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From the Earliest Time to the Present ; Containing an Authentic Account 

of Many Important Matters Relating to the Settlement, Progress 

and General History of the County ; and Including a 

Department Devoted to the Preservation of 

Personal and Private Records, etc. 


Toronto ;tn 




. Oft - 2 


After over ten months of labor, this volume is respectfully tendered 
to our patrons. The design of the work was more to gather and pre- 
serve in attractive form, while fresh with the evidences of truth, the 
enormous fund of perishing occurrence, than to abstract from insuffi- 
cient data remote, doubtful or incorrect philosophical conclusions. The 
true perspective of the landscape of life can only be seen from the 
distance that lends enchantment to the view. So short has been the 
period since the settlement of the County of Middlesex, and so numer- 
ous and heterogeneous the number of important events crowded into 
the toiling years, that no general attempt was made to prepare a 
critical or philosophical history. It is asserted that no person is 
competent to write a philosophical history of his own time ; that, 
owing to imperfect and conflicting circumstantial evidence that yet 
conceals, instead of reveals, the truth, he cannot take that correct, 
unprejudiced, logical, luminous and comprehensive view of passing 
events that will enable him to draw accurate and enduring con- 
clusions. The duty, then, of an historian of his own time is to 
collect, classify and preserve the material for the Macaulay of the 
future. The present historian deals in fact; the future historian, 
in conclusion; the work of the former is statistical; of the latter, 

This volume has been prepared under depressing obstacles, among 
which a lack of paying patronage was chief. In spite of this, the 
Publishers have more than complied with their promises in the enor- 
mous amount of fact crowded into the solid pages, and in nearly two 
hundred pages more of matter than were promised. In addition to 
this, a competent resident of the county was specially employed to 
read the proofs of the book, that the number of mistakes might be 
limited to the fewest. Much of the volume, in all departments, was 
compiled by local writers, to whom credit is properly given. 






Soil 11 

River Thames, The 11 

Other Streams 13 

Geology 13 

Building Stone 13 

Sand and Gravel 14 

Oil Wells 14 

Salt Wells 14 

Fire Clay 15 

Trees and Shrubs 15 



Indians, The Earliest 16 

Tribal History 17 

Indians of 1812 21 

Border Incidents 21 

Missions and Churches 25 

Marriages Among Indians 25 

Indian Orange Lodges 27 

Race Statistics 27 

Trails 28 



First Settlers 29 

Crown Land Entries 29 

Other Settlers 30 

Pioneer Mails . 33 

London Vicinity in 1818 34 

Wolf Story, A 35 

Colored Inhabitants 36 

"Old John Brown" 36 

Marriage Laws 36 

Pioneer Cabins.. . 39 



Catholics, The 

Enerlish Church, The 

Presbyterians, The 

Presbyterian Marriages 

Baptist Church, The 

Ministers and Marriages . . 

Congregationalists, The 

Marriages, etc 

Methodist Church, The 

Their Marriages 

Bible Christians 



Other Religious Societies 



Counties, The First 

Quarter Sessions Court, The 

County Council, The 

Early Items 

County Buildings 



House of Refuge 92 

Insane Asylum , 94 

Scott Act, The 95 


POLITICS FROM 1788 TO 1888 98 

Districts Formed 98 

Legislative Council, The 98 

Assembly, The 99 

Lieutenant Govenors 100 

Crown Land Grants or Concessions.. 100 
Political Aspect, Rebellion of 1837. . . 102 

Execution of Rebels 106 

Contemporary Memoranda 107 

Leaders in 1837 108 

Political Status 113 

Elections, etc 115 



Earliest Practitioners 118 

Oldest Court Records 119 

Execution of Burleigh . 120 

Execution of Sovereen 121 

Execution of Jones 122 

Execution of Pickard 122 

Execution of Simmons 123 

Miscellaneous Cases 124 

OtherTrials 127 

Judges and Counsel 132 

Present Bar 140 

Early Probate Business 142 



Simcoe's Designs 143 

Surrender of Detroit 143 

Battle of the Thames 144 

Battle of Lake Erie 144 

Skirmish at Byron 346 

Affair at Battle Hill 146 

Other Military Movements 148 

Pensioners of the War 147 

Rebellion of 1837-8, The 149 

Preparations to Invade the States. . . 153 

Military Organizations 153 

Affairs in 1865 155 

Fenian Invasion, The 155 

Red River Troubles, 1869-70 158 

Militia, The 160 

North-west Troubles, 1885 161 

Military School, The 163 



Quebec Papers 165 

Upper Canadian Papers 165 

London District Papers 166 

Modern Papers 168 

Present Papers 171 

Other Periodicals 174 

Printers' Union, The 175 

Country Publications 176 





English School, The First 179 

Amendment of School Acts 179 

Common School Svstem 180 

Legal Teachers, 1842 180 

Statistics 181 

Superintendents 18* 

Expenditures. 1? 

Institutes, Origin of 186 



Corduroy Roads 187 

Roads Projected 188 

Funds for Road Building 189 

Toll Roads 180 

Expenditure on County Roads 192 

Early Bridges 14 

Railroads 195 

Railroad Accidents 197 




Fairs. The First zui 

Fair of 1851, The 201 

Fair Officers, etc 202 

Provincial Exhibition, The 202 

Old Grounds, The 203 

Receipts 204 

Western Fair Association 204 

New Grounds, The 206 

Farmers 1 Institute 207 

Stock Breeders 1 Association ... 207 

Fish and Game Society 207 

Population 208 

County Finances 211 

Statistics 212 


LONDON Cm 213 

The Forks 213 

Earliest Inhabitants 214 

Business, The First 216 

During the " Forties " 221 

Business Houses and Men. 232 

Real Estate, 1852-7 224 

Post-office 225 

Custom House, The 226 

Notable Buildings 227 

Village of London Council 231 

Town of London Council 233 

Parks 235 

Exhibition Grounds, The 237 

Bridges 238 

Sidewalks and Laws 239 

Cemeteries, Streets, etc 240 

Incorporation 242 

City Officers and Laws 243 

City Finances 244 

Port Stanley Railroad 246 

Important Transactions 247-258 

Fire Department 258 

Council and Fire Department 260 

Conflagrations 262-268 

Police Department 268 

Water Supply 273 

Analysis of Water 276 

Victoria Disaster, The 277 

Flood of 1883 "281 

Street Lighting 281 

Market, The Public . ' 282 

Hospitals 284 

Guthrie Home " 287 

Schools of London 288 


Collegiate Institutes 292 

Hellmuth College 294 

Medical College, The 29a 

Law School, The 296 

Art School 2j 

Separate Schools 2 

English Church. The 297 

Methodist Church, The 301 

Methodist New Connexion Church. . . 305 

Bible Christians. 309 

Methodist Episcopal Church 309 

Catholic Church, The 310 

Presbyterian Church, The 314 

Congregational Church 318 

Baptist Church 319 

Other Religious Bodies 321 

Mechanics 1 Institute 321^ 

Secret and Other Societies and 

Clubs 322-359 

Musical Organizations 360 

Board of Trade 362 

Chamber of Commerce 365 

Travellers 1 Association 367 

Manufacturing Enterprises 368-380 

Wholesale Houses 387 

Taverns and Groceries 388 

Banks and Bankers 394 

Loan Companies 397 

Insurance Companies 403 

Miscellany 408 

London East 409 

Statistics 412 



Residents, The First 413 

Business, The First 414 

Merchants and Customers 416 

Charter and Officers 419 

Schools 423 

Fire Department 425 

Fires 426 

Accidents 430 

Churches 430 

Cemeteries 435 

Societies, etc 435 

Banks ..440 

Railroads 440 

Manufacturing Enterprises 441 



Boundary 443 

Population 443 

Settlers, The First ... 443 

Prominent Citizens 445 

Official History 447 

Fires and Accidents. . 448 

Adelaide Village 448 

Schools and Churches 449 

Kerwood 453 

Keyser 454 



Boundary and Population 455 

Pioneers, The 455 

Colored Colony, The 456 

Official Record 456 

Granton 457 

Clandeboye 458 

Ireland 453 

Mooresvillo 459 

Adare 459 

Churches 459 





Old Name 461 

Appearance, The First 461 

Residents, The First 461 

Lots,Saleof 462 

Officers, etc 463 

Finances 465 

Schools 465 

Fires 467 

Accidents 467 

Commerce 467 

Post-office and Banks 468 

Societies, Clubs, etc 468 



Boundary, etc 471 

Old Records 471 

Land Patents, The First 471 

Settlers, The First 472 

Schools 473 

Accidents ..473 

Mt. Brydges 474 

Churches 474 



Situation, etc 476 

Longwoods Road 476 

Land Grants 476 

Settlers 478 

Aliens, The 477 

Officers, etc 479 

Incidents 480 



Early Appearance 




Kilworth 484 

Woodhull Settlement, The 484 

Village in 1851, The 484 

Later Events 484 

Churches 485 

Lodges 485 



Location, etc 486 

Official Record 486 

Settlers, The First 487 

Residents, Later 488 

Putnamville 488 

HarrietsviUe 489 

Belmont 490 

Dorchester Station 491 

Nilestown 492 

Avon 493 

Crumlin 493 

Gladstone 493 

Mossley 493 



Survey of Crown Lands 494 

Boundary, etc 494 

Pioneers, The 495 

Records, The Oldest 495 

Officers 496 

Agricultural Society 497 


Accidents 497 

Ekfrid Village 497 

Appin 498 

Melbourne 499 

Middlemiss 499 

Strathburn 500 

Mayfair 500 

Muncey 500 

Christina 500 

Knox Church 500 



Location 502 

Population 502 

Official History 502 

Pioneers, The 504 

Crown Land Entries 504 

Komoka 506 

Churches . . 507 

Lobo Village 507 

Poplar Hill 508 

Coldstream . . 508 

Fernhill 508 

Duncrief 508 

Ivan 508 

Amiens 509 

Siddallsville 509 



Situation, Streams, etc 510 

Records, The Early 510 

Pioneers 511 

Citizens, Prominent, Early 512 

Events of Note 514 

Churches 515 

Arva, or St. Johns 517 

Hyde Park Corner 518 

London West 518 

Birr 520 

Elginfleld 520 

Denfield 521 

Ilderton 521 

Vanneck 521 

Bryanston 521 

Kingston 522 



Situation, Streams, etc 523 

Official Matters 523 

Settlers, etc 524 

West McGillivray 525 

Lieury 525 

Corbett 525 

Moray 525 

Brinsley 525 

McGillivray 526 

Churches, etc 526 

Agricultural Society 527 



Location, Water Courses, etc 528 

Crown Land Entries 528 

Incidents 529 

Settlers, The 530 

Napier 530 

Churches 530 

Societies 531 

Katesville 531 

Wisbeach 532 

Kilmartin 532 





Situation, Creeks, etc 5*5 

Settlers, The First ** 

Officers, etc 

Agricultural Society 534 

Churches * 

Fires Jtf 

Longwood $35 

Knapdale 086 

Cashmere 536 



Name, The First 537 

Merchants, The First 537 

Population 537 

Incorporation, etc 6*5 

Schools 538 

Fires W9 

Societies 539 

Churches 540 

Miscellany 541 



Earlv Appearance 543 

Merchants, The First 542 

Business Men, Later 543 

Population, etc 543 

Official Matters 543 

Fires 544 

Societies 545 

Churches 545 

Schools 546 



Origin 548 

Organization 548 

Commerce 551 

Buildings 551 

Exports and Imports 553 

Banks 553 

Schools 553 

Churches 554 

Fire Department 556 

Band 557 

Rifle Association . . 557 

Accidents 558 

Societies, Clubs, etc 558 

Cemetery 558 

Salt Well 558 

Mechanics' Institute 559 



Streams, Boundary, etc 561 

Survey, Land Entries, etc 561 

Settlers, The 561 

Records, The 563 

Thorndale S63 

Wyton Village .....'.... 564 

Stives 564 

Belton 565 

Devizes. ' 555 

Rebecca ;.'" 555 



Drainage. Location, etc 566 

Statistics 566 


Survey, Land Sales, etc 587 

Pioneers, The. 567 

Organization, Officers, etc 568 

Pioneer Incidents 56* 

Crown Lands Entered 570 

Old Settlers Living 575 

Westminster Insurance Company... 575 

Churches 576 

Byron 577 

Lambeth 578 

Hall Mills 579 

Pond Mills 579 

Glanworth 580 

Derwent * 

Maple Grove 581 

Glendale 581 

Maguire 581 

Accidents 581 



Leading Residents, Some 583 

Churches 582 

Statistics 583 

Schools 584 



Streams, etc 586 

Canada Company, The 586 

Living Old Settlers 587 

Organization, Officers, etc 587 

Churches 588 

Springbank and Vicinity 589 

Falkirk 590 

Nairn 590 



Settler, The First 591 

Village in 1868, The 591 

Business, The Early 591 

Business, Later 593 

Population 592 

Incorporation 593 

Lodges 594 

Accidents ..594 



Water Courses, etc 596 

Organization, etc 596 

Settlement 598 

Sylvan 598 

Bornish 699 

Agricultural Society 600 



Origin, The , 601 

Settlers, The First 601 

Business 602 

Manufactories 603 

Banks 604 

Organization 605 

Schools 606 

Fires 608 

Accidents. 609 

Churches 609 

Societies, etc 612 






Herbs and Weeds 615 

Zoology 616 

Storms 617 

Rain and Snow 618 

Duration of Sunshine 619 

Indian Summer 619 

Archceology 620 

Miscellany 630 

Statistics, Early 620 

Indebtedness, etc 623 

Statistics, Late 628 

Population 632 



Public Schools 635 

London South Schools 636 

ArtSchool 636 

Agricultural Association 637 

Ailsa Craig Mechanics 1 Institute 637 

Spring Show 638 

Scott Act Repealed 638 

Sale of Fair Ground Lots 639 

Assessment Roll, 1889 639 

Liquor Licenses, 1889 640 

Western Congregational Association 642 

Railway Subsidies 642 

Asylum Improvements 643 

Masonic Officers 643 

Amalgamation of London South 643 

Law Candidates 645 

Canal Comparisons 645 

Imports 646 


MISCELLANY Continued .' 647 

Board of Trade 647 

Women's Christian Association 648 

Knights of the Maccabees, etc 650 

Piccadilly Lodge, Sons of England. . . 650 

Court Defiance 650 

London Lodge of Perfection 650 

Local Poetry 651 

Liberal Conservatives 652 

London West Schools 653 

Typographical Union 653 

Glencoe Mechanics' Institute . 653 

Strathroy Board of Trade 653 

Bank Statement 653 

Repeal of the Scott Act 654 

Good Templars 654 



Early Items 656 

Small Towns 656 

County Postmasters 657 

Westminster Township Presbyterian 

Church 657 

Strathroy Spring Fair, 1889 657 

Glencoe Statistics, 1889 659 

Glencoe Presbyterian Church 659 

Caradoc Spring Show 660 

Protestant Home Board 680 

St. George's Church 661 

Mechanics' Institute, London 661 

Hospital Trust, The 662 

MeviH Masonic Report 662 

Strathroy Finance Report 662 

k? VIS Ll< XXVl/ CL\J 0t**a>VUA* 

Glencoe Spring Fair, 
Independent Order o 

Criminal Statistics 

Court Robin Hood 665 

Railway Land Subsidies 666 

Church Appointments 686 

Glencoe Lacrosse Club 666 

Entomology 666 

Old Folks Concert 667 

London Cricket Club. 667 

Insurance Abstract 668 

Lawyers Banquet 668 

Scott Act at Strathroy 668 

J1889 669 
er of Foresters 669 

Mortuary Statistics 670 

Methodists, The 670 

Dairying Interests 671 

Oddfellows' Annual Statement. ... 671 

Public Revenue 672 

Strathroy Mechanics' Institute 672 

A, O. U. W 674 

Base Ball Association 674 

Papal Aggression 674 

Presbytery of London 676 

Canadian Pacific Railway 678 

District Methodist Meeting 678 

Loyal Orange Association 680 

Sundry Notes 680 

Physicians 683 

Strathroy Methodists 684 

West Middlesex Reform Association 685 

Victoria Circle 686 

Australian Population 686 

Collegiate Institute Examinations, 

1889 686 

Scraps of Early History 688 

Early Fair Premiums 691 

Canadian Order of Foresters 693 



Norse Discoverers, The 695 

English Discoverers, The 695 

French Settlements 696 

Explorations by the French 697 

Cham plain 698 

Treaties of Peace. 700 

Conquest by the English 702 

Canadian Government, Early 703 

Changes, etc 704 

War of 1812, The 705 

Confederation 706 

Upper Canadian Rebellion 707 

BIOGRAPHY 709-1076 


Tecumseh, the Shawanee Chief. 



Marquette's Map 43-44 

Roman Catholic Cathedral. 92-93 

View on Richmond Street, London. . 125-126 

An Old Settler 190-191 

London Water-works 271-272 

Pheasant Hunting 352-353 

London Medical School 401-402 

Hellmuth Ladies' College 451-452 

A Midsummer Scene 549-550 

Masonic Temple, London 663-664 

Site of an Early Log Cabin 761-762 

A Midwinter Scene 827-828 

George T. Hiscox 858-859 

By the River 909-910 


)F THE- 




Location and Valuation. Middlesex County may be said to be 
the central tract of the Erie and Huron Peninsula of Ontario, in lati- 
tude 42 58' 20", and longitude 81 14' 8". In 1827, and even later, 
the County extended from Lake Erie to Lake Huron, and from the line 
of Zone Township to the line of Burford, a tract now embracing the 
counties of Middlesex, Elgin, Oxford, Huron, Perth, and Bruce. In 
1887 the total number of acres assessed was 758,571, exclusive of the 
acreage within the boundaries of incorporated towns. Including the 
town property, the total assessed value of real estate amounted to 
$24,853,322 ; and the equalized value of all property real and per- 
sonal was placed at $34,223,607, being about two-thirds of the true 
value of the County, exclusive of London City. 

Soil. The valley of the Thames, together with the rich alluvial flats 
which extend from it northward to the north of the North Branch of Bear 
Creek, and southward nearly to the shore of Lake Erie, i remarkable 
for its great fertility and its luxuriant forest growth. The soil is 
generally clay, with a covering of rich vegetable mould, and is clothed 
in the natural state with oak, elm, black walnut, and white-wood trees 
of large size, together with fine groves of sugar maple. Toward the 
north of the Thames, and on the borders of Lake St. Clair, is an area 
of natural prairie of about 30,000 acres. 

The River Thames. Among the reminiscences of the French 
explorers of the 17th century, there is no distinction drawn between 
the estuary of this river and the mouths of the various streams which 


flow into the waters connecting Lake Huron with Lake Erie; in 
fact, those children of faith in religion, in adventure, and in commerce, 
were not seeking anything diminutive in nature. The great lakes and 
rivers, the distant Mississippi, the far-away "Mountains of the 
Setting Sun," and the savage inhabitants of the unknown lands, 
formed the objects of their search, so that it is not to be wondered at 
that the pioneers of a new world left to men of later days the task of 
exploring the smaller rivers, lakes and mountains of the continent. In 
the archives of the Minister of Marine, at Paris, may be found the 
first chart of the country, now known as the Valley of the Thames. 
This chart and accompanying report was made to Louis XV's 
Secretary in 1744, and both were printed the same year by N. Bellin, 
the report going so far as to state that the river was without a rapid 
for eighty French leagues, and that for centuries it was known as 
Askunesippi, or Antlered Kiver. On this report being transmitted 
to Canada, the trapper, the voyageur, and the adventurer directed 
some of their attention to the beautiful valley, and in 1745-6 the river 
is heard of as La Tranchee. In the latter half of the 18th Century it 
is called La Tranche, and on July 16, 1792, the present name The 
Thames was conferred upon it by the official act of Governor Simcoe. 
Shortly after the United States cast off the bondage of trans-atlantic 
rule, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, one of the Irish Eevolutionists of 1798, 
traversed this valley, accompanied by the African who saved his life after 
the battle of Eutaw Springs, S. C., Sept. 8, 1781, and by a few Mohawks 
under Brant. He it was who first described the Thames, and along its 
banks dwelt on the cause of liberty, against which he so recently and 
so gallantly fought. During the winter of 1792-3 Governor Simcoe, 
Major Littlehales and Lieutenant Talbot, with four other army officers, 
came up from Navy Hall at Niagara, halting en, route at the Nelles' 
House, on the Grand Kiver, and at the Village of the Mohawks, where 
Brant and a crowd of his Indians joined them, and whence they set 
out to La Tranche, a name hidden or stolen the year before by the 
chief of that very party, who now came to admire the old river under 
its new name. In the early part of 1793 a surveyor named McNift" 
was ordered to sound the river to the proposed town of Georgina- 
upou-Thames. He reported that the erection of two locks would leave 
the river a navigable one to the Upper Forks, and this report was 
forwarded with all due solemnity to the parties in interest, its principal 
enthusiastic advocate recommending its acceptance, and suggesting the 
prompt improvement of the river. The subsequent troubles and 
removal of Simcoe put a stop to public improvements, and so crippled 
the Government, that the rulers were well pleased to be able to cut a 
military road or trail to Chatham and Sandwich along the river bank 
or plateau, leaving the question of navigation seriously alone. The 
Thames may be said to form the great drainage basin for Southern and 
Central Middlesex, as well as for London City. The water is 
impure from sources to estuary, owing to this being the case; while, as 



a navigable stream, it is only used within the county by a few pleasure 
steamboats, which ply between London and the water-works at 
Springbank, from June to September. In the early years of the 
district, grist-mills were erected along its course, and to-day a few are 
operated by this water-power. 

Other Streams. The Aux Sauble, in the northern and north- 
western townships, has played an important part in the drama of 
progress. This river drains an immense area, its head- waters spreading 
out in every direction, affording water-power to many mills, and 
drainage advantages to many sections. 

Bear Creek, the Wye, the two forks of the Thames, and a hundred 
minor creeks, give a stream to almost every farm, and, with the greater 
river, contribute to render bridge and culvert construction a permanent 
local industry of no small importance. 

Geology. Middlesex has never been made the field of extensive 
geological exploration, although scientists have established the fact 
that at about the same level are found nearly the same deposits as in 
the country adjacent on the east and south indicating that this section 
of Canada has not undergone any modern geological disturbance. In 
1861-5 the country suffered from an unhealthy oil fever; but soon 
after men learned that this was not the region to find a great coal bed, 
nor yet a great oil fountain. Director Selwyn, of the Canadian 
Geological Survey, writing under date of June 13, 1888, says : "About 
London the country is covered to a depth of more than 100 feet by 
sand and clay, with pebbles and boulders. Beneath these surface 
deposits, the whole area of the county is supposed to be underlaid by 
the Devonian formations known as the Hamilton shales and the 
Corniferous limestone. The greater part, if not all the oil and salt 
wells of Ontario, are bored in these formations. At greater depths, the 
formations which yield the large supplies of gas and oil in Ohio would 
be found to underlie the whole of the County of Middlesex, and might 
yield similar valuable deposits. The Trenton limestone, which crops 
out along the north shore of Lake Ontario, from Kingston to Port 
Newcastle and through to the Georgian Bay, yields the gas and oil in 
Ohio, being reached at a depth of 2,200 feet from the surface." 

Building Stone. In November, 1843, Surveyor Cull deals very 
fully with the building of the jail, introducing Tristram Coates, a 
would-be contractor for lumber, and Garrison & Sifton, cut-stone 
contractors. It appears that Cull managed to cut off these men, and 
better still, to discover a quarry. Speaking of this quarry, Cull says : 
" I stated to the Council that a valuable quarry had been discovered 
on the banks of the North Kiver, about four miles from London.* That 
quarry is believed to contain an almost inexhaustible supply. The 
proprietor at first demanded as high as twelve shillings and sixpence 

* F. B. Talbot thinks it is the present Barnes' quarry, six miles distant, while William 
McClary thinks it was taken out of Gray's quarry, on the North Branch, two concessions 
north of the Asylum. ED. 


per cord. After some difficulty, an agreement was made witli him for 
seven shillings and sixpence per cord, and five shillings per cord for 
quarrying." This stone is very rough, but durable. A good limestone 
is found in Westminster. 

Sand and Gravel Throughout the county great sand and gravel 
beds exist. At the beginning of the pike roads in this section of 
Canada, County Engineer Talbot, unacquainted with these great 
deposits, suggested the building of charcoal roads ; but his report to 
the County Council brought out the fact that heavy gravel could be 
found in every township. Subsequently the toll-road system was 
introduced, and henceforth the gravel beds of the county offered a 
wide field for development particularly at Komoka, in Lobo ; and at 
Putnamville, in Dorchester. 

Oil Wells. The Indians, it is said, used to collect crude petroleum 
along the Thames in early days and sell it to the pioneers, to be used 
for lighting purposes as well as axle grease ; but Indian enterprise did 
not seek below the surface for this very marketable commodity ; so, 
that for half a century the so-called oil fountains were left unexplored. 
During the year 1865, several oil prospectors were in the county, and 
every day brought an account of some new well in Delaware, Williams, 
Adelaide, and even London and eastern townships. In November, the 
Hicks' oil well was bored 266 feet 86 through sand and gravel, 
80 through white lime rock, 50 through sand, and 50 through soft lime 
rock. At 15 feet in the white lime rock, a vein of black sulphur water 
was struck. On the evening of November 10th, a crevice in the soft 
lime rock was tapped when a flow of petroleum-impregnated water 
was struck, yielding 1,000 barrels per day, of which there were about 
three barrels of oil. In 1865, Professor Winchell denounced the 
statement that oil existed in any paying quantities within Middlesex 
County ; while T. M. Reynolds, then residing at London, stated that 
" excellent oil springs existed above and below the Thames Forks." 
Reynolds based his opinion on statements made by Professor Hall, at 
the great oil meeting held at the City Hall, October 6th, 1865, who said 
that in 1846 he saw two fossils taken from the Thames at London, 
peculiar to the Hamilton group. The Professor was so earnest in this 
opinion that he purchased an interest in the Hicks' well, then beinc* 
bored west of the city on the Thames. Previous to this, wild state- 
ments were made at the oil men's banquet at the Tecumseh House 
which the Michigan geologist thought well to deny. At Cashmere in 
Mosa ; Sylvan, in West Williams, and on Poore's Farm, in McGillivray 
small quantities of oil were produced. 

Salt Wells. The Onondaga rock enters Canada on the Niagara 
River above the falls. In Middlesex County, it is represented in the 
western townships-at Glencoe, Park Hill, and other places where the 
salt rock has been penetrated. The salt rock at Warwick was struck 

a f ^n P f f fe f t> and the Salt stratum was P ierced to a depth 
of 100 feet. The rock at Warwick is only 90 feet below the level of 



that at Goderich, 80 miles north ; 300 feet below the rock at Kincardine, 
30 miles north of Goderich, and 500 feet below the rock at Inverhuron. 
The strata from Inverhuron to Warwick is almost identical, being 
limestone, white flint rock, blue shale, salt rock, and, beneath, a spongy 
sulphurous rock containing sulphur beds. 

Fire Clay. In almost every section of the county excellent 
material for brick, tile and drain-pipe manufacture exists. From the 
period when the first brickyard was opened on Con. 1 , of Westminster, 
by the Griffiths, or that on Bathurst street, between Talbot and Ridout, 
to the present time, Middlesex cream bricks have attained celebrity ; 
and since the introduction of the Michigan brick machine, have almost 
approached in excellence the manufactures of the Milwaukee, (Wis.) 
yards. Potter's clay is also found in some quantity, and the owners of 
the London Pottery now propose to use it in some wares, in preference 
to imported earth. The Tiffany brick machine was invented by Geo. 
S. Tiffany, of Tecumseh, Mich., while the machine manufactured at 
Park Hill, is the invention of another citizen. 

Trees and Shrubs. In the days of the pioneers, the plateau of the 
Thames, the eastern and central part of Dorchester and parts of Dela- 
ware, formed the pine -district. The trees were known as white pine, 
although in one case Miles V. Jolly the latter tried to set aside a 
contract reserving the white pine on lands purchased from the former, 
basing his case on the fact that the trees were not really white pine, 
but of some other class of the pine family. In the northern part of 
the county hemlock predominated ; but throughout the maple, oak, 
elm, and all those hardwood giants of the Canadian forest attained a 
heavy growth. In March, 1879, a white- wood tree was cut on Donald 
McPherson's farm in East Williams, which yielded 6,000 feet of sawn 
lumber the butt alone yielding 1,200 feet. The product brought $120. 




Earliest Indian Residents. The Indian, being without a litera- 
ture, knows nothing of his origin. The Frenchman and Spaniard 
found him here, and learning from him all he did know, gave the story 
to civilization as an Indian legend, while treating the new-found race 
historically as they found it. 

The Hurons, originally the Wyandots, were at Quebec in Io34, 
when Jagques Cartier arrived there. Later, they formed an alliance 
with the Adirondacks, but when the latter joined the Southern Iroquois 
Confederacy (about 1580), the prestige of the Wyandots began to fade, 
and the dispersion of the tribe overall Canada to Lake Huron followed. 
Early in the 16th century, they, with some Mississaugas and members 
of other tribes, formed a new confederacy with villages along the 
Thames and Lake and Eiver St. Glair. In 1649, this new branch of 
the tribe was dispersed by the Southern Confederacy. The name 
originates in the phrase Quelles Hures (What Heads), applied by the 
French of Marquette's time on first seeing them in their new western 
home. During the winter of 1615-16, Champlain visited among the 
tribes then inhabiting the Peninsula, formed by Lake Erie and St. Clair 
river. The country was then inhabited by a tribe, to whom Champlain 
gave the name Neutral Nation, or Nation de Truite ; while the whole 
country west was called Conchradum, and after the Iroquois war> 
Saguinan. The Hurons were, undoubtedly, a branch of the great 
Algonquin race/Avhich, under several names, owned Ontario from the 
Ottawa to Lake Huron. To this Ontario division the general title of 
Iroquois du Nord was given by the French for military and political 
purposes. After the great war of 1649, the Otchipwas and Mississ- 
augas moved from the South into Canada, and the victorious Iroquois of 
the South returned to their original homes. 

The Mississaugas are first named by the French in 1620. Prior to 
the Revolution they moved from the Upper Lake region -and Minnesota 
to the country east of the Georgian Bay, and in the Albany (N. Y.) 
Council of 1746 they were taken into the Iroquois Confederacy as the 
seventh nation. Charlevoix speaks of them as having villages at 
Niagara, on the La Tranchee and on Lake St. Clair subsequent to 1649. 
They were also known as Souters or Jumpers, and at the close of the 
eighteenth century seemed to be the sole aboriginal occupiers of what 
now constitutes the Province of Ontario. 

Back in the beginning of the 15th century the Mohawks, Oneidas, 
Cayugas, Onondagas, and Senecas, inhabiting what is now the States 
of New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio, and roaming at will over 



adjacent territory, entered into a treaty of friendship, under the title 
" Five Nations ;" and so, the Iroquois, with a few changes, such as 
ousting the Oneidas and taking the Aucguagas, continued to live under 
this treaty for nearly three hundred years, when, in 1712, the Tuscaroras 
came from North Carolina to join the confederacy, and were admitted 
as the sixth nation, since which time the name Six Nations has 
been applied, with the exception of the short period, the Mississaugas 
held a place in the Council. Their powerful opponents were the 
Dela wares, Cherokees, Mohicans, Adirondacks and Hurons. The 
latter's power was broken about 1647 by the terrible Iroquois, while 
in 1653 the Erie nation was almost wiped out of existence by the 
fierce warriors. The Iroquois on July 19, 1701, ceded to the British 
all the following described tract : 

" That vast tract of land or colony called Canagaviavchio, beginning on the north- 
west side of Cadavachqui (Ontario) Lake, and includes all the land lying between the 
great lake of Ottawa (Huron), and the lake called by the natives Sahiquage, and by 
the Christians the Lake of Sweege (Oswego for Lake Erie), and runs till it butts upon 
the Twichtwichs, and is bounded westward by the Twichtwichs, on the eastward by a 
place called Quadoge, containing in length about 800 miles, and breadth 400 miles, 
including the country where beavers and all sorts of wild game keep, and the place 
called Tjeughsaghrondie, alias Fort De Tret, or Wawyachttenock (Detroit), and so 
runs round the Lake of Sweege till you come to a place called Oniardarundaquat." 

Tribal and Individual History. The Mohawks, one of the 
tribes composing the Six Nations, were adherents of the British, and 
in the British service during the American Revolution. They were 
also known by the French as Agniers. After the war the Mohawks 
crossed from their temporary home on the American side of the 
Niagara, and ultimately settled on a tract of land on the Bav of Quinte, 
purchased from the Mississaugas by the British for them. The Senecas 
desired that the Mohawks should live nearer to them, and on the 
latter expressing a desire to accede to the wish of the Senecas, the 
Government granted them six square miles on Grand River. Their 
advent to Canada dates back to 1780-1, even before the down- 
fall of the British force under Cornwallis. Brant commanded the 
whole tribe, with his cousin, John Brant, an older man, second in 
command. In 1783-4 the tribe wintered at Cataraqui. 

Thayendinagea was the original Indian name of the chief, Joseph 
Brant. He was born on the banks of the Ohio in 1742, where his 
father, Tchowaghwengaraghkwin, a full-blooded Mohawk of the Wolf 
Tribe, held sway; but Soieugarahta old King Hendrick was the 
great chief whom Joseph Brant succeeded. John Brant, chief of the 
Six Nations, died of cholera, at Brantford, Aug. 27, 1832. He was 
the son of the Indian Chief Brant, who died Nov. 24, 1807, while his 
squaw retired to Grand River, where she also died. His annual pay 
and perquisites, granted him by the British for his service against the 
Americans, amounted to 500 annually. 

John Smoke Johnson, a Mohawk chief, who aided the British in 
1812-14, died in 1886, aged 94 years. 


After a part of the Oneidas ceded their lands near Oneida Lake, 
N. Y., in 1829 or 1830, they migrated westward in charge of two 
Church of England missionaries Davis and Williams. They settled 
near Green Bay. In 1840, the remainder of their lands was sold, and 
coming to Canada they purchased 5,000 acres in Delaware township, 
where Moses Schuyler was a chief, and Taylor Dockstader, a large 
fanner, in 1850. In 1871 this band numbered 641; in 1881, 688, 
and in 1887, 775. Their reservation comprises 5,000 acres in Dela- 
ware; Township, purchased by them about 1838, and held in trust for 
them by the Government. Of their four schools, one is presided over 
by a white female teacher, and the others by natives. The Oneidas 
belong to the second division of the Western Superintendency, of which 
Thomas Gordon is agent. 

The Munceys originally belonged to Pennsylvania, and were among 
the tribes with whom Penn's memorable, though unwritten, treaty 
was made. From this time until the year 1757 they lived quietly 
under British rule. In the series of conflicts which then took place 
between the English and French troops, the Munceys invariably fought 
under the English flag despite all overtures made to them by the 
French. By a treaty made between them and Sir William Johnston, 
commander of the British forces at Fort Johnson in 1757, these Indians 
were promised in return for their alliance, the protection of the 
" Great King George the Third" against all their enemies; that their 
material interests should be continuously looked after, and the pos- 
session of their lands guaranteed to them. The Indians, on their part, 
agreed to "rise up as one man, and assist His Majesty's arms in driving 
the French out of the country." It is upon this treaty, and the pro~- 
mises it contained, the Munceys now rely. The Munceys kept their 
promises, and when the Revolutionary War broke out some years later 
were moved by their allies to undisturbed British soil. Colonel Sir 
VVilliam Butler, then commanding the Royal troops, havincr said to 
them on that occasion, that King George III would replace their losses 
m Canada. Grants of land were made to all the friendly Indians 
except to the Munceys and the Shawanees. The former ultimately 
settled on the Grand River, till their services were called for on the 
outbreak of the War of 1812, when they fought under Tecumseh. 
When peace was proclaimed, the claims of the Munceys (now only a 
emnant of a tribe) were again overlooked, but they were allowed to 
wander at will. Finally they settled where they now are, on land 
Kjlongmg to the Otchipwas, who allowed them to remain there tern- 
>ranly. Some years later the land was purchased of the Otchipwas 
he Canadian Government, but the Munceys have been in possession 
down to the present time. The reservation is about seven miles in 
*ngth, forming an irregular square, and is now intercepted by two 
r^ways-the mam line of the Canada Southern, and a loop line of the 

Jd bv th O V 1 " 2 the r Sti n f evictin S the wh ' le tribe TO 
issed by the Otchipwas and carried to such extremes that Half 


Moon, an educated youth, was deputed to visit Philadelphia in search 
of evidence to sustain their claims, and the second chief of the tribe, 
who was also their schoolmaster, to go to England and urge them before 
the Queen. Half Moon, however, died, but the Quakers of the city 
found the records, and the delegate, Wahbunahkee, who called him- 
self Scebie Logan, was sent to England. He is a broad shouldered 
fellow of five-and-twenty, a full-blooded Indian, having descended from 
Muncey and Mohican parents. In appearance he possesses all the 
most marked characteristics of the red race, including the heavy gait 
which appears so prominent if European costume is worn, but ceases to 
be apparent in Indian costume. He was educated at the Mohawk 
Institute at Brantford, Ontario, and was elected second chief of the 
Muncey s in April, 1881, his selection being on account of his educa- 
tion which was superior to that of most Indians, and of his being a total 
abstainer from the destructive fire-water. Besides being a school- 
master, he was a substantial farmer. The historic tomahawk, which 
was carried by their chief through many a battle, and hung in the 
wigwam's smoke for many a year, was to be presented to the Queen. 
In March, 1883, a deputation from the Munceys visited Ottawa, to ask 
the Government's assistance in settling their dispute with the Otchipwas. 
In 1886, Inspector Dingman suggested that the Munceys should be left 
in possession of their lands, except 498 acres. This area was to be 
detached in fifty acre tracts from the holdings of James Huff, Jacob 
Dolson, Jacob, Joseph and Scebie Logan, Nellis, Timothy, the heirs of 
widow Wilson, and W. Waddilove, thirty-eight acres from the lands 
of James Wolf, Sampson, John, and Eichard Wilson, and seventy 
acres from James Wolf. The Indians protested. In 1871 the Mun- 
ceys numbered 130; in 1881, 129, and in 1887, 125. Their single 
school is presided over by a white teacher. 

Six families of Pottawattamies, and three families of half-breeds, 
who live on this reserve, are not enumerated in the census and tabular 
statement, as they do not belong to either of the bands owning it, 
although they are located on the land they occupy. These families, 
numbering twenty souls, make the number of Indians within the 
agency 1,378. 

The Otchipwas, or Chippewas, are, according to Bishop Baraga, a 
branch of the Algonquin race. They were inhabitants of Nippissing and 
Lake Superior region before the historic period, and have, since that time, 
been associated with the Upper Lake country. The name was first given 
to a band of Nippercineans, and ultimately was applied to all speakers of 
the Nippercinean language, who, in 1649, fell back on Lake Superior 
before the advancing Iroquois, just as the Bone Cave Builders fell back 
before the Nippercineans. Their dialect was the most refined of all the 
Indian tongues, and won the praise of the great French students who 
visited their villages. Such historic names as Mudjekeewis, Wanbojug, 
Andaigweos, and Gitchee Waiskee were applied to the early chiefs, 
who kept the tribal fire burning perpetually. The first war within the 


historic period was waged against the Upper Nipperciiieans by the 
M< nominees, who dammed the mouth of Menominee Kiver, and thus 
abolished the upper sturgeon fisheries. The war raged from 1627 to 
1648 without intermission, and the feud was carried down even to- 
1857. Their war against the Sauks began about 1519, and continued 
until nearly the whole of Michigan and Canada, from Erie to Nippissing, 
bore marks of the strife. Nawassiswanabi succeeded the first chief of 
the Otchipwas of the Thames. Tomaco, the next chief of importance, 
was an uncle of the present Nelson Beaver, on his father's side. In 
1812, those Indians served with Tecumseh against the Americans. 
Old Simon, Yahobance, Miskokoman, Jim Muskalonge, Kanotaing, 
Jim Carey or Bakakadus, and other warriors, are well known names 
connected with the war and with this tribe, the present Nelson Beaver 
being born within a half mile of Lambeth, in 1819. At this time the 
tribe was uncivilized, but believed in one ruling spirit who would take 
them west to the happy hunting grounds, where huckleberries grew, 
the bad Indians falling off a log into a deep river. 

In 1851, the Otchipwas possessed 9,000 acres in Caradoc. At 
Upper Muncey or Colborne, at Old Munceytown, and at Bear Creek, 
on the north line of the reservation, wer,e their settlements. The 
Munceys settled among the Otchipwas since the beginning of the 
present century, and shared in the presents annually made to the 
Otchipwas, but not in the annual payment of 600. At Upper 
Muncey, John Eiley was Chief and Peter Jones was Methodist 
Missionary. In 1840, Eev. E. Flood was appointed Missionary at Old 
Muncey, and later a church house was erected there. Logan was 
Chief at this time. 

The Otchipwas of the Thames, in 1871, numbered 470 ; in 1881, 
483, and in 1887, 458. With the Munceys they occupy the Caradoc 
Eeserve. The reserve is composed of the best land in the Township of 
Caradoc, and contains 12,095 acres. A very large proportion of tha 
waste land belonging to this band has been leased by the Department 
to white farmers for a short term of years, under conditions of paying a 
certain rental, and improving the land by clearing it, making good 
fences and ditching. The work already done by these lessees has made 
a marked improvement. Agent Gordon, in his report of 1887, states : 
" Ihere are three schools upon the reserve, all taught by Indian teachers. 
Ihe attendance at these schools is not so numerous as could be wished 
Indians are careless, and often indifferent in sending their children to 
The teachers state that they have done all in their power to 
e children to attend, but with indifferent success. The three 

^n teachers are very exemplary men ; one of them is head chief of 

the band, another is chief of the Indians of Ontario, chosen at the last 

meeting of the Grand Council, and the third teacher was lately head 

the Munceys of the Thames. The new Council house upon 

Reserve is just finished, and appears to be a very fine building 
indeed. It is built of brick with stone foundation, and is 60 by 3? 


feet. Much credit is due to the contractor for the manner in which 
the work was done. The Church of England and the Methodist Church 
of Canada have also each a mission on this reserve. Dr. Sinclair, of 
Melbourne, is their medical adviser, and appears to be very attentive 
to them. The Mount Elgin Industrial Institution, under the able 
management of the Eev. W. W. Shepherd, continues to do good work. 
The children in school and in the workshops are making very good 

Indians of 181%. The Council of Petagwano, now Point Edward,, 
was held about 1775. The question which the British agents placed 
before this Council, " Which should they help, American or British ?" 
was discussed. They had been in council six days, but could not 
agree, so that they sent for the great prophet and chief of the Hurons 
Weinekeuns. This chief was grimly grotesque. Large and power- 
full as he was, Providence endowed him with three noses or sets of 
nostrils a small nose on each side of the centre one. On arriving he 
stepped into the centre of the Council, and, addressing the warriors, 
said : " My brothers, the Great Spirit tells me that we poor Indians 
had best keep silence, for the Keshemokomon (Big Knife, or 
American), will drive us away beyond the Rocky Mountains. These 
beautiful forests will not be our home. It may be you and I will be 
gone to the happy hunting grounds of our fathers, but these things 
will surely come. The Americans fight for themselves and the British 
for their King. The Americans are few, but they can fight for them- 
selves, and have a great advantage ; they will drive the English back 
over the great waters, and will fight to the last. So there is no hope 
for us. Remain in peace. The Great Spirit has spoken." This chief 
was known to the early settlers along the river. He reached the age 
of 125 years and his wife 101 years, they being the parents of fifteen 

Border Incidents. In 1813, the Indians of the Western and 
London Districts held a great council on the St. Clair River, at which 
it was decided to capture and kill all American sympathizers on each 
side of the river. A friendly squaw gave the alarm, and the greater 
number fled to Detroit; but King, an Englishman, who settled in 
Canada, did not think they would harm him ; but next day, he and a 
man named Rodd, husband of old mother Rodd, were shot and killed 
the Indians not approaching near enough to recognize them as 
Englishmen. Among the savages engaged in this affair were Old Salt, 
Black Foot, Wapoose (the medicine man), and Wawanosh, who died at 
Sarnia about 1878. For those miscreants the British erected houses in 
1828 near Sarnia, building material and shingles being purchased from 
Burtch, of Port Huron. At Marine City, and, indeed, along the 
American bank of the St. Clair River, the settlers suffered much during 
the War of 1812-14. Families were marked out for Indian vengeance 
by the British on account of the older boys being in the American 



army, and it was common for a mother and her children to hide in the 
willow groves for weeks. The tragedy at Bunce's Creek, a few miles 
south of Port Huron, points out the manner in which this war was 
conducted in Western Canada. A party of five soldiers started from 
Fort Gratio.t to row to Detroit. A company of Indians under Tawas, 
a quarter-breed, was at this point awaiting them, and, when the soldiers 
appeared, hoisted a white flag to decoy them. The troops, unfortu- 
nately, rowed toward the creek ; but when close to the river bank, the 
Indians opened fire, killing four of the men, leaving the fifth to sink or 
swim in the river. He saved himself, however, and, after many hard- 
ships, returned to Fort Gratiot. The Indians made life along the border 
so unendurable that all the families, except Mrs. Harrow's, moved to 
Canada, and swore allegiance to the British ; but many returned afte"r 
the defeat of Proctor on the- Thames. 

The half-breed Magee commanded the Indians during Major 
Mulir's occupation of Detroit, or from the surrender of Hull to the 
arrival of Harrison. At times the Indian captain would be so drunk 
regular troops would have to remove him. Whether drunk or sober 
his power over his dusky command was remarkable, and it is said that 
Magee's terrific yell (he had a voice like a lion,) would gather round 
him all the savages, as a bugle call would gather the regular troops to 
Mulir's quarters. During the year ending in October, 1813, a number 
of Americans were killed along the border, and it required the greatest 
care and vigilance on the part of the British commanders to check the 
Indians, as_wejl_as their own. .trporjs, ^in their murderous designs on 
border wcTnieii and children, who had moved into Canada, and taken the 
required oath of allegiance. The original instruction to the savages to 
annihilate the Americans was, however, carried out by them, as far as 
it was possible. < In 1812, and for years before, the Shanaway Indians 
resided on Big Bear Creek, making camps up that creek and the 
Thames, from March to October, and spending the winters near Lake 
St. Clair. There were five sons, who were all British warriors. One 
of them named Megish was killed at Lundy's Lane by Capt. Chesby 
O'Blake, who was mate of a brig lying at Newburyport, who, being 
blocaded by the British, tied up his ship, and, with his men, joined 
Scott's brigade. 

Nimecance, or Lightning, a son of Kioscance, served under Patrick 
Sinclair, commander of the British garrison at Pine River, now St. 
Clair City, Mich. In 1817 this Indian was 105 years old, and still 
attended to his corn fields, four miles south of the Port Huron Custom 
House. He died about 1824, aged 112 years. 

His father, Kioscance, was chief of the Otchipwas, in their wars 
against the Wyandots and Six Nations. His fleet was so extensive 
that it covered the old broad St. Clair from Point Edward to Walpole 
Nicholos Plane, chief of the Sarnia Indians, is a great 
grandson of old Kioscance. His tribe was known as the Rapid Tribe, 
whose village was about a mile north-east of the present town of Point 



Edward, prior to their removal to Fort Gratiot, after their incursion 
into the Erie country. 

Okemos, the nephew of Pontiac, and head chief of the Otchipwas, 
was born in Michigan in 1763. In later years he performed feats of 
valor for the British at Sandusky, which won for him the name of being 
the greatest warrior and chief of his tribe. He, with Manito Corbay 
and sixteen other warriors, was afterwards sent out by the British 
Commandant at Detroit to reconnoitre as far as the British rendezvous 
at Sandusky. They ambushed a party of mounted American rifle- 
men, but suffered so terribly from the charge which followed, that they 
would not join Tecumseh in 1812. Okemos died in 1858, with a name 
known from Sandusky to Niagara and Detroit. 

The half-breed, John Riley, who in early years resided at Port 
Huron, but made his home along the Thames, Bear Creek, and Aux 
Sauble. was a great hunter. One Sunday, while walking in the woods 
with a boy, he discovered a large log in which some animal was living. 
He said to the boy " Abscoin, hashapun " (John, a raccoon). The boy 
entered, but came out with great speed, crying 4< Moguash, Moguash " 
(a bear, a bear). Eiley drew his tomahawk, and when the bear's head 
appeared buried the weapon in his brains, thus obtaining 400 pounds 
of bear without intentionally breaking the Sabbath, of which he pre- 
tended to be a strict observer. 

Kumekumenon, or Macompte, although residing for years on the 
western border of Lake St. Glair, exercised much influence over the 
Indians of Western Canada until 1816, when death relieved him of 
power. His sons one bearing the same name, and one Francis 
moved to Lakeville, Mich, in 1830. The latter, with Truckatoe and 
Kanobe, was subsequently an important man until the westward 
movement of the tribes. Kanobe moved to Canada in 1 827. 

Shignebeck, a son of Kioscance, was 109 years of age at his death 
in the thirties. Ogotig, a daughter, lived to see 107 years; old 
mother Rodd, who died in 1870, on the Sarnia reservation, was 104 
years old, while Onsha, a third son of the chief, reached a very old age. 

Old Wittaniss was a sub-chief among the remnant of the Hurons 
in 1776. About that time he assisted the British, and during the war 
of 1812 was one of their Indian allies. 

Tipsikaw, who left the St. Glair region for the west in 1837, was a 
brave of great speed and a celebrated wrestler. 

Negig, an Indian Chief, who died in 1807, was one of the best 
known Indians in the St. Glair District. 

Kishkawko, a desperate Otchipwa, served in the War of 1812. 

Among the Indians who traversed this western section of Canada,, 
and, indeed, claimed parts of Michigan, were Black Snake and his son- 
in-law Black Duck. Like the half-breed, John Eiley, they con- 
sidered themselves Americans, but were friendly to the British Indians. 
On one occasion, the Canadian Indians visited what is now Port 
Huron, to hold a feast or picnic. Whisky was plentiful, and with it 



they were eloquent speakers. Among the Britishers was a brave from 
the Aux Saubles, who boasted of his war career in 1812-13, and told 
the number of American scalps he had taken during the war. Black 
Duck listened, and when the speaker had finished, addressed him thus : 
" You are a great brave; you have killed many Americans ; you have 
taken their scalps. The Americans you killed were my friends, and 
you will kill no more." Black Duck buried his tomahawk in the 
boaster's brain, and the feast ended. At this time and for years after, 
the Indian wigwams were chinked with moss some capable of shelter- 
ing twenty persons. Deer was plenty : the present Nelson Beaver 
killed over 2,000 in his younger days, and often furnished London 
with venison to supply all demands. 

In March, 1828, a youth named Petit set out from Port Huron 
to search for an Indian hunting party, under Tawas, who were in 
Canada all winter. Others had set out before this, but failed to meet 
Tawas. In this search he was accompanied by one armed Indian, who 
had, some years before, murdered his squaw, where Sarnia now stands, 
and hid the body in Black River at Port Huron. The two proceeded 
to Sebewaing, and, following the lake's Canadian shore, they reached 
White Rock. Next day they discovered Tawas and his band in a 
sugar camp, which they had selected on account of the stream close by 
affording plenty of fish. The Indians had a number of brass kettles 
of various sizes, which had been presented to them by the British 
Government. He purchased from them 500 marten skins, at one dollar 
each, but did not buy the large quantity of coarse furs which the band 
had collected. 

A young Indian named John Seneca, of the Muncey tribe, was 
induced to go to the United States during the war. There he was 
compelled to enter the army, and was subsequently killed. His 
father, Peter Seneca, believed a resident of Mt. Brydges guilty of 
leading his son away, and treasuring up revenge, attacked the voung 
man in September, 1870. 

In April, 1887, the Hallelujah Band, of Moraviantown, visited 
Munceytown, and on the 23rd, a similar band was organized there 
with Chief W. J. Waddilove, captain of the men, and Phoebe 
Waddilove, captain of the women, with Peter Jones, lieutenant of the 
hrst, and Frances Wilson, of the second band. 

Nelson Beaver, chief of the Caradoc Reserve, was sixty years 
connected with his tribe up to 1881. Among the agents of whom he 
speaks highly were Froome Talford,who succeeded Col. Clinch; Agent 
T f e T^ l W f CHuch ' and in 1878 A S ent Gordon took charge. 
tt^ZSFSS&lX* r Undlv deno ced, and ultimately 
abolished. ( Vide Sketch of Nelson Beaver ) 

T>J^lS^ House, at 

London, about 1849, an Indian approached from York street, while the 
chief Nelson Beaver, came down from Dundas street. The two Indians 
met at the corner, but Nelson's salutation was not understood as 


Indian No. 1 proved to be an Oneida. Beaver said to him : " What 
are you saying ? You're a blacker Indian than 1 am, and yet you can't 
speak Indian. You're a fool. Can you talk anything ? " The query 
led to a quarrel ; both Indians took off their blanket rolls or budgets, 
but the moment the argumentum ad hominem was to be made, 
Beaver picked up his roll, and, running over to the crowd on the hotel 
piazza, cried out, " Didn't I fool that Indian, eh ? " 

Indian Churches and Missions. The Missions of the Canada 
Wesleyan Conference among the Indians were instituted in 1822, two 
years before the Missionary Society was formed at Grand River, Brant 
County, Ont., with Rev. Alvin Tory, preacher. In 1828, a mission 
among the Otchipwes, Oneidas and Munceys of Caradoc and Delaware 
was commenced, the membership being 15, increased in 1873 to 123. 
Thomas Hurlburt was preacher from 1828 to 1833 inclusive ; Ezra 
Adams, 1833-4; Solomon Waldron, 1835-40; Peter Jones, 1840-3; 
with D. Hardie in 1843 ; C. Flumerfelt in 1844; Sol. Waldron, 1845 ; 
Peter Jones, 1846-48; Abrarn Sickles being assistant from 1843 to 
1870, with the exception of a few years; Samuel D. Rice, 1849; 
Samuel Rose, 1850-5, with John Sunday and A. Sickles, assistants ; 
James Musgrove, 1856-62, with Chase, Sickles and Matt. Whiting, 
assistants ; Francis Berry and Sickles served from 1864 to 1866. In 
1860, the Mount Elgin school was placed in charge of Reuben E. 
Tupper, and the mission in charge of Peter German, both of whom 
served until 1870. A year later, the school and mission work were 
reunited, with James Gray in cha.rge. He was succeeded in 1872 by 
Ephraim Evans and Allan Salt, who were the preachers in 1873, the 
membership being then 141. The Muncey Indian Mission of the 
Methodist Church of Canada was presided over from 1874 to 1880 by 
Thomas Cosford. Allan Salt assisted in 1874; Samuel Tucker, in 
1875-7; Abel Edwards, in 1878-80; W. W. Shepherd and A. 
Edwards, in 1881-3, while Abel Edwards and W. W. Shepherd served 
in 1884, at the time of the second Methodist union. 

In early years the old Indians arranged many, if not all of the mar- 
riages ; later the young warriors arranged matters with the girl, and 
later still, even in this day, a system of promiscuous living together 
was introduced, not over one half of the number at present availing 
themselves of the marriage ceremony. In fact, in Nelson Beaver's 
early years, girls did ncrt run at large ; but the matter of inter-sexual 
honor has now almost disappeared, and white children are also very 

Rev. Ezra Adams, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, joined the 
following natives in marriage during the years 1834-5 : 

Sept. 1, 1834-~James Thomas, to Peggy ; Seneca Jack, to Polly Beaver ; Henry 
Maskarioorgaand, to Eliza. Nov. 12 Talbut Chief, to Margaret Wabesenasequa. 
D ec> 2 James Tunkey, to Margaret. Feb. IP, 1835 George Peter, to Ohpetapowqua. 
Feb. 1 James Egg, to Matilda Quawi. Feb. 1 James Kewaquam, to Polly Ohnahpe- 
wanoqua. Sept. 1, 1834 John Maskanonge, to Jane Stagway. 


The following record by Solomon Waldron, minister of the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church at Munceytown, was made in 1836; David 
Sawyer, being a witness in each case : 

Jan. 3 John Tomico, to Elizabeth Half Moon ; Isaac Dolson, to Electa Tipic 
Kises Polly Quaitloop, to John Dolson. Feb. 10 Joseph Deertail, to Nancy Loon. 
May 3 Waginge Bond, to Nancy Caleb ; John Beaver, to Hannah Elmore ; John 
Beaver, 2nd, to Eliza Rishekains. July 17 John Quaitloop, to Polly Bean. 

Abram Sickles, an Indian minister, made the following returns 
in October, 1850 : 

May 14, 1848 David Lunduff, to Margaret Shallo, of Delaware. Dec. 21 
Daniel Ninham, to Margaret Doxdater, of Delaware. Jan. 21, 1849 Nicholas Nich- 
olas, to Mary Ann Williams, of Delaware. June 17 Bapdist Sunmer, to Nelly 
Schegler, of Delaware. June 17 Abram Schegler, to Susannah Williams, of Dela- 
ware. June 19 John Bread, to Mary Island, of Delaware. July 10 Charles Bate- 
man, to Mary A. Ewerren, of Caradoc. April 14, 1850 Peter Alvarn, to Margaret 
Andone, of Delaware. Oct. 13 John Nicholas, to Margaret Elem, of Delaware. 

His certificate reads as follows : " I certify that the above mar- 
riages were performed by me within the period included between the 
first and last on the list ; and that my not having made the returns 
within a year after the first was solemnized, arose from my ignorance 
of the law being an Indian and not long resident." 

The principal Munceys, who were members of the English Church 
in 1847, were Henry C. Hogg, catechist; Mrs. Hogg, J. Wampum 
(Kachnakaish), interpreter ; Mrs. Wampum, Ann Johnston (Ainhah- 
wooky), Capt. Wolfe (Weirchawk), Phoebe Hank (Aishkunkg), Mary 
Hank (Tahtapenawh), David Hank, Abram Hoff, Wm. Waddilove 
(Shapaish), John Smith, Mary Delaware (Waimlaish), Moses Shuyler. 
Mary Wilcox (Papatahpahnelaiky), David Bear (Maquah), Thomas 
and Nancy Wahcosh. 

]n 1851, Rev. R. Flood was appointed to the Muncey Mission. 
In 1859-60, Rev. A. Potts presided over the English Church at 
Munceytown. H. C. Hogg's name appears as an incorporated member 
in 1857. In 1861-2, Rev. R. Flood took charge of this and the 
Delaware Church. In 1865, Rev. H. P. Chase was appointed over 
L Paul's, at Muncey, and St. John's, at Chippewa. In 1869, Zion 
Church, of the Oneidas, was established. In 1885, Rev. A. G Smith 
took charge of the three Indian Churches. 

The Oneida Methodist Mission was part of Muncey until 1871 
when William Cross was appointed preacher. The Oneida Indian 
Mission of the Methodist Church of Canada succeeded the Weslevan 
Mission in 1874, with William Cross preacher. In 1877 Elisha 
Tennant took charge; in 1879, Benj. Sherlock; in 1880-3, Erastus 
[urlburt with A Sickles; in 1884, E. Hurlburt at Muncey, with 
John Kirkland and Sam. G. Livingstone at the College 

Elgin Industrial Institution may be said to date back to 
5, when Peter Jones collected moneys in England and Scotland 




and had his Indians contribute also. In 1847-8, the buildings were 
erected, and in 1849 the Institution was opened, with Eev. Dr. Eice, 
Superintendent. Since that time the names of Methodist ministers, 
connected with the Institution and Mission, are named in the history 
of the Mission. In June, 1887, W. W. Shepherd, present Principal, 
reported favorably of this school. 

Loyal Orange Lodges. In connection with the churches and 
schools, there are a few Loyal Orange Lodges, the members of which 
parade on every 12th of July with band and regalia. As a rule, fire- 
water is freely used on the occasion ; but the Lodges, after all, 
compare very favorably with those of their white brethren. The 
tribes have also an agricultural organization and an annual fair. 

Indian Statistics. On June 10, 1857, an act was assented to 
providing for the gradual civilization of the Indians, and the removal 
of all legal distinctions between them and other subjects. The 
expenditures on account of Indians in 1886-7 amounted to $53,604.90 
for Ontario and Quebec; $6,038.01 for Nova Scotia; $6,049.08 for 
New Brunswick ; $2,135.26 for Prince Edward Island ; $61,076.40 for 
British Columbia; $1,072,397.67 for Manitoba and the North-west. 
The tribes represented now in Quebec and Ontario, with the receipts 
credited up to June 30, 1886, are given as follows : Otchipwas of 
Sarnia, $200,755.87 ; Otchipwas of Thames, $77,332.61 ; Munceys of 
Thames, $2,805.09; Oneidas of Thames, $662.89; Moravians of 
Thames, $167,018.70 ; Pottawattamies of Walpole Island, $6,806.90; 
Otchipwas of Walpole Island, $74,648.60 ; Batchewana Indians, 
$4,468.40 ; Otchipwas of Beausoleil, $59,748.80 ; Otchipwas of Nawash, 
$367,753.08 ; Otchipwas of Kand, $54,895.44 ; Otchipwas of Saugeen, 
$289,852.91 ; Otchipwas of Snake Island, $25,972.61 ; Fort William 
band, $14,148.28 ; French River baud, $928.67 ; Garden Eiver Indians, 
$36,761.85; Henvey's Inlet Indians, $7,561.05; Lake Nippissing 
Indians, $29,829.50; Manitoulin Indians (unceded), $2,530.36; 
Maganetewans, $582.57; Mississaugas of Alnwick, $80,033.84; 
Mississaugas of Credit, $120,423.49; Mississaugas of Eice Lake, 
$22,831.04 ; Mississaugas of Mud Lake, $38,231.38 ; Mississaugas of 
Scugog, $11,895.69; Mississaugas of Bay of Quinte, $134,924.98; 
Ojibbewas and Ottawas of Manitoulin, $117,794.94; Ojibbewas of 
Lake Huron, $61,357.59 ; Ojibbewas of Lake Superior, $50,917.64; 
Ojibbewas of the Mississauga Eiver, $4,695.49 ; Parry Island Indians, 
$45,365.26 ; Serpent Eiver Indians, $3,004 ; Six Nations, $915,988.30 ; 
Shawanaga band, $8,691 ; Spanish Eiver Indians, $3,058; Thessalon 
Eiver Indians, $13,278.91 ; Tootoomenai and band, $963.30 ; White- 
fish Eiver Indians, $3,939.46; Wyandots of Anderdon, $24,969.17; 
Abenakis of St. Francis, $4,158.36; Abenakis of Becancour, $1,279; 
Amalecites of Isle Vest and Viger, $5,799 ; Golden Lake Indians, $21 ; 
Hurons of Lorette, $26 ; Iroquois of Caughnawaga, $8,271 ; Iroquois of 
St. Eegis, $31,271 ; Lake St. John Indians, $1,397 ; Lake of Two 


Mountains Indians, $1,260 ; Mississaugas of Upper Ottawa, $3,041, 
and River Desert Indians, $40,379. 

The territory over which the supervision of Indian affairs extended 
in 1862 consisted of what is now embraced in the Provinces of Ontario, 
and Quebec, which then composed the old Province of Canada. The 
Department now exercises control of Indian matters from the Pro- 
vinces of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, on the Atlantic, to 
British Columbia, on the Pacific Ocean. 

The number of Indians who, according to the Report for the year 
1863, were then under the care of the Department, was 19,181. The 
census returns published with this report show that the Indians of the 
Dominion of Canada number approximately 128,000 souls. The- 
number of reserves occupied by the various bands of Indians of the 
old Province of Canada in 1862 was fifty-six. In the seven pro- 
vinces, and in the North-west Territories, and in the district of Kee- 
watin,' there are at the present time 1,147 Indian reserves ; while in 
British Columbia additional reserves are being assigned to the Indians 
of that province, as the work of the Commissioner appointed to allot 
the same proceeds. 

According to the report for the year 1863, there were thirty schools 
in operation for the instruction of the Indian children. In 1887 there 
were 198 schools in operation. 

Indian Trails. In the days when Ontario was solely in pos- 
session of the native tribes, well defined routes of travel existed 
between their several noted summer camps, as well as between their 
winter towns. There were several practicable routes for the traders 
to reach the upper lake region. The original and best known one was 
by the Ottawa River, Nippissing and Georgian Bay, which, though 
long and hazardous, was the principal channel of intercourse between 
Western Canada and the Lower St. Lawrence ; the second was by 
the Trent River to Lake Simcoe ; the third was from the present site 
of Toronto to Lake Simcoe ; the fourth was from the head of Lake 
Ontario, the Grand River to Lake Erie and (La Tranchee) Thames 
River to Lake St. Clair, and the fifth by Niagara. The latter route 
was seldom chosen, owing to the savage character of the New York 
Indians, as well as the rough character of the route. So soon as 
Upper Canada was organized for the purposes of Government, two 
great highways were established Yonge and Dundas streets; and 
from this beginning the modern system of roads spread out. 




Retrospection. When the pioneers came for the first time to the 
Indian camp grounds along the Thames, they beheld spread out before 
them, as far as their vision could reach, one of nature's most beautiful 
panoramas a land which gave promise, through the perfection of its 
natural resources, of a future that some day would become excellent 
in every detail of civilization, if not celebrated in the annals of 
history. That condition, then so dimly foreshadowed, has at last 
been realized. Scarcely eighty years have passed by, and the scenes 
that then held the forms of the wilderness, now move onward to the 
notes of the plowman's whistle, the faithful call of domestic animals r 
the constant whirling sound of busy machinery, the shrill notes of the 
locomotive, the laborer's song, and school children's happy shouts. 
Less than eighty years ago wild flowers bloomed in countless 
profusion and variety on these lands, and the sons of civilized life 
had scarcely invaded the precincts of the great wilderness; now 
all is changed. The whole country teems with the fruits of industry 
and peace, and thousands of happy families dwell in happy homes. 
What a marvellous transformation! The country is aged already, 
so precocious has been its development. 

First Settlements in the County. Who were those white 
travellers who first entered the forests to carve out a home ? They 
were Americans, driven from their country by the sentimental 
grievance which the new Eepublic created. In the deep Canadian 
woods they had time for reflection, and, within a decade after 
settlement, their studies took shape, and again they are found 
among the soldiers of the Union they once deserted. 

Delaware is credited with the first settlements made, in what 
now constitutes Middlesex County. Ethan Allan (son of Ebenezer), 
and Jasper Crow (his brother-in-law), two Americans, who fled from 
their country rather than serve it, located their gardens along the 
Thames, and for some years resided there. During those years 
the glory of the young Eepublic floated as a vision before them, so 
that when the Union required new troops for a new war, Allan and 
Crow were among the very first to answer the call. In 1812, Allan 
bid farewell to his Canadian home forever, and was followed by 
Crow, who left his wife and family the farm which he had improved. * 

Ebenezer Allan, to whom Governor Simcoe granted 2,200 acres, 
in Delaware, in 1793, for his services in leading the Indians against 

* The story of the two men, and of the father's motley family, belongs to the history of 
Delaware Township, where it is given. 


the Americans, in 1775-81, sold, within seven years his grant for 
3000 and Delaware entered on its career of prosperity. In 17W, 
the' Springers came, followed by the Woodhulls in 1798, and then a 
steady tide of immigration filled the county. 

The first settlement of the eastern townships was made in 1794, 
the following letter giving the story of the pioneers : 

INGERSOLL, Nov. 5, 1888. 

Mr William McClary : Your card received, and in reply, as William is a noted 
name, I'will give you some facts. My grandfather's name was William Reynolds. 
He and Major Ingersoll, who was a resident of New York, came to Canada m 1773 
(1793) and applied to Governor Simcoe, who resided at Niagara, for a grant of land m 
the Township of Dorchester, to my grandfather, and in Oxford to Mr. Ingersoll, pro- 
viding each would cause fifty settlers to come into the township ; and the following 
year moved into Dorchester, which would be 1774 (1794). He was not able to get the 
required number of settlers. The Governor withdrew his offer and gave my grand- 
father 1,000 acres, and each of his children 200 acres He then had five boys and two 
daughters. The same year my father was married to Sarah Stevens, of Burford, and 
settled in the township next his father, and helped to build a saw-mill near where a 
flouring-mill (Cartwright's) now stands. At that time there was not a white man, 
save his employes, in the township. My brother David, who now lives in Petrolea, 
was the first white child born in Dorchester. Mr. Seth Putnam moved into the town- 
ship six years later. It would take me several days to give a full history of the hard- 
ships, they being surrounded by Indians camps ; would further say I now hold the 
old crown deed to my grandfather, and I know these dates are true. 

Yours, very truly, 


Other Prominent Settlers. There is another pioneer of this 
district whose name finds mention in almost every chapter of the 
general history of Middlesex. His advent to, and life in, the Erie 
country mysterious and eccentric seems like a provision of 
Providence ; for it required just such a character to win from the 
impoverished hearths of Wales, England, Scotland and Ireland, the 
bone and sinew able to cope with the wild country, which he determined 
to open up. Thomas Talbot, born at Malahide, Dublin Co., Ireland, 
in 1771, was Colonel in the 24th British Kegiment at Quebec, in 1790, 
and in 1791 was appointed aide-de-camp to Governor Simcoe. In the 
latter's letter of Feb. 11, 1803, he states that young Talbot accompanied 
him into Upper Canada as his confidential secretary. Four years after 
this (1795) he was ordered home to join the 5th Eegiment in Flanders. 
Simcoe recommended him to Lord Hobart, Secretary of the Colonies, 
and begged for him 5,000 acres of land, as a resident field officer, to be 
located in Yarmouth Township, and the remainder of that township to 
be reserved for him, and granted to him at the rate of 200 acres for each 
family he may locate thereon 50 acres to be given to such family, 
and 150 acres held by himself. The Governor stated that young 
Talbot's plan was to introduce himself to the body of Welch and 
Scotch, who arrived in New York in 1801, and win them over to 
colonize Yarmouth, as well as to help him in the cultivation of hemp, 
for which the township was so well adapted. The recommendations of 



Simcoe were carried out, and further grants of 618,000 acres made, 
but South Yarmouth, having hitherto been purchased by Col. James 
Baby, and the north part by the Canada Company, Talbot failed to 
obtain his first selection. He came, nevertheless, and located at Port 
Talbot, Dunwich Township, May 21, 1803, where he felled the first 
tree that day. Long Point, 60 miles eastward, was the nearest settle- 
ment. He was accompanied by George Crane ; six years later came 
John Pearce, Backus or Backhouse, Mrs. Story, and Col. L. Patterson 
(from Pennsylvania), who, in 1810, were joined by Wm. Davis, Daniel 
Eapelge, Moses Eice, Benj. Wilson, John Mandeville, and in 1809 by 
the Burwells. Col. Talbot observed the terms of his grant closely ; 
but out of the 150 acres of every 200 granted as bonus for placing a 
family on the quarter of 50 acres, he was willing to sell 100 acres for 
6 9s. 3d. The point chosen by him for a house is less than eight 
miles westward of the heights at Port Stanley. As is related in the 
history of London, he, next to Lord Edward Fitzgerald, was among the 
first English-speaking explorers of the district, of which London is the 
commercial centre. 

In speaking of this location, and its most distinguished owner, Mr. 
Grant says : " From the lookout at Port Stanley we can discern, seven 
or eight miles westward, Talbot Creek, and the spot where this military 
hermit renounced the world of rank and fashion, and entered the 
wilderness, there to abide with brief intermission for nearly 50 years ; 
the spot also where, after a stormy life, he now peacefully lies, listening 
to the lapping of the lake waves upon the shore. Talbot was two 
years younger than Arthur Wellesly, the future Duke of Wellington, 
and while still in their teens, the young officers were thrown much 
together as aides to Talbot's next relative, the Marquis of Buckingham, 
then Viceroy of Ireland. The warm friendship thus formed was kept 
up to the end of their lives by correspondence and by Col. Talbot's 
secular visits to Apsley House, where he always found Wellington 
ready to back him against the intrigues of the Canadian Executive. 
Through Simcoe's influence Talbot obtained, in 1803, a township on 
the shore of Lake Erie ; the original demesne grew in half a century to 
a principality of about 700,000 acres, with a population of 75,000 souls. 
There was an arcadian simplicity about the life of these pioneers. The 
title-deeds of the farms were mere pencil entries by the Colonel in 
his township maps ; transfers were accomplished by a rubber and 
more pencil entries. His word of honor was sufficient, and their con- 
fidence was certainly never abused. The anniversary of his landing 
at Port Talbot, the 21st of May, was erected by Dr. Eolph into a great 
festival, which was long kept up in St. Thomas with all honor. 
Immediately after this brief respite the hermit would return to his 
desolation, in which there was an odd mixture of aristocratic hauteur 
and savage wildness. The acquaintances of earlier life fell away one 
by one, and there were none others to fill the vacancies. While cre- 
ating thousands of happy firesides around him his own hearth remained 


desolate. Compassion was often felt for his loneliness ; his nephews, 
one of them afterwards General Lord Airey, of Crimean fame, attempted 
to share his solitude, but in vain. Then his one faithful servant, 
Jeffrey, died. The recluse had succeeded in creating around him an 
absolute void, for no account is taken of the birds of prey that hovered 
about. Wellington, his first companion and last of his friends, was 
borne to his tomb in the crypt of St. Paul's, amid all the magnificent 
woe of a State funeral. Three months later poor Talbot also died. It 
was the depth of winter and bitterly cold. In the progress of the 
remains from London, where he died, to the quiet nook by the lake- 
shore, the deceased lay all night, neglected and forsaken, in the barn 
of a roadside inn. * * * What was the mystery in this lonely 
man's life ? * * * Charlevoix's description of this Erie shore had 
cast a spell upon him." 

During the Talbot era the ways of the country were primitive 
indeed. He maintained a peculiar rule. No one was considered by 
him his equal, and the settlers who had gathered round his woodland 
castle were as unfamiliar with him after forty years' acquaintanceship 
as at its beginning. New men, however, came on the scene, and 
innovations on feudal customs were spoken of. Men came to work 
amid the forests not to bow to another man. A new system was 
gradually built up, and within a few years a body of independent 
yeomen had their own society and constitutions without consulting the 
hermit Colonel. Thomas Meek, the night turnkey of the county jail, 
who came to reside in Port Stanley in 1818, relates "that during mid- 
winter and Christmas time, he had often yoked in the oxen, and on a 
rough ' bush-whacker ' sleigh, had taken half-a-dozen farmers' daugh- 
ters and their sturdy sweethearts for a ride over the rough forest road. 
These were occasions for the outburst of unusual hilarity, and the girls 
laughed as loudly as their lungs permitted, without the slightest fear 
of disturbing the nearest settler, several miles away. And if Jack 
Chopper did squeeze Mary Baker, and perhaps get a ghilopejia on the 
girl next to him, nobody talked about it, or thought any the less of 
either John or Mary. In another cabin, that looked out upon nothing 
but leafless trees, the old settler took down the thumb-marked family 
Bible, and read the story of our Saviour's birth in the little Nazarene 
village, but beyond this, necessity limited their festivities to the 

It is said that on account of the absence of the annual almanac, 
some of the old settlers actually forgot the days of the month, and 
either let Christmas slip by without knowing it, or celebrated the event 
in the middle of December or away along in January. But who could 
blame them if they did ? " Why, we didn't care a fig about the day 
of the week or month," said this silver-locked old pioneer, " and the 
wolves howled around the house as loudly on Christmas Eve as any 
other night in the year. What we wanted was to get these big trees 
out of the road, and then go in for fun and keeping track of dates 



afterwards. When London, or ' The Forks/ as it was then called, 
had assumed all the importance of a village, parents, bent on the pur- 
chase of some toy to fill the home-made stocking of the little girls and 
boys, thronged the corner store and the Court House square with the 
same enthusiasm that they crowd Dundas and Richmond streets to-day. 
It was, in fact, a great night among the villagers, and, in Westminster 
and London townships, was looked upon as the best time in the year 
for a rollicking party. And those were parties of the real old brand, 

Squire Matthews, in his reference to London, states that Dennis 
O'Brien kept a little low building where O'Mara Bros, had their pork 
packery on West Dundas street, in 1881; while McGregor kept an 
equally small tavern close by. Geo. Goodhue, about this time, had a 
small store on the 1st Concession of Westminster ; and there was also 
an ashery and dry goods store. Before those houses were established, 
the settlers had to go to Five Stakes, near St. Thomas, to Hamilton's 
store, on Kettle Creek, where he made them pay 75 cents per yard for 
factory cloth. Wheat was only worth 37 J cents per bushel, and for 
it they would receive goods or black salt, but no cash; there was no 
cash. This black salt was made out of lye and ashes. Mr. Mat- 
thews made tons of it, burning up log piles on purpose to obtain 
ashes. This was hard work, but necessary to obtain cash, as cash was 
necessary to buy leather and salt. When they had a barrel ready they 
would start for Kettle Creek with wagon and oxen ; a trip that occupied 
thirty hours then, if they did not camp out at night. Crossing the 
Thames was a dangerous proceeding even then, and the Squire has 
seen oxen, wagon, barrels and driver swimming that river. 

Pioneer Mails. Daniel Springer settled in Delaware in 1797, 
and soon after was appointed postmaster, this being the only office 
between Sandwich and Burford, or in a distance of 160 miles. In 
1816, an office was established at McGregor's Creek, Chatham, with 
Wm. McCrea, master. Two Frenchmen, the Souggnay brothers, 
strong and very energetic men, carried the mail from Sandwich to 
Toronto once a month, while Wm. McGuffin, a short Irishman, 
-carried the mail from Delaware to Burford. Mail for Westminster or 
London had to be called for at Delaware; but about 1825 mail 
(newspaper) was left at Nathan Griffith's Hotel, in Westminster. 
Prior to the establishment of the London office, Capt. Thomas 
Lawrason kept the office in his small store, 120 rods east of the 
bridge, on the London and Byron road ; then came Ira Scofield, who 
was the first postmaster at London. John Harris filled the office 
later during Goodhue's suspension. In these old times a payment of 
six shillings was often demanded for the delivery of some loving 
message from beyond the ocean, while smaller sums were charged for 
letters from America, as the settlers then styled the United States. 

The postmasters in 1831 were Charles Berczy, at Amherstburg ; 
Joseph Defried, of Bayham; Geo. Goodhue, of London; John 


Bostwick, of Port Stanley ; F. L Walsh, of Vittoria, and K. McKenny,. 
of Yarmouth. The rates of postage were four and a-half pence, not 
exceeding 60 miles; sevenpence, not exceeding 100; ninepence, not 
exceeding 200, and twopence for every additional 100 miles. 

In 1839, J. P. Bellairs was postmaster at Amiens, where one mail 
was received every week ; J. K. McKnight, at Bayham ; W. Merigold, 
at Beach ville ; W. Whitehead, at Burford ; Wilson Mills, at Delaware ; 
Wm. Sparling, at Ekfrid: J. Matheson, at Embro; K. Brown, at 
Kateville ; G. J. Goodhue, at London ; I. Adamson, at McGillivray ; 
A. Meyer, at McKillop; N. Eagles, at Middletown; G. Gibbs, at 
Mosa ; Thomas Wallace, at Norwich ; J. H. Cornell, at Otterville ; C. 
Ingersoll, at Oxford ; John Burwell, at Port Burwell ; A. Jenkins, at 
Port Dover; J. Bostwick, at Port Stanley; M. Burwell, at Port 
Talbot; J. Cowan, at Princeton; E. Ermatinger, at St. Thomas; D. 
Campbell, at Simcoe ; J. N. Daly, at Stratford ; Joseph Patterson, at 
Tyrconnell ; Thomas Jenkins, at Vienna ; S. McCall, at Vittoria ; A. 
McClellan, at Walsingham ; C. E. Nixon, at Warwick ; T. S. Short, at 

London Neighborhood in 1818. Thomas Webster, writing from 
Newbury, Dec. 5, 1878, speaks of London as he saw it sixty years 
before, thus : " In the summer and fall of 1818 the people commenced 
crossing the river a half-mile below the Forks, by means of a canoe 
kept by one Montague, or by fording when the water was low. The 
travellers would halt at Montague's Flats, afterwards called Kent's 
Flats (west of the North Branch), to refresh themselves and their 
cattle. The forest along the banks had a grand and imposing appear- 
ance, and especially so on a fine evening when the setting sun cast its 
mellow rays on the deep green foliage of the trees on the elevated 
landscape, or on the tinted leaves of every hue, in the fall of the 
year. At such times the scene was grand beyond the powers of des- 
cription. The writer sat down at his first London camp fire in com- 
pany with his father's family and Thomas Belton, March 18, 1819, on 
the lownlme between the Gore of London and Dorchester, nor far 
north of where the Grand Trunk E. E. crosses the bridge at the Town- 
line road I visited the Town plot in quest of game, and the Forks 
i quest of fish. The ground on which the city is now built, was then 
covered with a dense, dark forest ; north of Dundas street, and in some 
ces south of it, was a thick pinery. Behind where the old barracks 
were built, and on the rising land north of the old fair grounds, and off 
the little stream, then called English's Creek, which runs into Lake 
T' H Was f a he ^ v growth of oak, maple, and beech; while down 
the direction of the railroad station was hard wood mixed with pine ; 
more especially so to the east. In the vicinity of Strong's hotel was a 

ri If?' SWai ? P ' rUnnlD f tOWard the old tanneries w est of the 
H I Y m ? Places the sma11 brush w d stood very 

nnovina Z^S^S Cree P ers and vi ^> often presenting a very 
Qoymg obstruction to the eager hunter. Along the banks of both 



rivers the wild plum, hawthorn, crab-apple, and grape, grew in abund- 
ance. The waters were literally swarming with fish, and the eddies 
were often covered with wild ducks. In the brush might be heard 
the drumming of the partridge, the calls of the magnificent wild turkey, 
or low breathing of the timid deer or less welcome growling of the 
black bear, the screeching of the wild cat, the hooting of owls, and the 
terrific howling of packs of ravenous wolves, whose unharmonious 
chorus frequently made night hideous. The Indians in large numbers 
used to encamp at the forks of the river. They navigated the rivers 
with their bark canoes, and roamed through the forest. London and 
its surroundings was then and had been for generations, the Indian's 
favorite hunting ground ; but a change was at hand. The poor red- 
man and his family had now about nine years grace. The white man 
was to come with his axe, and the forest about the Forks, as well as 
at other places, was to melt away like snow ; the game to depart, and 
the whole scene to change. Long lines of buildings now raise their 
stately fronts where then stood the wigwam, and where the primeval 
forest then towered; busy men and women with pale faces now 
traverse the streets. There the Indian then tracked his game through 
the deep woods amid silence and solitude ; but now he, too, like the 
deer, has nearly vanished from the land." 

The Court House and Gaol, at Vittoria, near Long Point, having 
been destroyed by fire, it was thought desirable that the new buildings 
should be erected in a more central position. The district was very 
large. London being nearly the central point between its eastern and 
western boundaries, a struggle for the location of the new buildings 
here commenced. Mayor Schofied, Edward Allan, Talbot and others 
pushed the claims of London, and won. A considerable portion of 
the town plot, at the forks, was immediately surveyed into half acre 
lots, to be granted free to all mechanics who would clear off the lot, 
and erect thereon a frame house 18x24 feet, one and a-half story 
high. Mr. McGregor put up the first housB; others followed, and 
within a few weeks a small frame house was built, for court-room and 
prison, and the first court held therein in January, 1827. 

A Wolf Story. In other pages reference is made to the hunting 
exploits of Abraham Patrick, and other pioneers, as well as to the 
Indian hunters. Here, however, is given a quaint story of an 
adventure with a wolf ; by men who were not hunters, and knew 
comparatively little of the wild animals which then inhabited the 
forests. Hiram Dell tells the following story : " I caught another 
very large wolf about half a mile back in the woods, and he brought 
the trap clear up to the barn, but being unable to climb the fence, he 
sought shelter under a log-heap, where I found him. I called to a 
neighbor to bring his trap and dogs, as I had a wolf in a log-heap. He 
and other neighbors, with their wives, were soon on the ground to see 
the fun. One neighbor set his trap, and, crawling into the log heap, 
placed it on one of the wolfs feet ; then the animal was drawn out. 



The dogs attacked him, and it would have done you good to see the 
fur fly. When the wolf had one dog down the other two were on his 
back. He would then let the under dog go, and take another one 
down ; still, the dogs had the advantage, as there were three of them, 
and the wolf had two traps attached to him. After awhile the wolf 
laid down, and when the dogs would come near he would snap at 
them. My neighbor said, ' I will soon fix him so he cannot bite the 
dogs !' and, getting a stick, placed it on the wolfs neck, so as to give 
the dogs a chance to take him by the throat. In doing this the stick 
broke, and the neighbor fell with his head on the wolfs head. Both 
were terrified. The neighbor's wife's scream scared the wolf, and, 
perhaps, the husband, for he made the fastest move in getting away 
he was ever known to make in his life. I ultimately shot the 
animal, which stood three feet high, and weighed over one hundred 

Colored Settlers and Visitors. The Wilberforce Colored Colony 
was located. near Lucan, in the thirties, by friendly Quakers of Ohio, 
and thenceforward Canada became the Mecca of the slaves. The settle- 
ment of refugee slaves along the Thames, from London to Lake St. Glair, 
dates back to 1849, when the underground railroad was first conceived in 
the United States. Between the years 1856 and 1859, this remarkable 
railroad, without rails, conducted large numbers of negroes into this 
western district. It is related that in January, 1859, the famous John 
Brown set out for Canada with twelve refugee slaves, and on March 12, 
that year, arrived here with them, three or four of whom reside still 
along the Thames. During the trip from Missouri, the famous 
abolitionist had many adventures, one of which, known as "The 
Battle of the Spurs," gave Brown a decisive victory. 

A Refugee Chapel and Alms House were established at London by 
the Colonial Society, of which the Rev. I. Hellmuth had charge, and 
by other methods the plan of driving the States to civil war was for- 
warded here ; while the refugees were fairly treated. 

John Brown at London. In May, 1858, John Brown, with his 
abolition lieutenants, T. H. Kagi and A. D. Stevens, resided in 
anada, passing their leisure hours at London or Hamilton, and their 
working hours at Chatham, drafting the constitution of their pro- 
posed provisional government for the United States. Toward the 
close of the month, an abolitionist, then in Congress, advised Brown 
that his plans were all exposed, and he at once returned to Kansas. 
About this time, Pat Devlin, of Missouri, applied the term Jayhawks 
to Brown and his ^ followers, and the name soon came into general use. 

Early Marriage Laws. Among the aborigines, prior to the 
coming of the French, and among the tribes which did not at once 
become associated with the religion of the great missionary fathers, 
marriage was a simple affair the dusky maiden flying to the wigwam 
oi her lover from her parent's lodge. Wherever the Recollet or the 
Jesuit had established a Mission, the case was changed, for both the 



red and white people within range felt the necessity of religious 
ceremony. In July, 1620, the first marriage ceremony, that of 
Guillaume Couillard, to Guillmet Hebert, was recorded in the first 
register of the first French Parish. On Oct. 7, 1 637, Jean Nicolet 
married Marguerite Couillard, at Qiiebec, a daughter of said Guillaume 
and Guillmet Couillard. 

In later years, when the British obtained power here, the 
regimental chaplain was looked upon by the troops and Protestant 
settlers as the proper person to administer the ceremony; but the 
chaplain was not often present, and so the duty devolved on one of 
the officers of the garrison. This was the rule at the Niagara Post, 
and, indeed, wherever the British troops formed a garrison. Simcoe's 
Parliament, held at Newark (Niagara), in 1793, took cognizance of 
this state of affairs, and passed a law to validate all such marriages. 
At this time there was not one Protestant clergyman (in what is now 
Ontario), so that this act confirmed all marriages performed by 
magistrates, colonels, adjutants, or regimental surgeons. At this time, 
also, persons living farther away than eighteen miles from a Church of 
England minister, were permitted to apply to a neighboring Justice of 
the Peace, who would, for a one shilling fee, give public notice of the 
intended marriage, and then unite the couple according to Church of 
England form. In 1798, ministers of the Church of Scotland, 
Lutheran or Calvinist Church, were allowed to celebrate. Such 
ministers were bound to appear before six magistrates to prove their 
ordination, and take the oath of allegiance, before they could solemnize 
marriage, and were further required to have one of the parties to the 
marriage prove that he or she was a member of his particular church 
for six months prior to date set for the marriage ceremony. This act, 
as well as that of 1793, provided for the record of all marriages with 
the Clerk of the Peace ; but evidently made the Church of England 
its own recorder. In 1821, marrying without the publication of 
banns, was made a criminal offence. 

In 1831 another act was approved, providing for the confirmation 
of marriages performed up to that time by magistrates, military officers 
or clergymen, who acted under authority of the former acts. The early 
system is fairly exemplified by 'the following formal document, bearing 
date April 8, 1823, which tells the interesting little legend : " Whereas 
Alphonso McKnight, of the Township of Woodham, and Margaret 
Staiidon, of the Township of Middleton, are desirous of intermarrying 
with each other, and there being no parson or minister of the church 
within eighteen miles, &c., &c., I declare them legally joined, &c." 

An account of the marriage of Thomas Carling, affords another 
good example of the legal requirements of pioneer time. In October, 
1820, this settler introduced to his new home, Margaret, daughter of 
Thomas Eoutledge, of the same township as his wife. Previous to 
the consummation of this interesting ceremony, notice of a novel 
character had been given. There were no marriage licenses readily 



obtainable in these days, and the bond was written on paper and 
tacked to a tree by the roadside. This was rendered necessary in 
consequence of the absence of ministers of the Gospel, and the rite was 
performed by Col. Burwell, J. P., and Squire Springer, of Delaware. 
The marriage thus recorded is said to have been the first of any two 
white persons in the Township of London, north of the Thames. The 
identical beech tree on which the notice of the bond of union between 
Thomas Carling and Margaret Eoutledge was tacked, still stands on 
Lot 20, or what is generally known as Quaker Wright's Hill, in London 

Prior to 1831, the Church of England and Church of Scotland 
ministers, with Lutheran and Calvinist ministers (the latter only foi 
a few years), were the only clergymen who could legally celebrate 
marriage in Upper Canada. In that year the privilege was extended 
to Presbyterians, Baptists, Congregationalists, Methodists, Menonites, 
Tunkers, Moravians, and Independents, so that the great reservation 
of the Church of England was, so to speak, parcelled out among dis- 
senting bodies. It must be remembered, however, that under treaty 
rights, the Catholic missionaries and secular priests could administer the 
sacrament of matrimony in their districts. During the days of religious 
intolerance, Elder Eyan, Eev. S. B. Smith, and Elder Sawyer, all 
Methodists, were accused of marrying persons without legislative 
authority, and so fled the country or were tried for the misdemeanor. 
In July, 1818, a Methodist Irishman named Henry Eyan, was indicted 
for marrying Benj. Davis and Hannah McPherson, without first having 
obtained permission from the English Church authorities. This crime 
was such a serious matter seventy years ago, that the "gentlemen 
magistrates " sent the unfortunate preacher to jail to await the judg- 
ment of the Assize Court. 

On May 31, 1814, five persons were appointed to issue marriage 
licenses for Upper Canada. The agents for issuing marriage licenses 
in 1839 in the Western Peninsula were John Harris, of London; 
Wm. Cosgrove, of Chatham; John Burwell, of Port Burwell; 
Murdock McKenzie, of St. Thomas, and Alex. Wilkinson, of Sandwich. 

The Moravians of early days never selected a wife no chance was 
given them. God was their great designer, and to him they left the 
The manner in which their God made the selection was crude 
indeed. One of the missionaries brought forth a cylindrical tin case ; 
this he placed bark or paper slips, with the names of all the male 
jandidates for matrimony. Another missionary brought forth a similar 
tin case in which were tickets, each bearing the name of a marriage- 
able girl. Number one case would be thoroughly shaken up, when the 
missionary would extract a ticket and read the name aloud. Number 
two case was similarly treated and the girl's name called out; both 
ckets would then be examined and witnessed, the nuptials proclaimed 
and the wedding banquet spread. 

The Eoger Bates' memoir, in the Dominion Library, brings up 


memories of old-time marriages. "The mode of courting in those 
days," says he, " was a good deal of the Indian fashion. The buxom 
daughter would run through the trees and bushes, and pretend to get 
away from the lover ; but somehow or other he managed to catch her, 
gave her a kiss; and they soon got married, I rather think, by a 
magistrate. Time was too valuable to make a fuss about such matters. 
In preparing for the journey to the magistrate's house or cabin, they 
generally furnished themselves with tomahawks and implements to 
defend themselves, and to camp out, if required. The ladies had no 
white dresses to spoil, or fancy bonnets. With deer skin petticoats, 
homespun gowns, and, perhaps, squirrel skin bonnets, they looked 
charming in the eyes of their lovers, who were rigged out in similar 
materials. I have heard my mother say, that a magistrate, rather 
than disappoint a happy couple who had walked twenty miles, made 
search throughout the house, and luckily found a pair of old English 
skates, to which was attached a ring. With this he proceeded, and 
fixing the ring on the young woman's finger, reminded her, that, 
though a homely substitute, she must continue to wear it, otherwise 
the ceremony would be dissolved." 

Pioneer Cabins. The log cabins of the pioneers were designed by 
circumstances. The first builders of such cabins in Ontario were exiles 
from the New Eepublic, who knew all about such structures ; for then, 
in the North Atlantic States, cabins were the rule rather than the 
exception. They were raised by members of the family, and usually 
all the adult males of a settlement would be present to assist in adding 
another home to the few in the wilderness. 

How natural to turn our thoughts back to the log-cabin days of 
this section, and contrast with the present. Let us enter this cabin 
dwelling. With reverence we bow the head in presence of this relic 
of ancestral beginnings and pioneer battles with the wilderness. There 
is the wide hearth, with back-log remains, in whose deep recess a school 
might play hide-and-go-seek and count the stars through a chimney, as 
through a great telescope. Ah, long ago, how many sat 'round the 
cheerful fire listening in awe to the communal story-teller as he spoke 
of ghosts and giants, and wise-men and witches, and to the visiting 
hunter, whose tales of wolf, and bear, and Indian, would make the 
listening family hold their breath and their hair stand out like porcu- 
pine quills. There, hanging on the old crane, is the tea kettle, and the 
pot of all work. The shovel and tongs stand in their accustomed 
places, and the andirons are still there ; above hangs the rifle ; here is 
the spinning wheel ; there is the loom, a pine table white as snow, a 
dresser with rows of pewter plates, some wooden cups and relics of a 
long list of china ware, strings of dried apples and poles of drying 
pumpkins, with a few puncheon seats complete the main hall. In a 
curtained corner is mother's bed ; while a rude ladder leads up to an 

NOTE. The early marriage record, instructive on account of the number of names and 
dates given, has been separated from this chapter, and appears elsewhere in this volume. 



attic where the children sleep. Hail ! old cabin ; never again shall 
such happiness exist as blessed your builders and sustained them in 
the wilderness. Many of those spirits, who led the way to teeming 
wealth and sunny prosperity, though dead, live again. Many of the 
dramatis personce of the prelude have disappeared ; but the drama is 
still on the stage, and will appear thereon until humanity ceases to 
exist ; when the heavens refuse light. The actors, singers, columbines, 
and spirits of the past are playing on far away boards ; but their songs 
and acts are repeated by others, and out of the darkness new foot-lights 
are advanced, new shades, new scenery, new dress all things new. 
But the hard hands that prepared the way for fruitful fields, for cities 
and towns, and churches and schools, and all other evidences of pro- 
nounced progress, are folded away in mother earth, leaving us in pos- 
session of material wealth, and teaching us the lesson when, where and 
how civilization was introduced into this wilderness. 




In this chapter the story of the beginning of the various churches,, 
now represented in the county, is told, and their establishment 
sketched, leaving the history of their progress to be given in that of 
the townships, cities or incorporated towns, where such organizations 
exist to-day. In a civilized country the Church is generally 
contemporary with settlements, and for this reason the chapter holds 
the next place to that dealing with the first occupation of this district 
by white people. 

The Catlwlic Church The Catholic Church in Upper Canada dates 
back to 1615, when four missionaries came with Champlain. One, at 
least, was a Recollet priest, Rev. Joseph Le Caron, and he it was, who, 
in 1615-16, accompanied the Governor in his tour round Canada, via 
the Ottawa, Nippissing, Georgian Bay, and the chain of lakes and 
rivers, from Lake Huron to the St. Lawrence, via Lake Simcoe. He 
is said to have established a Mission near the foot of Lake Huron. 
Eight years after, Father Nicholas Veil and Brother Gabriel Sagard 
traversed the same district, and in 1634 the Jesuit fathers, Breboeuf 
and Daniel, established a Mission on Lake Huron shore among the 
Hurons, with whom they travelled from Quebec, where the Hures 
were visiting. The Abbe D'Urfe and venerable Dolliere de Kleus, of 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice, established their Mission at the Bay of 
Quinte about this time, and still later, the Chapel on Lake Huron,, 
where la Riviere Aux Saubles was founded, and, it is said, another at 
the Straits, just north of Sarnia, about the time Fort St. Joseph was 
established, where the village of Fort Gratiot now stands. In June, 
1G71, De Courcelles sent messages to the Indian Missions in Ontario 
advising them of his approach, and in 1673, Frontenac was received 
by the Abbe D'Urfe, and the chiefs of the Five Nations, at the Bay 
of Quinte. 

In the second decade of this country, Edourd Petit, of Black River, 
discovered the ruins of an ancient building on the Riviere Aux Saubles, 
about forty miles from Sarnia. Pacing the size, he found it to have 
been 40x24 feet on the ground. On the middle of the south or gable 
end, was a chimney eighteen feet high, in excellent preservation, built 
of stone, with an open fire-place. The fire-place had sunk below the 
surface. This ruin had a garden surrounding it, ten or twelve rods, 
wide by twenty rods in length, marked by ditches and alleys Inside 
the walls of the house a splendid oak had grown to be three feet in 
diameter, with a stem sixty feet high to the first branch. It seemed 
to be of second growth, and must have been 150 years reaching its. 


proportions, as seen in 1828-9. Onicknick, an aged Saguenay chief 
(84 years old), told Petit that a white man built the house at the time 
his great-great-great-great grandfather lived, and that white people 
lived then in all the country around, who sold every article for a 
peminick or dollar. Onicknick also stated that the men were not 
French ; but beyond this, he could not give any testimony more than 
the ruin conveyed.* 

On the Wye Kiver, north of Penetanguishene, at old Michili- 
mackinack and other places, permanent or temporary missions had 
been established prior to the beginning of the eighteenth century ; 
while the great mission at Ogdensburg or Soegasti was established in 
1748 by Abbe Picquet, "The Apostle of the Iroquois." 

Early in the eighteenth century can be found traces of regularly 
appointed Catholic missioners among the Otchipwas and white settlers 
along both banks of the St. Glair River, over a century after the 
Reverends Dollier and Galivree visited the locality 1670-1, who are 
said to have made a stay at the Champlain Mission opposite Fort 
Gratiot, or in that vicinity. In 1786, Nelson Roberts, who visited the 
Red River country that year, reported having seen a priest among the 
Indians of the Black River and St. Glair, and recorded this report on 
liis return to Montreal. Assistant Surgeon Taylor, U. S. A., writing 
in 1871, from Fort Gratiot, says: "The location of the Recollet 
mission in this vicinity is uncertain. According to Bell's History of 
Canada^ it was an important one, and known as Ste. Marie. As the 
Jesuits had one also of the same name located among the Hurons at 
the head of Georgian Bay, it would seem that some confusion has 
arisen in relation to these missions, both as to their importance and 
position. Judge Campbell is of the opinion that the Recollet mission 
was located on the present site of Sarnia." 

In 1728, the Mission at Pointe de Montreal was founded by Pere 
de la Richardie. Prior to this date, for twenty-six years, the Mission 
of St. Anne, at Detroit, existed. In 1733, a church building was 
erected at Sandwich, but within the succeeding decade another house 
was erected on Bois Blanc, sixteen miles down the river, with Pere 
Potier in charge; but in 1747, the founder of the Mission, at Pointe 
de Montreal, returned, and rebuilt the Church of 1733. In 1757 he 
accompanied a band of Hurons to their selected huntin^ grounds in 
the neighborhood of where Tiffin, 0, now stands; but the following 
year settled among the Illinois, in which nation he died in 1758 The 
present church of Sandwich dates back to 1760, when the Mission was 
established. Father Potier, who resumed charge in 1757 of the 
on Church continued pastor there until his death in 1781. Father 
Hubert succeeded, who served this Parish and that of St. Anne's until 
i/, witn father Frechette assisting. About 1789 Rev F X 

b^^vtfSS^'S^^^^*? with due allowance forerror. The 
sionaries or adventurers. Onickr :k w** mM^f.^% ^i 161 ^ 6 ?' ex cept French mis- 




Dufaux was appointed pastor, and served until his death, Sept. 12, 
1796. Other priests succeeded. In 1803, the Parish of St. Peter, on 
the Thames, and one at Maiden, were established, with which the 
names of Rev. T. B. Marchant and his assistant priests, with those 
of Pere Badin and Father Angus MacDonnell, were connected for 
many years. In 1820, Father Besrinquet arrived from Quebec, and 
erected a small church building on Walpole Island. On his leaving 
for the Lake Superior county, Father Sagelle was appointed, and in 
1833, the celebrated Austrian, Father Vizoiski, took his place. 

The founder of the English-speaking congregations in Ontario was 
a man of rare power, physically and mentally. His life is a part of 
the history of the Dominion, and for that reason a synopsis of it is 
given here. Bishop Alexander McDonnell was born in Glengary, 
Scotland, in 1760. In his youth it was a penal offence to attend a 
Catholic school, even as it was to preside over or support one, so that 
his classical education had to be obtained at Valladolid, Spain. In 
1790, he returned to his native country with the order of priesthood, 
and went to work to re-establish the proscribed religion among his 
people in the northern Parish of Badenoch, and in the city of Glasgow. 
That the law and narrow bigotry of those days countenanced this 
action, is the greatest testimonial to his zeal and accomplishments. 
This Scottish priest joined Lord McDonnell's regiment of Glengary 
Fencibles, and served against the patriots, winning victories by 
'Christian methods, and saving the desperate people from cruelties, 
such as other regiments inflicted. Through his influence this Catholic 
regiment was recruited in Scotland, and the second Glengary Fencible 
Regiment was raised in Canada to repel the American invasion in 
1812. Bishop McDonnell came to Canada as a priest in 1804, was 
consecrated Bishop of Kingston in 1822, and died in Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland, in 1840. His body laid in St. Mary's Church, Edinburgh, 
until 1862. when it was brought to Kingston, where it rests in the 
Cathedral. In 1804, there were only two Catholic priests in Ontario, 
one of whom deserted his mission that year, and the other would not 
leave his district of Sandwich, so that, in fact, the great Bishop at one 
time travelled throughout Ontario visiting his co-religionists, among 
whom were many U. E. Loyalists. 

The Catholic Church clergy of 1831, were Rev. Joseph Fluett, of 
Amherstburg, and Rev. Joseph Crevier, of Sandwich and Rochester. 
The venerable Bishop McDonnell, of Glengary, is said to have visited 
the London district once or twice during this year. The Catholic clergy 
in London and Western district in 1839, were Rev. M. R. Mills, of 
London; Edmund Yvelin, of Sandwich, and Augustin Vervais, of 
Amherstburg. In 1843-56 the Jesuit fathers, Point, Choue, Duvan- 
quet, Chazelle, Jaffre, Menet, Tevard, Grunot, Mainguy, and Conil- 
leau, attended this large mission field, and after them came the bishops 
and priests who have built up a great diocese of over one hundred 


The history of the Church within the County of Middlesex dates 
back to 1833-4, when the old log house of worship was erected on the 
corner of Richmond and Maple streets, and dedicated by Father 
Downie, of St. Thomas, in 1834. For a decade the Catholic people of 
London were visited by priests from Toronto, St. Peter or Sandwich, 
such as Father Schneider, the Apostle of the Huron nation. 

Rev. M. E. Mills was appointed pastor of St. Thomas, June 6, 1843, 
his district embracing the townships of Yarmouth, Southwold, Mala- 
hide, and territory adjacent on the east as well as other parts of the 
Diocese of Toronto, to which pastors were not appointed. In September 
Bishop Power visited St. Thomas and London, and on the 20th extended 
the former mission so as to include concessions 7, 8, and 9, of West- 
minster. In December, 1844 Father Mills was appointed to attend the 
townships of Westminster and London, this appointment being made 
about one year after the Bishop's visit. In 1847 is found the name 
of Rev. P. O'Dwyer; in 1849 that of Rev. John Carroll, and on April 
19, 1849, of Rev. Thadeus Kirwan. On June 29, 1851, Bishop De 
Charbonnel, of Toronto, confirmed 130 persons at London, and 85 at 
the church of St. Lawrence. In 1854, Rev. P. Crinnon presided over 
the parish. Rev. Mr. Carroll, named above, was, in 1885, the oldest 
priest in the United States. He was bom in Maryborough, Ireland, 
June 30, 1798 ; came to America in 1817 ; was ordained at Quebec 
by Bishop Edmund Burke, June 29, 1820, and served the Church 
in Canada until 1869, when he was removed to Chicago, 111. 

The Diocese of London was erected February 21, 1856, and on the 
29th day of that month the Papal Bulls were addressed to the Rev. 
Peter Adolphus Pinsonneault, Priest of the Society of St. Sulpice, 
Montreal, naming him first Bishop of the new See. Bishop Pinsonneault 
was born in the year 1815, and made his studies in the College of 
Montreal. There also he took the ecclesiastical habit, but proceeded to 
Paris to complete his theological studies. It was in that city that he 
was raised to the priesthood in 1840. Returning to America soon 
after his ordination, he served the Church for many years in Montreal, 
and was consecrated there May 18th, Trim'ty Sunday, 1856, and was 
installed Bishop of London June 29th following, the record being 
signed by Armandus, F. M., Bishop of Toronto ; John, Bishop of 
Hamilton ; T. T. Kirwan ; Edward Bayard ; Louis Musard. 

The new bishop found little in the London Town of 1856 with 
which to be satisfied, and so urged the Church authorities to transfer 
the Episcopal See to Sandwich, and a brief agreeable to his views was 
issued February 2, 1859. For some months prior to this date Bishop 
Pinsonneault was visiting in EuropeBishop FarreU, of Hamilton, 
being Administrator from September 19, 1858, to the spring of 1859. 
In May, 1857, the title of Vicar-General was conferred on Rev. P. 
Point, Superior of the Jesuits of Sandwich, and on Revs. J. M. 
Soulerm and J. M. Bruyere, of Toronto. When Bishop Pinsonneault 
retired in 1867, the latter was appointed Administrator ~of the Diocese, 



which position he filled until the installation of Bishop Walsh at 
Sandwich, November 14, that year. The official record of that cere- 
mony of installation bears the signatures of the Bishops of Hamilton 
and Kingston, and of Geo. Baby, Mayor of Sandwich, besides those of 
the following clergy: J. M. Bruyere, V. G, Sandwich; J. F. Jamot, 
V. G., Toronto ; Conilleau, S. J. ; "Michel, S. J. ; Dean Crinnon, P. D. 
Laurent, Amherstburg ; B. G. Soffers, St. Anne's, Detroit ; G. Limpens, 
Detroit; E. Ouellette, Director College of St. Hyacinths; E. B. Kilroy, 
Sarnia ; James Farrelly, Belleville ; F. P. Eooney, Toronto, and Jos, 
Bayard, of Sandwich. 

In January, 1868, the new bishop removed the Episcopal resi- 
dence from Sandwich to London, and on the 15th of November,. 
1869, procured from the Propaganda a decree making London once 
more the Episcopal See of the Diocese. Bishop Walsh was on his- 
accession to the See of Sandwich confronted with many grave diffi- 
culties. The Diocese was involved in debt to the extent of $40,000,. 
for which enormous liability little or nothing could be shown. What 
resulted ? From 1867 to 1885 no less a sum than $952,798 was- 
raised for Diocesan purposes ; since increased to over $1,500,000, 
Throughout the Diocese church buildings, worthy of Him to Whom 
they are dedicated, are to be seen on every side ; while in the centre- 
rises a temple that would do credit to a city of one million of people. 
Eeferring to Father Coffey's sketch of the Catholic Church of London, 
published in 1885, Eev. E. E. Stimson, of the English Church of 
Toronto, in his " History of the Separation of Church and State in 
Canada," says : " From it can be obtained a very fair apprehension of 
the progress made by Catholics in this part of Canada, unaided by any- 
thing but fidelity to their cause, and willing, faithful hearts. Contrast 
the past with the present voluntaryism, with the endowed pulpit from 
which have proceeded warnings since it first received preachers !" The 
history of the churches, orphanages, hospitals, convent schools and 
colleges of this Diocese would make a large volume, reading like 
romance, while real beyond measure. 

English Church in Canada. The first clergyman of the English 
Church was Eev. John Ogilvie, D. D., a British army chaplain, who 
accompanied his regiment to Fort Niagara in 1759, when the French 
lost that position. He died in 1774 while pastor of Trinity Church, 
N. Y., and was followed in Canada by Eev. John Doughty, in 1777, 
immediately after the English Churches in the American colonies were 
closed by the American authorities. He was missionary at Sorel in 
1784, having previously served in Canada as Chaplain of the King's 
Eoyal Eegiment of New York. 

The first Protestant clergyman, who can lay claim to the title of 
being a resident pastor, was the Eev. John Stuart, a son of one of the 
early Irish settlers, of Harrisburg, Pa. Although his two brothers 
joined the American army, Mr. Stuart sympathized with the British, 
and so thought it prudent to leave the States. In September, 1781, 


he was in New Brunswick, and in 1783, at Montreal, and in 1785, at 
Cataraqui. In 1789 he was appointed Bishop's Commissionary, for 
what is now Ontario. His death took place in 1811, at Kingston, 

Rev. Robert Addison came in 1790, as a missionary from the 
Society for Propagating the Gospel. He was army chaplain for a 
short time at Niagara, and a visitor among the Grand River Indians. 
Added to this, he speculated in lands, and for thirty years, prior to 
1823, was Chaplain of Parliament. Rev. Mr. Pollard came in 1791, 
and later, Rev. J. Langhorn, who returned to England at the beginning 
of the troubles of 1812, so as to escape the Americans, of whose 
"blood-thirsty disposition" he entertained strange ideas. The first 
English Protestant Church was erected at Kingston in 1793. In 
1792, however, the Protestants and Catholics worshipped in turn in 
Navy Hall, or the Council Chamber there. The second English 
Church building in Ontario was that at Belleville, 1819-20, presided 
over by Mr. Campbell, which was used up to 1858. Rev. John 
Cochrane and Rev. John Grier may be named among the old pastors 
of that old church. In 1793, Rev. Dr. Jehosaphat Mountain was 
sent out from England as first Protestant Bishop of all Canada, with 
his See at Quebec. At that time his church claimed but five 
clergymen in the whole of British North America. 

The ministers of the Church of England, in London district, in 
1831, were Rev. M. Burnham, St. Thomas; Rev. F. Evans, Wood- 
house, and Rev. E. J. Boswell, London. In the Western District were 
Rev. R. Rolph, of Amherstburg ; Wm. Johnson, of Sandwich, and T. 
Morley of Chatham. In 1832, Rev. Benj. Crony n was appointed 
Rector of St. Paul's, London, while Rev. D. E. Blake was placed in 
charge of the Adelaide Church, the congregation there being formed 
that year. On July 12, 1836, a letter from the Governor's Secretary 
informed the magistrates that five ministers of the Church were then 
established in the district. 

Rev. Mr. Macintosh, the first English Church minister in this 
vicinity, presided at Kettle Creek or St. Thomas, and, in early years, 
held services in Wm. Geary's barn on Lot 14, Con. 5, London, whose 
wife, Miss Jones, herself the daughter of an Irish Protestant minister, 
was always ready to welcome such gospel messengers. In 1829, Rev! 
. N. Boswell came to take charge of London, and established St 
Paul's parish. 

