royce stands immediately on 
the border. Some of the wildest, grandest, and most beautiful scenery of 
the White Mountains is in this district. 

3. Mt. Washington Range. — The main range of Mt. Washington extends 
from Gorham to Bartlett, about twenty-two miles. The culminating point 
is central, with a deep gulf towards Gorham, a slope on the north, formed 
partially by the westerly Mt. Deception range, which also produces the 
broad Ammonoosuc valley on the west, in connection with the axial line 

48 History of Coos County. 

of summits. There are two principal valleys on the south, the more 
westerly occupying the depression of Dry or Mt. Washington river, and 
the easterly passing down the slope of Eocky branch, which travels easterly 
near its termination, and parallel with the Saco in Bartlett. Starting with 
the Androscoggin valley, the range commences in the low Pine mountain. 
In the southeast corner of Gorham this is intersected by the pass of the 
Pinkham road between Randolph and the Glen House. Next, the land 
rises rapidly to the top of Mt. Madison, 5,400 feet. The range now curves 
westerly, passing over the summits of Adams, Jefferson, and Clay. From 
the gap between Clay and Washington the best view can be obtained 
of the deep abyss in which the west branch of Peabody river rises. From 
Washington the east rim of the Great Gulf is easily discerned, for on it 
the carriage road to the Glen House is located. From "Blue Pond," or 
" Lake of the Clouds," and the height south of Tuckerman's ravine to 
Madison, it is easy to imagine an elevated plateau out of Washington, 
which rises, say S00 feet. Tuckerman's and Huntington's ravines have 
been cut out east of Washington. Tuckerman's runs easterly, holding 
the head waters of Ellis river. Huntington's commences at the southern 
angle of the carriage road, at the fifth mile post, and runs towards the first. 
Past Mt. Washington the main range drops to the pass of the Lake of 
the Clouds, — the source of the Ammonoosuc river. The first mountain is 
Monroe, then comes Mts. Franklin, Pleasant, Clinton, Jackson, and Web- 
ster, as named. Mt. Webster is a long mountain with a steep side towards 
the Saco, and being directly opposite the Willey House, forms one of the 
chief features of the Notch. From Monroe to Webster, the east flank of 
the mountains is washed by the powerful Mt. Washington river, the proper 
continuance of the Saco valley, which formerly was called Dry river. This 
heads in Oakes's gulf, from the east side of which two ranges run south- 
erly. The western one follows the Saco to a point opposite ki Sawwer's 
rock," having, in the lower part of its course, Giant's Stairs, Mt. Resolu- 
tion, Mt. Crawford. Mt. Hope, and "Hart's ledge." The eastern one is 
not conspicuous, and not named. 

4. Cherry Mountain District. — Mt. Deception range consists of four 
peaks, — Mt. Mitten, Mt. Dartmouth, Alt. Deception, and Cherry mountain. 
It is separated by a considerable valley from Mt. Jefferson, and its gentler 
slope lies on the northern flank towards Israel's river. The road from Fa- 
byan's to Jefferson passes between Cherry and Deception. Cherry moun- 
tain lias a northerly spur of large dimensions, called Owls Head, where 
occurred the great slide of L885. 

5. Mt. Willey Range starts from near the White Mountain House in 
Carroll, and ends in Mt. Willey. Its northern terminus is low, the highest 
peak being at the southern end of the range. Six granitic summits appear 
before reaching the high summit of Mt. Tom, just back of the Crawford 

White Mountains. i:t 

House. The stream forming " Beech er's Cascade" passes between Mt. 
Tom and the next summit south, which was named Mt. Lincoln, but, as 
that name was already occupied by a peak in Franconia, was re-christened 
Mt. Field by Prof. Huntington. From Mt. Field to Mt. Willey, the high 
land is continuous, reaching an elevation of 4,300 feet. It then drops off 
abruptly, and terminates. Ethan's pond, the head of the Merrimack river 
waters, lies a little to the southwest of the precipice. The Field- Willey 
range is directly opposite Mt. Webster, and the valley between is the most 
striking part of the White Mountain notch, the head of which is formed 
by Mt. Willard, only about 550 feet above the Crawford plain. 

History. — The first mention of the White Mountains in print, occurs in 
Josselyn's "New England Rarities Discovered," printed in 1672. This 
writer, in his " Voyages," published a year or two later, gives us the best 
part of the mythology of our highest hills. The story, as Josselyn tells it, 
is curious enough; and its resemblance to one of the most venerable of 
Caucasian traditions should seem to suggest some connection of the peo- 
ple which transmitted it with the common Asiatic home of the bearded 
races. "Ask them," says Josselyn, "whither they go when they dye? 
they will tell you, pointing with their finger to Heaven beyond the White 
Mountains, and do hint at Noah's Flood, as may be conceived by a story 
they have received from father to son, time out of mind, that a great while 
agon their Countrey was drowned, and all the People and other Creatures 
in it, only one Poivaw and his Webb foreseeing the Flood fled to the White 
Mountains carrying a hare along with them and so escaped; after a while 
the Poivaw sent the Hare away, who not returning, emboldened thereby, 
they descended, and lived many years after, and had many children, from 
whom the Countrie was filled again with Indians." The Indians gave the 
mountains the name of Agiocochook. The English name of our moun- 
tains, which had its origin, perhaps, while as yet they were only known to 
adventurous mariners, following the still silent coasts of New England, 
relates them to all other high mountains, from Dhawala-Giri, the White 
Mountain of the Himmalayah to Craig Eryri of Snowdon of Wales; but 
it is interesting to find them also, in this legend, in some sort of mythical 
connection with traditions and heights of the ancient continent, the first 
knowledge of which carries us back to the very beginnings of human his- 
tory. Dr. Belknap says that Capt. Walter Neale, accompanied by Josselyn 
and Darby Field, set out, in 1632, to discover the " beautiful lakes " report 
placed in the interior, and that, in the course of their travels, they visited 
the White Mountains. Merrill, in 1817, after an examination of the 
best authorities, concludes that Walter and Robert Neal, and others, visited 
the mountains in 1631, but it is to Darby Field, of Pascataquack, that the 
credit is now generally assigned of being the first explorer of the White 
Mountains. Accompanied by two Indians, Winthrop tells us, Feld climbed 

50 History of Coos County. 

the highest summit in 1(>42. We believe with C. E. Potter that Belknap's 
account is correct, and Field's first visit was in 1682. It appears that 
' ' within twelve miles of the top was neither tree nor grass, but low savins, 
which they went upon the top of, sometimes, but a continual ascent upon 
rocks, on a ridge between two valleys filled with snow, out of which came 
two branches of Saco river, which met at the foot of the hill where was an 
Indian town of some 200 people. * * * * By the way, among 
the rocks, there were two ponds, one a blackish water, and the other a red- 
dish. The top of all was a plain about sixty feet square. On the north 
side was such a precipice, as they could scarce discern to the bottom. They 
had neither cloud nor wind on the top and moderate heat." Tins appears 
to have been in June, and a short time-af ter he went again, with five or six 
in his company, and "the report he brought of 'shining stones,' etc., 
caused divers others to travel tither, but they found nothing worth their 
pains." It is passing strange that men, reputed honest, could make such 
a wild report of regions that required no invention to make them attrac- 
tive and wonderful. Among those who expected rich treasure from these 
mountains were the proprietors, Mason and Gorges, and no discourage- 
ment could lessen their hopes. The Spaniards had found riches in the 
mountains of Mexico and Peru; why should not these New Hampshire 
mountains prove equally rich in the precious metals ? In August, of the 
same year, another party, led by Thomas Gorges, Esq., and Richard Vines, 
two magistrates of the province of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, set out on foot 
to explore "the delectable mountains." (Winthrop's History calls this 
" Darby Field's second visit.") "They went up Saco river in birch canoes 
to Pegwaggett, an Indian town. From the Indian town they went up hill, 
mostly for about thirty miles in woody lands, then about seven or eight 
miles upon shattered rocks, without tree or grass, very steep all the way. 
At the top is a plain about three or four miles over, all shattered stones. 
and upon that is another rock or spire, about a mile in height, and about 
an acre of ground at the top. At the top of the plain arise four great riv- 
ers, each of them so much water, at the first issue, as would drive a mill, 
Connecticut river from two heads, at the N. W. and S. W., which join in 
one about sixty miles off, Saco river on the S. E , Amascoggin which runs 
into Casco bay at the N. E, and Kennebeck, at the N. by E. The moun- 
tain runs E. and W. thirty miles, but the peak is above the rest." 

There can be but little doubt that Darby Field, the first explorer, enter- 
ing the valley of Ellis river, left it for the great southeastern ridge of 
Mt. Washington, the same which has since been called Boott's Spur. This 
was the " ridge between two valleys filled with snow, out of which came 
two branches of Saco river," and it led him, as probably the other party 
also, to the broadest spread of that great plain, of which the southeastern 
grassy expanse, of some forty acres, has long been known as Bigelow's 

White Mountains. :>1 

Lawn, and the "top, 1 ' to the north, where the two ponds arc, furnished 
Gorges with a part, no doubt, of the sources of his rivers. 

" Fourscore miles," says Josselyn, "(upon a direct line) to the north- 
west of Scarborow, a ridge of mountains run northwest and northeast an 
hundred leagues, known by the name of the White Mountains, upon which 
lieth snow all the year, and is a Land-mark twenty miles off at sea. It is 
rising ground from the seashore to these Hills, and they are inaccessible 
but by the Gullies which the dissolved Snow hath made, in these ( ! allies 
grow Savin bushes, which being taken hold of are a good help to the climb- 
ing discoverer; upon the top of the highest of these Mountains is a large 
Level or Plain of a day's journey over, whereon nothing grows but Moss; at 
the farther end of this Plain is another Hill called the Sugar loaf, t< > out ward 
appearance, a rude heap of massie stones piled one upon another, and you 
may, as you ascend, step from one stone to another, as if you were going 
up a pair of stairs, but winding still about the Hill till you come to the top, 
which will require half a day's time, and yet it is not above a Mile, where 
there is also a Level of about an acre of ground, with a pond of clear water 
in the midst of it; which you may hear run down, but how it ascends is 
a mystery. From this rocky Hill you may see the whole Country round 
about ; it is far above the lower Clouds, and from hence we beheld a Vapour 
(like a great Pillar) drawn up by the Sun Beams out of a great Lake or 
Pond into the air, where it was formed into a Cloud. The Country beyond 
these Hills Northward is daunting terrible, being full of rocky Hills, as 
thick as Mole-hills, in a Meadow, and cloathed with infinite thick Woods." 
Gorges and Vines' party named these mountains the " Crystal Hills," but 
their provisions failed them before the beautiful lake was reached, and 
though they w T ere within one day's journey of it, they were obliged to 
return home. Josselyn also says : "One stately mountain there is, sur- 
mounting all the rest, about four-score miles from the sea; between the 
mountains are many rich and pregnant valleys as ever eye beheld, beset 
on each side with variety of goodly trees, the grass man high, unmowed, 
uneaten, and uselessly withering, and within these valleys spacious lakes 
or ponds well stored with fish and beavers; the original of all the great 
rivers in the countrie, the snow lies upon the mountains the whole year 
excepting the month of August; the black flies are so numerous thai a man 
cannot draw his breath but he will suck of them in. Some suppose 
that the White Mountains were first raised by earthquakes, but they are 
hollow, as may be guessed by the resounding of the rain upon the level on 
the top." The pond on the top in this account, may have been due to 
extraordinary transient causes; it is not mentioned by the other visitors of 
the seventeenth century, and has not been heard of since. 

We next hear of an ascent of the White Mountains by a '" ranging 
company," which "ascended the highest mountain, on the N. W. part." 

52 History of Coos County. 

so far, as appears, the first ascent on that side, April 29, 1725, and found, 
as was to be expected, the snow deep, and the Alpine ponds frozen. Another 
ranging party, which was "in the neighborhood of the White Mountains, 
on a warm day in the month of March," in the year 17-i^, had an interest- 
ing and the first recorded experience of a force, which has left innumer- 
able proofs of its efficiency all through the mountains. It seems that this 
party was " alarmed with a repeated noise, which they supposed to be the 
firing of guns. On further search they found it to be caused by rocks fall- 
ing from the south side of a steep mountain." 

The Western Pass (Notch) of the mountains was undoubtedly known 
to the Indians, but we have no account of its use by the English, till after 
1771, when two hunters, Timothy Nash and Benjamin Sawyer, passed 
through it. It is said that Nash, in pursuit of a moose, drove it into a deep 
gorge, and expected an easy capture. The moose, however, took an old 
Indian trail, which brought it safely to the other side of the mountain. A 
road was soon after opened by the proprietors of lands in the upper Cohos, 
and another, through the Eastern Pass, was commenced in 1771. Settlers 
began now to make their way into the immediate neighborhood of the moun- 
tains. The townships of Jefferson, Shelburne (which included Gorham), 
and Adams (now Jackson), successively received inhabitants from 1773 to 
1779, and the wilderness, if as yet far enough from blossoming, was 
opened, and, to some extent, tamed. 

It was now that the first company of scientific inquirers approached the 
White hills. In July, 1784, the Eev Manasseh Cutler, of Ipswich, a zeal- 
ous member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Eev. 
Daniel Little, of Kennebunk, also a member of the Academy, and Col. 
John Whipple, of Dartmouth (now Jefferson), the most prominent inhabi- 
tant of the Cohos country, visited the mountains, "with a view to make 
particular observations on the several phenomena that might occur The 
w; iv by which Cutler ascended the mountain is indicated by the sti earn 
which bears his name in Belknap's and Bigelow's narratives, and was 
doubtless very much the same taken and described by Bigelow. President 
Dwight passed through the Notch in 1797, and a second time in 1803, and 
his beautiful description of the scenery is still valuable and correct. He 
says: "The Notch of the White Mountains is a phrase appropriated to a 
very narrow defile extending two miles in length between two huge cliffs, 
apparently rent asunder by some vast convulsion of nature. The entrance 
to the chasm is formed by two rocks, standing perpendicularly at the dis- 
tance of twenty-two feet from each other; one about twenty, the other 
about twelve feet in height. Half of the space is occupied by the brook, 
the bead stream of the Saco; the other half by the 1 road. When we entered 
the Notch we were struck with the wild and solemn appearance of every- 
thing before us. The scale, on which all objects in view were formed, was 

White Mountains. :,:; 

the scale of grandeur only. The rocks, rude and ragged in a manner hardly 
paralleled, were fashioned, and piled on each other, by a hand operating 
only in the boldest and most irregular manner. As we advanced, these 
appearances increased rapidly. Huge masses of granite of every abrupt 
form, and hoary with a moss which seemed the product of ages, recalling 
to the mind the c Saxmn vetustum 1 of Virgil, speedily rose to a mountain- 
ous height. Before us the view widened fast to the southeast. Behind us 
it closed almost instantaneously; and presented nothing to the eye but an 
impassable barrier of mountains. About half a mile from the entrance 
of the chasm, we saw in full view the most beautiful cascade, perhaps, in 
the world. It issued from a mountain on the right, about eight hundred 
feet above the subjacent valley, and at the distance of about two miles 
from us. The stream, which I shall denominate the ' Silver cascade/ ran 
over a series of rocks, almost perpendicular, with a course so little broken 
as to preserve the appearance of an uniform current, and yet so far dis- 
turbed as to be perfectly white. At the distance of three quarters of a mile 
from the entrance, we passed a brook known as the 'Flume.' The stream 
fell from a height of 240 or 250 feet over three precipices; down the first 
and second it fell in a single current, and down the third in three, which 
united their streams at the bottom in a fine basin immediately below us. 
It is impossible for a brook of this size to be modelled into more diversified, 
or more delightful, forms; or for a cascade to descend over precipices more 
happily fitted to finish its beauty. The sunbeams, penetrating through the 
trees, painted a great variety of fine images of light, and edged an equally 
numerous, and diversified, collection of shadows; both dancing on the 
waters, and alternately silvering and obscuring their course Purer water 
never was seen. Exclusively of its murmurs, the world around us was 
solemn and silent. Everything assumed the character of enchantment; 
and, had I been educated in the Grecian mythology, I should have be»'ii 
scarcely surprised to find an assemblage of Dryads, Naiads, and Oreades 
sporting on the little plain beneath our feet. As we passed onward through 
this singular valley, occasional torrents, formed by the rains and dissolv- 
ing snows, at the close of winter, had left behind them, in many places, 
perpetual monuments of their progress in perpendicular, narrow, and irreg- 
ular paths, of immense length; where they had washed the precipices 
naked and white, from the summit of the mountain to the base. Wide 
and deep chasms, also, at times met the eye, both on the summits and the 
sides; and strongly impressed the imagination with the thought, that a 
hand of immeasurable power had rent asunder the solid rocks, and tum- 
bled them into the subjacent valley. Over all, hoary cliffs rising with 
proud supremacy, frowned awfully on the world below, and finished the 

This incident connected with the re-discovery of the Notch is interesting. 

51 History of Coos County. 

On the report of its re-discovery to Governor Wentworth. he warily 
agreed to grant Nash and Sawyer a tract of land if they would bring him 
down a horse from Lancaster, through this Notch. By means of ropes they 
succeeded in getting the horse over the projecting cliff, and down the rug- 
ged pathway of the mountain torrent, and brought him to the governor. 
When they saw the horse safely lowered on the south side of the last pro- 
jection, it is said that Sawyer, draining the last drop of rum from his junk 
bottle, broke the empty flask on the rock, and named it "Sawyer's rock," 
by which name it has ever since been known. The earliest articles of com- 
merce taken through the Notch appear to have been a barrel of tobacco, 
raised at Lancaster, which was carried to Portsmouth, and a barrel of rum 
which a company in Portland offered to any one who should succeed in 
taking it through the pass. This was done by Captain Rosebrook, with 
some assistance, though it became nearly empty, "through the politeness 
of those who helped to manage the affair." The difficulty of communica- 
tion was often the occasion of serious want, and it was no rare thing to 
suffer from scarcity of provisions. 

The first person passing through the Notch to settle in the lands north- 
west was Col. Joseph Whipple, who came from Portsmouth in 1772. He 
brought tackles and ropes by which his cattle were brought over the preci- 
pices along the way. In 1803 the legislature authorized a lottery for the 
building of a turnpike through the Notch of the White Mountains, twenty 
miles in extent, at an expense of forty thousand dollars. (It was custom- 
ary in the early history of the country to raise money by lottery for the 
general welfare. Roads were built, literary institutions founded and religious 
societies aided, by such questionable means.) Tickets were issued exceed- 
ing the prizes by the sum of thirty -two thousand one hundred dollars; but, 
through the failure of agents, the loss of tickets, and the expense of man- 
agement, only fifteen hundred dollars came into the state treasury. This 
road, winding down to the west line of Bartlett through this gigantic cleft in 
the mountains, presents to the traveller "some of the most sublime and 
beautiful scenery which the sun, in his entire circuit, reveals to the curious 
eye." In July of this year, Dr. Cutler visited the mountains a second 
time, in company with Dr. W. D. Peck, afterwards Professor of Natural 
History at Cambridge, Mass. In 1816 Dr. Bigelow, Dr. Francis Boott, 
Francis C. Gray, and Chief Justice Shaw visited the mountains. In 1819 
Abel Crawford opened the footway to Mt. Washington, which follows the 
southwestern ridge from Mt. Clinton. July 31, 1820, Messrs. A. N. Brack- 
et!, J. W. Weeks, Charles J. Stuart, Esq., Gen. JohnWillson, Noyes S. 
Dennison, and S. A. Pearson, Esq., of Lancaster, with Philip Carrigain, and 
Ethan Crawford as guide, ascended the southwestern ridge by the new 
path, from the head of the Notch, and explored the summits of the whole 
range as far as Mt. Washington. They took the height of the mountains 

White Mountains. 

with a spirit-level, and were seven days in this slow, fatiguing labor. They 
must have been the first party which passed the night upon the summit. 
Benjamin D. Greene, Esq., collected the plants of the southwestern ridge 
in 1823, and the same year, Henry Little, a medical student, explored this 
part of the mountains. In 1825, William Oakes, Esq., and Dr. Charles Pick- 
ering, made, together, extensive researches of much interest. Dr. J. W. 
Bobbins explored carefully the whole range in 1829, descending into and 
crossing the Great Gulf, and traversing for the first time, so far as scien- 
tific interests were concerned, all the eastern summits. Rev. T. Stan- 
King, whose artistic appreciation and eloquent writings did so much to 
bring this region into notice, came here in 1837. In 1840, a party, includ- 
ing Dr. Charles T. Jackson, reached Mt. Washington on horseback by the 
way of the Notch. 

First Settlers. — The first settlers among the mountains came from below, 
and settled Conway in 1704, Jefferson in 1772, Franconia in 1774, Bartlett 
in 1777, Jackson in 1778, Bethlehem in 1790. In 1792 Captain Rosebrook 
established himself and home on the site of Fabyan's, and opened the 
first house for summer visitors there in 1808. Abel Crawford settled at 
Bemis in 1793. Ethan A. Crawford succeeded to the Rosebrook place in 
1817. But thirty years before any of these thought of making a home in this 
wild region, so runs the story, Thomas Crager sought among the solitudes 
of the mountain rocks, relief for a grief so intense as almost to craze him. 
His wife had been executed as a witch ; his little daughter Mary, his only 
child, had been carried into captivity, and after a long and unavailing 
search, he went up to the mountains, and lived for a long time, where the 
pure water and air of the region brought health and strength, protected 
from the evil intent of the Indians by their belief in his being the adopted 
son of the Great Spirit. After long years, he found his daughter among 
the Indians of eastern Maine, married, and living as a squaw. Many 
wild legends are told of Crager and the Indian captor of his daughter, but 
the fact of his existence and residence here is all we need record. 

Nancy's Brook and Nancy's Bridge take their name from a girl who 
perished here in 1778. Her tragic story has so often been told, that we 
only allude to it. 

The First House in the Notch was the historic Willey House. It was 
kept as a public house for some years, then abandoned, and again occupi< d 
in 1825, by Samuel Willey, Jr., who, with his wife, five children, and two 
hired men, perished in the great slide of August 28, L826. As there would 
be a dozen people desirous of visiting the mountains coming to Ethan A. 
Crawford's hostelry, in 1821 he most effectively advertised it. by cutting a 
path, which shortened the distance, and made it easy to go up the moun- 
tain. Soon after this, increased travel brought a demand for some place 
jon the summit where visitors could pass the night, and Ethan constructed 

56 History of Coos County. 

a stone cabin, near the large spring of water, and furnished it, first with 
a large supply of soft moss for beds ; and afterwards with a small stove, 
an iron chest to hold the blankets, and a long roll of sheet lead, as a reg- 
ister of names of visitors. 

The first hotel on Mt. Washington was the old Summit House, built in 
1852, by L. M. Eosebrook, N. R. Perkins, and J. S. Hall. The Tip Top 
House was built in 1853, by John H. Spaulding and others. He was part 
owner of that and the Summit House, and conducted them for several 
years. The present Summit House was built in 1872. The old Summit 
House was torn down in the spring of 1881, to give place to a new build- 
ing, used as lodging rooms for the employees of the hotel. 

The first winter ascent of Mt. Washington was made by Lucius Harts- 
horne, a deputy sheriff of Coos county, and B. F. Osgood, of Gorham, De- 
cember 7, 1858. John H. Spaulding, Franklin White, and C. C. Brooks, 
of Lancaster, made the ascent February 19, 1862, and were the first to 
spend the night on the mountain in winter. 

The carriage road from the Glen House to the summit of Mt. Wash- 
ington was begun in 1853, under the management of D. 0. Macomber, C. 
H. V. Cavis being surveyor. The first four miles were finished the next 
year. Financial troubles stopped the work for a time, but the road was 
finally opened August 8, 1861. It is eight miles long, and has an average 
grade of twelve feet in 100. The ascent is made by stages in four hours, 
and the descent in an hour and a half. 

George W. Lane drove the first Concord coach that ever ascended Mt. 
Washington over this road, August 8, 1861. 

The Glen House in Pinkham Notch, at the eastern base of Mt. Wash- 
ington, is fifteen miles north of Glen station, near North Conway, eight 
miles south of Gorham, on the Grand Trunk railway, and has a full and 
unobstructed view of the highest peaks of the Mt. Washington range. Mt. 
Washington is ascended from the Glen by the carriage road, eight miles 
long. Glen Ellis Falls, and Crystal Cascade, near the Glen, are two of the 
finest water-falls in the mountain. Tuckerman's Ravine is most easily 
reached from the Glen House. 

Pinkham Notch takes its name from Daniel Pinkham, an early resident 
of Jackson. In 1821 he commenced a road through the wilderness 
between two ranges of the White Mountains ; this road was about twelve 
miles in length, and connected Jackson with Randolph, and in two years 
time it was completed. The Notch is situated at the Glen Ellis Falls, and 
the mountains here are only a quarter of a mile apart. 

The Mt. Washington railway was projected by Sylvester Marsh. The 
building of the road was begun in 1866, and finished in 186U. 

The ascent is made by the railway from the west side, and the carriage 
road from the east. The railroad is three miles long, and has an average 

White Mountains. 57 

rise of one foot in four, the steepest being thirteen and one-half inches to the 
yard. The grade is overcome by means of cog-wheels working in a cog- 
rail in the center of the track, and powerful brakes on engines and cars 
insure safety. No passenger has been injured since the road was opened. 
The running time is one and one-half hours, and only one car is run with 
each engine. 

Mountain Tragedies.— The destruction of the Willey family by a land 
slide in the White Mountain Notch, occurred August 28, 1826. Frederick 
Strickland, an Englishman, perished in the Ammonoosuc Eavine, in Oc- 
tober, 1851. Miss Lizzie Bourne, of Kennebunk, Me., perished on the 
Glen bridle-path, near the Summit, on the night of September 14, 1855. 
Dr. B. L. Ball, of Boston, was lost on Mt. Washington, in October, 1855, 
in a siiow storm, but rescued after two days' and nights' exposure, with- 
out food or sleep. Benjamin Chandler, of Delaware, perished near 
Chandler's Peak, half a mile from the top of Mt. Washington, August 7, 
1856, in a storm, and his remains were not discovered for nearly a 
year. Harry W. Hunter, of Pittsburg, Pa., perished on the Crawford 
bridle-path, September 3, 187-1, a mile from the Summit. His remains 
were found nearly six years later, July 14, 1880. On the north side of 
Cherry mountain occurred the noted landslide of July 10, 1885. This was 
the largest slide ever known in the mountains. Donald Walker was the 
only one who lost his life. July 24, 1886, the great snow arch in Tucker- 
man's Eavine, near Mt. Washington, X. H., fell, and instantly killed 
Sewall Faunce, the fifteen-year-old son of Mr. Faunce, of the law firm of 
Faunce & Wiggin, School street, Boston. 

The first number of Among the Clouds, the first daily newspaper pub- 
lished in the W 7 hite Mountains, and the only one printed on any mountain 
in the world, was issued July 18, 1S77, by Henry M. Burt, of Springfield, 
Mass. The paper records much that pertains to the exploration of the 
W 7 hite Hills, and the development of its unexplored resources. Almost 
every week something worth preserving about the mountains is printed 
in its columns. It is indispensable to the enjoyment of those who 
reside for the season among the mountains. When the season is fairly 
open, Mr. Burt receives, by telegraph, the full list of the daily arrivals at 
the principal hotels in the mountains, and publishes it in the following- 
issue. Two editions are published daily, one at 1 p. m., and and one at .'• 
a. m., each summer, from July to the close of the season. The afternoon 
edition contains the names of the arrivals on the morning train from Faby- 
an's, and on the stages from the (lien House. The publication office is 
the old Tip Top House, nicely fitted up, and equipped with a steam engine 
and Hoe cylinder press. 

The signal station at the Summit was established in 1870. Prof. J. H. 
Huntington, of the State Geological Survey, was at the head of the party 

58 History of Coos County. 

that spent the first winter here. The building now occupied by the ob- 
servers was erected in 187*3. 

For descriptions of Fabyan House, Crawford House, White Mountain 
House, and Twin Mountain House, see Carroll. 

The Mt. Washington Summit House, with nearly one hundred sleep- 
ing rooms, is a commodious and comfortable hotel, under the manage- 
ment of Col. Oscar G. Barron. 



Trees — Shrubs — Grass 3S — Introduced Plants — Alpine Plants. 

THE vegetation of Coos county contrasts strongly with that of the 
southern counties of the state. The somber colors of the Canadian 
evergreens largely take the places of the light foliage of the deciduous 
trees, and the Canadian flora occupies almost wholly the entire county to 
the exclusion of the more southern or Alleghanian division. 

Trees. — " Our arbor vitas is," says Prof. Gray, "the physiognomic tree 
of our cold swamps at the north and in Canada.'" It is generally incor- 
rectly called " white cedar," and enters as a prominent element into the flora 
of Coos county, growing most abundantly along the borders of slow 
streams and in swamps, and varying from thirty to fifty feet in height. 
White spruce grows extensively in the region of Connecticut lake, but is 
rarely found below Colebrook. The balsam fir and black spruce, growing 
together in about equal numbers, give to the scenery of the White Moun- 
tains one of its peculiar features. " The stiff, spiked forms of the one are 
mingled with the blackish-green foliage of the other almost universally 
along the mountain sides, and are the last of the arborescent vegetation 
to yeld to the increased cold and fierce winds of the higher summits." North 
of the mountains, they, with arbor-vitas, are the predominant evergreens. 
The hemlock, so graceful when young, has its northern limit in the neigh- 
borhood of Colebrook and Umbagog lake. The American larch (hack- 
matack or tamarack) is chiefly found in small swamps. When the county 
was first known to civilization, the Connecticut valley was filled with a 
stately growth of the highly prized white pine, many of them fit for the 
"broad arrow " mark of the British Crown as mast trees sacred to the 

Plants. 59 

King's service. Now a few specimens, occuring mostly at the head waters 
of the streams, are all that remain of the original profusion. Second growths 
of this tree here are of rare occurrence, even when the cleared land is 
allowed to return to forest. The Canadian yew, or " ground hemlock. ** is 
present in the swamps, while the savin and juniper occupy higher ground. 
The red maple gives the brilliant scarlet color to our autumnal scenery. 
The rock, or sugar maple, is the largest of the maples and is an important 
economic factor, producing as it does maple sirup and sugar, and much 
valuable timber. The beech and the sugar maple are the most common of 
the deciduous trees of this county, making up most of the "hard-wood " for- 
ests. The black, yellow, and canoe birches are common, the latter being- 
conspicuous, high on the sides of the mountains, its white bark showing in 
striking contrast with the dark trunks and foliage of the firs and spruce. 
Dalton, Berlin, Gorham and Shelburne are in the red oak zone. The 
American elm is native to the alluvial soil of the larger rivers, and, owing 
to its majestic appearance, wherever it is found it is very prominent. The 
black poplar grows quite large, has dark colored bark on the trunk, and is 
much used in making "wood-pulp." A small variety of poplar, which 
sometimes springs up in great abundance in cleared land, never attains 
large growth. 

Shrubs.— The mountain ash clings to the mountain sides and streams, 
and its red berries hang brilliant in autumn. Blackberries and raspberries 
are present, the red raspberry being one of the most numerous plants of 
the county. The blueberry genus is well represented by the Canadian and 
dwarf blue-berry, the cowberry, and the swamp cranberry. In the swamps 
we often find the Canadian holly and winter berry, while on the poorer soil 
of the hills the sumach matures. The alder, willow, witch hazel, high bush 
cranberry, Labrador tea, common and red-berried elder, moose wood. 
American yew, with currants and gooseberries are found in the localities 
for which nature has fitted them. 

The shrubs grow smaller and smaller as the mountains are ascended. 
The mountain aster and golden rod, the white orchis, the white hellebore, 
the wood-sorrel, and Solomon's seal ascend into the black growth, while 
the clintonia, bunch berry, bluets, creeping snowberry, purple trilliums 
keep them company and cease to grow at the same altitude. 

Grasses. — "Blue joint" (Calarnogrosti</ Canadensis), is the principal 
native grass, and grows luxuriantly. " Herd's grass " (P. Pratensis), not 
indigenous, grows in the lumber roads throughout the county as an intro- 
duced plant, and can be traced along the carriage mid on Mt. Washington 
far above the limit of trees. 

Introduced Plants. — The white willow of Europe, which brought to 
some place in the Connecticut valley as a shade tree, has extended itself 
along the river, and is as much at home in Stewartstown and Pittsburg as 

60 History of Coos County. 

by the borders of European streams. The Canadian plum is much culti- 
vated, and grows frequently where man has never planted it. The hemp- 
nettle has come in some way from the Merrimack valley through Fran- 
conia Notch and made itself at home from Whitefield to the clearings 
around Connecticut lake. The garden wormwood finds in the slaty con- 
stituents of the soil of Pittsburg the needed elements for its life and flour- 
ishes in the open air without cultivation. 

Alpine Plants. — An Alpine or Arctic vegetation is found on the treeless 
region of the upper heights of Mt. Washington and adjacent peaks, where 
alone are found the conditions favorable to their growth. They are of great 
hardihood and sometimes bloom amid ice and snow. This region which 
they occupy is a windswept tract above the growth of trees and about 
eight miles long by two miles wide. About fifty species are strictly Alpine 
and found nowhere else in the state. About fifty other species accompany 
them, and are also found at the base of the mountains and other parts of 
the state. These are called " sub- Alpines," and occupy the ravines and lower 
parts of the treeless region, but not the upper summits. In ascending the 
mountains, the firs and spruces become more and more dwarfish, at last 
rising but a few feet, while the branches spread out horizontally many feet, 
and become thickly interwoven. They present an almost even upper sur- 
face, strong enough to walk upon. At last these disappear giving place 
to the dwarf birch, Alpine willows, Labrador tea, and Lapland rhododen- 
dron, which spread out over the nearest rocks after rising a few inches 
above the ground, thus gaining the warmth which enables them to live in 
spite of cold and storm. On the top of the summits these are succeeded by 
the Greenland sandwort, cassiope, the diapensia, azalia, Alpine bearberry, 
with Arctic rushes, lichens and sedges. 




Beaver — Dams — Moose — Description, Food, Etc. — Deer, Caribou, Etc. — Horns — Bear — 
Wolverine — Lynx — Otter — Fisher — Sable — Raccoon — Grey Squirrel — Wild Geese and Ducks 
— Ruffed Grouse or Partridge — Canada Grouse or Spruce Partridge — Wild Pigeons. 

EAVER.— It does not appear that the Indians ever cultivated the lands 
or wintered on the Connecticut farther north than Haverhill, conse- 
quently the wild animals were not so constantly beset by them in 
early times as they were farther south, or on the St. Lawrence. An old 

Game of Coos County. 61 

writer says above the mountains was a "paradise for hunters." The 
beaver inhabited this region in immense numbers. This animal, with 
instinct almost human, was in shape, except the tail, like the muskrat, 
but weighing twenty or twenty-five pounds. The tail, six or eight inches 
long, covered with thick scales, was very strong, broad at the extremity, 
and some three inches wide. It not only assisted the animal in swimming 
but in sitting at his work. The beaver's tail and nose of the moose were 
considered the greatest of delicacies, each being cooked in the same way 
wrapped in bark or leaves, and buried in the embers of the camp-fire till 
thoroughly roasted, when the skin was pulled off, and the feast commenced. 
It is said that the Indians cooked the whole beaver in this manner, thus 
losing the skin. The beaver was substantially exterminated prior to the 
settlement of Lancaster. 

With regard to the beaver marks in this section, Major Weeks said 
there were dams on Martin's meadow " fifty rods long and five feet high *' 
in his day. Their meadows were found in every brook ; and their canals 
were cut from every pond surrounded by bogs, to the highlands. In a 
pond of a few acres in the north part of Whitefield, a canal was cut 
through the bog back to the high ground. This was as straight and true 
as if done by a spade and line. It was twenty inches or two feet wide, 
and so deep that in winter the beavers could pass to and from the pond 
under the ice. Their home was on this canal from which they reached the 
high ground, entering so deep down as to be below the frost. These canals 
served a double purpose ; they were the means of reaching the deciduous 
trees, the bark of which served them for food, and as a concealment from 
their enemies. These pond-beavers had holes along their canals, below 
the frost, that extended long distances and struck high land, where they 
dug up to where it was dry, and made their homes. From these burrows 
they could reach the pond and feed upon the roots of the cow lily, which 
was a favorite food of the beaver as well as the moose. East of Lancaster 
are two beaver meadows, containing a hundred acres or more, the upper 
one, of thirty or forty acres, at the junction of two considerable streams, 
has canals cut through it in various directions, some of them ;~lill eighteen 
inches deep, and the banks of earth thrown up along the sides in some 
places over two feet high These canals, unlike those cut from the natural 
ponds, were for the purpose of passing from place to place under the ice, 
and for storing their food, which consisted, in those artificial ponds, mostly 
of the bark of deciduous trees which grew along the banks, and werecul 
into pieces eighteen or twenty inches long, and sunk in the bottom of the 
canal. At the extreme upper end of this pond, on the main branch, is a 
mound about sixteen feet over and live feet high, with a deep trench 
extending nearly around it, and a canal running directly from it across the 
meadow to the opposite brook. This canal is more than twenty-five rods 
long, and the mound was evidently their house. 

62 History of Coos County. 

I have never but once seen where the beaver were at work. This was 
in the fall of 1844, in the forest in the northern part of the state, on Perry's 
stream. There was a new formed dam spanning the stream, which was 
fifteen or twenty feet wide at the place. This dam was three feet or more 
high, composed of brush at first, with the tops down stream, then filled in 
with stones, sticks, mud, and other material. It was considerably arched, 
so that the pressure of the current on its center crowded the ends against 
the banks and strengthened the structure. Near by was a white or river 
maple, three to four inches through, cut down, and several pieces cut from 
it eighteen or twenty inches long, and others partly cut. How such a mass 
of sticks, stones, gravel, and mud, as composed this dam were ever con- 
veyed there, is a mystery to me. When a boy, I often saw beaver cuttings 
about the ponds, once lagoons, but they were always old and seemed to be 
done by wandering animals ; a tree would be cut down and left Avhere it 
fell. The beaver, in felling a tree, cuts around it, cutting above and below, 
and tearing, or splitting out the chips, leaving the stump in the shape of 
a cone, tapering to a point at an angle of about forty-five degrees. 

The Moose was not destroyed before the settlement of this northern 
country. The hunters killed them only to supply themselves with food 
when they were unsuccessful in trapping the beaver. The large extent of 
fertile soil, with its numerous streams and ponds, made this a favorite 
resort for all game that roamed a northern forest, more particularly of that 
strange and uncouth animal, the moose. He seems to have come down 
from a former period of time. No naturalist with whose writings I am 
acquainted, has given an adequate description of the habits and peculiar 
characteristics of this creature. Judge Caton, who has written a most 
exhaustive work on the " Deer of America," treats him as a herbivorous 
animal like the common deer, when his habits are much different from the 
caribou or reindeer. His long forelegs and short neck preclude his feeding 
from the ground without bending them or getting on his knees ; the long 
prehensile nose serving the purpose of the elephant's trunk, dropping three 
inches or more over the mouth, which is wholly out of sight as you stand 
beside or in front of him, with nostrils capable of being distended to an 
enormous size, or of being entirely closed, yet constantly vibrating, and 
usually narrowed to the merest slit when the creature is at rest. The little 
deep, and villainous looking eye, with its false, transparent lid, at one time 
half covering the sight, and then withdrawn, like that seen in aquatic 
animals or birds, show that the moose is not a grazing animal like the deer, 
and not destined to subsist on the common herbage of the forest. 

I suppose the moose in the summer season feeds largely upon the twigs 
and branches of deciduous trees; but their favorite food is aquatic plants 
and roots Hunters, who have seen him eating, have told me that he 
would wade in the mud and water up to about midside, and put his head 

Game of Coos County. 63 

below the surface, feel around, and, when he got hold of the righl root, 
would pull it up, shake it in the water, and munch it as il floated around 
him. His flexible nose was very useful to foci and bring up the favorite 
roots, and the power to perfectly dose his nostrils togel her with the trans- 
parent lid protecting his eyes, left those organs in perfect condition to per- 
form their offices when the head was raised above the surface. 

Perhaps it may not be amiss to say something of the root of the cow- 
lily, which formed so important an article of food for the moose. Most 
people have seen the pads and large yellow blossoms. The roots of the lily 
are nearly the size of a man's arm, and lie horizontally a few inches below 
1 1 ie si i rface of the mud, forming a net- work so strong that a man may walk 
upon them. From appearance they last for ages, each season sending out 
feederroots, leaves, and flower stalks, that fall away at the commencement 
of cold weather. These roots are quite porous, are as easily cut as a potato >, 
and have a pungent but not unpleasant smell. The winter food of the 
moose was principally the bark of the mountain ash (which grows very 
large and in great abundance upon the mountains), although I have been 
told that at times they used the bark of the white maple. The moose 
strikes his teeth into the bark like a set of gouges, cuts diagonally across 
the wood, and upward, and gathers the bark into his mouth, as it falls, 
with his long, pliable, upper lip I never saw where the bark was taken 
from a tree nearer than two feet of the ground, but have seen them peeled 
as high as eight or nine feet. 

T have never hunted the moose, but business has led me into his imme- 
diate neighborhood, where for days I would not be out of sight of his 
marks on his feeding grounds. At one time I had the good fortune to be 
able to study a tame one. This was a fine animal, about two years old, 
not quite as large as a colt of the same age. It was perfectly gentle and 
enjoyed being petted as much as a colt. 

The moose were not wantonly destroyed by the respectable inhabitants 
of the country, as they considered them as a never-ending supply of meat. 
but by the vagabonds who always infest a new settlement. Some idea of 
the vast numbers of these animals may be gained from the fact (as stated 
by Edward Spaulding and Major John W. Weeks) that Nathan Caswell 
took it into his head to kill a hundred moose on the crusl in one winter, 
and actually did kill ninety-nine, and *Spanlding said he chased the hun- 
dredth one into the Burnside meadow, in Fast Lancaster, and lost him. 
Caswell lived on the noses and other nice bits, and only saved a part of the 
skins. He did this upon the same principle that wolves kill sheep for mere 
wickedness. It is said that the inhabitants were so incensed at this that 
they refused him shelter in their houses and drove him from the settle- 
ment. [This Caswell was not Capt, Nathan Caswell, the first settler and 
prominent citizen of Littleton, but probably was his son. a man of roving 

64 History of Coos County. 

habits.] Other persons probably killed as many more, bat they increased 
rapidly, and I have heard James B. Weeks say, that in 1808 or 1810, 
"there came a very deep snow, and, in March, a sharp crust, so that 
there were killed in Lancaster and surrounding towns as many as ninety 
moose, mostly wantonly. 1 ' The few that survived this devastation moved 
to safer quarters. 

Among the early settlers of Lancaster who occasionally hunted the 
moose were Stanley, Bucknam, and Blake. The two latter were remark- 
able for their deadly aim with the long smooth-bore. Stanley was also 
noted for the accuracy of his shots. At one time he killed four moose in 
Cherry pond by making five shots in quick succession, and bringing down 
four of the animals. Stanley owned and lived on what was later called 
the Bellows place, and afterwards owned by Capt. Beattie. Bucknam 
resided near the brick school-house in Lancaster, and Blake, near the 
mouth of John's river. 

I should not do justice to this subject if I did not speak of the manner 
in which the hunters brought in their meat when they killed it at a dis- 
tance from home. Whether the toboggan is a modern invention or not I 
will leave for others to decide. The hunter kills a moose, takes off the 
skin, spreads it out, strips the flesh from the bones, and wraps it in the 
skin, which lies full length, and of equal widths (perhaps a foot and a half 
wide), binds it up with thongs cut from the edge of the skin, being sure 
that the thongs as they go round the pack are beneath the hair, and turns 
up the neck in the shape of the dasher to the toboggan. To this he fast- 
ens a withe, and lets the whole freeze, if it will. The slightest crust will 
bear this toboggan, and no sled ever ran smoother. 

Deer. Caribou, Etc. — When the Creator formed the animals to inhabit 
the earth, lie made them to serve certain purposes in the courses of nature, 
one to fill this place, another that, but, at last, when he wanted a thing of 
beauty, he made the American deer, and he must have been well pleased 
with the work of his hands. 

Very few deer ever found their way north of the White Mountains till 
the moose were substantially exterminated. In conversation, many years 
ago, with Edward Spaulding and James B. Weeks upon this subject, Mr. 
Spaulding, who came to the country in 1767. said, when he was a boy, a 
deer used to come and feed with his father's cattle in Northumberland, and 
aftera time his father killed it. Mr. Weeks said that in 1810 there weresome 
deer about Cherry pond, and two or three were killed on the crust by Lan- 
caster men. They must have been considered extremely rare at that time 
or men would not have gone eight miles through an unbroken forest to 
hunt them. 

About 1818 oi- 1820 a deer was seen in the road near Prospect Farm. The 
boy who saw it described the animal and there was much questioning as 

Game of Coos County. 65 

to what it was. From this time their increase in Lancaster and vicinity 
was very rapid. They were seen about the ponds and streams, in the fields, 
and their marks were in the forest. The inhabitants did not know how to 
hunt them, and the deer were unmolested for a long time. A few were 
killed on the crust, but their meat was worthless at that season, and pub- 
lic opinion was against the killing of them for mere sport. After a time 
the people learned to still-hunt and trap them in the fall, and their meat 
and skins was quite a source of profit. The section with which I was best 
acquainted was South Lancaster, Dalton and Whitefield. It was said that 
Samuel Barker, of Dalton, killed forty with his rifle one fall, most of them 
he sent to market. A farmer who lived on the farm now owned by George 
P. Rowell killed fifteen one season, within a mile from home. In some 
well-to-do families venison was the most common fresh meat. 

The reason for the great number of deer in the locality spoken of was 
probably the fact that they were not chased by hounds, for if one pursued 
a deer into that region he was killed. They were chased in Vermont and 
at Littleton, It will be noticed when the deer were so numerous, Lancas- 
ter was well occupied by farms, and the towns south well dotted with set- 
tlements. The deer, during the summer and fall, lived largely about the 
clearings, feeding on the tender herbage that sprung up after the running 
of the fires, or in the fields of the settlers. Whatever was palatable to a 
sheep was agreeable to the deer. Growing grain, wheat or oats did not 
come amiss; peas, potatoes, turnips, apples, and anything that a sheep 
would eat, the deer craved, and, in some instances, they were more than 
half domesticated. I will give an example: Since 1850, they would in the 
spring of the year be often seen on my meadow, a mile east of the village, 
as many as four at a time, but would generally disappear after the herbage 
was well started, but there was a doe that remained three years in succes- 
sion and raised a pair of fawns, which she kept hid in the small piece of 
woods west of the river, directly below E. F. Connor's. In August the 
fawns, then fine little animals, would appear with the mother. Of the 
last pair she raised there, one was perfectly white, except its nose and the 
back of its ears, which were tinged with red. The next March, 1854, some 
hunters from Manchester, hearing of these deer, came up with their hunt- 
ing shirts, their hounds, snow-shoes, long-range rifles, and all the parapher- 
nalia of city sportsmen to hunt the deer we did not know what to do with. 
They made their headquarters at the American House, and the next morn- 
ing, after fortifying their inner man (gentleman, I mean,) and raising their 
courage to a pitch necessary to so great and hazardous an undertaking, 
they went up and put their dogs after those inoffensive and helpless animals. 
They drove the white one up across the meadow and caught it by the side of 
the road a little west of where John Jerome now lives; they took it down to 
the American House in great state, and thence to Manchester. Whether 


6Q History of Coos County. 

the people of Manchester turned out en masse to welcome the gentlemen 
back after so hazardous an enterprise I never learned. What became of 
the other two deer I do not know, but they never returned to that neigh- 
borhood. It will be inferred from what I have written that if the deer 
could be protected from being chased by dogs in summer, and from brutal 
men killing them on the crust in the winter, hundreds of these beautiful 
and useful animals might inhabit every township of northern New Hamp- 

The deer, as mentioned before, made its appearance in Coos about 1818 
or 1820, and its increase was very rapid. About 1830, when there were the 
greatest number here, the wolves came among us, and were terribly 
destructive both to sheep and deer, and the farmers soon came to the con- 
clusion that the deer were the cause of the wolves 1 appearance, and they 
gradually withdrew their protection, and many persons killed twenty or 
more in the spring, wantonly as ever dogs or wolves killed sheep. Their 
numbers of course diminished, but in some localities they were numerous 
till after 1850. About that time, in the fall, after the snow was on the 
ground, I saw thirteen paraded on the porch of the old Cushman tavern 
in Dalton, taken with hounds by a party from Massachusetts, with Tom 
Jerrold, of Littleton, as guide. The deer, however, remained in consider- 
able numbers long after the wolves left. 

I am thoroughly acquainted with the deer in all its habits and pecul- 
iarities of life. Of the fawn I would say it is the most beautiful little ani- 
nal that can be imagined. It is a little larger than the common lamb, 
with a pale red coat, like that of the doe in summer, ornamented with two 
rows of white spots on each side, the whole length of its body. Its grace- 
ful motion, its perfect limbs and its innocent and inquiring face, make it a 
most interesting creature. I never saw a fawn abroad with the doe while 
wearing its first or summer coat; they are hid by the mother while young 
and do not follow her till August. While the deer were plenty it was not 
an uncommon thing to find the fawns where the mother had left them 
when they could be easily captured. I have killed a large number of deer. 
but never was so mean or so unfortunate as to kill a doe while she was 
rearing her fawns in summer, but I saw one that was killed in the latter 
part of June, the udder of which indicated that she gave more milk in pro- 
portion to her size than a cow. The quantity a doe usually gives must be 
very great, as the fawns, wdien they begin to go out with her, are about 
half her size. The doe and her fawns remain together the first winter, but 
not after. Old bucks are seldom seen with the does or smaller deer. They 
remain exceedingly quiet while their horns are growing, and often become 
very fat. but after their horns harden, they feed little and range almost 
continually, soon becoming thin, and their venison is not good. 

Of the caribou I know little, having never seen a live one, and never to- 

Game of Coos County. 67 

my recollection heard them spoken of by the early settlers, but it appears 
that, some sixty or seventy years ago, a herd came down from the north- 
east, and spread over the northern Androscoggin country, but did not come 
as far west as the Connecticut. I have never seen any of their natural 
feeding grounds, on any of the Connecticut waters southwest of Second 
and Third lakes. I have seen some very fine specimens of heads and horns 
taken in the extreme northeastern part of New Hampshire and Maine. 

Horns. — The horns of the moose, deer, and caribou are strongly related 
to each other. I have noticed the horn of the deer, in all its stages, from 
the time it commences rising from the head till it dies and falls off in early 
winter. I will describe one taken from a buck of very large size. It was 
about eight inches long and an inch and a half in diameter at the base, 
where it was hard, and had taken its normal shape. About two and a 
half inches from the head the first prong was sent out, and was perfectly 
shaped and hard. From this point to the end the horn varied in density. 
until, at the extremity, it was a mere pulp, with a very small amount of 
bony substance. The second or largest prong had just begun to be formed. 
Across the end it was somewhat flattened, more than two and a half 
inches wide, and as thick as the horn would be when matured. When 
dried, the end shrunk and shriveled like some soft vegetable, and, when cut 
after drying, was nearly as porous as a sponge. 

The horns of all these animals are, doubtless, extremely sensitive, for 
the bucks that wear them are seldom seen while they are growing, nor 
until well hardened. We seldom see horns that are damaged during 
growth, still I have noticed them broken down and healed. I have also 
seen where a knot had been broken off in a horn, and afterwards covered 
by a new growth. The skin, or velvet, on the horn of the live animal 
seems as tough as the skin on the other parts. I have seen large horns 
with the ends of all the main prongs pulpy. On the final hardening of the 
bony substance the skin dies and is rubbed off. 

Some naturalists try to classify animals of the deer kind by their horns, 
and determine their ages by the number of prongs on each; but the excep- 
tions to this rule are many and marked. Edward Spaulding. who lived in 
Lancaster when the moose were in their glory, told of one with horns a 
foot wide and seventeen prongs on each. In the fall of 1848, on the head 
waters of Hall's stream, I saw the bones of a moose of the largest size, that 
had died when the horns were in the velvet. The carcass had been torn 
and the horns much eaten bv the bears. These horns were about two and 


a half feet long, shaped likeapalm almost from the head, and ten or eleven 
inches wide in the widest place. The next February (1849) John H. 

Spaulding went into that immediate vicinity and killed a bull n se, one 

of the horns of which I have examined. The shaft was t wenty-one inches 
long and rounded almost as perfectly as that of the deer. It was broken 

6S History of Coos County. 

off and rounded. About nine inches from the head was a well-rounded 
and sharp prong eight inches long. At thirteen inches was another prong, 
broken off when soft, leaving about four inches, and still another nearer 
the end three inches long and very sharp. Judge Caton concludes that the 
American moose is a separate animal from the Scandinavian elk. because 
his horns are more pal mated; this moose had horns precisely like the animal 
represented in Judge Caton's work. The time of moulting, or shedding 
the horns, by the deer, moose, and caribou, depends much on circumstances. 
I have known a buck to shed his horns in November, and 1 have heard of 
one that wore a large pair of white horns in the spring. The moose seldom 
carries his antlers so late as the one killed by Mr. Spaulding. 

I have horns of the deer of the normal shape: Shaft seventeen inches 
long, spread at points eleven inches, three prongs on each, aside from main 
shaft, rounded, and very sharp. I think I have seen four prongs on a 
single horn, but no more. I have another pair of horns, with the head, 
taken from one of the largest bucks I ever saw. These are about an inch 
and a half in diameter at the base, and nineteen inches in length. About 
four inches from the head is a very sharp prong on each, one about three, 
the other about two inches long. On the left horn is a small prong about 
one inch long, five inches from the end of the main shaft, very sharp. 
These horns are flattened to an edge on the upper side, and about two inches 
wide in the widest place. The shaft is otherwise of the usual shape and 
handsomely turned. I once killed a buck not one-third the size of the one 
above mentioned, having well- developed horns with three or four sharp 
prongs on each. I have seen a deer above the common size with only 
spike horns, six inches long, nearly as sharp as the tines of a pitchfork. 

The Bear. -The bear was one of the original proprietors of the soil of 
this northern country, and still holds his own against all odds. The vaga- 
bond hunters had much rather expend their superfluous courage on deer 
and kindred animals than on such ''rough things" as bears. I would say 
of "bruin" that I have known him from the little, crawling, blind cub, 
not larger than a large rat, brought forth in February or the first of 
March, to the old " sheep -killer " weighing four or five hundred pounds. 
Each she bear produces two and sometimes three cubs, which in their 
earliest stages are the most insignificant little things imaginable. They 
fasten at once upon the mother, and for about two months draw their sus- 
tenance from her without her partaking of any food; consequently she 
comes oat of her den the last of April, or the first of May, extremely thin, 
while the cubs are as large as woodchucks. These cubs follow the mother 
the first season until it is time to den up in the fall, when they are driven 
off and den together, and, if they survive, remain near each other the fol- 
lowing season. If all the cubs and young bears lived, bears would be so 
numerous that the country would be overrun with them, but I think many 


perish during their first winter, and many more in the spring, when they 
first come out. I have known of several instances where they have been 
found in a tarnished condition and almost helpless. They arc, when a year 
old, not much larger than a collie dog, but they grow very rapidly after 
vegetation starts. No animal fights for her young with more goodwill 
than the bear, and woe to the man, boy, or dog, that interferes with her 
cubs. I do not know of any wild animals of the same species where there 
is such a diversity of size and appearance as in the black bear ; those of the 
largest size being truly formidable animals, and often a terror to neighbor- 
hoods. The ordinary bear lives mostly on roots, green herbs and berries, 
seldom killing sheep or doing other mischief, and if let alone is as harmless 
as fawns. In the early settlement of Lancaster there was one who con- 
cluded to live on the inhabitants, and if he could not find what he liked in 
the pastures or fields would tear off boards from the barns and walk in and 
help himself to sheep or calves as best suited him. He continued his 
depredations for a long time and was shot at often but to no effect. At 
last, Isaac Darby trapped and killed him. He was of monstrous size. I 
have had a strong passion for hunting the bear, and of some fifteen, that 
I have killed in the last twenty or thirty years, only one has been of the 
largest size of those old "sheep killers." This animal (I think in 1854) killed 
not less than fifty sheep and many young cattle during the summer and 
fall. The spring following he returned to the scene of his former depre- 
dations before the stock was out to pasture, and I was requested to try my 
skill on him, as all others had failed. He made it his home in the swamp 
east of where Capt. Beattie now lives. On our way up to set some traps, 
we met a noted hunter, and he told us in great excitement that he had 
seen him, and ''he didn't care a thing about me. He was as big as a cow. 
I cracked a cap on him, but my gun wouldn't go " He did not seem inclined 
to go back with us, and "crack another cap," or to majjfe the distance one 
foot less between him and "bruin." We trapped the bear one Saturday 
night, about the 1st of May. The next day, the churches were thinly 
attended, and, after a chase of several miles, " bruin " was killed. He was 
as fat as a well fatted hog. I had no means of ascertaining bis weight, 
but a friend of mine took these measurements: From his tail to bis nose, 
six feet two inches; lying upon his back, his fore legs by bis side, and bis 
hind legs stretched out like those of a man, he measured eight feet from 
the end of his toes to his nose; he was twenty-two inches across his breast ; 
his "arms" were twenty-one inches round near the body, and apparently 
as hard as a piece of beech- wood; across the ball of his fore foot was rive and 
three fourths inches; his longest nail was three inches outside the bend. His 
skin made a good sized sleigh robe without tanning. 

The bear is stealthy, and never approaches bis victim in a direct line, bul 
in zigzag courses, as if he would pass by his prey, till sufficiently near, when 

TO History of Coos County. 

he darts upon it with lightning speed, and at once proceeds to eat his game 
alive. He will eat decayed flesh only when reduced to great extremity by 
hunger. Bears are seldom seen in the forest, as they lie close to the ground 
and allow persons to pass very near them without moving. There is 
no doubt but that the large male bears kill the smaller ones, and 
each other, when they can. I caught a large one whose skin had been 
torn in two places across the back the width of a man's hand, and length- 
wise, two or three inches; it appeared as if the animal had attempted to 
escape from his antagonist, which struck both paws upon his back and 
tore his hide as he escaped. 

Wolverine. — Among the game animals of Coos first to disappear was 
the wolverine. This was the natural enemy of the beaver, and the beavers, 
in order to protect themselves from its depredations, would, after freezing 
weather commenced, cover their houses with a coat of soft muck that 
becam3 a crust that the wolverine could not break through. I have heard 
hunters complain of wolverines following their lines of sable traps and 
robbing them of the bait and game caught in them. It was a rare animal 
after the disappearance of the beaver, and could not exist after the destruc- 
tion of the moose and deer. 

Lynx. — The "bob-cat," or Siberian lynx, was common while the deer 
remained, but he, with his shaggy coat, and the ugliest face that ever 
stared at a human being, is gone, I trust, never to return. 

Otter. — Among the first and most valuable of furred animals was the 
otter, but as it was a wandering, solitary animal, living oh fish, the num- 
ber was never great. There are some still remaining, but, being nocturnal 
in their habits, they are seldom seen. They might live for years in our 
streams and ponds and their presence only be detected by persons familiar 
with their habits. 

The Fisher is another of the furred animals of former days. He flour- 
ished while the deer remained, but disappeared when he could no longer 
eke out a cold winter upon the carcasses of the superannuated old buck, 
doe, or fawns killed by hunters or the "bob-cat." This animal is of the 
weasel family, of much value, and about two-thirds the size of the fox. 

Sable. — Next to the beaver in importance as a furred animal was that 
beautiful little creature, the sable. It was near the size of a half-grown 
house-cat, but much longer in proportion, of the weasel kind, head and ear 
like the fox. It lived upon what would satisfy a small carnivorous animal 
of the forest. Nocturnal in its habits, it was seldom seen, except when 
caught in a trap. The sable was secured by the hunters setting lines of 
traps. The trappers would start from a given point and go into the woods 
often several miles, and, at intervals of forty or fifty rods, make a wooden 
trap which they would bait with a piece of flesh or fish, then make a cir- 
cuit, and finally return to their starting point. They would pass over this 

Game of Coos County. 71 

line once in three or four days to secure their game and keep their traps 
in order. For a long period within my remembrance sable skins have 
been a very considerable source of income to the inhabitants of Coos. 
They were much used to make muffs and capes for the women, in my day. 
The muff of Mrs. Major Weeks was large enough to let her arms in to the 
elbows, and contained more than thirty prime sable skins, and with her 
cape seventy or eighty. My mother's muff contained thirty skins of choice 
quality. They always bore a good price in cash. A month spent in the 
fall by an experienced trapper would often secure a hundred or more. The 
sable, like the fisher, was dependent on the larger game, like the moose 
and deer, to carry them through our northern winters. So what was left 
by the hunters ceased to thrive, and only a few remain. 

The Raccoon and Grey Squirrel are only visitors of Coos. In former 
times, when beech-nuts were plenty, they made their appearance in con- 
siderable numbers. 

Wild Geese, Ducks, Etc. — Fifty years ago wild geese were plenty about 
the ponds and in Connecticut river near Lancaster. They often came in flocks 
of ten or a dozen, in September, and remained till freezing weather in the 
late fall. They were frequently killed by experienced sportsmeu. Black 
and wood ducks were here in vast numbers, and some remained to within 
a few years. They made their nests and raised their young about the 
meadows, and in the fall were hunted by those who liked canvass backs 
but were willing to accept black or wood in place thereof. Perhaps the 
hunting was not according to the rules of sportsmen, but it filled the bag 
with game. The old Dutch gun, or Queen's arm, charged with two fin- 
gers of powder and an ounce of BB shot would sweep a space on a pond or 
river a yard and a half wide, and kill at a distance that would strike a 
modern sportsman with envy. The ducks are gone with the geese. 

Grouse. — The ruffed grouse, or partridge, was found in great numbers 
in all our woods, but lately they are seldom seen, even in the dee}) forests 
where they are not hunted. The Canada grouse, or spruce partridge, was 
quite common. Although called a game bird, it would require a strange 
palate to call its flesh delicious. All naturalists in treating of the ruffed 
grouse describe his drumming, but make no mention of that of the ( anada 
grouse which instead of sitting upon a log and beat ing regular strokes with 
his wings, making a sound like the beating an inflated ox bladder 
upon a log, reaches the top of a tree by hopping from branch to 
branch, then hops off and makes a drumming noise as he descends to the 
ground. I will describe one I saw that much interested me. I heard what 
I supposed to be the drumming of a common partridge, and went to shoot 
it, butsawitwas a Canada grouse, and sat down and watched him. lie was 
on the ground, his feathers standing so many ways he hardly retained the 
shape of a bird. No dandy ever made a greater display. He began to 

72 History of Coos County. 

ascend the bushes and limbs of the small trees about, by hopping and flying 
up a foot or two at a time, retaining his brustling and pompous mood. 
When he was up twenty or thirty feet, he hopped off a limb and came 
down almost perpendicularly making a fluttering, drumming noise as he 
descended. I watched him go through this performance several times. 
Thinking it a pity to spoil so much good feeling I left him to his enjoy- 

Pigeons. — In my boyhood I have seen flocks of hundreds of thousands, 
if not millions of wild pigeons. My father had a net and I have baited it 
and caught them till I was tired. They used to breed on the mountains 
in the vicinity. I once saw one of their "roosts." I was projecting a line 
through the forest on the highlands between this state and Canada, some- 
time in the " forties," and noticed egg shells on the ground. Looking up 
we saw that in the tops of the trees every place where sticks could be placed 
was occupied by a pigeon's nest. Some trees had as many as twenty or 
thirty. We camped in the midst of them, and the next morning went at 
least half a mile before we came to the end. Pigeons came in reduced 
numbers till within a few years, but they are now gone with the other 
game animals and birds; and Coos, from being the finest sporting ground 
in the world, is now about the poorest. 



Early Trappers and Hunters— Indian Threats — Capture of Stark and Eastman — Powers' 
Expedition — Extracts from Journal — Fort Wentworth — First Settlers — Townships, and Date 
of Grants — Early Population. 

T"T ARLY Trappers and Visitors.— After the exploration of Field and 
|ff others (1632— 1:2) it was more than a century before we again hear of 
'Hf white men within the limits of Coos county. The English were push- 
ing their settlements up the valleys of the Connecticut and the Merrimack, 
trappers penetrated the wilderness far above the settlements, and they 
often met the Indians on these hunting excursions and evidently were on 
friendly terms witli them. John and Israel Glines came here very early, 
prior to 1750, several years before any expedition of discovery was sent to 
explore the wilds of Upper Cohos. These men came to get a part of their 
means of support, working on their land through "springtime and har- 

Early History. ;:>, 

vest," and then repairing to this wilderness in the autumn to gel the where- 
withal to supply their families with greater com forts than were then obtain- 
able from the meager soil of their rough farms. 

John Glines had his camp near the mouth of the river which bears his 
name, while Israel had his headquarters near the placid Connecticut, 
Israel's river, and Beaver brook, where the traces of two distinct beaver 
dams are still to be seen. Here he carried on his hunting and trapping 
operations successfully. 

Benjamin Nash, Willard, Thomas Barker, Edwards Bucknam, and 
others, followed the Glineses, and the almost mythical Martin, who gave his 
name to Martin Meadows. The Glineses became involved in trouble with 
the Indians by shooting one of them, and left to return no more. The 
later ones came, no doubt, more than once, on their hunting expeditions, 
to the upper Connecticut. But the French as well as Indians were becom- 
ing jealous of the extension northward of English settlements. As the 
English contemplated laying out two towns in the spring of 1752, which 
should embrace the lower Coos meadows, the Indians remonstrated and 
threatened. It is probable, however, that their threats were not known to 
all the settlers, for four young men from Londonderry were hunting on 
Baker's river, in Eumney, and two of these, John Stark and Amos East- 
man, were surprised and captured by the Indians, April l ; s, i 752. They 
were taken to Lower Coos where two of the Indians had been left to kill 
game against their return. The next day they proceeded to the Upper 
Coos, from which place they sent Eastman with three of their number to 
St. Francis. "The remainder of the Indians employed themselves for 
some time in hunting upon a small stream called John's river." — [Stark's 
Memoirs.] They reached St. Francis June 9th, when Stark joined his 
companion, Eastman. They were soon after ransomed and returned to 
their homes. 

Powers'' Expedition. — The best known of all the expeditions to Coos, 
was that of the company under command of Capt. Peter Powers, of Hollis, 
N. H., Lt. James Stevens, and Ensign Ephraim Hale, of Townsend, Mass. 
They commenced their tour Saturday, June 15, 1754. Starting from 
Concord, they followed the Merrimack river to Franklin, the Pemigewas- 
set river to Plymouth, Baker's river to Wentworth, and then crossed over 
to the Connecticut, via Baker's pond. They were ten days in reaching 
" Moose Meadows," which were in Piermont. 

We extract from their journal: — 

" Thursday, Junt 21th. — This morning it was cloudy weather, and it began (o rain, the sun 
about an hour high, and we marched, notwithstanding, up the river to [ Lowe? | Amonoosuck Ri\ er, 
and our course was about north, distance about live miles; and we camped here, for the River 
Amonoosuck was so high we could not go over il without a canoe; for it was swift water, and 
near twenty rods wide. This afternoon it cleared off fair, and we went about our canoe, and 

74 History of Coos County. 

partly built it. Some of our men went up the River Amonoosuck, to see what discoveries they 
could make; and they discovered excellent land, and a considerable quantity of large white pines. 

" Friday, June 28th. — This morning fair weather, and we went about the canoe, and completed 
the same by about twelve of the clock this day, and went over the river; and we concluded to let 
the men go down the river in the canoe, who were not likely to perform the remaining part of the 
journey, by reason of sprains in the ankles, and weakness of body. They were four in number; 
and we steered our course for the great interval about east, northeast; and we this day marched, 
after we left the river, about ten miles. And the land was exceedingly good upland, and some 
quantity of white pine, but not thick, but some of them fit for masts. 

" Saturday, June 29th. — This morning was cloudy, but we swung our packs, and steered our 
course about northeast, ten miles, and came to Connecticut River. There it came on rainy, 
and we camped by the side of the-river, and it rained all this afternoon, and we kept our camp all 
this night. [This was in the southern part of what is now Dalton.] The land was, this day's 
march, very good, and it may be said as good as ever was seen by any of us. The common growth 
of wood was beech and maple, and not thick at all. It hath a great quantity of small brooks. 
This day and the day past, there were about three brooks tit for corn mills; and these were the 
largest of the brooks that we saw. 

"Sunday, June 307/j. — This morning exceeding rainy weather, and it rained all the night 
past, and continued raining until twelve of the clock this day; and after that, it was fair weather, 
and we marched up Connecticut River; and our course we made good this day was about five 
miles, east by north, and there came to a large stream, which came from the southeast. This river 
is about three rods wide, and we called it Stark's River, by reason of Ensign John Stark's being 
iound (captured) by the Indians at the mouth of this river. [This is John's river.] It comes into 
the Connecticut at the foot of the upper interval, and thence we travelled up the interval about 
seven miles, and came to a large river which came from the southeast; and it is about rive rods 
wide. Here we concluded to go no further with the full scout, by reason of our provisions being 
almost all spent; and almost all our men had worn out their shoes. This river we caded Powers' 
River, it being the camping place at the end of our journey; and there we camped by the river. 
[The river they named Powers' river is Israel's river.] 

"Tuesday, July 2d. — This morning fair weather, and we thought proper to mend our shoes, 
and to return homeward; and accordingly we went about the same; and whilst the men were this 
way engaged, the captain, with two of his men, marched up the river to see what further discov- 
eries they could make, and they travelled about rive miles, and there they discovered where the 
Indians had a large camping place, and had been making canoes, and had not been gone above 
one or two days at most; and so they returned to the rest of the men again about twelve of the 
clock; and then we returned, and marched down the river to Stark's River, and there camped. 
This afternoon it rained hard, but we were forced to travel for want of provisions. This interval 
is exceedingly large, and the farther up the larger. The general course of this river is from north- 
cast by east as far as the interval extends. [The captain and his two men penetrated, probably, 
as far as Hay Camp meadow, in the north part of Lancaster, and travelled nearly 140 miles beyond 
the habitations of civilized men. At Hay Camp meadow, or below, they first fell upon the trail 
of Indians, where they had, probably, been preparing canoes to descend upon the frontier settle- 

" Wednesday, July :)J.— This morning cloudy weather, and thundered; and after the sun an 
hour high, it rained hard, and continued about an hour, and then we swung packs, and steered 
cur course west-southwest, aiming for Amonoosuck River, and this day we marched about four- 
teen miles, and camped. 

" Thursday, July 4(//.-We marched on our course west-southwest, and this day we marched 
about twenty miles, and camped- 

" Friday, July 5th —We marched about three miles to our packs, at Amonoosuck, the same 
course we had steered heretofore; and we afterwards went over Connecticut River, and looked up 
Well's River, and camped a little below Well's River this night. 

"Saturday, July Qth.— Marched down the great river to Great Coos, and then crossed the 

Early History. 75 

river below the great turn of clear interval, and there left the great river, and steered south by 
east about three miles, and there camped. Here was the best of upland, and some quantity of large 
white pines." 

The journal is fragmentary and meagre, and the comments made by 
Rev. Mr. Powers have not given us any additional light, but have rather 
added obscurity to the original narrative. He says that Ihe object of the 
expedition was discovery; but if Captain Powers' company was the one 
referred to by Governor Wentworth in a message of May 4, 1 7.">4, and in 
one of December 5, 17r>4, they certainly went to see if the French were 
building a fort in the Upper Coos. As this was the only expedition fitted 
out during the year that went in this direction, it is quite certain that this 
is the one to which the message referred. But it is something to be able 
to say that Capt. Peter Powers, with his command, was the first body of 
English speaking people who camped on the broad intervals of Coos 
county. It would seem as if they were not of such stuff as pioneers were 
made of, for their conclusion to return seems to have been reached about 
the time they saw signs that indicated a probable proximity of Indians. 

Fort Wentworth. — In 1755 so little was known of the geography of the 
country, that the "Coos Meadows," on the Connecticut, above Lancaster, 
were supposed to be on the direct route from "Salisbury Fort " to Crown 
Point, and Colonel Blanchard was to march his regiment through the "Coos 
Meadows " to Crown Point. Supposing that there was to be opportunity 
for a passage of the troops, some, if not most of the way, by water, by the 
Merrimack, Connecticut, and other rivers, the regiment in rendezvous 
were kept busily at work building batteaux for transportation of the 
troops and stores, whilst Capt. Robert Rogers was sent forward to " Coos 
Meadows " with his company to build a fort for the occupation of the regi- 
ment, and for resort in case of disaster. Capt. Rogers executed his com- 
mission, and built, or partially built, a fort on the Connecticut about three 
or four miles above the mouth of the Upper Ammonoosuc river. This was 
called " Fort Wentworth."* After Rogers' return, and the regiment had 
spent some six weeks in building batteaux that could not be used for want 
of water, Gov. Wentworth discovered his error, and ordered the regiment 
to proceed across the Province to "Number Four." and then to Crown 
Point by way of Albany. — Adjutant GeneraVs Report, 1866. 

Settlement. — After fifteen years of war and bloodshed, by the conquest 
of Canada peace came to the New Hampshire frontier. The people began, 
once more, to be inspired with hope of better days. 

Besides those who are known to have been on the Upper ( 'oos Meadows, 
undoubtedly many trappers of whom there is no record had visited them 

^Remains of this fort were to be seen but a few years ago. It was built at the narrowest place 
of the Connecticut valley in that section, opposite a very high bluff on the Vermont side 

76 History of Coos County. 

and given glowing accounts to the lower country. At least in the years 
succeeding the French war, the colonists had opportunities for exploration 
they never had before. From Holland's map of this state published in 
London in 1784, it would seem as if an accurate survey of the Connecticut 
and Androscoggin rivers had been made for that work, or previously. The 
country back of the rivers is not so well defined. 

In the autumn of 1763, Emmons Stockwell, a young man only twenty- 
two years old, of great muscular power and physical endurance, who had 
survived the sufferings to which he had been exposed as one of Rogers' Ran- 
gers, and David Page, Jr., aged eighteen, made the first actual settlement of 
whites in Coos county, at Lancaster. It required an amount of nerve which 
our modern youth may well admire, to plant themselves here at the beginning 
of a rigorous northern winter, without prospect of food save what their 
rifles provided, and separated by fifty long miles from the nearest house 
of a white man. They received additions the next year, and, in 1767, 
Thomas Burnside and Daniel Spaulding came with their families and set- 
tled in Northumberland. Not only in these two towns but in many other 
localities did the people of the old towns of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
and lower New Hampshire, make an effort to settle, or at least secure 
grants, many of which lapsed. In quick succession Gov. Wentworth 
made more than eighty grants in Vermont and New Hampshire along the 
Connecticut. The Androscoggin and Saco valleys received the same atten- 
tion, for these were the days in which townships were made. 

Townships Granted. — Shelburne was chartered in 1768, and re-char- 
tered in 1771. In 1770 Cockburne (Columbia) was granted; in 1771 Maynes- 
borough (Berlin), Paulsborough (Milan); in 1772 Bretton Woods (Carroll), 
Durand (Randolph), and Dartmouth (Jefferson), the last re-granted to M. 
H. Wentworth and others, it having been granted to John Goffe in 1765; 
in 1773 Durnmer, Cambridge, Success, a tract to S. Wales & Co., one to 
Nash and Sawyer, and Baker's Location; in 1774 Whitefield, Millsfield, 
Errol and Kilkenny. Besides these, Colebrook, Stuart (Stewartstown), 
Woodbury, re -granted as New Stratford (Stratford), Piercy (Stark), 
Apthorp (including Dalton), Martin's Patent, Green's Location, and Shel- 
burne Addition (Gorham). 

Early Population. — In 1770 there were a few people in Lancaster, some 
in Northumberland. Capt. Whipple came to Jefferson in 1772 through 
the " Notch." This was the condition of affairs at the beginning of the 
Revolution in 177.~>. In Lancaster they had built a mill that was worked 
by horse-power, and Capt. David Page had built a saw-mill on Indian 
brook, but this had been burnt, and the number of inhabitants was sixty- 
one; while in Northumberland there were fifty-seven; in Stratford there 
were forty-one; Cockburne (Columbia) had fourteen, and Colebrook con- 
tained only four. In the last town Capt. Eleazer Rosebrook was one of 

Early Settlers, 77 

the pioneers. The total population in 1775 of the territory afterwards 
Coos county, was '227. In fifteen years it had quadrupled, being 882 in 
1790. The ratio of increase was not quite so great for the next decade; 
this century beginning with 2,658 inhabitants in the bounds of the county. 



Character of Early Settlers of New Hampshire — Characteristics of Pioneers of Coos — Hard- 
ships Endured — Religion and Education • — Traditional Stories — Improvement in ' Condition — 
Primitive Houses Furniture, Etc. — Manners, Customs, Labor, Dress, Fare, Etc. — Description 
of Early Homes, Kitchens, Utensils, Stoves, Etc. 

rjHARACTER of Early Settlers of New Hampshire.— -The people of 
I j*\ Coos county, as well as the lower counties of the state, have a 
\j personal interest in the characters and aspirations of the early set- 
tlers of Xew Hampshire. It is of interest to them and their descendants 
whether the early proprietors and settlers were actuated merely by a sordid 
love of gain, or whether, back of the business enterprise they manifested, 
there was not a design to plant on these lands the Christian religion, and 
to uphold the Christian faith. Were we to believe all that was said by the 
men of the Massachusetts Colony, we would pronounce them Godless, law- 
less persons "whose chief end was to catch fish " Rev. James DeNor- 
mandie, in his excellent " History of Portsmouth," in speaking of the long 
and bitter controversy on this subject, says: "All of the proprietors inter- 
ested in the settlement were of the Established Church, and it was only 
natural that all of the settlers who came out with them should be zealous 
in that faith. Gorges and Mason, Godf rie and Xeal, Gibbons and Chad- 
bourne and Williams, and all the names appearing on the Colonial records, 
were, doubtless, of this faith. Among the earliest inventories of the ( <>1 
ony's goods we find mention of service books, of a flagon, and of cloths for 
the communion-table, which show that provisions for worship were not 
neglected, and of what form the worship was." Gorges, in defending his 
company from various charges before the English Mouse of Commons, 
asserts that "I have spent £20, 000 of my estate and thirty years, the whole 
flower of my life, in new discoveries and sett lements upon a remote Conti- 
nent, in the enlargement of my country's commerce and dominions, and 
in carrying civilization and Christianity into regions of savages." In 

78 History of Coos County. 

Mason's will were instructions to convey 1,000 acres of his New Hamp- 
shire estate "for and towards the maintenance of an honest, godly, and 
religious preacher of God's word, in some church or chapel, or other public 
place appointed for divine worship and service within the county of New 
Hampshire ;" together with provisions for the support of a "free grammar 
school for the education of youth." No better proofs could be given that 
the aims of those energetic men from whom many of the citizens of Coos 
county claim descent were fully as high, moral and religious, as such 
enterprises have ever been. 

Characteristics of these Pioneers. — Two classes of persons, with very 
distinctly marked characteristics, penetrated these northern wilds. The 
leaders were men of intelligence, energy, shrewdness and property. 
They had two objects in view: to furnish permanent homes for them- 
selves and their posterity, and to acquire wealth by the rise of their lands. 
They were men of strong religious principle, and early made provision 
for the preaching of the gospel. They brought cows, swine and sheep, 
and were soon able to supply their tables with meat; they also had in 
a short time comfortable houses and furniture. The second class were 
people so poor as to need help to reach the settlements. They came on 
foot, bearing all their worldly goods upon their shoulders, and, without 
the aid of the more prosperous, many of these latter would have per- 

The first settlers of Coos, in common with the pioneers of adjoining 
counties, endured many privations, hardships, and discouragements not 
known at the present day, and it is well that the present and coming gen- 
erations should read of these experiences. 

Living at a distance of more than a hundred miles from the coast, all 
heavy articles, such as salt, iron, lead, and, in fact, everything indispensa- 
ble to civilized life that could not be procured from the soil, or found in 
the woods or streams, was obliged to be transported upon the backs of 
men or horses, not even having the convenience of roads, and their only 
guides through the forests were marked trees. They had to ford the 
streams that ran across their route, which often were swollen so as to be 
impassable except by swimming. The nearest mills, either for the manu- 
facture of lumber or of grinding their corn and wheat into meal or flour, 
was Charlestown, N. H., a distance of 110 miles, and the surrounding 
country a wilderness, and in addition to all these privations, they were 
surrounded by the hostile Indians, who might at any time pounce upon 
them with the tomahawk and scalping-knife; thus their lives were passed 
mostly in hard labor and danger. Their sleep was unsound, as they were 
fearing an attack from their enemies; and, all in all, their situation was 
not an enviable one. However, these early settlers seem to have been 

Early Settlers. ;:> 

endowed with strong and vigorous constitutions and to have cultivated a 
spirit of endurance so necessary to their condition in life. 

It is difficult for us to conceive the hardships of the pioneers who, a 
hundred and more years ago, invaded "the forest primeval," and deter- 
mined to wring a livelihood from lands upon which, at morning or even- 
ing, the shadow of Mt. Washington lay. The perils of isolation, the 
ravages of wild beasts, the wild wrath of the rapid mountain torrents, the 
obstacles to communication which the vast wilderness interposed — every 
form of discomfort and danger was apparently indicated by these grand 
mountains as impervious barriers to intrusion and occupation. But the 
adventurous spirit of man implanted by the Supreme Being lor his own 
wise purposes— carries him into the tangled foiest, into new climates and 
to foreign shores, and the great work of civilization goes on from year to 
year, from decade to decade, from century to century. This spirit of — what 
shall we call it? adventure? enterprise? induced whole families dming 
the last century, when there was land enough within the bounds of civil- 
ization unoccupied and unclaimed, to move into an unbroken wilderness. 
The horses, even, of some of the settlers would not remain, and struck due 
south in the direction from which they had been taken, and perished in 
the forests before spring. Many pioneers would start for their new homes 
in the winter, as if to get the hardest experience of their new life at first. 
One couple went eighty miles on snow shoes, the husband carrying their 
furniture on his back, and they nearly starved in their new place of abode. 
Page's colony found the snow two feet dee]) in April, 1764. Joseph Pink- 
ham and his family removed to Jackson in 1790, when the snow was five 
feet deep on a level. Their hand-sled, on which their provisions,, clothing 
and furniture were packed, was drawn by a pig in harness. Another 
couple went a great distance in the same inclement season, the wife tiding 
on a feeble horse, with a feather bed under her, and a child in her arms, 
while the husband dragged the rest of their household goods over the snow. 
Pluck, perseverance and persistency were the cardinal virtues of the early 
settlers. Many lived for years without any neighbors for miles. The 
pioneer would go miles to a mill, and carry a bushel of corn on his shoul- 
der and take it back in meal. Ethan Crawford's grandfather once wenl 
eighty miles through the woods to a lower settlement for a bushel of salt, 
the scarcity of which had produced sickness and suffering, and returned 
with it on his back. Not from the lack of salt only did these brave peo- 
ple suffer; few of them owned cows, and could not even have " milk por- 
ridge," or "pudding and milk." Meal and water, and dried fish without 
salt was often their diet for days, when game was shy, or storms pre- 
vented hunting. Sometimes, when threatened with famine, they would 
send deputations thirty, fifty, and even sixty miles to purchase grain. And 
we have read that in times of great scarcity, the hardy men wore a wide 

80 History of Coos County. 

strap of skin, which as they grew more emaciated was drawn tighter, to 
alleviate if possible the horrible gna wings of hunger, in order that they 
might hold out till relief came. Besides occasional famines, these families 
suffered from freshets. Their rude bridges were torn up, barns and even 
their houses swept off, and often when by their industry or good fortune 
they had accumulated provision for the future, the bears would come down 
upon them and steal their pigs, or anything else they could take. 

As soon as possible after these people had made for themselves rude 
habitations in which to abide, they would organize a church and establish 
a school, comprising the families in a radius of six to ten or twelve miles. 
The ministers would work at clearing land and hewing trees during the 
week, writing their sermons by the blaze of pine knots, or preach extem- 
pore (which was more often the case). The school-house was merely a 
rude structure of rough logs, lighted by an occasional pane of glass placed 
singly in the wall, and many had but a hole for the light, protected by 
a piece of cloth or oiled paper, from the cold and rain. But the same desire 
for learning was kindled and fed within these cabins as in richly endowed 
and pretentious schools and institutions. The mind — the will — the hope — 
and the passion for learning— is stimulated to stronger efforts — when it 
has but few props and helps to climb the hill of knowledge, and many a 
man has taken his place in the hall of Congress in the Nation's capital, 
who was taught his "A, B, C's" in just such a school-house. 

In the ''locations," or "grants," there were but few settlers, and often 
there would be but one family. There is a story that a man once made 
his appearance in the state legislature, and took a seat. He was asked for 
his credentials as the choice of the people. "Whom could they put up 
against me?" he said; "I am the only man in my town." His claim to a 
seat was allowed. 

There must have been a few more inhabitants in the settlement in 
upper Coos, which was said to be legally warned to have training. After 
the officers were chosen, there was but one soldier, and he said, " Gentle- 
men, I hope you will not be too severe in drilling me. as I may be needed 
another time. I can form a solid column, but it will rack me shockingly 
to display." 

After the first twenty rive years of settlement the settlers were for the 
most part independent, self-reliant, healthy farmers, who lived upon the 
produce of their own soil raised by the work of their own hands; warmed 
by fuel from their own woods, and clothed from the flax from their fields 
or wool from their flock. They had but little money, and but little was 
needed, for their trade was carried on chiefly by barter. The mechanics 
were not established in one place— but went from settlement to settlement 
where they were needed, receiving for their labor the products of the farm 
or loom. Prof. Sanborn says: "The primitive log-house, dark, dirty and 

Early Settlers. 81 

•dismal, rarely outlived its first occupant. The first framed houses were 
usually small, low and cold. The half -house, about twenty feet square, sat i s- 
xied the unambitious. The double-house, forty by twenty feet in dimensions, 
indicated progress and wealth. It was designed for shelter, not for com- 
fort or elegance. The windows were small, without blinds or shutters. 
The fire-place was sufficiently spacious to receive logs of three or four feet 
in diameter, with an oven in the back and a flue nearly large enough to 
allow the ascent of a balloon. One could sit in the chimney-corner and 
see the stars. All the cooking was done by this fire. Around it, also, 
gathered the family at evening, often numbering six to twelve children. 
The furniture was simple and useful, all made of the wood of the native 
forest trees. Pine, birch, cherry, walnut, and the curled maple were most 
frequently chosen by the ' cabinet-maker.' Vessels of iron, copper and tin 
were used in cooking. The dressers, extending from floor to ceiling in the 
kitchen, contained the mugs, basins and plates of pewter which shone 
upon the farmer's board at the time of meals. The post of the housewife 
was no sinecure. She had charge of the dairy and kitchen, besides spin- 
ning and weaving, sewing and knitting, washing and mending for the 
'men folks.' The best room, often called 'the square room,' contained a 
bed, a bureau or desk, or a chest of drawers, a clock, and possibly a brass 
fire-set. Its walls were entirely destitute of ornament. It was an age of 
simple manners and industrious habits. Contentment, enjoyment and 
longevity were prominent characteristics of that age. Prior to 1826, there 
were nearly four hundred persons who died in New Hampshire between 
the ages of ninety and a hundred and five years. Fevers and epidemics 
sometimes swept away the people; but consumption and neuralgia were 
then almost unknown. Their simple diet and active habits were conducive 
to health. 

" ' The meeting house ' was a framed building. Its site was a high 
hill; its shape a rectangle flanked with heavy porticos, with seven win- 
dows upon each side. Every family was represented here on the Sabbath. 
The clergymen were settled by major vote of the town, and tax-payers 
were assessed for his salary according to their ability. The people went 
to church on foot or on horseback, the wife riding behind the husband on 
a 'pillion.' Chaises, wagons and sleighs were unknown. Sometimes whole 
families were taken to ' meeting ' on an ox-sled. 

" Traveling was difficult and laborious. Neither men nor women were 
ever idle. Books were few, newspapers were seldom seen at the country 
fire-side. News from England did not reach the inland towns till five 
or six months after the occurrence of the events reported. Intelligence 
from New York reached New Hampshire in a week. In 1815 travel was 
mostly on horseback, the mail being so carried in many places. Inns or 
taverns were found in every four to eight miles. Feed for travelers' teams 


82 History of Coos County. 

was, half-baiting of hay, four cents; whole-baiting, eight cents; two quarts 
of oats, six cents. The bar- room fire-place was furnished with a ' logger- 
head,' hot, at all times, for making ' flip.' The flip was made of beer made 
from pumpkin dried on the crane in the kitchen fire-place, and a few dried 
apple skins and a little bran. Half-mug of flip, or half -gill 'sling,' six 
cents. On the table was to be found a ' shortcake,' and the ever-present 
decanter or bottle of rum. 

" Women's labor was fifty cents per week. They spun and wove most 
of the cloth that was worn. Flannel that was dressed at the mill, for 
women's wear, was fifty cents a yard; men's wear, one dollar. Farmers 
hired their help for nine or ten dollars a month — some clothing, and the 
rest cash. Carpenters' wages, one dollar a day; journeymen carpenters, 
fifteen dollars a month; and apprentices, to serve six or seven years, had 
ten dollars the first year, twenty the second, thirty the third, and so on, and 
to clothe themselves. Breakfast generally consisted of potatoes roasted in the 
ashes, a ' bannock ' made of meal and water and baked on a maple chip set 
before fire. Pork was plenty. If ' hash ' was served, all ate from the same 
platter, without plates or table-cloth. Apprentices and farm boys had for 
supper a bowl of scalded milk and a brown crust, or bean porridge, or ' pop- 
robbin.' They had no tumblers, nor were they asked if they would have 
tea or coffee; it was 'Please pass the mug.' " 

The dress of these early settlers was very simple, and of their own man- 
ufacture. The women were obliged to work very industriously in order 
to be able to accomplish the many duties required of them, and they had 
neither the means nor opportunity for fine clothes, but they were dressed 
neatly and generally scrupulously clean. A striped loose gown with blue 
and white check apron, well- starched and ironed, was considered a dress 
pretentious enough to appear in any company. Many of these women 
would frequently work eighteen to twenty hours a day. They would card 
and spin the wool from their sheep, weave and color it (in some primitive 
way), then cut and make their plain garments. Before they raised sheep, 
the men wore garments made of moose-skin, and tow cloth was also used 
largely for both men and women. No luxuries, no laces, no "lingerie," 
in wmich the women of to-day take so much pride. Linen and tow was 
used instead of cotton, and dressed flax was to some extent an article of 

Hardwood was cut from large tracts of land, and burned to obtain 
ashes, which the early settlers leached and boiled into salts, and carried 
where they could find a market. Those that had a horse would make 
what was called a "car," by pinning cross-pieces to two light poles of 
suitable length, putting the horse in as into the thills of a wagon, the back 
part dragging on the ground, and the load fastened on just behind the 
horse. Those that had oxen, used a wide spread crotched stick like a cart 

Early Settlers. 83 

tongue, this they called a " go-cart." Those who had no team either drew 
their load by hand, or carried it on their hacks; and the man that could 
not cany a hundred pounds on his back was not fit for a pioneer. Money 
was so scarce the most that could be obtained went for taxes, and for want 
of it, they w T ere taken to jail. Hence poverty was the rule, and riches the 
exception. In winter the snow was so fearfully deep that the few families 
with their homes at some distance from each other could not keep the road 
or marked ways open, and consequently great suffering often ensued. 

There were almost no roads for many years. Mills were so distant that 
grain was sometimes purchased at the mills and ground and brought to 
their homes; most of the grinding was done with pestles in huge mortars, 
manufactured from short logs of large hard wood trees, sometimes two or 
three feet in diameter. Excellent crops of wheat were raised on the new 
land; usually good corn, and a large amount of potatoes, which, baked in 
the coal beds of their great kitchen fire-places, made many a good meal. 

James W. Weeks thus describes the early homes of Lancaster : " The 
kitchen was a large room, perhaps 15 by 24 feet: one door opening 
directly out of doors; an immense fire-place 7 feet wide and 3 feet deep. 
To this fire-place a hardwood log is brought about 3| feet long, and twenty 
inches in diameter. The brands of yesterday's back log are drawn for- 
ward with the long handled fire shovel, and the back log rolled into the 
fire-place against the brick-work. On this another log is placed, as large 
as will lie, called a back stick. The fire dogs are now set up. and en these 
is laid a large stick called a fore stick, then is filled in the brands of yester- 
day's back log and the old fire, together with small wood You soon have a 
fire that will throw a glow and a warmth to every part of the room: a 
crane of sufficient strength to hold a five pail kettle filled with water, is 
hung to the left jamb; on this is a trammel with hook to take up or let 
down, and other hooks on which pots and kettles may be hung when used 
for cooking. A capacious brick oven is built on one side of the fire-place, 
which is heated once a week, and the family baking done. The long- 
handled fire-shovel, and a large pair of kitchen tongs complete the ti r< i 
arrangements of the kitchen. 

"There were also a dozen kitchen chairs framed with seats of elm hark 
or basket stuff; a long pine table that could be moved, capable of seating- 
ten or twelve; a table or board turned down againt the wall, on which to 
work dough for bread. 

"The family, with the exception of the small children (who had bread 
and milk night and morning), took their meals at the large table in the 
kitchen. At dinner the larger children came to the table with their par- 
ents. The buttery and sink-room opened out of the kitchen. 

"Now about the cooking utensils. Firsl was the large dinner pot, in 
which the suet or berry pudding was boiled, and the bean or pea porridge 

84 History of Coos County. 

was made; a broad, flat-bottomed kettle, in which to fry doughnuts; a 
smaller one in which to boil potatoes, etc., and a large dish kettle. Then 
the gridiron; the heavy-handled frying-pan for frying meat and griddle 
cakes. The Dutch oven held its own a long time, but was superseded by 
the tin baker. This oven was a broad, flat iron kettle with long legs, 
and an iron cover with a rim turned up about one and a half inches; there 
was a ' loop ' in the middle of the cover, by which to handle it with the 
tongs. To use this oven, a bed of coals was drawn forward and the oven 
set over them, the biscuits put in, the cover put on, and a few shovelsfull 
of coals put on the cover, and the biscuits, when taken out, were sure to 
be nicely browned. Potatoes were roasted in the ashes, and the Christmas 
goose was cooked by being suspended by a string that would swing and 
turn before the fire, and was basted every few minutes, with a long- 
handled spoon, from the dripping-pan. The first cooking stove came into 
town about 1825 or 1826. The first stove of any kind that I ever saw was 
in the old Court House. It was a brick structure, about 5 feet square and 
2 and a half feet high, surmounted by an immense potash kettle upside 
down, with a hole in the bottom, over which the smoke pipe was set. 

"Adjoining the kitchen was the sanctum of the mistress of the house, 
where noisy boys did not enter, except by permission. There was the 
cradle for baby and the young children, and if the mother had not a little 
girl of her own, ten or twelve years old, to look after the baby, she bor- 
rowed one of some friend who had more than she could make useful. In 
this room the mother taught and cared for the children, and made ' ole 
claithes amaist as good as new.' Here was a fire-place half as large as that in 
the kitchen; a bed turned up against the wall in a corner; some strong 
wooden chairs; a table in the middle of the room; a desk, and a small table 
or stand under the looking glass at one side of the room, on which was the 
Bible and a few other books. The clock had its place here, and every hour 
gave notice of the flight of time. In the more pretentious houses there 
was another apartment similar to this, with some valuable furniture, with- 
out a carpet, but, later, one of home manufacture covered the floor. There 
was generally a small bed-room, with a spare bed, out of the way of the 
noise of the kitchen, with a fire-place, which was used only on special 
occasions and in case of sickness. The children occupied the second floor. 
All the beds, except those of the very poor, were of feathers." 




War of the Revolution — Frontier and Scouting Parties — Proposed Expedition — Convention 
of Towns — Orders, Receipts, Etc. — Early Roads — Petitions Concerning Roads and New- 
County — Roads in 179T and 1803 — Tenth New Hampshire Turnpike — Jefferson Turnpike, Etc. 

Revolutionary Period. 

THE Indians h*ad a trail from Canada to the Penobscot river, in Maine. 
After crossing the Memphremagog, they would take the Clyde river, 
which would lead them to Island Pond, A r t., then cross to the Nul- 
hegan river, and down that to the Connecticut, thence down this river to 
the upper Ammonoosuc, and up this to some point in the present town of 
Milan, where they crossed to the Androscoggin, thence down the last 
named river. They were a great source of annoyance to the inhabitants 
through whose settlements they passed. During the Revolutionary war, 
the Indians received $11 bounty for each scalp and $55 for each live cap- 
tive taken by them. The Tories were leagued with the Indians in opposi- 
tion to the Revolutionists, and as the latter could get no assistance from 
the government, they were obliged to rely entirely upon their own insuffi- 
cient resources for self-defense. The inhabitants of both sides of the 
Connecticut river united for the purpose of self -protection, chose a "com- 
mittee of safety," and built forts for the protection of the women and 
children. There were three built — two in Northumberland, one at the 
mouth of the Ammonoosuc river, one on the Marshall farm, and one in 
Stratford, in the north part of the town. Whenever the "alarm" was 
given that the "Indians" or " Tories were coming," the women and chil- 
dren would flee to the forts. An incident showing somewhal of the trials 
and hardships to which mothers were subject in those days of tin remit tin- 
fear and anxiety, is this: The young wife of Caleb Marshall, on whose 
farm one of the forts was built, after providing for the safety of the most 
valuable of her household goods by having them buried in the earth, 
mounted her horse, and, with a child of two years and an infant of three 
weeks old, went unattended through the wilderness and sparsely settled 
towns to her parents in Hampstead, a distance of 160 miles, where she 
arrived in safety. 

The history of New Hampshire's services in the Revolution has never 
been written. Other states have claimed honors that were justly hers, 
and no field is more deserving the pen el' a painstaking and accurate his- 
torian, or would bring a better reputation; and it is to be hoped that soon 

86 History of Coos County. 

some able writer will treat of this subject fully, and show that the Granite 
State was not the least one of the original thirteen in devotion, ability and 

From the commencement of the Revolution the hardy pioneers of Coos 
stood as an advance guard and picket company, not only to protect their 
own settlements, but to warn and defend the lower settlements against 
attacks from the north. 