Under date January 16, 1830, Mahlon Burwell writes to Rev 
Edward J. Boswell, minister of London : " The receipt of your favor 
respecting the want of a house in which to perform Divine service 
and requesting permission to use the Court-room, is acknowledged' 
The magistrates instruct me to inform you that, as the Court-house is 
the property of the district, erected for the only purpose of accommo- 
dating His Majesty's Courts of Law in the administration of justice 
they do not conceive that they possess the right of granting vou your* 



In April, 1831, the Court granted permission to Eev. Mr. Boswell 
to hold Divine service in the house intended for a public school house 
at London; later the order was rescinded. In 1832, Eev. Benj. 
Cronyn was appointed Eector, and in 1835 a small frame church was 
built near the present custom-house. This was burned in 1844, and a 
new building soon took its place. 

The ministers of the Church of England in London District, in 
1839, were Win. Betteridge, of Woodstock ; D. Blake, of Adelaide ; 
M. Burnham, of St. Thomas ; Benj. Cronyn, of London ; Eichard 
Hood, of Caradoc ; T. Petrie, travelling missionary ; John Eadcliffe, 
of Warwick ; J. Eothwell, of Ingersoll. In the Western District were 
J. 0'Meara ; of Sault Ste. Marie; Hugh H. O'Neil, travelling 
missionary ; T. B. Fuller, Chatham ; Fred. Mack, Amherstburgh. 

The Anglican Churches of 1842-3 were St. Anne's Kateville, and 
tenth concession buildings in Adelaide, the Caradoc Church, the 
Delaware Church, St. Paul's at London, St. John's in London Town- 
ship at Arva, and the church at Strathroy. 

In the report of the Church Society of the Diocese of Toronto, 
made in 1842-3, it is written that the donations of land in the London 
District to the Church amounted to 1,877 acres, of which J. B. Askin 
gave 46; H. L. Askin, 35; Col. M. Burwell, 1,096; Eev. Benja- 
min Cronyn, James Givens, G. J. Goodhue, L. Lawrason and John 
Williams, 100 acres each, and T. Phillips, 200 acres. Penny's grant 
of 100 acres to the Church at Wardsville and smaller grants in West- 
minster and London Townships are unnoticed. 

Eev. Benjamin Cronyn, speaking July 17, 1851, on the prosperity 
of holding land for church purposes, said : "It did not send him into 
a man's vineyard to steal his grapes, or a man's farmyard to milk his 
cows." Eev. J. Winterbotham, in reply, pointed out that church lands 
were not always used for the purposes granted, and said : " I refer 
now to my brother from London, who managed to get an act passed 
through the Provincial Parliament for the sale of his glebe there. I 
asked him whether $2,500 was not realized by the sale of that glebe. 
When a transaction of this nature is seen to take place openly, * * * 
is thus made a matter of speculative sale to feed the grasping avarice 
of those who claim credit for great disinterestedness, then it is time for 
Parliament to interpose." In 1853 the British Parliament authorized 
the Canadian Parliament to vary, or repeal the provisions of the Eeserve 
Fund, and apply the proceeds to any purpose, but not to reduce the 
annual salaries, then paid to ministers of the English and Scotch 
churches, during their lives. This permission drew from " The Lord 
Bishop, Clergy and Lay Delegates of the United Church of England 
and Ireland, in the Province of Canada West, in Synod assembled at 
Toronto, Oct. 26, 1854," a strong protest, but the Canadians over- 
looked this and an act was passed in accordance with the British act, 
and, in 1855, the Lord Bishop Strachan asked his ministers to com- 
mit their claims to the Clergy Eeserve Funds. John Hillyard Cameron 


was "iven power of attorney, by several of such clergymen, to commit 
theirclaims, and in March, 1855, his list of clergy and amount to be 
paid each was approved by Bishop Strachan. In this list the names 
of Revs. D. E. Blake, Michael Boomer, C. C. Brough, A. St. G. Caul- 
field, H. G. Cooper, Ben. Cronyn, R. Flood, John Kennedy, W. Logan, 
J. W. Marsh, T. W. Marsh, A. Mortimer, A. Lampman, all connected 
with Middlesex, occur. The commutation moneys paid to the clergy 
of the Diocese of Huron in 1855, exclusive of Messrs. Blake and others 
who were not here then, amounted to $219,685.52, and this payment 
did not incapacitate any of them from earning the same, or large annual 
salary, from their congregations. 

The first report of the Incorporated Church Society of the Diocese 
of Huron, was presented June 22, 1859. In 1857 the western division 
of the Diocese of- Toronto was so far endowed and preparations for the 
organization of a new diocese so far proceeded with, that the Governor- 
General approved the election of a Bishop ; and in July of that year, 
Rev. Benj. Cronyn was chosen and consecrated October 28, 1857. In 
1858, Hon. M. Foley, M. P., was entrusted with the Bill of Incor- 
poration, to carry it through the House of the Assembly ; while G. J. 
Goodhue introduced it in the Legislative Council. Success waited on 
their efforts, and on July 24, 1858, the Diocese was incorporated. 
Bishop Benj. Cronyn, son of John Cronyn, of Kilkenny City, Ireland, 
was born there in 1802 ; he won the degree of B. A. at Trinity College, 
Dublin, in 1821, and of M. A. in 1824, together with the Regius Pro- 
fessors' prize of that year. In 1825 he was created Deacon, and in 
1826 was ordained at Quam, Ireland. After a six years' curacy in 
Longford County, where he married Miss Bickerstaff, of Lislea, he 
came to Canada in 1832, and was appointed Rector of St. Paul's, 
London. In 1857, Huron Diocese was established with Rev. Mr. 
Cronyn, first Bishop. His death took place here September 22, 1871. 

Among the clergy of 1878, who were in the Diocese at that time, 
were the following named, the date of their connection with church 
work in the old Diocese of Toronto, and their stations being given : 

Wm. Bettridge, B.D. (Canon), 1834, Strathroy; M. Boomer, 
LL.D. (Dean), 1840, London; St. G. Caulfield, LL.D. (Canon), 1848, 
Windsor; F. Gore Elliott, 1837, Sandwich; E. L. Elwood, A.M. 
(Archdeacon), 1849, Goderich; E. Grasett, M.A. (Canon), 1848, 
Simcoe; Andrew Jamieson, 1842, Walpole Island; John Kennedy, 
M.A, 1848, Adelaide; F. Mack, 1839, St. Catharines; J. W. Marsh, 
M.A. (Archdeacon), 1849, London; A. H. R. Mulholland (R. D.), 
1849, Owen Sound; A Nelles (Canon, R. D.), 1829, Brantford; J. 
Padfield (superannuated), 1833, Burford; E. Patterson, M.A. (R. D.), 
1849, Stratford; F. W. Sandys, D.D. (Archdeacon), 1845, Chatham; 
G J. R. Salter, M.A. (Canon), 1847, Brantford; J. Smythe, M.A., 
1854, Shelburne; A. Townley, D.D. (Canon), 1840, Hamilton. 

Among the members at this time were H. C. R. Becher, G. J. 
Goodhue, L. Lawrason, C. Monserrat, John Wilson, Dr. H. Going, 



Eev. E. Gordon, Dr. A. Harpur, Eev. T. Hughes, Dr. Phillips, James 
Stephenson, Eev. J. McLean (curate), W. Watson, S. Peters and J. 
Hamilton. Eev. E. Gordon, named above, presided over the Fugitive 
Mission, in London City, on the Colored People's Mission in 1858 ; 
but he was not here twenty years later when the above list of clergy 
was compiled. 

Bishop Hellmuth was ordained a minister in 1846, created Arch- 
deacon of Huron in 1861, Dean in 1867, Coadjutor-Bishop of Norfolk 
in 1871, and Bishop of Huron the same year, to succeed Bishop 

On November 30, 1883, Very Eev. Maurice S. Baldwin, Dean of 
Montreal, was consecrated Bishop of Huron. 

The Diocese comprises 235 congregations, attended by 123 min- 
isters. Of the numbers given 42 and 25 are respectively credited to 
Middlesex County. 

Presbyterian Church. Eev. John Bethune, a native of Scotland, 
and a minister of the Church of Scotland, who settled at Cornwall, 
Can., about 1780-1, was the second legal clergyman of any Protestant 
denomination who settled in Canada. He died at Williamstown, 
September 23, 1815. Eev. Mr. McDowell succeeded him in the 
active work of the mission in 1799 or 1800, or about the time his 
co-religionist, Dr. Strachan, came hither. Eev. Mr. Smart came in 
1811 ; but by this time Dr. Strachan had joined the English Church, 
so that the field of Presbyterianism was cultivated by Messrs. Bethune 
and McDowell, the latter of whom asked Mr. Smart to assist in the 
work. On May 24, 1888, the celebration of the one-hundredth anni- 
versary of the adoption by New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia or 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Carolina Synods of the Presbyterian 
Congregation of the resolutions for the formation of the first Presby- 
terian General Assembly in America, was held at Philadelphia. As 
early as 1695 the Presbyterians and Baptists began to flourish in 
Philadelphia. Their interests were then so far united that they met 
for worship in the same small building, known as the " Barbadoes Lot 
Store." This fellowship lasted till 1698-99, when the Presbyterians 
imported a permanent minister, the Eev. Jedediah Andrews, from 
New England, and he actually took possession of the pulpit in the 
store to the exclusion of any Baptist minister who might happen to 
<jome along. By this act it was evident to the Baptists that the 
Presbyterians wanted the store for themselves, because of their 
unwillingness to give up the pulpit to Baptist preachers. Or, in 
modern slang, the Presbyterians " froze out " the Baptists a process 
more recently known nearer home. 

Among the early ministers of the Church of Scotland in Middlesex 
were Alex. Eoss, who took the oath of allegiance in January, 1830, 
and Donald Mackenzie, who also took the oath. In 1833 other 
branches of the Church were formed, and from the latter years dates 
the progressive Presbyterianism of the present time. Among the 


names of early Presbyterian preachers are : Alex. Mackenzie, of 
Goderich, 1837 ; Wm. R Sutherland, now residing in Ekfrid, 1848 ; 
Lachlin McPherson, of Ekfrid and Williams, 1846 ; John Scott, Wm. 
Proudfoot, James Skinner ; and of the Scotch congregation, W. 
McKellican, 1833 ; Daniel Allen, 1838 ; Duncan McMillan, of 
Williams, and Dugald McKellar, of Lobo, 1839. 

Presbyterian Marriages. The following marriage contracts were 
recorded by William Proudfoot, a Presbyterian minister of the 
Associate Secession Church : 

Aug. 6, 1833 Neil Ross to Margaret Ross, of London. 

Oct. 1, " William Bell to Matilda Smith, of Stanley. 

Nov. 12, Charles Grant to Eliza McDonald, of London. 

Nov. 14, " Hugh Fraser to Margaret McGregor, of London. 

Nov. 27, Charles W. White to Sarah A. Munro, of London. 

Dec. 11, " Alex. Moince (or Mounts) to Christian Clubb, of Westminster. 

Feb. 15, 1834 Edward Dunn to Elizabeth Grieve, of Lobo. 

Jan. 29, E. A. Thompson to Salina Chisholm, of London. 

Mar. 17, John Sinclair to Eliza Donaldson, of London. 

May 13, Archibald Graham to Flora Graham, of Lobo. 

May 27, Andrew Beattie te Isabella Boston, of Lobo. 

July 7, Andrew Kernahan to Eleanor Wilson, of London. 

July 11, George Laidlaw to Christian Grieve, of Westminster. 

Aug. 1, James Jackson to Isabella Nichol, of Westminster. 

Sept 30, Donald Fraser to Isabella Ross, of Williams. 

Oct. 29, William Quinn to Jane Weir, of Dorchester. 

Nov. 20, James McDonald to Janet Anderson, of Williams. 

Nov. 27, Edward McDonald to Betsy McDonald, of London. 

Mar. 17, 1835 John Quite to Anne Needham, of Nissouri. 

Mar. 27, John Hope to Nancy Lynn, of Southwold. 

April 2, Hugh Barclay to Janet McDonald, of London. 

April 3, Jennetis Nichol to Nancy Laidlaw, of Westminster 

April 23, John McDonald to Hannah McMillan, of London 

April 29, John Wilson to Eliza A. Clark, of London. 

He made record, also, of the following marriages solemnized by him 
in 18o5 7 i 

May 7, 1835 David Jackson to Ann Grieve, of Westminster 

Aug. 10, Robert Smith to Margaret Lomie, of London 

bept. 1, John Norval to Eliza A. Proudfoot, of London 

8 ?Q A 8 ?" 1 M r alt n t0 Elizabeth Thompson, of London. 

Oct. 19, Adam Murray to Jane Beattie, of London 

Nov. 20, Robert Smith to Ann Graham, of Tilburv East 

SeT 15' " * be * S n mith to E1 f"* Graham, of Sry East 

Tan 7'lq Donald Cameron to Janet Ramsay, of London. 
Jan. 7, 1836-David Hughes to Charlotte Mathews, of London 

Hugh Mclntyre to Sarah McNeill, of Williams 

Jan' $ Alexander Campbell to Janet Moore, of Williams. 

Feb Q ' ST g - WV Chri8tina Brown > f L ondon. 

April 12' ' S I*! McK ^ * Mar ar <* Cameron, of Williams. 

Mav p amU ! J^ to Nancv Clark > of London. 

Ju/e 14 wm- wT 8 ? p ^ A " McKe zie, of Zorra. 

ulv 1 '< T Wl1 ! 1 N i agle to * ebe <*a Hart, of Delaware. 

AuJ 9' ^^^ to Jane Bailey, of Stephens. 

lSf ' 10 - H rf M Dona J d J C . hris ^ Bain, of London. 

Sent 8 " W-?r y J t0 A T 6 J ' Mc Spadden, London. 

' 8 " William Grieve to Margaret Beattie, of Westminster 




In 1837 he recorded the following contracts : 

Feb. 17, 1837 Charles Lackey to Elizabeth Middleton, of Westminster. 

Mar. 21, " John Stillson to Elizabeth Scott, of London. 

April 18, " John Diamond to Janet Bremner, of London. 

May 25, " Abner Wilson to Margaret Drummond, of Westminster. 

June 17, " Robert Craig to Melissa Hall, of Nissouri. 

June 29, " Joseph Goodhand to Sarah Craig, of London. 

Aug. 9, " Andrew Allen to Isabella Fraser, of London. 

Nov. 16, " John Barclay to Mary McBain, of London. 

Dec. 8, " John Oliver to Isabella Beattie, of Westminster. 

Eev. James Skinner, of the United Secession Church of Scotland, 
recorded the following marriages in 1835 : 

Jan. 22, 1835 John Meek to Catherine Campbell, of South wold. 

Feb. 4, " Lot Wyllie to Catherine McPherson, of Westminster. 

Mar. 26, " Henry Berry to Susan Burwell, of South wold. 

April 9, " Robert G. Eunson to Hannah Cress, of St. Thomas. 

May 7, " Wm. Buchanan to Mary Sinclair, of Westminster. 

May 18, " Kenneth Juner to Ann Frazer, of St. Thomas. 

Dec. 24, " James Ferguson to Janet Jardine, of St. Thomas. 

With the ahove he solemnized four other marriages at South- 
wold : 

Feb. 2, 1836 John Campbell to Catherine Stewart, of Ekfrid. 

Aug. 18, " Robert McClatchey, of Caradoc, to Mary Storie. 

Aug. 18, " John Law, of Adelaide, to Bridget Holleseme. 

Feb. 15, 1837 John B. Olds, of Brock, to Elizabeth Preston, of Adelaide. 

In 1835, Eev. Wm. Eraser, of the United Associate Secession* 
Presbyterian Church, certified the following contracts : 

June 22 Julia N. Raman to Sarah Manning, of Dorchester. 
July 9 Rupert McDonald to Isabella McDonald, of Stanley. 

Eev. D. McKenzie, of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, united 
the following in marriage : 

Sept. 3, 1834 Joseph Pool to Bethia Witt, of Westminster. 

Feb. " Donald Fraser to Janet Ross, of Williams. 

Feb. 4, " John Mclntosh to Isabella Munro, both of Williams. 

Dec. 28, 1837 Robert McDonald, of Oxford, to Kate McKay, of Nissouri. 

He also joined six couples in matrimony in 1835. 

Baptist Church. Eevs. Joseph Wiem, Turner, Wyner and Elder 
Holts introduced Baptist services into Canada about 1794. 

In April, 1821, a number of families emigrated from South Wales, 
to what was then known as Upper Canada. They crossed the channel 
from Swansea to Bristol, where they waited for the sailing of the 
vessel which was to carry them across the Atlantic to such a home as 
they might be able to make for themselves in the New World. A six 
weeks' voyage landed them in Quebec about the middle of June ; but 
the most difficult, tedious and toilsome part of their journey was yet 


before them. The appliances of the times for navigating the inland 
waters of Canada were meagre. Steamboats there were, but they 
were few and slow, and the accommodation they furnished was of a 
rude description. They made tedious voyages on the river from 
Quebec to Montreal, and on Lake Ontario as far as Little York and 
Hamilton. Engineers had not taught navigators how the difficulties 
of the St. Lawrence rapids could be surmounted by canals and locks. 
Hence these Welsh families came from Quebec to Montreal by steam- 
boat, from Montreal to Prescott by Durham boat, and from Prescott to 
Little York by steamer ; and reached St. Thomas about the end of the 
first week in July. After a brief rest in St. Thomas, a few of the 
men travelled through the woods to the rear of the Township of 
London, where they secured land, and began to prepare such accom- 
modation for their families as circumstances permitted, and to which 
they brought them shortly afterward. The heads of some of these 
families were godly people, Calvanistic Methodists, or followers of 
Whitfield, as distinguished from followers of Wesley. As soon as their 
families reached their new home,, on the very first Sabbath, a prayer 
meeting and Sabbath School were arranged, which, without any pro- 
longed interruption, have, through all the changes of sixty-seven years, 
continued to the present. But there were none to preach to them the 
Word of Life, or take pastoral observation of these few sheep in the 
wilderness. Still, they had their Welsh Bibles, of which they were 
diligent students, and the Chief Shepherd himself watched over and fed 
them in the green pastures of His grace. Those who had spiritual life 
encouraged and helped each other, and used all the means at their 
disposal to extend it to those who had none. After a time they were 
visited by some Wesleyan ministers, but their teaching was not that 
to which they had been accustomed in Wales ; nor did it agree with 
their conceptions of Bible truth, hence their visits, though welcome, 
made little impression. 

In the spring of 1829 the Rev. Wm. McDermond, a Baptist minister, 
preached. The people received him gladly. His teaching called the 
attention of both the older Christians and young converts to the much- 
controverted subject of baptism. A diligent search of the New 
Testament, to ascertain what Christ commanded, and what His 
Apostles taught and practiced, resulted in a radical change of their 
views on the subject, act and designs of that ordinance. Philip 
Kosser, an earnest, devoted Christian, and, from the early days of the 
settlement, one of the leaders of the devotions of the people, was the 
first person baptized, and his baptism was soon followed by that 
of others. In the same year, 1829, a Baptist Church was formed 
m the Township of Lobo, now known as the First Lobo Church, of 
which the Baptists in the Welsh settlement became a branch, a 
connection which continued nearly five years. 

During this time, and for several years afterward, a number of 
Baptist ministers visited the settlement, and preached the Word as 


opportunity offered. Among these were McDermond, Vining, Slaught,* 
Finch, Gaul, Mabee and Elliott. The occasional visits of these 
servants of the Lord were much appreciated, and, through the Divine 
blessing, resulted in a considerable increase in the number of believers. 
But the inconvenience of being a part of a church so far distant as 
Lobo began to be felt. The want of passable roads, joined to incon- 
venient facilities for travel, made it difficult for them to attend 
with sufficient frequency ; and the propriety of getting a dismissal 
from Lobo and forming a church in the settlement was seriously 
discussed, and the church at Denfield resulted. From the beginning 
the Baptist Church spread out through the country. The act of 1831 
bestowed certain liberty on dissenters, and Baptists were not slow to 
avail themselves of the privileges offered. 

Early Ministers. On Jan. 12, 1830, John Harris' application for 
license " to celebrate matrimony " was received. Geo. J. Ryerson's 
application was made two days later. In April the petitions of Geo. 
J. Eyerson and others was considered. The magistrates refused to 
grant license to celebrate marriage to ministers of the Calvinistic 
Baptist Society, believing that such societies did not come within the 
statutes. On Jan 12, 1831, Geo. J. Ryerson presented another 
petition asking leave to celebrate marriage, and setting forth the names 
of the Calvinist Baptist Community to which he belonged, as follows : 
Joseph Kitchen, Benj. Palmerston, Nelson Vail, Gabriel Mabee, Nelson 
Montross, Robert Young, and David Shearer. 

The regular Baptist Ministers were : Francis Pickle, 1837, 
Blenheim ; Joseph Merrill, 1838, Bayham ; Salmon Vining, 1838, 
Nissouri; Gilbert Harris, 1838, Oxford; W. H. Landon, 1838, 
Blenheim ; Samuel Baker, 1838, Malahide ; Dugald Campbell, 1838, 
Aldborough; Abraham Sloot, 1838, Westminster; Isaac Elliott, 1839, 
Oxford; Salmon Vining, 1839, Lobo; Shook McConnell, 1839, 
Townsend ; Richard Andrews, 1840, Yarmouth ; Dugald Sinclair, 
1839, Lobo; Thomas Mills, 1843, Yarmouth; Reuben Crandell, 1843, 
Malahide ; Wm. Wilkinson, 1845, Malahide ; George Wilson, 1846, 
Malahide ; N. Eastwood, 1846, London ; D. W.Rowland, 1848, South- 
wold ; Jonathan Williams, 1 848, Dorchester ; John Bray, 1847, South- 
wold ; Mark W. Hopkins, 1849, Goshen; Israel Marsh, 1849, Dor- 
chester; Robert Boyd, 1850, London; Simeon Rouse, 1850, Bayham, 
and Alfred Chute, 1851, Lobo. 

Early Baptist Marriages. The marriages celebrated by Rev. 
Abraham Sloot, in 1832-8, are recorded as follows, the parties being 
of the Calvinist Baptist Church : 


Sept. 12, 1832 Joseph Elliott to Sarah Glynn, T. Glynn and P. Campbell. 

Sept. 16, " Victor Button to Mary Norton, G. Norton and G. Sloot. 

Sept 24, " Justus M. Videto to Amanda Hart, John Hart and B. Curtis. 

Oct. 10, " Daniel Corson to Zelinda Wells, J. Wells and T. Olds. 

Oct. 16, " Wm. Whitehead to Emiline Curtis, J. M. Videto and S. L. Sumner. 

* This may be intended for Abraham Sloot, as the name is spelled differently by writers. 



Oct. 22, 1832 Wm. Leeper, to Cynthia Osborne, 

Oct. 25, " John Grieve to Jane Murray, 

Oct. 29, " Edmund Burtch to Sarah Smith, 

Nov. 27, " Andrew Elson to Charlotte Dyer, 

Dec. 9, " Isaac Vansickle to Mary A. McClain, 

Jan. 24, 1833 Philo Jackson to Sarah Hill, 

Feb. 15, " Wm. Wells to Elizabeth Johnson, 

Feb. 28, " Cornelius Willson to Suffrona Cutler, 

Mar. 9, " Oliver Strowback to Mary Jackson, 

Mar. 23, " Peter Sinclair to Nancy Sinclair, 

April 2, " Philip Brooks to Prudence Warner, 

April 29, " Joseph Lown to Sarah Griffith, 

April 30, " John Wells to Mary Brown, 


D. Stockton and T. Huff. 

E. Grieve and N. Elliott. 

H. T. Shaver and John Cort. 
W. Blinn and Joseph Elson. 
A. Montross and J. McClain. 
Tilly Hubbard and N. Griffith. 
Geo. Sloot and Wm. Libby. 
H. Jones and D. Browne. 
Eli Griffith and Philo Jackson. 
W. Elliott and L Gambo. 
Zachariah and L. Warner. 

F. and Sam. Lown. 
Alexander, Mary and A. Weir. 

The above named were residents, in the order of entry of the fol- 
lowing townships : Caradoc, Westminster, London, Malahide, London, 
Yarmouth, Westminster, Lobo, London, Yarmouth, Westminster, Lon- 
don, London, Westminster, Caradoc, Dunwich, Westminster, and Lon- 

July 28, 
Aug. 19, 
Aug. 19, 
Aug. 24, 
Aug. 2fi, 
Aug. 31, 
Sept. 3, 
Sept. 19, 
Oct. 15, 
Oct. 15, 
Oct. 17, 
Oct. 27, 
Oct. 28, 
Oct. 28, 
Oct. 29, 
Dec. 24, 
Jan. 13, 
Feb. 10, 
Feb. 14, 
Feb. 23, 
June 9, 
June 19, 
Aug k 7, 
Sept. 30, 
Nov. 9, 
Nov. 12, 
Jan. 8, 
Jan. 15, 
Feb. 18, 
Feb. 23, 
Mar. 2, 
Mar. 17, 
Mar. 25, 
April 11, 
July 8, 
Aug. 9, 
Nov. 10, 
Dec. 9, 
Dec. 13, 
Dec. 25, 
Dec. 30. 

1833 Ensign Hill to Diana Carney, of Westminster. 

John Kitchen to Nancy King, of South wold. 

James King to Marietta Bartlett, of Caradoc. 

James Siddal to Violet Young, of Dunwich. 

John Whiting to Wealthy Degraw, of Caradoc. 

Timothy Simonds to Ruth Webster, of Westminster. 

James Montague to Lora Hunger ford, of Westminster. 

Joseph Siddal to Eliza Brooks, of Dunwich. 

Swain Corliss to Eliza Williams, of Lobo. 

Joseph Lyon to Juliana Moore, of Southwold. 

Wm. Routledge to Jennet Bailee, of Westminster. 

Zeras Myric to Juliana Odle, of London. 

Zerah Gilbert to Mary A. Baker, of Southwold. 

Jonah Clarke to Mary Lumley, of Dunwich. 

Hiram Perkins to Harriet McNaraes, of Westminster. 
Duncan McDugald to Mary McKiller, of Lobo. 
1 *34 Jacob Cooley to Dorka Reynolds, of Dorchester. 
Malcolm Smith to Mary McFarlin, of Lobo. 
Angus Graham to Cristy Smith, of Lobo. 
Henry Stringer to Derinaan Elliott, of Westminster. 
Richard Patrick to Hannah Simmons, of Westminster. 
Andrew Carl to Lucretia Clarke, of Westminster. 
John Patrick to Roxena Thorp, of Westminster. 
Patrick Walker to Mary Beach, of London. 
John H. Campbell to Annie Quick, of Caradoc. 
John McKey to Isabella McCormick, of Williams. 
5 Andrew McClure to Samantha A. Crandle, of Southwold 
James Mclntire to Jane Mclntosh, of Ekfrid. 
Armon Barrett to Susan Little, of Southwold. 
Charles Moice to Elissa Burger, of Southwold. 
John Kizier to Elmira Dell, of Westminster. 
Henry Cook to Nancy Harrison, of London 
Jacob Dale to Eliza Hansel, of Westminster. 
George Shaver to Rebecca Hart, of Westminster. 
Hiram B. Mann to Margaret Stringer, of Westminster, 
panels Jarvis to Ounda Perkins, of Westminster. 
Daniel Squers to Lois Burnam, of Westminster. 
Daniel Whitehead to Lovina Wilkins, of Westminster. 
George Hollis to Harriett Leahy, of Southwold. 
Kenedy Creighton to Laura S. Hart, of London. 
Wm. Foster to Sarah Woodhull, of Lobo. 


Oct. 31, 1836 Robert Kilbourne to Susannah Roberts, of Westminster. 

Nov. 24, " Robert Patton to Emelia Davis, of Westminster. 

May 14, 1837 Armon Barrett to Nancy McFall, of Ekfrid. 

June 24, " Alexander Thomas to Juliana Clark, of London. 

July 1, " Henry Wilson to Eliza A. O'Neil, of Dorchester. 

Aug. 5, " John Ellis to Rosilla Fletcher, of London. 

Sept. 12, " Henry Weller to Esther A. Jackson, of South wold. 

Sept. 20, " Benj. Doyle to Derindia C. Adair, of Westminster. 

Oct. 19, " Jacob H. Kyser to Margaret McStay, of Delaware. 

Nov. 4, Henry Plank to Mary A. Salinton, of Westminster. 

Nov. 9, " Mahon Boding to Roxeana Wade, of South wold. 

Dec. 14, " John Elson to Mary Bioito, of London. 

Dec. 18, " Samuel L. Sumner to Caziah Sohns, of London. 

Dec. 18, " Benj. Sumner to Mary Piatt, of London. 

Jan. 18, 1838 Wm. McKay to Sally A. Cutler, of Westminster. 

May 15, " Peter Beach to Nancy Seaton, of Delaware. 

June 5, '' Benjamin Schram to Jane Tigner, of Delaware. 

July 3, " John E. Sloot to Esther Hart, of London. 

The marriages by Kev. Dugald Campbell, of the Baptist Church, of 
Aldborough, in 1833-7, are as follows : 

Nov. 26, 1833 John McCallum to Mary McKellar, of Ekfrid. 
Dec. 24, " Angus McLean to Sarah McPhail, of Dunwich. 
Jan. 21, 1834 Lachlin McLachlin to Mary McCallum, of Ekfrid. 
Jan. 21, " Hugh Leitch to Catherine McLachlin, of Ektrid. 
Feb. 11, " John McTavish to Flory Stewart, of Oxford. 
Feb. 13, " John Munro to Mary Murray, of Ekfrid. 
April 1, " John McCallum to Nancy McKellar, of Mosa. 
July 22, " Arch. Campbell to Margaret Johnston, of Lobo. 
Feb. 3, 1835 Arch. McLachlin to Catharine McLellan, of Ekfrid. 
Feb. 3, " Arch. McLellan to Elizabeth Walker, of Mosa. 
Feb. 19, '* Duncan Campbell to Mary McAlpin, of Aldborough. 
Mar. 5, " Lachlin Haggard to Catherine Gidham, of Mosa. 
Mar. 17, " Duncan Black to Sarah McCallum, of Dunwich. 
Feb. 9, 1837 Alexander McAlpine to Christy Brown, of Aldborough. 
Mar. 14, " Edward McCallum to Nancy Mitchell, of Ekfrid. 
Mar. 30, " Wm. Room to Catherine McLean, of Dunwich. 
June 1, " Henry Eirot to Letitia Elliott, of Ekfrid. 
June 29, " Malcolm McAlpine to Nancy McAlpine, of Ekfrid. 

Solomon Vining, of the Regular Baptist Church, of Nissouri, 
solemnized the following marriages : 

Oct. 20, 1833 Francis German to Eliza Gleason, of Nissouri. 

Nov. 14, " Charles Harris to Abagail Mabee, of Oxford. 

May 19, 1835 John McDiarmid to Mary Burgess, of Nissouri. 

July 6, " Thomas Morgan to Rachel Rosser, of London. 

Oct. 29, " Varnum German to Betsey Murray, of Nissouri. 

Dec. 24, " William Pickart to Mary A. Pickel, of Nissouri. 

Jan. 14, 1837 Thomas Rosser to Ann Bell, of London. 

Jan. 21, " Josiah D. Burgess to Jemima Near, of Nissouri. 

July 1, " Henry Edwards to Eleanor Simons, of Lobo. 

May 1, " John C. Holding to Esther Markham, of Nissouri. 

Aug. 30, " John Rohner to Mary A. Edwards, of Dorchester. 

Dec. 2, " Jeremiah Dorman to Catherine Matthews, of London. 

Dec. 6, ' ' James G. Barnes to Sarah J. Withers, of Nissouri. 

Dec. 28, " Thomas Badygood to Marilla Finch. 

Jan. 18, 1838 Casper Near to Sarah Garner, of Nissouri. 

Mar. 18, " Sylvester Dupee to Susannah Stanton, of Nissouri. 

At this time, Rev. Davis Cross, of the Free Communion Baptist 
Church at Zorra, solemnized eight marriages, among them being 
Joseph Alwood and Christen McKay, of Nissouri. 


Dugald Sinclair, a Baptist minister, recorded the following certifi- 

Mch 2 1835 John McKellar to Sarah Livingstone, of Mosa. 

Apr 28 Colquhoun Campbell to Catharine Sinclair, of Adelaide. 

July 9 " Alex. Campbell to Jannet McArthur, of Caradoc. 

Aug 25 " John McGugan to Sarah McTaggart, of Williams. 

8 3,' " Donald McDonald to Mary McTaggart of Lobo. 

Feb. 9, 1836-Adonvja Degraw to Isabella McNeil, of Caradoc. 

Kev. Dugald Sinclair, of the Baptist Society, also registered the fol- 
lowing marriages : 

Jan 1 1, 1836 Donald Campbell to Margaret Brown, of Williams. 

Nov 24 " Alex. Graham to Ann Stuart, of Lobo. 

Dec. 11, " Duncan McLean to Catherine McKinley, of Lobo. 

Eev. Samuel Baker, of the Eegular Baptist Church, of Malahide, 
registered the following : 

Feb. 5, 1836 John McLachlin to Catherine McKenzie, of Williamstown. 
Mar. 26, " George Sloot to Sarah Best, of Westminster. 
July 10, 1837 William F. Curry to Susannah Moses, of Mosa. 

Rev. David Wright, of the W. M. Church, united in matrimony, 

Jan. 17, 1838 John Frank and Hester Walters, of Westminster. 

Rev. Wm. McDermond, a Calvinist Baptist, united, 

May 6, 1S35 Phillip Rosserand Maria Edwards, of London. 

Rev. Joseph Merrill, of the Bayham Baptist Church, united. 

Sept. 26, 1835 James B. Stephenson to Eliza Dunmead, of Dorchester. 

Rev. Nichols French, of West Oxford Regular Baptist Church, 
united : 

Sept. 30, 1834 Hiram German to Sarah Brigham, of Nissouri. 
Oct. 11, 1835 Samuel Herrin to Mary Whiting, of Dorchester. 
June 17, 1837 Thomas Squires, of Dorchester, to Catherine Bentley. 

Rev. J. R. Lavelle, a Universalist minister, made the first marriage 
record of his church at London, as follows : 

April 25, 1850 Bartholomew Swartz to Sylvanie Shotwell, of Westminster. 

The marriages solemnized by Rev. Thomas Huckins, of the Free 
Will Baptist Church, of London, are as follows : 

Feb. 4, 1833 Joseph Miller to Susannah Hampton, of London. 

April 15, 
July 16, 
Aug. 28, 
Oct. 10, 
Dec. 31, 

Hugh Stevenson to Catherine Donaldson, of London. 
Peter Sarvis to Sarah A. Phroman, of London. 
Charles Mann to Sarah Jaynes, of London. 
David Duke to Maria Whitehead, of Biddulph. 
Wm. Patterson to Jane Marckel, of London. 

Jan. 13, 1834 John W. White to Elizabeth Buchner, of London. 
Jan. 21, ' Edward P. Godfrey to Mary Moore, of Southwold. 
Mar. 16, John Frasier to Almeda Gilbert, of Southwold. 

April 8, Jacob Eberly to Sarah Mills, of Oxford. 



May 4, 1834 Daniel Koot to Rhoda Fuller, of Warwick. 

May 13, " Stephen Griffin to Elizabeth McPherson, of South wold. 

June 26, ' George W. Ross to Diadema Paul, of Biddulph. 

Aug. 10, ' John Fralick to Annis Pierce, of London. 

Nov. 11, ' Albert Ellice to Jane A. Reynolds, of London. 

Nov. 16, Ralph Little to Maranda Purchase, of London. 

Dec. 24, ' Levi Vaughan to Mary Scott, of London. 

Dec. 30, ' Robert Holmes to Margaret Reckord, of Dunwich. 

Jan. 13, 1835 Azarah W. Clark to Ann Sarvis, of London. 

Jan. 16, " Archibald Price to Ann Monaghan, of London. 

Sept. 15, " Corneilus Williams to Elizabeth Defields, of Mosa. 

Jan. 26, 1836 Samuel Munro to Eleanor Banghart, of Westminster. 

- Mar. 29, " Robert Brown to Sarah Attwood, of Dunwich. 

May 23, " Alexander Wear to Jane Hodgins, of London. 

May 24, " James P. Harris to Martha Jackson, of Dereham. 

June 19, " William Snelgrove to Eleanor Adkins, of Caradoc. 

Aug. 8, " Caleb Willcox to Jane Bartlett, of Mosa. 

Aug. 9, ' c Horace Cooley to Zelpha Moses, of Mosa. 

Aug. 31, " Cornelius Jones to Harriet Abry, of London. 

Sept. 18, " Alonzo Smith to Lucy Hubbard, of Mosa. 

Nov. 12, " F. Finley, of Plympton, to Ann Sharp, of London. 

In 1847, Rev. D. Stephenson Star was preacher in this district. 

Congregational Church. The Congregational Church was repre- 
sented in the London District in 1835, for on Oct. 15 that year Rev. 
Wm. Lyall took the oath and was authorized to celebrate marriage. 
To Rev. William Clarke, however, the credit is given of establishing 
this form of worship in 1838. The ministers who succeeded him or 
filled the pulpit within the old county during the following years are 
named as follows : W. P. Wastell, Southwold, 1843 ; Joseph Silcox, 
Southwold, 1845-50; Edward Ebbs, London, 1846; John Durrant, 
London, 1847 ; W. H. Alworth, Port Stanley, 1848 ; W. F. Clarke, 
London, 1849. 

Early Congregational Marriages. The first record made by a 
Congregational minister was that made by Rev. William Clarke, as 
follows : 

Jan. 15, 1838 John Dent to Ellen Delaney, of Zorra. 

May 25, " Edward Watson to Elizabeth Woods, of London. 

June 1, " John Clegg to Letitia Feret, of London. 

June 7, " Samuel Stansfield to Mary A. James, of London. 

June 9, " Robert Thompson to Martha McCadden, of Adelaide. 

June 11, Thomas Warner to Jemima Smith, of Amherstburg. 

July 23, " John Marshall to Catherine Atkinson, of London. 

Sept. 3, " Merrill S. Ayres to Martha E. Burch, of London. 

Dec. 18, " John F. O'Neill to Phebe Sweet, of London. 

Jan. 10, 1839 Wm. Jackson to Rhoda Siddal, of Mosa. 

Jan. 30, " John Henderson to Rachel A. O' Dell, of Westminster. 

Feb. 13, ' John L. Swart to Martha Manning, of Westminster. 

Mar. 6, ' Robert Kearns to Ann Candless, of London. 

Mar. 6, ' Elijah Payne to Margaret Wheaton, of London. 

Mar. 13, ' Peter Ross to Louisa Elliott, of Ekfrid. 

Mar. 27, John Beattie to Elizabeth Elliott, of Westminster. 

Apr. 28, ' Thomas Boston to Mary A. Jones, of Lobo. 

May 3, Samuel Bond to Mary A. Campbell, of London. 

May 8, ' William Young to Mary Parker, of London. 

May 11, ' John Gubbins to Sophia Reynolds, of London. 

May 13, ' Porter Stevens to Hannah Eldridge, of Westminster. 


Mav 23 1839 Caleb Griffith to Caroline Morris, of London. 

_ ** ~r t ITT /? _ _. j.* A,, T\r *** s\f T.rkrlrm 

June 12, 
June 13, 
Sept. 19, 
Oct. 18, 
Oct. 30, 
Oct. 31, 
Nov. 1, 
Nov. 4, 
Nov. 28, 
Dec. 7, 
Dec. 25, 

John Woofington to Ann Weir, of London. 
Eleazer McCarthy to Mary A. Bevena, of Dorchester. 
Thomas Dark to Grace Rottenbury, of London. 
Nathaniel Lawson to Ann Thomas, of London. 
Ralph Smith to Mary Davison, of London. 
Wm. Dickson to Margaret Auld, of Warwick. 
John Clarke to Prudence Bailey, of Nissouri. 
Neil Munroe to Flora Hare, of Westminster. 
Joseph Mowrey to Mary A Guffin, of London. 
Lorenzo D. Cook to Mary Steinhoff, of London 
James S. Steinhoff to Mary Cook, of London. 

Jan. 11, 1840 Henry Palmer to Mahala Carter, of London. 
Jan. 13, " John Lodge to Eleanor Foote, of Southwold. 

Methodist Church Wesley an. Methodism in Canada dates back to 
Oct. 7, 1786, when George Neal, an Irishman, who settled on the 
Canadian side of the Niagara, preached the doctrine of John Wesley. 
During the Revolution he was a major in the British cavalry. Prior to 
this, however, Capt. Webb and Commissary Tuffey, of the 44th 
Infantry, preached the same doctrine to the garrisons. In 1788, 
Exhorter Lyons preached at Adolphustown, and James McCarthy, an 
Irishman, at Earnesttown. In 1790, Wm. Lessee, the first regular 
Methodist preacher, came. He was a U. E. Loyalist, who managed to 
stay in the States until that year. In 1791, however, he appeared in 
the role of a Methodist Episcopalian. 'In 1805, the first carnp meeting 
was held on the south shore of Hay Bay. Among the preachers were 
Revs. Henry Ryan, an Irishman ; Wm. Case, Madden, Bangs, Keeler 
and Pickett. Ryan was known from Montreal to Sandwich, having 
travelled the entire district on regular circuit work. The first Methodist 
church was built at Adolphustown, in 1792, in which year a second 
house was erected at Earnesttown. In 1816, Westminster was set off 
as a Methodist circuit, as related in the history of that township, and 
from this beginning spread out the many Methodist circuits and appoint- 
ments of Middlesex, the history of which is told in the sketches of the 

In 1826, Henry Ryan raised the cry, "Loyal Methodism vs. 
Republican Methodism." This cry was countenanced and paid for by 
Dr. Strachan, of the English Church, on behalf of his government, and 
carried out so practically by Ryan, that the Canadian Wesleyan 
Methodist Church became a name in the history of the Dominion in 
1827. He was quick at repartee. On one occasion a village wag, one 
of a crowd, asked him if he had heard the news ? " What news T 
"Why," said the wag, "that the devil is dead." "Ah, well," re- 
sponded Ryan, looking around the crowd, " he has, indeed, left a great 
many fatherless children." 

In 1874, the Methodist New Connexion Church, and some other 
forms of Christianity, entered the Canadian Wesleyan body, and all 
assumed the name, Methodist Church of Canada. In 1884, the 
Episcopal Methodists and Bible Christians entered the Union, so it 
may be said that to-day Henry Ryan's idea of 1826 is an accomplished 



Early Methodist Marriages. Eev. John Beatty, a Wesley an 
Methodist minister, recorded the following certificates of marriage : 

Nov. 20, 1833 John Nixon to Jane Jackson, of London. 

Dec. 1, " William Wheeler to Melinda Flanigan, of London. 

Dec. 18, " Ira Allen to Jane Gethy, of Lobo. 

Jan. 13, 1834 Yunel May to Mary Browne, of Nissouri. 

Jan. 21, " Andrew Yerex to Mary Summer, of Westminster. 

Eev. James Jackson, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, of the 
London District, solemnized these marriages : 

Nov. 18, 1834 John Lambert to Mary Ann Smith, of Lobo. 

Feb. 12, 1835 James C. Smith, of London, to Lucy McDougal, of South wold. 

Eev. Isaac Newton Dugan West, of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Church, performed the marriage ceremony in the following instances : 

Oct. 14, 1834 John Stanley to Eliza Atkinson, of London. 
Dec. 3, " Warren Young to Susan Besstidds, of London. 
Dec. 31, " Hiram Dell to Anne Frank, of Westminster. 
Jan. 1, 1835 William Wilson to Elizabeth Bevans, of Nissouri. 
Jan. 1, " Joel Moriarity to Lucy A. Bevans, of Nissouri. 
Jan. 28, " Roswell Forbes to Eliza Lamoure, of London. 
Jan. 29, William Stinoff to Eliza Holt, of Yarmouth. 

April 3, Henry McKay to Rebecca Patrick, of London. 

April 19, Alexander Bane to Mary Lewis, of Zorra. 

April 28, " Augustus Hicks to Alvira Barnes, of London. 

Eev. William Griffis, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, joined 
the following named persoDs in matrimony : 

Sept. 4, 1834 Daniel Freeman to Isabella Bailey, of Nissouri. 
Oct. 29, " Joseph Barnes to Eleanor Williams, of London. 
Jan. 13, 1835 James N. Holmes to Margaret Sutton, of Westminster. 
Mar. 18, " William Patterson to Eliza Brethwait, of London. 
April 7, " William Ross to Amanda Bentley, of London. 
April 11, " Jacob Wilsie to Eleanor Manning, of Westminster. 
May 19, " Wm. McFadden to Lucinda Walcot, of London. 
May 20, " James Thompson to Catherine Murphy, of London. 
May 21, " Wm. Jackson to Margaret Webster, of London. 
May 26, " Charles G. Bostwick to Evis Manning, of Westminster. 
Nov. 4, 1835 John Jones to Ann Jane Curry, of Mosa. 
Nov. 4, " George Curry to Elizabeth Jones, of Mosa. 
Feb. 24, 1836 James Gardiner to Rebecca Flemon, of Mosa. 

Eev. John S. Atwood, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, married 
this couple : 

Oct. 4, 1835 Silas R, Ball to Jane S. Hyde, both of Dorchester. 

Eev. Dugald Campbell, of the Baptist Church, of Aldborough, 
recorded the following certificates : 








2, 1836 Robert McAlpine to Betty McLachlin, of Mosa. 







Duncan McPhail to Mary McCallum, of Zone. 
Archibald Murray to Flora McAlpine, of Ekfrid. 
Donald Smith to Isabella Mitchell, of Ekfrid. 
Duncan McCall to Sarah Haggart, of Lobo. 
John McCall to Catherine McCall, of Lobo. 
D. McCallum to Mary Black, of Dunwich. 


Kev. C. Vanderson, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, united the 
following couples : 

Dec. 12, 1836 Nathan Choat to Caroline Gibbs, of St. Thomas. 
Feb., " Thomas Allen to Melissa Gregory, of St. Thomas. 

Eev. David Wright, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, recorded 
the following marriages: 

Dec. 10, 1835 Simeon Morrell to Eleanor Beach, of Oxford. 

Dec. 31, " Robert Barrie to Maria Vandeburgh, of London. 

Feb. 18, 1836 John Taylor to Martha Willis, of London. 

Feb. 18, " George Menelly to Eliza A. Manning, of Westminster. 

Feb. 29, " George Sweeten to Mary Gardner, of Adelaide. 

April 11, " Alexander Cameron to Mary Westby, of Tuckersmith. 

April 24, " William Jackson to Elizabeth Chalmon, of London. 

June 29, " John Armstrong to Sarah Young, of Tuckersmith. 

Sep. 8, 
Oct. 9, 
Nov. 27, 
Dec. 15, 

Henry H. Cornstock to Lucretia Strowbridge, of Westminster. 

Edward Button to Ann Reynolds, of London. 

James Stewins to Ann Swart, of London. 

Welsie Manning to Amanda Simson, of Westminster. 

Jan. 25, 1 37 Benjamin Woodhull to Lucinda Miner, of Delaware. 

Mar. 10, Thomas Guest to Mary McRobert, of London. 

Feb. 24, John Kearns to Purlina Schram, of London. 

April 5, James Mcllmurray to Ann Johnston, of Adelaide. 

May 3, James Bryant to Elizabeth Ayers, of Westminster. 

May 24, Andrew Yaks to Wealthy Grouse, of Westminster. 

Aug. 16, Rev. J. K. Williston to Eleanor Morden, of Westminster. 

Oct. 6, George McConnell to Eliza Willis, of London. 

Nov. 9, George W. Albee to Hannah Vail, of London. 

Eev. J. Flanagan, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, solemnized 
marriages as follows : 

1837 Ira M. Sumner and Elizabeth Merrill, of London. 
" Charles Hoag and Hannah J. Day, of Hipun. 

Kev. Edmund Stoney, a Wesleyan minister, made the following 
record : 

Sept. 17, 1837 William H. V. Hill to Mary Stevens, of London. 
Oct. 3, Leonard O'Dell to Rachel Norton, of Dorchester. 

Mar. 27, 1838 Simeon Sanborn to Mahala Hartshorn, of London. 
April 23, " John Willis to Susan Shaw, of London. 
May 30, ' Geo. Alway to Jane Armstrong, of Lobo. 
Aug. 29, Daniel Morden to Eliza J. Robison, of London. 

Sept. 11, Gabriel Willcia to Catherine O'Dell, of Westminster. 

Sept. 19, Geo. Oliver to Mary A. Percival, of London. 

Sept. 20, Arthur McGerry to Charlotte Towe, of London. 

Thomas Fawcett, of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, recorded the 
following marriage certificate : 

Feb. 28, 1838 Ezekial Caldwell to Sarah Sutton, both of Westminster. 

Kev. Caleb Burdick, of the B. N. A. Methodist Church, united 
these couples : 

Aug. 15, 1833 Adoram Frank to Eliza Hodgson, of Westminster. 

Jan. 19, 1835 Wm. Conly to Mary Walker, of Dorchester. 

Jan. 21, Truman Burgess to Caroline Furry. 

Aug. 17, Amos Ferrin to Anna Cornwall, of Dorchester. 

Mar. 22, 1836 John McLarity, of Yarmouth, to Anna Me Arthur, of Dorchester. 

June 29, 1837 Jacob Stover, of Dorchester, to Ann Froman, of Maladide 



Eev. Eobert Earl, a Wesleyan, joined in matrimony : 

Oct. 2, 1837 John Morgan, of Warwick, to Elizabeth Hughes, of London, 
Nov. 8, " Reuben Adams, of Malahide, to Mary Jane Little, of Westminster. 

Eev. John Shilton, of the Canadian Wesleyan Methodist Church, 
made the following record : 

Jan. 6, 1837 Benjamin Shilton to Hannah Chapman, of Raleigh. 
Mar. 9, " John Clandening to Sarah Clement, of Mosa. 
Mar. 13, " Howard Allen to Catherine Drake of Mosa. 
Mar. 13, " Thomas Drake to Mary J. Eveland, of Mosa. 
April 18, " William Wilson to Elizabeth Huff, of Zone. 

Eev. James Bell, a Canadian Wesleyan Methodist preacher, made 
the following record : 

n. 2, 1838 John Little to Mary A. Patterson, of Westminster. 
ril 10, Thomas Orr to Abigail Tyrrell, of Westminster. 



May 17, " James Owry to Eliza Orr, of Westminster. 

Sept. 26, Abram Lewis to Charlotte Patterson, of Westminster. 

Oct. 17, *' Benjamin Bentley to Christian Stringer, of Bayham. 

Nov. 27, " Jared El wood to Rosanna Talmon, of Westminster. 

Methodist Church continued. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
was contemporary with, if not part of, the Wesleyan Society. In 
1827-8 the Henry Eyan religious rebellion closed off the American 
form, and from that period to 1884 Episcopal Methodism was known 
here. In the early marriage record relating to dissenters from the 
English Church many of the early ministers are named ; while, in 
the history of the circuits of Middlesex from 1816 to 1828, the pioneer 
preachers all find mention. In April, 1831, Eev. Samuel Bolton, of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church of Yarmouth, applied for permit to 
perform the marriage ceremony, and took the oath of allegiance. 
Thomas Harmon, of Westminster, and Caleb Burdick, of Malahide, 
also took the oath, with Abner Matthews, Matthew Whiting, Thomas 
Whitehead and Asahel Hulbert. Eev. John Bailey, of Nissouri, took 
the oath of allegiance in October, 1835, and was authorized to perform 
the marriage ceremony. 

Prior to and immediately after the troubles of 1837-8, Methodist 
Episcopal preachers were looked upon with some political suspicion ; 
but they rushed forward in numbers to take the oath of allegiance. 
Among the leading ministers from 1839 to 1851 were : John H. 
Houston, 1839, Norwich ; James Mitchell, 1840, London ; George 
Turner, 1839, London ; Charles Pettys, 1840, London ; David Griffin, 
1840, Bayham; Thomas Webster, 1840, London; Bernard Markle, 
1844, Mosa; Benson Smith, 1843, London; W. D. Hughes, 1843, 
Westminster; James Nixon, 1843, Malahide; Nathan Parke, 1845, 
Mosa ; Samuel Dunnett, 1846, Delaware ; Eansom Dexter, 1845, 
Malahide; Henry Gilmore, 1846, Malahide; John Gibson, 1846, 
London; Abram E. Eoy, 1847, Malahide; Nathan Parke, 1847,' 
Chatham ; Hiram A. Eraser, 1848, Caradoc ; Matthew McGill, 1849 
Caradoc; Schuyler Stewart, 1848, Malahide; Wm. Cope, 1849' 


Caradoc; George P. Harris, 1849, Dorchester; J W. Jacobs, 1851, 
Yarmouth; Sylvester L. Kerr, 1851, London; Thomas Davis, 1851, 

of the above-named, such as Dr. Webster, have served the 
district up to the union with the Canadian Methodists in 1884. 
London District, in 1880, claimed the following ministers : Rev E. 
Lounsburv, Presiding Elder; London City, M. Dimmick, 0. G. Colla- 
more- London Circuit, John Lay cock; St. Mary's, Nissoun, J. B. 
Cutler J Bloodsworth ; Thamesford, C. M. Thompson ; St. Thomas, 
R C ' Parsons; Southwold, S. Knott, C. W. Bristol; Dorchester, N. 
Dickie- Springfield, A. Kennedy; Parkhill. M. Griffin; Thedford, E. 
G Pelley; Goderich, G. A. Francis; Seaforth, C. W. Vollick ; 
Brussels D. Ecker ; Ingersoll, W. H. Shaw ; Embro, M. H. Bartram ; 
Stanley, R A. Howey ; Maitland, W- N. Vallick ; Westminster, J. T. 
Davis, T. B. Brown ; Aylmer, J. Ferguson ; Malahide, W. Fansher, 
W. M. Teeple; Tilsonburg, J. Rose; Norwich, W. Benson, W. E. 
Gifford ; Mt. Elgin, J. Gardiner, D. C. L. ; Vienna, W. A. Shaw ; 
Walsingham, Thos. Graham ; Sweaborg, A. Scratch. 

In 1881 the following named presided over the several circuits : 
London, M. Dimmick; London Circuit, B.C. Moore; Ingersoll, W. 
H. Shaw, B. Laurence (superannuated) ; St. Mary's and Nissouri, C. 
M. Thompson, J. Mitchell; Thamesford, M. H. Bartram, R. Service 
(superannuated) ; Embro, R. J. Warner, B. A. ; Sweaborg, John Wood ; 
Dorchester, M. Griffin; Westminster, J. T. Davis, J. Bloodworth; St. 
Thomas, W. G.' Brown, B. B Rogers, A. A. C. ; Southwold, W. Fan- 
sher, T. J. Brown; Parkhill, J. Lay cock; Goderich, G. A. Francis; 
Bosanquet, S. Knott; Seaforth, C. W. Vollick; Maitland, W. 1ST. Vol- 
lick ; Stanley, N. Dickie, F. Ling ; Norwich, 0. G. Collamore, C. A. 
Moore; Aylmer, J. Ferguson; Springfield, A. Kennedy; Malahide, 
J. Rose,T. J. Smith; Tilsonburg, G. A. Filcher; Mt. Elgin, J. Gardiner; 
Vienna, A. Scratch, D. Griffin ; Walsingham, W. Scurr. 

In 1882, Rev. J. Gardiner presided over the district with M. H. 
Bartram and B. C. Moore, of London ; J. Ferguson and C. A. Moore, 
of Mt. Elgin; W. N. Vollick, of Nissouri; A. Scratch, of Embro; 
John Wood, of Sweaborg; M. Griffin, of Dorchester ; W.H.Shaw 
and T. J. Smith, of Westminster, and J. Lay cock, Parkhill. Strathroy 
and other circuits, such as Newbury, belonged to other districts; Dr. 
Webster, of the latter place, being a resident worker of the church in 
this county for almost half a century. In 1884 the union of this 
church with the Methodist Church of Canada was effected. 

Early Methodist Episcopal Marriages. The earliest record of 
marriages dates back to 1831, when Ephraim Smith, a minister of the 
Gospel, sent to the Clerk the following certificates : 

April 24, 1831 Lorenzo D. Bates to Mary Earl. 
May 4, " John Sharp to Martha Smith. 
Oct. 30, " Samuel Healy to Christiana Howell. 
Jan. 26, 1832 Eli Cross to Anna Smith. 



Feb. 16, 1832 John Maher to Lodice Smith. 
Mar. 16, " David T. Duncan to Mary Gillett. 
Mar. 24, " Chris. L. Barnes to Amy Otis. 

The greater number of above resided in Norwich Township. 

The following recorded marriages were solemnized by Eev. Thos. 
Whitehead, of the Methodist Episcopal Church : 

Oct. 14, 1832 Jasper H. Gooding to Mary Good, of Goderich. 
Nov. 5, " Thomas B. Hale to Jane Willson, of Goderich. 
Nov. 14, " William Holland to Eliza Hicks, of Goderich. 
April 17, 1833 Thomas Webster to Mary Bailey, of Nissouri. 
July 10, " Arthur Squires to Lydia Carter, of Stanley. 

The marriages solemnized by Eev. Ezra Adams, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of the London District, are recorded as follows : 

July 5, 
Oct. 2, 
Oct. 25, 
Nov. 13, 
Nov. 20, 
Jan. 31, 
Feb. 20, 
Feb. 20, 
Dec. 3, 
Feb. 4, 

1832 Thomas Hurlburt to Betsy A. Adams, of Caradoc. 

Jackson Stafford to Isabella Nickald, of Southwold. 

" Carroll to Lydia Kelly, of Mosa. 

" John Philips to Harriet Caswell, of Westminster. 

" James Nash to Keziah Lockwood, of Caradoc. 
1833 Seneca Edwards to Mary Curry, of Mosa. 
Wm. Provost to Sally Siddal, of Dunwich. 

' ' Horace Kelly to Nancy Provost, of Mosa. 
1834 Col vin Davison to Jane Nichols, of Ekfrid. 
1835 John Coyne to Elizabeth Neal. 

Rev. Jesse Owen, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, performed 
the ceremony of marriage in the following cases : 

Jan. 1, 1833 William Hodgman to Ann McGogan, of Caradoc. 

Jan. 7, " James Clarke to Harriet Ramsay, of Caradoc. 

Jan. 28, " Allen Fox to Jane Hunt, of London. 

Feb. 10, " ' Belah King to Maria Dickison, of London. 

Apr. 15, " Charles Dickison to Elizabeth Neadham, of London. 

May 6, " Cyrus Hawley to Eliza Smith, of London. 

May 8, " John Geary to Eliza Hasket, of London. 

May 8, " Moses Willson to Eliza Bailey, of Nissouri. 

July 29, " John Jackson to Nancy Sawtle, of London. 

Aug. 28, " John Wheaton to Jane Clark, of London. 

Rev. John Bailey, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, united : 

July 4, 1837 Charles Pettys to Mary Nixon, of Nissouri. 

Rev. Charles Pettys, of the same denomination, married the 
following : 

Sept. 20, 1837 Cyrus P. Meriam to Margaret McBean, of Ekfrid. 
Oct. 19, 1838 Alonzo Charles to Lucy Blackmore, of Mosa. 

Daniel Picket, a Methodist Episcopal preacher, united : 
Oct. 8, 1834 James Nixon to Annie Nichols, of London Township.* 

Bible Christians. The Bible Christian Church may be said to 
have been established at London in 1869. In that circuit in 1871 
there were two itinerant and nine local preachers, four places of wor- 

* These marriage notices are copied from old and imperfect records, and, doubtless, 
contain errors, for which, owing to the care employed in these pages, the publishers are not 


ship, and 179 members. Rev. W. Jollifle and J. Collins were pastors. 
In 1873 W. Keener was at London. J. J. Eice came in 1875, and in 
1876 he, with F. M. Whitlock were ministers. In 1877 S. J. Allin 
assisted Mr. Rice, and the latter in 1878 took charge of the two cir- 
cuits, London East and South ; but in 1 879 the circuit was divided, as 
shown in the local history of this society. The 12th annual meeting 
was held in May, 1880, within their church at London South, when 
the following named ministers and laymen were present : Revs. W. 
Hooper (Superintendent), T. R. Hull, W. Ayers, W. Quance, J. Archer, 
G. H. Copeland, R. Mallett, B. A , T. Mason, W. Rollins and S. J. 
Cunnings ; Messrs. J. Isaac, J. Cole, W. Gerry, W. Field, J. Small, 
W. Jennings, E. Johnson and R. Kennedy. The officers appointed 
were Rev. W. Rollins, Secretary ; Rev. R. Mallett, Journal Secretary ; 
Rev. G. H. Copeland, Reporter for the Observer ; and the ministers : 
London Centre, Rev. \V. Quance ; London East, Rev. G. H. Copeland ; 
London South, Rev. W. Rollins ; Lambeth, Rev. T. Mason ; Dereham, 
Rev. T. R. Hull; Ingersoll, Rev. J. Archer; St. Thomas, Rev. W. 
Hooper. Appointments continued to be made annually until the 
union of 1884, when the Bible Christians lost their distinctive title 
and became a part of the Methodist Church of Canada. In the 
chapters devoted to local history the several churches of this society 
are noticed. 

Lutherans. The Lutheran Church in Canada dates back to 1790, 
when a building, known as Zion Church, was erected east of Kingston, 
and Rev. Schwerfeyer, of Albany, K Y., called as pastor. About this 
time a Mr. Myers, of Philadelphia, resided in Marysburgh Township, 
where a large number of Palatinates and other German loyalists had 
sought refuge. His mission was not successful, so that in 1807 he 
returned to Pennsylvania. Rev. Mr. Weant, who preached at Ernest- 
town, and in 1808, at Matilda, found but poor support, and in 1811 
joined the English Church clandestinely at Quebec. Returning, he 
continued to preach to his people, who found him using the Book of 
Common Prayer, and wearing a surplice cause sufficient for his 
dismissal. In 1814, Mr. Myers was recalled, but finding that Weant 
had possession of the building, had to resort to diplomacy to obtain its 
use for worship. In 1817, Myers also joined the English Church. 
Both were addicted to brandy-drinking and consequent drunkenness, 
Myers dying from the effects of a fall. 

Miscellaneous Societies. The Quakers or Society of Friends, 
introduced their faith in 1790, when David Sand and Elijah Hick held 
services at James Noxen's house, Adolphustown. They had a house 
of worship erected there, the first in Canada; the second being at 
Sophiasburg. Joseph Leavens, who died in 1844, in his 92nd year 
was one of the leading preachers of the society. 

The Mennonites claim to be direct descendants of the Vandois or 
Waldenses, who, during the latter part of the twelfth century were 
driven by oppression into HoUand, and who lived there a scattered 


sect until the sixteenth century, when Menno Simon, a reformed 
priest, gathered them together and organized them into a compact 
religious body, to which he gave his name. Because of the principles 
they held they still suffered persecution, even to the extent of martyr- 
dom, and finally a large body of Mennonites emigrated from Holland 
to the United States and settled in and around Pennsylvania, about 
the close of the seventeenth century. Here they found the freedom 
of worship from which they had been so long debarred, and flourished, 
a prosperous community. But after a century of peace the war of 
the American Independence overshadowed the land, and, among many 
others, a few of these people, preferring to remain under British rule, 
left their pleasant homesteads to travel northward. Over the extensive 
uncultivated spaces between Pennsylvania and the border line they 
journeyed, nor paused until they settled once again with others of our 
old Loyalist forefathers upon Canadian shores, where they began to 
form new homes among the pathless woods of Niagara peninsula, 
bringing with them a loyalty that has clung to creed as firmly as to 
crown in each succeeding generation. 

The New Jerusalem Church dates back to 1861 for its organization 
in Canada. In June of every year conference is held, and executive 
and ecclesiastical committees appointed, One of the great meetings 
of this association was held at Strathroy in 1876, when four ministers 
and an average number of delegates and visitors were present from the 
following places: Berlin, Toronto, Wellesley, Stratford, Caledonia, 
Chatham, Conestoga, Watford, Waterloo, and Yorkville. Letters were 
received from members in London, St. Catharines, Hamilton, New 
Brunswick, Ottawa, Lisbon, Mt. Brydges, Parkhill, Ingersoll, and 
other places. 

Moravians. The history of the Moravians begins in 1457, nearly 
a century before England accepted the teachings of Luther. Toward 
the close of the fifteenth century there were 200 societies in Moravia 
and Bohemia, and at this time their bible was issued. During the 
succeeding 300 years the new church died out in its cradle ; but, in 
1749, the British Parliament acknowledged them a part of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, and encouraged their settlement in North 
America. In 1741, a few Moravians met for worship in New York. 
During 1749, a number of Moravians established a mission in Tuscar- 
awas County, Ohio, and here, in 1781, 100 of their number were killed 
under the auspices of the very people who patronized them and sent 
them to the colonies. The survivors of the massacre moved to Detroit 
that year, and settled at New Gnadenhutten, near Mount Clemens, on 
the Clinton Eiver of Lake St. Clair. During their term there fourteen 
members died. They were hated by the Otchipwas on account of their 
newly formed friendships for the Americans, and as that part of 
Michigan was infested by Indians, the mission dissolved itself, the 
greater number seeking a home on the Thames (La Tranche), near the 
scene of Proctor's defeat, from which David Zeisherger wrote July 20, 


1794 : " Captain Pike was instructed by De Peyster, the British Com- 
mandant at Detroit, in 1781, to make a bouilli of the Moravians, but 
they outlived persecution." 

Monnonism, which carried off many from Larnbton, Middlesex and 
adjoining counties into the polygamous arms of Utah in the sixties, is 
still represented in the county and city. The Mormon temple on 
Maitland street is the monument which this Church has raised to the 
zeal of its members. In 1875 Mormonism was flourishing at London, 
under the administration of Elders Leverton and Davis In Novem- 
ber, 1875, a cheeky Gentile stood up in the Maitland Street Church 
and asked Elder Davis, " Did he really believe in the Mormon Bible ?"" 
Of course, the answer was general, and a challenge to discuss the 
matter came from a dozen of throats. 

The Salvation Army sometimes called General Booth's Church 
is one of the latest additions to religious forms. Only a few years ago 
the members were buffetted about or imprisoned, but their perseverance 
won for them tolerance, and to-day the Army preach and sing in the 
market place as well as in their barracks the members pleased with 
their worship and the people amused with it. 




July 16, 1792, Governor Simcoe declared the Province to be 
divided into nineteen counties, the last being the County of Kent,, 
comprising all the country outside the boundaries of the first named 
eighteen counties, as well as of the Indian lands, extending northward 
to the boundary line of Hudson Bay, including all the territory west 
and south of such line known as Canada. Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex 
were the neighboring counties bordering on the river La Tranche, or 
Thames. The act of 1799, to which royal assent was given Jan. 1, 
1800, provided for the establishment of eighteen counties, a number 
of townships and a few districts. Among the counties then set off 
was Middlesex, comprising the Townships of London, Westminster, 
Dorchester, Yarmouth, South wold, Dunwich, Aldborough and Delaware. 

London District, as then constituted, comprised the counties of Nor- 
folk, Oxford and Middlesex, with the country westward of the Home 
and Niagara districts, southward of Lake Huron, and between them 
and a line drawn due north from a fixed boundary (where the easter- 
most limit of Orford Township intersects the river Thames), until it 
arrives at Lake Huron. 

The act of April 14, 1821, provided that the Townships of Lobo, 
Mosa, Ekfrid and Caradoc should be attached to Middlesex ; that a 
gore of land on the east side of Norwich and a gore on the east side of 
Dorchester be attached to the respective townships, and that the 
Townships of Zorra and Nissouri be added to Oxford County. At this 
time the new Townships of Zone, Dawn, Sombra and St. Clair were 
attached to Kent County. 

In 1835 James Ingersoll qualified at London as Kegistrar of the 
County of Oxford. 

The act of 1837, setting off Oxford County as the District of 
Brock, required the Quarter Sessions of London to declare the pro- 
portion of district expenses to be apportioned to Oxford, pending the 
issue of proclamation. 

Brock District was set off from London March 4, 1837. The 
proportion of moneys due the new district by the old for wild land 
tax, received by the Treasurer of London up to December, 1839, when 
the new district was proclaimed, amounted to 41 16s. 8d. ; but at the 
settlement of July, 1841, 37 12s. Id. were deducted as the proportion 
of general expenses incurred by London District. 

In 1837 the magistrates of the new District of Talbot were author- 
ized to sell the brick and stone in the old jail and court house at Vittoria, 
the proceeds to be used in building their new court house and jail. 


In April, 1839, the question of apportioning the expenses of the 
County of Huron was before the court. 

In 1854 the town of London was incorporated as a city and 
detached from the county. 

The townships of Bayham, Malahide, South Dorchester, South wold, 
Aldborough and Yarmouth were detached in 1852 from Middlesex 
and formed into the County of Elgin. In 1865 McGillivray and 
Biddulph were detached from Huron and attached to Middlesex, 

As related in the history of Biddulph and McGillivray, both town- 
ships petitioned for annexation to Middlesex, and were detached from 
Huron. With the exception of exemption from paying any part of 
the debenture debt of the county, the townships became at once part 
and parcel of Middlesex, and were first represented in the Council of 

What changes future years may bring round in the present 
boundaries of the county cannot be stated. A contributor to the Age, 
Grand-Pa, writing in September, 1871, proposed that West Middlesex 
be set off as a new county. He dealt with general expenditures back 
to 1854, and showed very plainly that the western township paid 
much more than a just share of expenses. He also referred to the 
movement of 1861-2 for the establishment of a registry office at 
Glencoe, and the revival of the question in 1870-1. 

Quarter Sessions' Court, 18%7-lfi. The first Quarter Sessions 
ever held at London was that of Tuesday, January 9, in the seventh 
year of the reign of George IV. Joseph Eyerson was chairman. 

In 1828, L. P. Sherwood was Circuit Judge. In July of this year 
a resident of London was fined 5 " for deceitfully obtaining from 
Eobert Summers one silver watch." In August, 1829, J. B. Ma- 
caulay was Justice of the King's Bench. In January, 1839, Mahlon 
Burwell was temporary chairman, with Peter Teeple, John Scatcherd, 
Charles Ingersoll, Ira Scofield, Leslie Patterson, Edward Allen Talbot, 
John Bostwick, and other justices present. Michael McLaughlin, of 
Westminster, was fined 25 shillings for beating Catherine Southerland. 
John Matthews, Jr., of Lobo, was fined 2 for beating Lawrence 
Lawrason, of London, and James V. Eyan, of London, was fined 10 
shillings for obtaining deceitfully from Eobert Caldwell a silver watch. 

In April, 1829, George Coleman, of Oxford East, was fined 1 for 
beating constable John Phelan. Samuel Weir, of Burford, was fined 
10 for beating Eapelje Weir, then under ten years. Joseph Lyons, 
John Davis, Elijah Davis, Christopher Williams, Thomas Fortner, aU 
fanners, and Cadnueil Moore, blacksmith, all of London, were fined 9 
for assaulting James Williams in July 1829. In October, Isaac 
Waters, of Westminster, paid 1 4s., for beating John Hunt. 

In January, 1830, Henry Eeynolds, of Dorchester, paid 2 for 

ting Jesse Beverly. About this time the names of Benj. Willsoii 

and John G Lessee, appear among the magistrates. In April, 1830, 

William B. Lee, of London, an innkeeper, and William Haskett, a 


painter, were bondsmen for Isaac Waters. John Ward, of Mosa, was 
indicted for assaulting Michael Hurder. Joseph Ward, a pensioner, of 
Mosa, and Geo. Lee, of Ekfrid, were his bondsmen. 

The Grand Jury in April, 1830, comprised Walter Chase, Benj. 
Chadwick, Samuel Mason, Hugh O'Brien, Jacob Zavitz, John T. 
Doan, Samuel Minard, Asa Fordice, Thomas Sprague, Thomas Hardi- 
son, John Brazey, Durcomb Simons, Ira Whitcomb and Lawrence 
Doyle. During the trial of James Meek vs. Duncan Campell, Duncan 
McKenzie was sworn as interpreter for Malcolm Mclntyre, one of the 
witnesses. At this time the serious charge against Ira Scofield, 
Duncan McKenzie and James Parkinson for conspiracy, to charge 
George J. Goodhue with forging a note against William Fuller, was 
made, and they were held in 200 bail. John O'Neil was appointed 
High Constable. 

In July, 1830, Henry Cook, innkeeper, of Westminster, paid 
twenty-five shillings for assaulting Thomas Burns. In the case 
against Michael Beach, of Oakland, Justus Willcox, of Mosa, and 
Wm. Paul, of Yarmouth, were his bondsmen. 

The charge of assault, with evil intentions, against Esban Gregory 
by Mrs. Mary Graham, and a similar charge against Shadrack Jones, 
were entertained. Phoebe and Abigail McNeal were witnesses 
against Jones, who was found guilty, and sentenced to prison for 
three months, and to pay costs. 

In 1831, Levins P. Sherwood presided over the circuit, while the 
magistrates hitherto named, with J. Parkinson, James Racey, Andrew 
Dobie and Duncan McKenzie, were active in Quarter Sessions work. 
In the fall of 1830, Whiting Barnes, of London, was fined five shillings 
for beating Edward Green. In January, 1831, Wm. Eldridge, of 
Mosa, was fined only one shilling for beating two of the Aldgeo 
women of that township. Henry Cook was fined for assaulting Thos. 
Orr, of Westminster. Gregory Allen, of Delaware, who assaulted 
Ben Myers, was bailed out by Peter Schram, a farmer, and Charles 
Eeeves, an innkeeper, both of Westminster. In 1830, A. A. Eapelje, 
was still Sheriff. 

In October, 1830, Henry White appears as a magistrate. At that 
time the sum of 20 per annum was granted to High Constable 
O'Neil, and William Putman was given 25 on account of labor on the 
North Branch of the Thames. 

In January, 1831, John Bostwick was chosen Chairman of Quarter 
Sessions. The other magistrates present being Duncan McKenzie, 
Henry Warren, Solomon Lossing, Edward A. Talbot, James Mitchell, 
James Parkinson and Ira Scofield. One of the questions before the 
Court was the expulsion of John Armitage from a lot of land in London. 
At this time Stephen and James Howell, Jacob Best, Henry Belts, 
Adam Miller, Reuben Clark and Wm. Smith were tried for assault on 
Isaac Hartwick, but acquitted. Gideon G. Bostwick, Crier of the 
Court in 1831, was granted an annual salary of 20. 


In April, 1831, one Charles Mclntosh, a servant, sued his master, 
Duncan McKenzie. This servant, or apprentice, brought no witnesses, 
while his master brought forward Betsy Me Adam, Amy and Levi 
Blackman, Allen and Thomas Eoutledge, Daniel Barclay, Sarah 
McLoughlin, and Freeman Hull as witnesses. The Court gave judg- 
ment against Mclntosh for 7 15s. and costs. 

In January, 1832, Hiram D. Lee, of London; Nathan Griffith, of 
Westminster ; Ira Whitcomb, of Port Stanley ; Geo. W. Whitehead, 
of Burford ; James Young and Philip Henry, of Dunwich ; Jacob 
McQueen, of South wold; Wm. Putnam, of Dorchester, and Samuel 
Smith, of Orford, paid each 3 and were granted tavern licenses. 

In January, 1832, Samuel Park, of London, was appointed Inspector 
of Weights and Measures for the district, vice John Harris resigned. 
At this time the name of Isaac Draper appears, and that of John 
Scatcherd reappears among the magistrates, very few changes being 
made within the preceding decade. 

During the year 1832, a large number of males and a few female 
residents took the oath of allegiance. 

In October, 1833, Eliakim Malcolm's name appears as a magistrate. 

In January, 1834, John Lamb, Alex. Murray and F. Shaunesson 
were sentenced to terms of solitary confinement, with bread and water, 
for larceny. 

On May 18, 1831, the commission of Coroner was issued to 
Jonathan Austin, Elam Stinson and David Bowman. The great seal 
is four inches in diameter and bears the British arms of George IV. 
In 1834 this commission was reissued. 

In July, 1832, only eleven grand jurors remained for duty, the 
others having fled from London owing to the prevalence of cholera. 
In this year Dr. Donnelly, a pioneer physician, was stricken by the 

In January, 1833, the first seals were ordered, one for the Court of 
Quarter Sessions and one for the District Court. 

In April, 1834, Mahlon Burwell was elected Chairman of Quarter 
Sessions by the following named magistrates elect : Joseph B. Clench, 
a ^ i 7 ng ' James In S ersoll > Peter Carroll, John Scatcherd, Ira 
bconeld Thomas Homer, William Eobertson, Christopher Beer, John 
Bostwick, Colin McMilledge, Eliakim Malcolm, John G. Lossee 
Edward Ermatinger, Thomas Eadcliff, John Philpot Curran, Duncan 
McKenzie, Philip Graham, Andrew Dobie and John Burwell. John 
B. Askm was still Clerk of the Peace, while A. A. Eapalje was 
sheriff and V A. Eapalje Deputy. B. B. Brigham was appointed 
road surveyor for Middlesex County, vice Eoswell Mount deceased. 
George Moore was then coroner. 

In October, 1834, Wm. Young was temporary Chairman of Quar- 
ter Sessions. The names of Thomas Eadcliffe and John Boys appear 
as new magistrates. In January, 1835, Wm. Young was elected 
Unairman, James Ingersoll still being a member of the Court like 


John Bostwick, and the name of James C. Crysler appears. Among 
the magistrates in April, 1835, the new names of James Barwick, 
Colonel Light, Wm. Gordon, Capt. Kobert Johnson, and Edward 
Buller appear. At this time it was resolved to elect a Chairman who 
would be conversant with law, and pay him 10 for each session. This , 
order was repealed in 1837. In April, 1835, Dr. James Corbin was 
fined 10 for practicing medicine illegally. In October, 1835, the 
names of Henry Warren, Doyle McKenney, Benj. Willson, Geo. W. 
Whitehead, Phillip Hodgkinson, Wilson Mills and Lawrence Lawrason 
appear among the magistrates. In January, 1836, Hamilton H. 
Killally, John Weir and Peter Carroll appear on the Bench. 

The Grand Jury of January, 1836, comprised twenty well-known 
names: John O'Neil, Foreman; Thomas Gibbons, Joshua Putnam, 
Wm. Niles, Levi Myrick, Simeon Morrill, John Jennings, Eichard 
Smith, Silas E. Curtiss, F. G. Warren, Dennis O'Brien, Edward Mat- 
thews, Joseph L. O'Dell, Albert S. O'Dell, Kobert Fennell, Joseph B. 
Flannagan, Elisha S. Lyman, Robert Souter, H. Van Buskirk and Wm. 

Edward Grattan, a printer, of London, in 1836, was held on bonds 
to give evidence against Thomas Cronyn, indicted for assault. 

The celebrated motion presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions, 
July 12, 1836, by Edward Allen Talbot, one of the magistrates, was 
as follows : " I protest against the payment of any sum or sums of 
money being paid to any magistrate acting as Chairman for the 
District of London, who accepts of any sum or sums of money in lieu 
of such services, and on the following grounds : First, I consider it 
contrary to law; and secondly, I regard it as derogatory to the' 
character of the magistracy of the district, even if they had a law for 
so doing, to pay their Chairman the paltry sum of 40 per annum ; 
and thereby I regard it as an infringement of the rights of the people 
for the magistrates to appropriate any part of the district funds for 
any purpose whatever, unless authorized by law so to do." 

In April, 1836, the action which gave rise to this motion was the 
re-election of Wm. Young as Chairman on the following vote : John 
Burwell, Harvey Cook, Capt. Dunlop, G. W. Whitehead, Duncan 
McKenzie, Robert Riddle, John Philpot Curran, Alex. W. Light, Wm. 
Hentiliny, Henry Hyndman, Wm. Dunlap, Wm. B. Rich, Philip 
Graham and R. R. Hunt for Young, and E. A. Talbot voted contrary. 
Mahlon Burwell, then Chairman, while he moved the re-election of 
Young, was not called upon to vote. 

In April, 1837, Mahlon Burwell was elected Chairman of Ses- 
sions. Among the magistrates present were Peter Carroll, John 
Carroll, John Kitson Woodward, John Weir, A. Dobie, J. Bostwick, 
J. Burwell, J. C. Crysler, Doyle McKenny, Geo. W. Whitehead, John 
S. Buchanan, Duncan McKenzie, Thomas Wade, Andrew Drew, John 
Arnold, Edmund Deeds, Samuel Eccles, Thomas H. Ball, L. Lawrason, 
Edward Ermatinger, J. G. Lossee, B. George Ronviere, John Brown, 
James Graham. 


On July 12, 1837, James Hamilton, of Sterling, qualified as 
Sheriff of the District of London, Dr. Joseph Hamilton and Hon. 
John Hamilton being his bondsmen. At this time the first notice of 
the existence of an insane and destitute person in the District is given. 
The sum of 25 was advanced to John Barclay for the maintenance 
of Janet McBean. 

The magistrates presiding in October, 1837, were John Burwell, 
James Mitchell, Doyle McKenny, Wilson Mills, Ephraim Tisdale, 
Purley, Cyrenius Hall, John Shore, L. Lawrason, J. S. Buchanan and 
J. R Brown. In January, 1838, the names of Thomas H. Ball, 
Harry Cook, Eobert Johnston and Wm Kobertson appear. 

In January, 1838, the following licenses were issued to keep 
houses of entertainment, the fee in towns being 7 10s. Od., and in 
small settlements 3 : John O'Neil, Geo. T. Glaus, John Talbot, 
Bemis Pixley, James Jackson (in township), Amy Wood, and Henry 
Humphreys, of London ; Geo. Miller, Atkins & Taylor, Thomas 
Pettifer, of St. Thomas ; Henry Purdy, of Vienna ; George Dingman, 
William Sage, of Westminster; John Bolton and J. Whitcornb, of 
Port Stanley ; Mrs. Westlake, Patrick Mee, George Ivor and Eichard 
Brenuan, of Adelaide ; Alexander Ward and John Ward, of Mosa ; 
Abraham Van Norman, of Delaware ; Amos Wheeler, of Dorchester ; 
Archibald Miller and Jonathan Miller, of Ekfrid. On April 11, 1838, 
a tavern license was granted to William Balkwill on payment of 
7 10s. Od. At this time John McDonald, a grocer, of London, was 
before the Court. Patrick Deveney was licensed to keep an inn at 
London in 1839. 

In January, 1839, the following named newly-elected magistrates 
were present : John Douglas, John G. Bridges, John Jackson, John 
Burne, Kichard Webb, John Arnold, W. F. Gooding, Peter Carroll, 
Alex. Sinclair, Henry Carroll, Philip Hodgkinson. In April, 1839, 
the following tavern licenses were issued : Gideon Bostwick, of 
Westminster ; Wm. Marvin, of Dorchester ; Geo. J. Smith, of Ekfrid ; 
Sam. Sewell, of Adelaide ; James Fisher, of Caradoc ; Anson Strong, 
of London Town. In April, 1839, the petition of John Burwell was 
reported unfavorably by H. Hyndman, Chairman of Committee. 

In October, 1840, Charles Prior appears among the magistrates; J. 
B. Clench being Chairman. In 1841, Thomas Cronyn was a magis- 
trate, and Adam Hope in 1842. In 1843, Henry Allen was Chairman 
(commonly known as Judge), while Alexander Strathy, Geo. J. Good- 
hue, Simeon Morrill and Hugh Carmichael, are among the magistrates. 
In 1845 the name of Alexander Anderson appears. 

County Council, 18J$-S8. -The Councillors of London District in 
1842 are named as follows : Lawrence Lawrason and John Geary, of 
London ; Andrew Moore and John Burwell, of Bayham ; Daniel Abel 
and James Brown, of Malahide ; Thomas Hutchison and John Oil, of 
Yarmouth ; George Elliot and Levi Fowler, of Southwold ; Thomas 
Coyne, ofDunwich; Thomas Duncan, of Aldborough; William Niles, 



of Dorchester ; John D. Anderson, of Mosa ; John Parker, of Caradoc ; 
Francis King Carey, of Delaware ; Archibald Miller, of Ekfrid ; Isaac 
Campbell and Hiram Crawford, of Westminster; John Edwards, of 
Lobo ; and John S. Buchanan, of Adelaide. 

A statement presented to this Council for January 1, 1842, shows 
the liabilities of the district to be 1,405 3s. 6d., and the assets to be 
322 12s. 6d. W. W. Street and Daniel Harvey being auditors. 
Daniel Abel, Chairman of a committee on law books and jail and court 
house property, reported twenty volumes in the library, with the jail, 
debtors' room and county offices plainly but fully furnished. The 
return of lands, under patent, in the District show 638,914J acres 
valued at 2,662 2s. lOid. 

On Feb. 11, 1842, John Wilson, then Warden, signed a petition, 
"To the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty," congratulating her "on the 
birth of a prince and heir apparent to the throne of that mighty 

On August 9, 1842, Wm. Niles, Chairman of a Committee to enquire 
into receipts and expenditures of the office of Clerk of the Peace for 
the years 1838 to 1841, reported a draft of a communication from the 
Council to the magistrates in session for their consideration. This com- 
munication was brought before the magistrates, who declined to con- 
sider it, and this refusal was followed by other petitions for redress to 
the Governor- General. The petition to Governor- General Bagot, of 
August 10, 1842, set forth that, the right of the Council to audit and 
pay accounts was denied by the Justices of Quarter Sessions, and this 
denial was sustained by the Court of Queen's Bench in the order of 
that Court to the Justices to audit and pay. The petition asked that 
the salaries of all officers should be regulated by the Legislature, and a 
table of fees established for unknown or uncertain services. The 
petition further asked that powers be conferred on the Council to 
compel the attendance of witnesses in road cases. The act of October 
12, 1842, provided for the transfer of the Registry office from Dun- 
wich township to the town of London, such transfer to be made May 
1, 1843. 

In 1843, Thomas Graham replaced Moore as Councillor, of 
Bayham ; James Murray replaced Buchanan, of Adelaide, and Samuel 
Kirkpatrick replaced Thomas Duncan, of Aldborough, and Daniel Abel 
took the place of James Brown. These were the only changes from 
the Board of 1842. 

In May, 1843, there were 800 in the District treasury above all 
expenditures. At this time John Burwell presided over the committee 
which reported in favor of distributing this surplus among the town- 
ships. The District Councillors for 1844 were Alex. Love and Benj. 
Willson, of Yarmouth; Samuel Eccles took the place of Levi Fowler, 
in Southwold; Samuel Kirkpatrick took the place of Duncan, of 
Aldborough. Otherwise the Council of 1843 was unchanged. 



The Council of 1845 comprised the following new members : 
Richard Webb, of Delaware, vice Carey; Andrew McGregor, of 
Dorchester, being the first Second Councillor from the township ; Robert 
A damson, of Lobo, vice John Edwards ; Thomas Baty, of Westminster, 
vice H. Crawford ; Wilson Mills, of Caradoc, vice John Parker, with 
R. W. Brennon, of the new Township of Metcalfe, and Donald 
Mclntosh, of the new Township of Williams. 

In December, 1845, tavern licenses were issued to William Smith. 
John Nellis, William McBean, William Franks and William Gain, of 
London Township ; Schubal Nicol, Isaac Mott, Peter McGregor, Henry 
Palmer and William Hood, of Westminster; W. F. Bullen, of 
Delaware; Thomas and George Putnam, and Jonathan Hale, of 
Dorchester South; Duncan Brown, of Lobo; Samuel Fleming and 
Peter Fields, of Mosa ; James Adair, of Caradoc 

The only changes in the Council of 184G, from that of 1845, were : 
Benjamin Cutler, the first Second Councillor, from Lobo ; Andrew 
McCausland replaced Brown, of Malahide ; Leonidas Burwell replaced 
Graham, of Bayham ; Thomas Duncan, of Aldborough, took Kirk- 
patrick's place, and Joseph Sifton, of London, occupied the chair so 
long held by L. Lawrason. 

In December, 1846, licenses were issued as follows, exclusive of 
the renewals of those issued in 1845 : John Stone, Lobo ; W. A. 
Warren, Delaware ; Wm. Robinson, John H. Young, Roland Robinson, 
John Scott, Jonas W. Garrison, John McDowall, Finlay McFee, Wm. 
Harris, Thomas Hiscox, John Smith, Alex. Forbes, Martin Rickard, 
John Matthews, Peter Burke, Charles Lindsay, Robert Carfrae, Richard 
Grover, John Walsh, Sol Schenick, Wm. Burne, Paul & Bennett, John 
O'Neil, Thomas Beckett, Peter McCann, of London ; James Fisher, of 
<Daradoc ; Henry Rawlins, of Delaware ; Charles Patton, of Adelaide ; 
Leonard Bisbee, at plank road junction, toward St. Thomas; John 
O'Dell, Westminster; Arch. Miller, Ekfrid. 

The changes in the Council of 1847 from 1846 were Jacob Cline, 
vice McGregor, of Dorchester ; Win. Neal, vice Anderson, of Mosa ; 
L. Lawrason, vice Geary, of London; Randolph Johnstone, vice 
Wilson, of Yarmouth; Levi Fowler, vice Eccles, of Southwold, and 
James McKirdy, first second councillor from Caradoc. 

The Council of 1848 was made up of the following members, the 
Reeves being named in the first column : 

Aldborough D. McDiarmid ........... London .... Joseph Sifton. . L. Lawrason 

Adelaide. Jas. Murray ........... Malahide.. A. McCausland Daniel Abel 

Loon. Burwell. Jno. Burwell Metcalfe... R. W. Brennan 

Jas. McKirdy . John Parker Mosa ...... Wm. Neal .... A. D. Ward 

Richard Webb ............ Southwold. Colin Munroe.. Levi Fowler 

Wm. Niles... Jacob Cline Westmins'r Isaac Campbell Cal'n Burch 

w T ^^- C i 0yne ........... Williams.. Don. Mclntosh ........... 

Ekfrid... Arch Miller.. ........ Yarmouth.. Alex. Love... R.Johnstone 

Lobo ...... Robt.Adamson Ben. Cutler 

Caradoc ... 



The changes in 1849 were, Patrick Mee and J. A. Scoone elected 
for Adelaide; Dr. E. Dancey vice McCausland, for Malahide ; John 
McBride, for Aldborough ; St. John Skinner vice L. Bur well, for Bay- 
ham, and Malcolm McAlpin vice Miller, for Ekfrid. 

In December, 1847, tavern licenses were granted to Tunis S warts, 
John Matthews, Jerry H. Joyce, Edward Stanley, M. S. Smith, James 
Dagg, Wm. Black well, Hopkins & Abell, Ben. Higgins, Charles B. 
Rudd, Thomas O'Mara, James Mason, Alex. Forbes, Maurice Keley, 
Robert Wyatt or WyalL 

On February 9, 1849, Chairman Munro, of the Committee on 
Schools, presented a lengthy report suggesting changes in old districts, 
and recommending the establishment of new ones throughout the 

Wm. W. Street and John McKay, auditors of the District, reported 
October 9, 1849, that Col. Talbot, Thos. C. Street and a few others, 
refused to pay tax on their wild lands, and suggested an amicable suit 
at law to test the legality of the by-law imposing such tax. 

In March, 1849, John B. Askin, Clerk of the District Court, wrote 
to J. Leslie, Secretary to the Governor, stating that in consequence of * 
the position assumed by John Harris and John S. Buchanan, each 
claiming to be legally elected Treasurer of the District by the District 
Council in October, 1846, " the offices are painfully situated." At 
the date of writing John Harris held the office, but the claims of 
Buchanan were then being presented to the Court of Queen's Bench. 
It appears that Harris was appointed by the Government ; but, under 
the new municipal law, the magistrates thought they had the right of ' 

The Council of 1850 presents eleven new names : Sylvester Cook 
and L. Burwell, vice Skinner and J. Burwell, for Bayham ; Col. 
Dixon, for Caradoc ; John Clark, for Dunwich ; Donald McFarlane, 
for Ekfrid ; Freeman Talbot and Wm. McMillan, for London Township ; 
Murray Anderson and Benj. Nash, for the new town of London ; F. H. 
Wright, vice Abel, for Malahide ; Richard Frank, vice Burch, for 
Westminster; Donald Fraser, for Williams. In 1851 Messrs. Adam- 
son, Anderson, AJlworth, Burwell, Clark, Craig, Dixon, Douglas, R. 
Johnston, Locker, Mee, McMillan, McBride, Moyle, Rae, Robson, 
Shipley, Geo. Smith (Ekfrid), Thomson, W T ilks, Willey, Willson, Frank, 
Barker and H. Jolmstone formed the Council, William Niles being 
re-elected Warden. In May, 1851, R. Frank, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Clergy Reserves, recommended that in view of the sale of 
such reserves by the Province, the Legislature be petitioned to appro- 
priate proceeds for the uses of general education. 

During the years just preceding and in this year the question of 
constructing gravel or toll roads throughout the county occupied much 
attention ; but as the subject is transferred to the chapter on roads and 
bridges, the doings of the Council in the matter bear only this 
reference here. 


A committee, of which Freeman Talbot was chairman, reported 
May 16, 1850, in favor of amending the municipal and other acts, so 
far as they affect the liberties or interests of the county. Among the 
recommendations was one relating to Coroner, as follows : " Your 
committee think proper to draw your attention to the impropriety of 
holding a Coroner's inquest in all cases of sudden death, and would 
therefore suggest the necessity of an immediate alteration of the 
system, it being unnecessarily expensive and revolting to the better 
feelings of humanity." 

L. Burwell, chairman of a committee on the division of the 
county, reported as follows, May 7, 1851 : " Understanding that the 
Government intend, during the ensuing session, to introduce a bill for 
the purpose of dividing the larger counties, your committee have given 
attention to that portion referring to Middlesex. Your committee are 
of the opinion that the division line proposed, running east and west, 
embracing the six frontier townships, and portions of Delaware, West- 
minster and Dorchester, will be opposed by a majority of the inhabitants 
of this county, and that a division for other than electoral purposes is 
unnecessary ; and that for electoral purposes the line should run north 
and south, embracing Dunwich, Aldborough, Mosa, Ekfrid, Caradoc, 
Metcalfe, Lobo, Adelaide and Williams, as the new county, and that 
the same be called the County of Elgin. This committee further 
reported in favor of giving Bayharn to Oxford County in lieu of a 
portion of Nissouri to be attached to Middlesex. 

The Council of 1852 was composed as follows : 

London Town M. Anderson, Wm. Barker.. Adelaide .... Hiram Dell 

London Wm. Moore, Hy. Collins. . Metcalfe Thos. Moyle. ...!....!!" 

Lobo . R. Adamson, Delaware H. Johnstone 

Carodoc H. Clinch Nissouri J. Scatcherd. . 

Ekfrid G. J. Smith Dorchester N. Wm. Niles.. 

Mosa Neil Munro S. Jacob Cline 

Williams .... Geo. Shipley Westminster. Rich. Frank, P. McClary. 

This list does not include the names of representatives from the 
County of Elgin. 

The members of the Council of the united. Counties of Middlesex 
and Elgin in 1853 are named as follows : Wm. Barker and Thomas 
Holmes, of the Town of London ; W. Moore and Henry Collins 
London; Garner Ellwood and Peter McClary, Westminster; Wm' 
Niles, Dorchester; Thomas Kirkpatrick, Mosa; Donald Eraser 
Williams; Kobert Pegley, Adelaide; Ambrose Willson and Weaver 
Bay ham; David Hanvey and Hugh Mclntyre, Yarmouth; Levi 
Fowler and Nichol McCall, Southwold; Moses Willey and John 
Clark Dunwich, John Me Bride, Aldborough ; Edmund McCready 
Dorchester South, and John Elliott, of the new town of Vienna In 
1854 the changes were : Murray Anderson replaced Holmes for the 

hSL V D 2 n i,, Wm ' E1H0tt re P laced Collins for London; Eli 
Griffith replaced Ellwood for Westminster in June, 1853 ; Eobert 
Craik, with W. H. Niles, represented Dorchester N. ; John McKellar 



Lobo ; S. M. Fowle, Delaware ; J. Sparling, Mosa ; Louis Mott was 
the first Second Councillor from Williams ; Hiram Dell replaced 
Pegley, of Adelaide, while John Scatcherd, then Warden, represented 
Nissouri W. This Council of 1854 represented Middlesex ex- 

In September, 1853, Councillors Clinch and McClary moved that 
the Warden call a general meeting to consider the by-law granting aid 
to the Port Stanley Eailroad. 

In November, 1853, Councillor Kirkpatrick moved to appropriate 
100 to carry out the ceremony of opening the G. W. Eailroad. 

On September 23, 1853, By-law 22, authorizing the issue of 20,000 
debentures for the improvement of roads, was passed. Thomas 
Moyle, Chairman of the Finance Committee, in his report of January 
27, 1854, suggested the advertisement of a by-law for raising 25,000* 
for stock in the London and Port Stanley Eailroad. 

The Eailroad Committee of the Council, reporting in May, 1854, 
through Holcroft Church, favored the purchase of the Ontario and! 
Erie Eailroad and of two steamers, so as to prevent the building of a 
southern line, and thus build up the stock of the Great Western Eailroad, 
in which the county was interested. The question of consolidating 
this Great Western road with the Grand Trunk road was decried, the 
Committee stating plainly that such a deal would create a monopoly 
and should not be entertained. In December, 1854, a memorial to 
Samuel Laing, of the English stockholders in the G. W. Eailroad, set 
forth the pleasure which the completion of the road, nearly twelve 
months before, gave the people of Middlesex, and the pain which 
numerous accidents, delays in shipment of freight, and other failures, 
caused since the opening of the road ; asked the co-operation of the 
British stockholders in obtaining a new management. The accident 
at Baptiste Creek in 1854 caused the death of more than fifty per- 
sons, and many more maimed for life. 

In December, 1855, the city and county arbitration meeting was 
held, Thomas Moyle representing the county, Wm. Barker the city, 
with Thomas Shenston, of Woodstock, the third arbitrator. The result 
of this method of settling disagreements is given in the history of 
London City. 

The Council of 1855 comprised William Fitzgerald and William 
Shoebottom, of London ; Eichard Frank and Benjamin Cook, of West- 
minster ; Geo. S. Eogers, of Delaware ; Hugh Carmichael, of Lobo ; 
H. Clinch and Arch. Campbell, of Caradoc ; John Mclntyre, of Ekfrid ; 
Donald Waters and Hugh Fraser, of Williams ; Henry E. Archer, of 
Mosa; William Miller, of Adelaide; William Moore, of Nissouri 
West; Thomas Moyle, of Metcalfe; Eobert Craik and Donald 
McFarlane, of Dorchester North. 

In January, 1856, Councilmen Keefer, Bateman, Hunter, Eogers, 
Craik, Cartwright, Mclntyre, Fitzgerald, O'Neil, Moyle, Archer, 
Edwards, Woodward, Burch, Cook, Waters, Fraser, and Moore qualified. 


The Council of 1857, was made up as follows : Robert Adamson, 
John Bateman, Robert Craik, Benjamin Cook, Thomas Cuddy, Hugh 
Fraser, James Gardiner, David Hunter, William Moore, Thomas 
Moyle, William McKinley, William McMillan, John Mclntyre. Wm. 
Shoebottom, R. M. Varnam, Donald Waters and Jacob Weylor. Robt. 
Craik was elected Warden. 

The Reeves and Deputy-Reeves of 1858 is given by Townships : 

Adelaide. . Thomas Cuddy, Jas. Keefer, Caradoc Arch. Campbell, I. B. Burwell 

Delaware- . Jacob Weylor Dorchester.. R. M. Varnum, B.V.Demaray 

Ekfrid John Mclntyre Lobo Robt. Adamson, John Edwards 

London W. Shoebottom, R.H. O'Neil. Metcalfe Thomas Moyle 

Mosa Charles Rolls. . . T. Robinson. Nissouri W. R. Vining 

Westm'str.. Benj. Cook John Nixon. Williams.. . . John Topping. . A. Elliot 

The municipal election for 1859 returned to the Council R. P. 
Tooth, Reeve, and William Thorpe, Deputy, from Adelaide; John 
McDougal vice Edwards, of Lobo ; John Marshall vice Varnum, of 
Dorchester; Thomas Hughes vice Moyle, of Metcalfe; R. H. O'Neil 
and C. Coombs, of 'London ; Charles Scott, Deputy, of Nissouri ; 
Malcolm Campbell vice Mclntyre, of Ekfrid ; Alex. Levie, of Wil- 
liams, vice Topping ; Neil Munro. of Mosa, vice Rolls, with Charles 
Armstrong vice Robinson. In the other cases, the old members were 

The members of the Council of 1860 were M. S. Ayers, Alex. 
Levie, John H. Munroe, W. R. Vining, Robert Dreaney, John Irvine, 
R. H. O'Neil, Thomas Hughes, J. Weylor, M. Campbell, Wm. Wells, 
of Williams E., Arch. Campbell, R. P. Tooth with James Keefer, 
Reeve of Strathroy, Reeves, and Alex. Kerr, James Gardiner, Charles 
Scott, John McArthur, W. R. Thorpe, Wm. McPee, Arthur Seabrook 
and C. Coombs, Deputy-Reeves. Archibald Campbell was elected 
Warden and re-elected in 1861 and also in 1862. 

On Jan. 26, 1861, a letter from the Clerk of Biddulph, relating to 
running trains on the Sabbath, was read, and immediately Councillors 
D. Waters and J. Levie moved and seconded a resolution that the 
Council petition the Dominion Parliament to amend Chapter 104 of 
the Consolidated Statutes of Upper Canada, so as to prevent the 
running of trains on Sunday. 

The Council of 1861 comprised Neil Munro, Reeve, and John H. 
Munroe, Deputy, of Mosa ; A. Campbell and I. B. Burwell, of 
Caradoc ; Wm. Rapley, of Strathroy ; Alexander Levie, of Williams 
W. ; William Wells, of Williams E. ; Thomas Hughes, of Metcalfe ; 
Robert Dreaney and James Craig, of Dorchester ; Thomas Curdy, of 
Adelaide; M. S. Ayers and A. Kerr, of Westminster; M. Campbell, 
of Ekfrid ; W. R. Vining and Charles Scott, of North Nissouri ; John 
McDougal and L. E. Shipley, of Lobo. 

The Council of 1862 was made up as follows : Adelaide, Wm. 
Murdock; Caradoc, A. Campbell and John Thompson; Delaware, 
Thomas Beveridge ; Dorchester, Wm. McKee and R. Dreaney ; Ekfrid, 



Malcolm Campbell ; Lobo, John Me Arthur and R. Adamson ; London, 
Hamilton Dunlap and C. C. Coombs ; Metcalfe, Thomas Hughes ; 
Mosa, J. H. Munroe and Nathaniel Currie ; Nissouri, James Evans 
and Moses Wilson; Williams W., Alex. Levie ; Williams E., A. C. 
Stewart ; Westminster, Merrill S. Ayers and John Nixon, and Strath- 
roy, Wm. Rapley. 

In 1863 the members of the Council were Messrs. Ayers, Bate- 
man, Dreaney, Dunlap, Hughes, Levie, Moore, N. Munro, Mclntyre, 
McArthur, O'Neil, Rapley, Smith, Stewart and Weylor, Reeves ; with 
James Banning, Coombs, Dobie, Evans, Faulds, Hodgins, McDougal, 
McKee, Nixon and Robinson, Deputies. C. C. Coombs was elected 
Warden. At this session Biddulph and McGillivray were represented, 
the first by Smith and Robinson, the second by O'Neil and Hodgins. 

The act relating to the admission of the Townships of Biddulph 
and McGillivray contains the following paragraph : " Neither of the 
said townships shall be liable for any debt contracted by the County of 
Middlesex for the constructing or gravelling of roads outside of the 
said townships, or which may at any time within the next twenty-one 
years be constructed by such county for the purpose aforesaid." 

The Council of 1864 comprised the following members : 

Adelaide . . 
Biddulph . 
Caradoc . . 



London . . 

T. Cuddy 

R. H. O'Neil. Tim. Toohey. 
T. Northcott J. Thompson 

J. Weylor 

R. Dreaney . . W. Thompson 
J. Mclntyre.. J. D. Cornell 
J. McArthur. L. Shipley. . . 
H. Dunlap.. T. Routledge. 

Metcalfe . . . T. Moyle 

Mosa J. H. Munroe A. Armstrong 

McGillivray. not recorded 

Nissouri .... J. Evans. . . . M. Wilson. . . 

Strathroy.. W. Rapley 

Westminster M. S. Ayers.. Abel Cooper.. 

Williams E.. not recorded 

Williams W. R. Mclntyre 

The Council of 1865 comprised the following members: Wm. 
Miller, Reeve, and John Tver, Deputy, of Adelaide ; R. H. O'Neil and 
John McFalls, of Biddulph ; John Bateman and Alex. Campbell, of 
Caradoc; Colin Campbell, of Delaware; Robert Dreaney and Wm. 
Thompson, of Dorchester ; John Mclntyre and D. Taylor, of Ekfrid ; 
John McArthur and John Scott, of Lobo; Thomas Routledge and W. 
H. Ryan, of London ; Thomas Moyle, of Metcalfe ; John H. Munroe 
and Nathaniel Currie, of Mosa; James S. Smith and Andrew 
Robinson, of McGillivray; James Evans and Moses Wilson, of 
Nissouri; Wm. Rapley, of Strathroy; M. S. Ayers and John Nixon, 
of Westminster; John Levie and Alex. Stewart, of Williams E., and 
E. R. Dobie, of Williams W. John H. Munroe was elected Warden. 
The report of the Finance Committee made in December, 1865, 
points out an item of $2,970.10 paid during the year, for building and 
furnishing the County Clerk's and other offices, and the Council 


Adelaide W* Murdock . . Wm. Miller John Iver L. Cleverdon. 

Biddulph R. H. O'Neil.. Chas. Gowan R. H. O'Neil.. Thos. Hodgins. 

Caradoc John Bateman. J. Thompson J. Thompson.. J. B. Burwell. 




H. Johnson . . . 


Delaware .... 

R Tooley 

R. Dreaney 

R. Toolev. 

Dorchester N. 

M. Campbell. .. 

D. Dobie 

M. Campbell . . 

A. Campbell. 


L. E. Shipley.. 

M. McArthur.... 

D. McArthur.. 

M. McArthur. 

T Routledge . . 

James Bell 

T. Routledge . - 

( James Bell . 
| W. Shoebottom. 
\ TT "Robinson 


AT na 

Thoa. Movie . . 
N Currie 

A. Armstrong . . . 

Thos. Moyle. . . 
N. Currie 

l/r. Langford. 
M. G. Munroe. 

McGillivray .. 
Nissouri W.. 

J. S. Smith.. . . 
J. Henderson . . 
Alex Robbs 

Robert Fisher.. . . 
W. Bell 

John Corbett.. 
Jas. Evans . . . 
R. Nicholson . 

A. Robinson. 
A. W. Browne, 

Williftmfl V 

John Levie 

John Levie .... 

Alex. C. Stewart. 

Williams W.. 


S. McLeod.... 
M 8. Avfirs. . 

David Brock 
John Nixon. . , 

S. McLeod.... 
John Nixon .... 

Richard Peck. 
\ D. B. Burch. 

The county officials in 1866 were J. E. Small, Judge ; Wm. Glass, 
Sheriff; John McBeth, Clerk of County Court; James Ferguson, 
Registrar ; M. S. Ay era, Warden ; Adarn Murray, Treasurer ; C. W. 
Connor, Engineer; James Keefer, Clerk, and Sam. Stansfield, Janitor. 

In June, 1867, the Council was asked to petition the Government 
for a prohibitory duty on hops imported from the United States ; but 
the committee reported in favor of deferring such petition. Sub- 
sequently a motion to forward such petition was lost. 

In December, 1867, the Council petitioned the Legislature to em- 
power a tax of six cents per acre on all unoccupied wild lands, for the 
special purpose of being applied on the improvement of roads and 
bridges in the vicinity of such lands. 

In 1868, Roger Hedley was Reeve of Lobo; Thomas Northcott, 
Deputy of Caradoc. Geo. Robson and John Kearns replaced Bell and 
Shoebottom, of London. John Water worth, Reeve of Mosa, with D. 
Mclntyre, Deputy ; Wm. Wright, Deputy Reeve of McGillivray ; W. 
R. Vining, Reeve of Nissouri, with A. W. Browne, Deputy ; James D. 
Dewan was Reeve of Strathroy ; John Waters, of Williams E., with 
John Levie, Deputy; while William Neal was Reeve of the new 
Town of Wardsville. 

The Treasurer's office was robbed on the night of Feb. 8, 1868. On 
March 31 the Council exonerated Treasurer Murray, as the loss, 
$1,203.75, had been trebly saved to the county previously by his ex- 
cellent silver deal. 

The Council of 1869 was made up as follows the Reeve and 
Deputy Reeve being named in the above order of townships : 
Lawrence Cleverdon and John Wyley ; R. H. O'Neil and John 
Hodgins ; Thomas Northcott and Thomas Faulds : Henrv Johnson, no 
deputy ; Richard Tooley and James B. Lane; Hector McFarlane and 
George E. Elliott ; Malcolm McArthur and Alex McKellar ; Thomas 
Routledge with Deputy Reeves Thomas Langford, Edward Robinson, 
John Kearns and William H. Ryan ; Robert Brown and George 
Lamon ; John Watterworth and Alex. Armstrong ; John Corbett and 



William Wright; Alex. W. Browne and R W. Giffin ; James D. 
Dewan and John Frank ; John Waters and John Levie ; Simon 
McLeod and John Dawson; John Nixon with William McKerlie and 
Henry Anderson, Deputies of Westminster, and William Veal, of 

The Council of 1870 comprised 17 Reeves and 19 Deputy-Reeves. 
The roll in the order of townships is as follows: William Murdock 
and John Wyley ; R. H. O'Neil and John Hodgins ; Thomas Northcott 
and Godfrey McGugan ; Thomas H. Brettle, no deputy ; Richard 
Tooley and James B. Lane ; H. McFarlane and G. J. Coulthard ; A. 
McKellar and Alex. Gray ; W. H. Ryan with Deputies James Bell, 
John Kearns, John Jackson and F. Lewis ; Robert Brown, of Metcalfe, 
and Arch. Munroe ; John Watterworth and David 'Gibb ; William 
Wright and John Rosser ; A. W. Browne and R. W. Giffin ; James D. 
Dewan and J. Wilson ; John Waters and John Levie ; Simon McLeod 
and John Dawson ; John Nixon with John S. Little and Eli S. Jarvis ; 
Henry Henderson, of Wardsville. 

The changes in the County Council of 1871 were as follows : 
Arthur Seabrook, qualified as Reeve of Delaware ; Robert Dreaney, 
of Dorchester N. ; A. Mclntyre, as Deputy of Ekfrid, vice Coulthard ; 
L. E. Shipley, vice Gray, of Lobo ; Wm. Kernohan and Wm. Shoe- 
bottom, Deputies of London, vice Jackson and Lewis ; A. Armstrong, 
vice D. Gibb; John Corbett and Andrew Erskine, of McGillivray; 
A. W. Browne and Wm. Moore ; Joseph Wilson and C. G. Scott, 
representing Strathroy ; Thomas Elliott, vice John Dawson, Deputy of 
Williams West, and Malcolm G. Munroe, Reeve of Wardsville. The 
other townships holding their representatives of 1870. 

The changes in the Council of 1871 for 1872 show John Hodgins, 
Reeve, and John Dagg, Deputy of Biddulph ; W. H. Niles, Deputy of 
Dorchester ; C. J. Campbell, of Ekfrid ; Wm. Shoebottom, Reeve, with 
S. T. Shoebottom, jr., Wm. Patrick, Wm. Kernohan and Thomas 
Greene, Deputies of London; R H. O'Neil, Reeve of Lucan; R. 
Brown, Reeve, and R. Moyle, Deputy of Metcalfe ; J. S. Walker and 
James Banning, of Mosa ; J. B. Fram, Deputy of Nissouri W. ; Alex. 
Robb, Reeve of Strathroy; Thomas Elliott, Reeve, and D. Brock, 
Deputy of West Williams ; James Armstrong, Reeve of Westminster, 
and S. McLeod, of Parkhill. Messrs. Murdock, Northcott, Seabrooke, 
Dreaney, McFarlane, McKellar, Corbett, Brown, Waters and Munroe, 
Reeves, with Wyley, McGugan, Shipley, Erskine, Scott, Levie, Little 
and Jarvis, Deputies, holding over. 

The County Council of 1873 and 1874 comprised the following 
representatives : 



Adelaide John Morgan John Wyley. 

Biddulph John Hodgins John Dagg. 

Caradoc G. McGugan Andrew McEvoy. 