This document from Hammond's Town Papers shows better than any 
eulogy of ours the patriotic spirit actuating them. 

"Petition for Soldiers. — Whereas we the inhabitants of Lancaster, Northumberland, Guildhall 
& Stratford are fully sensible of the dangers of being attacked by the Canadians which are the 
worst of enemys & although some of our neighbors have Quit the ground, yet we the Subscri- 
bers Do Jointly & severly promis & ingage to Stand our ground providing the Honab'le Coun- 
sel 1 sees Fitt to grant our request That is this, that you will please us your petitioners so far as to 
appoint Mr. Jere'h Ames of Northumberland our friend & Neighbour, Commander of our Fort 
which with a great deal of fatage we have almost accomplished & likewise for him the s'd Ames 
to have orders to inlist as many men as the Honab'le Cort in their wisdom will see fit, we do 
ingage to inlist ourselves & obey his orders as long as he is stationed in upper Coos and Com- 
mander of the Fort. / Thomas Blodgett, James Curtiss, Archippus Blodgett, Emmons Stockwell, 
"July 6, 1776. \ Josiah Blodgett, Joseph Barlow, Nathan Caswell, Sam'l Nash, Abijah 
Larned, Moses Quimby, Ward Bailey, James Blake, David Larned, Sam'l Page, Abner Osgood, 
Dies Sawyer, Abel Larned, John Frickey, Elizer Kosbrook, Abner Barlow. 

During the war, Lancaster reports 457 days' service on "alarms," 
"scouting, guiding, andforting." 

Capt. Jeremiah Eames was on the frontiers here from July 5, 1776, 
with fifty men and officers for some time; and from October 14, to Decem- 
ber 1, 1776, with twenty-six Rangers. Again, he had command of ten men, 
on a like service, from December 2, 1776, to April, 1777. A scouting party 
of five men was "stationed at or near the Upper Coos" (probably at 
Northumberland), from July 15, to October 1, 1779, by order of the " Com- 
mittee of Safety, 7 ' under command of Lieut. Josiah Chapman. 

After the capture of Col. Joseph Whipple, at Jefferson, in August, 1781, 
the town of Conway raised scouting parties, consisting of Capt. James 
Osgood and three men, Lieut. Ezekiel Walker and nine men, and Elijah 
Dinsmore and two men. These were on duty from ten to twenty eight 
days from August 16, 1781, at Conway and adjacent towns. At the same 
time "The Committee of Safety" took immediate measures for the 
defence of the inhabitants of that section, placing a force there, under the 
direction of Col. Joseph Whipple and Col. David Page, for the protection 
of the northern frontiers, consisting of forty-nine officers and men. They 
were in service from August 29, 1781, to November G, 1781, and commanded 
by Capt. Jacob Smith and Lieuts. Josiah Sanborn and Peter Gilman. 
Sergeant James Blake's party of eleven men "for the defense of the 
Upper Coos." was in service seven months and eighteen days from April 

Eevolutionary Period and Early Roads. n7 

13, 1782. Serg't Philip Page and five men were drafted for duty at 
"Androscoggin River/' in 1782, and were in service from August 19 to 
November 25, LY82. 

In July. 1 77*.*, Joseph Barlow and Hezekiah Fuller were captured by 
Indians at Stratford, and two families were plundered of everything valu- 

A party of six Indians, August 3, 1781, took four prisoners at Bethel, 
Me., killed James Pettingill, at Gilead, and shot Peter Poor, in Shelburne, 
besides destroying property. 

No great military operations were carried on on a large scale here dur- 
ing the Revolution, and no battle was fought. The nearest approach to 
strategic operations is probably given in these communications from Gen. 
Moses Hazen to Col. Bedell, which explain themselves. 

" Albany 26th April, 1777. 
" I have a favor to beg which is that you will let me have a Particular account of the Dis- 
tance rout and Difficulties attending the march of a Body of men from your house or the upper 
settlements on Cohaas, to St. Franciis in Canada, which I am sure you must have a perfect knowl- 
edge of. I should also be glad of a plan or sketch of that Country in any rough way, even if it 
was Drawn by an Indian. I leave you to gess the reason of my being so particular on this head, 
assuring you only that I am anxious to see once more my own country which probably may be 
the case before the end of this campaign. 

"As man}- letters miscarry you will be particular careful to write by a safe opportunity as soon 
after the receipt of this as you Possibly can. Direct to Col. Hazen in Camp at Head Quarters. I 
hope you will not neglect the opportunity put into your hands of serving yourself and Country. 

"Gen Moses Hazen 
" To Colonel Bedle at Cohaas in the State of New Hampshire." 

From Gen. Hazen to Col. Bedle, December 12, 1778 : — 

" There has not been any expedition ever fixed upon from your Quarter, some preparation 
was ordered, and magazenes provided in order that we might Take the advantage of our enemy in 
case an opportunity should offer — the great difficulty which now appears to me, is that we have 
no money, or at least that which we have will purchase nothing." 

Convention op Towns in Coos. 

" Northumberland July 10th 1779 
"At a meeting of the Inhabitants of Lancaster Northumberland & Stratford to hear the 

Report Joseph Peverly Esq'r and also to agree upon Sum Proper Place for the Scouting Perty to 

Be Stationed, Viz — first — 

"Chose maj'r Jonas Wilder moderator — 
" 2d Choose Cap't Edw'ds Bucknam Clark 

"3d Voted that the Place for the Scouting Party to Be stationed, at M'r James Browns In 

"4 Voted that Every man In Each town Viz. Lancaster Northumberland and Stratford to 
work one Day at the fort In Stratford Immediately — 

" 5 Chose Nathan Caswell Captain over these three towns for the Present 

" 6 Chose Nathan Barlow Lieut 

"7 Chose Dennis Standley Ensine 

"8 Chose maj'r Jonas Wilder the man to go Down after men to Exeter 

"9 Chose Joseph Peverly Eiq'r Capt EJw'ds Bucknam and M'r John Holdbrook a Com- 

88 History of Coos County. 

mittee to Give Directions to rnaj'r Jonas Wilder and draw a Purticion to the General Court to- 
Send by maj'r Wilder 

"10 Voted that m'r John Gamsby m'r James Blake and Mr John Holdbrook a Committee to 
Plan out the fort at Stratford " — Hammond's Revolutionary Rolls. 

Capt. Eames' Company's Order for Pay. 

" Northumberland October 12: 1776 — 
' Col'e Nicholas Gilman Treasurer for the State of New Hampshire 

" Please to Pay to Capt Jeremiah Eames the whole of the wages for the time of Service in his 
Company as shall be found Due on the Said Capt Eames's Roll 

" John Trickey, Jon'a Willard, Abner Osgood, Samuel Page, John Page, Zebulon Colbey, 
Zechariah Parker, Abijah Wright, David Brown, Ebenezer his (x) mark Kemprield, Moses Page, 
Edmund Eastman, David Cunningham, Alexander Craig, Daniel Spalding, Jonathan Craford, 
David Earned, Abel Larned, Abijah Larned, W T illiam Patee, James Whiting, Abel Lovejoy, John 
Willoughby, Benj. Preson, Benj. Pegley, Jon'a Clark, Jacob Draper, Jonah Chaptman, Joseph 
Palmer, Samuel Marsh, Edward his (x) mark Taylor, Gardner Duston, Nathan Caswell, Nathan 
Barlow, Gideon Smith, William Curtiss. Thomas Blogget, Archippus Blogget, Josiah Blogget, Johc 
Gibson, John Haselton, Caleb Marshall, Dill Sawyer, William Amy, James Blake, Ward Bailey, 
Thomas Peverly, Benj'a Sawyer, Abner Barlow. 

"Captain Eames'' Scouts. — Captain Eames's Scouting Party, from December 2, 1776, to April 
15th, 1777, Head Quarters Great Coos, received for services £110, 19s. 9d. The pay was as fol- 
lows: Captain, £6 per mouth; Sergeant, 48 shillings; Private, 40 shillings per month. The com- 
pauy consisted of Capt., Jeremiah Eames, Serjeant, Abner Osgood, Privates, Thomas Peaverly, 
Jonathan Willard, John Trickey, Haines French, William Amy, Nathan Caswell, John Gibson,. 
Dill Sawyer, Abner Barlow; all serving the full time excepting the latter, whose service was one 
month . 

"Receipts. — State of !New Hampshire, Northumberland, 24 July, 1779. Then we the subscribers 
received of Joseph Peverly the sum of twelve pounds, which sum is in full for one month's ad- 
vance pay, and the sum of six pounds each as a bounty. 

" (Signed,) Abraham Buee, Dav'd (x) Cunningham's mark. 

"Peter Keyes, Jabed Church, Jn'o his (x) mark Martin." 

" We the Subscribers have received the sum annexed to each maus name of Joseph Peverly, 
Esq'r, for our travelling money from each mans place of abode to said Peverly's house— Jonah 
Chapman 100 miles £10. Abraham Buell 100 miles £10. Dav'd Cunningham 100 miles £10. Peter 
Keyes 100 miles £10. Jno his (x) mark Martin 80 miles £8. Northumberland, 24 July, 1779. Then 
rec'd of Joseph Peverly the sum of thirty -three pounds, 6s. L- M'y, which sum is in full for one 
month's advance Jonah Chapman Lt Stratford Sep 1779 Then rec'd of Joseph Peverly the 
rations in full allowed for six men from July 24. to Oct'r 23d 1779 Jonah Chapman " 

" Northumberland Oct'o 1, 1779. Received of Joseph Peverly fifty-eight dollars & four shil- 
lings which is in full for the allowance of Rum while scouting — per Jonah Chapman 

" EnlistmenU— James Hardy enlisted in Capt Jno. House's Co. of Col. Morey's Regt in July 
1777 from Lancaster Eleazer Rossbrook, Josiah and Thomas Blodgett Nathan Barlow Joshua 
Lamshier and Samuel Page enlisted in Capt. Whitcomb's Co in July 1777, from Lancaster, 
Northumberland & Stratford. Eleazer Rossbrook enlisted in Maj Benj Whitcomb's Independent 
Company of Rangers Dec 28 1776 from Lancaster. Edward Mardean, James Rosebrook, 
Haynes French, and Henry Tibbetts at the same time as privates in the same company. They 
served until Dec. 31, 1779. John Trickey of Northumberland enlisted in Col. Thos. Stickney's 
Co from Boscawen Aug. 1, 1779 for one year." 


Roads occupied much attention of the early settlers. The Indian trails,, 
kept somewhat worn in most of the distance by the hunters and trappers,. 

Revolutionary Period and Early Roads. 89 

were better than a trackless wilderness; yet it surprises us to see it stated 
in Power's journal their company marched as many as twenty miles a 
day, the same distance allowed foot soldiers as a day's march in a civilized 
country. It is quite probable that Capt. Rogers cut out a road to convey 
his supplies to construct Fort Went worth, in 1755. Three ways were in 
existence early to reach the Upper Coos from below. One, and the princi- 
pal one, was the Connecticut river, with canoes and "earns" in summer, 
and on the ice in winter. Another was on the highlands, west of the 
Ammonoosuc, passing by Streeters pond, in Lisbon, and the east part of 
Littleton. The valley of the Ammonoosuc was the third route. The 
early roads were cut about eight feet wide, and "corduroyed." They were 
not much like our later roads, but the pioneers seem to have been able to 
traverse them on foot, on horseback, or to drive cattle over them without 
serious detriment to their progress. But these trails were unsuited to the 
needs of an increasing population. In all town and proprietors' meetings, 
roads was the most important subject of discussion. Little progress was 
made for years. Edwards Bucknam, Timothy Nash, David Page, David 
Page, Jr., of Lancaster, were appointed, March 12, 1 7 ♦ » 7 , members of a 
committee to lookout and mark roads to the "Ameroscoggin," Pickwackett, 
and the first settlements on the Connecticut. 

At a special meeting of the governor and council at Portsmouth, March 
13, 1772, a petition was presented by the proprietors of Lancaster, North- 
umberland, and Shelburne, setting forth the utility of a road from Conway 
to the Connecticut river, and praying His Excellency would be pleased to 
order the surveyor-general of lands to mark out a proper road, and issue 
such other orders as would " effectuate " the same. 

Nothing tended so much to cause a demand for a new county, as the 
badness of the roads between Upper Coos and Haverhill. 

About 1775 the proprietors of Apthorp offered two tracts of land of 
100 acres, to any one who would cut away the trees and bushes on the 
most direct route between Haverhill and Lancaster line, a distance then 
considered as fifty miles, and make a road passable for a one-horse wagon 
containing two persons. This offer was accepted by -Moses Blake, who <lul\ 
executed his contract, and was deeded the two nearest lots to tin 1 mouth of 
John's river. 

These petitions from Hammond's Town Papers tell their own story: 

" To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives for the State of Newhampshire 
(humbly Sheweth) The Inhabitants of A Place Called LTper Cods Thai they began Setelmenl at 
that Place more than twentithree Years ago and ever since have Continued their Setelment through 
many Difficulties Especially on account of the Badness of the Roads through Littleton and Dal 
ton which have never been properly Cleared nor bridged by which means wagons or Sleighs p 
with the greatest Danger and never more than half a Load which Subjects the inhabitants of Said 
Coos to very Large Expence in transporting necessary foreign articles and others in Removing with 
their faraileys and Efects from Conne-tiei it Massachusetts and the Easterly pari of New Eamp 

90 History of Coos County. 

shire to the Same Difficulties which very much Impedes & hinders the Setelment of the Towns on 
Connecticut River etc Lying above S'd Littleton & Dalton Your Petitioners beg Leave to farther 
Sugjest that the Townships of Littleton aud Dalton being owned by only a few Gentlemen and 
the Towns not Vested with Power nor the Inhabitants of ability to Lay out Clear bridge and make 
Passable Said Road through which Your Petitioners must Pass on any Business belonging to the 
Probate, or County Matters, Wherefore your Petitioners Pray Your Honors to take their Case into 
Your wise Consideration and order that the Road be made Passable and keept in good Repair 
through Said towns of Littilton & Dalton to the acceptance a Commitee to be appointed for that 
Purp »se or by Some other way as your Honors Shall See fit and Your Petitioners Will Ever Pray 
"May 10th 17d8 

Inhabitants of Lancaster 

"Jonas Wilder, Aamasa Grout, Jonas Baker, Joseph Brackelt, Edw'ds Bucknam, Phinehas 
Hodgin, Francis Willson, John Weeks, Abijah Darby, Walter Philbrook, Samuel Johnson, Hope- 
still Jenison, David Page, Emons Stockwell, Ephraim Griggs, Will'm Johnson, Jonathan Hartwell. 

" Northumberland — Jer'h Eames Ju'r, Tho's Eames, Joseph Peverly, Abner osgood, J. Whip 
pie, Daniel Spauiding, Abel Bennett, thomas Burnside, James Burnside. 

"Stratford.— Hez'i Fuller, David Jnoson, Hetli Baldwin, Elijah Hinman, Joshua Lamken, 
Archippus Blodget, Jabez Baldwin, Elijah Blodget, Oliver Lamkin, James Curtiss, Josiah Blod- 
get, James Brown, Nuc >mb Blodget, Benj'n Strong, William Curtiss 

" Piercy. — John Cole, Caleb Smith. 

" Relative to the Formation of Coos County, 1790 To the Honourable senate and house of 
Representatives of the State of Newhanipshire, to be convened at Concord on the first Wednesday 
in Jan'y next, 

" The petition of the select Men of the towns of Lancaster Northumberland and Stratford, for 
and in behalf of the respective towns, Humbly Sheweth; That our located situation in the north- 
ern part of the state is such, that it will be perticularly beneficial for us, to have Conway and ad- 
jacent towns annexed to us, in the formation of the northerly County in s'd State, not only on ac- 
count of the occupancy and improvement of our most advantageous road to seaport, but in order 
to promote emigrants, and agriculture in this fertile & healthy territory; the promotion of which, 
we humbly conceive will be of publick utility, and the state to which we owe our allegiance, will 
receive emolument in proportion to the opulency of this part of the state— And your petitioners as 
in duty bound will ever pray — Lancaster Dec'r 29 1790 

" Edw'ds Bucknam, 
"Emmons Stockwell, 
"Francis Willson, 

Select Men 
for Northumberland, 

" Joshpii Pkverly, Lancaster 

" Jer'm Eames, 
"Elijah Hinman, 
" Jamls Brown. 


Petition for a new county, 1791. 

"To the Honorable the General Court of the State of New Hampshire— The petition of the In- 
habitants of Lancaster in the County of Grafton 

" Humbly Sheweth 

" That your Petitioners live at the distance of near sixty miles from the nearest shire Town in 
this County 

" That a very considerable part of the Inhabitants of this part of the County live above us and 
are under similar disadvantages with us, 

"That the Roads to Haverhill our nearest shire Town are exceedingly bad and at some seasons 
of the year impassable, Wherefore we your petitioners pray that we may be seperated from the 
said County of Grafton and made a new County by a line drawn from Connecticut River between 
the Towns of Concord alias Guuthwait and Littleton and on Eastward taking in the Towns of Con- 
wa, Eaton &cto the Province line so call'd and we as in duly bound shall ever pray — 

" Lancaster Nov'r 22nd 1791. 

Revolutionary Period and Early Roads. 91 

"Edw'ds Bucknam, William Bruce, Stephen Willson, Jeremiah Willcox, Emmons Stockwell, 

Robert Gotam, Francis Willson, Joseph Bruce, Jonas Wilder, junur, Asaph Darby, Jonas Baker, 
Jonathan Cram, Edward Spaulding, Will'm Moore, Joseph Brackett, Epbraim Wilder, .John 
Weeks, Jon'a Ilartwell, Nathan Lovewell, Joseph Wilder, Samuel Johnson, Dennis Stanley, Isaac 
Darby, Phinehas Bruce, Elisha Wilder, John Rosbrook, E/.ra Reves, Benj'a Twombly, Walter 
Philbrook, Moses Page, John Mackintire, Abijah Darby, Bradfor Sanderson. Zadock Samson, 
Jonathan Ros, Daniel How, David Stockwell, Daniel Chany, John Wilder. Jonas Wilder, Manas- 
seb Wilder, Charles Rosbrook, David Page, James Twombly, Coffin Moore, Phinehas Hodgdon, 
William Johnson," 

President D wight came to Lancaster on horseback in 1797. He says 
the roads were good from Haverhill to Concord (Lisbon). "Here he first 
found 'causeys' or 'corduroy' roads (not in good repair)." He came up 
the Ammonoosuc until he reached what is now Littleton village, when 
they commenced ascending the mountains of that town toward Dalton. 
"The mire was often so stiff and so deep that our horses scarcely strug- 
gled through it. The roots, also, the stumps, rocks, stones, and ' causeys ' 
multiplied upon us in almost every part of our progress." The road con- 
tinued "on the same mountainous ground, and embarrassed with the same 
disagreeable circumstances " until within six miles of Lancaster. Of the 
Dalton mountains he says that "the height and rudeness of these moun- 
tains must prove a serious obstruction to all traveling for pleasure from 
the country below to the country above." Going from Lancaster through 
Jefferson, via "RosebrookV and the "Notch," he makes no complaint 
of bad roads, except that the first two miles of the " Notch " is so steep as 
to make riding on horseback seriously inconvenient, but says from Bart- 
lett to Conway they passed " through a good road.*' 

This alone is sufficient to show that the communication between 
" Upper Coos " and the Saco valley and points below was much easier than 
with Haverhill, and shows why the people were so anxious to be united 
with Conway in a new county. 

In his account of his visit to Canada line in 1803, Dr. Dwight says 
the roads in Stratford exhibit strong indications of a lax and inefficienl 
spirit in some of the inhabitants. Through Wales Gore, between Strat- 
ford and Cockburn (Columbia), the road was very imperfectly made. In 
Cockburn "for so new a settlement well wrought, dry and hard." Through 
Cockburn and Colebrook and Stewart the road is very good. The most 
important legislation for Coos county in its early existence was the incor- 
poration of the Tenth New Hampshire Turnpike from the west line of 
Bartlett through the Notch of the White Hills. This was done December 
28, 1803. The distance was twenty miles, and the expense of building it 
$40,000. This furnished an avenue to the sea] mils, and became one of 
the best paying roads in all northern New Hampshire. Until the 
advent of railroads, this was the great outlet of Coos county, and the 
thoroughfare over which its merchandise came from Portland, hi win- 

92 History of Coos County. 

ter, often, lines of teams from Coos, over half a mile in length, might 
be seen going down with tough Canadian horses harnessed to " pungs " or 
sleighs, loaded with pot or pearl ash, butter, cheese, pork, lard, and peltry, 
returning with well assorted loads of merchandise, or filling the caravan- 
saries of Crawford, Rosebrook, and others with a wild hilarity. Before 
this time most of the incorporated towns were well provided with roads; 
but wagons, carriages, and "one-horse chaises " could not roll along their 
level surfaces with as much enjoyment to the occupant as can be taken 
to-day, until about 1820. 

Tbe Jefferson Turnpike, fourteen miles in length, from Lancaster 
through Jefferson, Bretton Woods to the Tenth Turnpike, was incorpo- 
rated December 11, 1804, and cost $18,400, and was of much value to the 
"North Country." 

As early as 1803 a road had been laid out from Colebrook to Hallowell, 
Me., ninety miles, via Dixville Notch, Errol, etc., but for years nothing 
came of it. The following by J. W. Weeks, concerning the roads of Lan- 
caster is of value : — 

" What seemed to impress the first settlers most was the matter of roads. Hardly a meeting 
of the proprietors took place without some action upon this matter. First to look out and mark 
roads. March 12, 1767, a committee was appointed, consisting of David Page, Timothy Nash, 
Edwards Bucknam, and two others, to look out and mark the road to ' Picwackett (Conway), to 
the Androscoggin, and to the nearest settlement on the Connecticut River.' Whether the roads 
followed for many years after were marked by this committee is unknown. But roads were 
marked out and the routes followed, sometimes near where the present highways run, but in many 
places very different. The remains of rude bridges, corduroys and their like, mark the course of 
some of them to day. The route down the river from the head of the island or ' Stockwell's 
Bridge,' has evidently never been changed, but the road to Picwackett, through Dartmouth (Jeffer- 
son), has been changed more than once. The first road followed close upon the bank of Israel's 
river to Jefferson Mills, thence to ' Whipple's Meadow,' ^Jefferson Meadows); the next followed the 
high ground, considerably west of the present road, to Jefferson Mills. These roads can still be 
traced. The route to Ameroscoggin passed over the hills east of the river and connected with the 
present road near Geo.W. Webster's, and passing through Jefferson, ran some twenty -five rods east 
of Samuel Mardin's and William J. Chamberlain, passing near the Waumbek and high up the hill 
beyond. The first road to Northumberland, after leaving North street, passed near the top of the 
high bank, by the house of E. D. Stockwell, and striking the bank of the river near Capt. A. M. 
Beattie's, thence following the river bank to near the Northumberland line. 

" These roads or highways were rude affairs, often very crooked, and passing over high hills 
for the sake of dry ground, very little attempt being made for drainage. The small streams and 
swampy places were passed by ' corduroys,' that is by laying two parallel timbers lengthwise of 
the road, six or seven feet apart, and covering them with cross-timbers or poles laid crosswise, cut 
eight feet long. These roads sufficed for the time, as there was little transportation over them ex- 
cept on horseback, and by sleds in winter. They were usually, however, wide enough and firm 
enough for ox carts, and for the lumbering two-horse wagons. The use of the plow and scraper 
was probably as great an event as was that of the road machine, later. 

" The road down the river seems to have called forth the greatest solicitude. In all the peti- 
tions for a new county from 1790 to 1805, it was set forth that the roads were nearly impassable, 
as a principal cause why this northern section be set off. The road to Conway was evidently 
made passable quite early. Col. Whipple was said to have come to Jefferson in 1764, and he, 
without doubt, came through the Notch. Nash and Sawyer's Location was granted in 1773 r 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. 93 

for building a road through that tract, and in 1786, in petitioning the Legislature for assistance , 
it was set forth that the road was out of repair from recent freshets, indicating then- was 
a road previously. At that time a committee was appointed to sell State lands and build and 
repair roads. Large tracts of land were sold at extremely low prices, from time to time, and if 
the road was built it did not stay built. After more than ten years a sort of settlement with the 
committee was effected by the Legislature. The gentlemen got their discharge and most of the 
land, but the public no road, or a very poor one. The age of turnpikes had now arrived, and in 
1803 the tenth New Hampshire turnpike was chartered, twenty miles through the Notch, and 
built at great expense. The following year the Jefferson turnpike was chartered, some fourteen 
miles, to the Rosebrook place. This road was well laid out and splendidly built. Up Israel's 
river it was straight as a line, was well drained, and worked twenty-two feet wide, in such a 
manner as to seem to defy the effects of time. From the time of building these roads Coos peo- 
ple had as good highways to Conway as could be maintained through the Notch, till the time 
of the great freshet, in 1826. 

" Prior to the four wheeled carriage, which was about 1822, the ordinary road was not much 
better than a bridle-path, although passable for the chaise, ox cart and team wagon.*' 



Boundary Surveys— Smuggling, Etc., 1812-1815— Boundary Commissions — "Indian Stream 
Territory "— Indian Stream War— Musters and Militia. 

THE report of the commissioners appointed by King George, in Coun- 
cil of February 22, 1735, and confirmed by his order of August ... 
174<), established " that the dividing line between the two provinces 
(N. H. ec Mass.) shall pass up through the mouth of Piscataqua Harbor, 
and up the middle of the river Newichwannock, (part of which is now- 
called Salmon Falls,) and through the middle of the same, to the farthest 
head thereof, and that said dividing line shall part the Isles of 'Sholes' 
and run through the middle of the Harbor, between the Islands to the Sea. 
on the southerly side, &c," and, in 1740, a survey was made in accordance 
thereto. Again, in 1789, the line was run and marked by spotting trees, 
in the then wilderness, from the head of Salmon Falls river to the High- 
lands of Canada. The course of the line thus run was. north 6 degrees 
east, and is the same line familiarly known to the residents tin 'icon as the 
"Province Line." 

In 1820, Maine, until then a portion of Massachusetts, be ante a state. 
and the boundary line between Maine and New Hampshire had become so 
obliterated and uncertain in its location, that in L827 the two states 
appointed a commission to "ascertain, survey and mark, the line between 

i»4 History of Coos County. 

the States of New Hampshire and Maine, and to erect suitable monuments 
to designate it as the true boundary line of said States." Hon. Ichabod 
Bartlett, of Portsmouth, and Hon. John W. Weeks, of Lancaster, were 
appointed commissioners for New Hampshire, and Hon. William King, and 
Hon. Hufus Mclntire, commissioners for Maine. Work was commenced 
October 1, 1827, at the head of Salmon Falls river, and the line run that 
fall forty-seven miles, to the Androscoggin river. The next year the line 
was completed to the Canada Highlands. Three stone monuments were 
erected north of the Androscoggin river, and the rest of the way the line 
was shown by marked or spotted trees. The spots on the trees became 
effaced and destroyed by fires, by wind, and natural growth, and the clear- 
ings of the settlers. For years surveyors could not follow it save by com- 
pass, as for miles there were no marks in many places. Disputes arose in 
consequence, and owners of wild and timber land were in doubt as to their 
boundaries. To rectify this, New Hampshire and Maine, in 1S5S, created 
another commission "to ascertain, survey, and mark the dividing line 
between said States, from Fryeburg to the Canada line." Henry O. Kent, 
of Lancaster, was appointed commissioner for this state, and John M.Wil- 
son by Maine. The boundary to be established nearly all lay in an unbroken 
wilderness, and extended about eighty miles in length. During the con- 
tinuance of the work the weather was unfavorable in the extreme. In a 
space of thirty -eight days, including the stormy weather, in a country 
where supplies could not be had, with a small force, the line was run by 
the commissioners personally, a series of monuments erected, and a per- 
manent line between the two commonwealths established, at an expense 
which must be considered economical when the magnitude and importance 
of the work is considered. The survey was commenced in September, 
1858. James S. Brackett and John G. Lewis, of Lancaster, were assist- 
ants, and Adjutant-General Joseph C. Abbott, of Manchester, was a vol- 
unteer member of the company, 

The line was marked by the erection of stone monuments at all road 
crossings and noticeable points where none before existed, and by retouch- 
ing the old monuments. Many large and prominent trees were blazed and 
marked on either side "N. H." "M.," and the names of various members 
of the party were added, together with the date, " 1858." 

Aside from the monuments described above, the whole course of the 
line was marked by spotting the old marked trees, and all others on the 
route, and by marking the spots with a double cross, thus X, and the 
under brush was cleared away so as to enable one to follow the line by a 
continual observance of the spots. 

It is believed that the line above described is now sufficiently marked 
and designated to afford a distinguishable and permanent dividing line r 

Survey of Maine Boundary, ecc. :•;. 

which will subserve all the purposes of the two states equally as a more 
expensive system. 

The treaty of L783 denned the northwest boundary of New Hampshire 
as "the most northwestern head of the Connecticut rivet.'" The country 
was wild and unsurveyed. The British considered that their title under 
this treaty extended down to the forty-fifth parallel of latitude, and th< 
real head of the Connecticut, while Xew Hampshire did not concern itself 
with the subject. In 1789, however. Col. Jeremiah Eames was on a com- 
mission appointed by the legislature to survey and establish the boundaries 
between Maine, New Hampshire, and Lower Canada, and his journal shows 
that they made the head of Hall's stream, the northwest bound of this 
state, and established it by suitable monuments. Hall's stream is the north- 
western branch of the Connecticut, and this survey brought all the land 
between Hall's stream and Connecticut river, including the fertile valley 
of Indian stream, within this state. The advantages of this region becom- 
ing known, in 178!> two settlers made their homes on Indian stream. 
Others followed, led hither by the richness of the soil; others, to seek in 
this remote district an asylum from pressing creditors or punishment for 

Smuggling, etc.— In 1*1.! this territory was the paradise of smugglers, 
who could readily bring from the closely-lying Canadian settlements the 
most valuable articles into the '•' States," without the slightest fear of hin- 
drance from the far-off, older New Hampshire settlements. 

The history of smuggling as carried on between this country and Canada 
from the enactment of the embargo at the close of 18<>7, and especially 
from the enactment of the more stringent non-intercourse law of 1810, to 
the declaration of war in 1812, and even, to a greater or less extent, to the 
proclamation of peace in 1815, is a portion of our annals almost wholly 
unwritten. The upper towns of New Hampshire and Vermont, from 
the close contiguity to Montreal and Quebec, the only importing cities 
of Canada, afforded the most tempting facilities and the best chances 
for success, while the high price of beef and cattle in the Provinces 
was a great allurement to the Coos farmer whose fat herds were 
almost valueless in the home market. The Federalists or opponents 
of the Administration w r ere in a large majority in this section, and they 
could see no harm in selling cattle at a good profit on Canadian soil, while 
not all friends of the Government could resist the inducements offered. 
A man, also, could readily bring hundreds of dollars of silks and satins 
in his pack, and an Indian sledge in winter would carry ten times 
as many of the same valuable commodities through the woods. No 
one would be the wiser except the accomplice, who lived this side of the 
line, and knew how r to secrete and take to market the rich goods. This 

96 History of Coos County. 

illegal trade attained such proportions that the United States stationed a 
detachment of militia at Stewartstown to suppress it in 1812. 

Canaan and West Stewartstown were often centers of wild excitement, 
and, along the line, almost an incessant campaign and warfare existed, 
for years, between the custom-house officers and their assistants, with 
their reserve force of U. S. soldiers, and the smugglers and their friends, 
both parties being armed ' k to the teeth." In these skirmishes many were 
at different times killed outright; many more were missing, even on the 
side of the officials, for whom dark fates were naturally conjectured; while 
others, on both sides, were crippled or otherwise seriously wounded. As 
nearly seventy-five years have passed since these occurrences, it is impos- 
sible to accurately detail them or the motives of the actors. We find no 
source of information but tradition, and that is so affected by ties of con- 
sanguinity, personal feeling and partisan animosity as to render it an 
unsafe guide. Eeference must be made, however, to some matters, which, 
even to this day, are kept fresh in the mind of the public. In September, 
1813, Samuel Beach, of Canaan, Vt., owning and operating a saw-mill in 
Canada, obtained a permit to take over oxen. The officers were informed 
that more cattle were taken over than were brought back, and that they 
were sold to the British. One day, Oliver Ingham, United States custom 
officer, instructed Lieutenant John Dennett in charge of the militia guard- 
ing the line not to allow Beach to take over any more cattle. Beach soon 
attempted to cross the line with a yoke of oxen, and Dennett forbade his 
doing so. He endeavored to go on, however, and finally was shot dead. 
Dennett was arrested by the civil authorities for murder and confined in 
jail at Guildhall. He escaped the next spring, and the friends of Beach 
made search for him, and in August following surprised him while cutting 
wood for his camp. He was shot in the back and disabled, then brought 
out of the woods, placed in a two-horse wagon and driven rapidly over the 
rough roads to Guildhall, where he soon died. Many believe that he was 
most inhumanly treated by his captors, and maliciously abused while on 
the road to Guildhall. 

The Federal Government now sent Capt. Hodson with a company of 
regular soldiers to relieve the militia. Capt. Hodson soon stopped the 
smuggling and the treasonable acts and utterances. He arrested Saunders 
W. Cooper, one of the militia, who was a nephew of Beach, and sent him 
to Windsor, Vt., to be tried for treason. He was accused of being a smug- 
gler, and of having joined the militia that he might give assistance to those 
desiring to aid the enemy. He was not tried, however, on account of his 
youth and the close of the war, and, after his death, years later, his 
widow obtained a pension for his services as a soldier. The smugglers and 
their friends hated Hodson, and once, while he was at Lancaster, they 
endeavored to get hold of him by arresting him for some alleged breach of 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. 


the civil law. He was aware of their object, however, and had a suffi 
cient number of soldiers with him to frustrate their des gns. He tva an 
. able officer, and, later, a prominent citizen of Maine 

Indian Stream Territory and War.-ln 1819 the British and Ameri 
can commissioners attempted to jointly establish the boundary line between 
Canada and this state, but they could not agree. The American con mk 
sioners held to Fames' survey and Hall's stream as the bound made by 
the treaty, while the British commissioners contended for lines aTcoroW 
to their construction. From the survey in 1789, the settlers Ce had 
known nothing else than that they were in New Hampshire territory and 

n 1" u e eLI e of 7v na f 4 ° "" 'T' acknowledged that of fcS 
in consequence of this disagreement, the Canadian local authorities 

Te'ritorv " TheP ^ -°f **"" ^^ ^^ ° f "**- 
lemtoiy. The Provincial government of Canada at one time located a 

township on this territory and called it "Drayton;" built a road from 
Hall s Stream to Indian Stream, and assumed occupancy. The lawW 
element before mentioned was still in large force, and'as iLas more con 
venient for then personal safety to be out of the jurisdiction of American 
aw, many advocated the Canadian claim. Up to this time New Ham p 
shire officers had served the processes of New Hampshire courts and the 
majority of the settlers were faithful to this state 

In 1824 Indian Stream Territory was inhabited by about fifty-eight set 

about t 7 \ r fammeS ' mad6a P ° pulatio » ° f 285 Persons Ct 

about 847 acres under improvement. These settlers claimed, under certa n 

Indian deeds the principal of which was that of Philip, an okTchiefof 
he St. Francis tribe, dated 1790. The general government as eariy as that 
toe prohAited purchases of land from the Indians; but it was daimed 
that the grantors living without the jurisdiction of the United States m™de 
his case an exception to the rule. By the convention of 1827 the ues 
ton of the whole northeastern boundary was referred to the King of the 
Netherlands, whose award in respect to this part of the line thiew t s 
whole tract upon the Canada side. But, as « the head of the Connect cut " 
which he adopted did not approach the highlands, the people of New 
Hampshire were dissatisfied, and, as the award was rejected by the United 
States, the whole question was left open to further difficulty 

In 1820 the state owing to the settlers here resisting process issuing in 
Coos county, of which the tract was regarded as forming a part 1, a 
asserted a title and a jurisdiction, by a resolution directing the attorney 
general to proceed against intruders; and again, in 1824, by an express 
declaratory act, in which also it released title to every actual settler of wo 
hundred acres, reserving, of course, all other portions to itself 

The settlement, in 1830, numbered ninety voters, and there wasalanre 
enough number of disaffected men to lead them to talk of resistance to 

98 History of Coos County. 

the long acknowledged authority. The two great powers had agreed, that, 
until the boundary question should be settled, neither should extend their 
jurisdiction over the disputed lands. The Canadian officers continued their 
attempts at control, and even compelled some of the people to do military 
duty in 1831. Those loyal to this state were alarmed, and applied to their 
friends below for help, which was not readily forthcoming, and an inde- 
pendent government was mooted. At this juncture, two Federal customs 
officers threw a firebrand into this combustible mass by exacting duties 
from all the Indian Stream people who brought produce into New Hamp- 
shire or Vermont, thus declaring them beyond the United States. These 
illegal and ill advised measures excited the people intensely, and gave the 
discontented a good chance to work in the interests of Canada. A majority 
of the inhabitants concluded, however, to form an independent govern- 
ment to be in force until the boundary was decided. July 9, 1832, the 
voters of the disputed tract met, by notification, formed the government 
of " The United Inhabitants of Indian Stream Territory," adopted a con- 
stitution, which created an assembly and a council. The new government 
determined to resist the service of processes from New Hampshire courts. 
Hon. John H. White, sheriff of Coos county, hearing of this, detailed the 
state of affairs as he heard them to the secretary of state at Concord, and 
asked instructions. The governor and council called for the opinion of 
the attorney-general, and a copy of this, asserting jurisdiction over, and 
right to, the territory, with a letter from the governor, saying the laws 
should be executed in Indian Stream, was sent to Sheriff White, who thus 
informed the residents and officials of Indian Stream. This was in Decem- 
ber, 1834, and had its effect with the people until Alexander Rea. a justice 
of Hereford, L. C, who lived near the disputed ground, and who had been 
active in fomenting strife, advised resistance; under his influence, and 
with the expected aid of the province, the people voted to resist the laws 
of this state, and abide by their constitution and laws. March 12, 1835, 
Deputy Sheriff William M. Smith, from Colebrook, attempted to arrest 
C. J. Haines and Eeuben Sawyer, and was violently beaten and driven 
from the Territory by several men. March 13, Milton Harvey and an 
assistant were assaulted while trying to attach some property, and also 
driven from the Territory. Wild reports came down to Lancaster of this 
resistence; it was asserted that the Territory was organizing a military 
force, had made an alliance with Indians for war, and were building a 
block-house for an intrenchment, under the name of "jail." 

About this time the people of Indian Stream Territory chose John 
Haines to properly present their position to Col. White. He was instructed 
to say that they had unanimously "resolved to abide by and support our 
own constitution and laws, agreeably to our oaths, until known to what 
government we properly belong, when our constitution is at an end." Col. 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. 99 

White»gave no satisfaction to Mr. Haines, saying, merely, that he would 
lay the situation before the governor, and he at once wrote a letter, giving 
the rumors prevalent concerning the action of the people, as well what 
had been done, and asked for a detachment of militia to enable him and 
his officers to properly discharge their duties. It is evident from the 
names of the councillors of Indian Stream, that up to this period many of 
the people had only intended to keep a neutral position, and really consid- 
ered themselves under no jurisdiction, save that of their own laws, until 
the boundary question should be decided, and they allotted to New Hamp- 
shire or Canada. It was to prevent disorder and anarchy, not to cause it, 
even if the influence of Rea had developed its formation, that the " Terri- 
tory" was organized. Ebenezer Fletcher, Richard I. Blanchard, Jeremiah 
Tabor and others, who were members of the Council, were never disloyal 
to the United States, but they could not hold in check the lawless element 
which favored union with Canada. April 18, 1835. — The assembly of 
Indian Stream passed acts making it perjury to violate the oath of alle- 
giance to their constitution, with a penalty of confinement in the stocks 
united to disqualification as a witness in the territorial courts; also, for- 
bidding any sheriff, or sheriff's officers, residing in Indian Stream, or the 
United States, not appointed by the government of Indian Stream, per- 
forming any official duties within the Territory under the penalty of tine 
and imprisonment. This clear distinction against the United States and 
in favor of Canada alarmed the American residents, and the same day they 
drafted and sent a petition to Gov. Badger, asking protection from the 
action of these laws. Shortly after, the majority who passed the obnox- 
ious laws, also sent a memorial to Gov. Badger acknowledging that they 
had kept the Canadian government informed of their acts, and begged for 
favorable consideration. In June, 1835, Gov. Badger presented the case 
and papers to the legislature, at Concord. This body resolved to main- 
tain jurisdiction over Indian Stream Territory, and to hold its possession 
until the boundary dispute should be fully settled: and authorized the 
governor to render all necessary aid to the executive officers <>f Coos 
county in executing the laws of New Hampshire in that Territory. 

This legislation was at once communicated to Sheriff White, and by him 
to the people of Indian Stream. Quiet was produced for a lime, but the 
Provincial government again interfered, and the discontented began t<> 
make preparations to resist the execution of New Hampshire laws, while 
they allowed Canadian warrants to be served in the Territory. The afore- 
mentioned Justice Rea. net content with issuing writs to be served in 
Indian Stream, made various speeches urging resistance t<> American laws, 
and promising help from Canada. In October, 1^».~>. William M. Smith, a 
deputy- sheriff of Coos county, with Richard I. Blanchard and John M. 
Harvey as assistants, attempted to serve a writ on John H. Tyler. Tyler 

100 History of Coos County. 

refusing to turn out property for attachment, Smith arrested him, and in 
taking him away, Tyler was forcibly rescued by several of his neighbors. 
Alexander Rea, on being informed of this arrest, issued a warrant against 
Smith, Blanchard and Harvey, in the name of the King of Great Britain, 
for attempting to serve processes not granted by Canadian courts. Blan- 
chard, the only one residing in Indian Stream, was arrested on this war- 
rant, October 22, 1835, by an armed posse of from twelve to fifteen men, 
and taken by force from his dwelling, to be tried in Canada for doing his 
duty as a deputy sheriff of the county of Coos. 

As the news of this outrage was immediately spread, great excitement 
prevailed in the upper towns of Coos. Clark J. Haines started at once on 
horseback for Colebrook, giving notice at Clarksville and Stewartstown. 
As fast as notified the men of the various towns armed and hastened to 
the relief of Blanchard. Many took their arms and accoutrements as 
militia men. Nearly three hundred assembled in Canaan; citizens aroused 
by an outrage upon the rights of one of their number, and determined to 
rescue him. Several parties started to intercept Blanchard and his captors, 
and we give Blanchard's own language of the rescue: "When I was 
within a mile of the house of Alex. Rea, to which place I understood they 
were conveying me, we were met by a party of eight men from New 
Hampshire on horseback, all, or most of them, armed. They demanded 
my release from the party having custody of me, which was refused, but, 
after some further talk, the party demanding resolutely my release, I was 
at length released, without any force being used on either side, and I went 
with the party down to the store of Parmelee & Joy, in Canaan, Vt." 

The rescuing party consisted of E. H. Mahurin, J. M. Harvey, J. P. 
Wiswell, J. M. Hilliard, Horatio Tuttle, I. B. Blodgett, Samuel Weeks, 
Jr. , and Miles Hurlburt. At the store in Canaan mention was made of 
J. H. Tyler, the former prisoner of Smith, as being one of the party in 
charge of Blanchard. Ephraim C. Aldrich and Miles Hurlburt, taking 
with them an advertisement offering five dollars reward for the capture of 
Tyler, started in search of him, and, shortly after crossing the Canada 
line, they were met by Rea, who, highly excited, ordered them off the 
king's highway and his (/rounds. Rea had over a dozen men whom he 
called upon to arrest Aldrich and Hurlburt. The latter drew a pistol, and 
Aldrich advised Rea not to approach Hurlburt as he might shoot. Turning 
to Aldrich, Rea ordered a man to take his horse by the bridle, and he 
.attempted to arrest Aldrich, who drew a sword and defended himself. 
Rea and his party began to throw stones, two of which hit Hurlburt with 
force. He discharged his pistol, wounding Young, and as, by this time, 
thirty or forty men had come up from Canaan, Rea, becoming alarmed, 
ran for the woods, Aldrich pursuing him. After a short skirmish, Rea 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. mi 

surrendered, was placed in a w.-igon and taken to Canaan, where, after 
being detained some hours, lie was released. 

The legislature, by an act approved June L8, 1836, authorized the gov- 
ernor " to appoint commissioners to repair to Indian Stream and collect 
and arrange such testimony as may be obtained to rebut and explain the 
charges and testimony obtained and preferred against the authorities and 
inhabitants of this state by Lord Gosford, Governor of the Province of 
Lower Canada." Gov. Badger appointed as members of this commission 
Adjutant-General Joseph Low, Ralph Metcalf and John P. Hale, who 
made a report, November 23, 1830. 

As the excitement increased, and the adherents of New Hampshire 
feared for their safety, Gov. Badger instructed Gen. Low "to take such 
steps as might be found necessary to maintain the integrity of the state 
and its laws, and, if necessary, to call out so much of the Twenty-fourth 
Regiment as will enable the executive officers of the county of Coos to 
execute the laws, and suppress and put down all insurrectionary move- 
ments." Necessity arising, Gen. Low ordered Col. Ira Young to "detach 
and order into service, and place at the disposal of John H. White, Esq., 
sheriff of the County of Coos, one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four 
sergeants, two musicians, and forty-two privates, for three months unless 
sooner discharged." This order was handed to Col. Ira Young, November 
13, 1835, about six o'clock in the evening, and, as Capt. Mooney and some 
men were already at Indian Stream, an express immediately sent by him 
to Ensign Drew, of the Stewartstown company, with directions to collect 
his force at once and report without delay. By three o'clock in the morn- 
ing of the next day, about twenty men had assembled, some having trav- 
eled nineteen miles on foot to join Capt. Mooney." 

* Roll of Copt. Mooney'8 Company, 24th Regt. , N. H. M., serving at Indian Stream. — 
James Mooney, Captain, Stewartstown; Haines French, Lieutenant, Columbia; Amos W. Drew, 
Ensign, Stewartstown; Joseph Durgin, Sergeant, Northumberland; William Covel, Sergeant. 
Colebrook; Robert Tirrell, Sergeant, Stewartstown; Isaac Miner, Sergeant, Whitefield; George 
Hight, Sergeant, Jefferson; Privates, Asahel Aldricli, Whitefield; David Alls, Colebrook; 
James H. Balch, Lancaster; Thomas Batchelder, Whitefield; Ephraim F. Bartlett, Whitefield; 
Phill C. Bickford, Northumberland; Linus Blakeslee, Dalton; Arnold Bolls, Dalton; Henry Bout- 
well, Dalton; William W. Brooks, Colebrook; Volney M Brown, Stratford; Jesse Carr, Jefferson; 
Jesse W.Carr, Columbia: Nathan S. Carr, Indian Stream, Sub., Colebrook: Hazen Chamberlain, Cole- 
brook: William Curtis, Stratford; Nathaniel G. Dodge, Stark: Ahaz S. French, Columbia; Orisa- 
mus Frizzle, Colebrook; William Grimes, Dalton; Alfred Greenleaf, Jefferson; Samuel G. Grout, Dal- 
ton; Horatio Grover, Colebrook; Alexander, Gullen, Sub., Colebrook or Columbia; Silas Huntoon, 
"Whitefield; Duglas Ingerson, Lancaster; Enoch C. Jewell, Whitefield; Dennis .bines. Lancaster; 
Abiel C. Kidder, Stewartstown: Eli Kinerson. Stratford; Leaviii Loud, Dalton; William G. by- 
man, Columbia; Clark McFarland, Stark; Joseph Morrill. Jr., Whitefield; John Perkins, Lancas- 
ter; William Price, Whitefield; Benjamin Stilling, Jefferson; Ira Stilling, Jefferson; Charles F. 
Stone, Lancaster; John Sweat, Columbia; William Wallace, Jr., Dalton or Columbia; Asa 8. 
White, Whitefield; Samuel Whittemore, Colebrook. 

102 History of Coos County. 

Very early, say two or three o'clock, on the morning of November 14, 
1835, Captain Mooney, with a guard, accompanied deputy sheriff Blan- 
chard to arrest a number against whom warrants had been issued for the vio- 
lation of our laws, and who were supposed to be at Applebee's. After stop- 
ping a short time at Perry's Stream, Ensign Drew crossed with twenty 
men to surround the house (a large two story frame building), with orders 
to keep quiet until daylight. Two horses at pasture were alarmed by the 
soldiers, and ran to the house arousing the inmates by their excited snort- 
ing and neighing. Emor Applebee came to the door, and going back into 
the house returned with a gun, and his son, Benjamin, also armed. He 
warned the officers and guard not to approach. The sheriff announced 
his office and mission, and ordered them " in the name of the state " to lay 
down their arms and submit; upon this they levelled their guns and said 
they would shoot the first one who came near them. They were covered 
at once by twenty rifles. Captain Mooney said that his instructions were 
to take them alive or dead; when the elder Applebee ordered the whole 
company to leave his farm ' ' in the name of the King,'' and started his wife 
as a messenger to notify his associates of his peril. By this time, however, 
the soldiers had cut off communication with outside parties, and Mrs. 
Applebee was driven back to the house. Gen. Lewis Loomis, who had 
accompanied the soldiers, now advised the Applebees that their escape was 
impossible, and that it was their wisest course to surrender and go with 
him to the officers, when, if they could satisfy them of the rectitude of 
their intentions, they should be permitted to return. The Applebees under 
his plausible diplomacy consented to do this, gave up their arms and ammu- 
nition, and were made prisoners. They, with others of the malcontents 
captured, were taken to Lancaster, and lodged in jail. After six months 
and three days imprisonment, Benjamin was released upon his own recog- 
nizance. Emor Applebee was released in the same manner after an 
imprisonment of a year. The other prisoners were discharged in time, 
and none were ever brought to trial. 

The guns captured from the Applebees were heavily charge with powder, 
ball, and large buck-shot or pistol-bullets. One gun contained seventeen 
bullets, one rifle seven bullets, and the spare guns an ounce ball each, and 
from seven to twelve pistol-bullets. This prompt arrest followed by others, 
crushed opposition by force, but the British party continued to make 
threats, and the vicious and law-escaping element of the territory labored 
with them. On learning these facts, Gov. Badger issued an order calling out 
more troops, if quiet was not restored, and the turbulent ones thought bet- 
ter of the situation and either emigrated to Canada or quietly submitted 
to .New Hampshire law. 

The national government refunded the expenses incurred by the state 
in this campaign, and, by this action, the militia engaged became "veteran 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. 103 

soldiers of the United States," and were granted 160 acres of government 
land each. In 1819, Congress satisfied the state's claim by paying $7, <>i mi. 
The next year an attempt was made to recover interest on this sum from 
the year 1836, which, after being more than once refused, was allowed by 
Congress in January, 1852, with a proviso that the amount should not 
exceed the sum of $6,000. But, in disposing of the questions growing 
out of the claims on the part of the settlers here, resort was had to the 
superior court of New Hampshire. In a decision given in this court in 
1810, by Chief Justice Parker, the jurisdiction asserted by the state was 
affirmed, and was held to refer back, in the absence of any subsequent grant 
to the period of separation from Great Britain, and consequently carried 
with it all title to the lands. This decision settled the question; and the juris- 
diction thus maintained was acquiesced in by Great Britain and the United 
States in the Webster-Ashburton treaty made the next year, which laid 
down the line as claimed by the state. The stamp of right and justice was 
thus placed upon the prompt action of the New Hampshire officials. 

Masters, Trainings, and Militia* — There are very few people now living 
who remember the old-fashioned muster and May trainings in New Hamp- 
shire. These came down from colonial days and were looked upon by young 
and old as the " great days " of the year— by the old, to rehearse and keep 
alive the patriotic spirit — by the young, to view the scenes of mimic war 
and glory. These militia " trainings " and " musters " were the only pas- 
times for the year. For days before these occasions, preparations were 
made to attend by the whole country around. So, early in the morning 
on these days, in carriages, on horseback, and on foot, all, save the aged 
and decrepit, were seen wending their way to the training-and-muster- 
fleld. Little do the boys of the present, who have picnics, excursions, 
base ball, circuses, and scores of diversions, realize the poverty of pastimes 
in those early days; and how they were enjoyed — almost reverenced. 

Every "free, able-bodied, white male citizen of the state, resident 
therein, of the age of eighteen years and under the age of forty-five years, 
unless exempted by law," was liable to do military duty in the company 
within whose limits he resided or into which he may have enlisted. Each 


company was obliged " to meet on the third Tuesday of May annually," for 
inspection and military drill, "armed and equipped as the law directs," 
and on one other day, by order of the captain. The annual regimental 
muster was in September, and called by the general; and this embraced 
all the companies in the regiment. 

The law required that "each enrolled man should be armed with a mus- 
ket with a flint lock, two spare flints, with a steel or iron ram-rod, a bay- 
onet, scabbard and belt, a priming-wire and brush, a knapsack and can- 
teen, and a cartridge-box that contains twenty-four cartridges." 

*By Hon. B. F. Whi.I.lui. 

104 History of Coos County. 

The militia companies, or, as they were sometimes called, " flood- 
wood companies," embraced all the enrolled men who did not enlist into 
an independent company. In every regiment there was a company of 
cavalry, sometimes called "troopers," a company of artillery, one or two 
companies of light infantry, and a company of riflemen. 

The officers were a captain, a lieutenant, and an ensign, except in the 
cavalry, where the ensign was called a cornet. To each company there 
were four sergeants, four corporals, one bass-drummer, and usually two 
tenor-drummers and two fifers, except in the cavalry, whose music was 
the bugle. 

The parade-ground, or " muster-field," as it was called, was selected by 
the field officers in some central portion of the "lines" of the regiment, 
and " must be smooth and level and contain not less than twenty acres " 
in order to give room for the evolutions of the companies in line or column 
of attack. Early on the morning of muster, from all the country round, 
came pouring into town, companies, officers, soldiers and citizens, young 
and old, preceded only by those building booths and tents on the outskirts 
of the field the night before. Joy, mirth, patriotism, and good cheer usher 
in the day; veneration, the martial spirit, parade, the love of tinsel and 
show, had not yet died out. 

The militia, or infantry companies, were generally large and considered 
the solid branch of the service. The officers were armed with a sword 
with belt, and w^ore a cap with plume. The riflemen were more preten- 
tious and dashing. They wore, generally, a blue coat and "pants," trimmed 
with red cord or silver braid, with red cuffs and collars, and high gaiters. 
Their caps were generally black velvet, with plumes. They were very 
attractive, either at rest or in motion. The artillery represented strength. 
Their uniform was blue, trimmed with red. They were armed with a 
sword and belt, and equipped with a knapsack and canteen. They wore a 
cocked hat having a black plume with red top. Their six-pound brass can- 
non w r as polished to its brightest. The trappings of their horses and ammu- 
nition carriage were of the gayest style known. The light infantry com- 
panies were the most showy part of the regiment. Their uniform was a 
black coat with white " pants." They wore high leather caps with white 
plumes. Their motion was quick and effective, and they w r ere greatly 
given to surprises in the evolutions of the day. They usually had from 
eight to ten pioneers, armed with the necessary tools, who were in front 
when marching by flank, to clear the way of all obstructions, span a ditch 
or raise a tent. But the cavalry on their prancing steeds, with the gayest 
of uniforms and housings, bear-skin cap, pistols, sabre, boots and spurs, 
was the delight of all. The bugle-notes which heralded their movements 
will never die away with those who saw that day. 

The most gorgeous display of all w^as when the adjutant had formed 

Survey of Maine Boundary, &c. lor. 

the regiment in line, the colonel with his staff came on parade to take com- 
mand, and receive the brigadier-general with his staff for review. These 
officers were mounted on the gayest of chargers, and were caparisoned at 
great expense in all the paraphernalia of war to excite the admiration of 
the thousands who came to witness the annual display. These field officers 
all wore the Napoleonic cocked hat. The colonel and staff wore a white 
plume and silver trimmings. The general and his stall' wore black ostrich 
plumes and gold trimmings. 

After the inspection and grand review by the general, sometimes the 
regiment was divided for the mimic show of war — a "mock battle" — 
when the cavalry and light infantry showed their skill in quick move- 
ments, the riflemen as scouts, the artillery at bombardment, and the militia 
at the charge, till the waning sun and the bugle called to quarters. So 
passed this day of days in "ye olden time." < >ne who was there to see 
gives you this account while it is fresh in memory. 

The writer lived some two miles from this enchanted ground. He had 
annually heard in the distance the booming of cannon, the rolling drum, the 
screaming fife and the rattling musketry, and one bright September morn- 
ing he was taken to the muster and training. Sixty years have since 
passed by, and yet he has never been so thoroughly enraptured as when he 
reached a height overlooking the field where he could see the long line of 
companies in their rich attire stretching across the field; the vast concourse 
of spectators outside the line of guards, and hear the music and the voice 
of command with a distinctness that was fascinating as it fell on the ears. 
Farther on, just outside, he became absorbed in the cries of peddlers 
hawking their wares, the baker selling his gingerbread; and passed by 
booths where were sold lemonade, candy, and " new rum at four-pence a 
glass. " 

As the day closed and the ranks were broken, and the vast crowd were 
reluctantly turning their faces homeward, squads of men, before taking a 
soldier's leave, were seen around the tents, or sitting on the ground sing- 
ing patriotic songs, among which was sure to be " Yankee Doodle." The 
spirit, style and even the manners of the Revolution were still a possession 
among the people; but, as time passed on. and new pastimes and holidays 
were created, the law requiring active militia service was repealed in L851. 
Under the old law there were three regiments in Coos county — the 24th, 
the 41st and 42nd; and these three, with the 13th and 32nd in Grafton 
county, constituted the " Eighth Brigade " of New Hampshire. 

106 History of Coos County. 





Upper Cohos— Coos— Abenaquis— " Captain Joe" and " Captain John "—King Philip— Metal- 
lak — Robbins and Hinds — Mountain Ranges — Lakes— Rivers— Fish and Game— Moose — Wolves 
—Deer— Bear— Fox— Salmon— Trout— Summer Travel— Railroad Facilities— Protection of For- 
ests— Sports— Game Laws — True Legislation. 

UPPER COHOS.— When Col. John Goffe, of Goffstown (for whom, I 
assume, was also named Goff's falls, on the Merrimack,) raised, in 1763, 
under authority of Benning Wentworth, royal governor of the province 
of New Hampshire, his regiment, forming a part of the force intended, 
say the old commissions, " for the conquest of Canada," under command 
of Gen Amherst, his corps was filled by hardy pioneers and adventurers, 
ready to seek new homes on the borders of the receding wilderness. At 
the expiration of service in Canada, four of his officers, with a portion of 
his command, sought their homes on the Merrimack, by the Indian trail 
from Champlain to the Connecticut, and across the highlands of New 
Hampshire to their own river. Eeturning thus, they struck the Connecti- 
cut at the broad meadows now in Haverhill and Newbury, then known in 
Indian legends as the "Cohos," and returned to aid in founding the towns 
referred to. As settlements extended up the stream, and broad meadows 
were found and occupied on the present site of Lancaster, that region was 
called the "Upper Cohos;" and later, when quaint Philip Carrigain, the 
genial Irish secretary of state, whose map is even now the most desirable 
authority on New Hampshire as it was, visited the more recent settlements 
under the shadow of the lesser Monadnock at Colebrook, forty miles north 
of Lancaster, he bestowed upon that section the title of " the Cohos above 
the Upper Cohos, 1 ' the territory designated thus, being the old home of 
the Coo-ash-auke Indians, and now nearly all included in the limits of 
Coos county. 

Cods. — The name "Coos" is derived from the Indian word "Cohos," 
of the dialect of the Abenaquis, a confederacy of tribes once inhabiting 
New Hampshire, western Maine, and northerly to the St. Lawrence river. 
The word is further derived from "coo-ash," signifying pines. It is known 
that the Indian inhabitants of a section were generally entitled by some 

*Adapted from an address delivered before the N- H. Fish and Game Association. 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. L07 

name descriptive thereof, and the tribe occupying this region was known 
as the Coo-ash aukes, or "Dwellers in the pine tree country," from coo- 
ash, pines, and auke, place. This title applied especially to the locality 
and inhabitants north of the mountains and along the Connecticut valley 
above Moosilauke. 

The outlet of Massabesic lake is still known by its Indian name, "Cohos 
brook," and the country around was once a dense forest of pines — coo-ash. 
It seems probable that this name — coo-ash — was carried north by Indian 
exiles from the lower Merrimack, when driven from their old abodes by 
the advance of the whites, to seek, as says the chronicler, a new home 
"around the head waters of the Connecticut;" and we learn, in corrobo- 
ration of Indian occupancy of this section at this period, that after the 
massacre at Cocheco (Dover) in 1680, instigated by Kan-ca-ma-gus, he and 
his followers fled north, "and joined the bands at the sources of the Saco, 
Ameroscoggin, and Connecticut" — the coo-ash region. The streams in this 
section abounding in trout — their native food — all the way from the Lower 
to the Upper Cohos, the territory became known as their Namaos-coo-auke, 
or pine-tree fishing-place, a nomenclature transformed and perpetuated in 
the modern name "Ammonoosuc," still held by three streams within this 
ancient domain. 

The wild and picturesque river, rushing down from the slopes of Waum- 
bek Methna through the rich meadows of Lancaster to join the Connecti- 
cut, is said to have borne the Indian name Sin-gra-wac; but as this word 
is unknown in derivation, it is probable that the name Siwoog-an-auke, 
itself a corruption of Saiva-coo-itauke, signifying "burnt pine place," is 
nearer, if not the exact name, thus defined and corrected. It is easy to 
believe that away back in the dusk of tradition, the country had been 
despoiled by fire of its growth of pines, the legend only remaining to sup- 
ply the name. 

Abenaquis. — The Canadian home or head village of the Coo-ash-aukes 
was at Abenaquis, or St. Francis, as their settlement is still called, on the 
St. Lawrence. After the defeat of the Pequawkets by Lovewell, in 1725, 
the broken remnant of that tribe retired to St. Francis; and the bands 
invading or occupying our present territory were more frequently known 
as the " St. Francis Indians" than by their original designations as Aben- 
aqu is pv Coo -a sit -an kes. 

Descendants of these broken tribes still live in the village of St. Francis. 
Among those who returned to their old hunting grounds in New Hamp- 
shire were two families of distinction, of which the chiefs were known as 
" Captain Joe " and "Captain John." They were active in pre Revolu- 
tionary days, and both took part with the colonists in that struggle. " Old 
Joe" died at Newbury, in the Lower Cohos, in lsiu, and is buried in the 
original cemetery of the town at the Ox Bow. Captain John led a small 

108 History of Coos County. 

party of Indians, enlisted from Cohos and vicinity, and received a captain's 
commission. He died a violent death after peace had been restored, and 
was also buried at the Lower Cohos. He was known among the Indians 
as Soosiqi or Sussup, and left one son called Pial Sussup, " Pial " being the 
Indian for Philip. There is some reason for the helief that this "Pial," 
son and heir of Captain John, an original Coo-ash-auke chief, who went 
from the Upper Cohos to St. Francis or Abenaquis, and who returned to 
aid the patriots, with a small band of Cohos Indians, was the "Philip, 
Indian chief, resident in Upper Cohos and chief thereof," who gave to 
Thomas Eames, of Northumberland, the now famous deed of June S, 1796, 
conveying to him and his associates the present county of Coos, together 
with a portion of the county of Oxford in Maine, then a part of Mas- 
sachusetts, being the instrument known as the "King Philip deed." 

While it is a source of regret that the descriptive and euphonious 
nomenclature of the aborigines has largely disappeared from the hills and 
streams of their hunting-grounds, it is a source of pleasure that it is occa- 
sionally retained. Whittier, in his " Bridal of Penacook," has embalmed 
in imperishable verse several of the ancient designations, two of which 
pertain to the county of the Coo-ash-aukes. He says, — 

" They came from Sunapee's shores of rock — 
From the snowy source of Si-woo-ga-nock, 
From rough Coos, whose wild woods shake 
Their pine cones in Umbagog lake." 

That the white settlers of modern Coos were of English origin is evi- 
dent from the nomenclature of the towns, which, indeed, granted by an 
English governor-general, would naturally be of English derivation. 
Hence the name of the ducal and royal house of Lancaster applied to the 
earlier and principal settlement, Northumberland, Percy, Dartmouth, and 
Cockburne, while the name of the family manor of the Wentworths at 
Bretton, in the county of York (the ancient seat being " Bretton Hall "), 
is duplicated in " Bretton Woods," now Carroll, where there is reason to 
believe it was the original intent to erect an American barony. 

Metallak. — Before bidding farewell to the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Coos, the earliest hunters when fish and game did so abound, shall I weary 
your patience if I give to you the story of Metallak as it was told to me in 
boyhood in the woods— Metallak, the last of the Abenaquis in Cohos, the 
final hunter of the Coo-ash-aukes over the territory of his fathers ? 

Sportsmen who voyage up the Magalloway, to or through Parmachene, 
or over those delightful bodies of water prosaically known as the "Range- 
ley lakes," hear frequent mention of the word "Metallak." It is preserved 
in the name of the point once running out into Molly-chunk- a-munk, now 
submerged by the accumulated waters of the "Improvement Company 


Resources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. 109 

in a brook running into the Magalloway, and in an island in the lower 

It is true that Capt. Farrar, with rare denseness of appreciation, has 
bestowed the name "Metallic," in his guide-books, alike upon chief and 
localities, as though the one were really a specimen of native copper, and 
the other the location of mineral deposits. Yet there are those who knew 
these woods and waters before the invasion of the vandals, or the days of 
guide-books, and to them the old nomenclature is dear, to be perpetuated 
when the days of the iconoclasts are ended. And so. despite guide-books 
and modern "discoverers," we retain the memory and the name of Metal- 
lak, and tell his story here. 

Metallak was the son of a chief, and from his earliest youth was taught 
the use of weapons and the craft of the woods. He grew up tall, lithe, 
and active, the pride of his tribe, and, after its custom, took to his 
wigwam the fairest fawn among its maidens. He built his lodge in the 
old home of his tribe, the Coo-ash-aukes, on the waters of the Ameroscoggin, 
and for her ransacked the woods for the softest furs and the choicest game. 
The children, a son and daughter, came to them, and gave to the parents' 
hearts the joy that is born of offspring. Years sped: the old chief by the 
St. Lawrence died, and Metallak was the head of his tribe. The frown of 
the Great Spirit was dark upon his people. One by one its warriors in the 
woods sickened and passed away. Metallak, in his lodge on the point in 
the lake, watched and mourned the down-fall of his race, and swift run- 
ners told him how the stately tree of his tribe was stripped of its branches; 
but his mate and his children were left to him, and he vowed to the Great 
Spirit to remain on the hunting-grounds of his tribe until he should be 
called to the happy hunting-grounds of his fathers. Gradually, as fall the 
leaves of the forest when the winds of autumn are abroad, fell the once 
mighty Abenaquis, until Metallak and his family were alone The son. 
not sharing the stern feeling of the sire, as he grew older sighed for the 
society of the pale faces, and left the lodge in the forest to find a home 
with the new companions of his choice. The daughter had visited at St. 
Francis, and had joined her fate with a young warrior of the tribe before 
the great sickness that decimated them. And he, with the English goods 
easy of attainment, had robed his dusky bride in garments that a white 
woman might envy. She is represented as strikingly beautiful, and when 
she visited her father in the wilderness he was almost awed by her charms 
and her queenly attire. 

About this time, while closing a moccasin, Metallak had the misfortune 
to lose an eye. Time sped. The bride of his youth sickened and died— a 
sad hlow for the desolate chief. She who entered his lodge when youth 
was high and his tribe had a place in the land, who had with him endured 
long year-- of adversity, was called, ami he was alone. 

110 History of Coos County. 

Mournfully he laid the body in his canoe, together with the trinkets 
which in life had been dear to her, and, gliding out from the sheltered 
shore, tooks his way across the narrow strait and down its course to the 
broad reach of Molly-chunk-a-munk, past the whispering pines and sunny 
beaches, guided by the roar of the Ameroscoggin, where he shoots his 
crested waters toward the more quiet expanse of Umbagog. Entering 
the rapids he sat ei^ect in the stern of his canoe — his beloved and lost com- 
panion in repose before him — and with skillful hand guided the frail bark 
with its precious burden through the seething waters, past dangerous rock 
and whirling eddy, until it shot out upon the sunlit expanse of the lower 
lake; still down, past where the river debouches on its way to the sea, to 
where, in the broad expanse, rises the green island that now bears his 
name. Here he dug her grave, and buried her after the fashion of his 
people, and without a tear seated himself upon the mound. Night came, 
but he moved not: the wolf howled from the mainland, the song of the 
night wind was on the air, but he heeded not: morning came and passed, 
night again and morning, and still he sat upon the grave. It was not 
until the morning of the third day that he left the sacred spot. He built 
him a hut near it, leaving it only to procure necessary sustenance. Years 
went by, during which he was occasionally seen by the hunters and trap- 
pers who visited the region; but his eye had lost its fire, and his step was 
less firm than of old. In the year 1846 two hunters came across him in 
the woods. It was in November, and a very rainy time. He had fallen 
down, and upon a stub, thus extinguishing his remaining eye. He was 
without fire or food, and upon the point of starvation. They built a fire, 
collected wood, gave him provisions, and left him for assistance. With 
this they returned, and carried him to Stewartstown, where he lingered a 
few years, a public charge on the county of Coos. He now rests apart 
from the wife he loved so well, but his name and memory linger in the 
haunts of his manhood, and reference to the modern hunting-grounds of 
Coos would be incomplete without the story of Metallak, — the last of his 
race within our present boundaries, the last hunter of the ancient Coo-ash- 
auk es." 

To the story of Metallak let me append the story and the, tragedy of two 
white hunters on the same grounds — the story of Robbins the murderer, 
and his victim Hinds. 

Where the Diamond glances down from the forests of College Grant, 
entering the Magalloway under the shadow of Mount Dustin, is a farm, 
originally cleared by a hunter named Robbins. He was a stern, vindictive 
man, and wild stories were early abroad concerning his deeds. In the fall 
of 1826, in company with several companions, — Hinds, Cloutman, and 

See Colebrook. 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. Ill 

Hayes, — all hunters by profession, he went upon the Androscoggin waters 
to trap sable. The party continued their hunt successfully until the first 
snows fell, when, leaving Robbins in care of the property, his comrades 
started on a last visit to the traps, extending over a line of twenty miles. 
On their return the camp was found burned, and Robbins and the furs 
gone. They were without provisions, and sixty miles from inhabitants, 
but with great privations and suffering they were able to work their way 
into the settlements. On their return they instituted a suit in the courts 
of Coos county against Robbins, which was carried to a successful conclu- 
sion, and execution was issued. Spring again came around, when Robbins 
proposed to Hinds to hunt once more, promising to turn his share of the 
proceeds towards the extinguishment of the adjudged debt. Hinds con- 
sented, and taking with him his son of fifteen years, proceeded to the 
hunting-grounds around Parmachenee lake. Again they were successful, 
when one day, as Hinds was returning to camp, he was met by Robbins 
and shot. The boy was killed by a blow from a hatchet, and Robbins was 
left with the bloody spoil. The bodies were found, and a search instituted. 
Robbins was arrested in the woods by Lewis Loomis and Hezekiah Parsons, 
of Colebrook, after a desperate resistance, and lodged in Lancaster jail. 
Having some confederate, he obtained tools and commenced preparations 
for his escape. Working diligently at the window of his room in the old 
Elm Tree jail, he succeeded in loosening the gratings, each day concealing 
his work by hanging over it his blanket, under the pretext that the room 
was cold and the window admitted air. When all was in readiness he 
made his exit, and the night before his trial was to have commenced he 
was missing, nor was any search successful. Public opinion was strongly 
against the jailor as being in league with the prisoner, and was near mani- 
festing itself in a rude manner. Strange rumors were afloat for years 
concerning his whereabouts and career, but nothing definite was known 
by the public of his subsequent life or final decease.* 

With these narratives of the older and ruder days of Cohos, we take 
leave of the past and enter upon the Coos of to-day, with its relation to 
the state. 

Let others tell of golden hues, that paint Italia's sky, 

Of ivied tower, of ruined hall, of Tiber rolling by, — 

Or proudly point to sculptured bust, and storied column rare, 

In days of yore that stood within the Eternal City fair: 

Let ancient courts again be viewed where pride and power held sway, 

Where revelled high each prince and peer on monarch's festal day: — 

Their stately walls shall erst decay, their names live but in song, 

As history's lore and classic tale their memory prolong; — 

Let others sing of storied lands with songs of loving praise, 

But there's a fairer spot to me — home of my childhood's days — 

*See Colebrook. 

112 History of Coos County. 

My own Coos!— thy hoary peaks sublimely towering high, 
Are grander than the works of man 'neath brightest foreign sky; 
Serene, sublime, unchanging, since the course of time began. 
Solemn and lone amid the clouds their stately crests that span. 
These are no human handiwork, to waste and pass away — 
Almighty God, the architect, their grandeur his display. 
When ages yet to come are lost in the vale of time gone by, 
When ivied tower and sculpture rare in dust unnoticed lie, 
Thy granite peaks, my own Coos, still heavenward shall tower, 
Grim sentinels, untiring, set from old earth's natal hour. 

Mountains.— Coos county embraces several mountain chains, notably 
the Presidential range, the Waumbek Methna, or "Mountains with the 
snowy foreheads " of the aborigines, the White Mountains of the tourist, 
with all the attractions of savage grandeur and picturesque beauty in 
nature, supplemented by the modern comforts and elegancies of palatial 
hotels and palace cars; the Dixville range, stretching in desolate grandeur 
across the northern section and between the waters of the Connecticut and 
Androscoggin, riven by the gorge at Dixville, whose spiky sentinels rise 
800 feet above the windy pass that admits to the shining levels of Errol 
and the placid expanse of Umbagog; the Pilot range, unapproachable for 
beauty, reaching from Cape Horn, near Groveton, to Starr King in Jeffer- 
son; the Pliny range, stretching southerly across old Kilkenny and reach- 
ing out toward Agiochook, with detached peaks, as Mount Carmel in the 
northern wilderness; Pondicherry, rising from the meadows of Jefferson; 
and the white cones of the Percy peaks on the upper Ammonoosuc, which, 
from the peculiar topographical contour of the region, are visible from so 
many points. 

Lakes. — The lake system is on a scale of equal grandeur, although pre- 
senting features of less rugged and desolate aspect, and as pleasantly lovely 
as that of Winnipesauke's self, "The smile of the Great Spirit.' 1 Far up 
in the everlasting woods, in solitude and sylvan loveliness, nestle the two 
upper lakes of the Connecticut, joined to the lower or larger lake at Pitts- 
burg, on the outskirts of civilization in this direction, the head waters of 
the " Eiver of New England." On the eastern border, Umbagog, half in 
Maine, gives New Hampshire the other moiety of her area, and sends down 
the rushing Androscoggin, vocal with the sighing of the forests and the 
winds of the far off border, to turn the wheels of the great mills at Berlin, 
and fertilize the intervals of Dummer, Milan, Berlin, Gorham, and Shel- 
burne. Of ponds, that may with reason be called lakes, there are many, as 
the Diamond ponds in Stewartstown, Back lake in Pittsburg, Millsfield pond 
in Millsfield, Trio ponds in Odell, Dummer ponds in Dummer, North and 
South ponds in Stark, Success pond in Success, Pond of Safety in Ean- 
dolph, Pondicherry in Jefferson, Martin Meadow pond in Lancaster, Pound 
pond, Burns pond, and Blood's pond in Whitefield. and others of less area 
in almost every township. 

Eesources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. 113 

Hi vers. — The Connecticut river receives, as tributaries from New Hamp- 
shire, the Mohawk atColebrook, the Ammonoosuc at Northumberland, the 
Sawacoonauk or Israel's at Lancaster, and the John's river at Dalton, 
while the Androscoggin has tribute from the Diamond at College Grant, 
the Magallowav at Went worth's Location, Clear stream at Errol, and Mouse 
and Peabody rivers at Gorham. All these tributary streams take their rise 
in the primeval forests, and many of them flow their entire distance away 
from sight of man save he be the prospecting lumberman or eager spoils- 
man. The lakes are all in the wilderness, while most of the bodies of 
water classed as ponds are within the forest, or remote from towns or cul- 
tivated lands. 

Fish and Game. — These waters all abound in fish, as do the forests 
around in game. While it is entirely true that the larger game, — the 
moose, the bear, the wolf, — is now more rarely found, the two former still 
have their abiding places in the deep recesses of the remoter hills and 
denser forests, while smaller game still exists in abundance. The ponds 
and streams in the older towns are not as good fishing-grounds as formerly, 
and the pickerel and chub have therein, in some cases, taken the place of 
the once universal trout; but the waters of the deeper woods, from spark- 
ling brooks to swelling lakes, are still prolific in this admired and admir- 
able fish, the trout. 

I well remember, as a boy, that a fine string of trout could always be 
easily taken from the bridge on Main street across Israel's river in Lancas- 
ter, and that a local character, one Tinker Wade, was accustomed fre- 
quently to secure a peck or more of these luscious fish by the clumsy pro- 
cess of mixing powdered cocculus indicus with bran, making pellets, which 
thrown at random upor; the water from this bridge, would be speedily de- 
voured by the jumping trout, to intoxicate them, when they would leap 
out of the water, or float upon its surface, an easy spoil to the hand or 
stick of the Tinker. 

The entire Cohos country, at the time of its settlement by the whites, 
abounded in fish and game, and, indeed, was among the most prolific of 
the hunting-grounds of the aborigines. For many years after settlers had 
opened up the forest all over this extent of territory, and. indeed, after 
considerable towns had sprung up therein, the game of the woods and the 
fish of the streams existed in profusion, but the advance of clearings, the 
lumber operations, and the century of hunting and fishing that has fol- 
lowed,have materially diminished the supply and exterminated some sp< ■■ ;i< s 
Of the larger game it is rare to find a moose or caribou, a wolf or a beaver. 
Salmon have entirely disappeared, and trout, in many once prolific locali- 
ties, seem to be vanishing as did the salmon and shad. It is only in the 
secluded ponds, and in the small streams above the mills in the forests, 
that trout are now taken. 


114 History of Coos County. 

When the settlers from the lower Cohos penetrated the wilderness 
covering the present county of Coos, they found in abundance the moose, 
caribou, deer, the wolf, the bear, the lynx, the otter, the beaver, the red and 
cross fox, the marten or sable, the mink, the musk-rat, the hedgehog, the 
woodchuck; of birds, the partridge or ruffled grouse, and pigeon; and of fish 
the salmon, and perhaps the shad and trout. So common were the moose r 
that it was not unusual for scores to be slain by a single hunter in a season. 
The greatest destruction of this animal occurred annually in March, when 
the snow was deep and had stiffened after a thaw. They were then de- 
stroyed by professional hunters, who took only the skin, tallow, and nose r 
which last named part, together with a beaver's tail, were favorite tidbits 
to the epicures of the forest. 

Later, moose were plenty around the head waters of the Connecticut, 
but being hunted with dogs and on the crust, they were soon practically 
exterminated. It is told that one of the Hilliards destroyed eighty in one 
season, after which wholesale massacre they practically disappeared. South 
of Lancaster village, and in the town limits, rise three conical peaks, — 
Mounts Orne, Pleasant and Prospect, known as the ' ' Martin Meadow 
hills," and south of Mounts Pleasant and Orne is a sheet of water of about 
four hundred acres, known as "Martin Meadow pond;" this was a favorite 
resort for moose and deer, and an unfailing rendezvous for the settler when 
the family was "out of meat." This pond was in the low pine territory 
extending through parts of Dalton, Carroll, Whitefield and Jefferson, in 
which last named town is " Pondicherry,' , or Cherry pond, at the north- 
ern base of Cherry mountain, the entire region, in the early clays, being a 
favorite resort of the moose. To illustrate their abundance, I quote from 
an old manuscript in my possession, written by the late Hon. John W. 
Weeks : — 

"An early settler, by the name of Dennis Stanley, a lieutenant in the continental army, and a 
man of strong mind and perfect veracity, informed the writer that being ' out of meat,' and want- 
ing a moose skin to buy a certain luxury then much used, and too often at the present day (New 
England rum), went alone to Cherry pond for a supply, carrying his old gun, that had been so 
much used that by turning powder into the barrel it would prime itself. He had scarcely struck 
fire in his camp when he heard several moose wading from the shallow side of the pond toward 
deep water. He then uncorked his powder-horn, put several bullets in his mouth, and waited until 
the moose in front was nearly immersed in water. He then waded in where the water was about 
one foot in depth, and took his position, not in the rear of the moose, less they should swim over 
the pond, but at a right angle with their track and at easy musket shot from it. On his apearance 
the moose— four in number — as he had anticipated, chose rather to wade back than to swim over, 
and commenced their retreat in the same order in which they had entered the pond; that was, one 
behind the other, at some distance apart. In a moment the moose that had been in the rear was 
now in front in the retreat, and coming within reach, he was shot at; the powder-horn was then 
applied to the muzzle of the gun, a bullet followed from his mouth with the celerity which hun- 
ters only know, the second moose was fired at, the third and fourth in rapid succession, when 
Lieutenant Stanley found time to give a fifth discharge at the moose in the rear. Three fell at the 
water's edge, the other staggered to the top of the bank, where he fell dead." 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. 115 

The moose seems almost to have been an antediluvian animal, and out 
of place in the highlands of New England. The long forelegs precluded 
grazing from level ground, or from drinking from the level of its feet. It 
could only browse on twigs and trees, sometimes inserting its teeth 
through the bark, stripping it off and masticating as it raised its head. I 
remember, while on the state boundary in L858, after seeing moose signs, 
coming upon a mountain-ash that had been stripped in the manner indi- 
cated to a height of thirteen feet from the ground. Another peculiarity of 
the moose was the uncouth long upper lip, prehensile almost like a trunk, 
the broad nostrils that could be tightly closed, the false lid to the eye, all 
indicating the adaptability of the animal to feed under water; and. indeed, 
it is their custom, as is well known, to congregate in the soft, muddy 
margins of the ponds, feeding largely on lily pads and the roots of the 
pond lily, which they tear up from beneath the water. 

Major Weeks's manuscript gives this description of the horns of this 
forest monarch : " Nothing can exceed the symmetry and beauty of the 
limbs and horns of the moose. The round part of the horns, or that next 
the head, is about fourteen inches in length, when it becomes palmated, 
and is in some instances twelve inches broad, surmounted in one instance, 
told me by Edward Spaulding, now living (1839), by 'seventeen spikes on 
each horn. A horn now before me is one and one-half inches in diameter 
at the base, and eight inches in length, terminating in a point. The largest 
class of horns spread five feet, and weigh about two hundred pounds. 

The last moose familiar to Lancaster people was one owned and kept by 
Louis Annance, a St. Francis Indian, who forty-five years ago had a lodge 
a mile east of the village, near the Sawacoonauk, or Israel's river. Annance 
was a tame Indian, and a member of the ancient Mason's lodge at Lancas- 
ter. He, however, lived in the style of his fathers: his pappooses were 
strapped to boards and hung up in the lodge or carried on the back when 
traveling, and the moose was kept for exhibition. * 

Beaver. — There are many beaver meadows all along the Connecticut val- 
ley and on the tributary streams. In 1858, while upon the eastern boundary 

*The mention of the moose brings to mind the famous anecdote of Thomas Jefferson and the 
great French naturalist, Buffon. Mr. Jefferson, in his "Notes on Virginia," pointed out some 
errors in the published works of M. Buffon, and, when afterwards the gentlemen met in Paris, 
Buffon presented Mr. Jefferson a copy of his Natural History with this remark: " When Mr. Jef- 
ferson will do me the pleasure to read this, he will acknowledge that I am not in error." Mr. 
Jefferson, still unconvinced, determined to demonstrate to Buffon that the Virginia deer was not 
the red deer of Europe, nor the American moose the Lapland reindeer. He engaged Gen. Sullivan 
to obtain for him a New Hampshire moose that he might have the stuffed skin and skeleton sent to 
Paris, with the horns of a Virginia deer which he had procured. Gen. Sullivan raised a company 
of twenty men and captured ainoose near the White Mountains. The cost of the bunt, tin- taxi- 
dermist's bill, and the prepaid freight to Paris was $200, which the triumphant Jefferson cheer 
fully paid. 

116 History of Coos County. 

of our state, in the apex of the triangle made by the boundary range and 
the mountains on the New Hampshire line, in a little glen only sixty rods 
from the iron post in the northern wilderness that marks at once the terri- 
tory of Canada, of New Hampshire, and of Maine, I came upon a secluded 
pond inhabited by a family of beaver. Marks of recent work were plenty: 
a few trees, six inches or more in diameter, cut down by their teeth, and 
chips therefrom, fresh and green, smooth-cut as by a carpenter's gouge, 
w^ere scattered about. This was doubtless the last family of beaver in 
Coos, and I learned a few years later that they had all been trapped and 
destroyed. Lancaster was formerly a favorite haunt of the beaver, where 
they were trapped in great quantities. From the manuscript of Major 
Weeks I copy a description of the location of these animals, together with 
some hints as to their habits 

" About two miles southwest of the town centre is a large tract of 
alluvial land called ' Martin meadow ' (the meadows in the present school 
district No. 2), from an early hunter whose name was Martin. He 
caught an immense number of beaver from Beaver brook, which mean- 
ders through the meadow. Beaver dams on this brook can yet be traced, 
in one instance for about fifty rods in length and near five feet in height. 
There are others of less extent, yet all exhibiting extraordinary skill and 
ingenuity, superior to some bipeds who attempt the erection of dams. The 
banks of this brook are perforated in hundreds of places, which show the 
former residences of bank beaver, a kind smaller than those wonderful 
architects who build dams and erect houses several feet in diameter, with 
a layer of poles through the middle which divides them into two stories, in 
one of which their food for winter, consisting of bark and small poles, cut 
about two feet in length, is deposited, while the other, covered with leaves, 
is their resting-place during the inclement season. The entrance to both 
kinds of habitation is always below low-water mark, from which point 
they ascend through a subterranean passage, often several rods long, to 
their dark yet comfortable abode. 

The Beaver brook here referred to, from the clearing up of the land 
around its sources, has much shrunk in volume, and now flows sluggishly 
through the low meadows known to their owners as the bog. It enters 
the Connecticut near the " brick school-house 5 ,'' near which was the resi- 
dence of Edwards Bucknam, a follower of "Governor Page," the first set- 
tler of the town. 

Wolves were frequent in the Cohos country at the time of its settle- 
ment, and did not entirely disappear until within the last thirty years. Old 
residents of Laucaster have informed me that they frequently heard, thirty- 
five years ago, the howl of the wolf from the woods east of the village, 
not more than half a mile distant. The last wolf captured in that town 
was about 1840, and by Mr. Edward Spaulding, then an old man and one 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions. &c. 117 

of the first white persons in town. He had set a trap on the northern slope 
of Mount Pleasant, near his farm-house, and south of the village, and 
repairing to it found therein a large gray wolf. The animal, by its s\ nig- 
gles, was in danger of freeing himself, when Mr. Spaulding attacked him 
with a stake which he carried, and succeeded in disabling and finally kill- 
ing him. I well remember, as a child, the sight of the skin as shown in 
the village, and the wondering interest with which I listened to the story 
of the battle between the old man with his club and the gaunt monster of 
the forests. 

As exhibiting the numbers and ferocity of these dread animals during 
the earlier settlement of the Cohos country, I give the following incidenl 
told me by my mother, who had it from her great-grandfather. .John 
Mann, the first settler of Orford, in the Lower Cohos, who came to that 
town in 1765, commencing his first house and clearing on the Connecticut 
interval, a little west of where the present homestead stands, on the broad 
main street running through that pleasant village: — 

Mr. Mann was engaged in clearing, and had in his employ a stalwart 
negro, who is remembered by tradition as especially powerful and fearless. 
Wolves abounded, and were exceedingly fierce: indeed, it was the custom 
to leave the woods where choppers were engaged, each day before sun- 
down On the occasion referred to, the sun going down behind the hills on 
the west side of the Connecticut, and the shadows beginning to darken the 
recesses of the forest, grandfather shouldered his axe, telling the negro to fol- 
low him in his return to the house and security. The man was engaged on a 
giant tree, and hesitated, saying that he meant to lay that low before leaving 
Telling him that it was unsafe to remain, and bidding him follow. Mr. 
Mann started for home, expecting the black to obey him. Arrived there, he 
discovered that he was alone, but momentarily expected the arrival of the 
other. Night came, but not the negro, and a great noise of wolves was 
heard in the woods he had left. It would have been death to return in the 
darkness alone, and through the hours of that long night, amid the howls 
from the forest, he waited, powerless to help or save. With the morning 
light he hastened to the spot where he left the man the day before, to find 
seven wolves lying dead, a bloody axe, and the ghastly relics of thedaring 
fellow who had remained at his work too long. He had been attacked by 
a ravenous pack, selling his life after a terrific struggle. I have never seen 
this incident in print, but I heard it in my childhood, and recently, it was 
again told me, as it came from the aged pioneer who told it to his great- 
grandchild in her girlhood. 

Deer abounded, but are now rare. They were finally driven away by 
chasing them with dogs; nor will they be plenty in the deep woods that 
yet remain, if this practice is continued. Dogs follow them on the crust. 
as the wolves used to pursue and exterminate them; and the more limited 

IIS History op Coos County. 

forest area, and the increased number of hunters in later years, have 
accomplished what the wolves failed to do — driven the deer absolutely from 
broad areas of our county. It is believed that where deer still remain, 
hunting with firearms alone will not depopulate or drive them away, but 
they fly from the lands when dogs are put upon their trail. 

Deer formerly existed in vast numbers in the pine forests of Jefferson, 
Carroll, Whitefield, Dalton, and the southern part of Lancaster. This abun- 
dance was largely due to an agreement among the people of those towns 
to keep dogs off the deer, and many dogs were killed that they might not 
chase them. Another reason for the plentiful supply, aside from their natural 
fecundity and increase when in a manner protected, was because they fled 
from hunters and hounds used for their capture around Littleton and in the 
adjacent forests of Vermont. One hunter in Lancaster took forty deer in 
one season; and Mr. James B. Weeks, one year, without effort or chase, 
shot fifteen from his farm on the southern slope of Mount Prospect. 

The black bear was very common, and indeed is now frequently taken 
in Coos. A summer rarely passes wherein one or more are not captured 
on the slopes of the Pilot range and Starr King, not more than four or five 
miles from Lancaster village. The animal lives on roots and weeds, with 
occasional variations of diet, comprising berries, green corn, or a fat sheep 
from the outlying flock. He enjoys the wild turnip and other indigenous 
roots, digging them with one claw as neatly as a man would run his fore- 
finger around them in mellow ground;— briefly, the food of the bear is 
whatever a hog eats, with mutton extra. They seldom attack men, 
unless in defence of their young. 

Partridges, or ruffled grouse, were once, and until quite recently, very 
plenty; just now, however, they are rare. This scarcity is attributable to 
the large increase of the red fox, who preys upon him with devastating- 
effect. Reynard is not now poisoned as formerly, and hence has largely 
multiplied. His pelts abound in the country stores, and his tracks, after 
a light snow, trace a labyrinth over every field and hillside. Partridges 
have disappeared before him. 

The Wild Pigeon, once also very plenty, is now comparatively rare. 
Thirty years ago every buckwheat field, in the fall, swarmed with pigeons. 
They had regular roosts, from which they swarmed down on the fields. 
An old device was, to have a "pigeon-bed" for a decoy, with a net so 
arranged as to be thrown over the bed at will, when the birds had alighted. 
I have the experience of a present citizen of Lancaster, who informs me 
that when a boy he caught forty dozen pigeons one autumn, from a bed 
on his father's farm on Mount Prospect. 

Salmon ceased in Cohos about 1808. Up to that time they came up the 
Connecticut at least as far as Stewartstown, forty -five miles north of Lan- 
caster, there being a notable place there known as the "'Salmon hole." 

Resources, Attractions, Traditions, &c. L19 

They abounded in Lancaster, and ascended the Ammonoosuc as far as 
the Fabyan place in the White Mountains. Mr. Edward Spaulding, of 
Lancaster, used to say that the early settlers relied as much on catching 
and salting down an annual barrel of salmon, as later farmers did upon 
salting down the yearly supply of pork. In the great eddy at the head of 
the Fifteen-Mile falls, in Dalton, near the mouth of John's river, the loca- 
tion of Captain John Stark's capture by the Indians, was a famous salmon 
hole, where the noble fish apparently rested, in the somewhat cooler water 
discharged by the smaller stream, after the ascent of the falls. Here people 
resorted from all the region round about, as they did to Namoskeag, and 
for a similar purpose. At the mouth of Isreal's river in Lancaster was a 
similar salmon hole. 

The first dam across the Connecticut in Massachusetts was built about 
the end of the last century; but these early dams, lower and equipped with 
"aprons," did not offer the obstacles to the ascent of the stream by these 
vigorous fish which was presented by their successors; and so the salmon, 
in lessened numbers, continued to return from the sea, until higher dams 
impeded their progress. 

. Recent efforts to re-stock the Connecticut and some of its tributaries 
with this fish have been only moderately successful, and can never be of 
practical avail until generous fish-ways are constructed at all the obstruct 
ing dams. 

There is little absolute certainty that shad were once common to our 
waters, although at Littleton, in Grafton county, there is a record, in 1792, 
of the election of "Inspectors of salmon and shad," leaving the presump- 
tion that shad were then known there. If so, they doubtless came higher 
up the streams. 

Trout, the natural and delicious fish of New England, once peopled in 
crowded abundance every stream of our hills and every pond of our valleys 
They have in some places disappeared before the voracious pickerel; but 
the sawdust of the lumberman is more fatal to them than the hunger of 
this destroyer, or the arts of the angler. The day has passed when the 
local bard could truthfully record, that 

"In the silent hollows 

The red trout groweth prime 
For the miller and the miller's son 
To angle when they 've time;'' 

for then, lulled, almost, by the drowsy monotone of the grist-mills, the 
trout slumbered in each alder-shaded pool of all our streams. 

Wherever there is a saw-mill the dust clogs the stream, and the trout 
disappear from below it. For trout to propagate and multiply, clear water 
is essential, with a reasonably large reach of still, dee}) water for a winter 
retreat. Obstacles removed, they suddenly reappear, and rapidly multiply. 

120 History of Coos County. 

A few years ago an old dam on the Otter brook in Lancaster was down, 
and free egress given to the waters of the stream; sawdust also ceased. A 
gentleman, Hon. James W. Weeks, going his rounds on the meadow 
below, saw, in a shallow pool in the grass, several trout. Procuring a 
handful of shingles, by sticking them down he cut off their retreat, and, 
by gradually advancing them, worked the fish upon the dry land, when he 
took eighteen fine trout, half filling a Shaker pail, and weighing about one 
pound apiece. These fish had come down through the broken dam on the 
first opportunity, and, in the absence of obstructions and the fatal sawdust, 
had multiplied and thriven. If the day ever comes when our streams are 
pure, they will again be filled with this delicious fish. 

The great area open to sportsmen is of course one of the attractions for 
the ever increasing tide of summer travel, so-called, to the highlands of 
Coos, and, in addition to the strictly pleasure or health-giving resorts, it 
is a factor in the argument that brings to us the annual hegira from the 
cities, enriching our immediate markets, and adding very largly to the 
revenues of the state. The great caravansaries at the Crawford Notch, at 
Fabyan's, at Twin Mountain, at the Glen, are well know, and receive the 
annual pilgrimage of thousands; the charming location of Lancaster in the 
Connecticut valley, the sunny slopes of Jefferson hill, and the " long white 
street'' that always recalls to me the Alba Longa of Macaulay's muse, — 

" The home of King Amulius, of the great sylvan line, 
Who reigned in Alba Longa, on the throne of Aventine, — " 

as it glistens in the sun along the northern slope of the Bethlehem hills, 
attract other thousands, while every sunny meadow or breezy hillside 
has its cottage for the reception of invalids, of pleasure- seekers, of tourists, 
and of sportsmen. 

A good-natured rivalry exists between some of these towns, relative to 
their desirability of location, as offering greater inducements to the guest, 
height above the fogs being a desideratum. Such was for years the kindly 
contest between Jefferson and Bethlehem, respectively championed by that 
most generous and public-spirited citizen among the men of the moun- 
tains, Hon. Nathan R. Perkins, and our ever genial friend, Hon. John G. 
Sinclair, who, like a new Ponce de Leon, has invaded Florida in his search 
for the new fountain of perpetual youth, that bursts from plethoric pockets, 
incidental to owners of orange groves and Floridian lands. The big sur- 
veyor's level, always ready for duty in Nathan's front porch, persistently 
shot over Bethlehem street, just saluting the crest of Mount Agassiz in 
its rear, while John was always ready to demonstrate, both by plane 
trigonometry and alleged plainer common-sense, that Bethlehem sat high 
above her rival in the sanhedrim of the hills. 


Resources, Attractions, Traditions, occ. IiM 

There comes to me remembrance of a day, when a crowded train of 
Democratic delegates from the Gibraltar of the party in New Hampshire 
was speeding on to a congressional convention at Woodsville. Sinclair, as 
was usual on such occasions, was the life of the party, and joke and repar- 
tee flew briskly around. Bent on the pre-eminence of Bethlehem, he assailed 
Perkins and asserted its greater elevation. Facts and figures were hurled 
promiscuously between them, each asserting the superior altitude of his 
town. Neither receded, and the crowd, enjoying the fun, gathered closer, 
when "John," who had been for a few minutes perusing a railroad cir- 
cular inviting mountain travel, which chance threw in his way, exclaimed 
in jubilant exultation, "This settles it; hear this!" as he proceeded to read 
therefrom: "On the route toward the Androscoggin, and eight miles below 
Bethlehem, lies the pleasant village of Jefferson." "Fight miles! Nate, 
do you hear that? Will you give it up now?" The crowd roared, and the 
altercation ended, but we much doubt if to this day Councillor Perkins 
admits Jefferson to be eight miles, or eight feet, below its mountain rival. 

The demands of summer travel bring increased railroad facilities. No- 
where are finer trains run, than, during the season, into the lake and 
mountain region of New Hampshire. The home market is exhausted of 
supplies to sustain this grand incursion, and it is altogether within the 
bounds of reason to estimate that a sum varying from five to eight mil- 
lion dollars per annum is expended within our state limits upon the lines 
of conveyance, the hotels and boarding houses, and the necessaries essen- 
tial to the comfort and enjoyment of these welcome visitors. So large an 
expenditure of course involves large permanent investments, requiring the 
support and protection of legislative enactment. So large a revenue 
should be fostered by every proper means, as ensuring to the state and its 
people increased prosperity, with attendant benefits. 

As the abundance of game and fish in our woods and waters is an 
important factor, inducing the tide of travel toward us. with its consequent 
augmentation of our revenues, it follows that it is a matter of imperative 
public policy, as well as of personal inclination, to protect our forests from 
destruction, and the fish and game therein from wanton waste; and in 
this aspect we may here properly refer to the denudation of our woods 
now progressing. Incident to the consideration of the annual cut from 
lumbering operations, and the almost countless cords of wood used for 
local and locomotive fuel, to supply the charcoal kilns of New Zealand, 
and also to the protection of the area wherein game may thrive and fish 
multiply, arises the vital question of the preservation of ourtimber supply 
from spoliation, with the attendant disasters of barren lands, irregular 
water supply, failure of springs, and disastrous freshets. 

That the wise consideration of this question is beset with difficulties 
that accumulate as investigation progresses is perhaps evident. The rights 

122 History of Coos County. 

of the individual to the products of the soil, natural and cultivated, that is 
absolutely his, can be suspended only by an overreaching public necessity, 
that perhaps is not now present. It would seem that some system, appeal- 
ing at once to the good judgment and self-interest of land and timber 
owners, may be evolved by discussion, whereby less waste may transpire 
in cutting, while propagation by tree-planting, that may not again make 
verdant the exact areas desolated, may induce new plantations, that in 
their turn will restore to us the climatic, healthful, and financial advan- 
tages of which we are being so rapidly deprived, and add to the game- 
producing area of the state. 

The relation to, and the effect of, sylvan sports upon a people are well 
known, both as developing character and affording recreation, with the 
consequent increased capacity for mental and physical labor. 

To range the woods, to climb the mountain, to ply the oar — all these, a 
love for which is transmitted from our Saxon, Norman, or Celtic progeni- 
tors, is to reinvigorate brain and body, relaxed from prolonged application. 
To ply the chase or throw the fly is to call out new and exhilarating desires, 
to kindle new interests, and open new channels of thought or investiga- 
tion, while communion with nature is always ennobling, always elevating, 
and always welcome. Devoted, as too many of our people are, to seden- 
tary pursuits, the active exercise of out-door life is essential alike to lon- 
gevity and to the healthful action of mind and body. It follows, then, that 
the greater the reasonable interest that can be awakened in healthful out- 
door sports and exercise, the higher we rise above the worries and the 
fatigues of life, and the greater our capacities at once for enjoyment and 

The food supply of a people is an economic and political problem, affect- 
ing not only their increased prosperity as a resultant of cheap food, but 
their character, through the nature of the food assimilated and the exertion 
requisite for its procurement. Hence the necessity of legislation, and also 
the wisdom thereof, to properly protect fish and game, both that cheap and 
healthful food may be within the reach of the poor, whose enjoyment of 
the bounty of nature is as keen as that of the more prosperous, and that 
they may also have the recreation attendant upon its procurement, as well 
as to offer additional inducement for pleasure-seekers, tourists, and sports- 
men to visit the state. 

As, in a republic whose laws are properly conceived and administered, 
all legislation is based upon the consent of the people, and enacted for their 
benefit, it again follows that the game laws should not restrict but rather 
properly extend their privileges. There are certain inalienable and natural 
rights, the exercise of which, although apparently trivial, involves the 
gravest political questions as to the status of the citizen ; and among these 
the game laws may be given a place of prominence. 

The Timber Interests of Northern Cons. 123 

Decended from Saxon, Norman, or Celtic ancestors, whose vocation lay 
largely in the chase, and whose sustenance was once wholly derivable from 
wood and stream, occupying a territory two centuries ago a primeval 
wilderness, the hunting-grounds of aborigines, coming to us as a people 
by conquest and adverse occupation rather than by feudal tenure or pur- 
chase, we claim the forests and the waters of our state to be free to her 
people, who are all tenants in common, to enjoy the invigorating breezes 
of her hills, to capture the game of her forests and the fish of her waters. 

As society advances from the ruder state, the people, in consideration 
of the greater advantages received from organized government and the 
rule of rational law, surrender certain inherent and natural personal rights 
for the greater benefits thus received, but they adhere perhaps with 
increased tenacity to those rights not surrendered and still remaining. 

Hence legislation relative to the fish and game within our limits should 
be for their protection and increase, that the people, instead of curtailment 
in the exercise of the natural right to their capture, may receive more 
abundant return; that food maybe more cheap and more plenty; that the 
exhilarating pleasures of hunting and fishing may be more generally and 
more keenly enjoyed; and that our list of attractions for invalids, tourists, 
and sportsmen may be augmented. 

The true province of legislation on this subject I take to be to increase 
and multiply the products of our woods and waters, protecting during the 
months essential to that increase, to the end that all the people may share 
properly in these added benefits. 




Spruce Belt— Hard Wood Timber— The Sugar Maple— Other Woods— Resources and Manu- 
facture — Opportunities for Investment. 

UP TO and during the first quarter of the present century, all build- 
ings were supposed to require large timbers for frames, and eight 
and ten inch hewed and sawn timber was the least that it was 
deemed safe to use for posts and beams. The new departure, by using 
balloon frames, resulted in the discovery that spruce was preferable to pine 

124 History of Coos County. 

for covering-boards, and the scarcity of pine soon brought sj)ruce lumber 
into use for finishing. The prospective demand for spruce lumber was 
foreseen by Josiah Little, of Portland, then president of the Atlantic & 
St. Lawrence R. R. Co., and about 184-1 he purchased the water-power at 
Berlin Falls, and turned the direction of the railroad up the Androscoggin 
river. Soon after, large lumber mills were built at Berlin, and the busi- 
ness of cutting and manufacturing spruce was inaugurated for the first 
time in Northern Coos. The entire ' ' black growth " of that part of the 
county north of the railroad, was substantially spruce. The little pine 
originally growing in the valley of the Androscoggin, mostly in Errol, had 
been previously cut and floated down the river by Maine lumbermen. The 
head waters of that river being in Maine, the comparatively little pine 
manufactured at Berlin came from that state. 

The shrewdest and best informed lumbermen had a very erroneous idea 
of the amount of spruce standing in Northern Coos. Lots that they esti- 
mated would cut from 75,000 to 100,000, actually cut from 300,000 to 400,- 
000. Spruce trees, though less in size, stand much nearer together, and 
the man that could give a close estimate of standing pine to the acre, 
utterly failed in his estimate of spruce, and it was only after experience 
gained by actual cutting and scaling, that anything like a correct estimate 
of standing spruce could be made by the most experienced lumbermen. 

The state line passes through the entire length of Umbagog lake, and 
crosses the Magalloway river some ten miles north of it, running through 
this immense tract of spruce timber, leaving the larger portion of it in the 
state of Maine. A trip to the summit of Es-cho-hos mountain (the name 
is of disputed orthography, but I give that corresponding to the universa l 
local pronunciation,) will give a better view of it than any other. Escho- 
hos mountain rises from the Magalloway river about a mile east of the 
state line, and from its summit is seen a vast tract of country extending 
eastwarclly and northwardly as far as the eye can reach, covered with a 
dense spruce growth, on mountain and valley alike, in its natural state. 
This spruce timber belt at one time covered Northern Coos, a portion of 
the province of Quebec, and the northwestern part of the state of Maine. 

There are railroads on all sides of it, but none penetrate it as yet, and 
only those portions of the timber standing within ten or twelve miles of 
the Connecticut and Magalloway rivers, including their tributaries, are 
available for market at present; ten miles being considered about as long 
a haul as will ensure a profit at present prices. This distance, however, 
covers nearly all of Northern Coos, and at the rate of its present destruc- 
tion, the time is coming in the near future when spruce in the county will 
be as scarce as pine is now. From Milan, Success, Dummer, Cambridge, 
Millsfield, Dixville, Errol and Wentworth's Location it floats, or has 
floated, down the Androscoggin; from Columbia, Colebrook, Stewartstowm 

The Timber Interests of Northern Coos. 125 

Clarksville, Pittsburg and the unsettled grants down the Connecticut : and 
steam mills and the Grand Trunk railway are fast executing the same 
destruction for East Stratford and Stark. On the east, Milan is largely 
settled, Dumraer and Errol partially so, while the other towns are sub- 
stantially a wilderness, and of little value after the spruce timber is gone, 
until the manufacture of hard wood is inaugurated; there being little pros- 
pect that the hardy back-woodsman will make his home there until some 
such inducement is held out to him. Some of these townships are good 
settling lands, but they lie too far back at present to encourage settlement . 

When the spruce timber in Coos county is all destroyed, a railroad will 
ex necessitate and run up the Androscoggin valley into the Maine forest 
spoken of, and this will probably cause some of them to be partially 

On the west, Columbia is about half settled, a range of precipitous, 
ledgy hills passing through the centre of the township, which will never 
make farms or be of any practical value except for the wood and timber 
growing upon them. The spruce has been mostly taken off, and the pres- 
ent winter that portion of Odell that was recently annexed to the town is 
being cut; one man having taken a contract to put 5,000.000 feet upon the 
river, at a haul of about ten miles. Others are putting in smaller quanti- 
ties, aggregating as much more. Colebrook (the only town in the county 
that can be called wholly settled, and probably the only town in the state, 
of which every lot, with proper cultivation, will make a good farm,) has 
not sufficient spruce or pine timber to supply the prospective needs of its 
own inhabitants. Stewartstown and Clarksville have two or three tiers 
of lots on the east end that are not as yet settled, but have been operated 
to some extent by lumbermen. Pittsburg, whose territory embraces all 
the remainder of the state north of Clarksville, is settled in the southwest 
corner, the remainder of its vast territory being timber land, owned mostly 
by the " Connecticut River Lumber Company," a New York corporation 
whose policy is to "gobble up" every little tract of spruce timber that 
they can lay their hands on, and that policy has succeeded far too well for 
the present or prospective interests of the inhabitants. The high tariff 
on foreign lumber, which is virtually prohibitory, at least, so faras Cana- 
dian lumber comes in competition with the lumber of Northern Coos, tends 
to accelerate the already swift destruction of the spruce lumber of this 

The waterway that transports this vast amount of natural wealth em- 
braces the three Connecticut lakes, Perry's stream, Indian stream, and 
Hall's stream, which empty into the Connecticut on the west, and Dead 
Water, which empties into the Connecticut on the east side. Hall's stream 
takes its rise in Canada, and for a portion of itscourse forms the boundary 
hue between Canada and the United States, and though its mouth, where 

126 History of Coos County. 

it empties into the Connecticut, is in Vermont, much of its course is well 
adapted to receive the lumber growing on the western border of Pittsburg. 
Indian stream takes its rise near the boundary line, and empties into the 
Connecticut a few miles east of Hall's stream. Perry's stream takes its 
rise between the headwaters of Indian stream and Third lake, and, flowing 
more eastwardly, empties into the Connecticut a few miles below the out- 
let of Connecticut lake. Third lake lies but a few miles from the boundary 
line, and a glance at the map will show that these four waterways are so 
situated as to easily receive all the spruce lumber in Coos county west of 
the Connecticut lakes and Connecticut river. These streams are all com- 
paratively small, but by means of dams, sufficient water is retained from 
the melting snows, and let out as needed, to so prolong the spring freshets 
as to float out the lumber into the Connecticut the second season after it is 
landed on the streams. This, however, is subject to contingencies Deep 
snows and continued rains may keep the water up so as to prolong the 
driving season, and a light fall of snow, or a short warm rain, followed by 
hot, fair weather, may materially shorten the driving season, and soon 
leave the timber high and dry upon the rocks above the water. Whenever 
this takes place, the operation of driving ceases, and the timber remains 
until the next spring freshet. The depreciation of the timber, thus left 
over the summer, is estimated at from five to ten per cent. The Dead 
Water, which takes the lumber from the east part of the towns of Stew- 
artstown and Clarksville, is a small stream, and the results of driving it, 
uncertain. The territory lying east of the Connecticut lakes, with the 
exception of a strip bordering on the state line, which will go down the 
Magalloway waters, will be hauled to the lakes. Thus it is that this vast 
growth of spruce timber, intended by nature to enrich Northern Coos, 
when railroad facilities for transportation should be furnished to convey 
it to market in a manufactered state, is cut and transported, by a foreign 
corporation, down the Connecticut to Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
where its manufacture serves to build up cities and villages, while the 
county of its growth receives no benefit, but does receive a serious injury 
to its river farms by the prolonged high water, every spring, caused by the 
flow of water from the reservoirs which the corporation has built on nearly 
every stream that flows into the Connecticut. For this injury the farmers 
along the river are virtually without remedy. The corporation is legally 
liable to make compensation, but the farmer, to obtain it, has generally to 
resort to an expensive litigation, the costs of which sometimes exceed the 
amount which he eventually recovers. In contrast to this, the Berlin Mills 
Company, by the manufacturing of its lumber at Berlin, has been the means 
of building up a large and flourishing village, which is a permanent benefit 
to the county. This company manufactures at Berlin, and has done so 
since its first establishment, on an average some twenty or twenty-five 

The Timber Interests of Northern Coos. 127 

million feet of lumber each year, and there are two other companies al 
the same place which use a large amount of spruce lumber, annually, in 
making paper stock, the employees of all these com panies being largely 
residents of Berlin. These manufactures all find a market by way of tin 
Grand Trunk Railway. The manufactures of the lumber mills in Strat- 
ford and Stark find their way to market by the same road. 

The Connecticut River Lumber Company cut and drive down the Con- 
necticut river, on an average, about seventy five million feet of lumber a 
year. Their employees are mostly transient men from Maine and Canada, 
who work in the woods in the winter and on the drive in the spring, but 
few, if any, ever become permanent residents of the county. 

We have thus far confined ourselves to spruce lumber, and possibly 
may have, unintentionally, conveyed to the casual reader an impression 
that spruce is substantially the only growth of this section. Such is not 
the fact. There are small sections that have no other growth, and larger 
sections having a mixed growth, while still larger sections have no spruce 
at all. 

In every town there is more or less cedar, which is very valuable, but, 
as it can be floated down the rivers the same as spruce, and is included in 
the estimates of the companies above named, it requires little further 
mention. It has, however, a home value for fencing, that no other lum- 
ber possesses. In Northern Coos, which is substantially free from granite, 
stone fences are almost a curiosity, and cedar for posts and rails (where 
rails are used), is in universal, and nearly exclusive use. When the Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence, and the St. Lawrence & Atlantic railroads were first 
built, cedar was exclusively used for ties, but experience soon proved that 
the grain of the wood was not dense enough to hold the spikes, and they 
were taken up, and spruce, hemlock, and oak substituted. But for fenc- 
ing and shingles, cedar is the most valuable of any timber used. 

The hard wood timber, consisting mostly of maple, birch and beech, 
growing upon this section, exceeds in quantity all the soft or black growth, 
and there are few, if any lots in any town that does not bear more or less 
of it. This timber, being more dense than water, soon sinks, and cannot 
be floated down the rivers, and, if ever manufactured, it must be done 
within hauling distance of where it grows. This can be done, and will be, 
whenever an outlet is found for it. It is of greater value for many pur- 
poses than spruce, but the home market, as yet, is not great, and it cannot 
be brought into any other, until there are railroads to convey it, and even 
then little will be moved except in a manufactured state. Much of the 
maple is valuable for sugar purposes as it stands. As a rule, the pioneer, 
when clearing up his farm, sought out, and left standing, a "sugar 
orchard," and there are few farms that have not retained them. Probably 
no section of New England, with the same number of inhabitants, makes 

128 History of Coos County. 

more maple sugar than this. Many of these orchards produce from five 
hundred to twenty-five hundred pounds of sugar annually, according to 
the number of trees tapped, and the character of the season. This sugar, 
over and above the home consumption, finds a ready and favorable mar- 
ket everywhere. These " sugar orchards " are permanent, self -renewing, 
and, if properly attended to, inexhaustible. When a tree becomes old, 
and shows signs of decay, it is cut out, and others spring up to take its 
place. The trees vary in size from the young sapling to trees twenty-four 
and thirty inches in diameter. The young trees are of rapid growth, and 
in a decade will grow from a young sapling to a tree suitable for the tap- 
ping iron and the tin bucket. Another peculiarity of these sugar maples 
is, that constant tapping by the present method, neither exhausts nor 
injures the tree. The holes soon grow over, the tree continues as thrifty as 
ever, and the tapping being done near the ground, it produces no injury 
to the tree when used for timber, for it remains as clear and free from de- 
fects as if no sap had ever been drawn from it. The beech, birch, and ash 
have not the same faculty of producing a revenue to their owner while 
standing and growing, and with the exception of natural growth, pro- 
duce none. Like the maple, they are now largely used for fuel, but are far 
more valuable for lumber, and the time is coming in the near future when 
this value will be utilized. Hardwood lumber enters into the construction 
of nearly every article that can be named, from the backwoodsman's 
cabin with its rude furniture, to the palatial residence of the city million- 
aire, with its wainscoting and cabinet work of oriental magnificence. The 
ax of the common laborer, the various tools of the mechanics, and the 
machinery of the largest manufactories, are alike dependent upon this 
article for construction. It is found in the common farm wagon; the 
palace cars upon our railroads, and the magnificent steamers that plough 
the rough ocean. In brief, it will be difficult to mention many articles in 
common use in city or country, that are not wholly or partially com- 
posed of this valuable article. 

Why then are the vast quantities of this valuable timber still standing 
untouched upon the hillsides and valleys of this enterprising people? The 
answer is obvious. It cannot be floated down the rivers, and the expense 
of conveyance to' market by teams will more than eat up its market value. 
A limited quantity of this lumber may be in future transported in the 
log, but the great bulk of it must be manufactured near its place of growth. 
[This conveyance can only be done by steam, and the means of obtaining 
railroad facilities, has been, and still is, the most important question of 
any that ever agitated this community. By means of promises, which they 
could not or would not fulfill, the Boston, Concord & Montreal railroad, 
obtained, and for many years held a virtually exclusive charter through to 
Canada, and, like the dog in the fable, would neither eat the hay, nor let 

The Timber Interests of Northern Coos. 129 

the ox; or, in plain English, would neither build the road, nor let any one 
else. But the long suffering patience of the people gave away at last, and 
they rose in their might and demanded a different state of things. When- 
ever the people of Northern Coos unitedly and earnestly set out to accom- 
plish any purpose, they usually succeed, and they did so in this case. In 
18S3 they secured to themselves a charter which they now hold and cou- 
trol. This charter took effect January 1, 1884. About this time the rail- 
road interests of the state became involved in litigation, which was not 
settled until March, 1S87. Since then a movement has been set on foot, 
which has resulted in the building, this season (1887), a road from Strat- 
ford to Colebrook.* This movement will soon produce developments in 
this section that will surprise every one who has not carefully studied 
the subject.] 

It is sometimes said that Northern Coos is destitute of water-power, but 
this idea originates in a superficial view and an utter ignorance of the fad s. 
On the Connecticut river between the outlet of Connecticut lake and West 
Stewartstown bridge are at least four sites where sufficient power can be 
obtained for the manufacture of hard wood to any extent desired. South 
of there you cannot now travel ten miles in any direction without passing 
one or more mills of more or less capacity. These small water-powers, 
occupied and unoccupied, dot the country like dandelions in June. Some 
of them may not hold out the year round (as some of the largest factories 
in the state fall short of water in the dry season of summer), but suppose 
the lesser of them run but six months out of twelve, while the remain- 
der of the season is devoted to getting the lumber in winter, and other 
pursuits in summer, and then the result will not be inconsiderable in the 
product of any of the small articles of manufacture from hard wood. 

But it is too late in the age to assert that this or any other section of 
country is dependent upon water as a motive power. Steam has become its 
competitor, even on its own ground, and it is a disputed question as to 
which is the cheaper and more economical; but, for manufacture of wood, 
where the refuse goes so far towards supplying fuel to feed the engine, it 
is claimed that steam is the more economical, even where water can be 
obtained. The extensive cotton factories of Dover are run wholly by steam, 
as are the large lumber mills at Whitefield, and not only this, but they run 
their own railroad miles and miles into the woods for the purpose of trans- 
porting the logs to their mills. Their mills are built where they are, that 
is on the railroad, for the convenience of sending away their manufactured 
lumber, and whenever that railroad extends to the Connecticut lakes, little 
spruce or cedar will float down the river. When that is done, the hard 

-—----—-—■-- — — 

* See railroads in another chapter. 


130 History of Coos County. 

wood timber will be worth more than the soft. It not only exceeds it in 
value per thousand, but in this section it far exceeds it in quantity. 

Comparatively few people have any definite idea of the growth of the 
northern part, where the hard wood growth stands in its native state 
undisturbed by the woodman's ax. In the settled towns much of this 
growth has been cut off in clearing land and for fuel, but east of the lakes, 
in the unsettled townships, are large tracts of "birds eye " maple and birch, 
the trees of which are of the largest size, standing straight, smooth, and 
free from knots and limbs for a half hundred feet at least. In easy reach 
of this valuable timber, steam mills can be erected not only for the pur- 
pose of reducing it to coarse sawn lumber, but for making the innumerable 
articles that are made from it. This will be done as soon as railroad facili- 
ties are furnished. The possibilities in this line are incalculable. 

When the spruce was first operated, the idea attained to some extent 
that it was inexhaustible; that by cutting out the large trees and leaving 
the small ones, the natural growth of the small trees would supply the 
vacuum. Experience has proved this idea to be erroneous. The large 
spruce trees have over a century's growth upon them, and when these are 
removed, the small trees grow short, knotty and knurly, and are of very 
little value for timber. Especially is this the case where it is cut, as is now 
the practice, down to four and five inches. 

Though birch and maple, in their natural state undoubtedly attain a 
very great age, they are of very rapid growth while young, and obtain 
their size substantially in a short period. The writer has seen a strip of 
three or four acres, on the outskirts of an old pasture, thickly covered with 
birch trees from eighteen to twenty-four inches in diameter, standing 
straight, smooth, and without limbs, for forty or fifty feet and holding their 
bigness remarkably for that distance. Being upon the ground with the 
owner, then a man between sixty and sixty -five, he was told by him that 
he once cleared the land on which these trees then stood, and reaped on it 
as stout a crop of rye as he ever saw growing. These trees must have 
attained this remarkable growth from the seed in less than forty years. 
The rapid growth of maple is also clearly demonstrated in their use for 
ornamental and shade trees, where the middle-aged man may set out trees 
that he can carry in one hand, and live to enjoy the coolness of their shade 
and eat maple sugar made by himself from their sap. 

The man who looks only at present gains and immediate returns may 
see little encouraging in all this; but he who looks to the future benefit and 
prosperity of the country, conscious of the fact that untold generations are 
yet to follow us, and alive to the fact that all this material must necessarily 
be manufactured on the spot, and that this enterprize will result in the 
rapid settlement of the country, especially those portions denuded of their 
spruce growth, will see a hardy, enterprizing and prosperous people cover- 

Coos County Press — Agricultural Societies- - Railroads. 13 i 

ing this now dense wilderness, who will continue to sustain the reputation 
which New Hampshire has already acquired, of raising men capable of 
competing successfully with the men of any section of any land, and that 
this vision is not a mere chimera, but will be, in the near future, an accom- 
plished fact. 



White Mountain ^E^is— Coos County Democrat — Coos Republican— Prohibition Herald — 
Independent (now Lancaster) Gazette— Coos Herald, Etc.— Northern Sentinel — Colebrook Weekly 
News — News and Sentinel — Whiterield Blade — Coos Advertiser — The Mountaineer, Etc. — Coos 
Agricultural Society — Coos and Essex County Agricultural Society — Railroads: Atlantic and St. 
Lawrence — White Mountains— Portland and Ogdensburg — Upper Coos. 


THE White Mountain JEgis was the first newspaper of the county. 
It was issued in the spring of 1838, by an association composed 
of Royal Joyslin, Richard P. Kent, Gen. John Wilson, and Apollos 
Perkins, as an organ of the Whig party. Apollos Perkins was editor. 
After an existence of one year it was removed to Haverhill and became 
the Whig an<t JEgis. The paper was published in the old Masonic Hall 
in C. E. Allen's building on Main street. 

The Coos County Democrat was the next paper established; its first 
issue being dated in the summer of 1838. The Democrat, like the JEgis, 
was started by an association of the prominent men of its party, chief 
among whom were Hon. John W. Weeks, Jared W. Williams, John S. 
Wells, Hon. John H. White, and others of subsequent state reputations, 
but it afterward passed under the control of Mr. Rix, until his death in 
1856, when its shares were disposed of by the original holders or their rep- 
resentatives. The imprint bore the names of James M. Rix and James R. 
Whittemore as publishers, Mr. Rix for the first year working at the casi 
in addition to preparing the editorial labors of the journal. After this year 
Mr. Rix gave up the case, retaining editorial management until his death. 

The Democrat was first issued from the second story of a building on 
Main street, then owned by John S. Wells, now the ell of the store of 
Richard P. Kent & Son. In 1851 it was removed to the store building of 
JamesA. Smith. After Mr. Rix's death at the City Hotel, Huston, March 25, 

132 History of Coos County. 

1856, the office was moved to the " Postoffice building," now the Shannon 
building, on the south side of Israel's river. Jared I. Williams, Esq., being 
editor, and Joseph W. Merriam, Esq., a native of Stratford, subsequently 
one of the editors of the Patriot, being assistant editor. 

In 1859 the Democrat was moved to North Stratford under the control, 
as editor, of Charles D. Johnson, Esq., then but recently admitted to the 
bar of Coiis county. Mr. Johnson died October 29, 1860, and after his 
death, the paper, as a party organ, practically ceased to have existence. 
The material was purchased by sundry parties, members of the opposing 
organization, and for a time the Democrat was a nondescript. Frequent 
exhibitions of the internal dissensions among its owners, such as placing a 
cut of a bull bottom-side up, entitled " A man overboard " at the head of 
its columns by its nominal editor, followed the next week by denunciations 
of said manager from the owners, characterized its last days. Ultimately, 
about 1862, the material was sold to A. J. Walker, of Lunenburg, Vt. 

The roster of employers and employed of the Democrat is long and hon- 
orable. Hon. James M. Rix, subsequently president of the state Senate, 
was a nervous, vigorous writer, and acute politician well known to the 
public of the state. His death occurred from consumption, aggravated 
beyond doubt by the cares of editorial and political life. 

Among the Democrat employees was Edward E. Cross, of Lancaster, 
who " served his time justly and legally " as an apprentice, and then assumed 
management of the office as foreman. From Lancaster, Cross went to Cin- 
cinnati, entering the Dollar Weekly Times office. Soon he appeared as 
traveling correspondent of that paper, and for several years his letters writ- 
ten from all parts of the land, under the nom de plume of " Edward Ever- 
ett," were among the most agreeable matter in its columns. Charles 
Francis Brown, better known as " Artemas Ward, " began his career of 
letters as an apprentice in this office. From here he went to Cleveland, 
Ohio, where, on the Plaindealer, he acquired his world-wide reputation as 
a humorist. He died in Southampton, England, March 7, 1867. Col. Rich- 
ard E. Cross, another valiant soldier of the Civil war, was an appren- 
tice. Albert B. Davis, so long manager of McVicker's theater, Chicago, was 
also an apprentice. It is but justice to say that under the management of 
Mr. Rix, the Democrat was one of the ablest and best country newspapers in 
New England. He had a brilliant mind, strong reasoning powers, and a 
great taste for the preservation of local history. 

In October, 1881, the Democrat was revived by F. A. Kehew, who began 
its publication in Eagle block, Lancaster, and sold it in May, 1887, to Willard 
C. Colby, the present proprietor, who took possession June 1st. 

The Cods Republican. — This paper, next in date of issue, was estab- 
lished in December, 1851. It was first published in the Town Hall build- 
ing, Daniel A. Bowe, of Middlebury, Vt., for several years principal of 

Coos County Press -Agricultural Societies- Railroads. 133 

Lancaster academy, being editor, and David B. Allison, an old Concord 
printer, manager, the two uniting in the firm of Bo we ec Allison. The 
Republican was started as the organ of the party of that name. The 
health of Mr. Bowe was not firm, and in the autumn of L857 he was com- 
pelled to abandon business. He died the April following. Col. Allison 
continued the publication until December. L858, when the establishment 
was purchased by Henry O. Kent, who removed it to rooms in the Kent 
building on Main street. Col. Kent says : — 

" For twelve years, from December, 1S58, to October, 1870, the paper 
was owned by me, and was under my direct control, save dining the period 
of my absence with my regiment, when it was leased to Daniel C. Pink- 
ham, Esq., then clerk of the courts for the county. 

" During this time it was my endeavor to establish the concern as a 
business enterprise and to labor for what I conceived the interests of jour- 
nalism; I never regarded money expended for an energetic, local paper, or 
for judicious advertising or job work, as a gratuity for which the proprie- 
tor was to be under deep obligation, nor did the receipt of stale public doc- 
uments or garden seeds, constitute utterly conclusive evidence of the emi- 
nent fitness of the donor for further public advancement, — integrity and 
capacity being, in my belief, equally essential requisites." 

Among the apprentices under the administration of H. O. Kent, were 
Henry B. Berry, afterward in the army; George H. Emerson, Henry W. 
Denison, Richard H. Emerson, now of Gorham; George H. Colby, and 
Harry C Hartshorn, of Lunenburg, Vt., who, with George H. Emerson, 
conducted a job printing office in Lancaster for some time. 

Col. Kent sold the Republican to Chester B. Jordan & Co., in October, 
1870, and the office was moved to the Postoffice building. Subsequently 
the "' Cods Republican Association" was formed, and assumed control of 
the paper, which it conducted until it was sold in August, 1*71, to F. E. 
Shaw, who soon let it go back into the possession of the association. 

Chester B. Jordan, Esq., first assumed, but temporarily, the editorial 
chair. On his retiring, Wesley W. Pasko, of New York, a writer for the 
Press of that city, entered upon the duties, to him followed successively 
Josiah H. Benton, Jr., Benjamin F. Whidden, Jonathan Smith, F. W. 
Williams, W. C. Mahurin, F. E. Shaw, W. C. Mahurin again for a time 
after Mr. Shaw relinquished his possession. From July. Is77. when Mr. 
Mahurin vacated the editorial chair, a Miss Kingslev was editor for the 
association until April, 1878, when the office was destroyed by fire. 

During the next month (May) James S. Peavey removed his office from 
Littleton to Lancaster, and continued the publication of the Republican 
from the store opposite the old American House on Elm street, until Octo- 
ber, when he moved his office to the new Eagle Hall block. In December, 
18S0, Mr. Peavey sold the Republican to A. F. Rowell and C. D. Batchel- 

134 History of Coos County. 

der, who admitted C. L. Griffing as a partner, in September, 1881, forming 
the firm of Rowell, Batchelder & Griffing, which continued until June, 
1882, when Rowell and Batchelder retired. In September, 1883, C. D. 
Phelps & Co. (J. H. Baird) became the owners. Soon after Mr. Baird pur- 
chased the entire office, and, in 1881, the publication of the paper, which 
had been the Lancaster Republican since 1881, was discontinued. The 
press, type, etc., were sold at auction to F. A. Kehew, and used by him in 
the Democrat office. 

The Prohibition Herald, the state organ of the temperance party, was 
published at the job printing office of Emerson, Hartshorn & Co., from 
January 1, 1871, for one year, when it was removed to Concord. The edi- 
tors were Rev. L. D. Barrows and Dr. John Blackmer. 

The Independent Gazette, independent in politics, was published at 
Lancaster, the first number being issued in January, 1872, George H. 
Emerson and Harry C. Hartshorn, publishers; James S. Brackett, editor. 
The editorial chair was soon occupied by Mr. Emerson, who conducted it 
till August, 1877, when I. W. Quimby and W. F. Burns became proprie- 
tors. Mr. Burns sold his interest to Joseph Roby, Jr., after a few months, 
and Mr. Quimby soon became sole owner. He continued to publish the 
paper (changing the name to Lancaster Gazette, January 1, 1870,) until 
November 10, 1883, when he sold it to the Lancaster Printing Co., George 
P. Rowell, the well known advertising agent of New York city, being the 
real owner, and it was carried on under his ownership until September 25, 
1885, when Mr. Quimby again became proprietor and has since been pub- 
lisher. It is a bright, neat, newsy local paper, and is well worth double its 
price (one dollar a year, cash in advance). Publication day, Tuesday. 

The Cods Herald was a little sheet edited, printed and published at 
Lancaster, in the winter of 1S56, by Charles N. Kent, then aged thirteen. 
Mr. Kent, who was an amateur printer only, is now a member of the 
advertising firm of George P. Rowell & Co., New York. 

The Journal of Familiar Science was a quarto issued during 1870, at 
Lancaster, by S. Randall & Co., druggists. 

The Northern News, a sheet 8x12, was edited and published by Fletcher 
Ladd, when a lad of eight years. 


The Norther u Sentinel, democratic, was established at Colebrook, 
November, 1870, by James S. Peavey, who published it until the month 
of April, 1872, when he was succeeded as proprietor and editor by Albert 
Barker, Esq., who showed great ability. E. S. Cummings purchased it in 
June, 1884. 

The Colebrook Weekly News was founded in 1875 by Charles A. Bridge, 
who, after a year or two, sold it to his brother, John D. Bridge. 

Coos County Press — Agricultural Societies -- Railroads. 135 

The above papers were consolidated in December, 1884, forming The 
News and Sentinel, the Colebrook Publishing Company becoming the pub- 
lishers. E. S. Cummings has been manager and editor from that date. 
Independent weekly, $1.00 per year in advance. 


In 1876 N. A. Burnham published a small sheet, the Whitefield Blade, 
for a few months. In 1S80 W. C. McCausland, an amateur printer, 
established the Cods Advertiser; it was published about a year. The Coos 
County News has just been started. 


The Mountaineer, weekly, $1.00 a year.— V. V. Twitchell began the 
publication of this spicy and interesting journal in April, 1877. It very 
soon attained a high reputation for humor, and a circulation which 
extended to every state in the Union, and to England. Much of the lit- 
erary matter, which forms quite a specialty, is written expressly for 
the Mountaineer. With all these outside matters, it has kept up a rep- 
utation as a good local newspaper. Mr. Twitchell has built up a fine busi- 
ness, passed through one disastrous fire, and although never in robust 
health, is good, we hope, for many years' editorial service. 

The Messenger, an amateur paper, was published a short time in 1881, 
by Fred Ingalls, who, in 1887, became associated with V. V. Twitchell in 
the publication of the Mountaineer. 

For Among the Clouds, see General History — White Mountain chapter. 

The Cods Agricultural Society was organized in 1821, and existed four 
years. For its brief life it accomplished much good. In an address deliv- 
ered before this body, October 17, 1821, Adino N. Brackett shows the very 
high aims of the founders of that society. He says it was formed to 
"encourage agriculture and domestic manufacture." To the farmers he 
says: "To draw forth your activity and your exertions, for your own 
benefit, is the object of this institution. Not a cent which you contribute 
is to be sent out of the county; but the whole returns to you in premiums, 
the honorable reward of your industry. In addition to which, if you 
raise and expend one hundred dollars for premiums, the state has in its 
treasury funds to an equal amount, to be laid out in the same manner. 
Thus is every inducement held out to raise and expend the sum above 
mentioned. The man who pays two dollars, immediately adds other two 
to the wealth of the county; and this beyond the indefinite amount which 
will be accumulated by the increased activity which will exist in the 
departments of agriculture and domestic manufactures." Concerning the 
latter, Mr. Brackett asks: "What is the exact state of domestic manufac- 

136 History of Coos County. 

tures among us ? Are we principally clothed with articles of this kind ? 
It is believed, that of the male population, at least three-fourths are 
clothed in articles manufactured within the county or within the United 
States. But the observation, if extended to the female part of society, 
would not hold true to the same extent." 

The Cods and Essex Counties Agricultural Society was organized in 1870, 
and embraced all the towns and places in Coos county, and the tier of towns 
in Essex county, Vermont, lying upon the Connecticut river, north of the 
town of Concord. The object of the society is stated to be the "improve- 
ment of agricultural productions, useful domestic animals, domestic man- 
ufactures, and the mechanic arts." The first officers were as follows: 
President, William D. Weeks, Lancaster; vice-presidents, John W. Harts- 
horn, Lunenburg; Hazen Bedel, Colebrook; secretaries, Charles E. Benton, 
Guildhall; George H. Emerson, Lancaster; treasurer, Henry O. Kent, 
Lancaster. In addition to these, there was a large executive committee 
from the various towns. List of presidents: William D. Weeks, Lancas- 
ter, 1870-1; John W. Hartshorn, Lunenburg, 1872-3-1-5; Edward Spauld- 
ing, Lancaster, 1876-8-9; Josiah H. Benton, Maidstone, 1877-8; J. G. 
Crawford, Lancaster, 1879-80; George E. Carbee, Lancaster, 1881-2; 
George P. Rowell, Lancaster, 1881; J. W. Dodge, Lunenburg, 1885-6. 
The society has had successful and unsuccessful fairs, but has kept up an 
organization, and at the present time is in a prosperous condition. The 
officers for 1886 were: President, J. W. Dodge, Lunenburg; vice-presi- 
dents, William C. Spaulding, Lancaster; L. T. Hazen, Whitefield; Sidney 
B. Whittemore, Colebrook; secretary and treasurer, I. W. Quimby, Lan- 
caster; executive committee, George M. Stevens, Jason H. Woodward, 
George P. Eaton, Joseph Winch, H. J. Guernsey, the president, secretary 
and treasurer being ex- officio members. 

Patrons of Husbandry.— This order has a following of earnest and 
wide-awake agriculturists, with granges in Lancaster, Whitefield, and 
other towns, but has not a great numerical strength in the county. 

Railroads. — Few railroads have been constructed in Coos county, and 
there is not much to be said of them, but if we should write of all the 
futile efforts made to obtain railroads, the hopes that have been raised and 
blasted concerning the railways that were to be made, but were never 
completed, there could much be written which we must omit. 

Atlantic & St. Lawrence R. R.—ln 1817, while Hon. Jared W. Williams 
was governor of New Hampshire, the Atlantic & St. Lawrence railroad 
was incorporated. Its length from Portland to Island Pond was 119 miles, 
fifty-four of which lay in this state. This was leased by the Grand Trunk 
railway in 1853, at a rental of six per cent, upon the cost of construction, 
or $6,003,900. In order to get possession of an existing charter covering 
the ground it pledged itself to construct a branch to Lancaster. It broke 

Coos County Press — Agricultural Societies -Railroads. 137 

its pledge, and appeal was taken to the legislature, but a compromise was 
effected by payment of sis. ik id to the citizens of Lancaster, who, after 
reimbursing a few people for money spent in trying to secure the road, 
used the balance, about $15,000, in building the Lancaster House. This 
road was completed to Gorham in L850, the trains beginning to run regu- 
larly to and from Portland on the " Fourth of July," 1851. Trains ran to 
Northumberland and North Stratford from Gorham, in 1852: to Island 
Pond, Vt., in 1853; connecting with the St. Lawrence & Atlantic at the 
Canadian boundary in July, 1853. This road has done much to develop the 
resources of the country along its line, and has created several prosperous 
villages, —Gorham, Berlin Falls, Groveton, and North Stratford. 

The White Mom/ fain R. R. was chartered December 15, 1848. Among 
the incorporators were Royal Joy si in, R. P. Kent, James W. Weeks, W. 
D. Spaulding, William Burns, Presbury West, Jr., N. D. Day, L. John- 
son, T. Montgomery, John M. Gove, Morris Clark. This was an extension 
of the Boston, Concord & Montreal R. R,, from Woodsville to Lancaster, 
and was opened to Littleton in August, 1853; to Lancaster in November, 
1870; to Groveton (51.95 miles from Woodsville) in August, 1872; to Fa- 
byan's in July, 1874; to the base of the White Mountains, July 6, 1876. 
This railroad was consolidated with the Boston, Concord & Montreal R. R. 
in 1873, its owners receiving $300,000 in six per cent, consolidated bonds for 
their interests. From June, 1884, to June, 1887, it was under the manage- 
ment of the Boston & Lowell R. R., which leased the B., C. & M. road for 
ninety-nine years. The Boston & Lowell, in 1887, leased it to the Boston 
& Maine R. R. 

Portland & Ogdensburg R. R. — A charter was granted in 1869 to build 
a railroad from the west line of Maine through Conway, Bartlett, White 
Mountain Notch, Carroll, Bethlehem and Littleton, with the proviso that 
if it were found impracticable to build a railroad from Littleton to St. 
Johnsbury, they might locate and build the road from Carroll to White- 
field, Dalton, and the east line of Vermont. The road was completed to 
Fabyan's from Portland August 7, L875, making a connection with the 
Boston, Concord & Montreal and White Mountains roads there. De- 
ciding that the road could not be built by the Littleton route, the Port- 
land & Ogdensburg company constructed two and one-half miles between 
Scotts and Lunenburg, Vt. , making a western connection there with the 
St. Johnsbury & Lake Champlain R. R. by using the track of the Boston, 
Concord & Montreal, and White Mountains roads from Fab van's to Scotts, 
for which an arrangement was made and still continues. In ls77 the legis- 
lature confirmed the Portland & Ogdensburg road in the right to the two 
and one-half miles of road between Scotts and Lunenburg. 

Upper Cods Railroad. — During all the years from the settlement of the 
town to the year 1887 there was no railroad to Cole-brook, the nearest 

138 History of Coos County. 

point on the railroad being North Stratford, thirteen miles away. In the 
legislature of 1883 a charter for a railroad was obtained from Stratford to 
Pittsburg, and in April and May, 1887, a subscription for a narrow gauge 
railroad was raised, stock to the amount of forty-five thousand dollars 
being taken. The corporation was organized with J. H. Dudley, presi- 
dent; Albert Barker, clerk; and Sherburn R. Merrill, treasurer; and 
about $11,000 paid into the stock subscription, when Frank Jones, Charles 
A. Sinclair and George Van Dyke offered to build a standard gauge road 
through Colebrook and Stewartstown, if the people would raise a gratuity 
of $25,000. This was quickly done. The old directors resigned, and a 
new board, consisting of Frank Jones, of Portsmouth, J. B. Cooke, of Salem, 
Mass., G. W. Armstrong, of Boston, I. W. Drew, of Lancaster, Enoch 
Sweat, of Woonsocket, R. I., Charles A. Sinclair, of Portsmouth, and George 
Van Dyke were chosen. Van Dyke was chosen president, Cooke treasurer, 
and Sweat, general manager. It was voted that the capital stock do not 
exceed $350,000. 

Work at once commenced and the road was formally opened from 
North Stratford to Colebrook November 29, 1S87, giving the people greatly 
increased facilities for business It will be extended ten miles farther to 
the Canada line, early next summer, by which time the Canadian Pacific 
will be ready to touch iron with it, thus opening a new and shorter 
route to Quebec It also renders practicable the utilization of numberless 
water privileges on the Connecticut and other rivers, heretofore unavail- 
able for manufacturing purposes, owing to the difficulties attendant upon 
shipping manufactured products. Facilities for manufacturing lumber 
unequalled in New England can also be found and utilized, which will 
obviate largely the labor and expense of " driving" millions of logs down 
the rivers to a market. 

If ever a railroad proved a blessing to a section of country, this Upper 
Coos railroad seems destined to become pre-eminently such. Sharp-eyed 
capital will surely be attracted to Northern New Hampshire, and one need 
stretch his imagination but little to people the northern valleys with thriv- 
ing manufacturing villages, monuments of New England thrift and enter- 

Masonry in Coos. 139 



North Star Lodge, Lancaster — Templar Masonry in Northern New Hampshire — North Star 
Chapter, Lancaster — Evening Star Lodge, Colebrook — Gorham Lodge, Gorham — White Mount- 
ain Lodge. Whitefield — Officers of Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery from 
Coos county. 

/\T ORTH Star Lodge, No. 8. — Lancaster is the mother of Masonry in 
I N Northern New Hampshire and Vermont, these lodges owing filial 
V. allegiance to her: Evening Star, Colebrook; Kane, Lisbon; Burns, 
Littleton; Gorham, Gorham; White Mountain, Whitefield; Passumpsic, 
St. Johnsbury; Island Pond, Island Pond. It was instituted at Northum- 
berland under this ancient charter in 1797. 

" To all the Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons to whom, these presents shall come. 

" The Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons for the 

State of New Hampshire, sends GREETING. 

" [ L. &] Wnereas, a petition has heen presented us by Brothers George Kimball, John J. 
Nath'l Adams, French, John Weeks, William Cargill, Mills De Forest, Nathaniel Wales, Thos. 
Gr. Master. Burnside, Holloway Taylor, Edmund Heard, Josiah Sawyer, Jabez Parsons, James 
Chamberlain, Samuel Phelps, Azariah Webb and Warren Cook, all Ancient, Free and Accepted 
Masons, praying that they with such others as shall hereafter join them, may be erected and con- 
stituted a regular Lxlge of Free and Accepted Misons, which petition appearing to us as tending 
to the advancement of Masonry and good of the Craft. 

" Know ye, therefore, that we, the Grand Lodge aforesaid, reposing special trust and confi- 
dence in the prudence and fidelity of our beloved brethren, above named, have constituted and ap- 
pointed, and by these presents do constitute and appoint them, the said George Kimball, John Weeks, 
Mills De Forest, Thomas Burnside, Edmund Heard, Jabez Parsons, Samuel Phelps, John J. French, 
William Cargill, Nathaniel Wales, Holloway Taylor, Josiah Sawyer, James Chamberlain, Azariah 
Webb and Warren Cook, a regular Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the title and desig- 
nation of the North Star Lodge, No. 8; and we do hereby appoint our said brother George Kimball, 
Master; our said brother John J. French, Senior, and our said brother John Weeks, Junior Wardens 
of said Lodge, hereby giving and granting unto them and their successors full power and author- 
ity to covene as Masons, within the town of Northumberland, aud County of Grafton and State 
aforesaid, to receive and enter Apprentices, pass Fellow Crafts, and raise Master Masons, 
upon the payment of such moderate compensations for the same as may be determined, by the said 
Lodge, also, hereby authorizing them in future to make choice of a Master. Wardens and other 
office bearers annually or otherwise as they shall see cause, to receive and collect funds for the 
relief of poor and distressed brethren, their widows or children, and in general to transact all mat- 
ters relating to Masonry, which may to them appear to be for the good of the Craft, according to 
the ancient usage and custom of Masons. 

" And we do hereby require the said constituted brethren to attend the Grand Lodge at their 
Quarterly Communications and other meetings, by their Master and Wardens, or by proxies regu- 
larly appointed, also to keep a fair and regular record of all their proceedings, and to lay the same 
before the Grand Lodge when required. 

" And we do enjoin upon the brethren of said Lodge, that they be punctual in their quarterly 
payments of such sums as may be assessed for the support of the Grand Lodge, thai they behave 

140 History of Coos County. 

themselves respectfully and obediently to their superiors in office, and in all other things conduct 
themselves as good Masons. 

"And we do herebj r declare the precedure of the said Lodge in the Grand Lodge and else- 
where, to commence from the eighteenth day of December, A. L., 5797. 

" In testimony whereof, we, the Grand Master and the Grand Wardens, by virtue of the power 

and authority to us committed, have hereunto set our hands, and caused the seal of the Grand 

Lodge to be affixed, at Portsmouth, this eighteenth day of December, Anno Domini, 1797, and of 

Masonry, 5797. 

"Joseph Cillet, Dept G. M. 

"Moses Woodward, Sen'r ) p ^- 
"Samuel Sherburne, Jun'r J ' 

I! J° SEP " H ™ S ? n ' r l G. Deacons. 
" John Adams, Jun r ) 

" Rec'd the fees for this Charter, 

"Samuel Adams, Gr'd Treasurer. 

" Edw'd. St. Loe Livermore, 

Grand Secretary. 

" Recorded from the original, 

' ' Edw'd. St. Loe Livermore, 

Grand Secretary." 

The first meeting of which we have record was held in the hall over the 
Cargill store, September IS, 1793. There were present James Chamber- 
lain, W. M. ; John J. French, S. W. ; Nathaniel Wales, Sect. ; Benoni 
Cutler, Charles Cutler and Edwards Bucknam. The first complete list of 
officers preserved is of those elected January 21, 1800: Samuel Phelps, W. 
M.; Daniel Dana, S. W. ; Stephen Wilson, J. W. ; Arte mas Wilder, Treas. ; 
R. C. Everett, Sect. ; Warren Cook, S. D. ; Joseph Dyer, J. D. Special com- 
munications were then frequent, and much work was done. Between 
January 21, 1800, the date of the last meeting in Northumberland, and 
February 11, 1800, the lodge was moved to Lancaster and held its meet- 
ings in a Masonic hall owned by the lodge which stood nearly on the site 
of the present residence of Hon. Jacob Benton. [This building was later 
moved down town, contained the postoffice under the administration of 
Charles E. Allen, and is now used for business purposes. Masonic 
emblems are now to be seen on the attic ceiling.] 

St. John's Day was celebrated for the first time in 1801, with fitting, 
although private ceremonies. In 1815 occurred the first public observance 
of the day, the brethren marching to the meeting-house, listening to an 
address by Rev. Dyer Burge, then repairing for refreshments to "Bro." 
Benjamin Hunking's hall. 

Stephen Wilson was elected Worshipful Master, January 10, 1802. He 
held the office over eight years. In 1807, August 1, it was voted to 
"return the charter;" but the lodge was subsequently revived, by vote of 
the Grand Lodge. 

In 1814, Jeremy L. Cross had become a resident of the place, and was 
employed at his trade— a hatter. He had taken the degrees of the York 
Eite in St. John's Lodge, at Portsmouth; E.\ A.'. September 2, 1807, F.\ 

Masonry in Coos. 141 

C.\ April 6, 1808, M. '. M.\ July 6, 1808, and in 1813 was Junior Deacon 
of that lodge. It may be presumed that he was instrumental in the reor- 
ganization, which occurred in 1814. He became Senior Deacon in that 
year, but took a demit October 25, 1S14. It was just previous to this time 
(in 1810) that he had entered upon the broader field of Masonic labor as a 
lecturer, organizer and writer, which largely occupied the remainder of 
his life. The extent of his influence on the work of the York Eite may 
be partially indicated by the fact that his Hieroglyphic Monitor passed 
through at least sixteen editions, between the years 1819 and 1860, the 
date of his death. 

The custom of wearing white aprons in the lodge was adopted April 1, 
1817, when it was voted that a number be procured for the use of the 

The communication of February 11, 1S2G, is the last recorded in the 
" First Book of Records," the report being signed by Asahel Going, Sec- 

The Masters to 1826 were George Kimball; James Chamberlain, two 
years; James Phelps, two years; Stephen Wilson, eight years: Abel Moore, 
two years; William Lovejoy, five years; Richard Eastman, one year; 
James Batchelder, one year. 

This lodge continued its work through the most venomous period of the 
anti-Masonic crusade, but surrendered its charter in June, 1844. The ogan- 
ization did not long remain dormant. While there were yet a large num- 
ber of survivors of the troublous times for freemasonry, the charter was 
returned to the revived lodge. This occurred in 1853. The lodge " organ- 
ized with the former officers." Eliphalet Lyman, W. M. ; Ephraim Cross, 
S. W. ; Charles Baker, J. W. ; Jacob E. Stickney, Sect. ; Benjamin Hunking, 
Treas. ; George Ingerson, S. D.; Allen Smith, J. D.; John Savage, Tyler. In 
1854 Ephraim Cross was elected Master, J. W. Barney, Sect. The lodge was 
moved to rooms over R. P.Kent & Son's store, September 6, 1854, in July, 
1855, to the hall over Burnside's store, and in April, 1856, to its present loca- 
tion in the Town Hall building, which, in 1881, in connection with the other 
Masonic bodies of the place, the lodge purchased for a permanent home. 
In June, 1855, the treasurer was authorized to "procure for the lodge 
twenty-nine working aprons, with appropriate insignia upon them for the 
officers, also a square and compass of solid silver." The seal of the char- 
ter having been lost, the Grand Lodge was asked, in May, 1856, to affix a 
new one, which was done. 

A donation of twenty-five dollars was voted to Bro. Annance, January 
27, 1867, as he was in indigent circumstances. Annance was an Indian, 
the only one admitted to this lodge, and was much respected by the crafts- 
men for his Masonic virtues. 

The first public installation (according to the records) took place in the 

142 History of Coos County. 

town hall. May 5, 1868. The set of silver jewels, now in use, were pro- 
cured the next December. In June, 1880, Silas Hurlburt, the oldest and 
a venerated member, disappeared mysteriously while walking near Lan- 
caster, and, although a reward was offered for tidings of him, and friends 
searched far and near, " no trace or semblance of him has since been seen 
among men or Masons. " The Masters,from 1852, have been Eliphalet Lyman, 
two terms; Ephraim Cross, two terms; Charles Baker, one term; Jared I. 
Williams, two terms; James D. Folsom, two terms; Henry 0. Kent, six 
years; William Burns, one term; B. F. Hunking, live terms; George S. 
Stockwell, one term; Edward Savage, five terms; Frank D. Peabody, one 
term; Thomas S. Ellis, two terms; Henry J. Cummings, one term; Charles 
E. Mclntire, three terms; Moses A. Hastings, one term; John H. Smith. 

The last return to the Grand Lodge shows that 268 members have been 
made since 1855, and a membership of 132 in good standing at the date of 
the report. 

On the rolls of this ancient lodge are the names of the ablest, wisest 
and best citizens, whose influence has been for good in both the commu- 
nity and in Masonic circles. A spirit of harmony and of zeal has per- 
vaded its counsels, and it is a power in the land. 

Templar Masonry in Northern New Hampshire. — At the commence- 
ment of the year 1857, there were but two Commanderies of Templar 
Masons in the state of New Hampshire, viz. : St. John's, at Portsmouth, 
and Trinity, at Manchester. All others of the old organization had become 
extinct, and the Grand Commandery had returned its charter to the Grand 
Encampment of the United States. A few Master Masons of North Star 
Lodge being desirous of receiving and perpetuating the benefits of Chris- 
tian Masonry, obtained the honors of Knighthood at Portland, Me., and 
Manchester, N. H., and uniting with themselves Curtis Cleaveland, an old 
Sir Knight from Burlington, Vt., who at that time was residing at North- 
umberland, sent a petition to Hon. William B. Hubbard, then Grand 
Master of Knights Templar in the United States, asking for a dispensation 
to organize a Commandery at Lancaster, N. H. On May 8, 1857, a dis- 
pensation was issued, and on May 11th, the Sir Knights met and organ- 
ized a Commandery with the following officers: Jared I. Williams, Em. 
Commander; LaFayette Moore, Generalissimo; George C. Williams, Capt. 
General. Immediately after organization they conferred the orders of 
Knighthood upon James A. Smith and James D. Folsom. 

At this time there was no Chapter of Koyal Arch Masons in this juris- 
diction nearer than Concord, N. H., and by consent obtained of Blazing 
Star Chapter, an arrangement was made whereby Haswell Chapter of St. 
Johnsbury, Vt., could confer the Royal Arch degrees upon candidates 
from Northern New Hampshire. In this manner the Commandery con- 
tinued work under its dispensation until November 24, 1859, when it was 

Masonry in Coos. 143 

organized under a charter from the United States Encampment as North 
Star Commandery, No. 3, of New Hampshire. During this time it had 
increased in membership from eight to fifteen. Under the charter the fol- 
lowing officers were elected and installed: Jared I.Williams, Em. Com- 
mander; LaFayette Moore, Generalissimo; George C Williams. Capt. 
General; Henry 0. Kent, Prelate; John W. Barney, Senior Warden; 
David A. Burnside, Treasurer; Henry 0. Kent, Recorder; James A. Smith, 
Standard Bearer; Curtis Cleaveland, Sword Bearer; Benjamin F. Hunk- 
ing, Warder, Alex. Thompson and Danforth Willey, Captains of Guard. 

In I860 North Star assisted in the organization of the Grand Com- 
mandery of New Hampshire. The same officers were re-elected in 1860- 
61-62-63. In December, 1863, the Commandery was free from debt for 
the first time since its organization. In January, 1861, a change was made 
in the officers by electing George F. French, Prelate; LaFayette Moore, 
Recorder; Nathan R. Perkins, Standard Bearer; Jared W.Williams, Sword 
Bearer; John S. Ockington, Ezra B. Bennet, and Charles L. Plaisted, 
Captains of Guard. 

March, 1861, L. F. Moore having resigned as recorder, D. C. Pinkham 
was elected his successor. The Commandery added to its numbers two in 
1860, eight in 1863, eighteen in 1861, and three in 1865, making thirty one 
Sir Knights enrolled in its ranks with a loss of one, by the death of Gov- 
ernor Williams, thus having a membership of forty-five Sir Knights on the 
23d of January, 1865, when the following officers were elected and installed : 
Henry 0. Kent, Em. Commander; LaFayette Moore, Generalissimo; George 
N. Dale, Captain General; Benjamin F. Hunking, S. Warden; T. T. Cush- 
man, J. Warden; George F. French, Prelate; David A. Burnside, Treas- 
urer; Daniel C. Pinkham, Recorder; Nathan R. Perkins, Standard Bearer; 
James D. Folsom, Sword Bearer; Ezra B. Bennett, Warder; John S. Ock- 
ington, Captain of Guard. In this year there were eleven members added 
to its rolls, and one lost, by the death of George C. Williams. On January 
23, 1866, the old officers were re-elected with a change of John W. Barney, 
Captain General; George S. Stockwell. Prelate; James A. Smith, Treas- 
urer. During this year thirteen new members were added to the roster, 
and one lost by the demit of Rev. E. R. Wilkins. 

In 1867 the following changes were made in the offices: Benjamin F. 
Hunking, Captain General; Alexander Thompson. Treasurer; Edward R. 
Kent, Warder. During this year twelve Sir Knights wore added to the roll, 
and one lost, by the death of David A. Burnside. In 1868 the same officers 
were re-elected. This year three were added to the roll, and twelve lost, de- 
mitted to form St Gerard Commandery at Littleton, N. H. In July, 1868, 
the Royal Arch Chapter was established at Lancaster. On January 1 :'.. L869, 
Benjamin F. Hunking was elected Commander, and continued in office until 
January, 1873. John S. Ockington was elected Recorder at this meeting. 

144 History of Coos County. 

and continued in this office until his death, May 6, 1884. Three Sir Knights 
were added to the roll in 1868, four in 1869, one in 1870, and one in 1871, 
with a loss of one by the death of James W. Abbott, and in 1872 two 
names were added to the roster. 

January 23, 1873, Henry 0. Kent was again elected Commander, and 
continued in office until 1875. In 1872 two were added to the roll, and 
three lost by demit. In 1874 seven new members were added to the Com- 

On January 23, 1S75, Edward R. Kent was elected Commander, and 
continued in office until January, 1885, a continuous term of ten years, 
during which period orders of Knighthood were conferred on sixty-four 
Masons, with a loss from the Commandery roll by death, in 1880, of Dr. 
Frank Bugbee; in 1882, of Alexander Thompson; in 1883, of Charles L. 
Griswold; in 1884, of John S. Ockington, and Past Commander Benjamin 
F. Hunking. In 1881 Dr. B. T. Olcott was lost by demit. In 1885 Thomas 
S. Ellis was elected Commander, and re-elected in 1S86. The honors of 
Knighthood were conferred on two in 1885, and seven in 1886, with a loss 
in 1885, by the death of Jared H. Plaisted. 

In January, 1887, the followiDg officers were chosen: Moses A. Hast- 
ings, Em. Commander; Charles A. Cleaveland, Generalissimo; Thomas S. 
Underwood, Captain General; Nelson Sparks, Prelate; Fielding Smith, 
S. Warden; Erastus V. Cobleigh, J. Warden; James B. Morrison, Treas- 
urer; Charles E. Mclntire, Recorder; Peter N. Shores, Standard Bearer; 
Ira E.Woodward, Sword Bearer; Frank Spooner, Warder; Amos F. Rowell, 
Willie E. Bullard, Ivan W. Quimby, Guards. 

In 1886 the Commandery returned a hundred and ten acting members 
in its report to the Grand Commandery. Included in this number are 
many of the most influential citizens of Coos, prominent alike in the pro- 
fessional and business interests of the county. 

North Star Chapter, No. 16, R. A. M., Lancaster. — The history of 
North Star Chapter, No. 16, Royal Arch Masons, is not a very long or 
eventful one. It was instituted in Lancaster in 1868, the dispensation, 
signed by Nathaniel W. Cumner, G. H. P., bearing date of July 8th of 
that year. Dr. George 0. Rogers was the prime mover, and it was mainly 
through his efforts that the chapter was at last successfully and soundly 

The charter is signed by Daniel R. Marshall, G. H. P., and bears date of 
June 8, 1869, the following being the names of the charter members: 
George 0. Rogers, Samuel H. LeGro, Ezra B. Bennett, E. V. Cobleigh, 
J. S. Ockington, Henry 0. Kent, Edward Savage, Philo S. Cherry, Rich- 
ard Hovey, Edward R. Kent, Daniel C. Pinkham. 

The first convocation was held under the dispensation July 8, 1868, in 
the office of Dr. Rogers, corner of Main and Middle streets, now occupied 

Masonry in Coos. 145 

by Dr. Wellington, at which were present companions Geo. 0. Rogers, 
H. P.; Samuel H. LeGro, K.; Edward Savage, S. Grand Council named 
in dispensation J. S. Ockington, H. O. Kent, Daniel Thompson, E. Y. 
Cobleigh, Ezra B. Bennett, E. R. Kent. W. H. N. Prince, Alex Thomp- 
son, Philo S. Cherry. 

The first annual convocation was held at Masonic Hall, May 19, 1869, 
at which the following officers were elected: Edward Savage, E. H. P.; 
Samuel H. LeGro, E. K.; W. H. N. Prince, E. S.; Edward R. Kent, C. H.; 
Chester B. Jordan, P. S. ; Daniel Thompson, R. A. C. ; Philo S. Cherry, 
M. 3d A 7 .; William L. Rowell, M. 2d V.; Abner Thompson, M. 1st Y. ; 
John S. Ockington, Treas. ; Alexander Thompson, Sect.; Richard Hovey, 
Tyler; and who were subsequently installed by the M. E. G. H. P., D. R. 
Marshall, at the special convocation held September 22. At this time the 
chapter was duly dedicated. 

The organization has been for the most part self-sustaining, a system 
of dues, fifty cents per capita per annum, having been in vogue but a short 
time, and is now on a solid financial basis, owning one-third part of the 
Town Hall building, and having a handsome sum in the treasury. 

The companions who have served as High Priest, since the chapter was 
organized, are as follows: Edward Savage, 1870-1-2-3-4; Charles A. 
Cleaveland, 1875-6-7-8-9-83; Nelson Sparks, 1880-1-2; John H. Smith, 
1884-5-6-7; Ivan W. Quimby, 1887, present incumbent. 

From the secretary's books we learn that 158 companions have been 
exalted, and that there are now 119 in good standing, on whom grand 
chapter dues are paid. 

Evening Star Lodge, No. 37, A. F. & A. M., Colebrook*— The early 
history of this lodge is somewhat obscure, all the actors therein having 
passed away, and most of the incidents passed into oblivion. All that 
remains, which is authentic and reliable, is the few facts which are to be 
gathered from records and official documents. A thorough research of 
what remain of these necessarily requires much time and patience, and 
with all that, the results are meagre, and a source of regret that more full 
and perfect records were not kept. Sufficient, however, has been obtained 
to show that its early days were attended by a sharp struggle for exist- 
ence. To fully realize this, it is necessary to take into consideration that 
sixty-five years ago, when the lodge was established, what is now North- 
ern Coos, embracing a territory of nearly 2,000 square miles, was then 
little better than a dense wilderness, dotted here and there with clearings 
of its first settlers, which were many miles apart, and that from these 
were taken the material with which to erect the edifice. Could those old 
veterans return once more among us, many a tale could they unfold of 

*By R. W. Albert Barker. 

146 History of Coos County. 

how they traveled ten or fifteen miles on foot to attend the meetings of 
the lodge, and returned the same way "in the wee short hours ayont the 
twal " of the early morn. But they have passed away, and having no 
purpose to deal in tradition or speculation, this article will deal with dry 
fact gleaned from authentic records. 

An extract from the proceedings of the M. W. Grand Lodge of New 
Hampshire, which convened at Concord, June 13, 1821, reads as follows: — 

"Petition for a new Lodge at Colebrook referred to the committee on 
new Lodges." 

Whether this petition was made to the Grand Master, M. W. Joshua 
Darling, in the first instance, or directly to the Grand Lodge, or who the 
petioners were, does not appear; but at the same communication the com- 
mittee reported: " That a dispensation be granted for a new Lodge at 
Colebrook, to be called Evening Star Lodge;" 1 which was accepted by vote 
of the Grand Lodge. The dispensation was granted, but neither that nor 
the petition appears in the record, though they are probably in the files of 
the Grand Lodge. 

The first record now in the archives of the lodge gives the proceedings 
of the lodge as follows: — 

"Records of Evening Star Lodge, (the first.) At a regular communication of the Evening 
Star Lodge holden in Colebrook on Wednesday, the 5th day of September A. L. , 5821,— Brethren 
present: — 

"Francis Flanders, W. Master pro tern, 

" Jeremiah Eames, S. Warden pro tern, 

" William M. Smith, J. Warden pro tem. 

' ' Lodge opened by the above brethren. No business before the Lodge. Proceeded to lecture on 
the first degree. Lecture given by Worshipful Master and brethren. Lodge closed in due form. 

"David L. Isiiam, Secretary." 

From the above it would seem that the secretary was the only legiti- 
mate officer present. But from the record of the next meeting (Oct. 10th) 
it appears that Lewis Loomis was the first Master, Francis Flanders, Sen- 
ior, and Jeremiah Eames Junior Deacons. At this meeting the petition of 
Dr. Lyman Lombard was presented and referred, though he was not raised 
until February 19, 1823. Working under dispensation, they had no 
by-laws, and it would seem no regular day of meetings. The date of the 
communications was as follows: September 5, 1821, October 10, 1821, 
January 30, 1822, March 6, 1822, April 3, 1822, May 1, 1822, and May 30, 
1822. May 30, 1822, the lodge voted to "request a letter of dispensation 
for six months, unless sooner installed," and chose their Master "proxy" 
in the Grand Lodge. This request for a dispensation was presented to the 
Grand Lodge at the annual communication, in June, and referred to the 
committee on new lodges. The committee made a report thereon which 
was accepted. 

The report does not appear, but the result was that on the very next 

Mason in' in ( 'of>s. 147 

day, June 13, 1822, a charter was granted to the petitioners, Lewis Loomis, 
Francis Flanders, Jeremiah Eames, Jr., and others, constituting them "A 
regular Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the title and designa- 
tion of Evening Star Lodge, No. 37." The next meeting of the lodge was 
holden July 3, when it voted to pay Lewis Loomis, W. M ., eight dollars, 
advanced by him to the Grand Lodge. July 31, the only business done 
was to pass a vote that the lodge be removed to the house of John Smith. 
August 28, David L. Isham and Lyman Lombard were chosen a commit- 
tee to petition the Grand Lodge to "install the Lodge. 1 ' 

The Grand Lodge convened at Colebrook on the fifteenth of < >ctober, 
1822, when an oration was delivered by Bro. John L. Sheafe, the lodge 
duly consecrated and the officers installed as follows: Lewis Loomis, 
W. M.; Jonathan E. Ward, S. W.; Jeremiah Eames, Jr., J. W. ; Ebenezer 
Blossom, S. D. ; Ezra B. Rider. J. D.; David L. Isham, Sect.; MarcenaBlod- 
gett, Treas. ; William M. Smith, Tyler. There were twelve Masons present 
besides the grand officers. Meetings were held regularly until January 
22, 1823, when new officers were chosen as follows: Jonathan E. Ward, 
W. M.; David L. Isham, S. W.; William M. Smith, J. I).; Marcena Blod- 
gett, Treas ; John L. Sheafe, Sect., who were installed March lit. As to 
the other officers the record is silent. Considerable work was done during 
the year 1823, especially on the first degree, in which all the business of 
the lodge would seem to have been done. At the annual meeting in Janu- 
ary, 1824, the old officers were re-elected, but were not installed until 
April 16. 

June 10, 1824, David L. Isham was granted a demit, he having moved 
to Connecticut. The records show that he was present at every communi- 
cation of the lodge from the first in 1821, to April, 1824, when he moved 

In 1872 a letter was received from the Grand Secretary of Connecticut, 
stating that he still resided there, upwards of ninety years of age. physi- 
cally feeble, but in the full possession of his mental faculties, expressing 
his affection for the lodge he helped to create, was one of its charter mem- 
bers and its first secretary, a half century previous. There was not at 
that time a member of the lodge that ever knew him, or had any idea that 
such a man was ever a member of the lodge, but upon searching the 
early records of the lodge, they found that his statement was true, and as 
an appreciation of his fidelity to Masonry and faithfulness to the lodge in 
its infancy, the lodge voted to send him twenty dollars. The acknowl- 
edgement of its receipt was profuse in his professions of gratitude and 
thankfulness for the recognition. It is safe to say that the lodge never 
parted with a similar sum with greater pleasure to its members, or that 
was better appreciated by the recipient. He has not been heard from 
since, but it is more than probable that he now resides in those " mansions 

148 History of Coos County. 

above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides." His 
removal was a loss to the lodge of one of its most zealous members. 

At the annual meeting in 1825, Ward was re-elected Master, and his 
death, which occurred June 5, 1825, was another severe blow to the lodge. 
A special communication was held June 7, to attend his funeral, after 
which votes were passed to abandon the celebration of St. John's Day, to 
pay the expenses of the funeral, and that the thanks of the lodge be ten- 
dered to Rev. C. G. Thatcher for his able discourse delivered at the funeral. 

The lodge continued to work, with a small attendance, up to and in- 
cluding November, 1S25, the last entry in the record book being as fol- 
lows: — 

" In December there was not members to open the Lodge on the regular communication day. 

" Lyman Lombard, Secretary." 

If any records were kept in the lodge after this they were lost, but it 
appears from the records of the Grand Lodge, that the lodge continued to 
meet for work, and made returns to the Grand Lodge until 1828, and in 
that year was represented therein by P. M. Lewis Loomis. 

The next decade was one of great depression throughout the state and 
few lodges did any work. A glance at the records of the Grand Lodge at 
this period will not be uninteresting in this connection. In 1838 the Grand 
Lodge passed a resolution requesting the Grand Secretary to make a state- 
ment, showing when each lodge made returns, and report at the next 
annual meeting. In 1839 the Grand Secretary made a report in accord- 
ance with the resolution, which showed that twenty-seven of the fifty sub- 
ordinate lodges, then on the rolls of the Grand Lodge, had done no work 
for the past eleven years, that is, since 1828. Evening Star was among the 
twenty-seven. Quite a number of these lodges had made no return for 
the same length of time. This report was referred to a select committee, 
who, in 1810, reported a list of twenty-six lodges, including Evening Star, 
that had neglected to make returns to the Grand Lodge within the time 
required by the Grand Regulations; whereupon it was, on motion of Bro. 

"Resolved, That the several Lodges named in the foregoing list, for the causes assigned in said 
report, be, and they hereby are, stricken from the books of the Grand Lodge, and that the District 
Deputy Grand Masters be authorized and directed to procure and forward to the Grand Secretary 
the several charters that have been so declared forfeited and ordered to be stricken from the Lodge 

Evening Star was in District No. (3, of which, for many years, Jared 
W. Williams had been District Deputy, but who made no report, and 
probably visited no lodges, or did any of the duties of the office. This 
year Eliphalet Lyman was appointed Deputy for the Sixth District. He 
made his report to the Grand Lodge in 1811, and the following extract 

Masonry in Coos. 140 

therefrom is an important link in the history of Evening Star Lodge. 
He says: — 

'• In January last I visited Colebrook, in the county of Coos, where, in June. 5822, Evening 
Star Lodge, No. :J7, was duly installed; could find none of the members. [ proceeded on to 
Stewartstown, where I found the last secretary, who presented me with the records of the L< dge. 

On examination, I found they had not assembled for business since 1828. I procured their charter 
and herewith transmit the- same to the Grand Secretary." 

Thus, twenty years after the lodge was established, its charter was sur- 
rendered to the Grand Lodge, where it remained dormant for eighteen 
years. In this condition Evening Star stood not alone. Half the lodges 
in the state were at that time in the same condition, and quite a number 
remain so yet. At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge in 1S44, 
the following resolution was passed: — 

" Resolved, That upon petition to the Grand Master of seven or more Master Masons, in regular 
standing, requesting the restoration of any charter, which has become void by surrender, or an 
omission to be represented, or in making their annual returns since June, 1830, the Grand Master 
is hereby authorized and requested, if he shall deem it expedient, to reinstate any such subordi- 
nate Lodge under this jurisdiction by directing the Grand Secretary to restore them their charter." 

In February, 1859, five members of the lodge, William M. Smith, Setli 
Tirrell, Jeremiah Eames, Lyman Lombard and David B. Heath, and two 
members of North Star Lodge, Hazen Bedel and James A. Pitkin, peti- 
tioned the Grand Master, under the provisions of the above resolution of 
the Grand Lodge, for a restoration of the charter, and were informed there 
was yet due from the lodge thirty-five dollars for the charter, which must 
be paid before it could be restored. The sum was paid, and on the twenty- 
fourth day of March, 1859, M. W. Grand Master Moses Paul authorized 
and ordered said brethren to reorganize Evening Star Lodge, No. 37, under 
its old charter, and restored it to its former rank and standing under the 
Grand Lodge. On the thirty -first day of March, L859, the petitioners met 
at Fling's Hall in Stewartstown, all being present, and chose by ballot 
Lyman Lombard, VV. M.; James A. Pitkin, S. W.; Hazen Bedel, J. W.; 
and William M. Smith, Secretary and Treasurer; fixed the fees for the sev- 
eral degrees at seven, three and five dollars; fixed the time of the regular 
communication at one o'clock p. m., of the Thursday of the week in which 
the moon fulls, in each month; received the petitions of ( >scar Worthley 
and HydeC. Trask to be made Masons, and voted that Alba Holmes and 
John Harrimanbe proposed to become members of the lodge. On the sixth 
day of April, 1859, the Grand Master, by dispensation, authorized the lodge 
to meet at Fling's Hall in Stewartstown for the present, and until a hall 
could be provided at Colebrook, " provided and conditioned that immedi- 
ate active measures be immediately taken and prosecuted by said lodge to 
provide a hall for their accommodation and work, with as little delay as 
possible at Colebrook aforesaid." 

150 History of Coos County. 

In accordance with said dispensation the regular communication was 
holden at Fling's Hall. April 21. Alba Holmes was admitted a member, 
and Lyman Lombard not being present, Alba Holmes (probably by dispen- 
sation of the D. D. G. M.) was chosen Master in his stead, and officers were 
installed by R.W. Jared I. Williams, D. D. G. M., assisted by P. M. Ben- 
jamin F. Hunking. Worthley and Trask were entered, and by dispensa- 
tion, passed, and Worthley was raised. Thus the order of the Grand Mas- 
ter was complied with, and the lodge was fally restored to its former rank 
and standing, which it has retained ever since. One more communication 
was held in Fling's Hall when the lodge returned home to Colebrook. 

The purpose of this sketch was to trace the history of the lodge only 
to this point, and here it should end. An interesting chapter of its subse- 
quent history might and ought to be written for the benefit of those that 
shall come after us, and it is hoped that some one will set about the task 
while the few remaining actors of that day remain among us. 

It would be doing violence to the feelings of the present members of 
the lodge, to conclude without paying a tribute to the memory of those 
early members. From the first establishment of the lodge, though a time 
of great and general depression in Masonry, though few in numbers, they 
continued its work for many years, in a very sparsely settled region of 
country, where its members, or at least some of them, had to travel on 
foot from seven to ten miles to attend its meetings. After the restoration 
in 1859, a few of the ancient brethren were for a few years occasionally 
seen in the lodge, but they have all passed away. Even of the petitioners 
for restoration, Bro. Hazen Bedel is the only survivor. Let us that remain 
revere their good qualities and emulate their virtues. Their devotion to 
Craft Masonry was ardent and enduring. One or two incidents in the life 
of Bro. William M. Smith may be cited as an illustration of this. In 
1828, when the lodge ceased work, he secured the constitution which he 
safely kept until 1811, when it was surrendered to the Grand Lodge. He 
was foremost in securing the restoration in 1859, and when it was accom- 
plished he returned to the lodge its early records, its jewels and all its 
paraphernalia which he had kept and securely guarded for twenty-one 
years. No one could be more willing to give or receive instruction than 
he. Being called by other business to West Stewartstown on two days of 
each week, for three or four months in the summer of 1859, but not 
detained by it, his genial companionship was sought. Having just entered 
the portals of the lodge, and desirous of becoming familiar with the work, 
by his advice a cipher was obtained, portions of which neither of us could 
interpret alone. Seeking a retired place, sometimes in the old saw-mill, 
sometimes ''on the brow of the hill," east of the village, or other suit- 
able place where the approach of cowans or eavesdroppers could be 
observed, those entire days were spent in its study, and then and there was 

Masonry in Coos. 151 

laid the foundation of whatever knowledge of esoteric Masonry we may 
ever have attained. All honorto his revered memory. 

The next regular communication was also held at Fling's Hall, May 11*, 
1 s.v.i, when Worthley and Bailey were admitted members, Cunmiings initi- 
ated, and Trask raised. The by-laws were "postponed until next Tues- 
day, at Colebrook, for examination and correction, and to be adopted at 
our next regular communication." The record continues: " It being the 
annual communication proceeded to choose a Master by ballot — Chose 
Alba Holmes, W. M. Chose Wm. M. Smith, Secretary. Chose Wm. M. 
Smith, Treasurer." 

The Master appointed James A. Pitkin, S. W. ; Hazen Bedel, J. W. ; 
Oscar Worthley; S. D.; and Jeremiah Eames, Tyler. The S. W. ap- 
pointed Samuel I. Bailey, J. D., and the J. W. appointed Seth Tirrell and 
David B. Heath, Stewards. William M. Smith was chosen Rep. 

There is no record of their installation, and probably none ever took 
place. As the by-laws had not been adopted, and the record being silent 
on the question, the problem as to how this came to be the annual communi- 
cation, is not easily solved. The record says it was, and that is all we 
know about it. There was a full attendance, and much business was 
done. The petitions of Erastus W. Ingham, E. Darwin Lombard, Will- 
iam S. Rolfe, Morton B. Rolfe, and Albert Barker, were read and referred, 
and the lodge voted: "That the next regular communication be held at 

Special communications were held at Colebrook on the 24th and 31st 
of May, but at what place the record does not say. And the same may 
be said of all the meetings until May, 1861. It seems that the lodge re- 
turned home in accordance with the vote, and returned to stay, and has 
stayed ever since. Though the record is silent, there are members now 
living who have a lively recollection of the circumstances. The fact is, 
there was no suitable hall in the village. Half or three-quarters of a mile 
north of the village stood, and now stands, a two-story building, which 
was then unoccupied, containing a hall. The building was old, out of 
repair, and the snow had blown in, in large quantities in certain parts of 
it, as the writer can testify, for he distinctly remembers the sensation 
caused by stepping one foot into it, on the way from the anteroom to the 
hall, he being then in darkness and not seeing it. This hall was secured 
for one or two meetings, but the property changed hands; the pun baser 
moved in, peremptorily told the Masons to "git." and they "got," being 
literally turned out of doors. Fortunately there was an unoccupied build- 
ing, now occupied by H. F. Jacobs, and the Masons secured it for a time. 
It was not what they desired, but was all they could obtain, and they made 
the best of it. And so, driven from place to place, they held all their reg- 
ular meetings during that year, and did a large amount of work. 

152 History of Coos County. 

The first regular meeting held in Colebrook after the restoration, was 
in the above named hall, June 16, 1850, at which Erastus W. Ingham, E. 
Darwin Lombard, Albert Barker, William S. Rolfe, and Morton B. Eolfe 
were initiated. At the regular meeting in July, Albert Barker, E. Darwin 
Lombard and Morton B . Rolfe were passed. At the regular meeting in 
August, Albert Barker and Morton B. Rolfe were raised, and William S. 
Rolfe was "passed." September 15th Albert Barker and Morton B. Rolfe 
were admitted members; the others were passed, raised, and admitted to 
membership as they were able to attend. During the Masonic year of 
1850, the records show a large amount of work done by the lodge, and 
several irregularities, of which no notice was ever taken, but which, if 
done now, would subject the lodge to censure by the Grand Lodge. 

At the annual meeting, May 8, 18(30, the lodge contained seventeen 
members, with several more that had taken one or two degrees. Two 
were admitted to membership and one passed. Alba Holmes was chosen 
W. M., and the officers were regularly installed. The present Masonic Hall 
was then commenced, but it does not appear where the lodge met or that 
any action was taken in regard to future meetings. The fact was, that no 
suitable, safe place could be found, and no meeting of the lodge was held 
during that Masonic year. Several of the brethren frequently got together 
informally for the purpose of studying the work and lectures, and in this 
way the interest of the members was not permitted to decline. The next 
entry in the records is the annual meeting held in Masonic Hall, May 25, 
1801. The work was taken up where it was left a year before, and pro- 
ceeded with. Alba Holmes was elected W. M., Hazen Bedel, S. W., Albert 
Barker, J. W., Frank M. Rolfe, Sect., and William M. Smith, Treas., and 
they were installed by D. D. CI. M. Paddleford. William M. Smith, James 
A. Pitkin and Albert Barker were chosen a committee to procure a lease 
of the hall. The committee promptly attended to the duty; procured a 
lease for twenty-five years at $20 per year, which was accepted, recorded, 
and placed on file. The hall was a good one, but destitute of paint or fur- 
niture of any kind. The lodge was without funds, and had no source of 
revenue except the fees for degrees and membership. The idea of running 
in debt was not entertained for a moment. The situation was not an 
inviting one, but the brethren accepted it with courage and determination. 
Common chairs were procured for seats, and common light stands for 
pedestals, and desks for the secretary and treasurer, and the work con- 
tinued. As soon as any money accrued, it was expended in furnishing the 
hall, and when anything beyond this was absolutely needed, which was 
often the case, a few of the brethren put their hands in their pockets 
and paid for it. The lodge worked along in this way for five or six 
years, when two of the members, with more persistent obstinacy than 
Masonic knowledge, carried through the project of placing in the west and 

Masonry in Coos. L53 

south, instead of pedestals, long desks. These are well enough as desks, 
but entirely out of place in a Masonic hall. They still remain there. The 
next year the hall and anterooms were painted, and a little later the floors 
were elegantly and handsomely carpeted. In this way the lodge got on 
until a few of the members began to agitate the question of regular dues 
from each member. This was coldly received at first, but finally, in 1871, 
was carried by a vote of the lodge, and the by daws so changed as to estab- 
lish annual dues of $:} for each member. Since then the hall has been 
handsomely and elegantly fitted up ( with the exception of those desks), and 
handsomely furnished, comparing favorably with other lodge rooms in the 
state, and a small fund was accumulated. The lease for the hall expired 
in 1886, but a new lease for twenty-five years more was secured, though 
at a much larger rent. 

The following vote passed January 8, 1863, explains itself, and perhaps 
may be news to some of the members : — 

"That the thanks of the Lodge be tendered to Thomas Mayo for the letter 'G ' which he 
presented to the lodge." 

The following resolutions, on the death of James A. Pitkin, were unan- 
imously adopted at the regular communication, held August 27. 1863:— 

"Resolced, That in the death of Bro. James A. Pilkin, this Lodge has lost a worthy member, 
who has been called from his labor here to that spiritual refreshment above, where the Ashlers 
are all smooth, and the Grand Artificer of the Universe presides. 

"Resolved, That we are admonished by this event to diligently erect our temporal building 
so as better to fit our minds as living stones for that spiritual building; that house not made with 
hands, eternal, and in the Heavens. 

"Resolved, That we tender to his bereaved widow and fatherless children the lenderest sym- 
pathy of every member of this Lodge. 

"Resolved, That the Secretary furnish to his widow a copy of these resolutions." 

To these resolutions the following reply was received and entered of 
record by a vote of the lodge : — 

"Colebrook, Nov. 8th, 1863. 
" Evening Star Lodge: — 

" Thanking the Brotherhood for your kindness in furnishing me with a copy of resolutions 
passed in your Lodge, you will please accept a small Photograph of Mr. Pitkin. Resp. Yours, 

"E. M. II. Pitkin." 

This photograph may be " laid up with the records in the archives of 
the lodge," and it may have been lost. Our researches have not resulted 
in finding it. 

The territory over which the lodge holds jurisdiction is large, but the 
larger part of it is sparsely settled. Many of the members live from five 
to twenty five miles from the lodge room, and do uot regularly attend its 
meetings. Quite a number have gone to other states, scattered from Flor- 
ida to California and Canada, and many of these still hold their member- 

151 History of Coos County. 

ship, but are unable to meet with it. Others demit, which, with the 
deaths, keeps the working force of the lodge small. Under these circum- 
stances the spirit and stamina of the members is better shown by the 
attendance on special occasions than at stated communications. At the 
Masonic funeral of Bro. David B. Heath, at Colebrook, December 20, 1S69, 
thirty-seven were present; of Seth Tin-ell, at West Stewartstown, Septem- 
ber (>, 1S72, forty-one; of Charles H Huntoon. at Colebrook, September 1, 
1870, thirty-six; and of William Hart, at Hereford, Canada, February 9, 
18 1*9, thirty-eight. These were all the deaths that occurred in the mem- 
bership during that decade, and the attendance embraced nearly all the 
members who had not left for other states. Up to this date (July, 1887,) 
there have been admitted 112. Of these there have died seventeen; demit- 
ted, twenty-six; suspended for non-payment of dues, six; demits sur- 
rendered and cancelled, two; number in good and regular standing, sixty- 
five. Eleven of these have joined within the past twelve months, with 
several more who have taken one or more degrees, and will be admitted 
in due tims. Few if any lodges have existed for the same length of time 
with more harmony among the members and with sister lodges than 
Evening Star. No of discipline has arisen in the lodge since its insti- 
tution in 1821, and no regular or stated communication has failed to be 
holden since the restoration, except as above stated. 

The following members have been duly elected, installed, and " passed 
the chair: 1 ' Alba Holmes, William M. Smith, William S. Rolfe, Albert 
Barker. Joseph E. Lombard, Edward N. Cummings, Hazen Bedel, George 
S. Leavitt, William H. Shnrtleff, Henry M. Leavitt, Sidney B. Whittemore, 
Marcena B. Gilkey, J. Sullivan Chase, Aaron B. Haines, and Orville C. Bum- 
ford, the present Master, who lives twenty-five miles away, but has been 
a constant attendant. The lodge has two Past District Deputies, Hazen 
Bedel and Albert Barker, who are permanent members of the Grand Lodge 
and usually attend its sessions. Most of those who have joined for a few 
years past are enterprising young men, and the lodge bids fair to live long 
and prosper. 

Gorham Lodge, No. 73, A. F. & A. Jf., Gorham, N. H* — This lodge 
was first recognized by a dispensation granted by Grand Master Aaron P. 
Hughes, February 7, L862. The first meeting duly holden was on March 
11, 1802, Bro. Urban Shorey, W. M. iVtthis meeting eight applications for 
initiation were received, and the Tuesday on or before the full of the moon 
of each month was selected as the time for each stated communication. 
At a special communication on the 19th of March Mr. Moses W. Rand 
was initiated— this being the first degree conferred; subsequently on March 
24th, Messrs. Stephen R. Raynes, Daniel P. Evans and Stephen Gordon, 

*By Alfred R. Evans. 

M vsoxry in ( '<)(")s. 155 

Jr.. were duly initiated as E. A. Masons. Meetings were held frequently, 
and a goodly amount of work was done until June following when a char- 
ter was ordered by the Grand Lodge of the state at its animal communi- 
cation, and duly issued. The charter bears the date of June 1 1. 1862, and 
is signed by Charles H. Bell, as Grand Master. The charter members as 
named were: Urban Shorey, S-A Mathes, Charles I \ Smith. 11 F. Ward- 
well, Thomas E. Fisk, William Fuller, W. A. Field. L. Walcct 1. ('. W. 
Bean. The first meeting held under authority of the charter was on June 
20, 1862, when the following officers were elected: Urban Shorey. W. M. ; 
S. A. Mathes, S. W. ; C. C. Smith, J. W. ; T. E. Fisk, Treasurer; H. F. 
Wardwell, Secretary; D. P. Evans, S. D. ; W. A. Field, J D. 

Bro Shorey was re-elected as Master at the annual communication held 
May 2(5, 1863, and on June 24th following the officers elected were pub- 
licly installed. The exercises of installation passed very satisfactorily, 
and no doubt were in many ways beneficial to the order. Bro. Shorey 
served as Master till May 9, 1865, when Bro. Thomas E. Fisk was elected 
W. M. and duly installed June 6th, when a public supper was served at- 
tended by M. M.'s and their ladies. On May 29, 1866, Bro. Fisk was re- 
elected W. M., also again elected on May 14, 1867. During this year 
the question of establishing a Masonic Lodge at Milan was considerably 
discussed, also the propriety of holding a part of the meetings of this lodge 
at that place was considered, neither of said propositions were favorably 
acted upon. Bro. Fisk continued to act as W. M. until May 2.5. 1869, 
when George W. Waterhouse was elected Master. A public installation of 
officers was held at the Methodist church on June 22d following, and an ad- 
dress delivered by Dr. X. T. True, of Bethel, Me. On May 12, 1870, Bro. 
Urban Shorey was again elected W. M., and so served until May 2, Lb7l, 
when Bro. A. S. Twitchell was selected W. M. On April 23, 1872, Bro. 
Emlyn W. Evans, was elected Master, and on April 8, 1878, Bro. A. S. 
Twitchell w-as re-elected W. M. On April 28, 1874, Bro. Urban Shorey 
was again elected W. M. and served until April 20, 1875. when Bro. Emlyn 
W. Evans was elected W. M. On the evening of March 4, 187.5. the lodge 
gave an entertainment and supper at Gorham House hall. The music 
was furnished by Chandler's band from Portland, and remarks were made 
by many members of the order. The literary exercises were in charge of 
Alfred R. Evans, who had but recently received his degrees, and the entire 
programme was most successfully carried out. The large hall was filled 
with Master Masons and their ladies, and the occasion is often referred 
to as one of rare enjoyment. On April 4, 1876, Bro. Emlyn W. Evans 
was again elected W. M., and so served until April -1. 1877, when Bro. 
Thomas E. Fisk was called again to the East, April 16, 187S, Bro. Asa A. 
Palmer was elected W. M. At the next annual communication, on April 
1, 1879, Bro. Albert Ryder was elected W. M. On January L0, L880, the 

156 History of Coos County. 

present Masonic Hall was properly dedicated. Rev. Bro. C. C. Mason 
gave an address on Freemasonry, refreshments were served, the hall was 
opened for public inspection, and, says the records, "all passed pleasantly 
and harmoniously." On May 18, 1880, by virtue of a dispensation from 
the Grand Master, an election of officers for the ensuing year was duly 
held, and Bro. Emlyn W. Evans was again called to the East, and on 
March 15, 1881, Bro. Thomas Gifford was elected Master. On the evening 
of March 2 1st following,- the officers elect were publicly installed by Bro. 
Thomas S. Ellis, D. D. G. M., a supper was served, music furnished, toasts 
responded to and a goodly time enjoyed. March 23, 1882, Bro. Asa A. 
Palmer was again elected Master, serving until March 20, 1883, when Bro. 
Walter C. Libby was selected W. M., and again elected for a second term 
on March 11, 1884. Bro. Nathan Stewart was selected W. M. on March 
24, 1885, and is now still filling the position. The present officers of the 
lodge are: Nathan Stewart, W. M. ; Rufus F. Ingalls, S. W.; Fred W. 
Noyes, J. W.; Alfred R. Evans, Secretary; Charles G. Hamlin, Treasurer; 
Alva B. Libby, S. D ; Fred R. Oleson, J. D. ; Charles C. Libby, S. S. ; J. 
C Fothergill, J. S. ; Albert Ryder, Tyler; Walter Buck, Chaplain. 

Since 1870 the membership of this lodge as reported to the Grand Lodge 
has been as follows: — 

No. of members April 15, 1880, 123 

" 15, 1881, - - - 127 

" 15, 1S82, 120 

" 15, 1S83, - - 123 

" 15, 1881, - 129 

" 15, 1885, - 134 

a a 

15, 1886, - - 139 

During the early history of the lodge the propriety of allowing other 
societies to use the Masonic Hall was considered, and referred to the 
Grand Lodge for determination. That grand body reported its disapproval 
of the occupation of halls by subordinate lodges in common with other 

The first lodge room was over what is now Gates & Brown's store. 
After several changes and removals the order fitted up its present hall on 
Exchange street. It is said to be one of the handsomest and best Masonic 
halls in the state outside of the cities, and is well and beautifully furnished, 
the carpet, furniture, etc., costing over six hundred dollars. The order is 
in a good, healthy, flourishing condition, and numbers among its members 
many of the most reliable and active men of the section. Of the nine 
charter members of the lodge, five are still members. Many have received 
their degrees here, who, being demitted, are now active members of lodges 
in other jurisdictions, while some, although absent, still retain their mem- 
bership in the mother lodge. 

Masonry in Coos. 15' 

Of its deeds of charity and benevolence it is not fitting for me to speak, 

suffice it to say that Gorhara Lodge has not been wanting in g 1 deeds, 

and that here along the sides of the high mountains as well as in the low- 
valleys the memory and influence of its acts will long be felt and remem- 

White Mountain Lodge, No. si;, A. F. & A. M., Whitefield*— This 
lodge was chartered with the unanimous consent of North Star Lodge, 
No. 8, June In, L868. The charter was granted to the following named 
brothers: Ira S M. Gove, George H. Pinkham, Lauren J. Miner, Ira A. 
Muzzy, Charles W. Cole, Caleb Walker, A. W. Miner, \V. B. Eutchins, 
L. V. Seavey, Moses H. Gordon, William F. Dodge, A. K. Lane, G. P. 
Warner. William K. Qnimby. C. K. Gile, Richard Lane, Jr., T. M. Taylor, 
Charles Libbey, and five others, all except the two Lane brothers were 
members at that time of North Star Lodge. The first officers elected were: 
Ira S. M. Gove, W. M.; George H Pinkham, S. W.; Lauren J. Miner, J. 
W. , Moses H. Gordon, Treasurer; Joel M. Sartwell, Secretary; Hazen W. 
Fisk, S. D. ; Manson Bowles, J. D. ; Austin W. Miner, Tyler; Asa K. Lane, 
S. S.; T. M. Taylor, J. S. ; G. P. Warner, Chaplain. 

The first year the lodge had hard work to provide themselves a lodge 
room and pay for fitting up, and with the best management got a small 
debt on them. The records show the officers present at every meeting till 
our first annual meeting, wiiich occurred May 20, 1 869, when the same 
officers were again elected. At our annual communication in May, 1870, 
the following officers were elected: George H. Pinkham, W. M.; L.J. 
Miner, S. W. ; H. W. Fisk, J. W.; Manson Bowles, S. D. ; L. V. Seavey, 
J. D.; Ira S. M. Gove, Secretary. 

Bro. Ira S. M. Gove served as Master of the lodge from its organization 
until May, 1870, and Brother Pinkham from then until May, 1873, when 
Bro. Gove was again elected Master with Bros. W. F. Dodge and A. W. 
Miner as W's. Bro. Gove served as Master one year, when Bro. Lauren 
J. Miner was elected with A. W. Miner and F. C Fearon as Wardens. 

The next year, 1875, Bro. H. W. Fisk was elected Master, F. C. Fearon, 
S. W., and S. S. Thomas, J. W. Bro. Fisk served one year, and Bro. 
Pinkham was elected again, with F. C. Fearon, S. W., Thomas M. Fletcher, 
J. W., and L. D. Whitcher, Secretary. In 1877 Bro. Thomas M. Fletcher 
was elected Master, S. S. Thomas, S. \V.. Horace D. Hicks, J. W.. L. I). 
Whitcher, Secretary, and J. Q. A. Libbey, Treasurer. Bro. Moses H. Gor- 
don had faithfully looked after the finances of the lodge from its infancy 
to this time. Brother Fletcher served as Master two years. In 1879 Bro. 
F. C. Fearon was elected Master, T. C Gray, S.W.. and Ira l\ Sturtevant, 
J. W. In 1880 George E. Hutchins was Master, John T. Twombly, S.W.. 

*Bv Lauren J. Miner. 

15S History of Coos County. 

and Richard Rickerby, J. W. In 1881 John T. Twombly, Master, John S. 
Coffin, S. YY\, CI. G. McGregor, J. W. In 1882 Bro. T. C Gray was elected 
Master, Horace D. Hicks, S. W., Asa D. Hill, J. W ., and James C. Trickey, 
Secretary. These officers served two years, and Bro. Gray was elected for 
the third year, but declined to serve on account of a press of other busi- 
ness, and Bro. H. D. Hicks was elected in his stead, and also declined, and 
Bro. Ira S. Sturtevant was elected, and served as Master one year, until 
1885, with J. C Trickey, S. W., J. F. Walsh, J. W., A. W. Miner, Treas- 
urer. L. D. Whitcher was again elected Secretary, but declined to serve, 
and L. J. Miner was elected in his stead. In 1885 James C Trickey was 
elected Master, George H. Morrison, S. W., H. E. Mclver, J. W., A. W. 
Miner, Treasurer, but declined, and Orin Chase was elected in his stead. 
In 188G the same officers were again chosen, and are at the present time 
fulfilling the duties of their respective offices. 

Bro. George VV7. Libbey was the first man that was made a Mason in 
this lodge, and D. J. Pillsbury the second one. Bro. Charles P. Carleton 
had taken his E. A. degree in North Star previous to the chartering of 
White Mountain Lodge, but North Star Lodge very courteously gave con- 
sent to White Mountain Lodge to confer the other two, which they have 
done from time to time ever since, Bro. Carleton being a candidate for any 
of the degrees in an emergency. 

During our existence we have made 110 Masons, as the records show. 
Death has robbed us of ten brothers, namely: Aurin M. Chase, Caleb 
Walker, John M. Gove, Lyman V. Seavey, Charles W. Cole, Hibbard 
Houghton, Benjamin Calden, G. P. Warner, Manson Bowles, G. H. Pink- 
ham, Charles Stahl. We have demitted six. Our first dues to the Grand 
Lodge were $13.50, showing a membership of fifty-four; our dues in 1886 
were $29.25, showing a membership of 117. Bro. E. W. Parker has been 
Tyler since 1872, a term of fourteen years of faithful service. 