Delaware T. C. Rodgers 



' N gS Sane". . ! ! ! ! ! [JMSSI* 

'W. Shoebottor 
W. Shoebottom, sr -< T. Greene, J. M. "O'Neil, 

! '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Andrew Erskine '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. J. Marr, J. Robinson. 

Metcalfe ' Same as 1872 

.B. Watterworth A. Armstrong. 

Nissouri,' W I!'.'.'.'.. A. W. Browne James McLeod. 

New bury Thomas Robinson 

Parkhill.. Win. Shoults 

Strathroy Alex. Robb Thomas Fawcett. 

Williams E John Waters 13. C. Mclntyre. 

Williams, W Andrew Elliott David Brock. 

Wardsville M. G. Munroe m 

Westminster James Armstrong E. S. Jarvis, J. McGregor. 


Adelaide John Morgan John Wyley. 

Biddulph John Hodgins John Dagg. 

Caradoc Andrew McEvoy Eli Griffith. 

Delaware F. C. Rogers 

Dorchester, N James B. Lane W. H. Niles. 

Kkfrid . .Geo. J. Coulthard J. W. Campbell. 

IWm. Kernohan, J. O'Neil, 
London Thomas Routledge j j Peters> c w Sifton 

Lucan Thomas Dight 

Lobo Alex. McKellar L. E. Shipley. 

Metcalfe Robert Brown Thomas Lightfoot. 

Mosa. Ben. Watterworth Alex. Armstrong. 

McGillivray .Andrew Erskine James Marr, J. Robinson. 

Nissouri, W A. W. Browne James McLeod. 

Newbury Wm. Clements 

Parkhill Simon McLeod 

Strathroy Charles Murray Alex. Robb. 

Williams, E John Waters John Levie. 

Williams, W Andrew Elliott 

Wardsville W. D. Hammond 

Westminster James Armstrong E. S. Jarvis, J. McGregor. 

Lionel E. Shipley was elected Warden, succeeded in 1875 by John 

In 1875 Gilbert Harris was elected Keeve of Delaware ; Geo. C. 
Elliot, of Ekfrid ; John M. O'Neil, of London; John Corbett, of Mc- 
Gillivray ; William Rapley, of Strathroy ; E. E. Dobie, of Williams 
W., Thomas English, of Wardsville ; John W. Campbell, of the new 
town of Glencoe ; A. M. Eoss, of the new town of London East ; J. 
D. Saunby, of the new town of Petersville, and Skackelton Hay, of 
the new town of Ailsa Craig. 

The Deputies were James Gilmour, of Dorchester ; H. Stevenson, 
Ekfrid; A. D. Osborne, C. Guest, C. W. Sifton and John Peters, 
London; J. W. Eosser and Wm. Dixon, of McGillivray; G. W. 
Keast, of Nissouri; Chester G. Scott, of Strathroy; J. Mathers, with 
McGregor, of Westminster, and Peter Allister, of London East. In 
the other townships the Eeeves and Deputies of 1874 were returned. 


The Reeves of the Council of 1876 were : John Morgan, John 
Hodgins, A. M. McEvoy, Andrew Sharpe, J. B. Lane, Geo. C. Elliott, 
J. M. O'Neil, A. McKellar, R Brown, B. Watterworth, John Corbett, 
J. B. Fram, of Westminster; John Levie, East Williams; Thomas 
Elliott, West Williams; Wm. Ripley, Strathroy; Thomas English, 
Wardsville ; Thomas Robinson, Newbury ; Thomas Dight, Lucan ; W. 
Shoiilts, Parkhill ; J. W. Campbell, Glencoe ; Murray Anderson, 
London East ; J. D. Saunby, Petersville, and J. H. Priestly, Ailsa 
Craig. The Deputy of Strathroy was : F. J. Craig, and of London 
East, Thomas Muir. Wm. Brock, John Dagg and Eli Griffith, were 
Deputies of Adelaide, Biddulph, and Caradoc, respectively ; James 
Gilmour, of Dorchester ; A. Stevens, of Ekfrid, A. D. Osborne, C. W. 
Sifton, C. Guest, and W. Elliott, of London; while C. M. Simmons, 
T. Lightfoot, A. Armstrong, J. W. Rosser, Wm. Dixon, John H. 
Haynes, James Mathers, John Nixon, George Routledge, and Peter 
Gordon, representing the other townships as Deputy-Reeves. James 
Armstrong was elected Warden. 

The changes in the Board of 1876 were : Wm. Murdock vice 
Morgan ; W. H. Ryan vice John Hodgins, with W. S. Stanley vice 
Deputy Dagg ; T. Northcott vice A. M. McEvoy, with Jarnes Gamble 
and Thomas Nagle, Deputies ; C. J. Campbell vice Elliott, of Ekfrid, 
with James Pole, Deputy ; A. D. Osborne, of London, with J. M. 
O'Neil, Charles Guest, R. Geary, and D. McMillan, Deputies ; Michael 
Beckett vice Deputy Lightfoot, of Metcalfe ; J. Robinson vice John 
Corbett, with James Marr, Deputy of McGillivray. James Armstrong 
was still Reeve of London, with J. Nixon, John M cGregor, and G. 
Routledge, Deputies. Trafford Campbell replaced Peter Gordon as 
Deputy of Williams East ; W. H. Hutchins represented Parkhill ; 
Nathaniel Currie, Glencoe ; T. G. S. Nevilles, Ailsa Craig, and Isaac 
Waterman, of London East, with William Stanfield, Deputy. The 
other townships and villages were represented as in 1876. 


Adelaide ................ John Wyley ............. James Thompson. 

Biddulph ................ W. H. Ryan ............ W. D. Stanley. 

Caradoc .................. Eli Griffith _____ .......... D. Leitch and M. McGugaii. 

Delaware ................ Bruin Cornell ............ 

Dorchester North ......... J. B. Lane ........... James Gilmour. 

Ekfrid ................... C. J. Campbell .......... Daniel McDougal. 

Lobo ................... Alex. McKellar ........... C. M. Simmons. 

A.D.Osborne ........... 

Metcalfe ................. Thomas Hughes ......... Michael Beckett. 

Mosa ........ ............ B. Watterworth .......... Alex. Armstrong. 

McGillivray .............. John Robinson .......... J. Marr, W. H. Taylor. 

Nissouri West ............ J. B. Fram ............... J. H. Haynes. 

Westminster ............. James Armstrong ......... { &/ g 

East Williams ............ John Levie ..... ......... Trafford Campbell. 

West Williams ........... Thomas Elliott ........... John Barrett. 

Strathroy ................ Wm. Rapley .............. D. M. Cameron. 




REEVES 1878. 


London East Isaac Waterman T. W. Bartlett. 

Petersville A. J. B. Macdonald 

Wardsville Thomas English 

Newbury Alex. Graham 

Glencoe N. Currie 

Parkhill W. Shoults 

Ailsa Craig T. G. S. Nevilles 

Lucan W. H. Hutchins 

The Reeves of the Council of 1879 were, in the alphabetical order 
of townships: John Morgan, W. H. Ryan, Malcolm McGugan, 
Andrew Sharpe, James Gilmour, Allen Stevenson, L. E. Shipley, 
Donald McMillan, succeeded by Thomas Routledge, B. Watterworth, 
Mosa ; Thomas Hughes, Metcalfe ; John Robinson, McGillivray ; J. 
B. Fram, Nissouri; James Armstrong, Thomas Shipley and Peter 
Stewart. The village Reeves were F. J. Craig, Strathroy; I. Water- 
man, London E. ; Thomas English, Wardsville, succeeded by William 
Shepherd, N. Currie, Glencoe; Wm. Shoults, Parkhill; W. K 
Atkinson, Ailsa Craig; W. S. Hutchinson, Lucan, succeeded by W. 
Stanley, A. J. B. McDonald, Petersville, and Thomas Robinson, 
Newbury. The Deputy- Reeves, in alphabetical order of townships, 
were T. 0. Curry, Wm. D. Stanley, Dugald Leitch, Henry Sutherland, 
not represented, John Durand, John A. Dobie, Robert Boston, of 
Lobo ; Edward Robinson, Thomas Langford, R. W. Jackson and Joseph 
Marshall, of London ; H. Gough, Metcalfe ; A. Armstrong, Mosa ; 
James Marr and W. H. Taylor, McGillivray; Charles Fitzgerald, 
Nissouri; Geo. Routledge, John Nixon and John McGregor, West- 
minster; Arch. Campbell, Williams E., and John Barrett, Williams 
W. D. M. Cameron was Deputy from Strathroy; J. W. Bartlett 
and J. Wright from London East. The latter was succeeded by S. A. 
Adams. James Gilmour was elected Warden. 

The Council of 1880 was made up as follows : 


. J. Morgan 
. W. H. Ryan. . . 

T. 0. Curry. 
W. D. Stanley. 

Strathroy . . . 


. M. McGugan. . . 

/D. Leitch. 
\R. Cade. 

London E. . 


. A. Sharpe 


Dorchester . 

. J. Durand 
James Pole 

R. Venning. 

J .A.. JJOulC. 



C. M. Simmons 

Robert Boston. 

Newbury . . 

fE Robinson. 


London. . . . 

. T. Routledge . . 

I T. Langford. 
1 R. W. Jackson. 

Ailsa Craig.. . 

U. Marshall. 

Petersville . . . 


B. Watterworth 

GM oTntvrp 


Robert Brown . . 

JxlUlLl Ljr To* 

Henry Gough. 


J. Robinson 

/J. Marr. " 
\W. H. Taylor. 

Nissouri . . . 

J. B. Fram 

G. W. Keast. 


F. J. Craig. 

D. M. Cameron, dep. 

Isaac Waterman. 

Chas. Lilley, dep. 

Wm. Belton, dep. 
. W. Shepherd. 

Dr. Graham. 

Nathaniel Currie. 

W. Shoults. 

J. Rosser. 
. W. Stanley. 

W. H. Bartram. 





Westminster J. Armstrong . . 

Williams E.. T. G. Shipley. 
Williams W. Peter Stewart. 


{J. Nixon. 
G. Routledge. 
J. McGregor. 
J. Mills. 
A. Campbell. 
John Barrett. 

John Morgan was elected Warden, his vote being 25, against 19 
for Watterworth and 5 for Craig. 

The changes in the Council for 1881 are thus given: Wm. D. 
Stanley, Eeeve, with Samuel R. Hodgins, Deputy, of Biddulph; 
Malcolm McGregor, Henry Sutherland and Thomas Nagle, of Cara- 
doc; James H. Rouse, Deputy of Dorchester; John Mclntyre, 
Deputy of Ekfrid ; Alex. McKeller, Reeve of Lobo ; Duncan Camp- 
bell, Deputy of Mosa ; James Bennett, Deputy of Metcalfe ; Andrew 
Robinson, Deputy of W. McGillivray ; A. W. Browne, Reeve, and 
Alex. McMartin, Deputy of JSTissouri; John McEwen, Deputy of 
Williams E. ; John Barrett, Reeve, and Angus McLachlin, Deputy of 
Williams W. ; D. M. Cameron, Reeve, and James H. English, Deputy 
of Strathroy ; Charles Lilley and Peter Toll, of London East ; Henry 
Henderson, of Wardsville; John B. Anderson, of Newbury; Isaac 
Rathburn, of Glencoe ; and Deputy John Platt, of Petersville. With 
the above exceptions, the municipalities were represented as in 1880. 
James Armstrong was elected Warden by a vote of 27, to 23 for 
Routledge. In September, Daniel Black was elected Deputy of Lon- 
don, vice Belton, deceased, and Kenneth Goodman, Reeve of Parkhill, 
vice Shoults, resigned. 

The Council of 1882 was composed of the following-named 
Reeves and Deputy-Reeves : 


Strathroy . ... D. M. Cameron. 
" . ... J. H. English, dep. 

. W. Rapley, dep. 
London E. . J. W. Bartlett 

" . Daniel Black, dep. 

. James Legg, dep. 
London W . . John Platt. 

. W. Spencer, dep. 
Wardsville . . . Thomas English. 

Newbury J. B. Anderson. 

Glencoe Nathaniel Currie. 

Parkhill Kenneth Goodman. 

Ailsa Craig. . . . Joseph Rosser. 
Lucan Wm. Stanley. 


Biddulph.. . 

Delaware. . , . 
Dorchester . . 
Ekfrid . . . 


T. 0. Curry.... 
W. D. Stanley. 

M. McGugan . . 
A. Sharpe 
John Durand. . 

James Pole . . . 
A. McKellar . . . 

Jos. Marshall... 

B. Watterworth 
Robert Brown . . 

W. H. Taylor.. 
E. Fitzgerald . . 

J. Armstrong . . 

T. G. Shipley. . . 
Peter Stewart . . 


Henry Dale. 
S. R. Hodgins. 
/D. Leitch. 
\.T. Nagle. 

/J. H. Rouse 
\W. Watcher. 
J. A. Dobie. 
R. Boston. 
{Peter Elson. 
E. Robinson. 
T. A. Langford. 
R W. Jackson. 
D. Campbell. 
James Bennett. 
fH. Darling. 
\A. Robinson. 
A. McMartin. 
{J. McGregor. 
J. Nixon. 
G. Routledge. 
J. Mills. 
J. S. McEwen. 
A. McLachlin. 

Mosa ..... 

Metcalfe.. . . 


Williams E. 


The Council of 1883 presents 26 new names and 24 names of the 
Councillors of 1882. The new Eeeves are named as follows : James 
Gilmour, Dorchester ; Kobert Boston, Lobo ; Richard Moyle, Metcalfe ; 
Duncan Campbell, Mosa ; James Marr, McGillivray ; John T. 
Coughlin, Westminster ; John S. McEwen, Williams E. ; Simon 
McLeod, Williams W. ; W. H. Bartram, London West ; J. H. 
McRoberts, Lucan ; and Isaac Rathburn, Glencoe. The new Deputy 
Reeves were William Turner, of Biddulph; Dugald Campbell, of 
Caradoc, vice T. Nagle ; Wm. Turnbull, of Dorchester ; Zachariah 
McCallum, of Ekfrid ; B. B. Harris, of Lobo ; Edward K. Sale, Robert 
Dreaney and Thomas Robson, of London, Peter Elson being re elected ; 
Singleton Gibb, of Mosa ; John Patching, of McGillivray, vice Darling ; 
Robert Summers and Wm. H. Odell, of Westminster, vice McGregor 
and Routledge ; D. A. Gillies, of Williams E. ; N. D. Wyley, of 
Williams W. D. M. Cameron was elected Warden by a vote of 25, 
against 23 recorded for Stanley. 

The roll of the Council of 1884 by townships and villages, presents 
the following names : 


Adelaide ............... Duncan A. Campbell ...... Patrick Murray. 

Biddulph ................. W. D. Stanley ............ Thomas E. Hodgins. 

Caradoc .................. Malcolm McGugan ........ (? U ffp L ! itch ' 

\.S. McCracken. 
Delaware ................ Andrew Sharpe ......... 

Dorchester ............... James Gilmour ............ John McFarlane 

Ekfrid ................... John Mclntyre ............ J. A. Dobie. 

Lobo .................... Robert Boston .......... B. B. Harris. 

London .................. Peter Elson ............. /* S n g ne y? l T i R b * on ' 

\R. E. Powell, J. Bell. 
JJosa .......... ......... Duncan Campbell ......... Singleton Gibb. 

JJetcafe ................. James Bennett ........... T. F. Hawken. 

Mcbilhyray .............. James Marr ............. A. Robinson, J. Patchen. 

Missouri .................. J- B. Fram ............... Thomas Chalmers. 

Westminster .............. John T. Coughlin ........ ( J ' N -^ '/;, M T j lls ' 1 

............ D. A. Gillies .............. &&2?" 

Simon McLeod ............ Angus McLeish. 


Ailsa Craig ............... D. F. Stewart.. 

Lucan ................... Wm. Elwood. . . 

Glencoe .................. I. Rathburn 

g?"Jy i ................ J- B. Anderson 

Wardsville ............ E. Lilley 

In the Council of 1885 were fourteen Eeeves and sixteen Deputv- 
Reeves who served the previous year. The Reeves elected in 1885 
were James Pole, of Ekfrid; B. Watterworth, of Mosa; Henry Gouoh 
of Metcalfe; Andrew Robinson, of McGiUivray ; W. H. Odell, V 
Westminster; Dr. J. H. Gardiner, of London E.; W. W. Fitzgerald 


of London W. ; Joseph Eosser, of Ailsa Craig ; Nathaniel Currie, of 
Glencoe, and William Shephard, of Wardsville. Of the new Deputy- 
Eeeves, C. C. Hodgins represented Biddulph ; T. B. Warren, Metcalfe ; 
John Bradley, vice A. Kobinson, McGillivray ; James Henderson, 
Nissouri; Francis Elliott, vice Odell, Westminster; D. McKenzie, 
Williams E. ; Wm. Eapley and James Bowley, Strathroy ; Peter Toll 
and Geo. Heaman, London E., and Wm. Spence, London West. 

The Council of 1886 comprised Duncan A. Campbell, Win. D. 
Stanley, Malcolm McGugan, Andrew Sharpe, James Gilmour, James 
Pole, Eobert Boston. Peter Elson, Benjamin Watterworth, Henry 
Gough, Wm. H. Taylor, J. B. Fram, Wm. H. Odell, Trafford Campbell, 
Simon McLeod, L. Cleverdon, W. W. Fitzgerald, Eichard Shoults, 
Joseph Eosser, Wm. El wood, Nathaniel Currie, Dr. Graham, John Heath, 
Eeeves ; and Patrick Murray, C. C. Hodgins, Dugald Leitch, Samuel 
McCracken, Duncan McLaughlin. Bray Willey, Charles Simmons, 
Eobert Dreaney, Thomas E. Eobson, Eichard A. Powell, James Bell, 
William Webster, William S. Calvert, John Patchen, John Bradley, 
James Henderson, John Nixon, James Mills, Francis Elliott, Barnabas 
Skuse, David McKenzie, John G. James, Wm. Eapley, James Bowley, 
E. F. Lacey, Deputy-Eeeves. 

The Council of 1887 comprised Duncan A. Campbell, C. C. Hodgins, 
Samuel McCracken, John Johnston, James Gilmour, John A. Dobie, 
Peter Elson, Eobert Boston, Henry Gough, Benjamin Watterworth, 
W 7 m. H. Taylor, Edward Fitzgerald, John T. Coughlin, Trafford Camp- 
bell, Simon McLeod, Lawrence Cleverdon, James Campbell, Eobert 
White, Nathaniel Currie, Joseph Eosser, Alex. Graham, M D., Wm. 
Elwood, John Heath, Eeeves ; with Duncan Eobertson, P. J. Dewan, 
James Gamble, Henry Hardy, James H. Eouse, Bray Willey, Eobert 
Dieaney, Thomas E. Eobson, Eichard A. Powell, Eichard Ardiel, C. M. 
Simmons, Wm. S. Calvert, Singleton Gibb, John Patchen, John Bradley, 
Thomas Duffin, John Nixon, John Mills, Francis Elliott, Wm. Gerry, 
Daniel A. Gillies, A. W. Augustine, Hector Urquhart, F. L. Harrison, 
Thomas McGoey, Deputy-Eeeves. 

The members of the Council of 1888 are named in the sketches of 
the several municipalities. 

In January, 1887, B. Watterworth, seconded by D. A. Campbell, 
moved that the Petitioning Committee draft a petition to the 
Legislature praying them to so amend the act relating to the franchise 
and representation of the people, namely, chapter 2 of 48 Victoria, 
section 7, so as to extend the privilege to wage earners of voting at 
municipal elections as well as parliamentary. 

On June 9, 1887, E. Boston, seconded by C. M. Simmons, moved 
that the following members of this Council be a committee to draft an 
address to Mr. Murray on his retirement from the Treasurership of this 
County, and to report to this Council the best means of showing our 
good will to Mr. Murray in some tangible form for his long and faith- 
ful services, viz. : Messrs. S. McLeod, James Gilmour, B. Watter- 


worth, John T. Coughlin, Peter Elson, Trafford Campbell and the 

On the same date the following applications for the situation of 
County Treasurer were read : James Grant, Lionel E. Shipley, Wm. 
H. Odell, Alex. McKellar, Wm. D. Stanley, A. M. McEvoy, D. L. 
Leitch, Francis Parker, and W. King Dixon. 

A special meeting was held September 8, 1887, in answer to a 
notice sent to each member by the Clerk, informing them that the 
vacancy in the Municipal Council of Strathroy, by the continued 
absence of Mr. Cleverdon, had been filled by the election of D. W. 
Vary as Reeve, which caused a vacancy in the Wardenship of the 
County, necessitating a meeting of the Council to elect a Warden. D. 
A. Campbell, seconded by John Nixon, proposed that Simon McLeod, 
Reeve of the Township of West Williams, be Warden of the County 
for the remainder of the year in the room and stead of L. Cleverdon, 
whose seat has been declared vacant by the Council of the local 
municipality of Strathroy. In 1888 Warden McLeod was re-elected. 

The salaries of the county officials, appointed by Council, as fixed 
in 1887, are as follows : Warden, $300; Jail Physician, $250 ; 
Manager House of Refuge, $350; Matron, $150; Engineer, $400; 
Janitor Court House and County Buildings, $450; County Treasurer, 
$1,600; County Clerk, $700; Inspector House of Refuge, $200; 
Physician House of Refuge, $200. The County Commissioner, for 
actual service, $3.50 per day, and members of Council and auditors of 
criminal justice accounts, $2 per day and mileage. 

Early Items. In 1842, John Wilson, Q. C , was elected first 
Warden. John S. Buchanan succeeded him in 1845, and he was 
succeeded by Wm. Niles, who held the position from 1847 until 
1853, when John Scatcherd was chosen. Halcroft Church was 
Warden in 1855 ; Thos. Moyle, in 1856 ; Robert Craik, 1857 ; Benj. 
Cook, 1858-9 ; Arch. Campbell, 1860-2 ; Christopher Coombs, 1863 ; 
M. S. Ayers, 1864; John H. Munro, 1865. M. S. Ayers was 
elected Warden in January, 1866 ; R. Dreaney, in 1867 ; Thomas 
Moyle, 1868; Thos. Routledge, 1869; Richard Tooley, 1870; John 
Watterworth, 1871; Malcolm G. Munroe, 1872 (re-elected in 1873); 
Lionel E. Shipley, 1874 ; John Waters, 1875 ; James Armstrong, 1876 ; 
JohnLevie, 1877; James Gilmour, 1879; John Morgan, 1880; Jas. 
Armstrong, 188 L; Joseph Marshall, 1882; D. M. Cameron, 1883; 
W. D. Stanley, 1884; Malcolm McGugan, 1885, B. Watterworth, 
1886; Lawrence Cleverdon, 1887. In September, 1887, Simon 
McLeod was elected, vice Cleverdon. 

County Buildings. On October 15, 1792, an act for building a 
jail and court-house in every district of Upper Canada, and for alter- 
ing the name of such districts was passed. Later, when the District of 
London was organized, a building was erected in Charlettetown, and in 
October, 1316, Thomas Talbot, Robert Nichol, and John Backhouse, 
were authorized to enclose and paint this building, known as the 


" Jail and Court-house," and to procure funds to pay for same. On 
March 19, 1823, the magistrates of the district were authorized to 
raise 1,000 to aid in finishing this jail and court-house, which was 
used until partially destroyed by fire. Contemporary with the District 
Court-house, there were several Magistrates' Courts scattered through- 
out the district, and among the number was the Westminster Court- 
house a log building at Springbank, where Squires Springer and 
Ingersoll dispensed justice in 1825. 

Under a special act of January 30, 1826, a town was ordered to be 
surveyed at the forks of the Thames, of which four acres were to be 
reserved for a jail and court-house. Thomas Talbot, Mahlon Bur- 
well, James Hamilton, Charles Ingersoll, and John Matthews, of Lobo, 
were appointed Commissioners to erect a jail and court house ; to 
raise funds by taxation, and to borrow 4,000. The Commissioners 
were ordered to meet at St. Thomas and organize in March, 1826. 
St. Thomas was then a pretentious settlement, and made a determined 
effort to secure the seat of justice ; but O'Brien's settlement won, and 
the work of building commenced in 1826-7. The first court-house 
stood upon the same square whereon the present one stands, but was 
located closer to the street ; and after the construction of the new 
building the old one was moved to the bank of the hill by the con- 
tractor. It was a two-story frame building, and in one end were placed 
two cells, these being rendered more secure by placing logs around the 
cells, from which the building acquired the distinctive title of the 
" Old Log Court-house." 

On January 14, 1830, bills aggregating 1,114 15s. Od, were 
approved for work done on the court-house at London. An order was 
issued to the Treasurer to insure both jail and court-house for 4,000. 
John Evart agreed to complete furnishing the court-house. 

In January, 1830, the magistrates issued the following order to 
the Jailor : " That the Jailor do furnish to the prisoners confined in 
the London District Jail the following quantity and quality of pro- 
visions, namely, of meat one pound each person per day, of bread one 
and a-half pounds to each, with potatoes and other vegetables in 
season, and in such quantities as may be judged wholesome by the 
Jailor of said District." 

In April, 1830, the Court ordered " that the jail limits do extend 
to Dundas street, and include the lots on each side of said street from 
Lots 16 to 24 inclusive, the whole of the public square, the street 
between the public square and McGregor's westward to the end of the 
square, Eidout street from Dundas to southern boundary of McGregor's 
lot, and the lots on each side of Bidout street as far as McGregor's lot 
extends containing 16 acres." 

John Harris, Treasurer of the District, was granted 50 for his 
services in procuring moneys for building jail and court-house, and 
purchasing books for accounts against the lands of absentees. 


In this month also a painter, named Craig, was allowed 11 15s. Od. 
for painting the coat-of-arms for the court room. In July, a short 
time before the opening of the assizes, two pine tables, three octagon 
tables and thirty common chairs were ordered for the the court-room. 
James Hamilton, one of the Commissioners to York in 1830 to negotiate 
a loan, asked remuneration, but the magistrates denied the request. 
In April, 1831, John Ewart was allowed 237 for re-building the 
house hitherto erected as the temporary jail on the town plot of 

In 1835, it was ordered that the two rooms in the basement story 
of the Court-house be cleaned, one to be occupied by the Sheriff', and 
that the Sheriff's room adjoining the Clerk's office, formerly occupied 
by the Treasurer, be set off as the office of the District Court Clerk. 
On July 13, 1838, a survey of the site for the proposed new jail on 
the John Kent grounds was ordered. In April, 1839, the Government 
was petitioned to grant a site. In April, 1839, a Committee of the 
ourt reported in favor of locating the new jail on lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 
5, on the north side of East North street, and on lots 2, 3, 4 and 5, on 
the south side of Duke street, comprising the elevated grounds south 
of the artillery barracks. The acquisition of this property was ordered 
by purchase or otherwise, but never carried out. 

On November, 1843, the Jail Committee reported 2,024 7s. Od. 
paid out on account of the new jail, leaving 1,009 2s. 7d. due on 
estimates. In February, 1844, Chairman Lawrason presented a report 
from his Committee, showing that the total expenditure was 5,504- 
lls. 4d. for giving to the District an odd feudal structure resembling 
the Castle of Malahide, near Dublin. The idea was to please Col. 
Talbot, and it had plenty of followers, for notwithstanding the lessons 
of the Rebellion, class idolatry still existed. In November, 1847, Dr. 
McKenzie was appointed Surgeon of the jail, vice Dr. Lee, deceased. 
Dr. Phillips, his opponent, received twelve of the thirty votes cast. 
From 1861 to 1867 the Government paid into the Treasury of Middle- 
sex $3,663.53 for court-house and jail purposes, out of the Building- 
Fund. In June, 1868, a petition from the City of London asking per- 
mission to ornament the court-house grounds was granted, and the 
fence and other incumbrances ordered to be removed before November 
1, that year. To this date the people look back for the limited, but 
neat grounds, which lay before the court-house. From January 1, to 
November 25, 1868, there were 372 city prisoners, and 154 county 
prisoners. The various improvements made in the County buildings, 
such as that made under the Broadbent and Overell contract, of 
January 25, 1878, are noted in the history of London, 

The House of Refuge. In the earlier years of this District public 
charity existed in a very rude form. Even poor widows were publicly 
sold to the highest bidder, the proceeds of the sale entering the District 
Treasury, while the unfortunate white slaves had to work for their 
white masters without hope of pay. The imbecile or others unable to 




support themselves were placed in charge of some person who would 
be willing to give them food and clothes for a nominal sum ; but as 
civilization advanced a methodical system of relief was provided ; and 
later still a better system was instituted. On Oct. 5, 1847, a com- 
mittee, of which John Burwell was Chairman, reported in favor of 
building a House of Industry under the power by Statute of Seventh 
William IV., Chap. 24. Many looked upon this proposition favorably ; 
but remembering the old immigrant hospitals on the Hamilton Road 
and at Wardsville, the majority voted contra. 

On Jan. 25, 1867, another report on the expediency of erecting a 
House of Kefuge was presented ; but treated with a coldness that 
destroyed the hopes of its supporters. In 1875 the cost of maintaining 
the indigent was $1,177.52; in 1876, $1,127.75, and in 1877-8, 
when there were 110 resident indigents and a number of stragglers, 
$5,249.22. In June, 1878, a committee of the Council was appointed 
to examine the question of supporting the poor, and this one, like its 
predecessors, reported in favor of building and maintaining a Poor 
House. The Council ultimately decided on building, with the result 
of giving to the county the excellent institution just west of Strathroy. 
The expenditures, too, have grown, for in 1886 there were 128 
inmates, including the keeper, matron and family, who cost the county 
$31,775; and in 1887, 133 inmates, costing $32,104. The house may 
be said to be governed by a board of visitors, one of whom, County 
Clerk McKenzie, gives the Institution much time and attention. 

In December, 1871, the question of establishing a hospital in 
connection with the House of Refuge, according to the will of the 
deceased William Lambert, was before the Council. 

In June, 1880, the new building at Strathroy, known as the 
House of Refuge, was reported almost complete, according to the plans 
made by T. H. Tracy. The committee recommended that Arch. 
Ballantyne and his wife Agnes be appointed keeper and matron 
respectively, the former at $200 and the latter at $100 per annum ; 
that Dr. Robert A. Stevenson, of Strathroy, be physician, at a salary of 
$110, and Dr. D. G. McKenzie inspector, at $100. J. Baskerville was 
-appointed engineer. The cost of the 46 J acres purchased from James 
Holden was $3,300 ; to W. J. Fawcett, for main building, $17,562 ; to 
L. G. Joliffe, for steam heating, $3,300, and to Isaiah Ellis, C. J. 
Frank, John Newton, James D. Bowlby, for sundry work, $1,041 ; or 
A total, exclusive of furniture, amounting to $25,203. 

In December, 1880, John Morgan, Warden, and D. G. McKenzie, 
County Clerk, signed By-law No. 341, for governing the House. 

The construction and operating expenses up to November 18, 1881, 
amounted to $34,413.96. There were 108 admissions, including 13 
from Lambton County. The value of farm products was $1,007.65, 
of which $18.38 worth was sold. 

During the year 1882 there were 94 inmates in the House of 
Refuge from this county, and 20 from Lambton County, of whom 15 


died, 19 absconded, 15 were discharged and 65 remained. The 
maintenance account was $7,529.74, of which, products of farm yielded 

Asylum for the Insane. This institution was taken possession 
of and occupied on the 18th November, 1870. The transfer of the 
patients from the Orillia Asylum, comprising 46 men and 73 women, 
was safely accomplished on that day by steamer to Belle Ewart, 
Northern Railway to Toronto, and Grand Trunk Railway to London. 
On the 23rd November, the Maiden patients, consisting of 120 men 
and 123 women, arrived per steam transport to Windsor, and thence 
by Great Western Railway to London. The total number of patients 
transferred from Maiden and Orillia to the London Asylum was 
therefore 363, viz. : 166 men and 197 women. The officers in 
charge were Dr. Henry Landor, Superintendent; Dr. Stephen Lett, 
Assistant, and Miss Warren, Matron. At this time, J. W. Laugmuir 
was Government Inspector. In 1871 the refuge for adult idiots was 
established, the Government appropriating $10,000 for buildings. The 
original house was begun in June, 1869. The location is admirable in 
every respect. A little over two miles distant from the city post office, 
with a street railroad reaching within easy walking distance, it is con- 
venient. The site is 11 7 feet above the river, sloping to the east and to 
the west. Toward both points the rainwater flows, and toward both, 
portions of the sewage are directed. The southern slope is, at the 
Lodge 1,200 feet distant, seven feet lower than at the building ; sew- 
age, however, cannot be applied by gravitation to the land, as the 
inclination of the land is not sufficient for that purpose. There are no 
nuisances of any description near the site, nor is it offensively over- 
looked by roads or footpaths, so that the privacy essential to the 
comfort of the insane can be maintained. 

Dr. Landor, who for three years had charge of the Asylum at 
Maiden and for nine years of that at London, died in 1877, when Dr. 
Lett was appointed temporary Superintendent. Dr. R. M. Bucke was 
installed in that position Feb. 15, that year, and for over a decade has 
managed the institution with rare ability. When he took charge 
there were 598 patients actually in the house. W. G. Metcalfe was 
Assistant Superintendent; T. J. W. Burgess, Assistant Physician; 
R. Mathison, Bursar ; R. Hardy, Steward, and Mrs. Pope, Matron In 
1878, Dr. N. H. Beemer was appointed second Physician, and T. Short, 
Bursar. In 1879, Dr. Burgess was Assistant Superintendent, with Dr' 
Beemer first and Dr. T. Millman second Physician The important 
changes m the staff since that date include the appointment of Dr 
Sippi, Bursar; Dr. Robinson, first, Dr. Beemer, second, and Dr. Foster 
third Assistant; Mr. Wanless, Storekeeper, Dr. O'Rielly beiu* In- 
spector of Asylums. 

total admissions to Provincial Asylums, since the institution of 
the nrst one in 1841, including the admissions of 1885, numbered 


12,055. Of this total, the following table gives the social state, 
nationality, and of religious profession : 

Of total admissions, 
including transfers. 


Married 5, 998 

Unmarried , 6,057 



Canadian 5,062 

English 1 , 694 

Irish , . 2,986 

Scotch 1,280 

United States 386- 

Other countries and unknown 647 



Church of England 2,997 

Roman Catholic 2,669' 

Presbyterian 2,506 

Methodist 2,223 

Other denominations or unknown 1, 660 


The total number of inmates at London, in this year, was 1,031,. 
although the statistics for September give 907. This last number may 
be considered the average annual insane population of the London 
District, down to the close of 1888. 

The present system, which generally ignores the use of mechani- 
cal restraints and banishes alcohol, was introduced by Dr. Bucke, 
eight years ago. Its results are shown by figures. During the five 
years succeeding the establishment of the asylum here, only 37 per 
cent, of the patients were discharged as cured; the following five 
years the percentage reached 41, and under the salutary system of the 
present superintendency, the percentage is 45. For the same periods, 
the death rate was 5.50 per cent., 4.50 per cent., and 4.35 per cent, 
respectively. A portion of the asylum buildings was destroyed by 
fire, December 2, 1887, entailing a loss of about $60,000. In 1888, 
the work of re -building was carried out, and the erection of the Bursar's 
residence completed. 

Scott Act. The petition that the Scott Act be submitted to the 
voters of Middlesex was signed by 5,671 persons, and presented to 
Sheriff Glass by D. H. Williams and Kev. G. H. Henderson, Novem- 
ber 5, 1884. The Council lost little time in granting this petition, 
and in appointing James Grant Eeturning Officer for the election, 
which was ordered to be held in June, 1885. This election was held. 
A summarized table of the voting in the county is subjoined, giving 
the number of votes polled for and against, and the number of 
votes rejected : 


For Against. Rejected. 

Adelaide ........................................ 238 62 

Biddulph ..................................... 171 206 1 

Caradoc ....................................... ||7 

North Dorchester ................................ J24 168 8 

:::::::::: 239 86 

n ......... 350 74 4 

... 718 353 16 

::::::;::::.:.. 205 29 2 


McGillivray ..................................... 398 

WestNissouri ................................... 348 101 

Westminster .................................... JJJ 

East Williams ................................ 204 21 

West Williams .................................. 150 29 

Strathroy Town .................................. 232 109 2 

London East ................................. 264 1/5 

London West ...... , ............................. 124 73 4 

AilsaCraig ..................................... 84 24 

Parkhill ....................................... H7 56 

Wardsville ..................................... 42 16 

Newbury ..................................... 43 

Glencoe ........................................ 64 45 

Lucan .......................................... 52 51 J> 

Total ................................. 5,755 2,370 57 


West Middlesex ......................................................... 1,041 

North Middlesex ......................................................... 922 

East Middlesex ....................................... . ................ 1,388 

Total majority ......................................... 3,351 

London city had nothing whatever to do in this transaction, and it 
'is remarkable that a greater number of staggering libels on humanity 
may be seen in any of the incorporated towns of the county where the 
act is in force, than in the city where the old law is well observed. 

Under the former Tavern and Shop License Act, the amount 
received for licenses, transfers, removals and fines in the City of Lon- 
don from May 1st to December 31st, 1881, was $8,541.68 ; London 
Township, $1,500; North Dorchester, $420; London West, $540; 
Westminster, $1,320; London East, $1,375; West Nissouri, $300; 
East Williams, $180 ; McGillivray, $105.81 ; Adelaide, $180 ; Bid- 
dulph, $300; Ailsa Craig, $423.75; Lobo, $240; Parkhill, $780; 
Lucan, $480 ; West Williams, $120 ; Ekfrid, $240 ; Strathroy, $1,400 ; 
Wardsville, $225 ; Metcalfe, $240 ; Delaware, $180 ; Caradoc, $300 ; 
Olencoe, $360 ; Mosa, $60 ; Newbury, $255. 

Of these amounts the following sums were paid to municipalities : 
London city, $5,266.68 ; London Township, $817.21 ; North Dorchester, 
$225.19; London West, $403.43; Westminster, $719.14; London 
East, $1,019.93; West Nissouri, $163.43; East Williams, $86.16; 
McGillivray, $88.55; Adelaide, $86.16; Biddulph; $143.60; Ailsa 
Craig, $259.53 ; Lobo, $114.88; Parkhill, $558.44; Lucan, $292.32; 
West Williams, $57.44; Ekfrid, $118.40 ; Strathroy, $954.13 ; Wards- 


ville, $133.80 ; Metcalfe, $118.40 ; Delaware, $88.80 ; Caradoc, $148 ; 
Glencoe, $238.40; Mosa, $29.60; Newbury, $163.80. 

The fines collected for breaches of the law for 1880-81 were: 
London city, $1,010, against $538.25 in 1879-80 ; East Middlesex, 
$520, against $340 in 1879-80 ; North Middlesex, S60 against $220 in 
1879-80 ; West Middlesex, $140, against $20 in 1879-80. 

The number of persons committed to the county jail for drunken- 
ness were : In 1876. 155 ; 1877, 106; 1878,211; 1879,193; 1880, 
335; 1881,210. 

For the year 1880-81, the London Inspector received $800 salary. 
The amounts paid in respect of Commissioner's expenses and salaries of 
Inspectors in the three license districts of the county were: East 
Middlesex, $734.49 ; North Middlesex, $520.68 ; West Middlesex, 




POLITICS FROM 1788 TO 1888. 

On July 24, 1788, Upper Canada was set off into four Districts, by 
order of Lord Dorchester, issued at St. Louis Castle, Quebec : -Lunen- 
burg, the first, extended from the Ottawa to the Gananoque, later known 
as the Thames; Mecklinburg comprised the territory between the 
Gananoque and the Trent rivers; Nassau embraced the country 
between the Trent and Long Point, on Lake Erie, while Hesse was the 
name extended over the remainder of Western Canada, and the country 
around Detroit. Richard Duncan was Judge of the first ; Richard 
Cartwright, vice Stewart, of the second ; Robert Hamilton of the third, 
and, it is alleged, William Robertson, of Detroit, was commissioned 
Judge of Hesse. In naming these Districts, it was Dorchester's 
intention to place the Palatines (who were refugees in Limerick 
County, Ireland,) in all judicial and executive offices ; but wiser 
counsel prevailed, and the' men named were given the positions of 
District Judges. 

Governor John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of 
Ontario, was installed July 8, 1792, at Kingston, when James Baby, 
William Osgood, William Robertson, Alex. Grant and Peter Russell 
were named as the first Executive Council. On July 17, that year, 
Robert Hamilton and Richard Cartwright, jr., one of them a former 
District Judge, with Richard Duncan, also a Judge, John Munroe and 
Thomas Fraser, were summoned, in addition to the Executive Council, 
to form the Legislative Council. About this time Duncan was guilty 
of some fraudulent transaction, and fleeing to Schenectady, N. Y., 
never returned to share legislative honors. About this time, also, 
Robertson moved out of Detroit, and started his store at Sandwich ; 
and the honor of making money at that point he esteemed higher than 
any legislative favor. Four days after the opening of the Council the 
first Governor set out toward Niagara ; but prior to leaving Kingston, 
in fact, before he convened the Legislative Council, he divided the 
new Province into counties, for legislative purposes or representation. 
At Newark, the new capital at the mouth of the Niagara, he pre- 
sided over the Executive Council, September 29, 1792. At this time 
Major Littlehales was his Military Secretary ; Lieut. Thomas Talbot, 
Provincial Aide-de-Camp ; Gray, Solicitor-General; Small, Clerk of 
the Executive Council; Wm. Jarvil, Civil Secretary; Peter Russell, 
Receiver-General; D. W. Smith, Surveyor-General, with Thomas 
Ridout and Wm. Chewitt, Assistant Surveyors. 

The Legislative Council was convened Oct. 9, 1792, and continued 
the meeting until the 15th in the building used at periods by 
Catholics and Protestants as a place of worship, with Peter Clark, 


Secretary ; John G. Law, Usher of the Black Kod ; Col. John Butler, 
of the Rangers, Superintendent of the Indian Department ; and John 
White, Attorney-General. This Parliament was a strange mixture of 
pure, unadulturated democracy and aristocracy. The people, at the 
August elections, refused to select half-pay officers, choosing men 
instead who dined at the same table with their employes. The names 
of the first elected members of this Niagara Parliament are as follows : 
John McDonnell, of Glengary, Speaker; James Baby, Joshua 
Booth, Alexander Campbell, Jerry French, Ephraim Jones, Hugh 
McDonnell, Wm. Macomb, Ben. Pawling, Nathaniel Pettit, David 
William Smith, Hazleton Spencer, John Young, Isaac Swazy, John 
White and Philip Dorland. The last named being a Quaker, refused 
to take the oath. His seat was declared vacant, when Peter Van 
Alstine was elected. Angus McDonnell was Clerk and Eev. Eobert 
Addison, Chaplain. 

The members above named ' represented the following nineteen 
counties established by Governor Simcoe's proclamation of July 16, 
1792 : Glengary, Stormont, Dundas, Greenville, Leeds, Frontenac, 
Ontario, Addington, Lenox, Prince Edward, Hastings, Northumberland, 
Durham, York, Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent. Glengary 
was entitled to two members ; Kent, which comprised all the country 
to the Hudson Bay, two members ; Suffolk and Essex one member, 
and so on, all claiming sixteen members, only a few of whom attended. 

This democratic assembly made short work of Dorchester's Dutch 
nomenclature. The last of the eight acts passed and approved pro- 
vided for building a jail in each of the four Districts, and for changing 
the names of such Districts Lunenburg to be known as the Eastern 
District, Mecklenburg as the Midland, Nassau as the Home, and Hesse 
as the Western. The five sessions of this Parliament were held at 
Newark, or Niagara. 

The second Parliament opened at York (Toronto), May 16th, 1797, 
with Peter Russell presiding. During the second session, opened in 
July, 1798, the re-districting of the Province was effected. Eight 
Districts of 23 counties and 158 townships were set off. The Districts 
were named Eastern, Johnson, Midland, Newcastle, Home, Niagara, 
London, and Western. 

In the days of Pitt and Castlereagh the home Government looked 
westward across the Atlantic and formed up in imagination a Canada 
with hereditary dukes, marquises, lords, earls, knights, merchants, 
traders, peasants and paupers. Dorchester had tried a German 
nomenclature in Upper Canada before this, with the object of giving a 
ducal house to each of the four Districts. Simcoe anglicized the plan 
so as to enlarge the number of ducal houses and create a number of 
counts, or baronial lords, but each disappeared. Rochefaucault, the 
French economist, visited Niagara during the days of Simcoe's legis- 
lature, and, while amused at many things, could not fail to express his 
approval of the Governor's ideas of government. He says : " The 


maxims of government professed by General Simcoe are very liberal 
and fair ; he detests all arbitrary and military government without the 
walls of the fort, and desires liberty in its utmost latitude, so far as is 
consistent with the constitution and law of the land. He is, therefore, 
by no means ambitious of investing all power and authority in his 
own hands, but consents to the Lieutenants, whom he nominates for 
each county the right of appointing the justices of the peace and 
officers of the militia." 

The Lieutenant Governors, Presidents or Administrators of Upper 
Canada, from its establishment as a Province in 1792 to the Union 
with Lower Canada in 1841, are named as follows: Lord John 
Graves Simcoe, 1792 ; Lieutenant Governor Peter Russell, President 
of Council, 1796 ; Gen. Peter Hunter, L. G., 1799 ; Alexander Grant, 
P. C., 1805 ; Lord Francis Gore, L. G, 1806; Sir Isaac Brock, P. C., 
1811; Sir R Halesheaf, P. C., 1812; Baron de Rottenburg, P. C., 
1813; Sir G. Drummond, L. G. 1813; Sir George Murray, L G., 
1815; Sir F. P. Robinson, L. G, 1815; Lord Gore, L G., 1815; 
Samuel Smith, Administrator, 1817 ; Sir Peregrine Maitland. L. G., 
1818 ; Samuel Smith, Administrator, 1820 ; Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
L. G., 1820 ; Sir John Colborne, L. G., 1828 ; Sir F. B. Head, L. G., 
1836; Sir John Colborne, Administrator, 1838; Sir George Arthur,, 
L. G., 1838 ; and Baron Sydenham and Toronto, Oct. 1839. The 
latter was appointed Governor of the United Provinces, Feb. 10, 1841. 

During all the years from 1792 to 1841, the political history of 
Canada does not show one act of the governing classes which resulted 
in public good, if such special legislation as that of 1831 be excepted. 
Many of the men sent here to govern came to gratify a craving for 
travel, or to serve some private end. Simcoe appears to be 
enthusiastic and earnest in his intentions, until he learned how im- 
practicable they were. The others were baby statesmen, having but 
one idea, that of sustaining the few in luxury at the expense of the 
many in want. The act abolishing slavery in 1793-4 was a senti- 
mental one, as there were not fifty slaves in Upper Canada to be set 
free, and they had to remain with their masters under specified condi- 
tions. The land grants were gigantic swindles, from which the 
country took many years to recover. In military affairs the capture 
of Detroit and other posts, referred to in the military chapter, brought 
glory to the British Governor ; but this glory disappeared in smoke in 
1813, near Moravian Town, on the Thames. 

Concessions or Land Grants The term concession dates back to 
1665, when the 2,200 French residents along the St. Lawrence were 
supplemented by 800 troops or De Carignan's famous infantry. After 
the defeat of the Iroquois was accomplished by this commander, per- 
mits were issued to them to retire from service, on condition that they 
would settle in New France, and to both men and officers lands were 
granted, and sums of money bestowed to assist in clearing and culti- 
vating their grants. In addition to this paternal act of the French 



King, a number of intelligent girls, with some of their male relatives, 
were induced to visit Canada with the object of marriage and house- 
keeping. From the original population of 2,200 or 2,500, the military, 
and the immigrants, the great race known to-day as French Canadians 
sprung, and from the grants of 1667-9, the title "concession" came 
into general use. 

The first grant of land in Upper Canada was granted on petition to 
Eobert Chevalier de La Salle, in 1674. The grant included all the 
country round Fort Frontenac, of Kingston or Cataraqui ; one of the 
conditions being that he should build a church at any time the popu- 
lation will reach 100 persons, and then entertain one or two Eecollet 
priests to perform Divine service and administer the sacraments. 
This condition was suggested by La Salle himself and carried out 
religiously, even before he built Fort Niagara. This grant was four 
leagues square, and included the islands along its whole front. The 
last concession or seigniory in Quebec was made to Chevalier de 
Longeuil, at New Longeuil, near the western boundary of that province 
in April, 1734. 

In 1817 the legislative body of Upper Canada entered on an 
investigation of the relation of Crown and clergy reserves to the 
welfare of the Province ; but, at the moment when this investigation 
had reached the point of usefulness, the Governor's order proroguing 
Parliament took effect. There were several land deals too patent, 
however, to be hidden from the people, and the question whether the 
authorities intended to benefit the people or a few favorites held 
possession of the public mind until most of the unjust discriminations 
against the great majority of inhabitants in land matters were removed. 

In 1791 Sir William Pulleney purchased 1,500,000 acres at one 
shilling, or about 25 cents per acre, the cash payment being nominal. 
Before Governor Simeoe's administration ended he sold about one-half 
of this immense estate at eight shillings, or $2, per acre, but the grant 
was not made during Simcoe's time. At this time the surveyed lands 
of Upper Canada approximated 17,000,000 acres, and of this great 
area there were scarcely 1,600,000 acres open to actual settlers and 
for roads. Of this small remainder 1,150,000 for 450,000 acres were 
for roads. Acting Surveyor-General Radenhurst solemnly declared 
that 650,000 acres were inferior in quality of soil or in situation, and 
that other Government grants would swallow up the remaining half 
million of acres. 

How were the 17,000,000 of acres disposed of? In 1791 the 
Constitutional Act created the " Clergy Reserves." This granted to 
the Established Church over 3,000,000 acres of selected land in 200- 
acre tracts, or about one-seventh of all Crown grants, or, to make it 
clearer, one-eighth of every township. This act in practice gave 
one-sixth of all the lands to the clergy, or 300,000 acres more than 
the legal quantity, which yielded 317,000 sterling, or 45,000 over 
the value of the legal allotment. All this was done under the rules of 
the Land Office Department, dated February 17, 1789. 


To discharged soldiers and sailors 450,000 acres were granted ; to 
militia, 730,000 acres ; to magistrates and barristers, 225,000 acres ; to 
executive councillors, their wives and children, 136,000 acres ; to five 
legislative councillors, their wives and children, 50,000 acres; to 
clergymen, 36,900 acres for private use ; to survey contractors, 264,000 
acres ; to army and navy officers, 92,526 acres ; to Col. Talbot, 48,520 
acres (ultimately swelled to 700,000 acres) : to the heirs of General 
Brock (who fell at Queenstown Heights, Oct. 12, 1812), 12 acres ;* to 
Dr. Mountain, late English Church Bishop at Quebec, 12,000 acres. 
The Canada Company, owners of a large area in Middlesex in 1831, 
comprised Charles Bosanquet, Governor; Edward Ellice, M. P., 
Deputy-Governor; Robert Biddulph, Robert Downie, M.P., John 
Easthope, M.P., John Fullerton, Win. T. Hibbert, John Hullett, Hart 
Logan, James McKillop, M.P., Martin T. Smith, M.P., Henry Usborne 
and Charles Franks. Their agent at Aldborough was T. G. Bethune. 
In this manner the grants were made, the greater part falling into the 
hands of speculators by transfer of certificate, or held by men who 
would neither cultivate nor sell. Indeed, it was one of Pitt's wild 
schemes to establish a nobility and landed aristocracy in a land 
destined for a pure democracy. 

To the United Empire Loyalists, who made their homes in 
Ontario prior to 1787, and to their children, 3,200,000 acres were 
granted. This was done under the resolution of 1783. These forests 
were surveyed, but the lots were not numbered, and in the summer 
and fall of 1784 the whole lake front was alive with refugees and 
others, each waiting to fill his location ticket or tickets. 

Even Arnold, known as "The Traitor," received a grant of 18,000 
acres and 10,000, and in 1804 the whole Township of Tyendinaga 
was purchased from the Mississaugas, and in 1804 deeded to John 
Deserontyon, Chief, for the use of the Mohawks, or Six Nations. 

The first surveys in Upper Canada were begun by Deputy Sur- 
veyor John Collins in 1783 along the St. Lawrence, in the Cataraqui 
neighborhood. The lots in general were twenty chains in width, but a 
few were only 19, so that some lots had to be given a greater depth, thus 
necessitating a greater width for concessions. At that time, Samuel 
Holland was Survey or- General. Collins and others held responsible 
positions, while under the deputies were other deputies, who would 
survey a township with as little physical or mental labor as it was 
possible for him to expend without the risk of losing his position. 

In 1793, large grants were made to Squire Ingersoll in Oxford, to 
Wm. Reynolds in Dorchester, and to Ebenezer Allen in Delaware, 
references to which are made in the chapter on pioneers and in the 
sketches of Dorchester and Delaware. 

Rebellion 1837-8. Of the men who first came here in adventurous 
youth, but few remain to tell the tales of living in a cabin or lying 

*This Is no doubt a mistake, but the number of acres granted to Gen. Brock's heirs is 
not known to the writer. 


down to sleep with Heaven's canopy for a covering, and the howls of 
wolves for a lullaby. All the past seems but a phantom of the mind 
a creation of some idle moment when compared with the realities 
of to-day ; yet such is the history of this progress, and of this civiliza- 
tion. The scenes of the past eight decades are but a repetition in the 
main, of the vast work of development that has been going on for 
hundreds of years, and which, during the last century turned its course 
toward the mighty West. The French, of course, led civilization's 
warfare ; then came the United Empire Loyalists a branch of the 
Yankee people who are forever fond of change and new scenes, and 
for whom a pioneer life was replete in a certain wild enjoyment ; 
next came the Irish and Scotch Celts, followed by the Norman and 
Anglo-Saxon. The Celts were driven hither by the legalized restraints 
and incumbrances which obstructed progress at home, and came with 
the object of perpetuating the Celtic idea of liberty, as their friends 
did in the old Dominion ; but they were followed by the Teutons, who 
were not slow to establish the Teutonic method of Government. Soon 
the French and Yankee elements of this part of Canada were merged 
into the Celtic, and with that element fought Liberty's battle up to 
1838, when it was forced to succumb in the field to the superior organi- 
zation and power of the Teuton ; only to succeed a few years later by 
the power of moral force, and win for Canada the laws in which 
Canadians take such pride. 

. In the fall of 1837 a political meeting was held across the river, 
at Nathan Griffith's, in Westminster, to protest against the action of 
the Tories and Orangemen in breaking up the Reform meeting at 
Bay ham, on September 28th, that year. The Radicals came prepared 
to resist any such procedure, for, when the Orange legions, led by 
John Jennings, swept down toward the head meeting, about seventy 
of this crowd held a meeting first ; but as the Reformers appeared the 
Tories fled, and the Liberals claimed that the day brought victory to 
them. The enemy dispersed ; the meeting discussed not one, but two 
attacks upon public freedom. A few days later a petition was 
presented to Sheriff Hamilton by Doyle McKenny and others, asking 
that officer to take such steps as may be considered necessary to stop 
all future public (Reform) meetings. The old Liberal, then published' 
at St. Thomas, by John Talbot, in an editorial speaks of this petition 
as follows : " While the Tories could keep down the Reformers with 
their war clubs, all was well, no Sheriff was called upon to protect the 
Radicals; but when the brave men of Middlesex determined upon 
defending themselves, then the Tory cry was raised ' The constitution 
is in danger.' " A facetious description of the Westminster meeting 
follows, wherein it is stated that Mahlon of the Basket, and Larry, of 
of the Tribe of Lawrence, fought and ran away. 

Many such meetings were held throughout Canada ; but, as a rule, 
the forces of the dominant party caused disturbance enough to break 
up the meeting, and, when safe, deliberately scattered the people with 
batons or arms. 


During the winter of 1837-8 the political disability under which 
the people of Canada labored urged a few nobler than the rest to rush 
to arms and abolish the wrong. The leader of the men of Upper 
Canada was William Lyon Mackenzie, and of Lower Canada M. 
Papineau. They were undeniably honest, and each had worked him- 
self into a just rage over the evils which surrounded the people and 
the state of serfdom to which the secret society known as " The Family 
Compact " had subjected them. 

A mile below Prescott is an old windmill, a round stone tower, with 
loopholes in the walls, which is now used as a lighthouse. Fifty-one 
years ago, in November, it was occupied by a party of Patriots. Under 
the leadership of Von Schultz, a Polish soldier, the Patriots held the 
mill for several days against the British force, commanded by Colonel 
Dundas. During the assault the opposite shore was lined with 
sympathizing spectators, who cheered when the military were repulsed. 
But the windmill was captured, . and ten of the hundred and ten 
prisoners taken were court-martialled and hanged ; among them was 
their leader, Von Schultz. He was given a sham trial, during which 
the present Premier of the Dominion (1888) defended the leader. 

On December 4, 1837, the Patriots descended on Toronto, but they 
were defeated on the 7th at Montgomery's tavern. This house is said 
to have been burned by his nephew, Alfred, who afterwards kept 
tavern at Delaware. The American tug Caroline was destroyed by a 
Canadian force under Commodore Drew, December 29th, and in this 
capture Captain McCormick, a commuted pensioner of Adelaide, had 
his arm cut by a sabre. On January 10, 1838, the Patriots abandoned 
Navy Island, two days after the capture of Theller and Dodge. In 
June the Americans destroyed the British steamer Sir Eobert Peel, 
and the " affair of the Short Hills," Niagara, took place that month. 

Dr. Charles Duncombe commanded the Patriots of Oxford, Nor- 
folk and Middlesex. In November, 1837, a number of Radicals 
assembled at Oakland Village, and under Joshua G. Doan, Robert 
Anderson and Henry Fisher, the Yarmouth and Bayham men marched 
to join him. The London, Woodstock and Simcoe militia and all the 
militia of the Province were sent forward against them, so that at 
Scotland Village Duncombe disbanded, and each member of his force 
fled to the United States or returned home. The men who returned 
to their homes were arrested and lodged in jail at London, Simcoe or 
Hamilton, to await trial. It is related by Robert Summers that, in a 
fight in London Township, east of the Proof Line, a family of San- 
borns attacked a Waterloo soldier named William Tweedy, and in the 
scuffle one of the Sanborns bit off the whole of his under lip. He 
wrapped the piece in paper and went to Dr. Duncombe, who was then 
staying with his brother-in-law, Henry Schenick. The Doctor caught 
a rooster, cut out of its breast a piece to correspond with that taken 
out of Tweedy's lip, and stitched it in, and with the exception of no 
beard growing there and a little stiffness and swelling, it appeared as 


good as the original lip ; but did not prove so useful, as Tweedy never 
afterwards could play the fife. 

When the false reports of Mackenzie's success drew forth to arms 
the Reformers of the London District, Duncombe summoned the volun- 
teers to meet him at Scotland village, and two days later, when he 
learned of Mackenzie's defeat, asked them to disband and disperse. 
Sackrider, a veteran of 1812, opposed this proposition, and suggested 
that the men of Middlesex, Oxford, Brant, and adjoining counties, 
should withdraw to the pine forests of Dorchester and Burford, and 
there make a stand against Col. MacNab's militia. This proposition 
was also voted down and the last hope of the Patriots disappeared ; for 
was Sackrider's advice taken the splendid yeomanry of all the country 
would flock to Liberty's standard and win against all odds. In the 
dispersion that followed, Duncombe was not the least to suffer. For a 
month he was concealed in Mrs. Schenick's house, near London. She 
was his sister, and made every effort to secure his safety from the 
political bloodhounds who were seeking for him. His final escape was 
due to Charles Tilden, then residing near Amherstburg. He went to 
see his friend in the winter of 1838, and found him hid in a hay-loft ; 
a suggestion to escape was received coldly, but on Tilden pointing out 
the Doctor's round face and showing how easily he could escape in 
woman's costume ; he accepted the plan. All the forces of the Tory 
party, aided by the Grand River Indians, were hunting for him, and 
reward offered for his head, so that great care had to be exercised. 
Duncombe dressed himself in his sister's clothes and sitting beside her 
in Tilden's wagon, was driven by the owner into Michigan, where he 
stood a freeman on a free soil. At Marine City the people soon 
learned that another refugee was among them, and with all the good 
intentions of the Americans, they urged him to address the crowd 
before taking off his female apparel. This he acceded to, and there- 
after became a favorite physician wherever he located in the States. 

Col. L. A. Norton, speaking of the affairs of 1837-8, and of the 
times in which he and other Westminster men were captured by the 
English party, says: "I learned that Col. Maitland, of the 32nd 
Infantry, then guarding London, was to march down to Delaware, 
while another command, with military stores, was to reach London 
next morning. He learned, that after Col. Maitland would leave, only 
thirty raw recruits would hold the village, and devised the plan of 
having his uncle David assemble the Scotch on Westminster street, 
make a night attack, and release the prisoners and capture 
London. At this time his uncles were at the head of four hundred 
Patriots, but they could not do anything toward carrying out the plans. 
The village was in a fever. Scouts were sent out, but were afraid to 
go out of sight of the settlement. They would retire to some secluded 
place, and ride their horses until they would get them in a perfect 
foam; then come rushing in and report the rebels surrounding all 
sides of the Union. Another would come in and report them nearer. 


At last they got them within three miles of the town, when Hughey 
(or Howey), the Turnkey, came into the room where the prisoners were, 
say in", * I would give $100 for an axe to cut down the bridge.' The 
rebels had taken or hidden all the axes. People were hastily packing 
up and leaving. The Tory magistrates had left, and it was reported 
that should the prisoners be blown up, as the magistrates had ordered 
them to be, not a man, woman or child in London would be left alive 
by the Patriots. Citizens were appointed to call on the English officer 
commanding to revoke the blowing-up order, and he acquiesced in 
their prayer. During the excitement, Mrs. O'Brien rushed in, saying 
' They are coming ! They are coming ! and they dare not blow you up. 
I heard them say so.' The whole fact was, that a number of Indians 
advanced from Maiden, and exaggeration converted them into a large 
rebel army. Mrs Anna Burch was the great rebel spy, and their 
doctress." Col. Norton was taken down with fever while in prison, 
and sent to the hospital, where Dr. Thomas Moore, the tall Irishman, 
attended him, and saved him. James Watson died. The jail then 
was in a fearful condition, but the excitement which seized on 
magistrates, officials and soldiery, added to the threats of blowing up 
the jail and prisoners, withdrew much attention from the state of 
the rooms, and kept men in health, who, without this excitement, 
would die there. On Nov. 12, 1837, L. A. Norton joined Joshua 
Doane's Spartan Rangers, at Sparta, in Yarmouth. A little skirmish 
ensued, in which Norton was wounded, and next morning he found 
that his friends had disappeared, except Benj. T. Smith. Near Durham 
Forge, both were arrested and brought to Sinicoe jail, where Harring- 
ton and Sturge were imprisoned by John Burwell, whose escape he 
aided in. On being re-arrested, he was imprisoned at London, where 
Mrs. Parks, the jailor's wife, Mrs. Dennis O'Brien and Mrs. Alvero 
Ladd, sisters, were friends to him, Ladd being then in prison. 

Trial and Execution of Patriots. On January 9, 1838, the 
Grand Jury of the District was discharged owing to the progress of the 
rebellion. On April 10, 1838, the Quarter Sessions Court was held in 
the school house, owing to the fact that the trial of persons charged 
with high treason was being carried on. This school-house now 
stands in the Court House Square, just west of the Registry Office. 

Dr. E. A. Theller, commander of the Patriot schooner Anne, was 
taken prisoner, tried, sentenced to transportation for life, but escaping, 
returned to serve the cause in which he first embarked. On his second 
capture he was carried to London, Canada, where he was hanged in 
1838, with Henry Anderson, who claimed to be an American. While 
W. W. Dodge, a third of Theller's party, is said to have been hanged 
subsequently in 1838, but there is no record to point out such execu- 

In September, 1838, Samuel H. Parke took from the jail, of 
which he then had charge, Cornelius Cunningham, Joshua Gillean 
Doane, Amos Pearley and Albert Clark, and placed them in the dock 



for trial on the charge of high treason. John Wilson, subsequently 
Judge, was appointed to defend them, a task very obnoxious to him, 
as he wanted all rebels hanged. He defended them in a very formal 
manner ; had not one word to say in extenuation of the charge against 
them. They were sentenced to be hanged, and on January 14, 1839, 
this sentence was carried out, the scaffold being the same as the one 
from which Jones was hanged in 1868. At the Fall Assizes of 1838, 
Job and Enos Scott were also sentenced to be hanged on October 27th, 
but there is no account of this sentence being carried into effect. 
Prior to that time a detachment of the London militia, of which Dr. 
Salter was a member, took a number of prisoners before the Governor 
and executive officers. Among the men in jail was Wm. Hale, who 
built the court-house. He relates that the military guard occupied t 
the room below where some of the prisoners were confined, and would 
amuse themselves by firing bullets up through the floor. Another 
prisoner was John Grieve. Among the Government scouts were 
Crazy Cy, Philo Bennett, a retired Methodist preacher, and Cyrus 
Curtiss, who, while ransacking the county for rebels, did some acts not 
entirely of a legal character. 

Dr. Kolph, Dr. Duncombe and David Gibson were expelled from 
the House for the part they had taken in the troubles of 1837-8, 
while Elias Moore, a Quaker member from Middlesex, Robert Alway, 
from Oxford, and Dr. Morrison were put in prison. 

Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews were tried at Toronto, March 
26, 1838, before Justice Robinson, and were sentenced to be hanged 
April 12, 1838, which sentence was carried out. John Montgomery 
was also sentenced to death, but escaped. Dr. Morrison was found 
not guilty. Elias Moore and Robert Alway were released under bonds. 

The trouble of 1837 ended with the execution of many noble- 
minded men, the banishment of others to Bermuda and the exile of a 
greater number to the United States, but in 1849 amnesty was offered 
by Lord Durham and several returned ; Durham making the statement 
that the people called rebels were the most loyal in Canada, and that 
were he here he would be a rebel. 

Contemporary Memoranda. On July 11, 12 and 14, 1838, 16- 
2s. 6d. are charged for bringing up prisoners for trial and sentence, for 
five days' attendance on Court, summoning jury, advertising Court and 
drawing calendar. The names of the defendants as given are: 
McNutty, Phipps, Wright, Donnelly, and others. 

In September, 1838, the Clerk's expenses incurred in the trial of 
P. McManus, not guilty ; P. Acres, not guilty ; D. S. Cummings, not 
guilty ; amounted to 3 2s. 6d. His expenses on the trial of Jacob 
Schemagin, Peter Mishler, Hamilton, Job and Enos Scott, David 
King, a colored boy, amounted to 4 10s. Od. Job and Enos Scott 
were sentenced to be executed October 27, 1838 ; but they were 
not hanged. David King to three months in jail ; Jacob Schemagin, 
Allen Hamilton and Peter Mishler to one year in Penitentiary. Ben. 


West and Wm. Gibson were discharged, and James Woods allowed 
out on bail. Many of the men named were held for the political crime 
of the period seeking responsible government. 

Leading Men in the Drama of 1837. John Eolph, born in 
England in 1793, came to Canada with his father, Dr. Thomas Eolph, 
about 1811, and served against the Americans during the war of 1812 
until taken prisoner to Batavia, N.Y. On his release, he returned to 
England and studied law and medicine. Kejoining his parents in 
Canada, he soon settled in Charlotteville Township, near Vittoria, and 
in 1821 was admitted to the Primitive Law Circle of the Province ; 
became Col. Talbot's lawyer, and later the founder of the Talbot 
Anniversary of Settlement, the first reunion being held in 1817. 
Notwithstanding his English sympathies, common justice urged him to 
cast ofV Talbot's patronage and turn toward the cause of the people. 
In 1824 he and Captain John Matthews were returned to Parliament 
on the Reform ticket. The latter was a retired artillery officer of 
twenty-seven years standing, who had also been a convert to Reform. 
In 1836 Rolph delivered his celebrated speech against the English 
Church reserves ; but when the hour came when men should face the 
cannon for justice' sake, Mr. Rolph appears to have deserted the 
physical force men and allied himself to the moral force army and 
held aloof from the meeting of Oct. 10, 1837, as held seven miles out 
on Yonge street. 

Allan MacNab (baronet), born at Niagara in 1798, where his father 
was attached to Simcoe's staff, began the study of law in 1817 and 
admitted to the Bar in 1825. He was appointed the first Queen's 
Counsel in Upper Canada shortly after, and in 1829 he and John 
Wilson were elected members for Wentworth, MacNab holding the 
position for three parliaments. He was a harsh opponent of the 
Patriots in 1837-8; was Speaker in the first Parliament after the 
Union, and Premier from 1854 to 1856. In October, 1.857, he retired, 
having been dropped by the astute John A. Macdonald. 

William Lyon Mackenzie, born in Scotland in 1795, came to 
Canada in 1820. On May 19, 1824, appeared the Colonial Advocate, 
at Niagara. This took the bull by the horns and swung him around so 
unmercifully that the compact men destroyed the office in 1826 at 
Toronto, to which place the office was removed. This act won new 
supporters, and the Advocate continued until 1853, when the new 
press and type were sold to Dr. O'Grady. In 1828 Mackenzie was 
elected by York to the Canadian Parliament. He was expelled, but 
elected and re-elected, until his power gave him a place. When the 
rebellion of 1837-8 did not succeed, he fled from his enemies, who 
were hungry for his blood. On his return he was coldly received. In 
1851 he defeated Geo. Brown, who ran on what was termed the 
Protestant ticket, in Haldimand, held this seat until 1858, and died in 
-comparatively wretched circumstances at Toronto in August, 1861. 

George Brown entered Parliament for Haldimand County in 1852, 



defeating Wm. Lyon Mackenzie. In the days of the Double Shuffle 
he and Dorion formed a Ministry which had a four-days' life, when 
the Conservatives returned to power. He entered the Coalition 
Government, made up for the purposes of Confederation, but later 
resigned. In 1873 he was called to the Senate, in which he served 
until shot by Bennett in March, 1880. He was a powerful figure in 
local politics, politically broad, and, as his star was ambition, he was 
equally narrow in other affairs. Many of the privileges which 
1837-8 did riot scare away he had removed. 

Eobert Baldwin, son of Dr. W. W. Baldwin, of Cork Co., Ireland 
(who came to Canada and studied law, and who died in 1844), began 
the study of law at Toronto. In 1829 he was elected Liberal member 
of the Upper Canada House, he being supported by Wm. Lyon Mac- 
kenzie. His voice was always heard against the Compact and the 
system of government. In 1836 he became an Executive Councillor; 
in 1840, Solicitor- General in Draper's Government, and in 1842, 
leader of the Baldwin-Lafontaine Government, but in 1843 retired, 
owing to the rupture with Lord Metcalfe. He resumed office in 1848 ; 
saw the Compact partially broken before his retirement in 1851, and 
died in 1858. 

Francis Hincks, a native of Cork, Ireland, who settled in Canada 
in 1832, established the Examiner at Toronto, and in 1841 was 
elected to the first Parliament from Oxford County after the union 
of the Upper and Lower Provinces. In 1844, when Metcalfe dis- 
solved the Canadian Parliament, Hincks was defeated by Robert 
Riddle, but was returned in 1848. Through a technicality, Mr. Car- 
roll was given the seat ; but Hincks was subsequently elected, and, 
on the retirement of Baldwin, served as Prime Minister until 1854. 
He visited Ireland ; was appointed Governor of Barbadoes ; later of 
British Guiana, and in 1869 became Finance Minister, vice John Rose, 
resigned, by John A. Macdonald. He resigned in 1873, and died in 

Malcolm Cameron, the son of a hospital sergeant of a Highland 
regiment, who came to Canada in 1806, was bom at Three Rivers in 
1808. His father's regiment was disbanded in 1816, and removing to 
Perth, the old sergeant opened a tavern there. Later we find the son 
at Montreal; next he is opposing Sir Francis Bond Head's strut 
through Upper Canada; in 1836 he is member from Lanark, in the 
Upper Canada Assembly; in 1851 he is the President of the Council; 
in 1850, member from Lambton ; in 1874, from South Ontario, which 
seat he held until his death in 1876. 

John Sandfield Macdonald, son of Alexander, was born at St. 
Raphael, in 1812, studied law in McLean's office at Cornwall, and in 
Draper's office. In March, 1841, after the union, he was elected. He 
opposed Family-Compact toryism. In 1848 to 1852 and 1854 he was 
elected without opposition by Glengary. In 1849 he was Solicitor- 
Oeneral in the Lafontaine-Baldwin Government; speaker at -Quebec in 


1852-4; Solicitor in the Dorion-Brown Government in 1858 ; member 
for Cornwall in 1857, his brother D. A., succeeding him as member for 
Glengary. Later he opposed Separate Schools, although a Catholic, 
but still was elected by that great Scotch Catholic constituency, and in 
1862 was called at head of the new administration on the defeat of 
the Cartier-Macdonald Government. He opposed Confederation, and 
in 1864 resigned, but was called upon to organize the Government of 
Ontario. In 1871 he retired from politics, and died in 1872. 

John Alexander Macdonald, born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1815, 
was brought to Canada by his parents in 1820. Before 1837 he was a 
lawyer, and appointed to defend Shoultz, the Pole, who led the 
Hunters from the American side to take Prescott, where he was 
captured. In 1844 he was elected member for Kingston. Prior to 
1849 he held the offices of Receiver-General. During Lafontaine-Bald- 
win regime", in 1849, he was in opposition, on the fall of the Hincks- 
Morin Cabinet, he became Attorney- General under Allan McNab's 
regim ; again out, he returned as leader, but not until the Brown- 
Mowat-McDougall coalition did he assume great importance. In 
1873 the Parliament held him guilty of collusion with (Sir) Hugh 
Allan. In 1878 he recovered from this attack, and returned to office 
as leader of the Conservative party in Canada. 

Edmund Walker Head (Baronet), born in England in 1805, suc- 
ceeded Lord Elgin in 1854, as Governor-General. At this time the 
Liberal party under the lead of Brown, was opposed by the Conserva- 
tives under John A. Macdonald and George E. Cartier. The Tories 
were beaten in the strife, but Head would not dissolve Parliament, so 
that the measures taken to defeat the Liberals were named The 
Double Shuffle; it being alleged that a Tory judge espoused the wrong- 
doing. However, Brown was called upon to form a government, and 
the Dorion-Brown administration resulted. Mr. Langevin and John 
B. Robinson moved and seconded the Double Shuffle resolution, which 
ended Brown's Parliament. 

George E. Cartier, a descendant of the discoverer of Canada, was 
born in 1814. In 1835 he commenced law practice, and up to 1837 
was an adherent of M. Papineau, but refused to support his rebellion. 
From 1848 to 1861 he represented Vercheres County, meantime 
holding many ministerial positions. In 1858 he became the head of 
the Cartier-Macdonald ministry, and was instrumental in effecting 
the confederation of the provinces. 

Oliver Mowat, son of a soldier in the British army, was bom at 
Kingston in 1820 ; served with the Compact forces in 1837-8 ; was 
admitted to the bar in 1841 ; was elected to the House of Assembly in 
1857. In the Four Days' Administration of 1858 he was Secretary. 
In 1861 he was elected by South Ontario, but did not succeed in 
defeating John A. Macdonald in Kingston. In 1863 he became Post- 
master-General under Sandfield Macdonald and Dorion's administra- 
tion. In 1872 he succeeded Blake and Mackenzie as Liberal leader 
for Ontario, a position he still holds. 


Edward Blake, son of William Hume Blake, was born in the Bear 
Creek settlement (now known as Kates ville, Cairngorm and Mt. Hope),, 
October 13, 1833. Within a few months his father moved away, so 
as to escape the privations of the backwoods, and, casting his fortunes 
at Toronto, had his son educated there. In 1856 Edward was admitted? 
to the bar. Two years later he married Margaret, daughter of Bishop 
Cronyn, of London. In 1867 he entered the political field, was elected 
member for West Durham (the same which he represented in 1886),. 
while South Bruce sent him to the Local Parliament, where, in 1869, 
he succeeded Archibald McKellar as leader of the Provincial Opposi- 
tion. In 1871, when Sandfield Macdonald's Coalition Government 
was overthrown on Mackenzie and Blake's resolution of want of 
confidence, Mr. Blake was appointed President of the Eeform Council. 
When dual representation was abolished he held his seat in the 
Canadian House and aided in the downfall of Sir John Macdonald's 
Ministry, being rewarded by a membership in Mackenzie's Cabinet. 
From 1875 to 1877 he was Minister of Justice, and in the latter year 
became President of the Council. After Mackenzie's defeat he was 
leader of the Opposition. In 1878 he was defeated in South Bruce, 
but in 1879 elected by West Durham. 

Alexander Mackenzie, born in Scotland in 1822, came to Canada 
in 1842, when, for some years, he worked at his trade of stone-mason, 
and established the Lcwnbton Shield in 1852, which he conducted for 
two years. In 1861 he was elected by Lambton County ; and, from 
the Union of 1867 until 1873, he was the leader of the Reform party 
in the House of Commons. In 1873 he was called by Lord Dufferin 
to form a Government. From December, 1871, to October, 1872, he 
was Treasurer in Blake's Ontario Ministry, meanwhile taking a full 
part in military and business affairs. 

The constitution of the Legislative Council of Canada, prior to the- 
approval of the 19 and 20 Viet., Cap. 140, comprising Crown-nominated 
members solely, was changed by that act, so that the Council would 
consist of the existing Councillors, who would be life members, and 
forty-eight elective members, the term for each being eight years,, 
candidates being British subjects of the age of thirty years or more, 
residents of Canada, and possessors of 2,000 worth of real property. 
Of the forty- eight Council Districts, twenty-four were apportioned to- 
Upper Canada. Lambton County and the West Riding of Middlesex 
formed the St. Clair Electoral Division or Council District, and the 
East and West Ridings of Elgin, the City of London and the East 
Riding of Middlesex, the Malahide District. The plan of election of 
Councillors by Districts was a peculiar one. A drawing of places by 
lot was arranged, and on July 15, 1856, this drawing placed St. Clair 
Electoral Division in the third group, and Malahide in the fourth 
group the former electing in 1860, and the latter 1862, under the 
act as proclaimed July 16, 1856. 

Geo. T. Goodhuewas not a candidate for Parliament; but, in 1846, 



was appointed by the Government at Kingston to a seat in the 
Legislative Council. In politics he was a follower of Baldwin and 
Lafontaine, and in those days called a Keformer. His appointment 
was due as much to his prominence as an old resident and a man of 
means as to any previous connection with political affairs ; for in such 
matters he had never shown any especial interest, or taken any active 
part. One anecdote of his appointment is worth relating. It is a 
little incident which transpired at a missionary meeting, and which 
brought him in very much favor with the Wesleyan Methodists, a 
body in strong numbers at London at the time. The occasion was an 
extraordinary one in the church, and distinguished speakers from 
Toronto and other parts were present, among them Eev. Wm. Ryerson 
and Peter Jones, the Indian missionary of the Mohawks. Mr. 
Goodhue consented to preside over the meeting, and during an appeal 
made by Peter Jones, who was eloquent and witty, he emptied the 
contents of a well-lined purse upon the table. This act of generosity 
was so much appreciated by the people assembled, and the heads of the 
meeting, that the next morning they drew up a formal petition to the 
Government, asking for Mr. Goodhue's appointment to the office of 
Councillor, and his nomination was confirmed over Messrs. Keefer, of 
Niagara, and Simeon Washburne, of Hallo well, whose names were 
also brought forward. Mr. Goodhue retained his seat in the Legisla- 
tive Council until the passage of the Act of Confederation, at which 
time, and for four years previously, his growing infirmities prevented 
his attendance at the House. During his parliamentary career he was 
never distinguished as a speaker, yet his counsel was always sought 
and valued, as being that of a man of sound judgment and consistent 

Elijah Leonard, a native of New York State, and one of the most 
useful residents of Canada, established a foundry at St. Thomas in 
1834, and one at London in 1838. He represented the Malahide 
division in the Legislative Council from 1862 to 1867, defeating H. 
C. R. Becher. In the latter year he was commissioned a Dominion 
Senator, under the B. N. A. Act. 

In March, 1874, Nathaniel Currie introduced a bill into the 
Legislature which provided for female suffrage and the representation 
of property according to its value. The main clauses were : 1st. 
That in municipal elections and votes on by-laws creating debts real 
property shall be the basis of the franchise, and parties shall have dual 
or plural votes according to the value of their property. 2nd. Women 
of full age, subjects of Her Majesty, with the proper property quali- 
fication, shall have a right to vote at such elections The Farmers' 
Sons Franchise Act was passed by the Ontario Assembly in 1877 In 
May, 1885, the question of giving the Indians of Upper and Lower 
Canada and the Maritime Provinces the right of voting was endorsed 
by Dr. Oronhyatekha, of London, himself an Indian. Each of these 
important questions were discussed both in and out of Parliament and 



with the original bills subjected to some material amendments, were 
placed on the statute books of the Dominion. 

The Eedistribution Bill of 1882 provided that the County of 
Middlesex be divided into four Eidings, each of which to return a 
member to the House of Commons ; that the South Eiding of the County 
of Middlesex shall consist of the townships of Westminster, Caradoc 
and Lobo ; that the East Eiding of the County of Middlesex shall consist 
of the townships of London, West Nissouri, North Dorchester, South 
Dorchester, and the town of London East and the villages of London 
West and Springfield ; that the West Eiding of the County of Middlesex 
shall consist of the townships of Adelaide, Metcalfe, Mosa, Euphemia 
and Ekfrid, and the villages of Glencoe, Newbury and Wardsville, and 
the town of Strathroy ; that the North Eiding of the County of Middle- 
sex shall consist of the townships of East Williams, West Williams, 
McGillivray, Biddulph and Stephen, and the villages of Ailsa Craig, 
Lucan and Parkhill. 

Taking the general election of September 17, 1878, as a basis, the 
political status of the new Electoral Divisions would be as follows. 
The figures denote the respective majorities in each precinct : 















Newbury . 







95 McGillivray . 


18 Biddulph 


53 West Williams.. 
East Williams 
51 Parkhill . . 


Ailsa Craig 







London Township. 





West Nissouri .... 


Delaware . ... 

.... 12 

North Dorchester. 



South Dorchester . 

Reform maioritv.. 


London East 
London West . . 









The bill provided for the establishment of the South Eiding, but 
did not deal with London City. 

The first representatives, of what now constitutes Middlesex 
District, in the old Parliament of 1816, were Messrs. Wilcox and 
Beagley. Col. Mahlon Burwell and John Bostwick served in two 
Parliaments, 1820 to 1824, and in 1825-6 the London District was 
represented. Dr. John Eolph, Capt. John Matthews, Francis L. 
Walsh, Duncan McColl, Thomas Homer and Charles Ingersoll, the two 


first named representing Middlesex. In 1828 Rolph and Matthews 
were re-elected. Mahlon Burwell opposing, his platform being to 
remove the court-house to St. Thomas. Capt. Matthews, who m 
1830, went to England to lay the state of the country before Parlia- 
ment asserted that no one who did not endure it could understand the 
rascality of the Government. Prior to 1830, Capt. Matthews visited 
Toronto. He found a band there who could neither play God Save 
the King nor Eule Britannia, but could play Yankee Doodle. On 
striking this air one man called for hats off, but Van Conant would 
not respond, Matthews advanced and knocked the hat across the room. 
He was tried for treason, but let off. 

The members of the House of Assembly from Middlesex and 
adjoining counties in 1831, were Mahlon Burwell and Koswell Mount, 
Middlesex; Wm. Berczy, Kent County; Wm. Elliott and Jean B. 
Macon, Essex County ; Charles Ingersoll and Charles Buncombe, 
Oxford; D. McColl and Wm. Wilson, Norfolk. In 1832 Elias Moore 
and Thomas Parke were chosen to represent Middlesex, and re-elected 
in 1836. At this time a party fight took place at London, Levi 
Merrick, a reformer, flying from the Orangemen headed by Matt. 
Coughlin and John O'Neil. Michael Shoff, Eobert Summers, jr., and 
other reformers carried their points. The members of the House of 
Assembly from Middlesex in 1839 were Thomas Parke and Elias 
Moore ; from London, Mahlon Burwell ; from Kent, Wm. McCrae 
and N. Cornwall ; from Essex, John Prince and Francis Caldwell. 
Thomas Parke, of Wicklow County, Ireland, who settled at Toronto 
in 1820, and represented Middlesex in the last two Parliaments of 
Upper Canada, in 1834, and on the first Parliament of the Province of 
Canada, in 1841, was the father of E. Jones Parke, of London. He 
died at St. Catharines in 1864. 

The election of 1841 was warmly contested, and party feeling ran 
so high, that on January 23 a violent attack on the houses of Col. 
Witherell, of the Royal Fusiliers, and John Givens, a lawyer, was 
made rocks and bricks being freely used. In February the Magis- 
trates offered 40 for information which would lead to the conviction 
of the guilty parties. In 1842, Ermatinger, of St. Thomas, was 
selected, but his opponent, Wm Notman* petitioned against his 
methods, unseated him, and was himself elected. He was re-elected 

*The Convention of Oct. 2, 1851, was organized with Adamson, of Lobo. presiding, and 
Holcroft Clench, Secretary. The delegates present were : Township of London Wm. 
Hale, James Ferguson and Nathan Jacobs. Dun wich Moses Willey. Southwold Robert 
Thomson and Colin Munro. Bayham John Elliott, John Skinner and Wm. Hatch. Yar- 
mouthHugh Douglas. Lindley Moore and M. T. Moore. Malahide W. Campbell, Dr. 
Ogden and J. W. Beemer. S. and N- Dorchester- W, H. Niles and Wellington Crouse. 
Caradoc Holcroft Clench and Hugh Anderson. Delaware Henry Bawlings. Metcalfe 
Thomas Gately. Adelaide Patrick Mee. Lobo R. Adamson and John Edwards. West- 
minsterThomas Baty, Joseph L. Odetl and D. M. Rymall. There were no delegates 
present from the townships of Aid borough, Ekfrid, Mosa and Williams. It was moved by 
J. Elliott, and seconded by Patrick Mee, that Wm. Notman be the Reform candidate to 
represent this County at the next general election. In amendment it was moved that Dr. 
John Rolph be the candidate. The vote was then taken; ten voting for the amendment, 
and sixteen for the original motion. The formal meeting to call the Convention was held 
at the Junction in September, 1851. 



in 1847 ; but in 1851 was defeated by Crowell Wilson, who repre- 
sented the united Counties of Elgin and Middlesex until 1854. 

In 1853 Middlesex proper was divided into two representative 
districts, and in the elections of 1854 William Niles was elected for 
the East Eiding over his opponent, Wm. Horton, while John 
Scatcherd was chosen for the West Riding over James Ferguson. In 
1857 Scatcherd was re-elected, but Marcus Talbot took Niles' place. 
It appears that shortly after the election of Marcus Talbot, in 1857, 
he visited Ireland and there was married. In returning, he was 
drowned on the ship Hungarian; so that an election to fill the 
vacancy thus created in the East Hiding was held, which resulted in 
sending Robert Craik to Parliament. M. B. Portman followed Craik, 
a Reformer, and served until 1862-3, when Crowell Wilson was 
selected to represent the division being elected and re-elected until 
1872. In 1872, on the retirement of Crowell Wilson, David Glass, 
C., and James Evans, R., contested the East Riding, when the former 
was elected. In November, 1873, Mr. Glass opposed the leader of his 
party, and went before his constituency as an adherent of the Mac- 
kenzie-Scott or Reform party. He was defeated by Crowell Wilson 
in 1874. On his seat being declared vacant, owing to the questionable 
methods used to secure his election, Duncan Macmillan, C., was chosen, 
he being opposed by the Reformer James Armstrong. 

On the death of John Scatcherd, A. P. Macdonald was chosen and 
he represented the Western Riding in the two Parliaments, when in 
1861 his successor, Thomas Scatcherd, took his seat and served until 
Confederation. On the re-subdivision of the county for electoral pur- 
poses under the Act of Confederation into three divisions, he was 
elected to represent North Middlesex, and this position he held until 
his death, April 15, 1876, when his brother, R. C. Scatcherd, succeeded 
him, defeating John Levie at the polls. In 1867 the Western Division 
was carried by A. P. Macdonald over Dr. Billington Alfred Mont- 
gomery's tavern and another one being open free to all comers. In 
1872 Geo. W. Ross defeated Macdonald, and in 1874 also carried this 
district by acclamation; again in 1878 and 1882. In 1883 his seat 
was declared vacant by reason of bribery by agents. In November, 
1883, he was appointed Minister of Education, and in December, 1883, 
elected to the Legislative Assembly for West Middlesex. 

James Evans represented the East Riding in the Ontario House 
from 1867 to 1871, when Richard Tooley was elected, defeating the 
Reform candidate. James Evans. 

J. S. Smith, Liberal, was elected member of the Ontario House from 
the North Riding in 1867, which he represented until 1875, when J. 
McDougall was chosen representative. 

Nicholas Currie was elected to represent the West Riding in the 
Ontario Assembly in 1867, but gave way to Alexander Mackenzie, the 
Premier, in 1871. In 1872 J. Watterworth was elected, defeating 
Dewan by 98 votes. 


The elections of March, 1871 resulted in the choice of John Car- 
ling Conservative, for London ; Richard Tooley, Conservative, for East 
Middlesex ; J. S. Smith, Liberal, for North Middlesex : Alex. Mac- 
kenzie, Liberal, for West Middlesex. 

The returns of the West Middlesex election of August, 1872, show : 
1 322 votes for G. W. Ross, Liberal, and 1,266 for A. P. Macdonald, 
Conservative. In the North Riding, Scatcherd, Liberal, and in the 
East Riding, D. Glass, Conservative, were elected. John Carlirig, 
Conservative, was elected for London. In September, West Middlesex 
gave J. Watterworth, Liberal, 1,311, and J. Dewan, Conservative, 1,213 


In 1874, Major Walker was elected to represent London, receiving 
1,270 votes, while John Carling received 1,208, but was unseated by 
petition. Messrs. Scatcherd, Ross, and Wilson, were elected for North, 
West, and East Middlesex respectively. 

The election of 1875 resulted in the return of W. R. Meredith for 
London ; Richard Tooley, J. McDougall and J. Watterworth for East, 
North and West Middlesex respectively. 

The elections for the Ontario House, held in June, 1879, resulted 
as follows: West Middlesex Richardson (Conservative), 1,524; 
Watterworth, 1,575. North Middlesex McDougall, 1,685 ; Waters ; 
1,917. East Middlesex R. Tooley, 526; Daniel Mackenzie, 340. 
London W. R. Meredith (Conservative), was elected, the city being- 
contested by Magee. W. R. Meredith was chosen Conservative 
leader in the Ontario Parliament January 9, 1879. 

The elections of February, 1883, resulted in the choice of W. R. 
Meredith, Conservative, for London; A. Johnston, Conservative, for 
West Middlesex ; John Waters, Liberal, for North, and Dan. Mackenzie, 
Liberal, for East Middlesex, defeating Thomas Routledge, West 
Middlesex being won from the Liberals. The trial of the election 
case, E. Scatcherd representing the cause of Watterworth vs. Alex. 
Johnston, M. P. P., was heard November 9, 1883, before Justice 
Cameron. James Bethune, Wm. Johnston and John Cameron re- 
presented the petitioner; Dalton McCarthy, W. P. R. Street and E. 
R. Cameron the respondent. Johnston was declared unseated. In 
August, 1884, the trial of the petition against the return of Geo. 
W. Ross, as member for West Middlesex, was opened at Strathroy. 
Justices Gait and Ferguson presided. Dr. McMichael and H. Becher 
represented the petitioners, while B. B. Osier, W. Johnston, Peterson 
and Cameron represented Mr. Ross. The petition contained 125 
charges, not one of which was sustained. 

In December, 1886, Geo. W. Ross was elected for West, John 
Waters for North, and R. Tooley for East Middlesex ; while W. R. 
Meredith was chosen to represent London, his majority being 213. 
In 1879 he was elected by a majority of 447, and 'in 1883 without 

Justice Falconbridge unseated Dr. Roome, elected member for 


West Middlesex, in February, 1888. No charge existed against the 
doctor, but the fact of George Wilkins volunteering transportation 
was sufficient to invalidate the election. 

The North Middlesex election of June, 1876, resulted in 1,380 
votes for John Levie and 1,576 for E. C. Scatcherd. 

The elections of September, 1878, resulted in the return of John 
Carling for London, Timothy Coughlin for North, Macmillan for East, 
and Geo. W. Eoss for West Middlesex. 

The elections of June, 1882, resulted as follows : Member for 
London John Carling, C., 1,485; John Campbell, L., 1,238; majority t , 
247. Member for East Middlesex E. Macmillan, C., 1,998; I. 
Langford, L., 1,431. Member for North Middlesex Timothy Cough- 
lin, 1,741 ; L. E. Shipley, 1,632. Member for West Middlesex G. 
W. Eoss, 1,651 ; N. Currie, 1,597. Member for South Middlesex J. 
Armstrong, L., 1,678 ; J. Eayner, C., 812. 

London was established a separate representative district in 1835,. 
when Col. Mahlon Burwell was elected its first member of Parliament. 
Hamilton H. Killally was next accorded the honor ; then Lawrence 
Lawrason, in 1844, followed by William H. Draper, who resigned to- 
accept a Judgeship ; John Wilson, who was subsequently appointed 
Judge ; Thomas C. Dickson, who was defeated at the next election by 
John Wilson, and in 1857 by John Carling, who represented the city 
until 1874, when John Walker, now Eegistrar, was elected. Col. 
Walker was unseated on a petition, and James H. Eraser was chosen 
to represent London. John Carling was elected member of Parliament 
for London City in 1857, and continued representative until 1874, 
when he was defeated by Col., then Major Walker, who was, however, 
unseated. In 1862 he was Eeceiver- General, but owing to the defeat 
of his party in Parliament in 1874 that position was transferred to a 
Liberal within a few months. In 1867 he represented the city in 
the Ontario Parliament ; was Commissioner of Public Works, Agricul- 
ture and Immigration until 1871, when the Macdonald party was 
defeated. During his term the Insane Asylums at London and 
Belleville, and the Asylum for the Blind at Brantford, were estab- 
lished. In 1872 he resigned his seat in the Assembly, having 
accomplished or aided in accomplishing almost everything his consti- 
tuents called for, meanwhile being a member of the Dominion House. 





From the earliest period in the history of the world, the advocate 
has existed and made his presence known where men of other trades 
or professions were silent or unfelt. Milton, in the days when religious 
revolution reduced the human mind to a state of skepticism and left 
the puolic conscience uncontrolled, declared that "most men are 
allured to the trade of law, grounding their purposes not on the pru- 
dent and heavenly contemplation of justice and equity, which was 
never taught them, but on the promising and pleasing thoughts of 
litigious terms, fat contentions and flowing fees." Later the advocate 
assumed the form of a student, and with this form grew up a thousand 
ambitions, and with the ambitions came the original trades' union, 
which prompted the old bar to circumscribe its circle and surround 
itself with certain ceremonies and insignia. Law became a great 
study, and thus in Johnson's time the bar embraced 

" Men of that large profession, who can speak 
To every cause, and things indeed contraries, 
Till they are hoarse again, yet all be law : 
That with most quick agility can turn, 
And return, make knots and undo them, 
Give forked counsel, take provoking gold 
From either side and put it up." 

One of the first criminal cases tried in London may be taken as 
evidence that the lawyer of Johnson's time had not passed away in 
1832 ; for here we find the pioneer advocate, Michael Tenbroeck, 
defending Sovereen with an earnestness worthy of a good cause ; and 
later, when his wretched client is on the scaffold, the same Michael 
Tenbroeck cries out to the criminal to confess his crime as he con- 
fessed it to him. Justice was easily dispensed. There was no law 
and very little trouble. Squire Matthews remembers Tenbroeck, the 
London lawyer, because he was the first he had ever seen and " was a 
square kind of man." "If there were any bit of a quarrel," says the 
Squire, "or injury or trespass inflicted, the one on the other, the 
plaintiff got one man and the defendant another, and if they couldn't 
settle it all up, as they generally did, why, they called on a third man, 
and the whole business was done in a jiffy without pen or ink, 
Testament, paper, costs or anything else. Maybe the court would be 
held on a log or across a stump. The first magistrate I remember was 
Squire Mackenzie ; but we never troubled him." * In 1827 all this, or 
much of this happy state of affairs, was changed, and the Quarter 
Sessions Court had for some years afterwards extensive dealings in 
settling up old feuds. Indeed, prior to 1827 the old method of friendly 



arbitration began to wane; for in 1825 a log court-house or town 
meeting-house was erected at Springbank, and in it Squires Springer 
and Ingersoll, and sometimes Col. Talbot and Capt. Matthews, held 
regular court. 

In the transactions of the Quarter Sessions Court of London 
District, a close summary of its proceedings from 1813 to 1842 is 
given. In fact, all the petty trials from 1813 to 1827, when the 
court was removed from Long Point or Vittoria to London, are given. 
The early records of the Assize Court are very irregular, and with few 
exceptions are of little use for historical purposes, up to the period 
when Col. Macbeth took possession of the Crown office here. It is a 
fact that of all the documents, which must have existed in 1838-9 
relating to the trial of the Patriots, very few are to be found to-day. 
It might not be an exaggeration to assert that such records were 
intentionally destroyed or carelessly given away. 

The oldest record of the London District Court deals with the case 
of Alex. Eoss vs. Kobert Hindman, in which a capias ad responden- 
dum was issued, Feb. 3, 1823, for 13 currency. On March 24 the 
process was returned, when bail was entered. On March 27 an 
affidavit was filed, and motion arid order withdrawn ; on the 29th, a 
declaration was filed, and a motion for the discharge of the defendant, 
on filing a common appeal and the bail bond to be delivered up, was 
granted. On March 31, a demurrer and notice of set-off was filed by 
J. Tenbroeck, plaintiff's attorney. The case of Eichard L. Corkcroft 
vs. James Bell was presented by Attorney John Eolph, who found that 
the parties had settled the claim for 3. The claim of Frederick 
Smith v. Samuel Mowrey was presented by Attorney Tenbroeck, but 
the only result shown is the payment of two shillings and sixpence to 
Judge Mitchell. Luke Teeple, by his attorney, John Eolph, prose- 
cuted Peter Massap, as bondsman. The case of John Earle v. James 
Cowan was presented by Eolph; also that of Geo. C. Salmon, v. 
Eichard Massap ; also of Milton Gregory v. Chandler C. Haskill ; John 
J. Harris v. Gatien Lizer; Smith and Williams v. James Nevilles; 
Jacob Patrick v. Cowan & Walker ; Alanson Allen v. Silas Harris ; 
George Boyington v. George Coughall ; James Bell v. Jeremiah Moor ; 
Josiah C. Goodhue v. George Teeple ; Joseph Defulds v. James Hayes ; 
Eeuben Morrison v. Horatio Nelson Franklin ; John Islik v. Thomas 
Finch; J. C. Goodhue v. David Graham; same v. Isaac Ostrander; 
same v. John Elwood ; same v. Philip Beringer ; same v. W. H. Lee ; 
same v. Daniel Springer; same v. Winslow Thayer, and sixteen other 
cases. Eolph may be said to have been attorney for plaintiff in all the 
above cases, Tenbroeck being driven to defend. In a few cases juries 
were sworn to aid the District Judge, James Mitchell. 

The June session of 1823 opened with Tenbroeck leading. Of 
.the 39 cases brought before the District Court, Attorney Eolph repre- 
'sented the plaintiff in 37. In September and December, 1823, Ten- 
broeck again leads the Court with two cases, Eolph representing the 


plaintiff in all the others, except the 48th and 49th, when Tenbroeck 
presented plaintiffs' claims. A musty pasteboard-bound book in Col. 
John Macbeth's office, bearing the simple legend "1823 " on the back, 
tells hundreds of painful stories concerning the old debtors' prison. 
One example will suffice. In October, 1822, Kichard W. Drake threw 
John Anderson into jail for a debt of 6 5s., bail being refused. In 
March, 1823, he was tried, and the following jury returned a verdict 
for plaintiff : Win. Havens, Wm. Potts, Wm. White, Nathaniel 
White, Eichard Marr, Cortlands Olds, Benjamin Bawn, Asa Stevens, 
Levi Douglass, John B. Wheeler, Peter Wyckoff and Charles Gustin. 
On the 6th day of March, 1825, he was released, after a new trial, 
before another jury of " twelve good men and true." To those who 
can recollect the old vermin -haunted log jail nothing need be said of 
what the unfortunate Anderson must have suffered for this simple 
debt. The old jailor, long since gone to his eternal rest, saw many a 
wife shed tears at the cell door of an unhappy husband as he kissed 
the child he could not support, and would gladly have set him free, 
but the stern law forbade. 

Among the important cases brought before the first Assize Court 
at London, was the charge of horse stealing against Sovereign or 
Sovereen, in 1827 or 1828. Judge Macaulay sentenced him to death ; 
but the old law which would give the insulter of women only a few 
days or a few months in the common jail, while sentencing the horse 
thief to death, was falling gradually into disrepute, and so executive 
clemency was extended to this terribly vicious pioneer. 

The first murder case before the Quarter Sessions here was on April 
14, 1831, when a bench warrant was issued to the High Constable for 
the arrest of Jared Sealey for murder. John Phelan, of Oxford East, 
blacksmith; Joshua H. Corbin, of Norwich, and Wm. Haskel, of 
London, were witnesses. The man murdered was Jonathan Kipp. 
Owing to the fact that Sealey had friends on the bench, the prosecution 
of the charges was carried on without spirit, and there is no record 
whatever to show that the case was ever presented to the Judge of 

In April, 1831, 100 were paid Geo. Henry, Leslie Pearce and 
Henry Fox, for arresting C. A. Burieigh for the murder of T. C. 

Execution of Burleigh. The first execution at London was that 
of Cornelius A. Burley or Burieigh, of Long Point. In 1830, as 
related in another chapter, he was charged with larceny. The war- 
rant for his arrest was placed in Constable T. C. Pomeroy's hands. 
The constable moved down on the home of Burieigh in Bayham, and 
wfth rough words and rougher gestures sought to scare Burieigh into 
instant surrender. Burleigh's guilt was questionable, and this feeling 
with the irritation which an ignorant officer can sometimes cause, led 
to the act which culminated in Pomeroy's death. Burieigh shot and 
killed him. At that time men did not wait to consider what provoca- 



tion meant, but rushed forward blindly to arrest the murderer. With 
him they took two men and lodged all in the old jail for a year. In 
the meantime, all the prisoners (eight in number) escaped, except 
Burleigh, as the unfortunate man did not hold himself guilty of larceny 
or murder, and so hoped for a reprieve. Again, he knew that the 
prisoners would be tracked through the snow, and recaptured, as they 
were. In 1831 executive clemency failed to save this man from 
popular vengeance. The gallows was erected in the court-house yard, 
almost all the people within twenty-five miles of London came to see 
the drama, and their depraved tastes were satisfied ; for when Burleigh 
was swinging off, the rope broke, and the half-strangled man walked 
round before the people with part of the rope dangling after him. 
Eecaptured he was re -led up to the scaffold, and this time flung into 
eternity. Eev. Mr. Mackintosh, of the English Church, at Kettle 
Creek, attended to his spiritual wants. 

Execution of Sovereen. Jonathan Sovereen, one of a large tribe 
who lived near Applegarth's Flats in the early days of the township, 
moved to a point near Burford in the twenties. This migration took 
place after his first conviction for cattle stealing, for which he was 
sentenced to be hanged, but through influence was reprieved. Before 
and after his escape he was engaged in dark deeds, so dreadful that his 
two eldest children left home to work for neighbors. On the day 
before the dreadful crime was enacted for which he was hanged, he 
asked those children to return, but they did not, and thus escaped the 
slaughter, which brought death to their mother and seven (sisters and 
brothers) children. Sovereen had planned the extinction of his family, 
lest by any chance one of them would give information regarding his 
evil acts. On the day before the murder, he left home in a manner 
which would be generally known, but returned during the night and 
carried out his dreadful designs, killing his wife and six children out- 
right, and injuring a little girl of five summers so that she died soon 
after, leaving a child of three years and the two elder children, who 
were away, survivors of the family. On the following morning 
Sovereen himself gave the alarm that Indians had visited his home 
and murdered his wife and children. The neighbors flocked thither, 
and found the wife between the cabin and 'barn with an old shoe knife 
buried to the hilt in her left side, and over her body several wounds. 
In her hand was a bunch of gray hair, which she plucked from the 
murderer in her death struggle : within the house were the bodies of 
the murdered children. There was the stool with which he knocked 
their brains out, and there the axe clotted with blood and brains and 
hair. It was no Indian's work. Sovereen's own hair was the simplest 
tell-tale, and at the Spring Assizes of 1832 he was found guilty, not- 
withstanding Michael Tenbroeck's able defence. On June 5, 1832, 
Lawrason and Goodhue's store at the northwest corner of Dundas and 
Ridout street was filled with people, windows, doors and roof. There 
was the gallows, from which Burleigh was twice flung in 1831, and all 


around a sea of faces, for the people within a circle of 150 miles came to 
see the wretch die. There was Elder James Jackson of the Methodist 
Church attending, and his old time member still defiant and denying. 
Mr Tenbroeck cried out to him : " For God's sake, Sovereen, confess ; 
don't die with a lie in your mouth." But the prayer was of no use. 
Sovereen was launched into eternity. The present Rev. Dr. Webster, 
of Newbury, was in attendance, but not called upon. This fiend was over 
sixty years of age at the time of this murder. One of the points in 
evidence against him was a suit of blood-stained clothes discovered in 
the bed-tick, which were proven to have been worn by him the day 
before the murder. The clothes, with the hair wrenched from his head 
in the struggle with the dying wife, completed the chain of evidence. 

Execution of Jones. Thomas Jones, of Delaware Township, was 
hanged in 1868 for the murder of his brother's daughter, Mary Jones. 
His two sons were the principal witnesses against him, while his 
daughter, Elizabeth, defended him to the last. The sons pointed 
out that he wished them to murder their cousin Mary and their uncle, 
Henry Jones. He was convicted of robbery on the evidence of this 
Mary once, and entertained toward her a hatred which led to her 
murder. His daughter Elizabeth, to save her terrible father, 
assumed all the blame, and passed ten years in the penitentiary for 
her services in his cause, but could not save her father, who was 
swung into eternity in the presence of 8,000 people, being the last 
public execution in this district. Justice Adam Wilson presided at 
the trial in October. During the American war of 1861-5, Thomas 
Jones was a professional bounty jumper. He even took over a 
number of Oneida Indians and had them enlisted at Detroit under 
false statements, and he was not free from accusation on some grave 
charges and suspicion of being concerned in the disappearance of 
horses and cattle. His execution for the murder of his neice, Mary 
Jones, took place December 29, 1868, and Delaware gave a sigh of 

Eocecution of Pickard. Angus Pickard, the murderer of Duncan 
McVannell, a farmer of East Nissouri, was hanged December 28, 1871. 
It appears that Pickard fell violently in love with a girl in the 
neighborhood. Her father asked McVannell the character of his 
proposed son-in-law, and received anything but a favorable answer ; so 
that, notwithstanding the existence of an engagement, ring and wed- 
ding outfit, negotiations were broken off. Pickard left McVannell's 
employ, and asked the farmer to pay him $25 then due, as he was 
about to visit his brother in Michigan. He asked the farmer two or 
three times for his pay, but each time met with a gruff refusal and 
some ugly denunciation. Pickard, driven to desperation, shot and 
killed his man. On his own confession, he was found guilty and 
sentenced to death. His execution was private, not more than thirty 
persons being present in the yard, but a large crowd gathered in the 
rear. His taking-off was a bungling affair. The knot was poorly 



arranged and slipped around under the jaw, thus ending in a ten- 
minutes' terrible death struggle, as the neck was not broken, and 
strangulation ensued. 

The Assizes of March, 1872, was presided over by Justice Gait 
when the charge against Phoebe Campbell for the murder of her 
husband, George Campbell, of Nissouri, was presented. Kenneth 
McKenzie, Q.C., prosecuted, with W. R Meredith and F. E. Cornish 
defending. The jury comprised John Kobson and Henry Percival, 
London; John Lumley, East Williams; John McCollum, McGilli- 
vray ; George Routledge, Wm. Martin, Westminster ; Phillip Rosser, 
Lobo ; J. Newbeggin, Mosa ; J. C. Ross, West Williams ; Alex. 
Mclntyre, Wardsville; John Minhinnick, city, and John Gary, of 
Biddulph. In Mrs. Campbell's statement she accused Thomas Coyle 
of the murder, but ultimately declared her cousin, John McWain, the 
culprit. There were several witnesses examined, and on April 6 the 
jury returned a verdict of guilty. She was sentenced to be hanged on 
June 20, and on that day the execution took place, the victim being 
attended by Reverends Canon Innes, George Richardson, Dr. Cooper, 
Miss Mercer, Mrs. Osborne and the Jail Matron. 

Execution of Simmons. The trial of Ben. Simmons for the 
murder of Mary Anne Stokes, his paramour, was opened before 
Justice Armour, at London, September 15, 1885. The criminal was 
defended by John Taylor. The evidence was conclusive, and a 
verdict of guilty returned. Simmons was sentenced to be hanged 
November 27, 1885, and was hanged on that date. He was born at 
Kilworth 37 years prior to his execution, but when three years of age 
moved with his father to London. Here the old gentleman conducted 
a grocery store, and later kept a hotel on Queen's avenue, where now 
is the Club House. The murderer served against the invaders of 
1866 in the Harrietsville Company. His spiritual attendants were 
Bishop Baldwin, Revs. J. B. Richardson, Hicks and McGillivray. 
During the execution the janitor of the court-house was compelled 
to toll the bell by the Sheriff, although it was not his duty. This task 
was a painful one for him, as he had known Simmons for years, in the 
first place, and, in the other, any connection with such a thing so 
degrading as an execution was distasteful to him in the extreme. 

The trial and execution of Mahon for his part in the McGillivray 
tragedy took place at Goderich, thus saving Middlesex the expense 
and scandal of another hanging. 

The affairs of 1837-8 are entirely of a political nature. The deal- 
ings of the courts and bar with the political prisoners of 1838 were too- 
pronounced to be associated with a court of justice, and for this reason 
the history of the execution of the Patriots is transferred to the 
political chapter, where the context may show some cause for the 
action of the ruling party of that day. 

The nine-tails were well calculated to expel and eradicate brutality 
and meanness, and make London of the thirties a most unwholesome 


place for the lewd and dishonest. The operation of the "cat" near 
Eidout street was a general attraction ; hundreds gathered to see pun- 
ishment inflicted on the criminal, while adjacent windows were filled 
with spectators. The performance meant business, and there was no 
boy's play about it. One thing is to be regretted, .however, and that is 
that the magistrates selected for this punishment some stranger, who 
was charged with stealing a pair of shoes, or some other trivial piece of 
property, while the heavy resident criminals, convicted of some 
hideous crimes, were only mulcted in a small fine or short term in the 
District jail. 

In January, 1810, David Miller and John Emmins were con- 
victed of larceny and sentenced to receive 39 lashes on their naked 
backs, at the hour of 11 o'clock, on January 15th. Thomas Fitz- 
gerald and Jonathan Vandeuzen were found guilty of larceny. The 
former was to receive 39 lashes and three months' imprisonment, and 
the latter 30 lashes. John Purcell received a like sentence in October, 

In January, 1830, Peter Thomas Surplus was found guilty of 
larceny, " stealing a pair of shoes," and sentenced on the 15th " to stand 
in the pillory for one hour to-morrow, 12 o'clock, in the public square." 
James Aldridge was also sentenced " to stand in the stocks for two 
hours, and pay 2 Is. 5d.," for trespass and assault. 

A mildewed, moth-eaten scrap of paper shows, in faded hand- 
writing, that on the 21st of July, 1830, Jeremiah Thomas was con- 
victed of petty larceny, and sentenced as follows : " To be put in the 
stocks for one hour this day, and one hour next Wednesday, and to 
remain in the prison for the term of ten days." 

John Eadford, found guilty of indecent assault, was sentenced by 
Judge Elliot to five months' imprisonment, and to receive twenty lashes 
of the cat-o'-nine- tails, May G, 1870. The crime was committed in 
London township. The whipping took place on May 20th, the exe- 
cutioner, wearing the same mask which the negro who hanged Thomas 
Jones wore, bound Eadford to the whipping post and applied the lash. 