The officers have been very punctual in attendance, and courteous in 
manner towards the lodge ever since its organization, and many of the 
brothers have attended regularly, especially Bro. A. W. Miner, who has 
missed only two meetings, and is what might be called a spare hand, as he 
works in every place in the lodge when an officer happens to be absent. 
Bro. M. H. Gordon served as Treasurer nine years, Bro. J. Q. A. Libbey, 
seven, and Bro. A. W. Miner, one. All declined to serve longer. The 
lodge is in a prosperous condition now, and has money in the treasury. It 
has had a good amount of work every year, and has considerable on hand 
at the present time. Our relations with Burns Lodge and North Star are 
the most amiable, and the latter we cherish as our foster mother, and we 
esteem ourselves highly favored when we receive a visit from any of the 
brothers of either lodge 

In conclusion we would quote from Bro. Batchelder, D. D. G. M., Dis. 

M VSONRY IX ( loos. 159 

No 5. report, 1886: " Bro. James 0. Trickey isa very efficient Master, and 
is assisted by intelligent and amhitious officers in the chairs. 
The officers are rapidly bringing their work into conformity with the 
restored work. They realize the amount of labor involved in this under- 
taking, audits importance. The lodge has a fair surplus fund, and its 
records are well kept. The lodge is undoubtedly in a better condition to- 
day than it has been in for several years. What is better still the brethren 
are determined that the progress shall continue until the lodge has a 
standing such as may well be attained by faithful attention to the condi- 
tions of success." 

Officers of the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery 
of New Hampshire, furnished by Cods county. — Through the kindness of 
George P. Cleaves, Grand Secretary of the above Masonic bodies, we are 
enabled to give the following list. Bro. Cleaves says that he may have 
possibly omitted some of the earlier officers in the Grand Lodge, as no 
residence was entered in the records, and without that he had no guide. 

Grand Lodge. — Stephen Wilson, Lancaster, Dis. Dep. Gr. Master 1823, 
'24, '25, '26, '43, "44. John Wilson, Lancaster, Gr. Sword Bearer 1S24.'2:>. '26. 
William Lovejoy, Lancaster, Dis. Dep. Gr. Master 1827, '30. Jared W. 
Williams, Lancaster, Dist. Dep. Gr. Master 1831, "32, '33, '34, '35. '36, '37. '38, 
'39. Eliphalet Lyman, Lancaster, Dist. Dep. Gr. Master 1840, '41. John 
Willson, Lancaster, Dist. Dep. Gr. Master 1842 (possibly same as John Wil- 
son). Jared I.Williams, Lancaster, Gr. Lecturer 1854. '55, '56, "57; Dis. Dep. 
Gr. Master 1858,'59; Jun. Gr. Deacon 1860; Sen. Gr. Deacon 1861. Henry 0. 
Kent, Lancaster, Gr. Sworcl Bearer I860, '61. '62; Gr. Junior Warden 1863; 
Gr. Senior Warden 1864; Gr. Captain General 1865, 'HO; Gr. Generalissimo 
1867; Grand Commander 1868, '69. Edward Savage, Lancaster, Gr. Captain 
of the Guard 1867, '68. Thomas S. Ellis, Lancaster, Gr. Sword Bearer 1875, 
'76; Grand Junior Warden 1877; Grand Senior Warden 1878; Gr. Captain 
General 1879. Edward R. Kent, Lancaster, Gr. Capt. of the Guar< I 1877; 
Gr. Warder 1878; Gr. Sword Bearer 1879; Gr. Standard Bearer 1880; Gr. 
Junior Warden 1881; Gr. Senior Warden 1883, '84; Gr. Capt. General L885; 
Grand Generalissimo 1886. Henry O. Kent, Lancaster, Gr. Lecturer. 1860, 
'61; D D. G. M. 1862, '63, '66, '69. George C.Williams, Lancaster,Gr. Marshal. 
1860, '61; Jun. Gr. Deacon 1862; Gr. Sword Bearer L864, '65. Urban Shorey, 
Gorham, Gr. Steward 1863; D. D.G.M.1864,'65,'68. Benj. F. Honking. Lan- 
caster, Gr. Lecturer 1864. '65, '66, '67. Hazen Bedel, Colebrook, D. D. G. M. 
1867. Albert Barker, Colebrook, Gr. Lecturer, 1868, '69; D. D. G. M. L870, 
'71. Edward Savage, Lancaster, Gr. Lecturer. L870, '71. '72/7-: D. D. G. M. 
1875, '76. Thomas S. Ellis, Lancaster, Gr. Lecturer 1877, '78; D. D. G. M. 
1879, '80. Mitchell H. Bowker, now Whitefield, I while at Lisbon) Gr. Lect- 
urer 1881,'82; D. D.G. M. 1883,'84. Thomas C.Grey. Whitefield, Gr. Steward, 
1882, '83, '84. Charles E. Mclnti re, Lancaster, Gr. Lecturer, 1885. Alfred 

160 History of Coos County. 

K. Evans, Gorham, Gr. Steward, 1885, 'st>, '87. Moses A. Hastings, Lan- 
caster, Gr. Lecturer, 1880, '87. 

Grand Chapter. — Edward Savage, Lancaster, Gr. Steward 1870; Gr. 
Master of First Veil 1871; Gr. Master of Second Veil 1872. Thomas S. Ellis, 
Lancaster, Gr. Steward 187'.>. 

Grand Com man dery. — Jared I. Williams, Lancaster, Gr. Captain Gen- 
eral 1860, '61. George C.Williams, Lancaster, Gr. Junior Warden, 1862. 



For what he was and all he dared, 
Remember him to da_> !" 

By Henry O. Kent. 

URGED to prepare a chapter, which shall commemorate the men of 
Coos living and dead, who took part in the great work of preserving- 
Federal unity and National honor during the War of the Rebell- 
ion, I consented with reluctance and approach this labor at once congenial 
and exacting, with hesitation. 

So lofty was the devotion of those who died, so honorable the services 
of those who survived, that only the most complete and exhaustive 
record can do their deeds and their memory justice, while so inadequate 
are the sources of information, that many errors of omission must neces- 
sarily occur, which may pain survivors or do seeming injustice to those 
who are gone. 

In the pages that follow, I have compiled a brief record of the service 
of each organization, with a list of its membership, drawing upon the 
following authorities, all that could be made available for my purpose, 
supplementing this information from my personal knowledge. 

I have carefully copied the names of all soldiers of Coos whose resi- 
dence is there stated, from the Adjutant- General's report of 1865, revis- 
ing this from the reports of the same office issued later. 

Had the work authorized by the legislature of 1885 been completed, 
the Soldiers' Record, now in process of compilation by the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, more information might have been obtained. Comparison has also 
been made with the roster of soldiers now resident in the county, who 

The Soldiers of Coos, l • ; i 

served in organizations outside the state, as appears by the member- 
ship of the several Grand Army posts. Time has also been spent in the 
Adjutant-General's office at Concord, to perfect this record. 

It is practically impossible, in a work of this character, to follow the 
promotions or transfers from one command to another, and the casualties, 
and therefore, only the name, regiment and company, when attainable, and 
residence is given with such occasional reference to rank or transfer as 
was patent, or is recollected by the compiler. 

The sketches are compiled from the current publications of the war 
period, the reports of the Adjutant-General, Waite's " New Hampshire 
in the Rebellion," and information within my personal knowledge or 

With this prolix introduction, without which I should be unwilling to 
assume the responsibilities of this chapter, I attempt a brief sketch of 
each command, a list of such soldiers as the county furnished, as exhib- 
ited by the authorities referred to. and a list of veterans now resident 
among us, who served in outside organizations as shown by the rosters of 
the Grand Army posts within our limits. 

In every war our people have done their full share. The pioneers of 
Coos were the men of the "Old French War," of Rogers' Rangers, and 
of the Army of Independence. Later they responded in field and garri- 
son during the war with Great Britain in 1812, they organized companies 
for duty on the frontier, were called out in the "Applebee War," to sup- 
press the troubles at Indian Stream, and sent valiant men in the Ninth to 
follow Pierce and Ransom in the war with Mexico. 

There is no priority in honor, no monopoly in patriotism. The deeds 
and memory of these men should be, and are, recorded elsewhere. 

At the breaking out of the war in April, 1861, there was in the state 
no organized force to send to the front, or to serve as the nucleus for vol- 
unteer regiments. The earlier military organization of the state — divided 
into forty-two regiments, and comprising all able bodied male citizens, 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, — ceased to be operative, about 
ten years before, while in its place existed a paper system, made up of 
three Major-Generals and six Brigadier-Generals, with their respective 
staffs, and an enrolled but unorganized force. 

There were the two military and social commands, known as the Gov- 
ernor's Horse Guards and the Amoskeag Veterans, the Lyndeborough 
Artillery and a few — perhaps half a dozen — other volunteer companies. 
This force was invited, rather than ordered, into camp at Nashua, in the 
autumn of 1860, where, with several purely voluntary organizations, it 
held a three days' "muster." This was the last appearance of the old 
state militia, and when the time of exigency came we were wholly unpre- 
pared for immediate action. 

102 History of Coos County. 

Ichabod Goodwin, of Portsmouth, was Governor, elected in March, 1860, 
his term expiring in June, 1861, and Joseph C. Abbott was Adjutant and 
Quartermaster-General, having been appointed in 1855. Governor Good- 
win was a retired merchant of high character and fine executive ability. 
Without a soldier at his command, or a dollar with which to equip him, 
he was fully equal to the emergency. Troops were raised, and on the 
strength of Mr. Goodwin's personal repute and responsibility, the banks 
at once proffered sufficient money to arm and forward the men. The leg- 
islature, at its session the following June, endorsed and ratified his action, 
but the fact remains that to his patriotism, firmness, responsibility and 
executive energy, New Hampshire is indebted, both for her prompt and 
credible response to the call of the President and the inauguration of 
the system which raised, equipped and forwarded the succeeding com- 
mands, all of which earned the gratitude of the state and reflected honor 
upon it. 

Nathaniel S. Berry, elected in 1861, was inaugurated Governor in June 
of that year. He was succeeded in June, 1863, by Joseph A. Gilmore, 
who held office until June, 1865, when Frederick Smyth succeeded to the 
executive chair. During these critical years these chief magistrates exer- 
cised the great powers entrusted to them generally with wise discretion, 
and they were held in esteem by the soldiers of the state. 

Adjutant-General Abbott found himself without arms or equipments, 
.confronted by an almost appalling emergency. He was zealous and en- 
titled to commendation for his labors in fitting out the earlier regiments, 
which went to the front exceptionally well provided. General Abbott 
resigned in the summer of 1861, and, by authority from the War Depart- 
ment, raised the Seventh Infantry, going out as its Lieutenant-Colonel. 
He became Colonel on the death of Col. Putnam, who was killed at Fort 
Wagner, was promoted to Brigadier General, was commandant of the 
city and district of Wilmington, North Carolina, and after the war a sena- 
tor from that state, at Washington. He subsequently engaged in business 
in North Carolina, where he died. 

He was succeeded by ex-Governor Anthony Colby, as Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the state, who in turn was followed by his son. Daniel E. Colby, 
who held the office until the accession of Governor Gilmore in 1864, when 
Natt He L ad, afterwards Governor, was made Adjutant- General, hold- 
ing the place until his accession to the chief magistracy, when the present 
Adjutant-General, A. D. Ayling, was appointed. 

The Colbys, father and son, were reliable, earnest men, who brought to 
their duties devotion and painstaking care. General Head became at once 
favorably and widely known, and his excellent administration of the office 
I i;id much to do with his advancement to the executive chair. 

It is an act of justice to say, that the present Adjutant- General, him- 

The Soldiers of Coos. L63 

self a veteran of the war, by his zeal in perfecting the invaluable records 
of the soldiers of the state, and his ability in their preparation, as well as 
by his general efficiency, merits recognition from New Hampshire soldiers 
among the executive officers who organized, equipped, and forwarded our 

The "boys" who, during the process of organization and muster, were 
familiar with the State House and its officials, will not have forgottrn 
Hon. Thomas L. Tullock, Hon. Allen Tenney, and Hon. Benjamin Gerrish, 
consecutively Secretaries of State. Mr. Tullock died in Washington after 
having long held important offices there; Mr. Gerrish died in Boston in 
1885, after having been Consul at Nantes and Bordeaux, France; while 
Mr. Tenney is a successful lawyer at Norwich, Conn. Neither will they 
cease to remember their enthusiastic friend Hon. Peter Sanborn, the State 
Treasurer, nor his flights of rhetoric. — like that in his address to an out- 
going regiment, in the State House yard, when, pointing to the eagle 
perched on the colors, and the proud bird on the cupola, he exclaimed: 
"Boys! here are two eagles; bring 'em both back with you!" and his 
address in the old Representatives Hall, to another regiment on the ' ' army 
worm." Col. Sanborn, having long ago retired from public life, survives 
on the paternal farm at Hampton, enjoying a vigorous and honored old age. 

Elder John Hook, who sold "pies an' things" near the camp-ground, 
still survives, dispensing gospel truths and "Hook's Healing Balm" 
throughout the land, a devout, honest and excellent man. 

Upon the reception of the proclamation of the President calling for 75,- 
000 men for three months, it was determined to open recruiting offices, and 
call for volunteers, and a proclamation was issued to that effect on the l(5th 
of April. Recruiting offices were opened at the principal towns — that for 
this county at Lancaster, April 1 6, in charge of the writer of this chapter, as 
aid to the Adjutant-General. Two days later he was ordered to turn this 
office over to a subordinate, and report at headquarters, Ira S. M. Gove 
being left in charge. Arrived at Concord, he was commissioned by Gov- 
ernor Goodwin, Assistant Adjutant-General of the state, and ordered to 
repair to Portsmouth, to prepare there for the reception of recruits to be 
organized into a second regiment. He held this position until the Second 
Regiment had left the state, and the troops at Fort Constitution had been 
nearly all discharged. 

Having thus referred to the civic and military organizations, I now 
propose to give a brief resume of the operations of each command, and fco 
publish as full a list of soldiers from Coos as can be procured from the 
sources before referred to: — 

The First Infantry was raised for three months' service, and contained 
no men from this county. It was organized at Concord, received an 
ovation in New York on its way to Washington, and was stationed on the 

ltJi History of Coos County. 

Upper Potomac during its period of enlistment. It was composed of the 
finest material, and was admirably officered and drilled. It was supplied, 
as was the Second and Third, with "claw-hammer" coats of heavy gray 
cloth, which were soon thrown aside for the easy blouse. Its field officers 
were Colonel, Mason W. Tappau, who afterwards declined the colonelcy 
of one of the later regiments; Lieut. -Col., Aaron F. Stevens, subse- 
quently Colonel of the Thirteenth, Brigadier-General and Member of Con- 
gress; and Major, Thomas J. Whipple, a veteran of the Mexican war, sub- 
sequently Colonel of the Fourth, and now, honored by the community 
wherein he resides, an eminent lawyer at Laconia. Col. Tappan, then 
Attorney-General of the state, died about the beginning of the present 
year, at his home in Bradford. 

The Second Infantry. — The response to the call for three months' men 
far exceeding the limit of troops called for from the state, the Governor 
determined to order the surplus above the maximum of the 1st Regiment 
into camp at Portsmouth, pending a decision as to their disposal. Accord- 
ingly the Rope- walk, near the South mill pond, was utilized as a barrack, 
and the men came into camp. In May it was found that no more men for 
three months would be received, and the question of enlisting for three 
years was presented The great portion of the recruits accepted the new 
terms, those declining to extend their term of service being sent as a gar- 
rison to Fort Constitution, at the mouth of Portsmouth Harbor, from 
which they were discharged the ensuing summer. 

Thomas P. Pierce, of Nashua, a veteran of the Mexican war, had been 
commissioned Colonel. Declining to serve for three years, he resigned, 
and Gilman Marston, of Exeter, was appointed Colonel; Frank S. Fiske, of 
Keene, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Josiah Stevens, Jr., of Concord, Major. Gen- 
eral Marston served through the war with distinction, was promoted as 
Brigadier-General, and is now, in his hale old age, an active and eminent 
lawyer at Exeter. Lieutenant-Colonel Fisk resigned after a year's service, 
and is now clerk of the U. S. district court, in Boston. Major Stevens 
subsequently resigned, and died at Manchester, about the time of the first 
veterans' reunion, which was held in that city in 1875. 

On its way to the front, the regiment, in passing through Boston, re- 
ceived a magnificent welcome at the hands of the sons of New Hampshire 
resident in that city. It was reviewed by Governor Andrew from the 
State House, dined at Music Hall, and was paraded upon the common. 

To give the record of this famous regiment would be to write the his- 
tory of the Army of the Potomac, in which it served through the war, re- 
enlisting at the expiration of its three years of duty. It was a nursery, 
from which came many accomplished officers for other regiments, it 
received and assimilated the 17th Regiment in 1863, and a great number of 
recruits, and during its entire service was conspicuous for bravery, soldierly 

The Soldi krs of ( '<><">s. 


behavior, and untiring devotion to the canst'. Its record was always right, 
and its well-earned fame is beyond praise. It was mustered oul al City 
Point, Va., November is, and paid off at Concord, November 26, 1865. 


)t. Co. C, 

Ira (i. Douglass, 

Lancasti r 


Oliver P. Day, H, 

3o. F, 

Morrill c. Day, Co. unknown, 



Claude De Vire, Co. unknown, 



John King, B, 



Edson J. Dunham, F, 



Joseph Greeley, F, 



Thomas Hudson, F, 

( llarksville 

Clark sville 

Henry Johnson, F, 



Daniel Johnson, B, 

Stiwartstiiw 11 


Robert Knight, B, 



John King, F, 



Simon Layne, F, 



James Lynch, F, 



James Martin. 



Charles E. Mclntire, G, 



Henry Martin, Co. unknown. 

Martin's Grant 


Edgar Morse, Co. unknown. 



Samuel 0. Nutter, F, 



John Puryea, K, 



Ira Noyes. K, 



Alfred Poquet, unknown, 



Henry Gleason. B, 



George Robinson, I, 



Benjamin Sawyer, F, 


John Puryea, K. 



Joseph Scott, F, 



Thomas Williams, I, 



Stephen Smith, F, 



Henry Smith, F, 



Joseph Thompson, D, 



Augustus M. Williams, unknown, 



Levi Hicks, B, 



George A. Rowell, A, 



Charles W. Randall, B, 



Samuel D. Wright, F, 

■ i 


Alfred Poquet, H, 



George Workman, 



Thomas Williams. 



Joseph Thompson, B, 



John L. York, 



Marcout Bernabon, (', 



Fay Carleton, 15, 

< 'oh brook 


David S. Chandler, B, 



Edwin R. Cilley, B, 



Simon S. P. Smith, B, 


Hart's Location 

Ira Sweatt, B, 


Hugh R. Richardson, Lt. Co. F, Capt. 

Harrison D. F. Young, Co. H, Capt. Co. F, 

Welcome A. Crafts, Lt.-Col. 5th, 

Charles W. Fletcher, Sergeant, 

Lovell W. Brackett, F, 

Richard 0. Young, F, 

Lorenzo D. Adley, 

Arthur R. Aldrich, B, 

John Barney, F. 

Charles Buck, F. 

George Burt, F. 

Joseph Benway, F, 

Samuel H. Clough, F, 

Harmon Frost, 

Edgar Gaines, F, 

John Gilman, D, 

Henry S. Hilliard, F, Capt. 5th, 

William H. Tibbetts, B, 

George Workman, F, 

James Hagan, F, 

Bernard Johnson, F, 

Thomas Kenney, F, 

George W. Morgan, F, 

Cyrus W. Merrill, F, 

William H. Gault, B, 

Amasa F. Huggins, B, 

Simon Merrill, F, 

Patrick McCaffrey, F, 

Eleazer D. Noyes, H, 

Charles F. Nutter, F, 

Frank F. Noyes, G, 

John Ordway, F, 

George Robinson, F, 

William H. F. Staples, F, 

Thomas J. Severance, F, 

Lewis Tashro, B, 

Clark Stevens, F, and Lt. H'y Art. 

Lucian B. Grout, K, 

Levi Witham, F, 

Ira M. Wallace, F, 

Gilman Aldrich, F. 

Levi P. Barrows, F, 

Jerome H. Brown, F, 

Ebenezer Carpenter, F, 

Thomas Crawford, 

Jere Cronin, 

The Third Infantry. — This command was organized at Concord in the 
summer of 1861, and from excellent material Enoch Q. Fellows, now 
living at Sandwich, a graduate of West Point, and the Adjutant of the 


History of Coos County. 

1st Regiment, was its Colonel; John H. Jackson, of Portsmouth, a vet- 
eran of the Mexican war, now an inspector in the Boston custom house, 
Lieut. -Colonel; and John Bedel, of Bath, also a Mexican veteran, afterward 
brevetted Brigadier, who died in 1875, Major. There was no commis- 
sioned officer from this county, the men being recruited and going in 
without company organization. 

The Third was first assigned to duty on the seaboard in the South, 
serving with distinction at Hilton Head, Charleston, Fernandina, Fla., 
and other strategic points. It joined the Army of the James and took 
part in the closing scenes before Richmond. Like the Second, it furnished 
many officers for later regiments, and received a large number of recruits. 
Its record was highly honorable; it was' engaged in desperate battles; did 
garrison and fortification duty; and in all respects won fairly the high 
reputation that has always been accorded to it. It was mustered out July 
20, 1865. 


Orville E. Moulton, Sergeant. 


Orlando Brown, I, 


Thomas Cassady, Corporal, 


Charles M. Blood, I, 


Edwin E. Jones, H, 9tb, Corporal, 


Louis Beldeau, 


Nelson B. Lindsey, Corporal, 17th H'y 

Art. " 

Amos C. Colby, I, 


John W. Morse, Musician, 


William Eastman, I, 


James Blanehard, 


Andrew J. Fowler, I, 


Frederick T. Bennett, 


Freeman F. Glines, I, 


Granville Blake, 


Montraville P. Horton, I, 


Joseph Chesley, 


Kobert B. Holmes. I, 


John H. Cameron, 


Edward Hall. 


Orland Day, 


Jonas Ingerson, I, 


James W. Farrington, 


Marshall H. King, I, 


Oscar Gaines, 


John Kisling, 


Charles H. Kane, 


Horatio P. Lougee, I, 


George W. Mclntyre, 


Horace M. Lindsey, I, 


DeWitt C. Paine, 


William W. Lang, I, 


White Pilbro, 


James McCrillis, 


William Wilkins, 


James Moulton, I, 


Calvin 0. Wilkins, 


John W. Moidton, I, 


Frederick A. Wentworth, 


John M. Morse, I, Sig. Service, 


Isaac I. York, 


Daniel W. Titus, I, 


Ira D. Hyde, 


Almon B. White, I, 


Azariah L. Clark. 


Charles McKee, K, 


Ezra D. Clark, 


William S. Morse, K, 


Josiah S. Blood, I, 


The Fourth Infantry, — This command was officered by Col. Thomas J. 
Whipple, Lieut. -Col. Louis Bell, killed at Fort Fisher, January 15, 1865, 
and Jeremiah D. Drew, of Salem, Major. It was a valuable and efficient 
three years regiment, originally part of the force on the South Atlan- 
tic coast. It had no organized body of men from this county. Its 
service was at Hilton Head, Fernandina, Charleston, and in the Army of 

The Soldiers of Coos. 


the James, before Petersburg and Richmond. It was mustered out August 

27, 1865. 


Franklin Crawford. D, 


Robert Calahan, D, 


Daniel Day. Jr., F, 


William Chester, K, 

Stewartst.iw u 

Orange Fisk, H, 


John Craver, K, 


John Smith, F, 


Francis Duquette, H, 


Louis Black, D, 


Henry Dubois, K, 


Charles Williams, K, 


Michael Gero, D, 


Thomas Flynn, K. 


Louis Grapo, G, 


Henry F. Wardwell, Asst. Surgeon, 


George L. Harrington, K, 


James M. Kidder, K, 


Eugene Lacroix, K, 


Thomas H. Mayo, I, 


George La Plant, K, 


Peter Anderson, K, 


George Peno, K, 


Samuel Barney, G, 


James Taylor, C, 


Joseph Brown, G, 


Horace Taylor, K, 


The Fifth Infantry. — This command contained several Field, Staff and 
Line officers, an entire Co. (B) and many recruits from this county. It 
had a notable record for daring bravery, and was one of the conspicuous 
regiments of the Volunteer Service. This was largely due to the person- 
nel of its first commander, Col Edward Ephraim Cross, of Lancaster, who 
had shared largely in the adventurous life of the southwestern frontier. 
Leaving home at an early age, he had been a newspaper reporter at Cin- 
cinnati and Washington, and wagoned the first printing press across the 
plains to Tucson, in Arizona, where he established a paper. Engaged in 
warfare with the Apache and other tribes, he subsequently took service 
with the Republic of Mexico, until he came north to offer his services to 
his native state in the summer of 1861. His campaigning life, and famil- 
iarity with the ways of regular soldiery, gave him a position and influ- 
ence that added eclat to his recruiting and procured for his regiment from 
the outset, a reputation for dash and effective work. 

The regiment went into camp at "Camp Jackson," at Concord, on 
the bluffs opposite the lower or Federal bridge, with Edward E. Cross as 
Colonel, Samuel G. Langley, late Adjutant of the Second, Lieut. -Colonel, 
and William W. Cook, of Boston, Major. Colonel Cross, after a most gal- 
lant and brilliant career, fell mortally wounded an Gettysburg, while com- 
manding the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the Second Army corps, 
and was buried with impressive Masonic ceremonies from the homestead 
at Lancaster. A monument, erected by friends, commemorates his serv- 
ices, and marks the spot of his repose, while the local post of the Grand 
Army and the Relief Corps bear his name. Lieut. -Col. Langley resigned 
after about a year of service, and died in Washington in 186S. Major 
Cook died since the close of the war. 

As with the Second, so with the Fifth, the limits of a chapter would 
utterly fail to give its history. It furnished gallant officers for later regi- 


History of Coos County. 

merits, received many recruits and was always conspicuous for its bravery 
and heroic work. It was in the Peninsula, Maryland, Pennsylvania and 
Virginia campaigns, and its Colonel made the proud boast to the writer, 
that at the disastrous charge at Fredericksburg, ' ' his dead lay nearer the 
enemy's rifle pits, than those of any other regiment in the Army of the 
Potomac." While a veteran of the Fifth remains, its deeds of daring, 
its amateur engineering, its marches and its conflicts will be as fresh in 
their memories as the rollicking strains of " One Eyed Eiley!" and their 
services will have the appreciation that follows honest endeavor. The 
regiment was mustered out July 8, 1805. The Surgeon of the Fifth was 
John W. Bucknam, of Lancaster, a devoted and excellent officer. Dr. 
Bucknam engaged in practice at Great Falls, with great success, and died 
there widely esteemed. 


Edward E. Cross, Colonel, 
Richard E. Cross, Lieut.-Col., 
Welcome A. Crafts, 2d, Lieut. -Col. 
John W. Bucknam, Surgeon, 
Charles M. Trask, Asst. Surgeon, 
O'Niell B. Twitchell, Captain, 
Edmund Brown, Captain, 
Her.ry S. Hilliard, Captain, 
Elijah F. Marden, Lieut., 
Nathaniel F. Low, Lieut., 
Moses W. Band, Lieut., 
Freeman Lindsey, Wagoner, 
John G. Sutton, B, 
Charles E. Graham, B, Musician, 
Joseph B. Hanson, B, Wagoner, 
Sewell R. Aldrich, B, 
Isaiah W. Burbank, B, 
David A. Brinington, B, 
William A. Oorson, B, 
James Cummings, B, 
Alexander Cummings, B, 
William G. Ellis, 
Levi J. Corson, B. 
Michael Cassady, B, 
James Cassady, B, 
Joseph M. Davis, B, 
Michael Eagan, B, 
Erastus W. Forbes, B, 
John Fair, B, 
Daniel Gillander, B, 
Reuben Gassett, B, 
Asa D. Goodwin, B, 
Jacob A. Harriman, B, 
Leonard W. Howard, B, 
Charles A. Hutchinson, B, 
Franklin M. Higgins, B, 
Francis Heywood, B, 
Henry W. Libbey, B, 





Du miner 


























Charles H. Linton, B, 


Louis Lapointe, B, 


Patrick Maley, B, 


Aurin Morse, B, 


Frederick Millar, B, 


Henry McGann, B, 


N. W. Ordway,B, 


Bailey A. Parker, B, 


Eldad A. Rhodes, B, Sei'geant, 


Francis A. Russel, B, 


George H. Roberts, B, 


Hosea Stone, B, 


J. S. C. Twitchell, B, 


Thomas S. Thayer, B, 


William R. Yates, B, 


Lawson A. Yorke, B, 


Luther Walcott, E, 


Sylvanus Chessman, F, 


Richard Fletcher, B, 


George H. Nickerson, F, 


Milton A. Adams, A, 

■ ■ 

William Cummings, B, 


Enoch N. Clement, A, 


James Colby, B, 


Reuben F. Carter, K, 


George Delair, 


King J. Cross, H, 


Joseph Derusha, A, 


John Edwards, G, 


Joseph Hart. D, Musician, 


Hiram Hilliard, B, 


William F. Horn, A, 


Charles Kraft, C, 


John Malia, G, 


Joseph P. Matthews, H, H'y Art., 


Martin McCormic, F, 


Daniel Mahoney, F, 


George W. Marden, A, 


The Soldiers of Coos. 


Charles D. Parrington, B, 

George Ridley, E, 
George A. Richards, F, 
John A. Manchester. A, 
Edward Sweeney, 
Charles Sawyer, E, 
Alvin Saunders, F, 
John Sullivan, G, 
Solomon Wilson, B, 




Lancasti r 





Joseph Washburn, I, 
Terence Garrett, 
William II. Veazie, 
Portus U. Brown, B, 
Samuel A. Andrews, B, 
Scribner Cates, H, 
1 1, orge E. ( lates, H, 
Jonathan Dow, B, 
Leonard W. Howard, B, 


I 'a 1 ton 


Lanca ti i 

The Sixth Infantry. — This regiment was organized at Keene, in No- 
vember, 1801. Gen. Nelson Converse, of Marlborough, of the old militia, 
was its Colonel; Simeon G. Griffin, of Nelson, late Captain of Co. B, 2d 
Regiment, Lieut. -Col.; and Charles Scott, of Peterboiough, Major. It 
served in several departments, being first ordered to the Southern Atlantic 
coast, at Hatteras Inlet, N. C, and Roanoke Island— it then became a part 
of Burnside's corps, serving in Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and on the 
Mississippi. It took part in the momentus battles of Antietam, Second Bull 
Run, Fredericksburg, the siege of Vicksburg, and the closing scenes of the 
war with the Army of the Potomac, in 180tLand '65, and was mustered out 
July 22, 1 805. This was an excellent regiment, in discipline and effective- 
ness. Col. Converse, its original commander, did not serve but a few 
months, when Lieut. -Col. Griffin assumed command. He distinguished 
himself as an officer, and received the highest promotion accorded to a 
New Hampshire soldier, being Brigadier and Brevet Major-General. His 
home is now in Keene, although he has large interests in ranche property 
in Texas, to which he devotes considerable of his time. 

John Anderson, G, 
Thomas Arnold, 
William H. Autum, 
John C. Brooks, H, 
Otto Bockel, B, 
John Battis, A, 
William Boyle, H, 
Thomas Bemis, 
John Brown, G, 
Henry Black, A, 
William Baker, Jr., A, 
Charles Brown, 
Thomas Bowman, B, 
Martin Bird, G, 
David F. Coates, 
William Clark, C, 
Frank Croft, D, 
James Chaculaga, 
William H. Cram, K, 
William Devoe, K, 
James Delaney, 
Morris Daley, H, 



Charles Davis, C, 


Peter Deerin, H, 


John Davis, 


Peter Dolan, 


Walter H. Evans, E, 


Henry Freeman, E, 


John Flood, E, 


George Fawkes, 


Charles Gelherg, K. 


Frank Guillette, 


William Greene, H, 


Edward Gillingham, H, 


George. V. Gam shy, B, 


( lalvin Hicks, K, 


William Gibson, F. 


Francis Gallagher, D, 

St- wartstown 

John Henry, A, 


Theodore Bagerman, K. 


Peter Hanson, 


John Hogan, 

( lolnmbia 

Ephraim E. Holmes, H, 


William Johnson, D, 




Stewart stown 









darks'* ille 







History of Coos County 

John James, C, 


George Owens, 


Lewis King, K, 


Eli P. Pierce, B, 


George King. E, 


Charles Paul, I, 


Zor Karlson, G, 


Charles Parker, F, 


Henry Kulp, A, 


Leon Roberts. P. 


WiUiam Kelley, C, 


Charles E. Rogers, H, 


Charles Linn, F, 


Frank Sullivan, A, 


William Lower, C, 


Linus Summers, B, 


Earnest A. Leavitt, I, 


Henry Stone, 


Patrick Lakey, E, 


Ralph Sullivel, C, 


Henry H. Lucus, H, 


Francis St. Peter, H, 


Joseph Lord, 


Charles H. Smith, H, 


John Lanigan, 


Thomas C. Sullivas, H, 


John Morrison, 


John Snow, C, 


Victor Levie, 


Charles Sweet, Jr., I 


Francis Mack, K, 


George Tabor, D, 


Thomas Moran, E, 


James Thomas, D, 


John Markston, D, 


Richard Troy, A, 


James Madigan, A, 


Freeman Tyrill, B, 


John McDonnell, E, 


James Ward, H, 


Michael Nelligan, 


Aaron Wright, I, 


Andrew Nelson, 


Franklin Walker, A, 


William O'Niell. G, 


Thomas Williamson, C, 


John Oliver. I, 


Nathaniel P. Ordway, E, 


William Obeg, C, 


The Seventh Infantry. — This command, raised under exceptional cir- 
cumstances, by authority of the Secretary of War, went into camp at 
Manchester in October, 1861, with Lieut. Haldiman S. Putnam, of the 
Regulars, — a native of Cornish, in Sullivan county, — as Colonel, Joseph C. 
Abbott, late Adjutant General, as Lieut. Col., and Daniel Smith, of Dover, 
as Major. 

This command, which was exceptionally well prepared by drill and 
discipline for its later experience, left the state on the 14th. of January, 
1862, and was sent by transport to the Dry Tortugas, Fla , where it gar- 
risoned Fort Jefferson and other important works. In June it was sent to 
Beaufort, S. C, and then to St. Augustine, Fla, It participated in the his- 
toric attack on Fort Wagner, Charleston harbor, July 18, 1803, where its 
Colonel was killed after having effected an entrance to the fort, although 
our forces were afterward repulsed. It served with the Tenth Corps dur- 
ing the closing scenes of the war near Petersburg and Richmond. It en- 
gaged in storming and capturing Fort Fisher, near Wilmington, N. C, 
and through all its arduous service, acquitted itself with great persistence, 
devotion and bravery. It was mustered out July ±2, 1865, and reached 
Concord early in August of that year. 


Charles P. Denison, A, Captain, 
Ezra Carter, A, 
Frederick Ingerson, A, 
James S. Lucus, A, 




Alden Lewis, A, 
Philip McCaffrey, A, 
John L. Meserve, A, 
Cyrus Savage, A, 



The Soldiers of Coos. 


Charles C. Beaton, G, 
Edward Carr, C, 
Charles A. Cross, E, 
Levi Dunham, I, 
Frank Fell, H, 






.Julm (Ira nt, A, 
Daniel T. Johnson, < '•. 
James A. King, B, 
Joseph Lary, H, 
Thomas Wilson. A, 

I . irham 


The rolls of Co. A, A. G. O.. show residence "unknown" of nearly all 
its members, making accuracy of compilation uncertain. 

The Eighth Infantry. — This three years regiment was organized at 
Manchester, served valiantly on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, at Baton 
Eouge, Port Hudson, and Sabine Pass, Texas; re-enlisted and underwent 
all the hardships of battle, siege and sickness in an unhealthy climate, 
being finally mustered out at Concord in January, 1865, and its veteran 
battalion in October of the same year. It contained no organization from 
Coos Its officers were: Hawkes Fearing, of Manchester, Colonel; Oliver 
W. Lull, of Milford, who had been an Aid to Gen. George Stark, of the 
state service, at Portsmouth, and who was killed at Port Hudson, Lieut. - 
Col. ; and Merril B. Smith, of Concord, Major. For a time this regiment 
was mounted, and known as the c 2d N. H. Cavalry. 

Bichard Adams, 
Matthew Agar, D, 
John Adams, F, 
Doric Boreasau, I, 
Willington Brown, G, 
Joseph Bondrie, C, 
Michael Brady, C, 
William Brown, F, 
James F. Brown, F, 
Stephen Cook, C, 
Newell P. Chase, G, 
John Cornet, C, 
Peter Coffin, D, 
Thomas Clark, D, 
William Cloutman, F, 
Thomas Connor, B, 
William Dammings, D, 
Moellor A. Dorl, D, 
Patrick Duffy, D, 
George Durkee, F, 
Grege C. French, C, 
Lewis Gutcher, C, 
Joseph Gremer, D, 
Louis Houll, 
William B. Hetson, E, 
Henry George, F, 
James O'Hern, F, 
John A. Holyoke, B, 
William Jarvis, D, 
Bartholomew Jordan, D, 
John Jordan, E, 



Allen Johnson, F, 



Edward Kelley, I, 



Cyril LaFaince, I, 



Charles W. Larkin, I, 



Fargenam Levene, I, 



James S. Lane, H, 



George Lansinger, D, 



Peter Larsen, D, 



Jonathan Metcalf, G, 



William F. McCormic, D, 



Charles A. Myers, D, 



William Merrill, G, 



Charles 0. Merry, G, 



Ezra S. Nourse, D, 



Michael O'Flanigan, G, 



Adam Osborne, C, 



Jameson Perry, G, 



Albert Eowell, G, 



Jacob Benold, G, 



Joseph Shirlow, I, 



Henry Sailor, C, 



Isaac Smith, D, 



Patterson Smith, 



Oliver Sales. G, 



William 11. Veazie, G, 



Joseph G. Walcott, G, 



Ira L. Westcott, C, 



William Watson. D. 

( lorliaiu 


Thomas Williams, D, 



Charles Wilson, 



Charles B. Wilcox, 



History of Coos County. 

The Ninth Infantry. — This regiment was recruited more slowly than 
its predecessors, and was perhaps the first that experienced to any consid- 
erable extent the effect of the " bounty " system. It went into camp in 
Concord in June, 1862, and left for the front August 25, under Col. E. Q. 
Fellows, formerly of the Third. It was a gallant regiment and performed 
heroic service. From first to last, it had many good men from the county, 
and lost heavily in many engagements, notably, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
the battles of the Wilderness in 1864, and the closing conflicts of the war. 
Its service was under Burnside, in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Mis- 
sissippi and Tennessee, and it was mustered out in June, 18(55. 

John W. Titus, of Keene, was Lieutenant-Colonel, and George H. 
Chandler, of Concord, Major. Colonel Fellows, as before stated, survives, 
as does Col. Titus. Major Chandler became a successful lawyer at Balti- 
more and died within a few years. 

The original detachment from this county, in the Ninth, was raised by 
Lieut. John G. Lewis and incorporated in Co. H. Lieut. Lewis was a man 
of sterling qualities, tenderness of heart and personal bravery. He was 
killed while leading his company in storming the Heights at Fredericks- 
burg in December, 1862. His body was borne off the field at night by 
Masonic comrades and given interment under the solemn rites of that 
order, at Lancaster, where a suitable monument records his virtues and 
perpetuates his memory. 

With Lieut. Lewis was Lieut. John Edwin Mason, who had made many 
friends in Coos, while preparing the county map in 1860. He was engaged 
with him in the enlistments and was commissioned in the same regiment. 
His connection with the soldiers of Coos warrants the insertion of his name 
in this connection. He was of Manchester, served with credit through the 
war, and is iioav a surgeon in the Bureau of Pensions, Washington. 

The enlistments from Coos and the subsequent choice of Coos recruits 
for the Ninth, was due largely to the character and zeal of Lieut. Lewis, 
whose memory is held in high esteem. The service of this regiment was 
varied and trying. Serving in many states and on all kinds of military 
duty, being transported over great distances and engaging in the most 
arduous campaigns, it won and preserved a most honorable reputation for 
discipline, endurance and bravery. 

John G. Lewis, H, Lieut., 
John Howe, H, Sergt., 
Frederick Morse, H, Corp., 
William H. Allen, H, 
Cleveland C Beard, H, 
Leonard M. Beard, H, 
Azel Dinsmore, H, 
Sanford Dinsmore, H, 



William H. Farnham. H, 



Henry Houghton, H, 



Albert Lindsey, H, 



Henry H. Moulton, H, 



Freeman H. Perkins, H, 



Henry H. Sanderson, H, 



Lucien F. Thomas, H, 



Leander A. Wilkins, H, 


The Soldiers of Coos. 


Asahel Aldrich, H, 


Henry H. Lucas, H, 


Abraham H. Bedell, H, 


Charles Lagard, K, 

•i' fferson 

Austin Bedell, H, 


Victor Levie. E, 


John C. Brooks, H, 


Dennis Murphy, K, 


William Boyle, H, 


James Murray, A, 


John Bondle, II, Mexican war. 


Sylvester A. Newell, E, 


Albert 8. Brown, K, 


Samuel F. Ordway, E, 


Thomas Bowman, B, 


John L. Ordway, E, 


John W. Brown, I. 


Nathaniel I'. Ordway, E, 


John Bradley, I, 


.lames M. IYttengill, E, 


Simon Conway, H, 


Alfred C. Pratt, H, 6th, 17th, 

and 2d, .1. fferson 

George Cummings, H, 2d, 17th 

and 6th, u 

Paul Perkins, H, 


William H. Cram, K, 


Willard H. Perry. G, 


Martin Connelly, E, 


Charles C. Rogers, H, 


James Calden, I, 


Harrison E. Round, H, 


Horace J. Chandler, A. 


Frederick Rhodi, G, 


Peter Deering, H, 


Alonzo Stillings, H, 

.li ffersi m 

Ira G. Douglass, F, 


Thomas C. Sullivan, H, 


Philip Deary, G, 


Charles Sweatt, Jr., I, 


Charles 0. Ellingwood, E, 


John Shover, F, 


Walter H. Evans, E, 


George Tenry, F, 


Loren E. Stalbird, H, 


George L. Vincent, E, 


Michael Gibson, E. 


John Vrooman, E, 


Ephraim E. Holmes, H, 


Charles H. Warren, K. 


Ereeman H. Holmes, H, 


James Ward, G, 


Charles H. Hamlin, E, 


James Wilson, G, 


Joseph K. Hod»e, H, 


Joseph Williams, B, 


James W. Hayes, H, 


Henry Walker, B, 


Calvin Hicks. K, 


John Williams, Jr., B, 


Silas Howe, K, 


Pecker C. Wood, H, 


Edwin R. Jones, H, 3d, 


Thomas Thorn, G, 


Charles H. Keyzar, K, 


William H. Wilkins, H, 


John G. Lewis, 2d. H, 


The Tenth Infantry. — This command, popularly known as the Irish 
regiment, was organized at Manchester, and principally from that city 
and southern portions of the state. It went into camp in August, 1862, 
and was mustered the September following, Michael T. Donohoe being Colo- 
nel, John Coughlin, Lieut. -Col., and Jesse T. Angell, Major. It was a 
part of the Ninth Corps, and served in Virginia and the Carolinas, being 
engaged in the operations of 180-1-65, in the reduction of Petersburg and 
Richmond, and was mustered out June 21, 1st',;). Col. Donohoe was an 
accomplished and meritorious officer, and was advanced to the rank of 
Brigadier. He has, since the war, been engaged in railway pursuits, and 
is at present an inspector of the Postoffice department. Lieut-Col. Cough- 
lin, after having served with distinction, entered business in Washington 
after the close of the war, where he has attained affluence. 

There was no company or detachment in the Tenth from the county, 
which, however, was represented by Surgeon Horatio N. Small, of Lancas- 
ter, who entered the Thirteenth after the consolidation of hisoriginal regi- 
ment, the Seventeenth, with the Second, and was promoted to be full Surgeon 
of the Tenth. At the close of the war Dr. Small settled al Portland, M 


History of Coos County. 

where he became eminent as a practitioner. He died about the commence- 
ment of the present year. 

The Eleventh Infantry. — This command was recruited in August, 1S62, 
and went into camp at Concord, leaving the state September 11. It was a 
part of the Ninth Army Corps, served in Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and was engaged at Fredericksburg, Vicksburg, the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Petersburg and the closing scenes of the war. It was a regiment 
made up of admirable material, occupied a large share of public attention, 
and did excellent service. Its original officers were Walter Harriman, of 
Warner, Colonel; Moses N. Collins, of Exeter, Lieutenant-Colonel; and 
Evarts W. Farr, of Littleton, Major. Colonel Harriman, after the war, 
became for several years Secretary of State, was Governor and naval 
officer of the port of Boston. He died June 1, 1884. Lieut. -Col. Collins 
was killed at the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, and Major Farr served through 
the war, was elected to Congress in 1878, and re-elected in November, 
1880. He died the December following, at his home in Littleton. 


John Burgin, G, 


Michael O'Niel, B, 


Robert Burns. 


Francis O'Niel, 


Charles W. Blakely, 


William Phillips, 


Clarence W. Bixby, 


John Price. 


James Cunningham, 


Julius K. Ringer, 


August Cochar. 


John Richards 


William Carroll, 


John Smith, 


Alonzo D. Creamer, G, 


Samuel Sibley, 


Frederick K. Ernworth, 


Edward Savanack, 


James Gold, 


Frank Salerno, 


Michael Foley, K, 


Pierre Tonguire, 


Francis Gallagher, D, 


Louis Vauder, 


Thomas Hill, 


John Wesley, 


Edward Harrington, 


John Wolf, 

Jerl'erso n 

William Jones, 


Charles West, 

u name 

Louis Levi it. 


John C. Wilson, 


Joseph Miller, 


Eugene Welsh. 


William Millerick, C, 


August Welsh, 


John McDonnell, E. 


The Twelfth Infantry. — This command was raised within less than one 
week, in August, 1862, in the region around Lake Winnipiseogee. It was 
understood that the men were to select their own officers, and detachments 
and companies were made up from localities, so that the aggregate was 
more like the muster of a Highland clan, than like a common regiment. 
It was the fervent desire of all, that the veteran, Thomas J. Whipple, a 
soldier of two wars, and late of the First and Fourth, should be placed in 
command; but the Executive failed to ratify this wish, and Joseph H. Pot- 
ter, a New Hampshire man, and an accomplished officer of the regular 
army, was placed in command, with John F. Marsh, of Nashua, as Lieu- 

The Soldiers of Coos. 175 

tenant-Colonel, and George D. Savage, of Alton, as Major. The regiment 
served with distinction in Virginia during its entire enlistment. Col. Tot- 
ter survived the war, and has recently gone upon the retired list of the 
army as a Brigadier. Major Savage, a great favorite with all the "hoys," 
was long a popular character at all soldier gatherings, and died greatly 
lamented, within a few years, at his home at Alton Bay. The veterans of 
New Hampshire have two notable reminders of the gallant Twelfth, — Col. 
Nat Shackford, the indefatigable secretary of the Veterans' Association. 
and the " Memorial Stone " at the Wiers, the gift of comrade Woodbury 
Sanborn, now of Lowell. 

The Thirteenth Infantry. — This regiment went into camp at Concord, in 
September, 1862, with Aaron F. Stevens, of Nashua, late Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the First Regiment, Colonel; George Bowers, also of Nashua, 
a veteran of the Mexican war, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Clement Storer,of 
Portsmouth, Major. It left the state early in October, and its service 
throughout was in Virginia It was mustered out June 20, 1865, and ar- 
rived home about the first of July. It was engaged at Fredericksburg, 
Suffolk, Drury's Bluff, Petersburg, and in other notable conflicts, and on 
all occasions won and maintained high credit. Col. Stevens was brevetted 
Brigadier, and was subsequently a member of Congress. Distinguished 
as a public man and lawyer, he resides at Nashua, enjoying deserved 
honors. Lieut. -Col. Bowers was afterward distinguished for his adminis- 
tration as Grand Commander of the Department of New Hampshire, of 
the G. A. R. He died at Nashua within a few years. 

In this regiment was one company, H, and many recruits from this 
county, chiefly the northern towns. This command was* raised by Nor- 
mand Smith, Captain, of Sfcewartstown; Albe Holmes and Robert R. 
Thompson, of Stratford, Lieutenants. It was composed entirely of volun- 
teers, and from the best material the county afforded — men who realized 
the work before them, and on all occasions performed their duties with 
intelligence, patience and bravery. Captain Smith, in time, rose to the 
command of the regiment. At the close of the war he moved to the 
vicinity of Richmond, Va., a location familiarized to him by the dangers 
and trials of his military career. He has been a member of the Virginia 
Senate, and held other stations of responsibility. Lieut. Holmes, after a 
successful business career in northern Coos, engaged in trade in Boston, 
and resides near that city. Lieut. Thompson died in the army. 

No better body of men went from the state, than those men who en- 
listed from Coos, in this regiment. Since their return they have prospered, 
generally, in business, and merit the respect that is accorded them. 


History of Coos County. 


Normand Smith, Lt.-Col., Stewartstown 

Robert R. Thompson, H, D, Captain, Stratford 

Albe Holmes, H, Lieut., " 

Hubbard W. Hill, I, Lieut., 

Levi M. Wines, JB, Gorham 

Jonathan M. Rix, D, Dalton 

Otis B. Harriman, D, Lancaster 

Fred'kK. Fletcher, H, (Capt. U. S. C. T.) Colebrook 
Paul C. Davis, H, Columbia 

Wm. A. Graham, H, (Capt U. S. C. T.) Stewartstowii 

Ira Quimby, H, 

Van R. Davis, H. 

Cyrus R. Blodgett, H, 

John A. T. Perham, H, 

Ferrin A. Cross, H, 

William Heath, H, 

Oliver H. Stark, H, 

Sidney A. Elmer, H, 

Augustus Osgood, H, 

Daniel G. Kipley, H, 

Frank Snow. H, 

Robinson S. Gamsby, H, 

Franklin Annis, H, 

Elbridge G. Arlin, H, 

Erastus S. Atherton, H, 

Elias Anderson, H, 

Arnold Aldrich, H, 

Sherman F. Bennett, H, 

Charles W. Brown, H, 

Albert C. Blodgett, H, 

Truman D. Barnett, H, 

Sherman H. Barnett, H, 

Leander Babb, H, 

George Brown, H, 

Jesse M. Colby, H, 

James C. Carleton, H, 

James Carr, H, 

Benjamin R. Corbett, H, 

William Chappel, H. 

Caleb T. Cleveland, H, 

Alma M. Cross, H, 

Chester W. Cilley, H, 

Addison ('base, H, 

David Clement, H, 

Patrick Doorley, H, 

C;i hb S. Dalton, H, 

Joseph B. Eastman, H, 

Carlos R. Fletcher, H, 

Charles Forbes, H. 

Carleton ('. Fuller, H, 

Charles C. Faver, H, 

Henry B. Gilkey, H, 

Abie! B. (ilines, H, 

Charles E. Graham, H, (Lt. U. S. C. T.) 

Henry Hibbard, H, 

Charles J. Hilliard, H, 

Orrin HiUiard, II. 

































Albert Harris, H, 
David Holbrook, H, 
Oliver B. Huggins, H, 
Elwyn Holbrook, H, 
Charles Heath, H, 
Francis G. Haines, H, 
Nathan Heath, H, 
Almanzo Heath, H, 
Augustus A. Heath, H, 
John W. Heath, H. 
Nelson Haines, H. 
John A. Hodge. H, 
Andrew Hanan, H, 
William R. Jordan, H, 
Abel K. Jordan, Jr., H, 
George C. Kimball, H, 
James Knight, H, 
John R. Little, H, 
Joseph D. Little, H, 
Philip Ladon, H, 
William B. Luey, H, 
James Legro, 2d, H, 
Ephraim H. Mahurin, H, 
Milo Mahurin. H, 
William Men-ill, H, 
Jeremiah Merrow, H. 
Edwin Patterson, H, 
Daniel W. Patrick, H, 
William MeKinnon, H, 
Andrew Matson, H, 
George R. Pomeroy, H, 
William Ro we, H, 
Daniel Renton, H, 
Seidell J. Stacy, H, 
James Spreadbury, H, 
David Spreadbury, H, 
Charles C. Stoddard, H, 
Fred Shorey, H, 
Thomas Smith, H, 
Henry S. Sleeper, H, 
Gardner W. Smith, H, 
Alvah Warren, H, 
Jeduthan F Warren, H, 
Henry M. Woodbury, H, 
John C. Walker. H, 
James W. Weeks, H, 
Hiram C. Young, H, 
George P.. Abbott, H, 
Arthur R. Aldrich, H, 
Albion ('. Aldrich. H, 
< leorge H. Bannister, H, 
James H. Bacon, H. 
Edwin R. Cilley, I, 
Timothy Covell, I, 
David S. Chandler, I, 
Charles ( i. Crawford, H, 
Carleton Fay, I, 









( li ilebrook 
























The Soldiers of Coos. 

i i 

William H. Clark, H, 


Bi ajamin Knight, H, 

sii vrartstown 

Daniel Fletcher, H, 


Lemuel Lafoe, 11. 


Henry Gleason, I, 


Daniel McAlister, H, 


Charles D. Gamsby, I. 


Dana 1!. Moody, 11, 


William H. Gault, H, 


Jul m Paul, H, 


Gustavus E. Harvey. I, 


Charles Perry, H, 


Levi Hicks, I. 


Charles W. Randall, I, 

( Ulibrook 

John Hogue, I. 


( teorge A. Powell, H, 


(iuy W. Johnson, I, 


David 0. Rowell, H, 


John J. Johnson, I, 


Simon S. P. Smith, I, 

i loli brook 

James M. Jordon, H, 


Ira Sweat t, I, 


Daniel Johnson, 


John Titus, I, 


Henry A. Keach, H, 


William H.Tibbetts, I, 


Robert Knight. H. 


Lewis Tashro, 


Fourteenth Infantry. — This was the last three years regiment. It was 
composed of excellent men, who discharged their duties with exemplary 
fidelity and honor. It was mustered at Concord, September 24, 1^< '>:_'. and 
left the state the latter part of the ensuing October. It first reported at 
AVashington and spent the winter in picketing forty miles of thePotomar. 
did provost and guard duty in Washington in 1863, and the next spring 
was ordered to New Orleans, but came north the same summer, when it 
went into the Shenandoah Valley, engaging in the historic campaign of 
that year. The succeeding January it w^as sent to Savannah, Georgia, 
coming north again in July, being mustered out at Concord on the 26th of 
that month. 

It was originally commanded by Robert Wilson, of Keene, Colonel; 
Tileston A. Barker, of Westmoreland, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Samuel A. 
Duncan, of Plainfield, Major. Col. Wilson resigned on the 18th of Sep- 
tember, 1864, when Major Alexander Gardiner was promoted to Colonel; 
he was mortally wounded at Opequan the following day. 

In this regiment, Co. E and many recruits came from this count y. 
chiefly from the Androscoggin and Ammonoosuc valleys and from about 
Lancaster. This command, like the Thirteenth, was composed of excel- 
lent material. It was originally enlisted by Edmund Brown, who was for 
s, time a Captain in the Fifth, but was turned over by him to Freedom M. 
Rhodes, of Lancaster, who was commissioned Captain. Franklin \V heeler, 
of Berlin, John E. Willis, of Gorham, for whom is named the local post 
of the G. A. R., and Charles Cobleigh, of Northumberland, were at differ- 
ent times Lieutenants. The service of this regiment, and of our own people 
in its ranks, was every way creditable to its members. Capt. Brown died 
at Lancaster in L882. Capt. Rhodes, after many disappointments in his 
plans and aspirations, died at Hartford, Vt.. within a few years, and was 
buried at Lancaster. Lieuts. Wheeler and Cobleigh still remain to enjoy 
the honors they won. 



History of Coos County. 


Freedom M. Rhodes, 2d, Capt., 

Franklin Wheeler, E, Lieut., 

John E. Willis, E, Lieut., 

Hiram J. Rand, E, 

John A. Harriman, E, 

Lewis P. Summers, E, 

Walter Buck, E, 

Thomas J. Lary, E, 

Isaac R. Smith, E, 

David S. Harvey, E, 

Leland B. Philbrook, E, 

William A. Willis, E, 

George W. Purington, E, 

Ormando Larv, E. 

Theodore Morin, E, 

George R. Holmes, E, 

Abel H. Wesson, E, 

George Applebee, E, 

George S. Bartlett, E, 

Joseph Brooks. E, 

Harvey R. Brown, E, 

Frank Boutwell, E. 

Emery M. D. Ball, E, 

Horace Cushman, 2d, E, 

Moses S. Curtis, E, 

Aaron Cotton, E, 

William H. Clark, 

Bryant E. Crawford, E, 

Moses Colby, E, 

John G. Day, E, 

Alden A. Dow, E. 

Oscar P. Ellingwood, E, 

Edwin F. Evans, E, 

Nathaniel Emery, E, 

Marquis D. L. Elliot, E, 

Darius G. Eastman, E, 

William Evans, E, 

Erastus W. Forbes, E, 

Stephen P. Folsom, E, 

George W. Ford, E, 

Henry Goodnow, E, 

John W. Greenlaw, E, 

Jared Gray, E. 

Rufus D. Gaskill, E, 

Joseph M. Gray, E, 

Daniel Griffin. E, 

Alman P. Gaskill, E, 

Ida A. Hodge, E, 

William W. Holbrook, E, 

Roswell Holbrook, E, 

James O. Hubbard, E, 

Hiram G. Hicks, E, 

Thomas A. Hawkins, E, 

Charles Henson, E, 

Moses Henson, E, 

George W. Ingerson, E, 

William W. Johnson, E, 


Harry W. Jordan, E, 



Thomas J. Jordan, E, 



Edward Jarvis, E, 



William Jarvis, E, 



Calvin J. Knight, E, 



Andrew J. Lary, E, 



Eldolph Lary, E. 



John B. Love joy, E, 



William M. Limn, E, 



Henry A. Lane, E. 



George H. Lindsay, E, 



Benjamin F. Moulton, E, 



George W. Morse, E, 



John Morse, E, 



Erastus Massure, E, 



Jonas Massure, E, 



Freeman Marshall, E, 



Loren McFarland, E, 



Daniel McAllister, E, 



Charles E. Nutter, E. 



Daniel Ordway, E, 



John D. Orcutt. 



Henry Paige, E, 



Daniel Potter. E, 



John Purington, E, 



George C. Quint, E, 



James M. Rowe, E, 



Lemuel M. Richardson, E, 



Daniel S. Robbins, E, 



Spaulding S. Rich. E, 



Munroe J. Stone, E, 



William H. H. Stalbird, E, 



Reuel P. Stillings, E, 



Sumner Sessions, E. 



William Sherwood, E, 



Claudius A. Twitchell, E, 



John Veazie, E. 



Asahel K. Wallace, E. 



Alger B. Wheeler, E, 



Edward B. Wilder, E, 



George F. Webb, E, 



Horace York, E, 



David Young, E, 



Antipas Young, E, 



Ethan A. Andrews. F, 



James H. Blodgett. F, 



^Yilliam J. Cummings, F, 



John Cummings, F, 



Patrick Carmen, F, 



Thomas Casey, F, 



William R, Elliot, F. 



Sumner F. Frost. F, 



Frederick 0. Hayes, F, 



Ira D. Hyde, F, 



Perrin Lambert, F, 



W( sley J. Lucas, F, 



Andrew Pheney, F, 


The Soldiers of Coos. 


George A. Wentwc*tb 



Anton Kliner, 

1: i n 

James H. Webber, F, 


Edward Letcher, F, 


Sidney I. Wells, F, 


John D. Pike, E, 


Eben W. Parker, I, 


Charles M. Twitched, E, 


John McMahan, I, 


Jesse Underwood, E, 


William Blair, E, 


Thomas Wentworth, E, 


Caleb F. Bean, E, 


John Alexander. 


Abraham Bell, 


Frank Sabine, E, 


Alanson Cross, E, 


Alexander Vancore, 


Charles Cobleigh, E, Lieut.. 


Charles A. Whipp, E, 


Peter Dyer, C, 


Henry A. Reach, 


John C. Evans, E, 


Albion C. Aldrich, 


Alpheus W. Hawkins, 



Hezekiah Stoddard, 

Stt wartstown 

The Fifteenth Infantry. — This was the first of the nine months regi- 
ments, went into camp at Concord in October, 186:2, leaving the state 
November 12, serving with Gen. Banks's command on the lower Mississippi, 
taking part in the siege of Port Hudson and other operations in that region, 
and was mustered out at Concord August 13, 1863. It had no men from 
this county. John W. Kingman, of Durham, was its Colonel, George W. 
Frost, of XeAvmarket, Lieutenant- Colonel, and Henry W. Blair, who had 
raised a company at Plymouth, Major. 

Col. Kingman, after peace was restored, was appointed Governor of 
Wyoming Territory, where he now resides. Major Blair, promoted to 
Lieutenant-Colonel, entered political life, was a member of the House and 
Senate, was twice elected to Congress, and is now serving on his second 
term in the Senate of the United States. 

The Fifteenth was a good regiment, and during its brief service per- 
formed important and valuable duties. 

Sixteenth Infantry. — This was the second of the nine months regi- 
ments. It contained no men from Coos. It went into camp at Concord 
in October, 1862, was mustered with the minimum number allowable for a 
regiment, — after great effort to secure such number, — about the middle of 
the succeeding month, joining Banks's expedition on the lower Mississippi. 
It suffered terribly from sickness, although it lost no men in battle, and 
was depleted far beyond the average mortality of conflict. It was at New 
Orleans, Baton Eouge, and Port Hudson, came north the following sum- 
mer, and was mustered out the 20th of August, L863. 

In the organization of this command, Rev. James Pike, late presidium- 
elder of the Methodist church, was Colonel, Henry W. Fuller, of Con- 
cord, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Samuel Davis, Jr., of Warner, Major. Col- 
onel Pike was afterward elected to Congress, and made an unsuccessful 
run for Governor. This regiment did its duty well, and accomplished all 
that was assigned to it. 

The Seventeenth Infantry. — The history of this regimenl i^ so excep- 
tional as to call for a brief review of the facts attending its formation and 

180 History of Coos County. 

In August, 1802, the President issued his call for 300,000 men for nine 
months. Governor Berry, on reception of this call, convened his council, 
and determined to call for three regiments of volunteers, first appointing 
their field officers and assigning the Fifteenth to the First Congressional 
district; the Sixteenth to the Second district; and the Seventeenth to the 
Third district, then embracing the counties of Cheshire, Sullivan, Graf- 
ton and Coos, so that the officers being thus selected, volunteers would 
understand with whom they were to serve. The field officers of the Seven- 
teenth were Colonel, Henry O. Kent, of Lancaster; Lieut. -Col., Charles 
H. Long, of Claremont; and Major, George H. Bellows, of Walpole. 

The records of the Adjutant-General's office show that 701 men at once 
volunteered, in the territory assigned for this regiment. Almost an entire 
company was raised at Lancaster and in Coos, although it was in excess of 
all quotas, and equal zeal was manifested elsewhere. 

The Fifteenth and Sixteenth regiments were at this time in process of 
formation, and in camp at Concord. The War Department, requesting 
urgency in forwarding troops, the state authorities, contrary to the under- 
standing, when the field officers were appointed, ordered the companies 
first raised, irrespective of location, first into camp, thus assigning several 
hundred men raised for this regiment, to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth, its 
numerical predecessors. 

Thus denied the men enlisted for it, the Seventeenth went into camp at 
Concord, in November, 1S62, just as the Sixteenth left the state. A regi- 
mental organization was perfected, and drill and discipline commenced and 
continued. All through that dreary winter its officers were assured the 
command should be filled, but volunteering had ceased, the Governor in 
person ordered the acceptance of substitutes discontinued, and no re- 
sources remained, save the unfilled quotas of dilatory and unwilling towns. 
An attempt was made to secure the enforcement of a state draft, author- 
ized by law, and under the control of a board of draft commissioners. A 
draft was ordered for December 21, 1862, but it was postponed to January 
8, 18(38, and finally abandoned. With the surrender of the draft, all hope 
of aid from the state was given up, and February 9th the regiment was 
furloughed to April 1, when, it was said, decisive measures would be 
taken to put the command upon active service. 

This interval, and the early part of April, was spent in earnest efforts 
by the field and line officers, through memorials to members of Congress, 
to induce the War Department to convert the regiment into batteries of 
artillery, to send it out as a battalion, or to place it on detached service, 
that officers and men might, together, serve out their enlistment at the 
front. These requests were not approved, so that, when the regiment re- 
assembled in April, nothing remained but to follow a special order of the 
War Department which mustered out its commissioned and non-commis- 

The Soldiers of Co<">s. im 

sioned officers, and transferred the enlisted men to the Second Infantry 
then at home on furlough, which was done April 1(5, L863. 

The men of the Seventeenth, thus taken from their own officers and 
command, found congenial association with the soldiers of that admira- 
ble regiment, the Second, exhibiting a high order of discipline and bravery 
at Gettysburg, losing as heavy a percentage in dead and wounded as any 
command in that historic engagement. 

At the close of their term of enlistment they were mustered out, but 
so conspicuous had been their work that the commanding officer of the 
Second, Colonel Edward L. Bailey, now of the Regular Army, issued a 
special commendatory order, which we reproduce:— 

"Head Quarters 2d New IIamp. Vols. 

• " PojNT Lookout, Maryland, i 

September 22, 1868. \" 
" General Order No 14. 

"Soldiers of the 17th :— 
"Aroused by the necessities of your country, you assembled under a gallant and accomplished 
leader, with justly high hopes, to lead with him, a brilliant career. After months of uncertainty, 
you were consolidated with the Second. You had no choice in your disposition. You have com- 
ported yourselves as men should, and have secured the respect of comrades and officers. During 
the terrible contest (Gettysburg) you stood shoulder to shoulder with the familiars of fifteen bat- 
tles, fighting as valiantly. * * 

'Ed. L. Bailey, 

"Col. 2d X. H. Vols." 

Lieut. -Col. Long, as recited elsewhere, became subsequently Captain 
of Battery A, and Colonel of the first and only regiment of Heavy 
Artillery. At the close of the war he returned to his home at Claremont. 

Major Bellows afterwards served with the same rank, in command of 
a battalion of infantry raised for service in that section of Virginia, near 
Washington, under control of the Union forces, wherein the state gov- 
ernment, under Governor Pierpont, exercised authority. 

With the untoward circumstances attending this regiment, arising out 
of the presumed exigencies of the service, it is a gratifying recollection 
and reflection, that the officers and men of the Seventeenth Infantry did 
their whole duty wherever placed, obeying orders wholly unfortunate 
and destructive of their pride and hopes, with soldierly alacrity; that the 
men, in the most desperate conflict of the war, elicited special mention 
for their bravery, and that this command enjoys fraternal recognition and 
equal regard from the members of every war organization from the state. 


Henry O. Kent, Colonel, Lancaster 

Edward N. Cummings, Quartermaster, Colebrook 
James D. Folsom, Surgeon, Lancaster 

Horatio N. Small, Asst. Surgeon, 13th and 10th, " 
Jared I. Williams, A, Captain, '' 

James S. Bracket t. A. Lieut., Lancaster 

.Jc-cpli CIki- . A. Lieut.. 

Charles N. Kent, c. Lieut., " 

Ira s. M. Gove, Lieut., Commissary, 

Daniel C. Bean, A. Berlin 


History of Coos County. 

John P. Denison, A, 

Jesse Tuttle, C, 

Charles E. King, A, 

Ezra B. Bennett, A, 

William B. Ingalls, A, 

Charles A. Larkin, A, 

Charles H. Brown, A. 

George W. Blood, A, 

George H. Emerson, A, 

Oliver P. Smith, A, 

Ellery Wheeler, A, 

Hezekiah E. Hadlock, A, H'y Art., 

William J. Chamberlain, A, 

Thomas P. Moody, A, 

Harvey H. Lucas, A, 

Walter S. Bailey, A, H'y Art., 

William Armee, 

Austin Bedel, A, 

Robert Blakely, A, 

Simpson E. Chase, A, 

Shepherd B. Cram, A, 

Lewis W. Cutler, A, 

George Cumings, Jr., 2d, A, 9th, 

Thomas Cunningham, A, 

Albra D. Cram, A, 

John G. Derby, C, Orel. Sergt.. 

Jonathan E. Dustin, A, 

Joseph H. Dustin, 

Rut'us C. Hodgdon, A, 

Royal Hicks, A, 

Delevan G. Hubbard, A, 

The Eighteenth Infantry. — This was the last regimental organization 
mustered, and was made up of men who enlisted indifferently for differ- 
ent terms of service. Recruiting commenced in July, 1864, but with the 
organization of six companies the quota of the state was filled. During 
the next spring three more companies were sent out, but K company was 
stationed at Galloupe's Island, Boston Harbor, and was never ordered to 
the front. There was no company in this regiment from Coos. The Reg- 
imental organization was Thomas L. Livermore, of Milford, who had 
served with distinction in the Fifth, Colonel; Joseph M. Clough, of New 
London, who had an excellent record as a Captain in the Fourth, and who 
has since commanded the militia of the state as Brigadier-General, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; and William I. Brown, of Penacook, former Adjutant of 
the Ninth, Major. This command was engaged in front of Petersburg, 
and had an honorable record. It was mustered out at Concord by detach- 
ments in June, July and August, 1805. Charles H. Bell, since Governor, 
was originally commissioned Colonel, and J. W. Carr, of Manchester, 
formerly of the Second, Lieutenant-Colonel, but each resigned before 


Leland Hidjbard, A, 



Willard A. Jackson, A, 



Alfred Jackson, A, 



John C. Jenness, A, 

■ I 


Lewis M. Jackman, A, 



Joseph Kiley, A, 



Asa J. King, A, 



Robert King, A, 


Nelson B. Lindsey, A, 



John C. Moore, A, 



Henry McCarthy, A, 


I ancaster 

Charles W. Moulton, A, 



John M. Newell, A, 



Sidney H. Peaslee, A, 



Sumner Perkins, A," 



Alfred C. Pratt, A, 



William C. Putnam, A, 



Frank Rafferty, Jr., A, 



Albro L. Robinson, A, 



James Reed, A. 



Ebenezer Rines, A, 



James Ross, A, 



William L. Rowell, A, Sergeant, 



Jason Sherwood, A, 



John W. Smith, A, 



Cyril C. Smith, A, 

f f 


Edmund B. Sanborn, A, 



William Warren, A, 



George H. Weare, A, 

f f 


Albert F. Whipple, A, Band Leader, 



John C. Staples, A, 


The Soldiers of Coos. 



Samuel I. Bailey, 


Galen C. Smith. K, 


Michael Earley, H, 


Richard Tinkham, K. 


Patrick ( lassady, K, 

i . 

William Keazan, 


John Williams, I, 


Alma Cates, F, 

( lorham 

Frank W. Dimond, K 



Jacob F. Frost, F, 


George N. Jones. K. 


Stephen Morse, C, 


William H. Crawford, 



James II. Thomas, C, 


William A. Hawkins, 



John Nolan. 


Samuel A. Hodgman, 



The Light Artillery. — This organization, which was a very complete 
and perfect one, was raised at Manchester in the summer of 1.861. It was 
the only Light Battery recruited in the state. Its organization was George 
A. Gerrish, of Portsmouth, Captain; Fred M. Edgill, of Orford, and Edwin 
H. Hobhs, of Manchester, 1st Lieutenants; and John Wadleigh and Henry 
F. Condict, of Manchester, 2d Lieutenants. It served with the Army of 
the Potomac through the war, distinguishing itself in all its principal bat- 
tles. In 1864 it was designated as Co. M, of the 1st Heavy Artillery, to 
allow that command to muster as a regimental organization. While the 
artillery service of the Army of the Potomac was exceptionally good, this 
battery maintained a rank for excellence and bravery with the best. It 
was mustered out in June, 1865. 

The Heavy Artillery. — Immediately upon the consolidation of the 
Seventeenth with the Second, Lieut. -Col. Long, of the former regiment, 
obtained authority to raise a company of Heavy Artillery, to garrison Fort 
Constitution, in Portsmouth harbor. This company was soon raised, 
Lieut. -Col. Long being its Captain, he taking with him several non-com- 
missioned officers of the Seventeenth. Later, Capt. Ira McL. Barton, of 
Newport, of the Fifth, obtained authority to raise a second company for 
garrison duty at Fort McClary, across the Piscataqua from Fort Constitu- 
tion. These two companies, A and B. were mustered during the summer 
of 1863. In the early autumn of 1864, authority was granted to augment 
this nucleus to a full regiment of twelve companies of 1,800 men. The 
attractions for this enlistment were great, and recruiting went on briskly. 
Cos. A and B had, at this period, been for some time in the defenses of Wash- 
ington, the line of earthworks north and west of the city, and the new 
companies were forwarded to the same assignment as fast as mustered. 
Kecruiting lagged, with the organization of the Eleventh Co., and in order 
to give the command a muster of regimental officers, the Light Battery, 
which had been in active service since 1861, was designated as Co. M, and 
transferred to the Heavies. Col. Long being mustered, and the regimental 
organization thus completed, the battery was ordered on detached service 
under Gen. Hancock's command, so that its only connection with the regi- 
ment was to enable it to muster as a complete organization. Battery A 


History of Coos County. 

was ordered back to Fort Constitution, Portsmouth, in January, 1865, and 
Battery B, in February following. 

Col. Long was assigned to duty in command of a brigade in Harden's 
Division, and Lieut. -Col. Barton commanded the regiment. It was a splen- 
did body of men, capable of performing most efficient service. It remained 
in the defenses about the Capitol, save Batteries A, B, and M, until the sum- 
mer of 1*65, when it was ordered to New Hampshire, and mustered out 
June 19, 1865. In this regiment was Co. I, and part of Cos. L and A, 
from this county. They were all volunteers, and exceptionally fine men. 

The field officers were Charles H. Long, of Claremont, Colonel; Ira 
McL. Barton, of Newport, Lieutenant-Colonel; George A. Wainwright, of 
Hanover, Dexter CI. Reed, of Newport, and Frederick M. Edgill, of Orford 
(of the Lt. Battery), Majors. Col. Long resides in Claremont. Lieut. -Col. 
Barton went to Arkansas, reached the grade of General of Militia, was 
active in local military troubles there, and died not many years after the 
close of the war. Major Waimvright, who was Adjutant of the Seven- 
teenth, resides at Hanover. 


C W. Walker, Chaplain. 


Company I. 

Walter S. Bailey, A, Lieut. 



John C. Jenness, I, Lieut., 



William G. Ellis, 5th, 


William H. Shurtleff, I, Lieut., 


Joseph H. Wilder. 


Clark Stevens, I, Lieut., 


Zeb Twitchell, S. S., 


W. C. Mahurin, L, Lieut., 


Charles E. Rolfe, 


Charles S. Parker, A, 


William M. Gushing, 


George G. Ames, H. 


William J. Chamberlain, 17th, 


George B. Biake, H, 


Charles Sherwood, 


Daniel C. Bean, H, 17th and 2d, 


George Bobinson, 


Chester L. Bean, H, 


Eben Little, 


Samuel Bean, H, 


Robert Blakely, 17th, 2d, 


William H. Cookson, H, 


Brooks E. Rodgers, 


Alfred P. Chandler, H, 


Alva W. Arlin, 


Durgin Evans, H, 


Alfred N. Alls, 


Frank L. Forbush, H, 


John Q. Babb, 


Prescott Goud, H, 


Melzar E. Beard, 


Albert Green, H, 


William Bishop, 


Charles Green, H, 


James D. Blodgett, 


Charles E. Gray, H, 


George S. Blake. 


John Hawkins, H, 


Charles A. Buffington, 


Stephen Hawkins, H, 


Benjamin C. Blood, 


Dana T. Hamlin, H, 


Joseph O. Barnett, 


Charles G. Hamlin, H, 


Jared P. Blood, 


Clark Kimball, H, 


Franklin A. Chamberlain, 


John J. Martin, H, 


Isaac F. Cotton, 


Horace P. Moody, H, 


Roswell C. Chesman, 


Joseph Reeves, H, 


Joseph B. Cloutman, 


Henry Sanger, H, 


Albert Carter. 


Ebenezer H. Scribner, 


George L. Colby, 


Joseph S. Arnold, A, 


Edward P. Cushman, 


Samuel A. Burns, A, 


Charles M. Cushman, 


The Soldiers of Coos. 


Lorenzo Cole, 
Harrison H. Cummings, 
Daniel Chase, 
Parker Chase, 
Silas W. Curtis. 
Henry A. Craw find. 
Samuel H. Dalrymple, 
Lyman D.\ lie, 
Osborne Davis, 
Richard H. Emei-son, 
John H. Emerton, 
John M. Farnham. 
George W. Forbush, 
Simeon Fisk, 
Benjamin Fisk, 
George Fuller, 
Jesse Forristall, 
Edwin Farnham, 
Orlando L. Fling, 
Richard M. J. Grant, 
George H. Glidden, 
Benjamin W. Groper, 
Hiram B. Gould, 
Henry H. Gould, 
Benjamin Gathercole, 
Phineas R. Hodgden, 
Warren D. Hinds, 
James Howker, 
Alfred B. Hall, 
Charles A. Hutchinson, 
Warren Hilliard, 
Hiram Haynes, 
Charles S. Holmes, 
Austin A. Jordan, 
Humphrey G. Jordan, 
John H. Jordan. 
Jonathan Kettle, 
Edward W. Kimball, 
Horatio O. Lewis, 
Jonathan M. Lang, 
Joshua Lunn, 
Charles E. Lowe, 
Henry S. Lindsey, 
Edgar Lang, 
Alvin A. Lovering, 
Joseph P. Matthews, 5th, 
John Monahan, 
John G. Monahan, 
Samuel S. McDonald, 
Aratus H. Merrill, 
John McClellan, 
Cummings J. Marshall, 
James Murtangh, 
Chester R. Noyes, 
Eben E. Noyes, 
Martin B Noyes, 
John Ordway, 
William W. Pike, 
Otis Pike. 


Struartstou :i 







Jefferso i 




Stai , 


( lolebrook 


Lancast* r 
Pittsbui g 


















Colebroi K 


Stewartstovs □ 

Jetft rs< ■•■ 


l>ana Powei 3, 
ThaddeUS l'ou 
Majoi E. Parker, 
John W. Pratt, 
Philo VanDyke, 
John ('. Poor, 
Sumner Rnggles, Jr., 
lb my II. Rich, 
Isaac R. Rich, 
Joshua Roberts, Jr., 
Stephen Richardson, 
William W. Russ, 
Ransom O. Smith. 
Cha: lis Smith, 
Ezekiel Sheldon, 
Zachariah Saley, 
Barney Sweeney. 
Nicholas O. Tuttle, 
Josiah W. Tebbetts, 
Ellery Wheeler, 
Jamon N. Willi y. 
William Woodward, 
Albert Whitney, 
Henry A. White. 
Nathaniel H. Wheeler, 
John T. W. Whitney, 
James Williamson, 

Hosea Clough, 
Jacob D. Brown, 
Robert Curtis. t 

Martin D. Bean, 
Albert F. Berry, 
Wellington Cummings, 
Henry Cunningham, 
William Dearth, 
Addison Dolly, 
Henry Denny, 
John P. Dunham, 
Albion G. Evans, 
Benjamin C. Flanders. 
Royal Hicks, 17th, 
Woodbury G. Hicks, 
Andrew J. Howard, 
Richard Lane, Jr., 
Albert W. Lane, 
Albert Potter, 
Osiah Rosa, 
Henry Tewkesbury, 
Ira S. Wall lion, 
Lewis D. White, 
Timothy N. Wight, 
Ephraim Wight, 

Light Battery, 
Uriah Elliott, 
Orville R. Moulton, 
Louis Nouri, 
Joshua F. ri" lps, 
Edwin Sli eper, 


Ji ff< i son 
Stewartstowi u 








Jeti'i I -i 'M 
























or Co. M. 


Lancasti r 

Wentworth's Location 




History of Coos County. 

The Sharpshooters. — There were, in the service, two regiments of picked 
marksmen equipped with superior weapons, for special or detached duty, 
as their designation indicated. From the nature of the organization it 
was impossible that the companies should serve in regimental order, and 
they were scattered as the exigencies of the service required. 

Co. G of the Second Eegiment, ninety-eight officers and men, had a 
number of its best men from this county, and was mustered at Concord, 
December 10, 1861. It performed the duties entrusted to it with devotion 
and unflagging zeal. Not exempt from casualties, its record of dead and 
wounded was equal to that of the most daring. In every respect these 
men were most credible soldiers and admirable representatives of the 
staunchest element of the county. The state was not represented in the 
Field of the original organization, but later, the Field officers from New 
Hampshire in this command were: Major E. T. Eowell, of Co. F, and 
Major Amos B. Jones of Co. E. George A. Marden, since Speaker of the 
Massachusetts House, and on the regimental staff, was a Sergeant in Co. 
G. Major Rowell and Major Marden both reside in Lowell. The Sharp- 
shooters served in the Virginia campaigns, and were at Antietam, Freder- 
icksburg, Gettysburg, Second Bull Run, South Mountain, and in the Valley. 
The original men were mustered out in December, 1861, and those of the 
three companies remaining were consolidated and made Co. K, of the Fifth 

Co. G, 2d U. S. S. S. 

Zeb Twitchell, 
Edward H. Folsom, 
Samuel F. Brown, 
Eeuben F. Carter, 
Thomas S. Ellis, 
Augustus Fletcher, ■ 
Harvey D. Gamsby, 
Eeuben Gray, 
Joseph K. Hodge, 
James G. Reach, 

The First Cavalry. — There was but one Cavalry regiment proper from 
the state and that was organized for three years, somewhat late in the 
war. As stated, the Eighth Infantry, then in Louisiana, was for a time 
mounted, and known as the Second N. H. Cavalry, but its service was 
more particularly as Infantry. 

Early in the war a battalion of four companies of New Hampshire men 
was raised and incorporated with the First Rhode Island Cavalry. It was 
found that the union of companies from different states in one regiment 
was not altogether desirable, and this battalion was made the nucleus of 
the First Cavalry. This regiment and battalion served in Virginia and 
Maryland and was first united in March, 1865. It left the state December 
22, 1861, was made a regiment January 7, 1864, and mustered out July 21, 


James S. Kent, 



William Merrow, 



Ezra W. Martin. 

i ; 


John Pilbro. 



George W. McCrillis, 



Horace F. Morse, 



John Brown, F, 



King J. Cross, G, 



John A. Manchester, F, 



The Soldiers of Coos. 


1865. It was composed of good material and did excellenl service. The 
heaviest wholesale desertion of the war was of several hundred "bounty 
jumping" recruits, who had been mustered to fill the regiment, and who 
broke away at Giesborough Point, below Washington, in the autumn of 
1863, to the relief of the good soldiers left, who were in no way responsible 
for the presence or absence of these " scallawags." There were bul few 
Coos men in the Cavalry. Its original officers were: David B. Nelson, 
Major of Battalion. Regimental, John L. Thompson, Colonel; Ben T. 
Hutchins, Lieutenant-Colonel; Arnold Wyman, J. F. Andrews and John 
A. Cummings, Majors. 


Kimball A. Morse, L, 
Alvan S. Wilson, L. 
Joseph Marshall, L, 
James W. Home, E, 
Orville H. Sessions, I, 
John K. Burton, 
Charles Draper, B, 
Benjamin W. Fenner, 
AVilliam F. Graham, 
Albur Harris, B, 
Hendrick Hianatie, D, 
Timothy Kelky, 
Michael Leary, F, 
David B.Ladd, F, 














John H. Mathes, E, 
John H. Piper, H, 
Eri W. Pinkham, E, 
Lester Spaulding, G, 
Norman H. Slade, G, 
Arum B. Smith, F, 
Ambrose P. Scannell, I, 
George W. Stevens, Jr., 
William Senior, 
John Williams, G, 
Clark Waters, H, 
Charles C. Wallace, 
James L. Wood, 
George W. Wheeler, 















While the scope of this chapter does not include residents of Coos during 
the war, or present residents who served outside the state, the returns in 
the A. G. 0. give the following names in outside commands:— 

Francis L. Towne, Surgeon U. S. Army, Lancaster, served through the 
war and was brevetted Lieut. -Colonel U. S. A. for meritoi'ious services. 
He is now at Fort Clarke, Texas. 

Enoch Whipple, E, 
Alanson Hyde, I, 
George W. Rowell, E, 
Francis N. Whitney, E, 
John Shallow, E, 
Walter P. Vance, E, 
Daniel Q. Cole, U. S. N., 


Columbia Benjamin F. Hicks, I, 
Daniel F. Elliott, 
William H. Gault. 
Hiram T. Owen, 
Samuel Keeble, 
George Hinman, 


st. wartstown 


Thomas B. Mendly, 
Lyman Jordan, 
John Jordan, 
Aaron Simpson. 
Elisha P. Hicks, 
Seth W. Tirrell 

< 'olmuliia 


Sereno P. Farwell, 
Sewall A Stillings, 7th. 
Albert S. Twitchell, 7th, 
William W. Chase, 
James L. Loomis, 
Harry Chamberlain, 





History of Coos County. 

Thomas MeNaliy, 
Ezra Fletcher, 
Nathaniel Flanders, 
Albert Heath, 
George T. Bishop, 


Horace Harris, 

Lorenzo D. Blodgett, 

Seth Tirrell, 

Hiram M. Paul, 

Loren E. Bundy, First Main Cavalry. 


The only further record attainable of those residents of Coos at the time 
of the war, or of those present residents who during the war served in 
organizations outside the state, is found in the individual names reported 
in the several Grand Army rosters. 

It was my intention to publish a complete list of resident veterans, 
whether G. A. R. men or not, who thus served, but upon strict trial I can 
find no data from which to compile it. 

Statistics. — From carefully compiled tables, in reports of the Adjutant- 
General, it appears that during the war the entire number of commissions 
issued was 2,362, while the entire number of officers who received them 
was 1,601. The total number of enlisted men was 31,426. The number 
" killed or died of wounds " was 1,538. "Died of disease 2,541." Mustered 
out at expiration of service 11,264. 

An analysis of all statistics made in that office leads it to the conclu- 
sion that, leaving out men transferred and twice enumerated, New Hamp- 
shire sent 30,000 different men into the field. Careful estimates lead to 
the belief that of this number Coos county furnished 1,200 men. The 
entire muster of 30,000 is thus accounted for, by the same authority: — 

Killed or died of wounds 5 per 

Died of disease ... 8 

Honorably discharged for disability .15 

Deserted 16 

Transferred to Invalid Corps, Army and Navy 3 

Promoted to commissioned officers 2 

Not officially accounted for 2 

Absent when regiment was mustered out 3 

Re-enlisted 5 

Mustered out at the expiration of term 37 

Otherwise unaccounted for 4 



i i 

Total 100. 

The percentage of ''desertions" from Coos is much less than these 
figures, while the casualties and muster out are correspondingly greater. 

The Soldiers of Coos. 




(Furnished by Capt. J. I. Williams, Q. M.) 

1. William G. Ellis, 5th N. H. 

2. fSoloD D. Simmons, 8th Vt. 

3. {John G. Crawford, 2d Michigan Cavalry. 

4. E. W. Wyman, 13th Maine. 

5. H. De F. Young, 2d N. H. 

6. IB. T. Oleott, 8th Vt. 

7. Parker J. Noyes, 8th Vt. 

8. Henry S. Hilliard, 2d and 5th N. H. 

9. Thomas S. Ellis, 2d U. S. S. S. 

10. Levi H. Parker, 8th Vt. 

11. Ira E. Woodward. 6th N. H. 

12. Henry O. Kent, 17th N. H. 

13. Alden A. Dow, 14th N. H. 

14. Thomas Sweetser, 5th and 50th Mass. 

15. {George E. Chandler. Sgl. Corps. 

10. {F. H. Perkins, 9th N. H. and 2d Mass. Cavalry. 

17. Charles E. Melntire, 2d N. H. 

18. Richard Fletcher, 5th N. H. 

19. Jared I. Williams. 17th N. H. 

20. Henry Richardson, 35th Mass. 

21. Zeh. Twitchell, 2d U. S. S. S., H. Art. 

22. Eldad A. Rhodes, 5th N. H. 

23. George H. Emerson, 17th N. H. 

24. John M. Morse, 3d N. H. 

25. John G. Sutton, 5th N. H. 

26. R. M. J. Grant. 1st N. H. H. A. 

27. George W. Morgan, 2d N. H. 

28. Dan Lee Jones, 4th Vt. and U. S. A. 

29. Ezra Mitchell. Jr., 9th Me. and U. S. A. 

30. Henry J. Cummings, 3d N. H. 

31. George Burt, 2d N. H. 

32. {Arthur H. Carpenter, 4th U. S. 

33. James Cummings, 5th N. H. 

34. John B. Cram, 26th Mass. 

35. John W. Palmer, 13th N. H. 

36. f William H. Weston, 5th N. H. 

37. iRichard H. Emerson, 1st N. H. H. A. 

38. L. L. Stillinss, 50th Penn. 

39. William C. Putnam, 17th and 2d N. H. 

40. *fEvarts W. Farr, 2d and 11th N. H. 

41. John Farnham. 1st N. H. H. A. 

42. Reuben F. Carter, 2d U. 8. S. S. and 5th N. H. 

43. H. E. Hadlock, 17th N. H. and N. H. H. A. 

44. Leonard M. Beard, 9th N. H. 

45. George Cummings, Jr.. 17th, 2d and 9th N. H. 

46. James Ross, 17th and 2d N. H. 

47. *Ira D. Hyde, 14th N. H. 

48. Peter Hughes, 5th N. H. 

49. Edward Grannis, 15th Vt. 

50. fGeorge A. Ford, 3d Vt. 

51. fPerrin Lombard, 5th N. H. and 21st V. R. C. 

52. {Sumner Perkins. 17th and 2d N. H. and 2dV. C. 

53. Charles Sherwood, N. H. H. A. 

54. {Richard E. Cross, 5th X. H. 

55. *James Moulton, 3d N. H. 

56. Reuben Gray, U. S. S. S. 

57. *Francis Chamberlain, 22d Wis. 

58. Oscar Worthly, 2d N. H. 

59. Jared Gray, 14th N. H. 

60. f Alberts. Twitchell, 7th Me. B. 

61. Freeman Lindsey, 5th N. H. 

62. {Horace Dow, 8th N. H. 

63. Walter S. Bailey, 17th N. H. and N. H. H. A. 

64. William L. RoweU, 17th N. H. 

65. Freeman H. Holmes, 9th N. H. 

66. Charles A. Whipp, 14th N. H. 

67. John D. Orcutt, 14th N. H. 

68. Albion G. Evans, N. H. H. A. 

69. Alfred C. Pratt, 17th, 2d and 9th N. H. 

70. David Spreadbury, 13th N. H. 

71. Ruel P. StillingB, 14th N. H. 

72. Samuel L. Wellington, 5th Mass. 

73. Charles C. Beaton, 5th N. H. 

74. Don C. Clough, N. H. H. A. 

75. Charles Forbes, 13th N. H. 

76. Thomas S. Thayer, 5th N. H. 

77. James N. King, Nat. Guards. 

78. John O. Tuell, 6th Me. 

79. Joseph P. Mathews, 5th N. H. and N. H. H. A 

80. fEnoch L. Clement, 5th N. H. 

81. William W. Hendricks, 3d Vt. 

82. James S. Brackett, 17th N. H. 

83. Thomas Sullivan, 6th N. H. 
SI. Charles D. Kenney, 17th Vt. 

85. David Legro, 15th N. H. 

86. Phincas R. Hodgdon, N. H. H. A. 
87 *fHenry W. Loveland, 27th Mass. 

88. W. J. Chamberlain, 17th N. II. and N. H. H. A. 

89. Stephen Simmons, 17th Vt. 

90. Frank M. Lucas, 8th Vt. 

91. Charles Canrield, 15th Vt. 

92. John Leonard. 2d and 11th Me. 

93. Cyrus Messer, Nth M;i". and Mass. H. A. 

94. William E. Tibbetts, 13th N. H. 

95. Hugh Corrigan, 5th N. 11. 

96. Joseph Stevens, 29th Me. 

97. Abm r Bailey, 3d Vt. 

98. William W. Pike, X. II. II. A. 

99. James W. McKeen, 12th Me. 

100. (■ rg I'.. Griffith, N. II. II. A. 

101. Nahum E. Barvey, 3d Vt. 
L02. Samuel S. Whitney, 31st M . 

103. Napoleon B. Perkins, 5th Me. I.. A. 
101. Moses Hens d, l tth V II. 

*Dead. +Demitted. {Dropped. 


History of Coos County. 

105. *Simon Connary, 9th N. H. 

106. Alexander M. Beattie, 3d Vt. 

107. Frank Bickford, 24th Me. 

108. Joseph B. Cloudman, N. H. H. A. 

109. Sylvanus Marshall, 1st Nevada. 

110. George R. ' Bush, 6th Vt. 

111. George R. Holmes, 14th N. H. 

112. James D. Blodgett, N. H. H. A. 

113. George T. Wentworth, 1st N. H. Cavalry. 

114. George Hinman, 3d Vt. 

115. Charles F. Presby, 8th Vt. 

116. Alva B. Sleeper, 11th Vt. 

117. Aaron R. Wheeler, 3d Vt. 

118. George S. Blake, N. H. H. A. 

119. Sylvanus R. Chesman, 5th N. H. 

120. William Woodward, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 

121. Peter Deering, 6th N. H. 

122. Horace P. Moody, N. H. H. A. 

123. William Dow, 10th Vt. 

124. Ruel Sawin, 9th N. H. 

125. Joseph Fontain, 1st Vt. Cavalry. 

126. John G. Derby, 17th N. H. 

127. Henry Houghton, 9th N. H. 

128. D. T. Timberlake, 23d Me. 

129. Nat. M. Davenport, 3d Mass. 

130. William H. Veazie. 5th N. H. 

* Dead. 


(Furnished by E. B. Cowing, Adjutant.) 










Charles F. Noyes, 2d Bat. U. S. V. C. 

Eben W. Parker, I, 14th N. H. 

Elijah F. Marden, I, 5th N. H. 

Alex. M. Wentworth, C, 4th N. H., I. 20th Mass. 

Daniel W. Titus, I, 3d N. H. 

Oliver B. Strout. 

Jonathan Dow, B, 5th N. H. 

Henry O. Cram. 

Chaiies E. King, A, 17th N. H. 

Joseph W. Marshall, L, 1st Cav. 

Charles S. Parker. 

Riva F. Parker, G, 11th N. H. 

Joseph L. Patten. F, 50th Mass, 

George M. Elliott, H, 1st Cav. 

Ambrose L. Vannah, E, 41st Mass. 

Lewis D. White, L, H'y Art. 

Sidney H. Elmer, H, 13th N. H. 

George Robinson, F, 2d N. H. 

Ezra D. Clark, I, 3d N. H. 

Azariah L. Clark, I, 3d N. H. 

Asa D. Hill, 3d Bat. Vt. Art. 

Joseph Thompson. 

Lorenzo D. Whitcher, C, 15th N. H. 

James H. Henselpacker, C, 6th and 7th Me. 

Moses Colby, E, 14th N. H. 

Harlow Connor, D, 1st Cav. 

Charles M. Blood, I, 3d N. H. 

George H. Gilidden, H, H'y Art. 

Mi 'ses C. Glines, E, 2d Vt. 

Joseph T. Bemis. I, 1st Vt. Cav. 

Jonathan M. Lang, I, H'y Art. 

Joseph A. Wilkins, C, 40th Mass. 

Albert W. Lane, L, H'y Art. 

34. Alfred B. Derby, D, 8th Vt. 

35. Ira S. M. Gove, A, 17th N. H. 

36. Madison C. Rowe, C, 7th Me. 

37. George W. Place, I, H'y Art. 

38. Richard Lane, Jr., L. H'y Art. 

39. Lewis L. Morse, H, 14th Me. 

40. Royal Hicks, A, 17th N. H. H'y Art. 

41. W. H. Simonds, D, 13th N. H. 

42. Ephraim S. Miles, I, Vt. Cav. 

43. Horace M. Lindsey, 

44. Samuel Resden. A, 26th Mass. 

45. Chauncey M. Snow, K. 8th Vt. 

46. Ezra B. Cowing, A, 11th Vt. 

47. Charles F. Marden, C, 2d N. H. 

48. John O'Niel. 

49. Henry W. Libbey, B, 5th N. H. 

50. William J. Baker, A, 6th N. H. 

51. James O. Hubbard, E, 14th N. H. 

52. Spaulding S. Rich, E, 14th N. H. 

53. Ben C. Garland, B, 16th N. H. 

54. James Hagan, E, 7th R. I. 

55. James H. Aldrich, 3d, 9th Vt. 

56. Charles W. Cushman, I, H'y Art. 

57. William Barnett, D, 35th Mass. 

58. Albert I. Lindsey. 

59. George W. Gage, E. 3d Vt. 

60. James P. Thorn, I, 55th Mass. 

61. S. H. Barnett, H, 13th N. H. 

62. Henry McMillen, I, 3d Vt. 

63. Martin D. Bian, L, H'y Art. 

64. Lewis H. Estes, H, 2.1 Vt. 

65. Robert McCann. E, 11th Penn. Reserves. 


(Furnished by Post Commander A. S. Twitchell, President Veterans' Union.) 


1. Albert S. Twitchell. 7th Me. Light Bat., Gorham 

2. Elmer L. Stevens, 10th Me. Vols., " 

3. Frank C.Stevens, 11th Me. Vols., " 

4. C. W. Nolen, 3d Del. Vols., Island Pond, Vt. 

5. Charles G. Hamlin, 1st N. H. H. A., Gorham 

6. O. P. Howland, 2d Mass. H. A., " 

The Soldiers of Coos. 




Bethel, Me. 

7. E. W. Forbes. 14th N. H. Vols.. Berlin 

8. J. P. Dunham, 1st N. H. H. A., Norway, Me. 

9. S. E. Bartlett, 8th Me. Vols., Gorham 

10. P. M. Morgan, 20th Me. Vols., " 

11. W. Noyes, 15th Vt. Vols., " 

12. I. W. Burbank, 5th N. H. Vols., " 

13. S. S. Chipman, Frigate Colorado, '' 

14. Joseph Goodno, 1st N. H. H. A., " 

15. George W. Burbank. 8th Me. Vols., " 

16. W. W. Goodridge, 25th Me. Vols., 

17. Perrin Lombard. 14th N. H. Vols., 

18. A. C. Gurney, 7th Me. Lt. Battery. 

19. H. F. WardweU, 4th N. H. Vols., 

20. T. N. Wight. 1st N. H. H. A., 

21. R. H. Emerson, 1st N. H. H. A., 

22. J. C. Evans, 14th N. H. Vols., 

23. A. S. Bisbee, 13th Me. Vols., 

24. A. R. Sylvester, 25th Me. Vols., 

25. Daniel Griffin, 14th N. H. Vols., 

26. Levi L. Brown, Monitor Monadnock, 

27. J. H. Thomas, 

28. Jas. W. Farrington, 3d N. H. Vols., (dead,) 

29. Calvin Morse, 5th N. H. Vols., 

30. O. B. Frank, 1st Me. Cavalry, 

31. S. A. Collins, 20th Me. Vols.. 

32. J. J. Hawkins. 1st N. H. H. A., 

33. W. H. Evans, 9th N. H. Vols.. 

34. I. 8. Wells, 14th N. H. Vols., 

35. N. E. Burnett, 9th Me. Vols., 

36. A. J. Lary, 14th N. H. Vols., 

37. T. J. Lary, 14th N. H. Vols., 
33. Franklin Buck, 16th Me. Vols., 
39. H. P. York, 14th N. H. Vols., 

41. J. McCormick, 5th N. H. Vols.. 

42. H. V. Mason. 14th N. H. Vols., 

43. A. J. Magill, 10th Me. Vole., 

44. C. W. Muzzey, Frigate Minnesota, 

45. D. G. Eastman. 14th N. H. Vols., 

46. W. A. Willis, 14th N. H. Vols., 

47. J. W. Perkins, 2d N. H. Vols., 

48. I. W. Spiller, 5th Me. Battery, 

49. C. E. Lowe, 1st N. H. H. A., 

50. Jesse Tuttle, 17th N. H. Vols., 

51. J. W. Buzzell, 15th Vt. Vols., 

52. Adolph Laury, 14th N. H. Vols., 

53. Levi Shedd, 5th Me. Vols., 

54. Clark Wayland, 5th Me. Vols.. 






























Gilead, Me. 





Elery Whei Ler, 17th N. 11., 1st N. II. II. A.. 


D. C. Bean. 17th N. II. Vols., 
L. R. York, 12th Me. Vols., 
H. J. Chandler, 9th N II. Vols., 

A. J. Howard, 1st N. H. H. A., 
C. P. Morgan, 20th Me. Vols., 
C. W. Horn, 5th Me. Vols., 
S. L. Norton, 19th Me. Vols., 
R. P. Noyes, 15th Vt. Vols., 
J. B. Lovejoy, 14th N. 11. Vols., 
W. J.Blake. 23d Me. Vols.. 
Henry Goodno, 14th N. H. Vols., 
Freeman Tirrell, 6th N. H. Vols.. 
J. M. Newell, 2d N. H. Vols.. 
Edgar Harriman, 14th N. H. Vols., 
A. H. Eastman, 12th N. H. Vols., 
J. L. York, 2d N. H. Vols., 
Joseph Pero, W. Gulf Squadron, 
C. L. Bean, 1st N. H. H. A., 
AY. F. Han. 5th N. H. Vols., 

F. M. Lang, 5th N. H. Vols., " 
James Wilson, 14th N. H. Vols., Gorham 

G. W. Morrill, 14th Me. Vols., Berlin 
G. L. Vincent, 9th N. H. Vols., Chelsea, Mass. 
Bernard McCormick, U. S. Marine Corps, Gorham 
S. P. Farewell, 5th Me. Battery. Stark 
F. A. Edwards, 18th Me. Vols.. Lincoln, Me. 
Philemon Harriman, 14th N. H.Vols., Gilead, Me. 
James Gorman, 16th Me. Vols., Randolph 
P. L. Goud. 1st N. H. H. A., Dummer 
George S. Goud, 14th N. H. Vols., " 
William H. Smith, 14th N. Y. Vols., Randolph 

E. R. Bennett, 12th Me. Vols., Gilead. Me. 
Erastus Thurlow, 29th Me. Vols.. Berlin 
P. B. Heath. 12th Me. Vols.. Gilead, Me. 
David Sanborn, 25th Me. Vols., Gorham 
Franklin Wheeler, 14th N. H. Vols.. Berlin 
Edward Mason. 18th Mass. Vols., Gilead, Me. 
J. N. Will. y. 1st N. H. H. A., " 

S. D. Green, 24th Mich. Vols., Berlin 

H. W. Rogers, 22d Me. Vols., Shelbume 

Wm. Evans. 14th X. H. Vols., Cape Elizabeth, Me. 
I. P. Wills, 28th Me. Vols., Shelbume 

J. H. Trask, 30th Me. Vols., Gorham 

H. L. Thurston, 8th N. H.Vols., Randolph 



(Furnished by Samuel I. Bailey. Adjutant. I 

Colebn iok 
( iolebrook 

Robert Blakely, 2nd N. H. Vols., Columbia 

John R. Little. 13th N. H. Vols., W. Stew artstown 

1. Elisha P. Hicks, 5th Me. Battery. 

2. Eben E. Noyes, N. H. H. Artillery, 
James L. Loomis. 5th Me. Batti ry, 
Charles L. Morrison. 10th N. H. H. A 

Hiram C. Young, 13th N. H. Vols. 

8. Elbridge G. Arlin, 13th N. II. Vols., Colebrook 

9. Thomas Smith. Kith N. II. Vols., " 
in. Levi Bicks, L3th N. II. Vols., 

11. James W. Newton, 4th Vt., unknown 

12. C. AY. Delliver, 1st Conn., 

l.i. c. s. Dalton, 13th N. II. Vols., W. Stewartstown 

14. II. II. Lucas, 9th N. II.. unknown 


History of Coos County. 






*John Shallow, 3dVt,, Colebrook 

Harry Gleason, 13th N. H. Vols., " 

Thomas Mayo, 4th N H. Vols., W. Stewartstown 
Seth W. Tirrell, 5th Me. Battery, Colebrook 

Joseph D. Little, unknown, " 

William R. Jordan, 13th N. H. Vols., Columbia 
Charles E. Eolfe, Heavy Art., unknown 

Augustus Osgood, 13th N. H. Vols., Colebrook 
fGeoi-ge B. Little, 3d Vt., Conn. Lake 

William H. Cleveland, 5th Me. Battery, Columbia 
f Daniel G. Ripley, 13th N. H. Vols., West 

f Gilbert Harriman. 3d Mass. H. A., Canaan, Vt. 
JElias Anderson, 13th N. H. Vols., unknown 
G. S. Remick, U. S. Engineers, Colebrook 

George H. Lang, 1st N. H. Cavalry. " 

D. S. Stevens, U. S. Engineers, ;< 

Truman D. Barnett, 13th N. H. Vols., " 
f Hiram M. Harvey, 1st Vt. Vols.. Canaan, Vt. 
+ William H. Graham, 13th N. H. Vols., 

St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Austin M. Jordan, 1st Reg. H. Art., Colebrook 
Joseph Morrow, 4th Vt. Vols., unknown 

William W. Barnett, 15th Vt. Vols., West 

Alma M. Cross, 13th N. H. Vols., Pittsburg 

fCharles S. Holmes, 1st N. H. Art. Jefferson 
+David P. Roby. 13th N. H. Vols., Colebrook 
JJohn E. W. Glidon, 5th Maine, unknown 

f Albert Harris, 13th N. H. Vols., Canaan, Vt. 
fF. R. Luce, 2d Vt. Vols., unknown 

Martin B. Noyes, 1st N. H. Art., Colebrook 

William H. Shurtleff, 1st N. H. Art., Florida 
Leonard A. Felton, 6th Mass., unknown 

Alfred N. Alls, 1st N. H. H. A., Colebrook 

f Gardner W. Smith, 13th N. H. Vols., unknown 
gMaleom McAnnon, 7th Reg. N. H. V., " 
George B. Abbott, 13th N. H. Vols., " 

A. B. Gaskell, 2d Wisconsin, Colebrook 

Henry Scott, 13th N. H. Vols., unknown 

Fay Carleton, 2d N. H. Vols., " 

fCharles Perry, 13th N. H. Vols., Pittsburg 

fSamuel Keeble, 3d Vt. Vols., Canaan. Vt. 

fArnold Aldrich, unknown, Pittsburg 

Henrv Tewksburv. IstN. H. H. A., Stewartstown 

Whitcomb Tirrell, 1st Me. Battery. 
flsaac M. Wood, 5th Vt. Vols., 
+John Paul, 13th N. H. Vols., 
Nelson Haynes, unknown, 
fClark Stevens, 2d N. H. Vols 
Hiram B. Gould, 1st H. Art., 
+ William W. Russ. 1st H. Art. 


North Stratford 

fFrank C. Roby, 1st Vt. Cavalry, North Stratford 




































James Spi'eadbury 13th N. H. Vols., unknown 
fH. T. Heath, 12th N. H. Vols., Stewartstown 
fPhilo VanDyke, 1st H. Art., " 

f Wallace F. Severy, 3d Vt. Vols., North Stratford 

North Stratford 
Bloomfield, Vt. 
Vols., Pittsburg 
, N. Stratford 
. Stratford 

Ira Noyes, 12th N. H. Vols., 

James Legro, 13th N. H. Vols., 

iTliomas Bennett, unknown, 

Alonzo A. Martin, 3d Vt. Vols. 

tWilliam McKinnon, 13th N. H. 

f J. F. Burton, unknown, 

fC. A. Hutchinson, N. H. Art., 

fCharles R. Schoff, 16th Me. Vols. 

fSimeon Merrill, 2d N. H. Vols., 

Michael Tobin, loth Me. Vols., 

Dexter S. French, 3d Vt. Vols., 

Charles Heath. 13th N. H. Vols., 

f Michael Lynch, 3d Vt. Vols., North Stratford 

fFrank A. Roby, 9th Vt. Vols., Columbia 

fMyron C. Fuller, 1st Vt. Cav., Bloomfield, Vt. 

J A. S. Huggins, 13th N. H. Vols., Pittsburg 

JMoses C. Heath, 5th N. H. Vols., Stewartstown 

James M. Jordan, unknown, Colebrook 

■(■George W. Rowell, 2d Vt., Columbia 

JC. E. Smith, State Service, Hartford, Conn. 

James B. Colby, 12th N. H. Vols., Columbia 

Samuel I. Bailey, 18th N. H. Vols., 

fC. R. Blodgett, 13th N. H. Vols., Littleton 

W. T. Keyes, 10th Me. Vols., Colebrook 

John Jackson, 1st Vt. Cavalry, Bloomfield. Vt. 

Joseph Watson, 3d Reg. Vt. Vols., N. Stratford 

Jas. W. Clark, 4th Mass., Lincoln Plantation, Me. 

Henry A. Reach, 13th N. H. Vols., Columbia 

William B. Lacy, 13th N. H. Vols., died July 4, '85 

XT). S. Chandler, 13th N. H. Vols., Colebrook 

f John Gray, 8th Vt. Vols., Columbia 

JE. L. Hunt, L. Art., & 3d Me. Vols., unknown 

JGeorge T. Bishop, 5th Me. Bat., Stewartstown 

William H. Gault, 2d Vt, Vols. & 2d N. H. 

Inf., Stewartstown 
John S. Capen, 1st Mass. Cavalry, Colebrook 
Charles D. Gamsby, 13th N. H. Vols., 
John H. Jordan, 1st H. Art., Lenhngton. Vt. 
Edelbert Roundy, 9th Me. Inf., Colebrook 

JN. Munn, 9th H. Art., Groveton 

C. C. Hicks. 9th N. H. Vols., Colebrook 

Edwin Small. 17th Me. Vols., 
Ahin W. Arlin, 1st H. Art.. " 

Owen F. Lombard, 5th Vols., (i 

Harvey C. Brown. 5th N. H. Vols., 
Hugh Hoyt, 17th U. S. I., Magalloway, Me. 

Henry Ballantine, 11th Conn. Vols., Colebrook 
George P. Brown. 6th N. H. Vols., " 

Josiah Annis, 15th Vt., li 

*Expelled. fTransferred. iDropped. ^Discharged. 

The Soldiers of Coos. 



(Furnished by Sumner Rowell, Q. M.) 










John H. Brooks, 3d Vt.. 
Thomas If. Mayo, 4th N. H.. 

C. S. Dalton, 13th N. H., 
('. \V. Delliber, 1st Conn. Cav., 
J. It. Little, 13th N. H., 
W. McKiimon, 13th N. H., 

D. G. Ripley, 13th N. H., 
G. W. Smith, 13th N. H.. 
A. Hutchinson, 23d Mass., 
A. Harris*, 13th N. H, 
S. Rowell. 1st N. H, 
*0. L. Fling, 1st N. H. H. Art, 
John Paul, 13th N. H. 
*C. S. Holmes, 1st N. H. H. Art., 
G. Harriman, 3d Mass. H. Art., 
*A. R. Aldrich, 2d N. H, 
Joseph Davis, 15th N. H, 
W. W. Scott, 13th N. H, 
W. B. Huston, 1st N. H. 
H. M. Harvey. 1st Vt.. 
S. Dunsmore, 9th N. H., 
*J. C. Post, 1st N. H. H. Art., 
S. Keeb.e,3dVt., 

Burlington, Vt, 





» i 










Stew T artstown 
































A. M. Taylor, 12th Me., 

H. T. Owen, 15th Vt., 

D. Chase, 1st N. H. H. Art., 

*E. M. Danforth, 1st Vt.. 

S. Merrill, 2d N. H, 

*H. Sawyer, 1st N. H. H. Art., 

W. Derarth, 2d N. H, 

N. O. Tuttle. IstN. H. H. Art., 

S. Richards, 3d Me., 

F. E. Robey, 3d Vt., 

J. M. Reach, 3d Berdan's S. 8., 

I. J. Hartshorn, 9th Vt,, 

S. T. Brunell, 1st Vt.. 

J. C. Parish, 5th N. H, 

A. Chase, 

J. Perry, 8th Vt., 

M. McKiimon, 1st N. H. 

J. E. Hibbard, 2d N. H., 

N. Beecher, ±5th Me., 

Thomas Thebault, 3d Vt. Bat., 

A. Hanmah, 13th N. H., 

C. Perry, 13th N. H, 

John Kingsley, 





( 'larksville 



St. wartstown 


( 'iiuaau 




( 'anada 

(Furnished by F. A. Ruby.) 

1. Clark Stevens, 2d H. Art., Stratford 

2. Henry B. Gilkey,13th N. H. Vols., Northumberland 

Bloomtield, Vt, 
Bloomtield. Vt. 
Maidstone, Vt. 
Bloomtield. Vt. 

3. M. C. Fuller. 1st Vt. Cav., 

4. \V. H. Lovejoy, 2dU. S. Cav., 

5. J. M. Wood, 5th Vt. Vols., 

6. Edward Beach, 9th Vt. Vols.. 

7. P. A. Roby, 9th Vt. Vols., 

8. F. C. Roby, 1st Vt. Cav., 

9. N. M. Johnson, 10th Vt. Vols., " 

10. John Burton. 9th and 1st Me. Vet, Inf., Stratford 

11. Ephrain H. Mahurin, 13th N. H. Vols., Columbia 

12. W. E. Cram, 8th Vt. Vols., Maidstone, Vt. 

13. Charles P. Schoff, 16th Me. Vols,, Stratford 

14. Elwyn Holbrook, 13th N. H.Vols., Bloomfiekl. Vt. 

15. John Jackson, IstVt. Cav., (died March. 1886.) 

16. Michael Lynch, 3d Vt. Vols., Stratford 

17. Silas Curtis. 1st X. H. H. Art.. Columbia 

18. George Rowell, 2d Vt, Vols.. " 



Bloomfield, Vt. 

19. Erastus Atherton, 13th Vt. Vols., Stratford 

20. Wallace F. Severy, 3d Vt, Vols., 

21. W. W. Russ, 1st N. H. H. Art., 

22. Abel Jordan, 13th X. H. Vols., 

23. Paul Kelley, 1st N. H. H. Art,, 

24. Samuel F. Brown, V. S. S. S., 

25. Sabin Welcome, 5th Me. Vols., 

26. Josiah W. Tebbetts, 1st X. H. H. Art,, Stratford 

27. M. V. Reed, 9th Me. Vols.. " 

28. Calvin Fuller, 3d Vt. Vols., " 

29. Elisha P. Hicks, 5th Me. Battery. Colebrool, 

30. Fred L. Kenney, unattached Inf., Stratford 

31. Geo. Montgomery, 9th Vt. Inf., Northumberland 

32. Wellington Brown, 1st V II. Cav., Stratford 

33. Edson Harriman, 3d Vt. Inf.. " 

34. Simeon Grover, Me. Inf., Columbia 

35. Guy Johnson, l.ith \. H. V Stratford 


i In active membership. I 

( Iross Post, Lancaster ' '" 

Willis Post. ( iorham 99 

Fletcher Post. Colebrook 72 

White Post. Whitefield 64 

Merrill Post. Stewartstown 41 

Thompson Post, Stratford 35 

Total 121 



194 History of Coos County. 


In the preceding pages I have endeavored to present, as concisely as 
possible, and as accurately as the sources of information at command 
would allow, a record of the several organizations raised in the state, a 
list of the men who periled life and all its attractions to serve and save 
the country in its time of danger, and a summary of the forces raised, 
with an analysis of the loss by casualty and other causes, whereby these 
men are accounted for. Imperfect as this record is, and issued doubtingly, 
remembering the sensitive criticism that may properly follow each error 
of omission or commission in recording a soldier's service or valor, and 
remembering also the risk it runs in passing through the press, from type- 
setters and proof-readers unfamiliar with the writer's chirography, or the 
family names of the region, the best has been done that circumstances 
permitted, and this chapter is dedicated in Fraternity, Charity and Loyalty 
to the good men living, and the memory of the good men dead, who illus- 
trated their valor and their worth in responding to the call to arms. 

No matter where or how their service was spent, how brief or how long 
their term of enlistment, the test of it all was the willingness to volunteer 
and the actual performance of that act. To obey orders was all that 
remained to them, the responsibility of events was elsewhere. Theirs was 
the soldierly duty of devotion and obedience, and so all are alike entitled 
to the respect and gratitude that should follow noble and hazardous en- 
deavor honestly undertaken and service well performed. 

It was the marvel of the time that the armies of the Union should be 
absorbed at the close of the war, into the body of the people without dis- 
turbance, and the transformation from the soldier to the citizen became 
so complete as to leave no trace. This is the crowning glory of the re- 
public. The citizen is a soldier in time of war, and the soldier is a citizen 
in time of peace. 

Under the guise of the farmer, the mechanic, the merchant, the pro- 
fessional man, the laborer, the soldiers of Coos who in perilous times 
followed the drum-beat in scenes of high endeavor, have steadily since 
the war been pursuing the paths of honest toil. They have been the best 
of citizens, because in their own persons they tried and solved the great 
problem of the worth of the government they defended, saved and now 
enjoy, and it is proper that the diminishing column that remains should 
receive the respect of each community wherein its members are exem- 
plary, modest, industrious and worthy citizens. 

Green be your graves, oh comrades, who have gone before! Fresh and 
sweet be the memories that float from the past; and hallowed be the love 
that bears, and shall bear you ever in tender remembrance! Dire was the 
conflict, but your reveries are unbroken, and ye rest well; the eternal 

Public Buildings. L95 

mountains guard your slumbers and the singing waters chant your even'- 
song! Long and weary was the way, but ye laid down beside the path 
of duty, and generations yet unborn, following the beautiful custom of 
Memorial Day, shall, as the gloom of winter melts into the smile of spring, 
spread your graves with vernal tributes and perpetuate the grand idea, 
that the loftiest conception of patriotism, the truest test of manhood, is 
that which impels the citizen in the hour of its peril, to otter his life for 
the state. 

Let us keep the nation worthy the sacrifices that preserved its life, so 
that they may not have been made in vain, and that the country, thus 
rescued, may escape the dangers of faction, and remain through the dis- 
tant future, the refuge of the oppressed, the home of an enlightened and 
happy people. 



LANCASTER— Court Houses, Jails, etc. — In the interval between the 
organization of the county and the building of the original court house, 
the courts were held in the hall of Col. John Willson's store, which 
stood at the north end of Main street, and was also occupied by North Star 
Lodge of Masons. At this time a room was prepared to serve for a jail, and 
Judge William Lovejoy was the first jailer. The first court house was built 
in 1 806, on the southwest corner of Main and Bridge streets. It was a square 
wooden building of one room, with a flat roof. The juries used Willson's 
hall. The house was heated by an inverted potash kettle, with a hole in 
the bottom, upon an arch of brick, with a flaring stove-pipe to carry away 
the smoke. The " Old Meeting House " being excessively cold, the funerals 
in winter were generally held in the court house. After a while a bell 
was procured to announce the opening of court. This was suspended from a 
gallows of two poles, and has quite a history. It was originally broughi 
to the county by " Guinea " Smith, and placed on a tripod of poles, near his 
factory at Colebrook. After the factory was burned, Francis Wilson 
bought the bell and brought it to Lancaster. When no longer n quired at 
the courthouse, it was used at the old academy, and afterward at the 
machine shop of Thompson, Williams &, Co. 

The old jail was built in ism;, near where the present one stands, and 
the site for both jail and court-house was given by Artemas Wilder. This 

196 History of Coos County. 

jail was built of hewn elm logs, firmly bolted. It had an upper and lower 
room, with massive wooden doors. For years Coos and the " border " was 
a favorite resort of desperadoes and counterfeiters, with some of whom, 
after imprisonment, the keepers had serious struggles, and the large rings 
in the floor, and the heavy iron chains, used to connect them with the 
fetters of the prisoners, were in frequent use. This jail was burned January 
9, 1858, and the present stone one erected soon after. 

The old court-house became antiquated and too small, yet there was 
hesitation regarding the building a new one until Judge Livermore. in 1831, 
peremptorily ordered the erection of a new one, and specified the plan. 
In 1808, when this court-house was demolished, one of the workmen found 
in the arch of the eastern gable, securely fastened to the building, a pack- 
age which contained a copy each of " The New Hampshire Patriot " and 
the Haverhill ' ; Democratic Republican,''' and the following statement 
written by Richard Eastman: — 

"This building was erected for holding the Courts in the County of Coos, State of New 
Hampshire. Commenced June 7, 1831, and will probably be completed by October 1, of the same 
year, expense about $1,800. The stone and brick work was undertaken by Gen. John Willson and 
Lieut. Joseph Cady. The stone work cut and hammered byElisba Cushmanand William Holmes. 
Master workman of the brick work, Capt. Peter Merrill. Assistant workmen, William Page, 
Zadock Cady, Joseph C. Cady, Calvin Willard, Jonathan W. Willard. Tenders, Josiah G- Hobart, 
Samuel Banfield, William W. Moore, William Horn, Franklin Savage. The carpenters' work 
done under the superintendence of William Moody. The joiners' work done by Richard Eastman, 
Elijah D. Twombly, Artemas Lovejoy. The committee who superintended the whole building of 
said house were John W. Weeks, Thomas Carlisle and Richard Eastman." 

In 1853-54 a county building was erected for the county offices on the 
bank of Israel's river near the grist-mill. This was shored and braced up 
for many years to keep it from failing into the river. Both this and the 
court-house required costly and extensive repairs; even with these they 
would not be what the progress of the county demanded, and, in 1868, 
it was voted "to demolish the county building, and enlarge and re- 
pair the court-house to accommodate the courts and the county offices." 
The foundation walls, however, were found to be unsafe, and, at last, an 
entirely new building was decided upon. This was brick, two stories high, 
40x70 feet in size, surmounted by a cupola and bell, and completed in May, 
L869. The offices of the probate judge and register of deeds and two jury 
rooms were on the ground floor. The second story contained a high and 
well-ventilated court-room of ample proportions, and the offices of 
the county treasurer and commissioners. Its original cost was about 
$17,000, but alterations and improvements brought the whole expense 
of construction up to nearly $30,000. The building was an ornament 
to Lancaster, and a source of pride to the people of the entire county. 
The county commissioners, Gen. A. J. Congdon, Seneca S. Merrill and 

Public Buildings. 

John C. Leighton, who had charge of its erection, well discharged their 

In 1885 the county delegation voted to rebuild the vaults, which were 
not considered safe depositories of the records. These were completed al 
a cost of |3,000 in 1886. To hasten their drying stoves had been placed in 
them, and fires were maintained for some days. On the night of Novem 
ber -f, 1886. workmen were engaged until midnight in placing steam-heal- 
ing apparatus into the building. After their departure M. A. Hastings, 
clerk of the court, J. W. Flanders, register of probate, and C. A. Cleave- 
land, register of deeds, made an examination of the building and every- 
thing appeared safe; but between two and three in the morning the court- 
house was discovered in flames. The loss was complete; building, records, 
and everything connected therewith were destroyed, only a few half- 
charred leaves remaining of the immense number of records which told the 
history of the county for eighty-two years. Hon. W. S. Ladd had his 
law office in the court-house, and all his law papers and documents, to- 
gether with a library valued at about $9,000, were consumed. 

A county convention met at the town hall of Lancaster December 9, 
1886, and organized to consider the question of rebuilding the court-house. 
An effort was made to delay action so that the people might vote on the 
matter of removal of the county seat from Lancaster. The thriving town 
of Berlin offered to build a court-house equally as good as the one destroyed, 
by contributions of its citizens, if the county seat was removed thither. 
Groveton presented its claims and a liberal subscription paper, but the 
convention adopted this resolution by a vote of thirteen to six: 

"Besolved, That the sum of fifteen thousand dollars is hereby appropriated to rel »uild the court- 
house and county offices, on the present court-house site, in Lancaster village, and that any part of 
said sum not expended on the completion of said building be covered back into the county treasury. " 

The convention also instructed the county commissioners to immedi- 
ately proceed to rebuild the court-house building. Various plans were 
submitted; finally one presented bya Boston architect was accepted; Mead, 
Mason & Co., of Concord, awarded the contract for erecting the court- 
house, and it is now in process of construction. It will cost over $17,000, 
and will be the best public edifice in this section of the state. It is 50x70 
feet, with a six foot projection on each side, making the front end sixty- 
six feet, three stories high, and a cupola and spire, running up nearly LOO 
feet from the foundation. Underneath the whole is a basement, wherein 
is to be located the steam boiler, waterclosets, coal bins, etc. The entire build- 
ing is to be of brick and granite, and the design is a very handsome one. < »n 
the first floor is the registry of deeds, registry of probate, clerk's office, com- 
missioners' room, grand jury room, and vaults. Located about the same as 
in the old house. In the front and center is the vestibule. L6x26 feet, with 
two flights of stairs, and a janitor's closet. On the second floor is tin- court 

198 History of Coos County. 

room, 50x50, two stories high, lighted by north, south and west windows. 
In the front end, over the registers' offices, are the judge's room, lawyers* 
and consultation rooms, and janitor's room. Over these, in the third story, 
are two jury rooms, sheriff's room, etc. Lavatories and water closets are 
on every floor, and conveniently arranged. The building is to be heated 
by a fifteen-horse power, 100 pounds hydraulic pressure, sectional steam 

County Alms House. — The question of purchasing a county farm was 
presented to the county convention in 1862, but that body was not willing 
to assume any responsibility without instruction, and referred the matter 
to the people, who defeated it at the town meetings in March, 1863. A re- 
port prepared in 1861 showed at that date seventy-nine persons receiving 
aid from the county, and that out of an entire tax of $6,511.7-2, the sup- 
port of county paupers called for $5,305.00. The subject of a farm was 
still agitated, and a county convention called to meet in Lancaster, Janu- 
ary 19. 1865, to consider and act upon the matter. The question was re- 
ferred again to the voters, and the final result was the purchase of the 
beautiful farm of Isaiah H. Pickard, located on the Connecticut river, about 
one-third of a mile fromWest Stewartstown, in the town of Stewartstowm 
The farm contained six hundred acres, with upland, grazing and woodland, 
a meadow of eighty acres, a sugar orchard of 1,300 trees, and a heavy 
growth of fine spruce, hemlock, and other lumber trees. There was on 
the farm a good two-story house, 36x26 feet in size, which was made the 
basis to the alms house constructed in 1867. To this farm house an ad- 
dition was made of a three story building, eighty feet long and thirty eight 
feet wide. In this 150 paupers could be accommodated. The price paid 
for the farm was 17,000; the building and other improvements cost $11,000 

The commissioners were fortunate in obtaining Mr. and Mrs. S. G. 
Hannaford as superintendent and matron. For twenty years they have 
done most faithful service. The alms house was opened in October, 1S67, 
with nearly sixty-five inmates. Fire escapes have been placed in suitable 
locations 1o admit of prompt escape in case of need, while danger from 
fire is at the minimum, as the heating is done by steam. The farm and 
alms house are model ones, comprising every thing needed for the comfort 
of the unfortunate guests, of which there have been at one time as many 
as 121, and the average during the last ten years about 100. About one 
thousand dollars is now being expended for the improvement of the reser- 
voir and sewerage. 

*For Colebrook court-house, see Bench and Bar. 

National and State Officers. 199 


Early Representatives — Classed Representatives — Senators — County Officers. 

REPRESENTATIVES in Congress— John W. Weeks, 1829-1833; 
j-C Jared W.Williams, 1837-1841; Jacob Benton, 1867-1871; Ossian Ray, 
X \ 1883-1884. 

United States Commissioner and Consul- General to Hayti -Benjamin 
F. Whidden, 1802-1865. 

Governor. — Jared W. Williams, 1847-1848. 

Members of Governors Council. — John H. White, Lancaster, June, 
183!), to June, 1842; Aurin M. Chase, Whitefield, June, 1858, to June, 
1851); Ethan Colby, Colebrook, June, 1862, to June, 1863; Hazen Bedel, 
Colebrook, 1867 to 1869; Nathan R. Perkins, Jefferson, 1873 to 1875; 
David M. Aldrich, Whitefield, 1884. 

Members of Constitutional Conventions. — In 1775, Abijah Lamed, Cock- 
burne; 1778, none; 1781, David Page, Lancaster; 1788, Capt. John Weeks, 
Lancaster, Northumberland, Stratford. Dartmouth, Cockburne. Coleburne, 
and Piercy; 1791, William Cargill, Lancaster; 1850, G. W. M. Pitman, 
Bartlett; Benjamin Thompson, Berlin and Milan; Robert Tuttle, Carroll, 
■&c. ; Hazen Bedel, Colebrook; Abram Boynton, Columbia; Gideon Tirrill, 
Clarksville and Pittsburg; Benjamin D. Brewster, Dalton; Moses Thurs- 
tin, Errol, &c. ; Joseph Perkins, Jackson; B. H. Plaisted, Jefferson; John 
H. White, Lancaster; William M. Smith, Stewartstown ; J. B. Brown. 
Northumberland; John D. Burbank, Shelburne, Gorham, &c. : Moses Jack- 
son, Stark and Dummer; Ralph Fiske, Whitefield. 1876, Horace C Saw- 
yer, Berlin; Josiah Young, Clarksville; Hazen Bedel, Frank Aldrich, 
Colebrook; S. M. Harvey, Columbia; Bert A. Taylor, Dalton; I. C. Wight, 
Dummer; John Akers, Errol; B. F. Howard, Gorham: X. R Perkins, Jef- 
ferson; Jacob Benton, William Burns, Lancaster: Adams Twitchel, .Milan; 
Robert Atkinson. Northumberland ; David Blanchard, Pittsburg: George 
Wood, Randolph; Hiram T. Cummings, Shelburne; Joseph A. Pike, Stark; 
Edwin W.Drew, Stewartstown; George R. Eaton, Stratford; A. L. Brown. 
Moses H. Gordon, Whitefield. 

Bank Commissioners.— James ^\. Rix, 1843 1846; 1848 1854; Henry (). 
Kent, 1866-1869. 


History of Coos County. 


Date. Towns Classed. Name of Representative. 

f Apthorp, 
I Lancaster. 
| Northumberland, 
| Stratford, 
1775, -j Cockburne, 

I Conway, 


and towns above. 
Same Class. 

Capt. Abijah Larned. 





f Apthorp, 

| Lancaster, 
J Northumberland, 

I Stratford, 

| Cockburne, 

L Colburn. 
Same Class. 

( Apthorp, 

| Bath, 

| Lyman. 

] Gnnthwait, 

J Lancaster, 

] Northumberland. 

| Stratford, 

j Dartmouth. 

j Colburn, 

[ Cockburne. 

Col. Joseim Whipple. 
Col. Joseph Whipple. 

Col. Joseph Whipple. 

Capt. Jeremiah Eames. 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames. 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames. 
Col. Joseph Whipple. 
Col. Joseph Whipple. 

Maj. John Young. 









Towns Classed. 

f Littleton, 
j Lyman, 
j Landaff, 
| Concord, 
| Bath, 
I Dalton. 
Same Class. 

[ Littleton, 
I Lancaster, 
j Dartmouth, 
Same Class. 

Name of Representative, 

Maj. John Young. 

Maj. John Young. 
Not Represesented. 
Maj. Samuel Young. 
Maj. John Young. 
Maj. Samuel Young, 
Maj. John Young. 
Peter Carleton. 

Jonas Wilder, Jr. 

James Williams. 
Jonathan Cram. 
Col. Richard C. Everett- 
Col. Richard C. Everett. 
James Raiddn. 
Col. Richard C. Everett. 

—Col. Richard C. Everett. 

— Col. Richard C. Everett, Maj. Nathan Barlow, 
Jeremiah Eames, Jr. 

— Col. Richard C. Everett, Col. Nathan Barlow, 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames. 

— Mr. William Lovjoy, Col. Nathan Barlow, Jo- 
seph Looinis, Esq. 

— William Lovejoy, Nathan Barlow, Esq., Joseph 
Loomis, Esq. 

These early representatives were men of strong character, and it may 
be interesting to know their birthplace, residence, occupation, and politics, 
which we are enabled to give by the courtesy of Hon. A. S. Batchellor, who 
has furnished the above list and these particulars. Capt. Abijah Larned, 
of Cockburne, born in Killingly, Conn., was a carpenter. Col. Joseph 
Whipple, of Dartmouth, born in Kittery, Me., merchant; Democrat. 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames, of Northumberland, a native of Salem, Mass., 
farmer; Democrat. Major John Young, of Gunthwait, born in Haverhill, 
Mass.. farmer; Democrat. Major Samuel Young, of Concord, birthplace 
Haverhill, Mass., farmer; Democrat. Jonas Wilder, Jr., of Lancaster, 
born in Templeton, Mass., merchant; Federalist. Peter Carleton, of Lan- 
daff, born in Haverhill, farmer; Democrat. James Williams, of Littleton,, 
a native of Salem, Mass., farmer; Federalist. Jonathan Cram, of Lan- 
caster, birthplace Poplin, N. H., farmer; Federalist. Richard C. Everett, 
of Lancaster, born in Attleboro, Mass. , lawyer; Federalist. James Rankin, 
of Littleton, born in Paisley, Scotland, farmer; Federalist. 

National and State Officers. 



(Compiled from N. II. Registers.) 

■ William Love joy. 


A. 1805.— Adams. Chatham; Lo-1 

cations and Gores: — j 

I . c hadbou m e 's, | 
Gaffer's, M. II. Went- | 
worth's, Roger's and | 
Treadwell's, .Martin's, j 
Theo. Dame's, Sher- j 
burne's, et. al., .Tno. 

Hind's. Stephen Hoi- | 

land's. Arch stalk's. ► Silas Meserve 

Samuel Hale's. Francis 
< ireen's. Binge and Pier 
ce's,Vere Royce's.Wm. 
Robert Furnass's, Sam- 
uel Gilman's. McMil- 
lan's, David Oilman's, 
Gridley's, Cray's. Nash 
and Sawyer's. 

B. 1805.— Bret ton Woods. Jeffer 

son. Lancaster. 

C. 1805. — Coekburne, Colebrook, 

Errol, Sb e 11m rn e, ^ James 
Stewartstown. ) 

D. 1805. — Northumberland, Tiercv, | T ,, „,.,, . 

Stratford. "[ J. M. Tillotson 

A. 1806.— Same as A, 1805, and Bartlett. 

Silas Meserve 
" " B, 1805, William Lovejoy. 
" '• C, " James Hugh. 
" " D, " Abner Ulark. 
A. 1807.— Same as A, 1808. save / 
Theo. Dame's Location, \ 
Same as B, 1805, William Lovejoy. 
" " C, " Hez. Parsons. 
" " D, '• E. H. Mahurin. 
1808.— Same as A, 1807, Silas Meserve. 

" " B, 1805. William Loveioy. 
" " C. •< Jere. Eames. " 
" " D. " E. H. Mahurin. 
1809.— Class A. 1807, Silas Meserve. 

" B. 1805. William Lovejoy. 
C. " C, 1805. and Dix-j 

ville and Shelburne - 
Addition. \ 

Class D. 1805. J M. Tillotson. 
1810.— Class A. 1807. Silas Meserve. 

•• B, 1S05, William Lovejoy. 
" D, 1805, .Tames Lucas.' 
i lockburne, Colebrook, I 

Silas Meserve. 


Jere. Eames,Jr 

Jere. Eames. 



A. 1812. 


A. 1313.- 

Dixville and Errol, f 
Shelburne and Addition, t 
Stewartstown. [ 

-Class A. 1807, Silas Meserve. 

•• B, 1805, and Millsfield,Wm. Love joy. 
" C, 1809, save Dixville, Ch. 

'• T). 1805, -lames Lucas. 

-Class A. 1806. save tin 

several Locations I _ . , ,. , 

and Gores therein \ David Badger. 

mentiom d. J 

Class B, L805, Samuel Plaisted. 

" E, 1810, save Dixville, Jere. Ea 
Nor thu in be r 1 a □ d. 1 

Piercy, and Pauls- >• Joshua Marshall. 

bury. Stratford. \ 

-Class A. 1812, save Chatham, David 


Thomas Fames. 

Northumberland and ) 
Stratford. \ 

II. Dalton and Whitefield, Edward Reid. 

B. Class B, 1805, save Bretton \V Is, 

A. \. Brackett. 
1814.— Class A, 1813. J. Pendexter. 

Colebrook and Dalton. Edmund Kezer. 
Northumberland, White- i T „ , „ 
field, Stratford. I J ' Marshall. 

I. 1815. — Northumberland, Piercj 

Stratford. Stewarts- \- James Lucas. 
Class A, 1813, J. Pendexter. 
'• B. •• A. N. Brackett. 
•• H, •• John Wilder. 
J. Columbia and Colebrook, Jan d Com . 

1816.— Class I. 1815, N. Baldwin. 

•' B, 1813, A. N. Brackett. 
il H, " P. Cushman. 
" J, 1815, Jared Cone. 
" A. 1812, Asa Eastman. 
1817.— " I. 1815. John M. Tillotson. 
" B, 1813, A. N. Brackett. 
" J. 1815, Hezekiah Parsons. 
" A, 1812, J. Pendexter. Jr. 
1818.— " A, 1813, Jonathan Meserve. 
" J, 1815. Hezekiah Parsons. 
I. " I, 1815, save Sti-wartstown, J. M. 

1819.— " A. 1813, Jonathan Mi serve. 

" I, 1818. N. Bildwin 
1820.— " A, 1813. J. Pendexter, Jr. 
" H, '• David Bums. 
" J, 1815. Samuel Pratt. 
" I, 1818. X. Baldwin. 
1821.— " G. 1812, Joshua Marshall. 

" A. 1813, Stephen Meserve. 

" H. " Samuel Burnhani. 
J. " J, 1815, and Stewartstown. 

Jeremiah Eames. 
1822.— " G. 1812. J. M. Tillotson. 
■• A. 1813, Stephen Meserve. 
'• J, 1821, Lewis Loomis. 
1823.— '■ G, 1812. Seth Ames. 

•■ A. 1813, Stephen Meserve. 
•• J. 1821, Lewis Loomis. 
1824.— Class A. L813, Stephen M serve. 

" J. 1821, Ephraim II. Mahurin. 
G. ■■ G. 1812, and Randolph, Joshua 

1825.— •• A., 1813, Stephen Meserve. 
•• II. L813, Eben. Bix. 
K - BrettonWood8,Kilken-) fi ^ k Burbank 

n\ . and Jenerson, | 
J. Class J, 1815, 1 

and Dixville - Ephraim H. Muhurin. 
and Errol, ) 
D. Class D, 1805, and Milan I 

and Randolph, \ 

1826. Class A. 1813, I. Pendexter, Jr. 
•• II. 1813, Jno. M. Gove. 
•■ J. L825. Hezekiah Parsi 
•• K, 1825, William Chamberlain. 
•• D, 1825, J. Marshall. 
1827.— " A. 1813, Stephen Mi serve. 
•■ II. L813, Eben. Kix. 
•■ J. 1825, Hezekiah Parson-. 
•■ K. 1825, B. Burbank. 
■• D. 1825, Tie. ma.- Peverly. 

J. Marshall. 


History of Coos County. 

B. Burbank. 

1828.— Class A, 1813, Stephen Meserve. 
" H, 1813, J. M. Gove. 
" J, 1815, Abraham Boynton. 
L. Dixville, Errol, ) 

Millsfield, and - Jeremiah Loverin}. 
Stewartstown. \ 
M. Maynesborough, Success. 

and Shelburne. 

K. Class K, 1825,"| 

and Randolph, j 

and Nash and '- William Chamberlain. 
Sawyer's Lo- j 
D. 1828,-Class D, 1825. except i ^ pever] 

Randolph, ( 

1829.— Class J, 1815, Roswell Hobart. 
•• D. 1828. Samuel Porter. 
" H, 1813, Asa Taylor. 
•• K. 1828, George P. Plaisted. 
■• L. 1828, J< remiah Lovering. 

M - " ^- ls - s - ( save 'b Burbank 

Maynesboro') and Berlin, j u « urDanK - 

1830.— Class D. 1828, Caleb Smith. 

" H, 1813, Simeon Warner. 

•• J. 1815, William Holkins. 

•• K, 1828, W. Chamberlain. 

•• L. 1828, Benjamin Drew. 

•• M, 1829. Robert Ingalls. 

D. 1S3L— '• D, 1828, save Stratford, Ransom 


•• J. 1815. William Holkins. 

•• K. 1828J Clovis Lowe. 

•• L. 1828, Benjamin Drew. 

" M, 1829, B. Burbank. 

N. Jackson and Bartlett. George P.Meserve. 

1832.— Class N, 1831, George P Meserve. 

" M, 1829, Robert Ingalls. 

O. Carroll. Jefferson Kilken- I 01 . L 

nv. and Randolph, ) 

Class J, 1815. A. Boynton. 

" L. 1828, B. Brainard. 

" D, 1831, Francis Lang. 

1833.— Class J. 1815, Jonas Mills. 

L. " L, 1828 and ( larksville, B. Brainard. 

Dalton and Stark, Thomas Smith. 

Jefferson and Kilkenny, Clovis Lowe. 

Northumberland and Stratford, T. L. 


Milan and Stark, R. Twitched. 

1834. — Colebrook and Columbia, Abr. Boynton. 

L. Class L, 1833, and Berlin, Benjamin 


Dalton and Carroll, Asa Taylor, 

Jefferson and Kilkenny, David Pinkham. 

Northumberland and Stratford, T. L. 


Milan and Stark, Aaron Potter 

1835.— Class L, 1834, B. Thompson. 

Colebrook and Columbia, Heze. Parsons. 

Dalton and Carroll, Benjamin Brooks, Jr. 

Jefferson and Kilkenny, D. Pinkham. 

Northumberland and Stratford. S. T. 


Milan and Stark. R. Twitched. 

1836. — Colebrook and Columbia, R. Hobart. 

Dalton and Carroll, Asa Taylor. 

Jefferson and Kilkenny. Robert Tuttle. 

Northumberland and Stratford. S. F. 


Milan and Stark. Aaron Potter. 

1837.— Class L, 1834. William Chase. 

Dalton and Carroll, William Denison. 

Jefferson and Kilkenny, David Legro. 

•Northumberland and Stratford, H.Lucas, 
Milan and Stark, Th. Wheeler. 
1838. — Dalton and Carroll, James B. Sumner. 
Jefferson and Randolph, David Legro. 
Milan, Stark and Dummer, Aaron J. Smith, 
Northumberland and Stratford, Hiram 

Shelburne and Gorham, Oliver B. Howe. 
Class L, 1834. Jeremiah Young. 
1839.— Dalton ami Carroll. J. B. Sumner. 

Jefferson and Randolph, Robert Tuttle. 
Milan Stark, and Dummer, Peter Wheeler. 
Northumberland and Stratford, AbijahS. 

Shelburne and Gorham, Robert Ingalls. 
Class L. L834, Jeremiah Young. 
1840.— Berlin. Ac.,* Daniel Green. 
Carroll. &c., Thomas Smith. 
Clarksville, &<•., Josiah A. Young. 
Dalton. &c, Aaron Ballon. 
Jefferson and Randolph, Robert Tuttle. 
Milan and Stark, Aaron J. Smith. 
Northumberland and Stratford, A. S. 

1841.— Carroll, Ac, Eben. Glines. 
Jackson. Arc. J. P. Emery. 
Jefferson, &c, Justus Lowe. 
Milan. &c, Peter Wheeler. 
Shelburne, &c, Daniel Green. 
Stratford. Ac. Nahum D. Day. 
1842.— Milan, &c, Harwood Pike. 
Stratford. &c, N. D. Day. 
1843. — No classified towns. 
1844.— " 

1845. — Berlin. Gorham, Shelburne, D. Wheeler. 
P. Carroll, Nash and Sawyer's i 

Location, Hart's Location > R. Tuttle. 
and Craword's Purchase, \ 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, J. F. 

1 1' rrish. 
Jefferson and Randolph, Jas. G. Summers. 
Northumberland and Stratford, J. B. 

Milan, Stark and Dummer. Joshua Parker. 
Q. Pittsburg, Clarksville, ) 

Dixville, Millstield. V N. Perkins. 
Errol, ) 

1846. — Berlin, Gorham and Shelburne, 

D. Wheeler. 
Class P. 1845, Abel Crawford. 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, J. F. 

< rerrish. 
Jefferson and Randolph, Edward Parsons. 
North'laml and Stratford, J. B. Brown. 
Milan. Stark and Dummer, A. J. Smith. 
Class Q, 1845, William Dunn. 
1847. — Berlin, Gorham, Shelburne, Thomas J. 

Class P. 1845, Abel Crawford. 

•• Q, " R, J. Blanchard. 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, N. P. 

Jefferson and Randolph, Edward Parsons, 
Milan, Stark, Dummer, Amos Green. 
North'land and Stratford, R. Gamsby. 
1848. — Berlin. Gorham, Shelburne, Thomas J. 

Class P. 1845, Samuel Worthley. 
'• Q, •" R. J. Blanchard'. 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, N. P. 

Jefferson and Randolph, B. H. Plaisted. 
Milan. Stark. Dummer, Harwood Pike. 
North'land and Stratford, R. Gamsby. 

*"&c." is rather indefinite, but I copy as given in "Register. 

National and State Officers. 






1849.— Class l\ 1845, Samuel Worthley. 

(,). •• nave Clarksi tile, Sam'] A 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, N. P. 

Milan, stark. Dummer, P. Win eler. 
North'land and Stratford, < !. Bellows. 
1850. — Berlin and Milan, Joshua Parker. 
Gorham, Shelburne and Randolph, 

J. I). Burbank. 
• P, L845, Samuel Holmes. 
•• Q, 1849, Samrn 1 Akers. 
Jackson, Pinkham's Grant, <i. H. 

stark ami Dummer, Moses Jackson. 
North'land and Stratford, J. B. Brown. 
—Berlin, Gorham, Shelburne. S. Chipman. 
!'. L845. S. Holmes. 
Dixville, Errol, Millsfield, M. Thurston. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg. John T. Amy. 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant. 

G. H. Pinkham. 
Jefferson ami Randolph, B. H. Plaisted. 
Stark and Dummer, .1. R. Briggs. 
Stratford and Northumberland, 

R. s. Marshall. 
--Randolph. Gorham and Shelburne. 

James 0. Scates. 
Class T. 1845, Joseph L. Gibbs. 
Dixville, Errol; Millsfield, Elliot Harper. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg, John T. Amy. 
Jackson and Pinkham's Grant, 

Samuel Hazelton. 
Milan and Berlin, II. T. Ellin-wood. 
Stark ami Dummer, Moses Jackson. 
Stratford and North'land, R. s. Marshall. 
— Randolph, Gorham and Shelburne, 

T. J. Hubbard. 
Class P. 1845, Joseph L. Gibbs. 
Dixville. Errol. Millsfield, etc., E. Harper. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg. A. F. Abbott. 
Milan and Berlin, R. H. Wheeler. 
Stark and Dummer, E. Horn. 
-Carrolland Hart's Location,Wm. J. Hobbs. 
Dummer and Stark. Levi Rowell. 
Errol, Cambridge and Millsfield, 

George 1!. Randall. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg, Samuel 

( lomstock. 
-Carrolland Hart's Location. W. J. Hobbs. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg, Samuel 

Randolph. Shelburne and Gorham, 

John I). Burbank. 
Dummer and Stark. John R. Briggs. 
Errol, Cambridge, 
Dixville, Millsfield 
and Wentworth's 
1856.— Berlin ami Randolph, Merrill C. Forist. 

Carrolland Hart's Location, John Hunt. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg, S. Comstock. 
Dummer and Stark, Levi Howell. 
Errol. Cambridge. Dix-i 
ville. Millsfield, Went- - Z. F. Dnrkee. 
worth's I,i ication. ) 

Shelburne ami Gorham, V. I,. Stiles. 
1857.— Berlin and Randolph, Daniel Green. 
( larroll and Hart's Local ion, I lhai 

S. Leavitt. 
Clarksville ami Pittsburg, Mood; B. 

Dummer and Stark, Elijah Griffin. 
Errol, < ' imbridge, Dix- 1 

ville, Millsfield and - Wm. W. Bragg. 
Wentworth's Loca. ) 

1 858. 



Ziba F. Dnrkee. 

I sen. 











Gorham and Shelburne, John T. I 
i and Randolph, Geo. P. 1 1 
Carroll and Hart's Local ion, I >a\ id 

Clarksville and Pitl h B. 

Qu ii 
Dummer and Stark, Solomon < 
Dixville, Went- - David H. Thursi 
worth's I.' ica. ) 
Berlin and Randolph, < reo. I'. I [odgman. 
Carrolland Hart's Location. David Emery 
and Pittsburg, David Johnson. 
Stark and ., < ii itlin. 

Berlin and Randolph, Fletchi r .1 Bean, 
irroll and Hart's Location, Charles S. 

I .. a\ itt. 

Clarksville and Pittsburg, David Johnson. 

Errol, Cambridge, &c. Mosi - I'. Coolidge. 

stark and Dummer, Solomon ( lole. 

Bi rlin and Randolph, I I. Bean. 

Carroll and Hart's Location, P. Rosebrook. 

Clarksville and Pittsburg. G. Washburne. 

Errol, Cambridge, &c, M. F. Coolidge. 

Shelburne and Green's Location. J. M. 


Stark and Dummi r, Gilman Tn Ltchell. 
—Berlin and Randolph, John E. Leighton.* 

Carrolland Halt's Location, l'hineas 


Clarksville and Pittsburg, Jno. Keysar. 

Errol. Cambi tdge, &c, Samuel Al 

Stark andDummer, Sylvester ' 
— Berlin and Randolph, Jno. < '. Leighton. 

Carroll and Hart's Location. ( it o.W.Tufts. 

Clarksville and Pittsburg, Jno. Keysar. 

Stark and Dummer, G. Twitchell. 
—Berlin andBandolph, Cyrus Wheeler. 

Carrolland Hart'-; Location, < r< o.W.Tufts. 

Errol, Cambridge, &c, David W.Wright. 
— Berlin and Randolph, William A. Wilson. 

Carroll and Hart's Location. L. ( '. A Id rich. 

Errol, Cambridge, A-c.. David W. Wright. 

Staik and Dummer, John M. Bickford. 
—Berlin and Randolph, Robert I. Leighton. 

Carroll and Hart's Location, Samuel 


Errol, Cambridge, &c, AJbi n J. Peaslee. 

stark and Dummer, Luke i 
—Berlin and Randolph, Roberl [.Leighton. 

Carroll and Hart's Location. Samuel 


Errol & Cambridge, &c, AM Kit J. Peaslee. 
k and Dummer, John M. Bickford. 

Berlin and Randolph, 1 >ani I ( rreen. 

Carrol] and Hart's Location, I Ikarles S. 

\ itt. 
Errol. Cambridge, Ac, C. L.Heywood. 

Stark' and I >n n i tin r. Luke ( lole. 

Berlin and Rtndolph, Daniel Grei d. 

Carrolland Hart's Location, ( itt. 

Errol, < lambridge, & ■ ■.. < . L. Heyw 

St. M k and iMmi '. ( '. E. Bickford. 

Berlin and Randolph, J. E. Leighton. 

Carroll and Hart's Location, M. P. 


Errol, Cambridge, D. H. Thurston. 

Stark and Dummer, J. A. Pike. 

It. rlin and Randolph, J. E. Leighton. 

( larroll and Hart's Location. M. P. 

Stark and Dummer, C. E. Bickford. 
^N'o ( llassifii d downs. 

*Seat vacated. 


History of Coos County. 

1875.— No Classified Towns. 
1876.— '• 

1877.— " •• " 

1878.— " ■■ " 

1879-80.— " 

1881-82.— Berlin and Randolph. Laban M. Watson. 
Clarksville and Pittsburg, Moody B. 

1883-81.— Clarksville and Pittsburg, Herbert M. 

Dummer, Errol, Mills- 
held, Wentworth's 

Shelburne and Randolph, Emblyn \V. 

1885-86.— Clarksville and Pittsburg, Jas. W. Baldwin. 
Dummer, Errol, Dix- | 

ville.Millslield.Cam- L „ n,, , 
bridge, and Went- f K D - ^^ston. 
worth's Location. ) 
Shelburne and Randolph. Chas. E. Lowe. 
1887-88.— Clarksville and Pittsburg, Berkley Keysar. 
Randolph and Shelburne, Trustam H. 


Senators. —New Hampshire was divided into twelve senatorial dis- 
tricts. December 14, 1792. No. 12 contained the county of Grafton, 
excepting Burton. The Coos senators from this district were John W. 
Weeks, Lancaster, from June, 1820, to June, 1829; Jarecl W. Williams, 
Lancaster, from June, 1832. to June, 1835. July 3, 1841, No. 12 was changed 
to embrace the county of Coos and all towns in Grafton and Carroll not 
included in any other district. The members from Coos were Simeon 
Warner, Whitefield, from June, 1S43, to June, 1844; Ephraim Cross, Lan- 
caster, from June, 1844, to June, 1846; James M. Eix, Lancaster, June, 
1852, to June, 1854. The senatorial districts were re-arranged July 13, 1855, 
but No. 12 remained the same. William Burns, Lancaster, was senator 
from June, 1856, to June, 1858; Amos W. Drew, Stewartstown, June, 1862, 
to June, 1864; John W. Barney, Lancaster, 1868 to 1870; Wayne Cobleigh, 
Northumberland, 1875 to 1877. In 1877 the state was divided into twenty- 
four senatorial districts; Coos county constituting district No. 1. The 
B?natorsfrom this district have been Sherburn R. Merrill, Colebrook, 1879 
to 1883; Irving W. Drew, Lancaster, 1883 to 1885; Henry 0. Kent, Lan- 
caster, 1885 to 1887; Samuel E. Paine, Berlin, 18S7 to 1889. 


[This list, compiled from the New Hampshire Registers, is as accurate a 
one as is attainable since the burning of the county records.] 

Justices of Court of Common Pleas. — Joshua Marshall. Stratford, ap- 
point <m1 January 8, 1833, in office until 1S50; John Pendexter, Jr., Bartlett, 
from 1833 to 1812; Richard Eastman, Lancaster, from 1S41 to 1848; Robert 
[ngalls, Shelburne, from 184S to 1855; Nahum D. Day, Stratford, from 1850 
to 1855. 

Clerks of Court of Common Pleas. — William Farrar, Lancaster, from 
L837 to LS39; James M. Rix, Lancaster, from 1839 to L857; Daniel C. Pink- 
ham. Lancaster, from 1857 to 1869. 

County Justices — Court of Common Pleas. — Richard C. Everett, C J., 
Lancaster, L805; Obed Hall, Bartlett. 1805; Joseph Loomis, Colebrook, 
L805; Silas Meserve, Bartlett, 1811. 

Circuit Court. — Silas Meserve. Bartlett, 1816; William Lovejoy, Lan- 
caster, L816; John Pendergast, Bartlett, 1820. 

National and State Officers. 205 

Court of Sessions.— John Pendexter, C. J., L820; Samue] Plaisted, 
Jefferson, Ass., 1«20; X. Baldwin, Stratford, Jus., L821. 

County Justices. — Joshua Morrill, Stratford, L838. 

Clerks of Superior Court.- -Jonas Baker, Lancaster; AdinoN. Brackett, 
Lancaster, from 1837 to 1847; James M. Rix.* Lancaster. 1847 to l s .~>''». 

Clerks of tl/r Supreme Judicial Court. — James .M. Rix, Lancaster, from 
1856 to 1857; Daniel C. Pinkham, Lancaster, from 1857 to 1869; Chester B. 
Jordan, Lancaster, from 1869 to 1875; Moses A. Hastings, Lancaster, from 

Judges of Probate. — Francis Wilson, Northumberland, January, 1805; 
Ebenezer L. Hall, Bartlett, January, 1811; Benjamin Hunking, Lancaster, 
appointed in July. 1829, in office until 1852; Jared W. Williams, Lancas- 
ter, from 1852 to 1854; James W. Weeks, Lancaster, from 1854 to L855; 
Turner Stephenson, Lancaster, from 1855 to 1869; Benjamin F. Whidden, 
Lancaster, from 1869 to 1875; Hazen Bedel, Colebrook, from 1875 to 1877; 
William D. Weeks, Lancaster, from 1877 to L885; Everett Fletcher, from 

Registers of Probate. — John M. Tillotson, Northumberland, January, 
1805; Thomas Peverly, Jr., Northumberland, November, 1822; William 
Lovejoy, Lancaster, 1829; Jared W. Williams, Lancaster, from 1829 to 1 838; 
George A. Cossitt,Whitefield, from 1838 to 1852; John W. Barney, from L852 
to 1855; Albro L. Robinson, Lancaster, from 1855 to I860; John M. Whipple, 
Lancaster, from 1860 to 1875; George H. Emerson, Lancaster, from 1875 
to 1^77; Charles B. Allen, Lancaster, from 1877 to 1880; George H. Emer- 
son, Lancaster, from 1880 to 1886; Joseph W. Flanders, Lancaster, from 

County Solicitors. — Abraham Hinds, Lancaster. June. 1807; William 
Farrar, Lancaster, February 12, 18(>7; Obed Hall. 2d, Bartlett; William 
Farrar, Lancaster, 1821; Jared W. Williams, Lancaster, from 1821 to 1838; 
John S. Wells, Lancaster, from 1838 to 1847; Saunders W. Cooper. Lan- 
caster, from 1847 to 1849; William Burns, Lancaster, from 1849 to 1853; 
George C. Williams, Lancaster, from 1853 to 1856; Benjamin P. Whidden, 
Lancaster, from 1856 to 1863; Ossian Ray, Lancaster, from 1863 1<» l v 7-; 
Edgar Aldrich, Colebrook, from 1873 to 1875; Henry Hey wood. Lancaster, 
from 1875 to 1877; Edgar Aldrich, Colebrook, from 1>77 to l s 7:»: William 
S. Ladd, Lancaster, from 1879 to 1880; J. H. Dudley. Colebrook. from 

Treasurers. — Joseph Peverly, Northumberland. l^*'>: John W. Weeks, 
Lancaster; Richard Eastman, Lancaster. 1820; Robert Lngalls, Shelburne, 
1831; Lyman Lombard, Lancaster, ]^-'»:>: John M. Gove, Whitefield, from 
1S36 to 1839; George P. Meserve, Jackson, from L839 to 1840; John P. Pit- 

*John Willsoti is also given as " Clerk of Court" with date of service prior to James M. Rix. 

206 History of Coos County. 

man, Bartlett, from 1840 to 1842; William Ewen, Dalton, from 1842 to 
1843; John P. Pitman, Bartlett, from 1843 to 1844; William Ewen, Dalton, 
from 1844 to 1846; Abraham Boynton, Columbia, from 1846 to 1S47; 
Oliver B. Howe, Shelburne, from 1847 to 1849; Hezekiah Parsons, Cole- 
brook, from L 849 to 1851; Edward Parsons, Jefferson, from 1851 to 1853; 
Amos W. Drew, Stewartstown, from 1853 to 1855; James B. Brown, 
Northumberland, from 1855 to 1857; Harwood Pike, Stark, from 1857 to 
1859; Morris Clark, Whitefleld, from 1859 to 1861; Nahum D. Day, Strat- 
ford, from 1861 to 1863; Orren Tubbs, Gorham, from 1863 to 1865; George 
A. Cossitt, Lancaster, from 1865 to 1867; Wayne Cobleigh, Northumber- 
land, from 1867 to 1869; Edwin W. Drew, Stewartstown, from 1S69 to 
1871; Jabez P. Evans, Gorham, from 1871 to 1873; A J. Smith, Stark, 
from 1S73 to 1875; Sidney B. Whittemore, Colebrook, from 1875 to 1877 ; 
J. M. Lang, Dalton, from 1877 to 1879; James M. Powell, Lancaster, from 
1879 to 1883; John C. Pattee, Stratford, from 1883 to 1886; George R. 
Eaton, Lancaster, from 1886. 

Registers of Deeds. — John M. Tillotson, Northumberland, 1805; Abra- 
ham Hinds, Lancaster; Asa W. Burnap, Lancaster; William Farrar, Lan- 
caster: John M. Dennison, Lancaster, 1817; Reuben Stephenson, Lancas- 
ter, from 1830 to 1839; John W. Lovejoy, Lancaster, from 1839 to 1849; 
John S. Roby, Lancaster, from 1849 to 1855; Ira S. M. Gove, Lancaster, 
from 1855 to 1861; Hezekiah B. Parsons, Lancaster, from 1861 to 1S66; 
Benjamin P. Hunking, Lancaster, from 1866 to 1871; Charles W. Smith, 
Lancaster, from 1871 to 1876; Joseph W. Flanders, Lancaster, from 1 ^ 7 < > 
to 1882; Charles A. Cleveland, Lancaster, from lssi> to :8S7; James M. 
Rowell, Lancaster, 1887. 

Sheriffs. — Levi Willard, Lancaster, January, 1805; Obed Hall, Bartlett, 
December, 1812; Lemuel Adams, December, 1816; John W. Weeks, June, 
1820; Ephraim H. Mahurin, June, 1825; John H. White, Lancaster, from 
1830 to 183'.); George P. Meserve, Jackson, from 1839 to ls44; Charles 
Bellows, Northumberland, from 1844 to 1849; Reuben Stephenson, Lan- 
caster, from 1849 to 1855; Hezekiah Parsons, Jr., Colebrook, from 1855 
to ls;)7; Enoch L. Colby, Lancaster, from 1857 to is, 7; Benjamin H. 
Corning, Northumberland, from 1867 to 1872; Samuel H. LeGro, Lancas- 
ter, from 1872 to 1873"; E. G. Rogers, Colebrook, from 1873 to 1875; Sam- 
uel H. LeGro, Lancaster, from 1875 to 1877; E. George Rogers, Colebrook, 
from IS77 to 1879; William T. Pike, Stark, from 1879 to 1883; Samuel I. 
Bailey, Columbia, from 1883 to lss7; George M. Stevens, Lancaster, from 

County Commissioners. — Robert Ingalls, Shelburne, from 1856 to 1858; 
Samuel Worthley, Carroll, from 1856 to 1860; Elliot Harper, Errol, from 
L856 to L859; Daniel Green, Berlin, from 1857 to 1861; Hazeu Bedel. Cole- 
brook, from 1859 to 1862; Moses H. Rix, Dalton, from 1860 to 1863; Hazen 

Bench and Bar. 20' 

Evans, G-orham, from L861 to L864; Edwin W. Drew. Stewartstown. from 
1862 to 1865; Benjamin H. Plaisted, Jefferson, from L863 to L866; Gilman 
Twitchell, Dummer, from L864to L866; Samuel T. Bailey, Columbia, from 

L865 to 1868; Simon Cole, Milan, from L866 to L867; David M. Aldrich, 
Whitefield, from L866 to L869; Andrew J. Congdon, Lancaster, from L867 
to 1S7<>; Seneca S. Merrill, Colebrook, from L868 to 1*71; John C. Leigh- 
ton, Randolph, from L869 to 1872; Sprague Carleton. Whitefield. from 

L870 to 1873; Isaiah H. Pickard, Stewartstown, from L871 to 1*7:'.; Samuel 
Brown, Stratford, from 1S72 to 1875; Amos W. Drew, Stewartstown, from 
from 1873 to 1877; James W. Weeks, Lancaster, from L873 to L876; .lames 
H. Curtis, Northumberland, from 1875 to 1878; A. N. Twitchell, Gorham, 
from L876 to 1879; L. G. Piper, Colebrook, from 1877 to L879; N. R. Per- 
kins, Jefferson, from 1878 to 1882; J. P. Evans, Gorham, from 1879 to 
1882; George R. Eaton, Stratford, from 1S79 to L883; Bert A. Taylor, Dal- 
tou, from 1882 to 1886; Jonathan Gilmore, Columbia, from L882 to L886; 
Eugene W. Scribner, Berlin, from 1883 to 1887; W. E. Drew. Colebrook, 
from L886; Harley E. Jenness, Carroll, from L886; Levi Shedd, Gorham, 
from 1887. 


History of the Courts — Bench and Bar— Northern Judicial District 

nKISTORY of the Co urts.— Previous to 1770 the whole of New Eamp- 
j J shire, for all financial and judicial purposes, was a single court. All 
J business of a public nature was transacted at Portsmouth, Exeter 
and Dover; and the bulk of it at Portsmouth, which had a population of 
over 4,000, was the residence of the royal executive officers, and was, prac- 
tically, the provincial capital. As the province increased in population, 
other and smaller political divisions, with suitable courts, were demanded 
by the people. John Wentworth, the second of that name, wasappointed 
governor in 1767, and one of his first measures considered the formation 
of various counties in the province, and the creation of a judicial system 
of adequate proportions. The matter was debated in several sessions of 
the Assembly, favored by the governor as calculated to develop the prov- 
ince, (an object to which he devoted all his energies, i and opposed by the 
residents of the three principal towns and contiguous country, with the 

208 History of Coos County. 

plea that it would increase the provincial expenses without corresponding 
advantages. The affair was finally settled by a division of the province 
into five counties, with an ample judiciary system. The act constituting 
these took effect in the spring of 1771, and was entitled "An Act for 
dividing the Province into Counties, and for the more easy administration 
of Justice." This act created three courts of justice — the Superior Court 
of Judicature, the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, and the Court of Gen- 
eral Sessions. 

The Superior Court of Judicature had cognizance of all questions of law 
and divorce, and, finally, was clothed with equity powers, and was intended 
as the supreme tribunal of the province. It existed until 1813, when the 
Federalists, then in power in the state, to get rid of politically obnoxious 
judges, abolished it, and erected the Superior Judicial Court, which was 
overturned in is 10 by the Democratic Republicans, and the Superior Court 
of Judicature re-erected. No attempt was made to interfere with this 
court of last resort until 1855, when, under the brief term of power of the 
" Know-Nothing " party, it was again abolished and the Supreme Judicial 
Court re-created. This was superseded in 1*74 by the Superior Court of Ju- 
dicature, which continued in being until 1876, when it was succeeded by the 
present Supreme Court. It would appear that the legislature could, con- 
stitutionally, get rid of obnoxious judges by changing the name and some 
of the minor functions of a court; and the great height to which partisan- 
ship has been carried has almost caused this court to be a mere shuttle- 
cock in the hands of the legislature. 

The Inferior Court of Common Pleas was the court for the disposi- 
tion and settlement of all ordinary controversies. It continued in existence 
under the name first given it, and the Court of Common Pleas, from 1771 
until 1850, except for five years, from 1820 to 1825, when it was discon- 
tinued. In 1859 it was abolished, and its business transferred to the 
Supreme Judicial Court. It was again revived in 1874. and, after two 
years' existence, its business was handed over to the Supreme Court. 

The Court of General Sessions of the Peace had for its judges all the 
justices in commission of the county. It had a limited jurisdiction in crim- 
inal complaints, and was accompanied by a grand and petit jury. It had 
the entire control of the financial affairs of the county. The number of 
justices composing the court depended on the number in commission, 
sometimes more, sometimes less, and the law did not require the justice 
to reside in the county for which he was commissioned, and it was a mat- 
ter of choice with the justices as to how many should sit at any particular 
term It was a cumbersome and unwieldy institution, and, in 1701, its 
functions were given to the Court of Common Pleas; some of the judges 
of the last court, called side judges, attending to financial affairs and 
special committees formed to lay out highways. In 1855 a board of 

Bench and Bar. 209 

county commissioners was created to act with the court in conducting the 
finaucial matters of the county and in laying out highways. By the organ- 
ization of this board the services of side judges were dispensed with. 

The sessions docket, now a branch of the business of the general term 
of the Supreme Court, but formerly of the Common Pleas, is all that now 
remains of the Court of General Sessions of the Peace, and treats only of 
entries for the laying out of highways. 

Probate Court.— This has jurisdiction of the probate of wills, of grant- 
ing administrations, and of all matters and things of probate jurisdic 
t ion, relating to the sale, settlement, and final distribution of the estates 
of deceased persons. It has original jurisdiction in relation to the adop- 
tion of children, assignments of dower and homesteads in estate of 
deceased persons; in the appointment and removal of guardians of minors, 
insane persons, spendth lifts, together with other powers unnecessary to 
mention. It has been also a court of insolvency for sonic years. 

From the organization of the county the office of judge of probate has 
been held by men of ability, not always lawyers, hut their rulings and 
decisions have been of such a character that very few appeals have been 

Bench and Bar*— In its personnel and practice, the bar of Coos county 
has always stood in the front rank. Among its members have been some 
of the strongest legal minds in the state. Beginning with the organization 
of the county and continuing to the present time, there have been leaders 
at its courts whose character and attainments have placed them among 
the first in the profession, and whose influence has been so pervading and 
salutary that the whole bar has caught something of their spirit. The 
county is represented in this profession to-day by men of font 1 , ability and 
integrity, who worthily stand as equals of the lawyers of any county of 
the state, and whose practice extends not only to all sections of New 
Hampshire, but a much wider area. 

k 'The Grafton and Coos Counties Bar Association was put inactive 
operation in November, 1882, and has since enjoyed a useful and vigorous 
existence. They have already effected valuable improvements within the 
sphere of their professional labors, and will not weary in well doing." 

Eichard Clair Everett, the first resident lawyer of Lancaster, was a 
native of Attleboro, Mass , born March 28, 1764. At the age of sixteen he 
enlisted in the Revolutionary army, where General Washington, who was 
favorably impressed with his appearance, retained him as a body servant. 
After a service of two years he was discharged, emigrated to Lancaster 
and engaged in the hard duties of the pioneer. The inherited traits of the 

*Compiled under the supervision of Hon. William Heywood, presideal of Grafton and Co6a 
Bar Association. 

210 History of Coos County. 

Everett family were dominant in the young man, and his aspiration and 
desire for an education could no longer be held in bounds, and he went to 
Hanover to prepare for college, although with but small means. Fortune 
favors the brave, and he soon came into the possession of quite a sum of 
money from the sale of several lots of land in Providence, which had be- 
longed to his father. He finished his preparatory studies; was graduated 
from Dartmouth college in 1790; studied law; in 1793 returned to Lancas- 
ter, and married, December 17, of that year, Persis, daughter of Major 
Jonas Wilder. He built the house now standing (1887) at the corner of 
Main and High streets, where he resided until his death, March 22, 
1815, at the age of fifty one. His children, all daughters, were Drusilla 
S., married Dr. Benjamin Hunking; Persis F., married Major John W. 
Weeks; Almira J., married Thomas Peverly, Esq.; Abigail C, married 
Ephraim Cross; Elizabeth A., and two who died in infancy. Mr. Everett 
was a handsome man, tall, of commanding presence, and an able speaker: 
as a lawyer he displayed much ability, was shrewd, practical, successful, 
and, in 1805, became judge of the Court of the Common Pleas, and held 
the office at the time of his death. His descendants are among the most 
intelligent people of the county. He represented Lancaster in the legis- 
lature several years, and it was through his efforts that many important 
bills were passed. He held the military commission of colonel. 

Thomas Peverly, Jr., was the second register of probate, which posi- 
tion he filled until 1829, when his death occurred. Mr. Peverly was edu- 
cated at Dartmouth, studied law, and was in practice at Northumberland. 
He was elected to the state legislature, and took an active part in the busi- 
ness proceedings of the House. He was comparatively a young man at 
the time of his death. He married Almira, the third daughter of Hon. 
Richard C. Everett. They had two children, a son, Richard Everett Pev- 
erly, who was an engineer of construction, and a daughter, Helen, who 
married x\ntipas Marshall, an engineer of New York city. 

Abraham Hinds was here early. He practiced in the Court of Common 
Pleas, and the Superior Court, and was register of deeds for some time. He 
was appointed postmaster of Lancaster in 1807. 

Hon. B. F. Whidden gives us the following: — 

" The history of the Coos Bar of early days would be incomplete with- 
out the mention of some, long since departed, whose names are almost 
unknown to the present generation. 

" Samuel A. Pearson had an extensive practice. He was a_gejittem^n 
of fine address, and one of the first a stranger would be likely to notice 
on coining into town. He was postmaster of Lancaster for many years, 
and as such was deservedly popular. He was a graduate of Dartmouth 
college in the year 1803. He died September 2, 1840, aged fifty-six. 

Bench and Bar. 21 

"William Farrar was clerk of the Court of Common Pleas for many 

years, and a lawyer doing an extensive business. His justice dockel was 
larger than any other in the county, except thai of Jonas Baker His 
most distinguishing gift was music. His was the soul of music. Hesup- 
ported the choir in the Orthodox church for many years with his bass-viol, 
and his bow has raised many a nagging soul on the wings of devotion. 
He was a man of great probity, and universally respected. He was a 
graduate of Dartmouth college in the year 1801, and a classmate of 
Daniel Webster. He died March 3, 1850, aged sixty-nine. 

" Charles J. Stuart was a lawyer of fine ability, highly educated, but, 
on account of his intemperate habits, never succeeded in business. He was 
a gentleman of fine address, a genial companion, a fine singer, and his 
presence was indispensable on the convivial occasions of those early days. 
He was a graduate of Dartmouth in 1809, and a class-mate of Levi Wood- 
bury. On his tombstone in the ' Old Cemetery' in Lancaster, is inscribed 
'Charles J. Stuart, Counselor at Law, died May IT. 1837, aged 46/ 

"Levi Barnard was a lawyer doing business at Lancaster many years. 
He w T as a very precise man, whose manners, habits, and dress, were all of 
the olden time. He died October 12, 1882, aged 60. 

"John L. Sheafe practiced law early at Lancaster, when he was a young 
man. He was highly educated, and a successful practitioner, and took 
high rank at the bar. He removed to New Orleans, and became a judge 
in their courts Late in life he returned to Portsmouth, his early home, 
where he died in oid age. 

" When I was a school-boy, my way to school led me past the court- 
house, where twice a year the court was in session in all the dignity of the 
times. Bovish curiositv induced me to enter the Temple of Justice and 
watch the trial and disposal of cases. My earliest memories are of the 
days of Richardson and Livermore, who ruled upon the bench in distin- 
guished severity. 

"In early days the lawyers of the Coos Bar did not argue their own 
cases, but merely put in the evidence, and employed the professional 
speakers, Bell, Bartlett, Cushman, and Wilson, who rode the circuit, to 
argue -the causes. Trials were generally short, and the court house was 
the arena of intellectual encounter; argument and eloquence often had 
more to do in winning a verdict than evidence or preparation. The court- 
house was always full during the session, and here many a young man 
has had stirred within him the first fires of ambition. 

"Bartlett was a facile, easy, witty speaker, and always ready at 
repartee. He was a very successful advocate before tin- jury. 

" Bell was not a graceful orator, but gave tin- sledge-hammer knocks 
that often won for him the victory. 

"Cushman was a courtly, graceful gentleman, of polished manners and 

212 History of Coos County. 

fine oratory. He was clear, methodical, and masterful in the management 
of a case. His magnetic temperament often overcame all opposition. 

" Wilson was a man of the people. He was always admired, and drew 
a crowd. He had a fine voice, was forceful, and, rising with the occasion, 
was apt to cany his case by storm. 

"Such was the Coos Bar as it comes down to us in memory from 
former years, made up of our fellow citizens of Coos and the elite of the 
state These semi-annual courts not only settled our disputes, but educated 
and gave strength to the people." 

Hon. Jared Warner Williams was born in West Woodstock, Conn., 
in 1796. He was graduated at Brown university in 1818; read law at the 
Litchfield (Conn.) Law school, and came to Lancaster in 1822, where he 
commenced the practice of his profession, and was a resident until his 
death in September, 1864. In 182-1 he married Sarah Hawes Bacon, of 
Woodstock, Conn. She died in 1857, leaving two sons, George Canning 
and Jared Irving. 

Mr. Williams was elected representative of Lancaster in 1830-31; was 
register of probate from 1832 to 1837; in 1833 he was chosen to the state 
Senate; in 1834 and '35 he was president of that body; in 1837 he entered 
Congress from the ' ' Sixth district " and served four years. He was governor 
of the state in 184-7-18; in 1852 was made judge of probate; in 1853 he filled 
the vacancy in the U. S. Senate occasioned by the death of Hon. C. G. 
Atherton; in 1864 he was a delegate to the Chicago convention. In addi- 
tion to these political distinctions, Gov. Williams received the degree of A. 
M. from Dartmouth college in 1825; and that of LL. D. from Brown uni- 
versity in 1852. He died September 29, 1864, aged sixty eight. He was a 
gentleman of the highest type of character, winning social qualities, and 
rare abilities. His various honors sat easy upon him, and vanity did not 
manifest itself. 

Turner Stephenson was born in Lyme, N. H., and came with his father 
to Lancaster in early boyhood. He was educated at Dartmouth college, 
studied law, and was a member of the Coos Bar in good standing. He was 
a safe man in his business, and much trusted. He acquired a considerable 
property. He was judge of probate from 1855 to 1868. Judge Stephenson 
was twice married, first, to Miss Eluthera Porter, of Charlestown; second, 
to Miss Phebe Oakes, a most excellent lady, who survives him. He died 
January 26, L872, leaving no children. Nathaniel Wilson writes thus of 
him: " He was one of the purest and best men I ever knew." 

John Sullivan Wells,* born in Durham, N. H., in 1804, died in 1860. 

I knew him well in the early part of his professional life. He studied law 
at Danville, Vt., with Hon. William Mattocks. He was admitted to the 

*By William Hey wood, Esq. 

Bench and Bar, 213 

bar, and located at Guildhall, Vt,, in L828, remained there in practice till 
Is:;;,, when he went to Bangor, Me., tor a year, then came to Lancaster, 
where lie was a successful practitioner for ten years. While in Lancaster 
he built the house now owned by Mrs. John H. Hopkinson. Tin' walls are 
of granite, being the only building in the county constructed of thai ma- 
terial. From Lancaster Mr. Wells removed to Exeter, N. H. 

While at Guildhall and Lancaster be gained the deserved reputal ion of 
an able lawyer and advocate. He was very industrious in the preparation 
and trial of his causes. He was on one side or the other of all important 
cases in Coos and Essex counties while he remained here, and his clients 
always gave him their full confidence. He was elected representative from 
Lancaster, was speaker of the House, and for several years solicitor for the 
county. He had much ambition for political life, but, as far as success 
there was concerned, I think that he would have done better to have re- 
mained in Coos county. He gained prominence after he went to Exeter. 
but I know from his own words, said to me when I saw him last not long 
before his death, that his experience in pursuit of office was a bitter disap- 
pointment. Perhaps it may be well for young lawyers to remember this 
incident in the life of Mr. Wells. He was a man of brilliant parts, and 
any one who knew him would have supposed that he could have filled any 
position that the state or its citizens could give him, but inferior men 
passed him in the race. If he had devoted himself solely to his profession 
he would have gained greater eminence, and he truly deserved the honor 
of taking rank as one of the distinguished lawyers in New Hampshire. 

During his residence in Exeter he was appointed attorney-general Jan- 
uary 17, 1848; resigned it the following August; was chosen senator 1851 
and 1852, and both years chosen president of the Senate: was nominee 
for governor in 1*5(5 and 1857; appointed LT. S. senator January L5, L855, 
for the unexpired term of Hon. Moses Norris. Mr. Wells was considered 
an eloquent orator. He was a self-made man, getting the means to pay 
his expenses of education by industry in cabinet-making which he learned 
in early life. 

Edmund Burke, born in Westminster. Vt,, in 1809, afterward so prom- 
inent in state and national politics, and as U. S. commissioner of patents, 
came to Colebrook in 1830 to commence the practice of law. Not finding 
matters as he expected, he located at Whitefield for a few years, when he 
removed toClaremont, in 1833, to become an editor, and afterwards to New- 
port. He gained a high reputation as a writer, and asa lawyer in later life 
had few equals in New England. He was one of the coterie which con- 
trolled the politics of the Democracy of the state, numbering as Ins friends 
and co workers Franklin Pierce, Charles G. Aiherton, etc. Hisopinionof 
Coos people is consequently worth transcribing. Coming here with the 
impression that there was less cultivation and intellectual force in this 

214 History of Coos County. 

county than in the lower counties of the state, he soon changed his opinion, 
and would often say that he never spent time more profitably than during 
his residence here. To use his language, "I never met a community of 
men generally more intelligent, more imbued with strong common sense, 
or more patriotic in sentiment. Among them I laid in a large store of prac- 
tical knowledge. " He died January -jr., 1852. 

Hon. William Heywood,* the venerated president of the Grafton and 
Coos Bar Association from its organization, was born at Lunenhurgh, Vt., 
October 6, 1804, and his early life was spent amid influences calculated to 
cultivate in his young mind the sternest virtues and the utmost simplicity 
of manners, and out of which came a plain, strong mind, filled with the 
broadest common sense. In those days the Concord (Vt.) academy was 
the leading and most available institution of learning in the vicinity, and 
in it Mr. Heywood acquired such academical education as an usual course 
afforded. But he utilized all there was of it, and assimilated it to his own 
practical ideas as he went along, so that he came from the school with 
more than the strength that is usually born of education. He went to 
the study of law not moved by accidental circumstances, but seemingly 
as a matter of course, reading at first with Judge Charles Davis, at Water- 
ford and Danville, and later with Judge William A. Fletcher, in Detroit, 
Michigan. Returning to Vermont he was admitted to the bar at Guildhall, 
at the September term of 1831, where he commenced a business which 
neither in amount nor length of duration lias ever been equalled in the 
county. So entirely did he become absorbed in the practice of his profes- 
sion that he became the most exclusive lawyer I ever met. I do not mean 
to say that he was oblivious to the current events of the day, for he was 
thoroughly posted on matters in general, especially in politics, in which he 
always was and is an intense Democrat. But his mind was so occupied in 
professional labors that he even lost sight of a just compensation for them, 
and came through his immense labors gleaning for himself just what his 
necessities compelled him to. He moved from Guildhall in ]s5J, and from 
thence to Lancaster, N. H., in March, 1856, whither business followed and 
crowded upon him. In cases he was felt rather than known. The bluster 
and arrogance of identifying himself with the success of a case was un- 
known to him, anci if it had not been, his modesty would have despised 
any enjoyment in them. I might illustrate some of Mr. Heywood's work 
by enumerating a long line of cases, including the murder case of State 
vs. Allen, but it would add nothing to the importance of a work so exten- 
di ve. He is undemonstrative in manner, but his language is of that grave 
and peculiarly suggestive style that it attracts attention and is quite im- 
pressive. It has the force of brevity and directness, and his ideas are 

By Hon. George N. Dale. 




Bench and Bar. 2h 

winged with words so well selected that he seldom inappropriately bur- 
dens an idea with a word, or a word with an idea it is n>>! adapted to con- 
vey. He is ( | uite hasty in temper, but no temper was ever exhibited in 
human nature with so little malice in it. Whenever it conies to him it 
conies like a flash of lightning. But any spirit of anger is dismissed 
quickly as it appears, and so quickly does the effect of its presence pass 
away as to be a sharp rebuke to its coming, and make such passion look 
absurd and ridiculous. His is the skill born of native strength. His logic 
is horn of his mental impulses, and has mere the strength of nature than 
the force of art. 

In his marital relations he was peculiarly fortunate, having married 
Miss Susan Hibbard, a daughter of the late Hon. David Hibbard, of Con- 
cord. Vermont, a lady remarkably modest, yet possessing great strength 
of character and kindness of heart. By her he had three sons (the second 
son, Edward, died at the age of seven months,) and a daughter, Isabel. 
The oldest sonis now associated with him in business. The younger went 
into the Late war and did not survive it. The daughter is still living. Mr. 
Heywood was a member of the second and third sessions of the Vermont 
state Senate in 1887 and L838, and was state's attorney for Essex county 
for tit teen years. He was a member of the convention of 1850, which 
made many and radical changes in the constitution of Vermont. His 
name appears first as an attorney connected with the Vermont courts in 
1836, in the eighth volume of Vermont Reports, and is seen annually in 
these volumes for fifty-one consecutive years, and is firsl found in the 
thirteenth volume in New Hampshire Reports, and continues to appear 
down to the sixty-third, the latest one published. 

In physical appearance Mr. Heywood is of medium height and size, 
prominent features — a very imposing countenance — grave in appearance, 
even to solemnity or sadness, but through which flashes of humor occa- 
sionally burst as unexpectedly as lightning from a cloudless sky. His is 
the exterior of a man molded in an iron age, beneath which heats a heart 
as tender as a woman's. He was not only among the founders of the Ver- 
mont state government, but he was of them. He is a devoted and con- 
sistent member of the Protestant Episcopal church, and in his private 
character his morals are above suspicion. He still lives, at the age of more 
than eighty-three years, a fit type of the simple grandeur of those olden 
times, with mental faculties clear, vigorous and strong. May he long 
remain a fit emblem and reminder of those days and associations we so 
much revere. 

Hiram Adams Fletcher, second child of Ebenezer and Peddy (Smith) 
Fletcher, was born at Springfield, Vt,, December 14, L806. When Hiram 
wasbutasmall boy, his father moved his family from Charlestown to 
Pittsburg, then "Indian Stream Territory."' Mr. Fletcher was one of the 

216 History of Coos County. 

first settlers there, took with him considerable means, built mills, made a 
comfortable home, and cleared up a large farm. Hiram labored on the 
farm and in the mills until the age of seventeen, when he entered Kimball 
Union academy (Meriden), where he was a scholar for several terms, and 
laid the foundation for that love of learning and studious habits which he 
exhibited in after life. About nineteen, he began the study of law with 
Gen Seth Cushman, at Guildhall, Vt. He afterwards read successively 
with John L. Sheafe, Gov. J. W. Williams, of Lancaster, and Gov. Hub- 
bard, of Charlestown, where Chief Justice Gilchrist was a fellow student 
with him. They were admitted to the bar together, at Newport, in 183G. 
He first opened an office, and practiced a year, in Springfield, Vt. In 1833 
he went to Colebrook. where he was in practice sixteen years. For the 
place and business he w^as very successful. He had one side of all the liti- 
gation in that part of the county, and the business of making collections 
was a help to the rather meagre income of a lawyer in those days. He 
practiced in Essex county, Vt., as well as in Coos county; at that time this 
was accompanied with many hardships. The roads were not good; in 
summer they were rough, and in winter deep with snow, but no obstruc- 
tion was sufficient to prevent Mr. Fletcher from doing whatever he under- 
took. He was a man of slight pl^sique, but every muscle was like steel, 
and he had, till late in life, great activity and great powers of endurance. 
He seemed to have had the make-up for a long life, but he was not care- 
ful of his health. In early and middle life he appeared insensible to. hard- 
ship, and to know nothing of fatigue. In 1849 he moved to Lancaster, 
and was an acknowledged leader at the bar for long years. He died of 
consumption, January 30, 1879, aged seventy-two years, and although a 
great sufferer for the last three years, he retained his mental powers un- 
impaired to the end. 

In 1834. May 2.">th, Mr. Fletcher married Persis E., daughter of Dr. 
Benjamin Hunking, of Lancaster. Mrs. Fletcher was a lady, intelligent 
and amiable, a devoted mother and Christian. Of their six children, one 
died in infancy; Emily E. died in 1857, aged nineteen; Almira (Mrs. W. S. 
Ladcl). Richard and Everett reside in Lancaster; Nellie (Mrs W. A. Hol- 
man), is a resident of Pittsburgh, Pa. Mrs. Fletcher died July 9, 1878. 

Mr. Fletcher was a close legal student, well read in cases, for which his 
memory w r as wonderfully retentive, and he knew all about law books and 
authors. He gradually collected many books. His law library was large 
lor a country practitioner. He possessed a rtistic tastes, had much admira- 
tion for a rare and a well-made book, and for any beautiful thing. He 
was a man of kindly feeling. He had a great fund of humor, and no one 
was likely to get the better of him in an encounter of wit. 

In the course of his practice Mr. Fletcher was associated several years 
with William Heywood, some years with William Burns, and four years 

Bench and Bar. 217 

with his son, Everett. He was honorable and fair as a practitioner, 
always governed by a sense of justice, and si rid ly honest. He dealt lib- 
erally with his clients, and it' the case resulted unfavorably, he would con- 
sider the client very favorably in the settlement. He was never afraid to 
take hold of cases of importance alone, even though opposed by an array 
of able lawyers, and old members of the bar tell of the skill, tart, and 
ability with which he would bring them to successful conclusion. " ll«' 
was a man of great resources, and an untiring worker. The order and 
regularity with which he kept his papers was remarkable. So well ar- 
ranged was his business that he could go to his files and get his papers as 
well years after cases were ended, as while they were pending." 

George A. Cossitt was register of probate from. L837 to 1852. Mr. 
Cossitt was born in Claremont and commenced the practice of the law about 
1835, in Whitefield, and soon after moved to Lancaster. He was an ex- 
cellent judge of probate law, and consequently has been much engaged in 
probate business. He was for many years cashier of the old Lancaster 

Hon. Jacob Benton,* son of Samuel Slade and Esther i Prouty) Benton, 
was born at Waterford,Vt., August 19, 1814. He attended the academies 
at Lyndon, Peacham, and Newbury, and completed bis education by grad- 
uating from the seminary at Manchester, Vt. In the spring of 1840 he 
commenced to study law in the office of Heaton & Reed, at Montpelier, 
and in the autumn of that year became the principal of the academy at 
Concord Corner, Vt. Mr. Benton was connected with this school for 
four years. While in Concord he studied law in the office of Judge Henry 
A. Bellows. In 1843 he came to Lancaster, where he has since resided, 
and entered the office of Gen. Ira Young, where he completed his prelimi- 
nary studies, and with whom he formed a partnership after his admission 
to the bar in July of that year. This partnership was dissolved by the 
death of Gen. Young in 1815. During the period from 1855 until 1887, he 
had three law partners: Ossian Ray, ten years (1855 L865); J. H. Benton. 
Jr., four years (1867-1871); H. I. Goss, two years (1885-1887). In 1860 he 
married Louisa Dwight, a daughter of Gen. Neal Dow, of Portland. Me. 
Mr. Benton belongs to a family of men strong mentally and physically. 
He is more than six feet tall, and well built. Though reared on a farm, 
most of his brothers as well as himself became connected with the learned 
professions. The family came to Vermont from Connecticut and \\ 
prominent there. His grandfather owned a part of the site of the city of 

He was first a Whig in politics: but, upon the breaking up of that 
party, he became a Republican, to which party he has always since ad 

*By H. I. Goss. 

218 History of Coos County. 

heredj and the principles of which he has, when occasion offered, advo- 
cated and supported with much force and effect. 

In 1854 he was elected to represent Lancaster in the legislature, where- 
he took an active part in bringing about the defeat of the election of Dem- 
ocratic senators to the United States Congress. Being re-elected in 1855, 
he saw his efforts of the former year crowned with success in the election 
of John P. Hale and James Bell. He was again elected in 1856. Later he 
was made a brigadier-general of the militia. In 1867 he was elected from 
the Third New Hampshire district a representative to the Fortieth Con- 
gress, and was re-elected in 1869. 

In the halls of legislation and at the bar Mr. Benton has been noted 
for his strong and fearless advocacy of the cause he espoused. His lan- 
guage, abounding in startling and original metaphor, is pointed and force- 
ful. While in Congress he made several speeches which attracted atten- 
tion; and one, (made February 25, 1868, before the House of Representa- 
tives acting as a committee of the whole, and having under consideration 
President Johnson's annual message, in which he severely criticised the 
policy of the administration,) was extensively circulated throughout the 
country as a campaign document. 

As a lawyer he early had a large and lucrative practice. He was en- 
dowed by nature with much inherent shrewdness and practical common 
sense. He never relies upon trivialities or technicalities; but his mind 
seizes at once upon the principal points in the case, and these he urges 
with much force and persistence. He sees with equal quickness the weak- 
nesses of his opponent's cause, and these he holds up to view, often Avith 
much good humored wit, always with tact, and strong argument. 

Hon. William Burns, born at Hebron, N. H., April 25, 1821, was son 
of Robert Burns, a distinguished physician and prominent public man. 
Mr. Burns was educated at academies in Plymouth and New Hampton, 
and was a graduate in the class of 1841, from Dartmouth college. He be- 
gan to read law with Hon. Leonard Wilcox, of Orforcl; attended Harvard 
Law school, where he was graduated in 1813, and the next year (1814) 
married Clementine E. Hayes, of Orford, a lady whose sunny tempera- 
ment especially fitted her to make a happy home for a public man. He 
was admitted to the Grafton county bar in 1844, and commenced practice 
at Littleton, where he remained two years, then removed to Lancaster, 
having purchased the legal business of Hon. John S. Wells. 

At once Mr. Burns obtained a high reputation for legal soundness, 
clear judgment, and sterling integrity. It was, however, as an advocate 
that his great natural ability was most conspicuously shown. Always 
would his impassioned appeals impress a jury, and make him master of 
the situation. For eighteen years he was in partnership with Hiram A. 
Fletcher. As attorneys for the Grand Trunk Railway, and in connection 



Bench and Bar. 219 

with their other business they built up a very large practice. In L869 Mr. 
Burns entered into partnership with Henry Heywood, and remained with 
him until L876, when it was dissolved on account of Mr. Burns's ill health. 

It can be truly said of Mr. Burns, that he was one of thai old school of 
counselors for which New Hampshire has been famous, whose profi 
sional lives have both honored and elevated the business of the law. He 
was unflinching in his devotion to the interests of the Democratic party, 
and was long regarded as one of the most eloquent and convincing stump 
orators in New Hampshire. He certainly richly deserved political position, 
and would have had it had his politics been in accord with the Republican 
party then dominant in the state. The Democrats always recognized the 
sterling worth of a man so earnest, faithful, and unswerving in his adhe- 
rence to Democracy, and regarded him as one of the most fearless and 
untiring of party standard-bearers. At state conventions and gatherings 
of state committees no man was listened to with keener interest in the 
discussion of the issues of the day or measures of parly policy. He was 
twice elected to the state Senate, in L856 and 1857. In 1859 he received 
the Democratic nomination for member of Congress in the Third district, 
and made a remarkably brilliant canvass, repeating the same in L861 and 
L863, and, at the election in 1863, came within two hundred votes of 
defeating Hon. James W. Patterson, the Republican candidate. .Mr. Burns 
was a delegate to the national Democratic convention in I860, and a prom- 
inent member of the state Constitutional convention of 1876. In religious 
belief Mr. Burns was a Unitarian. He was a member of North Star 
Lodge, F. A. M., of Lancaster. 

Mr. Burns died after a long and trying illness at Plymouth, April 2, 
1885, and is buried in the old Livermore church-yard at Holderness, among 
his kindred and boyhood friends. Hon. George N. Dale gives this fine 
analysis of his character: — 

''I see coming through nearly thirty years another in this picture. 
Through all that time shines the luster of a gifted and noble manhood. 
The space he filled presents nothing but pleasant recollections of William 
Burns. As I see him he was kind, courteous, and exceedingly pleasant, 
but he was not tame by any means. His sarcasm and invective were as 
keen as any blade that ever glistened in our little circle. As a public 
speaker, especially in discussing political subjects, in his palmiest days, I 
thought him without a superior in this section of the country. As a law- 
yer he excelled. He was apt in the technology of law. not remarkably 
proficient alone in specialties, and wanting in other respects, bill he had a 
general variety and well selected stock of information, to which was added 
abroad, practical common sense, which made him an efficient and useful 
man. He excelled, of course, as an advocate. His style was elegant, 
simple and sublime (for sublimity is almost always simple in literatun 

220 History of Coos County. 

almost as Dickens, and resembled the purity of an Addison. He often 
indulged in ironical language, but it was such pure irony, and was so com- 
pletely manufactured out of materials of his case as to seldom subject 
him to just criticism, or leave any lasting sting behind. As a practitioner 
he was a model. He was a gallant man. He had not the keen scintillat- 
ing wit of a Fletcher, nor the strong, comprehensive, though unadorned 
style of a Hey wood, nor even yet the dashing, overwhelming and torrent- 
like style of a Bartlett, but he had such a blending and pleasantly-arranged 
parts of them all as to constitute a most consistent man. Many years 
since (as we count them in the life of a man), Mr. Burns was severely 
injured by a collision of railway trains, yet he was still very graceful, and 
so managed his lameness that I used to think it added to, rather than took 
from, the effect of his most brilliant efforts. The influence of his charity 
and kind consideration for others I shall feel as long as I live. His life 
was and is constantly saying to us: — 

" ' Let us no more contend or blame 
Each other, blamed enough elsewhere, 

but strive 
In offices of love how we may lighten 
Each other's burdens in our share of woe.' 