George Baker was publicly whipped in the jail-yard for his assault 
on Mrs. Penny, April 8, 1878. His second twenty lashes were 
applied later, and after two months' imprisonment in the jail he was 
sent to the Central Prison for twenty two months, in accordance with 
the sentence of Justice Wilson. 

In September, 1879, an Indian, Josiah Doxtater, received twenty- 
five lashes from James Fee, of the 53rd Infantry, the same who 
whipped Baker. The sentence was imposed by Judge Elliot. 

The Spring Assizes of 1851 closed in February. The convictions 
and sentences are listed as follows : James S. Mason, murder, to be 
executed on the 5th of November. Patrick Malone, larceny, three 
months' hard labor. Henry Waters, misdemeanor, six weeks hard 
larbor. John Hill, larceny, two months hard labor. ' Talbot Chief, an 
Indian, misdemeanor, two months. Susannah Jacques, larceny, six 



months' hard labor. Charlotte Beehagg, nuisance, three months' hard 
labor. John Fowler, larceny, one week's hard labor. John Fowler, 
second indictment, three years in Provincial Penitentiary. Talbot 
Chief, second indictment, two months. James McMahon, larceny, 
four months. 

Kobert Soper was convicted of coining money, in Nov. 1858 ; Esau 
Reid of horse stealing, and Samuel Douglass of robbery; Donald 
McKay, Esther Richmond and Robert Murray of larceny. 

The stocks, which stood in front of the court-house, became very 
unpopular about 1832, and Henry Groves, then High Constable, took 
the frames down to the river and pitched them in. On one occasion 
there were two men in the stocks for stealing turkeys, and the curious 
people when gathered there or in passing the culprits, themselves 
made a noise such as a hen turkey calling her brood around would 

John McLoughlin, the wrecker, a powerful Irishman, who was 
an early shoemaker here, came down to the stocks one day. Seeing 
the turkey stealers in the ugly frames, he asked Peter Schram : 
"Arrah, Peach, what are you doin' with these poor devils here." 
Schram responded, telling the cause, but McLoughtin kicked out the 
wedges, determined to set the prisoners free. Schram cautioned him 
saying : " If you do not behave yourself, John, you'll get there your- 
self," while Sheriff Rapelje, who was near, approved Constable 
Schram's warning. McLoughlin saw the point and walking away said, 
" Sheriff, punish the men decently, but don't make a show for the 
whole town." 

Other Trials. On November 9, 1858, Catharine Graham was 
brought to trial on the charge of murder. Among the witnesses were 
Dr. Henry Hanson, Dr. Moore, Margaret McClennan, Alex. Graham, 
Walter Sparkman, Isabella Huel, Jane McKellar, Chester Graham and 
Margaret Fyfe. The jury returned a verdict, "guilty of concealing 
child's birth," recommended her "to the mercy of the Court," and 
she was sentenced to one month's confinement in jail. 

The trial of John Harding for murder was heard Nov. 11, 1858. 
The jury comprised Henry Fitzsimons, Charles Armstrong, John B. 
Elson, John Weir, Wm. Neal, Angus Grant, Wm. Lee, Richard 
Haskin, David Baskerville, John Burgess, John H. Burgess and 
Robert Fox. The witnesses called were Samuel Pope, Ellen Glass, 
Ann McGuire, Robert Kennedy, John Wilson, Dr. Alex. Anderson, 
Wm. Coote, Dr. Charles G. Moore, T. Van Vaulkinburgh and Emma 
Storey. The jury returned a verdict of " not guilty." 

The verdict in the poisoning case, which resulted in the death of 
Mrs. Atkinson, was that on the night of Dec. 31, 1858, the old lady's 
daughter-in-law, Mrs. Sophia Margaret Atkinson, administered the 

Long, who brutally murdered his wife in 1859, for which he was 
sentenced to death, had the punishment changed to imprisonment for 



life in May that year. Mr. Norris, who suggested the petition for 
clemency, resided at London. The sentence of death against convict 
McDiarmid was also removed. Eev. A. Christopherson, to whom the 
culprit confessed his crime, made a strong effort for reprieve. In 
December a boy named John Cain, of Biddulph, killed William 
Cahalan, of the llth concession. 

On June 19, 1860, William Vallier shot Mrs. Kirslake at his 
home on Governor's Eoad. In the formal trial, H. C. E. Becher 

A negro named Mason choked his wife to death at their home on 
Clarence street, near Simcoe street, Sept. 19, 1867. 

The Francis tragedy, at the Ivy Green Tavern, near Westminster 
bridge, was enacted Sept. 24. In June $100 were offered by the city 
for the apprehension of the notorious burglar known as "Slippery 

In March, 1869, Justice Wilson presided over the Assize Court. 
At this time the Emma Snowdon murder case was presented. Owing 
to the illness of the Judge, court adjourned. Judge Hughes, of St. 
Thomas, presided over the Assizes by special commission. At this 
time the charge against William and Thomas Jones for complicity in 
the murder of Mary Jones was dismissed. Emma Snowdon, charged 
with the murder of her four-year-old son in December, 1868, at her 
home in McGillivray, was declared insane by Dr. Hobbs, and the jury 
returned a verdict of not guilty, although Mrs. Smith testified beyond 
doubt to having seen the deed committed. Dr. W. D. Potts, well- 
known in London in 1866, was indicted before a Wisconsin jury on 
the charge of murdering his wife in June, 1869. 

In May, 1870, a coroner's jury found Mary Springstead guilty of 
murdering her infant. The girl settled at London in 1863. 

The Fall Assizes of 1872 were presided over by Justice Haggarty. 
Thomas Boyle was indicted for the murder of Campbell. David Glass 
defended and won for his client a verdict of " not guilty." 

E. S. Finlay was murdered in Sombra in May, 1874, as it 
was alleged, by his wife, Anne, and her paramour, William Henry 
Smith, a former resident of London, who previously was tried for the 
murder of old pensioner Dunn, at Clark's Bridge. 

In November, 1874, after the hearing of the case Beltz v. Molsons 
Bank, the Judge of Assize, under a law then new, presented three 
questions to the jury on which they were to bring in a verdict. Beltz 
was represented by Mr. Eock, and the Bank by Queen's Counsel 
Harrison. The jury answered the first question negatively, and the 
other three questions affirmatively, when the Judge declared the 
verdict in favor of the Bank. Several jurymen at once cried out that 
their views were in favor of the plaintiff, and that in answering the 
questions they intended to give a verdict for the plaintiff; but the 
Judge was inexorable, notwithstanding Mr. Eock's objections. 

The murder of Patrick Monaghan, of Warwick, who settled there 


in 1841, was perpetrated March 30, 1876. In April, Eobert Murray 
and Patrick Macfie were arrested. 

On March 2, 1876, two boys, Elinor Bartram and Walter Guerney, 
entered the blacksmith shop at Keyser's Corners to wait for a ride 
home. John Graham Smith, an apprentice, told the boys to get out, 
or he would be after them, when young Bartram said, " Come along ; 
I'm not afraid." Smith, taking a sharp-pointed iron from the fire, 
carried out his promise, and stabbed Bartram. The youth lingered until 
the 7th, when he died. The Coroner's jury returned a verdict of 
manslaughter against young Smith. On March 22 he was tried 
before Justice Morrison and a jury, and declared not guilty. 

The Fall Assizes of 1877 were presided over by Justice Harrison. 
The charge of murder against Mary Began and James Hogan was one 
of the few heavy cases on the docket. 

On March 15, 1878, J. H. Hargreaves was charged with abusing 
one of his hair-factory girls, and on the 27th sentenced to three years 
in the Penitentiary. At this time Munn was found guilty of man- 
slaughter, and sentenced to imprisonment for ten years. Geo. Baker 
was flogged for indecent assault April 8, 1878, and received a second 
flogging May 1. Zeller, the Tiffin, (0.,) bank cashier, was arrested at 
London, May 12, 1878. 

In April, 1880, Justice Wilson presided over the Assize Court. 
The question of change of venue in re the persons charged with the 
Lucan murders was presented by Mr. Irving, and opposed by Messrs. 
Macmahon and Meredith. In October, 1880, the jury disagreed. On 
Jan. 26, 1881, the Biddulph murder cases were brought before 
Justices Cameron and Osier. The Crown was represented by M, 
Irving, Q. C., and James Magee; while Hugh Macmahon, W. R 
Meredith and J. J. Blake appeared for the prisoners. The Grand 
Jury comprised W. D. Cooper, Westminster ; Wm. G. Carry, Ade- 
laide ; Boot. Cowie, East Williams ; Michael Crunnican, Lucan ; John 
Elliott, West Williams ; Thos. Elliott, Parkhill ; A. Finnemore, West- 
minster ; G. M. Gunn, Westminster ; G. J. Hutton, Caradoc ; J. J. 
Jelly, Dorchester; Alexander Johnstone, Strathroy: John Jarmyn, 
Biddulph ; John Legg, West Nissouri ; Henry Lockwood, Caradoc ; 
James Moran, city ; John Mossop, Dorchester ; John C. Merritt, city ; 
Edwin M. Moore, city ; K. S. Munson, Ekfrid ; Archibald McPherson, 
city ; Hugh McLaren, city ; Duncan McLean, Lobo ; Wm. Patrick, 
London ; John Thompson, Ailsa Craig. This case was ultimately 
decided in favor of the defendants. The special commission in the 
case, sitting for nine days at London, cost directly $3,355.96, exclusive 
of Judges' salaries, counsel fees and cost of witnesses for the defense. 
The counsel for the defense were untiring in their efforts to save their 
clients, and when it is considered that Bill Donnelly, acknowledged to 
be one of the most naturally astute men of the county, aided the 
prosecution in the effort to punish the murderers of his relatives, the 
victory of the defense is more surprising. 


In June, 1880, the celebrated case, Ven. Archdeacon J. W. Marsh 
v. the Council of Huron College, was heard before Justice Sprague at 
Toronto. Messrs. Bethune, Dalton McCarthy and Biggar, represented 
the plaintiff, and E. Blake and Adam Crooks the college. The case 
grew out of a reception to Bishop Cronyn on his return from England 
In 1878-9, and the Archdeacon's expulsion from the Council in April, 

The April Assizes of 1881 were presided over by Justice Patterson. 
M. Irving, Q. C., was Crown prosecutor. A case growing out of the 
trial of Kent, for the murder of Howie, May 24, 1876, was before the 
Court, the complainant seeking damages from Kent. Barrister Mac- 
mahon appeared for the Howies, and W. E. Meredith for Kent. The 
jury awarded $1,500 damages. 

The trial of William and Kobert Donnelly for attempt to burn 
Dight & Go's mills at Stanley, took place in November, 1881, before 
Judge Elliot. Counsellors H. Becher and John C. Idington prose- 
cuted ; A. J. B. Macdonald and E. Meredith represented the defend- 
ants. Informer West's evidence was ignored, and the two men were 

The murder of John McKinnon, at the Eob Eoy Tavern, near Park- 
hill, was perpetrated in November, 1881. Neil McLellan and John 
McKillop were named in the verdict by Coroner's jury, and arrested. 
In March, 1882, they were tried on the charge of manslaughter, and 

The murder of Patrick Delargy by the drunken broom-maker, 
George Wesley Code, was perpetrated near Blackfriars' Bridge, April 
15, 1882. Delargy was a teamster, who, in a friendly way, took the 
drunken fellow to his room, and was shot and killed for his pains. 
Code fled, but was soon captured, tried and acquitted. 

In June, 1882, Dr. Eufus Bratton, alias Simpson, a South Caro- 
linian, was captured at London by members of the United States 
Secret Service Corps, and taken forcibly to Detroit. He was, it is 
alleged, chief of a Ku-Klux band. When arrested he was 'given 
chloroform and carried to Detroit. The authorities of London were 
indignant. Deputy Clerk of the Crown, Cornwall, was arrested for 
-assisting the American detectives, and dismissed by Mr. Hutchinson, 
while others urged that the case be brought before the British Parlia- 
ment. Bratton was returned to London by the Government of the 
United States. 

The alleged murder of Ann Bastard, an insane woman of Carlisle, 
in East Williams, was recorded December 8, 1882, and her husband, 
Win. Bastard, arrested. The Coroner's Jury found that the murder 
was perpetrated by the prisoner, strangulation being the means 

In May, 1884, A. E. Wrightman and James Graham were 
arraigned for the murder of Silcox, of Ekfrid, in December, 1883. 
Edmund Meredith represented Wrightman; W. E. Meredith, Graham 


and T. W. Can-others, both prisoners. Colin McDougall and J. B. 
McKillop prosecuted. The jury returned a verdict of " not guilty,"' 
giving the prisoners the benefit of doubts. 

Kufus Eldridge, a farmer of Westminster, was stabbed and killed 
in September, 1884. The Coroner's jury returned a verdict of wilful 
murder against Harry Lansett, and made Edward Nolty accessory 
before the fact. Lansett was tried in November. He was defended 
by A. J. B. Macdonald and John Taylor, while W. E. Meredith 
conducted the case for Nolty. The jury found the prisoner guilty of 
assault. He was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. 

On June 24, 1884, George Hall was charged with causing the 
death of Charles Breden's child, through gross ignorance in treating it. 
His trial took place in November. He was defended by W. R. and E. 
Meredith, and acquitted his friends in the court-room cheering until 
Judge Wilson checked them. 

In November, 1884, George McCabe was tried for poisoning Ann 
McCabe, his wife, on April 26, in Westminster Township. Colin 
McDougall prosecuted for the Crown. W. R and E. Meredith defended 
the prisoner. The jury returned a verdict of " not guilty." 

In June, 1884, Albert E. Wrightman was found guilty of robbing 
James Campbell's store at lona, and was sentenced to eight years in 
the Kingston Penitentiary. T. W. Carrothers defended him. 

In May, 1885, the celebrated case of Charles Hutchinson, Clerk of 
the Peace, vs. Josiah Blackburn, of the Free Press, was presented by 
Colin McDougall, of St. Thomas. Messrs. Osier and Bayly repre- 
sented Blackburn. The libel complained of was the editorial in the 
Free Press of Dec. 15, 1884, headed "Blind-folded Justice." The 
jury returned a verdict of " not guilty." 

The Winter Assizes of 1885-6 were presided over by Justice 
O'Connor. In the O'Connell cases vs. Bishop Baldwin and others, W. 
Nesbitt represented the plaintiff, and W. R. Meredith the defendants. 
The cases were settled on the plaintiff withdrawing all claims to the 
assistant-pastorate of the Chapter House. It appears Mr. O'Connell 
was arrested at the instance of the Wardens, when about to enter his 
pulpit, and placed in jail. He in turn proceeded against the authorities,, 
when all charges against his character were withdrawn, and his salary 

The trial of George Dingman for manslaughter was heard before 
Justice Wilson in November, 1884. He was charged with causing 
the death of Clarissa Baxter, August 22, 1883, by selling to her father 
strychnine instead of the santonine, or worm medicine, which the 
father called for at the drug store where Dingman was employed, at 
Mt. Brydges. The evidence was so clear that the jury declared the 
prisoner guilty. He also was charged with causing the death of the 
second child, Rebecca A. Baxter, but acquitted. His sentence on the 
first charge was only six months in jail, but later he was discharged. 

In December, 1885, William Cooper, formerly of London, shot and 


killed his second wife, Dinah Knight, and then killed himself at 
McGregor, Man., some time before he separated from his first wife. 
When the neighbors came, the blood of husband and wife was frozen, 
and in it the bodies were imbedded until chopped out. 

The March Assizes of 1886 were presided over by Justice Kose. 
The only important trial was that of William Moncks for killing 
William Shrimpton, on the Hamilton road, February 24, 1886. It 
appears the latter was driving by Moncks' house, and, in the delirium 
of drink, kicked in a part of Moncks' door. The jury, of course, 
acquitted the prisoner. 

^Wm. C. Stinson, of London West, was arrested for the murder of 
his wife, April 21, 1887, but the charge was without foundation. 

On June 27, 1887, Coroner Smith and a jury closed the enquiry 
into the death of Ealph Shaw, and held Walter Stevenson on a charge 
of wilful murder, June 18, 1887. Stevenson was defended by 
Edmund Meredith, Q. C., and acquitted. 

Charles and John Carroll, residing near Strathroy, in Caradoc, were 
arrested on the charge of hanging Mrs. Jane Carroll, Oct. 1, 1887. On 
Dec. 21 John Carroll was held for trial, and Charles discharged. 

A most revolting murder was brought to light Sept. 23, 1888, in 
Adelaide township. The victim was Jonathan Robinson, an old and 
inoffensive resident of the township, who lived by himself in a 
small frame house on the farm of Harris, second concession south, 
about four miles from Strathroy. He was an Englishman, a bachelor, 
and 73 years old. The circumstances surrounding the murder are 
shrouded in mystery, as it was generally supposed that Eobinson was 
visiting in Michigan, he having informed several of his neighbors that 
he contemplated such a trip, and was last seen alive on Sept. 13. 

Judges and Counsel. On September 3, 1821, W. Drummond 
Powell, C. J., signed the Clerk's certificate, and in 1827 Judge Sher- 
wood, who carne here that year. The first acknowledgment by John 
B. Askin of receipts from fines made at London, was that of August 
9, 1827, before Judge J. B. Macauley, of the Assize Court. 

James Macauley, son of Dr. James Macauley, of the 33rd Infantry, 
was born at Niagara in 1793. In 1812 he joined the Glengary Fen- 
eibles; in 1822 was admitted to the bar, and in 1829 was appointed 
Judge of Queen's Bench. In 1847 he was Chief Justice of Common 
Pleas, which office he held until his retirement in 1856. He died in 

Miles O'Rielly, so well known in the early days of London, was 
born at Niagara Falls in 1806, and admitted to the bar in 1830. In 
1837-8 he was one of Allan MacNab's "men of gore," who opposed the 
Patriots at Montgomery's tavern. At the trial of the 106 prisoners, he 
volunteered to defend the whole lot unaided, while the late Chief 
Justice Allan MacNab prosecuted, Justice Macaulay presiding. 

Adam Wilson, born in Scotland in 1814 ; came to Canada in 1830 ; 
studied law under R. B. Sullivan, and was admitted to the bar in 1839. 


In 1863 he was appointed a Puisne Judge of the Queen's Bench, and 
the same year Judge of Common Pleas. In 1868 he was reappointed 
Judge of Queen's Bench, vice Judge Haggarty, promoted, and in 1878 
Chief Justice of Common Pleas. Judge Wilson presided here over 
the Spring Assizes in 1873. 

John Hawkins Haggarty, born at Dublin, Ireland, in 1816, studied 
at Trinity College, came to Toronto in 1834, and, studying under Geo. 
Duggan, was admitted to the bar in 1840. The Baldwin administra- 
tion created him Q. C., and in 1856 he was appointed Judge. In 1868 
he was appointed Chief Justice of Common Pleas. 

John Wilson who died June 3, 1869, was born near Paisley, Scot- 
land, in 1809, and came out to this country when quite a lad with his 
father and other members of the family. His father was a Scottish 
yeoman, who went to Halifax with what was at that time called a 
venture of goods. Owing to the wreck of the vessel in which his 
venture was, he lost all, and sometime after settled as a farmer in the 
County of Lanark, near Perth. The son, John Wilson, passed his 
early days upon the farm, and endured a full share of those hardships, 
which the early emigrants to Canada were obliged to face, and which 
they gallantly overcame. It was here that he formed those tastes 
which never left him, and acquired the knowledge of farm life, that 
sympathy which a farmer's lot and trials, which came so admirably to 
his aid in after days. Having contracted a disease of the chest, he 
was advised to leave the labor of the farm, and thus it was that he 
became a school teacher at Perth. He continued in this occupation for 
about three years, but, being of an ambitious temperament, and feel- 
ing, possibly, that he could turn his attention to other pursuits more 
profitable to himself, he determined to study for the legal profession, 
and entered as a student in the office of James Boulton, now of 
Toronto, but who was then practising at Perth. In those days Mr. 
Wilson was not blessed with any superfluity of means, and he had a 
hard struggle to eke out a sufficiency by which to support himself, 
and pay the fees incident to his profession. Among other expedients, 
he employed himself in keeping the books of a merchant, and when 
too poor to buy a candle, would lie down before the fire and pen the 
entries in his firm, bold hand by the light of the blazing logs. He 
worked hard and studied hard, and at least was able to find himself, in 
spite of many difficulties and hardships, the member of a profession of 
which he became a leading ornament, succeeding in due time in 
obtaining one of those prizes, a judgeship, to which all young lawyers 
look as one of the objects to be kept in view, and, if possible, attained. 
Before he left Perth, however, to enter upon a career in the west, a 
misfortune overtook him which caused him a life-long regret, and 
directed towards him at the time not a little attention and sympathy. 
This was his duel with Robert Lyon, a gentleman who had been a 
friend of his own, and a member of the same profession. This took 
place in the early part of 1833. At that day duels were of frequent 

134 llfSTORY OF THE 

occurrence, a mode of avenging wounded honor, which, if now gone 
somewhat out of date, was then recognised as a necessary usage of 
society among gentlemen. It is needless to dwell at length upon the 
cause of the quarrel, but the spirit in which Mr. Wilson entered upon 
it may be understood when we say that it was in order to justify a 
lady of whom Mr. Lyon had spoken impertinently that led to the 
encounter. Mr. Wilson was the challenger, Simon Eobinson acting as 
his second ; H. Lelievre, a brother-in-law of the late Judge Small, 
performing similar duties for Mr. Lyon. They met at the appointed 
time, just outside of the district of Bathurst, about three-quarters of a 
mile from Perth. Shots were exchanged without effect, and so unused 
was either of them to pistol practice, and flint locks did duty in those 
days, that the seconds were under the impression that they might fire 
for some time before even a wound would be inflicted. It would have 
been well if the result had been as anticipated. After the first shot 
Mr. Robinson, Mr. Wilson's second, advanced and presented a paper 
to H. Lelievre. Upon unfolding and reading it, it proved to be a 
written apology and retraction of offensive words, which it was 
demanded that Mr. Lyon should sign. Mr. Lelievre said that he 
could not consent to Mr. Lyon signing any such paper, but that he 
should read it for himself. The document was then handed to Mr. 
Lyon, who, when it had been read, threw it from him, saying that he 
would never sign it, and would " have another shot first." Positions 
were then retaken, and on this occasion the bullet from Mr. Wilson's 
pistol entered Mr. Lyon's side just under the uplifted arm, and pierced 
his lungs. To the consternation of all, Mr. Lyon fell on his face, dead. 
Thereupon Mr. Wilson and his second returned to Perth, and gave 
themselves up to the authorities. They were detained in jail about six 
weeks, when the Brockville Assizes came on, and they were tried before 
Chief Justice Robinson. Mr. Wilson defended himself, and laying all 
the facts before the jury was unanimously acquitted, as was his second. 
Much enthusiasm was shown on his behalf, not only on account of the 
matter that led to the duel, but the manner in which he comported 
himself throughout ; and words of encouragement and offers of assist- 
ance came upon him from all sides. 

In the autumn of the following year, 1834, he came to London, 
settled here, and commenced practice. At that time there were 
but two other members of the profession here, and he soon drew 
around him many friends. In the summer of the following year, 
1835, he married Miss Hughes, a sister of Judge Hughes, of St. 
Inomas. From this time his rise was rapid. The people found in 
nim a man prompt in business, energetic in every cause he under- 
took, and most powerful before a jury. His eloquence was of the 
kind that has been called "unadorned," but it bristled with common 
sense, and was strong in those great Saxon words which express so 
much and are comprehended so fully by those with whom he had to 
00. He had no equal before a jury at the bar. He was thus widely 


sought after, and to secure his services in a doubtful case was as much 
as to say that the cause was won already. His method before a jury 
was to simplify a case, bring it within their comprehension ; seize 
hold of the strong points and press them home. With the subtleties 
of law he did not care to trouble them, but when a nice point came up 
for argument with the Court, he was found to be acute and well- 
informed. In his ordinary business he was the client's friend. He 
discouraged litigation and promoted amicable settlement, and many a 
poor man has had to thank him for timely advice and caution, saving 
him from ruin. For himself, he acquired a competency, and then a 
fortune ; though it became somewhat impaired in the doubtful times, 
in consequence of the generous use he made of his name in assisting 
others. Nor was his generosity confined to such acts. He visited 
poor people ; got them gifts of clothes ; assisted them in various ways, 
and would be a ready champion of their cause if he found them to be 
deserving. The mode of conducting his business, his high honor, 
buoyant candor, and readiness to serve others, won for him the title of 
" Honest John Wilson," and he was by far the most popular man of 
his time that the West has seen. His popularity was extraordinary, 
and can scarcely be estimated in these days, when circumstances and 
people have so greatly changed. Much of his leisure was devoted to 
education. He promoted schools, gave lectures to young men, and, 
when Merrill's Tannery was in full operation, would go down there 
and instruct fifty or more of the young lads in arithmetic, history, and 
the rudiments of learning. In 1839, after the Rebellion, he was ap- 
pointed by the Crown to defend some of the rebels who were tried in 
London. He did not much like the task, but said he would see that 
they had justice, and they had. for seven of them were hanged. 

In 1842 he was appointed Warden of this District, and was suc- 
ceeded by J. Buchanan, now of Chicago. In 1843 he acted as 
School Superintendent, and was succeeded by Wm. Elliot. It was not 
till 1847 that he came forward as a candidate for a seat in Parliament. 
In that year, Mr. Draper, who then represented London, was raised to 
the Bench, and Mr. Wilson was elected in his stead as a Liberal- 
Conservative. He was a very different sort of man from the Tories of 
those days a class of individuals scarcely to be found in existence 
now. In 1849 he was found supporting the conciliatory policy of 
Lord Elgin in the celebrated Rebellion Losses Bill ; a measure which 
created intense excitement throughout the country, and led to the 
verge of a counter rebellion. Some of the London Tories having ex- 
pressed dissatisfaction at Mr. Wilson's course, he determined to test 
the question, and resigning voluntarily was re-elected without any 
serious opposition. He continued in Parliament, representing London, 
until 1851, when he was defeated by T. C. Dixon, a hatter of this 
place, and a Tory. This was owing, in a great measure, to some 
indiscretion of speech attributed to Mr. Wilson in Parliament, reflect- 
ing on the Irish population. The defeat, by a very small majority, 


about twelve votes, caused some temporary annoyance, and it is said 
even that he shed tears at the hustings when the fact that the election 
was lost reached him. Feeling ran very high, and some threats of 
violence being made against him, he left the scene in the carriage of 
Adam Hope. In 1854 another election took place. These were the 
days of Hincks, Dr. Eolph, Malcolm Cameron, and Eobert Baldwin 
names rarely heard now in connection with politics, but which had rare 
significance then. Mr. Wilson was now thoroughly with the Keform 
party. He was for reciprocity ; no separate schools ; economy, and 
adopted the Reform platform generally. His opponent was T. C. Dixon 
again, who declared that the Treaty of Reciprocity would be a " cut- 
throat measure." But Mr. Wilson proved too much for his antagonist, 
and was elected by nearly seventy votes. At that time the Reformers 
swept this Western country Oxford, Middlesex (east and west), 
London, Elgin, Kent, were all in favor of what was then known as 
" Reform," under the leadership of the man whose name we have men- 
tioned. The coalition of Mr. George Brown and some of his friends 
with Mr. J. A. Macdonald, defeated Mr. Hincks, and a " crisis " came 
on. Mr. Hincks wished to see Mr Wilson form a Government, but 
Mr. Brown objecting, he compromised matters with Mr. J. A. 
Macdonald, arid the coalition of 1854, under Sir Allan McNab, was 
the result. Mr. Wilson served in Parliament, acting with the Oppo- 
sition until the dissolution of the House in 1857, when, despite the 
entreaties of his friends, he would not again contest the city, and its 
present member, Mr. John Carling, took his place. He remained a 
stranger to public life until 1863, when he was elected to represent 
the St. Glair Division in the Senate. He never took his seat, however, 
in that capacity, for the Government of Mr. J. Sandfield Macdonald 
being in office, and a vacancy in the Bench occurring, Mr. Wilson 
was created a Judge, and served until his death, June 3, 1869, when 
Mr. Justice Gait was appointed. 

James Edward Small was County Judge for a number of years 
prior to 1869. 

William Elliot, born in England in 1817, came with his parents to 
the United States in 1836, and moved with them to a point on the 
Thames, two miles from London, Ont., in 1837. His father died there 
about 1838, leaving the present Judge to look after the farm. In 
1847 he began the study of law, and in 1852 was admitted to the bar. 
In 1869 he succeeded Judge Small as Judge of Middlesex, a position 
which he still holds. In 1848 he married a daughter of Dr. Robinson, 
of Dublin, Ireland. Their son, S. Connor Elliot, was killed at Duck 
Lake, Manitoba, in the skirmish with Canadian Indians, March 26, 
1885. Young Elliot studied law in Fraser & Eraser's office, and 

Judge Davis has, for some years, been connected with the Bench 
AS Junior Judge. 

William Henry Draper was born in 1801, near London, England, 


where his father was an English Church minister. He came to 
Canada in 1820, was elected to the Legislative Council in 1837, 
Solicitor-General of Upper Canada in 1838, subsequently Attorney- 
General, appointed Puisne Judge by Lord Elgin ; and in 1856 was 
appointed Chief Justice, vice (Sir) James Macauley. In 1863 he was 
appointed Chief Justice of Upper Canada, vice Judge Arch. McLean. 
In 1869 he was commissioned President of the Court of Error and 
Appeal, which he held up to his death in 1877. He was known as 
" Sweet William," and while not considered a member of the Compact- 
Family, his ultra-toryism connected him with that tribe. In April, 
1867, he was Judge of the Assize Court here. 

Thomas Moss, born at Cobourg in 1836, was a son of the brewer, 
of Cobourg. In 1854 he entered Toronto University, was admitted to 
the bar in 1861, and in 1872 created Q. C. by the Premier. In 
1873-4 he was elected for West Toronto to the Dominion Parliament ; 
soon after was appointed a Judge of the Court of Appeal ; became 
President of the Court on Judge Draper's death, and Chief Justice of 
Ontario on Judge Harrison's death. His own death took place on 
January 4, 1881. 

On Nov. 5, 1875, Justice Moss opened the Assizes. He was 
appointed, vice Justice Strong, elevated to the newly organized 
Supreme Court. William Horton, then senior barrister of London, 
presented the address, which was signed by the following named 
members of the Law Circle of London : W. Horton, J. Shanly, E. J. 
Parke, T. Scatcherd, C. Hutchinson, E. W. Harris, J. H. Flock, E. 
Bayly, C. D. Holmes, V. Cronyn, C. F. Goodhue, D. McMillan, W. R. 
Meredith, Warren Eock, E. B. Eeed, Hugh Macmahon, W. P. E. 
Street, D. Glass, C. S. Corrigan, J. H. Eraser, B. Cronyn, Jas. Magee, 
Henry Becher, W. W. Fitzgerald, George Gibbons, J. Taylor, W. H. 
Bartram, I. Martin, A. Greenlees, George McNab and M. D. Eraser. 

Chief Justice Harrison, who died in November, 1878, was called 
to the Bar in 1855, created Q. C. in 1867, and elevated to the Bench 
in 1875. 

The Spring Assizes of 1870 was presided over by Justice Morrison. 
In October, 1876, Justice Burton presided over the Assizes. In his 
charge to the Grand Jury, he reverted to his first visit to' London 
years before, when Judge Macaulay presided over the annual Assize 
Court ; compared the past with the present, and seemed well pleased 
with the progress of the county in all things, except the county 
buildings. The court-house he called a pest-house, and attributed to 
it the death of Justice Wilson. The Fall Assizes of 1881 was presided 
over by Justice Burton. In April, 1885, Chief Justice M. C. 
Cameron presided at the Assizes. The celebrated case of Julia E. 
Harris vs. Waterloo Mutual Insurance Co. was heard at this time. W. 
E. and E. Meredith represented the plaintiff, and B. B. Osier and 
Bowlby the defendant. The jury awarded her $547 and costs. 
Justice Falconbridge opened the Fall Assizes of 1888, Sept. 10, this 
being his first official visit to London. 



Hugh Macmahon, Q. C., born in Guelph, Ont., in 1836, descended 
from an ancient Irish family, was admitted to the bar in 1864, and in 
1869 settled at London. In 1 876 he was created Queen's Counsel, and 
the following year was leading counsel before the arbitrators in the case 
of the Ontario boundary, and in 1884 before the Privy Council of 
Great Britain and Ireland. In 1880, and all through the trial of the 
Biddulph cases, he, assisted by W. R. Meredith, Q. C., defended his 
clients with extraordinary energy and success. He, with Col. Shanly, 
were the main promoters of the Irish Benevolent Society of London. 
At the close of 1883 he removed to Toronto. On May 7, 1888, we 
find him presiding as Judge of the Assize Court at London. The 
Middlesex Law Association was represented by the following : W. E. 
Meredith, Q. C. ; E. Meredith, Q. C. ; M. D. Eraser, Charles 
Hutchinson, J. B. McKillop, Frank Love, W. H. Bartram, Ed. Flock, 
H. B. Elliot, W. J. Marsh, N. P. Graydon, E. M. Meredith, Talbot 
Macbeth, Colin McDougall, C. G. Jarvis, Lieut.-Colonel Macbeth, J. 
H. Flock, Lieut.-Colonel Shanly, E. M. Toothe, George Moorehead, 
James Magee, W. W. Fitzgerald, Thomas Meredith, E. Bayly, Q. C. ; 
H. Becher, Q. C.; Folinsbee, Coyne, Nellis, J. C. Judd, Edmund 
Weld, Tennant, A. 0. Jeffery, E. T. Essery, B. C. McCann, and others. 

W. E. Meredith read the following address : 

To the Honorable Hugh Macmahon, one of her Majesty's Justices of the High Court 

for Ontario : 

YOUR LORDSHIP, The members of the legal profession of the City of London 
and County of Middlesex beg leave, at this the earliest opportunity afforded them, to 
offer to you their hearty congratulations upon your attaining that highest of honors 
and responsibilities in the profession a Judgeship. "Whilst the profession in other 
cities and counties have had the gratification of earlier offering to you their congratula- 
tions, we feel that we have an especial right and privilege to do so, remembering for 
how long you were among us, and that the majority of us have had the pleasure of 
practising in the same profession with you in this city for many years, so that, although 
we cannot claim you as of one of us, yet it is one of more than ordinary gratification to 
us, and we feel affords us the better right to congratulate you, and at the same time 
to be the better able to congratulate the profession in general, and the country at 
large, in obtaining a Judge so well calculated to maintain the high standard of the 
bench, past and present, of this Province. Permit us to express the hope that a long 
and eminent career is before you, and to assure you of the more than ordinary pleasure 
it is to welcome you to the City of London upon your first visit in your high official 
capacity. W. R. MEREDITH, 

President of the Middlesex Law Association. 


Secretary of the Middlesex Law Association. 

Among the attorneys named in the records of 1838 are : Jamea 
Givens, afterwards Judge of the County Court ; W. K. Cornish, who 
lost his gown owing to a practical joke ; J. G. Ackland, E. Henry, jr. 
(or Hervay), Geo. Duggan, jr., John Stuart, John Wilson, E. E. Burns, 
H. Sherwood, George Sherwood, A. N. McNab, W. H. Draper, C. 
Gamble, Givens & Warren, Wm. Salmon, E. Burton, J. G. Sprague, 
J. Cameron, C. L. Hall, H. E. O'Eielly, C. A. Hagaman, E. Dickson, 
Gideon S. Tiffany, Miles O'Eielly, J. H. Price, A. Bethune, John Bell, 
J. O'Hatt, E. G. Beasley, E. C. Campbell, F. T. Wicks, Michael Me- 


Namara, G. Eidout, James Boulton, John S. Smith, Wm. Miller, J. 
Bell, Wm. Hume Blake, A. S. Milne, E. Macdonald, C. K. Cornish, 
E. 0. Duggan, J. H. Price, A. Grant, K. Baldwin, F. G. Stanton. 

In 1839 the name of W. Lapenstiere appears in the case of Char- 
lotte Armstrong v. Wm. Leighton and John Hobson. In April, 1840, 
Frederick Cleverly appears before the Court, representing J. H. Joyce 
and Edward Matthews v. Henry L. Thompson. In 1841 the name of 
Henry C. E. Becher appears, differing from that of Henry C. E. Becher, 
already given. John H. L. Askin represented Joe Suter et al v. 
Thomas Dangerfield, in 1841. At this time the name of J. Strachan 
is recorded; in 1842 Thomas Keir, A. D. McLean; in 1844 John 
Crawford, John Wilson and Thomas Warren; in 1845 James Shanly; 
in 1846 E. Jones Parke; in 1847 S. F. Robertson, Geo. Brooke, D. 
M. Thompson; in 1848 Thomas Scatcherd, W. H. Weller, Geo. W. 
Burton, James Santon ; in 1849 W. Eichardson, James Shanly, jr., 
Warren & Hamilton. In 1850 the names of James Stanton and D. 
W. Stanton, Wm. Horton, Arch. Gilkinson, appear on the records of 
the County Court of Middlesex and Elgin. In 1852 the names of 
Cameron & Eutledge, G. W. Barton, Henry Hamilton, Thomas Scatch- 
erd, Eobert Nichol, Wm. Proudfoot, E. Horton, F. Davis and William 
Elliot appear; in 1851 Eobert E. Burns, Wm. Proudfoot, Edward 
Blevins, Eobt. Nicholl and Wm. Elliot are recorded. From Septem- 
ber, 1844, to April, 1852, there were 1,395 suits disposed of in the 
London District Court. 

From 1835 to 1839 there were 765 judgments rendered. From 
December, 1839, to September, 1844, there were 1,103 judgments 
rendered. There were 156 cases entered for trial at the March term 
of 1847 before Judge James Givens. Of this number, John Wilson 
entered 28 ; Wm. Horton, 21 ; James Daniell and John Duggan, 29 ; 
Thomas D. Warren, 20 ; E. Jones Parke, 17 ; James Givens and 
James Shanly, 19; H. C. E. Becher, 14; John Crawford, 1 ; William 
Notman, 2 ; D. J. Hughes, William K. Cornish, Simon F. Eobertsori, 
A. D. McLean and George Brook, one each. 

John F. J. Harris, F. Evans Cornish, C. L. Hutchinson, 1852 ; 
Geo. Baxter, 1853 ; P. G. Norris, 1855, also Eobert Cooper, afterwards 
Judge of Goderich, of Elliot & Cooper; Thomas Partridge, James 
McFadden, Burton Bennett, of Vienna, and Eobert C. Stoneman, of 
Strathroy, Duggan & Flock, 1856 ; J. H. Flock, Walter McCrae, B. 
Schram, T. W. Lawford, P. T. Worthington, W. L. Lawrason, J. D. 
Warren, Eichard Bayly, Edward W. Harris, George Harris, J. Part- 
ridge, 1856-7. From 1852 to the close of 1857 there are 1,657 
judgments recorded in the judgment book of the united counties of 
Middlesex and Elgin. In 1858 the name of J. Worthington appears, 
also S. H. Gray don. There were 1,355 judgments given between 
August, 1857, and October, 1858. In 1864 the name of E. E. 
Jackson appears, also John Geary and C. C. Abbott. In February, 
1859, the law firm of Burton Bennett and Thomas Clarke appears on 



the County Court records ; R. Ollard, Duggan & Bain, J. McCaughey 
H. Massingbrod, E. S. Collett and A. McDougall appears in I860; 
W. C. L. Gill, N. Nonsarrett, Cayley, Cameron & McMichael, of 
Toronto; C. A. Harth, H. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Holmes, D. C. McDonald, 
Charles F. Goodhue, Thomas Carre, W. E. Meredith and C. A. Hart, 
1861 ; John Geary, jr., and Robert E. Jackson, 1862. In 1863, C. P. 
Higgins, Samuel Barker, D. Macmillan, Alex. Mackenzie, Geo. Green, 
Samuel Barker, Philip Mackenzie, Verschoyle Cronyn, Geo. E. Moore 
and Warren Rock. In 1864, David Glass, Samuel Barker, Leon M. 
Clench, J. A. Carroll, David Wilson and Charles S. Jones, of St. 
Marys. In 1865, the record bears the names of E. Stonehouse, W. P. 
R. Street, just appointed Justice of Supreme Court, Patrick Darby, 
W. 0. Meade King, C. S. Corrigan, A. J. B. Macdonald and W. P. 
Laird. In 1866, Geo. Moncrief, now representing East Lambton in 
Parliament, J. A. Miller, John J. Brown, Thomas Clegg, C. McDonald, 
H. H. Coyne, George Railton, Drummond, T. A. Mills, Cutten and 
E. M. Scane. In 1867, R. C. Scatcherd. In 1868, Mackenzie, 
J. H. Eraser, Thomas T. Irvine, James Magee, Mr. Livingstone, 
Edmund Meredith, H. Whateley and Henry Ellis. In 1869, Hugh 
Macmahon, J. E. Harding and J. 0. Ouilette. In 1870, Henry E 
Nelles, E. B. Reed, A. Bell, J. R. Dixon. In 1871, Thomas J. Wilson, 
W. W. Fitzgerald, T. O'Brien, G. C. Gibbons. In 1872, John Taylor, 
E. H. Duggan, A. E. Irving and John Cameron. In 1873, J. Woods,' 
W. H. Bartram, Andrew Greenlees. In ] 874, T. J. Wilson, John 
Bell, Kenneth Goodman. In 1874, J. Martin, PI. T. W. Ellis and 
A. F. Campbell. In 1875, E. T. Essery, M. D. Eraser. In 1876, W. 
Norris, Benj. Cronyn In 1877, J. Gowans and Francis Love/ In 
1878, Malcomson, Watson and W. T. Lawson. In 1879, T. E. Law- 
son, A. Keefer, H. Vivian, Thomas A. Keefer, J. J. Blake, George 
McNab, A. 0. Jeffery. In 1880, Win. McDiarmid, T. T. Macbeth. 
In 1882, H. W. Hall, and in 1883, B. C. McCann, were admitted to 
the Law Circle. 

Among the old members of the Bar, whose reminiscences may not 
be given in the pages devoted to biography, were Stephen Hacket 
Graydon, born at Birr, Ireland, in 1819; settled on a farm near 
London in 1846. In 1847 he returned to Ireland and was married 
there. In 1848, with his friends, Wescott and Birrell, he visited 
Australia ; returned in 1851, and studied law with Parke & Parke 

SS? 1 TT WaS Mayor> vice Christie > resigned, and was elected Mayor 
in 1870. He was a very able solicitor. In 1884 his son, A E H 
Graydon, died in Texas. 

The present Bar of Middlesex comprises : W. H. Bartram, W. W 
Fitzgerald, Richard _Bayly Q. 0, R. Bayly, jr., J. H. A. Beattie, Henry 
fTi Q w' ?' ni et i 8 ' ?.S Blackburn, Thomas Bowman, A. G 
Chisholm W. J. Clark, John Cameron, R. K. Cowan, A. B. Cox V 
Cronyn, Chns^ Corrigan, R. H. Digiiam, H. B. Elliot, E. T, Essery F 
C. Cryer, J. H. Flock, E. W. M. Flock, Follinsbee, J. H. Eraser Q C 


M. D, Eraser, E. G. Fisher, Geo. C. Gibbons, Wm. Glass, N. P. Gray- 
don, Kenneth Goodman, A. Greenlees, A. D. Hardy, F. F. Harper, I. 
F. Hellmuth, C. H. Ivey, Charles Hutchinson (Clerk of the Peace), 
Chauncey Jarvis : A. 0. Jeffery, E. H. Johnson, J. C. Judd, C. A, 
Kingston, W. P. Laird, Francis Love, T. H. Luscombe, Talbot Mac- 
beth, B. C. McCann, John Macbeth, D. Macmillan, James Magee, G. 
W. Marsh, Herbert Macbeth, A. J. B. Macdonald, Geo. McNab, James 
B. McKillop, Wm. McDiarmid (Lucan), E. Meredith, Q. C., E. M. 
Meredith, W. K. Meredith, Q. C., T. G. Meredith, A. A. Mactavish, J. 
J. Macpherson, G Moorehead, Patrick Mulkern, David Mills, H. E. 
Nelles, E. W. Owens, Thomas O'Brien, John D. O'Neil, E. J. Parke, 
Q.C., T. H. Purdom, W. A. Proudfoot, Alex. Stewart (Glencoe), E. W. 
Scatcherd, W. E. Smythe, John Taylor, D. H. Tennant, J. A. Thomas, 
E. M. C. Toothe, G. N. Weekes, Edmund Weld and Angus McNish. 

Francis Evans Cornish, son of Dr. Wm. King Cornish, who came 
to Canada from England in 1819, was born here that year, and was 
educated at London. In 1855 he was admitted to the bar ; from 1858 
to 1861 was Alderman, and from 1861 to 186 5, Mayor of London. In 
1871 he moved to the Eed Eiver, and in 1872 was admitted to the bar 
of the new province. In 1874 he was elected a member of the Mani- 
toba Legislature ; was Mayor of Winnipeg, and for some years an 
Alderman there, having been last elected in 1878. For years he ruled 
the Orange association in Middlesex, and was a member of the Masonic 
society here. Notwithstanding his drinking and revelling, he was 
popular with a majority of citizens. While Mayor, he tried, convicted 
and fined himself for disorderly conduct, and on one occasion caused 
the withdrawal of the British garrison from London, by refusing to 
apologize to the Colonel in command. This trouble grew out of scan- 
dalous remarks by the Colonel bearing on a member of the Cornish 
family. For such remarks the Mayor punished the Colonel corporally. 
He died at Winnipeg, November 28, 1878. 

Warren Eock, Q. C , was admitted to the bar in 1861, and in 1863 
established his law office at London. In 1876 he acquired the title of 
Queen's Counsel, and a year later formed a partnership with Talbot 

James Shanly, Q. C., born at " The Abbey," Stradbally, Queen's 
County, Ireland, is a son of one of the pioneers of Nissouri (also 
named James) who emigrated from Ireland, and in J 837 established 
his home here known as " Thorndale," near the village of that name. 
Col. Shanly has taken an active part in militia affairs, as told in the 
military chapter. He received his legal education in Canada and 
here was created a Queen's Counsel, while for many years he has held 
the position of Master-in-Chancery. 

William P. E. Street, born at London, Ont, in 1841, was admitted 
to the Bar in 1864, and created Queen's Counsel in 1883. In 1885- 
he was Chairman of the North- west Half-breed Commission, and in 
1888 appointed Judge of the Supreme Court. 


C. B. Reed, a law student of London, was drowned at Toronto, 
while skating, in March, 1862. 

Patrick W. Darby, a barrister of London, died in October, 1865. 
He had just completed his law studies, and for some years delighted 
London audiences by his rendition of Irish music. 

Early Probate Business. Under date of June 15, 1814, the fol- 
lowing account was rendered against the county by Daniel Whitman, 
charges incurred for the funeral of Lydia Whitman. Whitman 
charged 2 4s. for a coffin, 12s. for grave digging, 1 12s. for a 
winding-sheet, and 4 for nursing, washing, use of house and sundry 
services, aggregating 8 8s. Od. This was evidently a probate busi- 
ness, for after 69 17s. 2|d. and the sum named above are debited, 
David Whiteman, or Wightman, is credited with 17 6s. Od., his own 
account plus 103 3s. Od., proceeds of auction, and received 42 4s. 
9Jd. from Magistrate Backhouse. 

Early Court of Bequest In January, 1830, the Townships of 
Ekfrid, Mosa, Caradoc, Lobo and Delaware were set off as a Division 
of a Court of Bequest, with Duncan McKenzie and James Parkinson, 

The Middlesex Law Association was formed October 4, 1879. In 
December a deputation, composed of W. R. Meredith, Parker, Magee, 
and Sheriff Glass, addressed the County Council, asking that a room 
in the court-house be set apart for a law library. This was granted, 
and to-day the law library, in charge of Librarian Simmons, shows a 
large collection of law books, reports, and some useful books of a 
general character. The remodelled court-house, in which the library 
is, was opened December 2, 1878, by Judge Davis. 





Governor Simcoe always entertained the idea of the re-conquest of 
the United States. His plans were directed toward this end, and with 
that object he established in his mind's eye a central government at 
London on the Thames, with an arsenal and ship-yard at Chatham, 
and redoubts along the lakes and Niagara River. He divided the 
country into counties for militia purposes, and made laws for the 
organization and management of all male inhabitants. The Quakers, 
Baptists and Tunkers were to pay twenty shillings per annum in time 
of peace and one hundred shillings sterling per year in time of war for 
this their exemption from service the proceeds to be devoted to the 
payment of an Adjutant-General. The regular soldiers under his com- 
mand were ordered to cut out the Dundas road from Lake Ontario to 
the forks of the Thames, and Yonge street from Lake Ontario to Lake 
Simcoe. All this and much more was accomplished before the first 
year of this country ; but English diplomats, filled with experiences of 
the Revolution, failed to be so sanguine as Simcoe, and so deferred a 
war on the United States until 1812. 

Surrender of Detroit. The events leading to the Battle of the 
Thames, date to the surrender of Detroit. This surrender of Aug. 16, 
1812, and its occupation by the British for a year, were brought about 
by a lawyer named Brush, who was unfriendly to the American cause, 
although he was Governor Hull's legal adviser. Brush consorted with 
General Brock and advised the manner of attack, even as he advised 
Hull to surrender, and this was made more manifest, for when Brock 
had arrived within musket range he halted, and stood still regarding 
the American force and their ability to oppose him, as if in doubt 
whether he was leading his men into a trap. Judge William Connor, 
of Mt. Clemens, and other old citizens of Detroit, who were present, 
state that Hull's cowardice and Brush's treachery led to this affair, and 
refer to the fact of Hull being so excited and scared at his share in 
bringing over the British troops, that he besmeared his coat, vest, 
ruffled bosom and white cravat with tobacco juice, lost in toto the 
appearance of Hull of the Revolution, and assumed the look of a 
criminal. Another surrender was also made where now stands the 
city of St. Glair. Patrick Sinclair, a British officer, built in 1763 a 
fort and trading-house. In 1782 nineteen other Britishers settled in 
the neighborhood. In 1807 the Michigan militia under Captain Roe 
occupied this post, and also another post located just below Marine 
City. During the war of 1812 this post and Captain Joe. Roe's com- 
pany of forty men were captured by a British force ; but in May, 



1814, the river bank was again in possession of the American Rangers 
under Captain Gratiot. 

Battle of the Thames. Commodore Perry obtained a signal victory 
over the British naval forces on Lake Erie, September 10, 1813. This 
force comprised the ships Detroit, 19 guns ; Queen Charlotte, 17 guns ; 
the schooner Lady Prevost, 13 guns; the brig Hunter, 10 guns; the 
sloop Little Belt, 3 guns and the schooner Chippewa, 1 gun and 2 
swivels. Opposed to this was Perry's flagship, the Lawrence and the 
Ariel, poorly armed, and a few small boats hurriedly put together at 
Put-in-Bay, such as the Scorpion and Tigress. With the captured 
vessels he advanced on Windsor or Maiden, and on September 23 he 
took over to Maiden from Detroit 1,200 men of Harrison's army, 
among whom were 120 regular troops, the remaining 1,080 being 
Kentucky riflemen. The balance of the army, 1,500 irregular troops 
and 30 Indians, were held at Detroit. Gen. Proctor's force comprised 
900 British regular troops and 1,500 Indians commanded by Tecumseh. 

Perry ran some of his small boats up to Moravian Town and 
Chatham, while Harrison's mounted infantry pushed forward along the 
north bank of the river and forded the Thames twelve miles below the 
Moravian Mission, and about that distance from Lot 4 in the Gore of 
Zone, where Tecumseh fell. That night the advance guard arrived at 
Dalson's Station, where they bought from Mrs. Dalson several hundred 
loaves of bread (which Gen. Proctor's army left behind), paying the 
woman for each twenty-five cents. Next day the army resumed the 
march and came up with the British regulars, who opened fire first. Har- 
rison promptly returned the fire, and ordered Col. Johnson's Kentucky 
cavalry to charge upon their lines. This charge was admirably made, 
breaking the lines and square and permitting the riflemen to advance 
without loss to make the whole British force, then present, prisoners. 
Tecumseh's great Indian army was held below, and a little to the 
right of the position held by the regular British troops, in a dense low 
bush. The riflemen dashed against this position, but were repulsed. 
The message for aid just came as the British regulars were disarmed, 
and Col. Johnson's cavalry was sent forward. In this charge Col. 
Johnson was wounded, but the battle went forward for thirty minutes 
longer until Tecumseh himself fell, when the field belonged to 
Kentucky. After the battle Col. Whitney, an old Kentucky citizen 
accompanying the army, was found lying dead, and within four rods 
of him lay Tecumseh. The location was on the " openings," just 
beyond the low ground where the Indians first took position in the 

It is said that Perry's victory on Lake Erie was concealed from 
Tecumseh by Proctor, for fear of its effect on his savage followers. 
Tecumseh, seeing Proctor's preparations to retire eastward from the 
American frontier, suspected the truth. At a council held in one of 
the storehouses at Amherstburg, Tecumseh, with great vehemence of 
manner, addressed Proctor, saying : 



"Father, listen! Our fleet has gone out; we know they have fought; we have 
heard the great guns ; but we know nothing of what has happened to our father with 
one arm (Captain Barclay). Our ships have gone one way, and we are much astonished 
to see our father tying up everything and preparing to run the other way, without 
letting his red children know what his intentions are. You always told us to remain 
here to take care of the lands. You always told us you would never draw your foot off 
British ground ; but now, father, we see you are drawing back, and we are sorry to 
see our father do so without seeing the enemy. We must compare our father's con- 
duct to a fat dog that carries its tail upon its back ; but, when affrighted, it drops it 
between its legs and runs off. 

' ' Father, listen ! The Americans have not yet defeated us by land, neither are we 
sure that they have done so by water ; we, therefore, wish to remain here and fight 
our enemy, should he make his appearance. If they defeat us, then we will retreat 
with our father. You have got the arms and ammunition which our great 

father, the King, sent for his red children. If you have an idea of going away, give 
them to us, and you may go and welcome for us. Our lives are in the hands of the 
Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and, if it be His will, we wish 
to leave our bones upon them." 

Lossing, in his " Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812," from 
which we extract the above speech, says its effect was electrical. 

Major H. H. Owsley, a soldier in this campaign, speaking of the 
death of Tecumseh, says that the Battle of the Thames was a short,, 
hot skirmish, in which Tecumseh died like a hero and a patriot, and 
Proctor showed himself to be a poltroon of the most pusillanimous 
type. He related incidentally how the story that Colonel Johnson had 
killed Tecumseh originated, and gave the name of the soldier who did 
kill the great Shawanee. " Tecumseh was," said Major Owsley, " as 
fine a specimen of physical manhood as ever I saw. He was above 
middle height, beautifully proportioned, features singularly regular for 
an Indian, a handsomely-shaped face, eyes like an eagle, and of grace- 
ful, though haughty, manner. Indian and foe though he was, I could 
not withhold my admiration for his patriotism, his bravery, and his 
ability. It is said that he had a premonition of his approaching end. 
At all events, at the Thames, he threw off his Brigadier-General 
uniform, and, putting on a hunting shirt and taking rifle, tomahawk 
and butcher-knife, he led his men in person against Dick Johnson's 
mounted Kentuckians. The Indians had been made believe by the 
' Prophet,' Tecumseh's brother, that ' Tecumseh bore a charmed life, 
and could not be wounded.' And when they saw their leader fall 
their superstitious fear was aroused, and they broke and fled. For a 
few minutes, or until Tecumseh fell, the Indians fought as bravely as 
ever men of any people fought. Johnson's men and the Indians did 
most of the fighting at the Thames engagement, which was not much 
of a battle after all, though it decided very important issues. Had 
Tecumseh been chief in command instead of Proctor, the result might 
have been different, for Tecumseh was a born soldier." He further 
states that " it was generally known in the army that red-headed Dave 
King killed the Shawanee chief. King was a tailor by trade, and lived 
sometimes at Stanford, and sometimes at Lebanon, Ky. Before we 
reached the Ohio Eiver, on our return home to Kentucky, * Davy *" 
King was the best-known private soldier in the army. Next to the 



last night out, before reaching our old Kentucky home, it was whis- 
pered around among the soldiers : ' When we get over the Ohio Paver 
we must say that Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh.' " 

Skirmish at Byron. After the battle of the Thames, General 
Proctor retreated to Burlington Heights, taking the Longwoods and 
the Commissioners' road. He was closely pursued by a small body of 
Kentucky riflemen, who came up with Captain Carroll's command 
near what is known in later years as the Village of Byron, West- 
minster Township. This Carroll commanded a body of mounted 
volunteers and one of infantry, both organized in Oxford County. 
This force was guarding a train of wounded Britishers from the field 
near Chatham, and being unable to keep up with Proctor's main force, 
Carroll was doomed to surrender or fight. Taking the latter course, he 
took possession of ,a knoll within the great bend of the Commissioners' 
road, and with Mrs. McManus, or McNames, (who resided near by) to 
distribute ammunition, waited the enemy's attack. The Americans, 
seeing a hopeless task before them, retired after one repulse, leaving 
the Canadians to take care of their wounded men. 

Second Scout. In the summer of 1814 some mounted Michigan 
and Ohio volunteers entered Westminster, and pushed forward to 
Yarmouth, but merely took away whatever provisions and horses they 
required, and silenced the more active enemies of the Republic in the 

Battle Hill The affair at Battle Hill, a few miles west of Strath- 
burn, took place May 4, 1814, between the Royal Scots, detachments 
of the 89th Infantry, a large body of Kent militia, and some Indians 
on one side, and a reconnoisance of the American force on the other. 
The first party, commanded by Captain Basden, while bringing up an 
-army train, were attacked by the sharpshooters from a log redoubt on 
the hill. The British and Indians attacked the position from all sides, 
made several assaults, but before daylight had to fall back, having 
.suffered very heavily, losing 16 killed, including two officers, and 49 
wounded, including three officers. The Americans retreated at dawn, 
:and in the report of the captain to headquarters, carried out a most 
hazardous enterprise without loss in killed or wounded. 

OtJier A/airs. On May 14, 1814, Roe's Rangers made an incur- 
sion into Canada to ascertain whether any British troops were to be 
found along the Thames. In 1812 Thomas Talbot was created 
Lt.-Col. of militia, then embracing three companies of able-bodied men. 
Two were recruited from able-bodied men and widowers, were well 
drilled, and known as "Flank Companies." They participated in 
several actions against the Americans on the border. On Aug. 13, 
1813, however, the war came toward the settlement. A band of 
Kentucky riflemen and some stragglers under Commander Walker 
came up from the Thames, and burned Col. Burwell's log dwellino 
and Col. Talbot's mill. Burwell was then suffering from ague, but the 
Americans removed him gently from the house, and sent him prisoner 



to Chillicothe, Ohio. On approaching Talbot's log house, Col. Patter- 
son was arrested, leaving the owner to escape in the guise of a 
shepherd. The Americans took whatever cattle and horses they 
required, and returned. General McArthur set out on his Ontario 
raid from Detroit in the fall of 1814. He pushed forward to Grand 
Eiver, and foraged successfully, bringing to Detroit a large band of 
horses and a heavy train of provisions. 

Pensioners of the War. The act of Parliament providing for the 
distribution of $50,000 among the survivors of the War of 1812, came 
into force in 1875. That year Colonels McPherson, Moffat, Taylor, 
and Majors Leys and Peters made the payments of $20 to each of 
thirty veterans at the City Hall, London. Among the old soldiers of 
Middlesex present were : David Keynolds, of Caradoc, was present at 
the battles of Queenston and Lundy's Lane, being wounded at the 
former place. He had applied for a pension, but never received it, 
although he had got one hundred acres of land. He was then 84 years 
of age. Isaac Quackenbush, Komoka, was not on the list, but later 
on in the day an application was made out for him by Col. Taylor. 
In answer to Col. McPherson's query as to what rank he held, Quack- 
enbush said sometimes he was in the front rank and sometimes in the 
rear. Andrew Heron was aged 81 ; he volunteered at Port Dover, and 
was at the battle of Fort George, and received a medal, which he 
exhibited ; he was identified by Mr. Eeynolds. Benjamin Myers, Mt. 
Brydges, was born in 1791, and took part in the first war, bearing 
arms all through it. He never received a cent of pay or a grant of 
land. He was at Queenston and Lundy's Lane, and was wounded in 
the arm, a piece of grape shot carrying off his coat collar. He could 
write his name. Wm. Moore, of the township of Metcalfe, was 80 years 
of age ; enrolled in 1812, and served nine months; was at the taking 
of Ogdensburg and at the battle of Chrysler's Farm, were he suffered 
more than on any other occasion. He gave a vivid description of the 
hardships of that day, and stated that he received a hundred acres of 
land. George Brown, of Williams, was 85 years of age, and said he had 
no other of his family similiarly named. He was enrolled in 1812, 
but carried despatches and drew pay at Kingston, where he served 
nine months. He volunteered on the 4th of June, and received a 
hundred acres for his military services. He did not recollect the name 
of the corps he served, but it was the militia of the County of Lennox. 
Simon Grote, of Longwood (colored), did not recollect his age ; thought 
the name of his Colonel was Clause. The whole regiment was com- 
posed of colored men. and he enlisted at the beginning of the war, 
and served through it all : was at Lundy's Lane, Queenston, and St. 
Davids. He got a hundred acres of land from the Government. 
James Alexander Weishulm, of Mount Brydges, was unable to be 
present, was lying ill at his sister's house in London township. His 
son represented him, and David Eeynolds affirmed that he had served. 
Francis Emerick, of Napier, did not have his name on the list. Barna- 



bas Flanagan, Mt. Brydges, was past 86 years of age, and served from 
1812 to 1815 under Brock. He was engaged at Detroit, Fort Erie, 
Chippewa, Queenston and Stoney Creek. He never received any land, 
although it was promised, and never received any medal or a cent all 
through the war. Nicholas Bodine, Mosa, was 87 years of age, and 
served under Col. Eyerse ; he was in the army about two years, and 
received three dollars for his services. There was some deficiency in 
his papers, and Col. McPherson promised to write to him. George 
Henry, Newbury, served as a private in his father's company, pro- 
ducing the commission of the latter dated 1804. It was issued by Hon. 
Eobert Hamilton, Lieutenant of the County of Lincoln. Henry was 78 
years of age, having enrolled when but fifteen. He never got anything 
for his services, and never expected to. Robert Cornwall, of Caradoc, 
was 80 years old, and served till after the battle of Fort George and at 
Lundy's Lane ; was never wounded, and never received a medal. 
Andrew Heron certifies that from conversations he has had with Corn- 
wall, the latter must have been "out" in 1812. The case of four 
Indians from Munceytown was next taken up ; they were named 
George King, Tom Chief, Isaac Dolson and Tom Snake. Arthur 
Wrightman, of Longwoods, died a few weeks before the distribution. 

There is a name, however, in connection with the war of 1812, 
dear to Canadians General Brock. On July 28, 1812, he delivered 
his written address to the Council at York, and from this document 
the following extract is taken : 

u Trusting more to treachery than open hostility, our enemies have 
already spread their emissaries through the country to seduce our 
fellow- subjects from their allegiance, by promises as false as the 
principles upon which they are founded. A law has, therefore, been 
enacted for the speedy detection of such emissaries and for their 
condign punishment. Remember, when you go forth to the combat, 
that you fight not for yourselves alone, but for the whole world. You 
are defeating the most formidable conspiracy against the civilization of 
man that was ever contrived. Persevere as you have begun, in strict 
obedience to the laws and your attention to military discipline ; deem 
no sacrifice too costly which secures the enjoyment of our happy con- 
stitution ; follow with your countrymen in Britain the paths of virtue, 
and like them, you shall triumph over all your unprincipled foes." 

On Aug. 16, 1812, Brock made good his words, when Hull sur- 
rendered, under the conditions hitherto explained; but on October 13 
he delivered his last speech, and was killed at Queenston Heights 
with his aide-de camp, McDonnell. The act of March 14, 1815 pro- 
vided for raising his monument on the Heights, 1,000 being then 
granted. In January, 1826, a supplementary grant of 600 was 
made to complete the monument. 

Benj. Wilson, an Ensign in the war of 1812, was present at the 

surrender of General Hull, as well as at Lundy's Lane. He was one 

twenty men under Capt. Metcalfe, who, it is alleged, accomplished 


the capture of eighty Americans by imitating the Indian war-whoop, 
thereby causing the " Yanks " to surrender. During the march to 
Col. Talbot's house forty Americans escaped. Several interesting 
stories of such captures are told, with many tales relating to the 
march through Canada of Hull's unfortunate garrison. 

The Delaware settlers who fled to join Harrison's army in 1813 
were never recaptured ; but others were not so fortunate, for in the 
history of the Quarter Sessions Court references are made to some 
early settlers indicted for desertion or treason. 

On January 13, 1818, Ellis Buckley was indicted for deserting to 
the enemy in 1814. He was placed under bonds of 2,000, with 
David and Daniel Hoover in 1,000 each, and ultimately escaped 
punishment. The Emmins boys were also arrested on the charge of 

Affairs in 1837-8. In the political chapter, the troubles of 
1837-8 are referred to. The military condition of the county at that 
time may be learned from the following official rosters of commands 
then regularly organized : The officers of the first regiment of Middle- 
sex in 1830, were Col. Thomas Talbot, commissioned Feb. 12, 1812 ; 
Captains Gilman Wilson and Leslie Patterson, commissioned in 1812 ; 
John Matthews, James McQueen, John Warren, Archibald Gillis, 
Hugh McCowan and James McKinley, commissioned in 1823 ; Lieu- 
tenants Wm. Bird and Gideon Tiffany, commissioned in 1812 ; Thos. 
McCall, Samuel McCall, John G. Gillies, Duncan Mackenzie and 
Adjutant J. M. Farland, commissioned in 1823 ; and Ensigns Daniel 
Mclntyre, David Davis and Samuel Harris, in 1812 ; and Quarter- 
Master Sylvanus Keynolds, in 1815. 

The fourth division of Middlesex militia claimed the following 
officers : Colonel, James Hamilton ; Major, Ira Schofield ; Captains, 
Joseph Harrison, Simon Bullen, Eos well Mount, Duncan Mackenzie, 
Eichard Talbot and Daniel Hine, commissioned in 1823 ; Edward E 
Warren, Thomas Lawrason, Daniel Doty, Edward E. Talbot, in 1824 ; 
Wm. Putnam, in 1826 ; John Ewart, in 1827 ; Lieutenants, James 
Fisher, John Siddall, John T. Jones, Wm. Gray, Alex. Sinclair, John 
Brain, Arch. McFarlane, Eobert Webster and Nathaniel Jacobs, in 
1824 ; Ensigns, Henry B Warren, Lawrence Lawrason, Daniel Camp- 
bell, Thomas H. Sumner, George Eobson, Wm. Burgess, Philip Hard- 
ing, James Parkinson and John Talbot, jr., in 1824, with Adjutant 
Wm. Putnam, in 1826. 

The militia officers of District Two of Middlesex in 1830, were : 
Mahlon Burwell, Colonel ; John Backhouse, Lt.-Colonel ; John Eolph, 
Major ; Samuel Edison, Wm. Saxton, Joseph Defield, Abe. Backhouse, 
Titus Williams, Isaac Draper, Andrew Dobie, Henry Backhouse and 
William Summers, Captains ; Gilbert Wrong, John Summers, James 
Hutchinson, James Bell, Henry House, James Summers and Alex. 
Saxton, Lieutenants, commissioned in 1824 ; Ensigns, George Dobie, 
Alexander Summers, John Benner, John E. Kennedy, Win. Mclntosh, 


Peter Defield and Thomas Edison, jr., commissioned in 1826 ; and 
Reuben Kennedy, Quartermaster. 

The militia officers of the Third District of Middlesex in 1830 were : 
Colonel, John Bostwick, commissioned in 1822 ; Captains, Benjamin 
Wilson, James Nevilles, John Conrad and Joseph Smith, in 1823 \ 
Joseph L. O'Dell, Josiah C. Goodhue, Joseph House and Michael 
McLoughlin, in 1824; Lieutenants, Wm. Orr and Jesse Gantz, in 
1823 ; John Merlatt, Joshua Putnam, James Weishuln, Joshua S. 
O'Dell, William P. Leard and Gardner Merrick, in 1824 ; Ensigns, 
Jonas Barnes, John T. Doan, Silas E. Curtis, Nathaniel Griffiths, 
Lawrence Dingman and Samuel Summer, in 1824. 

The First Regiment of Middlesex militia in 1838-9 was presided 
over by Col. Talbot; L.Patterson was Lieut-Colonel; J. McQueen, 
Major; G. Wilson, J. Warren, A. Gillis and J. McKinlay, senior 
Captains; Wm. Shore, J. Simes, J. Patterson, J. Robier, R. D. Drake, 
J. T. Airey and G. Munro, commissioned Captains in 1837 ; W. Bird, 
G. Tiffany, T. McCall, J. Gillis and D. McKinlay, senior Lieutenants ; 
P. Drake, R. Nicholls, J. Robier, R. Evans, S. Harris, H. Burwell, J. 
Blackwood and E. McKinlay, commissioned Lieutenants in 1837 ; D. 
Mclntyre and D. Davis, Senior Ensigns ; H. Burden, T. Robier, A. 
Backhouse, J. Thayer, R. Howard, J. B. Burwell, William Spore, D. 
McGregor and J. Sinclair, commissioned Ensigns in 1837; J. Patter- 
son, Quartermaster, and J. Rolls, Surgeon. This regiment belonged to 
the Townships of Dunwich, Southwold and Aldborough. 

The Second Light Infantry of Middlesex was presided over by 
Colonel T. Radcliff, commissioned in 1837, with John Philpot Curran, 
Lieut-Colonel, and W. McKenzie, Major ; W. Radcliff, P. Hughes and 
Robert Pegley, old Captains; J. J. Buchanan, T. Groome, J. P. 
Bellairs, J. Arthur, E. G. Bowen, in 1837, and R. H. Allen in 1838. 
Of the Lieutenants, William Collins was commissioned in 1835 ; H. 
L. Thompson, T. White, G. Somers, R. L. Johnston, H. G. Bullock, K 
Bullock and G. Pegley in 1837. Second Lieutenants, J. Philips, D. 
McPherson, W. McKenzie and C. White were commissioned in 1837, 
also Adjutant J. Arthurs. This regiment was raised in Adelaide 

The Second Regiment of Middlesex militia was presided over in 
1838-9 by M. Burwell, commissioned Colonel in 1822, with John 
Burwell, Lieut.- Colonel in 1838, and H. Metcalfe, Major. The old 
Captains were Wm. Stanton, J. Defield, A. Backhouse, I. Draper, A. 
Dobie and W. Summers. In 1831 A. Foster was commissioned, and 
in 1838 G. Wrong, James Hutchinson, A. Santon and D. McKenney. 
The Lieutenants in 1834-8 were J. Summers, H. House, J. Benner, T. 
Higginson, Michael Crawley. The Ensigns commissioned in 1826 
were G. Dobbie, J. R. Kennedy, W. Mclntosh, P. Defield, T. Edison ; 
in 1832, A. McCasland, N. Lyon; in 1838, B. Plowman, G. W. 
Holland, T. Jenkins, jr., and S. Livingstone. A. Foster was Adjutant, 
with R. J. Kennedy, Quartermaster. Of the cavalry company, H. 



Gilbert was Major ; J. M. Crawford, Lieutenant ; J. Wright, Cornet. 
This regiment was raised at Malahide and Bayham. 

The Third Regiment of Middlesex militia was raised in the Town- 
ships of Yarmouth, Westminster, Dorchester and Delaware. John 
Bostwick was Colonel in 1832. In 1838-9 the following officers were 
appointed : B. Wilson, Lt.-Col. ; J. Nevilles, Major ; D. Calder, Wm. 
Orr, J. Marlatt, W. P. Secord, J. C. Chrysler, J. R. Bostwick, M. Mc- 
Kenzie, J. Manning ; D. Frazer and S. E. Curtis, Captains ; S. Sum- 
mer, G. R. Williams, G. S. Bostwick, J. Miller, G. Claris, T. Spore, J. 
McKay, H. B. Bostwick, T. Hutchinson and J. Spore, Lieutenants; J. 
Rapelje, L. Pearce, S. Price, A. Ackland, J. Coughill, A. Fortour, C. 
May ward, D. Marlatt, F. Spore and R. Springer, Ensigns; W. Garrett, 
Q. M. ; E. Ermatinger, Paymaster. The Cavalry company was com- 
manded by Capt. J. Ermatinger, with J. R. Woodward, Lieutenant, 
and J. Bostwick, Cornet. Many of the officers and men of this com- 
mand served against the Patriots in 1837-8, prior to the organization 
of the Third Regiment. 

The Fourth Regiment was raised in Lobo, London and North 
Dorchester Townships. In 1838, T. H. Bull was appointed Lieut.- 
Colonel. In 1835, S. Bullen was commissioned Major, and in 1823, 
R. Talbot, Captain. The other officers of this command were all com- 
missioned in 1838, viz. : Captains, H. Kellally, A. Sinclair, J. Wilson, 
R. Robinson, J. B. O'Connor, W. S. Bullen and G. Robinson. Lieu- 
tenants, John O'Neil, W. McMillan, J. McFadden, J. Jennings, P. 
Harding, J. Parkinson, T. Howard, R. Matthews, C. Madden and W. 
Crofton. Ensigns, W. Muttlebury, R. J. Handy, T. Harding, S. L. 
Ball, T. H. Ball, H. C. R. Becher, J. Hawkins, W. Warren, A. D. 
McLean, T. Parkinson and D. Kent. F. Talbot, Quartermaster, and 
G. Moore, Surgeon. The Adjutant, R. Robertson, was commissioned 
in 1835. The cavalry company was commanded by A. Robertson, 
appointed in 1835. Lieutenant, J. Warren, and Cornet, A. Kier, in 

After the military organization of 1824, a banquet was given at 
Peter McGregor's tavern, then opposite the waterworks at Spring- 
bank, where Richard Thompson now lives. In the evening, Thomas 
Lawrason said at the table : " I do not want any common men but we 
officers to sit at this table." What ensued did away with the pleasures 
of the evening, the men descending on the table and taking a full 
share in the material part of the banquet. 

The Fifth Regiment of Middlesex militia was commanded by S. 
Craig, Colonel, in 1837; J. B. Clench, Lt.-CoL; and F. Summers, 
Major. The Captains commissioned in 1832 were J. McFarland, B. 
Springer, D. Lockwood and C. Gibbs ; in 1836, W. M. Johnston, and 
in 1838, J. S. Cummins. All the Lieutenants were appointed in 
1832 : J. McFarlane, H. Miller, A. D. Ward, C. D. Sparling and T. 
Lantry. The Ensigns were H. Anderson, W. Sparling, J. Miller, jr., 
in 1832, and D. Lockwood in 1836. In the latter year, W. M. John- 


ston was commissioned Adjutant. The regiment was raised in the 
Townships of Caradoc, Ekfrid and Mosa. 

In 1837-8, London was selected as a military station, the 32nd 
British Infantry being the first to occupy the place ; while the 85th 
Infantry occupied St Thomas and Sandwich, the former commanded 
by Col. Maitland, who was to obey the magistrates. 

In 18H7-8, Dr. Charles Duncombe commanded a band of Patriots 
from Yarmouth, Malahide and the Township of Middlesex. The fate 
of this little company was such as the desperate odds might warrant. 
The few who ventured to return to their homes were carried away at 
once to the London jail, until the one strong room of that institution 
held forty political prisoners, exclusive of the men who were taken 
out to die or to be sent prisoners to the seat of government. 

A Few Soldiers. Thomas Carling served through the trouble of 
1837-8 in Captain Kobinson's London Cavalry Company. 

Alex. Macdonald, a Scotch commissioned officer in the 59th British 
Infantry, sold his commission in 1834, and, coming to Canada, served 
against the Patriots. He was arrested at Buffalo for his supposed 
connection with the " Caroline affair," but was released through the 
influence of friends. In June, 1850, he moved to London, where he 
carried on a land agency business ; was the first appraiser of the Trust 
-and Loan Company of Upper Canada and the originator of the London 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company. He died in 1879, aged 70 years. 

Thomas Radcliffe, born at Castle Coote, Ireland, and educated at 
Dublin, joined the British army in 1811, and, during the squabble of 
1837-8, his command captured the schooner Anne at Maiden, January 
9, 1838. After this affair he was appointed a member of the Legisla- 
tive Council, and this position he held until his death in 1841. In 
1832 he sold his half-pay, which he had from 1816, and settled in 
Adelaide Township, where he was appointed magistrate and colonel of 
militia. In taking the schooner, the Patriot Anderson, for whose 
capture 100 were offered, was so badly beaten that he died next day. 

In July, 1838, a letter from the Clerk of the Peace at London to 
John Macaulay, Secretary to the Lieutenant-Governor, contained a 
report by the Justices of Quarter Sessions on the complaint of Isaac 
Draper against John Burwell, a magistrate. On August 1, the Clerk 
informed Mr. Burwell that a memorial by Thomas Jenkins, sr., Peter 
Clayton, Thomas Higginson, John Christie, Dr. James Jackson, R. N. 
John M. Crawford, James McKnight, N. McKinnon and 55 others, 
residents of Bayham, Malahide and adjoining townships, containing 
gave charges against him, was received. A memorial signed by 
TE M l etcalfe > Ma J r of the Second Regiment Middlesex militia, 

>b others in justification of Burwell's conduct was also acknow- 
ledged. Ihis trouble grew out of the outrages perpetrated by the 
loyal militia of the London District in Norwich and other townships 
in July, 1838, and prior to that date. The complaint of Joseph H. 
Ihockmorton, made in October, 1838, against the militia called out in 


Norwich township in July, was tabled, but subsequently considered 
and recommended to the Governor. 

Military Organizations. The first cavalry regiment was raised 
in 1854 : No. 1 Troop at St. Thomas, by Capt. Bannerman, who was 
succeeded by Major Cole ; No. 2 at London, by Capt. Burgess, later 
commanded by Lieut. Strothers during the Fenian troubles ; No. 3, of 
Courtwright, by Capt. Bridge water, later under Major Stewart, Lieut's 
Day and Fitzgerald. The Kingsville company was organized by Capt. 
Wigle, also in 1854, but disbanded shortly, was dead until 1871, when 
Capt. Murray revived it, and later gave the command to Wigle. In 
1872 the companies were organized as a regiment with Lieut.- Col. 
Cole, Major Dempster, Adjt. Neville, Quartermaster B. Higgins, Sur- 
geon King and Veterinary J. H. Wilson. 

In 1856 Major H. Bruce was appointed to command the Volunteer 
Eifle Companies at London, and Sergeant-Major W. Starr was appointed 
store-keeper in 1857. In May, 1855, James Shanly was commis- 
sioned Major ; J. G. Home and V. Croriyn, Lieutenants ; and V. A. 
Brown, Surgeon of the London Field Battery. The London Second Rifle 
Company was commanded by Capt. A. C. Hammond, Lieutenants S. 
Morley and W. C. L. Gill, with J. Macbeth, Ensign. The London 
Highland Rifle Company was commanded by Capt. James Moffatt, 
Lieut. D. M. McDonald, Ensign W. Muir, and Surgeon D. McKellar. 

Duncan Mackenzie, born in Scotland in 1787, served in the 
British artillery at Waterloo ; married in Scotland in 1816; came to 
Canada in 1817. and Oct. 16, 1818, settled on Con. 4, London. In 
1837 he was appointed militia captain, and in 1857 magistrate. For 
several years he was Acting and Associate Commissioner of the Court 
of Bequest. In 1837 he commanded a battery at Chippewa, was then 
ordered to London, where, in 1841, he raised the London Independent 
Volunteer Artillery, which he kept up at his own expense for fifteen 
years. In 1856 he retired, and died Aug. 2, 1875. Thomas Peel, 
born in Ireland in 1826, settled at London in 1842-3. In 1843, when 
Squire Mackenzie organized the first militia company of artillery, he 
and A. S. Abbott were the first to join. The latter is the only member 
now living. In 1841 Peel established his merchant-tailoring house, 
which he conducted until his death in 1884. 

The London Field Battery may be said to be the successor to Capt. 
Mackenzie's battery of 1841, of which A. S. Abbott was a member. 
In 1856 the present battery was organized by Col. Shanly and Major 
Starr. The field guns were brought from England, being the first 
used by Canadian militia. In 1866 this command was at Sarnia for 
two weeks, and in later times appeared on the frontier. Capt. Peters, 
who joined in 1866, succeeded Shanly. Capt, John Williams has 
served 22 years with the battery. 

Preparing to Invade the States. Buckley's Artillery Corps was 
organized in December, 1861 ; also the Merchants' Rifle Co., with 
Oapt. Taylor commanding; also Major Bruce's Volunteer Corps. 


While at Strathroy, Lt.-Col. Johnston was engaged in the work of 
military organization. Capt. Macbeth's company was thoroughly 
organized. In this. month also the leaders of the militia assembled in 
one of Lawrason's large rooms for perfecting themselves in military 
drill. Among the officers were : Colonel, J. B. Askin; Lieut.- 
Colonels, L. Lawrason and J. Wilson ; Captains, H. L. Thompson, J. 
B. Strathy, H. Chisholm, W. Lawrason, J. C. Meredith, Chas. G. Hope, 
A. G Smyth; Lieutenants, F. Kerby, Henry Long, Samuel Peters, T. 
H. Buckley, D. M. Thompson, J. B. Smyth ; Ensigns, George Symonds, 
E. W. Keid, J. L. Williams K Monsarrat, B. Cronyn, Paul Phipps ; 
Captain and Adjutant, A. Walsh. 

Major James Rivers of the London Cavalry was retired in 1861 ; 
Capt. A. C. Hammond of the Second London Rifle Co., in 1860 ; Lieut. 
D. McDonald of London Highland Rifle Co. and Lieut. Thomas O'Brien 
London Field Battery, later. 

In 1862, James Moffatt and John I. Mackenzie organized a High- 
land Scotch military company at London. At their joint expense this> 
company was equipped and uniformed, the clothes being purchased at 
Glasgow, Scotland. Mackenzie was a private and Moffatt a Captain. 
At the time of the Trent affair, Mackenzie raised and commanded Co. 
1, London Battalion of 7th Fusiliers, but moved to Hamilton in 1866. 
He settled at London in 1853. 

In February, 1862, a number of British troops, including the 63rd 
Regiment, arrived at London in addition to the volunteer force of 
Middlesex, and excitement in re the invasion by Americans ran so 
high that the Phoenix Fire Company was converted into " a Home 
Guard Rifle Company." The illegal capture of Mason and Slidell by the 
Americans in November, 1861, and the general sympathy of Canadians 
with the Southern States, almost lead the people of Canada into the* 
mesh of British diplomacy in 1862. In fact, matters were carried to 
such extremes of indignation that the whole military force of Canada and 
Great Britain was ready to attempt the invasion of the Northern States. 
Federal diplomacy settled the trouble promptly, repaired the illegal 
act by surrendering the capturing Southern Commissioners and admit- 
ting the mistake, and local affairs, so far as Middlesex was concerned,, 
allowed the British Government to withdraw the troops without fear 
of a resort to arms with the United States. 

In the spring of 1863 the question of withdrawing the troops from 
London was made more interesting by the following paragraph in the 
Governor's letter to Major-General Napier : " I base reasons on the 
assumption that a majority of members of this Council and the citizens 
are so constituted by nature that they are without any sense or 
knowledge of right or wrong, of honor or justice, until it reaches their 
understanding through their pocket." The Council denounced Governor 
Williams vehemently, and contradicted many of his statements, and 
attributed to him a desire to gratify his own private feelings at the- 
expense of the Empire. This affair grew out of Mayor Cornish beating; 


and kicking the commandant. He would not apologise, and so the 
garrison was removed. 

Military Affairs in 1865. The sedentary militia of the Eighth 
District in 1865 claimed Colonel John B. Askin, Commandant ; Major 
Murdock McKenzie, Assistant Adjutant-General ; Major Henry Bruce, 
Assistant Quartermaster General. The first battalion on sedentary 
militia in London claimed Lieutenant-Colonel L. Lawrason as Com- 
mandant, and the second, Lieutenant-Colonel John Wilson. These 
formed the first battalion of Middlesex militia formerly. The eight 
battalions of Middlesex militia were presided over respectively by 
Lieutenant- Colonels William McMillan, appointed in 1856 ; Wm. 
Niles, 1852; William Orr, 1855; Benjamin Springer, 1852; William 
M. Johnson, 1855 ; John Arthurs, 1852; Richard Irwin, 1854; and 
John Scatcherd, 1853, the latter ranking in militia since 1848. 

On November 13, 1865, Colonel Shanly received an order to hold 
the volunteers in readiness to repel the Fenian invaders. No. 2 
Company comprised Captain McPherson, Lieutenant Griffiths, Ensign 
Ellis, Color-Sergeant McGee, Sergeants McKenzie, Fitzgerald and 
Porte ; Corporals, Yates, Payne, Teele and Eolson ; Lance-Corporals, 
Bruce, Dewar and Mclntosh ; Bugler, Smart ; Privates, Collins, Neil, 
Kelly, Winnett, Blair, Weir, Bonthion, Fortune, Joe Kelly, Dixon, 
Moffat, McMullen, Homer, Parker, Eolston, Baker, Mitchell, Hawkins, 
Murray, Eeid, Foster, Wilson, Stewart, Cranshaw, Watson, Templeton, 
Stinson, Crosby, Maddover, Burns, Cox, Mclntosh, Smith, Patterson, 
Graham, Shaw, Ross, Loftus, Saunders, Rogers, Carter, Cameron, 
Woodbury, Alway, Clark, Henderson, Short, Higby, Lawrence, Wright, 
Sticke, McDowell, Jackson and Cawston. The advance guard left for 
Sandwich November 18. 

On November 24th the 60th British Rifles arrived at London. 
This regiment, known as the King's Own Rifles, was commanded by 
Viscount Gough. The 4th Battalion, 600 men, which came to Lon- 
don was commanded by Col. Hawley. On November 29, John Mc- 
Dowell, of the London Service Co., died at Windsor. 

The 26th Regiment dates back to 1866 ; Capt. Graham's Delaware 
Independent Company was the nucleus of this command. In the fall 
of this year it was increased to a battalion, and on September 1, went 
into camp at Thorold to repel the Fenians. On September 14, it was 
received as part of the Canada Militia with Col. Graham, commanding. 
Col. Attwood succeeded him in 1870, and Col. English succeeded him 
in 1882. In 1887 this command comprised 320 men and 32 officers. 

The 28th Regiment was organized in 1866 to repel the Fenians. 
Companies 1 and 2 were called out from Stratford in 1865 to serve at 
Windsor ; the other companies being raised in 1866, and all placed 
under Col. Service. He was succeeded by Col. Smith, who accom- 
panied Gen. Wolseley to Manitoba in 1870. Col. Scott took command 
in 1872 and gave place to Col. McKnight. 

A Grim Joke. The so-called invasion by the Fenians dates back 


to June 1st, 1866, when a force of about 550 men crossed the Niagara 
river and held Fort Erie. On June 2 they advanced eight miles to 
Port Colborne, where the " Queen's Own " under Colonel Booker was 
encountered. The official report states that : " On Saturday morning 
they advanced towards Port Colborne about eight miles, when they 
met a force of 900 volunteers under Colonel Booker, who were thrown 
into some little confusion, but afterwards retired in good order some 
two miles. This conflict was the battle of Ridgeway, and lasted 
about one hour. The Canadian loss was seven killed and some fifty 
wounded. Six dead Fenians were left on the field. Some two hours 
after, the enemy retired on Fort Erie to find the place occupied by the 
Port Robinson Foot Artillery, numbering thirty-eight men, who came 
in a boat from Port Colborne. The gallant little band were soon over- 
powered. Several of our men were wounded in this contest, but none 
killed.* The captain of the battery had his leg amputated yesterday 
in Buffalo. The Fenians then rested themselves, threw out pickets 
along the shore, and busied themselves as they thought best until 
about twelve o'clock on Saturday night, when a lot of barges and 
small boats came alongside. Into these the Fenians rushed pell-mell, 
and escaped to the other side, with the exception of some 600 or 700 
under guard of the American steamer Michigan. Thus ended the 
invasion of Canada, in forty-eight hours after its commencement." 

In 1866 James A. Skinner, of Hamilton, was gazetted Lieut.-Col. 
of the Thirteenth Regiment, vice Col. Buchanan retired. Speaking of 
this Fenian invasion, he says that he was present at the Limeridge 
engagement with the Fenians, under Col. Booker's command. He 
was ordered to advance his battalion, and was soon engaged with 
the enemy. On looking round, he saw, with dismay, that the Queen's 
Own Regiment and Col. Booker had disappeared, and later learned 
that the whole outfit had fled by the Fort Colborne road. 

The force sent forward from Middlesex returned on June 4th. 
The Advertiser's report is as follows : " On arriving at Port Colborne, 
the London companies were joined by two from Woodstock, one 
from Drumbo, one from Princeton and one from Ingersoll, forming a 
battalion of ten companies, under command of Major A. McPherson, 
London. Major Gregg, of Woodstock, was appointed Senior Major ; 
Captain Beard, Junior Major, and Lieutenant Jas. A. Craig, London, 
acted as Adjutant. At eight o'clock on Monday night the London 
volunteers arrived home, per Great Western Railway, all safe and 
sound, not a single casualty having occurred to any ot them. There 
must have been some 4,000 persons on the platform, who sent up a 
deafening shout of welcome as the train of eighteen cars arrived. The 
following was the force : Four companies of the 60th Rifles ; two 
companies of the 16th Regiment; five companies of the London 
Volunteers ; one company Drumbo Volunteers ; two companies Wood- 

*On June 6th a great military funeral was held at Toronto. Five members of this, 
regiment, killed on the field, were buried that day. 


stock Kifles; one company Princeton Eifles. The whole force was 
headed by the volunteer band and a number of firemen bearing 
torches, who led the way to the drill shed, where six long tables were 
spread with bread and cheese, hams, butter, beer, etc. The men 
attacked the edibles with a will, declaring it to be the only ' good, 
square meal,' they had taken since the campaign commenced. The 
Mayor proposed several loyal and patriotic toasts, the most important 
of which was : ' The health of our guests, Her Majesty's troops, and 
the noble volunteers who have gone to the front in the hour of 
danger.' The City Council deserve credit for recognizing the services 
of the volunteers in this matter. Messrs. Carling, Glackmeyer, 
McBride, H. Fysh and J. B. Smyth, were especially conspicuous in 
their activity. The noble fellows being well tired out, the entertain- 
ment was not prolonged." 

The London Field Battery of Artillery, numbering sixty-eight 
men, with guns, ammunition, horses, etc., left on the night of June 2 
for Sarnia. The Port Stanley Marines, Captain Ellison, sixty men ; 
Vienna Kifles, Captain Treadley, forty men ; St. Thomas Eifles, Captain 
McKenzie, sixty men, accompanied the battery. This force was 
under the command of Colonel Shanly. On the evening of June 6th 
the Strathroy company, under Lieutenant-Colonel Johnston, arrived 
at London. Captain Attwood, Lieutenant Stevenson, three sergeants 
and 17 men of the Komoka Volunteer Eifles arrived on G. W. E. June 
6 and proceeded to the Drill Shed, the balance of the company being 
on active service at Sarnia, having been amalgamated with the 
Delaware Eifles in March, 1866. 

On Sunday, June 3, buglers and drummers are said to have 
entered St. Paul's Church during service, summoning the men to arms. 

William Hyman, who came to London in 1865 with the 53rd 
Eegiment, speaking of the Fenian scare, says : " Many a Sunday I 
have gone to St. Paul's Church with my rifle on my shoulder and forty 
rounds of ball ammunition in my cartridge pouch, expecting to have 
to fight my way back from the church to the barracks. We came 
from Malta by ship to Hamilton, and thence to London by flat cars. 
The first London man I met was old Mr. Wheeler. Perhaps you 
remember him. He had only one arm. He's dead and gone now, 
poor fellow. Then the 60th Eifles, who were stationed here, met us 
at the depot and gave us a banquet in the evening, and we had a 
tremendous time. The men were quartered then down in the old 
O'Callaghan block, opposite the court-house, that is, one wing was, 
and the other was opposite in the Mackenzie buildings. We married 
men had quarters in the Eobinson Hall. Col. Harence was our com 
manding officer then, and a fine fellow he was, too. Many a night I 
have seen him on the streets until morning, ready at a moment's 
warning to turn his men out." 

In June, 1866, a meeting of the City Council was held to consider 
what course should be pursued in case the militia were ordered to the 



front. The Mayor was directed to consult with Col. Hawley. Col. 
Bruce, who was -permitted to address the Council, recommended the 
organization of a Home Guard. It appears the troops were ordered 
out immediately, for on June 4 refreshments were provided, for volun- 
teer and regular soldiers were to leave by the 7 p. m. train for the 
front. During the excitement pistols were bought ; Alderman Glack- 
meyer purchasing two from Thompson, which were to be charged to 
the city. 

Col. Peters, speaking on the subject, says: "In 1866, during the 
Fenian raid, we were ordered to Sarnia three times. Once we only 
got back and got our horses unhitched, when a telegram came to go to 
the front again. The infantry were sent down to Fort Erie. The 
cavalry were attached to the 60th Rifles, and stayed right here in the 
city. I tell you we saw lots of fun then, if we hadn't any fighting." 
Col. Taylor commanded the infantry then with Major Barber, while 
Col. F. Peters commanded the cavalry. 

On June 20, 1866, the County Council granted $300 to each volun- 
teer company, while a motion to pay volunteers who " nobly responded 
to the call for the defense of our lives and property, when a band of 
murderers and robbers invaded our country" twenty-five cents per 
day for actual service after March 1, 1866, was negatived. In June, 
1866 the $300 grant was rescinded and an annual appropriation for all 
volunteer companies in the county of $2,500 made. 

On March 4, 1885, Mr. Broder, of the Ontario House, with Messrs. 
Ross and Meredith, of Middlesex, presented resolutions dealing with 
the volunteers of 1837-8, and 1866, asking for suitable recognition of 
their services. 

After the War. The militia roll for 1867 shows a total enrolment 
of 9,759 men, namely : 

Adelaide 512 Nissouri West .604 

-Biddulph 636 Strathroy 307 

Delaware 281 Williams East 526 

Dorchester North 598 Williams West . . 200 

Ekfrid 513 Mosa '/..' \ 6 14 

London 1,470 Lobo 552 

Metcalfe 427 Westminster... 1031 

Oaradoc 776 McGillivray '.'.'.'.'.'.'. '712 

The Queen's Birthday of 1868 was celebrated at London by Lieut- 
Col. Harence's Fifty-third Infantry, with Major Dalzell commanding; 
Lieut.-Col. Simpson's E. Battery, E. A.; Lieut-Col. Lewis' London 
Light Infantry; Lieut.-Col. Messiter's Sixty-ninth Infantry; Captain 
Dempster's London Cavalry Troop; Lieut.-Col. Shanly's Volunteer 
Field Battery. There were 320 men in the seven companies of the 
London Infantry Regiment, and thirty-five in the cavalry troop In 
June the Fifty-third Eegiment left London for Quebec 

Red River Troubles, 1869-70. The Eed Eiver party, comprisina 
Joseph Howe, J. Turner, W. McGregor, H. SeweU and W. E Sandford 
started for Fort Garry in 1869. 


On November 13, 1869, the first news of the movement to prevent 
the entrance of Governor McDougall to the Eed Eiver settlement was 
received at London. 

The strength of the 7th Battalion London Light Infantry, as 
returned to Government by 1). A. G. Taylor in January, 1869, was 
363 men, made up as follows : No. 1 Company, Captain D. C. Mac- 
donald, 55 men ; No. 2, Captain H. Bruce, 55 ; No. 3, Captain J. 
Walker, 42 ; No. 4, Captain W. E. Meredith, 55 ; No. 5, Captain M. 
D. Dawson, 49 ; No. 6 r Captain J. A. Craig, 52 ; No. 7, Captain E. 
Teale, 55. Total, 363 men. The actual strength of the battalion was, 
however, put down at about 380 men, as some of the companies had 
more than the full complement. Captain Dempster's Cavalry Troop 
had re- enrolled to the required strength, and Colonel Shanly's Battery 
had been numerously recruited. 

On the same date the following orders were issued from the 
Militia Department at Ottawa : " Major W. B. Phillips, District 
Quartermaster, is appointed Brigade Major of the 7th Brigade Division 
of Military District No. 3, vice Shaw, resigned. Volunteer Militia of 
the Province of Ontario, 7th Battalion London Light Infantry, No. 4 
Company, Captain, provisionally, George Birrell, vice W. E. Meredith, 
dismissed ; to be Lieutenant, William Port, gentleman, M.S., vice E. 
Meredith, resigned ; to be Ensign, provisionally, James Magee Yates, 
gentleman, vice C. S. Corrigan, resigned." 

On April 6, 1870, a statement, referring to the disruption of the 
Seventh Battalion of volunteers, was signed by a number of the late 
officers of the organization, namely : D. C. Macdonald, W. E. Mere- 
dith, James A. Craig, Harry Bruce, E. T. Teale, Captains ; Thomas 
N. Greene, E. M. Meredith and C. Bennett, Lieutenants, and C. S. 
Corrigan, Ensign. The statement was drawn out by the reflections 
made by the Minister of Militia in Parliament on the command. 

On April 12, 1870, the London Battery was ordered out to repel a 
threatened invasion of Canada by the Fenians, and on the 14th left 
for Sarnia under Col. Shanly and Capt. Peters.. On April 14, 1870, 
the Dominion Parliament suspended the Habeas Corpus and adopted 
other measures to meet the threatened Fenian invasion of Canada. 

On May 26, 1870, the right half of the London Field Battery 
returned to Sarnia under Capt. Peters, while Major Cole's St. Thomas 
Cavalry troop of thirty-five men, proceeded to Windsor. On June 
2nd Lieut.- Col. Taylor recalled the battery, cavalry and all, from the 
frontier. A great meeting was held at London April 9, 1870, to con- 
sider the question of the Eed Eiver troubles. 

In May, 1870, volunteers for the North-west flocked toward the 
rendezvous at London, and on May 5, left for Toronto in charge of 
Colonel Moffatt. Among the volunteers were twenty men of the 
Seventh Battalion, namely: Joseph F. Tennant, Thomas Bayles, 
George Taylor, Joseph Tuson, W. Mills, William Patterson, John 
McDonald, John Cotter, Lawrence McGovern, James Barnes, Ambrose 



Stock, Jas. H. Cadham, Eoger Tuson, E. Rousell, G. T. B., Joseph 
Tolhurst, D. Campbell, W. Wilson, Captain J. B. Campbell, M. D., 
John Cameron, John Mitchell. 

In December, 1874, Wm. A. Farmer, of Manitoba, sent in his 
application for the reward offered by Middlesex for the apprehension 
of Kiel, who, it is alleged, ordered the execution of Thomas Scott. 

Militia 1870-82. The First Brigade Division in 1870-1, of 
Military District No. 1, comprised the regimental divisions of Essex, 
Kent, Bothwell, Lambton, West, North and East Ridings of Middlesex, 
West and East Ridings of Elgin, North and South Ridings of Oxford, 
and London City. The quota of the 1st and 2nd Brigade Divisions, 
of District No. 1, was 5,517. The officers comprised Lieut.-Col. John 
B. Taylor, D. A. G. ; Capt. F. B. Leys, District Paymaster ; Lieut.- 
Col. James Moffatt, Brigade Major. The 26th Middlesex Battalion : 
Lieut.-Col. Wm. Graham and Major Peter H. Attwood, had head- 
quarters at London ; No. 1 Company, Delaware, was commanded by 
Captain Wm. Cox ; No. 2, Komoka, John Stevenson ; No. 3, Harriets- 
ville, John McMillan; No. 4, Thamesford, Captain Thomas, Dawes; 
No. 5, Lucan, Captain John C. Frank ; No. 6, Parkhill, Captain Jos. 
Cornell ; No. 7, Strathroy, Captain John English ; Paymaster, James 
Johnson ; Adjutant, W. F. Bullen ; Quartermaster, Frank Hughson ; 
Surgeons, Geo. Billiugton and James A. Sommerville. 

The 26th Battalion, assembled at Strathroy in September, 187o, 
was made up as follows: Lieut. -Colonel Attwood, Major English, 
Surgeons Bilfington and Hoare, Paymaster C. Murray, Quartermaster, 
Cuddy and Adjutant J. Cameron. The 26th Band was also, of course, 
in attendance. The entire Battalion numbered about 300, consisting 
of seven companies, as follows : No. 1, Delaware, Captain Garnett, 
Lieut. Harris, Ensign Mclntosh; No. 2, Napier, Captain Lindsay, 
Lieut. Beer, Ensign Dunlap; No. 3, Hametsville, Capt. McMillan, 
Lieut. Choate, Ensign Nugent; No. 4, Thamesford, Captain Brown, 
Lieut. Douglas, Ensign Holmes ; No. 5, Lucan, Captain McMillan ; 
No. 6, Parkhill, Captain McKellar, Lieut. Johnston, Ensign Johnson ; 
No. 7, Strathroy, Captain Irwin, Lieut. D. M. Cameron and Ensign 

The first regiment of Cavalry was commanded in 1882 by Lieut.- 
Col. J. Cole, with Major F. Peters in command of troop No. 2, and 
Major Stewart of troop No. 3. The London Field Battery was com- 
manded at this time by Major Peters. 

The 7th Battalion, or Fusiliers, claimed in 1882 a force of 29 
officers and 301 men, the members present at annual drill being 24 
and 289 respectively. Lieut.-Col. John Walker commanded, with 
Captains Smith, Miller, McKenzie, Macbeth, Gartshore, Peel and 
Mahon, all of London. 

The 25th Battalion, or Elgin Infantry, was commanded in 1882 by 
Lieut.-Col. O'Malley, of Wardsville; Captains Ellis, Watt, Weisbrod, 
Moore and Lindsay, of St. Thomas. The actual strength at inspection 
was 18 officers and 170 men. 


The 26th Battalion, or Middlesex Light Infantry, in 1882, was 
commanded by Lieut.-Col. Attwood, with Captains Garnett, of Dela- 
ware, Choate, of Harrietsville, Dreaney, of Crumlin, and Wood, of 
Avon. The force present at inspection drill was 12 officers and 154 

North-west Troubles of 1885. The North-west troubles of 1885 
were in some respects, so far as the evils complained of by the half- 
breeds, similar to those of Ontario of 1837-8. They had grievances, 
some sentimental, some real, for which they sought redress. Instead 
of obtaining any of the favors looked for, they beheld the mounted 
police force strengthened and preparations made for reducing them to 
what they considered a state of servitude. In May, 1885, the follow- 
ing named thirty-one men left London, Wyoming and Komoka, to join 
this force : James Armstrong, J. F. Forbes, W. McCallum, J. W. 
Stilson, E. McKenzie, H. H. Ellerton, G. W. Steele, J. Barber, D. A. 
McCallum, H. Bertram, H. A. Fletcher, J. Johnston, McCall, H. 
Green, E. C. Curry, W. C. Maker, H. Craig, J. Lancaster, Pat Naven, 
H. Woodward, Pain, Stansfield, Short, McLellan, W. H. Mason, A. 
Arbuckle, D. Steel, W. E. Heron, A. Heron, J. Collins. Before their 
arrival this petty insurrection took place. Eiel, the leader, intended 
to carry on this agitation without the shedding of blood. 

The half-breeds, Eiel maintained, had struggled unsuccessfully for 
years for the attainment of their rights, and as a last resort determined 
to capture Major Crozier and the Mounted Police of Prince Albert, 
before addressing themselves to the authorities at Ottawa. In con- 
formity with this plan, the half-breeds assembled at Duck Lake, never 
anticipating firing a shot, but were confident that the handful of police 
would gladly lay down their arms. Unfortunately, however, Crozier 
forced the fighting, and without a word of warning, poured a murderous 
volley into the concealed foe. Smarting under the loss of a companion,, 
the enraged and now uncontrollable half-breeds returned the compli- 
ment and defeated the volunteers and police in short space. Eiel, who- 
admitted that he participated in the engagement, added that Crozier 
needlessly left the dead upon the field. He subsequently sent a mes- 
senger to Prince Albert, assuring the authorities that the bodies could 
be removed without molestation on his part. Sanderson, the man who 
bore the message, met with ill success, and in camping with another 
individual days after, conveyed the bodies to Prince Albert. Eiel 
added that a number of Indians participated and displayed great 
bravery. He also maintained that the wounded on the field would 
have been slaughtered but for his interference. The result of the first 
fight was that fighting was pushed upon the half-breeds, who had no- 
other alternative than to defend themselves. Throughout the entire 
campaign, the principle of self-defense was advocated, and the half- 
breeds unanimously agreed to act only in the preservation of their 
families. When the near approach of Middleton was learned, Gabriel 
Dumont was sent out to reconnoitre, with positive instructions not to 


give battle. The impetuous half-breed, however, disobeyed, and with 
only sixty followers, held several hundred volunteers and artillerymen 
at bay. 'His entire force at Batoche never exceeded four hundred and 
fifty, 'not including one hundred and fifty others stationed on the oppo- 
site bank of the river in anticipation of an attack from that point. 

Although the police and volunteers were signally defeated, their 
organization carried them through to success until the half-breeds and 
Indians were scattered. Subsequently many of the leaders were made 
prisoners, and ultimately Louis Kiel himself was captured, tried for 
high treason and hanged. During his imprisonment he was denied 
all intercourse with the world outside his cell, even the press reporters 
being denied admittance. 

It is said that Gen. Middleton would have lost his artillery, had 
not a Connecticut man, named Howard, opened on the half-breeds 
with the Gatling gun. 

In April, 1885, the 7th Fusiliers left London for the North-west. 
The staff comprised W. De Eay Williams, Lieut.-Colonel ; Majors 
Smith and Gartshore, Adjutant Reid, Quartermaster Smyth and Surgeon 
Fraser. The Captains were Ed. McKenzie, Frank Butler, Thomas H. 
Tracy, Captain Dillon and S. Frank Peters. The Lieutenants were 
Bapty and Bazan, Chisholm and Gregg, Cox and Payne, Hesketh, 
Jones and Pope. The Staff-sergeants were Sergeant-Major Byrne, 
Paymaster-Sergeant W. H. Smith, Quartermaster-Sergeant J. Jury; 
Sergeant of Ambulance, A. Campbell; Sergeant of Pioneers, M. Cotter. 
The private troops were Color-Sergeant A. Jackson, Sergeant James 
Becroft, Corporal C. G. Armstrong; Privates Geo. Chapman, ' Edward 
Harrison, A. Leslie, Charles Pugh, H. Pennington, George Rogers, W. 
Schabacker, C. F. Williams, Walter Wright, Frank Sadler and Lang- 
ford ; Color-Sergeant Thos. Goold, Sergeants McClintock, John Harris, 
Joseph O'Roake, Corporals A. E. Walker, W. Dyson and James 
Ooold ; Lance- Corporals Joseph Amor and Wm. Brown ; Privates 
Hugh McRoberts, James Ford, H. Arbuckle, J. 1. Walker. James 
Johnston, J. F. Gray, H. Westaway, Patrick Neil, Charles Potter, W. 
D. Crofts, A. Davis, A. McRoberts, James Lozier, T. R. Hardwood, F. 
Young, Thos. Livesey, W. Beaver, W. Andrews, W. Ferguson, George 
Davis, A. Somerville; Sergeants Anundson and Anglin ; Corporal 
McDonald; Privates Wanless, Jones, Pennington, Fysh, Burns, Atkin- 
son, Dignan, Kidder, Burke, Hanson, McCoomb, Graham, Mercer, 
Kirkendale, Ryan, Caesar, Pettit, Wright, Smyth and J. A. Muirhead ; 
Sergeant Borland, Corporals Richards, McDonald and Bayley ; Privates 
Lister, Moore, Mills, Smith, McCarthy, Pennington, Macbeth, Webb, 
R. Smith, Lowe, McCormick, G. Westland, Benson, Cowan, Ironsides, 
Allen, Mitchell, Howard, Davis, Smith, Labatt, E. P. Dignan, C. D. 
Gower, Carey, Gregg, Carnegie and W. Owen; Sergeants Jacobs, 
Summers and Neilson; Corporals Field, Rowland and Opled ; Pri- 
vates Jacobs, Tennant, Best, Dickenson, Walton, Martin, Johnson 
Moriarity, Peden, Keuneally, Cassidy, Norfolk, Hayden, A. McNamara 


Hall, Quick, W. Wright, Cowie, Appleyard, Richardson, Northy, 
Stinchcomb, Thwaite, Ralph, Beetham, Walton, Sinnott, Rowason 
and McNamara ; Sergeant Line, Privates H. Mills, T. Mills, Stansfield, 
Black, Collins, Copper, George Clark, Connell, Dunkin, Flavin, Harri- 

fm, Keenan, Land, Lalley, Lovell, Morkin, Thomas, Wright, Wilson, 
rown, Crawford, W. Wright and J. Clark ; Color-Sergeant Borland, 
Sergeants Lynch and Fuller ; Corporals Harrison and Lyman ; Privates 
Allison, Barrell, Bigger, Borland, Brazier, Blackburn, Dickens, Duval, 
Essex, Hicks, Hood, Hutchinson, McCutcheon, McCoy, McPherson, 
Macdonald, Parkinson, Pickles, Pate, Robertson, Steele, W. Smith, 
Terry, Whittaker and Woodall. 

On the return of this command a streamer was stretched across 
the street from Hyman's shoe factory. On this was printed the motto, 
in honor of one of the volunteers who worked there, whose name 
is given in this list " Are you there, Moriarity ? " The regiment re- 
turned in July, 1885, when a great reception was tendered to the 
officers and men. 

In 1873 Major Albert M. Smith was commissioned Ensign of 
the 7th Fusiliers, and since that time has been connected with the 
command. Evan Evans, who settled at London in 1849 as a dis- 
charged soldier, died July 3, 1882. In 1851 he was commissioned 
Lieutenant in the 12th Middlesex Battalion, and in 1856, when Col. 
Moffatt raised the Highland Rifle Company, he was Drill-master. He 
was caretaker of military stores for the District up to 1882, and was 
Sergeant-Major and Drill-master for the 7th Fusiliers. 

Mayor William Starr, born in Ireland in 1812, came to Canada 
with Royal Artillery, and to London in 1840, when he was known as 
" the veteran storekeeper of No. 1 District." His death occurred in 
February, 1884. 

Captain A. McRae, who accompanied the Canadian Voyage urs to 
Egypt, returned to London in May, 1885. 

In November, 1888, it was reported that the 7th Battalion would 
pass out of existence prior to the close of the year, and that a new 
regiment would be formed. Colonel Williams places the onus of the 
Battalion's present condition upon the shoulders of one of the officers. 

Military School The new Military School was opened March 31, 
1888. In 1886 an order was issued establishing a school here, and 
building begun May 5, 1886. Col. Henry Smith was commissioned 
Commandant. The two million bricks used were manufactured by 
Walker Bros., while Hook & Toll were the main contractors. 

The sale of the Military Grounds was conducted June 1, 1888, by 
Auctioneer McElheran, when twenty-three lots realized $35,414.50. 
The remaining part of the Ordnance Lands, facing Victoria Park and 
Princess avenue, was sold in lots by auction, and brought very good 
prices, exceeding the expectations of the London Trust, in whose hands 
the matter rested. The total amount realized from the sale of these 
lands has been nearly $52,000. This was the block of land which the 



Dominion Government gave to London in exchange for that portion of 
the Carling farm now occupied by the Military School and Parade 
Ground. The price paid for the latter was $40,000, so that, as the 
matter now stands, the Corporation of London has cleared within a 
fraction of $12,000 cash by the transaction. 