" ' The battle of our life is brief, 
The alarm, the struggle, the relief ; 
Then sleep we side by side.' " 

Benjamin Franklin Whidden is a native of Greenland, N. H. When 
a lad he removed to Lancaster with his father. His early years in Green- 
land and Lancaster were passed on a farm. At the age of fourteen he 
commenced to learn the trade of cabinet-making, and served four years, 
attending school winters. His preparatory education was acquired at 
Lancaster and Kimball Union academies. He entered Dartmouth college 
in 1836, and was graduated in 1840. (He worked at his trade, and taught, 
to defray the greater portion of his expenses.) He then went to Hanover 
county, Virginia, as a teacher in languages and mathematics, and remained 
until 1845; passing his vacations in Washington, where he had the use of 
libraries, and the opportunity to hear the foremost men of that day- 
Webster, (lav. Calhoun, Benton, Adams, Marshall, Wright, Choate, Mc- 
Duffie, Preston and Crittenden. This he highly prized as a most valuable 
part of his education, and that epoch is full of choice memories. He re- 
turned to Lancaster in 1845, and was admitted to the bar in 1846 He 
was appointed school commissioner for Coos county in 1850 and 1851; he 
represented Lancaster in the state legislature in 1849, 1850, and 1867. His 
election in 1849 was under circumstances which show the confidence 
reposed in him. The two parties in town were so nearly equal in strength 
that neither could elect — Mr. Whidden being the nominee of the Free-soil 

Bench and Bar. 221 

party, then largely in the minority. He was elected not on party issues, 
but upon his honesty, integrity, and ability as a man. lie advocated 
and secured the passage of the Homestead Law. He was county solicitor 
from L856 to L862; he was appointed by Presidenl Lincoln, United States 
commissioner and consul-general to Hayti, on the recognition of that gov- 
ernment by the United States in 1862, with plenipotentiary power to con- 
clude a treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, and for the extradition 
of fugitive criminals. The treaty was made in L864, and immediately con- 
firmed by the governments. Mr. Whidden did efficient service for the 
Union in this capacity, discharged its duties with gentlemanly courtesy, 
and was highly complimented by Secretary Seward. He resigned his post 
in L865, on account of ill health, and returned to Lancaster. Ho was judge 
of probate in 1868 and held the office until 1*74; presidential elector in 1^7i ; , 
and delegate in 1876 to the Republican national convention at Cincinnati. 
He travelled in Europe in the summer and fall of 1*74. After liis return 
he resumed the practice of law at Lancaster. 

In 1851 Mr. Whidden married Eliza Turner Spaulding, of Lancaster. 
She was a most estimable lady, and beloved by all who knew her. She 
died in 1868. (Their son John W. is a physician in Portland, Me.) In 1874, 
he married Kate J. Brooks, of Cincinnati, Ohio. She was a lady of rare 
mental and personal attractions, and much respected by those who had 
the honor of her acquaintance. She died in 1879. 

Mr. Whidden is especially noted for his exactness, honesty, and integ- 
rity, and his devotedness to all interests intrusted to his care. He ha- an 
admiration for the classics of, not only the modern, but the ancient lan- 
guages, which are as familiar to him now as on his graduation day. Fine 
literary tastes and scholastic culture, a broad liberality combined with a 
keen sense of justice, a practical intelligence broadened by extensive travel, 
and a genial, kindly spirit, all unite in this true gentleman and scholar. 

George Canning Williams, eldest son of Hon. Jared W. Williams, 
born at Lancaster, August 7, 1827, died, unmarried, at Lancaster, Decem- 
ber 10, L865. He fitted for college at Lancaster academy, was graduated 
from Dartmouth (a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society) in the class of 
ls-14, studied law with his father, and was admitted to practice in L848. 
He was a lawyer of fine ability for his age. and no one had more brilliant 
prospects, but his last years were saddened by the vice of intemperance. 
He was county solicitor for several years, was clerk of the New Hampshire 
Senate, representative from Lancaster in L 85 9 and I860, and commissioner 
of state lands in L858. He was a trustee of Lancaster academy, grand 
master of the I. 0. O. F. of New Hampshire, and representative to the 
Grand Lodge of that body, and a prominent and active Freemason. 

Jared Irving Williams, youngest son of Bon. Jared W. Williams, was 
born at Lancaster August L9, 1832. He fitted for college al Lancasterand 

222 History of Coos County. 

Killingly (Conn.) academies, graduated from Brown university in the 
class of 1854, studied law with his father, and Carpenter & Thurston, of 
Providence, R. I., was admitted to practice at Lancaster in 1856, and at 
once became associated with his father and brother. He was editor of the 
Cods County Democrat from the death of J. M. Rix in 1854 until the elec- 
tion of Lincoln in 1860; was town representative in 1879 and 1.880; has been 
superintending school committee and president of the board of education 
of Lancaster since 1876; is a trustee of Lancaster academy. He married, 
in 1857, Mary Hamilton Morse. Mr. Williams did service in the Rebellion, 
and attained the rank of captain; is a prominent and valued member of 
the Gr. A. R. and various Masonic bodies; possesses decided mathematical 
and mechanical tastes, and is a civil engineer of no mean ability. He is a 
Roman Catholic in religion, and a delightful social companion. 

Ossian Ray- was born December 13, 1835, in Hinesburg, Vt. He is 
the oldest son of George and Hannah (Greene) Ray, who were married in 
Waterbury, Vt., October 2, 1834. They lived in Hinesburg until about 
March, 1 836, removing then toWaterbury, and remaining there until the fall 
of that year, when they w T ent to reside on a farm which they had purchased 
in Irasburg. The mother died at Irasburg in 1817 ; the father remained on the 
same farm until about 1855, when he removed to Hinesburg, where he is still 
living at the age of eighty three years. George Ray was the son of William 
and Abigail (Wyman) Ray, and was born in Hinesburg, the eighth of ten 
children. William Ray came from Hartford, Washington Co., N. Y., to 
Hinesburg, about 1800, and married to Abigail Wyman, his second wife, 
after coming to Vermont. Hannah (Greene) Ray, born September 1, 1809, 
died July 2. 1847. was the fourth child of Capt. James Greene, who was 
born in Claremont, N. H., and afterwards moved to Waterbury, Vt., 
serving in the War of 1812, being appointed captain in the 11th IT. S. 
Infantry, July 25, is 14. He was severely wounded in a skirmish with the 
British troops at a place called " Stone Mills," (or "Cole Mills") near Platts- 
burg, N. Y., suffering amputation of a leg, and dying from the effects of 
his wound February 17, 1817. He was married in Waterbury about 1802, 
to Mercy, daughter of Moses Nelson, of Croydon, N. H. The subject of 
this sketch has one brother, Orman P., of Burlington, Vt., and three 
sisters, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Bridges and Mrs. Amelia C. Corrigan, of Ogden, 
Utah, and Mrs. Hannah E. Baker, of Waterbury, Vt. 

Ossian Ray's boyhood and youth were passed in Irasburg, where he 
built up a vigorous constitution by healthy out-door work during the brief 
summers, and disciplined his mind during the long New England winters 
at the little district school-house, intent upon solving the riddle of life, and 
acquiring the knowledge and experience of others by studying the printed 

By John N. McClintock, A. M. 



Bench and Bar. 223 

page. His formative education and character at the district school were 
under the direction of several able and enthusiastic teachers, among whom 
may be named the late Henry H. Frost, Esq., of Coventry, the late Tim- 
othy Mansfield, of Barton, the late Miss Olive H. Webster, of Irasburg, 
and Miss Harriet Webster, now of Boston. Young Ray also attended 
several terms at the Irasburg academy, two of which were taught by Rev. 
Charles W. Cushing, D. I)., now of Rochester, N. Y.. and widely known 
as one of the foremost educators in the country. While at the academy 
his evenings and odd hours were devoted to the study of history, rhetoric, 
and public speaking. The country around was interested in these-schools, 
and the progress of the scholars, and flocked to the public exercises from 
the neighboring towns. Triumphs won in that forum were never for- 
gotten; applause from rustic friends stimulated to renewed efforts. The 
closing exercises were often held in the courtdiouse, and the day was great 
in the lives of many students. Ossian Ray finished his academical studies 
at Derby, Vt., where among his fellow students were the late Hon. Benja- 
min H. Steele, judge of the Supreme Court of Vermont; Rev. George I. 
Bard, of Orford, N. H.; David M. Camp, editor of the Newport (Vt.) 
Express, and Rev. Dr. W. W. Niles, now Bishop of the Diocese of New 
Hampshire. At the age of sixteen he gave promise of more than ordinary * 
ability, and attracted the attention of Jesse Cooper, Esq., a lawyer of Iras- 
burg. The youth was fitted for college in all save Creek and mathematics 
at that age, and strongly desired to complete his education by a college 
course, but lack of means forbade. Irasburg was the county seat, where 
the courts were holden, and where lawyers were held in high esteem. At 
the Orleans county bar were then practicing Jesse Cooper and John H. 
Prentiss, of Irasburg; William M. Dickerm m, of Coventry; John L. Ed- 
wards, of Derby; John H. Kimball and Samuel A. Willard, of Barton: 
Samuel Sumner and Norman Boardman, of Troy; Benjamin H. Smalley 
and Chief Justice Homer E. Royce, of Franklin county; Judge Luke P. 
Poland, of Lamoille county; Judge Timothy P. Redfield and Stoddard B. 
Oolby, of Montpelier; Thomas Bartlett and George C. Gaboon, of Caledonia 
county, and others, whose scholarly minds and rhetorical abilities, as dis- 
played in many a hard-fought legal battle, deeply impressed the youth, 
and stimulated his ambition to become a leader of men in the forensic 

By the advice of Mr. Cooper, and with the assent of his father, young 
Ray relinquished his college aspirations, entered immediately upon the 
study of his chosen profession in the office of Mr. Cooper, and became a 
member of his family. His patron was of great assistance to young Ray, 
guiding his legal studies, allowing him to try justice causes, encouraging 
him to manage cases in which he was sometimes the opposing counsel, and 
largely leaving to him the preparation of bis briefs. Two of these early 

224 History of Coos County. 

efforts may be found in the cases of Webster vs. Dennison, Vermont Re- 
ports, Vol. 25, pp. 495, 496, and Cooper vs. Parker, p. 504. From early 
friends who then formed life-long attachments, one learns that Ossiau Ray 
was a good scholar, with a natural aptitude for public speaking, popular 
with his schoolmates, and evincing a strong character. 

In March, 1*54, he came to Lancaster, N. H., at the request of the late 
Saunders W. Cooper, Esq., a brother of Mr. Cooper, of Irasburg, to assist 
in closing up his law business, his health having failed. Until the follow- 
ing December he remained in Lancaster, attending to Mr. Cooper's affairs, 
forming acquaintances, and becoming attached to the people. That winter 
he taught school in Canaan, Vt. , bought law books, pursued his studies 
evenings, and on Saturdays, when school did not keep, and during the 
holidays, engaged in the trial of justice cases, to the improvement of his 
legal experience and the condition of his finances. Thus, by teaching and 
practicing, he maintained himself and pursued his studies until September 
1, L856, when he returned to Lancaster. January 1, 1857, at the age of 
twenty-one years, he formed a law partnership with Hon. Jacob Benton, 
of Lancaster, and during the same month was admitted to the bar at 
Guildhall, Essex Co., Vt., at a term of the court over which the late Chief 
Justice Luke P. Poland presided, and soon after he was admitted to the 
Coos county bar, at Lancaster. He has since been admitted to practice in 
the United States Courts, and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme 
Court of the United States January 25, 1872. 

Mr. Ray's success at the bar was assured from the first. He brought 
to the profession an active mind, carefully cultured, great natural abilities 
balanced by good judgment, indomitable perseverance and love for his 
profession, and a strong and unflinching character inherited from his 
ancestors. As a lawyer he has built his fame on an enduring foundation. 
His preparation of cases has employed his best efforts, his management of 
them has absorbed him. From the minutest detail to the great law points 
involved he has been ready; and, ever on the aggressive, his opponents 
have never found him sleeping. In L867 Mr. Benton was elected to Con- 
gress, and withdrew from the firm. In September Mr. Ray formed a 
partnership with Hon. William S. Ladd, of Colebrook, which continued 
until Mr. Ladd was appointed judge of the Supreme Court in October, 1870. 
January 1, 1872, Mr. Ray took into partnership Hon. Irving W. Drew, 
who had pursued his legal studies in Mr. Ray's office. From 1*73 to 1876 
Hon. William Hey wood was a member of the firm, when he was succeeded 
by Hon. Chester B. Jordan, a student in the office of the firm. January 1, 
L882, Philip Carpenter, of Bath, was admitted, and the law firm of Ray, 
Drew, Jordan & ( larpenter was established, from which Mr. Ray withdrew 
January 1, L883, and. with the exception of one year from July 1, 1885, 

Bench and Bar. 225 

when Mr. George W. Patterson, of Hanover, was associated with him, he 
has since had no partner in the practice of his profession. 

Since 1860 Mr. Eay has been retained in nearly every important law- 
suit in Coos and Essex counties, his practice extending into other counties 
and to the Federal courts of New Hampshire and Vermont, and to cases 
before the Supreme Court of the United States. From L869 to the death 
of the late John E. Lyon, president of the Boston, Concord & Montreal 
and White Mountains Railroad, he was counsel for him and for that cor- 
poration. Before 1872 he was employed in suits in New Hampshire and 
Vermont against the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. Since that date 
he has always been retained by that company. His work before the full 
bench of the New Hampshire Supreme Court may by traced in nearly 
every volume of the reports, from the 36th, containing cases heard in July, 
L857, to the 64th, now in press. Mr. Ray was a representative from Lan- 
caster in the state legislature in L868 and 1869, the former year serving as 
chairman of the committee on elections, and in the latter as chairman of 
the committee on judiciary; was solicitor of Coos county from L862 to L872; 
was delegate-at-large to the Republican national convention at Philadel- 
phia in June, 1872; was United States attorney for the district of New 
Hampshire, by appointment of President Hayes, from February 22, L879, 
to December 23, 1880, when he resigned, upon his nomination as a candi- 
date for Congress. At the death of Hon. Evarts W. Fan', November 30, 
1880, Mr. Ray was elected to till the vacancy for the unexpired term, and 
to succeed himself from March 4, 1881, to March 4, L883, as a Republican 
representative from the Third congressional district of New Hampshire, by 
over 5,000 majority. He was re-elected in L882as representative from the 
Second congressional district, the state having been re-districted during 
his term of office. In the House of Representatives Mr. Ray served on 
the committees of invalid pensions and claims, the duties of which arc 
always onerous and exacting. His services on the former committee will 
long be remembered by many a veteran, and soldier's widow or children, 
for no appeal in their behalf ever went unheard, no just cause unespoused. 
During his brief service in the 46th Congress he was largely instrumental 
in securing the passage of an act removing the terms of the United States 
Courts, formerly held at Exeter, to Concord, thereby convening the north- 
ern and western portions of the state. In the ttth Congress he aided in 
securing an appropriation of $200,000 for a United States court-house and 
postoffice building at Concord, an elegant structure now practically com- 
pleted. In the 48th Congress, it is safe to say that had it uol hern for his 
persistent work and personal influence among his fellow members, an 
appropriation of $200,000 for a similar building at Manchester would have 
failed. He was a strong advocate of the abolition of the duty on sugar, 
although in favor of a protective tariff when necessary for the benefil of 

226 History of Coos County. 

American manufacturers and producers. He also earnestly favored legis- 
lation authorizing the government to establish and operate telegraph lines 
in connection with the postal service of the country. 

Mr. Ray has been eminently the architect of his own fortunes. He 
possesses wonderful energy, industry, perseverance, enthusiasm and zeal. 
His great vital force renders him unconscious of obstacles and difficulties; 
he has confidence in himself and in his case, and is a formidable opponent. 
His language is clear, incisive, forcible, effective— and often eloquent. He 
is especially powerful on law points before the full bench of the Supreme 
Court; he is always quick to think and quick to act. Mr. Ray is not infal- 
lible; his impulse sometimes leads him astray; but his reason quickly sets 
him right. Once having seriously decided upon a course of action he is 
hard to swerve from his purpose. Mr. Ray has always been an assiduous 
reader, student, and lover of books. His private library is very rich and 
extensive, books being gathered in nearly every room in his house. Return- 
ing from a journey he has generally a new lot to add to his collection. 
These books on history, logic, philosophy, statistics, science, poetry, travel, 
biography, and art— on every subject of interest and value to the human 
family— he eagerly devours. His law library is one of the most extensive 
in the state. He is a man of wonderful memory. Facts and incidents 
once in his mind are always accessible and available, and he will readily 
take from his shelves a volume and refer to the page bearing upon or illus- 
trating any fact or theory he has ever read. In this respect he constantly 
displays to his friends capability and resource unexpected and extraordi- 
nary. In the most trying situations he has control of his temper; he is 
entirely without envy or jealousy, and rejoices heartily in the success of 
his friends and acquaintances; he is considerate towards young attorneys. 
All his friends, and they are many, are tenacious in their attachment to 

In private life Mr. Ray is affable, genial, sincere and warm-hearted. 
Since his residence in Lancaster he has done much to improve the appear- 
ance of the village, entering heartily into every project for the betterment 
of the place. He is public spirited, charitable, liberal, and always to be 
depended upon for his share in the public burdens. He attends the Con- 
gregational church, but gives with a generous hand to the support of all 
denominations in the town. His means and labor are freely given to ren- 
der neat and attractive the appearance of his buildings, land, and the ad- 
joining highways. Physically he is robust and possessed of an iron con- 
stitution. His face is lighted up with intelligence, will and good nature. 

Mr. Ray has been very fortunate in his marital relations. His first 
wile, whom he married March 2, L856, was Alice A. Fling, daughter of 
Henry Fling, at that time a citizen of West Stewartstown and afterwards 
of Portland, Maine. She was a woman of lovely character, wonderfully 

Bench and Bail 227 

kind-hearted, caring for those in need, devoted to her husbandand family. 
She bore him two children, and died April ir>, L871. He married, second, 
October L6, L872, Mrs. Sallie Emery (Small) Burnside, a lady of rare quali- 
ties of mind and groat strength of character, possessing fine judgment, an 
amiable disposition, genial and affable manners, and entering quietly bul 
heartily into Mr. Ray's plans and aspirations, guiding with her counsel 
and strengthening with her love. 

His children are: Edward, born October Is. 1858, married, lives in 
Jefferson; Alice, born April 4, L866; Helen, born November 17. L873; < >ssian, 
Jr., born January 4, 1878. 

William Spencer Ladd, LL. D., son of Hiram and Aurelia (Palmer) 
Ladd, was born in Dalton, September 5, 1830. On both paternal and ma- 
ternal sides he descends from families of position in New England from 
early colonial days. [Daniel Ladd. probably the ancestor of all the Ladds 
of New England, came, according to "Burke's Landed Gentry," from an 
ancient family, landed proprietors in Kent, England, before L500. He 
sailed from London. March 24, 1633, in the "Mary and John," settled at 
Ipswich, and, in 1640, was one of the twelve founders of Haverhill, .Mass. 
He held prominent offices, and lived respected and honored to a good old 
age. Many of his descendants are graduates of Harvard, Dartmouth and 
Amherst. The Palmer family is an old Connecticut one, coming down, 
with sterling representatives in each generation, from Walter Palmer, the 
pioneer settler of Stonington.] 

Judge Ladd passed his early life in Dalton, and. after preparatory edu- 
cation at district and high schools and the N. H. Conference seminary at 
Sanbornton Bridge, entered the class of 1855 at Dartmouth college, where 
he was duly graduated. [Besides Judge Ladd, this class has given as 
judges of the highest courts of their respective states. Judge W. II II. 
Allen, of this state, Judge Greenleaf Clark, of Minnesota, and Judge 
Walbridge A. Field, of Massachusetts; also Hon. Nelson Dingley, Jr., 
ex-governor of Maine, now representative in Congress from that state.] 
He had made his way through college, principally by teaching, and. 
after graduation, taught one year in South Damns. Mass. He then 
entered the office of Hon. A. A. Abbott, of Salem, .Ala — ., as a studenl 
of law, where he remained until the death of his mother called him back 
to Dalton in 1858. Entering the office of Burns & Fletcher he diligently 
availed himself of the teachings of these able counselors, and was admit- 
ted to practice at Lancaster in 1859. 

Colebrook offered a good field, and Mr. Ladd at once opened an office 
there, and soon acquired a busy and profitable practice. This rapidly out- 
grew the limits of the "Northern district," and, in L867, he removed to 
Lancaster, and formed a partnership with Ossian Ray. The firm won a 
high reputation, and continued until the fall of L870, when Mr. Ladd was 

228 History of Coos County. 

unexpectedly appointed judge of the Supreme Judicial Court. As he was 
the first Democrat appointed to this position by a Republican governor, 
the honor conferred was all the more significant and complimentary. 
Judge Ladd remained on the bench of this court until 1874, when it was 
legislated out of existence, and he was at once appointed to the second 
place on the Superior Court of Judicature, which he held until 1876, when 
the Republicans came into power and abolished the court. In 1877 he 
formed a law partnership with Everett Fletcher, which still exists. In 
this later practice in state and national courts, many cases of great impor- 
tance have been successfully entrusted to him, and he has been referee in 
numerous causes of magnitude. He is regarded as authority in all matters 
of railroad law, excels as a business counselor, and is an extremely busy 
man. He possesses that rare combination of nature s almost essentially 
opposite, — strong logical reason and quick sensibilities, and he seizes ac- 
curately upon the salient points of an involved controversy, and by an in- 
ward debate clears away the immaterial and confusing, and brings to the 
service of his client careful preparation, learned research, accurate applica- 
tion of law. and good ''fighting 1 ' qualities. Dartmouth college recognized 
this and made him Doctor of Laws in L887. He was appointed reporter of 
the decisions of the Supreme Court in 1883, and every case decided since 
his appointment has been in print within 120 days, while the accumula- 
tions of the five years previous are nearly all published. 

Placed upon the bench when but forty years old, Judge Ladd immedi- 
ately gave evidence of his fitness for the position. His first opinion de- 
fined the status of insanity in New Hampshire law, and attracted atten- 
tion from American and English jurists, and writers upon the Medical 
Jurisprudence of iusanity. He was the embodiment of a high profes- 
sional morality, and preserved his ermine unsullied. Every case presented 
to his court was carefully weighed with judgment singularly dispassionate, 
and decided on its merits in law, and few exceptions to his rulings were 
sustained. It is through his opinions and as a jurist that Judge Ladd is 
best known outside the state. In their breadth, scope of argument, clear- 
ness of statement and elegance of diction they rank among the ablest. 
Judge Barrett, of Vermont, once said that it was a pity Judge Ladd had 
not been re-appointed, as the lawyers of the country had come to look for 
his decisions as they did for those of Chief Justice Shepley. " They were 
luminous with good sense.'' 

Judge Ladd married, July 5, I860, Almira B., daughter of Hiram A. 
and I 'ersis I Hunking) Fletcher, and great-granddaughter of Judge Everett. 
Their surviving children are Fletcher (D. C. 1884), now a student of law 
in Germany, William P., and Mary E. Judge Ladd's early youth was 
passed in a home atmosphere which stimulated his desire for learning, 
and he has ever been a diligent student. He is intellectual, cultured, and 

Bench \m> Bar. 229 

well read, loves a good and a rare book, has a valuable private library, 
and is a discriminating critic in literature, music, and art. He is liberal 
to all worthy objects, an Episcopalian in religion, a courteous gentleman 
and enjoyable companion, while in the circle of his charming home he is 
the soul of kindness. 

Henry Heywood has been in the practice of law in Coos county for 
seventeen years. He was born in Guildhall, Vt. , December 6, L835. He 
attended district schools, and several terms at Lancaster academy. In 
L852, he entered the Scientific Department of Dartmouth college and 
graduated in 1 855. He immediately went to Wisconsin, and was employed 
as a civil engineer till 1857. He then came to Lancaster whither his father, 
William Heywood, had removed, began the study of law in his office, and 
was admitted to the bar in the spring of 1860. He then practiced about 
a year in Tarn worth, N. II., then removed to Guildhall, Vt., and remained 
until 1869, and was state's attorney for Essex county two years from 
December 1, 1862. In June, 1866, Mr. Heywood married Catherine R. 
Hubbard, of Springfield, Vt. They have one son, William H., born Feb- 
ruary 25, 1868, now a student of law. In 1869 Mr. Heywood located in 
Lancaster, and was associated with William Burns until 1876, when Mr. 
Burns retired, and Mr. Heywood went into partnership with his father, 
which connection still continues. He was appointed solicitor of Coos 
county in July, 187-1, and was removed "by address" from the office in 
July, 1876, with three other county officers (for political reasons, in fact, 
though it is not so expressed in the resolution.) Mr. Heywood has kept 
up his practice in Essex county, Vt. , as well as here, and practiced some 
in the United States courts, and has twice been to Washington, and argued 
cases before the U. S. Supreme Court. He is a well-read and competent 
lawyer, one of the best informed in the county, and is particularly versed 
in laws concerning real estate, to which he has paid much attention 

Gen. Albert S. Twitchell, son of Joseph A. and Orinda L. Twitchell, 
was born in Bethel, Me., September 16, 1840. He was prepared tor col- 
lege at Gould's academy, at Bethel, before he was sixteen, under the 
instruction of that celebrated educator, Dr. N. T. True. He then engaged 
in teaching, and for four years was an extremely popular and successful 
instructor. Choosing the law as his life business, he became a student in 
the office of S. F.Gibson, at Bethel. In the spring of 1863 he was appointed 
enrolling officer of those subject to draft in the district containing Bethel; 
and, after concluding the duties of thai office, enlisted, in December, L863, 
in the Seventh Maine Light Battery. When the battery was organized he 
was made quartermaster's sergeant, and held this position until detailed. 
in February, 1865, by Gen. Grant for duty al Wesl Point, Va., where he 
remained until mustered out of service at the close of the war. 

He returned to Maine and his law studies, was admitted to practice in 


230 History of Coos County. 

the courts of Maine in December, 1865, and the next year, in November, 
was admitted to practice at the New Hampshire bar, removed to Gorham, 
opened an office, and has since been actively engaged in practice. He is 
an energetic, busy, honorable lawyer, his standard of professional morality 
is high, and he has a large clientage. He has been much in official posi- 
tions. In 1872, when but thirty-two, he was elected by the Republicans 
railroad commissioner of New Hampshire, and held the office three years. 
In 1875 and 1876 he was a colonel on the staff of Gov. P. C. Cheney. In 
September, 1877, he was appointed postmaster of Gorham, and held the 
office nearly nine years, resigning it in July, 1886. He has taken great 
interest in the Grand Army of the Republic, has served two years as judge- 
advocate of the New Hampshire department of this organization, two 
years upon the council of administration, and was a delegate to the 
National Encampment at Denver, Colorado, in L885. He was elected 
president of the New Hampshire Veterans' Association at their annual re- 
union in August, 1886, and unanimously re-elected in August, 1887. In 
June, 1887, he was elected commissary-general of the state by the New 
Hampshire legislature, and, as such, holds the rank of general on Gov. 
Sawyer's staff. Gen. Twitchell has always taken a high position in favor 
of everything tending to the elevation and betterment of mankind, and has 
been a zealous temperance worker. He was a delegate from the N. H. 
Grand Lodge of I. 0. G. T. to the Right Worthy Grand Lodge of the world 
which met at Saratoga in May, 1887. 

He has enthusiastically aided in the development of the material 
interests of Gorham. He erected the fine block that bears his name, 
in many ways has labored to build up the financial and moral prosperity 
of the town, and. perhaps, more than any other citizen of the place is 
interested in the educational, brotherhood, and literary interests of the 
community. He is generous to a fault, and responds liberally to all appeals 
for help. He married, April 7, 1869, Emma A., daughter of Parker How- 
land. Their only child, Harold P., died young. 

Moses A. Hastings was born at Bethel, Me., December 31, 1848, and 
received his education at the celebrated Gould's academy, in Bethel, where 
he was fitted for college. He read law in the office of Hon. David Ham- 
mons, at Bethel, from the fall of L864 to August, 1867. He then attended 
the Albany (N. Y.) Law school, and was admitted to the bar of Oxford 
county (Me.) in the spring of 1868. He removed to Gorham, N. H., in 
October, and was admitted to the Coos county bar at the November term, 
and at once commenced practice at Gorham, as a partner of A. S. Twitchell. 
This partnership lasted four years, from which time Mr. Hastings con- 
tinued alone in practice until 1874, when he was appointed clerk of courts 
for Coos county, and removed to Lancaster. He was re appointed in 1876, 

Bench and Bar. 231 

and still holds office, discharging the duties with urbanity and ability, and 
winning many friends. 

Judge Everett Fletcher, son of Hiram A. and Persis (Hunking) 
Fletcher, was born at Colebrook, December 23, L848. He received edu- 
cation at Lancaster schools and Ann Arbor (Mich.) university; studied 
law with Fletcher & Hey wood, with whom he had most excellent advan- 
tages for becoming thoroughly grounded in knowledge of law and methods 
of practice, which were not neglected. He was admitted to the bar No- 
vember L8, 1870, and ever since has been in extremely busy practice. 
He established himself as a lawyer in Lancaster, and June 1 1, 1873, entered 
into partnership with his father, as Fletcher & Fletcher. This connection 
lasted four years, when the firm of Ladd & Fletcher was formed, which 
still continues. He was appointed judge advocate-general, with rank of 
brigadier-general by Gov. S. W. Hale, in June, 1883, and held that office 
two years. He was appointed judge of probate of Coos county, by Gov, 
Moody Currier, and took the office April 1, 1885. He is a strong Republi- 
can, and a member of Coos lodge, Knights of Pythias. 

Judge Fletcher draws legal papers strongly; is an honest and careful 
counselor in business matters, entering with all his heart, as well as mind, 
into the interests of his clients; and is especially adapted to win success as 
a lawyer. He is particularly calculated for the important functions of a 
judge of probate. He is studious, systematic, an original thinker, and 
inherits much of the quickness of apprehension, literary tastes, and ready 
wit of his father. Few men of his years in the state stand higher in 
ability or industry, or are more agreeable or pleasant social companions. 

Hon. Irving Webster Drew. — Among the progressive men engaged in 
business, or the professions in Coos county, few are better or more favor- 
ably known than Irving W. Drew. He inherited an iron constitution and 
strong intellectual powers from his ancestry, who were of the New Eng- 
land stock. The eldest surviving son of Amos W. Drew, he was born at 
Colebrook, January 8, 1845. His early experience at rugged farm labor 
was little varied but by attendance at the district school and a neighbor- 
ing academy. He was fitted for college at Meriden, N. H., and graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1870. The same year he entered the law oft ice of Ray & 
Ladcl, at Lancaster, N. H. He never really knew the lifeof the traditional 
law student. His preceptors, driven with business, threw him into the 
skirmish line at the outset. With a well disciplined mind, sound judg- 
ment, and a thorough understanding of the opinions and character of the 
people among whom he moved, he learned the law more in its relation to 
actual facts than as an abstract science. In November, L871, he was reg- 
ularly admitted to the bar, only a year and a half after bis graduation. 
Early in the following January he succeeded Judge Ladd. who bad been 
appointed to the bench, as a member of the firm. In the spring of L873 


History of Coos County. 

Hon William Hevwood became a member of the partnership, which was, 
for the next three" years, Ray, Drew & Hey wood. Mr. Jordan who then 
succeeded Mr. Hevwood, the retiring member, has ever since been a part- 
ner with Mr. Drew. Gen. Philip Carpenter, now of New York was in the 
firm from the winter of 1882 till the summer of 1885. Mr. Ray, having 
some toe previously been elected to Congress, retired from the partner- 
sub, at the first of the year 1884. However the firm has been constituted, 
Mr Drew has all the time been a conspicuously useful member. Neither 
has he avoided the social and political duties, which the reliable member 
of the legal profession are constantly called to assume. A Democrat of 
dee ded convictions, with broad and liberal views on all questions ot public 
pofi y he has a well-earned reputation, both as an efficient organizer and 
Evincing exponent of party principles on the ^™ lg8 f™^ e 
gate to the Cincinnati Democratic National convention of 1880, and a state 
fenator in 1888. He made a record there as a judicious legislator a skill- 
ful parliamentarian, a superior debater, a dignified and incorruptible sena- 
tor He is interested in educational work, and does his part to sustain he 
Lading social organizations; to build up the church; to give the publ ctle 
benefit of libraries, improved public buildings and first class hotels; to 
extend railroad lines in directions which shall develop the resources of the 

C ° U He y is known as Major Drew. This came of his service in the Thud 
Eegt N. H. National Guards, for some three or four yea rs. Tradition 
has it that Major Drew's father was an accomplished mil.tia officer The 
maxim "Like 1 father, like son" is further exemplified by both paving 
been members of the Senate and both pleasing vocalists The Majoi is 
everywhere admired for his social qualities, and in song he is facde pr^n- 
cepJ But the attachment of his friends is not to be a tnbuted to those 
ac omplishments of song, speech and manner, which nug d_ «k him 
eoually to life-long or casual associates. It comes from his sincerity, his 
helpf less and sympathy in their adversity, and his unfeigned sat.sfa 
tion in the knowledge of their prosperity. 

Mr Drew's horn! since he first entered upon the study and practice of 
the law with Mr. Ray, has been at Lancaster. Miss Carrie H. Merrill, 
daughter of S. R. Merrill, of Colebrook, became his wife November i 
1869 Of their children three survive-two sons and a daughter. Except 
his famfiv and his home, nothing is so near his heart, nothing so com- 
n a. is powers as does his profession. All the diversions of business 
™nd society' and the zeal of political contention are ^temporary ji h h. 
He makes his client's cause bis own. He prepares for trial with ^care with 
fidelity, and with determination to have the verdict. He takes .espons 
hffitr and if necessary, makes bold hazards for success. He is skillful in 
th e eia ion of witaesses, and stands among the leading advocates of 

~+ x m n« - 

K7^^7^c^, <^^~~%^W^ 

Bench and Bar. 233 

the courts in which he appears. To enumerate the causes of the p 
decade in which he has had prominent part would be the naming of the 
important matters of litigation in Northern New Hampshire and Eastern 
Vermont. A tireless worker with a large clientage and profitable business, 
he is a good financier and has earned a sound foundation for his reputa- 
tion, both as an able lawyer and a successful man of affairs. 

He is in the fullness of his powers. His character is established. It is 
the manifestation of his own sturdy manhood; and his friends may look 
with confidence to what the future may hold in store for him. 

Alfred R. Evans is a son of Otis Evans, of Shelburne, and .Martha 
Pinkham, daughter of Daniel Pinkham, who is well remembered as the 
man who built the first carriage road from Jackson to Randolph, through 
the Pinkham Notch, and lived where the Glen House now stands. Mr. 
Evans was born in Shelburne, March 21, 1849. He fitted for college at 
Lancaster academy, graduated at Dartmouth college in 1872, read law at 
Gorham. and was a member of the state legislature from Shelburne in 
1S71-75, in the latter year being chairman of the committee on insurance, 
a subject to which he has paid considerable attention. He was admitted 
to Coos county bar in April, 1875, and since that time has been in the prac- 
tice of his profession in Gorham. He was also returned to the legislature 
in 1878. He is justice of the peace and quorum throughout the state, and 
notary public in New Hampshire. He was married, June 1, 1881, to Mrs. 
Dora J. Briggs, daughter of Charles W. Bean, of Gorham. Mr. Evans is 
a straightforward man, attends faithfully to the duties of his profession, 
is an able, energetic lawyer of strict integrity, and a close and painstaking 
student. He has many elements of popularity, and possesses a most genial 
disposition and a large circle of friends. 

Hon. Chester Bradley Jordan, born in Oolebrook, N. H., October 
15, 1839, was youngest son of Johnson and Minerva (Buel) Jordan. 

The name Jordan is of French origin, the original orthography being 
Jourdaine. One branch of the family crossed the English Channel with 
William the Conqueror, and became domiciled in England. Others of the 
name emigrated to New England direct from France at an early period. 
We do not know, nor does it matter, from which particular line of foreign 
descent Mr. Jordan takes his origin; sufficient for us it is that for several 
generations his ancestors on both sides have been Americans, true and 
loyal to the country and its institutions. His grandfather, Benjamin Jor- 
dan, was born in the old town of Rehoboth, Mass., served four years in 
the Continental army during the Revolution, and was one of the daring 
little band that effected the historic -capture of Gen. Prescott. His mater- 
nal grandfather, Capt. Benjamin Buel, came to Colebrook from Connecti- 
cut (where he was born, August 20, 17(57,) in 1803. He was a scholarly 
man of excellent character and refined tastes, an elegant penman, and, 


234: History of Coos County. 

for many winters, a highly prized teacher in Colebrook. He died March 
24, 1829. His wife, Violetta Sessions, was also born in Connecticut. She 
was a woman of aristocratic culture and bearing, and had quite a compe- 
tency in her own right. She died in her native state, in 1855, aged seventy- 
seven. Johnson Jordan, born in Plainfield, N. H., April 8, 1708, came to 
Colebrook in 1818, and, in 1822, married Minerva Buel, (born July 19, 
1801, at Hebron, Conn., died in Colebrook, March 18, 1853.) They had 
ten children, of whom six attained maturity. From the birth of Chester 
B. until her death, fourteen years, Mrs. Jordan was an invalid. She was, 
however, more than an ordinary woman, and her teachings, influence, and 
character had a strong and beneficial effect upon her children. The testi- 
mony of her intimates is that she was a noble Christian woman of sterling 
worth, unflinching in duty, sensitive, modest and lovable, tender and con- 
siderate, and keenly alive to the wants of others. Loyal to her convic- 
tions of right and duty, she never hesitated, even if others faltered, and, 
for many years, was a valued member of the Congregational church. 
Johnson Jordan was a strong man physically, of fair judgment and sense, 
but passed many years of his active life in the hard and unprofitable labors 
of a pioneer and clearer of lands. He died August 16, 1873. 

The early years of Chester B. Jordan were passed in hard labor with 
long days of toil, scant advantages of education, and but little to encour- 
age him. Nothing but bare essentials, not the slightest approach to luxury, 
found a place in the frugal household. Strict economy was compulsory in 
the home life, and the scarcity of money caused home-made clothing to be 
the wearing apparel for many years. The cheerless tasks were faithfully 
done, and the privations uncomplainingly endured, but the lad hungered 
for knowledge. There were no books at home except the Bible and well- 
thumbed school books, and the small Sunday-school library was eagerly 
devoured. There is one compensation possessed by a life environed by 
such adverse circumstances, in that there is early developed a keenness of 
thought and capacity of self- reliance beyond its years, and so we find that 
Chester at an early age gathered and sold berries to pay for a subscription 
to the Independent Democrat, and, later on, to the New York Tribune, and 
began to be conversant with the affairs of the world and the politics of 
the country at an age when many lads were only thinking of their toys. 
He was interested at nine years of age in the campaign which placed Gen. 
Taylor in the presidential chair, and much more in that of 1852, when he 
purchased a campaign life of General Scott and committed it nearly to 
memory, and thought himself equipped to demonstrate to the Democratic- 
boys of his circle the wisdom of electing Gen. Scott instead of Gen. Pierce. 
He remained with his father until 1860, when his increased desire for edu- 
cation caused him to enter Colebrook academy for the first half of the term. 
From this time he attended Colebrook and Meriden academies, until he was 

2- 2-. /rtj, 

Bench and Bar. 235 

graduated at the latter institution in L866. He became a popular teacher 
of public and select schools, was principal of Colebrook academy several 
terms, and taught in all eighteen terms. He was town superintendent of 
Colebrook in L865-60 »'»7, and selectman for is»>7. 

He heartily espoused the Republican cause and was chosen to preside at 
all the meetings of that party held in Colebrook in t lie spirited campaign 
which resulted in the re-election of Lincoln. He made many friends, did 
thoroughly and without bluster all duties coming to his hand, and in L868, 
was appointed clerk of the court, and removed to Lancaster, which has 
since been his residence. He discharged the duties of this office with 
efficiency, and his retention was asked by nearly every attorney in the 
county, but he was too strongly Republican to be retained under a Demo- 
cratic administration, and was removed October 23. 1874. He hail decided 
literary tastes and ability, could clearly and forcibly express his opinions 
in writing, and. in L870, had purchased the Cods Republican and become 
its editor. Under his administration it was a candid but determined sup- 
porter of Grant, and ranked high among the newspapers of the state. For 
many years Mr. Jordan contributed articles to the Boston Journal, Con- 
cord Monitor, the Statesman and campaign papers, and also to the Lan- 
caster Gazette in the presidential campaign of 1884. His political articles 
are marked for their clear comprehensiveness of affairs, their straight- 
forward, matter-of-fact way of presentation, their candor, and their logi- 
cal and conclusive reasoning. In a quiet and unpretentious manner 
they reach the understandings of all in a manner which tells. By voice 
and by his gifted pen he has ever advocated liberal appropriations for all 
educational, charitable and patriotic objects. 

Air. Jordan began the study of law while clerk, continued it in the office 
of Judge Ladd, and, afterward, in that of Ray, Drew & Hey wood, and was 
admitted to practice in the state courts in November, 1875. He remained 
with Ray, Drew & Hey wood until May 26, l s 7i'», when Mr. Heywood retired, 
and the firm became Ray, Drew & Jordan. This firm was succeeded Jan- 
uary 16, L882, by Drew, Jordan & Carpenter, and. later, by Drew & .Jor- 
dan. (In May, 1881, Mr. Jordan was admitted to practice in the Circuit 
Court of the United States.) As a lawyer Mr. Jordan has chiefly given 
attention to the drafting of legal papers (in which he excels) and other 
office business. Connected as he has been with two such noted advocates 
as Ray and Drew, and being somewhat modest as to his abilities, he has 
not ventured often into this field, but when he has done so he has acquitted 
himself ably, and, in the opinion of some of his legal brethren, if he were 
compelled to present all of his cases to the courts and juries, he would soon 
equal, if not surpass, any advocate in this section. 

From his sixteenth year Mr. Jordan has been a hard worker in politics. 
In Colebrook he was among the chief workers in carrying that close town. 

236 History of Coos County. 

He was a good organizer, a close canvasser, and men would follow his lead. 
For several years he was pitted against Hon. Hazen Bedel (the strongest 
man of the Democracy, and one of the best men in the county,) for the 
moderator vote, which was considered the test of the day, and was never 
defeated, although the plurality was sometimes but one. In Lancaster he 
was put up in the same manner against the popular Col. Henry 0. Kent, 
and is the only candidate nominated by the Republicans who has ever 
beaten the Colonel for moderator. In 1880 in a hot, close fight, Mr. Jor- 
dan had one majority for first representative in a vote of nearly seven 
hundred, making a gain of over one hundred votes for his party. He was 
chosen speaker of the House by a very complimentary vote, and although 
new to the duties of this difficult office, he proved himself a most admira- 
ble presiding officer, prompt, impartial, easy and rapid in transacting the 
work of the position, and his efficiency and courtesy won him many and 
valuable friends. The Manchester Union, the leading Democratic paper 
of the state, thus voiced the general sentiment at the close of the session: 
"For Speaker Jordan there is but one encomium, and that fell from the 
lips of all, 'Well done, good and faithful servant." Mr. Jordan was 
chairman of the Republican state convention held in Concord in Septem- 
ber, 1882. There was a bitter contest concerning the nomination for gov- 
ernor raging between the friends of Moody Currier and S. W. Hale. Fac- 
tional feeling ran high, but, under the tact and guidance of the presiding 
officer, harmony was secured, and the work of the convention successfully 
accomplished. Mr. Jordan has much influence in public matters, and 
prominent men have owed their elevation to important positions to his 
counsel and assistance. In 1880 he was unanimously nominated for state 
senator in the Coos district, and made a strong fight in spite of the over- 
whelming odds against him, running three hundred ahead of his ticket. 
In 1876 he was appointed one of a committee of three to investigate the 
affairs of the State Normal school, and wrote the report to the legislature, 
which was ordered printed in pamphlet form. In 1881 Dartmouth college 
gave him the degree of A. B. ; in 1882 he was chosen honorary member of 
the Third Regiment, N. H. National Guards; in 1883 elected member of 
Webster Historical Society of Boston; in 1884 chosen honorary member of 
the Seventh N. H. Veteran's Association. He has long been a member of 
Evening Star lodge of Masons at Colebrook, and of the Chapter at Lan- 
caster, and was a director in the Lancaster National bank during the first 
two years of its existence. 

Mr. Jordan married, July 19, 1879, Ida R. Nutter, daughter of Oliver 
and Roxannah C. (Wentworth) Nutter. She is descended from old New 
Hampshire families of repute, and is a lady whom it is always a pleasure 
to meet. They have had two children, Roxannah Minerva, born January 
19, 1882, and Hugo, born May 26, 1881, died May 2, 1886. 

. "■ : 


Bench and Bar. 237 

Mr. Jordan's abilities have received recognition in business and social, 
as well as in public and professional life. He is a wise and safe counselor 
in business matters, lias conceded executive ability, and is the guardian of 
many private trusts. He has a keen appreciation of humor, tells a good 
story well, can give a quick and telling repartee with point and wit devoid 
of any sting, and is popular because he deserves to be. His judgments of 
men and measures are singularly clear and impartial. 1 1 is c< inclusions are 
formed from a broad comprehension of all the facts. His sense of justice 
is strong, and his intellectual qualities are admirably balanced. With all 
this, he has the warmest of hearts, the quickest of sympathies, great kind- 
ness of manner and utmost geniality of spirit. 

Frank D. Hutchins, born in Putney, Vt., in 1850, was a graduate of 
Kimball Union academy and Dartmouth college. He taught school in 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and proved himself a thorough, im- 
partial, scholarly, and highly competent instructor. In 1874 he began the 
study of law with N. B. Felton, of Haverhill, but completed his studies 
for admission to the bar with Ray, Drew & Heywood, of Lancaster, and 
practiced law there from 1876 to 1881. He then became cashier of the 
Lancaster National bank, which position he now holds. 

Willard N. Armington, born in Waterford, Yt., November 10, 1^:»»», 
graduated from University of Vermont in 187-1; studied law with Belden & 
Ide, St. Johnsbury; admitted to the bar of Vermont at St. Johnsbury in 
1876; located at Whiteheld, September 15, 1S76, where he has since been in 

Philip Carpenter, son of Judge A. P. Carpenter, born in Bath, N. H., 
March 9, 1856, w^as educated at St. Johnsbury (Vt.) academy and Dart- 
mouth college. He graduated in 1877, read law with his father, and was 
admitted to practice at Concord in September, 1880. Forming an immedi- 
ate partnership with his father, he began practice at Bath. This firm did 
business one year when the father was appointed judge. Philip continued 
at Bath until the next January (1882) when he entered the firm of Ray, 
Drew & Jordan at Lancaster. He was in practice here until June. L885, 
when he removed to New York city, where he has acquired an extensive 
and profitable business. 

Robert Nelson Chamberlin, son of Antoine and Electa B. (Sears) 
Chamberlin, was born in Bangor, N. Y., July '21, 1856. His grandfather, 
Francois Chamberlin, was born in or near Paris, France, when young emi- 
grated to Canada, and was a marine in the British service during the War 
of 1812. He attained the great age of ninety-nine years, dying al the home 
of. his son in West Stewartstown. Antoine Chamberlin was a native of 
Nicollet, P. Q. When fourteen he went to Sherbrooke, worked eight 
years at shoemaking, married his wife at Hinesburg, Vt., her native place, 
and made his home in Franklin county, N. Y., residing in Malone and 

238 History of Coos County. 

Bangor until 1859, when he came to West Stewartstown where he now 

Robert was but three years old when his father came to Stewartstown, 
and, as he was one of a large family of children, and robust, he early 
became familiar with labor, and for years had the most meager educa- 
tional advantages; from eight years of age until he was sixteen obtaining 
as a respite from continuous toil only a few weeks attendance at the small 
village school. At the latter age he had the physicial power of a well-matured 
man, and commanded more than the usual wages as a farm hand; but the 
thoughtful youth was not content to excel in this sphere. A laudable 
ambition prompted him to attain a higher position and a broader field of 
usefulness, and, as a stepping stone to this, he applied himself to the 
acquisition of learning. It required more than an ordinary will to force 
himself out from and above his associations and surroundings, and to fix 
his attention on an intellectual career, but his active and vigorous mind 
carried him on; he worked summers and devoted his winters to learning, 
attending the academies at Colebrook and Derby (Vt.), acquiring a good 
foundation for the study of law, in which he saw much to attract him, 
and for which he seemed well adapted. 

In the winter of 1877-78 he commenced his legal education in the office 
of G. W. Hartshorn, at Canaan, Vt., was admitted to the bar at Guildhall 
in March, 1881, and formed a partnership with Mr. Hartshorn. Attracted 
by the life and activity of the growing town of Berlin, Mr. Chamberlin, in 
July of the same year, established a law office there, thus becoming the 
first lawyer in the place. Finding that the rules of the New Hampshire 
bar barred him from practice in its courts, he applied for admission, passed 
the rigid examination creditably, and was admitted at Concord, March 15, 

He married, November -2, 1882, Maria H., daughter of Ira and Ann J. 
(Howard) Mason, a native of Berlin, a lady of strong New England prac- 
ticality and sterling worth, in whom he has a helpmate, counselor, com- 
panion and friend. They have one child, Lafayette Ray. 

Mr. Chamberlin has made rapid progress for a young lawyer, has 
acquired a good clientage, and is popular with the older members of the 
legal profession, and is entitled to much credit for what he has accom- 
plished. He has a clear conception of the strong and the weak points of a 
case, is earnest and industrious in the preparation and trial of causes 
entrusted to him, but prefers to keep his clients out of law-suits rather 
than involve them in protracted litigation. He always advises a fair and 
honorable adjustment of difference between parties, rather than the certain 
expense and the uncertain results at the hands of courts and juries. The 
same quiet, thoughtful determination which led him to obtain, unaided, a 
legal education, makes the first impulse of his mind in investigating any 

Bench and Bak. 239 

question to search for principles rather than expedients: this inclination 
will tend to make him particularly strong as a counselor, and in the 
domain of equity practice. His briefs, pleas, and other documents are 
drafted to cover every point, and one of the older members of the bar 
says: "They may appear awkward and clumsy, and easy to be torn to 
pieces, but on examination we find every point covered, and every nail 
clinched." Of fine physique, commanding presence, and clear voire, he 
has the qualities of a good advocate, and is rapidly winning his way in 
that difficult field. His presentation of the claims of Berlin for the estab- 
lishment of the county seat, at the late county convention, won much 
praise from leading men, and particularly his brother lawyers. 

As a citizen he heartily supports all local improvements and public 
enterprises calculated to advance the interests of the town and the welfare 
of the community; he lias served as superintendent of schools, on the 
board of education, and is one of the selectmen of L88Y. He is a member 
of the Congregational church, a Republican in politics, and a member of 
the Masonic order. Yet a young man. having scarcely attained the fullness 
of his physical and mental powers, Mr. Chamberlin may look forward to 
a long life of usefulness in his chosen profession. 

Herbert Irvin Goss, son of Abel B. and Lucy G. (Ross) Goss, and 
nephew of Judge Jonathan Ross, of St. Johnsbury, was born in Water- 
ford, Vt., December 4, 1857. Attended common schools, and was gradu- 
ated from St. Johnsbury academy in June, 1880. He taught school the 
following autumn, and in 1881 commenced the study of law, a profession 
for which he always had a preference, in the office of Elisha May, at St. 
Johnsbury. Mr. May soon after formed a partnership with Henry C. Bates, 
and Mr. Goss remained in their office until June, L8S3, when he was 
admitted, upon examination, to the bar of Caledonia county. In October, 

1883, he formed a business connection with F. B. Wright for the practice 
of law in Minneapolis, Minn. Tbis partnership was dissolved in April, 

1884. Mr. Goss remained in Minnesota until October, L884. Returning 
east, January 21, 1885, he opened a law office in Guildhall, Vt.. and. April 
1, 1885, he went to Lancaster, N. H., and entered into a two years' part- 
nership with Hon. Jacob Benton. July 30, 1885, he was admitted to the 
New Hampshire courts. He is a good student and well versed in law. 

Carl Abbott, son of Prof. George N. and .Mary I Ladd) Abbott, was born 
in Newbury, Vt., April 1!», 1859. The Abbott family isanold and prominent 
one in New England, showing strong and marked traits of character in 
every generation. The line of Carl's descent from George Abbott, the 
emigrant, one of the first settlers of Andover, Mass.. in L643, is George 1 , 
William 2 , James 4 . Bancroft 5 , James 6 , George X.\ Carl 8 . Carl attend: 
ed school for some years in Burlington, Vt., and the preparatory school 
at Mercersburg, Penn., and was, for two years, at Mercersburg col- 

210 History of Coos County. 

lege. He returned to Newbury in 1877, and, in 1880, entered the law office 
of Ladd & Fletcher, and was admitted to the bar of New Hampshire in 
the spring of 1884. He was employed in the office of his instructors until 
the fall of 1885, when he went to Gorham and took charge of the business 
of Alfred R. Evans until the spring of 1886. He then formed a partner- 
ship with A. S. Twitchell, as Twitchell & Abbott, which still continues. 

Mr. Abbott is a close and diligent student, well versed in his profession,, 
and, with good powers of logic, and a strongly marked individuality, has 
elements of more than an ordinary success. He possesses many of the 
intellectual traits of the Bancroft family, of which he is also a descendant. 

Daniel James Daley was born in Lancaster, January 27, 1859, acquired 
a good physique and health Avhile passing his youth on the farm, was 
fitted for college at Lancaster academy, but, finding his taste and mental 
qualities in harmony with the practice of law, he entered the office of W. 
& H. Hey wood, April 9, 1881, and for u early four years received the ex- 
ceptionally good advantages afforded him under the venerable senior of 
the firm. He was an apt student, and was admitted to the bar at Con- 
cord, March 13, 1885. After a few months' stay in Lancaster, he removed, 
November 9, 1885, to Berlin, where he has formed many friends, and is 
building up a good practice. He is devoted to his profession, is active, 
energetic, and "pushing"; takes the cause of his client as his own, and 
with his thoroughness and ability deserves success. 


(By James T. Parsons, Esq.) 

The Northern Judicial District was formed by act that took effect 
September 1, 1867. Cambridge, Millsfield, Odell, and Columbia, with the 
towns north of them, constitute the Northern District; while the towns 
south of those named constitute the Southern District. Before the legis- 
lature granted the petitions of the people of the upper towns for a sepa- 
rate court, the petitioners had to get the consent of representatives, and, 
to do so, promised to furnish a lot and court house complete for occupancy, 
which was done by voluntary subscription. After the time elapsed during 
which the representatives had agreed to furnish a house free, the county 
purchased the building for about three-fourths of the original cost, and 
the contributors lost a considerable portion of the principal, as well as the 
interest, and their trouble and labor, which, with some of them, was the 
most important item. 

The first term was held the first Tuesday of February, 1868. At this 
term all northern actions pending or returnable at Lancaster, and all 
indictments for the county were transferred to this district. On the printed 

Bench and Bar. 243 

docket there were forty-six state and ninety-four civil cases. At the term 
seventy-three new entries were made to the civil, two to the sessions, and 
two or three to the criminal dockets, but no indictments were found. 
There were three cases tried by jury before the solicitor was ready fco pro- 
ceed to the criminal business. The trial of Joseph Chase, indicted for rape 
of his daughter, was then commenced. He had a few years before fin- 
ished a ten years' sentence for arson, was a desperate and dangerous man, 
had escaped from the county jail after his arrest for this offense, and been 
kidnapped in Canada, where he remained near the boundary, making fre- 
quent night excursions into Colebrook and Stewart stown. The public 
were much relieved by his capture, and anxious for his conviction. Ossian 
Eay, afterwards member of Congress, was the solicitor, and W. S. Ladd 
and G. A. Bingham, both afterwards Justices of the Supreme Court, were 
for the defense. The court-house was crowded during t lie trial, and so 
packed at the close that every window and corner was crowded with 
people, who stood for hours listening to the arguments, and, sitting on 
the steps and floor, they crowded close to the chair of the presiding jus- 
tice. A very small boy, too young to be in any assembly alone, especially 
in that place, was on his knees beside the judge, and, during an intermis- 
sion, got up and asked him several very pointed questions as to what lie 
believed as to the disputed facts, and wound up by pointing to his docket 
and asking, " What will you take for your little primer, Judge? " 

There was intense, but in the main suppressed, excitement during the 
arguments. Mr. Bingham, after a review of one part of the uncontro- 
verted facts, asked in his most impressive manner, "Does not the dumb 
beast tight for her young, the stricken fawn cry out, the frightened rabbit 
flee? " " No! " responded the deep voice of a minister who stood with < »t hers 
in one of the windows looking down over the heads of the standing crowd. 
The exclamation was so evidently involuntary that he escaped punishment, 
but the quiet remarks of the judge has thus far prevented a repetition of 
the offense in this court. Judge Doe, in commenting upon the 1 rial of the 
case in his charge, with evident emotion said, "It shows that the ancient 
glory of the New Hampshire Bar has not departed from it." Chase was 
sentenced for thirty years. He was fifty-five, and died in prison. Four 
more cases were tried by jury at this term — making a total of eighl : and 
over twenty the next three terms. The "referee law" of l s 74. and the 
subsequent amendments of the statutes and constitution, have to a greal 
degree done away with the desire as well as the necessity of trying cases 
by jury. 

At the August term, 1869, the case of Freeman Tirrell vs. Abram 
Bedel was tried. The defendant had procured the plaintiff to execute a 
release of debt foran inadequate consideration. The question was whether - 
he possessed sufficient natural capacity to be bound by the instrument. 

24^ History of Coos County. 

Among the witnesses were some boys who testified that they were accus- 
tomed to get him provoked, when one of them would advise him to chew 
various disgusting substances to spit in the faces of his tormentors. The 
grave manner in which William Hey wood, then, as now, the nestor of the 
Coos bar, introduced and commented upon the evidence of "his pursuit 
of his companions around the barns and over the high beams " was so 
effective that the listeners were convulsed, and the presiding justice, again 
Judge Doe, laughed until the tears ran down his face. Judge Smith held 
his last term here, in August, 1870. It became necessary to wait for 
further testimony in some case. After a long and sleepy delay the judge 
suddenly looked up and said, "This reminds me of a story," and went on 
to tell it to the members of the bar and officers of the court, who composed 
nearly the whole audience, and then said to the undisputed leader of the 
bar on such an occasion, "Come, Shurtleff, now you tell one." Chairs 
were drawn close to the bench, and story followed story for an hour or 
more. It was uncertain who would prove the better raconteur, when the 
parties appeared, and the old judge, on the eve of his seventieth birthday, 
gravely resumed his duties. 

Jeremiah Smith, Foster, Sargent, and Hibbard, who held the courts to 
1874, were also self-poised, gentlemanly judges, controlling the litigants, 
counsel and spectators without effort or friction from the first. As though 
the gentle ways of Chief Justice Bellows permeated the court, the judges 
"were models in their deportment in court and at chambers, and the influ- 
ence upon the bar was very marked. 

A year or two later, during a term held by Judge Rand, several promi- 
nent attorneys, who perhaps felt competent to discuss a matter of practice 
with the presiding justice, and who had not heard Judge Ladd dispose of 
post-mortem discussion with "It seems to me that you will find it super- 
fluous to discuss the matter after the court has passed upon it," did not heed 
the " Stop this, gentlemen!" and the judge, with his heavy bass voice, 
roared out " Sit down, all of you." They all went down, but an associate 
arose, and, apparently, w T as waiting to explain, remonstrate, or apologize, 
when they began to rise again. The court called upon the sheriff, who 
came around beside the attorneys and drew in his breath in a helpless kind 
of way, as they stood there flushed and silent, when, li sit down!" sit 
down ! !" SIT DOW N ! ! !" thundered the judge, turning from one to another, 
who fell in turn until only Eay was left. He said " May it pi—" " SIT 
DOWN !!!" Ray fell like a stone and rebounded like a ball. " Please your 
honor," and went on with the discussion, in which the others soon joined. 

Allen filled Rand's place the next winter. Isaac W. Smith succeeded 
Jeremiah Smith. Judge Carpenter, Judge Blodgett, and Judge Bingham 
came here to hold later terms, in place of justices who have resigned or 
deceased. Their characteristics can not be yet considered matters of history, 

Bench axd Bar. 243 

though they are all entrenched in the good will and respect of this district, 
and receive most hearty welcome. It is certain that none of them will ever 
be "old - — " in the common conversation of the people. New Hamp- 
shire does not have judges, nor often attorneys, thus unconsciously branded 
with the appellation of ripening incapacity. 

B. H. Corning, of Lancaster, now sheriff of Grafton county, was sheriff 
at the time of the organization of this district. Lucius Hartshorn, of Strat- 
ford, Samuel M. Harvey, of Columbia, and Joseph W. ( looper, of ( lolebrook, 
were the deputies ordinarily in attendance at court, and served the papers 
for our attorneys. Mr. Harvey, especially, did a git tat amount of work 
for many years all over Northern Coos. He had an unusual reputation as 
an accurate, efficient, and accommodating officer. Later, E. George Rogers 
and Samuel I. Bailey, both of Columbia, have been sheriffs: the latter by 
election. Albert S. Eustis, Henry N. Leavitt, Ira Quimby, John S. Capen, 
Walter Drew, Wesley Wentworth, William T. Keyes and George Hilliard, 
all of Colebrook, have been our deputies Quimby, Leavitt. Capen and 
Drew have served for long and busy terms, been the best known as officers, 
have acquired a high reputation for courage and activity, and gained the 
good will of those with whom they had official business. 

The best known and remembered of the early sheriffs were Ephraim II. 
Mahurin, of South Columbia, who was a deputy for about thirty years, 
being appointed as early as 1 * 1 2 ; Hezekiah Parsons, of Colebrook, who was 
appointed in or before 1815, held the office continuously until 1833, when he 
was succeeded by Milton Harvey, for a short time; Horace Loomis, first 
an officer about 1830, later did about all the business for a few years, until he 
left the country; Timothy Tirrell, of Stewartstown, did a large business 
for about ten years; Enoch L. Colby acted as deputy here for a short time, 
then went to Lancaster, where he was first deputy, and afterwards sheriff 
during his active life; Hezekiah Parsons, Jr., wasa deputy for a few years, 
then sheriff until his Republican deputy, Colby, succeeded him in 1856, 
when he declined a deputy's appointment. (Appointments have since been 
political.) Archelaus Cummings then held the position for several years. 
Others held an appointment for a short time,not long enough to gain thai 
extended experience, and lasting reputation for efficiency, that makes the 
early officers an important part of our legal history. 

Since Ray, Henry Heywood, Edgar Aldrich, and. from 1879, J. II. Dudley 
(the first by election), have been solicitors. The present clerk, M. A. Hast- 
ings, succeeded C. B. Jordan in L874. An incident in our court-house. 
when the court was attending to naturalizations, will not be soon forgot- 
ten. One of the row, when Jordan arose and commenced to administer 
the oath, with a not wholly inexcusable distrust, snatched down his hand, 
paused, shook his finger at the clerk, and said. " Now swear me in a 
Dimmercrat, Chester." His seriousness and Jordan's reluctance were 

24± History of Coos County. . 

amusing. Hastings would be more accommodating under similar circum- 
stances — about the only difference observable between two unusually satis- 
factory clerks. 

The lawyers who always came here to attend court in our early terms, 
were: — 

William Heywood, often affectionately called "Uncle Hey wood, " 
with a large benign face, kind, prepared, venerable, excessively fair, full 
of real and equity jurisprudence. 

Hiram A. Fletcher, with small features, slight, alert black eyes, 
wearing a wig, and carrying a green bag full of exactly-drawn, methodi- 
cally-arranged papers, overflowing with cases, precedents, and preparation; 
technical, with a mania for old law books, muskets, antlers and curiosities. 
He seemed a survival of a past generation of old English common-law 

Ossiax Ray, full of activity, argument, resources and combativeness, 
never unoccupied with actual litigation, thoroughly experienced in practice, 
and, in some w r ay, always finding leisure to become thoroughly familiar 
with the cases applicable to the case at bar. 

William S. Ladd, scholarly, thorough, accurate, quick with pen and 
books, more moderate in court. With a thorough contempt for (never re- 
torting to in kind, and some times disconcerted by,) rude and offensive 
practice; he was a business and corporation counselor rather than a ready 

George A. Bingham, tall, untiring, working all night and keeping 
awake all day, an "all-round" lawyer, learned, eloquent, and at his best 
in the preparation of cases and examination of witnesses. He was seldom 
surprised, and never at a loss what to do. 

George W. Hartshorn, bottled up in the little town of Canaan, short, 
bald, round, and talkative, was a surprisingly ready speaker; and, after a 
long trial, would often make an exhaustive, and, in parts, very eloquent 
argument. A serious and painful illness, and the medicines used, some 
ten years ago, destroyed his capacity at the bar. 

Henry Heywood, very deliberate, with a deep, heavy, unvarying voice, 
reflects as he speaks, and is accurate. His forte is the accumulation and 
introduction of evidence where accuracy as to the law, and the proper ar- 
rangement and non-omission of numerous facts and details, are essential 

Irving W. Drew commenced practice about 1871. His ambition to suc- 
ceed as a speaker was soon gratified. He has made as many arguments to the 
jury as any attorney who attends our courts, with as great influence upon 
the verdict as any one whom this generation recollects, except William 
Burns, and, unlike Mr. Burns, he is active in the management of the case 
in other respects, and so, perhaps, succeeds as well. 

Bench and Bar. j it- 

Everett Fletcher is also a young man, who came to our court about 
the same time. He bears a marked resemblance to his father, the late 
Hiram A. Fletcher, in every respect, except that lie is taller. He lacks 
somewhat of the confidence and readiness of his lather, and has nol taken 
an active part in the trials here. Industrious and witty, he is among the 
best read and most genial of the lawyers of his age. 

Chester B. Jordan was admitted later, and is engaged in all important 
cases of this district. He does not " figure" in the trials, but in the out- 
side preparation; attentive to details, he is often felt and feared, but sel- 
dom seen in the case, and is quite convinced that nothing succeeds like 

Many others have attended our courts too infrequently to need mention. 
The lawyers who have resided in this district since its formation, and the 
early resident attorneys of this part of the county, may not be accurately 
enumerated from lack of a prior history, and the loss of court records, 
which have been burned twice, once in 1886, and once about forty years 

William Farrar was the first settled lawyer. He came here in or 
before 1S< »6, boarded with "Judge " Joseph Loomis, where James L. Loomis 
now lives, had his office in the small house south of there (where David 
Heath lived) before it was occupied as a store by Elisha Bundy. He was 
not a robust man, well educated, of excellent habits, diffident, with a slight 
voice, and had a moderate practice. He moved to Lancaster in 1811, and 
continued in practice there until his death. In 1812 he married Margaret, 
daughter of Gams Kibbee, who lived on the W. R. Silver farm, in Bloom- 
field, then Minehead, Vt. They were married by Judge DeForest, and 
shortly after were much mortified to learn that he was not, at the time, 
qualified to perform the ceremony. The Judge qualified, went to Lancas- 
ter, took them into Vermont, and re-married them. Mr. Farrar was a 
fine tenor singer, was accustomed to read the sermons at "deacons' meet- 
ings" held at various places, and led the choir, after a minister was settled 
here, at the school-house where F. B. Crawford's barn is now. Mr. Far- 
rar's wife soon died without issue, and he re-married 

For many years there was no attorney here after Mr. Farrar left, and 
Judge Loomis, who had been appointed in January. L805, a justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas for Coos county, did much of the work attor- 
neys usually do. 

Gen. Ira Young came next. He was horn at Lisbon, N. II., in L794, 
and was son of Colonel Samuel Young, a Revolutionary officer. He studied 
law with James 1. Swan, of Bath, was admitted to the bar in L817, and 
came to Colebrook soon after. He had his office in theCargill store, where 
Mrs. Julia A. Gamsby's block stands. He was tall, large, with light 
auburn hair, a very fine looking man, gentlemanly, and an excellent 

246 History of Coos County. 

speaker. He was also a fine singer, and one of the choir at the church, usually 
singing tenor. In 1820 Mr. Swan died, bequeathing Gen. Young his ex- 
tensive library, and he removed to Bath and succeeded to Mr. Swan's 
business. A few years later his office with the contents was burned, and 
he returned to Colebrook in 1824, or early in 1825, and resumed practice 
at the same place. (John L. Sheafe came here about the time he left, and 
removed to Lancaster about the time be returned.) Gen. Young remained 
here until 1839, when he, too, went to Lancaster. In the winter of 1836-37 
he married Mrs. Sarah D. F. Smith, widow of John A. Smith, of Cuba, 
and daughter of Mills DeForest, of Lemington, Vt., and lived in the house 
then lately vacated by Dr. White, and after Mr. Young's removal occu- 
pied by Dr. Augustus Hams. Mary, his eldest child, was born in Cole- 
brook. His other children, Harry D. F., captain of Co. F, 2d N. H. 
Infantry, and Richard 0., corporal in the same company (killed at Fair 
Oaks in 1862), were born at Lancaster. He took an active part in military 
^affairs, was appointed captain of the company of cavalry in the Twenty- 
fourth regiment in 1829, major of the regiment in is;',!', colonel in 1833, 
brigadier-general of the Sixth brigade in 1836, and major-general of the 
Second 'division in 1837. Gen. Young was an old-time gentleman, of great 
suavity, very popular as an attorney and a citizen, and was one of the 
foremost lawyers of Northern New Hampshire. His health failed in 1844. 
He gave up practice, went to Cuba, and died there November 15, 1845. 
The brethren of the bar erected a tombstone in his memory, both for his 
courtesy ''and ability as a lawyer, and his high character for honor and in- 
tegrity as a man.'" 

Charles J. Stuart was one of the first lawyers to settle in Colebrook 
after Mr. Farrar left. He boarded at Edmund Chamberlain's and had his 
office in the Cargill store. He was married, but had no children. In less 
than a year he returned to Lancaster. 

John Lane Sheafe, son of Jacob Sheafe, of Portsmouth, was born 
November 28, 1791, and admitted to the bar April 7, 1820. He came to 
Colebrook before Gen. Young left. He also removed to Lancaster, where he 
remained from about 1825 until about 1832 (perhaps returning to Colebrook 
for a portion of these years). Then he removed to Portsmouth, and later to 
New Orleans, where he was prominent at the bar, as a Whig politician, 
and during the war as a Union man. He died there February 5, 1864. 
Mr. Sheafe was very small and effeminate in appearance when here, though 
stout in 1852, when last in Colebrook. He was very near-sighted, used a 
silver-bowed eye-glass, was quite diffident, and, at first, a butt for jokes. 
His education and unusually fine ability soon corrected this. When he 
first came here he took charge of Sabbath meetings, read the Episcopal 
service, and the people quite generally provided themselves with Epis- 
copal prayer-books, etc. His services were held in the school-house near 

Bench and Bar. 247 

Pleasant street bridge, and in the Cargill hall, in the building where he 
had his office. He also organized and took charge of the first Sabbath- 
school here — a greater novelty in 1820 than in later years. He never 
married, but boarded at Edmund Chamberlain's, and was active in the 
Masonic lodge which then met in Chamberlain's hall. 

Sanders Welch Cooper came to Colebrook about L822, boarded at 
various places in the vicinity and attended to collections, but opened no 
office. He later practiced many years in Lancaster, was a man of ability, 
could argue a case well, and was for a time county solicitor, lie was a 
brother of J. W, Cooper, of Colebrook, and Jesse Cooper, late of [rasburg, 
Vt., and was born March 4, L791. 

Hiram Adams Fletcher, son of Ebenezer and Peddy (Smith) Fletcher, 
was born December 11, 1806, studied law with (Jen. Seth Cushman, of 
Guildhall, Vt., and later in New York; was admitted in 1830, and began 
practice in Springfield, Vt.. and settled in Colebrook in L833. He married 
Persis Honking, of Lancaster, and lived where Walter Drew now lives, 
built an office which was afterwards moved and became the old Fan 
Stevens house. His father built the Mohawk House for a dwelling, and, 
at his death, it became the property and home of Hiram, who had his 
office in the present hotel office until his removal to Lancaster in 1st'.'. 
The five oldest of his six children were born in Colebrook, Nelly (Mrs. 
William A. Holman), of Pittsburg, Pa., being born in Lancaster. The 
other surviving children, Mrs. W. S. Ladd, Richard, and Everett, are resi- 
dents of Lancaster. Mr. Fletcher had a very large and profitable business 
while in Colebrook, and accumulated what was considered a considerable 

Lyman Thomas Flint was born in Williamstown, Vt., September 29, 
1817, educated in the academies at Randolph and Williamstown, Vt., and 
graduated from Dartmouth college in 1S4-2. He married Hannah W. Wil- 
lard, of Lyndon, Vt., March 3, 1844. He taught for several years, the 
last at Plymouth academy, where he studied law with William C. Thomp- 
son. He then came to Colebrook, completed his studies with Hiram A. 
Fletcher, and was admitted to the bar in May, ls+7. He remained in 
Colebrook until 1854, when he removed to Concord, where he died. April 
14, 1876. He had a considerable practice and reputation when he left Cole- 
brook, gained to a great extent by the peculiar thoroughness with which 
he prepared his cases and his energy in seeming all attainable evidence. 
He was city solicitor, county solicitor, and representative during his resi- 
dence at Concord. 

Charles W. Burt, oldest son of Willard and Martha (Wood) Burt, 
was born in Westmoreland. X. H., November"'., 1820. He attended, sup- 
plementary to his course at district schools. Mount Caesar and Lebanon 
academies, and two years at Norwich (Vt.) university. He was a thor- 

248 History of Coos County. 

ough student, stood high in his classes, and was a popular teacher of dis- 
trict schools for some years. He studied law with Hon. Levi Chamber- 
lain, was admitted to the bar at Keene, and practiced his profession at 
Colebrook from 1848 to L854. He married, January, 1854, Julia, daugh- 
ter of Horace Loomis, of Colebrook, soon removed to Detroit, Mich., and 
engaged in practice. In 1855 he formed a partnership with A. B. Maynard, 
Esq., of that city, which continued until the untimely death of Mr. Burt, 
April 11, L859. Mr. Maynard says of him: "During our entire partner- 
ship our relations were of the pleasantest character. He was a gentleman 
of decided ability, and no young lawyer in the city had a better reputa- 
tion, both for legal learning and ability and for the purity and uprightness 
of his character. In his habits he was simple and unassuming, and remark- 
able for his industry. Had his life been spared, he would, in my judgment, 
have stood at the very head of the bar of Michigan as a learned, able and 
conscientious lawyer," Mr. Burt was a large, tine looking .young man, 
gentlemanly, well educated, an excellent and impressive speaker. Mrs. 
Burt died in Detroit. 

Daniel Allen Rogers, son of Rev. Daniel and Phoebe (Tibbetts) Rog- 
ers, was born in Columbia, September 11, 1828, and educated in the local 
schools, taught several winters in the adjoining towns, and studied law 
with Lyman T. Flint. He w T as admitted to the bar in 1853, bought of 
Archelaus Cummings the house where Michael Monahan now lives and 
built the office south of it, which he used at first for his postoffice, then 
for his law office. (Mr. Ramsay and Mr. Shurtleff afterwards had it as an 
office, and it is now used by Mr. Barker.) He married Sarah A., daughter 
of Samuel B. and Amanda (Bicknel) Cooper, of Beloit, Wis., November 
22, 1855. He removed to St. Johnsbury, Vt., in 1858, and to Wells River, 
in 1860, where he died, July 11, 1881. Mr. Rogers was of medium height, 
dark complexion, inclined to corpulency, social, and popular. He had a 
moderate business in Colebrook, and displayed average capacity and energy 
in the various branches of the profession. He gained an unquestioned 
reputation as a reliable business attorney, but retained his deliberate way 
of doing business to the last, and enjoyed a fair income which he used 
in the support and education of his family. 

Albert Barker was born at Waterford, Me., December 20, 1820. He 
was educated in the local schools, and at Bridgton academy, where he led 
his class. He fitted for college, but was unable to enter upon the course 
by reason of ill health and lack of funds. He taught school several win- 
ters, and, in 1841, entered the office of Hon. Elbridge Gerry, at Water- 
ford, and was admitted to the bar in October, 1814. He practiced for a 
time at Rumford, Me., and afterw T ards at Waterford, in partnership with 
Mr. Gerry, then in Congress. In 1852 he removed to Milan, and com- 
menced practice in New Hampshire. The same year he married Nancy 

Bench and Bar. 249 

A., daughter of Hon. Stephen Irish, of Stowe, Me. She died in L8G2. 
They had four children, of whom the eldest, Lilla, lived until L884. She 
was an invalid, and devoted herself to reading, writing, and considerably 
to editorial work upon the Sentinel, while her father owned it, and was 
quite his equal in natural ability and judgment. In I 854 he moved to Cole- 
brook, where he succeeded Mr. Flint, and has since remained. He atom -• 
.attained a very considerable practice, and met with excellent success in his 
•cases. In 1870 he married Mrs. Lucinda E., daughter of Rev. Beniah 
Bean, and widow of Wilbur F. Dinsmore. He purchased the Northern 
Sentinel, in 1872, and continued to edit and publish it until 1884. During 
these years, he, to a considerable extent, neglected the practice of law. In 
1885 Mr. Barker re-opened the office which Mr. Shurtletf had recently va- 
cated, and has since been attending exclusively to the practice of his pro- 
fession. He became an Odd Fellow before he came to New Hampshire; 
has been a prominent Mason for many years, and a pronounced Democrat 
all his life. Mr. Barker, as a lawyer, has shown a very determined spirit; 
and being about equally good in the preparation, presentation, and argu- 
ment of cases in the lower, and discussion of the law in the higher courts, 
has never been known to let a case fail by his default in any of its stages, 
and has finally come out ahead in more than the ordinary percentage. As 
is his characteristic in all his enterprises, he has preferred rather to compel 
than entreat results. 

Ira. Allen Ramsay, a son of Robert Ramsay, was born August 14, 
1827, in Wheelock. Vt. He had only the school privileges that his neigh- 
borhood afforded, worked at various occupations until he was some twenty- 
three years of age, then commenced the study of law in the office of Jesse 
Cooper, at Irasburg, Vt. ; was later in an office in Boston for a time: was 
admitted to the bar in 1853, and commenced the practice of law at Guild- 
hall, Vt. In 1855 he moved to Colebrook, where he continued in active 
business until 1867, when he moved to St. Paul, Minn., and opened an 
office. The next year his health failed, he gave up business, and was an 
invalid until his death, November 7, 1871. 

Mr. Ramsay was a man of great energy and confidence, whose busi- 
ness was largely confined to the adjoining towns, and to matters in the 
County Court, before municipal officers, justice juries, and similar hear- 
ings in Coos and Essex counties. He impressed his views of the law and 
facts with force and readiness upon the tribunals, and won all the de- 
cisions he ought to, and some besides. The last years he collected a large 
number of soldiers' claims from states and the United States. He was 
engaged in various enterprises outside his profession, and carried away, 
probably, the largest fortune that an attorney has taken from Colebrook; 
but it was lost in the West, where he became poor, and after his death his 
investments were swept away by his debts. 


250 History of Coos County. 

William S. Ladd located inColebrook, in 1857, and commenced practice 
under the name of Fletcher & Ladd, opening an office over the old Cutler 
(Merrill) store, and boarded with Mr. Cummings, across the street, until 
his marriage, and then rented a house of Hezekiah Parsons, where James 
I. Parsons now lives, and an office over the store on the corner wiiere Drew 
& Churchill are now located. He removed to Lancaster in ISO". At first 
he did considerable field work as a surveyor; while he sang, played the 
violin, and handled trout flies, of an afternoon, as " to the manner born"; 
but his increasing business in a few years, drove him into the jading tread- 
mill of the busy lawyer, and he became, as he has remained, one of the 
busiest of the leading attorneys at the bar. 

Orman P. Ray, who had been for a short time a partner of his brother, 
Ossian Ray, at Lancaster, came to Colebrook in 1867, and remained until 
1872, when he removed to Winooski, Vt. He built up a prosperous prac- 
tice at once, but, at the last, it was much reduced. He was a very diligent 
student of the books, and attentive to his business. He lived in the house 
E. George Rogers afterwards occupied, and had his office over the Bracket 
store, where the Dudley block now stands. 

William Henry Shurtleff, son of Otis and Eliza Shutleff. was born 
at Compton, P. Q., July 11, 1810. His father being a native of Vermont, 
he was a foreign-born citizen of the United States, and left Canada in his 
early youth. He taught school in New Jersey for four years, then came 
to Lancaster, and, in 1862, commenced the study of law in the office of 
Benton & Ray. In 1864 he enlisted, and was commissioned lieutenant of 
Company I of the First New Hampshire Heavy Artillery. After the Avar 
closed he resumed his studies, and was admitted to the bar in November, 
1866. June 1, 1867, he opened an office in Colebrook, in the store of George 
W. Bracket. In 1S69, after his marriage, he purchased and occupied the 
house and office before occupied by Mr. Rogers and Mr. Ramsey. He was 
appointed deputy inspector of customs at Colebrook, in 1871, and held the 
office for several years. He was elected representative in 1878, and one 
of the trustees of Colebrook academy in 1880. In November, 1884, he re- 
moved to Orange county, Florida, where he is still located, devoting his 
time principally to real estate business. 

Mr. Shurtleff is a large, broad, genial, hopeful man, as full of story, 
song, and merriment, as a Florida orange is of juice; an universal favorite 
with bench and bar, and all the world besides. As a lawyer, Mr. Shurtleff, 
in court, usually confined himself to openings and the introduction of evi- 
dence, for which he had a happy tact. He was diffident in argument. He 
was quick and correct in the ordinary routine of office business, of which 
he had a large amount, and was a business lawyer. His strong, prac- 
tical common sense and lack of excitability, made him an excellent busi- 

Bench and Bar. 251 

ness adviser in important transactions, and a large portion of his practice 
came from men engaged in them. 

James [ngalls Parsons."' son of Hezekiah and Sarah M.i Bragg) Parsons, 
was born in Colebrook, N. EL, February II. L844. He was educated al 
Colebrook academy and Kimball Union academy, Meriden (Plainfield) N. 
H., and had the reputation of being a quick, bright scholar. He taught 
for a time in local schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, and Danville 
(Vt.) academy. Deciding upon the legal profession as the cue mosl suited 
to his tastes, he entered the office of W. S. Ladd as a student in L863, and 
was admitted to the bar at Lancaster in November, 1867. Ileal once 
began the practice of law in Colebrook, succeeding to the busint Mr. 

Ladd, who had removed to Lancaster. Theyoungman was fortunate; an 
extensive and lucrative practice was immediately his: and. finding that he 
had more to do than he could personally attend to. he invited J. H. Dudley 
to come to Colebrook as his partner, and the firm of "Dudley & Pa 
was formed in December, L867. This partnership continued until Novem- 
ber, L869, when Mr. Parsons disposed of his interest to Mr. Dudley, and 

lit to Lebanon, where he remained the following year. From there he 
went to Port Huron, Michigan, and formed a partnership with the Atkin- 
son Bros, '.who desired a youne man to attend to the details of their ex- 
tensive business), under the firm name of "Atkinson & Parsons," attorneys, 
solicitors and proctors, where the work and climate seriously impaired Ins 
health and he was compelled, in the winter of 1873-74, togive up practice 
temporarily, and for nearly eighteen months thereafter passed Ins rime in 
travelling through the Xew England and Southern states, including also 
the Pacific coast in his tour. In June, 1875, he returned to Colebrook, 
engaged again in his profession with r Aldrich as " Aldrich & Par- 

sons." Since then, though he never recovered strong health, he ha 
in constant practice, his last partnership being " -as & Johnson," from 

April, L881, to March. L884. 

Mr. Parsons has }h'(^\ connected with various branches of business out- 
side of his profession, the most important being his interest in a furniture 
store (the Stevens shop), either as owner or partner, from L87S to l ss -i'>. 
In 1875 he took charge of his father's extensive r bate and has since 

conducted it. He takes an active part in the development and improve- 
ment of Colebrook and the Upper Connecticut country, and was one of 
the largest contributors to the fund for the various railroad projects and 
surveys for the past fifteen years, and that for securing the standard guage 
railroad in L887, and furnished means tor the establishment of the < >dd 
Fellows' lodge, the Colebrook band, and several of the business enterprises 
in Colebrook and vicinity. Mr. Parsons has aided in starting many busi- 

* Except the biographies of J. I. Parsons and J. II. Dudley, the sketches for the Northern 
District were contributed by Mr. Parsons. 

252 History of Coos County. 

ness enterprises in Northern Coos by furnishing funds, wholly or m part, 
and has been an important assistant to many young men in various hues 

harness in both counsel and financial aid. Of Democratic antecedents 
and training he cast in his lot with the Republican party some fifteen years 
X'e -d now may be classed with the progressive element of the day. 
Mr. Parsons is a member of Port Huron Lodge, No. 58 P. and AM., 
Port Huron Mich., which he joined in 1873; Ammonoosuc Lodge 10. O. 

1 No ™Groveton; and has been a Knight of Pythias since 1874, when he 
ioined Charter Lodge, No. 18, Port Huron, Mich. 

] Mr Parsons married, September 6, 1876, Ada A., da ugh tar o f Samuel 
K and Sophia (Cushman) Remick, a native of Hardwick, Vt. She died 
December 28 1881. They had one child, Cushman Hezekiah, born June 
iTl a'lad of brilliant promise. January 6, 1883, Mr. Parsons married 
AddiesVlldlt child of John C. Marshall, of Colebrook, who died Febru- 

ary inheri 8 ting mental vigor from a long line of strong ancestors, there is in 
the •make up" of Mr. Parsons much of originality, ability, and force 
He ha a keen insight into the motives of men, and a discriminating and 
Smost intuitive judgment, and many look to him as a valuable counselor 
^exigencies of life and business. He possesses necessary to 
LIlll action. He is shrewd, adroit, technical, familiar with human 
nftoe Prepares his cases with care, presents his arguments ably and 
oti bXantly, is a good fighter, and slow to -know edge de eat. He 
a successful lawyer and has a busy and lucrative practice. He is inteUec 
Inland well read; and had he chosen the lecture-field or literature as his 
"oession would have won success. With a manner sometimes preoccu- 
ed coo conical, and brusque, he is, nevertheless, sensitive, refined, and 
^mpathetic" a strong friend, a good citizen and, when at leisure, a de- 
IMitful companion to those who know him well. 

Jason H DUDLEY.-Genealogical history is necessary in England to 
show the titles to honor and estate; in this country, where wealth and d. - 
show the Hue exertions and merits, it is satisfac- 

m r t rae on r c y t,Tto brave and honorable men. The Dudley family 
Jnnant, ent one i New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and other states 
1 CCland it ranks high among the nobility. The Dudleys descend 
and in Englan it rai ks g suma me Dudley was taken 

'T, TbeTa^e oYmmlevn Staffordshire, (built by Dudo, an English 
sCn about the y ear 100, and assumed, according to ancient custom m 
Sid oy the younger children of the Barons of that place The first 

S^^^XX^* *• Massachusetts Colony, 

Bench and Bar. 253 

and died July 31, 1653, at Roxbury, Mass. His son Joseph was a popu- 
lar governor of New Hampshire. 

Jason Henry Dudley, son of Jonathan and Minerva (Armstrong) 
Dudley, was born at Hanover, N. H., November 24, L84-2. He is a lineal 
descendant in the eighth generation from Gov. Dudley, the line being 
Gov. Thomas \ Samuel'. Stephen 8 , Stephen 4 , Samuel P. 6 , Jacob", Jona- 
than 7 , Jason H. 8 . He is also connected with the Allen family, so 
noted in Vermont annals; a maternal grandmother bearing that name was 
a cousin of Ethan and Ira Allen. Jonathan Dudley was a native of Au- 
dover, N. H.; he died February 5, 1872, aged seventy-two years. Mrs. 
Dudley has resided in Colebrook since 1873. 

Jason H. Dudley's early education was acquired at Hanover common 
schools; this was supplemented by private tutors. In the fall of 1858 he 
entered Chandler Scientific school, and, in 1859, became a member of the 
freshman class at Dartmouth college and was graduated in the class of 
L862. During his collegiate course, he taught a select school at Cornish 
Flats in the fall of 1861. After graduation, he came to Colebrook as prin- 
cipal of Colebrook academy, which he did not find in a very prosperous 
condition. For three years he threw into the development of this school 
all the forces of his energetic nature, and brought up the attendance from 
forty to nearly one hundred pupils, by his fidelity, enthusiasm, and thorough 
fitness for his work. During this time he became a student of law under 
Hon. William S. Ladd. In the fall of 1865 he went to Danville, Vt., and 
had charge of Phillips academy for a year, continuing his legal studies 
with Hon. Bliss N. Davis. In the fall of 1866 he conducted the academy 
at West Randolph, Vt., pursuing the study of law with Hon. Edmund 
Weston while there. In December, 1867, he was admitted to the bar at 
Chelsea, Vt. He then came to Colebrook, and entered into partnership 
with James I. Parsons in the practice of law under the firm name of 
"Dudley & Parsons," taking the business of Judge Ladd, who had re- 
moved to Lancaster. This partnership continued two years, when Mr. 
Parsons disposed of his interest to Mr. Dudle} r . Since then he has prac- 
ticed alone, successfully, with the exception of four years, from April, 
1878, to May, 1882, when D. C. Remich was associated with him as 
" Dudley & Remich." Mr. Dudley was superintendent of schools in Cole- 
brook for several years; has been a member of the board of trustees of 
Colebrook academy since 1872, and its chairman for many years: has 
served as town clerk three years; he was elected county solicitor in 1878, 
re-elected in 1880-82-84r-86, holding this important office longer than any 
man in the state under the elective system. He is a member of the Graf- 
ton and Coos Bar Association, and of the Dartmouth Alumni Association, 
and belongs to Excelsior Lodge, No. 73, I. 0. of 0. F., Colebrook. Believ- 
ing fully in the principles of the Democratic party, he has been and is 

254 History of Coos County. 

energetic, fearless, and zealous in maintaining its integrity and influence, 
stands in the front rank of its active workers in the "Northern District," 
and is a prominent factor in the politics of " Upper Coos." 

He married, September 22, 1869, Lucy A., daughter of Dr. Austin and 
Aurelia (Bissell) Bradford, of Vergennes, Vt. [Mrs. Dudley also descends 
from a colonial governor, William Bradford, the able governor of Plymouth 
Colony for more than thirty years. He joined the church of the Pilgrims 
at Scrooby (England) when seventeen years of age. While in Holland he 
not only became master of the language of the country, but added a 
knowledge of French, Latin, Greek, and even Hebrew, which he studied, 
as he said, " that he might see with his own eyes the ancient oracles of God 
in all their native beauty.'' This youth displayed qualities of mind and 
heart, which, when fully matured, were, for many years in later life, the 
staff and support of the Plymouth Colony. The line of descent is Gov. 
William Bradford 1 , William, Jr. 2 , John 3 , William 4 , John 6 , (of Kingston, 
Mass.,) John, Jr. 6 , Dr. Austin 7 , (of Vergennes, Vt.,) Lucy A. e ] They have 
had two children, Allen B., born June 18, 1871, and William H., born 
April 13, 1873, died July 2, 1876. 

Mr. Dudley's success as a lawyer is due not only to his natural and 
acquired ability, but to his vigorous and efficient action in the understand- 
ing of his causes. He is a peace- maker, instead of a promoter of strife, 
and believes that a suit is best won when justice is attained and every 
person has his rights firmly secured to him. He is generous to take his 
full share of all necessary burdens, and public spirited in that he does 
everything in his power to advance all public improvements. His official 
life has tended to strengthen his naturally fine intellectual powers, and his 
standing is assured among the members of the Coos county bar. In every 
work committed to his hands in public or private life, Mr. Dudley has 
labored with diligence, perseverance and efficiency, and wholesome practical 
results testify to the value of his services. 

Edgar Aldrich was the son of Ephraim C. and Adaline B. (Haynes) 
Aldrich, of Pittsburg, N. H., where he w^as born February 5, 1818. He 
was educated in the schools of his native town and at Colebrook academy. 
At about fourteen years of age he started from home to make a place for 
himself in the world. He commenced as a farmer, but soon went into 
other occupations, particularly positions in some of the summer resorts of 
the White Mountains and the stores of Colebrook; meanwhile he attended 
school at Colebrook academy, as he had cash and opportunity. Finally, in 
1866, he commenced the study of law with Ira A. Ramsay, at Colebrook. 
When Mr. Ramsay left, in January, 1867, Mr. Aldrich took his business 
and kept it (alone as far as was possible). He was graduated from the 
law school at Ann Arbor, Mich., in March, 1868, and was admitted to the 
bar at the next term. He onened an office at once in Colebrook. In 1870 

Bench and Bar. 255 

he formed a partnership with W. H. Shurtleff, as Aldrich & Shurtleff. 
This continued for five years. On the return of J. I. Parsons to Colebrook 
immediately after the expiration of this partnership, he formed a partner- 
ship with him as Aldrich & Parsons. After the dissolution of this part- 
nership in 1879, he was alone until he entered the firm of Bingham ec Al- 
drich at Littleton in January, 1S81, where he is still in practice. He mar- 
ried Louise M., daughter of the late Samuel K. and Sophia (Cushman) 
Remick, October 5, 1872. He has two children — -Florence M., born July 
1, 1874, and Fred, born June 9, 1878, in Colebrook. He was solicitor of 
Coos county from 1872 to 1875, and again, when the Republicans carried 
the state, from 1870 to 1879. Since he went to Littleton he was elected a 
member and then the speaker of the New Hampshire House of Representa- 
tives that met in June, 1885. " Mr. Aldrich did not in his school days con- 
template a professional career, and his training, in school and out, was in- 
tended rather to fit him for a mercantile business: but he soon supplied the 
omissions, while his infallible good judgment, force, and determination 
brought him early success at the bar." He soon came into the front rank 
of the young lawyers, speakers and writers of the state, as well on general 
occasions, as at the bar. He is now recognized asamong the best advocates 
and trial lawyers of the New Hampshire bar, and seems to be still improv- 
ing. He succeeds by force and persistence rather than by persuasion. 

Thomas Franklin Johnson was born July 3, 1848, at Pittsburg, N. H. 
His parents were unfortunately located for the education of children of 
mental temperament and considerable ambition, but were able to partly 
make good at home the lack of school privileges. 

Mr. Johnson in early youth developed a very exceptional ability and 
ambition as a student; was soon fitted for a teacher in district schools, and 
earned means to attend Colebrook academy, where he fitted for college, 
and acquired reputation as a man of unusual promise. A protracted ill- 
ness at this time, which threatened permanently to impair his health, pre- 
vented his commencing a college course. He was elected representative 
from Pittsburg in March, 1871, but in June was prostrated with one of the 
long and dangerous illnesses with which he was afflicted in early man- 
hood; and, as his vote would change the complexion of the legislature, he 
was for some daj^s the center of interest of politicians and the reporters. 
After considerable excitement on account of the dilatory motions of the 
Republicans, it was learned that he had been for days unconscious, and 
unable to vote, even if brought to Concord, and his party allowed the 
organization of the House to be secured by the Democrats, and James A. 
Weston was elected Governor, and the state went into Democratic control. 

The next spring, In 72, Mr. Johnson went to Iowa, and was for several 
years engaged in teaching and reading law. He read law in the office of 
Hon. L. L. Ainsworth. of West Union, was admitted to the bar of that 

256 History of Coos County. 

state in 1875, and for a time practiced at Postville. He married Miss Abbie 
Loverin, oldest child of Alfred Loverin, of Colebrook, in March, 1877, and 
was pursuaded to establish himself there. He immediately built up a 
very promising practice, and identified himself with the interests of the 
locality. March, 1880, he entered into a partnership for three years with 
James I. Parsons, as Parsons & Johnson. After the termination of this 
partnership he resumed business alone, and has been in active and success- 
ful practice since, attending also to insurance and western mortgage loan 

Mr. Johnson is a man of scholarly tastes, a student rather than an ora- 
tor; a man of pen and books by preference, instead of a man of affairs. 
Few lawyers are as diligent students of legal works, and few professional 
men as extensive readers of historical and general literature. 

Daniel Clark Remich, son of Samuel K. Remick, was born at Hard- 
wick. Vt., September 15, 1852. He attended common and high schools 
and Colebrook academy. He studied law at Colebrook, commencing in 
1875, in the office of Aldrich & Parsons, and then going into that of J. H. 
Dudley. He graduated at the law school at Ann Arbor, Mich., in March, 
and was admitted to the bar of this county in April, 1878, and formed a 
partnership with Mr. Dudley, as Dudley <& Remich, in Colebrook, and re- 
mained there until he moved to Littleton, in May, 1882. 

In February, 1879, he married Belle, daughter of Alfred Loverin, of 
Colebrook, who died in 1885. In May. 1886, he married Mrs. Lizzie M. 
Jackson, daughter of Benjamin W. Kilburn, of Littleton. 

Mr. Remich, while in his "teens,'' went to Lawrence, Mass., where he 
remained four or five years at work before he commenced his professional 
studies. He has paid little attention to general reading, has been a dili- 
gent student of the law, and has become a well read, exact (rather tech- 
nical) case lawyer, who enjoys and is brilliant in the examination of the 
law of a case, and its presentation to the court. 

Mr. Remich has always, unless recently, devoted his time, thought and 
unusual mental powers to his law books and law business, exclusively, 
and his profession (said to be a " jealous mistress ") has had no occasion for 

James Waldron Remick, also a son of Samuel K. Remick, was born at 
Hard wick, Vt., October 30, 1860. He was educated in the schools and 
academy of Colebrook, and early showed considerable ability and taste as 
a writer and public speaker. He commenced the study of law with Mr. 
Parsons, in Colebrook, in 1879, was in the office of B. F. Chapman, Clock - 
ville, N. Y. , for a time, and, later, with Bingham & Aldrich, at Littleton. 
He graduated from the law school at Ann Arbor, Mich., in March, 1882, 
soon after was admitted to the New Hampshire bar, and opened an office 
in Mrs. Gamsby's block, in Colebrook. In November, 1885, he removed to 

Bench and Bak. 257 

Littleton, and soon formed a partnership and opened an office there. He 
is a successful office lawyer, modest and well prepared in court, and is 
rapidly winning a reputation by the thoroughness and ability with which 
he presents his cases to the full bench. He is a fine speaker, but has 
proven it by occasional lectures and orations, and considerable speaking in 
political campaigns, rather than at the bar in the trial of litigated cases. 