The first newspaper printed in English in Canada was the Gazette, 
at Quebec, in 1776, the press being brought from Philadelphia by a 
Mr. Brown. The Quebec Herald followed in 1788 and the Montreal 
Gazette, printed in French, was issued the same year by M. Mesplet, 
while Le Temps, in French and English, was its contemporary. Thomas 
Carey established the Mercury at Quebec in 1804. The Canadien 
was issued in 1806, and continued publication until the office was 
confiscated by the Government in 1810, two years after the Canadien 
Courant was founded at Montreal. In 1807 the Royal Gazette and 
Newfoundland Advertiser was issued, and the pioneer press circle of 
the Lower Provinces and of Newfoundland was placed on an enduring 

The pioneer journal of Upper Canada was The Upper Canada 
Gazette or American Oracle, issued April 18, 1793, with Gideon 
Tiffany editor, and Governor Simcoe proprietor. The extent of the 
popularity of the Oracle, outside the official circle, may be learned 
from the fact that when Rochefoucault visited Kingston in 1795 there 
was not a single subscriber to, or reader of, it in that settlement. 
In 1807 an Irish Tory (Joseph Wilcox) established at Newark the 
Upper Canada Guardian. This Wilcox was Sheriff of the Home 
District, who, on account of some irregularity in office, was dismissed. 
Later he was a member of Parliament in opposition to the Govern- 
ment; fought against the Americans at Queenston in 1812, but later 
deserted to the enemy, taking with him his command, and served the 
young Union until killed at Fort Erie. The York Gazette was issued 
by Cameron & Bennett at York as early as 1801. The Kingston 
Gazette, issued by S. Miles and C. Kendall, Sept. 25, 1810, was the 
only Upper Canada paper from April, 1813, to 1816, when the Govern- 
ment Gazette was revived. In 1820 the Recorder was founded. In 
March, 1819, the Kingston Chronicle and also the Upper Canada 
Herald appeared, and in May the Kingston Gazette and Religious 
Advocate. In May, 1824, the Colonial A dvocate appeared. The next 
papers issued were the Christian Guardian and the Patriot in 1829, 
then the Chronicle and News, next the Hallowell Free Press in 1830, 
the Canadian Watchman, August 13, 1830, and then the London 
Sun in 1831. The British Whig was the first daily journal published 
in Upper Canada, but its influence, like itself, was small, and its dura- 
tion short. 

The pioneer papers named contained very little local information. 
Many of the pioneers wanted news from the States, from which they 
were driven by laws which could not recognize the rights a native 

166 iflSTOKY OF THE 

enemy of his country possessed ; men of the governing class wanted 
news from Ireland or from England. Canada was a waste, a haven, 
where both governor and governed found refuge from the political or 
financial storms which drove them across the lakes or the ocean. 
Local news was not sought for, and the pioneer publishers had just 
sufficient sense to satisfy their few readers. With the year 1831, 
however, came a change. The Colonial Advocate of 1824 suggested 
some new ideas, but the action of the government party of 1826, in 
having the press and type taken from the office and dumped into 
Lake Ontario, taught a general lesson which was learned by the people 
slowly, and five years later began to bear fruit. To counteract or sup- 
port this lesson, to further the growing idea of responsible government, 
or check it in its youth, ^several papers were brought into existence, 
and Canadian politics became a department of newspaper work. How 
the department did increase from 1831 to 1837, when the Liberal 
newspapers were silenced ! It was a continuous war of written words 
between the advocates of principles, which resulted in the temporary 
overthrow of the Eeformers, and, five years later, in the total rout of 
the Compact-Tory Conservatives of the old school. Then the pioneers 
of Upper Canada realized for the first time the power of the press, 
and the people, comparatively unshackled, exclaimed . 

Mightiest of the mighty means, 

On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance, 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press ! 

The first newspaper published in the London District was the Lon- 
don Sun, issued in 1831, from the primitive building which then 
stood just east of Abraham Carroll's hotel, on Dundas street. The 
credit of establishing this pioneer journal is given to Edward A. Talbot, 
a native of Tipperary County, Ireland, who came to Canada in 1818, 
when seventeen years old, as a member of the Talbot colony. A Mr. 
Keel had some undetermined connection with the Sun, but young 
Talbot was editor. The old hand-press was the wonder of the village 
as well as of the Thames country, and it is related that on day of issue, 
the office would be crowded with a sight-seeing crowd. 

Mr. Bousted started a paper in 1833, and in the fall of that year, 
Kobert Summers advertised Gilbert Showers' notes as fraudulent. 
The office was on the south side of King street, opposite the square ; 
but the name of the paper and the dates of its beginning and end can- 
not be stated positively. 

The Gazette is said to have been published in 1837, by G. H 
Hackstaff. William Thompson, of Dorchester, states that his father 
was a subscriber at the time. W. H. Niles remembers the location 
of the office on the west side of Ridout, north of Dundas. 

The London Freeman's Journal was founded in 1839, by Edward 


A. Talbot, whose name is mentioned as introducing the first newspaper 
in the Erie Peninsula. In 1836 his brother John inaugurated the St. 
Thomas Liberal, which he carried on until the defeat of the Patriots 
at Galla's Hill, when he fled to the United States. It would be very 
natural to suppose that the office became the property of his youngeV 
brother Edward, and that the latter brought the material to London" 

The Western Globe, by George Brown, was printed at Toronto in 
1845, but dated at London, when it was distributed by W. H. Niles 
from the office at the north-east corner of Dundas and Eidout. Gordon 
Brown had charge in 1845-6, before Mr. Niles was appointed agent. 

The Canada Inquirer was issued in August, 1838, and the first 
" Carrier's New Year's Address" was issued Jan. 1, 1841. The village 
printing of 1843 was contracted for by G. H. Hackstatf, at 14, his 
bond being 100. His office was then on the west side of Eidout, 
north of Dundas, but far back on the building lot. 

London Enquirer, Vol. 5, No. 50, bears date July 19, 1844. It 
was then published by Geo. H. Hackstaff, whose office was at the 
corner of Eichmond and North Streets, nearly opposite the English 

The Times, in 1844, was published by H. Lemon and D. W. Hart v 
the latter dying recently near Brantford, Ont. Dr. John Salter came 
to London in 1835, and engaged as clerk in Lyman, Farr & Co.'s drug 
store, then near the court-house. Subsequently he opened on Eidout 
street; was surgeon to the London garrison during the rebellion of 
1837-8 ; was burned out in the fire of 1845 ; later was editor of the 
London Times under Mr. Cowley, but through all was known as the 
" Patriarch of Druggists " until his death, April 13, 1881. An entry 
in the records of the Council, bearing date 1847, states that Joseph 
Cowley was paid 5 13s. 9d. for county advertising in the London 
Times. In 1853 the Times office was in a frame building on the west 
side of Talbot street, on the corner of North, or Carling street, Mr. Hart 
being still editor, with Joseph Morey foreman. 

The Gospel Messenger was published here in 1848 by John E. 
Lavell, but shared the fate of nearly all such periodical journals 

The Canadian Free Press was founded by William Sutherland 
(now a resident of Ekfrid township), January 2, 1849. The prospectus 
was issued December 20, 1848, and from this document is the follow- 
ing extract : " Its character, as its name implies, will be Liberal. It 
will advocate those principles and measures which aim at the safe, 
progress of Legislation and Government towards their true end : ' The 
greatest possible good to the greatest possible number.' This, it is 
assumed, can be gained only by maintaining the Provincial Constitu- 
tion, which by bringing the increasing intelligence of the community 
to bear upon the administration by means of their representatives, con- 
stitutes Parliamentary or Eesponsible Government ; by the indepen- 
dent and unfettered exercise of the elective franchise ; by an enlight- 
ened system of popular education ; by securing on all political and 


economical questions liberty and equality, in opposition to all exclusive 
aims of parties, classes or religious denominations ; and by setting free 
our commerce, enterprise and intelligence from all those obstructions 
by which their development has been hitherto so long and so greatly 

The early issues were printed weekly, on sheets 26x40 inches. 
The price was fifteen shillings per annum, or twelve shillings and six 
pence, if paid in advance. Local news was entirely a secondary con- 
sideration, and should be of marked importance to receive any notice 
whatever. General political news, both Canadian and British, occupied 
much space. The history of the Press since 1852, is the history of its 
second proprietor from 1852 to the present time. 

The editor of the Free Press, Josiah Blackburn, born at London, 
England, in 1823, came to Canada in 1850 ; was connected with the 
Star, of Paris, Orit., in 1851, and in 1852 purchased the Free Press 
office. Shortly after, he assisted in the establishment of the Chronicle, 
at Ingersoll ; in 1855 inaugurated the Daily Free Press, which he 
conducted on his own party principles then Eeform. In 1858 he 
was defeated by Marcus Talbot in the contest for parliamentary honors. 
In 1862 he was called to conduct the Mercury, a Government organ, 
and ten years later was asked to aid in establishing the Mail, at 
Toronto. In 1884 he was a member of the committee sent to Wash- 
ington to report on the system of public printing. When Geo. Brown 
opposed the Coalition Government, Mr. Blackburn cast off his Reform 
dress and assumed that of the Conservatives, the same which the Free 
Press of to-day wears. 

The early years of the Free Press after it became the property of the 
Blackburns are well portrayed by Harry Gorman in his newspaper 
reminiscences. He says: "My newspaper experience in London 
dates back to 1853, when I engaged with Josiah Blackburn, of the 
Free Press, as an apprentice. At that time the Free Press office was 
in a small, one-story brick building on Talbot street, immediately in 
rear of what was then the R & D. Macfie's dry goods store, now 
Somerville's grocery, I believe. Its rival, the Times, occupied a frame 
building on the opposite side of the street, at the corner of Carling 
street, then called North street. It was edited by a Mr. Hart, and Joe 
Morey, well known to old-time London journalists, was foreman. 
When I entered the Free Press office the whole force consisted of Mr. 
Pierson, foreman ; Jim Sisterson and Mel. Dawson (now Col. Dawson), 
journeymen; and Bill Quinton, Jack Sparling and myself, apprentices. 
Blackburn was editor, reporter, proof-reader, book-keeper, collector and 
canvassing agent, and knows what it is to run a country newspaper 
when money is scarce and roads bad. I assisted at the setting up of 
the first power press used in a London printing office. It was a North- 
rup stop-cylinder, with a capacity of probably 600 an hour, and a 
regular corn-crusher. Prior to its erection the Free Press weekly, for 
it had then only a weekly edition, was worked off on a Washington 


hand press, an athletic colored man, Hayden Watters by name, manipu- 
lating the lever, Sparling and I responding to the call of 'color/ 
flying the sheets and folding. In '54 or '5 the first daily was issued 
in London from the Free Press office. I set type on it. I cannot 
recall the names of all who worked on it at that particular time, but I 
think the late Tom Neil was among the number, also Thomas Coffey, 
and very probably Sisterson and Dawson. E. P. Roden, now a civic 
officer in Toronto, was one of the early compositors on the daily Free 

In October, 1851, a banquet closed the fair, and at this reunion a 
toast 'The Press, the Palladium of Liberty was given. A Mr. 
Thomson, of the Free Press, responded. He said that he regarded 
agriculture as the noblest occupation of man. It was indeed a divine 
injunction to " till the garden and to keep it." He referred to the 
extent of the Provinces larger than Europe to their agricultural 
capacities and great natural resources, and the place of Empire which 
Canada is destined to hold among the nations of the earth. He gave 
as a sentiment : Agriculture and an Independent Press, may they 
both prosper till Canada shall be celebrated for her national wealth 
and her free institutions. 

The editorial staff of the Free Press comprises managing director and 
editor-in-chief, Josiah Blackburn ; assistant-editor, Malcolm S. Bremner ; 
city editor, John S. Dewar ; night editor, Fred. T. Yealland ; agricul- 
tural editor, Wm. L. Brown ; reporters, Chas. F. Winlow and George 
Millar. The business department comprises Henry Mathewson, secre- 
tary-treasurer : Gilbert E. Coombs, accountant ; J. C. Markle, assistant 
book-keeper ; A. C. Peel, day mail clerk ; Chas. Norman, night mail- 
clerk ; W. J. Blackburn, manager advertising department ; H. B. 
Coombs, advertising department, arid Thomas Orr, manager of mechani- 
cal department. In the news department, Alex. J. Bremner is day 
foreman, and James Lindsay and P. J. Quinn, night foremen. In the 
book and job departments the following named are the overseers : 
T. H. Warren (foreman), Harry Ferns, J. W. Thorpe and Charles Doe. 
Charles Brown is foreman of press room ; George Taylor and Walter 
Pinnell, engineers. The travellers' department comprises Samuel H. 
Muirhead, Robinson J. Orr and Geo. H. Mathewson, with Frank H. 
W better, collector. The lithographic department is presided over by 
John A. Muirhead, with W. H. Margetts, foreman of artists' depart- 
ment; Hugh E. Ashton, of transfer department; James Filby, of 
press department, and H. V. Mevius, of engraving department. T. W. 
Elliott is foreman of the wood engraving division ; Geo. Webster, 

The Prototype. In January, 1861, the Council passed resolutions 
of thanks to the editors of the Press and Prototype, and to reporters 
Siddons and Wilson, for excellent reports during the year. In 1863 
the London News was included in this vote of thanks. 

In February, 1870, the Prototype ceased to be a morning paper, 


and was issued as an evening newspaper, under the name Herald and 
Prototype. Melville D. Dawson became interested in the paper at 
this time. Harry Gorman, speaking of this journal in 1861, says : 
" London had then two morning papers in name only the Free Press 
and Prototype. Neither of them received the midnight telegraphic 
reports, and, as a consequence, were little better than evening papers 
published the following morning." The Herald office was burned 
September 10, 1878, and much valuable property destroyed, includ- 
ing the Synod journal of the English Church. 

The Semi- Weekly Herald was a favorite newspaper in 1856-7, by 
Elliot & Cooper, but its duration was only for a few years. The office 
was then in the old Commercial block, better known as the Coote block. 

The Evangelical Witness was the predecessor and contemporary 
of the News with Eev. J. H. Eobinson, editor. This paper was the 
organ of the New Connexion Methodists, and continued in existence 
until the union. After the collapse of the News, Mr. Robinson con- 
tinued the Witness at the old office on Dundas street west, about 
where the Parisian Laundry now is, but eventually found the work too 
heavy, and wanted to get rid of it. John Cameron, who had served 
his time in the Free Press, and afterwards worked for Gemmill, in 
Sarnia, came one day and asked him if he did not want some one to 
take charge. It occurred to him that Cameron was the man he 
wanted, and he was given charge. Mr. Eobinson's health seemed to 
to get worse rather than better, and so one day he proposed to Cameron 
that he should buy the establishment, paying therefor by printing the 
Evangelical Witness. This arrangement was carried out, and Mr. 
Cameron shortly after proposed to start a daily paper a paper Liberal 
in its tendencies, moral in its tone ; and from that time Mr. Eobinson 
ceased to have any personal or practical interest in the place, although 
he occasionally wrote articles for it and always hoped for its welfare. 
When the Evangelical Witness was published on Dundas street east, 
where Dr. Flock now lives, Miss Eobinson, John Cameron and Eobert 
Fulford were the typesetters. The latter went to California, and while 
there went on the stage and married a woman who is now one of the 
most popular actresses of the day Annie Pixley. On the Methodist 
union of 1 874 being perfected there was no more need for the Witness. 
Eev. David Savage edited it for four years before it died. Eev. Mr. 
Eobinson was sent-to England about 1870 and was given the editorial 
control of the two Methodist magazines in old London and the charge 
of the two book concerns. As a matter of fact, he was really sent over to 
endeavor to stop the union, which then seemed imminent. The N. C. 
Methodists had some 8,000 members in Canada, and it was thought he 
might have some influence, but when he got over there he found he 
might as well try to stop the waters of Niagara. At one time he had 
$11,000 of his own money sunk in the Witness before he saw a 
prospect of a return, and it preyed on his mind. He feared he would 
die and leave the debt a burden to his family. But friends in England 


came to the rescue, advanced some money, and then he turned the 
paper over to the Camerons. 

The London Evening News. This journal was issued from the 
office of the Witness. Harry Gorman says : " I assisted at the birth 
of another London daily in the years before the Advertiser saw the 
light. It was the Evening News, and was the predecessor of the 
Advertiser. It was printed by Thos. Evans, who afterwards went to 
Buffalo, and edited by Mr. Moncrieff. The News was a Liberal paper, 
and did much towards securing the election of Elijah Leonard to the 
Senate for the Malahide Division. By the way, my lot was nearly 
always cast on the Liberal side in politics. The Free Press was an 
out-and out Grit paper when I worked on it, and it was not till after I 
left it that it strayed from the paths of political rectitude. The News 
was soundly Liberal under Mr. MoncriefFs editorship, and later under 
that of John McLean. Mr. Moncrieff, 1 believe, afterwards lapsed 
into Toryism, and Mr. McLean became one of the apostles of high 
protection, and helped Sir John and Tilley to frame the National 
Policy tariff. Among those who were employed in the News office 
were John Cameron, founder of the Advertiser ; M. G. Bremner, now 
of the Free Press editorial staff ; Harry Clissold, proprietor of a print- 
ing establishment in Chicago; James Mitchell, now editor and pro- 
prietor of the Goderich Star ; John Hooper and his father the ' Old 
Guv./ as he was affectionately called John McLean, the veteran 
pressman, and myself. With the collapse of the News in 1863, the 
office and plant with which it was printed reverted to Eev. J. H. 
Robinson, who either owned it in his own right or held it as a trustee 
for the New Connexion Methodist Church in Canada. The Evan- 
gelical Witness, official organ of the church, was printed there, and it 
became necessary to make new arrangements for its publication. 
Proposals to that end were made by Eobinson to Harry Clissold and to 
me, but both of us had made up our minds to go to Chicago, and the 
inducements offered were not sufficient to change our intentions. Mr. 
Cameron applied for the position, and his offer was accepted by Mr. 

The Advertiser was established in 1863, and on October 27, of 
that year, the first number sold was purchased by J. W. Jones, i Thos. 
Ooffey, now proprietor of the Record, was one of the first workers on 
this journal. He relates the story of its beginnings as follows: 
" There was a paper called the Daily News, published shortly before 
that time by Thomas Evans. In the same office was also printed 
the Evangelical Witness. Both this paper and the office had been for 
some years the property of the New Connexion Methodist Conference. 
The Daily News, after a precarious existence of a few years, succumbed 
to hard times, and a large and well-equipped establishment was left 
without any other means of keeping it in operation but the publication 
of the weekly religious paper referred to. In the office at that time 
were employed John and William Cameron, Harry Gorman, now of 


the Sarnia Observer, myself and a few others. You must remember 
that the American war had broken out, and was well under way then, 
and a great desire seemed to take possession of the public mind to 
obtain possession of every item of news pertaining to that bloody 
conflict. John Cameron saw his opportunity, leased the establishment 
from the Eev. J. H. Eobinson, and conceived the idea of establishing 
a live evening paper. So small was this paper, that the proprietors 
of a rival establishment termed it a * bantling ;' but the * bantling/ 
as it was called, at once succeeded in establishing itself in public 
favor. So successful, indeed, was this attempt, that the managers of 
a morning paper, then in existence, rushed out another evening sheet 
to try and counteract the influence which the new-comer seemed so 
suddenly to become possessed of. Public sentiment, however, was 
unanimously on the side of the Advertiser, and in a very short space 
of time the Evening Telegraph, as it was called, was forced to cease 
publication. Then, when the Advertiser came out, Mr. Cameron 
introduced a novelty into London in the shape of newsboys. There 
were none here before that time. Day after day, and week after week, 
the little evening paper became more and more engrafted in public 
favor. John Cameron, young, enterprising, full of integrity and good 
purpose, a model young man in every sense of the word, made it his 
constant study to produce a paper that would in every way merit the 
most encouraging patronage. The Advertiser at that time was printed 
on a Hoe drum-cylinder press, and the power was supplied by a 
stalwart African. At the start, John Cameron associated with him his 
brother William, who became business manager, assisted by his father, 
while John devoted his time to the management of the editorial 
department. About this time, too, the able assistance of Mr. Harry 
Gorman was secured for the same branch. In March, 1864, he took 
a position at the case with C. D. Barr. When C. F. Colwell came in 
1866, John Cameron was sole proprietor; his father paymaster; his 
brother William filled minor positions ; John Hooper was foreman of 
news room ; Joseph Morey of job room, while Archie Bremner, Harry 
Gorman, Win. Egleton and himself were at the case. John Cameron, 
it is well-known, is the prosperous manager of the Toronto Globe ; Mr. 
Cameron, sen., and his son William are both dead ; Harry Gorman is. 
the successful proprietor of the Sarnia Observer-, John Hooper is still 
working in the city; Bill Egleton works at Toledo, O ; Archie 
Bremner, considered the best paragraph writer in Canada, is assistant 
editor, while Charles D. Barr, who has been so successful in building 
up the Lindsay Post since he held a position at the case in this office 
in 1863-4, is now editor-in-chief." Harry Gorman, in his reminis- 
cences, says: "The Advertiser's progress was always a matter of 
pride to me. I was so thoroughly identified with its interests while 
on its staff, that its triumphs and successes elated me as much as if 
they were my own. The old feeling still lingers in my heart, and I 
am pleased at being asked to contribute to its silver anniversary." 


In the Victoria disaster of 1881, there were among the passengers 
Chas. A. Matthews, night editor, wife and two children ; Miss Bailey, 
a sister of one of the pressmen ; Wm. Wonnacott, brother of Chas. 
Wonnacott, rounds collector ; a sister of Frank La wson, reporter ; Wm. 
Thompson, reporter; and a young brother of Eddie Harrison, appren- 
tice ; Mrs. Matthews and one child ; Miss Bailey, Miss Lawson, 
Charley Gorman, one of the carriers ; Wonnacott and the lad Harrison 
were among the victims. Mr. Matthews succeeded in saving one 
child. William Thompson also escaped and wrote the first report of 
the disaster. 

The Editorial Staff is as follows : Editor-in-Chief Chas. D. Barr. 
Managing Editor Arch. Bremner. City Editor and Conductor Weekly 
Agricultural Department, 1880 Wm. Thompson. Telegraph and News 
Editor E. Clissold. City Reporting Staff E. A. Hutchinson and A. 
P. Fawcett. Conductor Educational Department John Dearness r 
I. P. S. Conductor Legal Department W. H. Bartram, barrister. 

The Business Department comprises : Lud. K. Cameron, President 
and Manager. Robert D. Millar, secretary-treasurer. Wm. Magee, 
accountant. Frank Adams, cashier. J. M. Symonds, collector. 
George Elliott, collector. T. A. Workmen and H. C. Allison, adver- 
tising agents. M. W. Cummiford, traveling agent. Weekly Sub- 
scription Department H. C. Symonds, manager. Stereotype room 
Thos. Bland, superintendent ; Henry Bartley, William Corbin. Press- 
room Jas. T. Archer, superintendent; William Bay ley, E. Johnston. 
Engineer William Neil. 

John Cameron, born in Markham Township, Ont., Jan. 22, 1843,. 
learned the printing trade at London in the Free Press office, and on 
Oct. 27, 1863, he, with his brother William, issued the Evening 
Advertiser. This venture was attended with such success that within 
a few years it took a very leading place among the newspapers of the 
Dominion. In December, 1882, David Mills became editor, with 
William Cameron, manager. At that time John Cameron assumed 
the editorial and business management of the Globe, converting this 
old paper into a modern news journal and leading exponent of Liberal 
ideas in "Canada. Mr. Cameron's father was a native of Argyleshire, 
Scotland, and his mother a native of Ireland. 

William Cameron, born in London in 1844, died in January, 1884. 
He, with his brother, John Cameron, of Toronto, established the 
Advertiser twenty years before death removed him from the manage- 
ment of that journal. 

The Huron Recorder was first issued in October, 1874, as a 
journal devoted to the interests of the English Church Diocese. Rev. 
H. F. Darnell was editor, and Rev. J. Hurst secretary-treasurer. This, 
journal changed its title to the Western Churchman, June 6, 1877. 
In August, 1875, Geo. F. Jewell was assistant editor. In 1877 Rev. 
J. W. P. Smith was secretary ; Rev. W. F. Campbell treasurer, and 
G. F. Jewell, advertising agent. On August 29, 1877, it ceased 



The Catholic Record was issued at 388 Richmond street, October 
4, 1878. The salutatory of the publisher, Walter Locke, appears on 
page one, followed by a letter from Bishop Walsh, approving of this 
journalistic venture. A few months later the office was purchased by 
"Thomas Coffey, who very soon established the Record on a firm basis, 
and who has conducted this journal with marked ability down to the 
present time. Rev. Fathers Northgraves (author of the " Mistakes of 
Modern Infidels "), of Ingersoll, and Flannery, of St. Thomas, are the 
chief editors. The present office was erected by the owner in 1882, 
adjoining Weston's store on Richmond street and Pufferin Avenue. 
The latter building he purchased at that time. The Record is an 
eminently respectable denominational weekly paper, partaking of the 
quality of a magazine. The historical and other subjects are clearly 
treated, while the editorials form an excellent exposition of what 
religious liberty means, and of what the welfare of Canada calls for. 
The tenth anniversary of the Record drew forth from the secular 
press of Western Canada many high testimonials. 

The Standard, a weekly and evening journal, suspended publica- 
tion after a four months' existence, March 25, 1878, the Free Press 
filling the subscription roll. 

The Echo is an advertising paper issued regularly. 

The Farmer's Advocate, an agricultural periodical, is published at 

The Speaker, an afternoon newspaper, was established in 1888, and 
issued from the Speaker Steam Printing House, 344 Richmond street. 
On November 12th Mr. Butcher, manager of this journal, obtained 
possession of the Times office material, and on the evening of that day 
made an effort to assume the name of the Times and cast aside that 
of the Speaker ; but one or more of his associate owners objected, and 
so the old name was retained. It is now defunct. 

The London Evening Times was issued from the office, 201 Dundas 
street, Aug. 28, 1888, by Paul & Harris. The proprietors in their 
salutatory omit much conventional phraseology, and content them- 
selves with assuring the public that "the interests of the city of 
London and Western Ontario it will always be our object to further in 
ever manner possible,' knowing as we do that they are closely and 
inseparately linked with our own. All public questions will be 
discussed fearlessly on their merits, irrespective of from what party or 
person they may emanate. The news of the day, both local and from 
a distance, will be presented, in crisp, readable form, and our readers 
can depend upon being kept fully posted on all that transpires up to 
the minute of publication." During its existence this journal more 
than observed the promises made, but the fact that there was no room 
for a fourth daily paper at London soon became manifest, and on Nov. 
10, 1888, the last issue of the Times appeared. On Nov. 12, Manager 
Butcher, of the Speaker, purchased the heading and subscription list of 
the defunct Times, and no doubt believing that the name was more 


popular with the reading public than that under which the Company 
was formed, he undertook to place the heading The Times over the 
matter prepared for the Speaker an act which caused a small-sized 
rebellion in the office. Director Gahan ordered the pressman to stop, 
while Manager Butcher insisted that the Times should be published, 
the upshot being that Butcher was " fired " out of the building by 
Gahan, who dismissed the employe's for the night, turned off the gas 
and locked the office door. 

Printers' Union. London Typographical Union, No. 133, was 
chartered by the National Typographical Union, United States, Novem- 
ber 22, 1869, which has since changed its name to International Typo- 
graphical Union, of which London Union is still a member. The charter 
members were Thomas Coffey, James Mitchell, William Evans, Henry 
Durnan, Thomas Ferguson, Kobert O'Connor, H. C. Symonds. The 
presidents of the Union from that period to the present day are named 
as follows : Thomas Coffey, John S. Dewar, William Hooper, Benj. 
S. Gates, Thomas Bland, Thomas Orr, E. H. Yealland, J. B. Jennings, 
C. H. Chatterton, Charles Sterling, G. Coghlan, A. J. Bremner, H. A. 
Thompson, J. W. Thorpe, Andrew Denholm, H. D. Lee, James Dren- 
nan, W. A. Clarke, Charles Doe, Ed. W. Fleming and Charles Mel- 
bourne. The present secretary is Frank Plant. 

Newspapers Outside of London. The Advocate was published 
by Geo. Brown in 1856-7, but ceased in the spring of 1857, when its 
projectors moved away. Mr. Dell states that the first paper started 
at Strathroy was by twin brothers named Johnston. The journal was 
continued weekly for six months when the boys moved to Michigan, 
where they studied medicine, and died at Bad Axe. Geo. E. Brown 
had an interest in this journal. 

The Strathroy Times and West Middlesex Advertiser was issued 
in June, 1859, but ceased publication within a few months. In 
October, 1869, another journal, bearing the same name, was issued by 
Editor Magin. The Home Guard succeeded the Times, and continued 
publication until 1865, when C. H. Mackintosh purchased the office. 

The Dispatch. Charles H. Mackintosh, son of William Mackintosh, 
of Wicklow County, Ireland, was born at London, Ont, in 1843, when 
his father was county engineer of Middlesex. Young Mackintosh 
was the contributor to the Free Press of " Hurry Graphs ;" later 
became city editor ; in 1864 was editor of the Times, of Hamilton, 
and in 1865 purchased the Home Guard office and began the publica- 
tion of the Dispatch, continuing until 1874. In 1873 he became 
managing editor of the Chicago Journal of Commerce, and in 1874 
of the Ottawa Citizen. In 1870 he founded the Parkhill Gazette, 
moved to Ottawa, and in 1882 was chosen to represent that city with 
Mr. Tasse. In April, 1868, he married Gertrude, daughter of T. Cook, 
of Strathroy. 

In October, 1874, A. Dingman resigned the principalship of the 
Petrolea public schools, came to Strathroy and purchased the 




from C. H. Mackintosh. Up to the close of 1873 A. Dingman had 
been for many years a leading and successful teacher in the public 
schools of the town of Sarnia. Under his control the paper advanced, 
being enlarged in 1877 to the quarto page form, in which it is now 
issued. In 1876 J. H. Mclntosh resigned his position on this paper 
to take control of the Watford Advocate, but returning to Strathroy, 
resumed the position of assistant editor, and is now on the staff. In 
1882 Mr. Dingman was appointed to the important position of Inspec- 
tor of Indian Agencies and Eevenues under the Dominion Govern- 
ment, which office he yet holds. His family residence is now 
Stratford, whither he moved his family in the fall of 1887. On his 
acceptance of the office mentioned, Mr. A. Dingman was succeeded in 
the proprietorship of the Dispatch in 1882 by his son, W. S. Dingman, 
who controlled the paper, taking his brother, L. H. Dingman, into 
partnership in 1886, until 1887 (with the exception of one year, 
1884-5, which W. S. D's part at Port Arthur as editor and manager of 
the Port Arthur Daily Sentinel), when it was sold to Kichardson 
Bros. (George and Kobt. F. Richardson, the latter of whom had long 
been connected with the office as foreman). W. S. and D. H. Ding- 
man are now in Stratford publishing the Herald. W. S. preceded his 
brother there, going in December, 1886, and having the honor of 
issuing the first number of the Daily Herald, the pioneer's daily of 
Stratford, on March 17, 1887. They publish both daily and weekly 
editions, and the Herald deservedly enjoys the lead in Stratford. 

Among the old newspaper men of Strathroy mention is made of 
the following named : W. F. Luxton, now of the Winnipeg Free 
Press, former owner of the Age ; John S. Saul, former owner of the 
Age, now publisher of the Daily News, Ashland, Wis. ; Hugh McColl, 
former owner of the Age, now Strathroy Postmaster; A. Dingman, 
former owner of the Dispatch, now Inspector of Inland Agencies ; W. 
S. and L. H. Dingman, his sons, now publishers of the Stratford Daily 
Herald ; E. Edwards and W. D. Wiley, who worked in the Dispatch 
office, issued the Wingham Times Nov. 24, 1881, but the paper has 
since passed out of their possession, and Edwards is now on a news- 
paper in Winnipeg. Wiley is still a resident of Huron County. J. 
H. Ward, who in years long past resided in Middlesex, is now con- 
nected with the Deseret News, Salt Lake City. He is the author of 
several works, such as " The Hand of Providence," " Gospel Philoso- 
phy," and " Ballads of Life." 

Hugh McColl, editor of the Age, writing in August, 1871, states, 
that three years have passed since he assumed control of the paper. 
In that time the paper was twice enlarged, and the circulation doubled. 

The Review was published at Ailsa Craig, in 1867-8. 

The Wardsville Post was established in 1882 by William Kay, 
who continued to publish it for about a year, when it suspended. 

The Ontario Teacher was conducted by Mr. McColl and Geo. W. 
Ross, at Strathroy ; and the latter was at one time owner of the Age. 


The Glencoe Mail was issued in December, 1871, by Neil Mc- 
Alpine, who sold this pioneer journal to Samuel and Lorenzo Frederick, 
who continued the publication of the Mail until its sale to C. B. 
Slater in April, 1873. He changed the title to The Transcript, and 
sold the office to Wm. Sutherland, the founder of the London Free 
Press. In 1881 Mr. Sutherland sold The Transcript to his son, A. E. 
Sutherland, who in July, 1885, took his brother Robert into partner- 
ship. The Transcript was not issued the last week in 1884, owing to 
the fact that the office was undergoing repairs and a new press being 
placed in position. The editor assured his readers that this was the 
first holiday in thirteen years. 

In the history of Wardsville, reference is made to the newspapers 
which at one time were published there. 

In 1868 E. Pinton succeeded in establishing the Lucan Enterprise 
at Lucan, in a building which stood where Hodgins' livery stable now 
is ; but the name of the journal has escaped even the memory of 
William Porte. This paper continued for about eighteen months. In 
May, 1879, F. E. Spalt established a journal here, and on September 
11, that year, an entry for postage on the Enterprise appears on the 
postmaster's records. In June, 1879, Mr. Spalt, of the Enterprise, 
was charged by some persons at Genoa with holding his printing press 
illegally. The case was presented at Ailsa Craig, but Spalt was 
acquitted and allowed to take the press to Lucan. The present journal 
of that name was established by W. B. Abbott, now a physician of 
Pinconning, Mich. On February 7, 1883, J. W. Orme, the present 
proprietor, issued No. 1 of the new series. In his salutatory he calls 
the journal the North Middlesex Advertiser, although the heading is 
Lucan Enterprise. J. B. Abbott was manager at this time. On 
April 30 the first issue of the weekly Enterprise is recorded, when Mr. 
Abbott ceased connection with the office. 

The Parkhill Gazette dates back to 1870. Late in the fall of that 
year, C. H. Mackintosh, of Strathroy, established an office with the 
intention of issuing a weekly journal. This intention was carried out,, 
but the office was leased to Wallace Graham for one year from the 1st 
of November. Graham conducted the paper and office with consider- 
able ability, and the business prospered well under his management, 
As the year drew to a close, Mackintosh made overtures to him to buy 
it, but the price demanded was not satisfactory to Graham, who at 
once made arrangements to purchase the plant of an old office in 
another part of the country, and removed to Parkhill, leaving Mac- 
kintosh to do as he pleased with his own material. Graham continued 
to publish the Gazette, which for some time was printed in Stratford, 
but Mackintosh claiming that he (Graham) had no right to publish 
the Gazette under that name, or retain the subscription list, and com- 
menced legal proceedings. Of course the original projector of the 
enterprise had no rights in the case, and the Gazette continued to be 
published by Mr. Graham down to 1887, when he sold his interests to 



the present editor, Mr. Green. In this office was the old press used by 
Wm. L. Mackenzie during the troublous times of 1837-38, and which 
was thrown by an excited populace into Toronto harbor. It had been 
in several offices since, but at last found a lodgment at Parkhill, where 
it was used down to 1887, when it was destroyed by fire. This was a 
calamity in every way. The files of the Gazette as well as the vener- 
able old press were given up to the flames 

The Parkhill Review was established December 10, 1885, by John 
Darrach. In his salutatory he says : " It shall be our highest aim to 
promote the growth of Canadian patriotism, and to aid in the develop- 
ment of those true British institutions which our fathers planted here." 
Geo. M. Winn, who set the first type on the Review, and continued in 
the office until the fall of 1887, is now editor of the Alymer Sun. 

In 1886 the prize of $30, offered by the Montreal Star for the best 
poem, was won by Mrs. John H. Fairlie, of Parkhill ; her " Little 
Sweethearts " taking the prize from twenty competitors. 




The first English school in Upper Canada in fact, the first in the 
Province outside the old French school at Sandwich and the schools 
established at Bay Quinte by D'Urfe was that presided over in May, 
1786, by John Stewart, while studying for the ministry of the English 
Church, at Cataraqui. About this time Jonathan Clark, a Scotchman, 
opened a school in the district, where also an Irishman named Donavan 
drew around him a large class of adult pupils. This Donavan spelled 
his name D'Anovan, and was known in the settlement as " The Count." 
At Niagara the garrison school was in full operation, and Dick Cockrell 
also taught there. About this time (1791-2) Daniel A. Askins presided 
over a class at Napanee, while later at Kingston Messrs. Blaney, 
Irish, Michael and Myers competed with Donavan and Clark for 
teachers' honors. As settlements spread westward the school in some 
form appeared. 

On July 12, 1819, the School Acts of former years were amended 
and extended. At this time it was enacted that the Public School of 
the London District should be opened, and kept at Vittoria, in the 
Township of Charlotteville. John Eolph, J. B. Askin, Jas. Mitchell 
and Geo. C. Salmon formed the Board of Education for London 
District in 1831, and A. Mclntosh and Wm. Hands for the 
Western. The School Trustees for London District were Mahlon 
Burwell, John Bostwick, Joseph Eyerson, James Mitchell, John Eolph 
and John Harris, with E. Chadwick, district school-master. The 
Trustees for the Western District were James Baby, A. Mclntosh, 
Alex. Duff, James Gordon and Charles Elliott, with Eev. William 
Johnson, district school-master. In this year John Talbot presided 
over St. George's School, Lot 14, Con. 6, London Township, and in 
1832 opened a school on Eidout Street. 

John Askin, Esq. : Vienna, in Bayham, Oct. 7, 1833. 

DEAR SIR, As I have again commenced the arduous task of school-keeping, I 
beg the favor of you to let me know to whom I should send my reports, as I intend on 
the first of December next ensuing to report a six months' school. Wherefore, you 
will confer a favour by advising me on the proper way to proceed, as I have been 
informed that you have settled (or now reside) in the village of London. Please to 
answer this by the bearer, Capt. Foster, and you will oblige. 

Your obedient servant, JOHN BIGGAR. 

Stephen Van Every was appointed jailer in 1827, pending the 

acceptance of that position by Samuel H. Parke. He was permitted 

to open a school in the old building, and there the present James 
Williams, of London, attended. 


The common school system dates back to 1841, when a bill, intro- 
duced by S. B. Harrison, was passed and approved. In 1843 the 
Francis Hincks amendments were adopted, and in 1846 the W. H. 
Draper amendments. In 1849 J. H Cameron's bill, providing for the 
establishment of schools in cities and towns, became law, and from that 
period up to 1871, when the general school law was approved, it seems 
to have been the object of the Legislature to cure every little defect in 
the system. 

A petition to Sir Charles Bagot, the Governor-General of British 
North America, made February 11, 1842, represented that, owing to 
the peculiar situation of several townships in the London district, " it 
is inconvenient to make school district divisions in townships ex- 
clusively by their own limits," and asked for legislation providing for 
the division of the whole district into school divisions without regard 
to township lines. 

In September, 1842, J. B. Strathy, District Clerk, made a return 
of the number of schools in actual operation in the London District 
since Jan. 1, 1842. In Ekfrid there were 7 schools open and 5 
vacant ; in Mosa, then not divided into districts, there were 4 schools 
in operation; in London, then unsubdivided, there were 16 schools 
open ; in Aldborough, 4 open and 2 vacant ; in Adelaide, 2 open and 7 
vacant : in Lobo, 6 in operation, but the township was not districted ; 
in Caradoc, 2 open and 6 vacant ; in Delaware, 2 open and 6 vacant. 
It appears commissioners were appointed and met once, but owing to 
the Council not having divided the township into school districts, the 
officers did not organize. In Westminster there were 3 schools open 
and 15 legally vacant, as the teachers never came before the Commis- 
sioners to be examined. There were no returns received from 
Malahide, Bayham, Yarmouth, Dorchester, Dunwich and Southwold, 

The legal teachers in Adelaide in 1842-3 were : J. Kinney, Anne 
Abernethy, Eobert Campbell, Duncan McCallum and Malcolm Camp- 
bell. In Ekfrid, Samuel P. Stiles, Donald Mclntyre, Kenneth Thom- 
son and Hector McFarlane. In London, Henry W. Milne, James 
Eutledge, James Howard, Henry Kirby, W. J. O'Mulvenny, William 
Evans, Arthur D. Garden, Thomas Boyd, Wm. Webb, Kobert Wilson, 
Win. Taylor, Henry Eigney, George Monaghan, Humphrey Taylor^ 
Thomas Stanley and Jane Summers In Mosa, Wm. Holliday, Kobert 
Shearer, Finley Munroe and D. Sinclair. In Caradoc, L 0. Kearney 
and Wm. Moore. In Aldborough, Arch. Currie. Donald Currie, Eobert 
Mowbray and Daniel McVicker. In Westminster, Lewis M. Covert, 
Adam Murray, James Aiken, Wm, Crinklaw and Edward Potts. In 
Lobo, John Campbell, Donald McCrae, Wm. Munro, John Jefferson 
and Harriet Eastwood. Of the two schools in Delaware, M. S. Ayres 
presided over one of 35 pupils for 193 days, his pay being 9 8s. 2d., 
or about $47, out of the school fund, together with subscriptions. 
Among the teachers, of what is now Middlesex, in 1842-3, who did not 
receive moneys from the school fund that year, were John Eoss and 


Nelson Eastwood, of Lobo ; Arthur L. Triller and Wra. Livingstone, 
of Caradoc ; William McClary, Hiram Schenick, A. Dunbar, Sabina 
Manning, Leonard Bisbee and Joseph Hodgson, of Westminster; 
Launcelot Waller, Joseph E. Smith, Stephen J. Lancaster, Augusta 
Brewster, 0. N. Donbe and Mr. Willis, of Dorchester, and John 
Downer, of Adelaide. John Wilson, afterward Justice Wilson, was 
General Superintendent of the District Schools in 1844, but he resign- 
ing in May, 1845, and William Elliot, present County Judge, was 
appointed by the Council, and held the position until its abolition 
under the school law of 1850. 

The first appointments of school superintendents appear to have 
been made Feb. 15, 1844. They are named as follows: John Beck- 
ton, Mosa ; Daniel McFarlane, Esq., Ekfrid ; Eev. D. E. Blake, Ade- 
laide ; Crowell Wilson, London ; James Campbell, Aldborough ; Alex. 
Strathy, Westminster ; Ben. Springer, Delaware ; Daniel Harvey, 
Yarmouth ; Duncan McKellar, Caradoc ; Wm. Veitch, Bayham ; David 
Abel, Malahide ; Wm. Benson, Dunwich ; Thomas Hussey, Southwold ; 
W. H. Niles, Dorchester, and Alex. Sinclair, Lobo. 

In 1847 there were seven public schools in Adelaide, the teachers 
of which received 190; five in Caradoc, 210; five in Delaware, 
156 ; sixteen in Dorchester, 348 ; seven in Ekfrid, 202 ; eleven in 
Lobo, 472 ; five in London town, 450 ; twenty-five in London 
Township, 760 ; four in Metcalfe, 120; six in Mosa, 264; seven-, 
teen in Westminster, 656 ; eight in Williams, 130. 

In 1847 the office of Township School Superintendent was abol- 
ished, but revived in 1851, and continued until 1871. 

In 1850 Edmund Sheppard was appointed Local School Superin- 
tendent for North and South Dorchester on recommendation of Judge 
Elliot, who was then District Superintendent. In 1850 the Board of 
Public Instruction for Middlesex and Elgin was organized, with Messrs. 
French, Bishop Cronyn and John Wilson, of London ; Silcox, of South- 
wold, and Edmund Sheppard members. 

Under the law reviving the office of Township Superintendent, 
Eevs. J. Skinner, J. Gunn, W. A. Clarke, W. Sutherland, E. Flood, C. 
C. Brough, J. Gordon and G. Grant, with Messrs. James Armstrong, 
Geo. W. Eoss, William Taylor, Adam Murray, and few others, named 
in the list of 1855-6 were appointed. 

In 1852 the school population was 9,482 ; the number of schools 
133 ; average attendance, 3,314 ; number of teachers, 137 ; average 
salary of male teachers, $235 ; of female, $116 ; and total amount ex- 
pended, $20,235. In 1862 there were 16,280 pupils, entailing a total 
expenditure of $49,497 ; and, in 1872, 19,454 pupils, the expenditure 
being $99,205. 

The school superintendents in 1855 were Joseph Spettigue, Eev. 
W. K. Sutherland, A. Campbell, Eev. James Skinner, Adam Murray, 
Eevs. C. C. Brough and John Gunu, with E. P. Toothe, John Johnson 
and Charles Hardie. 


During the January Session of 1856 the following superintendents 
of schools were appointed : A. Campbell, Rev. Skinner, Rev. C. C. 
Brough, Adam Murray, Rev. Sutherland, Rev. Wm. Ames, George 
Richardson, Charles Hardie, Rev. Richard Saul and Donald Cameron. 
In 1857 John Cameron, Revs. Flood and Deese, John Carey and 
William McClutchey, with the ministers above named, and Messrs. 
Hardie and Murray were superintendents. 

From the list given in 1858, it appears that Rev. Edward Sullivan 
presided over Lobo and London ; Rev. A. S. Falls, Strathroy ; Rev. 
McEwen, Westminster; Robert Stevenson, of Williams East, and 
John A. Scoone, Williams West. The names of Reverends Deese,. 
Flood, J. Skinner, Gunn and Inglis, with Messrs. A. Campbell, D. 
P. Aylesworth, R. Campbell and Charles Hardie are also given. In 
1859-60 the only change made in school superintendents was the 
appointment of Alexander Levie over the schools of Williams. 
Among the school superintendents of 1861 were Edward Handy, of 
Caradoc; Rev. N. McKinnon, of Mosa, in opposition to Rev. Gunn, 
James Burns, of Westminster, and Rev. A. S. Falls of Metcalfe. 
Otherwise the list of 1859-60 was unchanged. 

The list of 1862 gives the following names : Wm. Deese, Edward 
Handy, Rev. R. Flood, James * Yenning, R. Campbell, sr, Rev. J. 
Skinner, E. Sullivan, A. S. Falls, John Gunn, Charles Hardie, J. A. 
Scoone, Rev. R. Stephenson, James Armstrong, Dr. Cowan. In 1863 
Dr. Francis was appointed school superintendent of Delaware ; John 
Atkinson, of Biddulph ; Wm. Fletcher, of McGillivray ; Thomas Ure r 
of Lobo, and John P. Du Moulin, of London. Otherwise the list of 
1862 was the same. 

The superintendents of 1864 were : John A. Scoone, Rev. E. 
Saunders, Ed. Handy, Dr. Francis, Rev. Debarre, Rev. W. R. Suther- 
land, Rev. J. Skinner, J. P. DuMoulin, Rev. A. Stewart, Rev. J. Gunn, 
Rev. W. Fletcher, C. Hardie, James Armstrong, R. Stephenson and A. 

The school superintendents in 1865 appointed were: Reverends 
A. S. Falls, E. Saunders, G. Grant, of Delaware ; L. Debarres, W. R. 
Sutherland, James Skinner, Wm. Taylor, A. Stewart, Wm. Fletcher, 
John Gunn, Charles Hardie, James Armstrong, James Campbell, and 
Robert Stephens. 

The local school superintendents appointed in January, 1866, are 
named as follows : Rev. John Gunn, Mosa; Rev. W. R. Sutherland, 
Ekfnd ; James Campbell, East Williams ; Rev. Geo. Grant, Delaware ; 
R. P. Toothe, and Rev. A. S. Falls, Adelaide ; Rev. Wm. Fletcher, Mc- 
Gillivray ; Edward Handy, Caradoc ; Charles Hardie, Nissouri ; Wm. 
Taylor, London; Dr. McCaw, West Williams ; James Armstrong, 
Westminster ; Rev. T. E. Sanders, Biddulph ; Rev. E. Walker, Lobo ; 
Hanson Thompson, Metcalfe ; Rev. James Gordon, North Dorchester ; 
and m 1867, Rev. A. S. Falls, Rev. E. Sanders, Edward Handy, Rev. 
Geo. Grant, T. D. Keffer, Rev. W. R. Sutherland, J. T. A. S. Fayett, 


Wm. Taylor, Harrison Thompson, Rev. A. Stewart, Eev. W. Fletcher, 
Charles Hardie, Rev. J. McLeod, Dr. McCaw and J. Armstrong. 

The changes in school superintendents in 1868 were : Rev. James 
Gordon of Dorchester ; James Young, of London ; Rev. W. Fletcher, 
of McGillivray and Lobo ; Dr. M. Foster, of Nissouri ; Geo. W. Ross,, 
of East Williams ; and A. M. Ross, of Westminster. 

The school superintendents for 1869, in the order of township, are 
named as follows : Rev. James Donaldson ; Rev. E. Sanders ; E. 
Handy, Rev. Geo. Grant, Rev. James Gordon, Rev. W. R. Suther- 
land ; G. W. Ross, Joseph Young, Harrison Thompson, Rev. A. Stew- 
art, Dr. McKinnon, Dr. Foster, G. W. Ross, Charles Munroe, and Rev. 
Geo. Simpson. 

The only changes from 1869 in the list of school superintendents 
for 1870 are Duncan Leitch, of Metcalfe ; Dr. McAlpin, of McGilliv- 
ray, and Rev. R. Hall, of Nissouri W. The superintendents of 1869 
in the other townships were re-appointed. The only changes from 
1870 in the list of school superintendents for 1871 are as follows : 
J. R. Armitage, appointed for Biddulph; Rev. Mr. Davis, for Mc- 
Gillivray ; and Rev. J. Pritchard, for Williams West. 

The Eastern School Circuit, established under the act of February 
15, 1871, by the Council in June that year, embraced Biddulph, Nis- 
souri, Dorchester N., Westminster, London and Delaware. The 
Western Circuit then established comprised Lobo, Caradoc, 'Ekfrid, 
Mosa, Metcalfe, McGillivray, Adelaide, East and West Williams, with 
Wardsville and Strathroy villages. S. P. Groat was elected inspector 
for the Eastern and J. C. Glashan for the Western Circuit, each claim- 
ing 77 schools. S. P. Groat, School Inspector of Division No. 2, re- 
signed Dec. 1, 1874, and John Dearness was appointed temporarily, 
and the same day was appointed regularly. 

In the East Middlesex District, of which John Dearness reported in 
June, 1874, the enrollment was 9,425, 54 male and 40 female teachers. 
Westminster paid the highest salary, $520, the other townships pay- 
ing $500 ; but the highest average salary, $448, was paid by Bid- 
dulph. He speaks of $59,485.57, representing the expenditure for 
school purposes in his district in 1877, as being $336.96 less than the 
amount expended in 1876, and further states that the only teachers 
presiding over the same schools, in 1878 as in 1875, were Alex. 
McMillan and Kate Sproat, of Biddulph; J. A. Lyman and Flora, 
McCall, of Westminster, and W. D. Eckert and A. Stock, of London 
East. In his report for 1879 he points out the total expenditures 
as $59,494.28 ; the total enrollment. 9,548. 

Inspector J. S. Carson, of the West Middlesex School District, re- 
porting in 1878, speaks harshly of the poor qualifications of Middlesex, 
teachers of 1877. The 97 schools, employing 110 teachers, claimed 
five teachers holding first class old county board certificates, 38 pro- 
vincial and 67 the lowest legal grade. Lobo paid the highest salaries, 
$400 annually to female and $575 to male teachers. There were- 


43 brick school buildings and 54 frame ones. The denominational 
character of the teachers shows 47 Presbyterians, 33 Methodists, 12 
English Church, 10 Baptists, five Catholics and three Disciples. In 
his report of June, 1879, he places the expenditure in 1878 at 
$62,77*4.41, including charges to capital account, or $48,450.08, being 
$5.38 per registered pupil. There were 56 provincial teachers, 47 
third class, and seven old county board teachers employed, the aver- 
age salary being $291 for female teachers. 

Mr. Carson, reporting for the year ending December 31, 1879, 
states, that the nine townships and five incorporated villages in his 
division had 43 brick and 55 frame buildings ; 72 male and 40 female 
teachers presiding over 8,232 pupils. The total sum paid teachers was 
$41,253.39, and, for other items, $6,916.84. He complained bitterly 
of the extent and obscenity of inscriptions and caricatures on the walls 
of school buildings. Inspector Dearness, of East Middlesex, reported 
an enrollment of 9,260 pupils, and a total expenditure of $53,643.71. 
At the close of 1874 there were two of the old log school buildings in 
London Township and three in Biddulph. No. 10 was replaced by a 
frame house, and old 15, in London, was unused in 1879. In Biddulph 
the Langford log school-house was broken up, the Atkinson log school- 
house was boarded on the outside, while the Donnelly school, then 
the largest log house in the county, was burned. The school law of 
1871 is responsible for such improvement. 

Inspector Carson reported in 1881 an enrollment of 8,248 pupils 
in his district, at a cost per capita of $6.20 for the year 1880, the total 
outlay being $51,155.50. Of the 99 school buildings, not one was 
erected that year. There were 112 teachers, 70 males and 42 females, 
presiding over 3,760 pupils, or 46 per cent, of the enrollment. 

John Dearness, of Division No. 2, reported a total expenditure of 
$51,790.81, of which teachers received $42,084.43. The number of 
pupils enrolled was 9,228, showing a male majority of 834. 

The report of Inspector Carson for 1881 gives $51,148.48 as the 
amount expended for school purposes in the Western Division and the 
number of schools 97. Of 7,923 pupils enrolled, only 3,619 attended 
school over 100 days. There were 113 teachers employed, at an aver- 
age salary for males of $429 and for females of $300. 

The report on the Eastern Division by Inspector Dearness shows 
an expenditure of $50,727.39. There were 63 male teachers and 27 
female teachers employed, where in 1874 there were 47 male and 42 
female teachers. The enrollment of 9,177 shows a male majority of 

Inspector Carson, in his report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1882, 
shows $53,302.94 expended in the Western School Division, or $6.70 
per capita. He fails not to notice that Middlesex expended more on 
schools in 1882 than any other county in Ontario, $114,622.82, of 
which the sum of $85,378.71 was expended on teachers' salaries, being 
#5,432.69 over the highest sum paid by any other county. In his 



division 7,701 pupils were enrolled, of whom 3,603 attended, or 47 
per centum. There were 51 frame and 45 brick school buildings. 
Inspector Dearness shows a total expenditure of $62,184.80 in the 
Eastern Division on an enrollment of 9,026. There were 57 male 
teachers employed at an average salary of $384 and 54 female teachers 
at $240, while the average attendance was about 47.9. 

In 1883, $54,591.04 were expended on the schools of the Western 
Division, of which $43,615.83 represented teachers' salaries. The 
number of pupils enrolled was 7,340, or 3,837 boys and 3,503 girls. 
Seventy male and 40 female teachers were employed. In this year a 
new house was erected in McGillivray. In the Eastern Division the 
enumeration was 8,715, 4,703 boys and 4,012 girls, and the cost of 
education was $6.08 per capita. The total expenditure was $55,684 31. 
Inspector Carson's report on the Western Division schools for 1884 
gives $55,065.72 as total expenditure, or $7.71 per capita, based on an 
enumeration of 7,145, 3,767 boys and 3.378 girls. One hundred and 
eleven teachers were employed. In the Eastern Division a total 
expenditure of $60,345.27 was reported. The enumeration shows 
8,610 pupils, of whom 49 per cent, attended. The Western District 
report for 1885 shows an expenditure of $50,949.50, or a cost per pupil 
of $7.07. In Strathroy and Mosa the cost was $6.32 and $5.57 
respectively. The average salary paid male teachers was $442 and 
female teachers $319. The school population was 8,002, while the 
average attendance was 4,073 ; Strathroy showing 478, of 800 enrolled, 
attending. During the year 131 teachers were employed. In the 
Eastern District the enrollment was 7,550, while the attendance was 
50.44 per cent. The total expenditures amounted to $51,746 50, The 
average salary paid male teachers was $447 and female teachers $308. 
The highest salary paid any teacher was $600 in Nissouri. The 
expenditure for 1886 in the Western. District was $68,561.74, Strath- 
roy contributing $8,987.51 and Parkhill $2,588.22 of the total. There 
were 122 teachers employed at an average cost of $561.98, and an 
average salary of $435.40 for male teachers and $320.90 for female 
teachers. The enrollment was 7,884 while the attendance was over 
51 per cent. In the Eastern District the total expenditure amounted 
to $58,814.55. The number of pupils enrolled was 7,644 while the 
attendance was a little over one-half. The number of rural school- 
buildings was 88. The average salary paid male teachers was $444 
and female teachers $308. One of the events of the year worthy of 
note, was the establishment of a kindergarten (the first in this part 
of the Province) in London South (S. S. No. 2, Westminster). 

In 1799 Mr. Strachan, afterwards Bishop Strachan, arrived from 
Scotland, with the object of taking charge of the college which 
Governor Simcoe desired to establish in connection with the English 
Church. Simcoe was gone, and the subject of the college slept. A 
.year after, Richard Cartwright, referred to in the political history, gave 
Mr. Strachan charge of the education of his four sons, with the privi- 


lege of taking ten more pupils at the rate of $50 each per year. In 
1803 Mr. Strachan moved to Cornwall, whither thirteen of his pupils 
followed. Educational matters claimed much of his attention, and on 
March 15, 1827, the University of King's College was chartered, with 
nine officers, members of the Church of England. This denominational 
feature was removed in 1842-3, and a Secular College established. 
The Eoyal Grammar School became incorporated with the Upper 
Canada College in 1829. From such beginnings spread forth the several 
Collegiate Institutes which are now found in Western Ontario. Insti- 
tutions for the higher education of women were begun at Sand- 
wich by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart early in the fifties, and, later, 
continued at London, where, still later, Hellmuth Ladies' College was 
established. In the history of London City, sketches of the common 
schools and higher educational institutions are given. 




The building of a road through the district where London now 
stands was ordered in 1817. The line had previously been surveyed 
by Government officials, and it remained then for men to turn out and 
lay down the rude " corduroy," over which the settler's cart rattled and 
bumped for twenty years afterwards. The first entry in the road 
register was made by John B. Askin, under an order of Session, dated 
January 12, 1822. The entry shows an examination by A. A. Rapelje, 
surveyor for the Townships of Walpole and Rainham, of a road from 
the bank of Lake Erie, on the eastern line of Rainham Township to the 
western limits of the Township of Walpole. Richard Bristol, deputy 
surveyor, laid out a road January 11, 1821, from the line between lots 
5 and 6 Talbot street, to the conflux of Otter Creek and Lake Erie. 
On March 20, 1822, a road in the Township of Bayham was surveyed 
on land granted to His Majesty by William Hatch, Thomas Neville, 
&nd Nathan Gas well, residents of Bayham, then in the County of 
Middlesex. On this date John Bostwick, surveyor, reported that a 
road from the mouth of Kettle Creek to Talbot road, surveyed in 1821, 
was impracticable, at least from Goodhue's mill to their still house, 
and lie asked the magistrates to alter said road so as to run from the 
mill by the house of Daniel Rapelje, and thence to the summit of the 
hill, keeping along the brow across the lands of William Drake. Later 
in 1822, John Saxton, of Bayham, presented the following letter to the 
magistrates of Quarter Sessions : " Whereas, James Hutcheson has 
made application to me to look over the ground that Col. Burwell 
surveyed from No. 16 to Big Otter Creek, and the line that Mr. 
Hazen run : I do hereby certify that I find the Hazen line to be on 
the best ground and easiest made a comfortable road." 

In September, 1822, Samuel Smith, surveyor, recommended altera- 
tion of the road on the West Branch of Kettle Creek, so as to pass 
through the lands of John Mitchell, the Hamiltons, J. Warren and 
Henry Reamy to the Talbot road east. In July, 1823, Surveyor Jos. 
Lemon laid out a road along the Charlotte ville town line. 

Peter Lossing explored a road from the front of the 3rd Conces- 
sion of Norwich to Cromwell and Schooley's Mills. In September, 
1824, Timothy Kilbourn examined the Proof Line in London from the 
north-east corner of the 12th Concession to the mill creek crossing of 
the llth Concession line. On December 3, 1824, John Saxton sur- 
veyed a road in the Townships of Bayham and Malahide, from lot 7 
on the oth Concession and No. 6 on the 4th to Joel Tyrrell's, via Henry 
Ribble's, John Coil's and Aaron Tyrrell's. Surveyor James Carroll 
laid out roads in Dereham and Norwich in 1825. Roswell Mount 



surveyed, in March, 1826, a road nearly parallel with an allowance for 
a road between the 3rd and 4th Concessions of London, one beginning 
in the centre of the 4th Concession and one beginning in the eastern 
limit of the road allowance between lots 8 and 9 in the 3rd Concession. 
At this time there was a bridge across the North Branch. 

In Nov. 1827, Surveyor Mount laid out a road commencing on the 
west side of the East Branch bridge, near the south-east angle of 
London Township, and also other roads in London, Carradoc and Lobo. 
He reported the line of a road in Lobo impracticable by reason of its 
crossing Silver Creek several times. In October, 1827, John Bostwick 
examined a road from the Dereham furnace to the Talbot road, so as 
to intersect that road between lots 15 and 16 in Bay ham. In Decem- 
ber, 1827, a petition was presented representing the necessity of a new 
road from the Commissioners' Eoad to the bridge at the forks of the 
Thames. In November, 1827, Mr. Mount surveyed a road from a 
point near the centre of the 3rd Concession of Lobo, beginning on 
the bank of a large creek and along the bank to the front of the con- 

In November, 1827, a petition to the Justices represented the 
necessity of a road from Burleigh Hunt's store, on the Commissioners' 
Road in Westminster, to the side-road between lots 24 and 25, on the 
Thames in London, across the bridge, and over the river at Gardiner's 
mill in Westminster, and again from the bridge to the Government 
road at Frank's place. This was surveyed by Roswell Mount. In 
December, 1827, a road was surveyed between lots 18 and 19, in 
Westminster, to Watters & Lamore's mill, on the rear part of lot 18, 
1st Concession. There was a road surveyed from the mill along the 
south side of the pond ; also a road from Tiffany's mill in Delaware to 
the north branch of Talbot road, to come out near Dingman's farm on 
that road. Sylvanus Reynolds, foreman of a jury to examine the 
ground donated for a Government road through the Township of Dela- 
ware, declared that the route is impracticable, and asked for re-location. 
In July, 1828, Surveyor John Bostwick laid out roads in the 
Catfish Creek neighborhood, in Malahide and Yarmouth, while Peter 
Lossing made re-surveys in Burford, Wingham and Norwich, to facilitate 
travel to and from the Norwich saw and grist mill. Wm. K. Cornish 
surveyed a road from the centre of Townsend Township to the Indian 
lands at the mouth of Patterson's Creek. In March, 1829, a road 
from the 4th Concession of London, to the Thames bridge at B. Wood- 
hull's mills, in Lobo, was laid out by Roswell Mount, part of it follow- 
ing the old Mill Creek Road. In April, 1829, a street was laid out by 
Mr. Mount for Dr. Tiffany near his mills in Delaware village. About 
this time a road from Woodhull's mill, in Lobo, to the Longwoods 
Road, in Caradoc, at a point near James Craig's farm, was surveyed 
by Mount. 

On January 13, 1830, the Court of Quarter Sessions resolved : 
' If the members of each division of roads were to furnish for their 


divisions a proper scraper for furrowing and repairing the roads (to be 
kept in possession of the roadmasters for the time being), it would add 
greatly to the effect of the statute labor, as well as to the ease and 
comfort of the inhabitants. This might be carried into complete effect 
by small subscriptions in wheat delivered to persons who would get 
the scrapers made in the course of the winter, and the court strongly 
recommends this measure to the adoption of the inhabitants generally.'* 

The act of March 6, 1830, granted 1,100 to the London District 
to be expended on roads and bridges. The Commissioners named were 
Daniel McCall, Ezekiel Foster, Jacob Potts, jr., Wm. Lymburner, 
Elial Martin, Thomas J. Homer, Eobert Alway, Jacob Kain, John 
Hatch, Hiram D. Lee, Capt. Marvel White, Thomas McCall and Geo. 

On March 16, 1831, 2.000 were granted by Pa.rliament to the 
London District to be expended on roads and bridges. The several 
Commissioners were Leslie Patterson, of Dunwich ; Ewen McKinley; 
of Aldborough ; George Wilson, Andrew Dobie and Isaac Draper, of 
what is now Elgin ; John O'Neil and Henry Sherwick, of Westminster ; 
Duncan McKenzie, Wm. Kobertson and James Parkinson, of London ; 
Dudley Merrill and Linus Forbes, of London ; Eoswell Mount, James 
Craig and Singleton Gardiner, of Caradoc, Ekfrid and Mosa; Benj. 
Wilson and James Neville, of St. Thomas and Port Stanley ; Finlay 
Malcolm, John Kelly and Peter Sackrider, of Norwich; G. W. White- 
head, Geo. Higson and Michael Stover, for road from Whitehead's, in 
Burford, to the Quaker meeting-house in Norwich ; John Weir, Richard 
Brawn and John Kern, for road in Burford ; John Hatch, Jacob Kern 
and Hugh McDermid, of London and Oxford ; Daniel Carrol and Jas. 
Ingersoll, North Oxford ; S. Huckett, P. Hayle and Wm. Reynolds, for 
the Dereham furnace road ; John Phalan, L. Charles, J. Smith, Thos. 
Roach, J. M. McLeod, Michael Showers, Peter Bastedo, D. Burns, H. 
Graham, J. Austin, P. Beemer, R. Potts, F. Sovereen, R. Richardson, 
Elijah Doan, 0. Maybee, C. Dederick, G. Culver and M. Tisdale. 

On April 2, 1830, a road from the west side of Ridout street, in the 
northern limit of the allowance for road north of the town plot of 
London, to the Proof Line of London Township, was surveyed by Ros- 
well Mount. 

In April, 1831, Peter Carroll re-surveyed the road between the 
llth and 12th Concession of Nissouri, extending from a point opposite 
the bridge over the middle branch of the Thames. At this time a road 
from the Commissioners' Road, on a line between lots 44 and 45 to 
Stillman Old's tanyard, and thence to McMillan's bridge, was surveyed 
by Wm. K. Cornish. 

In June, 1831, the road through the long woods was altered in 
Ekfrid, so as to avoid the six old fords on the Ten-mile Creek and the 
two long fords on Eighteen-mile Creek. In Mosa Township the road 
was changed from the bridge over Twenty -mile Creek to the old road 
in front of lot 6, thus avoiding two hills and two fords. 


Wharncliff road was surveyed by Peter Carroll early in 1831, but 
re-surveyed on a new route in September that year by M. Burwell, 
shortening the old route two and three-quarter miles, and avoiding the 
hills on the old road. 

In early years the Government opened a road on the survey of 
B. B. Brigham, from a point between lots 22 and 23 on the first range 
north of the Longwoods road in Caradoc to the town of Adelaide. 

In July, 1833, Richard Brown surveyed a road from the north side 
of Forbes' bridge over the Thames westward through Forbes' orchard, 
Willson's house and orchard, to the south-west corner of Concession 4, 
A, in the broken front, Township of London ; thence diagonally across 
numbers 5 and 6, in Concession A, keeping the height of land to D. 
Merrill's saw mill darn ; thence up the hill to Concession B in London. 
A road was also surveyed through the 1st Concession of Westmin- 
ster, south between lots 9 and 8 to the Commissioners' Road, and one 
from the south side of the bridge, east along the river bank to Norton's 
grist mill ; thence round the pond and across the lands of Hiram 

In November, 1842, the Council petitioned Hamilton H. Killaly, 
President of the Board of Works of the Province of Ontario, drawing 
his attention to the dangerous state of the bridge over the Thames at 
the stage road crossing in Delaware Township. This improvement 
was asked for in view of the proposed Provincial Plank Road, which, it 
was alleged, would be built along that route. 

Toll Roads. On Sept. 1,1850, 3,700 were paid to the Provincial 
Government for the Port Stanley Road. In December, 1850, a lease 
of tolls on the system of government roads was issued to Nov. 30, 
1851, for 824. The county also purchased the Delaware bridge for 
100, and the Brantford roads for 700, the sum being payable in 
ten years at five per cent. 

In response to a motion by Richard Tooley and John Kearns, 
made December 10, 1869, the following statement of the length in 
miles, amount of income derived from tolled roads, and county rate 
paid from January 1, 1852 to December 31, 1868, inclusive, was made : 


Adelaide 6 Sarnia road $ 2,460 97 $ 58,698 76 

Caradoc 6 Longwoods road 7, 282 34 71,187 80 

Delaware 4 Longwoods road 4,44885 44,87114 

Delaware 2 Delaware and Lobo br. road. 336 58 ... 

Dorchester North.. 2 Westminster & Dorchester rd. 1,93299 92,25455 

Dorchester North . . 3 Governor's road 2,615 70 

Dorchester North . . 9 Brantford road 11, 184 14 

Dorchester North . . 11 Elgin road 1,737 56 

Lobo , 8 Sarnia road 12,56374 91,60696 

Lobo 7 1-7 Lobo and Williams road 1,32176 

Lobo 1 Delaware and Lobo br. road.. 336 58 

London 6 Sarnia road 29,32066 266,72331 

London 14 Adelaide st. & between 8 & 9. 6,96061 

Carried forward $82,502 48 



Brought forward $ 82,502 48 

London 5 Governor's road 14,11869 

London 5J Brantford road 14,38106 

Mosa 5 Haggarty road 6,282 63 68,575 75 

Nissouri West 7| Wyton road 3,54096 76,66698 

Nissouri West 3 Governor's road 2,615 69 

Westminster 2 Brantford road 14,14090 195,19217 

Westminster 2 Longwoods road 9,15656 

Westminster 14 Port Stanley road 64,002 21 

Westminster 2 Westminster & Dorchester rd. 1,932 98 

Westminster 5| Wellington bridge road 12, 525 87 

Williams East 2| Lobo and Williams road 816 46 34, 706 96 

$226,015 59 

In addition to the sums paid the local municipalities given above, 
Ekfrid paid $58,535.09; Metcalfe, $41,045.15; Williams East $27,- 
583.09 ; Williams West, $24,629.89; Biddulph, 1863-68, $6,230.55 ; 
McGillivray, 1863-68, $8,117.70; Strathroy, 1860-68, $9,983.56; 
and Wardsville, $447. 

In June, 1851, Freeman Talbot, County Engineer, reported on a road 
from the Proof Line of London Township to the western boundary of 
Adelaide. In view of a successful charcoal road built in Michigan 
that year, the Engineer recommended a similar road for Adelaide, and 
a gravel road for London and Lobo. In concluding his report, he says : 
" The whole distance through the Townships of London and Lobo is 
about sixteen miles, and could be made for about 300 per mile, includ- 
ing a number of new culverts and a bridge across the Medway, which 
is now in a dilapidated state. Thus the work would cost 4,800, on 
which three toll gates might be erected, from which the sum of 500 
net might at once be collected." 

The work of grading and graveling was at once entered upon, and 
that year witnessed the improvement of the old Government roads 
and the completion of new highways. 

K. Johnson, of the Committee on County Eoads, in his report of 
December 19, 1851, refers to George Cavanaugh, who purchased gate 
No. 6 on the Port Stanley road ; to the building of Westminster 
bridge ; to Henry Sifton, who claimed 150 damages for being denied 
the privilege of taking gravel from lands adjoining a road for which 
he was contractor; to I. McCutcheon, who was allowed 54 for loss 
sustained through the bridge being swept away in the spring. 

From a statement submitted in. November, 1852, it appears that 
up to that day there were 13,776 expended on the Port Stanley 
road, 5,021 on the Brantford road, 1,426 on the Delaware road, and 
161 J on the Delaware bridge, showing a total of about 20,384. Of 
this sum tolls on Port Stanley road returned 4,072 ; on Brantford 
road, 1,583, and on Delaware bridge, 165, leaving a debt on account 
of roads of about 14,564. The Delaware road was not completed at 
that date. 

In December, 1853, the Finance Committee recommended the 



issue of debentures for 11,000, payable in sums of 550 annually, 
commencing in 1854 and ending in 1874. At this time the deben- 
tures outstanding were 4,500, due the Provincial Government in 
1860 ; debentures under By-law No. 6, maturing in 1854-5, 2,000 ; 
debentures under By-law No. 10, due in 1855-7, 6,000 ; debentures 
under By-law No. 22, payable in 1863, 20,000, and the debentures 
proposed as above for 11.000. At this time, November, 1853, there 
were 27,984 8s. 5d. expended on county roads, and 8,427 8s. 8d. 
required to complete the roads then under way. 

On Jan. 26, 1354, Donald Eraser, of the Committee of Public 
Improvements, reported in favor of appropriating 59,039 to be 
expended on roads opened in 1853, as following : 5,000 on the 
Delaware and Chatham roads ; 4,926 on Governor's road ; Welling- 
ton Bridge road, 3,499 ; Elgin road, 4,158 ; Currie road, 7,225 ; 
Hagarty road, 3,200 ; Adelaide road, 3,835 ; London and Sarnia 
road, 4,800; Lobo and Williams road, 5,819; Westminster and 
Dorchester townline, 5,097 ; Delaware, south of the gravelled road, 
5,435; London, Wyton and' St. Marys road, 6,045. 

The total amount expended on toll roads in each township between 
January 1, 1852, and December 31, 1868, is set forth as follows : 
Adelaide, $25,143.24; Caradoc, $47,493.19 ; Delaware, $21,315.80 ; 
Dorchester N., $86,674.46 ; Ekfrid, $14,833.73 ; Lobo, 78,196.88 ; 
London, $144,097.51 ; Mosa, $30,542.78 ; Nissouri W., $40,802.40 ; 
Westminster, $101,327.38, and E. Williams, $8,770.03, aggregating 
$599,197.40. The sum received during the sixteen years was less 
than half the amount expended, so that on the face of the account 
the toll road appears to have proved itself an expensive luxury, as 
well as a vexatious improvement. The total sum expended on all 
other roads in the county during the sixteen years amounted to 
$739,458.50, of which the city granted $14,500. 

The expenditure on county roads, from 1859 to 1864 inclusive, 
was $49,037.87, the year 1862 claiming the greatest outlay, $11,071. 10. 
The total receipts for road fund during the six years amounted to 
$78,911.22, thus leaving a balance of $29,873.35. The sum of $3,011 
was expended on roads, from which revenue was not derivable. From 
Dec. 1, 1851, to Jan. 1, 1872, the townships expended on toll roads 
$626,863.73, and on common highways $779,828.68. The first item 
amounted to $654,272.19, and the second to $807,707.39, by Jan. 1, 
1873. The amount expended on tolled roads, from Dec. 31, 1872, to 
Jan. 1, 1878, was $92,291.90; while $27,840.67 were expended on 
common highways and their bridges ; $8,180, county grants, expended 
for township boundary lines; $21,014.49 for tolled-road bridges, and 
$3,205 for plank and work on various county roads. From Dec. 31, 
1851, to Jan. 1, 1872, the sum expended on tolled roads was $626,- 
863.73; on common roads, $133,039.95; county grant to township 
lines, $19,925 ; total, $779,828.68. The total revenue from toll roads, 
from 1869 to 1873 inclusive, amounts to $74,199.53. The total amount 


of tolls received from county roads, from 1874 to 1880 inclusive, was 
$99,699.71, and the expenditure for repairs, &c., $133,471.88, being 
an excess of expenditure over revenue of $33,772.17. 

John Levie, Chairman of a Committee appointed by the Council in 
1872 on the abolition of tolls, reported on December 6, that year, as 
follows : " That the gross amount received annually at toll-gates is 
$18,500; that the average annual repairs and renewals amount to 
$9,000 ; that the lessees and gate-keepers receive annually $4,500 ; 
that the City of London offers to abolish market fees as soon as the 
county abolishes tolls." The report recommends the aboli- 

tion of tolls, but under plans, which could not bring a total abolition 

A Committee appointed in 1873 to devise an equitable scheme for 
the abolition of tolls upon the county roads reported, through J. Arm- 
strong, March 5, 1874, that in order to abolish tolls and do justice to 
the municipalities which have not received their equal share of road 
moneys, the payment of debenture debt should be so apportioned to 
each municipality in proportion to the amount expended by each for 
road and bridge improvement, thus decreasing the amounts such town- 
ships will have to pay in the future, as compared with rate of payment 
in 1874. Thus the debenture debt of 1874, $517,000 (exclusive of 
the amount which London City had to pay), would be apportioned 
as follows : Adelaide, $24,982.91 ; Caradoc, $44,575.31 ; Delaware, 
$28,103.36; Dorchester, $60,685.28; Ekfrid, $18,661.02; London, 
$101,254.95; Lobo, $53,716.80; Metcalfe, $20,092.38; Mosa. $24,074; 
Nissouri, $33,565.93 ; Westminster, $78,631.23 ; East Williams, 
$11,653.89; West Williams, $8,188.93 ; Strathroy, $3,271.27 ; Wards- 
ville, $2,410.07; Parkhill, $569.67; Newbury, $1,563. Such pay- 
ments spread over fourteen years at six per cent., the amount of 
annual payments to be decided upon by the Council, and each muni- 
cipality have the privilege of paying the whole or any portion of such 
amount apportioned at will. This Committee also recommended that 
the toll bridge at Wardsville and the toll roads of the county cease to 
solicit toll after January 1, 1875. In August, 1874, a resolution of 
the Council directed the Warden and Solicitor to have a bill presented 
to the Ontario Legislature on the basis of the above recommendations. 
At this time the London City Council agreed to abolish market fees sa 
long as the county roads were free, and this agreement was ordered to 
be noticed in the special bill to be presented to the Legislature. In 
June, ] 875, the same chairman reported a series of amendments to the 
first report. 

In December, 1874, James Armstrong, John Waters and Simon 
McLeod were appointed delegates to the Provincial Legislature to> 
advocate the passage of a bill for adjusting the debt and abolishing 
toll roads in this county. The tolls on county roads were abolished 
June 7, 1881, the by-law taking effect Jan. 1, 1882. At this time 
there were 21 leased toll gates and 13 hired under-keepers. 


In January, 1882, a communication from Street & Becher, barris- 
ters, pointed out the illegality of the by-law 352 of Sept. 26, 1881, 
ordering the issue of debentures for effecting the abolition of tolls. 
This letter also pointed out that should the Council carry out the 
proposition to issue similar debentures, the barristers named were 
authorized to bring the matter before the courts. 

Tn December, 1865, the toll gates on the several roads were rented 
to the following buyers : 

Gate No. 1, Dorchester Town Line, to Ralph Simpson. 
2, " " " " Samuel Wilson. 

4, Elgin Road, to Wm. Thompson. 

1, Lobo and Williams Road, to Robert Laird. 

2, " " " Wm. Grayson. 

1, Wyton Road, to W. F. Howard. 

3, Sarnia Road, to A. Me Arthur. 

2, Longwoods Road, to M. A. Langtry. 

3, T. Langtry. 

1, Hagarty Road, to R. Dixon. 

2, " " J. Martin. 

In 1882 the gates and buildings were sold outright. 

Early Bridges. In the history of London reference is made to the 
first bridges built in the county. In 1829 a bridge was built over the 
Thames, in Caradoc and Delaware, on the road leading from York to 
Sandwich. In January, 1830, a sum of 87 10s was still due, and 
this sum the magistrates asked the Legislature to grant, as the bridge 
was a provincial rather than a district work. In the spring of 1830, 
50 were granted toward building a bridge on the north branch of the 
Thames, on the new road from the court-house. Statute labor was 
ordered to be expended on the bridge near Dingman's Creek. From 
this period forward bridges multiplied, and a few years later fording 
the creeks and rivers was something that had passed away for ever. 

James Cull, District Surveyor in 1843, suggested the building of 
a bridge over the Thames in Ekfrid at the Tyrconnell road crossing. 
He pointed out the value of a good road to Tyrconnell, as their goods 
could be shipped or landed with as much convenience as at any part 
of the lake, except in a harbor. In his report he refers to the Delaware 
and Kil worth bridges, and states, that during the winter of 1842-3 the 
ice piled up several feet above the railing of the former, and in both 
cases caused serious injury. With the exception of the two broken 
bridges, there was not (in May, 1843,) a bridge over the Thames-in 
150 miles, the distance by river from London to Chatham. 

In August, 1843, the old Delaware bridge was taken down, and 
one Leynard, a contractor, Adam Douglass and John Lloyd, black- 
smiths, John Breaker, Wm. Jones, John Lee and Geo. Lockyer, were 
accused before Magistrate G. J. Goodhue of appropriating the iron, 
and he ordered them to pay the District 15. 

In January, 1854, a bridge at Lobo Station, on the G. W. R. R., 
and a large number of new roads, were recommended to be constructed. 

In a communication addressed to the Council, December 3, 1887, 


by F. B. Talbot, Bridge Commissioner, it is stated that the Sylvan 
bridge erected in 1868 is believed to be the oldest one within the 
county. He recommended the removal of the old Delaware bridge ; 
also one at Wardsville, instead of the twenty-year-old structure, and 
one on the county line in North Dorchester, instead of the existing 
structure. The bridges leading into London, referred to in the history 
of the city, are all modern, time or flood having removed the primitive 
structures and their successors. From end to end of the county large 
and small bridges are well constructed. The Komoka bridge was 
swept away March 21, 1886, by an ice flow. In June, 1886, con- 
tracts for rebuilding this bridge, one at Delaware and that at Waubuno, 
was sold. 

In 1883 Government engineers, under G. F. Austin, made a survey 
of the Thames from Chatham to London to ascertain the practicability 
of its navigation. Among other suggestions he reported in favor of a 
canal from the river at Middlemiss to Lake Erie, via lona. 

Railroads. The London and Gore Eailroad Co. was incorporated 
March 6, 1834, with the object of building a road from London to 
Hamilton or Burlington Bay, and one to the navigable waters of the 
Thames and Lake Huron. This company comprised : Miles O'Eielly, 
Edward Allan Talbot, Thomas Parke, Geo. J. Goodhue, A. N. McNab, 
C. C. Ferrie, John McFarlane, Wm. Eobertson, Thomas Gibbons, L. 
Lawrason, Dennis O'Brien, John Scatcherd, James Hamilton, Joseph 
Cowley, Nicholas Gaffney, Joseph L. 0' Dell, John O'Neil, James 
Farley, John Jennings, Harvey Shepherd, John Kent, Albert S. 
O'Dell, Henry Shennick, Hiram D. Lee, Wm. B. Lee, Burley Hunt, 
Nathan Griffith, Andrew Drew, Kobert Alway, Peter Carroll, Dr. 
Charles Duncombe, Thomas Horner, Oliver Turner, E. A. Spalding, 
Geo. W. Whitehead, Peter Bamberger, Manuel Over-field, James Mc- 
Farlane, James B. Ewart, Thomas J. Horner, Joseph Greer, G. W. 
Bremner, Nathan Jacobs, Charles Goulding, T. U. Howard, T. J. Jones, 
James Ingersoll, John Young, John Weir, A. McDonnell, Wm. B. 
Sheldon, Ebenezer Stinson, Samuel Mills, Peter Hunter Hamilton, 
Abram K. Smith, Jos. Eoleston, T. Taylor, H. Carroll, C. Martin, 
James Eitchie, E. Jackson, Jedediah Jackson, Welcome Yale, Luke 
V. Spur, Ira Schofield, Mahlon Burwell, Andrew Miller, D. A. Mc- 
Nab, Wm. Notman, M. Crooks, Oliver Tiffany, P. Burley, Geo. T. 
Tiffany, Ed. Vanderlip, Wm. Case, A. Smith, and John Law. 

As far back as 1837 it appears that the idea of constructing a rail- 
road from the Niagara to the Detroit Eiver, passing through St. Thomas, 
was entertained. A notice in the Liberal calls upon stockholders in 
the " Niagara and Detroit Eivers Eailroad Company " to pay up their 
first installment of 2J per cent. This is signed " John Prince, Presi- 
dent; Park Farm, Sandwich, U. C." The scheme has slept for a 
number of years, however, and the dreams of the ambitious settlers 
along the line of the proposed road have been since carried out by 
their more enterprising neighbors to the north. 


On March 29, 1845, the act incorporating the London & Gore 
Railroad Co. was revived, but the name was changed to that of ' The 
Great Western Railroad Go." On June 9, 1846, another act confer- 
rin<* powers on a corresponding committee at London, Eng., was 
pasted, and on May 30, 1849, the charter was further amended. 
A branch road to Gait was authorized in August, 1850, and on April 
22, 1853, an act to anglicize the name into " The Great Western Rail- 
way Co." became law. 

The building of a main trunk line was provided for in the act 
approved August 30. 1851, and in November, 1852, further legisla- 
tion to facilitate railroad building was adopted. The act to incor- 
porate the Grand Trunk Railway was passed Nov. 10, 1852. This 
provided for a road from Toronto to Montreal. On the same day the 
Hamilton & Toronto Railroad was authorized. 

The act incorporating the London & Port Sarnia Railway Co. 
was assented to April 22 1853. Among the subscribers or share- 
holders were a number of English capitalists, a few residents of 
Hamilton, Niagara and Dundurn. The road was to be built from 
the foot of Lake to intersect the Great Western Railroad at or near 

On December 10, 1869, the following motion, showing the attitude 
of the Council toward railway companies, was proposed by S. McLeod, 
and seconded by R. Tooley, " Whereas, it is contemplated by the Legis- 
lature of Ontario to grant a charter to the Great Western Railroad Co. 
to enable them to build an air line from Dunville to Glencoe, the pas- 
sage of such an act we deem prejudicial to the commerce and agricul- 
tural interest of western Canada, and extending and confirming the 
present monopoly held by the Great Western and Grand Trunk Com- 
panies ; also that the Warden, etc., be instructed to telegraph immedi- 
ately to the county members not to support the western bill, but to 
advocate the granting of a charter to an independent company. 

The fusion of the Grand Trunk and Great Western Railroads was 
announced April 28, 1882. In January, 1883, the work of connecting 
the Great Western division and main line of the Grand Trunk between 
Sarnia and Point Edward, was begun, and the new railroad depot at 
Strathroy projected. 

The act to incorporate the London and Port Stanley Railroad 
was assented to May 23, 1853. The stockholders named were Mur- 
ray Anderson, G. W. Boggs, W. D. Hale, G. R. Williams, Robt. Thom- 
son, Wm. H. Higman, J. M. Batt, Boyce Thomson, Lawrence Lawra- 
son, Lionel Ridout, S. S. Pomeroy, E. Jones Parke, Elijah Leonard, 
Wm. Smith, S. Morrill, Freeman Talbot, Ellis W. Hyman, Thomas 
C. Dixon, Alex. Anderson, Thomas Cariing, Edward Adams, Samuel 
Peters, John K. Labatt, Wm. Barker, Daniel Harvey, Murdoch Mc- 
Kenzie, Crowell Willson and Cyrenius D. Hall. The capital stock 
was placed at 150,000. 

The London & Lake Huron Railroad Co. was incorporated June 


10, 1857. This act provided for a road from London to Port Franks, 
at the mouth of the Aux Saubles. The incorporators were Elijah 
Leonard, John Carling, David Glass, Marcus Holmes, John Birrell, 
Daniel Lester, Francis Smith, James Cousins, Wm. McBride, Patrick 
Y. Norris and John Wilson. 

The last rail was placed on the London, Huron & Bruce Eailroad 
December 11, 1875, and the road opened for traffic. 

In October, 1886, the Michigan Central Eailroad Co. obtained the 
the right to run their trains into London over the London & Port 
Stanley Kailroad. The by-law granting a loan or bonus of $75,000 to 
the London & South-eastern Kailway Co. was carried by 1,957 to 329, 
a majority of 1,628, in 1887. 

June 20 and 21 were the two days of 1887 devoted to the cele- 
bration of the entrance of the Canadian Pacific and the Michigan 
Central Kailroads to London, and in October, 1888, the extension of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad westward, between Waterloo street and the 
river, was begun. 

The London City Street Railway Company's franchise has been 
given out gradually, and on Feb. 8, 1885, the by-law granting 
privileges to the City Railway Co. for 50 years on Richmond from 
York to Dundas, and thence on Dundas to Adelaide, was approved ; 
Scatcherd and Meredith being the legal examiners. The road now 
extends to the eastern and the northern limits. 

Railroad Accidents. In 1853-4 a number of serious accidents 
marked the opening of the Great Western Railroad. Strong complaints 
were made, and the system improved a little, but still the work of 
railroad murder was carried on. In May, 1859, a Mrs. Rafferty was 
killed near Grafton by a Grand Trunk train. Isaac Heysette, a 
brakeman, was killed at Mt. Brydges, Sept. 2, 1859, while coupling 
cars. Benj. Harding, son of Wm. Harding, of the City Arms Hotel, 
King street, was killed near Princeton while returning from Niagara, 
in September, 1861. The London & Port Stanley Railroad accident of 
March 23, 1872, resulted in the death of E. Tonkin and Robert Fletcher, 
engine drivers, and injury to a number of persons. The deaths on the 
rail within the city of London in 1872 numbered six; the collision at 
the race course resulting in the killing of three persons. The accident 
of June 20, at the Adelaide Street crossing, in London, caused the 
death of George Thomas. Daniel Ward's head was severed from his 
body, and several men were seriously crushed. In November, 1872, 
an accident on the Port Stanley Railroad, north of St. Thomas, and one 
on the Grand Trunk Railroad, three miles south of Thorndale, were 
recorded. William T. Brown, of London, a brakeman on a freight train, 
was torn to pieces by an express train at Appin, July 18, 1873. It appears, 
while engaged in cooling a journal of his train, he left his lamp on the 
main track. Seeing the express coming, he reached for the lamp, was 
struck instantly, and carried under the train. The railway collision at 
Thamesville, Aug. 30, resulted in serious injury to fourteen persons. 


Mrs. Groves and her three children; Mrs. Nichols, of London, and 
Mrs. Black, of Strathroy, were among the injured. Christopher 
Gardiner, a youth residing near Glencoe, was run over by a train of 
seventeen flat cars in November, and his body cut into two parts. 

The destruction of a passenger coach near Komoka, February 29, 
1874, resulted in the incineration of nine human beings and fatal 
injuries to three others. A coroner's inquisition was held at Komoka, 
when witnesses related that the train, composed of the engine, three 
oil-tank cars, one baggage, one second-class and one first-class cars 
the last containing about fifty passengers, left London at 6.28 p. m. 
When within three or four miles of Komoka, the saloon in the forward 
end of the passenger car was discovered to be on fire, from the lamp 
therein having fallen or having been knocked down. The conductor 
hurried forward from the rear end of the car, and told the brakeman 
to go over the cars and get the engine stopped, as the bell-rope did not 
extend over the oil-cars, and there was no means of signalling to the 
engineer. The brakeman returned and said that he could not get 
over. The conductor then went himself. The brakeman had at the 
first sight of the fire applied his brake, which prevented the success of 
the attempts made to detach the burning car from the others. The 
conductor had succeeded in reaching the engineer and stopping the 
train, and by that time the train going at twenty- five miles an hour, 
had made over a mile from the time the fire was discovered. 

Eev. S. Hooper, of Woodstock, said : " All pressed to get out 
behind, as far as I could see ; I sprang with the rest, and was taken 
with the press out the rear door. I tried to get down the steps, on the 
south side of the car. They were full of people hanging on for life. I 
did what I could to push them off the steps, but found it quite impos- 
sible, they clung so tenaciously to the rails. Being close to the door, 
I was getting suffocated with the smoke and flame, and fell down. 
One leg got between the brake rod and the centre one, and was 
pinioned there till the fire removed those pressing on me. The noise 
of the people gasping for breath was terrible. Some were groaning on 
the track, and others shrieked as they fell off. A few only fell oft' the 
step, but many were pushed off or fell off the end. The flame and 
smoke coming out the door was so great that no one could last long on 
the platform. As soon as I could disentangle my leg, I threw myself 
from the car. People were lying on every hand, and those I could 
reach I assisted as I could. Only one man, that I saw, was taken off 
the car^ when it stopped; the rest that were not dead got off them- 
selves." The daughter of Conductor Mitchell is said to have cast her- 
self out of the window, while others state that the conductor flung the 
f ? T? U Amon g the dead wh se bodies were identified were John 
McKellar, of the Strathroy school; Miss Purves, of Petrolea; a son 
ot Oreo. Burnham, of Strathroy; an Indian woman and her infant; J. 
H Breathwick, of London, with Miss Scarcliff and Miss Harriett Dunn, 
inose who received serious injuries were John Hay, a merchant of 


Toronto ; Daniel McKellar, of Komoka ; John B. Harsden, who 
resided three miles from Simcoe ; John C. Robinson, of Watford ; 
Augustus Blessing, of Strathroy ; Neil McGugan, of Strathroy ; Mrs. 
Crawford, wife of Samuel Crawford, agricultural implement manufac- 
turer, of London ; Geo. Moncrief, Mayor of Petrolea ; Mrs. Lawrence, 
of Petrolea ; Miss Martha Donaldson, of Komoka ; W. H. Murray, of 
Strathroy ; Miss Mitchell, of Sarnia ; Mrs. Ryan, John Zavitz and 
wife, of Lobo ; Mrs. Freeman, of Ingersoll ; Dr. Smith, of Komoka ; 
Rev. Mr. Collamore, of London ; Rev. S. Hooper, of Woodstock ; two 
men named Graham, of Lobo ; Arthur Orton and Messrs. Dearness 
and Miller. 

The railroad accident of July 25, 1874, occurred near the scene of 
the train burning of March previous, at the entrance to Sifton's Cut, 
about four miles east of Komoka. It appears that some malcontent 
removed the rail plates, so that when the locomotive struck the loose 
rails, the engine, tender, baggage, second and two first-class cars were 
hurled from the track down the embankment. David Osborne, en- 
gineer, was instantly killed. 

Robert Scott, a drover of Lobo, was killed at Colborne street rail- 
way crossing in November, 1875. In the railroad accident near 
Princeton, at Goble's Swamp, Oct. 5, 1876, William Cooper, the driver, 
and Andrew Irving, of London, were killed ; also G. Wright, baggage- 
master, James Andrews, express man, Wm. Leggatt and Thomas Mc- 
Bride, of Detroit. 

In June, 1878, the body of a man was found on the track at. 
Komoka. In his hat were the fragments of a letter dated " Chicago, 
Wabash ave., No. 927." A report was that it was Baron Theodore 
Von Jasmund, then editor of the Detroit Volksblatt, who settled in 
Lambton County in 1865, and resided in the house erected by Admiral 
Vidal. In October, 1879, one Crowe, a drunken cooper, leaped into 
the locomotive called " The Oil King," opened the throttle wide, and 
ditched the engine at the corner of Simcoe and Adelaide streets. Out 
of the mass of debris, steam and fire came Crowe uninjured, proclaim- 
ing " I can lick any man in Canada !" He was arrested and " made 
to eat crow." 

The funeral of James McGrath, his wife, his brother Matthew, and 
Miss Ellen Blake, all victims of the Clandeboye accident, took place 
January 6, 1881, from the Catholic Church. The excursion train from 
Cayuga to London, September, 1881, came in collision with a heavy 
freight near Aylmer. The engineer of the passenger train, Richard 
Walmsley, his son William, Wm. Cook, of Aylmer, Hines, of Delhi,, 
and an unknown man were killed. Cheesborough, engineer of the 
freight, escaped. 

The collision on the London, Huron & Bruce Railroad, December 
20, 1882, resulted in the death of Wm. Strongman, a fireman. In 
April, 1886, two men attempted to jump from trains at London, 
and both were killed. One of them was Thomas Lloyd, formerly a 



cigar maker here. The railroad accident of December 29, 1866, at 
Komoka, resulted in serious injury to six persons and the destruction 
of cars and locomotives. In the accident on the London & Port Stan- 
ley Eailroad, July 3, 1887, Thomas Hunt and Joshua Sicily, of London, 
were killed. The railroad holocaust at St. Thomas in July, 1887, re- 
sulted in the burning of Mrs. J. W. Baynes and daughters Edna, 
Verna and Lila ; and among others, Engineer Harry Donnelly. This 
was known as the Talbot Street Baptist Excursion Train. Engineer 
Burt was crushed to death between the pay car and frame of coal shed 
opposite the London Grand Trunk Eailroad depot November 13, 1888. 
Yet the statement is made on the authority of statistics, that more 
persons meet death from falling out of windows than from railroad 




In 1835 Governor Colborne granted to Sheriff A. Eapelje and his 
successors in office a charter to hold a public fair in the town of Lon- 
don three times annually, together with the right of levying tolls as 
approved by the magistrates. It does not appear that such charter 
rights were ever fully exercised, but fairs were held on the court-house 
square and streets adjoining. In February, 1857, the Council asked 
that the same privileges be transferred from the Sheriff to the Mayor, 
basing their demand on the fact that London was separated from the 
county politically. Preceding this move of the Council, Councilman 
Barker moved, in Sept., 1848, to have a bill introduced in Parliament 
to establish an annual fair at London. At this time the use of the 
Town Hall was granted to the Middlesex Loan Association and the 
Agricultural Society for stated meetings. 

The address to Governor-General James, Earl of Elgin, by the 
Council, is dated May 7, 1847. This speaks with approval of the 
Earl's administration, and with indignation of the u insults committed 
on the person of Your Excellency." In October, 1849, the Governor- 
General was invited to visit London. To receive him, the Council 
called on the following officers to order out their commands : Edward 
Matthews, Captain of Light Artillery Company ; Captain John Smith, 
London Vol. Eifle Co. ; Joseph F. Eolfe, No. 1 Fire Co. ; Charles 
Askew, Hook and Ladder Co. ; Sam. McBride, Juvenile Fire Co., and 
Wm. Till, master of the London Band. It may be noted that in the 
Mayor's invitation to the Governor, the latter's administration was 
endorsed, though the phrase was opposed by Nash and'Carling. 

The County Agricultural Society held the annual exhibition in 
the Market House, April 22, 1851, the Council having hitherto granted 
permission. On Oct. 7, the same year, a more important meeting was 
held on the old grounds, east of the town, then in possession of the 
Great Western Eailroad Company. The ladies' and mechanics' depart- 
ments were arranged in the old Market House, as in April, thirty-six 
articles being exhibited in the first-named, and eighty-six in the last- 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : John B. 
Askin, Esq., president; T. C. Dixon, Esq., 1st vice-president; Geo. 
Eobson, Esq., 2nd vice-president; E. Emery, Esq., 3rd vice-president; 
John Stiles, Esq., treasurer; James Farley, Esq., secretary. Commit- 
tee James Nixon, David Main, William Beattie, William Bell, West- 
minster ; Eobert Eobson, William Balkwill, Christopher Walker, Wm. 
Moore, George Belton, London Township ; George W. Harper, Elijah 
Leonard, Wm. Barker, Eoger Smith, town of London. Mr. Askin 


stated that the revenue of the year, exclusive of 100 granted by the 
London Town Council, amounted to 509 16s. 5Jd., of which the sum 
of 393 19s. 4d. was expended. 

On Jan. 28, 1852, a committee of the Council suggested a petition 
to the Legislature asking for the sale of the North Block in the town 
of London, the proceeds to be expended on the purchase of lands for 
agricultural purposes and for the holding of free fairs. 

In September, 1853, 500 were granted by the London Council to 
the Provincial Agricultural Society, on condition that the next fair be 
held at London. John Scatcherd, reporting December 2, 1853, on the 
question of the purchase by the county of the barrack grounds at 
London, recommended the Warden to communicate with the Ordnance 
Department regarding price and terms. Prior to this, in September,, 
1853, Mr. Scatcherd and Mr. Parish moved that steps should be taken to 
secure the Provincial Exhibition of 1854 for London. Many of those 
who took an interest in the Provincial and were active members of the 
association was first held in London, have passed away. The members 
of the local committee at London in 1854 were J. B. A skin, President 
Middlesex Agricultural Society ; Thos. C. Dixon, M. P. P. ; John 
Scatcherd, Warden of Middlesex ; Marcus Holmes, Mayor ; J. B. 
Strathy ; T. Locker, Warden of Elgin ; G. Alexander, President Oxford 
Agricultural Society; Mr. Wm. Balkwill, London Township; Mr. John 
Stiles, do. : Mr. Wm. Moore, do. ; Mr. Geo. Robson, do. ; Mr. James 
Quarry, McGillivray ; Mr. Wm. Barker, city ; Mr. John Carling, do. ; 
Mr. Wm. J. Fuller. 

In September, 1854, the Governor-General visited London to open 
the Exhibition. Arches were erected at the railroad on Richmond St., 
one at the corner of Richmond and Dundas, one at the Western 
Hotel on Richmond, and one at Robinson Hall on Dundas the same 
as on the day of the opening of the G. W. R. R. Sheriff Treadwell, of 
L'Original, was then President of the Provincial Association. His 
predecessors back to 1846, when the first Provincial Exhibition was 
established, being : Wm. Matthie, of Brockville ; T. C.!Street, Niagara 
Falls ; J. B. Marks, Kingston ; John Wettenhall, Nelson ; Sheriff 
Ruttan, Cobourg ; Adam Ferguson, Waterdown ; E. W. Thomps6n, of 
Toronto, 1846-7. The amount of prizes and the number of entries at 
the various Provincial Exhibitions since the first inception in 1846 to 
1854 are as follows : 

Toronto, 1846 $1,600 00 1,150 Niagara, 1850 . ..$5,00000 1,638 

Hamilton, 1847 3,00000 1,600 Brockville, 1851. 500000 1466^ 

Cobourg, 1848 3,10000 1,500 Toronto, 1852 .. ..6,00000 3'048 

Kingston, 1849 5,10000 1,429 Hamilton, 1853. . .640000 2820 

London, 1854 $7,200 00 2,933 

On that day in 1854, about 30,000 persons were present. 

In February, 1859, the Legislature was asked to grant authority 
to the city to erect exhibition buildings. Later the question was ear- 
ned forward energetically with a view of securing the Provincial Fair 



of 1860. In October, 1859, a proposition was made to the Council to 
sell to the city twenty-six acres of Crown lands for 3,000. The 
delegates to Kingston and other places in the matter of obtaining votes 
for having the fair at London were : Col. Askin, J. K. Brown, P. G. 
Norris, T. H. Buckley, M. Keefer, Messrs. Saml. King, Black, Eisdale, 
McCullough, and Moderwell. These with the delegates from Chatham 
were paid $207 expenses. 

In September, 1860, the sum of $750 was appropriated for the 
reception of one of the Queen's sons. On Oct. 9 a great free fair was 
held at London. The agreement between the Corporation and the 
Board of Agriculture of Upper Canada as to exhibition grounds was 
made Sept. 28, 1861. The Corporation agreed in consideration of 
$4,000 to grant to the Board of Agriculture certain rights in that part 
of the exhibition grounds which lies east of Wellington street and 
north of Great Market street, and in the buildings then erected thereon. 

The Provincial Exhibition, Crystal Palace, of London, in the 
vicinity of the old barracks, may be said to have been completed in 
1861, in time for the show of that year. The direct cost was $9,000, 
while about $6,000 were expended on additional buildings after plans 
by W. Kobinson, then City Engineer. The locality of the exhibitions, 
amount of prize money and number of entries since the last exhibi- 
tion of London, are given as follows : 

Cobourg, 1855 $ 9,000 00 3,077 Toronto, 1858 $10,700 00 5,572 

Kingston, 1856 9,000 00 3,791 Kingston, 1859 10,800 00 4,830 

Braiitford, 1857 10,00000 4,337 Hamilton, 1860. ...15.01550 7,532 

London, 1861 $12,031 00 6,242 

In 1865, a third Provincial Exhibition was held here. The grow- 
ing popularity of the city in 1865 may be learned from the following 
table, showing the cities where exhibitions were held, amount of prize 
money and number of entries : 

Toronto, 1862 
Kingston, 1863. 

..$12,036 50 6,319 
.. 11,866 00 4,756 

Hamilton, 1864... $12,559 50 6,392 
London, 1865 13,45400 7,221 

In January, 1869, the Council applied to the authorities of London 
city for documents to secure the right of the County and of the East 
Middlesex Agricultural Society to the joint use of the ground, known 
as the "Exhibition Ground," north of the barracks, in accordance 
with the old agreement, when the Council and Society granted a large 
sum of money to aid in erecting the exhibition building. 

The local committee of the Provincial Exhibition of 1869 com- 
prised James Johnson, president ; Wm. McBride, secretary ; Mayor S. 
H. Graydon, treasurer; E. Glackmeyer, David Hughes, W. S. Smith, 
John Christie, John Campbell, Murray Anderson, T. Partridge, jr., 
City Councillors ; John Stewart, James Durand, Wm. Barker, James 
M. Cousins and Wm. Saunders, all of the city. The county members 
of this important committee were : Thos. Routledge, Warden of Mid- 
dlesex ; H. Anderson, Deputy-Reeve, Westminster ; R. Tooley, Reeve, 


Dorchester ; H. Johnson, Reeve, Delaware ; J. Wheaton, President East 
Middlesex Agricultural Society; A. Brown, Reeve, Nissouri ; A. Me- 
Kellar Deputy-Reeve, Nissouri ; J. Nixon, Keeve, Metcalfe ; J. Cor- 
bett Reeve, McGillivray ; R. H. O'Neil, Reeve, Biddulph ; J. Waters, 
Reeve, East Williams ; S. McLeod, Reeve, West Williams ; L. Clever- 
don Reeve, Adelaide ; M. McArthur, Reeve, Lobo ; R. Brown, Reeve, 
Metcalfe ; H. McFarlane, Reeve, Ekfrid ; J. Watterworth, Reeve, Mosa ; 
T. Northcott, Reeve, Caradoc; W. Neill, Reeve, Wardsville; J. D. 
Dewan, Reeve, Strathroy. 

One of the Queen's sons, known as Prince Arthur, arrived in Lon- 
don Sept. 21, 1869. R. F. Matthews wrote the ode of welcome, and at 
least half the people joined in the welcome. The occasion was the 
opening of the exhibition. The amount of prizes offered was $14,000 
and the number of entries 7,688. For comparison the following table 
of prize money and entries is given : 

Toronto 1866.. ...$12,71000 6,279 Hamilton, 1868 $13,30450 6,620 

Kingston, 1867 12,731 00 4,815 London, 1869 14,000 00 7,688 

The latter-day exhibits of the Provincial Society are referred to in 
the following table, the figures denoting prize money and number of 
entries respectively : 

Toronto, 1870 $16,000 00 6,897 Ottawa, 1875 $18,000 00 7,200 

Kingston, 1871 15,00000 6,682 Hamilton, 1876 18,23700 10,011 

Hamilton, 1872 15,00000 7,714 London, 1877 16,32000 10,618 

London, 1873 15,00000 8,920 Toronto, 1878 17,94700 11,612 

Toronto, 1874 17,00000 8,662 Ottawa, 1879 ,14,95750 9,668 

Hamilton, 1880, $16,994 ; 11,252. 

In 1877, L. E. Shipley, of Greystead, was president, and in 1880, 
J. B. Aylesworth, of Newbury. 

Western Fair Association. In 1867 the idea of a Western Fair 
originated in the minds of James Johnson (Sunnyside), George G. 
Magee, Richard Tooley, M. P. P., James Cousins, Henry Anderson, of 
Westminster, the late Wm. McBride and John Campbell. At a joint 
meeting of the City Horticultural Society and the East Middlesex Agri- 
cultural Society, held on March 21, 1868, it was resolved that the two 
Associations should unite for Fair purposes, and Messrs. J. M. Cousins, 
Wm. McBride, John Campbell, J. Wheaton, Henry Anderson and J. 
Pincombe were appointed a committee to carry the project into effect. 
The first meeting of the new joint board was held on the 22nd of 
April following, when the committee above-mentioned submitted a 
report containing a basis of amalgamation, which was accepted. Thus 
the Society was formed, the following Directors being appointed : 
James Johnson, President Horticultural Society; Geo. G. Magee, 
President of the Agricultural Association ; Wm. McBride, J. Wheaton, 
John Pincombe, Alex. Kerr, Henry Anderson, J. B. Lane, Thomas 
Friendship, Alex. Mackenzie, George Jarvis, James Anderson, Chas. 
Tuckey, W. S. Smith, Robt. Robson, R. Tooley (now M. P. P.), A. 



MacArthur, J. M. Cousins, John Stewart, John Campbell, J. Durand, 
John Elliott, T. Kentledge, John Moon, W. E. Vining and Mayor 
Arkell. The first was held on September 29th and 30th, 1868, in the 
old drill shed. Over two thousand dollars was given in prizes. It is 
now one of the institutions of the Western Peninsula, and has long 
since passed the Provincial in the estimation of the public. In 1870 a 
very successful Fair was held, and in October, 1872, the third meeting 
was opened by Governor Dufferin and his wife. 

On June 12, 1874, a joint resolution of the London City Com- 
mittee and the Committee of the Council provided that should the 
county and the Agricultural Society of East Middlesex relinquish 
their rights to the Fair Grounds, the Exhibition Committee of the City 
Council would recommend the purchase of not less than thirty acres, 
to be approved of by the county and the Agricultural Society, and on 
which would be built suitable houses, the purchased price of grounds 
and cost of buildings not to exceed the sum to be realized from the sale 
of sixteen acres of the old grounds, between Wellington and Waterloo 
streets, the same rights to be given the county and Agricultural Society 
in the new grounds and buildings as they held (1874) in the present 
grounds, but the carrying out of this proposition was deferred. In 
1881 no less than $20,944 were expended on grounds and buildings, 
under the direction of Thomas H. Tracy. 

The year 1886, when only $8,000 was offered, was the year when 
the Western Fair nearly collapsed. The sale of a portion of the old 
grounds and other causes had brought matters to such a pass that it 
became necessary to make strenuous efforts to save the Fair from going 
under. In this emergency the London Board of Trade came to the 
rescue and saved the Exhibition. Among those who assisted to put, 
the Western on its new basis were A. W. Porte, J. W. Little, T. 
Herbert Marsh, A. M. Smart, W. J. Keid, W. Y. Brunton, W. M. 
Gartshore, W. E. Hobbs, Colonel R. Lewis, Mayor Cowan, J. D. 
Sharman, and these gentlemen were heartily supported by the county 
members, among whom were Colonel F. B. Leys, Geo. Douglass, Allan 
Bogue, D. Mackenzie, ex-M. P. P., K. Whetter, A. J. B. Macdonald 
and E. Dreaney. 

A new plan of organization, originated by W. Y. Brunton, wa& 
adopted, whereby all agricultural societies or other associations for the 
production or manufacture of useful articles, or for the protection and 
aid of those engaged in such manufactures or production, were given 
representation. Each association nominated one or two members of 
the Western Fair Association, according to its size, and these delegates, 
meeting annually, elected the Western Fair Board. The City Council,, 
however, reserved the right of appointing five members with its Mayor,, 
and the East Middlesex Agricultural Society were also given control of 
six directors' berths. That left twelve to be filled by the association 
to make up the total number of twenty-four. 

In 1887 the old Fair Grounds on Richmond street were surveyed for 


building lots, and the Queen's Park, in No. 5 Ward transferred to the 
city for exhibition purposes. In September of that year the buildings 
were completed, at a cost of $60,000. The great fair opened September 
20, that year. The officers for 1888 comprised the following gentle- 
men : A. W. Porte, president ; Geo. Douglass, first vice-president ; 
J. W. Little, second vice-president; Donald Mackenzie, treasurer; 
Messrs. Magee, Greenlees & Thomas, solicitors ; George McBroom, 
Secretary ; Joseph Hook, superintendent of grounds ; Geo. F. Jewell, 
F. C. A., and J. S. Dewar, auditors. The board of directors com- 
prised : A. W. Porte, Geo. Douglass, F. B. Leys, T. Herbert Marsh, 
A. M. Smart, Allan Bogue, W. J. Eeid, W. H. Winnett, Thos. Connor, 
Frank Shore, Geo. Taylor, W. Y. Brunton, J. W. Little, D. Mackenzie, 
W. M. Gartshore, W. E. Hobbs, E. Lewis, Eichard Whetter, James 
'Cowan, John Callard, A. J. B. Macdonald, Eichard Yenning, Henry 
Dreaney and J. D. Sharman. 

The new grounds are very attractive. The soil being sandy and 
the surface undulating, the grounds are not affected even by a heavy 
rain. The buildings are all new, light and commodious, and built 
after the most modern style of architectural beauty. The officers of 
the exhibition are painstaking and courteous, and are succeeding 
admirably in the important and arduous task of making the Western 
Fair a permanent and useful institution to the diversified interests of 
Western Ontario, and second, of course, only to the great Industrial at 
Toronto. Much of this success is attributable to the energy and skill 
of the secretary, George McBroom, who is aided by an able and com- 
petent directorate. 