Geokge W. Hartshorn, son of Colburn and Elizabeth (Fay) Harts- 
horn, was born in Lunenburgh, Vt., September 5, L827, (being the tenth 
of their twelve sons), educated at the Guildhall and Lancaster academies, 
studied law with Amos Bateman, of Camden, N. J., where he was con- 
nected with a newspaper, was admitted to the bar in September, L849, and 
removed to Irasburg, Vt., in 1850, where he was county clerk, and edited 
the Orleans Count n Gazette. He removed to Canaan, Vt., in 1857, from 
which town Ossian Ray had shortly before removed to Lancaster, and has 
since been well-known in Northern New Hampshire and Vermont as an 
attorney, and was, until 1873, collector of customs for the upper section 
of both states. He had a considerable practice in New Hampshire until 
about 1880, when he became substantially incapacitated for work. Before 
that time he held some of the most prominent of the public offices of his 
section continuously. 

Henry Willard Lund, son of Hezekiah and Mary (Shores) Lund, was 
born at Granby. Vt., October 11, 1854, educated at the St. Johnsbury, Vt., 
academy, studied law with Henry C. Bates, of St. Johnsbury, was admit- 
ted to the bar in March, 1881, and settled at Canaan, Vt. He has since 
practiced in Canaan and Stewartstown, doing most of the local business of 
that section, and is one of the regular practitioners of this district, though 
a non-resident. 

Coos County, 


Histoey of Towns. 





Origin of Name — Charter — Names of Grantees — Situation — Sceneiy, Etc. — Climate; Reason 

of Its Pleasantness — Change of Boundaries and Location. 

ORIGIN of Name* — Before gathering the deeds, recounting the ex- 
ploits, reciting the sufferings and hardships of the early and later 
settlers which go to make up the history of this town, let us look at 
its name, and see from whence it is derived, what it means, how it hap- 
pened, and the various changes it has undergone. 

In tracing it to its derivation, we find it of Roman origin, and as old as 
Julius Caesar and Julius Agricola. The Romans were an ambitious, 
aggressive, cruel, and conquering people. Their great object was aggran- 
dizement, wealth, and empire. They carried war into the East, they car- 
ried war into Africa, and at length Julius Caesar with an immense army 
under his command marched west, bringing nations and people under trib- 
ute to Rome. At length he was the conqueror of Gaul. He had an im- 
mense army. They must have something to do. England lay just across 
the channel, and from Calais to Dover, the narrowest part of the channel 
(twenty-nine miles), the chalk-hills could be seen in clear weather. Hence 
this country was called Albion — meaning white. Western England was 
distinguished for metal called tin. The merchants of the Mediterranean, 
from a period not exactly known, had trafficked with the Britons for this 
article. Caesar had learned the value of trade with the Britons from the 
mariners, and resolved to cross the channel with his army and reduce this 
country to Roman sway. This was fifty-five years before Christ. From 
Julius Caesar to Julius Agricola the contest went on. At length Roman dis- 
cipline prevailed. Soon the Roman Legions left Gaul, sailed around ' ' Land's 
End," up St. George's Channel on the west side of Briton, and up the 

* By Hon. B. F. Whidden. 


Histoky op Coos County. 

River Luna in Northwestern England. On the souther y side of this river 
TheY landed and pitched their tents or camps. At this landing, being one 
of the most important in this part of Britannia, a town was founded, and 
caC after the" river and the camps pitched upon its : southe rn bant- 
Tune Castra Lime, the name of a river, and Castra, the Latin foi camp 
oXt In process of time this name has changed with the conquering 
tongues of the country. When the Normans came over into England, 
thev changed this name, adapting it to the genius of their tongue from 
LulecZfra to Lon Castre. When the Saxons came with their all con- 
oTring tongue, they made still other changes in the spelling, and con- 
Wte l°i into one word. They changed the Lon into Lan, and the final 
So el thus the name became Lancaster, and is of Roman origin hav- 
tag undergone the several changes in the languages through which it ha 
come It was imported by the early settlers to Massachusetts, and given 
to this township by the grantees. 
Charter of Lancaster.— 


" GEORGE, the Third: 

" By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King 
Defender of the Faith. &c. 

in New England, and of our conned of the said J^"^ 5 £ ug Qm . heirs & successorS 

tion s herein ^^£j*Z%£* UD ^ Rants' of onr said province of 
do give and grant in equal shaies, unto our i g j ^^ nameg 


Bq uare & n m » re ' ^J^ ' 1vws one tho us.nd & forty acres free, according to a plan and 
,, y rocks pond.. monntan S .v.ive returned ^ , he Secl . etar y' s oftce. 

SUr ,7 ' 'rtn ed hnVed* bounded as follows, viz, beginning ata stake and stones, standing 
and hereunto «J*™^" of ConMcticl ,t river, W hich is the South Westerly corner bounds 
on the Bank of the Hasteny ,,,.„„, eas t seven miles by Stonington to the south- 

„f Stoningtou, thence running south hfty five degre* east, seve j ^ ^ ^ 

easterly corner Ike™ ^^ ™, ^--^^^/^Clo ConnecticnrRiver, thenceup the river 

rSnd^ht m ^ues urs. above nfentioned <*££»%£ X^ 

".I * hereby is incorporated into « To™h,p by t , nan> : LAN ASTER And^^ ^ 


& entitled to all & ever th pnvrteg ^ ^ ^ fifty famin dent 

exercise A enjoy. And further that tne sa. • wWl shall be held on the 

Town of Lancaster. 263 

respective following the said , And that as soon as the said town shall consist of 

fifty families, a market may be opened & kept one or more days in each Week, as may he thought 
most advantageous to the Inhabitants. Also that the first meeting for the choice of Town officers, 
agreeable to the laws of our said province shall be held on the tirst tuesdav in August next, which 
said meeting shall be notified by David Page who is hereby also appointed the Moderator of the 
said first meeting, which he is to notify A' govern agreeable to the laws A: customsof our said Prov- 
ince And tint the annual meeting forever hereafter for the choice of such officers for the said 
town, shall be on the SECOND TUESDAY of March annually. To Have A to Hold the said tract 
of land as above expressed, together with all privileges A appurtenances, to them A their respect- 
ive heirs A assigns forever, upon the following conditions, VIZ. 

" 1. That every Grantee, his heirs or assigns, shall plant & cultivate live acres of land, within 
the term of five years for every fifty acres contained in his or their share or proportion of land in said 
Township, & continue to improve & Settle the same by additional cultivations, on penally of the 
forfeiture of bis Grant or share in the said Township, & of its reverting to us our heirs & succes- 
sors, to be by us, or them regranted to such of our subjects as shall effectually settle & cultivate the 

"2. That all white and other pine trees within the said Township, fit for masting our Royal 
navy, be carefully preserved for that use, & none to be cut or felled without our special licence for 
so doing first had and obtained, upon the penalty of the forfeiture of the right of such Grantee, 
his heirs A' assigns, to us, our heirs and successors, as well as being subject to the penalty of any 
act or acts of parliament that now are, or hereafter shall be enacted. 

"3. That before any division of the land be made to & among the Grantees, a tract of land as 
near the centre of the said Township as the land will admit of, shall be reserved & marked out for 
Town lots, one of which shall be allotted to each Grantee of the Contents of one acre. 

" 4. Yielding A paying therefor to us, our heirs & successors for the space of ten years, to be 
computed from the date hereof, the rent of one ear of Indian Corn only on the 25th day of Decem- 
ber annually, if lawfully demanded, the first payment to be made on the 25th day of Decemher, 

" 5. Every Proprietor, settler or inhabitant, shall yield & pay unto us, our heir3 & successors 
yearly, & every year forever, from & after the expiration of ten j r ears from the above said 25th 
day of December namely, on the 25th day of December which will be in the year of our Lord 17?:!, 
one shiding proclamation money for every hundred acres he so owns, settles, or possesses, and so 
in proportion for a greater or lesser tract of the said land; which money shall be paid by the re 
spective persons above said, their heirs or assigns, in Our Concil Chamber in Portsmouth to such 
officer or officers as shall be appointed to receive the same, & this to be in lieu of all other rents & 
services whatsoever. 

" In Testimony Whereof, we have caused the seal of our said Province to be hereunto affixed, 

" Benning Wentworth Esq, our Governor & Commander in Chief of our said Province, the 

fifth day of July in the year of our Lord Christ, one thousand seven hundred and sixty three, 

and in the third year of our reign. 


" By His Excellency's Command, 
with advice of Council. 

" T. Atkinson, Sec'y. 

"Province of Xewhampshire, July Oth, 1763. Recorded according to the original under the 

province seal. 

"Pr. T. Atkinson. Junk, Sec'y." 

" Keunes of the Grantees. — David Page, David Page, Jun'r, Abraham Byam, Ruben Stone, 
John Grout, John Grout, Jun'r, Jonathan Grout, Solomon Willson, Joseph Stowed, Joseph Page, 
William Page. Nath'l Page, John Warden, Silas Bennit, Thomas Shaltock, Ephraim Bhattock, 
Silas Shattock, Benj'aMann, Daniel Miles, Thomas Rogers, John Duncan. Nath'l Smith, Charles 
How, Israel Hale, Israel Hale, Jun'r, Daniel Hale, William Dagget, Isaac Ball, Solomon Fay. 

2G4 History of Coos County. 

Jotham Death, John Sanders, Elisha Crossby, Luke Lincoln, David Lawson, Silas Rice, Thomas 
Carter, Ephraim Sterns, James Read, Timothy Whitney, Thomas Rice, Daniel Searles, Isaac Wood, 
Nath'l Richai'dson, Ebenezer Blunt, John Harriman, Ephraim Noyce, Benj'n Sawyer, John Saw- 
yer, John Wait, Samuel Marble, Joseph Marble, Jonathan Houghton John Rogers, Abner Holden, 
Stanton Prentice, Benj'n Willson, Stephen Ernes, John Phelps, William Read, Benj'n Baxter, Mat- 
thew Thornton, Esq'r, And'w Wiggin, Esq'r, Meshech Weare, Esq'r, Maj'r JohnTolford, Hon'l 
Jos'h Newmarsh, Esq'r, Nath'l Barrel, Esq'r, Dan'l Warner, Esq'r, James Nevins, Esq'r, Rev'd 
Mr. Joshua Wingate Weeks, and Benj'n Stevens. 

" His Excellency, Benning Wentworth, Esq'r, a tract of land to contain five hundred acres, as 
marked B. W. in the plan which is to be accounted two of the within shares one whole share for 
the incorporated Society, for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign Parts, one share for a Glebe 
for the Church of England as by law established; one share for the first settled minister of the 
Gospel, and one share for the benefit of a School in said Town." 

Situation, Scenery, Etc. — Aclino N. Brackett gives this description of 
Lancaster in 1821: " On the northeast of Lancaster lie Northumberland 
and Kilkenny; on the south Jefferson and Whitefield, and on the south- 
west Dalton; the northwest line is nine miles in length, the south ten, and 
the southwest about two and a half miles. 

"Lancaster is situated on the southeastern bank of Connecticut river, 
which forms and washes its northwestern boundary, with its various 
meanders, a distance of more than ten miles. In this whole distance 
there is not a single rapid. The water is deep, and below the mouth of 
Israel's river, which falls into the Connecticut very near the center of the 
town, its general width is twenty-two rods. The meadows lie along the 
margin of the river to near three-fourths of a mile in depth, almost the 
whole distance above mentioned. To these succeed a border of pine or 
spruce land for another half mile, which is generally level, and productive 
when cleared and properly cultivated. The next region was covered with 
a thick growth of sugar-maple, beech, basswood, ash, and other deciduous 
forest trees. In many places, however, the spruce and fir abound, more 
particularly in the lowlands, with here and there a cedar swamp. The 
larch and mountain ash are not unknown to the inhabitants of Lancaster, 
as the first occupies considerable tract between the meadows and highlands, 
and the other is found scattered among the other timber and underbrush. 

* * * # -:•:- * * -::- 

" One mile from the Court House there is a bridge over Connecticut 
river, and about the same distance another over Israel's river. The first 
leads into Guildhall, Vt. The other connects the eastern and western 
divisions of the town together. From the southerly end of the bridge last 
mentioned, the road to Portland and Dartmouth strikes off in a southeast- 
ern direction. The distance to the place first mentioned is a hundred and 
ten miles. To Portsmouth it is about one hundred and thirty miles. The 
trade of the town is carried on principally with Portland." 

Advancing steps of civilization have changed the face of the country 
described, but the prominent features are the same now as then. The 

Town of Lancaster. 2C5 

meadows and intervals are considered the most extensive, and finest there 
are in the whole valley of the Connecticut, extending back nearly a mile 
to the uplands. The soil of these intervals is alluvial and produces excel- 
lent crops of corn, oats, and grass; while the uplands, when properly cul- 
tivated, raise fine wheat and other crops. 

There is no town in New Hampshire more pleasantly situated for fine 
mountain scenery. The town itself is not mountainous, but towering 
mountains can be seen on every side. At the south and southeast, the 
Franconia hills and the whole range of the White Mountains are in full 
view, and, in the north and east, the Stratford or "Percy" peaks, with 
many of the Green Mountains, in Vermont, are distinctly visible to the 
west. Before you is the meandering Connecticut, with its broad cultivated 
intervals dotted with beautiful farm-houses; at the right are seen the dark 
masses of the "Pilot Range.*' and on the Vermont side of the river the 
Lunenburg Heights; the whole presenting a picture of nature and art com- 
bined, beautiful enough to satisfy any lover of picturesque, wild, and 
romantic scenery. There are several ponds. Martin Meadow pond, in 
the southern part, area nearly 150 acres, was named for a hunter who 
formerly frequented this locality. This communicates with Little pond, 
area forty acres. Baker pond, one mile north of the village, is a pleasant 
sheet of water. 

Lancaster village is located on Israel's river and about one mile from 
the Connecticut. The fine country which surrounds it, the excellent roads, 
and pleasant drives, together with the magnificent mountain scenery on 
•every side, render it attractive as a summer resort. From the cupola of 
the Lancaster House a very extended view of river, country, and moun- 
tain scenery can be obtained. The streets are wide and beautifully shaded, 
while the business blocks and private residences betoken the care, neatness, 
and taste of the citizens. The river, in its jDassage through the village, is 
spanned by two substantial bridges, and furnishes fine water-power. The 
village is the center of a rich agricultural section, and does a large mercan- 
tile business. 

Climate, J-i> zason of its Pleasantness. — The climate of Lancaster, and 
the neighboring country is delightful. The peculiar state of the weather 
here, so different from that in other parts of New England, Dr. Dwight 
attributes to the proximity of the White Mountains. In his words. " These 
"are so high, that they stop the progress of the easterly winds, or more 
probably elevate their course into a region of the atmosphere far above 
the surface, and prevent them striking the earth, until they arrive at the 
Green Mountains on the west. The westerly winds in the mean time im- 
pinging against the White Mountains, twenty-five miles beyond Lancas- 
ter, but in regions of the atmosphere considerably elevated, are checked 
in their career, just as a wind is stopped, when blowing directly against a 


266 History of Coos County. 

building. A person approaching near the building, perceives a calm, not- 
withstanding he is in the course of the blast. In the same manner, these 
mountains, extending thirty miles from north to south, and rising more 
than a mile above the common surface, must, it would seem, so effectu- 
ally check the current of the northwest wind, as to render its progress 
moderate, and agreeable, for many miles, towards that quarter of the 
heavens. Whether the cause here assigned be the real one or not, the 
fact is certain, and gives this region in the pleasantness of its weather a 
superiority over many others. The scenery of this region is remarkably 
interesting, and I hesitate not to pronounce it the most interesting which 
I have ever seen." 

Change of Boundaries and Location. — On exploring the bounds of 
Lancaster, David Page, Esq., found that it covered but a small portion of 
the coveted Coos meadows, and the improvements already made were 
really in Stonington. The nine miles extent of meadow land, the good 
sites of Israel's river for future mills, so superior to those of John's river, 
were also in that territory of Stonington, the proprietors of which had 
done nothing to develop these sources of wealth during the existence of 
the term of their grant, which expired in 1766. Then was done a bold 
thing. Under the influence of some powerful mind, and it would seem 
necessary to go no farther than to Mr. Page to find this, the proprietors 
conceived the idea of " sliding " Lancaster sufficiently far up the river to 
include all the desired territory. The initial steps were taken in 1766, but 
as the records were burned, we can only give record evidence from March 
10, 1767. At that date it was voted that " Mr. Page receive one dollar on 
each right for altering the town," and that he " run the line around the 
town." At the same meeting money was raised to "build a grist-mill and 
saw-mill on Israel's river." The line around their occupancy was duly 
made, meadow and house lots duly laid out, and some labor performed on 
roads. The lines of the grant as it should be were defined; and, in 1760, 
Lieut. Joshua Talford was procured to " survey " the town. Going up the 
Connecticut about seven miles from the true northwest corner, he estab- 
lished an arbitrary corner by an ash tree on the bank of the Connecticut; 
from this he surveyed the town by courses and distances as described in 
the charter. If the original grant had been adhered to, three-fourths of 
Lancaster would be composed of land now in Dalton and Whitefield. 

This summary proceeding disarranged all the river grants above Lan- 
caster, and after much agitation it was submitted to the arbitration of 
Gov. Wentworth. It was finally settled by Northumberland holding the 
ground she occupied, while Woodbury, Cockburn, Coleburn, and Stew- 
artstown were to move further up the river, and each receive as a bonus 
a large additional tract on its eastern side. Not all of the proprietors of 
Stonington were satisfied with this, for they were not all included in the 

Town of Lancaster. 267 

charter of Northumberland, and some of them made surveys and did other 
acts indicating an interference with Lancaster. The first record evidence 
of this is in the records of 1773. On August 26th of that year, at a meet- 
ing of the proprietors, a vote was passed to locate Hon. Charles Ward Ap- 
thorp's ten rights, giving him two miles on the river below Edwards 
Bucknam's lot, and back far enough to include ten full rights, and also 
the meadow land commonly called the Cat Bow tract of 360 acres. But 
the vote contains this provision, " the grant hereby made to him shall not 
operate to the disadvantage of the rest of the proprietors by the interven- 
tion of any foreign legal claim under color of a mistake in the boundaries 
of the township." At the same meeting the following vote was passed:— 

"That it appears to this proprietary as a matter of some uncertainty whether doubts may not 
arise with respect to the northerly extent of the boundaries of this township which upon a con- 
struction set up by sundry persons will deprive the whole of the settlers (one only excepted) of their 
land, possessions and improvements and reduce the township to very inconsiderable compass, and 
the proprietors laboring- under great uneasiness from the apprehension of, or expecting a calamity, 
do therefore request that Arnmi R. Cutter, Esq., and Mr. Jacob Treadwell will be pleased to lay 
before his Excellency the Governor such representation upon the subject as may to them appear 
most proper to induce his Excellency to grant to the proprietors an explanatory charter ascertain- 
ing the limits of the said township as the same was actually surveyed by Joshua Talford and is 
now allotted to the proprietors and possessed and enjoyed by the inhabitants." 

The war of the Revolution soon followed, and no mention of the change 
of lines is made in the record until April 20, 1790, when it was voted "that 
Col. Jonas Wilder, Lieut. Emmons Stockwell, and Edwards Bucknam be 
a committee to act in behalf of the proprietary, and petition the General 
Court of the State of New Hampshire respecting the charter of said Lan- 
caster that a new one be obtained to the same grantees, and to cover all 
the lands up to and join Northumberland, agreeably to the plan and sur- 
vey of said town." In 1790 and 1791 similar votes were passed. In 1796 
the proprietors concluded long enough possession had been had to entitle 
them to the land, and chose "Richard C. Everett, Esq., agent to act in be- 
half of the Proprietors of Lancaster to defend any lawsuit or suits, or to 
commence any action or actions against any encroachments thai are or 
may be made upon said Township of Lancaster, to make any settlement 
of all or any disputes which are or maybe had with the adjacent towns 
respecting the boundaries of said town, and to petition the Honorable Gin 
eral Court with any agent or agents of the neighboring towns, whose 
boundaries are disputed, or disputable, for their interference in the prem- 
ises." In the suit of Atkinson vs. Goodall, tried in L853 at Exeter, to ob- 
tain possession of lands in Bethlehem as belonging to the grantees of ( Ion- 
cord Gore, described as "cornering on Lancaster," Hon. .James W. Weeks 
was employed to give a general delineation of Concord Gore and adjacent 
territory. His map correctly located the gore, but failed to make it corner 

268 History of Coos County. 

on the present town of Lancaster. The court decided that the accepted 
boundaries of towns, occupied so long as these had beeu, could not be dis- 
turbed by reason of variance from original intention. 


First Settlements — Com planted — Frost — Difficulty of Travel — Canoes — First White 
Woman — Supplies from Portsmouth or Haverhill — "Samp Mortar" — "Cars" — First Mills — 
Revolution — Emmons Stockwell "would stay" — Major Jonas Wilder — Rich Soil — Manure 
thrown away — Village Plot — First two-story house in Coos county — First Bridge — First 
Schools — Early prices — "Alarms During the War" — Early Settlers — Residents, Polls, and 
Stock, 1793 — David Page petitions for more Land — Why "Upper Coos" did not elect Repre- 
sentative — Edwards Bucknam granted mill privilege at Northumberland Falls — Petition, etc., 
concerning Taxes. 

FIRST Settlements. — 1763. — Those survivors of that historic band 
known as "Rogers' Rangers," who passed down the valley of the 
Upper Connecticut, made known the beauty, extent, and fertility of 
this section to appreciative ears. Among others who listened to their 
stories, especially to those of the youthful, enthusiastic and dating Emmons 
Stockwell, was David Page, Esq., of Petersham, Mass., one of the grantees 
of Haverhill, who felt sorely aggrieved by the division of rights in that 
grant. A bold, resolute man, he determined to wrest from the upper wil- 
derness something to compensate him for his fancied losses in Haverhill. 
He, with others, secured grants for territory on the opposite sides of the 
Connecticut which took the names of the towns where most of them lived 
in Massachusetts, and which bore the same relation to each other and the 
river. Thus it came that Lancaster and Lunenburg became names of 
towns on the Upper Connecticut. The same year that Lancaster was 
granted (1763), David Page determined that he would have the first choice 
in the lands; and sent his son David and Emmons Stockwell, to make a 
selection and improvements to hold their choice. They began a clearing, 
hunted, fished, and trapped during the winter. They located their camp 
on the meadow back of the Holton house, on low ground, however, and 
the rising Connecticut drove them out of it in the chilling month of March. 
It is probable that they returned to the lower settlements in time to act as 
guides and assistants to the company of permanent settlers who were then 
ready to start for the new land of paradise. During 1764, David Page, 
with his family, Edwards Bucknam, and other young men from Lancaster, 
Lunenburg and Petersham, Mass., became settlers. The first permanent 

Town of Lancaster. 269 

settlement was made April ID, 1764, on what is known as the "Stockwell 
place." The colonists set at work with a will, erecting cabins, clearing 
land, and planting corn on the land cleared the year before. Their com- 
bined efforts enabled them to plant about twelve acres, which in the rich, 
fresh soil grew rapidly. " By August 26," says Mr. Stock well, "this was 
twelve feet high, in full milk, with ears as high as ray shoulders." Dur- 
ing that night it was frozen completely through and spoiled. This was a 
hard blow, but the frost extended to Massachusetts, and they were no 
worse off here than there. The settlers had brought with them twenty 
head of cattle, and, during the summer, added twenty more; all were win- 
tered nicely. 

" At this period there was no settlement between Haverhill and Lan- 
caster, and but very few north of Charlestown. There being no roads, the 
settlers suffered inconceivable hardships in transporting their necessaries, 
few as they were, being obliged to navigate their log canoes up and down 
the 'Fifteen-mile falls,' now known to be twenty miles in length, with a 
descent of more than three hundred feet; and in winter to pass the same 
dangerous rapids in sleighs and with ox teams, frequently falling through 
the ice, and sometimes never rising above it. High water to descend, and 
low water to ascend, were thought the most favorable times, the canoes 
being drawn up by ropes, but when descending, one man stood in the bow 
with a pole to guard from rock to rock, while another sat in the stern to 
steer with his paddle. In this manner the wife of David Page, when cor- 
pulent and infirm, was carried in safety to her friends below." 

So much has been written about David Page, Sr. , never being a resi- 
dent of Upper Coos, that it seems quite essential to say that we have his 
own testimony to the fact that he did reside here for some years, and prob- 
ably many. See his petition for more land later in this chapter. Tradi- 
tion says that he built the first framed house in the county. 

The first white woman to settle here was Euth, daughter of David Page. 
She came in August, 1764, to perform the indispensable house-keeping for 
the pioneers. In 1765 she became the wife of Emmons Stock well. They 
had fifteen children; David, the oldest, was the first son of Lancaster. The 
married life of Mr. and Mrs. Stockwell continued fifty-five years. Mrs. 
Stockwell had nearly two hundred descendants living at the time of her 
death, which occurred March 21, is-2s,mthe eighty-second year of her age, 
and for forty years previous she had been a member of the " First church *' 
in Lancaster. 

In 1775 there were eight families in town, embracing about sixty-one 
persons. Dennis Stanley was here prior to 1771',. 

For the first twenty years the people lived without mills, and their 
nearest neighbors were fifty miles distant. All their supplies not produced 
from their lands, or forest and stream, came through the White Mountain 

270 History of Coos County. 

Notch, or up the Connecticut river. The first lime used by Lieut. Stanley 
to tan moose skins, was brought from Portsmouth in leather bags, on a 
horse's back. A scanty supply of flour was obtained from Haverhill. It 
does not appear that they ever suffered for lack of food, except one season, 
when the frost killed the corn. 

The samp mortar was an " institution '' in all the old families. This 
was an immense hardwood log, about three feet in length, hollowed out at 
the end like an ordinary mortal*, with a stone pestle hung upon a spring 
pole in the corner of the kitchen; in this mortar the corn was put in small 
qualities, and crushed with this pestle until it was as fine as hominy, and 
was superior to it. The hull could be taken off by putting it in water. 
Samp was a standard article of food long after mills were established, and 
the mortar maintained its place in many families. The Connecticut river 
supplied fish of the choicest kind, and the family who did not " put down " 
a supply of salmon was looked upon as improvident. 

Even at this early period, "cars "were used for the transportation of 
baggage; not constructed, however, precisely like these on our railroads, 
as they were made of two poles, one end of each resting on the ground, 
the other passing through the stirrups of a saddle, with two transverse 
sticks behind the horse, on which rested the load, and to one of which the 
whiffletree was attached. 

First Mills.— The very first mill was operated by horse-power, but it 
did little better service than the large mortar and pestle attached to a pole. 
David Page built a small water-mill on Indian brook, northeast of the 
burying-ground, about 1770. This and its successor was burned. About 
17S1 Major Wilder built a grist mill at the foot of the "sand-hill." Be- 
tween 17'J3 and 1800, R. C. Everett put up a large mill, one hundred feet 
long, and three stories in height, in which was a grist-mill, a carding ma- 
chine, and two saws. This was burned about 1800, with much grain. In 
the same year (1800) Emmons Stockwell and Titus O. Brown erected mills. 
In 1810 an improved mill was built where the present one stands, and, in 
1817, one occupied the " Wesson " privilege. 

During the Revolution the little settlements on the Connecticut were 
much retarded. The fear of the Indians, who captured Newcomb Blodgett, 
and others, inhabitants of Coos, led to the idea of abandonment of the 
country. Emmons Stockwell was made of no such material, however. 
He told those that spoke of leaving " to go, if they wanted to, but that he 
should stay." He did stay, and sometimes alone, and sometimes with 
the company of several families, he kept the settlement alive until the 
war was over. Even after the war Lancaster settled slowiy. The pro- 
prietors did not willingly part with their lands, some would not sell, and 
the town grew slowly. The destruction of the town records of the earliest 

Town of Lancaster. 271 

days makes it impossible to give the exact time of the arrival of the early 

In 1778 Major Jonas Wilder came, and was chosen to office in March. 
17 7i». He was followed by many of his relatives and friends, who came 
with all the enthusiasm of men who expected to make their fortunes in 
a very short time. The contrast between the sterile soil of central Massa- 
chusetts and the Connecticut meadows was so great that it seemed to them 
that they had only to come here to be rich. It was understood that the 
meadows were so fertile that manure would never be wanted to secure the 
finest of crops, and so impressed were they with this idea, that the drop- 
pings of the cattle were carted from the Wilder premises, and dumped 
into a gully near Indian brook, and, in some instances, barns were moved 
to get them out of the way of the manure heaps. This paradise included 
also Lunenburg and Guildhall. 

Village Plot. — In settling a new country one of the first things done is 
to lay out a village plot. The proprietors, knowing from its location and 
advantages that Lancaster must become an important business center, laid 
out two streets, (one south from Israel's river, the other easterly to the 
river,) and sixty building lots, deeded the " meeting-house-common " to the 
the town, deeded Israel's river, with a strip of land on each side, from the 
island below the bridge to the great bow above the paper-mill, to the 
town for school purposes, and offered fifty acres of land to the one who 
brought the first set of blacksmith's tools to the town and established a 
shop. Few buildings w^ere erected, however, where the proprietors ex- 

The First Two -story House in Coos county was the present residence of 
H. F. Holton, which was commenced, according to tradition, on the 
memorable "dark day," May li>, 1 780, by Major Jonas Wilder, and "raised" 
July 26, 1780. 

The First Bridge on Israel's river was built by Emmons Stockwell, and 
it is said that he paid five gallons of brandy for the privilege of crossing it 

First Schools. — Mrs. Euth Stockwell was, beyond question, the first 
to impart knowledge of books to the settlers, but she kept no regular 
school. At an early date a log school-house was erected in District No. 
one. In District No. two, a school was established early. From ;i letter 
of Capt. John Weeks, dated Lancaster, June 15, 17s7, we extract: " John 
values himself much on his spelling and reading at school, as he gets the 
better of all of his age, and of many much older. The schoolmaster, Mr. 
Burgin, an Englishman, boarded with us last week: we take turns to board 
him weekly." According to the Bucknam papers, Joseph Burgin began a 
term of six months at $5 per month, June 20, 1787. A Mr. Bradley was 
leaching during the summer of 1789. 

272 History of Coos County. 

Early Prices. — The stock of the first merchants was " W. I. Rum," "N. 
E. Rum," tobacco, chintz (calico), salt, tea, axes, hoes, nails, glass, etc. 
Little money was here, and barter was the rule. Home-made tow-and- 
linen cloth brought from two to three shillings a yard, cotton-and-linen 
cloth three to four shillings, chintz, for wedding dresses, one dollar a yard, 
and, as women's wages were from two to three shillings a week, it would 
take "my lady " four or five months steady labor to earn her bridal dress. 
Men's wages for the "season" (six months in summer) were about $8 a 
month in stock or produce, and ten or twelve days' labor might possibly 
buy sufficient cloth for a pair of shirts. Pearlash and potash would bring 
from $75 to $150 a ton in Portland. Nails sold for nine pence a pound, 
glass from six pence to one shilling a "pane." Cows were worth from 
$10 to $12 each, oxen (six feet in girth) from $35 to $10 a yoke. Potatoes 
were in good demand at the distilleries, of which there were several, and 
brought from ten to twelve cents a bushel. Furs were plenty, and brought 
good prices. In January, 1786, John Johnson worked three days at Buck- 
nam's, shoemaking, for which he charged four shillings. Bucknamkept 
a house of entertainment as well as merchandise for sale. Prices for meals 
' '6d 3 " lodging ' 'Id, " toddy one shilling, rum one shilling eight pence per pint. 
In 1701 shot sold for one shilling per pound, brick 2s-ld a 100. In Octo- 
ber, 1771, Bucknam credits Joseph Whipple with two yards calico six 
"shillings each," and charges him for pork and butter lOd per pound, 
wheat six shillings, peas seven shillings, Indian corn four shillings per 
bushel. Salted bear meat brought Sdalb., salt fish Sd, hay $5 per ton, 
leather for a pair of breeches 18 shillings. Joseph Currier is charged 
August 25, 17bl, with over two quarts rum " when married;" June 8, 
1785, one quart "when ye child died," 2 sh_. 

"Alarms During the War."— June 22, 1786, Jonas Wilder and Em- 
mons Stockwell as selectmen give this "account of the alarms in the 
Upper Coos during the late war. In July, 1776, 1 alarm; Sept., 1777, 
1 alarm; 1778, do; in July, 1779, 1 alarm. Indians took prisoners at Strat- 
ford; in June, 1780, 1 alarm; August, 1780, do; Oct., 1780, 1 do; Thos. 
Worcester taken; in July, 1781, 1 alarm; some wounded men came in, 
said Pritchett was near; Sept., 1781, 1 alarm. Pritchett went to Wipple's; 
in May, 1782, 1 alarm, Abel Learned taken; June, do. 1 alarm; in Oct., 1 
alarm. Nix taken." This was endorsed "Account of the number of days 
spent in scouting, guiding, and foiling, by the men inhabitants of Lancas- 
ter, in time of the above alarms, and other times during the late war: 
being 117 days, Jonathan Willard, 10 clays. Total, 157 days." 

"Moses Page, David Page, and Emmons Stockwell were in company 
in constructing the mill-dam in February, 1785." -Bucknam Papers. 

By 1786 the tide of emigration set strongly this way. Col. Stephen 
Willson had a clearing and log hut on the interval near the present vil- 

Town of Lancaster. l>7:; 

lage. Capt. John Weeks came from Greenland, and, following his step-. 
the same year, and later, came Joseph Brackett, Coffin and William Moore, 
Phineas Hodgdon, Walter and Samuel Philbrook. and others. Central 
Massachusetts sent a respectable number at about the same time, or a few 
years later, including Titus 0. Brown, Jonas Baker, Jonathan Cram, 
Humphrey Cram, Joseph Wilder. Elisha Wilder, Rev. Joseph Willard, 
Benjamin Boardman, and others. In 1700 the town had 1 < > 1 population. The 
growth had been slow, but largely compensating for that was the charac- 
ter of the settlers. They were men who came to stay, and their presence, 
merely, in a community was an addition to its prosperity; they were men 
of strong mind, possessed fair education, had borne the hardships of a 
long struggle for their liberties, were self-reliant, and could endure with 
patience the privations of pioneer life. Some of them had served with 
credit as officers in the army, and they could all turn their hands to varied 
employments, use the axe. guide the plow, "run lines," construct a barn 
or house, shoot a moose, catch a trout, or trap wild game. 

An extract from a letter of Capt. John Weeks to his wife, written at 
Lancaster, July 15, 1787, will throw a little light on the mode of life of 
that primitive period. "We shall move into our log house this week. It 
will be a very comfortable one. The logs, all peeled, are smooth and clean. 
The house is eighteen feet wide, and twenty feet long. We shall have one 
comfortable room, and two bed-rooms. Our family now consists, beside 
myself, of one hired man, one girl (Patty), one boy (John), one cow, one 
heifer, one sheep, one hog, one pig, one dog, one cat, one hen and one 
chicken; we have also a pair of geese at Coll Buckmans, which we shall 
take home in the fall. You would be pleased to see our little family, and 
Patty's management of it." 

Adjoining Deacon Brackett's farm on the east, was the farm of B riant 
Stephenson. He was a good man, a worthy citizen, and one of the first 
clerks in school district number two, which was formed in L791. He was 
also town clerk. About 1790, Phineas Hodgdon (a soldier under Gen. 
Gates in the Revolution), a young man of military bearing, became a set 
tier; John Mcln tire came later, with a yoke of steers, a pair of "' block- 
wheels," a chain, axe, and a bushel of salt. He was uneducated, but pos- 
sessed strong common sense, took up one lot of land, which by his indus- 
try he brought into a fine state of cultivation, and accumulated a large 
property. Edward Spaulding, (whose mother brought him, a child, to 
Northumberland in 1767,) on arriving at maturity, bought a lot of land on 
the northern slope of Mt. Pleasant, which he cleared and occupied during 
a long life. He was a man of magnificent proportions. He was a great 
hunter and fisher; honest, kind and hospitable. He died in 1545. Coffin 
Moore' son of Dr. Coffin Moore, of Portsmouth, married Mary Bucknam, 
and resided in Dalton and Lancaster. Among his children were Dr. Ed- 

271 History of Coos County. 

ward B. Moore, an eminent physician of Boston, and Joseph B. Moore, of 
Lancaster. Capt. William Moore settled on a farm near Martin Meadow 
pond. He married a daughter of John Mclntire, held various town offices, 
and was very popular. Asahel Allen lived on the southern slope of Martin 
Meadow hills. Amos LeGro, son of Dr. Samuel LeGro, was a useful and 
upright citizen. Joseph Howe and Daniel Stebbins lived near neighbors, 
on the hill road. Both were trustworthy men and excellent citizens 

Residents, Polls, and Stock. 1793. — The first inventory of Lancaster other 
than of real estate appears on record as taken in April, 1793. Col. Ed- 
wards Bucknam has one poll, two oxen, five cows, two horses, four young 
cattle; Lt. Joseph Brackett, two polls, two oxen, two cows, one horse, 
six young cattle; Jonas Baker, one poll, two oxen, two cows, one yearling; 
James McHard, no poll nor personal property; Phineas Brace, one poll, 
one cow; William Bruce, one poll; Titus 0. Brown, one poll; Lt. Jona. 
Cram, two polls, two oxen, two cows, two horses, six young cattle; Thad- 
deus Carby, one poll; Abijah Darby, one poll, one cow; Isaac Darby, one 
poll, one cow; Fortunatus Eager, one poll; Robert Gotham, one poll, one ox, 
two three -year olds; Benjamin Green, nothing; Daniel How, one poll, two 
oxen, one cow, one two-year old; Phinehas Hodsden, one poll, one cow, 
two young cattle; Jonathan Hartwell, one poll, one cow; Oliver Hutchings, 
one poll; William Johnson, no poll nor personal property; Nathan Love- 
well, one poll, one two-year-old; William Moore, one poll, one ox, one 
cow; John Mclntire, one poll, two oxen, one cow, two young cattle; Ben- 
jamin Orr, one poll; Capt. David Page, three polls, three oxen, three cows, 
eight young cattle; Moses Page, one poll, two cows, one horse, three young 
cattle; Walter Philbrook, one poll, one cow; Joel Page, one poll; Lt. John 
Rosbrook, one poll, two oxen, two cows, two horses; Charles Rosbrook, 
one poll, one horse; Jona. Rosbrook, one poll; Ezra Reeves, one poll, one 
cow, one horse, two two-year olds; Lt. Emmons Stockwell, two polls, two 
oxen, four cows, one horse, nine young cattle; Lt. Dennis Stanley, one 
poll, two oxen, five cows, one horse, four young cattle; Edward Spaulding, 
one poll, one cow, one horse, three young cattle; Jere. Stickney, one poll, 
one horse; Benjamin Twombly, one poll; Col. Jonas Wilder, one poll, four 
oxen, three cows, one horse, six young cattle; Jonas Wilder, Jr., one poll, one 
cow, three horses, three young cattle; Joseph Wilder, one poll; Elisha Wil- 
der, one poll, two oxen, one cow, one yearling; John Wilder, one poll; 
Eph. Wilder, one poll; Manasseh Wilder, one poll; Capt. John Weeks, 
one poll, two cows, one yearling; Lt. Jere. Willcox, one poll, one cow, one 
horse; Smith Williams, nothing; Ashbell Webb, one poll, two oxen; Syl- 
vanus Chessman, one poll; Joseph Chandler, one poll. 

By this time, the intervals, or meadow lots, on the Connecticut, had 
been mostly occupied, and farms on the hills were beginning to be de- 
veloped. Although harder to cultivate, they produced well. 

Town of Lancaster. 275 

It appears from documents published in "Hammond's Town Papers," 
(Vol. 12, pp. 351-361,) that David Page petitioned Gov. Wentworth, Jan 
uary 7. 1773, for a grant of more land, setting forth thai he had been "at 
great trouble and expense" in attempting and prosecuting the settlement, 
bringing on his own and several other families, "having live of his own 
children married and settled about him, who have made considerable pro- 
gress," etc. His petition was granted, and Edwards Bucknam directed, 

January 20, 1773, to survey and mark out a tract of 1,1 acres for this 

purpose, which he did in Jefferson. December 14, 1775, David Page, select- 
man of the town of Lancaster, James Brown, selectman of the town of 
Stratford, and Josiah Walker, "inhabitant" of Stratford, report to the 
Provincial Congress convened at Exeter, December 20, L775, "that the 
nine towns in the Upper Cohos have not complied with the precept of the 
last Congress, issued to them for the election of a Representative." because, 
first, "the needy circumstances of the people render it impossible for them 
to be at the expense of supporting one." Second, "the distance of the in- 
habitants and difficulty of communication is so great, that it prevented a 
general attendance at the meeting." They also state the universal desire 
of the people not to be taxed to defray any expense of delegates as there 
should be no taxation without representation. Edwards Bucknam and 
Emmons Stockwell, selectmen, make a return of ten (1Q) ratable polls in 
the town of Lancaster, December 2, 1783. Edwards Bucknam petitions 
the General Assembly, October 8, 1 784, " for the privilege of using and im- 
proving the Earth and waters between the Eastwardly and Westwardly 
banks" of the Connecticut river at Northumberland Falls. " in length the 
distance of one (1) mile each way from the center of said Falls," and states 
that the falls are convenient for building mills and keeping a ferry boat. 
and that " he is now actually erecting a set of mills both for sawing and 
grinding on said falls." His petition is granted in 1784. Jonas Wilder, 
Edwards Bucknam, and Emmons Stockwell, as a town commit tee. pe- 
tition the General Assembly, September 4, 1787, to pass an act empower- 
ing the town to levy and collect a tax of three pence on each acre i public 
rights excepted) for the purpose of making roads, building bridges, meet- 
ing-house, etc., etc., and a continuation of one penny on the acre annually 
for five years, to be appropriated to the same object. In this pet ition they 
set forth as follows: " Nothing more effectually hinders the emigration 
of inhabitants to this part of the state, than the badness of our roads, and 
the want of a convenient place to worship that being, to whom all owe 
their existence. The formation of the town being very peculiar, on account 
of marshes, creeks, and large streams, and the number of inhabitants 
being but very small; consequently the expense of making and mending 
roads, building bridges, meeting houses, etc.. must be very great. < )ne 
large stream, known by the name of Israel's river, is so formidable where 

276 History of Coos County. 

it must be bridged, to accommodate the travel up and down Connecticut 
river, and likewise the travel to and from Portsmouth (our most advan- 
tageous port), that it must cost, at a moderate compensation, two hundred 
pounds. The inhabitants have solicited the non-resident land owners for 
assistance (many of whom live out of the state), but they have entirely 
refused." Such a graphic statement of facts, and the justice of their re- 
quest, caused the legislature to grant their prayer. It appears, however, 
that by some unforeseen fatality the business was not accomplished, and 
November 12, 1792, another petition was sent to the legislature for author- 
ity to levy a special tax of two pence an acre for two successive years, to 
be applied to the same purpose. This petition was signed by Fortunatus 
Eager, John Rosbrook, Jr., Charles Rosbrook, Jonas Wilder, William Bruce, 
Jonathan Cram, Titus O. Brown, John Holmes, Elisha Wilder, Phineas 
Bruce, John Rosbrook, Emmons Stockwell, Joseph Wilder, Asahel Bige- 
low, Nathan Love well, Benjamin Orr, David Stockwell, Moses Page, Den- 
nis Stanley, William Moore, David Page, Abijah Darby, Joseph Brackett, 
Walter Philbrook, Jonas Baker, Edward Spaulding, William Johnson, and 
Coffin Moore. ' 


Lancaster in 1795 and 1804 — Lancaster Bridge Co. — Extracts from Joseph Brackett's Diary, 
1799 to 1801 — Gen. Moses Hazen — South Lancaster or "Cat Bow " — Lancaster in 1810 — First 
Sabbath School — 1820 — 1830 — Stores, Articles of Traffic, Etc. — Freight — Mail, Vehicles, 
Etc. — 1840 — Extracts from A. N. Brackett's Diary — The Great Hail Storm — Climatic and 
Weather Records — Hon. John W. Weeks on Lancaster in 1839 — 1840 to 1850 — J. S. Brackett's 
Summary from 1850 to 1876 — Village Streets — 1870 to 1887 — Real Estate and Personal Prop- 
erty — 1886. 

LANCASTER in 1795-1804.— The number of tax-payers in 1705 was 
fifty-nine. The six who paid the largest tax were Jonas Wilder, Dennis 
Stanley, Emmons Stockwell, Titus O. Brown, David Page, Edwards 
Bucknam. In 1799 there were ninety-one voters, and, in 1800, apopulationof 
440. In 1804 there were only seven dwelling houses in the village, north of the 
burying-ground. They were occupied by Artemas Wilder, Stephen Will- 
son, Samuel Hunnux, William Lovejoy, A. Cram, J. Cram, and' Mr. 
Faulkner. Between the burying-ground and the river were the dwelling- 
houses of R. C. Everett, and by the river, those of a man called "Governor " 
Bruce, famous for his facetious rhymes and speeches at raisings, and that 
of the sturdy David Greenleaf . On the south side of the river there were 
six dwelling houses. Titus O. Brown's, in one end of which he kept a 

Town of Lancaster. 277 

small store; Sylvanus Chessman's house, then just huilt for a tavern; Ed- 
mund Chamberlain's, Dr. Chapman's, Chessman's old house under the 
meeting-house hill, and the house of Mr. Hinman, the clothier. There was 
a mill on one side of Israel's river, and a clothing-mill on the other. These, 
with the meeting-house, Boardman's store and potash, the school-house, 
and the Carlisle store at the upper end of the street, comprised the village 
of 1804. 

The Lancaster Bridge Company. — "Richard C. Everett, Levi Willard, 
Titus 0. Brown, Jonathan Cram, Stephen Willson, Jonas Baker, Artemas 
Wilder, Jr., and such others as may join them * * - :: " ■• •• * are 
permitted and allowed to erect and maintain a bridge over Connecticut 
River at a place called Waits Bow in Lancaster in the County of Grafton 
or at any place between the mouth of the Israel's River and the upper line 
of said Lancaster." The charter from which this extract is made was 
dated June 21, 1804. The first meeting was held August 20, 1804. Rich- 
ard C. Everett was chairman and Thomas Carlisle, clerk. The number of 
shares taken were, Thomas Carlisle & Co., 2, Isaac Bunday, 1, Richard C. 
Everett, 3, William Lovejoy, 1, Levi Willard, 2, Stephen Willson, 2, J. 
Cram, 1, Daniel Perkins, 2, Jonas Baker, 1, Titus O. Brown, 1, Humphrey 
Cram. 1, David Bunday, 1, William Huves, 1, Artemas Wilder. Jr., 12. 
Elisha Bunday, 1, Daniel Dana, 1, Urial Rosebrook, 1, Lemuel Holmes, 1, 
Asa Holmes, 1, Samuel Howe, 1, Timothy Faulkner, 1, Bowman Chad- 
dock, 1. 

"Voted that Richard C. Everett, Wm. Huves, Levi Willard, Isaac Bunday, & Wm. Lovejoy, 
be a Committee to report a plan of a Bridge & the exact place where it ought to be erected." 

The first bridge was built in 1805, and the second one in 1825. This 
was of great benefit to the mercantile and other business of Lancaster. 

Extracts from Joseplt Bracket fs Diary. — The early settlers were close 
observers of natural phenomena, men of strong reason, and independent 
thought. They attended church twice each Sabbath, and listened atten- 
tively to the two sermons, to which they gave a searching mental analysis. 
They read the Bible at home for its literature, also standard authors in Eng- 
lish. These extracts from the diary kept by an early settler, Dea. Joseph 
Brackett, in 1799-1 on L801, are of interest as showing tKese facts. 

" April 7, 1799, Sunday. After getting up read 13 psalms. Read two sermons; in my opin. 
ion the best I ever saw. Dressed and went to meeting. Heard two sermons. Returning, read 
another sermon. The sermons read were by Dr. Price, who appears a man of greal abilities, pos- 
sessed of an acute judgement and pleasing style; in truth, the doctrines he advances are supported 
by sound reasonings. April 12. Snow lies three feet on the ground. Air fur two days pastes 
trenuly cold. 15th. Warm and pleasant, but yet good crossing on the river. Read several psalms, 
after that, read four lives in British Plutarch, <>nc. I.ishop Latimer, very remarkable. I also read 
to-day Humphrey's Poems. His style in some respects resembles Goldsmith's. Also read tem- 
per's "Retirement." No poet excels him in strength of expression, or energy of thought. All his 
poems tend to make mankind better, but he is a little too severe on the clergy. 34. Came six 

278 History of Coos County. 

inches of snow. No sugar of consequence yet made. 25. National Fast. One sleigh at meeting. 
Snow two feet deep in the woods. First good run of sap. 28. Read before breakfast nine psalms. 
As pieces of devotion, none excel the Psalms of David. Attended meeting. Heard two sermons. 
The first, ver} r good; the last, indifferent. Have since read two discourses by Dr. Sherlock, one of 
which appears to be the same that I heard preached today. Sound reasoning they contain in an 
eminent degree. 29. River entirely free from ice. Sunday, May 5. Snow a foot deep in the 
woods on the level, Read Psalm 119. Went to meeting; heard two sermons. Tolerably good. 
Read Fifth book of Cowper's " Task." The more I read Cowper the better I like him. The con- 
clusion of this book is inimitable. 10. Some snow came to-day. No man with whom I have con- 
versed ever saw a season so backward. But few have begun to plough. 15. Began to plough on 
the meadow. 19. Went to meeting; heard two sermons, rather better than common. After meet- 
ing read 14 psalms. 20. Sowed 2A bushels wheat, 1 bushel rye, and 3 pecks of peas. 25. Planted 
corn. 30. Finished ploughing. Thunder storm. June 1. Quite cold. 3. First planted in ihe 
meadow. 5. Black fiies first came. 11. River higher than it has been for 10 years. 16. Still 
higher. Giain of all kinds been under water. July 5. Corn spindled out. 21. Corn silked out. 
26. Finished stacking hay. 28. Mr. Willard's forenoon discourse was very good; but the afternoon 
was not pleasing. Aug. 11. Had roast corn. 27. Frost to be seen this morning. Sept. 30. Frost 
came which killed all kinds of vegetables that frost could kill. Nov. 24. One sleigh at meeting. 
1800. The winter has been uncommonly favorable. Snow at any time not more than two feet 
deep. April 17. Frogs croaked. Mr. Clark and Toscan ploughed. 18. Killed a duck. 20. A 
fine morning; so far one of the most beautiful springs I ever knew. Read two chapters in Matthew 
in one of which I remarked the passage: "Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your 
purses; nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves; for the workman 
is worthy of his hire;" This, without any other text, is sufficient to prove that ministers ought to 
have a salary. May 5 & 6. Sowed wheat and flax. 10. First heard whippoorwills. 17. Finished 
ploughing old ground. June 5. Frost killed some things. 15. Frost killed beans and corn. 
July 19. Great sort of corn silked out. Aug. 20. Finished reaping. 50 shocks from 4 bushels 
sowing. 1801. March 16. Killed a snake. Have had an uncommon winter The last of January 
the snow was uncommonly deep, perhaps 3 feet at Lancaster. Now almost all gone. Wild geese 
were seen flying a week ago; ducks and a few T spring birds have been seen. 29. People have 
ploughed. April 27. Sowed wheat. 28. Sowed flax and peas. 29. Swallows came. The snow 
went off without raising the water so as to make a freshet here, though at the mouth, and up the 
river the water was higher than known for 70 years. May 1. Maple leaves as big as a base copper. 
Black flies in considerable quantities and whippoorwills heard. 3. Found white clover bloomed 
out. 26. A ripe strawberry found. 

Gen. Moses Haze it was one of the most prominent early nonresident 
proprietors of land in Lancaster. He was a retired colonel of the British 
army, living on half pay at the commencement of the Revolution. He 
espoused the cause of the colonists, raised a regiment for service in the 
American army, .and was to receive for a salary the same amount which 
he was entitled to draw from the British service. He had previously mar- 
ried a wealthy French lady, whose beautiful home at St. John was burned 
by the British during the Revolution and her estate and other valuable 
property confiscated. Gen. Hazen served with distinction during the war, 
but. by the depreciation of the Continental currency, and his failure to get 
just claims allowed by the War Department, he was a great financial loser 
by his espousal of the Colonial cause. His name is prominent in many 
affairs and early settlements in Vermont and on Lake Cham plain in New 
York. He was stricken by palsy and for seventeen years before his death 

Town of Lancaster. 279' 

lay perfectly helpless; and under the old law of imprisonment for debt, he 
passed some of this time in close prison. A few years before his death, 
which occurred in L803, he was pronounced a lunatic by the chancellor of 
of the state of New York, where he had resided after the Revolution, and 
Major Moses White, his nephew, and aid-de-camp in the army, appointed 
his keeper. He had been much interested in improving and settling new 
sections, and Major White found his business affairs extensive, "scattered 
from Virginia to Maine, and from Canada to the Atlantic, and, from his 
financial condition, much embarrassed." 

Gen. Hazen purchased of Charles W. Apthorp, October 5, 1783, among 
other lands twenty-four rights of land in Lancaster, N. H., including the 
"Cat Bow." The price to be paid was $115 per right. He at once 
began improvement, placed several tenants on the " Cat Bow ' 
tract, and laid out considerable money, which was expended under 
the supervision of Ezekiel Ladd, Nathaniel White, Judge Richard 
C. Everett and Edwards Bucknam. It was evidently his intention to build 
up a large manorial establishment here, and to make Lancaster his home. 
But his finances became reduced, his lands were sold for taxes, his tenants 
were ejected, and all became confusion and litigation. 

South Lancaster. — Among the early settlers in this part of Lancaster 
were Nathaniel White, his son, Samuel White, David White, John Picket, 
William C. Ford, Daniel Howe, John Miller, Francis Willson, Daniel 
Young, John Moore, Charles Howe, Israel Hale, Timothy Whitney, and 
Isaac Wood. Moses Blake contracted to build a house for Gen. Moses 
Hazen, in 1785, on the "Cat Bow" tract, and cleared land there. Ephraim 
Griggs did work in the same year for Gen. Hazen, amounting to 8100. 
Asa Bucknam and Joseph L'Esperance chopped more than eight acres on 
the "Cat Bow." A Mr. Hartw^ell was a tenant here in 1784. About the 
same time George Wheeler, Walter Bloss and John Hopkinson cleared 
thirteen acres on the same tract. P. Griggs became a tenant of Hazen in 
1786. Rev. John Wilber, of Attleborough, Mass., brother-in-law of R. C. 
Everett, purchased lands here in 1808, but never became a resident. 

1810. — The growth of the town was slow but solid, roads began to be- 
laid out, gaps were made in the pine groves, and in the hard wood tim- 
ber of the highlands, and stead} r improvements were made, year by 
year, until, in 1810, the population was 717. The town bad been se- 
lected as the shire town of the county, had a court-house and jail, 
the academy had been incorporated, school-houses erected in two school 
districts, and Willson's tavern dispensed much "flip," and entertained 
hospitably man and beast. The village had six houses at the upper 
end, besides those mentioned, which were occupied by Samuel llnnnnx, 
William Lovejoy, Artemas Cram. Benjamin Boardman, and a Faulkner. 
At the south was that of "Governor" Bruce, a soul of merriment at all 

•230 History of Coos County. 

social and public occasions, and that of old Miller Greenleaf, so sturdy 
and well known. On one side of the river was a fulling-mill, then much 
patronized, and on the other a pretentious grist-mill which did good work. 
Titus 0. Brown had a small store, the new Chesman tavern was well pat- 
ronized, and three or four private residences, Dr. Chapman's and the old 
Chesman house included, comprised the village of that day. 

1820. — During the decade from 1810 to 1820 the population shrunk to 
614. The high political excitement attending the embargo, non-intercourse, 
and war questions; the proximity to the frontier during the war; Capt. 
John W. Weeks, taking an immense number of his young friends— vigor- 
ous and energetic men — with him, organized a company which did faith- 
ful service through the War of 1812, and was especially complimented for 
gallant demeanor at the battle of Chippewa;* together with the epidemic 
which raged so fatally in 1813, carrying off many prominent citizens, with 
the extremely low price of produce and the general stagnation of business, 
prevented anything like progress. In conjunction with these were the 
cold seasons of L816 and 1817, when probably there was more suffering 
than at any other period of the occupancy of the town. From some or 
all of these causes, many became discouraged and sought an easier place to 
live. But by 1820 another fulling-mill had been put up, and another grist- 
mill helped to grind the rye, corn, and wheat of th^ people. There were 
now four stores, two taverns, three doctors, eight school districts, and four 
school -houses, three lawyers, and five justices of the peace. 

First Sabbath School. — The first effort for Sabbath school instruction 
was made in 1816 or 1817, by Mrs. William Farrar, who organized a 
school at her house, and invited the young people of the south part of 
Guildhall to join those of Lancaster. 

* Hosier of Capt. Weeks's Company. — John W. Weeks, Captain; Richard Bean, 1st Lieut ; James 
Green, 2d Lieut.; F. A. Sawyer, Ensign; Benjamin Stevenson, William Smith, Daniel Bailey, Am- 
aziah Knights, Elisha B. Greene, Sergeants William W. Bailey, Peter Gambsly, Obed S. Hatch, 
Josiah Reed, Benjamin Wilson, Robert Hoskins, Corporals; Alva Smith, Orrin R. Dexter, Silas 
Whitney, Solomon B. Clark, Musicians. The privates were: Henry Alden, Samuel Abbott, Thomas 
Alverson, Daniel Bennett, Zerah Bennett, John Brown, Chester Bennett, Hazen Burbank, Daniel 
Burbank, Stephen Billiard, Benjamin T. Baker, Ebenezer Ball, Tnomas Brigham, Gad Beacher, 
John Burns, John Burgin, 2d, John Bickford, Nathaniel Bennett, John Brainard, Zebulon Carter, 
Stephen Chase, Levi H. Christian, Seth Clark, Winthrop Collins, John Collins, Guy Clark, Jere 
Clough, Charles Collins, Moses Cooper, Sylvanus Currier, Otis Chaffee, Samuel Abraige, Benjamin 
Cross, Phineas Davenport, Eliphet Day, John Dodge, Moses Davis, Eli Davenport, Luimer Dodge, 
John English, James French, Luthei Fuller, Jer'h Fuller, Joel Farnham, John French, Timothy Ful- 
ler, Lemuel Fuller, Aimer Gay, Wells Goodwin, Samuel Gjtham, Robert Gotham, Samuel Henry, 
John Holmes, Neb. Houghton, Willard Huntoon, Alpheus Hutchins, Joseph Henderson, James 
Harvey, Sheldon Hoi brook, Henry Hall, John Hicks, John M. Holmes, Daniel Holmes, Greenleaf 
Huntoon, George Huntoon, Warren Cassiu, Joshua Knapp, Peter Lfcbare, Joseph Labare, Samuel 
Linsey, George W. Lucas, Jacob Mclntire. James Mellen, Harry Moore, Shephard Morse, Ebenezer 
Mudge, Jacob B. More, John W. Moore, William Merriam, Nathaniel Moore, James Nesbit, 
Stephen Orr, Daniel Perkins, James Perkins, Theodore Philips, Benoui Potter, Orange Pixley, 

Town of Lancaster. 28] 

1830. — From 1820 to 1830 the town grew in population, wealth and 
development. The Agricultural Society, organized in L821, had aided in 
stimulating the farmers to an improved condition of agriculture, and did 
good work in the four years of its existence. This was a palmy decade 
Manufactures increased considerably. Col. Cross was doing a fine busi- 
ness in his hat shop. Business interests were keeping the machinery of 
the saw, grist, and fulling mills running to their fullest capacity. Lancas- 
ter was now the most important town in Northern New Hampshire, with 
a population nearly doubled in ten years, and now 1,187. The cleared 
area was extended, and the rough farms were freed from stumps. East 
Lancaster had been sought out for farms, and many a fine one developed. 
Political predilections had formed themselves into strong party issues, and 
keen political contests had become the order of the day. Richard East- 
man was county treasurer in 1828; A. N. Brackett, representative; John 
W. Weeks, member of Congress; and other citizens held prominent and 
responsible positions. New merchants had been attracted hither by the 
superior business opportunities. Eoyal Joyslin returned here from Bath. 
Jared W. Williams had come from the " Nutmeg" state, and cast his lot 
with this people. All were busy and prosperous. With wealth came a 
desire for better home advantages for that higher education which the 
Lancaster people had always prized so highly. This desire culminated in 
the incorporation of Lancaster academy, which has so nobly discharged 
the duty given into its care. It was organized and prosperously opened in 
1829. In 1828 Lancaster raised $220 for support of the poor, and 81,000 
for highways and bridges. Richard P. Kent, who began his long career 
in Lancaster as a clerk for Royal Joyslin in 1825, was one of the strongest 
additions to the population during this decade. 

Stores, Articles of Traffic, Etc. — "Little capital was required for the 
stores of this period, the stocks of goods were very meager, and the sales, 
mostly on credit, very small. Rum was an important article of traffic. It 
is told of one of the merchants of that day, that he sold a full hogshead of 
rum, in quantities from half a pint to a barrel, one morning before break- 
fast. Failures were very frequent among the traders, and, according to 
Major Weeks, prior to 1832, every trader, excepting those then in business, 
had, at some time, failed. 

Caleb Prouty, Daniel Pinkham, Levi Pratt, Albert Rathbone, Anthony C. Readfleld, Abram 
Rogers, Martin Ray, George Shirland, Edmund Sanborn, John Sanford, John Shirley, .Job Smith, 
Luther Southworth, Elibu Spencer, Jacob Sperry, James B. Stanley, Joshua Stephens, Alirain 
Sanborn, Reuben Stevens, David Stodard, John C. Swain, I-rael Sanderson, Dauiel Stratton, 
Jacob Trussed, Daniel Utley, Samuel Vanschork, Jere Wheeler. Barney B. Whipple, James Whit- 
ney, Jeremiah White, Jotham Wilkins, John Wilkinson. A.bsalon Wilson, John Wilson. .lames 
Withered, John R Wyatt, John M. Williams, Joseph Weed, Allen White. Andrew Woods, 
Thomas Whiton, George Warren, Simson Warren, Josiah Washburn, Robert II. Robertson, 
Alexander Jones, Peter Hamilton, Jedediah Robinson, Samuel Wright, Samuel Stackpole 


History of Coos County. 

an. caste* Villa i 

T.W.WeeVs, lei. 

Town of Lancaster. L>s:; 

Freight. — " Goods from Boston were shipped to Portland by sailing 
vessels, and brought from there to Lancaster for $1.25 per cwt., in the 
summer, on wagons, and, in winter, by sleighs, at 75 cents per cwt. 

" The Mail came twice a week from Boston, was three days on the way, 
arriving on Wednesdays and Sundays; was carried to Colebrook once a 
week in a one-horse wagon. A weekly mail was carried on horseback to 
Bethel for Portland. 

Vehicles. — "Most of the team work was done by oxen in the summer, 
and there was not a good team wagon in the town. One chaise (Parson 
Willard's, presumably.) was owned in the place, with a few one-horse 
wagons; steel springs and ' thorough braces' were unknown. 

" The annual musters of the 24th Regt. were held alternately at Lan- 
caster and Colebrook; later, the towns north of Northumberland formed 
the 42d. 

' ' There were religious services in the ' Meeting House ' on the hill, and 
the Methodists held meetings in the Court House. ' ' * 

1840. — During the decade ending with 1840, a steady increase of pros- 
perity, wealth, and improvement was also shown. Lancaster began to 
have its solid men of wealth and finance. The business men were shrewd, 
careful, and conservative, and suffered little from the great panic of 1837, 
which so paralyzed the business centers of the country, and a good bank, 
chartered in 1833, with Col. John H. White as president, and Royal Joys- 
lin, cashier, had been established. The first newspaper published in Coos 
county, The White Mountain ^Egis, began its brief existence in 1838. By 
the great advance in staging, Boston can be reached from Lancaster in 
forty-eight hours time. 

From A. N. Bracketfs Diary.— The weather and climatic influences, 
judging from the diaries of Adino N. Brackett, were remarkably unfavor- 
able, however, to agricultural matters. He says: "A hail storm of un- 
precedented violence passed over Lancaster and Guildhall, July 16, 1831. 
The hail continued to descend from twenty to thirty minutes. The largest 
hail stones examined were over two inches in their greatest diameter. 
They were not perfectly globular, but shaped like a turnip, with fluted 
edges. Many of the stones would each weigh an ounce. It fell in such 
quantities as to cover the ground more than an inch deep, like a fall of 
snow, and where it rolled down hills, or off from houses, it lay more than 
a foot deep, and some remained unmelted thirty-six hours after the storm. 
In its effects it was most destructive. Fields of grain, coin, potatoes, and 
even grass, were laid level with the earth; trees were stripped of their 
foliage, and, wherever the wind was violent, windows wen- flashed to 

* For a full description of Lancaster street or village in 1825, see biography of Richard P. 

Ken I . 

281 History of Coos County. 

atoms. Even shingles on buildings were split to pieces. Birds were 
killed. Fortunately the wind was slight during most of the storm, which 
was limited in extent. Some of the most nourishing farms in the lower 
part of Lancaster and Guildhall are stripped of their entire crop. Grass 
and grain are literally driven into the ground, so that the}^ can, in no 
event, be of value the present year. " He says further that ' ' aside from 
this injury, crops of all kinds were remarkably good." "Bread stuffs 
toward the close of 1832 were very high, as the crops were injured by cold 
and damp weather." A constant rain continued from May 10, 1833, to May 
15th; 1833 was an unproductive year. "Even the best farmers had to 
purchase flour and grain to support their families." " The year 1831 was 
very good for all kinds of produce." "The winter of 1831-35 has been 
remarkable for its varied changes. After a January thaw, the ground 
froze deeply, owing to the want of snow, which at no time during the 
winter was over sixteen inches deep along the Connecticut. Hereafter it 
may seem a great story, but it is believed that the ground froze to the 
depth of four feet and over. Many brooks were frozen to the bottom, so 
that the water ran on top of the ice, thus raising them above their accus- 
tomed channels." Of 1836 he writes: "Remarkably cold. Frosts in 
some places every month in the year. The snow was deeper than for many 
years. The crops of corn and wheat were greatly injured, as the wheat 
was sown late to avoid attacks from the weevil. No season since 
1816 has been so unproductive. Wheat, such as it is, costs S3 per 
bushel, and flour from the south and west is $14 per barrel." In 1837 
the drought did much damage, but Mr. Brackett says: "Notwithstand- 
ing the scarcity and cold, the health of the inhabitants is very good." 
Hon. John W. Weeks sums up Lancaster, in 1839, and gives the charac- 
ter of its inhabitants thus: — 

"From the village in Lancaster the roads diverge in four directions 
toward the sea-board; in one toward Canada, and in another westward. 
This central location gives the town most of the business, mercantile and 
professional, in the counties of Essex and Coos, performed by five store 
keepers, seven lawyers, four physicians, one bank, with a capital of §50,000, 
and one fire insurance company, to which may be added a flour-mill with 
three sets of stones, four saw mills, three clapboard and three shingle 
machines, one extensive clothiers mill, a tannery, machinery for carriage 
making, blacksmith work, coopering, and many other mechanical opera- 
tions. Oar religious establishments are very respectable, consisting of a 
Congregational church, Methodist Episcopal society, three meeting-houses, 
many B aptists, Unitarians, Freewill Baptists, some Quakers, Christians, 
Restorationists, and no Mormons. There is also a printing press in town 
from which issues the Cods Comity Democrat. Its politics are indicated by 
its title. The character of our inhabitants is, in some respects dissimilar 

Town of Lancaster. i'sr> 

to that of many other country towns, uniting the warm sensibilities of the 
heart with the more profound researches of the understanding; enter- 
prising, perhaps in the extreme; depending, however, more on individual 
effort, than on combined exertion; hospitable, yet economical; aspiring, yet 
restrained within the bounds of propriety; independent in principle, even 
to a fault, if fault it can be; patriotic, only in accordance with their own 
perceptions of right; equally regardless of all dictums, unless clearly an- 
nounced to their comprehension; patient and persevering, when cheered on 
by hope, yet possibly restless, when that 'anchor to the soul is deferred." 

1S5<).— The prosperity of the town steadily increased. The ordinary 
changes of business firms and buildings suited to the fluctuations and in- 
creased demands of trade had continued. The population in 1*50 was 
1,559. Several new buildings of increased cost had been erected. The 
far away war with Mexico had called for some citizens, of whom a few 
never returned, dying in that inhospitable climate. From 1 845, the chroni- 
cles taken from the diaries of Richard P. Kent, will give quite a history of 
the town, as the course of events was carefully noted by him. We would 
note, however, that in 1850 there were ten lawyers, thirty-one justices of 
the peace (more than any other town of its size in the state), three physi- 
cians, and two clergymen. 

James S. Brackett, in his "Historical Sketch of Lancaster," a valuable 
pamphlet published in 1876, sums up the history from 1850 to 187f> thus: 
" In 1860 the population was 2,020. The last ten years had been marked 
by no striking event. The village, however, showed a marked improve- 
ment. Several large and commodious stores had been built, the Lancaster 
House, the fruit of a projected branch road from the Grand Trunk railway, 
had been erected and successfully run, being the resort of numerous visit- 
ors to this beautiful mountain region. The Unitarian meeting-house had 
been built in 1856, and regular services held in it. The Coos Republican 
was well established, and, on the whole, the people were enjoying a season 
of prosperity." 

Village Streets. — Names were first regularly given to the village streets 
in 1860, at a meeting of the citizens called for that purpose. We give the 
principal ones: Main street, from the Town Hall to the residence of Hor- 
ace F. Holton; Elm street, from Main street, south of Israel's river, west- 
erly, to the Wentworth place; Middle street, from Main street east, from 
near north end of the lower bridge; Mechanic street, from the Town Hall 
across the upper bridge to Middle street; Prospect street, from Town Hall, 
southwesterly, toward Whitefield; Cottage street, fr< »m Pr< >spect street west : 
Portland street, from Prospect street up Meeting House hill, and towards 
Jefferson Mills; Pleasant street, easterly, from Portland street past the 
houses of Henry Hey wood and George R. Eaton: High street, easterly, 
from Main street, between the old Cross place and George VanDyke's resi- 

286 History of Coos County. 

dence; Summer street, from Middle street to North street; North street, 
from north end of Main street, toward Northumberland; Bridge street, 
from north end of Main street, toward the toll bridge; Water street, from 
Elm street past N. H. Richardson's factory; Canal street, from Main street, 
north of bridge, northwesterly to the machine shop; Bunker Hill avenue, 
from Summer street, easterly, past George M. Stevens's house; Railroad 
street, from Elm Cottage, on Main street, past the railroad depot to Sum- 
mer street; Lancaster Place, the square between Lancaster House and 
buildings south; Williams street, southeasterly, from Elm street, opposite 
Water street, to Whitefield road; Kent Place, passage way and square 
north, and in rear of R. P. Kent & Son's store; Church street, the place 
south, and in rear of the Methodist church; Mill street, easterly from Main 
street, north of Main street bridge. 

"In 1870 Lancaster had a population of 2,248. Four clergymen were 
occupying the different pulpits; five physicians were endeavoring to cure 
the various ' diseases that flesh is heir to '; fourteen lawyers, and an aston- 
ishing number of magistrates, thirty-two, were dispensing even-handed 
justice among the remaining inhabitants. The terrible civil war — the 
mutterings of which had been heard through the land — at last burst upon 
the country. Lancaster responded gallantly to the call for soldiers. Never 
backward when their country calls, her citizeus rose almost as one man, 
and gave of their treasure and their blood. No town stands with a more 
honorable record than ours in this awful crisis of our national history. 

The decade closed with signs of continued prosperity, and a 
noticeable feature was the increased taste shown about public buildings, 
private residences, and the improvement of farms. * * * The 
prosperity of the town has been in no measure retarded, and to-day we 
stand Avith a large population, more wealth, greater intelligence, and, 
we hope, with no less morality than ever before." Population in 1880, 
2,723; valuation, si, 247, 324. In 1881 a comprehensive and thorough sys- 
tem of drainage was adopted. 

1 887. — Notwithstanding the severe losses by fire and flood, Lancaster has 
kept the calm serenity of an onward course. Its financial prosperity is 
shown by the solidity of its banks, the extent of the business interests de- 
veloped by its citizens, and the beautiful houses which have been built. 
The new court-house having been constructed, there is a certainty of the 
county seat remaining here for years. Swift express trains convey trav- 
elers to and from New York in a day's time, and every thing seems to 
augur long years of prosperous and happy existence for this most lovely of 
New Hampshire's towns. 

Real Estate and Personal Property — 1886.— Number of polls, 674; real 
estate, value, $810,125; forty-five carriages, value, $3,136; number of horses, 
528, value, $37,706; number of cattle, 1,706, value, $39,976; number of 

Town of Lancaster. 28T 

sheep, 1,568, value. $4,278; number of swine, fifty-three, value $340; stock 
in trade, $73,750; bank stock and money at interest, $101,471; mills, value, 
$12,650; dogs, 148. 


Brief Extracts from Town Records, 1769 to 1834 — First Town Meeting — First Town Clerk - 
First Representative of " Upper Coos "— Burying Field — Pound — Vote for President and Sena- 
tor — Assessment for Roads payable in Wheat — Standard "half bushel " — Preaching, Etc. — 
Concerning building Mills — Emmons Stockwell, Inn Keeper- — Town Meetings, where held — 
School Districts — Meeting House— Rev. Joseph Willard — Early Taverns — Prices of Produce 
paid as Minister's Salary — Licenses Granted — Barker's Location Annexed — First Fire Wards - 
Miscellaneous Extracts from later Town Records — Action of Town in the Rebellion, Etc. — Cen- 
tennial Celebration — Freshets. 

THE following extracts from the early town records tell their own story 
of the times and the then important matters. From the first town 
meeting in IT* 1 )'.), when Edwards Bucknam was chosen clerk, he held 
that office until 1789 inclusive: — 

" In 1776 Joseph Whipple was chosen to represent the towns of Lancaster, Northumberland, 
Dartmouth (now Jefferson), Apthorp (merged in other towns), and Stratford. Voted, to give 
their representatives instructions from time to time. He was also elected in 1778, and received the 
thanks of the town. He was chosen the subsequent year. 111'.). 

" 1779, March 9. Major Jonas Wilder, Edwards Bucknam, Lieut. David Page, Lieut. Em- 
mons Stockwell, Mr. Moses Page and Mr. Dennis Stanley were chosen a committee to pit* h a 
burring (burying) field in some convenient place in said town as soon as possible. 

" 1783, March 11. Voted that the Pound shall be built for the present on the road between 
Major Wilder's and the bridge-place or ford way over Israel's River to Dartmouth, and Major 
Wilder chosen Pound keeper. 

"In 1784, at the first election in the town, MeshecL Weare had eighl votes for President and 
Moses Dow eight votes for Senator. 

" In 1785 it was voted that twenty bushels of wheat be assessed on the polls and estates, to be 
laid out in keeping open the roads the ensuing winter. Voted, also, that Capt. David Page sealer 
of weights and measures be directed to prove his half bushel by Esq'r Peverly's and then the same 
shall be the standard for this town. Thirteen Mites east at tins town meeting. 

"1786, March 14. It was voted that thirty -two dollars be assessed to hire preaching the en- 
suing summer, and, that Major Jonas Wilder, Edwards Bucknam, ami Lieut. Emmons Stockwell 
be a committee to hire a minister. 

" 1787, March 27. Voted that the Nine Pounds, twelve Shillings for Preaching Last year be 
assessed and collected to hire Preaching this year 

" 1788, March 11. Voted, fifty bushels of wheat be assessed to hire preaching the ensuing 
summer, and Col. Jonas Wilder, Edwards Bucknam, Esq., and Dr. Francis Willson be a commit- 
tee to hire a preacher to preach about eight Sundays. Capt, John Weeks chosen delegate from 
the Upper Coos to the state convention to ratify the Federal constitution. Voted that the highway 
surveyors break the road in the winter, and are allowed one bushel of wheal per day for their 
work that is a man and a yoke of oxen. 

288 History of Coos County. 

" 1789, March 9. Twenty votes were cast for State officers. Voted that Doctor Francis Will- 
son suspend collecting the wheat rate now in his hand until after harvest. 

" 1790, March 9. Voted that sixty bushels of wheat be collected to hire Preaching and defray 
Town charges. 

"1790, December 13. The Town voted to join in conjunction with Conway (for) the forma- 
tion of a new County; also voted to raise thirty bushels of wheat including what the law directs 
to be laid out in schooling the present winter. 

"1791, March 8. A committee was chosen to build a Pound in said town on such spot as they 
think best. 

"1791, April 12. Col. Jonas Wilder, Mr. Elisha Wilder, and Mr. Stephen Willson were 
chosen a committee to hire Preaching. 

"1792, March 13. Voted to raise fifty bushels of wheat to hire preaching and to pay that 
already hired. 

"Lieut. E. Stockwell, Capt. David Page, Col. Edwards Bucknam, Capt. John Weeks, Lieut. 
Stanley chosen a committee to receive proposals of any gentleman concerning building mills on 
Israel's River near Stockwell's Bridge. 

"1792, March 19. Capt. John Weeks elected representative for one year. 

"1792, August 20. Lieut. Emmons Stockwell is permitted to retail spirituous liquors in this 
Town of Lancaster, and also to keep a public bouse of entertainment and to mix liquors of any 
kind under the rules and regulations of the laws of this State, one year from this date. 

"1793, March 17. Voted, to raise Nine Pounds to pay for Preaching and Town Debts." 

The Town meetings had been held at the houses of various individuals, 
until November 7, 1 793, wiien the meeting-house was used for this pur- 
pose — although unfinished. At this time action was taken to "raise 
Twenty Pounds in labor, at Three Shillings per day, for clearing the meet- 
ing house spot." 

"1793, November 22. Voted to raise Nine Pounds to be laid out in felling trees on the minis- 
ter's house lot. 

"1794, March 11. Annual Town Meeting. — Chose a Committee of nine to arrange for a divis- 
ion of the Town into School Districts. Jonas Baker was empowered to sell the pine timber on the 
Minister's house-lot to the best advantage, and, also, that the pay for said timber shall be laid out 
in felling trees on the minister's hundred acre lot adjoining. 

"April 28. Voted to raise Nine Pounds ' solly ' for preaching the present season." 

A town meeting was " warned " to be held in the meeting-house, which- 
was probably completed by this time, as it w r as voted to accept the settle- 
ment made by the committees for building the meeting house and belfry. 

"1794, August 7. The Town voted to concur with the Church in giving the Rev. Mr. Joseph 
Willard an invitation to settle with us in the Gospel Ministry, and choose a committee to provide 
for an Ecclesiastical Council. 

"1795, March 24. It was voted to raise Eighty Dollars to pay Town Debts and the Selectmen 
directed to give due bills to those bringing in accounts. John Mclntire was allowed Two Dollars 
for damage of breaking through a bridge Jonathan Cram represents this district in 1795. 

"1808. E. Rawson, M. Warriner, and Jonathan Carlton, were licensed to retail spirituous 

"In 1793, Fortunatus Eager, 1794. Edwards Bucknam and Jonas Wilder, 1795, Richard C. 
Everett and Stephen Willson, 179G, Richard C. Everett and Sylvanus Chesman, 1797, Stephen 
Willson, 1798, Artemas Wilder, Jr., and John Toscan were licensed to sell spirituous liquors, and 
distilled spirits. 

"1801, November 16. The Selectmen of Lancaster agreed with Rev. Joseph Willard that that 

Town of Lancaster. 289 

part of his salary to be paid in produce this year, shall be furnished at these prices -Wheat $1 
per bushel, Rye 5-6 of a dollar, Corn 2-3 of a dollar, Oats at 1-3 of a dollar, and Flax at 14cts per 

"1811, August. Small pox prevailed. 

"1813. Fever Epidemic ; between Feb. 11 and June 30, twenty-nine deaths occurred; Lieut. 
Dennis Stanley and Deacon Joseph Brackett among the number. Many deaths among the soldiers 
from this vicinity stationed on Lake Champlain. 

"1804. Thomas Carlisle & Co. were in trade here, and licensed to sell spirituous liquors by 

"1806, November 24. Thomas & J. M. Dennison licensed to retail spirituous liquors. 

"1809. Francis & John Willson had a store. 

"1815. James Dewey ifc Co. were among the traders at this time. 

"1814. In this year Stephen Willson has the selectmen's approbation to keep a public tavern 
in Lancaster, also Major Sylvanus Chesman received license to be an innholder. 

"1815, January 7. Dr. Benjamin Ilunking received approbation to keep a public tavern. 

"March 7. Sylvanus Chesman's license was continued. Dec. 29, Francis Willson licensed to 
keep a tavern in Town of Lancaster, and Dec. 28, John Willson is approbated to sell foreign and 
domestic spirits at his store. 

"1816, February 8. William & Noyes Dennison were licensed to keep a tavern and exercise 
the duties of tavern-keepers. Sylvanus Chesman's license continued for the years 1816 and 1817. 

"1818. Charles Baker & Benjamin C. Stevens received license to keep a tavern. 

"1819. Col. John Willson was licensed to keep a tavern, Oct. 25th. 

"1820, January 5. Ephraim Mahurin & Reuben Stephenson were licensed to sell spirituous 
liquors one year. Feb 14, Mr Samuel White was licensed to exercise the functions of a taverner. 

"1819. This year, June 22, Barker's Location was annexed to Lancaster. It was a tract of 
land in Coos county, containing 3,020 acres, and was granted Oct. 21, 1773 to Capt. Joshua Barker 
of Hingham, Massachusetts. 

"1834, July 4. At a special town meeting. Ephraim Cross, David Buruside, Benjamin Steph- 
enson, Richard P. Kent, John Willson, Warren Porter, Harvey Adams,. and Turner Stephenson 
were chosen fire wards. The number of polls this year are 228." 

1854, March 16.— Voted to raise *150 to shingle the Town Hall and 
build a good, suitable fence around the burying-ground. Chose Eoyal 
Joyslin, agent, to take care of, and rent, the Town Hall; voted to raise 
81,100 to defray town expenses. Robert Sawyer is appointed town agent 
for the purchase and sale of spirituous and intoxicating liquors, August 
27, with a salary of $100. 

1856„— The town voted $2,100 to defray town expenses, $1,500 to repair 
highways and bridges, " to be paid in labor; " the selectmen were instructed 
to establish the lines and bounds to the lands belonging to the town, and 
to erect monuments; also, to put a proper fence around the burying-ground 
and to take legal measures, if necessary, to cause owners of adjacent lands 
to establish their proportion of said fence. The selectmen are instructed 
to appoint a committee of three to purchase a town poor farm, and they 
are authorized to invest, as part payment, the school fund, literary fund, 
money rent and interest money, and the public money belonging to the 
town. The total vote for governor was 398, divided thus: Ralph Metcalf, 
261; John S. Wells, 133; Ichabod Goodwin, 4. Number of polls inven- 
toried this year at 402; real estate at $261,680; number of horses, 373; cat- 

290 History of Coos County. 

tie, 1,355; sheep, 2,208; bank stock, $22,000; "stock in trade," $18,110; 
mills, $8-,750; carriages, $750. May 26, upon the petition of twenty-eight 
legal voters of Lancaster, the selectmen fixed by boundaries a "Lancaster 
village precinct, "consisting of school districts one and twelve, excepting the 
polls and estates of Roswell Chessman, Bennet Greenleaf and Thomas 
Green, but at a duly called town meeting, held May 31, the town refused 
to accept the erection of the village by voting to " dissolve the meeting." 
There are fourteen school districts, with 550 scholars. November 4, 137 
votes were cast for electors for President, of whom the ticket headed by 
W. H. H. Bailey received 301 votes; that headed by Daniel Marcy, 136 

1857, March 10. — At the annual town meeting a long preamble and res- 
olutions were adopted and recorded, denouncing in the strongest terms the 
action of the state legislature in reference to the taxation laws, calling it 
unconstitutional and unjust, and claiming that by it " the burden of tax- 
ation fell most heavily on the hard working farmers," and it was resolved 
" to instruct the representatives of the town to use their best endeavors to 
bring the subject of the complaint before the next legislature, and see that, 
so far as in them lies, the laws be so far amended as to do ample justice 
to each one and all of the tax paying citizens of the state." It was further 
resolved, "that we claim nothing that is not manifestly right, and we 
are determined no longer to submit to that which is manifestly wrong." 

1862, July 10. — The town instructed the selectmen to build a good, per- 
manent, covered bridge on Main street across Israel's river, with a double 
track, and two good side- walks. 

The Great Rebellion. — The first action of the town concerning the sol- 
diers of the War of the Rebellion was taken May 13, 1861, when it was 
"voted to raise the sum of five hundred dollars for the purpose of furnish- 
ing such needful supplies to the Lancaster volunteer recruits and their 
families as the selectmen may think proper." September 17, the select- 
men were authorized to pay to all families of volunteers from the town 
who are indigent and in need of help, such sums as in their discretion is 
needed for their support. 

1S62, August 12. — Voted to pay one hundred dollars to any resident of 
Lancaster " who has, or may hereafter, enlist in any of the three years' regi- 
ments of this state; and seventy -five dollars to any enlisting for nine 

1863, August 6. — The town voted to pay to each drafted man who en- 
ters service, or who furnishes a substitute for the army, the sum of three 
hundred dollars as soon as mustered into the U. S. service. November 27, 
voted to pay in advance the state and U. S. bounties, ($102 in case of 
new recruits, and $502 for re-enlisted men,) and the selectmen are instructed 
to borrow and pay to each recruit a sum not exceeding $100, until the 

Town of Lancaster. 291 

quota of the town is filled, also voted to repeal the resolution of August 
12, 1862. 

1864, April 15. — Voted "that the selectmen shall pay to such veteran 
soldiers as went originally as part of the quota of this town, and who have 
or shall re-enlist as a part of the quota, and who has nevei received any 
bounty from this town, a bounty of three hundred dollars," etc.; also, to 
instruct the selectmen to pay one hundred dollars to all who may enlist 
and be credited to the town. 

Action of Town. — June IS, 1864. — The town authorized C. B. Allen and 
Jason H. Woodward, to purcliase or procure substitutes, not exceeding 
twenty, at the most reasonable and advantageous rates for the town, not 
exceeding three hundred dollars each. July 9, the selectmen were in- 
structed to pay all re-enlisted men who re-enlisted before April 1, 1864, the 
three hundred dollars previously voted for this purpose, if they have re- 
ceived no previous bounty. August 29, the selectmen were directed to 
advance the state and U. S. bounties to men residents of the town for 
three months, as may enlist to fill the present quota of the town, at the 
rate of 8100 for one year's men, $200 for two years' men, and $300 for three 
years' men; Capt. Edward Brown was appointed agent to act in con- 
nection with recruiting officers to fill the quota; a town bounty of $800 was 
voted to all volunteers enlisting for one year, $1,000 for two years, and 
$1,200 for three years, in addition to the state and national bounties; the 
selectmen were further instructed to procure and loan to as many respon- 
sible persons as will put in substitutes for three years, the sum of $575 
each, taking a note in each case payable in nine years with interest. 

First Volunteers. — Recruiting officer Henry O. Kent opened a recruit- 
ing office in Lancaster, for the enlistment of soldiers for the United States 
army, April 22, 1861. Twenty-two enlisted that day. They were H. R. 
Richardson, H. D. F. Young, F. M. Rhodes, T. Cassidy, J. Ben way. O. R. 
Moulton, E. R. Jones, J. C. Jenness, C. W. Fletcher, J. Hagan, I. M. Wal- 
lace, J. Beaton, C. Fuller, E. Butler, C. F. Marden, S. H. Clough, W. P. 
Horn, C. W. Balch, G. Burt, C. Buck, J. G. Sutton. The next day the 
work went on. Soon appear on the roll these additional names: G. W. 
Morgan, T. Maguire, R. O. Young, Fred. A. Went worth, Edgar Gaines, 
John Ferrin, George Garfield, William Morgan, William H. F. Staples, 
Simon Merrill, Cyrus W. Merrill. Hubbard Gaskill, George Chancy, (Jem-ge 
Robinson, John W. Morse, William L. Perry, Albert Heath, James E. 
Smith, Michael Smith, Bernard Johnson, Welcome A. Crafts, Thomas 
Kenney, Cummings M. Winchester, John Handerson, White Pilbro, John 
Woodward, William W. Walker, Cleaveland C. Beard, William K. Mont- 
gomery, Frederick T. Bennett, Joseph K. Hodge. 

First Departure of Recruits — Eighty volunteers left Lancaster, for 
Portsmouth, May 0, 1861, bearing the name of "Coos Volunteers." On 

292 History of Coos County. 

examination by the surgeon at Portsmouth, several were discharged for 

Co. F, 2d Regt. JSf H. Vols. — This company was formed, taking the 
Coos recruits as a nucleus. Its organization was completed in the early 
part of June, 1861. We give its first officers and the names of the men 
who enlisted in Coos: Captain, Thomas Snow; First Lieutenant, Joshua 
F. Littlefield; Second Lieutenant, H. D. F. Young; Sergeants, W. A. 
Crafts, F. M. Rhodes, Hugh R. Richardson, C. W. Fletcher, Louiville 
W. Brackett; Corporals, William O. Lyford, William H. Tucker, Oscar 
H. French, James S. Morrow, John Chandler, David Clark, R. 0. Young, 
James H. Swaine; Privates, John Barney, Charles Buck, George Burt, 
Joseph Ben way, George H. Chancey, Samuel H. Clough, Edgar Gaines, 
John Henderson, Henry S. Hilliard, James Hagan, Bernard Johnson,. 
Thomas Kenney, George W. Morgan, James Mayhew, Cyrus W. Merrill, 
Simon Merrill, Patrick McCaffery, George W. Robinson, William H. H. 
Staples, Thomas J. Severance, Clark Stevens, Levi Witham, Ira M. Wal- 

Fire Engine.— June IS, 1864.— The town votes $1,000 "to purchase a 
fire engine and other necessary apparatus to put the fire department upon 
an efficient footing"; and chose E. R. Kent, J. I. Williams, and Ezra B. 
Bennett, a committee to see to the expenditure. 

A Centennial Celebration was held in Lancaster, July 11, 1864, to com- 
memorate the deeds of the early pioneers, and the progress of the town. 
It was a lovely day, and from two to three thousand persons participated 
in the exercises, procession, etc. Among the prominent sons of Lancas- 
ter, residing elsewhere, who were present, were: E. D. Holton, of Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; J. B. Brown, of Portland, Me.; Nathaniel White, of Con- 
cord, and I. B. Gorham, of St. Johnsbury, A 7 t. Addresses were made by 
the president, D. H. Mason, of Boston, and E. D. Holton. Henry 0. Kent 
was marshal-in-chief; Harvey Adams, special marshal for Sabbath-schools. 

Centennial Park was named in town meeting, November 4, 1S69, and 
the selectmen authorized to purchase it from Samuel Twombly. 

Freshets.— In 1869, October 3, the heaviest rain-fall for twenty years 
occurred in this region commencing at 6 o'clock p. m. , and continuing un- 
interruptedly for forty hours. The loss was great in Lancaster, and esti- 
mated at $20,000; the most serious loss was that sustained by Col. Free- 
man. Israel's river rose rapidly; a temporary dam was constructed from 
Col. Freeman's mill to check it, but the dam gave way about 11 p. m. Oc- 
tober 4, and a torrent rushed down Mill street and through Mechanic 
street, sweeping all before it; up Main street, tearing up Mill street and 
taking side-walks away. Soon after Freeman's mill fell, burying and 
spoiling the costly machinery. His loss was estimated at $10,000. There 

Town of Lancaster. 293 

were many other buildings damaged, and much property in lumber and 
machinery swept away, and crops on the low meadows were much injured. 

1870, February 19. — An unexpected and disastrous flood on Israel's 
river occurred, doing great damage to property and periling many lives, 
although none were lost. Main street bridge was swept away and roads 
damaged about $1,000; many houses and cellars were Hooded and property 
destroyed; total loss about $10,000. 

1874, March 10. — Annual meeting. — Voted s2o,000 for current expenses 
including state, county and school taxes, and pay existing liabilities; that 
the town ratify the action of the selectmen, and the town take the plot of 
land on which the engine house is located; also, that the engine house be 
enlarged to admit engine No. 2. At the same meeting voted to exempt 
from taxation the land and building containing a hall of sufficient capacity 
to accommodate one thousand persons for the term of ten years if one be 

1878, November 5.— The town voted to raise $800, to be expended in pro- 
curing a force pump and pipe, and placing the same under the grist-mill, 
provided, "that Frank Smith & Co. pay an additional sum of $200, and that 
the citizens of the village raise an additional $800 " 

Freshet q/1886, April 1. — Israel's river, swollen to an enormous degree, 
broke up the ice, and a tremendous gorge was formed at the head of Frank 
Smith & Co.'s mill pond, obstructed by the solid mass of ice formed in the 
channel during a previous thaw, and which resisted the great force of the 
flood. Turned aside by this, the swollen stream with its load of floating ice 
swept over the slight embankment back of the premises of G. I. Hayes 
and Mrs. Heath, into Mechanic street, throwing masses of ice here and there 
and breaking down trees and fences. On it swept, carrying away every- 
thing movable or destroying it. Taking the course of the flood of 1870 it 
piled ice and debris around the houses on the south side of Mechanic street, 
crushed the shed of the Stuart House and surrounded both that building 
and the house of Mrs. John Brown by a great depth of water, so thai the 
inmates of the latter had to be taken out from the attic windows. I lecross- 
ing Mechanic street it struck the Town Hall building, carried away the 
JEtna Engine, No. 2, and took N. B. Wilson & Son's two story sash and 
blind factory out into the river and against Main street bridge which 
caused it to collapse. All day long the river's course was unchanged; but, 
finally, by blasting out the ice in the mill pond, the proper channel was 
cleared and danger passed. Mr. Wilson's loss was fully $3,000, and per- 
haps no more destructive flood ever visited Lancaster. No lives were lost, 

294 History of Coos County. 


By J. W. Weeks. 

The Old Meeting House, Description of — Pews — Pulpit — " Singers Seats " — Dress — Foot 
Stove — Location of Meeting House — Parson Willard — Members of the Congregation, Descrip- 
tion of — Choir, Etc. 

THE Old Meeting House, Choir, Etc. — The size of the house shows that 
our grandfathers were men of " enlarged ideas, "as the house of wor- 
ship they built would accommodate all the assembled congregations of 
the town of Lancaster of to-day. It comprised the whole of the present 
Town Hall building, and two immense porches, with stairways to the 
galleries; the west end shooting up in belfry and spire to a point nearer 
the clouds than anything of the kind has reached in this region in modern 
times. The galleries would seat from four to five hundred persons. The 
" Singers seats" — the entire front row in the gallery — would accommodate 
eighty persons. A row of pews ran around the wall of the body of the 
house. These were called " wall pews," and were raised two steps above 
the others. The broad aisle divided the house into two equal sections, 
and smaller aisles separated the wall and body pews; of the latter there 
were two rows on each side of the broad aisle. The pews were oblong- 
structures, divided by finished panels to the height of nearly three feet: 
these panels surmounted by an eight inch balustrade with cap. Board 
seats extended across the one side and both ends of the wall pews, and 
one side and one end of the body pews. They had no upholstery, and were 
all hung with iron hinges so as to turn up when the people rose during 
prayers. The din of rising, turning up, and turning down the seats may 
be left to the reader's imagination. 

The pulpit was a massive structure, placed so high that the minister 
could, from it, have a full view of the gallery, (which was slightly ele- 
vated at the back side,) and was reached by a flight of winding stairs. 
Above the pulpit was a sounding-board, in form like an immense tunnel 
with the top covered, suspended from the ceiling by an iron rod. I think 
sometimes our boyish minds would wander from the subject discussed by 
the minister to the probability of the falling of the sounding-board, and 
the consequent crushing of the minister's head. The pulpit was somewhat 
tastefully and expensively finished. On this, and the "Deacons' seat "in 
front, was the only attempt at painting about the place. These were 
covered with a slight coating of lead color. Directly in front of the pul- 
pit was a broad-leaved table, on which the communion service was set on 

Town of Lancaster. 295 

stated occasions. This table was supported by iron braces, and was let 
down when not in use. 

There were no means of warming the house until it had been used 
nearly a quarter of a century, when an enormous stove was set up in the 
broad aisle in front of the pulpit, but, so far as availing to warm the large 
building, it might as well have been set up on the common. How the 
people kept warm in the frigid cold of winter seems now a wonder. The 
heavy home-spun woolens of the men, with the fur and skin garments 
then so frequent, served their purpose; while the women wore thick flan- 
nels and heavy knit socks, and each good matron, when she entered the 
church, was followed by a boy with her " foot-stove." This was a tasty 
frame with a loose cubical tin lining with a side of about eight inches, the 
top being perforated. It contained a pan filled with coals and was carried 
by a bail. When ''madame" took her seat, the stove was placed under 
her feet, and was passed to the others in the pew from time to time. 

The "'Old Meeting House" was located upon the '' Meeting House Com- 
mon." which was a plot of six acres purchased by the town and consisted 
of several town lots. It extended westerly as far as the easterly line of 
John M. Whipple's land, northerly to within two rods of the river, easterly 
to near the house lately owned by Mrs. L. B. Joyslin, and southerly about 
as far as the ash tree near the house of P. J. Noyes. A large part of 
William Boswell's house, a portion of the front of the house of Mr. Wood- 
ward, and a strip of Mrs. Spark's garden are within the bounds of this 
plot, and several lots on Mechanic street. These have been lost to the 
town through carelessness. This common, or that portion of it on the hill, 
was cleared of the pine stumps, leveled or graded, and served not only as a 
site for the " Meeting House," but as a parade ground for the militia at 
their spring and fall trainings. It was reached from below by a road cut 
in the side of the bank which was very narrow and very steep, and by three 
flights of stairs, one above the other, each flight containing about twelve 
steps. The landing at the foot was about where the southeast corner of 
William Boswell's house now stands. The " Meeting House " stood upon 
a level with the residence of John M. Whipple, and E. V. Cobleigh, facing 
the south, squared to the four cardinal points of the compass, the western 
end being within about six rods of J. M. Whipple's east line, and north 
side about on a line with the south line of Cottage street . 