The great fair of 1887 was opened September 20th. The exhibi- 
tion of 1888 was opened September 21st by the Minister of Agricul- 
ture, John Carling. A comparative summary of the chief entries this 
year and last will prove interesting : 

1888. 1887 . ]888 . 

Horse s .................. 547 448 Cattle ............ 285 289 

Sheep .................. 319 356 Pigs .................. 132 135 

Poultry . ............ 524 614 Agricultural Products .... 308 404 

Horticultral .......... 1,318 2,122 Agricultural Implements. 198 202 

ludian Exhibits .......... 681 Fine Arts ..... 347 227 

Ladies' Work ........... 571 553 

There was an increase of 1,421 entries over 1887, a fact over 
which the directors had reason to rejoice. At the same time in some 
ot the departments there was a falling off in the number of ex- 
hibits, but this was mainly in the minor departments. The entries of 
honey fell oil from seventy-nine in 1887 to twenty-four in 1888 
Engines and machines fell off from twenty-two to eighteen ; stoves 
Irom thirty-three to fifteen, and carriages from fifty-one to forty-five 
In the fine art department the difference was more striking, the entries 
this year being only 227 against 347 in 1887. 

The Presidents of the Western Fair Association from 1868 to 1888 
are as follows :-1868, James Johnson ; 1870, James Johnson ; 1871 


Eichard Tooley ; 1872, Wm. Saunders ; 1874, James Johnson ; 1875, 
John H. Griffiths; 1876, A. S. Emery; 1878, Joseph Johnson; 1879, 
A. McCorarick; 1880, Geo. Douglas; 1882, John Plummer ; 1883, 
John Kennedy; 1884, E. E. Eobinson; 1886, Eichard Whetter; 
1887-8, Capt. A. W. Porte. 

A description of the grounds and buildings is given in the sketches 
of parks in the history of London. 

The Ontario Entomological Society met at London in October, 
1844. E. B. Eeed, of London, was re-elected secretary and treasurer ; 
James Fletcher, of Ottawa, being vice-president, and W. Saunders, 
president. A medal was awarded this society for the best exhibition 
of Canadian fish at the Fisheries Exhibition, England. 

The Horticultural and Mechanical Association of the Town of 
London was organized August 21, 1852, with Marcus Holmes, presi- 
dent; George W. Harper and John Wanless, vice-presidents; John 
Brown, treasurer ; John C. Meredith, secretary ; James Daniell, L. 
Lawrason, Wm. Eowland, A. Lowrie, Wm. Eoss, Elijah Leonard and 
Joseph Anderson, managers. On September 27, 1855, the Horticul- 
tural Society held an exhibition at the City Hall. This Society gave 
$2,500 in prizes in 1868; $6,000 in 1870; $8,000 in 1871, and 
$10,000 in 1872. The entries increased from 2,037 in 1868 to 7,089 
in 1872. 

The Grange. On June 2, 1881, the sixth anniversary of the 
Patrons of Husbandry was celebrated at Port Stanley. 

Farmers' Institute. A preliminary meeting for the formation of a 
Farmers' Institute for the Elding of East Middlesex was held in 
January, 1886. E. Whetter, of Westminster, was appointed chair- 
man, and T. Baty, secretary. The election of officers resulted as 
follows : President, F. Baty, Westminster ; vice-president, Captain 
Thomas Eobson, Uderton ; secretary, W. L. Brown, London West ; 
treasurer, E. Whetter, Westminster. Broad of Directors London 
Charles Trebilcock, Grove ; E. W. Jackson, Uderton Westminster 
F. Elliot, Wilton Grove ; James Ballantine, Lambeth. Nissouri 
Joseph Wheaton, Thorndale ; E. A. Brown, Cherry Grove. Dorchester 
E. Venning, Eichard Tooley, Mossley. 

W. 0. S. B. A. The Western Ontario Stock Breeders' Association 
may be said to have had its origin in the London meeting of Jan. 21, 
1888, when Messrs. Farnham, Hobbs, Eobson and Bell, of London 
Township ; Eobinson, McCartney, John Stoneman and W. Taylor, of 
London ; Toole, Gorwell, John Geary, F. Shore, E. Gibson, T. Doug- 
lass, E. Whetter, John Coughlin, Eeeve of Westminster, Ed. Charlton, 
A. Kains and E Craig, were appointed a committee on organization. 

F. <& G. P. S. The Fish and Game Protective Society was organ- 
ized in 1875. Among the leading members in 1882, when the seventh 
annual meeting was held, were D. Niven, president; D. Skirving, 
secretary; W. C. L. Gill, E. Wallace, S. turner, John Cousins, E. G. 
Mercer, G. Kelly, F. T. Trebilcock, C. A. Stone, Inspector P. McCann. 



The officers elected that year were : President, W. C. L. Gill ; first 
vice-president, Dr. Woodruff; second vice-president, Peter McCann L; 
secretary, D. Skirving; executive committee, John Puddicombe C A. 
Stone, Dr. Niven. W. Strong, T. H. Smallman, E. Wallace^ G - Kelley, 
F. T. Trebilcock, John Cousins ; finance committee, John Puddicombe, 
C. A. Stone and F. T. Trebilcock. 

Population. In 1817 the population of the old London District 
was 8,907. The population of Middlesex in 1824 was 8,0614,306 
males and 3,755 females ; in 1825 the number was 8,752 ; in 1826, 
9,362; in 1827, 9,837; in 1828, 10,260; in 1829, 11,103; in 1830, 
11 882 The population of Aldborough in 1830 was 608 ; of Bayham, 

1,458; of Blenheim, 545; of Blandford, ; of Burford, 850; of 

Camden, Dawn and Zone, in Kent County, 424 ; of Caradoc, 309 ; of 
Charlotteville, 1,214 ; of Chatham and Harwich, in Kent, 550 ; of Col- 
chester, in Essex, 686 ; of Delaware, 73 ; Dereham, 193 ; Dorchester, 
90; Dunwich, 537; Ekfrid, 115; Gosfield, 462; Howard, in Kent, 
616 ; Houghton and Middleton, iu Norfolk, 307 ; Lobo, 344; London, 
2,403 ; Maidstone and Eochester, in Essex, 273 ; Maiden, 1,087 ; 

Malahide, 1,465 ; Mersea, in Essex, 288 ; Moore, in Lambton, ; 

Mosa, 276 ; Nissouri, 452 ; Norwich, 1,264 ; Oakland, 383 ; Oxford, 

206; Oxford West, 783; East, 369; North, ; Ealeigh, Kent, 523; 

Eomney and Tilbury, 371 ; Sarnia, ; Sandwich, 2,201 ; Sombra, 

Bothwell, ; Southwold, 1,601; Townsend, Norfolk, 1,420; Wal- 

singham,424; Westminster, 1,025 ; Windham, 644; Woodhouse, 987 ; 
Yarmouth, 1,545 ; Zorra, 886. The total population of London District 
in 1830 was 22,803, and, of the Western, 8,711. The population of 
Middlesex in 1831 was 14,073 ; in 1832, 15,293 ; in 1833, 17,819 ; in 
1834, 19,697; in 1835, 21,291, in 1836, 23,790; in 1837, 24,628, and 
in 1838, 24,064. 

London District in 1838 comprised the townships of East and West 
Oxford, Burford, Blenheim, Oakland, Nissouri, Blandford, Norwich, 
Dereham, Zorra, Yarmouth, Southwold, Bayham, Malahide, Mosa, Dun- 
wich, Westminster, Adelaide, Caradoc, Ekfrid, Delaware, London and 
village, Aldborough, N. and S. Dorchester, Lobo, Hullett, Tucker- 
smith, McGillivray, McKillop, Ellice, Downie, Williams, Stanley, N. 
and S. Easthope, Biddulph, Goderich and Colborne. In this large 
District were 714,601 acres uncultivated, 142.375 acres cultivated ; 157 
one-story square-timber houses, 7 additional houses with fire-places \ 
6 two-story square-timber houses, 1,493 frame one-story houses, 163 
additional with fire-places ; 280 two-story frame houses, 178 additional 
with fire-places ; 10 brick or stone one-story, 7 additional with fire- 
places ; 4 brick or stone two-story houses, 2 with fire-places ; 41 grist- 
mills with one run of stones, 17 with more than one run ; 105 saw 
mills; 10 store-houses; 80 merchants' shops; 20 stud horses for hire; 
6,923 horses three years and over; 6,659 oxen four years and over; 
13,066 milch cows ; 7,416 horned cattle from two to four years ; 2 gigs, 
3 phaetons, and 36 pleasure wagons, total valuation, 513,337 ; total 
tax collected, 3,243. 


The population of the county in 1839 was 26,025; in 1840, 
26,482, of whom 13,805 were males and 12,677 females ; in 1841, 
27,033; in 1842 the population of London District was 30.276; in 
1848, 41,986, and of London Town, 4,668. 

The population of Middlesex in 1851-2 was 32,862, and of London, 

The census of 1861 shows a total population of 48,736 for the 
county, made up of 25,374 males and 23,362 females, of whom 1,767 
males and 1,181 females were not members of resident families. 
There were 884 males and 815 females born in 1860, of whom 34 
males and 39 females died that year. The population by townships, 
taken from the census returns, shows a total population for the county 
of 60,311, while the total above shows only 48,736, as follows : 





























Dorchester North . . 



















London . . 

5 002 

4 664 

1 389 





1 578 


. 936 







Mosa .... 


1 430 














Strathroy Village. . 
Williams East 
Williams West 
Westminster. . . 

. 397 











London City 5,738 5,817 2,005 695 9 1,386 2,090 

At this time there were in the county four Protestant Episcopal 
church buildings, one Catholic, two Church of Scotland, four Free 
Church of Scotland, six United Presbyterians, twelve Wesleyan 
Methodists, four Episcopal Methodists, two of Methodist denomina- 
tions, and five Baptists. In London there were nine church buildings. 

The first census of Middlesex, taken since the British North- 
America Act came in operation, was that of 1870-1. From this 
great statistical record the following summary is made. The 7th, 8th, 
9th and 10th census districts, their area in acres, occupied houses and 
population, are given as follows : 

Township. Area. Houses. Males. Females- 

Mosa 49,729 559 1,622 1,532 

Wardsville Village 452 99 280 253 

Ekfrid 54,271 504 1,704 1,489? 

Metcalfe 36,720 438 1,293 1,150 

Caradoc 77,905 912 2,593 2,472 

Strathroy Village 2,400 558 1,675 1,557 

Delaware 28,150 449 1,294 1,229 

Adelaide 44,060 536 1,541 1,368 

Williams W 36,876 604 1,761 1,660 

Williams E 40,154 548 1,452 1,401 

Lobo 49,752 612 1,726 1,748 

McGillivray 64,016 796 2,429 2,22ft 


,* .A-Sb Tor f 

39780 2 S.W5 1962 


Population. The population by race in 1880-1, in the Townships 
of Westminster, Dorchester, London, London East (village), Petersville 
(village) and Nissouri West, was as follows : Africans, 808 ; Dutch, 
375- "English, 83,288; French, 887; Germans, 8,823; Italians, 3; 
Poles, 3 ; Scandinavians, 47 ; Irish, 9,239 : Scotch, 5,688 ; Swiss, 85 ; 
Welsh, 289 ; various, 80 ; not given, 538. 

In the Townships of Mosa, Ekfrid, Metcalfe, Caradoc, Delaware, and 
the villages of Wardsville, Strathroy, Newbury, and Glencoe, there were : 
Africans?74; Dutch, 276 ; English, 6,870 ; French, 204 ; Germans, 896 ; 
Indians, 8,429 ; Scandinavians, 89 ; Scotch, 5,567 ; Irish, 5,283 ; Poles, 
4; Swiss, 9; Welsh, 104; various, 2; not given, 759. 

In the Townships of Adelaide, Williams West, Williams East, 
McGillivray, Lobo, Biddulph, and the villages of Ailsa Craig, Lucan, 
and Parkhill, there were in 1880-1: Africans, 47; Dutch, 194; 
English, 5,965; Irish; 7,170; Scotch, 6,736; French, 48; Germans, 
771 ; Italians, 4 ; Swiss, 11 ; Welsh, 258 ; and others, 35. 

The population of London City, by nativity, in 1880-1, shows : 
Africans, 261; Dutch, 33; English, 8,617; Irish, 6,062; Scotch, 
6,543 ; Welsh, 151 ; Germans, 406 ; French, 223 ; Indians, 4 ; Italians, 
30 ; Jews, 6 ; Poles, 31 ; Scandinavians, 34 ; Swiss, 3 ; Spaniards, 8 ; 
and 304 of other countries or unknown. 

Of the first census district, No. 167, the total population was 
30,600; of the second, No. 168, 21,496; of the third, No. 169, 
21,239 ; and the fourth, No. 170, London City, 19,746, the total of 
1880-1 being 93,081. 

The following is the population and number of houses of London 
by Wards in 1880-1* : 

Total Pop. Males. Houses. Total Pop. Males. Houses 

Wardl ........ 2,126 1,084 428 Ward 5 ........ 4,499 2,214 917 

" 2 ........ 2,862 1,355 545 " 6 ........ 3,560 1,702 682 

" 3 ........ 3,777 1,918 733 " 7 ........ 1,723 841 306 

" 4 ........ 1,199 587 222 

Many changes have been made within the last eight years. The 
Manitoba land craze won away several citizens, while a greater num- 
ber went to the United States; but notwithstanding an extensive 
emigration, the county, including London, claims as great a population 
to-day. London City and its suburbs have made very rapid strides, 
and appear to have more than made up for the losses in the townships 
and country towns, the total population being now estimated at 35,000. 

*The apparent discrepancy here and above in the total population of London, is occa- 
sioned by including in one return territory not included in the other. 



District and County Expenditure. The first regular account of 
expenditures was presented July 17, 1818, as follows: 

James Brown 16 2 

John Anderson 1160 

Abner Owen 2176 

F. Beaupre . 50 

The Sheriff 75 39 

Clerk of the Peace 70 10 6 

Geo. Collman 2 00 

Mrs Ann Bostwick 5 00 

Moses Secord 5128 

s. d. 

G. C. Salmon 13 54 

Mahlon Burwell 4 00 

John Bostwick 5 04 

Caleb Wood 4 16 

Mahlon Burwell, am't of order. . 77 

The Sheriff 4150 

The Sheriff 50 66 

Joseph Walker 2 98 

Jacob Braumwort 1 00 

Reuben Green (York) 7 10 6 

Total 331 4 11 

From the Auditor's statement of August 12, 1820, it appears that 
the District Treasurer advanced 442 2s. Od. toward building the court- 
house and jail, and 62 13s. 6d toward the general account. These 
sums were ordered to be paid, and the collector urged to bring in moneys 
in their hands or to be collected. 

The act to consolidate the debt of Middlesex, assented to April 2o, 
1860, shows that at the time outstanding debentures amounted to 
$879,114, and authorized the County Council to borrow that amount. 

Debentures. The debentures issued from 1844 to 1863 are noted 
as follows : 

s. d. 

1844 3,383 15 6 due 

1850 1,500 

1850 990 8 

1850 2,500 

1851 25,000 

1852 3,000 

When the late treasurer, Adam Murray, took possession of the 
office in October, 1857, the total debenture debt was 233,348 11s. 8d. 

m 1845 

1853.. .. 

. 15 325 



due in 1863 

1853.. .. 

. . 1,500 

" 1854 





by-law 36 


. . 3,355 
. 25.000 

due in 1863 

1861 $12,000 00 

1860 76,000 00 

1859t $13,692 00 

1859J 20,000 00 

1860 25,000 00 

The expenditures of the county in 1885 amounted to $139,160.92 ; 
in 1886, $129,124.06, and in 1887, $149,61545. To place on record 
the sources of income and the several calls upon such income, the 
following statement for 1887 is given : 


Balance from last audit $ 2,610 03 

County Rates 77,124 15 

Non-resident Land Tax .... 3,974 90 

Debentures 20,000 00 

Premium on Debentures 1,000 00 

Interest 853 14 

* In connection with payment of part of these debentures, a sum of 2,500 was credited 
erroneously as paid. 

t To procure seed for supplying to farmers, owing to failure of crops. 

* For bridge building. 



County Grants to Public Schools 5,221 00 

Legislative Grants to Public Schools 6,731 00 

Surplus Fees from Registry Offices 1,000 89 

Auctioneer's and Peddler Licenses 566 00 

Interest on Hospital Trust Fund 454 47 

House of Refuge and Industrial Farm 1,367 79 

City of London re Debt on London East 1, 170 00 

Treasurer County of Oxford 38 35 

Redemption Money 

Miscellaneous Items 96 90 

Bills Payable 4,00000 

Administration of Justice from City of London 6,474 52 

Government 6,148 07 

Division Court Jurors' Payment Fund 114 86 

Sessions, County and Assize Courts Payment Fund 193 50 

Fines from Magistrates . . 209 50 

Costs from Police Magistrates and Justices of the Peace 151 10 

Fines from Police Magistrates re Scott Act 10,094 12 


Roads and Bridges ! . $21,654 11 

Salaries and Municipal Government Expense 5,750 90 

Percentage to Sub Treasurers 161 96 

School Inspectors' Salaries 1,008 75 

Legislative Grants to Public Schools 6,731 00 

Municipal Grants to Schools 7,950 68 

Educational and Incidental Expenses 1,423 03 

Printing and Advertising 448 03 

Registry Offices 211 50 

Grants to Insane and Destitute 1,040 00 

Wild Land Tax and Redemption Money 3,790 17 

House of Refuge and Industrial Farm 6,355 08 

Debentures Redeemed 20,000 00 

Coupons Redeemed 29,360 00 

Court House and Jail Expense Account and Repairs 4,308 86 

Jail Officials' Salaries 3,730 45 

Constables 2,60909 

Crown Witnesses and and Jury Services 1,918 75 

Division Courts Jury Fund 124 00 

Coroner's Orders '.','.'.. 209 40 

Administration of Justice General . . 6,436 20 

Jurors' Payment Fund 3 373 30 

Bills Payable \\' 10,'oOO 00 

Paid to order of License Commissioner re Scott Act 5,250 00 

Salary of Police Magistrate 450 00 

Hospital Expense 2 326 80 

I?* 61 ** 55 51 

Miscellaneous Items 2 457 58 

Agricultural and Other Statistics. The number of acres cleared 
in 1887 was 514,563; of woodland, 229,355, and of swamp, marsh or 
waste land, 13,639. Of the total occupied area (757,557 acres) there 
were 9,302 belonging to non-residents, and 748,255 to resident owners. 
In 1887 there were 165,443 acres of cleared lands devoted to pastur- 
age the number of acres in every thousand acres cleared being 
The county held third place in Ontario in the average per 
thousand acres cleared, and first place when the large area is considered 
The orchards and gardens of Middlesex in 1883 claimed an area of 
9,309 acres. 





Prior to 1792-3 the history of the country bordering on the forks 
of the La Tranchee, or Thames, is that which belongs to the Indian 
settlements of a century ago in the Erie Peninsula. The discovery of 
Indian remains near Blackfriars' bridge some years ago is one of the few 
evidences of Indian occupation which modern times have brought to 
light. During the winter of the years named, Governor Simcoe with 
his staff and Chief Brandt camped here. His object was to select a 
site for the capital of Upper Canada, which, while convenient, would 
not be exposed to American assaults. Dorchester, their Governor- 
General, favored Kingston ; but Simcoe labored under the impression 
that his imaginary city, Georgina-upon-Thames, would be the capital. 
And here the Anglicizing Governor planned his great seat of Govern- 
ment, February 13, 1793, then pushed forward to Detroit, but return- 
ing to the Forks March 2, doubly determined to build his city here. 
In 1796 he was transferred to the West Indies, and his dreams were 
left to unofficial unaided enterprise to be made real. 

In Littlehales' diary, under date March 2, 1793, being the second 
visit of that officer to the site of the present city of London, the fol- 
lowing entry occurs : " Struck the Thames on one end of a low, flat 
island. The rapidity of the current is so. great as to have formed a 
channel through the mainland (being a peninsula), and formed this 
island. We walked over a rich meadow, and at its extremity reached 
the forks of the river. The Governor wished to examine this situation 
and its environs, and we therefore stopped here a day. He judged it 
to be a situation eminently calculated for the Metropolis of -all Canada. 
Among many other essentials it possesses the following advantages : 
Command of territory, internal situation, central position, facility of 
water communication up and down the Thames, superior navigation 
for boats to near its source, and for small craft probably to the Morav- 
ian settlement ; to the northward by a small portage flowing into Lake 
Huron ; to the southeast by a carrying place into Lake Ontario and 
the River St. Lawrence; the soil luxuriously fertile, and the land 
capable of being easily cleared and soon put into a state of agriculture ; 
a pinery upon an adjacent high knoll, and others on the height, well 
calculated for the erection of public buildings ; and a climate not inferior 
to any part of Canada." 

The Thames River at the forks presents many interesting features, 
alike as regards its physical relations and its connections with the 
early settlement and military occupation of the country. That the 
stream has undergone some very great changes, even since 1793, 
scarcely admits of doubt; for, in a few places, the ear- marks of expan- 


sions, now dried up, are visible, and of the numerous large creeks- 
which swelled its waters, and made it navigable for eighty leagues in 
1794, few exist to-day. The existence of this river, and the position 
of its forks almost equidistant from Lakes Huron and Erie render 
the climate of the district much more pleasant, if not healthier, than 
that of lake towns. Even in face of the fact that the river is used as- 
the receptacle of the city's sewerage, the cross-country lake breezes, 
and the breezes generated in its own valley, are decidedly invigorating. 
A sail down to Springbank and back on steamer, yacht or row-boat 
forms a pleasant and healthful pastime for the citizens; and so 
generally availed of, that the memories of the tragedy of 1881 seem to- 
be sleeping in presence of the fascinating influence of the river ride. 

In such a country as Littlehales describes, at the head of that 
river on which Simcoe's British navy was to float, a few unpretentious, 
hard-working, fearless men settled in 1826. Peter McGregor, a 
Highland Scot, who, while keeping a hotel down the river, married 
Lavinia, daughter of Joseph Poole, of Westminster, and then deter- 
mined to settle in the new town of London, made the first clearing in 
the fall of 1826, and built the first cabin here. Patrick McManus and 
Charles Henry, two Irishmen, erected a board cabin soon after ; then 
came Abram Carroll, who built and kept the first house of entertain- 
ment to which the name could be given ; next, John Yerex, Levi 
Myrick (or Merrick), and Dennis O'Brien, and Georgina-upon-Thames 
assumed the shape of a settlement, thirty years after the first guber- 
natorial dreamer left Ontario for ever. 

It was a fit introduction to the people who were to make out of 
the wilderness spot a city. As the visitor walked lazily along the 
Indian trails, listening to the murmur of the river or the rush of the 
wind through the olden pines, or watched the mist as it hung in twi- 
light curtains about the groves, it required but little imagination to 
trace a long cavalcade of romance, chivalry and heroism proceeding 
from this very spot in the days of Indian power. He, too, may muse 
upon the genii which once haunted the forests of the past, and a 
gloom, like superstitious dread, will only be dissipated when the past 
vanishes and the present rises before him in all its cultivated beauty 
and magnificence. We can envy the pioneers of this district and the 
long-ago primitive times. Then a single piece of calico would make 
the best dress for every woman in the place. The dry goods side of 
O'Brien's store could be carried off in a wheelbarrow, and the grocery 
department in a wagon. The staple articles were whiskey, flour, pork 
and beans. If with a dozen barrels of whiskey came two or three of 
flour, the question was : " What the deuce is to be done with the 
There was at that time plenty of large game and fish, and 
wild fruits in season; but the hardships of pioneer life were serious 
indeed, and the monotony so unbearable, that many who came to carve 
out homes in the wilderness returned to enjoy penury in a civilized 
state rather than remain. Many, however, established themselves 


here and began the work of fashioning a city out of the forests a 
village which should, some day, be regarded as a city, altogether lovely 
and promising, the one among a thousand to enlist active enterprise, 
where virtue would be treasured and promoted, and labor fairly 

The Beverlys established a ferry in 1818 below the Forks, or 
Applegarth's, later Nixon's Flats, and later West London. The 
Beverlys suffered terribly from fever and ague, so that travellers had 
often to wait for hours until some of. the family would cease shaking, 
to ferry them across. The pioneers soon got on the true track of this 
aguish tribe, and when going to Gardner's mill for grist, or to Samuel 
Jarvis' distillery for whiskey, they would not return until the afternoon 
of the following day, as they calculated by that time the chills would 
cease and the boatmen be ready to take the paddle. About this time 
the Montagues established their canoe ferry at the Townsend Landing,, 
near the present Woodland Cemetery. 

In 1826 Colonel M. Burwell, with Freeman Talbot and Benjamin 
Springer, chain-bearers, surveyed the town site. Any person who- 
promised to pay $32 for the patent, and built a shanty 18x24, was 
entitled to a large lot, the transfer being freely made by Colonel Thos. 
Talbot when the patent was issued. The limits of the first survey 
were : Wellington street on the east ; North street, now Calling, on 
the north ; the River Thames on the south and west. The lots were 
numbered from Wellington street west. 

In June, 1827, Robert Carfrae entered the settlement, crossing 
from Westminster by a bridge erected in 1826 by Levi Merrick at the 
foot of York street. His memories of the village of 62 years ago- 
point out two taverns and the court-house as the three buildings form- 
ing the nucleus of the village. John Yerex, a brother of Andrew, was 
engaged in building his hewn-log house on the north-west corner of 
York and Ridout streets, where the old malt house stands, and in that 
building was born the first native of London village, Nathaniel Yerex, 
In the fall of 1826 Andrew Yerex followed his brother hither. He 
found McGregor's log shanty tavern at the corner of King and Ridout 
streets,* where the McFarlane Hotel, now kept by Alonzo Hall, is. 
Abram Carroll's log house stood on the north side of Dundas, two or 
three lots east of Ridout, where in the fall of 1827 he put up a frame 
house. Dennis O'Brien, to whom he gives the title "a jolly, good 
fellow," was digging up stumps and preparing to build close to where 
was afterwards built the Robinson Hall. Patrick McManus then 
called McManners, owing to the way this plebeian pronounced .his 
name and Charles Henry carried on business in a shed or small 
frame house erected on the lot south of the south-east corner of Ridout 
and Dundas, opposite the present Registry Office. The court-house^ 
a semi-frame, hewn-log house, stood nearer the corner than the present 

*Qeo. J. Goodhue maintained until his death that McGregor's tavern stood on Talbot,. 
between York and King streets ; but all the other early settlers place it as written above. 


building until 1829, when it was placed on runners and moved by 
oxen to the south-west corner of the present grounds, where it stands 
to-day. McGregor, being jailer, was accustomed to take the well-con- 
ducted prisoners across the street to his tavern, and it is related by 
Mr. Williams, Oliver McClary and others, that hungry travellers often 
had to wait for their meals until McGregor's notorious guests had 
finished theirs. As has been said, Dennis O'Brien was preparing to 
build in 1826, but the log structure which he erected was used rather 
as a store-house than a store-room. This building stood on lot 18, on 
the south side of Dundas, almost opposite, but a point east of Abram 
Carroll's dwelling. In 1827 or 1828 he took possession of a vacated 
blacksmith's shop, placed rough boards on barrels to form a counter, 
and there opened the first general store. The log house, which he had 
previously occupied and used as a store-room, was minus chinking, and 
through the crevices the curious settlers would spend hours observing 
his stock of frying-pans, griddles, spiders, baking-kettles, tinware, and 
a thousand other articles which make the visitor to the country store 
covet the whole stock. 

Samuel Laughton migrated to Canada in 1827 with his wife. He 
received a grant of a lot on Bathurst street, near the present depot, on 
condition that he would establish a blacksmith shop ; moved shortly 
after to a farm in the township on a lot where John Robson settled in 
the fall of 1820, and twenty years later moved to Metcalfe. He 
ironed the first wagon ever used in London Township. Selling his lot 
for SI 6 worth of iron he moved into the wilderness. While it cannot 
be stated that O'Brien moved this shop from Bathurst to Dundas 
street, it cannot be denied that this was the only building standing in 
1827 which was vacated by a blacksmith. Dennis O'Brien continued 
in business here until 1848-9, when he retired. Eobert Summers 
states that about the time Goodhue opened his store, he said to O'Brien, 
" You are going to set up a general store in opposition to Goodhue." 
'Not at all," said O'Brien, "I'm going to set up an imposition upon 
him,^as he has been imposing on the people, and I'm going to impose on 
him." George J. Goodhue closed out his little store in Westminster, 
Concession 1 (kept in Joshua Applegarth's old log-house), two miles 
south of the present city, in 1829, and moved into O'Brien's settle- 
ment, where he opened a large general store and went into fair 
competition with O'Brien, who, for over two years, monopolized the 
trade north of the river. 

Dennis O'Brien, who was a peddler for some years before he estab- 
lished his store at London, carrying a pack throughout the district, like 
Patrick McManus, Charles Henry, M. McLoughlin and other early 
settlers, married Jane Shotwell about 1834. She was the daughter of 
Abram ShotweU and Sylvia Sumner, all early settlers of Westminster. 
Her sister Nancy married Alvaro Ladd, while Polly married David 
Golf. O'Brien himself was liberal and enterprising, and sometimes 
merry, as related in other pages. He had built for himself the first 



large brick store-house in London, had the Blackfriars' grist mill 
erected, and also a distillery in Westminster. In later years he told 
his particular friends that this distillery was the cause of his ruin. He 
died at old Mr. Blinn's house about the year 1863. Under date Jan. 
12, 1849, Dennis O'Brien advertised the fact that he retired from 
business, and asked that all accounts should be settled up at his office 
in Mr. McKittrick's. 

Levi Merrick built York street bridge in 1826-7. One of the 
workmen stole from another workman an axe one night and fled ; but 
he was pursued, and caught in the pine woods. That night he was 
chained to a stump on King street. A jury was sworn who sentenced 
him to leave town in a few minutes or be whipped. 

Kissick (or Cassock) and O'Rell (or O'Dell) were the first tailors ; 
but which of them came first cannot now be determined. 

John Jennings, who established a little store at London, was also 
an Irishman, and for some time before his settlement here was a 
popular peddler. He could write his name only, but possessed much 
natural intelligence, and was very impulsive. He married a Miss 
Algoe, a daughter of the pioneer family on the Longwoods road below 
Delaware. He was not very fortunate in business, traded his store 
for a farm in Westminster, and later kept livery stable at London. 
His eldest son Frank went to Detroit in his youth, and established a 
large livery stable there. 

Douglas & Warren, general merchants, failed about 1843. William 
Murray was book-keeper; Alex. S. Armstrong, John Douglas and 
Francis Warren formed the firm. Their store stood two or three houses 
east of Robinson Hall. 

Ephraim Ayres established a shoe shop where the City Hotel now 
stands, arid later established a drinking saloon here. Wm. Balkwill 
later built a new house on the site, and for some years carried it on 
as a hotel, one of his bartenders being Wm. Gordon, now a resident 
of London. Balkwill sold to N. Smith, who failed after building the 
brick hotel. 

On Aug. 9, 1827, Patrick McManus, a peddler, of London, was fined 
one shilling for assaulting Tillery Hubbard ; and Benj. Lockwood, of 
Caradoc, for extorting unlawful fees from Joseph Elliott, 

The village then consisted of thirty-three families, representing one 
hundred and thirty-three souls. Goodhue built the first two-story 
frame house in the place, unless we consider the store-room of O'Brien 
a frame, for it was a board concern, or Carroll's frame cottage, all the 
rest being made of logs and mud. His store was situated near the 
corner of Eidout and Carling streets, where the Agricultural Mutual 
building stood. Robert Summers, with the Griffiths and others from 
Westminster, came to aid in raising this large frame. When it was 
ready for dedication, Byash Taylor cast a black bottle of whisky from 
the top, which struck the old logs, but escaped breaking. 

In October, 1830, John Jennings opened a store on Ridout, near 


King street, on the northeast corner. Early in the winter of 1831-2, 
John Scatcherd opened his store on lot 18, north side of Duridas, almost 
opposite O'Brien's; he establishing the first regular hardware store at 
London ; and about this time Thomas Gibbins opened his store opposite 
the court-house on Kidout. Trade was very brisk, the merchants pros- 
perous, population rapidly increased, and around this little nucleus a 
flourishing market grew. The business centre was the point now occu- 
pied by the Eoyal Exchange building. The region south of that was a. 
deep morass, a place to be avoided by all but the sporting men of the 
period, who visited that section as far as the river on duck shooting 
excursions. The site of the old Robinson Hall was then a deep and 
treacherous bog, which was considered a very dangerous spot for any 
one to approach ; but later logs were placed there, which were ultimately 
covered, and in later days, when the era of sewer building was intro- 
duced, some hard work was experienced in cutting those old hardwood 
timbers. Outside the business centre of that day were many black 
ash swamps. The foundation of that building was made after much 
labor. The natural surface of the soil is known to be at least two feet 
below the cellar floor, or about twelve feet below the level of Dundas 
street. In the year we are speaking of (1829), Wm. Hale was driving 
a yoke of oxen, with cart, near the spot, and the animals, becoming 
frightened and uncontrollable, plunged into this mire, and oxen and 
cart in a moment sunk down deep. Goodhue was fond of relating an 
anecdote of himself in connection with this place. He was riding on 
horseback, with a bag of flour or corn thrown across the horse's neck, 
and for the moment unmindful of his progress, he allowed the animal 
to walk into the pit. He saved himself by springing from the horse's 
back on to terra firma. The horse was got out after a great deal of 
difficulty, but not so the bag of corn. 

The little village was for some years centered around the court- 
house, its boundaries being Wellington street on the east, the river on 
the west, Carling street on the north, and York street on the south; but 
these limits rapidly widened. A deed in the possession of Sheriff 
Glass shows that in 1831 his father sold several lots whereon the City 
Hotel, market, and principal Dundas street stores now stand, to Donald 
and Finlay McDonald for 175, to be paid in fat cattle and wheat. 
They had but little money in those days, and trading was done in this 
manner. It is related that Finlay McDonald was found stealing lum- 
ber from Marcus Holmes' yard. Holmes had been missing lumber for 
some time, and this night waited up to catch the thief. On discover- 
ing Fmdlay,he said to him: "Now, Findlay, it is troublesome to come 
packing lumber a dark night like this; come in the day-time with your 
wagon after this." 

Lawrence Lawrason is the next important commercial figure in the 

beginning of London. About 1825 he opened the first post-office to 

e iound north of St. Thomas with the exception of Delaware About 

the year 1833 or 1834 he joined George J. Goodhue in mercantile 


business in this city, which at that time formed only a small and strag- 
gling business, the store being on Ridout street, immediately south of 
the premises at present occupied by Hamilton. Subsequently the firm 
transferred their stock to the corner of Dundas and Ridout streets, 
where Osborne's intelligence office is now kept : this was burned in 
1851. Here Mr. Lawrason remained some fifteen years ; and it was 
during this period, about the year 1834, that he received the appoint- 
ment of Justice of the Peace. The firm subsequently moved to the 
southeast corner of Dundas and Talbot streets, and conducted an exten- 
sive wholesale business. He died in 1881. 

About 1825 a newspaper mail was left at the stage house (Trow- 
bridge's) in Westminster, and later George J. Goodhue was appointed 
postmaster for that neighborhood. In 1828 the post-office was moved 
from Concession 1, Westminster, to London, where Ira Scho field 
was appointed postmaster. His office was in his farm house, a few 
hundred feet east of the spot where the great Convent of the Sacred 
Heart now stands. Benjamin Higgins, born in Ireland in 1804, died 
at London,. Aug. 24, 1880. The same year that the post-office was 
established here he settled in London, and labored on his ten-acre farm 
at Blackfriars' Bridge for years. In 1831 he married a Miss Gray, 
who lived at St. John's. For twenty-five years he carried on the 
hotel business here, and conducted freight business between London 
and Hamilton and Port Stanley. His hotel stood where the Cronyn 
block is now, the lot costing him only $80. In 1837-8 he was 
dispatch bearer. Henry Davis, who came to London from New York in 
1827 and established his jewelry store on Ridout street in 1831, died here 
in 1882. The McCann family arrived later, and have continued to hold 
a high place in the estimation of the people. The list of early names, 
such as the Cruikshanks, connected with the beginning of London, 
might be continued through twenty pages ; but as such names are con- 
nected with some special profession or trade, the writer leaves them to 
be dealt with in other sections of this chapter, and refers the reader to 
the lists of early grocery and tavern-keepers. 

Although the city was " proclaimed " in 1796, in 1819 Delaware was 
the nearest post-office to the forks. The nearest mill was near Byron, 
kept by Sweet Gardner and Sylvester Reynolds. The mill was erected 
by Towusend and Tunk, where the Springbank hotel now stands. 
The water-power was taken from the springs. In 1833 a mill was 
built at Byron by Burleigh Hunt, and was the first run by the waters 
of the Thames, and the nearest bridge across the river was at the same 
place. On Oct. 1st, 1826, the logs for McGregor's shanty were cut, 
and Cyrus Sumner built the first brick dwelling-house later. In 1831 
Edward A. Talbot started the first newspaper in Canada printed west 
of Hamilton. The first lawyers in the young city were John Rolph 
and John Tenbroeck, each of whom has left a melancholy history. 
Dr. Archibald Chisholm was the first physician here, and under his 
auspices the City Hospital was established about two and one-half miles 



out on the Hamilton Road. It had accommodation for 40 patients. 
Almost contemporary with Dr. Chisholm were Dr. Hiram Lee, who 
built the first brick residence in 1846, and Dr. Donnelly. The latter 
died in 1832, fighting the cholera. Dr. Lee fell a victim in 1854 to 
the ship fever, which was very virulent in the city after the opening 
of the railway. The first market was on the corner of the court-house 
Square, corner of King and Ridout streets. It was removed from that 
to Wellington street, and finally to its present position, corner of King 
and Talbot. For a long time the trade of the city was confined to 
the west of Richmond street, and it does not require a very old man 
to remember the first brick store that was built on Dundas street, east 
of Richmond. It is now occupied by Boyd & Philips, and was built 
by Reuben Short, who kept a stove shop on the opposite side, of the 
street. Twenty-one years ago the only brick buildings upon Richmond 
street, south of King, were the Tecumseh House on one side and Geo. 
Nickle's livery stable on the other. The old Music Hall, on the corner 
of York and Richmond streets, was frame, with a brick front. 

Henry Groves (" Captain Groves "), who settled in London in 1832, 
died in 1887, aged 81 years. He remembered well the primitive days 
of the city, when he saw a bear walk along Dundas street, swim the 
river and enter the woods on the western bank. He also remembered 
the building of the log jail on the site of the present court-house, 
during the progress of which the prisoners were chained to stumps. 
He fought in two skirmishes against the Patriots in 1837-8 ; was 
High Constable for many years, and, in 1852, when an English family 
introduced the Asiatic cholera, he was the only man in London who 
could be found to take care of the stricken people Dr. Donnelly hav- 
ing died, and Dr. Lee being engaged in prescribing. Robert Summers, 
speaking of Groves' bear story, states the animal was shot in the river 
at the Forks in the fall of 1849 or 1850 Ned Harris, a son of Treas- 
urer Harris, taking the carcass ashore. The boys captured the cubs 
in London South. 

The Inquirer, published here in 1840, gives an account of London 
as it was in December of that year: " In the enumeration of the 
various kinds of goods kept in a general store, is the advertisement of 
L. Lawrason. In the same line of business we find the rival cards of 
John Jennings, G. J. Goodhue, Kerr & Armstrong, Douglas & Warren, 
Gleunon & Co., Angus & Birrell, J. H. Joyce and John Claris. Com- 
bining the business of a general grocer with that of a baker, we find 
the name of L. Perrin, and to regulate the digestion of the incongruous 
mass of merchandise which appears to have been dealt out over the 
counter in the stores above named, ranging from cast steel axes to 
soft soap and Digby herrings, Lyman, Moore & Co.,* and J. Salter, at 
their drug establishments kept every variety of medicinal preparation, 
which they offer to dispose to customers, ' sparing no pains,' an intima- 
tion which we hope they did not intend literally. A flouring mill 

* Lyman came from Montreal with his first partner, Tim Farr. 



' near the centre of the town/ was owned by Dennis O'Brien, now the 
Blackfriars' Mill, built about 1834; John Talbot and Schram & Groves 
carried on the auction and commission business of town and country ;. 
W. Horton, H. C. E. Becher and Frederick Cleverly announce their 
willingness to look after all legal matters ; Alex. Hamilton did the 
shaving and hair dressing; Simeon Morrill, the tanning; Yale & 
Warters and S. Condon, the tinning; E. Mootry and J. Wells, 
the tailoring ; S. Peters and Henry Leaning provided meat ; U. C. 
Lee and \Vm. Lee, brothers of Dr. Lee. proprietors of the Eobinson 
Hall, and the Mansion House, Dundas street, kept sundry accom- 
modations ' good for man and beast.' A news-room appears to have 
been among the other advantages which London at that early date 
possessed. It was kept by John Norval, ' over J. W. Garrison's store,*" 
access to which was obtainable by payment of an annual subscription r 
and a charge of ' sixpence york per visit to non-subscribers.' From 
the above array of names, trades, professions and callings, it will be 
seen that our predecessors, if they had the wherewithal to purchase, 
were in no danger of suffering for want of either the necessaries or the 
luxuries of life. Speaking of purchase, brings to our recollection an 
advertisement in one of the papers before us which will give an idea 
of the ' currency ' of the day : 

T ] 

1 one dollar per bushel, in Goods, tor 
good wheat. 


receiving Pork and Wheat in pay- 
ment of debts, and in exchange for goods. 
Part cash for good Pork. 


London in the Forties. In the foregoing pages the history of the 
settlement is treated up to its organization as a village. In the ex- 
haustive municipal sketch, one would think that every name connected 
with the village has a place ; and now take a look back to the days of 
the village and town councils from 1840 to 1853. In April, 1845, 
one hundred and fifty buildings were destroyed by fire. The territory 
from Dundas almost to the river, and from Talbot to Eidout, was 
burned over, as related in the history of the Fire Department, except 
the Balkwill Hotel, which stood where the City Hotel stands. Four- 
years later the Episcopalians, Baptists and New Connexion Methodists 
had each a brick house of worship; the Wesleyans, Catholics, Con- 
gregationalists, Free Churchmen, Secessionists, Universalists, Colored 
Methodists and Colored Baptists had each a frame church building. At. 
this time London had daily mail communication with all towns on the 
main road from Montreal to Amherstburg, as well as to St. Thomas 
and Port Stanley ; thrice a week with Sarnia, and twice a week with 

The journalists were Lemon & Hart, of the Times, 1844; George 
Brown, of the Western Globe, who printed the paper at Toronto, 1845 ; 
Wm. Sutherland, of the Canadian Free Press, 1849 ; and John R 
Lavell, of the Gospel Messenger, 1848. 



The physicians in London in 1849 were A. Anderson, David Far- 
row Henry Going, A. McKenzie, Charles G. Moore, Dr. Thomas 
Phillips (then 'County Coroner), and George Southwick. They were 
the only physicians then in the county, but others from St. Thomas, 
Vienna and Port Stanley practiced here. The pioneers Donnelly, 
Lee, Chisholm were all gone, although Dr. Lee did not die until 
1854, when ship cholera carried away himself, G. Eoutledge and others. 

The banisters of London and county in 1849 were Henry Becher, 
K. Becher, James Daniel, Wm. Horton, E. Jones Parke, Thomas 
Scatcherd, J. F. Saxon, S. Shanley, D. M. Thompson, John Wilson 
.and Counsellor Hughes. Mr. Thompson returned to Adelaide, where 
he is a leading farmer to-day. 

The hotels of London in 1849 were: Hope Hotel, by Wm. Balk- 
Avill ; Wm. Barker's Hotel ; Kobinson Hall, by J. M. Bennett ; Ex- 
change Inn, by W. B. Lee; Matthew's Hotel; McDowell's Hotel; 
McFie's Hotel ; Eobertson's Hotel ; British Exchange, by John Smith ; 
Caledonia, by S. Smith; Strong's Hotel; Kobert Summers' Hotel; 
and Mansion House, by Dave Thompson. 

The merchants, traders and manufacturers were : 

Adair & Thompson Dry Goods 

Adams, E Grocer 

Anderson, M Foundry 

Beddome, F. B Bookseller 

Bissell, Wm Sash Factory 

Buckley, R. H Grocer 

Carling, Wm Brewer 

Childs, W. H Insurance 

Coats, J Livery 

Code, Thomas Building 

Collovin, Matthew Dry Goods 

Cox, B. & Co Dry Goods 

Dal ton, Henry Tallow Chandler 

Darch, Robert Saddler 

Davis, Henry Watchmaker 

Dimond, John Brewer 

Dixon, Thomas C Hatter 

Eccles & Labatt Brewers 

Elliott, J Builder 

Ellis, E. P . . . .Cabinetmaker 

Fennell, Robert Saddler 

Franklin, J Insurance 

Fraser, John Bank Montreal 

Gibbins, Joe Saddler 

Gillean, J Bookseller 

Glass, Wm Grocer 

Glen, J Tailor 

Gordon, Wm Dry Goods 

Graham, J. M Bookseller 

Green & Bros Builders 

Gunn, G. M Dry Goods 

Hall, W Tailor 

Hamilton, James.. Bank of Upper Canada 

Holmes, M Carriage Builder 

Hope, Birrell & Co ... General Merchants 

Hyman, E. W Tannery 

Jackson & Elliott Foundry 

Jarmain, John Tinsmith 

Jeanneret, R. J Watchmaker 

Jennings, John Livery 

King, W Saddler 

Lampkin, H Insurance 

Lawrason & Chisholm Merchants 

Lemon & Hart Times 

Leonard, E Founder 

Lowrie, A Carriagemaker 

McDonald, Alex Insurance 

Macklin, J. C General Merchant 

McBride, S Tinsmith 

McFie, Hugh Grocer 

McFie, Dan Dry Goods 

McGill, Francis Dry Goods 

McKittrick, P Tailor 

Magee, Geo. J Dry Goods 

Magill, Matt Dry Goods 

Macintosh, J. G. & Co Dry Goods 

Marsh, D. Saddler 

Merrill, J. B Cabinetmaker 

Mills, Wilson. Commission 

Monsarratt, Chas Commercial Bank 

Mitchell, B. A Druggist 

Moore, Wm Distiller 

Morrill, Simeon Tanner 

Mountjoy & Sons Cabinetmakers 

Murphy, D . . Grocer 

Murray R. S. & Co Dry Goods 

Newcombe, H. T Printer 

Paul, A Grocer 

Peters, Samuel Distiller 

Phillips, John Dry Goods 

Pomeroy, S. S Insurance 

Plummer & Racy .Carriage Builders 

Raymond, E Hatter 

Raynard, John Dry Goods 



Reid, Robert Bookseller 

Rielly, W. T Livery 

Ridout, L Hardware 

Rose, Hugh Grocer 

Salter, John Druggist 

Smith, Francis Grocer 

Smith, A. & G Grocer 

Smith, Roger Miller 

Stewart Bros Tailors 

Street, W. W Gore Bank 

Sutherland, W Free Press 

Talbot, John Auctioneer 

Till, W Cabinets 

Tyas & Williams Dry Goods 

Watson, George Builder 

Williams, J Druggist 

Wilson, Robert Grocer 

Winsor & Screaton Builders 

A hundred names of those who were associated with the progress of 
the village prior to 1849 could be given here, but as such names are 
reserved for the pages devoted to the industries of London, only those 
who might escape notice are here given. Samuel Stansfield, a member 
of London's first Council and a resident for 37 years, died in May, 1882. 
Sergeant Wm. Dal ton was born in Ireland in 1822. After the Afghan 
war of 1842 he came to London, where his wife died in 1881, and him- 
self in April, 1885. He was barrack sergeant here for years. John 
Parkinson, who settled in London in 1839, died in October, 1888. 
Immediately after settlement, he began work in the brick-yard of 
James Ferguson, on Bathurst, between Talbot and Ridout streets ; but 
for the succeeding 35 years was an employe of E. W. Hyman. In 
1881 his wife met with an accident at the Richmond street railroad 
crossing, which resulted in her death. Henry Coombs, who settled in 
the London neighborhood in 1842. opened one of the first cabinet- 
making houses at London in 1843 ; but the Ellis shop was in existence 
at least ten years prior to Coombs' opening, because in 1834 Robert 
Summers purchased some furniture there. Old Dr. Moore, a tall, 
well- educated Irishman, was a celebrated physician in the early years 
of the county. His death took place in 1842 or 1843. Dr. Charles 
G. Moore came afterwards to the city and practiced here until his death. 
Geo. M. Gunn came to London in 1842, and entered into business with 
his brother William, who had a general store on Dundas street, near 
Robinson Hall. The fire of 1844 destroyed their premises, so that they 
reopened one block east. Geo. M. died in 1882. Wm. Dunbar, who 
came here in 1843, was a partner of Geo. Durand in the blacksmith 
shop which then occupied the corner of Richmond and King streets. In 
1845 Durand moved to the United States, when James Dunbar took 
his place as partner, and from 1845 to 1879 the brothers carried on the 
blacksmith business on York street. James Dunbar settled in Middle- 
sex in 1833, and died in 1882. Captain Isaac May, born in Cavan 
County, Ireland, in 1821, settled at London in 1844, and died in 1884. 
He was the pioneer of the steamship line between Cleveland and Port 
Stanley, and owned seven barges and two steamers, besides other craft. 
In 1846 Thomas Scanlon carried on the business of tallow chandler. 
Dr. Henry Hanson migrated to Canada in 1844, and settled near Hyde 
Park village ; but later took a position in Dr. Salter's drug store, studied 
medicine, and in 1846 began the practice of medicine, travelling 
through Western Ontario, as there were no regular physicians outside 
London, Sarnia and Goderich. His death took place in January, 1885. 



Henry Coombs' family now own the Mansion house. In 1832 Stillman 
Olds was a currier, William Underwood and Isaac L. George, millers, 
of London, Wm. Cooper, carpenter, of Westminster. 

In April, 1853. a great convention of colored refugees from slavery 
was held at London. The colored population of the town then was 
276, and their real estate was assessed at $13,504. At this convention, 
numbers of colored folk from the Wilberforce colony near Lucan were 

To point out the precocious growth of ideas at the close of the period 
it will ouly be necessary to quote the following motion by Councillors 
Barker and McClary, made in September, 1851. This called attention 
to the fact that Mr. Strathy was about building his new house at the 
corner of Duiidas and Eidout, and " That the Council have heard with 
regret that it is to be only two stories, which, in the opinion of this 
Council, would be very unsightly and offensive to those who have 
expended large sums in that neighborhood for the ornament and 
improvement of the town." It was well such guardians of the beauti- 
ful did not pass an ordinance making it optional with the people to 
say what class of house Tom, Dick or Harry should build They may 
have learned that tastes were developing, and trusted to time to teach 
even house builders what harmony signifies. 

The opening of the railroad in 1853 raised up new aspirations. In 
September of that year, 200 not dollars were appropriated by the 
Council, to celebrate the opening of the Great Western Eailroad ; and 
200 were granted to the Mayor, in recognition of his services as 
Mayor and as a director in the railroad company. That ceremony 
introduced modern London, for with the shrill voice of the locomotive 
came new strangers, some from the world of luxury and fashion, some 
from that of labor and worth, all teaching lessons, all taking a part in 
forming society and building it up from the state of revelry to that of 

Real Estate in 1852-7. In 1851, what is known in modern days 
as a real estate boom, visited the town of London. Owing to the 
prospects of increased railway accommodation, speculators took advan - 
tage of the opportunity, and startling transactions in real estate become 
of daily occurrence. The unsuspecting public nipped at the gilded 
bait, and property assumed a highly fictitious value. Lots were pur- 
chased for prospective suburban residences, almost as far out as 
Komoka, at ridiculous figures ; but the fond hopes of the ill-advised 
investors never matured, and the excitement eventually subsided, not, 
however, without leaving in its wake the usual contingent of luckless 

As an idea of how properties sold at that time, A. S. Abbott, city 
clerk, tells of purchasing a lot of 42 feet frontage near where the Abbott 
carriage factory now stands on Dundas street, between Wellington and 
Waterloo, in 1853 or 1854, at $100 per foot, and in a year or two 
afterwards he saw the adjoining lot sold for $13 per foot. That was 


only one instance out of hundreds. The panic of 1857 came to com- 
plete the wreck. A number of men, some old settlers like Peter 
McCann, held a large quantity of land through the years of depres- 
sion ; but now they were compelled to sell it for a trifle, or allow it 
to pass from their possession. 

Ten years after the first railroad train entered London, commercial 
and real estate men felt that the days of panic were over, and that the 
city had been placed on a sure foundation of prosperity. The rental 
of real estate in 1863 was $155,997, and the yearly value, when rental 
was not assessed, $123,335, or total value, $279,832; the taxable in- 
come was $451,200, and the total value of personal property $521,000. 

Post-office. The nearest post-offices to London were one at St. 
Thomas, another at Ingersoll, which was kept by Squire Ingersoll, 
after whom the town of that name is called, and the remaining one on 
the plains north of Hall's mills, where Mr. Lawrason, father of London's 
police magistrate, carried on a combined post-office and general store. 
The mails were delivered at irregular intervals, and on the delivery 
days there was always a strong rush for the messages which the iso- 
lated settlers expected to receive. On the settlement of the village, 
an office was established in 1828, with Ira Schofield in charge ; but in 
1829, Geo. J. Goodhue was appointed master, he having previously 
established the mail at his store in Westminster. The office was in a 
small log house on North street, in an unsettled part of the village, a 
little east of the entrance to the former residence of L. Lawrason, near 
the Sacred Heart Convent. It was a rude log cabin, and its remote- 
ness was very inconvenient to the business community. Government 
was therefore petitioned for its removal, and it was thereafter kept in 
Goodhue's store. The mail in those days only came in once a week, 
which, however, was considered fast work in view of the few facilities 
afforded. Mr. Goodhue held this office up to 1852, except during the 
short term of his suspension. 

Lawrence Lawless, who in 1852 settled in Delaware, and was the 
first mail carrier between that village and London, was subsequently 
clerk for Lawrason, again for Goodhue, and later for Jennings. Later 
still, he was Assistant Postmaster at Toronto; but after Goodhue 
resigned the London office, Lawless was appointed, retiring as a super- 
annuate in 1880, and dying September 21, 1882. 

In June, 1881, Postmaster R. J. C. Dawson was appointed, having 
been connected with the office since 1852-3. J. D. Sharman, the 
Assistant Postmaster, has been in the office since 1859. In speaking 
of those days, through the Advertiser, he says : f< When I came here, 
the office was next door, where Aid. Moule's store is now. The staff 
consisted of eight, all told. There was L. Lawless, the Postmaster ; 
R. J. C. Dawson, acting assistant; John Maitland, Joseph Gordon, 
E. D. Campbell, F. French, and myself, clerks. Mr. Lawless is dead ; 
John Maitland is still alive, and approaching 90 years of age ; Joseph 
Gordon is in Toronto ; R. D. Campbell, who was a son of the late 



Judge Campbell, of Niagara Falls, and a very fine fellow, is dead also ; 
and Fleming French is now in the Ottawa post-office. In 1859 there 
were eight employe's. At the beginning of the letter delivery we had 
five carriers, now we have twenty-five, while the whole force of 
employe's numbers forty-nine. Then the office revenue was $12,000 
per annum ; now it is $47,000. There were only four officials in the 
Inspector's department in 1863 ; now there are eight. Gilbert Griffin 
was luspector then; he is now in Kingston. George Cox was chief 
clerk; he is now living in the northern part of the city. Charles 
Whalen and Pat. Dower were clerks. Whalen is farming in the 
Eastern township, and Dower is dead." 

In 1853-4, while the office was still on Eidout street, a system of 
letter delivery was obtained. John Nichol was authorized by several 
residents to call for their letters at the office, and his system of private 
delivery continued about thirteen years, the people paying a direct tax 
of one penny per letter to Nichol. Street letter boxes were placed Dec. 
21, 1874, and later, the letter delivery system was extended to the 
city. The revenue from 1876 to 1888 is stated as follows : 

1876 $28,12625 1881 $38,31942 1884.. .$42,73559 

1879 32,91350 1882 43,45551 1885 42,51746 

1880 35,804 90 1883 42,502 94 1886 44,309 78 

1887 $45,693 64 

The revenue of 1888 will run to about $47,000.00, the fiscal year 
including June 30. The site for the London Post Office was purchased 
from W. & J. Calling in 1856 for $8,640. In 1870-1 an additional 
tract of land was purchased. In the fall of 1858 work was commenced 
on the building, which was completed in 1860, at a cost of $30,482.76. 
Up to July 1, 1867, no less than $40,526.06 were expended on con- 
struction, site and repairs. The original building was carried out by 
Mr. Elliot from design by Architect W. B. Leather. Front, 48 feet ; 
rear, 59 feet, and depth, 66 feet. In 1873-4 an addition was made 
.from plans by Architect Wm. Eobinson. 

The Custom House. In J854, when London was established a 
custom district, the office was on the ground floor of the building 
opposite Market Lane on Dundas. Some time later, Dr. Hiram Lee, a 
son of the dramatist, was appointed Collector, but in 1855-6 he was 
succeeded by his brother-in-law, James B. Strathy, then clerk of the 
county. He held the office until 1878, when Eobert Eeid, the present 
Collector, was appointed. The business was carried on for some time 
opposite the City Hall on Eichmond street ; again in the Albion 
Buildings from 1858 to September, 1872, when a part of the present 
building was completed. 

The site of the Custom House was purchased in 1869-70 from St 
Paul's Church for $8,000. In the latter year the work of construction 
commenced, and continued until completion in 1873-4. The main 
building is three stories high, covering 30,509 square feet. The one- 
story annex covers 1,204 square feet. The outer walls of Ohio stone 
.are built m the modern Italian style, from plans by Wm. Eobinson. 


The custom receipts of the port from 1871 to 1881 are as fol- 
lows : 

1871 $233,126 1874 $304.888 1877 $419,938 1880 $451,751 

1872 263,076 1875 330,232 1878 459,147 1881 541,724 

1873 214,970 1876 353,377 1879 470,510 

The officers of the Port of London are Eobert Eeid, Collector ; E, 
S. Collett, Surveyor; Thos. Miller, Chief Clerk; W. G. Flynn, Clerk; 
J. L. Williams, Clerk and Locker ; Oscar H. Talbot, Clerk ; Jno. Sid- 
dons, Appraiser ; Geo. D. Sutherland, Dry Goods Appraiser ; Ed. 
Finnegan, Clerk ; William Brett, Packer ; Kichard Irvine, Landing 
Waiter, Grand Trunk depot ; Edward B. Minhinnick, Assistant Land- 
ing Waiter, G. T. R ; William Taylor, Landing Waiter at Michigan 
Central depot. The outports connected are at Strathroy and Clinton, 
where James Taylor and John Irvine are Collectors. 

Military Buildings. In 1864 two brick sheds and armories were 
constructed on Central and Wellington streets, one 113x77 feet, and 
one 143x43 feet, in the centre of Militia Grounds. The large shed 
was demolished by a storm. In February, 1865, the military barracks, 
then evacuated by the troops on order of Governor Williams, for an 
alleged insult offered to Garrison Commander Boles by the Mayor, were 
for sale. In 1864 the military also were quartered in the McPherson 
carriage factory. In June, 1876, the contracts for erection of brick 
militia buildings were sold for $6,342, J. Bryan, J. Garner and A. 
Purdom being the contractors. The brick storehouse cost $2,818, and 
the caretaker's house and magazine $5,876 ; in all, $18,136. 

Railroad Buildings. The first Grand Trunk depot of 1858 was an 
open platform for freight and passenger business, just east of Adelaide 
street. This was succeeded by a brick building. The location was 
inconvenient ; so the company sought a spot on Hamilton Road and 
Burwell street, where a frame shanty was erected 18x20 feet, con- 
structed with rough boards. In December, 1872, this building was 
destroyed. The old broad-gauge bed from St. Marys to London was 
changed to the American gauge that year, and a desire for improve- 
ment was manifest ; but yet the company switched an old coach on 
the west track which was used as office arid waiting-room until the 
present buildings were opened Jan. 1, 1875. The first freight agent 
was P. H. Carter, who was succeded by Calvert. Carter returned, but 
was succeeded by Thorp. Wm. Whyte came in 1874. In 1879 J. A. 
Roche succeeded him. 

The Canadian Pacific Railroad depot, near the northern limits of 
the city, is also a modern building. 

The Michigan Central depot and grounds are new additions to the 
city coming with the railroad. The building is modern in every 
respect, and though not by any means the largest, is as substantially 
built as any, and architecturally the neatest in Canada. 

Modern Building Era. The erection of the Tecumseh House and 
City Hall in 1854-5 ushered in the modern building era. In 1856, 




Dundas . . 

. Screaton. 

.Green ... 
. Campbell 

$ 800 
1 fiOO 

Adams . . . 
Campbell . . 
Darby .... 
Leonard . . 
McGauley . 

\X , * O /\ i- r i f\ ]r 

. Talbot . . 
. Richmond 
..Dundas.. . 

brick, stone and frame houses were added to the few important stores 
and dwellings which escaped the fires of former years, and in 1859 no 
less than $81,000 were expended on pretentious structures. In that 
year the following investments were made : 

Owner. Street. Builder. Est'mM. 

New Bank . . ..Richmond. . .$30,000 

Post Office do. Campbell 20,000 

Smith, F Dundas... do. 6,000 

School Horton. . . .Garratt.. 2,000 

WesleyanCh.. Pall Mall., do. 800 

Wilson, Capt.. Talbot Moffat . . 3,000 

Wheeler do. do. 800 

MOO We.lington...{^} Code. 1,000 

John Mills, the stationer, who came here in 1858, makes this 
statement : " There was only one house the other side of Maitland 
street, and that belonged to a Mr. Rowland, whose son is in the city 
now. My store at present is in the heart of the business part of 
London. In those days it was near the edge, as most of the trade of 
the city was done west of Richmond street. Still there were a num- 
ber of stores around here, but nothing like there is to-day." 

From this period forward the enterprise of the capitalist, of the 
religious and secret societies, of the hundreds who were searching for 
pleasant homes, went hand-in-hand with the energy of contractors, 
and gave to London of the present day well built-up business thorough- 
fares, streets, and elegant residence streets. 

Queen's avenue is the most beautiful drive ; the rows of residences 
along this street are worth noting. Among the most attractive are those 
of John Labatt, Geo. T. Hiscox, Dr. Moorehouse, Dr. Campbell, the 
London Club, Wm. Spencer, Duffield, Mrs. Rock, Col. Lewis, A. W. 
Porte, St. Andrew's manse, Dr. Eccles, Ed. Beltz, J. K. Clare, Mrs. 
Elliott, W. D. Eckert, J. B. Laidlaw, A. S. Abbott, Gilbert Glass, F. E. 
Leonard, Major Larmour, Chas. Crawford, E. R. Baynes, E. B. Reed, 
St. Paul's rectory, Philip Cook, J. M. Denton's terrace, A. Screaton, 
S. R. Brown. 

Talbot street boasts of several good residences. Among the best 
are those of Mayor Cowan, Mrs. Meredith, Robt. Pritchard, Carleton 
Terrace, A. K. Melbourne, Dr. Fraser, Harvey's terrace, Dr. Smith, 
Wm. A. Lipsey, R. J. C. Dawson, A. M. Smart, Alex. Stewart, John 
S. Pearce, Donald McDonald, W. J. Saunby, Wm. Magee, W. C. 
Furness, Rev. Canon Newman, Alex. Harvey, Thos. S. Hobbs, Cam- 
den terrace, James Owrey, R. S. Murray, Miss Kennedy, W. J. 
Hyman, Geo. S. Birrell, Hon. Elijah Leonard, to which list must be 
jidded Carlirigs' brewery. 

King street is another drive, along which are many fine residences 
worth seeing Among these are the homes of Dr. Moore, John Wolfe, 
B. A. Mitchell, R. C. Struthers, Wm. Stevely, Dr. Cattermole, Robert 
Reid, Inspector Boyle, T. C. Hewitt, R. C. Macfie, John Taylor, F. A. 
Fitzgerald, John Tanton, James H. Belton, L. H. Scandrett, Thos. Pur- 


dom, Mrs. Tilley, Frederick Rowland, Wm. Willis, John Adams, John 
Forsytb, John G. Mclntosh, Mrs. Elliott, Mrs. Johnston, Arthur Wal- 
lace, Mrs. H. Davis, Eobert McPherson, H. Ashplant, Wm. Ward, Dr. 
Tennant, H. C. Green, J. L. Burt, John Purdom, D. A. McDermid, H. 
G. Abbott, K. D. Dulmage, and Mrs. H. K. Brown. 

Among the finer class of residences on Dufferin avenue are those 
of John Ferguson, J. W. Little, Wm. McDonough, George C. Gibbons, 
W. T. Strong, C. W. Andrus, St. Peter's Palace, Eev. J. F. Latimer, 
James C. Duffield, Geo. F. McCormick, Wm. M. Spencer, the Colle- 
giate Institute, S. H. Craig, J. B. Vining, Judge Elliot, Andrew Cleg- 
horn, K. D. Millar, Mrs. Graydon, Geo. Laing, Wilbur R. Vining, 
Richard Irving, Andrew Dale, John Shopland, Charles G. Cody, C. H. 
E. Fisher, W. D. Buckle, Frank Glass, L. C. Leonard, John Bowman, 
Alfred Robinson, Walter Bartlett, W. T. Edge, Colonel Aylmer. 

There are many other very fine residences in London worth seeing, 
but it is hardly possible to give a full list. Among the principal are 
those of Colonel Peters, on Maple street ; Dr. Brown, on Kent ; Josiah 
Blackburn, W. R. Meredith, Mr. McKinnon, James Magee and R. 
Bayly, on Albert street ; John McNee, J. D. Anderson, Mrs. Moore, 
Wm. E. Saunders, James Reid, Robert Reid, jr., and George McNab, 
on Central avenue ; S. Macdonald, Dr. Oronhyatekha, Chas. Kent and 
Joseph Jeffrey, on Lichfield street ; Bishop Baldwin and Geo. Robin- 
son, on St. James street ; Mrs. E. W. Hyman, on Sydenham ; St. John 
Hyttenrauch, J. 1). Sharman and Isaac Danks, on Richmond street ; 
Wm. Percy and Samuel Flory, on Grosvenor street; Henry Becher 
and John Puddicombe, Huron College and Principal Fowell's residence, 
on George street ; Chief Williams, on Colborne street ; Nathaniel Reid, 
on Waterloo street ; Alex. Johnston, on Colborne street ; the Sacred 
Heart Convent, on Dundas street ; Samuel Glass and M. Masuret, on 
Wellington street ; George Taylor, on Adelaide street ; Samuel Craw- 
ford, V. Cronyn. Rev. J. H. Robinson, Wm. Bowman, Murray Ander- 
son. Ben Higgins, and John B. Murphy, on Dundas street ; James D. 
Smith, W. F. Bullen, Rev. J. B. Richardson, Rowland Dennis and 
Donald Morrison, on William street ; Thomas Muir, David Smith, C. 
D. Barr, Mrs. Russell Hardy and John Christie, on Waterloo ; Sheriff 
Glass, Ed. Meredith, L. K. Cameron and J. D. Mcllwain, on Colborne 
street ; Chas. F. Col well, Joshua Garrett, Mrs. Macbeth, Thos. Green, 
M. D. Fraser and A. W. Fraser, on Princess avenue ; John Coote, on 
Oxford street. 

On Dundas and Richmond streets are several fine business blocks, 
hotels and bank buildings, and at the corner of Richmond street and 
Dufferin avenue, on the old lot patented by the Government to the 
Church, is St. Peter's Cathedral, a building that would do credit to one 
of the oldest and most populous cities of the continent. 

The court-house, jail and county offices on Ridout street are very 
primitive structures. The court-house and jail is a feudal-looking 
pile, built at the close of an age which dreamt only of keeping the 


people in a state of serai-slavery. It is a venerable pile, but will have 
to go down to make room for a modern building. 

The past few years have seemed to intensify the admiration of 
residents and attract accessions to the population. New homes, new 
school and church buildings emphasize these appearances. The beauty 
of location, the enterprise and liberality of the founders and builders, 
not more than educational and social prominence, the superiority of 
public, private, denominational and convent schools, and the compara- 
tively high state of morals to be found in the city, combine to render 
it a point where merit will receive encouragement and assistance. 

With all that has been done, much remains to be accomplished. 
The destiny of the city will be reached when all, every one, of the 
animate barriers who are now here find a less progressive and more 
congenial land, or are called away to that happy country, where for- 
ever they can blow at Gabriel's horn. 

Municipal Histoi^y. In former pages of this work, devoted to 
general history, an endeavor has been made to fully portray that 
period in the history of the city when the primary steps were taken 
to found a colony and build a town. Bringing the record down to a 
date when the early settlement, emerging from behind clouds of 
disappointment and uncertainty, took its allotted place among the 
established evidences of Western Canadian enterprise, it is now 
proposed to examine into a period in the history of the same city, 
when, with resources greatly enlarged and territory extended by a 
brilh'ant career of enterprise and industry, it has progressed to a degree 
of perfection invariably attending the exercise of these incentives. 
Such success, born of laudable ambition, may have excited the jealousy 
of rivals, but it has not bred a mischievous policy ; it has not nur- 
tured the germs of domestic corruption, which culminate in decay. 
Under public and private care the city grew rapidly, trade was ex- 
tended, manufactures increased, great improvements effected, additional 
school-buildings erected, new religious and secular societies organized, 
agricultural interests forwarded by every means, railroads aided and 
built, bridges constructed, and everything accomplished which gave 
promise of contributing to municipal, commercial and social advance- 

On Jan. 30, 1826, an act to establish the district town of the London 
District in a more central position and to annex the townships of 
Walpole and Eainham to Haldimand County, in the Niagara District, 
was passed. This act provided that Quarter Sessions and District 
courts be held within some part of the reservation formerly made for 
the site of a town, near the forks of the Thames in the townships of 
London and Westminster, in Middlesex County, so soon as a jail and 
court-house be completed. The survey, as recorded in the beginning 
of this chapter, was made, and the work of Quarter Sessions and Assize 
Courts was begun here in 1827. The settlement formed a part of 
i London Township down to 1840, when a village government was 


granted. From 1842 to its incorporation as a city in 1854, the town wa& . 
represented in the County Council, as shown in the general chapter 
on Quarter Sessions and County Councils, but for the last thirty-four 
years its government has been distinct from that of the county, being, 
as it were, one of the principalities which Dorchester dreamt of build- 
ing up out of the wilderness, differing only in having men chosen by 
men to rule. 

Village of London Council. The Presidents of the Village of 
London from 1840 to 1847 are named as follows: George J. Good- 
hue, 1840 ; James Givens, 1841 ; Edward Matthews, 1842-3 ; James 
Farley, 1844; John Balkwill, 1845; T. W. Shepherd, 1846; and 
Hiram D. Lee, 1847. The Councillors of St. Patrick's Ward were 
Dennis O'Brien, 1840-1 ; John O'Neil, 1842 ; Edward Matthews, 1843,, 
who later shot himself where the Federal Bank was erected ; J. Cruik- 
shank, 1844-5 ; Wm. Balkwill, 1846 ; and H. S. Eobinson, 1847. The 
Councillors of St. George's Ward were Geo. J. Goodhue, 1840; John 
Jennings, 1841; John Claris, 1842-3; John Jennings, 1844-5; T. W. 
Stephen, 1846 ; Wm. Barker, 1847. The Councillors of St. Andrew's 
Ward were Simeon Morrill, 1840-1 ; H. Van Buskirk, 1842 ; Kichard 
Frank, 1843 ; John Talbot, 1844 ; John Balkwill, 1845 ; Simeon Mor- 
rill, 1846 ; Philo Bennett, 1847. The Councillors of St. David's Ward 
were John Balkwill, 1840-4 ; John Blair, 1845 ; John O'Flynn, 1846 ;. 
James Graham, 1847. The additional Councillors, commonly called 
"fifth members," were James Givens, 1840-1; Edward Matthews,, 
1842 ; John O'Neil, 1843 ; James Farley, 1844 ; John O'Flynn, 1845 ; 
Geo. Thomas, 1846; Dr. H. D. Lee, 1847. The Clerks of the old 
village were Alex. Eobertson, 1840; D. J. Hughes, 1841 ; W. K. Cor- 
nish, 1842-3; Geo. Kailton, 1844; Thomas Scatcherd, 1845-6; Henry 
Hamilton, 1847. 

Transactions of the Old Council. There is no record ante-dating 
April, 1843, when clerk W. K. Cornish was instructed to obtain a 
minute book and the necessary stationery for the use of the Police 
Board. Ezekiel Whittimore was appointed inspector, but the object 
which he was to inspect is not named. The amount in which the 
treasurer was to give bonds was 1,000 ; the clerk, 500 ; inspector, 
100; assessor, 250; constable, 100; collector, 500. Thomas 
Carling was appointed street surveyor, his pay being five shillings 
for each day engaged. Wm. Kobb was appointed constable ; J. H. 
Carr, assessor, and John O'Neil, collector. In May the sum of 10 
was granted to W. K. Cornish as rent for the use of his office to March, 
1844, as Council Chamber. James Givens, President of the Board,, 
was ordered to surrender the bond of John Hughes, former clerk of the 
village. An entry of October 23, 1843, speaks plainly on some of the 
habits and customs of the times. " John Balkwill, Esq., having 
attended the Board in a state of intoxication : ordered, that the constable 
do remove him ; he having done everything in his power to impede 
the proceedings of the Board." Later that evening a second resolution 


was carried. " John Balkwill, Esq., one of the members of the Board, 
having broken the windows of the office, or instigated the same to be 
<lone : ordered, that the Board adjourn till to-morrow morning." W. 
K. Cornish, village clerk, gave notice that he would resign, owing to 
Balkwill's conduct. 

In June or July, 1843, depredations of some character were com- 
mitted at London. The Board offered 10, and Mr. Whittimore 5, 
for the apprehension of the offenders. 

Major Holmes, commanding the Twenty-third Eegiment, then 
garrisoning London (July, 1844), was referred to clause eighteen of 
by-laws, and requested to prevent his men from violating such clause. 
Henry C. E. Becher, Charles Prior, Alex. Gordon and W. K. Cornish 
were appointed returning officers for 1844. In December, 1844, the 
use of the Board room was granted to the Masonic Lodge, on petition 
of Alex. Gordon. In January, 1837, a petition from the residents of 
London asked the Quarter Sessions Court to order all dogs to be " shut 
up or shot ;" but as some of the magistrates were the owners of the 
worst dogs in the village, the petition was left unnoticed. A "dog law," 
however, was passed by the Village Council, Feb. 2, 1884. The 
officers of the Board for 1844 were : George Eailton, clerk ; W. W. 
t Street, treasurer ; Boyle Travers, assessor; John McDowell, collector; 
Philo Bennett, constable; E. Whittimore, inspector, and Benjamin 
Higgins, pound-keeper. 

The municipal business of 1845 opened with a meeting called to 
protest against a petition then in the hands of the Government, seek- 
ing the amendment of the village charter. Thos. Keir, Geo. Eailton, 
Alex. Gordon and D. M. Thompson were returning officers. On Feb. 
5, 1845, the question of who was elected to the Board from St. Patrick's 
Ward was decided in favor of John Cruikshank against Hugh Steven- 
son, and of John Balkwill against Ellis. Henry C. E. Becher repre- 
sented Ellis, and Wm. Horton represented Hugh Stevenson. John 
Wilson was employed as village attorney in May, 1845. The officers 
of the Board for 1845 were : W. W. Street, treasurer; Thomas 
Scatcherd, clerk; Boyle Travers, assessor ; John McDowell, collector; 
Peter McCann, constable; Ezekiel Whittimoie, warden and in- 
spector and Benjamin Higgins, pound-keeper. In October, 1845, 
Colonel Talbot was asked to bring before the Government the pro- 
position of granting to the Town of London all the broken front 
lots within the village limits. In December a new series of by- 
laws appeared in the Times. In August, 1846, George Thomas, a 
member of the Board, moved to Chatham. His resignation was asked 
for by letter of Clerk Scatcherd. Among the items paid in April, 
L847, was D to H. C. E. Becher "for drafting proposed new act of 
incorporation of the town." In 1847 Henry Hamilton was elected 
Clerk, and John Brown, collector, being the only changes in the list of 
tfoard officers, John Walsh having refused to serve as inspector. 
Many of the acts of the old village do not appear here. Those relat- 



ing to fires, licenses, hospitals, bonus to industries, police, schools, &c., 
will be found under their respective headings. 

Town of London. The act to repeal the act of incorporation of 
the Town of London and to establish a Town Council for London, 
instead of a Board of Police, was assented to July 28, 1847. 

The Mayors of the Town of London from 1848 to 1854 are named 
as follows : Simeon Morrill, 1848 and 1850-1 ; Thomas C. Dixon, 
1849; Edward Adams, 1852-3; and Marcus Holmes, 1854. 

The Council of 1848 comprised H. S. Kobinson and John Dimond ; 
Wm. Barker and Samuel Stansfield ; Philo Bennett and Michael Seger ; 
A. McCormick and John Doyle, represented the wards respectively. 
In 1849 M. Anderson and Eobert Gunn ; William Barker and Thomas 
Carling ; James Daniel and Philo Bennett ; James Graham and Benj. 
Nash. On March 1, 1849, effigies were publicly burned in the mar- 
ket square of London. The Mayor, although asked by the Council to 
take action in the matter, failed to notice the proceeding. In 1850, 
each of the wards was given three representatives and the town a 
Reeve and Deputy. The Councilmen were : Murray Anderson, L. 
Lawrason and John Ashton ; Thomas Carling, H. C. R. Becher and 
Win. Barker ; Simeon Morrill, James Daniel and Philo Bennett ; 
Benj. Nash, John K. Labatt and Edward Adams. In 1851 Edward 
Adams replaced Lawrason for St. Patrick's ward ; Carling, Becher and 
Barker were re-elected for St. George's ward ; Simeon Morrill, Oliver 
McClary and Marcus Holmes for St. Andrew's ; John K. Labatt, D. 
M. Thomson and John Clegg for St. David's. In 1852 James Oliver, 
E. Adams and M. Anderson ; T. Carling, W. Barker and J. C. Mere- 
dith ; Marcus Holmes, James Reid and Oliver McClary ; James Daniel, 
Geo. Code and John Clegg, represented the several wards. In 1853 
the first named two wards were represented as in 1852 : Marcus 
Holmes, James Cousins and Ellis W. Hyman represented St. Andrew's ; 
John Scanlan, Peter Schram and James Daniel, St. David's. Mur- 
ray Anderson was Reeve, and Wm. Barker, Deputy from 1840 to the 
close of 1852. Wm. Barker in 1853-4, with Marcus Holmes, Deputy 
in 1853, and Murray Anderson in 1854. 

In 1854 Elijah Leonard replaced Oliver for St. Patrick's, Robert 
Wilson replaced J. C. Meredith for St. George's, St. Andrew's Ward 
retained its three representatives of 1853, while James Moffat, John 
Blair and John Clegg were the Councilmen elected for St. David's 

Alfred Carter was the first clerk of the old town in 1848. James 
Farley succeeded him in 1849, and held the position until the town 
government was changed into a city government, Jan. L, 1855. 

Transactions of Town Council. The transactions of the old 
Town Council, like those of the Village Council, were of such a varied 
character, that like them, they are scattered throughout this chapter, 
and some find a way into county history. On Aug. 17, 1847, Mr. 
Barker was called to apologize for the use of abusive language to , 



brother members of the Board the day before. In August Collector 
McDowell resigned, when A. S. Abbott was appointed to that posi- 
tion. In September Clerk Carter refused to pay over moneys alleged 
to have been collected by him, to the new Council. In October the 
Council enacted that all religious societies using the Town Hall should 
pay two and a-half shillings per night. The New Connexion Metho- 
dist Society was permitted to put up an extra stove in the Council 
room. Mr. McClary was town surveyor and engineer. 

In January, 1849, the election case of Balk will vs. Nash was before 
the Council. There were many witnesses, who proved that Balkwill, 
since giving up house- keeping, still resided here, while others proved 
him only to be a visitor. The Council decided in favor of Nash, who 
was declared Councilman for St. David's Ward. James Farley was 
chosen clerk ; and, on motion of Barker, seconded by Bennett, a vote 
of thanks was given to ex-Clerk Charles Hutchinson for the efficient 
and satisfactory manner in which he fulfilled the duties of his office. 
A. S. Abbott was reappointed collector, with Fenser, Stead and Plum- 
mer assessors. 

On February 7 the Council convened to review the draft of a bill 
providing for a general municipal incorporation law, and the town was 
divided into Centre, North and South Wards. Henry C. E. Becher 
was appointed town solicitor to succeed John Wilson. 

In January, 1850, Eeeve Anderson was chosen to represent the 
town in the County Council, with Deputy-Reeve Nash. James 
Farley was appointed clerk; Peter McCann, High Bailiff; Captain 
Caddy, engineer; W. W. Street, treasurer; A. S. Abbott, clerk. 
Harding O'Brien, Hugh Stevenson and John McDowell were ap- 
pointed assessors for St. George's Ward ; John Plummer, A. Lowrie 
(succeeded by J. Talbot) and Peter Schram, for St. Patrick's ; John 
Scanlon, E. P. Ellis and John Matthews, for St. Andrew's; James 
Elliot, Henry Green and Thomas Fraser, for St. David's. The constables 
then appointed for the wards, in the order as given, were Thomas 
Fletcher and W. McAdam ; Patrick McLaughlin, John Booth and 
Thomas Wiggins. A. W. Griffith was appointed inspector, with John 
Lowrie. Samuel H. Parke was reappointed inspector of weights and 
measures. The salaries were : Clerk, 55 ; treasurer, 25 ; engineer, 
50; collector, 45; high constable, 25; inspectors, 12 10s. Od. 
each In May, 1850, Councillor Labatt asked the Council to proclaim 
May 24th a holiday. 

In April, 1852, tenders for surveying the town were received from 
Samuel Peters, 223; John Tally, 593; Sandford Fleming, 125 ; 
Robert Inms, 110; Charles Fraser, 169; W. B. Leather, 293; 
Geo. P. Leddy, 180 ; and William McClary, 195. The work was 
awarded to Samuel Peters. In July W. W. Street resigned the office 
of Treasurer (which he held for 12 years), when John Brown was ap- 
pointed. In December the Council agreed to attend the funeral of 
Geo. Lode, a late member. The gentlemen were also kind enough to 


themselves to order "18 pairs of men's black kid gloves and crape, 
and a sufficient quantity of white satin ribbon," so that they could at- 
tend the funeral in state. 

An act vesting a portion of Church street in the Board of Works 
was approved June 14, 1853. John and William Carling, William T. 
Eenwick and James S. Thompson were owners of certain lots bounded 
on the west by Church street, and their petition, on which the act was 
based, pointed out that Church street was rendered useless by the 
opening of the new or Sarnia street ; that they received no compensa- 
tion therefor ; and so it was ordered that the Board of Works sell to 
the owners named that portion of Church street abutting their lots as 
a consideration for their property appropriated to Sarnia street. 

On Sept. 29, 1855, the Council granted 50 to celebrate the fall of 
Sebastopol, and ordered the police, fire brigade and people to turn out. 
Councillors Glass, Leonard, McBride, Schram, Carling and Kermott 
were appointed to manage the affair. In October, 1855, the Governor- 
General was officially received. In December a visit from the City 
Council and Fire Department of Detroit, Mich., was frustrated by the 
Great Western Eailway refusing to lower the regular fare. The Lon- 
don Council consoled the would-be visitors with the promise that on 
the completion of the London & Port Stanley Railroad they could 
come to the Port by steamer and thence to London free. 

Parks. Sixty-two years ago London was all a park. For a decade 
prior to 1826 the country at the Forks was known to some of the settlers 
of the seven-mile-woods of Oxford, of the Buckwheat River settlement in 
Dorchester, of Westminster, Delaware and London Townships. In 
1816 Monseigneur Plessis, of Quebec, visited the place, with Rev. Mr. 
Kelly and the Abbe Gauvreau, on their return from Sandwich ; but of 
all who passed this way since Simcoe and his staff camped at the Forks, 
not one, except Bishop Plessis, considered the beautiful place worth 
notice. It was all a park, fit for the aborigines to dwell in ; their most 
picturesque and one of their most profitable hunting grounds. The 
surveyor came with his chain and axe, the spell of the wilderness was 
removed, and the trees of a century began to disappear. Andrew 
Yerex, who looked in on this scene in 1824, states that on his arrival 
in the fall of 1824 the place where London now stands was a dense 
forest, and only two concessions of Westminster were fairly settled. 
The roads were scarcely more than trails through the woods, marked 
by the blazed trees, which formed conspicuous landmarks along the 
route. In fact there was but one line that could really be termed a 
thoroughfare, that being the Longwoods road, or, as it was then termed, 
Westminster street, although there was another road leading to St. 
Thomas. That place was then called a village, and possessed some 
importance, as it had about a dozen houses. 

Little did the early inhabitants estimate the value of trees ; they 
were an incumbrance, and their wholesale destruction was looked upon 
with pleasure ; but with all the ravages of commercial progress one 



little grove remained to receive as it were the first railroad train in 
1853. That year Alex. Tytler arrived here, and speaking of the old 
forest, by the tongue of the Advertiser, in Oct., 1*88, he says :- 
" When*! came here there was no London East, no London South, nor 
no London West. There were a few scattered houses over there, but 
you could fire a cannon off from the top of the hill without the least 
danger of doing any damage. Why, twenty or twenty five years ago 
I helped to cut trees down on Dundas street. It's not so very long 
ago since a group of trees grew on the corner of Talbot and Dundas 
streets. I helped to clear them away." 

The inhabitants of later days, however, learned of the loss sus- 
tained through want of judgment in their predecessors. Thousands of 
dollars had to be expended in an effort to secure for the residence streets 
and parks of the present time suitable shade trees. Even the court- 
house square, which the vandal officers of 1827-8 had cleared of the 
old, old trees, so that they could chain their prisoners to the stumps, 
had to be replanted, and a little while ago many of the great pines 
which stood in Salter's grove had to give way to the Exposition build- 
ings or to the race track. Never will pine grow here again like those 
monarchs of the grove. From Carling's Creek to Wellington, a dense 
pine forest existed all buckwheat pine of young growth until Thos. 
Waters built his saw-mill above Hy man's present tannery. 

Victoria Park was so named by the Governor-General, August 27, 
1874. This park, says the Advertiser : " Comprises about sixteen 
acres, and is fast becoming, as the trees grow larger, one of the loveli- 
est spots in the city. The site where it now stands originally belonged 
to the Imperial Government, who reserved it for military purposes. 
In 1837, when they were hurrying out troops to this country to sup- 
press the rebellion, a long frame barracks was erected upon the ground 
for their accommodation, and for many years after that British troops 
were quartered therein. In time this immense barracks began to 
decay, and the troops deserted it. It finally became an eyesore to the 
city, and the resort for characters of the worst sort, who made a regu- 
lar borough out of it for themselves. It gave the whole neighborhood 
a name from which it took years to recover, and finally one night it 
caught fire and was totally destroyed. This property, long before this 
time, had been transferred from the Imperial to the Dominion Govern- 
ment, and subsequently by the Dominion Government deeded to the 
city of London. Victoria Park was then laid out, and in a few years 
an unsightly commons with a tumble -down old barracks on it and 
partially surrounded by a stump fence was transformed into the beauti- 
ful place it now is. But when the park was laid out London was not 
as large as it is now, nor had its residents such metropolitan ideas. 
They were at that time very fond of allowing their cows, horses, pigs 
and geese to roam at large, destroying what they pleased. Therefore 
the Council in its wisdom had a high picket fence put up around the 
park. In time this fence decayed and became an eyesore. For years 



the Advertiser called for its removal and advised the putting down of 
straight walks from corner to corner, to stop people cutting pathways 
through the grass. However, the Advertiser's views were too far 
ahead of those of the Council to prevail at once, but in the end the 
suggestions had to be acted upon. First the fences went down, and 
this year Aid. Taylor at once saw the advantage of straight walks, and 
had them cut out. The removal of the fences alone around Victoria 
Park had the effect of raising the value of property in the neighbor- 
hood very considerably. When the trees on it get a little larger, there 
will probably not be another spot like it in the Province." 

In December, 185G, St. James' Park was leased to Thomas Francis 
under certain conditions for six years, which lease was extended in 
1857 to ten years. In August, 1860, an item of 5 for the removal 
of " Eussian guns " appears. In December, 1860, carriages were pre- 
pared for them, and they were placed in position. In 1855 a resolu- 
tion to fence the grounds deeded to the city for a public park by Col. 
Burwell, was carried. 

The Exhibition Grounds. In April, 1878, Benj. Cronyn and 90 
others petitioned the Council for leave to enclose Salter's Grove and 
convert it into a public park. This petition was granted, and Recrea- 
tion Park became an established fact. The name Queen's Park was 
subsequently bestowed upon the ground. Speaking of this park, the 
Advertiser, in its great issue of Oct. 29, 1888, says : " While Victoria 
Park by the art of man was transformed from an eyesore into a thing 
of beauty, Queen's Park was made what it is by nature. Of course 
nature has been aided and abetted of late years by the City Council, 
but Queen's Park was purchased by the Council because of its natural 
advantages. Before coming into possession of the corporation it 
belonged to the late Dr. Salter, after whom it was called " Salter's 
Grove." Some fifteen or eighteen years ago, when the fever for 
parks struck London, it was purchased by the city for some $11,000. 
It was then in the county, or what was generally known as London 
East, although at that time London East was a small place. It has 
proved a good investment, and the land which then cost $11,000 
would in all likelihood now bring $30,000 or $40,000. At odd periods, 
after its purchase spasmodic efforts of a costly character were made to 
improve and beautify it, but without result. Fences were put up, a 
circular half-mile race track built, a baud stand erected, and so on. It 
was not, however, until the Western Fair was removed there that it& 
improvement was gone about in a systematic manner. It will be re- 
membered that the people by a large majority decided to sell the old 
Fair Grounds in the northern part of the city. The people by another 
vote rejected Carling's farm as a Fair site, and selected Queen's Park. 
As a consequence, some $70,000 has been expended upon it in erecting 
buildings and beautifying the grounds. A fine half-mile race track 
has been graded on the eastern side. The grounds have been leveled r 
and handsome buildings erected here and there. When the good work 


is completed London will have the finest fair grounds on the con- 

The city by-law establishing the Park is dated May 5. 1879, article 
3 providing that Benjamin Cronyn, Andrew McCormick and William 
H. Birrell be trustees of the Park ; and may fence, improve and erect 

In June, 1868, the court-house grounds were granted to the city 
for park purposes, the condition being that the grounds should be 
planted with ornamental trees. 

Bridges. Up to 1826 V and for some years later, when the settlers 
found it necessary to cross the river, they had recourse to two bridges, 
that being the total number then existing. One of these stood a little 
below where the water- works machinery is now located at Spring- 
bank, and was known as ", Garner's bridge." It was a rough, old- 
fashioned structure, plainly but substantially constructed. The petition 
was gotten up by Gardner and Eeynolds in 1824, and the bridge was 
finished in 1825. Contemporary was the Byron bridge. There was no 
contractor, the people forming a bee, drawing the timber in the fall of 
1824, and building the structure at once. Among the builders were 
Duncan Mackenzie, Munroe, the blacksmith, Robert Summers, and 
others. The bridge at Doty's was built up over the South Branch, near 
the Dorchester line, about the year 1825. In the fall of 1826 West- 
minster, or York street, was erected, and then Blackfriars. On Aug. 
17, 1847, the question of rebuilding Wellington bridge was before the 
Board, as the Inspector reported it dangerous. A bridge at the foot of 
Kidout street was constructed in 1848. A debenture was issued to 
Benjamin Gaman in December, 1849, for 96 6s. 2d., being 6 per 
<jent. interest, for completing work on bridge and approaches, presum- 
ably Wellington street. In February, 1831, Blackfriars' bridge was 
completed, being the second bridge built at this point. In March, 
1851, thanks were tendered to the persons who tried to save the bridge 
at the foot of Ridout street during the freshet of Feb. 24 ; also to 
Capt. Caddy for his exertions toward saving other bridges, while 1 
was awarded Arthur Wallis, Loop Odell, Lyman Griffith and Wil- 
liam Tibbs for saving Wellington street bridge. In August, 1851, 
arrangements for rebuilding Blackfriars' bridge were made, and sewers 
down York and Richmond street were constructed. The bridge over 
Mill Creek, on Talbot street, was begun in August, 1852. The 
Victoria Bridge Company were engaged in building their bridge in 
July, 1854. 

In September, 1871, the bridges over the Thames, one at the foot 
of Dundas and one at the foot of Oxford street, were authorized and 
$1,000 appropriated to each, to be paid as soon as a sufficient sum 
would be subscribed for building either bridge. Victoria Bridge was 
wholly swept away February 14, 1874. There, on July 21, Mrs. Van 
Wormer and Miss Elliott were drowned. The great flood of July, 1882, 
was first discovered by Mr. Thompson, of the Advertiser, at about two 


o'clock in the morning. This did much damage in London West, 
carrying away Kensington and Oxford street bridges, and drowning 
about twelve persons. 

The bridges round London have cost in the aggregate over $150,000 
of hard cash, to put up. The most striking, of course, are the railway 
bridges, of which there are three, two on the main line west of the city 
and one on the Port Stanley branch. They are constructed entirely of 
iron and stone, and are all some 300 or 400 feet in length. For 
vehicle traffic there are seven iron bridges surrounding the city, viz., 
Clark's and Victoria to the south ; Westminster, Kensington, Black- 
friars' and Oxford street to the west ; and Brough's to the north. The 
bridge on Adelaide street north, which is wholly within the county, 
is the only wooden structure in the neighborhood of London. 

Sidewalks and Regulating Laws. William Blinn attended school 
in early years where the market house now stands, and later put in 
the first street crossing from Douglass & Warren's store to the point 
where the Mansion House is. In May, 1843, Benjamin Nash was 
fined seven shillings for letting his house stand out thirteen feet on 
Thames street. He was ordered to remove it within two weeks. 

Under date of May 29, it is ordered " that the carpenter do inspect 
the plank from Birrell's store west to Eidout street, thence up Eidout 
street north to School-house Corner, and that he make the same 
secure ; and any persons having cellar doors on the sidewalk may be 
allowed to secure the same at their own expense, subject to the appro- 
val of the carpenter." At this time the office of village carpenter was 
filled by George Watson. The Fire Company's acccount amounted to 
5 19s. 3Jd., which amount was ordered to be paid to Wm. Till in 
May. By-law No. 51 provided "that hereafter no cows shall be 
milked, slopped, or otherwise fed on any of the sidewalks in the Town 
of London." 

At this time, June, John Balkwill was appointed pathmaster for 
St. David's Ward, John Claris for St. George's, Samuel Peters for St. 
Patrick's, and Eichard Frank for St. Andrew's. James C. Little was 
fined seven shillings u for riding on the sidewalk " in July. Lawrence 
Lawrason was taxed 3 3s. 9d. for sidewalk in front of his house. 
From an order dated September 12, 1843, it appears that the streets 
of the village were very primitive. This order provided " that the 
water table be properly fixed on Eichmond street, between North and 
Dundas street, and the drain on the east side be deepened and enlarged, 
and a cross drain be made across Dundas street." The street inspector 
ordered the platform in front of Colwell's chair factory on Eidout 
street, and one on lot 15, north side of King street, to be removed in 
October. A number of persons were fined in November, 1843, for riding 
on the sidewalks, among whom was the popular Eev. Patrick O'Dwyer. 
A sidewalk on the west side of Talbot street, from Dundas to King 
street, was authorized in November, 1843. A plank sidewalk on King 
street, from Clarence to Eichmond, was laid down in October, 1845. 



In 1846 Hugh Stevenson petitioned to have a crossing place on Dun- 
das street, opposite Thomas Craig's book store. A plank walk from 
the Commissariat office to Wellington Bridge was authorized in April, 
1847. In July, 1847, 300 were appropriated for improving the town. 

Cemeteries. The first burial ground was that of St. Paul's, while 

the Potter's Field was beyond the barracks. Another cemetery, just 
west of Salter's Grove, on the south side of Dundas, was abolished 
some years- ago. 

Mount Pleasant Cemetery was established in 1874 as a public 
cemetery. Samuel McBride was then secretary, and Wm. Saunders 
treasurer of the Association. 

Oakland Cemetery, on Francis street, is the parliamentary name of 
the old Presbyterian or Proudfoot cemetery and that of the New Con- 
nexion Methodist Society, just outside Mount Pleasant burial ground. 
The Cemetery Company was formed in the spring of 1882, with John 
Plummer, president ; Charles Elliott, secretary ; John Mills, treasurer ; 
with Rev. Dr. Proudfoot, Eph. Plummer, Mnian Wilson, John Tanton 
and J. Johnson, trustees, and Col. Moffatt, James Scale, D. Darvill 
and Robert Reid, a committee on improvement, all forming the Board. 
Mr. Webley was appointed caretaker, and work on the ornamentation 
of the grounds was carried out by him. 

Woodland Cemetery, a recent addition to the burial grounds of the 
city, in Westminster, is well kept ; while old St. Paul's graveyard, long 
since removed, was another of the fields where many early settlers 
were laid to rest. 

The first record of interment in the London Catholic Cemetery is 
made under date August 18, 1850, when Felix McLaughlin, aged 
about 60 years, was buried ; the funeral services being performed by 
Rev. Thadeus Kirwan. In October, Michael Flood was buried there, 
also Thomas O'Mara, aged 50 years ; Peter Logan, aged 44 years, and 
James Bahan and James Christie, infants. The first interment in 
Mount St. Peter's was that of John Kennedy, July 16, 1857. Up to 
July 18, 1870, there were 929 burials in this cemetery, and since that 
time up to August, 1888, 1,295 burials. In 1815 a burial ground was 
established in Westminster on lands belonging to Peter McNames and 
James Sheldon, which was donated by them. This old cemetery is on 
Brick street, on the Commissioner's road, and is the resting place of 
many pioneers of London and Westminster. 

Streets (md Roadways. Harding McConnell was paid 3 in 
August, 1843, for cutting down a hill on Bathurst street, between 
Ridout and Thames streets. At this time the question of "turnpik- 
ing" east Bathurst street was reported favorably. In August, 1843, 
William Frank was given the turnpike contract. Charles Hutchinson 
was granted the contract for opening York street east to the reserve 
from St. Paul's Church, the sum being 15 15s. Od. The road from 
Wellington street east to the reserve from St. Paul's Church was 
ordered to be opened and graded in Oct., 1843. 


On April 15, 1844, Engineer Zivouski reported the completion of 
the plank road from Westminster bridge eastward to the town limits. 
The Board complained of this short road, and a memorial to the 
Board of Works, setting forth the impassable condition in which the 
roads adjoining this plank road were left, and asking that the Port 
Stanley road along York street to the Brantford plank road, at the end 
of York street, on the new survey of the town, be finished at the ex- 
pense of the district. This memorial the Board of Works denied. 
50 were granted for opening Wellington street from Dnndas to the 
river ; 5 for removing the hill on North street leading from Bidout to 
the river, and 5 toward improving the road at the end of Blackfriars 
bridge were granted in June, 1844. 

In July, 1844, Philo Bennett succeeded Whittirnore as Street 
Inspector. At this time the Government was petitioned to grant lots 
11 and 12, Bathurst street, and 11 and 12 on York street to the town, 
for the purpose of extending the plank road and joining the Brantford 
and Port Stanley plank roads at that point. 

In May, 1845, Dennis O'Brien was authorized to have the hill 
from his brick building on Dundas street to North street cut down. 

Glenn was allowed 2| shillings " for gravel laid by him on Dundas 
street," in 1847. 

In June, 1848, the sum of 20 was appropriated for removing the 
hills on Horton and Eidout streets in St. David's and St. Andrew's 

During the summer of 1848 the following streets were graded and 
graveled : Ridout and Richmond from Hitchcock street to Dundas, 
and Talbot street from North to Dundas. The order provided for nine 
inches of gravel on a strip sixteen feet wide. At this time several 
new sidewalks were placed, and old ones repaired. The work of grading 
and graveling streets was extended north and south of Dundas, and 
east and west of Richmond ; hills were reduced. In July, no less than 
900 were appropriated for public improvements in the town ; the old 
plank road was taken up and a new road bed put down ; new streets, 
were opened and improved ; the court-house square was fenced, partly 
by private subscription, and a general round of improvement marked 
the progress of the village. Mr. McClary was superintendent of works. 
On September 3, 1849, the whole of Burlington street from its inter- 
section with Huron, including Mark Lane and part of Richmond street 
to Dundas street, was granted to the London Proof Line Road Co., as 
part of their road and terminus thereto, under certain conditions. In 
March, 1856, Geo. Roulton asked the Council to order all houses to be 
numbered. Owing to the irregular and scattered condition of the 
houses, even on the best streets, the request was not granted. Roulton, 
however, was empowered to take the census of the city ; but without 
conditions as to pay. In July, 1866, the names of streets were ordered 
to be placed on street corners, and all houses numbered. 

On June 14, 1853, the act vesting portions of east York street, 


east Bathurst and Wellington streets, in the Great Western Kailroad, 
was assented to. 

A petition for the election of Mayor by the inhabitants instead of 
by the Council, was signed in January, 1853, and presented to the 

Incorporation of London City. The act of September 21, 1854, 
provided that the Town of London be raised to the rank of a city, its 
boundaries being thus described : " All that part of the Province 
situate within the County of Middlesex, and lying within the following 
limits, that is to say : all the lands comprised within the old and new 
surveys of the Town of London, together with the lands adjoining 
thereto, lying between the said surveys and the Kiver Thames, pro- 
ducing the northern boundary of the new survey until it intersects the 
North Branch of the Eiver Thames, and producing the eastern boundary 
line of the said new survey until it intersects the East Branch of the 
River Thames, and the eastern boundary line be known as Adelaide 
street." Within this tract seven wards were established, and the 
charter election ordered to be held January 1, 1855. This charter was 
signed at Quebec by P. J. 0. Chauvreau, secretary, and approved with 
all the profuse phraseology of the time. 

In September, 1854, the old Council referred to the failure of the 
member for London to have the town proclaimed a city, and asked Thos. 
Scatcherd, then representing West Middlesex, to have the act proclaimed 
in the Gazette. This was accomplished, and on January 1 the elections 
were duly held. The Mayors from this city from that period to 1863 
are named as follows : Murray Anderson, 1855 ; Wm. Barker, 1856 ; 
Elijah Leonard, 1857; David Glass, 1858; Wm. McBride. 1859; Jas. 
Moffatt, 1860 ; F. E. Cornish, 1861 to January, 1865. 

The members of the Council from 1855 to 1862, inclusive, are 
named in the following roll : 

For 1855 First Ward Aldermen, Peter Schram and Jas. Moffatt ; 
Councilmen, John Blair and B. Wheeler. Second Ward Aldermen, 
M. Anderson and Elijah Leonard; Councilmen, Wm. McBride and 
Geo. M. Gunn. Third Ward Aldermen, James Daniels and Joseph 
Gibbons; Councilmen, Arthur Wallace and John Clegg. Fourth 
Ward Aldermen, R. Abernethy and J. W. Kermott ; Councilmen, 
Frank Smith and David Glass. Fifth Ward Aldermen, D. Lester 
and Geo. G. Magee ; Councilmen, Thomas Carter and Robert Smith. 
Sixth Ward Aldermen, John Carling and Thomas Peel ; Councilmen, 
Wm. Glen and P. Phipps. Seventh Ward Aldermen, Wm. Barker 
and Wm. Darby ; Councilmen, Robinson Orr and John Wells. 

For 1856 First Ward Aldermen, Peter Schram and Jas. Moffatt ; 
Councilmen, John Blair and R. S. Talbot. Second Ward Aldermen, 
Elijah Leonard and Wm. McBride ; Councilmen, S. McBride and John 
O'JSTeil. Third Ward Aldermen, Marcus Holmes and David Glass ; 
Councilmen, John Clegg and John A. Arnold. Fourth Ward Alder- 
men, Francis Smith and J. W. Kermott ; Councilmen, William Glass 


and Wm. T. Kiely. Fifth Ward Aldermen, Daniel Lester, and Geo. 
G. Magee ; Councilmen, Eobert Smith, and James Hitchins. Sixth 
Ward Aldermen, John Carling and Thomas Peel ; Councilmen, P. 
Phipps and Ed. Garratt. Seventh Ward Aldermen, Wm. Barker and 
S. Stansfield ; Councilmen, John Wells and Eobinson Orr. 

For 1857 First Ward Aldermen, James Moffatt and James M. 
Cousins ; Councilmen, John Blair and George Taylor. Second Ward 
Aldermen, Elijah Leonard and William McBride ; Councilmen, S. 
McBride and John O'Neil. Third Ward Aldermen, Marcus Holmes 
and David Glass ; Councilmen, John Arnold and James Durand. 
Fourth Ward Aldermen, Francis Smith and R Abernethy ; Council- 
men, W. T. Kiely and Wm. Glass. Fifth Ward Aldermen, Daniel 
Lester and H. Hunter ; Councilmen, Kobert Smith and Wm. Doty. 
Sixth Ward Aldermen, John Carling and Ed. Garratt ; Councilmen, 
P. Phipps and Geo. Fitzgerald. Seventh Ward Aldermen, S. Stans- 
field and P. G. Norris ; Councilmen, John Eoss and E. Thompson. 

For 1858 First Ward Aldermen, James Cousins and John Blair; 
Councilmen, B. Wheeler and Eobert Gunn. Second Ward Alder- 
men, Wm. McBride and M. Anderson ; Councilmen, S. McBride and 
John O'Neil. Third Ward Aldermen, Marcus Holmes and David 
Glass ; Councilmen, James Durand and John Cousins. Fourth Ward 
Aldermen, Francis Smith and John Griffith ; Councilmen, Jas. H. 
Flock and Chas. Priddis. Fifth Ward Aldermen, Eobert Smith and 
Henry Eoots; Councilmen, Wm. Doty and Brock Stevens. Sixth 
Ward Aldermen, Ed. Garratt and P. Phipps; Councilmen, Wade 
Owen and E. F. Matthews. Seventh Ward Aldermen, P. G. Norris 
and F. E. Cornish ; Councilmen, T. Partridge, jr., and M. Macnamara. 

For 1859 First Ward Aldermen, James ' Moffatt and J. I. Mac- 
kenzie : Councilmen, Chas. Stead and John Bonser. Second Ward 
Aldermen, S. McBride and Wm. Begg ; Councilmen, J. K. Brown and 
James Gillean. Third Ward Aldermen, T. H. Buckley and B. A. 
Mitchell; Councilmen, James Eeid and David Hughes. Fourth 
Ward Aldermen, W. S. Smith and Jas. H. Flock ; Councilmen, A. 
Hamilton and Ariel Tousby. Fifth Ward Aldermen, Eobert Smith 
and Geo. Webster; Councilmen, D. McPherson and Jesse Eapley. 
Sixth Ward Aldermen, Ed. Garratt and P. Phipps ; Councilmen, 
Wade Owen and John Christie. Seventh Ward Aldermen, F. E. 
Cornish and T. Partridge, jr. ; Councilmen, M. Macnamara and Thos. 

For 1860 First Ward Aldermen, J. I. Mackenzie and Charles 
Stead ; Councilmen, B. Wheeler and A. Campbell. Second Ward 
Aldermen, S. McBride and Wm. Begg ; Councilmen, James Gillean 
and Wm. Pope. Third Ward Aldermen, T. H. Buckley and C. D. 
Holmes ; Councilmen, David Hughes and J. J. Spettigue. Fourth 
Ward Aldermen, Jas. H. Flock and H. Stevenson ; Councilmen, John 
Griffith and Alex. Murray. Fifth Ward Aldermen, Eobt. Smith and 
J. W. McGauley ; Councilmen, D. McPherson and J. W. Eapley. 



Sixth Ward Aldermen, Ed. Garratt and P. Phipps ; Councilmen, 
Wade Owen and John Christie. Seventh Ward Aldermen, F. E. 
Cornish and John Ross ; Councilmen, T. Partridge, jr., and Thomas 

For 1861 First Ward Aldermen, Charles Stead and J. M. 
Cousins ; Councilmen, B. Wheeler and John Bonser. Second Ward 
Aldermen, Samuel McBride and William Pope ; Councilmen, J. B. 
3myth and Wm. Divinny. Third Ward Aldermen, C. D. Holmes 
and Ed. Heathfield ; Councilmen, David Hughes and J. J. Spettigue. 
Fourth Ward Aldermen, Jas. H. Flock and H. Stevenson ; Council- 
men, John Griffith and Alex. Murray. Fifth Ward Aldermen, D. 
McPherson and D. Macfie; Councilmen, J. W. Rapley and S. H. 
Graydon. Sixth Ward Aldermen, P. Phipps and Thomas Peel ; 
Councilmen, Wade Owen and James Griffiths. Seventh Ward 
Aldermen, P. G. Norris and T. Partridge, jr. ; Councilmen, Thomas 
O'Brien and R Thompson. 

For 1862 First Ward Aldermen, Charles Stead and B. Wheeler; 
Councilmen, Wm Johnson and James Deadman. Second Ward 
Aldermen, S. McBride and Wm. Pope ; Councilmen, John B. Smyth 
and Wm. Devinny. Third Ward Aldermen, C. D. Holmes and J. J. 
Spettigue ; Councilmen, David Hughes and Walter Nichol. Fourth 
Ward Aldermen, H. Stevenson and John Ross ; Councilmen, A. Mc- 
Cormick and Alex. Murray. Fifth Ward Aldermen, D. McPherson 
and D. Macfie ; Councilmen, J. W. Rapley and S. H. Graydon. Sixth 
Ward Aldermen, P. Phipps and Thomas Peel ; Councilmen, Wade 
Owen and John Christie. Seventh Ward Aldermen, T. Partridge, jr., 
and Thomas O'Brien; Councilmen, Wm, Waud and R. Thompson. 

Financial Transactions. In June, 1843, a number of residents 
were summoned for not making a true return, or no return, of rateable 
property. Among them were : Hall, of the 14th Regiment; Joseph 
Sheurman, Alex. Gordon, John Nervul, Richard Smith, S. Morrill, 
George Pringle, Samuel Crawford, Wm. Reddick, Geo. Thomas, Thos. 
Craig, James Macklin, Wm. Percival, A. Newlands, Robert Morrill, 
Jerry H. Joyce, Geo. James, Win. O'Rielly, Henry McCabe, Samuel 
Bond, Finlay Perrin, James Bowen, Charles Brown, Jas. Pendleton, 
Mr. Bernally, of Royal Engineers; Chas. Hutchinson, Jas. McFadden 
and James B. Merrill. 

During the month of August, 1843, a number of residents were 
fined for non- performance of statute labor. Joseph Goodwin had to 
pay 21 shillings. 

Among a number summoned before the Board to show why they 
d not pay the taxes of 1842-3, was Lieut.-Col. Pritchard, who -was 
2o shillings, and George Washington, 34 shillings. The 
amount of collection roll for year ending Jan. 1, 1846, was 654 7s , 
Dt^wnich DO 3s. Id. are credited to absentees, 34 Is. to taxes remit- 
and 9 15s. 6d. bad debts, leaving the net amount collected 
7s. 5d. 


In November, 1848, a note of 450, issued by the Council, but 
negotiated by the Bank of Montreal for individual members of the 
Council, fell due. The funds were so low that the Mayor, with Coun- 
cillors Barker, Dimond and Bennett, were deputed to wait on Manager 
Hamilton, of the Bank of Upper Canada, and borrowed from him a 
sum sufficient to meet the debt then due. 

In the fall of 1849 two sets of debentures, each for 300, were 
authorized to meet drafts due the Bank of Montreal and the Bank of 
Upper Canada. On Oct. 15, Councillors Barker and Daniel proposed 
to pledge 20,000 toward the construction of the Great Western Rail- 
road. In September, 1850, the subscription was raised to 25,000. 

In March, 1850, the sum of 2,000 was borrowed by the town 
from the Bank of Montreal; 1,000 payable in October following and 
1,000. in October, 1851. 