The congregation of the old church as to size and numbers in L818 
would put to shame any congregation of modern times. People came from 
long distances, some on horseback, many on fool. Those who owned the 
aristocratic "one-horse chaise" neither came on horseback, or on foot, bin 
rode in the chaise even if they lived but a short distance from the meeting- 
house. The boys and girls thought it only refreshing exorcise to walk 
three or four miles to church, the girls usually exchanging their thick 

•296 History of Coos County. 

shoes for light morocco ones before they arrived. The older people and 
some of the girls came on horseback. 

Outside, at some little distance from the house, were two "horse- 
blocks." These were sections of immense pine logs, and had two steps cut 
in each. They were used in mounting their horses, by the elderly women 
and the more clumsy of the girls. Tradition says that some girls did not 
need them; that Lucy Howe and Betsey Stanley would stand on level 
ground, put their hand on the neck of the horse, and leap at once into the 
saddle. This comes by tradition, but I know, that, after Betsey Stanley 
was married and surrounded by boys and girls of her own, she rode a 
horse as if she were a part of the animal. 

The Eev. Joseph Willard was the first pastor of this church and settled 
in 171)4:. Goldsmith's country clergyman is a good representative of Par- 
son Willard as he was universally called. "E'en children followed with 
endearing wile, to pluck his gown and share the good man's smile." How 
well I recollect his measured and formal step (formed in his seven years' 
service under the severe drill of that old Prussian Baron Steuben), as he 
alighted from his "one horse chaise." His genial face and handsome 
figure will be remembered by all who saw him as he marched up the broad 
aisle and ascended the pulpit stairs. The service was as formal as his step, 
but his manner of performing it was as graceful as his figure. As to what 
was called doctrine, to my recollection little was then thought or known of 
it. The distinction with the public seemed to be in the manner of worship. 
The Congregationalists were called the "standing order," as they stood for 
prayers, while Methodists and Baptists kneeled. 

Mr. Willard was not a dyspeptic; he enjoyed a good dinner, and to listen 
to and tell a good story. The latter sometimes at the expense of his pa- 
rishioners which was not always received with the good humor with which 
it was told. In his frequent visits to his congregation he went on horse- 
back, that being the only mode of conveyance, except the stately chaise, 
till about the time of his death. My first recollection of him was when he 
came to call on my parents, when I was a child. He would hitch his horse 
at the gate, and my oldest sister and myself would run and meet him, 
when he, taking a hand of each, would lead us back to the house, chatting 
pleasantly; then if my father was at home the decanter of old Jamaica 
and tumbler were brought out, and the parson refreshed himself after his 
long ride. An hour passed in quiet, cheerful conversation, in which my 
mother joined if her mischievous children permitted her, and woe to us, 
after the parson was gone, if we had not behaved well. He left as he came, 
with pleasant words and smiles, leaving us all better and happier for his visit. 

I should judge he must have bsen extremely liberal and tolerant in his 
views. About l s l^ or L820, it became noised about that Mr. Willard was 
not "sound in the faith" (a term much used at that time), and, as Major 

Town of Lancaster. 297 

Weeks said, in 1822, Mr. Willard, learning there was dissatisfaction, asked 
for his dismissal, which was granted. He was succeeded by James R. 
Wheelock, in 1*24, who, it was supposed, had more correct views, but Mr. 
Wheelock's cold, forbidding eye, stern features, and his harsh attacks on all 
those who did not endorse his views, lost him his support, and after a pas- 
torate of one year he resigned. In 1825 Mr. Willard was recalled to his 
former pastorate. The text of his first sermon was characteristic of the 
occasion. It was these memorable words of Peter to Cornelius, "There- 
fore I came to you without gainsaying as soon as I was sent for, I ask, 
therefore, with what intent ye have sent for me." He gave his people 
such a sermon as an able man with peculiar feelings would be likely to 
give under similar circumstances. He occupied the pulpit from that time 
until his death, which occurred on Sunday morning, July 22, L826, at the 
age of sixty-six. The congregation had assembled, and the people were 
beginning to be uneasy at the non-appearance of their minister, when a 
man walked up the broad isle and said, " Parson Willard is dead!" This 
.•announcement caused great grief, for many loved him. Mr. Willard had 
dressed for church that morning as usual, but, feeling ill, he laid down and 
died as if going to sleep. Rev. Joseph Willard was connected with some 
•of the most prominent families in New England, viz.: The D wight and 
Edwards families. His high character and Christian sympathy were ben- 
eficial to the community, and he had a wonderful influence for good in 
molding the minds of the people. Mrs. Willard was an estimable lady. 
Her father, John Haven, Esq., of Portsmouth, was a gentleman of cult- 
ure and means. 

The Congregation, which entered this "meeting house," seemed to do 
this with a reverential awe. I occupied the wall pew left of the front door. 
These wall pews were raised a step or two above those in the body of the 
house, and I had a fine chance to view and study the people. Directly in 
front of me, in the first body pew on the left, sat Deacon Farrar, his wife, 
and Miss Abby Burgin, who usually dressed in white, and attracted boy- 
ish attention by the very deliberate manner in which she entered the pew 
and took her seat. The deacon was a dark complexioned. dyspeptic little 
man, with his thin black hair combed up to the top of his head, and tied 
in small knots to cover his baldness. In the second wall pew on the left, 
sat Mrs. John Moore, an elderly widow, and her son, William, whose first 
wife I do not recollect seeing at church; but his second wife (Mary Samp- 
son) soon made her appearance, full of life, bright, and handsome as any 
of her girls. In the first wall pew on the right of the door from the west 
porch, sat Capt. Stephenson and family. The Captain was an old man, 
quite bald and stooping. Richard Eastman occupied the body pew directly 
in front of the west door. David Burnside, fresh and ruddy, with blue 
£oat and bright brass buttons, showed himself, with his wife, in the second 


298 History of Coos County. 

wall pew ou the left of the west door; and Thomas Carlisle, also wearing 
bright metal buttons, with his very dressy wife, occupied the next wall 
pew adjoining. The minister's pew was the first one next the wall west 
of the pulpit. Mrs. Everett, a handsome widow, with her daughters, 
occupied about the fourth pew in the body of the house, on the right of 
the broad aisle. Mrs. Boardman, the next adjoining toward the pulpit. 
That congregation is arrayed before me as if but yesterday I saw them. 
A little later, about 1820 or 1822, Jared W. Williams, from Connecticut, 
with his wife, appeared in the old church. Royal Joyslin also returned 
from Bath, straight and handsome as a man is ever likely to be. Soon an 
exceedingly pretty lady, Julia Barnard, changed her seat, and was seen 
sitting in church with Mr. Joyslin. Nothing attracted my boyish atten- 
tion more than the manner that different people stood for prayers. The 
women usually stood erect, with hands on the railing of the pews. Some 
" fidgety " little men and women were constantly changing their positions. 
There was Major Weeks, tall and stately, " six feet two " in stockings, 
standing like a post, perfectly erect, with arms folded, and his eyes cast 
down on the floor a few feet in front of him, as if on parade, never chang- 
ing a muscle during the exercises. Deacon Farrar and a few others leaned 
over the top of their pews. 

There was one thing that troubled my boyish mind. I could not see 
the singers. All I could see was several men and women come into the 
gallery from the east porch, and, at the close of the service, as I passed 
out, William Lovejoy, with strong and sonorous voice, would announce 
"marriage intended, 1 ' etc., etc. This seemed to be a part of the service. 

After a while I crept into the west gallery, where my curiosity was 
gratified. The singers were twelve or fifteen powerful men and seven or 
eight ladies. What the music lacked in scientific culture, it made up in 
power, and such strains of melody as went up to the " Majesty on High ' : 
were neither faint nor to be misunderstood. No choir is blessed with per- 
petual peace. One morning Frauds Bingham appeared in the singers' 
seats with a bass viol. The hymn was started. The ancient chorister 
stopped and said: "Mr. Bingham, you must put away that fiddle. We 
cannot sing." But the " fiddle " held its own, for that and many succeed- 
ing Sundays, and, in a few weeks, Mr. Bingham was joined by 0. W. 
Baker with a flute, and Walter Sherman with a clarionet. 

At the close of the service, the doxology being sung, usually to the tune 
of " Old Hundred," and blessing being pronounced, the congregation left 
as reverently as they came. 

Town of Lancaster. l".m> 


Ecclesiastical — Early Preaching — First Church — Confession of Faith and Covenant — 
Original Members — First Pastor — " Parson " Willard's Letter — " Parson " Willard's Dismissal 
— Other Pastors. — Orthodox Congregational Church — Organization — Faith and Covenant- 
Original Members — Pastors — New Articles of Faith, Etc. — First Unitarian Society — Church 
Covenant — First Members — Pastors — Prominent Men in the Church — Officers — Ladies' Benev- 
olent Society— Sunday School —Rev. J. B. Morrison.— Methodist Episcopal Church — Early 
Methodism — Organization — Pastors — Financial Condition. — Baptist Church, Formation — 
Original Members — Church Building.— St. Paul's Episcopal Church — Confirmation — Church 
Edifice — Rectors.— Catholicity in Coos — First Public Service at Lancaster— Priests — Church 
Building — Missions. 

FIRST Church.*— The worship of the Creator in some public form has 
always accompanied the first steps of the pioneer into new regions. 
Owing to the Revolutionary war, emigration was retarded, and for 
two decades after the first settlement of Lancaster the increase in popu- 
lation was very small. About 1779 and 1780, there was a valuable addi- 
tion to the number of inhabitants, — persons of wealth and education. At 
that period in our country's history, the towns, mostly, not individuals, 
supported public worship, and erected the "meeting houses." In 1786 
the town of Lancaster took measures to secure the ministrations of the 
Gospel, and voted "that thirty-two dollars be assessed to hire preaching 
the ensuing summer, and, that Major Jonas Wilder, Edwards Bucknam, 
and Lieut. Emmons Stockwell, be a committee to hire a minister." From 
records we find that ' ' Rev. Lathrop Tomson preached six Sundays for five 
bushels of wheat per day, in 1787." From this time there was occasional 
preaching, services being held in private dwellings; Major Wilder s house 
being most frequently used. 

The town voted, April 13, 1790, "that the town will well and truly pay 
to the Rev. Benjamin Bell, three hundred bushels of good wheat, annually, 
on the following and expressed conditions: That he, the said Rev. Ben- 
jamin Bell, shall settle in this town of Lancaster, in the work of the Gos- 
pel ministry, and that he preach a certain proportion of the time in the 
towns of Northumberland and Guildhall, as the towns may agree, saving 
to the Right of the said Rev. Benjamin Bell three weeks annually for the 
use of visiting his friends and relations, if he see occation, and that the 
Town will unite with the first Church that may be hereafter formed in the 
Town of Lancaster on the Conditions as in this vote mentioned. " (Joseph 
Brackett, William P. Hodgdon, and Walter Philbrook enter their dissent 
to this vote.) 

*By Georgia Drew Merrill. 

300 History of Coos County. 

October 11, 1701, it was voted " that the committee for hiring preaching 
(Col. Jonas Wilder, Mr. Elisha Wilder, and Mr. Stephen Willson), apply 
to Mr. Thursting (Thurston?), whom is preaching with us, to preach with 
us another term as soon as may be after his engagements are out other 
where; to preach with us on probation as we have a view of settling the 
Gospel with us.'' "Voted, to proceed to the building a meeting house as 
soon as is convenient for us. Voted, to choose a committee of seven men 
to examine a spot for a meeting house, and to report to this meeting at the 
adjournment; said committee being Ool. Edwards Bucknam, Col. Jonas 
Wilder, Capt John Weeks, Lieut. Emmons Stockwell, Lieut. Joseph 
Brackett, Lieut. Dennis Stanley, Capt. David Page/' (This committee, 
after making their report, was continued, and authorized to lay out six 
acres on the " plain above the saud hill," and inspect its clearing and make 
it a " meeting house plot.") 

It was also voted to choose a committee to make out a plan of a meeting 
house, and report at the adjournment. This committee was Lieut. Jere- 
miah Willcox, Jonas Baker and Capt. John Weeks. After the plan was 
adopted, the following method to raise the funds to build it was recom- 
mended, " that the pews be sold at public vendue. That each person give 
his note to the committee, who shall be authorized to receive the pay and 
appropriate the same. That each person be subjected to the following 
method of payment. That the whole sum be divided into four parts, to be 
paid the four next succeeding years. That each person pay six shillings 
and eight pence on the pound the first year, one half in June, the other in 
November, the rest to be divided into three equal parts and paid in- Novem- 
ber of each year. That four shillings on the pound be paid in cash, or salts 
of lye, and the rest in wheat at four shillings per bushel, or beef at seven- 
teen shillings and six pence per hundred weight, with this restriction, that 
the committee shall receive each man's equal proportion of timber, boards, 
clapboards, shingles, etc., if good and merchantable, and delivered when 
the committee shall call for them. That each person who buys a pew, 
shall procure sufficient bonds for payment, and his obligation to be lodged 
in the hands of the chairman of the committee, which shall be taken up 
or endorsed by a receipt from the committee." These conditions were ac- 
cepted by the people, and the following were chosen " to build the meeting 
house:" Lieut. Emmons Stockwell, Capt. John Weeks, Mr. Jonas Wilder, 
Jr., Lieut. Jeremiah Willcox, and Jonas Baker. 

In 1794 the question of settling a minister was considered at the town 
meeting, and a committee of nine persons was selected to "draw proposals 
for the settlement and salary of Rev. Joseph Willard." At the next town 
meeting the following report was made: " To give Rev. Joseph Willard 
fifty pounds a year for the next succeeding three years. This was to in- 
crease as the inventory of the town increased, till it reached eighty pounds. 

Town of Lancaster. 301 

To be paid on the first day of March of each year. ( >ne third part paid in 
cash, the other two thirds in produce. On condition that we can get help 
from the neighboring towns as we now expect." 

July 17. 1794. — A church of Christ was gathered in Lancaster, Joseph 
Willard, minister of the Gospel, being present and serving as moderator. 

The following confession of faith and covenant were subscribe* 1: 

" We believe in God the Father— all mighty maker of Heaven & Earth A: in his son Jesus Christ 
as the alone Saviour of the world and in the holy Ghost as the comforter & sauctifier of the people 
& Church of God. 

" "We believe in the scriptures of the old & new Testaments, as a revelation of the mind & will 
of God to man & that they are a sufficient rule of faith & practice. 

" We believe that God made man upright & that they have sought out many inventions— that 
all have sinned & come short of the glory of God & stand in absolute need of a Saviour & of the 
benign influence of the holy spirit. 

" We believe in the importance of evangelical faith & repentance for the pardon & remission 
of sin cv that without holiness no man shall see the Lord. 

" We profess repentance towards God for all sin; & faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was 
crucified under Pontius Pilate & is now seated at the right hand of God. 

"We now freely & cheerfully devote ourselves to God, thro the one Mediator between God & 
man, & promise as far as possible to walk in all the ordinances of God blamelessly. 

" We promise to attend to all the instituted means of religion— to maintain family worship — 
constantly and devoutly to attend publick worship, & the sacraments of the New Testament, unit- 
edly, whenever and so long as God shall give us ability and opportunity therefor. 

"We promise to submit to & maintain the Discipline of Christ's Kingdom, as pointed out in 
the eighteenth chapter of St. Matthew. 

" We engage to dwell together in christian love — to watch over each other in meekness and to 
submit to and administer warnings & reproofs, as occasion from time to time may require. 

" Finally we premise to use our endeavors to give those a religious education, that Providence 
has, or may commit to our immediate charge— bringing them up in the nurture ifc admonition of 
the Lord— instructing them both by example and precept. 

" These as far a? we know ourselves are the sentiments & purposes of our hearts, divine grace 
assisting us. — Subscribed by Jonas Wilder, John Rosbrook, Elisha Wilder, Joseph Brackett, Jonas 
Baker, Sam'l Phelps, Nath'l Shepard, Phineas Bruce, Reuben Lamson, Joseph Wilder, Elizabeth 
Wilder, Mehitabel Wilder, Sarah Rosbrook, Mary Brackett, Lydia Rosbrook, Mindwell Clark, 
Betty Baker, Levina Phelps, Deborah Weeks, Persis Everett, Elizabeth Saunders, Polly Wilder, 
Sarah Stanly, Ruth Stock well." 

From the church records we extract the following: — 

"July?, 1794, Jonas Baker was chosen Church Clerk and to act as Moderator in Church- 
meetings, till a Minister shall be settled. Voted that Major Jonas Wilder make provision for the 
sacrament of the Lords Supper untill Deacons are chosen in the church.— At a meeting held 
August 5th, 1794, it was voted to give Rev. Joseph Willard an invitation to settle with this people 
and at a council held Sept. 18, 1794, he was installed pastor. May 20, 179(1, Jonas Bakei & Samuel 
Phelps were chosen deacons. Oct. 30, 1801, Elias Chapman was chosen deacon, but declined and 
afterwards accepted; the church committee was empowered to relieve an indigent brother or sister 
of the church with the church money. May 4, 1810, chose Brother Joseph Wilder, deacon; Bro. 
Reuben W. Freeman was chosen deacon June 4, 1813; May 12, 1*19, "Parson" Willard, after a 
pastorate of nearly twenty-live years, laid before the church his reasons for wishing for a dismis- 
sion. After considering this matter until July 5, it was voted unanimously that it is not expedient 
at present that the connection bet ween the Pastor and the church should be dissolved. Nov. 1, 
1820, Dea. Jonas Baker resigned his office as deacon." 

302 History of Coos County. 

At a church meeting held August 16, 1822, the church received the fol- 
lowing communication from the pastor: — 

" Brethren, — 

" It is nearly twenty eight years since I was Installed Pastor of this Church. I have been 
with you thro good report & evil report, in health & in sickness. In preaching, it has been my 
prayerful endeavor to deliver the evangelical truths of the Gospel, and to keep nothing back which 
would be for your spiritual advantage. I have visited the sick, attended funerals, & performed 
other ministerial duties. If in any instance I have been negligent in the performance of duty, as 
I may have been in many, I freely ask your pardon, & the forgiveness of God. 

"It appears the time has arrived when the connection between us ought to be dissolved. It 
has ever been a principle with me that a Minister ought not to continue with a people after his 
usefulness is at an end. I think I can no longer be useful in this place, upon that extensive scale 
which will justify a Minister in continuing with a People. 

"It is unhappily the case that this town is very much divided in religious sentiment, one cry- 
ing out for Paul, & another for Apollos. It is pleaded by some, if I were removed the Town 
would be united in an energetic & engaging young man — they plead I am too old and infirm to 
preach — and individuals of the Church have observed, as I have been informed, they cannot be 
edified by my preaching. Certainly I wish not to stand in the way of a better man. 

" Within a few years many have seceded from the Congregational society, and my salary has 
been reduced in the same proportion. For a number of years I have received upon an average, 
considerably short of two hundred Dollars per annum, which, you must be sensible, is far from 
being au adequate support. Should I continue in this way it may give People au idea that a Min- 
ister may live upon little or nothing, which may serve to operate against my successor, & conse- 
quently against the Society. 

"For these several reasons, if the Brethren of the Church are convinced my statements are 
just, I must request them to join with me in calling an Ecclesiastical Council for my dismission. 

" It is my ardent prayer to the God of all grace, that you may be united in a faithful, evan- 
gelical Minister of the Gospel, & that he may take the oversight of you, in the Lord. 

" Your affectionate Pastor, 

" Joseph Willard." 

The church proceeded to act on the above letter, and voted to lay the 
matter before the Town for its consent to call an Ecclesiastical Council. 
September 22, 1S22, voted that the committee, chosen at the last meeting 
to lay the proceedings of that meeting before the town, are authorized to 
agree with the pastor in appointing a Council, &c. On the sixteenth of 
October, 1S22, Rev. Joseph Willard was formally dismissed from his long 
and faithful pastorate, during which time he had gained the high esteem 
of the people as a man and minister. From this time until the settlement 
of James R. Wheelock, January 27, 1S24-, there was no pastor. Rev. Mr. 
Willard retained his membership with the church, and residence in the 
town. Rev. Mr. Wheelock, although grandson of the first, and son of the 
second president of Dartmouth college, could not have been exactly what 
the people desired, and there seemed to be a misunderstanding in regard to 
the terms of settlement, and January 3, 1825, he asked for a dismissal, 
which was readily granted. Parson Willard was then engaged to preach 
" with privilege of reading his old sermons." He died July 22, 1826. 

November 27, 1823, Porter G-. Freeman accepted the office of deacon. 
(William Farrar was also deacon of this church.) After the death of Rev. 

Town of Lancaster. :;u:>> 

Joseph Willard, some years elapsed before there was a regularly settled 
minister. A Mr. Waldo preached occasionally, as did the Rev. John Fitch. 
In 1S27 the "meeting house on the hill" was occupied by Rev. Orange 
Scott (Methodist). The Rev. Luke A. Spofford was here about 1829 to 
1831. He was a good man and faithful pastor. 

October 8, 1832, Rev. Andrew Go van, a Scotchman, was installed. His 
pastorate continued until August 25, 1835. He is said to have been an 
eccentric man, given to theological discussion, but, from the number 
admitted to the church during his ministry, his labors appear to have been 
fruitful. Mr. Govan was the last pastor of this church. The agitation of 
Unitarian and Trinitarian beliefs waxed hot, and, in 1836, the Trinitarian 
element formed '"The Orthodox Congregational Church." After that 
time we find but one record of any action of the mother chinch. This we 
copy : — 

" March 16, 1837, The Members of the ' Congregational Church ' in Lancaster are requested to 
meet at Center School House on Thursday next at one o'clock P. M. to transact business relative to 
said Church. 

" At this meeting they voted that a Committee of two be appointed to confer with a Commit- 
tee from the New Church lately formed in this place (should they see fit to comply with the 
request) to form a union between the two Churches if practicable. 

"Voted that E. C. Spaulding, & A. N. Brackett be said Committee." [See History of 
Orthodox Congregational Church.] 

The mission of the "established church " had now devolved on younger 
and different organizations, and the "meeting-house" after the "spirit" 
had departed into the new religious bodies was relegated to civic purposes. 

The Orthodox Congregational Church." — A "convention" of thirty- 
eight members of the Congregational church of Lancaster, was held at 
the court-house, Friday, September 23, 1836, at 2 p. m., "for the purpose 
of considering the expediency of forming a new church to be known as 
'The Orthodox Congregational Church in Lancaster, N. H.' The meet- 
ing was called to order by Rev. Edward Buxton, and organized by 
appointing Dea. William Farrar, moderator, and Bro. Horace Whitcomb, 
scribe. It was unanimously voted to form said church, and adopt the 
following articles of faith, and a covenant. 

"Confession of Faith, Art. 1. We believe there is but one God, the Creator, Preserver 
and Governor of the Universe; a being self-existent, independent & immutable, infinite in power. 
knowledge, wisdom, justice and truth. 

" Art. 2. We believe that the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments were given by inspi- 
ration of God; that they contain a full and harmonious system of Divine truth; and are a perfect 
rule of Doctrinal belief and religious practice. 

" Art. 3. We believe that God is revealed in the Scriptures, as the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost; and that these three are one, and in all Divine attributes equal. 

"Art. 4. We believe that God made all things for himself; that known unto him are all his 

*By W. A. Fergusson. 

304 History of Coos County. 

works from the beginning; that he governs all things according to the counsel of his own will; 
and that the principles and administration of his Government are perfectly holy, just and good. 

" Art 5. We believe that our first parents were created holy, that they fell from their happy 
state, by transgressing the Divine Command; and that in consequence of their apostacy from God, 
the heart of man, until renewed by grace, is without holiness, and alienated from God. 

" Art 6. We believe that the Son of God, by his sufferings and death, has made a proper 
and adequate atonement for sin, and that whosoever will, may be saved; yet, that such is the 
aversion of man to the terms of Salvation, that without the special influences of the Holy Spirit all 
men iefuse to comply with them. 

"Ait. 7. We believe that all who shall arrive at heaven will be saved, not by works of 
righteousness which they have done, but according to God's purpose and grace, ' by the washing 
of regeneration and the renewing of the Holy Ghost'; whilst all that fail of eternal life will perish 
for their voluntary and obstinate perseverance in the rejection of offered mercy. 

"Art. 8. We believe that repentance towards God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ are 
indispensable conditions of salvation. 

" Art. 9. We believe that all true Christians will be kept by the power of God, through faith 
unto salvation. 

" Art. 10. We believe in the resurrection of the dead and a final judgment, when the wicked 
will go into punishment, and the righteous into life; both of which will be without end. 

"Art. 11. Moreover, we believe that the Lord Jesus Christ has a visible Church in the world; 
that the terms of membership are a credible profession of faith in Christ, and of that holiness 
which is wrought by the renewing grace of God ; and that none but members of the visible Church, 
in regular standing have a right to partake of the Lord's Supper; and that only their households, 
and believers, can be admitted to the ordinance of baptism." 

At this meeting William Farrar was chosen deacon, and it was voted 
to organize the chnrch on the sixth day of October, 1S3G. [This date was 
changed to October 12. as clergymen to form a council could not attend on 
the sixth.] Horace Whitcomb was instructed to invite the singers to at- 
tend on that occasion. 

October 12, 1836, it was voted " to proceed and form said church;" also, 
that the first meeting of "The Orthodox Congregational Church in Lan- 
caster, N. H.," be held on Thursday, October 20, at the court-house in 
Lancaster, at one o'clock afternoon. To show the sterling integrity and 
high character of the formers of this society, we copy this article from the 
covenant: — 

"In view of the evils brought upon the community, and upon the church, by the use of dis- 
tilled liquors, we promise to abstain totally from the use and sale of them, except as a medicine." 

The council consisted of Rev. E. Buxton and Rev. William E. Holmes. 
(Rev. Drury Fairbanks and J. Glines were invited, but did not attend.) 
At 11 a. M. the council proceeded to form the church. Rev. Mr. Holmes 
preached a sermon, after which the Lord's supper was administered. 

The original members were William Farrar. Porter G. Freeman, John 
Willson, Horace Whitcomb. John C. How, John Wilder, Ephraim Wilder, 
James Stone, Samuel L. Whidden, Oilman Wilder, Edmund C. Wilder, 
Daniel Stebbins, Edward Spalding, John Stalbird, Sarah Cady, Persis Ev- 
erett, Edna Porter, Elizabeth Smith, Olive B. Holkins, Mehetable Willard, 
Mary S. H. Stickney, Martha B. Stickney, Tryphena Farrar, Abigail A, 

Town of Lancaster. 305 

Bergin, Lucinda Baker. Catharine J. Whitcomb, Lydia How, Mercy Free- 
man, Mary N. Whidden, Rhoda Wilder, Sophronia Denison, Rebekah Den- 
ison, Ruth C. George, Harmony Moore, Mary Jane Moore, Sarah White, 
Lydia Bellows, Martha Phillips, Anna Bergin, Louisa Stebbins, Sarah Ann 
Moore, Amanda Stebbins, Persis Fayette Weeks, Julia J. Joyslin, Sally B. 
Stalbird, Ann L. Whidden, Clarissa Hemmenway. 

At a church meeting held October 25, 1836, it was voted "that William 
Farrar be a committee to form a preamble or caption to the records, stat- 
ing some of the most prominent reasons, as a justification for forming this 
church." (It would be interesting to present this paper here, but it was 
not incorporated with the records, and the seeker is referred to "Document 
No. 1, 'Reasons for seceding from the Old Church' on file," and we know 
not where they can be found.) Gen. John Willson, Gilman Wilder, and 
Samuel L. Whidden were chosen to circulate subscriptions to raise money 
for the support of preaching and defraying some expenses for board of 
Rev. Mr. Buxton. 

Mr. Buxton did not remain long in Lancaster. He was followed by 
Rev. C. W. Richardson, and he, by a young man of brilliant talents named 
Burke. During his pastorate the new church was built. The committee for 
building and the selling of the pews was composed of three men, Gen. John 
Willson, Presbury West, and Solomon Hemmingway. The church was 
erected in 1839, and Mr. Burke preached the dedication sermon. His health 
failing, Mr. Burke was forced to abandon preaching. Rev. Clark Perry 
was here in 1812. His health, also, was poor, and he did not remain long. 

Several attempts were made to make an amicable adjustment of the 
differences between the old and new churches, the old church taking the 
initiative at a meeting held March 16, 1837, by choosing E. E. Spaulding 
and A. N. Brackett a committee to confer with the new church and form 
a union with them if possible. 

[After the record of this meeting, we find an entry in the handwriting 
of Rev. David Perry, evidently written after his election as clerk, January 
5, 1844, reading thus: "Here closes the records of the chh, so far as the 
present clerk has knowledge, till just before the settlement of the present 
pastor.'' He, however, has recorded the invitation of the church to him to 
become its pastor, dated April 11-, 18-13; his reply of acceptance of May 4, 
1813; and the important action of the church in the interest of union with 
the old church. Nothing officially correct can be given concerning the 
church from 1836 to 1843.] 

November 20, L843, a regularly appointed meeting of the church was 
held in conjunction with the original (old) church, as an effort to bring the 
two churches together on a plan expressed in these resolutions: — 

u Resolved, 1. That we deeply deplore the division aud consequent alienation of feeling among 
those in this place who profess love to the Savior, and are, in principle, Congregationalists. 

306 History of Coos County. 

" Resolved, 2. That to evince our sincere desire for the restoration of peace and christian feel- 
ing, oa honorable and christian princip : es, we hereby certify our willingness to disband the church 
organization, to which we respectively belong, and submit, if necessary, the principles on which 
a new organization shall be formed, to a council mutually chosen." 

All of the members of the old church expressed themselves in favor 
of this plan; forty-nine of the new church were also in favor of it, but 
seven were inflexibly opposed to it. After a full discussion G. Wilder and 
R. Dearth were appointed a committee of the new church, to confer with 
Seth Savage and John Mason, a committee of the old church, to see if any- 
thing more could be done to restore harmony and peace between the 
churches. The joint committee was empowered to adopt any course 
deemed by it proper and expedient. After much discussion the committee 
called a clerical council for advice. This council advised that a confession 
of faith and covenant which they drew up. should be proposed to the 
members of the old church, and that the signatures of those who approved 
of them be obtained; that the articles, etc., then be adopted by the new 
church as theirs; and that in their adoption by the new, all from the old 
church who have approved of them, be incorporated into church relation with 
them. It further proposed that those members who desire it, obtain letters 
of dismissal and recommendation from the old for the same object, and 
that the members of each body exercise a kind, conciliatory, and peaceful 
spirit toward each other. 

"New Articles of Faith: Art. 1. We believe in the existence of one only living and true 
God; a Being possessed of every natural and moral perfection; the Creator, Preserver, and Gov- 
ernor of the universe. 

" Art. 2. We believe that this Being has made a revelation of his will to man; that the Script- 
ures of the Old and New Testaments are this revelation, and are the only and sufficient rule of 
faith and practice. 

"Art. 3. We believe that in these Scriptures there is revealed a distinction in the Godhead of 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and that this distinction, though incomprehensible to us, is yet per- 
fectly consistent with the unity of the Divine Being. 

"Art. 4. We believe that God created man a free moral agent, that in the first exercise of this 
agency he was holy; that by transgression he fell from this state of holiness, and as a consequence, 
all men are, by nature, entirely destitute of true love to God, and under sentence of condemnation. 

"Art. 5. We believe that God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son to re- 
deem men from this stite; and that by his sufferings and death, he made an atonement sufficient 
for their salvation. 

"Art. 6. We believe that this salvation is freely offered to all on condition of repentance 
toward God, and of faith in Jesus Christ; but that with one consent men naturally and wickedly 
reject it. 

"Art. 7. We believe that it is the office of the Holy Spirit to bring men to accept the salvation 
thus offered and rejected; and that while all experience his strivings, so that they are without ex- 
cuse, only a portion of mankind are renewed and brought to Christ by his agency. 

"Art. 8. We believe that those who are renewed and united to Christ, are kept by the power 
of God, through faith unto salvation. 

"Art. 9. We believe that Christ has a visible Church, with which it is the duty of all, who pro- 
fess to have been born again, to unite; and also that he has appointed the ordinances, baptism and 

Town of Lancaster. 307 

the Lord's Supper,— the latter to be observed by the regular church members at stated Masons; 
the former to be administered to believers and their households. 

"Art. 10. We believe in the divine appointment of the christian Sabbath, to be observed as 
holy time. 

"Art. 11. We believe in the resurrection of the dead, and in a general judgment, from which 
the wicked shall go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into Life eternal." 

These articles of faith were adopted, December 29, 1st:;, at an appointed 
meeting, and sixteen members of the old church were added to the new 
organization. Seven of the new church members were highly aggrieved 
by this change of creed, among them Deacon William Parrar ( who resigned 
his office as deacon January 5, 1844,) and Horace Whitcomb. They, how- 
ever, later came into full harmony and connection. Rev. David Perry was 
dismissed January 20, 1847. He was an energetic man, with a good spice 
of self -appreciation in his nature, but his efforts were always in the direc- 
tion of peace and unity. His was a good pastorate for the church. In 
February and March, 1847, Rev. Stephen A. Barnard supplied the pulpit 
several Sabbaths, and an engagement was made with him to be the pastor 
for one year. He commenced his labors May 9, 1847. During Mr. Bar- 
nard's pastorate quite a number were added to the church . Up to this 
time the church had simply been an ecclesiastical body, with no legal 
organization or powers. It could not hold property, could not make or 
enforce a contract, consequently the payment of the clergymen devolved 
upon the voluntary gifts of the benevolent. Those who were desirous of 
paying the pastor by a legal assessment of the salary on those attendant 
on his ministrations, were in consultation with Mr. Barnard concerning the 
formation of a church society, and, as many of these held liberal theolog- 
ical views, the orthodox members became fearful of an attempt to "cap- 
ture " the church, and forestalled such an attempt by taking action in that 
direction themselves, and July 16, 1852, at a meeting held at the store of 
J. W. Lovejoy, it was voted to take measures to organize an " orthodox " 
society, which was accomplished July 30, 1852 Porter G. Freeman was 
chosen chairman, J. W. Lovejoy, clerk. All members of the church pres- 
ent signed the written articles drawn up for the purpose; and the notice 
of the meeting was printed, according to law, in a newspaper (Cods 
County Democrat). The society was organized as " The Orthodox Con- 
gregational Chinch Society" with these members: Grilman Wilder, P. 
G. Freeman, Charles Baker, H. Whitcomb, Seth Adams, J. W. Clark, 
Roswell Carleton, C. W. Roby, Daniel Stebbins, Seth Savage, J W. Love- 
joy, J. F. Freeman, R. L. Adams. X. (I. Stickney, Richard Smith. William 
Boswell, I. F. Allen. (Horace Whitcomb became society clerk in L859, and 
held this office, and that of treasurer, for many years. I 

Mr. Barnard remained pastor until May 29, 1853. March 17. L854, Miss 
Ellen A. White and Mrs. Susan D. F. Cargill asked for certificates of 
membership that they might join the Unitarian church about to be organ 

308 History of Coos County. 

ized, and with which they would be more at home, although they had 
accepted the explanation of the Gospel given by Mr. Barnard. These were 
granted, and from this period the two classes of Congregationalists have 
no religious connection. At the same meeting Seth Adams was chosen 

Rev. Isaac Weston supplied the pulpit from February, 1854, to Septem- 
ber 14. Nine persons were admitted to membership March 25, 1855, and 
a large number in 1856. All through the pastorate of Rev. Prescott Fay, 
which began in 1856, there was a steady growth. " Mr. Fay preached his 
last sermon, Sunday, June 21, 1865, after having been a faithful and effi- 
cient pastor for over nine years." Rev. Henry V. Emmons was installed 
pastor September 11, 1865, and June 5, 1868, rules were adopted for the 
government of the church, and an " executive " and an " advisory " com- 
mittee constituted; the former to consist of T. Stephenson, James F. Free- 
man, and the pastor and the two acting deacons as " ex-officio " members. 
The " advisory committee " was composed of ladies, and consisted of Mrs. 
Eastman, Mrs. Walker, Mrs. 0. E. Freeman, Mrs. Underwood and Mrs. 
Edward Savage. 

At the close of his fourth year of service Mr. Emmons resigned the 
pastorate, giving for his principal reasons the inadequacy of support, and 
the apparent coldness and lack of sympathy towards him on the part of 
the church. A strong feeling was manifested to retain Mr. Emmons as 
pastor, and a committee was appointed, consisting of Dea. Burton, Charles 

E. Allen, Oscar F. Bothell, Isaac F. Allen, Mrs. O. E. Freeman, Mrs. H. 

F. Holton and Mrs. G. O. Rogers, to procure subscriptions for the purpose 
of retaining Mr. Emmons a number of years more, as he had consented 
to remain a term of years, for a salary adequate for his support. October 
7, 1869, the committee report that about $920 had been subscribed. On 
consultation with Mr. Emmons he said that "'he could not agree to remain 
for one year only, but would remain for a series of years at a salary of 
$1,000, which would include the interest on the $1,500 loan and all ex- 
penses." October 11, the committee reported $978 subscribed, and the 
probability that the $1,000 could be raised, and it was voted to retain Mr. 
Emmons as pastor "on above conditions." 

March 31, 1870. T. Stephenson and Hartford Sweet were chosen audi- 
tors of accounts. At an annual meeting, November 3, 1870, it was voted 
" that Oilman Wilder and Azro Burton as deacons, Turner Stephenson as 
clerk and Charles B. Allen as treasurer, retain their several named offices 
during the pleasure of the church, and until others are chosen in their 
places." T. Stephenson and James F. Freeman were chosen additional 
members of the executive committee; Mrs. R. P. Kent, Mrs. H. V. Em- 
mons, Mrs. Charles Plaisted, Mrs. Dwight Carleton and Mrs. T. Stephen- 
son chosen advisory committee. It was decided by quite a large major- 

Town of Lancaster. 309 

ity, November 2, 1871, on a proposition to have but one sermon each Sab- 
bath, that "there shall be two sermons on each Sabbath as has been the 
custom." The annual meeting was held the same day, and William P. 
Freeman chosen assistant deacon to Deacon Gilman Wilder: T. Stephen- 
son, clerk; Charles B. Allen, treasurer; T. Stephenson and J. F. Freeman, 
members of executive committee; re-elected the advisory committee. 
February 29, L872, Charles B. Allen was elected to the clerkship made 
vacant by the death of that faithful and useful brother, Turner Stephen- 
son. C. B. Allen is continued clerk and treasurer in 1873; Isaac F. Allen 
and J. F. Freeman placed on executive committee; Mrs. George < >. Rogers 
substituted for Mrs. Stephenson on advisory committee; Deacon Brown, 
agent of N. H. Bible society, reports to the annual meeting that he had 
collected *44 from the society, which was now entitled to one life-member- 
ship. Deacon Seth Adams was then elected to the position. At the an- 
nual meeting. October 9, 1873, C. B. Allen was again chosen clerk and 
treasurer; I. F. Allen and J. F. Freeman continued on executive commit- 
tee; Mrs. H. F. Holton was chosen on advisory committee in place of Mrs. 

At a duly notified meeting called June 5, 1874, Rev. Mr. Emmons, on 
account of failing health, etc., tendered his resignation of the pastorate. 
The resignation was accepted, and he preached his farewell discourse July 
5, 1874. Rev. C. E. Harrington was "called/' and, at a council convened 
October 27. Mr. Emmons was dismissed, and Mr. Harrington installed. 
His salary was to be $1,000 a year and a parsonage, which a committee 
was chosen to procure. Mr. Emmons was much beloved, integrity and 
harmony marked the relations of pastor and people, and he was universally 
esteemed for his christian worth and gentle courtesy. 

September 30, 1875, the clerk, treasurer and executive committee were 
re-elected for the ensuing year. The advisory committee was continued, 
with Mrs. R. P. Kent, Mrs. C. Plaisted, Mrs. S. D. Carletdn, Mrs. H. F. 
Holton and Mrs. E. V. Cobleigh as members. A soliciting committee has 
now become a regular institution, and Deacon Burton, Deacon Wilder. Mrs. 
E. V. Cobleigh, Mrs. William P. Freeman, Mrs. E. R. Kent and Nelly 
Fletcher are made its members. 

At the annual meeting, September 28, L876T, C. B. Allen was continued 
clerk, Charles Morse elected treasurer, Mrs. R. P. Kent. Mrs. Charles Plais- 
ted, Mrs. H. F. Holton, Mrs. S. B. Congdon, and .Mrs. Richard Small, 
made the advisory committee. October 1, L876, Azro Burton and W. P. 
Freeman were elected deacons. It was voted that, "the church rise dur- 
ing invocation, and bow during prayer; and to rise and face the pulpit 
during the second and third singing.'* January 7. 1877, the silver-plated 
communion service presented by R. P. Kent, Esq., was used to-day for the 
first time. February 24, 1878, Rev. C. E. Harrington preached his fare- 

310 History of Coos County. 

well sermon. He was dismissed by a council held February 26. In its 
report the council said, "we do most deeply sympathize with this church 
in the evidently reluctant and painful, yet prayerful, consent they give to 
the proposed separation, and record our hearty satisfaction that the rela- 
tion between pastor and people has been so mutually kind, affectionate 
and helpful of spiritual life." 

Rev. Charles E. Sumner commenced pastoral work May 5, 1878. The 
treasurer's report of April 28, 1879, says "there has been paid to Mr. Sum- 
ner $735, leaving due him $265, of which sum the ladies will pay $63, leav- 
ing $202 to be collected by subscription. , ' It was voted at the same meet- 
ing "to adopt the method of weekly contribution to raise money for 
pastor's salary, instead of personal solicitation as heretofore," yet the sub- 
scription committee was continued another year. 

November 4, 1880. — The annual meeting passed off quietly, and the old 
officers re-elected. Rev. Sidney A. Burnaby commenced his labors June 5 r 
1881, and was installed pastor September 21, 1881, he to receive a salary 
of $850, the use of the parsonage, and four Sundays vacation during the 
year. At the annual meeting, September 28, 1882, the pastor and two 
deacons were constituted the executive committee. 

The efficient and faithful ladies of the advisory committee, viz. : Mrs. 
R. P. Kent, Mrs. Charles Plaisted, Mrs. H. F. Holton, Mrs. S. B. Congdon 
and Mrs. Richard Small were continued in office. The officers elected at 
the annual meeting in 1885 were C. B. Allen, clerk; C. E. Morse, treas- 
urer; N. H. Richardson, deacon; Mrs. C. E. Allen, Mrs. W. A. Folsom, 
Mrs. I. M. Nettleton, Mrs. N. H. Richardson and Mrs. 0. E. Freeman, 
advisory committee; S. D. Carleton was added to the executive committee, 
and C E. Allen chosen to attend to the renting of the pews. The officers 
elected in 1886 were C. B. Allen, clerk; Charles Morse, treasurer; N. H. 
Richardson and S. D. Carleton, executive committee; Mrs. 0. E. Allen, 
Mrs. Folsom, Mrs. Nettleton, Mrs. Richardson and Miss Emily Rowell, 
advisory committee; Azro Burton and William P. Freeman, deacons; N. H. 
Richardson, assistant deacon. 

During the half century of existence of this church it has been a power 
for good, and has kept pace with the rapid advance of improvement in 
secular matters. It has the largest church edifice in town — the only one 
with a bell. Extensive alterations and repairs have recently been made, 
adding much to the convenience and value of the buildings. The seating 
capacity is 550, and the value of the church $6,000. 

The Sabbath-school, organized about the same time as the church, is 
large and in a flourishing condition, with a membership of 195, and a 
library of 400 volumes. N. H. Richardson has been superintendent for eleven 

Town of Lancaster. 311 

First Unitarian Society* — The " First Church " in Lancaster, became, 
under the ministrations of its revered pastor, Rev. Joseph Willard, very 
liberal in its theological position, embracing largely the Arminian views 
held by the moderate school in the New England church. The more con- 
servative members did not find the religious tenets of the society altogether 
congenial to their Calvinistic opinions, and they withdrew, establishing 
the present "Orthodox Congregational Church." In 1837, the old church, 
greatly shorn of its strength and influence by this defection of the Ortho- 
dox party, proposed a reunion of the two congregations, and, after a mod- 
ification of the covenant of the new church, the old church was merged 
in the Orthodox Congregational church of Lancaster. The Congregation- 
alists, having amicably settled their religious differences, proceeded to 
build a new meeting-house, which was erected in 1839, and is still occu- 
pied by the Orthodox Congregational society. For a few years the old and 
new societies worked harmoniously together. Some of the "First Church " 
declined to unite with the new organization, but most of the congregation 
of the First society attended the Orthodox church 

Rev. Stephen A. Barnard came to the society in 1835. He was a thor- 
oughly conscientious minister, and faithfully discharged the duties of his 
holy office. His ministry was highly satisfactory to the congregation, but 
on account of his liberal views became distasteful to some of the members 
of the church. In consequence of their dissent, Mr. Barnard resigned in 
1852. The Orthodox Congregational church seemed about to sink into the 
sad condition of its predecessor. For seven months no interest was mani- 
fested whatever. Thinking that the pulpit was not to be supplied for an 
indefinite period, the liberal element of the congregation, which had now 
become distinctively Unitarian in belief, secured the services of several 
Unitarian clergymen to supply the pulpit of the Congregational meeting- 
house during the summer of 1853. The rest of the year the Orthodox 
society held only an occasional Sunday service. 

The Unitarians who worshipped with the Orthodox congregation were 
the liberal element that had controlled the " First Church/ 1 and, on account 
of their liberal views, had led to the withdrawal of the more Orthodox of 
the First society in 1S36. They now made a proposition to the more mod- 
erate Orthodox to unite with them and engage a Unitarian preacher. Ac- 
cordingly Rev. George M. Rice was engaged, and preached for the first 
time as regular supply, January 15, 1854. The Unitarian Congregational - 
ists expected the hearty concurrence of the society in this new departure, 
but some of the Orthodox members objected to the new order of things, 
and began to take steps to revive their dormant party. 

The Unitarian Congregationalists, thinking that they had contributed 

*By Rev. J. B. Morrison. 

312 History of'Coos County. 

even more than the Trinitarian Congregationalists towards the new meet- 
ing-house, and desiring, if they legally could do so, to retain possession of 
it, posted up a notice, February 13, 1854, that "there would be a meet- 
ing of the First Congregational Society of Lancaster, at the Coos Hotel, at 
eight o'clock this evening, for the purpose of choosing officers and organ- 
izing for business." At the gathering of gentlemen convened under the 
above notice, the society was fully organized. To the constitution, at this 
first legal meeting, the following names were signed: William D. Spauld- 
ing, James W. Weeks, B F. Whidden, John H. White, James B. Weeks, 
John W. Barney, John Lindsey, William A. White, C. B. Allen, E. C. 
Garland, J. W. Merriam, A. L. Robinson, Edward Spaulding, William 
Burns, R. Sawyer, James B. Spaulding, Charles D. Stebbins, James S. 
Brackett, Hiram A. Fletcher, Hosea Cray, Edward C. Spaulding, Edwin 
F. Eastman, Nelson Kent, Benjamin Hunking, S. F. Spaulding, J. M. 

Matters had now reached a crisis. The Orthodox Congregational church 
had secured Rev. Mr. Weston, and, on the Sunday following the organiza- 
tion of the First Congregational society, the ministers of the two Congre- 
gational societies went to the meeting-house to conduct divine worship. 
The courtesy of Mr. Weston in this trying ordeal is highly to be com- 
mended. He knew nothing of the exact state of affairs, and kindly con- 
sented, under the circumstances, that Mr. Rice should preach in the morn- 
ing and he in the afternoon. This was the last time the Unitarian Con- 
gregationalists occupied the meeting-house they had largely contributed 
towards building, and they made preparations to hold their services else- 
where. They had loyally supported the ministry of the Orthodox Congre- 
gational church society, and now were to go out as a newly organized band 
to carry the spirit of that liberalism which had dominated the "First 
Church, " to larger results in Christian faith and practice. 

February 26, 1854, the First Congregational society (Unitarian) held its 
services in the court house. It started in an auspicious way, although it 
lost the church home, which it had hoped to retain. The majority of the 
Orthodox congregation had gone forth with it, and much enthusiasm was 
roused for the new society. The separation of the attendants of the Ortho- 
dox Congregational church into two distinct organizations, being settled 
by the First Congregational society worshiping in the court-house, meas- 
ures were taken to organize a church in connection with the latter, and, 
on Sunday, March 12, 1851, the new church was formed with the follow- 

Church Covenant. — " We, whose names are herewith written, declare our faith in the One Liv- 
ing and True God; in the Lord Jesus Christ; that He was sanctified of the Father, and sent into the 
world that the world through Him might be saved, and in that Gospel which was confirmed by 
the death and resurrection of its Author, and which is binding upon us as the rule of our faith and 

Town of Lancaster. 313 

practice. Being united into one congregation or church, under the Lord Jesus Christ, we do hereby 
solemnly and religiously promise to walk in all our ways according to the rule of Ihe Gospel, and 
in all sincere conformity to His holy ordinances, and in mutual love and respect to each other, so 
near as God shall give us grace. George M. Rice, William A. White, Ellen C. White. William D. 
Spaulding, Sarah A. Spaulding, James W. Weeks, M. Eliza Weeks, Persis F. Weeks. Nancy D. 
M. Sawyer, Eliza F. Whidden, Debby A. Kent, Harriet E. Starbird." 

The above named people were the first members received into the First 
Congregational church (Unitarian). Two weeks later, March 20, Mrs. 
Susan D. F. Cargill and Miss Ellen A. White, on giving their assent to the 
covenant, were admitted to membership. The admission of Miss White 
and Mrs. Cargill to the church of the new society is especially interesting 
to note. They were members of the Orthodox church, and brought from 
that church certificates of their regular standing. That presented by Mrs. 
Cargill reads thus: — 

"Lancaster, March 17, 1854. — This may certify that Mrs. Susan D. F. Cargill has for several 
years past been a member of the Orthodox Congregational Church in this town in regular standing, 
and that her connection with said Church as a member thereof terminates on the date hereof. By 
vote of the Church. J. W. Lovejoy, Clerk. - ' 

This was the last official connection of any member of the new. with 
the other Congregational society, and marks the period of utter separation. 
It is pleasant to note here, that, although there was much feeling between 
the two societies, the Orthodox Congregational church most generously 
loaned their communion service to the new church, which held its first 
communion on the day of its organization, March 12, 1854. It was an act 
of Christian courtesy that sheds a gracious light over this rite, dear to both 
churches, one alike in the worship of their common Lord and Master, 
Jesus Christ. 

One amusing feature the writer of this notes in the church records at 
this early date. The pastor suggested a committee be appointed to confer 
with Dr. Benjamin Hunking in regard to "his absence from our last com- 
munion, and from church for several weeks past." The church "did not 
think it best to take any such steps for the present," and, probably, the 
worthy old physician was never officially interviewed as to his absence 
from divine worship and the communion table. 

The First Congregational society continued to worship at the court- 
house daring the remainder of the year 1854. The congregation soon 
began to be sadly troubled by the continued preaching of political sermons 
by the minister. The yens which followed were filled with the significant 
events which presaged the coming struggle for supremacy between the North 
and South. The ministers of the Unitarian denomination were untiring 
in the anti-slavery cause. Mr Rice was a highly conscientious man. He 
nuns; himself into the battle of those days with all the strength of a natur- 
ally combative nature. He could not brook the high-handed acts of the 
pro-slavery party. The thing was in the air, and the pastor would preach 


314 History of Coos County. 

what his conscience declared to be right. Many of the society did not ap- 
prove of his course. People dropped out, and those who had the interest 
of the society at heart saw with great concern that their earnest- hearted 
minister was injuring the prospects of the new church But Mr. Rice felt 
the truth must be spoken "though the heavens fell," and continued his 
preaching of political sermons. In this way the society lost ground, and 
many returned to the Orthodox church. But the faithful few — earnest 
men and women — who stood loyally by the truth they had gone forth from 
the Orthodox Congregational church society to proclaim, trusted that in 
the end the troubles in which the beloved minister had involved the inter- 
est of the society, would be happily closed, and a new church building 
bring them into harmonious relations again, and give new zest to the 
church and society. 

So, in 1855, the society began to mature its plans for the erection of a 
church edifice, and in October, 1856, with great rejoicing, entered into the 
church building now occupied. It was expected that the completion of the 
new church would heal the unhappy differences, but such did not prove to 
be the case. The society was in debt for the new structure, and the pastor 
continued to preach what he felt should be given unto the town of Lan- 
caster. At the annual meeting in 1857, it was "resolved, that we will not 
bring political tongues nor political ears into our solemn assembly. Let 
it be understood that there are things about which we differ, but we agree 
in our religion ; that it is for our religion that we sustain the relation of 
pastor and people, and we will not jeopardize the great interests of our 
religion by officious assertions of right on the one hand, or scrupulous sus- 
picions of going too far on the other." 

But it was only a question of time when the relations of pastor and 
people must be severed, and Mr. Rice soon realized this, resigning in Sep- 
tember, 1857. At a meeting called September 28, the society refused to 
accept his resignation, and Mr. Rice evidently thought it inexpedient to 
insist on the acceptance of his immediate withdrawal from his pastorate, 
and sent the following communication to the meeting of October 10: " He 
was willing to remain six months as their pastor on condition that the 
society pay him promptly at a certain time, that the pulpit should be en- 
tirely free, and that they should have but one new sermon each Sunday." 

The meeting, after discussing this communication from the pastor, 
voted to reconsider the vote (passed September 28, 1857,) not to accept the 
resignation of Rev. Mr. Rice, and then voted to accept of the resignation 
of Mr. Rice. At this meeting a communication was read from the "'Amer- 
ican Unitarian Association," that it would give the society $100, on con- 
dition of retaining Mr. Rice as pastor. The society subsequently gave to 
the official board of the American Unitarian Association its reasons for 
rejecting its offer of aid in sustaining Mr. Rice in the pastorate, and also 

Town of Lancaster. 315 

passed resolutions highly commendatory of Mr. Rice, and his earnest work 
for the society. Mr. Rice closed his pastorate over the "First Church" 
and society November 1, 1S5T. As its first ministry, the pastorate of Mr. 
Rice will always be interesting to the Unitarian society. He was a manly 
Christian preacher, and revered by all who knew his rare worth. He came 
to the society in troublous times, and the day and hour, rather than the 
man cr his opinions, were the cause of his uneasy pastorate. 

Mr. Rice was followed by Rev. George Gibbs Charming, a brother of 
the celebrated William Ellery Channing, D.D. He was a pleasant gentle- 
man of the old school, and thoroughly alive to his work as a Christian 
minister. His memory is still revered, and his brief pastorate was happy 
and peaceful in the extreme. He became resident minister May 23, Is:.-, 
and remained pastor until May 8, 1860. At the annual meeting, April 3, 
1860, William D. Spaulding, Esq , made the generous proposition of indi- 
vidually assuming the indebtedness of the parish. Mr. Spaulding was one 
of Lancaster's well-known citizens. He had been identified with the 
society from the beginning of its ecclesiastical existence. Mr. Spaulding 
(with the exception of George P. Rowell, Esq.,) has been the most gener- 
ous benefactor the society has thus far had. At the annual meeting, April, 
1862, it was voted to amend Article 1 of the Constitution, by erasing "First 
Congregational Society," and inserting "First Unitarian Society." The 
reason for this change of corporate name was the objection felt by some 
members to the term congregational, which seemed to them to be the dis- 
tinctive title of the "Orthodox Congregational Society." It is truly to be 
regretted that the parish gave up the historic title of " First Congrega- 
tional Society," which really preserved the traditions of the old First 

From 1862 to 1870 the society had a checkered career, sometime having 
preaching and then closing its doors for an indefinite time. Rev. G. L. 
Chaney, Rev. George Osgood, Rev. Thomas Howard, Rev. Mr. Edes, Rev. 
W. W. Newell, Rev. J. L. M. Babcock, supplied the pulpit for a longer or 
shorter period, Mr. Babcock remaining three years. There is but little to note 
during these years; the society struggled bravely on, under many adverse 
circumstances, and nobly worked as a Christian organization. 

Rev. Lyman Clark began his ministry December 4, lsTu. He is the 
only clergyman ever installed over the "First Unitarian Church and 
Society." He was installed July 20, 1871, Rev. Rush R. Shippen preach- 
ing the installation sermon. The society was quite prosperous under Mr. 
Clark's ministration. He resigned July 5, 1874. The next regular supply 
was Rev. R. P. E. Thatcher, who remained a year, from May 1, L875, to 
May 1, 1876. At the close of Mr. Thatchers pastorate the parish seemed 
to be sinking into a hopeless decline. It had suffered much by deal lis and 
removals. A new Episcopal society drew away some of its former sup- 

316 History of Coos County. 

porters, the people were getting disheartened and the society took no steps 
to engage a permanent supply of its pulpit. During the following sum- 
mers, from 1876, the church was open, but closed the rest of the year. 
Kev. W. H. Fish, of South Scituate, Mass., preached during the summer 
months for several years. He encouraged the people that they could and 
must go on It was generally conceded that after the summer of 1879 it 
would be inexpedient to continue in the present unsettled way. Eev. Mr. 
Fish, and Mrs. E. H. Hicks, a member of the executive committee, labored 
to revive the interest in the society, and, nobly assisted by the old mem- 
bers of the parish, succeeded, and, in June, 1880, Eev. J. B. Morrison, 
of Haverhill, Mass., began his work in Lancaster. The people were in 
earnest, and the society has prospered as never before in its history. At 
the close of the fifth year of Mr. Morrison's pastorate the society voted to 
hire him for an indefinite period. In 1883 George P. Rowell, a member 
of the parish, made an exceedingly generous proposition for the complete 
repair of the church building. This was done, and Mr. Rowell bore one- 
quarter of the expense. 

No adequate idea of the influence of the First Unitarian society, as a 
religious power in Lancaster, would be obtained, were the men of the 
societv, identified with it so manv vears, omitted in this sketch. From the 
beginning of its history the society has been singularly fortunate in its 
membership. Hon. John H. White, William D. Spaulding, Esq., Dr. 
Benjamin Hunkmg, Dr. John W. Barney, Gov. J. W. Williams, were men 
of great influence in the town, and well-known throughout the state as 
very able men. Hon. William Burns, one of New Hampshire's ablest 
men, from the formation of the society until his death, in 1885, was 
always its constant friend. Judge William D Weeks, manliest of men, 
Benjamin F. Hunking, Esq., Hosea Gray, Esq., and Charles L. Griswold, 
Esq., (whom the writer found ever ready to lend a helping hand in every 
good and generous work — a sound business man, a loyal friend,) were firm 
supporters of the society under all its varying fortunes of storm and sun 
shine. Chief among the many others who served it faithfully during 
years of service, are: Hon. James W. Weeks, who has served on the ex- 
ecutive committee most of the time since the organization of the parish, and 
for many years has been the chairman of it, Hon. B. F. Whidden, the first 
clerk of the society, is still holding office as vice-president, Nelson Kent, 
Esq., L. F. Moore, Esq., Frank Smith, Esq., Edward Spaulding, Esq., and 
W. C. Spaulding, Esq., have labored faithfully for the building up of the 
society in every way. George P. Rowell, Esq., who, aside from William 
1). Spaulding, has been the chief benefactor of the parish, has been in the 
society since his boyhood; William A. White, president of the society, son 
of Hon. John H. White, the first chairman, has been one of its truest 
friends. Many others, who have come later than the above named, work 

Town of Lancaster. 317 

zealously for the welfare and promotion of the interests of the church and 

Present officers: James B. Morrison, minister; William A. White, 
president (since deceased); B. F. Whidden, vice-president; Nelson Kent, 
clerk; Eugene Leavitt, treasurer; Mrs. W. H. Gray, collector; James W. 
Weeks, George R. Eaton, L F. Moore, Frank Smith, Edward Spaulding, 
executive committee; W. H. Thompson, sexton; John H. Quimby, Eugene 
Leavitt, Mrs. A. M. Wilson, committee on music; J. B. Morrison, Mrs. Dex- 
ter Chase, Mrs. Nelson Kent, Mrs E. H. Hicks, and Miss Anna Thomp- 
son, teachers; Mrs. Burleigh .Roberts, organist; Eugene S. Leavitt, John 
H. Quimby, Mrs. Arthur Cowing, Mrs. Eugene Leavitt, choir. 

The Ladies' Benevolent Society, connected with the First Congregational 
society, was formed March 8, 1854. It has been a very valuable auxiliary 
to the Unitarian society from the beginning of its existence. During all 
the vicisitudes of the society, the " Ladies' Circle" has never faltered in its 
good work. The following ladies have occupied the position of president: 
Mrs. Nancy D. M. Sawyer, Mrs. George M. Rice, Miss Ellen A. White, 
Mrs. HoseaGray, Mrs. William Burns, Mrs. L. F. Moore, Mrs. Jacob Hamb- 
lin, Mrs. W. A. Hicks, Mrs. George E. Eaton. The present officers are: 
Mrs. George R. Eaton, president; Mrs. John M. Hopkins, vice-president; 
Mrs. C. L. Griswold, secretary and treasurer; Mrs. L. F. Moore, Mrs. W. 
H. Gray, Mrs. Frank Smith, Mrs. Warren Merrill, Mrs. James W. Weeks, 
Jr., directors; Mrs. I. W. Hopkinson. collector. 

The Sunday-school is not large, but is in a healthy condition. It was 
irregularly kept up until the pastorate of Mr. Morrison. Since L880 the 
superintendents have been: 1881, Mr. W. A. White; 1882, Rev. J. B. 
Morrison; from 1882 to the present, Mr. Eugene S. Leavitt. 

Rev. James Barnes Morrison is a native of Haverhill, Mass. His 
paternal ancestors were among the early pioneers of Londonderry, N. H., 
sturdy, strong men. On the maternal side he descends from prominent 
families in Essex county. Mass., in whom intellectuality predominates. 
Mr. Morrison was graduated from Meadville (Pa.) Thelogical seminary, 
in 1877, settled in Nantucket, Mass., the same year, remained there 
until 1880, when he commenced his pastoral charge of the First Unitarian 
church in Lancaster, N. H. How well he has done his work, lvsults best 
show. Under his faithful care the society has become strong and success- 
ful. About 1S81 he began to hold Sunday evening services in Littleton, 
going there after his day's labor in Lancaster, and, by his influence, much 
interest in religious life was awakened, and at present the Unitarians there 
have a beautiful church, erected at a cost of over $6,000, the money for 
which was mostly raised by the strenuous and untiring efforts of Mr. 
Morrison. As a preacher Mr. Morrison is scholarly, earliest and clear, 
and his hearers feel his honesty and sincerity. As he appears in the pulpit, 

318 History of Coos County. 

he is free from cant, and evidently consecrated to the work before him, and 
his ministerial service has been marked by success. Natural and unassum- 
ing in his manners, a genial and social companion, strong in sympathy, 
true to all, an energetic and persistent worker, he has, and well merits, 
the love and esteem of his parishioners and his many friends. — [Editor. 

Methodism. — No connected early history of Methodism in Lancaster has 
been preserved. The celebrated Jesse Lee was in this section very early. 
In his journal he says: " Saturday, September 6, 1800. We set out early 
in the morning and rode out to Connecticut river at Northumberland 
meeting-house; there I left my companion, and rode down the river through 
Lancaster and Dalton." Extracts from Stevens's memorial of Methodism: — 

" Time, summer of 1800. Rev. Laban Clark bad been holding a discussion concerning Meth- 
odism, in an adjoining town witb Asbbel Webb, and one Savage ' I informed them,' says Mr. 
Clark, ' tbat Mr. Langdon was to preacb tbat nigbt in Lancaster, and wisbed them to go and bear 
him. In tbe evening both Webb and Savage, with their wives, were at the meeting, and many 
others. Mr. Langdon preached, I exhorted, and we kept up the meeting with singing and praying 
for some time, and the four were all converted, and went home praising the Lord. We were now 
able to form a class of between fifteen and twenty; the most of them remained steadfast in the 
Lord, and my friends, Webb and Savage, both became local preachers.' The preachers passed 
through another part of Lancaster, where a great agitation ensued. They were assailed by the 
mob. The ruffain rabble cowered before the courage of Langdon, who was a gigantic and brave 
man; but they carried off Rosebrook Crawford, and ducked him in the river." 

Asa Kent travelled Landaff circuit in 1S02. It extended from Ruranev 
to Upper Coos. Lancaster was the stronghold of opposition. Mr. Kent 

says: — 

' The persecutors were determined to keep Methodism out of the place; but a few bad been 
converted, and others had ears to hear. I preached there to a crowded house, with much enlarge- 
ment and freedom of spirit. Some were a little unruly, but they became quiet upon a mild admo- 
nition Three days after, I was passing through the Nine Miles Woods, to Littleton, and was over- 
taken by three sleighs filled with men and women. One cried ' That's the Methodist preacher, 
let's run him down;' and they set their horses upon full speed. The snow was very deep, and 
with difficulty I succeeded in getting my horse out of the way, as they passed with loud shouting. 
* The noise and tumult so disturbed my horse that he became almost unman- 


They told him they had carried one preacher out of Lancaster, and 
would have no Methodist preaching there, as they had one minister of their 

In 1801, Benjamin Bishop, the very intemperate village blacksmith, 
was converted, and a permanent Methodist society established, according to 
Stevens, in this wise. When Joseph Crawford heard of the expulsion of John 
Langdon and Rosebrook Crawford from the village, he came here and took 
the field in defiance of the mob, and preached. Mr. Bishop's wife was 
awakened under the first sermon; her emotions were so great as to over- 
power her physical strength. Her husband procured a physician and 
nurse, and for some time she was treated medically. She was converted, 
her husband cured of his appetite for liquor, and for a number of years 

Town of Lancaster. Ml!) 

their house was a preaching place, and a home for the itinerant. Mrs. 
Bishop became a most powerful exhorter, and her husband a member of 
the N. E. conference in 1804. Rev. Ebenezer F. Newell was here in 1 807 08. 
Lewis Bates, a thick set, dark complexioned man, with heavy, strong voice, 
preached in Lancaster in 1*17. "The presence of God was manifested, 
and a gracious work commenced. Previous to this two Methodist preach- 
ers had been persecuted and mobbed out of town. I made two more visits 
to this (Lunenburg) circuit, and preached from its south part up the Con- 
necticut to Canada." 

These facts were recorded in the town books, as then persons not be- 
longing to, or supporting, any other church body or society, were legally 
required to pay a tax towards the salary of the Rev. Joseph Willard. 
Rev. Nathan Fetch, Jr., of the Methodist Episcopal church, certifies, Jan- 
uary 1, 1802, that Benjamin Bishop attends our ministry, and supports the 
same, being a member of our society. March 1, Mr. Felch certifies that 
Dennis Stanley attends our church and supports the same. April 23, L810, 
Joseph Dennett, preacher, Robert McKoy, steward, certify at Lunenburg 
that Joel Page, of Lancaster, has joined the Methodist society. April 30, 
IS 14, Joseph Lufkin and Eleazer Phelps certify that Joel Page, of Lancas- 
ter, is a member of the Methodist society in Lancaster and Guildhall. 
May 7, 1817, Eleazer S. Phelps, agent for the Methodist society, certifies 
that Frederic M. Stone has manifested a willingness to support the Gospel, 
and has attended my meeting, and wishes to be freed from paying Joseph 
Willard a tax. 

During the winter of 1810-17, a Mrs. Hutchins (called Mother Hutch- 
ins), of Whitefield, came to Lancaster, and by prayer and exhortation 
caused many to think seriously of the importance of the Gospel, and 
many who went from curiosity were much impressed, and, after she had 
labored here for some few weeks zealously in Zion's cause, some twenty 
converts were brought into the fold. The meetings were held in the ' ' mill- 
house," school-houses, and even barns, in the different parts of the town. 
The Lancaster circuit was formed, and the first quarterly meeting held 
herein 18 17, the court-house being used for the preaching services, and 
from that time until 1827, the Methodists continued to hold all meetings there; 
two circuit riders preaching alternately. These rode on horseback from 
place to place and made themselves at home at the houses of their breth- 
ren. Their calling could not have been a lucrative one, as the presiding 
elder stated at a quarterly meeting near the close of the year that the two 
preachers had received from the people under their charge but $30 each 
for their year's labor. 

In 1819-20 a great revival was the result of meetings held in the " old 
meeting-house," by Rev. Jacob Sanborn, presiding elder, and among those 
who avowed themselves as believers, was the venerable and highly re- 

320 History of Coos County. 

spected Judge William Lovejoy. The preachers, during the years 1820- 
1827, were Messrs. Davis, Pratt, Plumby, Culver and Baker; then came 
Norris, Brown, Spaulding, Gardner, Putnam and Stickney. Rev. Orange 
Scott spent the year 1827 in town, preaching part of the time from the 
pulpit occupied by Parson Willard, and no worthier man could have filled 
his place. He endeavored to adjust the differences among the people and 
unite them in the bonds of Christian charity. H. Wheelock preached in 
1829 and 1830. 

The first meeting for the organization of the Methodist Episcopal soci- 
ety was held at the house of Harvey Adams, July 22, 1831. At a subse- 
quent meeting in August a constitution was adopted and signed by a large 
number. At this meeting Harvey Adams, zealous in good works, gave 
land to the society for the site of a parsonage, and, in 1832, the parsonage 
was completed. In 1834 the church was built; Harvey Adams, Allen 
Smith, and Joseph Howe were the building committee. These men, good 
citizens, and strong in their faith, have passed away. 

In 1849 the New Hampshire conference was held in this church, 
Bishop Hamlin presiding. In 1858, during the pastorate of Rev. L. P. 
Cushman, the house was remodeled and its seating capacity enlarged, at a, 
cost of about $1,500, and rededicated in September of that year. At this 
time there were 136 members, thirty probationists, 126 Sabbath-school 
scholars. 150 volumes in the Sunday-school library, and the society pa id 
its minister S5< mi per year. In 1869 or is 70 the old parsonage was sold, 
and a new one built on High street, at a cost of $4,000, and it is one of 
the best in the conference. The church was again somewhat enlarged in 
1873, and a new and elegant organ placed in it. In April, 1878, the New 
Hampshire conference met with this church, Bishop S. M. Merrill pre- 

The society is in a highly prosperous condition, and the zeal and char- 
acter of its members is shown by their activity in all reforms, and the 
stand taken by them against all evils that jeopardize our moral, civil, and 
political institutions. 

List of Pastors since 1832.— S. P. Williams, from 1834; Daniel Field, 
in 1836 and 1837; L. Hill, in 1838; Amos Kidder, in 1839; John Smith, in 
1840; E. B. Morgan, 1841, 1842; J. G. Smith, to 1843; A. T. Bullard, 1844 
and 1845; H. H. Hartwell, from 1846; H. Hill, from 1848; J. W. Guernsey, 
from 1850; L. L. Eastman, from 1852; Josiah Hooper, from 1854; James 
Adams, from 1856; L. P. Cushman, from 1857; E. R. Wilkins, from 1859; 
G. W. Bryant, from 1861; S. P. Heath, from 1863; D. J. Smith, from 1866; 
C. H. Smith, from 1869; Otis Cole, from 1871; J. Noyes, from 1874; N. M, 
Bailey, 1876 to 1879; D. J. Smith, from 1S79 to 1882; W. E. Bennett, 1882 
and 1883; A. C. Coult, April, 1884, and during the years 1885 and 1886. 
Rev. Mr. Bowler is the present (1887) pastor. The members now are con- 

Town of Lancaster. ?,21 

gratulating themselves on their success in financial affairs for the pasl 
year. They have paid all running expenses; paid their pastor in full; 
taken liberal collections for home missions, church extension, and super- 
annuated ministers; paid the presiding elder's claim; raised $100 for foreigD 
missions, and put nearly $500 in the savings bank for a new church. 

Baptist Church. — A Calvinistic Baptist church was organized in 1809 r 
but we find no record of its organization or its ministry, until L860. Pre- 
vious to that time the Baptists of Lancaster attended public worship with 
the inhabitants of Jefferson, as is shown by the following extracts from 
the early town records. They held their services in a school-house about 
a mile and a half from Lancaster, on the road to Jefferson: 

"Gentlemen, Selectmen of Lancaster, — 

" This may certify that the within named persons have given in these names to the Baptis 
Society in Jefferson and belong to the same. To wit — 

" Samuel Legro, Samuel Springer, Jr., Caleb Page. Samuel Plaisted. Ruling Elder, Jefferson, 
Feb. 17, 1802. James flight, Church Clerk, Samuel Plaisted, Ruling Elder; certify in September, 
1798, that Isaac Darby has and does belong to the Baptist Society in Jefferson. Samuel Plaisted, 
Ruling Elder, certifies, Mar. 23, 1802, that Robert, Gotham belongs to the Baptist Society in Jeffer- 
son. James Hight, Church Clerk, certifies, Jan. 12, 1803, that John Mclntyre, Emmons Stock well, 
Ephraim Stockwell & Liberty Stockwell, belong to the regular Baptist Church in Lancaster A.- 
Jefferson It is recorded that Samuel Philbrook has joined the regular Baptist Church in Jefferson 
& Lancaster, March t), 1803." 

On the last of February, I860, the Rev. Henry I. Campbell from the 
Danville association (Vermont) came with a view to look up and call together 
the scattered Baptists in this vicinity. He visited from house to house, 
talked and prayed, encouraged the brethren to move onward in the organ- 
ization of a church; and, through his persevering efforts and the blessing 
of God, there were found about twenty who were ready to unite in church 
responsibility; hence, by virtue of "letters-missive, 1 ' a council was con- 
vened on May 12th, "at Lancaster Street, in the Court House, 1 o'clock p. 
m. Consisting of Delegates from the following Churches: Lunenburgh, 
Jefferson, North Stratford, Carroll and Rumney." 

" Call Inviting the Council. 

"Lancastkk, April II, 1*G0. 
" We whose names are hereunto annexed do signify by this instrument our desire to form our- 
selves into a Baptist Church for the mutual purpose of worshipping God according to Mie dictates 
of our own consciences & to maintain the ordinances of his house in conformity to the Divine in- 
junction the authority of Christ, the examples of the Apostles, and the practice- of the primitive 
Christians. We therefore mutually unite in calling a delegation from the Baptist Churches in this 
vicinity to meet in the Court House, Saturday 1 o'clock p. M., May 12, for the purpose of taking 
into consideration the propriety of the organization of a Baptist Church in this place Rev. II. I. 
Campbell <fc his wife Ellen F. Campbell, Benjamin Webster & his wife Eliza Webster, Orange 
Smith, Emily Congdon, David Young, Arthur Gage, his wife Nancy Gage, Seneca B. Congden 
his wife Hannah D. Congdon, Francis Burrell his wife Mary Ann Burrell." 

The council was organized by the choice of Rev. H. I. Campbell, mod- 
erator. The articles of faith that are generally adopted by Baptist churches 

322 History of Coos County. 

were read and adopted. This church was formed with the following 
members: Rev. H. I. Campbell, Ellen F. Campbell, Benjamin Webster, 
Eliza Webster, Samuel Twombly, Dorcas Twombly, Arthur Gage, Nancy 
Gage, Seneca B. Congdou, Hannah D. Congdon, Francis Burrell, Mary 
Ann Burrell, Orange Smith, Pratia Smith, Reuben McFarland, Artemas 
Gotham, Lucy Thomas, Deborah Thomas and Emily Congdon. Rev. Mr. 
Campbell was their pastor for a few years. Rev. George A. Glines occu- 
pied the pulpit from 1863 to 1866. Rev. Kilburn Holt preached from 1871 
until August, 18 71, when he resigned. The society no longer hold services. 
Their church building was the old academy which was sold at auction in 
1861, and purchased by the Baptists for seventy dollars, moved and re- 
modeled. It is now occupied by the library. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church*. — The Protestant Episcopal church has 
held occasional services here for thirty years. In the summer of 1856, 
Bishop Chase visited Lancaster and confirmed one person, Mrs. Susan 
Heywood. In 1863 he again came to Lancaster and confirmed seven per- 
sons. From 1856 to 1875 services were often held, usually in the summer, 
by ministers visiting the mountains, and stopping a short time in this 

In 1873 the foundation for a church edifice was laid; the lot with the 
building cost 87,000. In 1876 there were about forty families who aided 
in building the church and in the support of a minister. The rectors have 
been, from 1875 to 1880, Rev. James B. Goodrich; 1S80 to 1S86, Rev. Ed- 
ward P. Little. Rev. C. J. Hendley began his rectorship of St. Paul's 
Episcopal church, in May, 1887. 

Catholicity in Cods. —In the development of the various interests which 
have added to the wealth and importance of the county of Coos, many 
people, some of Irish birth, and others reared in the faith and forms of 
the Roman Catholic church, have become residents, acquired property and 
social standing, and form an important element in its political, social, and 
religious affairs. 

Prior to the establishment of the diocese of Portland, in 1855, the scat- 
tered Catholic families in Coos were visited by missionary priests from the 
diocese of Boston. These visits were at irregular intervals of from one to 
two years. The first public service was held at Lancaster, in the Town 
Hall, in 1854, by Father Daley, a missionary priest. In October, 1855, 
Bishop Bacon, of Portland, sent Rev. Isidore Noiseaux to take charge of 
the missions of Northern New Hampshire. Father Noiseaux purchased 
the property known as the Farrar place, and built a small chapel in the 
rear of the dwelling house, and public service was held once or twice a 
month. He continued in charge of the Lancaster society and the missions 

*By Hon. William Heywood. 

Town of Lancaster. 323 

until 1876, when he was transferred to Brunswick, Me. During the last 
years of his service in Coos, the church at Gorham was erected, hi De- 
cember. L876, Rev. M. P. Danner was placed in charge at Lancaster, and 
continued until January, 1880. During Father Danner's pastorate the 
present church building was constructed (in l>77t, the society increased 
largely in numbers and took a prominent place among the religious in- 
terests of Lancaster. In January, 1880, Father Danner was succeeded by 
Rev. J. F. McKenna, who died in Portland, in 1881, and was succeeded by 
Rev. H. A. Lessard, who was pastor of Lancaster and missions from 1881 
to 1885. Rev. M. J. B. Creamer, the present pastor, has a parish of from 
six to seven hundred, besides the missions at Groveton, Stratford, Cole- 
brook, Jefferson, and Carroll. 

Catholicity has largely increased since 1854, when there were but a few 
families of this faith in the county, most of these living along the line of 
the Grand Trunk railway. 

At present (1887) there are four churches with resident pastors; Lan- 
caster with six hundred communicants, Gorham with four hundred, Ber- 
lin with fifteen hundred, Whitefield with five hundred, besides some three 
hundred in the missions. 

Temperance Union. — This society is working quietly but effectively, 
and is creating and keeping alive an interest in temperance. The officers 
for the ensuing year are: president, N. H. Richardson; vice-president. Rev. 
C. J. Hendley; chaplain. Rev. J. A. Bowler; secretary, Rev. J. B. Morri- 
son; treasurer, W. F. Burns. 


Chronicles from R. P. Kent's Diary. 

^T ULY 27, 1815. The old meeting house, after its removal from the 
\ hill, finally placed upon its foundation & converted into a Town Hall 
OJ and store. Dec. 11. Dr. Leero died. 

1846, Jan. 1. New bell raised on Congregational meeting house. Feb. 
27. Col. Willson died. 

1847, Jan. 25. Adino N. Brackett died. April 11. Recruiting officers 
around to get recruits for the army in Mexico. April 13. Detachment of 
recruits started off by stage. May L0. Very high freshet. River up over all 
the meadows. Sept. 7-10. Brigade Officers drill, 120 officers present. Nov. 
26. Had willows transplanted from my garden to the burying ground. 

324 History of Coos County. 

Dec. 13. Weather warm; worked in my garden half the day in my shirt- 
sleeves, trimming fruit trees and transplanting raspberries. No frost in 
the ground at all. 

1848, Jan. 3. Cattle grazing in the fields and weather warm like May. 
Jan. 11. Very cold. Mercury 26 degrees below zero. 13th, good sleighing, 
15th, sleighing gone. 29th. Mails from the North and South both brought 
on wheels. March 25. Ground sparrows and robins appear in the fields 
and sleighing gone. Aug. 16. Ebenezer Twombly, a revolutionary pen- 
sioner, died aged 93. Oct. 27. Eeceived a load of stoves from Albany, 
freighted by boats to Burlington, and from there by team. 

1819, Jan. 10. Old Mrs. Stanley died. Nov. 10. The Great Elm blown 
down, supposed to be 170 years old; was 100 feet high, stood in the middle 
of the street a little north of my house. 

1850, Jan. 23. Horse-sheds of the Congregational Meeting house broke 
down from the weight of snow on the roofs. Feb. 10. $275 in gold dust 
received by express from Mr. Cargill in California. Feb. 16. Railroad 
meeting at Town Hall; the object being to obtain a survey by the Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence R. R. Co. of the Israels' River route from Gorham. 

March 3. Mr. Wm. Farrar died this evening. March 20. Railroad meet- 
ing. Addresses by the directors of the A. & St. L. R. R. March 25. Sur- 
vey party went down to Gorham to explore railroad route. April 30. 
Water up over Indian Brook bridge, and is higher than has been known 
to be for 25 years. May 2. Wells' River & John's River bridges carried 
away by the flood. May 6. Went to the bridge; found the road literally 
destroyed, deep holes & channels being cut through it by the water. 
May 18. Joseph C. Cady, landlord of the Coos Hotel since 1835, died. July 
27. Samuel S. Wentworth, a revolutionary pensioner, died, aged 91. Oct. 
9. Stages commence running to meet the cars at Mclndoes Falls, making 
the trip to Boston in one day. Oct. 11. Railroad route through Randolph 
surveyed. Grade from the Bowman place to Shelburne found to be 60 ft. 
per mile. 

1851, April 23. Mr. Guy C. Cargill reached home at Lancaster, sick 
and exhausted, having been absent in California since January, 1819. He 
died the 25th. May 3. Mrs. David Stockwell died. May 3. Contractors at 
work this season grading the track of the Atlantic road from Gorham to 
Stark & Northumberland; the supply of flour for their use comes by way 
of Lake Champlain, and is mostly bought of dealers in this place. July 
21. Mr. Samuel Hunnux died; a native of England, he emigrated to this 
place from London half a century ago, was supposed to be nearly a hun- 
dred years old. July 23. Dinner at Gorham at the opening of the railroad 
to that place. Dec. 22. Rev: John Pierpont delivered a Temperance lecture 
at the Congregational Church. 

1852, Jan. 22. Hon. Richard Eastman died, aged 74. Protracted meet- 

Town of Lancaster. 325 

ing at the Congregational Church during this month. May 9. High 
freshet; water one foot higher than in the great freshet of 1*50. July 13. 
Stages cease running to Gorhain, and commence running to meet the cars 
to Northumberland. 16th. Had my first load of goods brought from 
Northumberland depot by team. Oct. 14. A. J. Marshall's carriage shop 
burned at night. 

1S53. After several warm then rainy days the ice disappeared out of 
Israel's River on February 6th. April 3. Major John W. Weeks died 
aged 72. April 13. Mrs. Persis, wife of Major Weeks, died. May 1 7. 
New store raised. June 16. Mercury 100 degrees above zero. July 4. 
Celebration in bower back of Methodist Church by Sons of Temperance 
and the Sabbath Schools. Aug. 31. Mr. Manasseh Wilder, one of the 
early settlers of the town died. Sept. 2. Commenced moving goods into 
my new store. Dec. 1. Weather mild. Men finished laying aqueduct of 
60 rods for Edward Defoe and myself. Dec. 31. Communication on the 
railroads impeded by the storms of the past week. 

1854, March 15. Town meeting adopted strong resolutions against the 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise. June 11. Geo. W. Lucas, died; 
soldier of the war of 1812. Dec. 1. Railroad disaster at Stark. Freight 
ran into passenger train. William Burns and others badly injured; Mrs. 
Taylor, daughter of Joseph Howe, mortally. Nov. 15. Mr. Seth Eames 
died at Northumberland. 

1855, Jan. 10. Earthquake in the evening; shock quite light. May 27. 
Fires burning in the woods doing much damage. Two dwelling houses, 
with out-buildings, belonging to the Lumber Co. at Whitefield burned. 
July 4. Ladies Fair (of the Congregational Society) at the Court House. 
Receipts $145. August 4. Mrs. Geo. W. Perkins, an old resident died. 
Nov. 15. Mr. Zadoc Cady, died, aged 82. Nov. 21. Mr. William Jones 
died aged 81. 

185G, March 9. Snow deep and roads badly drifted; no rain or thaw 
since December 20. March 11. Annual Town Meeting. 1 1,500 raised for 
highway tax, $2, 10<) for Town expenses, and $200 more to aid in paying 
expense of prosecuting claim against Atlantic R. R. Votes for ( rovernor, 
John S. Wells, Democrat, 133; Ralph Metcalf, Republican, 261; I. Good- 
win. 4. March 19. Republicans celebrated the result of the election by 
supper and speeches at the American House. March 25. James M. Rix. edi- 
tor of Coos Democrat, died at City Hotel, Boston. March 31. In the morn- 
ing walked to the store on the top of a big snow drift aearly as high 
as the top of the fences. April 1. Town Meeting. Voted not to build 
bridge at the head of what is now Mechanic street. May 31. Mountain 
tops still white with snow. June !». Frame of the Unitarian Meeting 
House raised. June 20. Buying wool at 32 cts. July 3. High wind. Two 
barns blown down on John L. Clark's farm, Lunenburg, and damage done 

326 History of Coos County 

to crops by wind and hail. Sunday, July 20. Henry Ward Beecher 
preached in the Congregational church. July 22. Claim against the At- 
lantic & St. Lawrence E. E. for a branch from Northumberland, compro- 
mised by payment of sis, ooo, conditioned that a first-class hotel be built 
with the money. July 31. Adjourned hotel meeting held at Town Hall. 
Building committee chosen: William Burns, Jacob Benton, John W. 
Barney, John H. White, & E. P. Kent. August 2. Mercury for three 
weeks has ranged from 88 to 94 degrees above zero — crops of hay abun- 
dant and well got— price $0 per ton. August 10. Mrs. Eeuben Stephenson, 
formerly of this town, died at St. Johnsbury. August 23. Eain every day 
this month so far. September 1. Political campaign briskly prosecuted. 
A meeting of ladies at my house to take measures to procure a banner for 
the Fremont Club. Sept. 8. Meeting of Fremont Club at Town Hall and 
new banner presented by Mrs. S. E. Burnside and received by W. E. Joys- 
lin. (This was a very handsome silk banner, on the one side the motto 
"God save Kansas.-' on the other Fremont & Dayton, with their portraits. 
This banner was kept by Mrs. E. P. Kent, after the campaign, until about 
four years since, when it was presented by her to the Kansas State Histor- 
ical Society.) Oct. 22. Packed and directed the first box of clothing (a 
very large one), for the Free State settlers in Kansas, contributed by the 
friends of " Free Kansas. " Oct. 19. Took deed of land for hotel of Dr. 
Dewey. Price $2,000, 10 rods front running back 20 rods. Oct. 20 & 21. 
Located the foundations of the new hotel; front of the building standing- 
due north & south; job for building let to John Lindsey afterward for 

1857, Jan. 9. Eoads obstructed by drifted snows, no southern mails 
from the 17th to the 22d from the same cause. No newspapers from Bos- 
ton from the 20th to the 25th. Jan. 24. The coldest day lever witnessed; 
thermometer at sunrise at store :^ degrees below; at 8 a. m. 45 degrees 
below; at 9 a. m. 38, at 10 A. M. 35 degrees, & at 11 a. m. 22 degrees below 
zero; a thick mist or fog prevailing till 10 A. M. Feb. 3. The Coos hotel 
took fire & was much injured. Feb. 4. Lucy Stone Blackwell lectured to 
a very crowded house on "Woman's Eights." March 22. Daniel A. Bowe, 
Editor of Coos Republican, died. March 31. Samuel Rowell died of old 
age, over 90. May 6. Went down to the great bridge which has a great 
jam of logs resting against it; coming back the water came up within two 
inches of the seat in my wagon. June 16. Men commenced raising the 
frame of the new hotel, the Lancaster House. July 13. Two sons of 
Fielding Smith, aged 15 & 17, drowned in the mill pond near their father's 
house. Aug. 24. Rev. T. Starr King delivered a lecture in the Town Hall 
on the "Laws of Disorder." Oct. 27, Israel's River very high. Freeman's 
boom carried away with the logs in it; a part of Eines' saw-mill with 
shingle machine also carried off. Nov. 20. David Stockwell, 84 years old, 

Town of Lancaster. 327 

the first white child born in town, burned to death in his house, which was 
consumed in the night. Dec. 27. Dea. William Chamberlain, of Jeffer- 
son, died, aged 82. 

1858, Jan. 9. The old jail burned; built in 1805 of elm timbers hewed 
L8 inches square; builders Col. Chessman & Nathaniel White. March 19. 
James B. Weeks died aged 73. April 2. Guns fired at night to celebrate 
the defeat of the " Lecompton Bill " in the National House of Representa- 
tives. April 4. Religious excitement; morning & evening meetings held 
for a long time at the Town Hall. April 28. Hotel committee organized 
under an act of incorporation. May 1. Hotel meeting at Town Hall. Re- 
ligions meetings of all the societies commenced four weeks since still kept 
up. May 12. The prayer meetings held continuously for six weeks closed 
this evening. May 15. Directed men in setting out two rows of trees 
bordering the avenue in front of Congregational Church, and others on the 
north & south sides. 

The Methodist Church, built in 1834, undergoes extensive repairs this 
summer. The old pews replaced by more modern ones, gallery removed, 
new and larger windows substituted, and a new tower & steeple added. 
July 19. Dr. Eliphalet Lyman died of paralysis. Had lived in Lancaster 
about 43 years. For many years did a large business as physician and sur- 
geon. Aug. 10. The Lancaster House opened for company. The Littleton 
stage stopping there with passengers at night for the first time. Nov. 14. 
The Farrar place bought and a Catholic Church fitted up; a priest stationed 
here, for the first time, this month. First service held the 28th. 

1859, July 28. Mr. Joseph Twombly, aged 90 years, died; one of the 
early inhabitants. 

1860, Feb. 1. Attended trustees meeting. Vote passed to sell hotel prop- 
erty to D. A. Burnside for $5,000. 

1861, April 28, Sunday. An enthusiastic war meeting at the Town 
Hall. Number of enlistments to this date, 53. April 29. Meeting of 
ladies at R. P. Kent's residence; they raised funds to buy rubber blankets 
and other articles for the soldiers. (The rubber blankets, 46 in number, ' 
were left on the field for the rebels, at Bull Run 60 days later.) June 1 8. 
Job for building new Academy let to G. Calley for $2,350. July*',. Old 
Academy building sold at auction to the Baptist Society for $70. Aug. 
15. The two brass guns belonging to the 21th & 42d Regiments ordered 
off for war use. Oct. 3. The old Academy, erected in 1805, at the inter- 
section of Bridge & Main streets for a Court House, in L836, moved and 
fitted for an Academy, is to day placed on the ground where it is to be con- 
verted into a Baptist Church. Nov. 16. Packed three large boxes for the 
Sanitary Commission, value $220, and $30 in money. 

1863. Final meeting of the stockholders of Lancaster Bank. Virtual 
close of the business by voting cash dividend of $1.47.] a share, and giving 

328 History of Coos County. 

up all stocks, bonds and notes against stockholders. Bank chartered 1832, 
commenced business July, 1833. 

1864, April 21. The "Coos Hotel" built by Ephraira Cross moved 
back from the street. May 21. Harvey Adams' blacksmith & carriage 
shop, and old factory building used as a saw-mill by 0. E. Freeman, were 
burned. June 21. Edward Kent & J. I. Williams went to Boston and 
bought a fire engine, "Lafayette." July 11. 3,000 people participate in 
the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the settlement of Lancaster, 
by a procession, addresses, music, songs & dinner in a bower in "Centen- 
nial Park." -At this celebration contributions of money were made suf- 
ficient to buy Centennial Park, which was conveyed to the town, to be 
held in trust as a public park. 

1864, Presidential vote in Lancaster, Lincoln 284, McClellan 123. 

1865, April 22. Thomas J. Crawford, landlord of the American 
House, who built the first Crawford House, White Mountains, died this 
day. May 28. Israel Hicks, soldier of 1812, died. Aug. 13. Eight cases 
of small-pox in town. 

1866, Feb. 7. Antiquarian supper at Court House for benefit of Con- 
gregational Society. Net receipts $112. March 20. Ephraim Stockwell 
died aged 92. May 26. Last post set for telegraph line to Boston, via 
Littleton. July 30. Two-story building, 100 by 50 feet raised; built by 
Lancaster Starch Company, an association of farmers, the business result- 
ing very disastrously. Aug. 2. First dividend 55 per cent paid the cred- 
itors of the White Mountain Bank. Aug. 18. Porter G. Freeman died. 
Nov. 10. New organ set up at the Congregational Church. 

1867, April. Town Poor Farm sold at auction to John Lindsey for 
xf,635; cost, in 1857, $5,300. 

1868, Jan. 13. Telegraph poles put up for line to Northumberland. 
Jan. 22. New Library opened for taking out books, kept at the office of 
G. O. Rogers, dentist. July 3. Workmen pulling down the Court House, 
erected in 1830. Materials to be used in building a new and larger one. 
Aug. 7. Men engaged in taking down County building on Middle St. 
Materials to be used in erecting a new Court House. Dec. 8. Dr. Benja- 
min Hunking died aged 86. 

I860, Feb. 5. Emmons Stockwell died aged 88. Feb. 7. Lancaster 
Starch Co.'s building, Moore, Griswold & Bailey's peg mill, Richardson Bros. 
& Co. 's furniture works burned. Loss $30,000. March 28. Ziba Lynds, 
an eccentric bachelor, died aged 72. May 6. Francis Willson died aged 
83. June 8. Town voted 256 to 50 to issue bonds of 5 per cent, on the 
valuation to the B. C. & M. R. R. upon condition that the road shall be 
completed to Lancaster, Jan. 1, 1871. Sept. IS. Town voted to purchase 
20 acres of land lying east of Summer St. for a new cemetery. Oct. 3-8. 
Freshets in all the streams. Great losses in this village. Saw-mill under- 

Town of Lancaster. 329 

mined and swept away. Small steamboat built to run on the Connecticut 
Eiver this season, proved a financial failure. Oct. 22. Smart shock of 
earthquake felt through New England. 

1870, Feb. 18. Israel's river breaks up. Upper bridge carried off by the 
ice; a large body of water flows down Mechanic St., several buildings dam- 
aged & destroyed; water two feet deep runs across the road between the 
bridge and the American House. April 25. Farmers commence plowing; 
considered very early. May is. Old district school-house (about sixty 
years old) moved down to the lot recently occupied by County building. 
May 31 B. C. & M. R. E. opened to Whitefield. July 21. Great fire at 
Colebi-ook. Aug. 9. Douglass Spaulding died aged 86. Oct. 4. Rail- 
road track laid to the Chessman crossing. Ten cars came up from Woods- 
ville to the Agricultural Fair. Oct. 15. 21 cars loaded with sheep & cal 
tie (the first cattle shipped) left this morning for Boston. Oct. 20. Smart 
shock of earthquake, bells rung & clocks stopped. Oct. 31. Regular 
passenger trains commence running. Nov. 12. Railroad bridge across 
Israel's River in course of construction. Nov. 29. Formal railroad open- 
ing, with di nner at Lancaster & American Houses; eleven cars came, loaded 
with visitors. Nov. 22. Funeral of Dr. John Bucknam, at Congregational 
Church ; he was a surgeon in the Fifth New Hampshire Regt., lived at 
Great Falls 

1871, March 5. New maple-sugar brought in; unusually early. July 
20. Slight shock of earthquake. 

1872, Mar. 9. Town committee, Richard P. Kent, chairman, recom- 
mend the annual payment of the R. R. bonds, §3,251.13 each year, and the 
interest on the remaining debt, till the bonds are paid, (original amount 
of bonds 832,513.10.) Recommendation adopted at Town meeting, March 
11. August 21. The Brick magazine property of the State purchased by 
R. P. Kent, price §15. Presidential vote, Grant, 304, Greeley, 251. Dec. 
19. Snow measures 2f> inches in depth. Christmas eve. Temperature at 
10 p. m. 30 J below. Christmas morning. Temperature at Lancaster 
House 46° below, ax E. Savage's 52° below, at Mr. Ray's 55° below; cold- 
est morning since 1857. 

1873, Jan. 1. Snow lies two feet deep. Jan. 8. Thompson, Williams 
& Co.'s machine shop & the grist-mill adjoining burned at midnight; 
A. J. Marshall badly injured by falling bricks. May 9. Alpheus Hutch- 
ins, soldier of the war of L812, died. May 10. Large amount of lumber 
burned at Browns' mill, Whitefield; estimated loss $211,000. July 7. Men 
engaged in putting in foundations of the new Episcopal Church. 

1874, April 12. Sally Stanley, a native of Lancaster, died unmarried, 
aged 82. April 22. Baker Pond covered with solid ice. May 9. Remark 
ably dark; had lamps lighted at half past twelve to eat dinner by. May 
10. Men removing logs (supposed to be two million feet in quantity) 


33() History of Coos County. 

lodged against the toll bridge. Sept. 26. The guage of the Grand Trunk 
road was changed from 5 ft. to 4 ft. S inches from Portland to Montreal. 
1S75, June 24. The Episcopal Church raised this afternoon. Nov. 27. 
William Lovejoy, an old resident, died. Dec. 22. The first passenger 
train crossed the new Connecticut River bridge in Dalton, on P. & 0. R. R. 

1876, Feb. 15. Daily Republican commenced publication. May 4. 
Congregational society hold a meeting to organize under the ''Statutes." 
June 1. Lancaster Village now contains 275 houses. June 24. Timber, 
estimated at thirty million feet, passing down the river; twenty millions 
in one drive. 

1S76 Centennial Celebration, July 4. Guns fired at sunrise, and fire- 
works at night. Processions of "Antiques & Horribles" followed by 
another of citizens, fire companies, etc., with bands of music. Historical 
account of early settlement of Lancaster read by J. S. Brackett. Sept. 9. 
Col. E. E. Cross, who died the 6th, was buried with Masonic honors. 
Nov. 7. Jacob Benton and William Burns elected delegates to the State 
Constitutional Convention. Dec. 25. Father Noisseaux, who for twenty 
years had been Catholic Priest here, removes to Brunswick, Maine. 

1877. This winter is characterized by very frequent and sudden changes. 
March 23. Fire Engine House moved from Canal Street to Baker block 
east of the grist-mill. March 29. Book