The assessment on which taxes were to be collected in July, 1851, 
yielded only 2,041 13s. 4d. At this time the Treasurer held 673, 
making, with other items, the assets 2,714 13s. 4d. The liabilities 
were : Debt, 2,000 ; required for schools, 787 10s ; for salaries, 240; 
for fire department, 50 ; and to fire department in lieu of statute 
labor, 400, aggregating 3,477 10s. The deficit was 762 16s. 8d. 

In March, 1852, debentures for 360 were authorized, being the 
amount of the town's share of expense in the building of Blackfriars 
bridge. On March 22 a by-law providing for the issue of debentures 
for 5,000 was passed. This sum was necessary to pay debts and 
make necessary improvements. 

The debt of London, July 1, 1852, amounted to 7,647 14s. 5d,, 
while the assests were only 791. This sum, with Jth of a penny 
on the valuation, 2,841 15s. Od, with debentures for seven and ten 
years, 4,014 19s. 5d., would satisfy the debt. In January, 1852, 
debentures for 2,000 were authorized. 

A review of the debenture debt of London in August, 1853, shows 
5,000 issued in 1852, to consolidate old debts and for building school 
house ; 5.500 for drains on King and Dundas streets ; 2,000 for en- 
largement of Covent Garden Market ; 2,000 for drains on Richmond, 
Dundas and Clarence streets ; 900 for Firemen's Hall ; 20,000 for 
enlargement of Covent Garden Market and erection of Town Hall and 
Market House ; 6,500 for drains on York and Richmond streets ; 
25,000 to Great Western Railroad Co. ; 25,000 to London & Port 
Stanley Railroad ; 2,500 to London Gas Co., aggregating 94,400. 
The liabilities to June, 1854, amounted to 27,871 11s 

The expenditures of the town of London for the year ending Dec., 
1854, were 74,101 13s. lid. This included 50,000 paid to the 
Port Stanley Railroad Co. The amount required to meet expenses for 
1854-5 was 5,881 12s. lid. This sum included 2,514 interest due 
on 41,900 debentures within that period. The expenses for 1855 
amounted to 14,831 14s. Od. For the year 1856, they were 38,385 
5s. 4d., together with 5,300 paid the county as the award of arbitrators. 


The act of July 1, 1856, empowered the city to borrow 63,000 to con- 
solidate the debt and for other purposes. A by-law to provide for the 
issue of 63,000 debentures was passed September 16, 1856 ; the 
object being to consolidate the city debt. The words dollars and cents 
are made use of for the first time in the city records of January 25, 
1858. At this time the firemen asked the Council to grant $5 to the 
fire company first reported at a fire. 

The estimates for the fiscal year 1858-9 called for 20,824. The 
total liabilities of the city in August, 1860, were placed at 49,050, 
and the estimate of expenditures for 1861 was placed at $110,866. 

In 1 863, D. Macfie, chairman of finance committee, reported that 
" a loss having already been sustained this year, owing to the resolu- 
tion come to by this Council to take silver at par, or its face value, 
from the market clerk, as well as in payment of taxes : your committee 
would now recommend this Council not to take silver for or on account 
of any debt whatsoever due to the city, at any rate higher than that 
allowed by the banks." The estimates for 1864 were $92,002. 

The estimates for expenses during the fiscal year 1866-7 were 
placed at $94,760. 

The debentures sold in 1872 under the Consolidated Act amounted 
to $50,000; in 1873, to $3,500; in 1874, $54,600, and, in 1875, 
$114,366.74, or a total of $225,466.74. Seven per cents, to retire six 
per cents to Church Society due in 1876, were issued for $80,266.66 ; 
while $486,068.63 issued to Government under municipal loan, and 
$100,000 to the London & Bruce Railroad, aggregated $891,802.03, 
issued from 1872 to June, 1875. The total debentures to be provided 
for in 1876 and 1877 amounted to $194,055.50. The interest for two 
years reached $135,786.56. 

Port Stanley Railroad Dealings. In January, 1853, Murray 
Anderson and John Carling moved that the Mayor call a meeting to 
consider the question of building a railroad to Port Stanley. 

In August, 1853, the town decided to take 25,000 stock in the 
London & Port Stanley Railroad Company. 

In April, 1856, George G. Magee reported to the Council that the 
counties of Middlesex and Elgin having refused to take stock in the 
London & Port Stanley Railroad, the town of St. Thomas refused to 
take any active part, and London having invested 93,850 in the 
road, it became a necessity to render further aid, and recommended the 
28,000 in debentures, now ready, together with 5,000 in cash, to be 
given to the directors. 

The London & Port Stanley Railroad was opened October 2, 1856. 
300 were appropriated to celebrate the event and entertain the 
American visitors. 

On January 27, 1857, a further sum of 30,000 was granted to 
the London & Port Stanley Railroad. 

In 1857 charges were preferred against the Mayor and Mr. Bow- 
man in connection with the London & Port Stanley Railroad, and a 


resolution to inquire into them passed by the Council. The inquiry 
was instituted, and a committee, of which P. N. Norris was chairman, 
reported fully on the subject. 

Early in 1858 Charles Hutchinson asked the Council what amount 
would the city accept for its claim on the Port Stanley road. P. N. 
Norris, of the Eailroad Committee, replied that the total claims were 
162,850, and would be sold for 150,000, On February 25, Mr. 
Hutchinson replied that it would be madness for the Council to seek a 
purchaser under the circumstances. 

A Few Transactions. Municipal loans were granted under the 
16 Viet., Cap. 22, as amended by the 18 Viet., Cap. 13, 1854, from the 
1,500,000 set apart as the Upper Canada Municipal Loan Fund. Of 
this sum the Town of London took 93,850. In December, 1855, the 
great arbitration took place between the county and city, in re their 
financial relations after the division of Jan. 1. Thomas Movie repre- 
sented the county ; Wm. Barker, the city, and Thomas Shenston, of 
Woodstock, common justice. They awarded one-fifth of the stock held 
in the Port Stanley and the Great Western Ptailroads ($20,000) to 
the city, which was transferred July 5, 1857, and sold by the city to 
liquidate the taxes of that year. In this deal nothing was said about 
interest, and as the stock was issued by the county, the county was 
liable for interest on the $20,000, which by June, 1859, amounted to 
a large sum. The case was carried to the courts, and Justice Draper 
decided that Middlesex County should pay interest on $20,000 for 14 
years, at the rate of six per cent., although the new city had the money 
in its possession. It is said Frank Cornish carried this case through : 
whether justice was dealt in the affair is another question. 

The question of aiding railroads, amount of aid, and other questions- 
relating to the financial and executive history of the city, from 1855 
to the close of 1862, are referred to under direct headings in this 
chapter, while in the history of the county matters, in which London 
and Middlesex were concerned, other interesting items find mention. 

Appointments. John Doyle was appointed Clerk of the City and 
of the Police and Recorder's Court, at a salary of 200 per annum, iu 
1855. Dr. John Wanless and Dr. J. A. Nelles were appointed cor- 
oners of the city ; John Brown, city chamberlain ; A. S. Abbott, col- 
lector; McBride, inspector of weights and measures; and Samuel 
Peters, engineer. In 1858 Mr. Doyle resigned, when A. S. Abbott, 
the present clerk, was appointed. In 1856 Francis Smith was appoint- 
ed Chief Engineer of Fire Department, with John Craig and A. S. 
Abbott assistants. A. S. Abbott was collector. Dr. A. A. Andrews was 
appointed medical attendant for the temporary hospital and city, to 
which Dr. Moore had attended previously. In December, 1858, the 
question of providing an office for City Assessor McG ill was considered. 

Council and Transactions, 1863-88. The names of members 
and transactions of the Council from the beginning of 1863 to the close 
of 1879 appeared in the 25th anniversary issue of the Advertiser* 

*E. A. Hutchinson, writer. 


and to that journal credit is now given for the following review : " It 
must be remembered that when this place received its charter of in- 
corporation in 1855 it was divided into seven wards, and each ward 
was represented by two aldermen and two councillors. All were on 
a level in the Council Chamber, but an alderman possessed a few 
privileges more than a councillor, such as being a magistrate. In 
1863 A. S. Abbott, the present popular city clerk, held the same 
position he does now. John Brown was chamberlain, and William 
Robinson was city engineer. Frank Cornish was mayor of the city, 
and the Council comprised the following gentlemen : Aldermen 
Chas. Stead, Barnabas Wheeler, Samuel McBride, Wm. Begg, Calvin 
D. Holmes, J. J. Spettigue, John Eoss, Hugh Stevenson, Daniel 
Macfie, Simpson H. Gray don, Paul Phipps, Thomas Peel, Thomas 
Partridge arid Thomas O'Brien. Councilmen Wm. Johnston, James 
Deadman, John B. Smyth, Oswald Baynes, David Hughes, Walter 
Nichol, Alex. Murray, Andrew McCormick, Jesse W. Rapley, John 
Harrison, John Christie, Wade Owen, Richard Thompson and Wm. 

The first important step of the Council of 1863 was to draft a 
memorial to both Houses of Parliament, asking for a grant towards 
maintaining an enlarged hospital in London. The application did not 
then prove successful, but in the end it bore good fruit, and secured 
London its present first-class institution. The Council commenced the 
year with a splurge. One of the first items of business was brought 
up by Councillor Nichol, who charged an assessor with wrongfully 
assessing his own property. In those days property was assessed by 
the rental, and not by the actual value. Nichol charged that the 
assessor put in receipts showing the rental of a certain piece of pro- 
perty to be $48, whereas it was actually $66. The assessor resigned. 
There had been serious rumors afloat, even at that early day, about 
Chamberlain John Brown's books, and a special committee was ap- 
pointed to investigate them, together with the recorder. They reported 
everything all right, although it afterwards turned out that there were 
serious shortages at that very time. The Council of 1863 were also 
first to introduce a fire limits by-law, which prevented the erection of 
frame buildings between King and North (now Queen's avenue) 
streets. The sensation of the year, however, was an assault com- 
mitted by Mayor Cornish on Major Bowles, which led to the with- 
drawal of the British garrison from London. Rumors were afloat about 
Bowles arid Mrs. Cornish, and Bowles one night at mess, while full of 
wine, boasted that the rumors were true. The statement was almost 
immediately conveyed to Cornish, who set out on the war path, and 
finding Bowles in the Tecurnseh House, publicly thrashed him. The 
total expenses for running the city in 1863 were $82,294.67, of which 
$57,446 had to be raised by taxation only. 

In 1864 Mayor Cornish was re-elected, together with the following 
Council : Aldermen Charles Stead, Barnabas Wheeler, Samuel Me- 



Bride, James Gillean, J. J. Spettigue, David Hughes, John Boss, Alex. 
Murray, Daniel Macfie, Dugald McPherson, Paul Phipps, Thomas Peel, 
Thomas Partridge and Thomas O'Brien. Councilmen Wm. Johnston, 
James Deadman, John B. Smyth, Oswald Baynes, Wm. Platt, John 
Tibbs, Hewitt Fysh, James Percival, Jesse W. Kapley, Thomas Brown, 
Wade Owen, John Christie, Martin Macnamara and W. Y. Brunton. 
Aid. McPherson died within a few days after his election, and the 
members of the Council wore mourning for him for one month. Wil- 
liam Williams was elected in his stead. 

Some idea of the primitive condition of London may be gleaned 
from the fact that at this time London had five constables only, each 
getting $250 a year, and the chief who headed this force, received the 
munificent sum of $300. Early in 1864, on the motion of Mr. Brun- 
ton, forty citizens were sworn in to act as special constables at fires, 
the regular force being unequal to a task of this magnitude. During 
1864 a number of incendiary fires occurred, and the Council offered 
$200 for the capture of the "fire bug," but it had no effect. The next 
sensation was the shortage of Wm. Oakley, one of the collectors, in his 
accounts. Mr. Oakley gave up all his property, and his sureties, E. 
J. Parke and D. M. Thompson, paid the city's claim. Then the cele- 
brated row between the Council and School Board took place. The 
School Board asked for $9,000, and the Council allowed them $8,000. 
The trustees kicked, but it was no use, so they applied to the Judges 
at Toronto to compel the Council to pay them the $9,000. It was 
then towards the end of the year, and before the application was argued 
a new Council was elected, who gave up the dispute, paid the $1,000, 
and the case dropped. 

The year 1865 opened in a stormy manner. Frank Cornish and 
David Glass were the candidates for mayor. The election was so riot- 
ous, that Mr. Glass demanded a second day's poll and the calling out 
of the volunteers to protect his voters. Then on the 3rd of January, 
1865, London witnessed something she has never seen since. Armed 
troops surrounded every polling booth in the city. Mr. Glass was 
elected on the second day's polling. Col. Shanly, who commanded the 
volunteers, billed the Council for $282.60, and there was considerable 
row before it was paid, as the majority of the aldermen believed there 
was no necessity for any display of strength. The account was finally 
paid under protest. The Council this year comprised the following 
gentlemen : Aldermen Barnabas Wheeler, Jas. M. Cousins, Samuel 
McBride, John Campbell, David Hughes, John Cousins, John Eoss, 
Alex. Murray, Daniel Macfie, James Williams, Thomas Peel, John 
Christie, Thomas Partridge, sen , Thomas Partridge, jun. Councilmen 
Wm. Johnston, James Deadman, John B. Srnyth, Oswald Baynes, 
Jas. Keid, John W. Cryer, Hewitt Fysh, James Percival, J. W. Kapley, 
T. Browne, Wade Owen, S. Screaton, M. Macnamara and W. C. L. 
Gill. Petitions were by this Council sent to the Legislature, asking for 
a central prison and a military school of instruction here, but they 
bore no fruit. 


London was overrun with burglars this year, and so bad did they 
become, that the city offered a reward of $200 for the capture of any 
one of them. The police were altogether unequal to the task, and 
finally the citizens formed a vigilance committee, and patrolled the 
streets every night. In the fall of 1865 the Grammar and Public 
Schools were united, and the Council appointed, as its representatives 
on the Board of Education, Wade Owen and Dr. C. G. Moore. 

In 1866 David Glass was re-elected Mayor, and the following gen- 
tlemen constituted the Council: Aldermen Barnabas Wheeler, 
Edward Glackmeyer, Samuel McBride, John Campbell, David Hughes, 
John Cousins, Alex. Murray, John Eoss, Daniel Macfie, Daniel Lester, 
John Christie, Thomas Peel, Thomas Partridge, jr., Thomas Partridge, 
sr. Councillors James Deadman, Emanuel Pavey, John B. Smyth, 
Oswald Baynes, James Keid, John W. Over, James Percival, Hewitt 
Fysh, Jesse W. Kapley, George Burdett, Wade Owen, Samuel Screaton, 
Martin Macnamara and W. C. L. Gill. 

This was the year that the agitation in favor of city waterworks 
first commenced, and the Council early in February appointed a com- 
mittee to ascertain if a supply could be drawn from Pond Mills. 
About this time, too, a dog mania sprung up and reached such propor- 
tions that the Mayor issued a proclamation ordering all dogs within 
the city limits to be restrained or muzzled. The year 1866 is memor- 
able, also, as that of the Fenian Kaid. The British troops, which had been 
withdrawn from here in 1864, were returned in the fall of 1865 in 
anticipation of the raid. The following spring they were sent to the 
front, as were also the Seventh Battalion, the London Field Battery 
and the London Troop of Cavalry. The citizens at once got into a 
panic, alleging that they were left at the mercy of the Fenians. The 
Government was petitioned for more regular troops, and, on the advice 
of Col. Bruce, the City Council took the initiative in the formation of 
the famous " Home Guard." However, the danger drifted past, and on 
June 11 " the boys " returned from the front and were banqueted by 
the city at a cost of $357. In the fall of this year Lawrence Lawra- 
son was appointed first Police Magistrate of the city of London, at a 
salary of $1,250. 

In the year 1867 W. Simpson Smith was elected Mayor for a two- 
years' term, and the Municipal Act was amended so as to do away 
with councillors altogether, three aldermen being returned for each 
ward. The chosen of the people were : Barnabas Wheeler, Edward 
Glackmeyer, Andrew McCormick, Samuel McBride, John Campbell, 
John B. Smyth, David Hughes, John Cousins, James Durand, Alex. 
Murray, Hewitt Fysh, Wm. S. Smith, Daniel Lester, Simpson H. 
Graydon, Eobert Smith, John Christie, Thomas Peel, Francis Smith, 
Thos. Partridge, sr., Thos. Partridge, jr., and James Egan. 

James Durand, having been elected an alderman, resigned his posi- 
tion as chief engineer of the fire brigade, and Samuel Stewart was 
appointed in his place. Firewood had become very scarce around the 



city and had gone up to some $6 or $8 per cord. Charles Hunt and 
Thomas Swinyard, directors of the Great Western Kailroad, were pub- 
licly thanked by the Council when they obtained a supply from Both- 
well, which greatly reduced the price. This year's Council appointed 
as one of the assessors the man who a few years before had been 
impeached by an investigating committee for wrongfully assessing his 
own property. In June the Council bought a steam fire engine, 
but still continued the volunteer system. The fire engine was manned 
by fifty citizens, each one of whom received the munificent salary of 
$5 per annum. 

But the great sensation of 1867 was caused by " Slippery Jack." 
Although he never stole anything, he made himself so dreaded by 
entering people's houses and frightening them, that the Council offered 
$100 reward for the capture of " the midnight marauder or burglar, 
known as ' Slippery Jack.' " 

Another sensation was caused by a Police Court case in which 
the Council took a hand. It seems that an officer of the garrison 
named Capt. Hughsou hired a carpenter to do some work. The 
carpenter finished the work, and called at the Captain's front door 
with the bill. The Captain said he wasn't used to having mechanics 
present their bills to him at the front door, and kicked the carpenter 
out, and slammed the door after him. Hughson was summoned, but 
the Police Magistrate let him off on the ground of ignorance of the 
by-law. Aid. Hughes appealed the case to the Recorder's Court, and 
the City Council guaranteed the costs. The city, as usual, was beaten 
in the end. 

In 1868 only one Alderman from each ward retired, the others 
remaining in office for two or three years respectively, according to the 
act. Andrew McCormick retired in No. 1 Ward, and was re-elected ; 
John Campbell in No. 2, and he was also re-elected ; in No. 3, Aid. 
Cousins retired, and was replaced by Wm. Farris ; in No. 4, Alex. 
Murray was re-elected ; in No. 5, Murray Anderson replaced Daniel 
Lester, and in No. 6 John Christie, and in No. 7 Aid. Egan were both 

A report to the Council showed that the earnings of the 
London & Port Stanley Kailroad for 1867, had been $42,759.91, 
against $39,108.25; increase for the year, $3,651.66. The total 
liabilities against the company in 1868 were $596,800. This was the 
time the question of handing the Port Stanley over to the Great 
Western Railway was first mooted. Aid. F. Smith resigned in March, 
and George Macbeth was elected in his stead. About this time, too, 
the people began to ask for a park, and a committee to select a site 
was appointed, with Aid. Egau as chairman. The site they picked 
out was the property bounded by Piccadilly street on the north, Car- 
ling's Creek on the south, the Sarnia Road (Richmond street) on the 
west, and Wellington street on the east. The absurdity of this site 
for a public park is apparent now to everyone. The city then was 



one-third smaller than at present, and that property was much more 
out of the way in 1868 than even now. The recommendation is per- 
haps explained when it is stated that most of the land to be bought 
was designed for park purposes. However, the Council of 1868 were 
pretty independent, and rejected the committee's report. Further than 
that, when it was tried to get a bill through the Legislature to 
sell the Port Stanley to the Great Western Eail way, they sent a depu- 
tation down to the House, and succeeded in defeating the bill. The 
only other event of importance this year was the final withdrawal of 
regular troops from London. 

In the year 1869, all the old members of the Council whose turn 
it was to retire, were re-elected as follows : Barnabas Wheeler, John 
B. Smyth, Walter Nichol, Hewitt Fysh, Simpson H. Graydon, George 
Macbeth and Thomas Partridge, sen. The Council selected John 
Christie as Mayor, but in about a month he got tired of the office and 
resigned. Mr. S. H. Graydon was elected by the Council to fill the 
vacancy. It was in 1868 the Western Fair Board was organized, and 
in 1869 the City Council voted $2,000 towards the erection of suitable 
buildings. The citizens also responded liberally, but all the County 
Council would give was $500. Miss Eye visited London in the sum- 
mer, and was entertained as the guest of the corporation. On the 13th 
of September His Koyal Highness Prince Arthur, His Excellency the 
Governor- General, and some other distinguished " nabobs " came to 
London, and were rapturously received. The Council on the occasion 
voted $200 for a procession of the fire brigade and fireworks. Col. J. 
B. Askin died in this year, and the Council passed a resolution of 
regret at the occurrence. 

By far the most important matter, however, that came before the 
people in 1869, was the railway agitation. J. G. Thompson applied 
for a charter for Thompson's air line through Southern Ontario, while 
the Great Western applied for another charter for the Canada air line. 
The Council of London decided to oppose both ; but a public meeting 
of citizens declared they would take the least of two evils, and decided 
to oppose the Canada air line, and let the other go through. Hon. 
John Carling, however, with his usual deep interest in public improve- 
ments, ignored both resolutions and supported the Canada air line, 
and opposed Thompson's. Both charters went through the House, 
though, and as a result the County of Elgin has the roads to-day. The 
lot for the present city registry office was purchased from D. Glass. 

In 1870 the first matter recorded in the Council minutes is the 
decision of the Council to attend the funeral of the late Hon. G. J. 
Goodhue in a body on the 13th of January. The elections this year 
resulted in the return of James M. Cousins, Samuel McBride, David 
Hughes, Henry B. Strong, Jesse W. Rapley, Thos. Peel and Thomas 
Partridge, jr. Mr. S. H. Graydon was re-elected Mayor. It turned 
out that Mr. Rapley wasn't properly qualified, and he resigned. 
Daniel Lester was elected in his stead. 



Fuel became so scarce that the London & Port Stanley Railroad 
drew it into the city and sold it by the cord at cost. No citizen could 
get more than a cord at a time, and as a result the price of fuel fell 25 
per cent., and the Council publicly thanked the directors for their 
consideration. Trouble broke out in the Phoenix Fire Company, and 
charges were made against its chief. They were not sustained, and as 
a result the committee decided to disband the company and reorganize 
it. No less than two aldermen died this year, viz., Aid. Strong and 
Aid. Macbeth, the latter very suddenly. Thos. McCormick replaced 
the first-named in No. 4 Ward, and John Williams the latter in No. 
6. Aid. Egan made another attempt to get the park located north of 
Great Market street, but failed. Aid. Campbell, however, got a com- 
mittee appointed to negotiate for the present site of Victoria Park. In 
1870, too, the construction of the London, Huron & Bruce Railroad 
was first mooted. 

In 1871 there was another change in the mode of election, and 
instead of one of the three aldermen from each ward retiring each year, 
all went out of office. The new Council comprised James M. Cousins, 
Andrew McCormick, Duncan C. Macdonald, John B. Smyth, John 
Campbell, Joseph Jeffery, Francis E. Cornish, William Starr, John 
Woods, Hewitt Fysh. Thomas McCormick, Samuel Barker, Simpson H. 
Gray don, Jesse W. Rapley, Benj. Shaw, John Christie, Thomas Peel, 
John Williams, Thos. Partridge, jr., Thos. Partridge, sr., and Jas. Egan. 
Aid. J. M. Cousins was elected Mayor by the Council. By a vote of 
the people $100,000 bonus was given towards the construction of the 
London, Huron & Bruce Railroad. The Council had this year to pass 
a resolution of regret at the death of Simeon Morrill, first Mayor of 
the town of London. A bubble which burst in London at this time 
was the Charing Cross Hotel. It was to be an immense sanitarium 
near the Forks, at the Sulphur Springs. Its projector, Mr. Dunnett, 
invited the Council to attend the corner-stone laying, and fixed a date. 
The corner-stone was laid, but afterwards the project fell through. It 
was in this year that the Council let the London & Port Stanley Rail- 
road practically pass into the hands of the Great Western. Among 
other transactions in connection with this deal was the transference 
of $70,000 worth of London & Port Stanley Railroad bonds to W. P. 
R. Street for $3,500. The late Bishop Cronyn died ou the 22nd of 
September, and the Council suitably honored his memory. 

In 1872 the election returns placed the following gentlemen in 
office : James M. Cousins, Duncan C. Macdouald, James Moffat, 
John B. Smyth, John Campbell, Samuel McBride, Wm. Starr, John 
Woods, Arch. McPhail, Hewitt Fysh, Samuel Barker, Alex. Murray, 
Simpson H. Gray don, Benj. Shaw, Jesse W. Rapley, John Christie, 
John Williams, Benjamin Cronyn, Thos. Partridge, jr., Thos. Partridge, 
sr., and James Egan. Aid. Campbell was elected Mayor by the 

The first piece of business was a strong resolution brought in by 


Aid. Moffat and Smith, condemning all who had anything to do with 
the sale of the bonds to Mr. Street, and proposing legal proceedings 
to recover them. The resolution did not pass. It was in this year 
and in consequence of this deal that the Council introduced the system 
of holding secret meetings, a practice which lasted until public opinion 
became so strong it had to be abolished. But by far the most startling 
event that occurred in this city in 1872 was the abduction of Dr. E. 
Bratton, a Confederate refugee. He was wanted in the States, and an 
American detective located him in London. He obtained the aid of a 
citizen and seized the doctor one night while on his way home, gagged 
him, had a cab ready and drove with him to the station, took a train 
there and soon had the unfortunate refugee on American soil, passing 
him off' on the way as a lunatic who needed restraint. The city Coun- 
cil at once held an indignation meeting on hearing of the case, and 
ordered the Mayor to lay the matter before the Crown. This was 
done, with the result that Bratton was returned to British territory, 
and the parties in Canada who had a hand in the abduction punished, 
one getting a couple of years' imprisonment. The latter is now a resi- 
dent, of Essex county, while the other still resides in London. The 
Council minutes of this year contained a resolution of regret at the 
death of Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald. Lord Dufferin, Governor- 
General, visited London in the fall of the year, during the Western 
Fair, and vast crowds came from all parts of Western Ontario to see 
him. Ex-Mayor Marcus Holmes died in the fall of 1872, and the 
Council paid due respect to his memory. 

In 1873 the Council comprised J. M. Cousins, D. C. Macdonald, J. 
B. Smyth, S. McBride, Arch. McPhail, L. C. Leonard, Thomas Browne, 
James Mofifatt, Jesse W. Eapley, John Christie, John Williams, Benj. 
Cronyn, Thos. Patridge, jun., S. H. Graydon, Andrew McCormick, B. 
Shaw, James Egan, John Beattie, Alex. Murray, Thos. Partridge, sen., 
and Wm. Stan-. Andrew McCormick was elected Mayor. A motion 
by Aid. Macdonald, seconded by Aid. Smyth, asking the Legislature to 
amend the law so as to elect Mayors of ^cities by direct vote of the 
people, carried, and bore good fruit. 

Nothing of importance occurred municipally during the year, 
except some trouble in the fire department, which resulted in the 
resignation of D. Bruce and the suspension of Chief Wastie, who was, 
however, soon after reinstated. 

In 1874 the Mayor was elected by a direct vote of the people, and 
Mr. B. Cronyn was the successful man. The Council was composed 
of D. C. Macdonald, Col. Moffatt, E. Pritchard. John Beattie, James 
Cowan, T. F. Kingsmill, Win. Starr, Arch. McPhail, Wm. Farris, 
Alex. Murray, L. C. Leonard, C. W. Andrus, Jesse W. Eapley, Geo. 
G. Magee, John Kearns, John Christie, John Williams, Col." Lewis, 
Thomas Partridge, sen., Thomas Patridge, jun., and J. E. Peel. This 
year the city succeeded in obtaining the Ordnance lands and old 
buildings thereon from the Government by deeds. Some excitement 


was caused in July, 1874, by another row in the fire brigade, in which 
some of the Aldermen took a hand During August, Lord and Lady 
DufYerin paid a flying visit to the city, lasting simply over night, and 
the cost of entertaining them amounted to $1,395.50. 

In 1875 Mayor Cronyii was re-elected, and the Council consisted of 
Aldermen Pritchard, Smyth, Macdonald, James Cowan, A. B. Powell, 
Phillips, Starr, Farris, Leonard, Hiscox, Abbott, Bunn, Browne, Eapley, 
Williams, Lewis, Egan, Partridge, jr., Partridge, sr., and Christie. 

The erection of iron bridges around the city was commenced this 
year, Blackfriars being the first. In the early part of February John 
Birrell died, and the Council passed a suitable motion of condolence. 
In 1875 the fire brigade was put on a regular permanent basis, Thos. 
Wastie being appointed chief, " to devote his whole time to the city's 
service," at a salary of $800 per annum. Aid. Farris died in July, and 
Aid. D unbar was elected to the vacancy. The City Hospital was 
completed in 1875 and opened by the Lieutenant-Go vernor of the Pro- 
vince. What will seem strange to the average citizen now, several 
motions to sell Victoria Park oft' in building lots were actually made 
in the Council, but defeated. A vote for a water- works system resulted 
in the defeat of the by-law this year. 

In 1876 D. C. Macdonald was elected Mayor, with the following 
Council . Aldermen Pritchard, Sutherland, Fitzgerald, Thompson, 
McPhail, Skinner, Hiscox, Ross, Henderson, Minhinmck, Rapley, 
Browne, Christie, Williams, Lewis, McColl, Partridge, sr., Partridge, 
jr., Jones, Campbell and Murray. 

The amalgamation of the Great Western Railroad and London, 
Huron & Bruce Railroad took place by act of Parliament. In the 
year 1876 the Crooks Act came before the Legislature, and when the 
City Council proposed to raise the license fees there was a great scene 
in the Council Chamber. On one hand the licensed victuallers were 
present, and on the other hundreds of ladies, clergymen and temper- 
ance people. John Carling and others spoke in the liquor interest, 
and Rev. R. W. Wallace, Rev. Mr. Murray, Rev. James Graham, Dr. 
Oronhyatekha and Rev. J. Rice for temperance. Temperance carried 
the day, or rather the Council, by one vote 11 to 10. 

In 1877 Robert Pritchard was selected by the people as Mayor, and 
the following aldermen were elected : Messrs. Sutherland, Gray, 
Campbell, Fitzgerald, Thompson, Murray, Jones, Skinner, Regan, 
McNab, Hiscox, Minhinnick, Browne, Rapley, Christie, Williams, Boyd, 
Egan, Partridge, jun., and Partridge, sen. This year the Council pro- 
vided the necessary funds for the erection of the High School building, 
which is now the Collegiate Institute. 

The year 1877 also saw the memorial " rumpus " on the police 
force, which resulted in the resignation of Chief Wigmore. A by-law 
for the construction of the present waterworks, at a cost of $325,000, 
was submitted to the people on Dec. 14, and carried. 

In 1878 Col. Lewis was returned as Mayor, together with Aid. 



Campbell, Smyth, Thompson, Murray, Powell, Eegan, Skinner, Stringer, 
McNab, Eddleston, Keenleyside, Glass, Eapley, Browne, Christie, Wil- 
liams, Vining, Egan, Thos. Peel and J. K. Peel. On the minutes of 
the second meeting of this year is recorded the following: "Aid. 
Thompson gave notice that he would move at the next meeting, that in 
order to elevate the standard of this Council, the proceedings be opened 
in future with prayer, and that ex-Monk Widdows be engaged as 
chaplain for the Board, and that the Salaries Committee be requested 
to report the amount to be paid for his spiritual services, etc." The 
late E. W. Hyman, one of London's first Water Commissioners, died on 
the 12th of April of this year, and the Council held a special meeting 
to pass a resolution of regret, and attended his funeral in a body. 

In 1879 Col. Lewis was re-elected Mayor. The aldermen were 
Eobt. Pritchard, John Campbell, James Muirhead, W. W. Fitzgerald, 
A. B. Powell, A. K. Thompson, Wm. Skinner, Samuel Stringer, Charles 
Taylor, Geo. Eddleston, B. W. Greer, Geo. T. Hiscox, James Ardell, 
Graham Glass, Geo. Gray, Wm. Scarrow. John Williams, John Boyd, 
J. R. Peel, James Egan and John Kay nor. Water Commissioners 
Hon. John Carling and J. R. Minhinnick. Ex-Mayor William Simp- 
son Smith died in June of this year, and the Council attended the 
funeral. In September, 1879, the Marquis of Lome and Princess 
Louise visited London, and it cost the city $1,244 to entertain them. 

In 1880 Alderman Campbell was elected Mayor, being opposed by 
Minhinnick. Raynor and Lewis, Water Commissioners. R. Pritchard, 
E. Meredith and James Muirhead, Aldermen of the First Ward ; 
It. S. Murray, A. K. Thompson and James Cowan, of the Second ; C. 
Taylor, J. W. Jones and Wm. Skinner, of the Third ; W. Milroy, Geo. 
T. Hiscox and W. H. Rooks, of the Fourth ; N. Wilson, T. Browne 
and Graham Glass, of the Fifth; W. Scarrow, J. Boyd and W. D. 
Buckle, of the Sixth ; and Thomas Peel, J. D. Sharman and Wm. 
Wyatt, of the Seventh Ward. Thomas Carling died in February, and 
the Council passed a resolution of condolence and attended the funeral 
in a body. It was decided by the people, with 93 majority, to sell the 
Exhibition Grounds ; but the Council subsequently backed down and 
didn't carry out the people's wishes. The laying of cedar block pave- 
ment was commenced this year. 

In 1881 the municipal elections resulted in the choice of J. Camp- 
bell for Mayor, his vote being 1,413, while Mr. Lewis received 1,095. 
James Muirhead and A. B. Powell were elected Water Commissioners. 
1,301 votes were recorded for the sale of the Exhibition Grounds and 
1,435 for the sale of Baiter's Grove. The Aldermen elected were 
Robert Pritchard, John B. Smyth and James H. Wilson, First Ward ; 
Stephen O'Meara, James Cowan and Robert S. Murray, Second Ward ; 
John W. Jones, Francis Love and Samuel Stringer, Third Ward; Geo! 
T. Hiscox, Benj. Higgins and Wm. Milroy, Fourth Ward; Lewis 
Adams, Thomas Browne and Graham Glass, Fifth Ward ; John Boyd 
Wm. D. Buckle and Wm. Scarrow, Sixth Ward; Thos. Partridge, jr. 
J. D. Sharman and Wm. Wyatt, Seventh Ward. 


In 1882 Edmund Meredith was elected Mayor ; G. S. Bin-ell, C. B. 
Hunt and E. Pritchard, Aldermen for First Ward ; G. S. Hyman, E. S. 
Murray and O'Meara, Second Ward; J.W.Jones, W. Skinner and 
C. Taylor, Third Ward ; Thomas Beattie, John Ferguson and B. Hig- 
gins, Fourth Ward ; T. Browne, S. Crawford and J. R. Minhinnick, 
Fifth Ward ; John Boyd, W. D. Buckle and Talbot Macbeth, Sixth 
Ward ; Harry Becher, Thomas Peel and J. D. Sharman, Seventh Ward. 

John Brown, born in Ireland in 1807, settled at London in 1832 ; 
subsequently kept store at St. Thomas ; returned to London, and in 
1835 was a member of St. John's Lodge, A. F. & A. M. In 1852 he 
was appointed City Treasurer, and for thirty years filled that position, 
until death called him in 1882. 

In 1883 a few changes were made in ward representatives, but the 
Mayor retained his office. 

In 1883 Messrs. Birrell, Labatt, Hunt, Hyman, G'Meara, Cowan, 
Skinner, Stringer, Browne, Boyd, Becher and Moore formed the 

In 1884 the city elections resulted in the choice of C. S. Hyman for 
Mayor by 620 majority. J. M. Cousins and John Eaynor were elected 
Water Commissioners. The Aldermen for Ward 1 were re-elected ; 
Messrs. O'Meara, Cowan and Beattie were elected in the Second ; in 
the Third Ward Thomas C. Hewitt replaced Browne ; in the Fourth J. 
S. Niven and W. Scarrow replaced Boyd and Moore. H. Becher 
headed the poll. At this time the by-law establishing a free library 
was adopted. 

In 1885 Henry Becher was elected Mayor, receiving 1,755 votes, 
while his opponent (Hiscox) received 1,164. Messrs. Birrell, Hewitt 
and Eaynor, candidates for Water Commissioners, received 1.771, 
1,633 and 1,456 votes respectively. The Aldermen who received the 
highest number of votes were George Watson, H. C. Green and Chas. 
Taylor, First Ward ; Stephen O'Meara, Jas. Cowan and C. A. Kingston, 
Second Ward ; Samuel Stringer, Joseph Hook and Thomas Browne, 
Third Ward ; W. Scarrow, T. D. Hodgens and John Christie, Fourth 
Ward. The by-law to abolish the office of Water Commissioners was- 
voted down: 407 for; 1,069 against. The by-law for sale of the Fair 
Grounds was carried: for, 1,729 ; against, 1,114. 

In 1886 the city elections resulted as follows: Mayor, T. D. 
Hodgens (1,643), W. Scarrow (1,375) and James Cowan (630) ; Water 
Commissioners, Hewitt (1,977), Birrell (1,955) and Cousins (1,899). 
The Aldermen elected were : For Ward 1, George C. Davis, George 
Watson and Charles Taylor ; Ward 2, S. O'Meara, Alex. McDonald 
and Charles A. Kingston ; Ward 3, S. Stringer, Joseph Hook and Thos. 
Browne ; Ward 4, M. D. Dawson, Joshua Garrett and John Boyd ; 
Ward 5, George Heaman, J. W. Bartlett and John Nutkins. 

In 1887 James Cowan was chosen Mayor, defeating W. Scarrow 
by 902 votes, the figures being 2,270 and 1,368 respectively ; Messrs. 
Hiscox, Muirhead and Cowan were elected Water Commissioners; 



while the by-law, granting a loan of $75,000 to the Southeastern Rail- 
road Company, was carried for, 1,957, contra, 329 ; majority, 1,628. 
The aldermen re-elected were Davis, 0. Taylor, McDonald, Stringer, 
Hook and Heaman ; the new members were Jarvis, Greer, Moule, 
Bowman, Moore, Vining, Geo. Taylor, Dreaney and Mclntosh. 

In 1888 the Council comprised Wm. Wyatt, John Heaman, Thos. 
Connor, Stephen O'Meara, John Callard, John Moule, W. H. Winnett, 
Wm. Skinner, Wm. Jones, Geo. Taylor, J. B. Vining, Henry Dreaney, 
N. P. Graydon and Geo. Heaman. 

The last eight years of municipal life (1881-8) are well known to 
almost everyone in the city. There was the discovery of John Brown's 
defalcations and his sad death ; the reduction in the number of wards 
with fewer aldermen ; the amalgamation of the City and London East ; 
Hodgens's famous tooth-powder charges in connection with the City 
Hospital ; the advent of the Canadian Pacific Railroad and Michigan 
Central Railroad into the city; the lighting of the streets by electricity ; 
the sale of the old fair grounds ; the erection of fair buildings on 
Queen's Park ; the purchase of part of Carling's farm ; and the sale of 
the Ordnance lands. All these events and many others are familiar to 
the reader, and it is unnecessary to rehash them. The following gentle- 
men have filled the chief magistrate's chair during that period: 
1880-1, John Campbell; 1882-3, Ed. Meredith ; 1884, C. S. Hyman ; 
1885, Henry Becher; 1886, T. D. Hodgens ; 1887-8, James Cowan. 

Thomas Scatcherd, born at Wyton, Missouri, in 1821, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1849, and served the city as solicitor from 1849 
to the period of his death at Ottawa, April 15, 1876. In 1861 he was 
chosen to represent West Middlesex in the old Parliament ; in 1867 
was elected for North Middlesex ; in 1872 re-elected, thus spending 
fifteen years in parliamentary life. 

The appointment of W. R. Meredith, City Solicitor, vice Scatcherd, 
deceased, was made April 26, 1876. 

A by-law appointing Mayor Cowan, R. Pritchard and A. B. Powell 
as the City of London Trust, was passed Aug. 29, 1888. 

Fire Department The Volunteer Fire Brigade dates its organiza- 
tion back to 1842. It was originated by Simeon Morrill, George J. 
Goodhue and High Constable Groves. They succeeded in having a 
by-law passed by the District Council of which William Balkwill 
was president, compelling every householder to keep a fire bucket 
made of leather, painted black, and hung in a convenient place in 
each house. Cowhide dippers, as they were called at that time, were 
inspected regularly by Capt. Groves, who was for many years at the 
head of the fire organization. It was a funny spectacle to see each 
man with a bucket running to a fire, and then form in line at some 
well, passing the buckets along the line, up ladders, to the fire ; but, 
ludicrous as it was, good work was often done, and valuable property 
saved by these pioneers. 

, In the year 1844 G. J. Goodhue purchased an engine which was 


simply a garden sprinkler. The arrival of this wonderful piece of 
machinery was the occasion of the first company being organized, by 
Capt. Groves. They ran this little tub with a company of old citizens, 
and did good work with it until the occasion of the great fire of April 
11, 1845, when, after a minute's work, it was abandoned, and disappeared 
in a general ruin. The company purchased two Perry hand engines 
from a Montreal house, which they used for some time. Their first 
steamer was purchased in 1867. Upon the organization of Phoenix Com- 
pany, S. McBride was the first captain ; Edmund Beltz, first lieutenant, 
and D. S. Perrin, second lieutenant. This company was composed 
principally of young men who were very active and took a delight in 
sports, and would often go over into the States to a firemen's tourna- 
ment, frequently winning first prizes, and was counted the best depart- 
ment in existence at that time. The company who got to the fire first 
were awarded prizes against other companies in the city ; and it was 
very laughable, as well as exciting, to see them getting to a fire, and 
was often dangerous. John Eolfe was Captain of No. 4, Rescue, hook 
and bucket company. From the start of , this company, the name was 
changed several times. Company No. 5, called " Rising Sun," was 
organized some time after, with Daniel Lester, captain. 

In 1863 the department was made up as follows : Chief Engineer, 
Jno. Hunter ; assistant, Chas. Cater ; second assistant, Jno. McDowell. 
Phoenix No. 2 60 men Daniel Perrin, captain ; Donald McDonald, 
first lieutenant; Geo. Wheeler, second lieutenant; James Findlater, 
third lieutenant ; Wm. Loughrey, representative. Rescue No. 4 60 
men John Gibson, captain; John Cavanagh, first lieutenant; Thos. 
Langan, second lieutenant; Timothy Flinn and John Shean, repre- 
sentatives. Hook and Ladder Company 40 men Wm. Abraham, 
captain; S. Gibson, first lieutenant; Wm. Bradshaw, second lieu- 
tenant ; J. P. O'Byrne and Wm. Graham, representatives. Many of 
London's leading business men at present were at one time volunteer 
firemen of this city. Geo. Taylor, Samuel McBride, James Durand, 
Samuel Stewart, Ed. Beltz, A. S. Abbott, Geo. Jackson, Richard Wig- 
more, A. Grant, and many others were on the volunteer fire brigade in 
old days. In December, 1872, a Babcock fire extinguisher was intro- 
duced, and with this new departure a motion to abolish the volunteer 
fire department, and create a regularly paid fire brigade, was made. As 
the city grew, a volunteer brigade with hand reels could not protect it ; 
and in 1867 the Phoenix steam engine was purchased. The volunteer 
system, however, continued in force until 1873. Thomas Wastie, 
chief for some time previous to that, instituted the permanent system, 
and was the first chief of the paid department. 

Present Department. The fire department of to-day dates back 
to April 1, 1873, when Thomas Wastie was appointed Chief. Two 
permanent men beside the chief were only appointed at first in 1873, 
viz., Oliver Richardson, driver, and David Bruce, engineer. There 
were fourteen call men appointed, at $100 each. They were James 



Findlater, John F. Doyle, E. Wonnacott, Patrick Gleeson, Thomas 
Eichardson, Geo. Till, Daniel Sullivan (killed shortly afterwards in an 
accident at Hyraan's tannery), Harry Boyd, John Maddiver, Joseph 
Eeeves, Harry Pratt, John Eoe, Alex. Harvey and Eichard McBride. 
During the year 1875 there were 138 fire alarms, being 86 over 1874. 
107 fires were attributed to incendiaries, and 31 fires to other causes. 
On three occasions there were two fires raging at the same time. The 
most dangerous was that of June 12, 1875, on Maitland street. Dur- 
ing the year 1 8 brick buildings were on fire, one being totally destroyed ; 
27 wooden buildings were totally destroyed, and 54 partially destroyed. 
The department was made up of 20 men. In 1875 the fire alarm 
system was put in, and in 1879 the introduction of the waterworks 
did away with the old Phcenix steamer, which was sold to Middle - 
brook. Ont., in 1886. No 2 steam engine was purchased in 1873, the 
same make as first steamer, being a double pump and cylinder. This 
engine was sold to Petrolea. 

The record of fires from 1877 to July 1, 1888, is as follows: 

1877 56 18SO 50 1883 77 1886 75 

1878.... 52 1881 91 1884 74 1887 96 

1879 56 1882 70 1885 73 1888 33 

At the present time, with fourteen permanent and six call men, the 
brigade never was in a more efficient condition. The following is the 
personnel of the department as at present constituted : Chief, John 
A. Eoe ; Departmental Foreman, A. McMurchy ; Electrician, J. E. D. 

The force at Central Fire Station comprises : Station Foreman, 
John Aikins; Drivers, George Gray and James Gleeson; Firemen, 
Oliver Eichardson, J. D. Eiddell, Thomas Aikin and Samuel Notley ; 
Call Men, P. C. Gleeson, E. Wonnacott, Joseph Eeeves, Michael 
Gleeson, Harry C. Smith and Michael Donohue. 

Station No. 2 comprises: Station Foreman, J. D. Findlater; 
Driver, Arch. Nicholson; Firemen, Arch. Mohr and John Swan wick. 
Chief Eoe has been at the head of the force for about six or seven 
years, succeeding Wastie, who went to the North-west. 

Transactions of Council with Department. In June, 1843, Cap- 
tain Till and other members of the fire department resigned, when it 
was ordered that the key of the engine-house, together with all appara- 
tus belonging to the engine, trumpets, buckets, etc., etc., be examined 
by Thomas Frazer, and placed in possession of the village clerk. By- 
law No. 50, passed immediately following the resignation of the fire 
company, provided that not more than six pounds of gunpowder shall 
be kept in any store or dwelling, and that not more than thirty pounds 
shall be kept in any out-building near such dwelling-house or store. 
In July, Alex. Lowrie was summoned for making a fire on Talbot 
street, and had to pay nine shillings and ninepence for violation of by- 
law. Henry Groves was chosen Captain of the fire department, August 
23. He was ordered to procure some necessaries for the company, but 


nothing over the value of five shillings without a special instruction 
from the Board. The direct pay was twenty-five shillings to the com- 
pany for every fire, chimneys excepted. The constable reported 4- 
lls. 3d. received from ex-fire-Captain Till. John Gray received a box 
of lucifer matches September 9, and on the same day the village Board 
ordered " that the box be removed to some distant out-house, as the 
Board considered the same unsafe to be kept in a store." Very string- 
ent laws were adopted about this time to provide against fire. Thomp- 
son Wilson, barrack-master was charged by the Inspector of London, 
with allowing the chimney in the brick barracks to catch fire ; but the 
case was dismissed by the Police Board. Another item going to show 
the existing fear of fire, is by-law 53, which provided " that any per- 
sons who may open any of the public tanks or draw water therefrom, 
except in case of fire, should be fined not less than five shillings," 
Anthony Gale was fined five shillings for allowing his chimney to take 
fire in December, 1843. William Marshall was appointed town chim- 
ney sweeper, and Inspector Whittimore was instructed to see that every 
house and shop had its share of fire buckets in 1844. Fire had taken 
such a hold of the public mind, that a large meeting was held to organ- 
ize a hook and ladder company. The Board, agreeable to the opinion 
of the people, sanctioned this organization and appointed Samuel H. 
Park, captain ; Patrick McLaughlan, first lieutenant ; Alex. Lowrie, 
second lieutenant ; and Alex. S. Armstrong, secretary. In February, 
summary proceedings were taken against John Burke, for refusing to 
aid in extinguishing a fire. 

In January, 1845, the fire engine was taken to Peter McCann's 
house, he agreeing to keep it safe at ten shillings per month. John 
Birrell was allowed 35 6s. 4d. for laying new sidewalk on Dundas 
street, the former walk being destroyed by the fire of October, 1844. 

August 31, 1846, a fire engine was ordered from James McKenny, * 
Quebec, and the same to be paid for by a check on the Board at one 
year, with interest. In September, new tanks were erected at the 
corners of Talbot and Richmond streets and Dundas. 

In April, 1847, E. P. Ellis, treasurer of the Fire Company, pre- 
sented an account of 13 5s. Od. Peter McCann, first lieutenant of 
Fire Company, also presented his account. In August, John Gumb 
was ordered to deliver 30,000 brick at 1 per thousand, for the purpose 
of building an engine house. 

A 700-pound bell, the same exhibited at the Buffalo, N. Y. fair, , 
was ordered from A. Good at 12 cents per pound, $14 for the yoke, 
and $5 for the wheel. In October, 1848, this was the first and long- 
looked for fire-bell of London, a trumpet being its predecessor for 
alarm purposes. 

The Council passed a by-law forbidding the erection of wooden , 
buildings where old buildings were burned, June 16, 1849. On Jan. 
21, Bennett's resolution to form a Town Protective Society, to take 
charge of all goods in case of fire, was earned. In March a by-law for 


the government of the Fire Department was passed. In December it 
provided for the employment of a chief engineer, first and second 
assistant engineers, a captain for each engine, hook and ladder, hose 
and property protection company, one first and second lieutenant, one 
secretary and one treasurer. The engine company was limited to sixty 
members, and the other companies to forty members, Wm. Goodwin 
was secretary. The nomination of Simeon Morrill chief, and Peter 
McCann and John Plummer assistants, was confirmed. 

In May, 1850, a sum of 250 was granted to purchase a fire 
engine capable of throwing water fifty feet high. 

A motion by Councillor Barker, made in 1852, to permit the volun- 
teer rifle company to wear side-arms while attending fires was lost. A 
lot on the north side of King street was purchased from Alex. Mc- 
Donald, and on it an engine house was built. The Council, in Feb- 
ruary, appointed the captains of several fire companies. A board of 
fire wardens elected Elijah Leonard chief engineer, with William Eow- 
land and James Cousins second and third engineers. Each warden 
was to wear a Kossuth hat with plumes. 

In August, 1853, the Council resolved to raise 900 by debentures, 
for building the firemen's hall and engine-house. 

In March, 1854, the fire brigade was presided over by C. N. 
Simms, chief, with J. E. Murphy and Francis Smith, first and second 

The fire companies of 1857 were Fire King, Hook and Ladder, 
Phoenix, Defiance, Eescue and Rising Sun. The officers of the Hook and 
Ladder Company of 1859 were : Charles Stevens, captain ; William 
Abraham and Charles Flew, lieutenants ; John S. Mearns, secretary, 
and D. McPherson, treasurer ; the last two named being representa- 
tives to the Fire Brigade Board. 

Fires, 181^4-1888. The following record of fires is based solely on 
contemporary history, such as the Council journal and newspaper files. 
The first reference to fires in this journal is made in January, 1844, 
when the Police Board ordered twenty-five shillings to be paid to the 
fire company for services rendered at the burning of John O'Brien's 
house. John Jennings' distillery was destroyed by fire, April 14, and 
the Board offered a reward of 25 for the conviction of the incendiary. 
In October the police office was used as a store-house for goods rescued 
from the fire of that month. The Board further thanked Captain 
Caddy for 10 subscription, being the proceeds of one night's enter- 
tainment by the Garrison Theatrical Company. This sum was equally 
divided between Leonard, Perrin, Thomas Clark, Veitch, Faulds and 
Edmunds, they being the principal sufferers from the fire. Samuel H. 
Park was paid 2 17s. 6d. for the use of teams during the fires. Peter 
McCann was allowed 4 10s. for men on duty during the fire. 

The fire of April 11, 1845, which either washed or wafted away 
some three hundred stores, dwellings, churches, banks, post-office, 
hotels, etc., was the most disastrous known in London. It originated 


in the Kobinson Hall, and spread with amazing rapidity. On this 
occasion the 2nd Eoyals (Infantry), who were then stationed in the 
new barracks on the present Victoria Park, did efficient service in 
guarding property and keeping order for the sufferers against a large 
number of plunderers from the city and country. At this time a large 
garden sprinkler presented to the fire company was destroyed, and all 
the houses, cabins, churches, etc., within the district bounded by 
Ridout, Dundas, Talbot south to the river were swept away. To give 
an idea of how this fire spread, it is related that James Nixon had just 
taken his horse from the Robinson Hall stables one minute before the 
archway was ablaze. The locations of the greater number of business 
houses in 1845 are given at the close of this chapter, so that the 
names of the principal sufferers are preserved. 

Stephen Bonser (or Bonsel) was allowed 5 for services as en- 
gineer, while 3 18s. 3d. were allowed to the company for services at 
the burning of Mrs. Shepherd's house in April, 1847. 

Among the persons paid for services at the fire of Jan. 15, 1849,, 
were George Taylor, Charles Hine, Wm. Winslow, Richard Bissett, 
Joshua Freckleton, Wm. Lament, Peter Wright and Henry Boyd, 
each receiving five shillings. The investigation into the origin of this 
fire, which destroyed Donald McDonald's store and Joseph Goodwin's 
dwelling adjoining, showed that Robert Gunn discovered the fire. On 
January 16 the Council presented a record of their vote of thanks, 
printed in gilt letters and neatly framed, to the young men Burwell, 
Schram and Will Burns, " for their intrepid and persevering conduct 
in arresting the progress of the lamentable fire." During this fire Mr. 
Burke's house was pulled down unnecessarily. The burning of 
Henry Dalton's soap factory, Jan. 30, was accidental. 

The following entry is made in the records of the Council : " The 
chief engineer reported to the Council that he had offered a reward of 
5 to the Phoenix Fire Company, if said Company would save a certain 
wooden building which was in danger of being consumed by fire on the 
morning of May 28th." Notices were given that application for pay- 
ment of this sum, and also of 1 to Mr. Holmes's Fire Company, would 
be made at next session of Council. The fire originated in Reynolds's 
butcher shop, also used by cabinet-maker Allen, a brother in-law of 
Reynolds. This resulted in the destruction of buildings belonging to 
Dennis O'Brien, and of Sutherland's printing office. At that time 
Sutherland slept in the printing office. Peter Glen, tailor, and 
Donald Stewart resided near the burned buildings The Council 
offered 25 for the conviction of the incendiary. The grants to the 
Phoenix and Holmes's Companies, as asked, were made, and 5 to the 
Juvenile Fire Company. On June 18th an attempt was made to- 
bum Lawrason & Chisholm's store. The Council presented John 
O'Neil with an address, thanking him for saving such valuable 

A fire was started in the buildings on the north side of Dundas 


street, August 15, 1850. The Council offered 250 reward for the 
capture and conviction of the incendiaries. The fire originated in 
Smith, Matthewson and Moore's buildings, where they formerly kept 
store. It was discovered after midnight by Kobert Summers, who 
gave the alarm, and saw a man run from the place, having first thrown 
turpentine against the house. This building, Goodhue's store, the 
frame occupied by Oliver's shoe store and Dennis O'Brien's brick 
(then occupied by Ronald Robinson as a tavern), were destroyed. The 
inmates barely escaped. At Oliver's and other places Robert Summers 
aided in saving the family arid some of the leather. 

The fire of January 7, 1851, threatened the town. Lieut.-Colonel 
Outchley and men of the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers, the local fire- 
men, and a small number of citizens, worked faithfully to rescue pro- 
perty. The majority of the citizens were mere spectators, as the fol- 
lowing resolution of the Council points out: "That this Council 
regret being called upon to condemn, in the strongest language, the 
apathy evinced by a great portion of the spectators on that melancholy 
occasion, who, not content with refusing to assist in procuring water or 
otherwise endeavoring to arrest the flames, actually seemed by their 
gestures and conversation to enjoy the sight, and, so far from being of 
any use, only retarded those who were willing to exert themselves. 
Therefore, the Council would request all those who attend fires merely 
to gratify a morbid curiosity, to remain at home in future." One re- 
sult of this fire, however, was the appropriation of 300 for the pur- 
chase of a " good engine and hose." The fire of February 7 was 
discovered in the house occupied by Win. Till, cabinet-maker, on 
Ridout street. Till's shop, with the exception of a small dwelling 
house on the northern side, formed the last of a range of wooden build- 
ings, extending nearly from York to King streets. The wind was 
from the north, which, with the exertions of the Hook and Ladder 
Company and a partial supply of water, prevented the consuming of 
the block. As it was, about one -third (the southern part) was con- 
sumed ; and in the remainder the houses were completely gutted. In 
the houses burnt, the following were the sufferers : Thomas Fraser's 
dwelling house, the cabinet shop and dwelling house of William Till, 
with a quantity of lumber ; no insurance ; the next was owned and 
occupied by E. P. Ellis as a cabinet shop, insured for $1,500 in the 
Oenessee Mutual ; the next occupied by W. H. Soper, gunsmith, who 
was insured for 100 ; the building, owned by Maurice Baker, was 
also insured. This was the last building burned, and was pulled down 
while on fire, thereby stopping any further progress. Till, on whose 
premises the fire broke out, lost heavily. The military were on the 
ground, and rendered all the assistance in their power. 

The fire of August 24, 1851, destroyed the old Catholic church 
building at the corner of Richmond street and Maple avenue. 

The fire of Oct. 7 was discovered in the ran^e of wooden buildings 
on Richmond street, between the Congregational Chapel and Dundas 


street. The range was owned by S. S. Pomeroy, and consisted of six 
different shops ; one of which was vacant, and the other five occupied 
as follows : Dr. Wanless, druggist, stock insured for 250 in the 
Empire State Co., and furniture, &c., 200 in the Provincial ; R. Gunn, 
shoemaker ; Lawson, tailor ; W. Jarman, tin and copper-smith, 100 
in the Empire State Co. ; Wm. Bissell, 50 in the Hudson River Co. 
Some damage was done to Mr. Strong's Hotel, but through the exer- 
tions of Phoenix Fire Co., No. 2, the fire was prevented from extend- 
ing. The fire of December, which destroyed some houses on the 
south side of Dundas, necessitated an order by Council giving the 
privilege to persons burned out of erecting temporary wooden build- 

In February, 1857, a fire broke out in the basement of the City 
Hall, caused by overheating of furnace pipes. In this year the hospital 
was burned. Later in 1857 the City Hospital on the Hamilton Road, 
Henry Groves' house on York street, Pomeroy's on Dundas, Carmichael's 
on Mill street, and Cameron's on Wellington street, were set on fire. 

The fire of May 27, 1859, destroyed six tenement houses, owned 
by Ingram, on Waterloo street. In July, 1860, a fire broke out in the 
Higgins stable on Dundas near Clarence, and destroyed the building 
and adjoining sheds in rear of the Hiscox tavern. Higgins's and His- 
cox's taverns and Wesleyan parsonage were saved by the firemen, 
under Wigmore, McPherson and Frank Church. The first fire of 1863 
originated in Thomas Craig's office, and resulted in the destruction of 
Adam Hope & Co.'s hardware stock and store. The military engineers 
saved the books. The second fire was in their new store, where 
Stephenson's store now stands, opposite the City Hotel. At this time 
Warren's, Chisholm's and Hope's stores were destroyed. 

In 1865 a fire destroyed all the buildings between the stores of E. 
Beltz and R. Reid ; subsequently the vacant lot was purchased by J. 
Green, for the purpose of building thereon a dry goods warehouse. 
During the operation of clearing out the old ruins, one of the walls fell, 
carrying down Beltz's hat store and Mrs. Egan's property. The fire of 
May 24th destroyed Elijah Leonard's old foundry on Ridout and Ful- 
larton ; also Dennis O'Connor's dwelling. Owing to the fact that the 
machinery and material were removed to the new foundry, Leonard's 
loss was small. 

Thompson & Hendershott's oil refinery, on the river bank, east of 
the London and Port Stanley bridge, was burned January 23, 1867. 
Wood's Hotel, corner of Clarence and Dundas streets, was destroyed 
by fire December 13. The buildings were erected in 1840 and owned 
by Benj. Higgins. The firemen, aided by the 53rd regiment, confined 
the fire to the hotel. 

The Reindeer Inn, also known as " Murphy's Erin-go-Bragh," 
owned in 1867-8 by John Armour, was burned January 27, 1868. 
This was a large frame building at the corner of Bathurst and Rich- 
mond streets. Heathfield & Williams' drug store, on Dundas street, 



was on fire March 4. The department saved the building, but deluged 
the stock with water. The fire of July 27, which threatened the 
Catholic school-house, was followed by a fire on Hitchcock street 
(Maple street) and Eichmond street, which destroyed Stewart's fanning 
mill factory and nineteen other buildings. The mill building was 
owned by John Dignam; but the contents represented $12,000. A. 
Kerr's building adjoining was valued at $1,000 ; Stewart and Eudd's 
dwelling and barns, $2,500 ; barn adjoining factory, $500 ; McKellar 
& Stewart's wagon factory, $6,000; McKellar's dwelling, $1,000; 
Waddell's cottage, $1,200 ; Western Hotel stables and contents, $2,000 
Grey's plow factory, $300 ; Magee's block of six dwellings, $3,600 ; 
Gillean's building damaged ; also Mrs. Darby's, Hardwood's carpenter 
shop, Peel's marble works, Eichardson's carpenter shop. P. Weston's 
dwelling and other buildings damaged. The losses amounted to 
$40,000. M. & E. Anderson's foundry, Adelaide and Dundas streets, 
was blown up September 21, 1868, killing one man and wounding 
seven. Twelve years before the Anderson foundry, then on Eichmond 
and Fullarton streets, met with a similar fate, when a number of lives 
were lost and a number wounded. The fire of December 29 destroyed 
the grocery house of Frank Smith & Co., the loss being estimated at 
about $40,000. 

The fire of Jan. 6, 1869, originated in Finlayson's dry goods store, 
on Dundas, and gutted that store. In saving adjoining property much 
damage was done, the total losses being placed at $30,000. John- 
White's hotel, on North street, was partially destroyed by fire also in 
January. Thomas Hodgens's wagon shop, on Eichmond and Market, 
was destroyed by fire February 11. The fire of June 7 destroyed 
Bullock's dwelling and slaughter-house on King and Eectory streets, 
near St. Paul's Cemetery. The Canada Chemical Works were burned 
in September. The Ontario Chemical Works, on London Eoad, were 
destroyed October 12, involving a loss of $15,000. Win. McMillan's 
oil refinery, on Bathurst, east of the Grand Trunk Eailroad depot, was 
gutted by fire November 3-4. The house of Wm. Smith, near the- 
Catholic cemetery, was burned November 26. The act was imputed 
to Mary Hawkins, whose love was not reciprocated. A tavern at the 
corner of Eichmond and Litchfield streets was burned December 6. 

The tinshop of I. W. C. Baker was burned January 5, 1870, 
entailing a loss of $2.500. The other property destroyed was A. John- 
ston's building, $1,400 ; Hiscox's hotel, $1,600 ; T. Powell's furniture, 
$500 ; Mrs. Trebilcock's stock, about $600 ; Goldner & Hooper's, 
about $300; Dr. Westland's furniture, $300, and Benj Hioains's 
building, $300 in all $7,500. The O'Callaghan and Elson frame 
building, which stood on Eichmond street, opposite the City Hall, was 
burned January 21. Elson's butcher shop, Mountjoy's fruit store, 
Henry Taylor's bank and Burke's photographic rooms were in the 
building. The house was erected about 1841, and for ten years was 
used by the Wesleyan Methodists for church purposes. The fire on 


Duke and Cartwright streets, of February 22, destroyed property 
valued at $2,000. A. Graham's barn, and James Anderson's and Mrs. 
Hennessy's cottages were destroyed. The grocery store of Michael 
Gleeson, on Eichmond and Bathurst streets, was destroyed by fire 
February 27. The children narrowly escaped death. The petroleum 
works of Englehart & Co., on Adelaide street, were destroyed by fire 
February 24. Oliver Odell was burned to a crisp, and others severely 
injured. A second explosion at Eriglehart's works, April 9, entailed a 
loss of $2,000 ; and a third on May 23, 1870, damaged property valued 
at $6,000. Macmillan & Latham's oil still exploded August 11. 

The explosion at Steadwells' refinery April 22, 1872, caused the 
death of Joseph Ellis and J. Weaver, while on December 31st young 
Hussey was killed in Elliott's foundry. The burning of Mrs. Howard's 
child at the barracks occurred September 3, 1872. S. Adams & Co.'s oil 
stills were damaged by explosion in June. In November, the frame 
buildings near the Terrapin restaurant on Dundas street were des- 
troyed by fire. Mrs. S. A. Gibbons, whose fancy goods store was in 
one, and Geo. Shaw, who had a grocery in another, suffered some loss. 
The old buildings were on the site of the proposed buildings of W. J. 
Eeid & Co. In December, the Victoria Hotel stables on Duke and 
Wellington streets, with the dwellings of Wm. Noden and Mrs. Ions, 
were burned. On the morning of December 10th the old frame pas- 
pen ger depot of the Grand Trunk Kailroad was destroyed, and on 
December 15th the old artillery barracks on Wellington street. 

The explosion of an oil still in the Hodgens refinery, east of Ade- 
laide street, resulted in the destruction of fourteen oil cars. This 
occurred January 10, 1873. The fire of February 8th destroyed Kirk- 
patrick's shoe store, and Thomas Simmon's fruit shop on Dundas street. 
On April 18th the boiler in Hyman's tannery (London) exploded, killing 
Daniel Sullivan. Geo. Homer, foreman, and George Vincent, engineer, 
were arrested on the charge of continuing the use of the engine for 
months after they knew of the dangerous condition of the safety-valve. 

The Ontario Car Works of London were destroyed by fire in June, 
1874. The total loss of $80,000 was met by an insurance of $65,000. 
The fire of June 22 destroyed nine buildings on Eichmond street, 
between King and York streets, and on the 27th two frame buildings 
on the west side of Eichmond, between the streets named, were 
destroyed. On July 4th two frame buildings on Bathurst, near 
Clarence, were burned. 

The fire of February 27, 1875, destroyed Muirhead & Gray's oat- 
meal mills, and also the block on the corner of Dundas and Eichmond. 
On March 31 Westlake's dry goods store was burned. In August the 
factories of Nash & Jackson and of White, Yates & Joliffe were des- 

The Golden Quoit Hotel, on York and Burwell streets, was burned 
August 30, 1876. M. Glass was then proprietor. 

The London Iron Works, owned by E. Leonard & Sons, were des- 


troyed by fire May 4, 1881, thirty years after their establishment by 
Elijah Leonard. Seventy portable engines and boilers were destroyed, 
and the total loss was placed at $60,000. The works stood on York, 
between Waterloo and Colborne, and gave employment to eighty-five 
workmen. George Gray and Harry Smith, two firemen, narrowly 
escaped death. Thomas Green's planing mill was destroyed by fire 
September 11, entailing a loss of $25,000. 

The Globe Agricultural Works on Dundas street were destroyed 

by fire September 11, 1882. The concern was insured for $27,000, 

but the loss was placed at over $45,000 by Mr. Mahon, the manager. 

The Imperial Oil Company's works in London East were struck 

by lightning and destroyed on July 11, 1883. 

The wholesale house of Hobbs, Osborne & Hobbs, was blown up 
by gunpowder, February 18, 1884. The two upper floors were carried 
away, and fire completed the ruin. Donald Smith was burned to a 
crisp; Percy H. Ince was rescued half crushed and half burned; 
Frank Shaw and Frank H. Smith escaped. The firm carried the 
heaviest hardware stock in Western Ontario, and lost about $35,000. 
The building was insured for $12,000, and the stock for $63,000. 

The Phoenix Foundry, erected in 1871-2, was destroyed by fire 
May 29, 1885. Five hundred reapers and binders were burned, and 
an acre of buildings and material destroyed. John Elliott & Sons, the 
owners, estimated the loss at between $150,000 and $200,000 insured 
for $52,000. 

The Canada Chemical Co.'s works were destroyed June 12, 1887, 
involving a loss of $100,000. In 1867 this industry was established* 
here; was burned out in 18 70, but rebuilt and carried on a great busi- 
ness. The fire of June 17 broke out in an old frame building 
on the south side of Queen's avenue, near Talbot street, and destroyed 
much property. Cousins's pump factory on Wellington street, with 
two stables, were burned August 5. 

Hunt's mill, at the foot of Talbot street, was destroyed by fire May 
18, 1888. The gutting of the old Mechanics' Institute building on 
Talbot street, opposite Queen's avenue, occurred July 22, 1888. The 
oatmeal mill, on the corner of Talbot street and the railway, was 
destroyed, only the bare walls standing, August 20. 

Village and City Police. In the year 1840, London was consti- 
tuted a police village, controlled by a Board of Police, with functions 
similar to those of the Board of Aldermen of to-day. Of that body, 
which was elective, Mr. Goodhue was chosen the first President. Under 
this system of rule the village continued till 1847, when it was created 
a town with Simeon Morrill as its first Mayor. In 1834 Lawrence 
Lawrason was appointed a Justice of the Peace for London, and for 
over 40 years served as such. In 1866 he was appointed first 
Police Magistrate for London, holding the position until his death in 
1882. E. Jones Parke is the present Magistrate. 

A memorial of military honesty is written under date of May, 1843. 



It appears that Private James Ilett, of the Royal Eegiment, found a 
shawl. This the Board ordered should " be cried through the town by 
the * General Brown,' and given up to the true owner." 

In May, 1843, a note for 11 5s., payable to Thomas Clifford or 
bearer, by Nathan Choat, was found on the street and turned over to 
the Board. 

Michael McGarry was appointed Constable, Town Warden and 
Inspector in August, 1844, vice Bennett. In those days the duties of 
Town Warden and Inspector were not always pleasant or safe. On one 
occasion Lowrie called at Devanny's bake house to inspect the stove 
pipe. A law suit followed, when one of the witnesses, Richard Falls, 
or Faulds, swore as follows : " Lowrie caught hold of Devanny's col- 
lar, and Devanny gave him the paper and told him to leave the bake 
house, which Lowrie refused to do, upon which Devanny threw him 
out " This unceremonious conduct cost the baker 8s. 9d. 

The officers of the Police Board in 1846, were the same as in 1845, 
with the exceptions that Win. McBride was appointed assessor. In 
January, 1846, the room for Police Board was rented from Timothy 
Cook, on Ridout street, for 1 per month. The officials at this time 
were very exacting. John Becket had to pay fourteen shillings " for 
standing with his team on one of the crossing places on the street, con- 
trary to by-law." October 9, 1848, Councilman Doyle's motion, that 
all the policemen, except the high bailiff and inspectors, be dismissed, 
was earned ; also one providing that the new police force, consisting of 
three privates and the high bailiff, should receive 20 per annum and 
usual fees, while the inspector was to be paid 30 per annum. Ezekiel 
Whittimore was inspector, and Messrs. Wiggins, Boyd and R. Jennings, 
policemen. Colonel Clinch, was inspector of licenses. 

In January, 1849, Peter McCaim was appointed high constable ; 
James Dunbar and Michael Kennedy, fee-paid constables for St. 
Andrew's ; Michael McGarry and Henry Boyd, for St. Patrick's ; T. 
Wiggins and J. Wakely, for St. David's ; and T. Fletcher and W. Robb, 
for St. George's; Annesley Griffith, inspector; W. Williams, town 
crier ; R. Jennings, pound-keeper ; and J. H. Caddy, engineer. 

On January 21, 1849, Miriam H. Rowley, while passing by his 
store, observed a light inside ; the ubiquitous Peter McCann was soon 
on the scene, when he found Malachi Hart and Michael Young pre- 
paring to sleep in Rowley's bed-clothes. McCann took them to prison, 
and next day had them fined. 

Daniels moved to have the Mayor and two councilmen also sit 
weekly as Police Court Magistrates in 1849. In 1854 Thael Van 
Valkenburg was appointed high bailiff, but in January, 1855 the office 
gav<) place to that of high constable. In January, 1855, a report in 
favor of establishing a regular police force was adopted. Robert Maw- 
hinney, John lies, John Keary, Andrew Pollock, John T. Mitchell, 
Henry Shad well and Christopher Teale were appointed, but Pollock 
resigned, and Edward Templeton was appointed. William O'Rielly 


was chief constable. In July, 1855, Samuel Parke Ayres was ap- 
pointed chief constable, vice William O'Kielly. On September 24, 
1860, the police force was discharged and a new one appointed, com- 
prising the following members : Eobert Mawhinney, James Taylor, 
Patrick Wallace, William Baskerville, James Guttridge, Henry Phair 
and John Larkin. Baskerville was appointed chief, but was succeeded 
in February, 1861, by Richard Wigmore. 

In 1877 there were thirty-two applicants for the office of Chief of 
Police, recently held by Chief Wigmore. Sergeant W. T. Williams, of 
the Toronto police, was chosen, while ex- Chief Wigmore was appointed 
head of the detective force, at a salary of $600 per annum. 

In 1863 the force consisted of a chief and seven constables. There 
were no sergeants and no detectives. Brock Stevens was chief, having 
succeeded S. P. Ayers, second chief of the London city police, a year 
or so before. T. Van Valkenburgh was the first to hold office. The 
constables were Henry Phair, Robert Mawhinney, Patrick Wallace, 
John Larkin, William Baskerville, James Guttridge and Jas. Fletcher. 
Three of the above-mentioned seven are still on the force. Baskerville, 
who afterwards became sergeant-major, is in the city also, and it is 
only a short time since Mr. Mawhinney died. Brock Stevens resigned 
from the force shortly after, but continued to reside in London until 
1876, or thereabouts, when he committed suicide for some unexplained 
cause. He was succeeded by Richard Wigmore, previously employed 
in the Sheriff's office, and Mr. Wigmore held the office until 1875, 
when, through some difficulties arising on the force, he resigned. He 
was succeeded by Wm. T. T. Williams, the present chief, who previous 
to that time had been a sergeant in the Toronto police force, and had 
also seen considerable military police and detective service in England 
and France. The force, as now constituted, comprises one chief, three 
sergeants, two detectives, and twenty-four police constables. The fol- 
lowing are the names of the officers : 

Chief, W. T. T. Williams; sergeants, Robt. Adams, Thos. Jenkins 
and Arthur Maguire ; detectives, Henry Phair and William Ryder; 
police constables, John Larkin, Patrick Wallace, James Hobbins, John 
Boyd, Robert Weir, William Pope, Robert Crawford, Nelson Smith, 
Robert Egleton, John Morgan, Richard Ralph, David Dibbs, Walter 
Chalcraft, Thomas Nickle, George Campbell, Robert Birrell, Thomas 
Howie, Thomas McDonald, Wm. McGowan, John D. McColl, Michael 
Toohey, Gilbert Woolway, James Gilson and Thomas Whittaker. 

The force is in a very efficient state, as Chief Williams main- 
tains the strictest discipline. For years now " crooks " have worked 
shy of London, owing mainly to the wide-awake character of the city 
detectives. The detective department was added to the force about 
1871 or 1872, Enoch Murphy being the first appointed. About 1873 
or 1874 fire bugs were burning up the city right and left, and Henry 
Phair was made a detective and is still on the force. Detective 
Murphy was succeeded by Detective Ryder about three years ago. 


The other two officers, besides Detective Phair, who were on the force 
in 1863, and are still on it. are Patrick Wallace and John Larkin. As 
stated above, there were no sergeants in 1863 ; but now there are three 
of the most capable police officers in Canada holding these positions. 
Eobert Adams is the senior, and has seen long service on the force. 
Thomas Jenkins comes next in seniority, and has been on the force 
about twelve or thirteen years. He is also a very capable officer, as is 
Arthur Maguire, the third on the list, also. 

Henry Boyd, for over 20 years the city bell-ringer of London, died 
in Dec., 1872. Years before, while on the police force, he was beaten 
by soldiers, from the effects of which he suffered until his death. 

Richard Dinahan, who was caretaker of the City Hall for over 17 
years, was presented an engrossed copy of the Council's resolutions on 
his resignation in Jan., 1873. Eobert Mawhinney, who died in 1888, 
held the position for years. Henry Merritt succeeded. 

Town-Crier Williams was the first, and for a long time the only 
advertising medium London possessed. He would go about the town 
ringing his bell, and from time to time, as he became the center of a 
crowd, would make his announcements. " There will be-e-e an auc- 
tion sa-a-ale, on the Market Squ-a-re, this afternoo-o-n, at half-past 
two-o-o." And then he would go on and detail what was to be offered. 
Town-Crier Williams commenced business in the forties, and continued 
until the daily newspapers left nothing for him to do. They absorbed 
the advertising patronage, and the profession of the town-crier became 
a thing of the past in 1863-4. 

London's Water Supply. In the earlier years of the settlement 
the house-keeper carried water from the river in a pail, or where a 
large supply was needed, an empty whisky barrel would be rolled 
down, filled and rolled back to supply the kitchen, give drink to the 
thirsty, or aid in building up the stock of whisky. In April, 1830, a 
well was ordered to be excavated opposite lot 16, on the south side of 
Dundas street, and within the street limits, with a water conveyance 
thence to the jail, where a reservoir and pump were to be constructed. 
Wells then came into general use, and well-water continued to be used 
for years. On the organization of the village, the water question 
received some attention, but only from 1843 is there reliable informa- 
tion of the measures taken to insure a supply. Two tanks, fifteen feet 
eight inches long, six feet wide and ten feet deep, were ordered in 
November, 1843 one to be placed near the foundry, and one at the 
corner of Richmond and Horton streets. In February, 1844, the town 
well on North street, in the rear of Farley's house, was cleaned and 
otherwise improved. Leonard Perrin was allowed "to lay down 
pipes from lot 15 to lot 16 on Dundas street in February, 1845." In 
June, Lawyer Wilson asked permission to lay down pipe from the 
well at the corner of Talbot and North streets to his buildings on 
Dundas street. In June, 1846, Robert Gunn complained to the Board 
" that John Wilson turned the water out of its- proper course in North 



street." This undoubtedly resulted from Wilson's unanswered prayer 
for leave to put down water pipes referred to in 1845. Permission 
was given the people to take water from the pipes leading from the 
sprino to the tanks in August, 1847. Among the first to take advantage 
of this privilege of attaching pipes to the tank at the old Montreal bank, 
at the corner of Ridout and North streets, was Dennis O'Brien. A 
special assessment of one farthing on the pound was made in Septem- 
ber, 1848, on Dundas street from Kidout to Talbot, to pay the expense 
of sprinkling the street. 

In January, 1851, E. Johnstone, of the Committee of the County 
Council on the jail water supply, recommended that the Warden, 
Engineer and a member of Council be appointed a permanent com- 
mittee to superintend improvements on water- works, and for selling 
water to consumers in the town. In February, 1852, Councillors 
Barker, Oliver, Code, McClary and Anderson were appointed a com- 
mittee to consider the best means for obtaining a supply of good 
water for the town. In August there were eleven large tanks in use, 
three of which were constructed of brick. A committee of the Council 
recommended the erection of eighteen additional tanks nine of brick 
and nine of wood. This committee was presided over by John C. 

A petition to the Legislature asking power to erect a system of 
water-works was adopted in January, 1853. In November, 1854, 
Elijah Leonard introduced a by-law providing for the establishment of 
the London and Westminster Water- works Company. Peter McCann 
was one of the directors. In consequence, however, of a suspicion 
that the Pond Mills water contained nothing but surface water, the 
company fell through. In 1866 several artesian wells were sunk, but 
the water was strongly impregnated with sulphur. One of the wells, 
at the foot of Dundas street, has been running since, and it is pro- 
posed to build a sanitarium in connection with it at an early date. 
After the failure of the artesian wells, and a thorough test of the 
Westminster ponds, it was decided to try the Byron springs, about 
four miles down the river. The result was the discovery of an inex- 
haustible supply of pure spring water, and a natural elevation for a 
reservoir commanding the city. 

In November, 1871, a report from the committee sent to examine 
the water-works at Jackson, Mich., was received. In March, 1874, 
Charles Dunnett placed before the Council Dr. Anderson's reference 
to, and Dr. Machattie's analysis of 1870 of, the sulphur springs water. 
On October 7, 1874, Thomas C. Keefer, writing to the Council, speaks 
of collecting the springs near Cobmbs's, but suggests that, to avoid 
tunnelling the river to put down water pipes, every effort should be 
made to obtain a supply on the city side of the branches. On February 
15, 1875, Messrs. Macmahon, Gibbons and McNab were authorized to 
inform the Council that, should privileges be granted, a private com- 
pany with $600,000 capital was willing to undertake the construction 


of water-works. On March 29, 1875, a vote on the question of the 
by-law appropriating $400,000 for water- works, on the basis of T. C. 
Reefer's estimate, was taken, when 243 votes were for and 699 against. 
A very bitter feeling was manifested before and during the election. 
The disbursements for the year 1874 were $659,202.02. 

In September, 1876, a company applied for a charter to supply the 
city with water. The members were George S. Birrell, Charles 
Murray, Isaac Waterman, Ellis W. Hyman, John McClary, John 
Elliott, Thomas Muir and George Moorhead. The committee re- 
ported in favor of accepting a scheme proposed by this company or 
the establishment of a system by the city. At this time William 
Eobinson, city engineer, presented estimates for $94,395 as the cost of 
a thorough system. Wilson's spring, on the 6th Concession of London, 
Lot 4, as described in the engineer's report of 1875, was referred to as 
the proper source of supply. 

The by-law authorizing the construction of water- works passed at 
special meeting of the Council, December 26, 1877, and in March, 
1878, a contract for the construction of water- works and reservoir was 
sold to Stevens, Turner & Burns, of London, for $194,000. In May 
an 18-inch pipe was placed from Waterloo and York streets to Coombs's 
Hill, 3J miles, crossing the Thames south of Westminster bridge. The 
reservoir and works were constructed near the old mill, and a dam 
constructed to obtain power for the pumping machinery, as it was then 
determined to dispense with the use of coal. The building was erected 
by Screaton & Gibson, and in it were placed two Holly turbine wheels 
of 103 horse-power each. The reservoir on Chestnut Hill 298 feet 
above the river, and 150 feet above the highest point in the city, 
except the Catholic Cathedral has a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons, 
being 198 square feet at the bottom, and 400 square feet at the sur- 
face, with a depth of 17 feet. The grounds, comprising 62 acres, were 
fenced in 1878 by James Biggs, under the direction of John Kitchen, 
the Water Commissioners' foreman. On November 11, 1878, City 
Engineer Wm. Robinson resigned, and Thomas Tracy, P. L. S., was 
appointed. John Carling, R. Lewis and J. R. Minhinnick were the 
first Water Commissioners. In June, 1882, J. M. Cousins was 
appointed, vice Muirhead, as shown in the municipal history. 

The whole of the works, including a reservoir of over 6,000,000 
gallons' capacity, about 31 miles of mains, 180 hydrants, valves, a 
dam, pump house, machinery, road, etc., also about 1,000 services, was 
completed and water turned on in January, 1879. Since that time 
extensions have been made each year, including the London East 
works, which were connected in 1885 on the amalgamation of London- 
East with the city. In 1882, steam pumping machinery of a capacity 
of 2,000,000 gallons (imperial) was put in, and has given the most 
thorough satisfaction, a duty of 82,000,000 feet pounds per 100 
pounds of coal consumed having been realized, according to the test of 
George C. Robb, M. E. Considerable damage was done to the works 



by the great flood of July, 1883, but the repairs were quickly and 
thoroughly made, the supply being kept up by the steam pumping 
machinery. In 1886 the reservoir was cleaned out, relined with 
hydraulic cement concrete, improved facilities for emptying and clean- 
ing added, and additional storage for the spring water provided at con- 
siderable cost, and in August, 1887, Button's springs were purchased 
for $2,500. The original works were designed by Wm. Eobinson, C. E., 
and carried out under the superintendence of T. H. Tracy, C. E., the 
present City Engineer, who has had charge of the work since that time. 
The present works comprise over 45 miles of mains, 250 hydrants with 
valves, and about 5,000 services, which have been put in free to the 
consumer to the extent of twenty feet inside the street line. The 
offices of the department are located in the City Hall. The neighbor- 
hood surrounding the water-works is one of the most beautiful in 
Western Ontario. It is known under the name of Springbank, and 
with the boats running on the river, thousands of people visit it week- 
ly. The receipts of the department at the present time are between 
$40,000 and $45,000 annually, and the running expenses from $10,000 
to $12,000. The balance up to 1885 was not only expended on capital 
account, but additional sums borrowed. In 1885, however, the de- 
partment had a handsome balance on hand, and since then the show- 
ing has been even better. 

Analysis of Water. To point out the difference between the 
waters used by the people of ante- water- works days and the present 
inhabitants, the following statement is given, founded on the report of 
W. Saunders, chemist, on the constituent parts of water in and around 
London, made to the Council. Water from the well at the corner of 
Adelaide and North streets (the Mayor's residence) contained 25J 
grains of solid matter ; from his own well on Dundas, between Waterloo 
and Colborne, 29 J grains ; from Dr. Brown's well, Kent street, near 
Talbot, 51 grains, and from Harvey's well, Talbot street north, 70 
grains. The water at Coombs' springs yielded 16 J grains, while it 
showed only 9 degrees of hardness, compared with 11 to 17 degrees for 
the well waters named. 

The Asylum wells water in 1871, as certified by A. T. Machattie, 
contained 11.07 grains (east well) and 18.81 grains (west well) of 
saline matter. The former showed 6.51 grains, and the latter 14.90 
grains of carbonate of lime ; while carbonate of magnesia was repre- 
sented by 4.56 and 3.91 grains respectively. The analyst stated that 
" the only saline matters present in any appreciable quantity, are the 
carbonates of lime and magnesia, which are, as usual, dissolved in 
excess of carbonic acid. The waters are remarkably free from alkaline 
chlorides and sulphates ; they contained no organic matter, either of 
vegetable or animal origin, a fact which conclusively indicates the 
absence of surface water or any contamination from sewage ; they are 
perfectly colorless and transparent, and contain nothing in any way 
prejudicial to health. The ' east' well being softer than the ' west ' is 



so much the more suitable for ordinary domestic purposes ; but there 
is nothing in either water to prevent its general use in the Asylum." 

A Terrible Holiday. The celebration of May 24th, the Queen's 
birthday, has been observed at London since 1850, when Councillor 
Labatt asked the Mayor to proclaim the day as a town holiday. For 
years it was observed by the people in revelry and banqueting. The 
barbarous barbecue, roasted ox, whisky and ale, being main features ; 
but as men's intelligence developed, a good deal of the barbarian disap- 
peared, and the day became one of quiet pleasure. Such was that of 
1881 in its beginnings. All day long the loyal people of London 
indulged in quiet pleasures ; some at home, some at Springbank, and 
others, more fortunate, visiting friends in the country or in other cities 
of Canada. The day was ordered for holiday making, the Princess 
Victoria and Princess Louise carried hundreds down to Springbank 
and back, and all went merry as marriage bells until evening, when 
the murky sky gave notice to the merrymakers that the hour for return- 
ing was at hand. At five o'clock the Victoria arrived at the picnic 
grounds, bringing down many who had passed the day in the city. 
Both decks were even then crowded. Xo sooner was the boat halted 
than a greater crowd on the wharf leaped on board, and in a few 
minutes about 800 men, women and children, were huddled together 
in a space fit only for 100 persons. The captain and crew seemed as 
contented as the excursionists ; all were anxious to be at home for 
supper. So the boat cleared from the wharf and crept slowly up the 
Thames. The swell of the waters sometimes leaped in on the lower 
deck, but there was little fear in the hearts of the travellers until the 
crowd surged to one side, when that side of the lower deck was sub- 
merged to a depth of eight inches. The captain now became aware of 
danger, and asked the people to be still ; but the warning was unheeded. 
The boat had now reached the expansion of the river, about 1,300 feet 
west of the cove bridge, and held its way one-fourth the width of the 
river from the bank. Suddenly a volume of water swept over the 
lower deck, and the boat turned over, leaving the deck floors almost 
perpendicular, then the supports bent and broke, and in an instant 
the celebrants were in the water, fighting for life, or crushed to death 
in the wreck. The evidence of John T. Fryer before the coroner's 
jury forms part of the official history of this tragedy. He states : 
" Was on the Victoria ; I saw her coming to Springbank ; I was on the 
dock ; she came in bow first ; she appeared to be very much crowded ; 
a number, myself among the rest, jumped over the bulwarks, and 
gained the boat before the gang was lowered. I saw some of the 
passengers get off not many ; I saw a number getting on over the 
gangway ; the vessel then swung around and came up to the dock 
with the bow towards London ; she was so loaded then that I could not 
get a seat ; my wife got a seat ; my wife got on over the bulwarks ; 
when she got in, I handed my child to her ; my reason for getting 
over the bulwarks was to secure a seat, as I saw the rush was so 


great; there were eight in my party, all of whom got over the bul- 
warks, except my father he came over the gangway ; after the Victoria 
came back to the dock the second time, she remained some five or ten 
minutes there before she started for London ; I think some got on and 
some got off the second time ; I heard some say that the captain said 
he would not start until some of the people got off ; but very few got 
off; the boat went towards Ward's hotel, but we did not stop there; 
the boat appeared straight to me ; when approaching Woodland, we 
passed the Forest City ; the people went to the south side to see it, 
and that gave the boat a list in that direction ; immediately after pass- 
ing the Forest City, I noticed the Princess Louise ; I said to those 
near me it was strange the three steamers should all be at Springbank 
at the same time ; after passing the Forest City, I saw the Princess 
Louise coming around the bend approaching Woodland ; it appeared to 
me that both boats were making to the wharf; as we got to Woodland 
the people were pretty much to the south side ; it was here where the 
vessel commenced to lurch ; just after that I stepped into the wheel- 
house with my child in my arms ; after this one or two boys came up 
to the captain and told him, ' We must get the people to go over to the 
north side of the boat, as the boat is listing over to the south, and the 
water is coming in on the deck below.' After this a deck hand (a 
Frenchman) came up ; he told the captain that the people would not 
move for him, and for him (the captain) to come down and use his 
influence. The captain asked if the engineer had the pump or syphon 
at work. The captain hurried around to myself and one or two others 
to use our influence to try and get the people to trim the boat ; he 
said he couldn't leave the wheel. One young girl in front of the wheel- 
house asked the captain if there was any danger ; he said, 'If you don't 
go over, I will run you ashore, and you will have to walk home.' Just 
after he said this, the boat made a sudden lurch to the south, and then 
rolled over to the north and went down, north bow first. When the 
people found the boat lurching to the south they then moved over in 
a hurry to the north, this causing her to lurch heavily to the north, 
and went over apparently north bow first. When I was in the water 
up to the neck, the connection to the steam boiler broke, and the steam 
rushed by our faces. In getting on to the hull, I noticed the supports 
had all been broken off clean with the deck." Nicholas Forkey, a 
deck hand, gave similar evidence. 

A thousand stories, relating to that evening on the river, have been 
told ; but all, even if given here, could not portray the scene. The first 
effort to save life was made by Henry Nickles and M. Reidy, of the 
forest City Club, who took two women ashore, and then, undressing, 
labored to save life so long as one appeared living in the water or the 
wreck. Guy Parks and John Cousins remained in the club boat, and 
took the first load of women ashore. Fitzpatrick, night baggageman at 
the depot, rescued his wife, daughter and daughter's child. 

The boat Princess Louise arrived soon after, but too late to rescue. 



She was moored close to the wreck, and near the north bank, and 
planks stretched from her deck to the shore. At about seven o'clock 
that evening the bodies of the dead were brought on board and ranged 
on the upper decks. So great was the number, that the bodies of 
children and infants were placed over those of adults. At 10 o'clock 
that night 153 bodies were recovered; later, more were found, and 
next day the work of burial was commenced, the streets of London 
leading to the cemeteries being devoted to funeral processions for the 
remainder of the week. 

The grant of $500 to the Mayor of London, to aid in defraying the 
expenses of the care and maintenance of those who needed assistance, 
in consequence of the wreck of the Victoria on the Thames, May 24, 
1881, was made by the County Council, June 7. 

The list of the 182 interments in the various cemeteries is as follows : 


Short, James, 13, city. 

Matthews, Annie, 23, London West. 

Matthews, George William, 2, London 


Hayman, Henry, 37, London East. 
Haynian, Mrs. H., 37 London East. 
Hayman, William H., 2, London East. 
Abey, Harry, 12, London East. 
Kendrick, Maria E. , 24, city. 
Major, Charles Edward, 12, city. 
LeClaire, John, 15, Westminster. 
Harper, David, 47, city. 
Stevens, Mary, 35, London West. 
Stevens, Ellen, 12, London West. 
Stevens, Thomas, 5, London West. 
Stevens, Mary, 3, London West. 
Smart, Elizabeth, 26, city. 
Smart. Laura, 8 mouths, city. 
Swayzie, Jane, 18, city. 
Coughlin, Edward, 9, city. 
Dyer, W. H., 45, city. 
Dyer, Margaret, city. 
Dyer, Bertie, 5, city. 
Lawson, Elosia, 21, city. 
Millman, W. H., 39, city. 
Millman, Ontario, 8, city. 
Millman, Turville. 6, city. 

Evans, Elizabeth, 35, city. 

Evans, Fanny Elizabeth, 9, city. 

Evans, Samuel, 6, city. 

Evans, George William, 2, city. 

Evans, Albert Ernest, 1, city. 

Robertson, James, city. 

Siddons, Charles, 13, London South. 

Mackay, Miss, city. 

Westman, William, B. D., 14, London 


Smart, George, 5, city. 
Deadman, Alice M., 21, London South. 
Swan wick, Lettia, 21, London East. 
Roe, Frederick, 17, city. 
Graham, Simon Peter, 13, city. 
Graham, Mary Jane, 10, city. 
Williamson, Alice, 29, city. 
Williamson, Edward, 8, city. 
Wastie, Alfred, 14, city. 
Wallace, Thomas J., 15, city. 
Kelly, John, 14, city. 
Mclntosh, Adaline, 11, city. 
Tatham, Dolly, 8, city. 
Craddock, Mary, 18, city. 
Box, Emma Jane, 22, city. 
Meredith, J. W. C., 72, city. 

Maloney, Delia, 22, city. 
Glavin, Mrs. Michael, 27, city. 
Glavin, Mary, 4, city. t 
Walsh, Patrick, 20, city. 
Walsh, Joseph, 17, city. 
Madden, Elizabeth, 16, city. 
Madden, Mary, 13, city. 
Jones, Annie, 13, city. 
Jones, Frank, 7, city. 
Hogan, Minnie, 12, city. 
Beaton, Lillie, 13, city. 
Beaton, Mary, 6, city. 
Fitzgibbon, Richard, 14, city. 


Stewart, Elizabeth, 18, city. 
Darcy, James, 28, city. 
Conroy, Henry, 16, city. 
McCarthy, John, 12, city. 
Quinn, Mary, 15, city. 
Tierney, Mary, 13, city. 
O'Connell, Mary, 17, city. 
Curran, John, 50, city. 
O'Brien, John, 17, city. 
Laughlin, Eddie, 13, city. 
Pendergast, John, 36, city. 
Pendergast, Mrs., 36, city. 




Anderson, Minnie E., London East. 

Abbott, Hudson G. , 9, city. 

Burns, Jennie M., 13, city. 

Burns, Ida M. L., 11, city. 

Baskerville, John, 30, city. 

Baker Annie. 

Breze, Thomas, London West. 

Cornish, Ellen, 20, city. 

Gorman, Charles, 13, city. 

Short, Win. E., 15, city. 

Harrison, Harry, city. 

Shane, Henry, 12, city. 

Lister, Thomas, city. 

Tremeer, George P., London West. 

Tremeer, Willie, London West. 

McPherson, Mary P., 15, city. 

Morrison, Nellie, 16, London East. 

Morrison, John, 14, London East. 

Morrison, William, 4, London East. 

Prescott, Emma, city. 

Prescott, Nellie, city. 

Fryer, A. R., city. 

Fryer, Mrs. A. R., city. 

Fryer, William, city. 

McLellan, Mrs. Mary A., city. 

Fisher, Emma Jane, city. 

Shayer, Alfred, 25, city. 

Wonnacott, William, 19, city. 

McNorgan, Eliza, Port Huron. 

Mooney, Fred T., city. 

Smith, Mrs. Mary J., 45, Westminster. 

Smith, Minnie, 17, Westminster. 

Weatherhead, James, 38, Westminster. 

Jones, Lizzie E. 

McBride, Wm.,64, city. 

Marham, Rosetta Ann, 8, London Jiast. 

Skinner, Lillie, 16, city. 

Delling, Daniel. 

Heron, Mrs. Mary Ann, city. 

Bailey, Rosetta, city. 

Handy, Mrs. 

Handy, Nellie. 

Dubeau, Mrs. Emma, and two-year-old 

child, city. 
Hardy, William. 
Wall, John, 33, city. 
Wall, Martha, city. 
Mustill, Precilla, 13, city. 
Glass, William D., 23, city. 
Cooper, Fannie D., 19, city. 
Colville, Samuel D., city. 
Magee, Harry, 15, city. 
Smith, Orville E., 21, Westminster. 
Edmunds, Samuel L., city. 
Edmunds, W. C., city. 
Hall, Benjamin, 25, city. 
Hall, Mrs. B., city. 
Hall, one-year-old child, city. 
Pike, Mrs. 

Chapman, Elias, city. 
Irons, Mrs., city. 
Grafton, Margaret, 19, city. 
Vick, Richard, 16, city. 
Smith, Edwin A. , city. 
Gibling, Walter J., 12, city. 
Wiseman, , 13, city. 


Perkins, James, 9, city. McPherson, Miss, 13, London West. 


Scott, Mrs. Wm., 58, city. 

Elliott, Josie, 12, city. 


Griffith, Jula A., 17, Brick Street Ceme- 

Oronhyatekha, Henry W. H., 10, inter- 
red at Belleville. 

Middleton, Janet, 17, at Gait. 

Shipley, Lizzie, 15, at Falkirk. 

Shipley, Minnie, 12, at Falkirk. 

Foxten, Annie, 22, at Clinton. 

Foxten, Jane, 20, at Clinton. 

Whaley, Henry, 21, at Clinton. 

Cole, Albert, 12, at St. Thomas. 

Kilburn, Mrs,, 20, at Kilworth. 

Hay, William, 24, at Pinkerton, County 
of Bruce. 

Dennis, Hannah, 25, at Palermo. 

Pilkey, Joseph, 18, Hamilton. 

McEllistrewn, Julia Ann, 21, at Gait. 

Anderson, Henry, 10, in country. 

Smith, Harvey, 21, at Brick street. 
Mrs. J. M. Young's son, 10, at Birr. 
Ashbury, Mrs. W. , at St. John's. 
Nixon, William, 14, Brick street. 
Pile, Samuel, 23, in country. 
Diver, Hiram. Rochester. 
Diver, Mrs. Hiram, Rochester. 
Diver, two children, Rochester. 
Nukins, George, in country, 
Johnson, son of T. Johnson, Lobo. 
Hall, George, 29, Toronto. 
Deacon, W. S., 10, Birr. 
Boomer, Chas., 16, Norwichville. 
Batzner, and lady friend, Bothwell. 
Hazen, Ida, Port Burwell. 
McVicker J., in country. 
Willson, two Misses, Birr. 
Gahan, Joseph, 17, Wheatley. 


London never will forget that dreadful day ; yet, every summer, 
the small river steamers ply regularly between London and Spring- 
bank, arid as the excursionists behold the spot where so many sunk to 
death, they shudder. 

Floods of 1883. The flood of July 11, 1883, was discovered 
about two o'clock that morning by Win. Thompson of the Advertiser^ 
who was returning with his report of the Imperial Oil Works fire, and 
went down to the river bank to see what effect the heavy rains would 
have on the river. The first act in the drama was the death of two- 
children of Thomas Malin, one by crushing, the other by drowning. 
It appears that when Malin discovered the waters, it was too late to 
escape, and so he had his family climb a tree. While his daughter 
was handing up the baby to its mother, the house was swept against 
the tree, crushing the baby to death and injuring the mother. The 
bodies of Stratfold and his child and Wattam, were among the first 
found. The Lacey children were also swept away. 

Gas and Electric Lighting. For over twenty years London may 
be said to have been in public darkness ; for, with the exception of 
lights erected by the hotel keepers, there were no street lamps. On 
April 12, 1853, Barker & Spellman applied to the Council for a charter 
to supply the town with gas. Simeon Morrill .was appointed a dele- 
gate to visit Quebec, to secure the charter from the Legislature. Mr. 
Merrill's little bill for this trip was 28 7s. 6d. An act was passed, 
and the Council gave the required privileges. The order to subscribe 
for 500 shares of the London Gas Company was made in August, 

In November, 1854, the Council negotiated with the gas company 
for lighting the town, and by April, 1855, there were twenty-one street 
lamps lighted by gas, and nineteen more ready to be placed on the 
opening of spring. In September, 1855, there were eight street lamps 
proposed to be placed on Dundas street, five on Eidout, twelve on 
Wellington, eleven on Eichmond, four on Clarence, one on North, six 
on Talbot, five on King, and three on York, or seventy-seven street 
lamps in all, in addition to three at Wellington street bridge. Of this 
number only twenty-two lamps were actually in place then. The 
price suggested was 7 10s. per lamp per annum. On October 15, 

1856, a further contribution to the gas company of 2,500 was 
authorized. A statement giving a list of shareholders of the London 
Gas Company, and a report of business for two years ending July 31, 

1857, was presented to the Council. This covered the period of Edward 
Glackmeyer's management, and shows a gross profit of 3,379 11s. 6d., 
out of which 482 were paid for losses during Garth's management, 
and 1,223 interest on loans during the two years. In April, 1873, 
there were 169 street lamps in use. During the last fifteen years, 
lamp-posts were erected everywhere within the city limits. Notwith- 
standing the existence of the electric light and its very general use, 



the gas works of to-day take a large share in supplying public and 
private lights. 

The Ball Electric Light patent was secured for Canada in Decem- 
ber, 1881, by Messrs. Stevens, Turner & Burns, Fitzgerald & Fellows, 
John Walker, T. H. Tracy, all of London, and J. B. Scoville, of Boston. 
The Company was formed here simply for the manufacture of machin- 
ery. Some years later a proposition to light the city by electricity was 
made and received, and about 120 lights placed, the works being on 
the river bank on the southern line of London. 

Public Market. The market place of the village was at first 
located in front of Peter McGregor's hotel, almost opposite the Court- 
house ; and a frame building served as a market shed. But as the 
town progressed, the market was removed to the square upon which it 
is now held, and a big frame structure was put up. Afterwards the 
citizens became dissatisfied, and got into a dispute, and a change was 
again made to Wellington street, and subsequently to the spot now 
occupied by the Grand Trunk depot. After remaining there a year or 
two, however, it was brought back to the present large square, where 
it has since remained. 

Tenders for market tolls were opened May 1, 1843, and the privilege 
sold to Maurice Baker for 169 17s. In May, 1843, an adver- 
tisement for 25,000 feet of two-inch plank and 6,000 feet of oak 
scantling was ordered to be made through the columns of the Inquirer, 
presumably to be used on the market grounds. William Carlill was 
before the Board on May 8 for not paying market fees. He was com- 
pelled to pay the fees (two shillings), and also thirteen shillings and 
ninepence fine and costs. Alex. S. Armstrong purchased the market 
tolls, for 251 currency, for 1844. John Schofield was fined ten 
shillings, and eight shillings cost, " for buying a pig which had not 
been taken into the public square," in January. On August 12 the 
question of removing the market house to the market ground on the 
new survey was discussed, and the building ordered to be moved to 
the new site in February, 1845. William Horton, John Balkwill and 
others bound themselves to expend 200 on the erection of a market- 
house in the new square. On September 9 the contract for building 
was sold to Kobert Wann. By-law 52 provided that the old market- 
house should cease to be used in January, 1845, and that the house, 
erected in the fall of 1844 on the Government grant, between York 
and Bathurst streets, should be open from. January 27, 1845. John 
Jennings protested against the location and the by-law. In February, 
1845, Marcus Holmes proposed to erect a market-house in the west 
end of the town, should the Police Board assent. This petition was 
stored carefully away. In March, market stalls were sold at 4 each, 
the buyers being William Winslow, William O'Kielly, John Balkwill. 
Anthony Pegler, Thomas Bickell, John Gordon, John Elsou, Martin 
Kykard, Joseph Duer and John Talbot. The latter bought the tolls 



and fees for 173 3s. 3d. Dr. Lee was fined for buying lumber with- 
out the market fees being paid, on May 1, 1845. Tenders were 
opened in January, 1846, for completing the Co vent Garden Market, 
and contracts awarded to Biaham & Byman for carpenter work, 35 ; 
George Summers, for plastering, 20 ; and to John Bonser, for paint- 
ing, 3 15s. The market tolls and fees were sold to Richard S. 
Talbot for the year 1849-50. In December, 1850, a proposition to sell 
the old market grounds on Bathurst and York streets to the Govern- 
ment, for railroad depot purposes, and purchase suitable grounds in 
some other part of the town for market purposes, was carried. Messrs. 
McClary, Bennett, Carling, Anderson, and, in fact, all the members of 
the Councils of 1849 and 1850, gave this railroad subject much at- 

In November, 1851, Councillors McClary and Anderson moved 
that the petition of Samuel Peters, A. Mountjoy and others, asking 
that fifty feet in the centre of Wellington from Dundas to York be 
set off for market grounds, be acted upon, was carried. Immediately 
the Council ordered the removal of the old buildings to Wellington 
street, and in November, 1852, the market-house on Wellington street 
was completed. 

In March, 1853, the Council resolved to purchase a tract of land 
within the town for the enlargement of Covent Garden Market. A 
loan of 20,000, payable in twenty years, was sanctioned, to carry out 
the resolution, as well as to erect a town-hall, market-house and other 
buildings. A twenty-five feet lot on Dundas street (evidently the 
entrance to market on Dundas street), was purchased from L. Lawra- 
son at 25 per foot. In April, Councillors Anderson, Oliver and 
Barker, were appointed a Building Committee, with W. B. Leather and 
Samuel Peters, architects. A former motion by Barker and Scanlon, to 
have the town-hall front on Eichmond street, was met by petition and 
remonstrance ; but their motion earned. The market-house contract 
was sold to Wm. Niles, Windsor & Green, Whitehead, Grant & Niles, 
the price being 3,636 13s. In September, 1853, the City Hall con- 
tracts were sold to Windsor & Green, who contracted for brick work ; 
Niles & Scott, cut-stone ; Craig & Campbell, carpenter and iron work ; 
Haskett & Sons, painting. The total was 7,501 10s. 3d. 

In May, 1854, Nellis & Ayers purchased the market tolls of Covent 
Garden for 400 15s., and by-laws for the regulation of the market 
were adopted. John Kernes leased the market tolls for 1855-6, 
paying 808. 

The extension of the market square in 1879 necessitated the purchase 
of 110 feet frontage thereon, at a cost of $24,833 ; the owners claim- 
ing $37,550. The arbitratprs were : Geo. G. Magee, V. Cronyn, and 
A. S. Emery ; W. R. Meredith, represented the city, and David Glass, 
the owners. The property adjoined the Masonic Temple, and was 
adjudged to be worth $225 per foot. 

The market prices quoted February 14, 1850, give three shillings 


and fivepence for fifty pounds of fall wheat, and two shillings and. 
ninepence of spring wheat : 

Barley We hear of no transactions. Pork The quantity exposed for sale these 
Oats per bush. Is. 2d. @ Is. 3d. Still last eight days has proved large ; 20s. 

continue to be delivered from the farm- per 100 Ibs. for good quality is about 

era very sparingly. the current price. 

Timothy Seed 7s. 6d. per bushel. Beef per lb., ld. @ 2d. 

Clover Seed Several parcels offering, but Mutton per lb., ld. @ 2d. 

heard of no actual sales, except one Butter per lb., fresh, 7d. ; salt, 6d. @ 

small lot of fifteen bushels @ 20s. 7d. 

Hay per ton, 50s. @ 55s. Eggs per doz., 7d. 

Straw per ton, 20s. @ 25s. Geese each, Is. 

Flour per 100 Ibs., 7s. 6d. Fowls per couple, 6d. @ 7d. 

Potatoes per bush., Is. 7d. @ Is. 10d. Turkeys each, Is. 10d 2s. 6d. 
Apples per bush., Is. 10d. @ 2s. 6d. 

Hospitals. So early as 1832 the question of hospital accommoda- 
tion came grimly before the people. Cholera of the worst type pre- 
vailed here ; and so terrible did its ravages become in July, that only 
eleven grand jurors remained, and Captain Groves was the only one 
left in the settlement who would take care of the sick and dying, Dr. 
Donnelly having succumbed to the disease, and Dr. Lee being engaged 
in furnishing medicine. The matters connected with hospital relief 
since that terrible year are described in the following memoranda from 
Council reports : Alfred Carter was appointed in 1847 to attend to 
the sick and destitute immigrants. A shed was ordered to be erected 
for them on the Market Square, and the old market-house was opened 
for the use of immigrants on August 17, and the same month a bury- 
ing ground for immigrants was established. The town warden was 
instructed to provide maintenance for a woman (Mrs. Husband) found 
near Water's mill with her thigh broken, in December ; Dr. Anderson 
and Magistrate Morrill having refused her relief on the part of the 

A case of small-pox was reported in June, 1848, when a small 
building was erected in which to keep the patient. In 1849 a resolu- 
tion to petition the Government on the subject of removing the hos- 
postal from the market ground was adopted, and on April 1 the 
immigrant hospital, then condemned, and the market-house, were set 
on fire, and the former totally destroyed, the Council offering 25 
reward for the conviction of the incendiary. The first Board of Health 
was established June 18, 1849, when Dr. A. Anderson, S. Morrill, L. 
Lawrason, J. Ashton and S. Eccles were appointed. In July a 
memorial from Simeon Morrill and fifty other members of the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Church, complained that paupers, dying in the town, 
were buried in the grounds granted to the Society by the Government. 
The Council at once acted on the complaint, and ordered that all such 
interments must be made in the grounds then known as Potter's 

In the fall of 1849 Dr. Henry Going had charge of the cholera 
hospital, where a number of immigrant patients were confined. In 



December Peter McCann was ordered to inquire into the ne'eds of a 
number of Scotch immigrants, who swarmed in the village. In 1850 
the Council ignored Doctor Going's services ; but ultimately his claim 
against the town was referred to Dr. Phillips and Dr. McKenzie, who 
reported in favor of granting him a much smaller sum than was con- 
sidered by him due. 

In September, 1852, a by-law prohibiting the interment "of 
deceased" persons within the town was passed. A committee to locate 
grounds on which to build the city hospital was appointed in 1855, 
which resulted in the erection of a small house called the City Hos- 
pital, the expenses of which for 1856 amounted to 551 3s. 8d. The 
little building, burned down in 1857, was on the Hamilton Road near 
the One Horse Tavern. The Council offered liberal rewards for the 
incendiaries. On February 1, 1859, a soup kitchen was established at 
London. There were 2,948 quarts of soup served that month, or 3,912 
meals; 222 loaves of bread, 218 Ibs. rice and 632 Ibs. of beef were 
consumed, with other foods, costing $59.54. The kettles cost $23.50. 
The number of families relieved was 83 and the number of persons 
346. The corresponding month of 1858 cost the city $132. In 1859 
the Masonic body subscribed $58 for relief, and others $25. In March 
John Carling subscribed $100, Edward Emery $20, and John K. Labatt 
1,000 Ibs. of flour. Several smaller donations were given toward 
relieving the poor. 

The total cost of city hospital and out-door relief for 1859 was 
$3,272. In this year there were 124 patients ; while from 1855 to 
the close of 1858 four years there were only 364 patients. 

The report of the Committee on Hospitals, made April 8, 1861, 
charged a few of the aldermen with being too intimate with the matron 
and other female attendants at the city hospital. The report was very 
severe, but evidently necessary in view of the total lack of morals 
prevailing. The steward and matron were recommended for discharge. 

In 1862 Kielly's house on York street, near Westminster Bridge, 
was leased at $200 per year for hospital purposes. In 1864 Mrs. 
Hyman was president of the committee of ladies who managed the 
House of Refuge. A Mrs. Noble, then matron, was reported on very 
unfavorably to the Council by the Hospital Committee, and her dis- 
missal asked for. 

At a meeting of the trustees of the late London Savings Bank, 
held January 9, 1865, Adam Hope, Lawrence Lawrason, Simeon 
Morrill, Alexander Anderson, Charles Monsaratt, William Begg and 
John Wilson being present, it appeared that after all deposits and 
charges of management were paid off, $234.39 in currency remained, 
with one $100 debenture and nine $1,000 debentures, issued by the 
corporation of St. Thomas, November 8, 1864, and one City of London 
debenture, dated June. 27, 1853, for 500. This surplus was donated 
to the county and city, on condition that the interest thereon would be 
devoted to the sustenance of an hospital for both county and city. In 


December, 1872 this fund was brought into use, and the city hospital 
made the beneficiary. 

In the fall of 1866 the Asiastic cholera scourge extended to Lon- 
don, but, owing to the prompt measures taken by the Board of Health, 
its ravages were confined within narrow limits. 

During the summer of 1870 the small-pox epidemic reached Lon- 
don, when a special building for hospital purposes was erected. In 
Feb., 1871, the Council asked the authorities for the use of the frame 
building formerly used by the troops as an hospital. This request was 

Stephen Grant and Mrs. Grant were appointed steward and matron 
respectively, March 28, 1870, of the City Hospital. Old Mr. Busby, 
the former steward, was retired on account of age. For some years, 
indeed during their administration, the management of the establish- 
ment was excellent. Dr. Moore was appointed city physician in 1871. 
The small-pox epidemic of 1872 carried off a number of residents. In 
1872, plans for a new hospital building were called for, but new ac- 
commodations for the afflicted did not seem to clinch the disease. In 
the winter of 1872-3 there were a number of deaths from small-pox. 
In October, 1876, Dr. D. M. J. Hagarty took charge of the City 

The Mount Hope Orphan Asylum was opened October 2, 1869, 
when two children were admitted ; but before the close of the year the 
number increased to fifty. In 1875 there were twelve Sisters of St. 
Joseph in charge, and six engaged in the work of education in the city 
schools. Prior to the establishment of this great institution, the prison 
formed the general house for orphan children 

The new hospital, or new addition to the Mount Hope House of 
Kefuge, was completed and opened October 16, 1888, Rev. Father 
Tiernan presiding over the religious services. 

On the morning succeeding that 24th of May, 1881, as soon as the 
dread intelligence was conveyed to the Sisters of Mount Hope, ten of 
their number formed themselves into a faithful band, going two and 
two to various parts of the city, visiting alike the homes of the 
bereaved Protestants and Catholics. Many orphans, left poor and 
helpless, were dressed and kindly cared for. Some of the scenes they 
witnessed were harrowing in the extreme. 

The Protestant Home was organized fourteen years ago. In No- 
vember, 1888, the following named officers were elected : Patronesses, 
Mesdames (Dr.) Ryckman, (Bishop) Baldwin and Henry A. Smith ; 
president, Mrs. Morphy (re-elected by a standing vote) ; vice-presidents, 
Mesdames Robinson, Hyman and Jeffery; secretary, Mrs. Garlick 
(re-elected by a standing vote); assistant secretary, Miss Fowler; 
treasurer, Mrs. Gregsten (re-elected by a standing vote); auditors, 
Messrs. Wright and Thomson. After brief remarks from the officers 
elect, the Standing Committee were elected for the year as follows : 
Trustees, new members, Mrs. Barker, Mrs. J. W. Little, Mrs. Parker, 



Mrs. Shuttleworth and Mrs. Blackstock ; re-elected, Mesdames Boomer, 
Belton, A. Brown, Bremner, Cleghorn, Carfrae, De la Hooke, James S. 
Duffield, jr., Dawson, Douglass, Edge, Fitzgerald, William Glass, 
Gordon Garlick, Samuel Glass, John Green, Gregsten, Gordon, E. W. 
Hyman, Charles Hutchinson, Ingram, Jeffery, Thomas Kent, K.Lewis, 
KcKenzie, McCallum, W. E. Meredith, Morphy, Hamilton, Moore, 
Owrey, Priddis, Eobinson, G. F. Robertson, Rock, W. J. Reid, Henry 
Smith, Smart, A. Thomson, Geo. Webster, Col. Walker, H. Weld, and 
the wives of the Protestant city clergymen. Advisory Board, new 
members, Messrs. V. Cronyn, 0. S. Hyman, J. W. Little, George C. 
Gibbons, William McDonough and C. McCallum ; re-elected, Messrs. 
William Bowman, Hon. John Carling, F. Davis, J. H. Flock, John 
Elliott, Wm. Glass, Samuel Glass, John Green, Chas. Hutchinson, 
Alex. Johnston, Joseph Jeffery, R. Lewis, Thomas McCormick, Mr. 
Muir, Oliver McClary, Lieut.-Col. Moffat, George Robinson, A. Thomp- 
son, John Walker, John Wright. 

Following is an extract from the statistical return made to the 
Government on October 1st, 1888, showing the number of children in 
the Home on Oct. 1, 1887, as 35 boys, 19 girls; admitted during the 
past year, 18 boys, 9 girls ; discharged, 12 boys, 10 girls ; deaths, none ; 
remaining inmates on September 30, 1888, 41 boys, 18 girls ; total, 
59. v Average stay of each child, 257 days; collective stay of all the 
children, 20,355 days. Number of beds made up each day, 68. The 
children are nearly all Canadians, and all Protestants, with two 

In Jan., 1867, the Council granted for the use of the proposed 
Magdalen Asylum the building then known as the old Grammar 
School ; but later decreed that, unless occupied as such before three 
months, it should be sold to Samuel Stansfield for $50. However, it 
became the residence of Jane Doyle, then jail matron. 

The Protestant House of Refuge Association, organized in April, 
1865, reopened their house in December. Mrs. Hellmuth was presi- 
dent ; Madames Scott and Stone, vice-presidents ; Mrs. J. C. Thompson, 
secretary; and Mrs. Samuel Glass, treasurer. 

The corner stone of the Protestant Home was placed by Mrs. 
Gregsten, president, Sept. 14, 1876. The lot and buildings cost $13,- 
000, and the work of construction was earned out under the direction 
of James Cowan and members of the building committee. 

The Women's Refuge was established March 2, 1876. 

The Guthrie Home. A number of years ago a home for English 
orphans was established here, and later the house on the first conces- 
sion of Westminster founded. In 1885 John T. Middlemore, who 
founded the Orphan Children's Emigration Charity in 1872, brought 
thirty girls and seventy boys hither from Birmingham. This was his 
thirteenth visit, each former visit contributing a large number of such 
people to the Canadian population. In 1886 he brought out fifty girls 
and seventy boys from Birmingham to the Guthrie Home, London. 


In June, 1887, his fifteenth party of fifty girls and one hundred boys, 
(orphans) from Birmingham, England, arrived to aid in building up 
the interests of the Dominion. This work Mr. Middlemore has made 
a study. During the fifteen years of his career in ridding England of 
an unprofitable class of persons, he has bestowed upon Canada at least 
2,000 members of that class, a few of whom are said to have made 
useful residents. 

Schools of London. The Collegiate Institute, the twelve public 
schools and three separate schools of the city, may be estimated in value 
in round numbers at $200,000. There are also the new Medical College, 
Huron Divinity College, Hellmuth Ladies' College, Sacred Heart 
Academy, Hellmuth Boys' College (not in use), the Art and Design 
School, the Commercial College, and at least half a dozen well-ordered 
private schools. Steps are also being taken to secure for the city a 
Normal School, admittedly the chief need of Western Ontario in the 
direction of educational appliances ; and here is the seat of the county 
Model School, for the training of teachers. 

In 1828 the first school was opened at London by Peter Vanevery, 
who was temporary jailer arid man-of-all-work around the new court- 
house. The name of the teacher, and the time and place in which he 
taught, convey an idea of the very humble beginnings of education 
here. His residence was a small frame house, which stood where 
Somerville's grocery store now is. 

Edward Allen Talbot taught school in a frame building on the 
south-east corner of Richmond and Queen's avenue. Among the 
pupils were his two sons, James McFadden, jr., W. H. Niles, Ralph 
Lee, a son of the doctor, Edward Gibbons and Ira Schofield, jr. Sheriff 
Glass, in his reminiscences of the early schools of London, states : 
"The first school (remembered by him) was opened in 1833, on Dun- 
das and Kichmond, by one Taylor, an asthmatic, consumptive person, 
who could scarcely master ' the three R's.' He was assisted by his 
wife, a tough, wiry little woman, with less education, but greater 
energy. They combined lath making with their educational duties ; 
the male teacher cleaving the large bolts of oak and cedar until quite 
exhausted, when his wife would take up the work, and, with draw- 
knife in hand and astride the draw-horse, she would thin down the 
thick ends and prepare the lath for market. Then followed in rapid 
succession the opening and closing of other schools. Miss Stinson, 
Mr. Busbee, Miss Dyer (a resident in 1877), John Talbot and Rev. 
Mr. Wright, all taught private schools between 1833 and 1836. 
Most of these teachers were but poorly educated. They were strong 
believers in the doctrine, ' to spare the rod is to spoil the child,' and 
enforced most lessons with a liberal application of blue beach gads, 
which were then found in a swamp at or near the corner of Richmond 
and King streets. The total number of children at this time of suit- 
able age for school did not exceed 10 or 12. The schools were opened 
by the persons named as a private enterprise, without government or 


municipal aid. The usual charge was from from $1.25 to $1.50 per 
quarter. It will be readily seen that the probable return was riot such 
as to command the best talent, and this will also account for the rise 
and fall of so many schools in so short a time. Mr. Taylor (father of 
"Win. Taylor, who died in 1876-7), who taught for many years sub- 
sequently in London Township, opened a school on Horton street in 
1838. He was far in advance of the others, educationally, and taught 
for many years afterwards in the same place." W. H. Niles states, this 
Taylor was a robust Irishman, who taught school in a house rented 
from W. Niles on the east side of Talbot street, opposite the present 
oatmeal mill. 

In October, 1835, Mrs. John H. Miller opened a children's school on 
Dundas street, the rate being one dollar per month. John H. Miller 
opened a senior school in the same home, at $2 per month. In 1841 
the Common School Board was presided over by Kev. Benjamin 
Cronyn, with Eev. W. F. Clarke as secretary. The Grammar School 
was held in the court-house, with B. Bayly as principal. Thomas 
Parke was commissioned in May, 1843, to obtain the school money 
for 1842, and pay it into the bank of Upper Canada at Kingston. The 
tax levy for school purposes in 1844 was 81. On April 1, that year, 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction informed the Board that the 
apportionment of the Common School Fund was 79 18s. 4d. On 
April 8 Kev. Benjamin Cronyn was appointed Superintendent of 
Education for the Town of London, and on June 10 he was ordered to 
district the town for school purposes. His report was in favor of mak- 
ing each Ward a district, and this was adopted. 

The total amount of assessment for school purposes in 1845 was 
124 3s. 3d. The amount of the tax roll for 1844-5 was 372 9s. 
In January George Eailton received 3 7s. 6d. as clerk to the 
Superintendent of Education, and John McDowell 6 3s. 4d. as 
collector. In February, the appointment of Edwin Rowley as school 
teacher, and the refusal of Rev. Mr. Cronyn to examine him for a 
teacher's certificate, was before the board. It appears that on April 13, 
Philo Bennett and E. P. Ellis, trustees for St. Andrew's ward, were 
anxious to employ Edwin Rowley as school-teacher, but Rev. Superin- 
tendent Cronyn refused to examine Rowley, on the ground of his 
being an alien ; then the trustees asked the Board to take the necessary 
measures to compel Mr. Cronyn to examine the teacher, and certify to 
such examination, but the proceedings were as unsatisfactory as they 
were boisterous. 106 were transferred to Rev. Benjamin Cronyn, 
representing the school moneys of 1846. In June, 1848, the school 
trustees asked the Council " for a larger appropriation, for erecting a 
school-house on a large scale." This petition was granted, and in 1849 
the Union School was built, and opened in the following year, with 
Nicholas Wilson as principal. He was succeeded by Robert Wilson, 
and he by the late Hamilton Hunter, who retired from teaching to 
accept a Government position. 



In January, 1849, James Reid and George G. Magee were appointed 
Trustees of Common Schools, vice Harding O'Brien and J. S. Buchanan, 
retired. A special assessment of three farthings per pound valuation 
was authorized to be used in paying teachers and erecting buildings on 
the grounds granted by the Government for school purposes. This 
resolution was carried, but Mayor Dixou's opposition to a similar one 
on January 29th resulted in vexatious proceedings. Debentures for 
550 were authorized May 7th, the proceeds to be applied on com- 
pleting school-house. In November, 1849, Architect Thomas declared 
the building complete, and 411 were paid Joseph F. Rolfe, the con- 
tractor. On October, 29, 1849, Simeon Morrill presented a large bell 
for the use of the new common school. About this time the colored 
population of the town was over 200, and a colored school was estab- 
lished by the members of the colony. In January, 1850, Miss R. J. 
Dawsey petitioned the Council to compensate her for teaching a colored 
school of forty pupils during the year 1849. This petition was sent to 
the School Board, with a recommendation to grant her pay, where it 
was reported favorably. 

In April, 1850, the four school sections were united. The by-law, 
as drafted by H. C. R. Becher, pointed out the desire of the people to 
have one large school building, where scholars could be classified 
according to their knowledge. Each class should have a teacher, and 
all work under the direction of a head master. 150 were ordered to 
be levied for school purposes. In May, Councillors Barker and Carling 
pointed out the necessity for a school-house in St. George's Ward, and 
asked the appointment of themselves and Mr. Becher to purchase a 
site and obtain plans, etc. A motion to this effect was carried, and 
300 appropriated for building. The Central School at London was 
opened in 1851, with N. Wilson, head master, and Robert Wilson and 
Patrick Murtagh, assistants. The head master's salary was then 150 
per annum. 

On Jan. 28, 1852, a petition from the Trustees of the Grammar 
School, asking the erection of a school building, was reported unfavor- 
ably ; but the application of the Board of Public Instruction of the 
Town of London was received favorably, and the Council recommend- 
ed the renting of the Mechanics' Institute for school purposes. 

Such were the steps taken to build up a school system here from 
1841 to 1854, that the new city of 1855 found herself in possession of 
good schools and good teachers, which compared favorably with other 
towns of Upper Canada. The school statistics from 1855 to 1868 tell 
the story of progress : 

Pupils Average No. of Averasre Cost 

Year. KeRistered. Attendance. Teachers. per Pupil. 

1855 1,823 973 12 ..$6 88 

1856 2,219 1,064 14 7 57 

1857 2,737 1,244 16 . 6 73 

1858 2,459 1,337 17 . . 6 32 

1859 2,336 1,461 . . 20 . 6 11 

1860 2,301 1,443 20 6 01 





1861 .......... 2,527 

1862 .......... 2,661 

1863 .......... 2,825 

1864 .......... 2,972 

1865 .......... 3,218 

1866 .......... 3,237 

1867 .......... 3,372 

1868 .......... 3,586 

Average No. of 

Attendance. Teachers. 

.. 1,537 21 

.. 1,656 22 

.. 1,692 22 

.. 1,782 22 

.. 1,930 24 

.. 1,990 25 

.. 2,058 25 

.. 2,153 

Average Cost, 
per Pupil. 

.... 5 18 
... 5 11 

5 04 
4 68 
4 30 
4 73 
4 63 


4 55 

J. B. Boyle became principal in 1855, with twelve assistant teach- 
ers six male and six female. Among the best known teachers of the 
city schools within the period to which the above figures refer, were 
J. B. Boyle, Adam Anderson, William Irwin, Nicholas Wilson, John 
Taaffe, Hamilton Hunter and John McLaren, Miss A. B. Corrigan, 
Miss Eliza Ellis, Miss Bella Norval, Miss McElroy, Miss Harriet 
Oakley, Miss Eliza Coyne, Miss Isabella Coyne, Miss H. Gillespie,. 
Miss M. Yates, Miss Jane Kessack, Miss Lester, Mrs. Elizabeth Hop- 
kins, Miss Christina Eobertson, Miss Dora Gurd, Miss D. Robertson 
(1862, and resumed in 1865). 

The School Board of 1863 was composed of the following: Messrs. 
William McBride (chairman), W. Wade, R Gunn, J. G. Mclntosh, 
James Dunbar, S. H. Graydon, D. McPherson, John Eoss, Jas. John- 
ston, 0. Baynes, Alex. Gunn, Thomas Webb, A. G. Smyth and Alex. 
Johnston. The School Trustees elected in January, 1872, were Robt. 
Reid, Alfred G. Smyth, James Dunbar, William Rowland, John 
Phillips, Alex. Gunn and Ezra A. Taylor. 

A reference to the general chapter on schools will show the names 
of the old-time school superintendents of London village. J. B. Boyle 
is inspector of the city public schools, having been appointed to the 
position in August, 1871. A. S. Abbott was appointed secretary of 
the School Board in December, 1850, and is still holding the office. 
The late Judge Wilson was local superintendent of schools up to 1863, 
as shown in the general history. The Bishop of Huron subsequently 
held that position. Rev. W. F. Clarke was superintendent for awhile 
before Judge Wilson's time. The outlay for school purposes in 1863 
was some $14,459 ; the estimates of 1888 placed it at $5 7, 5 11, in elud- 
ing $3,340 to the separate schools. An early public school principal 
was Robt. Wilson, then N. Wilson ; next Hamilton Hunter, who was 
succeeded by Mr. Boyle. 

Following is the personnel of the Board of 1888 : James Wright, 
chairman. Collegiate Institute Trustees Cl. T. Campbell, Charles F. 
Col well, James B. Cook, John D. Sharman, Francis Love, Moses 
Masuret, Alfred W. Woodward. Public School Trustees Jas. H. 
Wilson, Wm. J. Craig, James Wright, Albert 0. JefTery, Joseph M. 
Wilson, Alexander A. Durden, John Turner, Thomas Howard, Henry 
Childs, F. W. J. Ball. 

The list of teachers in October, 1888, is as follows : Central School 
Messrs. Carson (head master), and Stewart, Misses Booth, Yates, Mills, 



Cannell, Pitcher, Dunbar, Coyne, F. Buckle, S. A. Buckle, Simpson, 
Magee, Robertson, Christie, and H. Buckle. King street MY. Jas. 
Learn (head master), Misses Webbe, L. V. Porter, Hay and Johnston. 
Horton street Mr. R. M. Graham (head master), Misses Ferguson and 
Rogers. Waterloo South Mr. H. A. T. Hobbs (head master), Misses 
McDonald and Skelton. Hamilton road MY. J. Wright (head mas- 
ter), Misses Fairbairn, Luke and Brock. Colborne street Mrs. Gahan 
(principal). Misses Mulveny, Eougvie, Pocock and Purdom. Princess 
avenue MY. Woodburn (head master), Misses Tyler, Macklin, John- 
ston, Fleming and Simpson. Talbot street Misses Miller (principal), 
Mclntosh, Weatherson and Lynch. Waterloo North MY. R. F. Wil- 
son (head master), Misses Wrighton, Ferguson and Evans. Lome 
avenue Misses Boon (principal), Oliphant, Winnett arid Cathro. 
Rectory street Mr. W. D. Eckert (head master), Miss Macklin, Mrs. 
Oliphaut, Misses McLeod, Cameron and Black. Park street Mr. S. 
G. Gibson (head master), Misses Mohr and Young. Protestant Home 
Miss Crosbie. Town Hall (East End) Miss Walton. Music 
Mr. J. L. Barren. 

The city system is at the present time in the course of a greatly 
needed reorganization, whereby what is known as the Central School, 
formerly called the Union School, established in the year 1849, will be 
abolished, the property sold, and the Ward schools will in time be all 
graded. By the old mode, pupils reached the Collegiate Institute by a 
course through the Central ; but under the new order of things, each 
ward will carry on the curriculum up to the point of passing the 
entrance examination, and so become direct feeders of the Collegiate 
Institute. Number Five Ward has a well equipped school of that des- 
cription already doing splendid work, and a new building has been 
completed on Simcoe street in accordance with the graded plan. It 
will displace the old Horton street school. The new graded school 
building on Horton street, between Clarence and Wellington, is lOOx 
110 feet, each of the three floors being of this area. Over each of the 
main archways are what is purported to be the likenesses of ex-Chair- 
man Sharman and Chairman Wright, of the Board of Education, but 
it would take a rather acute observer to recognize the faces of either 
of these gentlemen in the stone cutting. The building was designed 
-and its construction superintended by T. H. Tracy, city engineer. The 
cost of the structure is placed at about $30,000, divided as follows : 
Masonry, Joshua Garratt, $11,000 ; carpenter work, John Purdom, 
$8,340 ; Credit Valley dressings, T. J. Heard, $4,500 ; slating, George 
Riddell, $904 ; plastering, Murray Bros., $873 ; painting and glazing, 
A. T. Corp, $1,067; furnaces and air vents, Smead & Co., $2,480. 

Old Grammar School and the Collegiate Institute. The London 
District Grammar School was established in 1834 at Long Point, on 
Lake Erie. On its transfer to London, a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin, was appointed master. This was Francis Wright, the same who 
married the eldest daughter of W. K. Cornish. After ten years' service 



he resigned, and James 0. Thompson, of Adelaide, was appointed; 
but, on his removal to the old St. Thomas school, Eev. Benjamin 
Bayly, of Dublin, Ireland, took charge of the school, and for thirty- 
seven years presided over the Grammar School in the old court-house, 
until 1861, afterwards in the Central School, and later in the new 
Collegiate Institute, Mr. Thompson assisting for some time in the 
mathematical department. Mr. Bayly settled, on Manitoulin Island in 
1837 with Archdeacon Brough, and about 1841 received his appoint- 
ment at London, where he died in January, 1879. 

In September, 1878, the present commodious buildings on Dufferin 
avenue, erected at a cost of over $16,000, were first occupied ; and in 
the January following, the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Bayly 
was filled by the appointment of the Rev. F. L. Checkley, B. A., who 
administered the affairs of the school for nearly eight years. Just 
after the removal, the status of a Collegiate Institute was conferred 
upon the school, which honorary distinction it still retains. On the 
retirement of Mr. Checkley, in 1887, the present head master, Samuel 
Woods, M. A., was appointed. Mr. Woods has been identified with 
High School work since 1862, a longer service than any other High 
school master in the Province, so far as is known. A new feature in 
Canadian High School work was introduced by him at the opening in 
September last. This is to give a thorough scientific and literary 
education to every pupil in the Institute, while not neglecting or 
overlooking in the slightest degree the claims of the language courses 
in both the ancient and modern tongues. 

The present staff is composed of the following members : Principal, 
Samuel Woods, M. A. ; English master, E. Ferguson, B. A. ; classics, 
R. A. Little, B. A. ; science master, A. Hotson ; modern languages, T. 
C. Somerville ; mathematics, R. Grey, B. A. ; commercial, N. Wilson ; 
assistant mathematics, A. Andrus ; assistant English, Miss F. Hanson ; 
drawing, S. K. Davidson ; music, St. John Hyttenrauch ; janitor, J. 

Collegiate School. The London Collegiate School, built at Mount 
Pleasant in 1865 (after plans by Wm. Robinson), by Geo Taylor and 
Fowler, was opened Sept. 1. The principal promoters were Arch- 
deacon Hellmuth and the Bishop of Huron. 

Divinity School. In 1861 Bishop Crony n decided to establish a 
Diocesan Divinity School, and Rev. I. Hellmuth was sent to England 
to collect funds. His success was represented by $62,000, of which 
the Rev. Alfred Peache gave $25,000. The college was opened Dec. 
2, 1863, and must be considered the beginning of Huron College. 

Huron College. This institution was incorporated by an act of 
Parliament, which received the royal assent May 5, 1863. It was 
opened by the first Bishop of Huron, Dec. 2, that year ; the inaugural 
address on the occasion being delivered by the Dr. Mcllvaine. The 
first principal of the college was Dr. Hellmuth, afterwards Bishop of 
Huron. The first students matriculated on Jan. 9, 1864. This insti- 



tution rose out of a need felt by Dr. Cronyn, for a supply of ministers 
of the church for the wants of his diocese. On his consecration to the 
episcopal office in the year 1857, he found that, out of 138 townships 
in the thirteen counties constituting the Diocese of Huron, not more 
than thirty were supplied with the ministrations of the church ; so that 
there were, in round numbers, only two clergymen to an entire 
county. For some six years the wants of the diocese were partially 
supplied from various external sources. At the present time, 1888, 
there are 125 clergymen engaged in pastoral work in the Diocese of 
Huron, of whom 63 were trained at Huron College. The number of 
students who have passed, or are passing, through Huron College is 
about 132. Bishop Hellmuth was associated with Bishop Cronyn in 
the work of developing Huron College, and the divinity chair was 
endowed by the Eev. Alfred Peache, of England, with the munificent 
sum of 5,000 sterling. Eev. E. G. Fowell, M. A., is now principal 
of the college, having succeeded the late Eev. Dean Boomer, LL. D. 

Boys' College. Hellmuth Boys' College, subsequently Dufferin 
College, named after Lord Dufferin, Governor-General of Canada, was 
founded in 1865, with Eev. Dr. Darnell as principal ; but it was not 
successful, and closed some years ago. 

Hellmuth Ladies' College. This school was founded by Bishop 
Hellmuth, and inaugurated by Prince Arthur on Sept. 23, 186 9, though 
actual work was begun in the college on Sept. 1. The week of the 
formal opening was a great occasion for London and the West. The 
Provincial Fair was in progress, and, in addition, Prince Arthur and 
suite, Sir John Young, Governor- General, Lady Young, and Sir John 
A. Macdonald visited the city. They were welcomed by the corpora- 
ation, the Fair Association, the militia and multitudes ; fireworks, band 
music, and a ball and supper being part of the programme. Col. 
Taylor was D. A. G. at the time, and Lieut-Col. Lewis and Lieut.-Col. 
Shanly were with him at the depot when the royal party arrived ; 
Capt. J. Walker being in command of the guard of honor. Hellmuth 
College is now under the principalship of the Eev. E. N. English, M.A. 
The original cost of the site was $3,000 ; but, owing to the many im- 
provements made upon and around it, it advanced in value to $40,000 
in 1877, a figure which it easily commands in the market. The build- 
ing and grounds form two of the features of London improvement, 
although two and one-half miles north of the city. Hellmuth College 
was conceived soon after the establishment of the Diocesan school, 
and on Oct. 17, 1864, the corner-stone of the buildings was placed. 

Western University. The Western University of this city grew 
out of a desire to extend and strengthen the educational machinery of 
Huron College, and Bishop Hellmuth was its most ardent promoter. 
The initiatory meeting was one of the professors and alumni of Huron 
College, held in Christ Church on Tuesday, Feb. 20, 1877, Dean 
Boomer in the chair, and Eev. J. W. P. Smith (now Canon Smith), 
secretary. An organization to promote the University was thereupon 



formed, and the name " Western University " was chosen at a meet- 
ing held on Nov. 1, 1877. Early in 1878 the Ontario Legislature 
passed an act incorporating the University, conferring all necessary 
powers and prerogatives, including those of conferring degrees in arts, 
divinity and medicine ; and on June 20, 1881, an-order-in-council was 
issued, conferring university powers. Subsequently the Hellmuth 
Boys' College property was taken over, and on May 20, 1881, Huron 
College was affiliated. The inauguration occurred in presence of a 
large gathering at the Chapter House on Oct. 6, 1881, Bishop Hellmuth 
presiding. The late Hon. Adam Crooks, Minister of Education at that 
time, delivered an address, and short speeches were also made by Dean 
Boomer, V. Crony n, Chancellor, Dr. Moore, Dean of the Medical 
Faculty, and Rev. Mr. Haney, of Ireland. The first convocation for 
the conferring of degrees was held on April 27, 1883. Details of the 
organization of Huron College and the London Medical College appear 
elsewhere. The London Law School was organized a couple of years 
ago, but has not had an active existence. 

London Medical College. The meeting to organize this depart- 
ment of the Western University was held at the Tecumseh House 
May 24, 1881. The first faculty completed organization October 3, 
1882, when the department was inaugurated, the professors being the 
following named : Chas. G. Moore, M. C. P. S., L. C., Professor of the 
Principles and Practice of Surgery, Dean of the Faculty (member of 
the Consulting Staff, London General Hospital); John M. Fraser, B. A., 
M. D., M. R. C. S., England, Professor of the Principles and Practice 
of Medicine (member of the Staff, London General Hospital); R. M. 
Bucke, M. D., F. R S. C., Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases; 
William Saunders, F. R S. C., Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy; J. A. Stevenson, M. D., Professor of Therapeutics and 
Toxicology (member of the Staff, London General Hospital); James 
Bowman, Professor of Theoretical and Practical Chemistry ; Charles 
S. Moore, M. D., C. M., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women 
and Children (member of the Staff, London General Hospital); F. R. 
Eccles, M. D., M. R. C. S., England, F. R C. S., Edin., Professor of 
Physiology ; Wm. Waugh, M. D., C. M., Professor of Anatomy, 
General, Descriptive, and Surgical (member of the Staff, London 
General Hospital); H. Arnott, M. B., Professor of Clinical Medicine ; 
James Niven, M. B., M. R. C. S., I., Professor of Clinical Surgery 
(member of the Staff, London General Hospital); W. H. Moorhouse, 
M. D.,L. R. C. S., and L. R. C. P., Edin., Professor of Histology and 
Dermatology; G. P. Jones, M. D., Professor of Sanitary Science 
(member of the Staff, London General Hospital); Alex. G. Fenwick, 
M. D., M. R. C. S., England, Professor of Medical Jurisprudence; John 
Wishart, M. D., M. R. C. S., England, F. R. C. S, Edin., Demonstrator 
of Anatomy (member of the Staff, London General Hospital) ; Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, J. A. Stevenson, M. D. ; Dr. McGugan filling Dr. 
Eccles's chair while the latter was in Europe. The school has already 



turned out some twenty^two graduates, and they are proving a credit 
to the professorial work/ Until this year the lectures were delivered 
in the old Hellmuth Boys' College building on St. James street, but 
on October 2, 1882, possession was taken of the new structure at the 
corner of York and Waterloo streets, which, with the lot, cost about 
$10,000. The college will accommodate about 100 students. The 
site is part of the Central School property. 

The present faculty is made up as follows : Dean, and professor of 
clinical medicine, H. Arnott, M. B. ; principles and practice of medi- 
cine, John M. Fraser, B. A., M. D. ; nervous and mental diseases, R. 
M. Bucke, M. D., C. M., F. R. S. C.; materia medica, Win. Saunders, 
F. R. S. C. ; theoretical chemistry, Jas. H. Bowman ; physiology and 
gynecology, F. R. Eccles, M. D. ; surgery and surgical anatomy, Wm. 
Waugh, M. D., C. M. ; clinical surgery, J. Wishart, M. D., C. M. ; 
principles and practice of medicine, W. H. Moorhouse, M. B. ; pathol- 
ogy and histology, D. B. Fraser, M. B., of Stratford; obstetrics and 
sanitary science, G. P. Jones, M. B. ; medical jurisprudence and 
toxicology, A. G. Fen wick, M. D. ; practical chemistry, W. E. Saunders"; 
anatomy, general and descriptive, J. M. Jackson, M. D., C. M. ; 
demonstrator of anatomy, W. J. Mitchell, M. D. ; physiology, H. A. 
McCallum, M. D. ; materia medica and therapeutics, H. Meeks, M. D. ; 
botany and zoology, John Dearness, I. P. S. The officers of the 
faculty are: Dr. Arnott, dean; Dr. Waugh, registrar; and W. E. 
Saunders, treasurer. 

The London Law School. This school was opened December 4, 
1885, Judge Frederick Davis delivering the inaugural address. The 
faculty comprised William Elliot, Senior County Judge ; W. H. Bar- 
tram, registrar ; W.W.Fitzgerald, bursar; W. P. R. Street, Q. C.,LL. B., 
professor of equity jurisprudence, now Assize Court Judge ; David 
Mills, LL. B., M. P., of Parke, Mills & Purdom, professor of Interna- 
tional law and rise of representative government; J. H. Flock, of 
Flock & Flock, professor of criminal law; James Magee, of Harris, 
Magee, Clark & Je fiery, professor of real property law ; M. D. Fraser, 
of Fraser & Fraser, professor of personal property law ; I. F. Hellmuth, 
LL. B., professor of constitutional history; W. R. Meredith, Q. C., 
LL. B., M. P. P., of Meredith, Fisher & Beattie, professor of municipal 
law; and George C. Gibbons, of Gibbons, McNab, Mulkern & Harper, 
professor of law of contracts. 

The list of the first students enrolled is as follows : 

Babcock, G. 

Emery, E. C. 

Johnson, T. F. 

Morehead, G. 

Bartlett, P. H. 

Fisher, R. 

Johnson, W. F. 

Moore, J. P. 

Bayly, R. 

Fitzgerald, W. C. 

Judd, J. C. 

O'Neil, J. D. 

Beattie, J. H. A. 

Fitzgerald, W. E. 

Lucas, I. B. 

Purdorn, A. 

Bowman, T. M. 

Flock, Ed. 

Macbeth, H. 

Reid, Thos. 

Brydges, C. H. 
Chapman, F. E. 
Cowan, R. K. 

Graham, R. M. 
Gunn, G. C. 
Harding, F. 

McPhillips, Jas. J. 
McPhillips, John J. 
Mills, N. 

Scandrett. Thos. 
Smyth, W. 
Sutton, A. E. 

Cronyn, E. S. 

Johnson, E. H. 

Mills, W. 

Walker, J. S. 

Dignan, R. H. 

Weekes, G. N. 



Many of the above named are now barristers, and some of them 
associated with old firms in London. 

Art School. The Western Ontario School of Art and Design, one 
of the first and best in the country, was established about 1878. It 
has efficiently conducted departments of painting in oils and water 
colors, china painting, industrial designing, modelling, etc. The 
Canadian Gazette, London, England, speaks in high commendation 
of the designing and painting on china done in the London Art School, 
which was exhibited at the Colonial. The teachers at present are 
Messrs. J. H. Griffith and J. E. Peel, while the institution is under 
the able presidency of Colonel Walker, county registrar. The studios 
are located in the Mechanics' Institute building. There are several 
excellent private art enterprises earned on in the city ; and the Western 
Art League, composed of London artists and others, promises to be of 
service. Charles Chapman, who died in October, 1887, was the father 
of the Western Ontario Art School. John H. and James Griffith came 
to London in 1854; but in 1875 the former retired to his Westminster 
farm. He suggested the establishment of the Art School at London, 
and has been connected with it since organization. He was the first 
to introduce into Upper Canada the art of porcelain painting and 
photography on china, and the first to introduce photos in carbon. 

Forest City College. This is a practical business school, presided 
over by J. W. Westervelt and J. H. W. York. Its establishment at 
London was well received by the people, and its success has been 

Separate Schools. There are three Roman Catholic separate schools 
the principal school, St. Peter's, on the same block with the cathedral ; 
the next, the comparatively new Sacred Heart school on Queen's ave.; 
and third, St. Mary's school, at the corner of South and Maitland streets. 
On January 21, 1874, the original school-house was burned. The 
trustees offered $100 for the conviction of the incendiary. The ele- 
gant school buildings on Park avenue were completed in September, 
1882, afe a total cost of $9,000, and opened by Head-master Brown, 
who, on November 6, 1888, resigned the priricipalship after a service of 
eighteen years. Peter Naven, of Ashfield, was employed as his suc- 
cessor. One of the departments of the Sacred Heart Convent is 
devoted to the Separate school of the Duudas street district. In 1888- 
a part of the new buildings was designed for separate school purposes. 

The English Church in Canada The early history of the English 
Church in Canada is given very fully in former pages. Rev. Mr. 
Macintosh, of Kettle Creek, appears to have been the first minister of this 
denomination, who held services at or near London about 1827. In 
1829 Rev. E N. Bos well was placed over the district, and named the 
parish St. Paul's ; and from his coming, to the present time, there is 
little difficulty in finding out the material history of the church here, 
much relating to its earlier years being narrated in the chapters referred 
to above. Mr. Boswell's short term at London was not attended with 


such pleasures as would induce him to stay. In 1832 Rev. Benj. 
Cronyn carne from Ireland, and that year he preached in the old 
grammar school, court-house, dwelling, or, if you please, a house- of - 
all-work, yet standing. In 1834-5 a frame building was completed 
where the custom-house now stands, fronting on Queen's avenue ; 
some years later an organ was introduced, and in 1843 a bell placed in 
the belfry. All were destroyed in the fire of Ash Wednesday, in 
February, 1844. At that time the old Mechanics' Institute held its 
place on the Court-house Square, and in it services were held until a 
new house of worship could be completed. Among the leading mem- 
bers of the church in London and neighborhood in 1842-4 were Judge 
H. Allen, H. G. Allen, J. B. Allen, J. B. Askin, H. C. R. Becher, H. 
Chisholm, John Givens, G. J. Goodhue, L. Lawrason, Monsarrat, W. 
Horton, John Harris, W. W. Street, Freeman Talbot, John Wilson, C. 
S. Gzouski, and others, whose names occur in many pages of this work. 
They decided that the new edifice should be a large and commodious 
one, and not a frame like its predecessor. Many, if not all, the bricks 
used in its construction were actually burned in the present church- 
yard. So rapid was the progress made, that the ceremony of laying 
the corner-stone was celebrated on June 24, 1844, St. John's Day. 
The presiding clerical dignitary was Bishop Strachan, of Toronto ; for in 
those days there was no Diocese of Huron. The ceremony was per- 
formed with Masonic honors. St. John's Lodge, No. 209 (a), then the 
only Masonic lodge here, assembled at 1 p. m. in their room in the old 
Robinson Hall, and, having been marshaled by the late Worshipful 
Bro. Niles, proceeded to the court-house building, from which, after 
divine service by Rev. Mr. Cronyn, an imposing procession was formed 
and marched to St. Paul's churchyard, where the stone was duly laid. 
Subsequently, the streets were paraded, and a Masonic banquet was 
held at night. Samuel Peters used the trowel, the same which is held 
by his son to-day. In 1845-6 St. Paul's church loomed up after plans 
by Thomas, of Toronto, and soon after a chime of bells was placed in 
the new building. 

St. Paul's Cathedral is a handsome, old-fashioned church, seating 
about 1,400. The nave is 95 feet by 65 feet, with galleries. The 
chancel is 40 feet by 30 feet. The organ is a grand instrument, built 
by Messrs. Warren, of Toronto, and put up in 1872. When the 
Diocese of Huron was erected in 1857, the Rector, the Rev. Dr. Cronyii, 
was elected first Bishop, though for some years he still continued 
Rector of St. Paul's, but resigned in 1867, when the Rev. Dr. Hellmuth 
was appointed. In consequence of the declining health of Bishop 
Cronyn, Dr. Hellmuth was elected as Coadjutor Bishop, and succeeded 
to the full charge of the diocese the same year, 1871, when the Rev. 
Canon Innes was appointed; this position he still continues to hold, 
as Dean of the Cathedral. St. Paul's was consecrated by the Ri^ht 
Rev. Maurice P. Baldwin, third Bishop of Huron, in 1884. It is a 
well endowed church, and from its surplus revenues the several 



parishes of the city and county receive assistance. The following 
parishes have been formed, and churches erected, from the original 
parish of St. Paul's : Christ church, 1883 ; Memorial church, 1872 ; 
St. John the Evangelist, built in 1888 by the parishioners of the Chap- 
ter House, which was erected into an organized parish in 1873 ; St. 
George's, London West, 1874 ; St. James's, London South, 1875 ; and 
St. Matthew's, London East, 1882. Among those who at various times 
officiated as assistant clergy in the church, were the late Eev. Mr, 
Bayly, for many years High School head master, Eev. H. H. O'Neil, 
Eev. Mr. Hayward, Eev. John McLean, late Bishop of Saskatchewan, 
Eev. G. J. Lowe, Eev. Mr. Starr, Eev. S. B. Kellogg, Eev. J. G. Bay- 
lis, Eev. J. Gemley, Eev. A. Brown, and E. Hicks, present curate. 
A. G. Smyth is an old-time official about St. Paul's, having been vestry 
clerk continuously since about 1859. He was preceded in that office 
by Wilson Mills and W. J. C. Meredith. 

Christ Church. Prior to 1862, when a mission embracing the 
the territory south of York street was established, with Eev. G. M. 
Innes in charge, St. Paul's was the centre of English Church worship. 
This mission was founded in the Central School building. On week 
nights, out-door services were held on the site of the proposed church, 
which had been presented by Bishop Crouyn for that purpose. An 
amusing incident is related of one of these services. In lieu of a 
better stand, the missionary used to speak from the top of an old 
hollow stump, with a congregation of from 60 to 100 gathered about 
on the grass. On the occasion in question, some mischievous boys had 
filled the stump with dry leaves, which, in the middle of the sermon, 
they contrived to set on fire. The preacher had speedily to descend 
from his perch and seek a cooler atmosphere. Above the ashes of the 
old stump arose the present pulpit. The building was consecrated by 
Bishop Crony n in 1863 ; and Col. Moffat collected funds that paid for 
the first organ, and Eev. Mr. limes, who continued rector until 1865, 
presented the communion table, chancel chairs, and small oak font. 
The second rector was the late Eev. James Smy the, who was in charge 
until 1876. In 1872 Eev. B. Bayly was assistant, when the Eev. J. 
W. P. Smith (now canon), previously rector of St. John the Evange- 
list, Strathroy, was appointed. In connection with this church is the 
Church of England Temperance Society and Band of Hope. The 
church building was valued in 1872 at $7,000, and the parsonage at 
$3,000 ; while in 1888 the total value is placed at $8,000. In 1872 
the congregation numbered 600, and the communicants 100. The 
building is well located on the corner of Wellington and Hill streets. 
fa ", The Memorial Church. This building was erected to the memory 
of the late Eight Eev. Benjamin Crony n, first Bishop of Huron, 
through the liberality of his children, and was opened for public wor- 
ship Dec. 13, 1873, declared free of all debt and encumbrance, and 
consecrated by Bishop Hellmuth. The house, which occupies a fine 
site on the corner of Queen's avenue and William street, is noteworthy 


among the edifices of London, not only because of its appearance, but 
by reason of its associations. It is the monument of a great and 
worthy pioneer. It is of Gothic architecture, built of white brick 
faced with red, and heavily buttressed. The congregation had a begin- 
ning in a small frame chapel on Adelaide street, whence they moved, 
fifteen years ago, to the present building. The late Eev. W. H. Tilley, 
who had been curate of St. Paul's Church, was appointed first rector. 
He labored zealously and successfully for upwards of three years, and 
in 1877 removed to Toronto, and became assistant minister at the 
Cathedral. Mr. Tilley was succeeded by the present rector, Eev. 
Canon Richardson. In 1879 the building was enlarged. In 1884 a 
lot adjoining was purchased and the parsonage erected ; later the sex- 
ton's house was added, making a property valued at about $40,000. 

St. John's Chapel is named in 1863, with Rev. Isaac Hellmuth 
and Rev. H. Halpin in charge. In 1866 Rev. W Wicks and Mr. 
Halpin had charge of this chapel and of Huron College. Rev. I. 
Brock came in 1868, with Mr. Halpin still assistant. In 1874 a chapel 
bearing this title was opened on George street by Bishop Bedell, of 
Ohio. This building was closed by Bishop Hellmuth in 1884, when 
the congregation worshipped in the Chapter House. 

Church of St. John the Evangelist. In October, 1886, Rev. Richard 
G. Powell was asked to become pastor of this congregation. He 
accepted, and at once entered on the task of church building, and on 
March 9, 1887, the corner-stone was placed. Later, this project was 
pushed forward, the rector being assisted by Rev. D. Williams, with I. 
Danks and Colonel Fisher, wardens. Rev. W. T. Hill, the present 
rector, aided in the work which Mr. Fowell commenced, and soon th e 
church building on the corner of St. James and Wellington streets 
was completed, and opened in November, 1888. The property, when 
the Sunday school room is completed, will have cost little short of 
$13,000. The original services in this parish were held in the Huron 
College library until 1874, when St. John's Chapel, George street, was 

The Chapter House, a quaint, solid, stone building, out on Rich- 
mond street, was designed by Bishop Hellmuth to form the nucleus of 
a cathedral, and was built in 1874. The Chapter House contains the 
offices of the large and wealthy Diocese of Huron, with the Diocesan 
archives and Synod records, which are in the charge of E. Baynes 
Reed, secretary-treasurer and registrar, a position which he has held for 
many years, and the duties of which he discharges with marked ability 
and great zeal. In the Chapter House are held the meetings of the 
Synod, and of the Executive and other synodical committees. In 1873 
Very Rev. Dean Boomer had charge of the Chapter House. In 1876 
he and Rev. W. F. Campbell presided. In 1879 Rev. P. B. DeLom 
was curate, and in 1882 Rev. A. J. Gollmer. The ministers since 
1882 are named in connection with the college or with other churches. 

St. James's Church. The corner-stone of St. James's Church, on 



Askin street, London South, was placed May 24, 1877, by the Bishop 
of Huron, Kevs. M. Boomer, J. W. Marsh and Evans Davis. The 
building committee were Henry Taylor, John Beattie, John Pope, 
John Unglis G. S. Birrell, Thomas Churcher, A. J. Moore, A. Pontey, 
C. E. Brydges, C. M. Mayne and E. B. Hungerford, with architects 
Tracy, Eobinson and Fairbairn. Story & Wattam, masons, and A. 
Purdom, carpenter, were the leading contractors. The building was 
opened Nov. 18, that year. Eev. Mr. Davis is still pastor. 

St. Matthew's Church. This church was an outgrowth of St. 
Luke's, which, for a time, existed on the Hamilton road, east of Eectory 
street. In 1879 Eev. J. B. Eichardson attended this church ; in 1880 
Kev. E. Fletcher, and in 1882 the present name appears instead of St. 
Luke's, its former title. Eev. W. M. Seaborn is the present minister. 
The building is east of the fair grounds, on Dundas street. 

St. George's Church. This congregation dates back to 1874, when 
Eev. Evans Davis established a mission there in connection with the 
new parish of London South. A brick building was erected, which 
has since been used as a house of worship. Eev. G. B. Sage is now 
minister in charge. 

The Church of England City Mission was established in 1867, by 
the Dean of Huron and Eev. J. Smythe. 

All Saints' Chapel. The old brick Primitive Methodist Church 
building, at the corner of Adelaide street and the Hamilton road, is now 
an English mission in connection with the Memorial Church. Eev. 
Canon Eichardson is pastor, with the Eev. 0. H. Bridgman, assisting. 

St. Ann's Chapel. The corner stone of St. Ann's Chapel, in con- 
nection with the Hellmuth Ladies' College, was placed May 30, 1877, 
by Mrs. Hellmuth, to whom a trowel was presented by the teachers 
and students of the college. The building was erected by Elms & Son, 
from plans by Lloyd, of Detroit. Among the ministers connected with 
college and chapel may be named : Eeverends A. Sweatman and W. 
A. Young, 1869 ; F. Checkley, 1872. In 1880, Eev. C. B. Guillemont 
was pastor of St. Ann's and Hellmuth Ladies' College, and he, with the 
Eev. H. Eiener, in 1881 ; and Eev. E. N. English, in 1884. 

Methodist Church. This organization, in 1874, comprised the former 
Wesleyans, Protestant or Primitive Methodists, and New Connexion 
Methodists. The first general conference of this church was held at 
Toronto in September and October, 1874, and there London conference 
was represented by forty-eight members. The statistics then presented 
showed 73,557 Wesleyans, 20,950 Methodists of Eastern British 
America, and 7,439 New Connexion Methodists, or a total of 101,946. 
In 1884, the union was strengthened by the admission of Episcopal 
Methodists and Bible Christians. 

Speaking of old-time churches, A. G. Smyth says : : " The first 
Methodist edifice was an old rough-cast building on Eidout street, near 
where Mr. Weld lives, or old Mr. Hamilton's. That must have been 
away back about 1832. Two early ministers were Eev. Mr. Stoney 

302 H1ST011Y OF THE 

and Rev. A. S. Newberry. The next Methodist church was a frame 
one on the corner of King and Talbot, where Dulmage's Hotel after- 
wards stood. James Odell and Capt. John Smyth, my father, who was 
a great Methodist, were its chief promoters. I'll tell you whom I was 
talking to the other day Mr. Henry Roots ; and, do you know, he put 
up in that church the first ornamental piece of ceiling plaster ever seen in 
London. It was considered a wonder in those days. That church was 
finally turned into a double dwelling, and afterwards became an hotel. 
The Methodist parsonage of that day is standing yet on the east side of 
Talbot street (No. 350). Its a small white frame house. One of the 
Ryersons John, I think used to live there. In those days the 
women sat alone on one side of the church and the men on the other, 
like the sheep and the goats. After the Talbot Street Church, another 
was built on the east side of Richmond, about opposite where the 
Albion Restaurant now stands. Ultimately, the property was sold to 
John Elson and Samuel McBride, preparatory to the building of the 
North Street Church. Away back, about that time a division occurred 
among the Methodists, and the New Connexion people put up the 
building which now forms part of Victoria Hall. 

Queen's Avenue Methodist Church. In 1823 London Township 
was set off as a circuit of the Wesleyan Church, with Robert Corson 
in charge. In 1824-5 Edmund Stoney, who came hither with the 
Talbots, was here; succeeded in 1826 by Daniel McMullen and Matt. 
Whiting. In 1827 John S. Huston was here alone; in 1828-9, Mat- 
thew Whiting; in 1830-1, John Bailey, with Messrs. Dean and Biggar, 
assistants; John K. Williston came in 1832; John Beatty in 1833; 
Wm. Griffiths in 1834; David Wright, with Messrs. John Law and 
John Flanagan, in 1835-6 ; Edmund Stoney, with Hugh Montgomery 
arid A. S. Newbury, in 1837-8, and Adam Tainley, with Messrs. Steer 
and Byers, in 1839, when the house on King and Talbot streets was 
erected. Up to 1831 Methodists, like others, had few rights which the 
law might respect ; but under the legislation of that year ministers of 
that denomination showed their hands. The first meeting-house was 
a small rough-cast building, 18x24, situated at the corner of Carling 
and Ridout streets, many years afterwards built on by the Bank of 
Montreal. This house was finished and opened for divine service 
about the year 1833. There was no settled minister here at that 
time. London was merely a passing preaching place, where occa- 
sionally a minister stayed over and held service. In 1839 the con- 
gregation had increased to a size that would warrant them to erect a 
more commodious building. Accordingly, a neat frame chapel, about 
30x40, was erected at the corner of King and Talbot streets, now used 
as an hotel. London at that time became a station, and there were 
regular services held in the new church every Sabbath. This was 
then the central church of a large circuit, of probably ten miles around. 
The Willises from the north, and the Beltons from the north-east, 
made it their place of worship. Old Mr. Willis was the door-keeper at 



the quarterly meetings. The most prominent members in 1840 to 1847 
were the English family, old Squire Merrill, the Daltons, the McBride 
family, Murray Anderson, etc., living in London or immediate vicinity. 
In 1846, owing to the union of the Canadian and British Conferences, 
the London congregation then came up to the church occupied by 
what was then known as the British Missionaries, and there continued 
till the year 1854. The old building, a heavy frame, 40x60, plain 
gothic, is now extinct ; and the stores of Messrs. McBride's stove ware- 
house, Taylor's bank and Mountjoy's store, Kichmond street, now 
flourish over the site. 

The first preacher in this old church, was the Eev. Ephraim Evans, 
afterwards Dr. Evans, who is still a hale and hearty old gentleman, 
who located here as a superannuated minister. In 1852, owing to 
the crowded state of the .Richmond street church, the trustees under- 
took the erection of the large brick church which may now be seen on 
the corner of Park and Queen's avenues, then known as the North 
Street Methodist Church, but now Queen's Avenue Church. The lot 
was bought from Anthony Pegler January 13, 1852, for $700. On 
April 9, Architect Hodgins, of Toronto, was engaged, receiving $100 S 
premium for his plans. On June 26th the contract for excavation was 
sold to Wm. Ellis for 39 15s.; and on January, 1853, that for brick 
to Screaton & Grant ; for carpenter work to Geo. Watson ; for glazing 
to John Bonser ; and for plastering to W. Tibbs. This structure was 
two years in building, and was opened with great pomp and ceremony 
early in July, 1854. The size of this structure was 120x66, with 
tower and steeple, and was at that time acknowledged to be the finest 
church west of Great St. James Street, Montreal. The trustees, or build- 
ing committee, were : Murray Anderson, Wm. McBride, Samuel Mc- 
Bride, Samuel Glass, JomrElson, James Coyne, Samuel Screaton, Samuel 
Peters, Geo. Tyas. The chairman was the Rev. Wm. Pollard, then 
pastor ; the late Wm. McBride being secretary and presiding steward. 

According to a minute in the secretary's books, Mrs. Raymond wa& 
engaged as organist in November, 1853; and in July, 1854, the trustees 
fixed the yearly rental of pews, and decided to sell them by auction to 
the highest bidder. Samuel McBride received the important appoint- 
ment of pew steward and collector of rents during the same month. 
The time at length arrived when the all-important work drew to a 
successful close, and the church was opened for public worship on July 
16, 1854, the collections of the day amounting to 50 15s. Rev. 
Dr. Evans, now in his eighty-sixth year, and actively engaged every 
day in charge of the headquarters of the Western Ontario Bible 
Society branch in this city, took one of the services on that memorable 
occasion. Rev. Mr. Pollard, who was in charge during the building of 
'the edifice, left about the time of opening, or before, and was succeeded 
by Rev. William Wilkinson. In the year 1856 came the Rev. J. 
Douse, and a couple of years later the Rev. Dr. Cooney, a remarkable 
man in his way, as some of our readers may remember. The St. 



Paul's peal of chimes were wont to ring out their music across the 
street while the Wesleyan service was in progress, and one morning 
Dr. Cooney stopped to inform the congregation that the only pleasure 
those bells ever gave him was when they stopped ringing. In 1860 
Rev. G. R. Sanderson became pastor. After a continuous, active, 
ministerial service of fifty- two years, he was superannuated at the 
London Conference of June, 1888, held in the same old edifice, and he 
is now, in his declining years, a member of the congregation over 
which, twenty-eight years ago, he presided as pastor. 

The Trustees in 1862-3 were: Messrs. Peters, Tyas, Abbott, S. and 
W. McBride, Screaton, Lawless, Elson, Garrett, A. Johnston, Ware, M. 
Anderson and Leary. Passing on down to November, 1872, Messrs. 
Thos. McCormick, Geo. Robinson and A. B. Powell were added to the 
Trustee Board, and about that time the resolve was made to erect the 
brick school-room in rear of the church, which cost some $13,000, and 
is now popularly known as Wesley Hall. In 1873 the old Methodist 
cemetery east of the city was sold, and a new plot west of Petersville 
having been purchased, the Mount Pleasant Cemetery Company, an 
organization distinct from the church, was organized. In October, 
1874, the late Wm. McBride resigned the secretaryship of the Trustee 
Board, and Ambrose B. Powell was chosen to fill the position, and has 
acted in that capacity ever since. Thos. Green, R. J. C. Dawson and 
James Eaton were chosen trustees in 1874. R. J. C. Dawson has 
been recording steward since George Robinson resigned the position. 
Among the incidents of 1878 was the resignation of Samuel Screaton 
from the position of choir leader, after a quarter of a century's faithful 
and valuable aid in the service of song. In the same year, Wm. Glass 
was chosen a trustee in place of his father, Samuel Glass, deceased. 
Among other worthies whom the church has lost by death were S. 
Peters, Wm. McBride (drowned in the Victoria disaster), John Elson, 
Geo. Tyas and Jas. Coyne. Messrs. John Green and Geo. C. Gibbons 
were chosen trustees in 1883. About the close of 1880, important 
improvements, destined to revolutionize the interior of the church, 
coupled with the introduction of a $9,000 organ, built by Warren, of 
Toronto, were resolved upon ; and the next year saw all this accom- 
plished before August, involving an outlay of some $15,000. The 
reopening services began on Aug. 5, 1881, those taking part being Rev. 
Leo. Gaetz, the new pastor, Rev. Dr. Nelles, of Victoria College, and 
others ; Dr. Verrinder, the organist, giving a concert at night. On 
Aug. 7, Rev. Dr. Nelles and Rev. Dr. Hunter, then of Toronto, preach- 
ed, and on Aug. 14, Rev. Wm. Williams and Rev. J. A. Murray. 

In the introduction to the history of this church, all the early circuit 
preachers are named from 1823 to 1839. Their successors are now 
given as follows : James Norris, with Samuel Rise and William 
Coleman, 1840; Rise and William Price in 1841; Edmund Shepherd, 
with M. Holtby, Jeffries and Lovell, assisting, 1842-4 ; E. M. Ryerson, 
1845 ; C. Lovell, 1846 ; E. Bothwell and Goodfellow, 1847 ; John 



Carrol], with A. S. Byrne, S. S. Nelles and G. Young, 1848-50 ; Wm 
Pollard, with Ames, Laird and Pearson, assistants, 1851-3; H. 
Wilkinson, with T. Stobbs, K. Creighton, J. L. Samedy and J. E. Sand- 
erson, 1854-5 ; John Douse, with James Preston, 1856-7 ; Eobert 
Carney, with James Dixon and G. R. Sanderson, 1858-9, the latter 
presiding in 1860-1, with W. C. Henderson, assistant; Richard Jones, 
with John Potts, 1862-4; James H. Bishop, with William J. Hunter, 
1865-7 ; James Elliott and William Briggs, 1868-70, E. M. Collum, 
assisting in last year ; Dr. W. JefTers and B. B. Keefer, 1871, and the 
latter with James Hannon in 1872-3, when Mr. Keefer was succeeded 
by J. J. Hare, assistant. 

Under the union of 1874, the Methodist Church of Canada became 
the title, with James Hannon in charge, and Messrs. Hale and T. J. 
Reid, assistants. From 1875 to 1878, James Graham and William 
Walsh attended this church; John Philp, 1878 81, while the member- 
ship was 260 ; Leonard Gaetz, with R J. Treleaven, assistant, 1881-4 ; 
Daniel G. Sutherland, 1884-6, and J. G. Scott, 1887-8, now Secretary 
of London Conference. The present membership is 503, with 585 
pupils in Sabbath School, which is superintended by J. F. Jeffers and 
R. J. C. Dawson. The stewards are Geo. Robinson, Thos. McCormick, 
John Green, William Glass, Alexander Johnson, H. H. Nelles and 
R. J. C. Dawson. 

Methodist New Connexion Church. This denomination, adapted 
by the secessionists from John Wesley's doctrine in 1797, was estab- 
lished in London Township in 1835. This branch of Methodism was 
suggested by Alexander Kilham. It will be remembered that, in 1829, 
the Canadian Wesleyan Methodist Church was organized by Henry 
Ryan and James Jackson, who seceded from the Canada Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Soon after, the new faith took root in the Thames 
valley. In 1841, a union between the Canadian Wesleyan Church 
and the New Connexion Church of Canada East was formed, and the 
name, Canadian Wesleyan Methodist New Connexion Church, adopted. 
In 1843, the Protestant Methodists of Eastern Canada were admitted, 
and, in 1864, the title, The Methodist New Connexion Church in 
Canada, was chosen. 

London City Circuit of the Methodist New Connexion Church, was 
set off from London Township in 1850 (see history of London Town- 
ship), with H. 0. Crofts and J. B. Kershaw, preachers. From 1851 to 
1853, William McClure presided, with Barnet, Gas well and Savage, 
assistants. Joseph Robinson was preacher-in-charge from 1854 to 
1858, his assistants being Savage, Scott, Williams, Shaw and Leach. 
John Shuttleworth was here from 1859 to 1861, Leach and Holmes 
assisting. James Caswell ministered alone in 1862-3 ; John Cleaver 
and J. R. Gundy in 1864 ; J. A. Miller and J. L. Wilkinson in 
1865-6 ; J. C. Seymour and J. J. Lutze in 1866 ; David Savage, 
1867-9, with J. T. Pitcher assisting the first year; George Richardson 
alone in 1870-2, and George Buggin alone in 1873-4. 



Wellington Street Methodist Church. This Church dates back to 
1875. Upon the union of the New Connexion Methodists with the 
Wesleyans, the congregation, who had worshipped for a number of 
years in the old New Connexion Church, Clarence street (part of 
Victoria Hall), decided to vacate the old edifice and erect a church more 
in keeping with their new condition. Under such circumstances, the 
house now known as the Wellington Street Church had its origin. The 
old building on Clarence street was sold, and the net proceeds of the 
sale devoted to the funds for the erection of the new. Operations 
upon the edifice were immediately commenced, and in the spring of 
1876 the foundation-stone was placed by John Macdonald, of Toronto, 
and in December dedicated by Dr. Ives ; the cost of church and parson- 
age being about $15,000. Among the first members were : Kev. Thos. 
Hadwin, Thomas Green, John McClary, Samuel Stewart, John Watson, 
William Thomas, A. Westman, Thomas McCormick, Eev. David Eyan, 
Kev. E. Tucker and Leonard Bartlett. No extensive alterations have 
taken place, and the edifice now stands as when first erected. Last 
year the Young People's Society of the church devoted some SI, 000 to 
a general renovation, and the building was elaborately frescoed and 
painted, and additional comfort added to the furnishings. A lot at the 
east end of the church has been acquired recently, in anticipation of 
the need of increased accommodation, and the entire church property 
is now valued in the neighborhood of $20,000. On the completion of 
Methodist union, the congregation of the Bible Christian Church, that 
formerly worshipped on Horton street, disbanded, some joining. The 
church was established under its new name in 1875, with John Kay, 
pastor, who had two appointments and 131 members. Mr. Kay and 
James Watson were ministers in 1876, when the circuit claimed only 
one appointment. George R. Sanderson, D. D., presided from 1877 
to 1879, and David Savage in 1880-2, the membership being 230. 
At this time Thomas Hadwiu, R. E. Tupper and D. Ryan were super- 
annuated ministers. John V. Smith presided in 1883-6. Dr. E. B. 
Ryckman, the present pastor, was appointed in 1886. The membership 
is about 300, while the Sabbath school, under William Yates, claims 
about 500 scholars. 

Pall Mall Street Church. At a meeting held at Rev. Wm. Pol- 
lard's parsonage, Sept. 17, 1853, the minister presiding, with George 
Fitzgerald secretary, it was decided to build a frame house for worship, 
on St. James street, east of Waterloo, where John Raynor resided. 
James Thompson was appointed treasurer, with Thos. Barns, James 
Thompson, Geo. Fitzgerald, James Bailey, James Penn and John 
Griffiths as building committee. Among the first subscribers to the 
building fund were : James Bailey, D. F. Ware, John Griffiths, Win. 
Coad, Benj. Dawson, William Glass, William Barker, Mr. Bennett, 
John W. Carlin, Mrs. Van Zant, David Carter, Thomas Carlin, Jas. 
Penn, George Fitzgerald, Mr. Bennett (second), James Thompson 
and James Whiting. The contract for frame, plastering, &c., was sold 



to William Goad for 210 ; but he was nofc to supply pulpit or pews, 
as they were to be taken from the Eichmond Street Church. The 
church was duly opened on Jan. 29, 1854, sermons being preached by 
Key. S. Rose, Rev. Dr. Skinner and Rev. W. Pollard. Services were 
afterwards held there by Revs. Wilkinson, Preston, and others. Disaster 
was ahead, however, for, in an exciting municipal contest, the church 
was set on fire and destroyed. The School Trustees granted the con- 
gregation the use of the old St. George's school, and in 1859, during 
Rev. Dr. Cooney's time, steps were taken to build the present brick 
edifice on Pall Mall street. Among the trustees at that time were E. 
Bennett, B. Dawson, John Griffiths, Woodward, Fitzgerald, Holland 
and R. Matthews. Here is a resolution that appears in the minutes 
while the church was going up : " Moved by Bro. Fitzgerald, seconded 
by Bro. Dawson, that we have the name in marble, : Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Church, A.D. 1859,' the cost not to exceed eight dollars. Carried." 
The little slab is to be seen yet in the side of the church. The open- 
ing service occurred in November, 1859, sermons being delivered by 
Rev. Mr. Musgrove and Rev. Mr. Bredin. Among those whose 
names are variously associated with the church history were : G. R. 
Sanderson, Dr. Potts, R. Jones (1863), J. H. Bishop, James Elliott, 
James Hannon, James Turner, J. Allan and W. Kettlewell. 

Pall Mall Street Church was set off from Queen's Avenue in 1875, 
with Thomas J. Reid, minister; Jas. S. Ross was pastor from 1876 to 
1878, Joseph M. Hodson, from 1879 to 1881 ; and Lewis W. Crews, 
1882-4. Since the second union of 1884, the pulpit has been filled by 
L. W. Crews, F. B. Stacey, Win. Godwin and E. B. Lanceley, the latter 
now being minister in charge, with W. D. Buckle, secretary of quar- 
terly meetings. The proposed new church building, estimated to cost 
$12,000, is to stand on the corner of Colborne and Piccadilly streets. 

Dundas Street Centre Methodist Church. This church dates back to 
1856, when N. English, Geo. Webster, Murray Anderson and L. Pen-in 
aided in organizing a congregation away out east on the Dundas road. 
That year, a lot situated on the corner of King and Adelaide streets was 
purchased as the intended site for the edifice. The response to the 
building fund was, however, too meagre to allow of the erection, even 
upon the smallest scale ; and in the following year, to keep the spark 
of life aglow, a small cottage was taken on Adelaide street, at an 
annual rental of 15, and utilized as a place of worship. The Rev. 
John Douse was the first to occupy the pulpit. At the outset, the 
effort to establish a congregation in the locality seemed as if it would 
prove futile, and at a meeting of the trustees, held in September of the 
same year, pecuniary assistance and numerical support had ebbed so 
low that it was decided to abandon the attempt, and sell the furniture 
in order to realize the rent. On subsequent consideration, the resolu- 
tion was rescinded, and more strenuous exertions decided upon. James- 
Preston succeeded Mr. Douse, then Dr. Rooney preached here, followed 
by G. R. Sanderson. In 1860, the lot purchased previously was called 


into service, and a frame structure, capable of seating 300, was erected. 
Revs. Richard Jones, James Bishop, W. J. Hunter and James Elliot 
followed as pastors in the order named, each remaining for three years. 
In 1869, in the second year of the pastorate of Wm. Briggs, now in 
charge of the Methodist Book-room, Toronto, the circuit had become 
so populous, that the erection of the present brick structure was decided 
upon. The corner stone was placed May 17, 1869, at the corner of 
Dundas and Maitland, by Reverends "W. M. Punshon, President of 
Conference, and Messrs. Elliot, Briggs, Bishop and Bredin. The cost 
of the building was estimated at $12,000. The contractors were Thos. 
Green, Thos. Short, J. W. Smyth, and Richards & Hardy. The paint- 
ing,,and glazing were contracted for by Robt. Lewis. Wm. Watson was 
the architect. The cost of the church and parsonage was about $20,- 
000. The church was dedicated April 3, 1870. On Dec. 13, 1867, 
the project was conceived at the house of Rev. J. H. Bishop, when 
subscriptions, amounting to $2,000, were received. The trustees at the 
time were : Alex. Johnston, Anthony Keenleyside, Murray Anderson, 
Isaac Webster, Geo. Burdett, John A. Nelles, John Green, Ed. Smith, 
Geo. Robinson, Chas. Douthwaite, Thomas McCormick, Amos Bradford, 
Obadiah Richards and R. Lewis. In the meantime, the sale of the old 
frame church had been effected to the Episcopalians, for $500. After- 
wards, it passed into the hands of the Baptists. 

In 1871, Rev. Alex. Langford was called as pastor, and he presided 
here until the union of 1874. 

The pastors after the union were : Wm. R. Parker, 1874-6 ; G. N. 
A. F.T. Dickson, 1877-9; James S.Ross, 1880-2, with Joseph H. 
Robinson, superannuated; and Edward B. Ryckman, 1883-4. In this 
year the church was known first as the Dundas Street Centre. Rev. 
J. V. Smith took charge in 1886. 

In the spring of 1887, large transepts were added to the east and 
west of the church at a cost of some $6,000. The entire church 
property, at the present time, is valued at about $30,000 ; and the 
edifice, since the addition of the transepts, will accommodate L200 to 
1,300 worshippers. The trustees of 1888 were Messrs. Dr. Eccles, R. 
Lewis, Thos. McCormick, ex- Aid. Wm. Bowman, Gilbert and J. H. 
Glass, Isaac Webster, W. Lewis, Frank Cooper, A. Bradford, A. Keen- 
leyside, J. G. and Geo. Shuff, G. Burdett, A. McBride, A. Johnston, J. 
Green, G. Robinson, W. Plewes, W. Willis, J. A. Nelles, and Mr. C. J. 
Beale, recording steward. 

The Sunday school, under Mr. Birks, claims a membership of 537, 
with 36 teachers. 

Queen's Park Methodist Church. On Dundas street east, not far 
from the new Western Fair Grounds, stands the Queen's Park Metho- 
dist Church, of comparatively recent origin, and is now under the 
pastorate of the Rev. E. Holmes. This was detached from Dundas 
Street Church in 1877, called Dundas East, and placed in charge of 
Geo. W. Calvert, in 1877-8; of James S. Ross in 1879 ; of Geo. R. 



Sanderson in 1880-2; and of Geo. W. Henderson in 1883-4, when it 
received some additions by the union of that year. An unauthenti- 
cated note says : London East was established as a Wesleyan circuit 
in 1873, with Wellington Jeffers, pastor, the membership at that time 
being seventeen. 

King Street Methodist Church. This church dates back to Decem- 
ber, 1859, when a building was completed by the Primitive Methodists. 
The question of replacing the old church' on Hill and Grey streets by a 
new house on King, between Wellington and Clarence, was carried in 
May, 1865, and in November, 1865, the house was dedicated by Rev. 
Robert Wood, then superintendent of this district R. I. Walker 
presenting a silver communion service. W. Wade, James Cassell, 
W. Rolph, R. J. Walker and James Daniels were associated as Irus- 
tees. The late Wm. Trebilcock was, also, long prominently identified 
with this congregation. The cost of erection was in the neighborhood 
of $1.1,000. The more recent pastors have been Rev. Wm. Herridge, 
Rev. Eli Middleton, and the present able clergyman, Rev. J. Holmes, 
who assumed charge two years ago. Messrs. John Friend, Chas. 
Thome, John Goodge, J. J. Mason, Frank Miller, W. Gray, E. Grenfel 
and A. W. Spry, comprise the present Board of Trustees. Extensive 
alterations in the interior, together with the addition of a large porch 
at the entrance, are now in course of completion, at a cost of some 
$1,900. A gallery, horse-shoe shaped, has been erected, and other 
improvements made. At one time the old society worshipped in a 
small house adjoining the present Wellington Street Church, which 
was ultimately converted into a dwelling-house. 

The Primitive Methodist Church, on Adelaide street and Hamilton 
road, was completed, and dedicated on November 21, 1873. The frame, 
32x40, cost $1,200. This building is now used by the English Church 
as a mission house, in connection with Memorial Church. 

Bible Christians. The Bible Christian Church was represented 
in the London District in 1868 by E. Roberts and W. Hodnett. It 
appears a house of worship was erected about that time, for, in February, 
1873, it is recorded that the building was restored at a cost of $3,500, and 
reopened. Their church in London East was dedicated Oct. 15, 1876, 
by Revs. E. Roberts and J. A. Murray. London Centre Circuit was 
established in 1878, with Rev. W. Quance pastor. In 1881, Rev. W. 
H. Butt took charge, under the union of 1884 ; he is now presiding 
pastor of the united Methodist churches of Glencoe. In 1879, London 
East Circuit of the Bible Christian Church was set off, with G. H. 
Copeland in charge. In 1882, L. W. Wickett succeeded as pastor, who 
served until the union of 1884. The church at the corner of Dundas 
and Elizabeth streets is now in charge of Rev. S. G. Livingstone, of 
the Methodist Church of Canada. The old Horton street building, 
where the other congregation of Methodists used to worship, is now 
occupied by building contractors. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. The history of Episcopalian Metho- 



dism is so surrounded with all other forms of that denomination, it is 
difficult to point out its beginning. Up to the period of Mr. Kyan's 
rebellion against American Methodism, the Episcopal form was observed 
here (1823-8) and in Westminster (1816-28). The first church-house 
is said to have been erected by the Wesleyan, Mr. Huston, on the site 
of the present O'Callaghan terrace, and, as he was stationed here in 
in 1827-8, that must have been the year of its building. After the first 
Catholic Church was finished, about 1834, the Methodist Episcopalians 
claimed some place of worship ; but no one seems to remember its 
locality. Their church building on Colborne and North streets was 
opened August 11, 1867. The cost of the building was $3,000. The 
services were conducted by Bishop Smith, father of Rev. P. Smith, 
the pastor at that time. This was a frame building, which was subse- 
quently used as a roller-rink, and later as a dwelling-house. The 
society next erected their brick building on Colborne and Queen's 
avenue, which, after the union of 1884, was used as an opera house, 
but later converted into a double brick dwelling. 

Hamilton Road Methodist Church. On the Hamilton road, just 
west of Rectory street, is another branch of Methodism, in charge of 
the Rev. S. J. Allin. This church formerly stood at the north end of 
Park street, near the car-works property, and was brought into exist- 
ence by the Rev. Dr. Jeffers. The building was afterwards moved to 
the Hamilton road. 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. This church building, now 
a brick on Grey street, dates back over many years, the congregation, 
early in the sixties, worshipping in a frame on Thames street, after- 
wards purchased by Thos. Macnamara, and used as a residence. Rev. 
S. Peaker is the present Grey street pastor. 

Catholic Church. In the chapter of general history devoted to 
church affairs, the story of the introduction and growth of the church 
in Canada is related, and its beginnings in the Erie peninsula described. 
The first church erected was of logs, with an earthen floor, and stood at 
the comer of Maple and Richmond streets, opposite the Huron Hotel. 
It was begun in 1833 and dedicated in 1834, Rev. Father Downie, 
then stationed at St. Thomas, officiating. Later, Rev. Father Dempsey 
officiated here, coming at intervals from St. Thomas. In 1851 was 
begun the erection of the old brick cathedral, which was dedicated in 
1852 by Bishop De Charbonnel, of Toronto. The log church was 
burned Aug. 24, 1851, and on that day mass was celebrated in a frame 
building used as the Town Hall, afterwards known as Balkwill's Hotel, 
at the corner of King street and Talbot, west of market square. The 
frame building on King street, known as the Universalist Church, was 
then leased by the Catholics, and occupied by them until the opening of 
their new place of worship. That old King street building has had a 
varied history first a Universalist church, then a Catholic place of 
worship, afterwards a Congregational church, then Presbyterian, and 
last of all it was used as a Salvation Army barracks until burned down 



on Jan. 25, 1888. Services were held in the brick church for 33 years, 
the farewell sermon being delivered by Bishop Walsh on Sunday, 
April 19, 1885, on which occasion vespers was sung by the late Rev. 
Mgr. Bruyere and Father Walsh ; Fathers Dunphy, Coffey (then editor 
of the Catholic Record), Tiernan and Kennedy, assisting in the 

Prior to the completion of the old log building, the services of the 
church were conducted in the few Catholic homes of the district round 
the village, notice of the arrival of a priest being generally given to the 
people by Patrick Smith, John Cruickshank, Hugh McCann, Jas. Reid, 
and Dennis O'Brien. Among the first Catholic families in the town 
were the above named, together with Garret Farrel, Capt. McLoughlin, 
A. McCausland, Patrick McLoughlin (who lived opposite of where J. B. 
Smyth's grocery store now is), J. Wilson, J. O'Byrne, J. Wright, Patrick 
O'Flynn (who was chief clerk in O'Brien's store), Flood, Peter Mc- 
Cann, John Orange, Peter Kennedy, M. Kiely, John Martin, Dr. Alex. 
Anderson, James Reid, John O'Brien, P. Burke, Edmund Burke, John 
Clegg, Wm. Darby, P. Tierney, Wm. Dalton, Charles Colovin, Matthew 
Colovin, E. Hillen, John M. Carey, John Walsh, R. Dinahan, P. Cleary , 
Henry O'Brien, P. Corbett, the McLean, Anderson, Dignan, Scanlan, 
Bruce, Milne, and Redmond families, and a few others referred to 

Among the heads of families represented in the baptismal register 
of 1843 Rev. M. R. Mills, recorder are the following: Charles 
Lamond, James Sinclair, John Fullerton, James Doyle, Charles Mc- 
Loughlin, Geo. E. Foster, Thomas Heenan, James Blighe, Charles 
Colquhon, John Maguire, Patrick Judge, Thomas Brady, John Carley, 
Patrick Bobier, Cornelius Shea, James Briody, Thomas Hatton, Henry 
Ostrander, John Teehan, Michael DeMeurs, Michael McDonald, Martin 
Green, M. Finnegan (Jane Leutz and Mary Green, from the Baptist 
Church), Maria, Harriet and Anne E. Bezzot, H. J. G. Forbes, Daniel 
Corcoran, Wm. Flannagan and Felix McWilliams. The registry of 
1844 contains the names of Andrew Wigget, James Coleman, Michael 
Murphy, Anthony Case, James Casey, Cornelius Coghlan, John 
Magin, John Tracy, Patrick McFadden, John McNeil, Wm. Hickey, 
John Dowling, C. Fisher, John Langan, Dennis Donohue, Patrick 
Byrne, James Morgan, Thomas Somers, M. Brougham, Wm. O'Connor, 
James Kearns, John Dalrymple, James O'Neil, Bernard Rielly. Daniel 
O'Neil, Martin Rose and John Coveny. On Jan. 12, 1845, Jos. Doyle, 
son of Lawrence and Eliza (Philane) Doyle, was baptized. Among 
other members of the church in 1845 were James Lynch, John Feehan, 
Wm. Shaw, Dennis Regan, John Coghlan, Patrick Regan, John Tray, 
B McEnniff, James Lynch, John Scanlon, Thomas McCarthy, Bernard 
Smith, Peter Mount, Thomas Moore, Patrick Brady, Wm. Hubbart, 0. 
Coleman, Joseph O'Keefe, Arthur Lyons, H. Ostrander, Patrick Judge, 
Daniel Coghlan, James O'Neil, Patrick Sweeny, John Calcott, Jeremiah 
Haggarty, Lawrence Early, John McVeigh, or McVey, and Edward 


In September, 1843, Bishop Powers presided at the confirmation of 
Mary Kildea, aged 15 years; Michael Cronyn, aged 25; Margaret 
Flannagan, 17 ; Bridget Flannagan, 20 ; and Margaret Sullivan, 17 
years. The ceremony was performed in the old church at St. Thomas. 
The church records are signed by Eev. P. O'Dwyer, February 7, 1847. 
In March, 1849, Very Eev. John Carroll, administrator, visited London 
and baptized the children of Charles Wallis, Cronyn, M. Birmingham, 
James Gleeson and Edward Brennan. Father Kirwan, who recorded 
these baptisms, took charge of the London parish April 19, 1849. 
Among the family names on the records of this year are Charles and 
Edward Collovin, Thomas McCann, Bartholomew Egan, Kichard Fisher, 
Terrence McAuliffe, John Scanlon, Thomas Ryan, Timothy Gleeson, 
Patrick Kenny, Paul Keenan, John Tomline, Stephen Daly, James 
Morrison, William Corbett, Hugh Mara and Peter McCann. In 1850 
the following-named converts were received by Dean Kirwan : Wm. 
Thompson, the Widow Scott and Widow McConna ; in 1851, Alex. 
Lyons, Mrs. McNally, John Gordon, Mrs. Anne Forbes. Thomas But- 
ler and Isabella Dagg. The same year Rev. J. D. Ryan received the 
following named : Gerald Fitzgerald, Mrs. Adeline Burns, Henry 
Brownstead, Mary Fortier, John O'B. Ward, Eunice A. Snow; in 
1852, Annie Elliott, Margaret McCarthy, Isabella McLean, James 
Welds, James Vincent, Annie 0. Gorman and Frances Hall. In 1851 
Bishop De Charbonnel held confirmation services at London. His 
second and third visits, March, 1852, and February, 1853, were also 
made for the purpose of administering that sacrament. Dean Kirwan 
was transferred to another mission in June, 1856, on the arrival of 
Bishop Pinsonheault. In 1854 Rev. P. Crinnon was priest at London. 
In 1856 the marriage and baptismal records are signed by Rev. E. 
Bayard and Rev. A. Musard ; in 1857 by Rev. Joseph 0. Bayard, 
Rev. 0. Trochon, Rev. Robert Kelcher; in" 1858, again by the first- 
named priests, with Revs. M. J. Lynch and James Murphy; and, in 
1860-1, by Revs. Joseph Bayard. James Quinlan and Joseph Gerard. 
In November, 1857, the use of the Town Hall was granted to the 
ladies of the Catholic Church by the Council for benevolent purposes, 
when a bazaar, or fair, for the benefit of the church was held. From 
1861 to 1868 the Dominican Fathers had charge of the parish, with 
Rev. R. Rockford, Superior. He was created Vicar-General in 1863. 
The community here was represented by Revs. M. A. O'Brien, H. P. 
Ralph, J. B. Hallisy ; in 1863, D. A. O'Brien, J. M. Heaney, J. B. 
McGovern ; in 1864, W. F. Henrion and S. Ryan, with Fathers Byrne 
and Kelly. On November 13, 1867, Bishop Walsh was received 
at London, while en route to Sandwich. In 1868 the new bishop 
re-established the Diocesan See at London, and came to reside here, 
Rev. C. F. Crinnon being Vicar-General. 

In 1868, Venerable J. M. Bruyere, V. G., came from Sandwich 
with the new Bishop; and Rev. J. W. White and Rev. P. Stone, secre- 
tary of the diocese, were here in 1871. In 1872, Rev. N. Gahan and 



Eev. B. Waiters, took the places of the last two named priests. In 
1873, Reverends E. B. Kilroy, H. B. Lotz, and P. Corcoran were 
assistant priests at the cathedral. In 1876, Rev. G. Northgraves was 
secretary of the diocese, with Revs. J. Brie and L. A. Wassereau, 
assistant priests. In 1878, Rev. M. Tiernan took Father Northgraves's 
place as secretary, while Rev. M. Dillon and Father Northgraves with 
Monsignor Bruyere were also priests at the cathedral. In 1880, Rev. 
P. Feron was secretary ; Rev. M. J. Tiernan, rector, and Rev. M. F. 
O'Mahoney, assistant priest. Since that time, Father Tiernan has 
been appointed secretary ; and he with Fathers Mugan, Walsh and 
Kennedy, are the priests of the cathedral at the present time, and they 
also attend St. Mary's church, Hill street, a chapel at Mt. Hope 
Asylum, and the new chapel in connection with Sacred Heart Academy. 
The Cathedral building was begun July 1, 1880, after plans by 
Architect Connolly, of Toronto. It adjoins the site of the old church 
on Richmond street, the main entrance facing southward ; and plans 
snow a nave, aisles and transepts, choir or chancel, chapels, baptistery 
towers, sacristy and morning chapel. The length of the interior is 180 
feet; breadth about 68 feet; breadth across transept over 100 feet; 
height from the ground to ridge of main roof 88 feet ; and each imposing 
tower, with its spire, about 215 feet. The style of architecture adopted 
is that of the early French period, in which many of the grandest 
mediaeval cathedrals were designed and completed. Mr. Connolly 
succeeded in combining beauty of detail with majestic proportions, and 
richness of finish with a stately interior, the adornments of which are 
rare and costly marbles and beautiful pictures, the vaulted roof being 
supported by a massive double row of polished granite columns. The 
contractors whose tenders were accepted are as follows : Thos. Green 
& Co., carpentering, $18,000 ; McBride & Boyd, galvanized iron and tin 
work, $3,600 ; A. S. Corp, painting and glazing, $3,020 ; George Riddle, 
slating, $1,500; Gould & Stratfold, plastering, $1,995, and Drew, of 
Clinton, brick and stone work, $52,300. The corner-stone was placed 
May 22, 1881. Among the clergy present were : Archbishop Lynch, 
of Toronto ; Bishop Crinnon, of Hamilton ; Bishop Jamot, of Sarepta ; 
Bishop O'Mahoney, of Toronto ; Bishop Cleary, of Kingston ; Bishop 
Walsh, of London ; Right Rev. Mgr. Bruyere, of the Cathedral, Lon- 
don ; Very Rev. Father Vincent, Vicar-General of Toronto Diocese 
and Provincial of the Basilian Fathers ; Very Rev. Father Heenan, 
Vicar-General, Diocese of Hamilton ; Very Rev. Father Williams, 0. 
S. F., Chatham; Very Rev. Dean Wagner, of Windsor; Very Rev. 
D. O'Connor, President of Assumption College ; Very Rev. Dean 
Murphy, of Irish Town; Rev. Dr. Kilroy, of Stratford; Rev. John 
Brennan, P. P., Picton; Rev. J. Quirk, P. P., Hastings; Rev. John F. 
Coffey, P. P., Almonte ; Rev. Father Kelly, Sec. to Bishop Cleary ; 
Rev. W. Flannery, P. P., St. Thomas ; P. Brennan, P. P., St. Mary's ; 
F. J. Ouellette, Maidstone ; Joseph Bayard, Sarnia ; Joseph Gerard, 
Belle River; J. Connolly, P. P., Biddulph; J. Molphy, P. P., Strath- 


roy ; J. Carlin, P. P., Woodstock ; B. Boubat, P. P., Ingersoll, together 
with the local clergy. The Cathedral was dedicated June 28, 1885, by 
the Venerable Bishop, Archbishop Lynch also being present, together 
with Bishops O'Mahoney, Jamot, Carberry and Cleary. The sermon 
was delivered by Bishop McQuaid, of Rochester, N. Y , Bishop O'Far- 
rell, of Trenton, N. J., occupying the pulpit at night. The spires have 
not yet been constructed, although a number of the Bishop's fellow- 
citizens of other religious denominations offered to build one should 
the congregation build the other one. 

Presbyterian Church. In the chapter of the general history 
-devoted to the establishment of religious associations, references are 
made to the beginnings of Presbyterianism at London, and the names of 
ministers who were allowed to perform the marriage ceremony as well 
as those of men and women they joined in matrimony. In Jan., 1830, 
Alex. Ross of the congregation of the Church of Scotland, took the oath 
of allegiance, and was authorized to celebrate marriages. The follow- 
ing year he was the only legal Presbyterian minister in the whole 
district, while Mr. Gale held a similar position in the western district. 
A few years later the act of 1831 began to bear fruit, and Presby- 
terianism appeared among the harvesters. 

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church. The history of St. Andrew's 
Presbyterian Church, as prepared by Rev. John Scott, May 25, 1868, 
points out that -up to 1833 the Presbyterians of London regarded 
themselves as belonging to the Church of Scotland. In that year they 
began to form a distinct society, and received preaching from Irish, 
English and Scotch missionaries, as well as neighboring ministers and 
students, until 1850. As many of those who joined the new church 
resided in the Hyde Park neighborhood, services were held in the old 
school house there frequently ; while the grammar school, court-house, 
United Presbyterian Church, then on York street, and the Congrega- 
tional Church, then on Richmond street, were used at London. The 
Rev. Mr. Miller was the pioneer preacher of 1833. He was shortly 
after drowned in the Bay of Fundy. Dr. Bayne, of Gait ; Dr. John 
Bonar, of the Free Church ; Mair, of Fergus ; and Gale and Robb, of 
Hamilton, all deceased in 1868, were among the early preachers here. 
Among the old ministers living in 1868 were : Messrs. Donald Mc- 
Kenzie, of Zorra ; Allen, of Northeasthope ; McMillan, of Lobo ; Graham, 
of Edgemondville ; and Meldrum, of Harrington. Among the mission- 
aries from Scotland were Messrs. Cornmerville, of Glasgow ; Fraser, of 
Kirkhill; McLachlin, of Edinburgh; and McGillivray, of Aberdeen. 
Dr. Robert Burns, of Toronto, preached here once in 1845, and once 
in 1849 ; and Dr. Willis in 1849. Rev. Wm. Burns, later in China, 
preached here in the summer of 1846. For a few years prior to 1850, 
the pulpit was supplied by young men, such as Sutherland, of Ekfrid, 
McColl, of Chatham, McPherson, of Stratford, McPherson, of Wil- 
liams, and Fraser, who was in Scotland in 1868. 

In April, 1842, a lot for church and cemetery purposes was 



obtained from the Crown, and a meeting was called to consider the 
uses of such grant. Mr. Findlay, missionary, was present. Duncan 
Mackenzie presided. A committee composed of John Mitchie, John 
Birrell, Thomas Ken-, Wm. McMillan, Wm. Clark, James McLaren, 
James and Charles Grant was appointed to superintend the erection 
of a house of worship, and as a result, on Oct. 12, 1842, a contract for 
a frame building, 45 x 60 feet, was sold to Alex. McDonald for 500, 
and the foundation-stone placed by Duncan Mackenzie. Wm. Mc- 
Killican, then minister at St. Thomas, preached. This building was 
opened the tirst Sunday in September, 1843, by Revs. Donald Mac- 
kenzie, Duncan McMillan and Robert Lindsay. Two weeks later a 
Sabbath school of 21 pupils was inaugurated. On September 29, 
Alex. Ross, John Mitchie, Wm. Clark, James McLaren and Andrew 
McCormick were elected elders, the church was organized, and the first 
communion service held by Revs. Mackenzie and McMillan in Novem- 
ber, 1843. 

The f disruption of the Church of Scotland and the division in the 
Presbyterian Church of Canada, led to a meeting here September 10, 
1844, when all, save one member, declared adherence to the Free 
Church of Scotland. In 1 844, John Eraser, agent of the Montreal 
bank, came to reside here. He, being an ordained elder, carried on 
services in English and Gaelic for years in Wm. Clark's house on 
North street. On October 10, 1850, Rev. John Scott was inducted 
the first pastor of St. Andrew's. At this time there were 115 com- 
municants, increased to 410, May 25, 1868. The corner-stone of the 
now St. Andrew's church, North and Waterloo streets, was placed 
May 25, 1868, by Rev. John Scott, pastor, assisted by Rev. Donald 
Mackenzie, of Zorra. Ttie elders were : Wm. Clark, Wm. Begg, 
Charles Grant, James McWilliams, and James T. Boyd. Trustees 
John Birrell, Wm. Begg, Geo. M. Gunn, John J. Mackenzie, John G. 
McTntosh, Daniel Lester, and John Ross. Treasurer Wm. Begg. 
Deacons and Managers John Birrell, Robert Moore, Daniel Lester, 
J. G. Mclntosh, Edward Rowland, James Anderson, John Tytler, A. 
J. G. Henderson, Andrew Thompson, Thomas McCracken, James Gil- 
lean, John Ross, A. Davidson, and Duff Cameron. 

The cost of this edifice was more than $27,000, which the congre- 
gation cheerfully paid, and it was not long until the church was free 
from debt. Among the most liberal contributors to the building fund 
were the following : John Birrell, $600 ; William Begg, Alexander 
Campbell, $200; Andrew Chisholm, $300; John Campbell, $150; 
David Bogue, John M. Burns, Thomas Browne and W. H. Birrell, 
$100 each ; Ewen Cameron, $120 ; John Cousins, William Clark, 
Duncan Campbell, $100 each; James Durand, R. S. T. Davidson, 
$200; David Denhani, $100; William Durand, $100; John Elliott, 
$200 ; J. H. Fraser, $100 ; William Gordon, $300 ; G. M. Gunn, $200 ; 
Alex. Gauld, $200 ; James Glen, $200 ; Alex. Graham, $200 ; A. J. 
G. Henderson, $200 ; W. Kent, $400 ; Daniel Lester, $200 ; Mrs. 


Lyle (New York), $100; Mr. Limn (Montreal), $100; Mrs. Mitchie, 
$100 ; R. S. Murray, $200 ; J. G. Mclntosh, $600 ; Alex. Mclntosh, 
$300; Joseph McKay & Bra, $100; Thomas McCracken, $100 ; John 
Ross, $125; Edward Rowland, $125; Warren Rock, $100; A. M. 
Ross, $100; Hugh Stevenson, $200; John Stewart, $100; William 
Stephenson & Co., $100 ; and Rev. John Scott, $125. 

In the early part of 1875, Rev. Mr. Scott resigned, and for the 
following months various ministers were invited to fill the pulpit. 
After hearing the Rev. J. A. Murray the congregation gave him a 
unanimous call, and he commenced his duties late in the year. Under 
him the church's prosperity has continued, and to-day he has one of 
the finest congregations in Canada. The collection plate has been 
abolished, and the pews have been made free ; a fine new organ and 
excellent choir have been added ; and to-day in St. Andrew's Church 
the Word of God is literally free to all in every sense of the word. 
The Board of Trustees at present comprises Messrs. J. G. Mclntosh, 
Daniel Lester, John Ferguson, Dr. Eraser, John Elliott, and H. E. 
Nelles. Mr. Alex. Mclntosh is the energetic secretary and treasurer ; 
and the Board of Managers for the current year comprises D. 
McDonald, D. Denham, D. Fraser, A. G. Chisholm, Dr. Macarthur, 
Thomas Muir, C. McCallum, James McSween, Thomas Bryan and 
James Mills. The Board of Cemetery Trustees consists of A. J. G. 
Henderson, Wijliam Gordon, R. S. Murray and D. Denham. 

First Presbyterian Church. The First Presbyterian congregation, 
worshipping in the church at the corner of Park and Dufferin avenues, 
was so designated because it was the first congregation in connection 
with the Scottish United Presbyterian Church, formed in what was 
called Upper and Lower Canada. It is one of the oldest congregations 
in this city, having been started in September, 1832. Its frame church, 
erected a few years afterwards, was situated on the lot on York street 
in the rear of the Tecumseh House, which was then covered with the 
primeval forest. The congregation embraced, also, what are now the 
congregations of North and South Westminster, Dorchester and South 
Nissouri, not to mention fractions of other congregations. Between 
the years 1851-5, these four congregations were disjoined from it, and 
erected into independent congregations. The secession of these con- 
gregations, which was due to the large area occupied by the original 
congregation, reduced it to one-third of its former strength. This, 
although geographically necessary, was prematurely done. In Decem- 
ber, 1859, the frame church was burned. The present church was 
erected the following year. During the last 25 years improvements 
have been made in the church, including the erection of a gallery, 
an organ, a large lecture hall and Sabbath school, class-rooms and 
internal decorations, costing about $10,000. The revenue of the con- 
gregation this year, including $1,000 spent on decorations, will, it 
is expected, exceed $5,000, exclusive of bequests or donations from 
any external source whatever. This is three times as much as it was a 



quarter of a century ago. The first pastor, who was also the founder 
of it, and of very many others, was the late Eev. W. Proudfoot, who 
was pioneer missionary and professor of theology to the late United 
Presbyterian Church in Canada. The present pastor, John J. A. Proud- 
foot, D. D., succeeded his father in the spring of 1851. He, like his 
father, spent much of his time in missionary and professorial work. 
For 25 years, partly previous and partly subsequent to the union of the 
Free and United Presbyterian Chuches in 1861, he was convener and 
secretary of the Home Mission Committee, which had for its sphere at 
one time a large part of Western Ontario. He had also been lecturer 
in pastoral theology, church government and homiletics in Knox 
College, Toronto, for twenty-two years. The first organ used in a 
Presbyterian church in London was that introduced into Mr. Proudfoot's 
church in 1872 

The first meeting of the new London Presbytery was held in this 
church in September succeeding the establishment of such Presbytery. 
Among those present were : Kevs. Dr. Proudfoot, J. Eennie, M. 
Eraser, J. K. Wright, Geo. Cuthbertson (Sarnia Presbytery), A. Hen- 
derson, J. M. Muriro, A. PJeamer, J. Wells (Sarnia Presbytery), F. 
Ballantyne, M. A., L. Cameron, N. McKinnon, K. McDonald, W. A. 
Sutherland, John M. Morris, D. B. Whimster, Hugh Cameron, J. 
Johnson. D. Stewart, D. McGillivray, J. Stewart, D. Mann, and Geo. 
Sutherland. Elders Messrs. Jas. Shields, A. Sutherland, Thos. Gor- 
don, Wm. Brown, Adam Murray, Jas. Bell, D. Turner, A. McMillan, 
D. K. McKenzie, James Scott, D. McNair, Neil Munro and James 

St. James's Presbyterian Church was erected in the year 1860, on 
land given by the Government to the church. The site occupied by 
St. Andrew's was originally given by the Government to the Presby- 
terians, but the Free Church was established first and took possession. 
The body known as the Presbyterian Church, in connection with the 
Church of Scotland, commonly known as the Old Kirk, did not become 
strong in any degree until the fifties. Then they laid claim to the St. 
Andrew's property, and the Crown, to settle the dispute, presented 
them with the gore of land lying between Clarence street (now Park 
avenue) and Eichmond street. This was in 1859. Before that, for 
years, the congregation had been worshipping in the old Mechanics' 
Institute, on Talbot street. Then the Eev. Francis Nichol was per- 
manently located here in 1858, and by 1860 had the congregation 
sufficiently worked up to undertake the building of the edifice now 
known as St. James's. The corner-stone was laid with Masonic honors 
on the. Queen's birthday, I860,* and the church was duly opened in 
February, 1861. The original board of trustees comprised Eev. Francis 
Nichol, the pastor, George Macbeth, Alex. McArthur, James Dunbar, 
William Chalmers, James Cowan, Duncan Mackenzie and John 

* A contemporary record gives September 9, 1859. 



Mackenzie. Of these eight, James Cowan is the only one who is alive 
to-day. Among other prominent supporters of the church at that 
time, too, were the late Judge Daniels, William Muir, Daniel Macfie, 
Andrew Cleghorn, and others. Rev. Mr. Nichol was succeeded about 
1868 by the Rev. Mr. Campblon, who remained for a number of years. 
The union took place in 1875, and then the memorable split in the 
congregation followed, when St. James's received a blow from- which it 
is only now recovering. The church was locked up by the managers, 
James Dunbar and John Bailey, who procured new locks. On Sunday, 
December 20, 1875, a few anti-unionists, Messrs. Wright, Dunbar, 
and Bailey, were present to watch proceedings. James Cowan, John 
Woods and Daniel Macfie, trustees, and Mr. Moncrieff, arrived, visited 
Rev. Mr. Gordon at the manse ; and, returning to the church, asked 
for the keys, which Mr. Dunbar refused. W. H. Ironsides offered to 
open the doors by force, if so instructed by the trustees; but they pre- 
ferred to wait, and so Sunday services were held in the manse. 

The Auld Kirk congregation opened their new house of worship 
August 27, 1876. Part of the congregation refused to go into the 
union, and part wanted to go. The non-unionists claimed the pro- 
perty, having a majority, and a lawsuit followed, with the result that 
the party of union won. The dissidents subsequently bought the old 
Congregational Church property, on King street, which afterwards 
became the Salvation Army barracks, and worshipped under the 
pastorate of Rev. Mr. Galbraith there for a few years, until they 
dissolved. Mr. Galbraith subsequently went to the West Indies as a 
missionary, and died there. During the last few years, under the 
pastorate of Rev. Mr. McGillivray, St. James's Church has materially 
recovered, and is once again showing signs of prosperity. 

King Street Presbyterian Church. The large brick edifice, called 
the King Street Presbyterian Church, was established by the members 
of that body living in the east end about 1876. St. Andrew's might 
justly be termed the parent of the east end congregation, and she has 
every right to be proud of her offspring. When the Presbyterians, of 
what was then called London East, found themselves strong enough to 
build, they resolved to put up a substantial brick edifice, capable of 
accommodating a greatly increased congregation in years to come. 
Having completed the church, they next looked around for a capable 
head, and their choice fell upon Rev. Mr. Wright. Mr. Wright was 
one of the best pastors who ever had charge of a congregation, and 
under him the church prospered exceedingly. When finally he resolved 
to go abroad as a missionary, the news was received with feelings of 
the deepest regret by his many friends in London. He was succeeded 
by Rev. W. M. Roger, the present pastor, who received a unanimous 
call to the pulpit, and has proved himself a fit successor to Mr. Wright, 

Congregational Church. Rev. Win. Clarke settled at London in 
June, 1837, and preached to the Congregationalists in the old Gram- 
mar school, near the court-house, or in Odell's school building, until a 



house of worship was built where the Free Press office stands in later 
days. He died at Dresden, Ont, in April, 1878. In the beginning 
of 1838, they worshipped in a large room on Dundas street, placed at 
their disposal by a Mr. Farr. Soon afterward, a chapel was erected on 
Richmond street, a short distance north of Dundas. Mr. Clarke 
resigned at the end of 1842, and was succeeded by Edward Ebbs in 
August, 1843, who resigned in September, 1847. John Durrant, 
father of Mrs. E. Raymond, succeeded in December, 1847, and W. K 
Clarke, jr., was appointed in 1849. Subsequent pastors were Mr. Boyd, 
Chas. P. Watson, J. A. R. Dickson, more recently of the Presbyterian 
Church, Gait. R. W. Wallace followed in 1874, and, under his pas- 
torate, the new church was built. Between the time the congregation 
ceased to occupy the church on Richmond street and the erection of 
the present structure, their church was the frame building on the 
north side of King street, near Wellington, afterwards occupied by the 
Presbyterians, and, last of all, used as a Salvation Army barracks. The 
present pastor of the Congregational Church is the Rev. H. D. Hunter, 
who came in January, 1881. The present church building was erected 
on the lands purchased from Thomas Scatcherd. It was opened on 
August 27, 1876. Dr. Ebby, of Detroit, and J. H. Robinson preach- 
ing the dedication sermon ; the foundation-stone having been laid the 
year previous by the then Mayor, B. Cronyn. Ample in its propor- 
tions, novel in architectural design, and attractive in its adornments, 
the Eirst Congregational Church occupies a particularly fine site on the 
south side of Dundas street, midway between Waterloo and Colborne 
streets. Many of the first members of the society find mention in the 
general chapter on churches. 

The Baptist Church. The early history of this church in Middle- 
sex is related in the general history of the county, where many of its 
early ministers and members find mention. The first Baptist services 
in London are said to have been held in 1844, in the old Mechanics* 
Institute structure, on the court-house grounds. With occasional 
sermons from visiting ministers, the meetings were continued until 
1846, when " The Regular Baptist Church of London " was organized 
with nine members Wm. Wakeling and wife, J. H. Haines and wife^ 
Lieut. Allright and wife, James Kitchens and wife, and Mrs. Henry 
Groves. Upon the church being formed, services were held in the old 
Methodist Church, at the corner of King and Talbot streets, and the 
first pastor was the Rev. Jas. Inglis. In the year 1850, the congrega- 
tion took possession of the church at the corner of York and Talbot 
streets, where they worshipped for some thirty -one years, the name 
"York Street Baptist Church" being adopted in 1877. The congregation 
grew in numbers and prospered, until a larger and more pretentious place 
of worship became necessary, and, under the pastorate of the Rev. A. 
Grant, a commodious brick building, decidedly attractive in appearance, 
was erected on the west side of Talbot, between Maple and Kent 
streets. This was in 1882. On Dec. 4, 1881, the last services were 


held in the York Street Church. Some years ago, through the unselfish 
labors of several members of the Talbot Street Church, a mission school 
was established in the north-eastern part of the city, where a large 
population was growing up without adequate Sunday school or church 
privileges. The building used is on the north side of St. James street, 
near Adelaide. 

The successor of Mr. Inglis was the Eev, Robert Boyd, for five 
years ; Rev. Charles Campbell, one and a-half years ; Rev. W. Ailing- 
ton, four years ; Rev. Thomas Ure, three years ; Rev. Henry Watts, 
two years ; Rev. James Cooper, D. D., fourteen years : he died in 
Scotland in 1 883 ; Rev. James B. Montgomery (co-pastor), two years ; 
Rev. A. Grant, now superintendent of missions, five and a-half years; 
and Rev. W. H. Porter, the present pastor, since May, 1885. 

Adelaide Street Baptist Church. This church owes its origin to a 
mission instituted by members of the First Baptist Church and other 
Christian workers about thirteen years ago. The mission grew and 
prospered, and the little band became a substantial organization. A 
place of worship was secured on Adelaide street, just north of King 
a plain-looking frame building that had been used as a church by the 
Anglican and Methodist denominations, respectively. After the lapse 
of a year or two, it was decided to form a second Baptist Church a 
resolution which was carried out on the 2nd of November, 1887, when 
the Adelaide Street Baptist Church was regularly organized with a roll 
of fifty-nine members. For a time the pulpit was supplied by the pastors 
of York street, Rev. Mr. Montgomery, Prof. Torrance, of Woodstock 
College, and the venerable Dr. Cooper, preaching alternately at both 
churches, until, on the 9th of August, 1878, the Rev. P. A. McEwen 
(now stationed at Stratford) was ordained pastor of the young church. 
Mr. McEwen was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Forth, a pupil of the 
world-renowned Spurgeon. Mr. Forth took the pastoral charge in 
October, 1880, which he held for upwards of two years, when he 
resigned and accepted a call from Dresden. On the 13th of November, 
1883, the present pastor, Rev. Thomas S. Johnston, of Sarnia, took 
charge of the church, which, under his untiring and well directed 
efforts, has continued in spite of numerous discouragements to grow 
and prosper. The old place of worship having become altogether too 
small for the increasing congregation, it was decided to build a new 
one, and, on March 1, 1885, the present church edifice was formally 
opened and dedicated. The value of the building and lot is about 
$10,000 a large proportion of the debt on the edifice having been 
wiped out. The church has a membership of 250, while the Sabbath 
school scholars number 260, with an average attendance of 190. The 
old frame building in which the church was organized, after passing 
through several hands, was finally, turned into a roller rink, and not 
long afterwards fell a prey to the flames. Several members of the 
Adelaide Street Church, assisted by members of sister denominations, 
have organized a mission in the southern part of the city. 


For many years on Horton street, west of Wellington, has stood 
the Second Baptist (colored) Church, Eev. Mr. Washington being now 
the pastor. 

Other Religious Bodies*. London has within its bounds a con- 
siderable number of devout Hebrews ; and, last March, a congregation 
was regularly formed in charge of Eabbi L. Gordon, a learned and 
zealous man. 

On the east side of Maitland street, between King and York streets, 
exists the Church of the Latter Day Saints, established about fifteen 
years ago, now under the pastoral care of Elder Richard Hewlett. 

The Salvation Army have flourished in London for several years, 
occupying at various times the Westminster Eink, City Hall, the old 
frame church building on King street, where they were burned out, 
and latterly the Mechanics' Institute Hall. They propose erecting on 
the King street site a brick-and-stone barracks, costing from $12,000 
to $13,000. On August 9, 1882, the Army assumed definite propor- 
tions at London, under such officers as Happy Bill, Glory Bailey and 
other captains, and now march after a very fair brass band, and appear 
well disciplined. 

Mechanics' Institute. The Institute has, in an important sense, 
been one of the educational organizations of London since its establish- 
ment, January 5, 1841, when the pioneer officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, Elijah Leonard ; first vice-president, Henry Dalton ; second vice- 
president, S. Morrill; treasurer, E. P. Ellis; recording secretary, 
James Dall; corresponding secretary, John F. J. Harris, librarian, 
William McBride. The remnant of what was for many years 
occupied as a Mechanics' Institute, now stands on the west side of 
Talbot street, opposite Queen's avenue, but it has lost its historical 
appearance, having been used for factory purposes, and was, during the 
summer of 1888, badly damaged by fire, as shown in the history of fires 
herein. The Institute was regularly incorporated on July 15, 1852, but 
for several years was sleeping, until reorganized May 9, 1870, with F. 
Westlake, K. Lewis, and T. F. McMullen, presidents and vice-presi- 
dents ; H. A. Baxter, corresponding secretary ; M. D. Dawson, record- 
ing secretary ; Adam Begg, treasurer ; Isaac Waterman, T. Brown, 
J. K. Peel, A. J. G. Henderson, W. Skinner, H. I. Brown, S. McBride, 
Alderman Siddons, James Smith, E. Eeid, Wm Noble, and Geo. Ander- 
son managers. The old library of 1,500 volumes was re-opened. The 
corner-stone of the present building was placed November 2, 1876, 
with Masonic ceremony. Lieut.-Col. John Walker was then president ; 
T. H. Tracy and Thomas Green, vice-presidents ; J. O* Connor and 
Alfred Eobinson, secretaries ; VV. W. Fitzgerald, treasurer ; Messrs. E. 
Lewis, A. Harvey, B. W. Greer, Dr. S. Mummery, A. J. G. Henderson, 
M. W. Fairburn, Dr. J. E. Flock, J. Moses, W. Lewis, W. J. Smart, 
directors. The present $27,000 brick building, on Dundas street, was 

* Much of the history of the London Churches has been compiled from the elaborate 
sketches written by William Thompson, of the Advertiser, for the Quarter Century issue. 



opened in September, 1877. It contains a large library and free read- 
ing room. In June, 1888, a by-law, providing for the establishment 
ofa free library, which meant the purchase of the Institute library, 
and perhaps the building, was defeated at the polls. The officers of the 
Institute for 1888 are: President, Thos. Green; first vice-presi- 
dent, Wm. Scarrow; second vice-president, J. Johnston; recording 
secretary, J. D. Keenleyside; corresponding secretary, E. T. Essery; 
treasurer, Alex. Harvey; librarian, James Gray. 

The Mercantile Library Association was organized in 1852. In 
August, 1859, H. Briant was vice-president, and C. S. Eamsey, record- 
ing secretary. At that time David Glass was president ; Henry Long, 
vice-president ; L. Lawrason, treasurer ; Chas. Ramsay, secretary ; M. 
W. Cummings, corresponding secretary ; Joseph Atkinson, C. D. 
Holmes, J. C. Brown, G. Gordon, jr., James Egan, and Chas. Crookal, 

Freemasonry in London* The first Masonic lodge, of which 
there are any records, was held at John Siddall's (of Siddall's mill), May 
12, 1829. The name of the lodge was Mount Moriah, No. 773, 
English Register, or No. 20, Provincial Grand Lodge Register. The 
exact date of charter is not known, but it must have been about 1820. 
The first minute reads : "The minutes of the last regular meeting were 
read and approved, when it was resolved that Arthur Nevill receive an 
honorable discharge (demit) from this lodge ; also resolved, that the 
brethren be summoned to attend at our lodge-room, on the 24th of 
June, on special business, at the hour of one o'clock." The officers of 
this date were : John Siddall, W. M. ; S. L. Sumner, S. W. ; J. Can- 
field, J. W. ; T. Putnam, treasurer ; J. Putnam, secretary, and D. 
Cutter, S. D. On June 24th, 1829, J. Putnam presided, with E, 
Hartwell, secretary. The minutes from this date, until Dec. 22, are 
so badly torn that they cannot be read. The officers elected in Decem- 
ber, 1829, were : G. Merrick, W. M. ; S. L. Sumner, S. W. ; W. Put- 
nam, J. W. ; James Canfield, treasurer ; E. Hartwell, secretary ; Abel 
Sumner, S. D.; Thomas Putnam, J. D.; John Siddall and Levi Merrick, 
stewards, and Abraham Kilbourn, tyler. At a meeting, Jan. 5, 1836, 
J. D. Flanagan was voted eight shillings for nightly refreshments. 

This lodge must have been something like a regimental one, as it 
travelled from one place to another. May 14, 1830, it was held at 
Swartz's, and again on the 29th at Joshua S. Odell's, at the Village of 
the Forks, when the following officers were installed : Samuel L. 
Sumner, William Putnam, Joshua Putnam, James Canfield and E. 
Hartwell. June 1, 1831, an extra lodge was held in London, with the 
same officers. There are no minutes from this date until Dec. 9, 1834, 
when a meeting was held at E. Hartwell's for the purpose of electing 
officers for the ensuing six months, which resulted as follows : 
William Putnam, W. M. ; William Niles, S. W. ; G. Merrick, J. W. ; 

t . Mg * Con JP iled from memor anda collected directly from records, by Alexander Irvine, for 



E. Hartwell, secretary ; Silas E. Curtis, treasurer ; Abel Sunn, S. D. ; 
Samuel L. Sumner, J. D. ; John Putnam and J. B. Flanagan, masters 
of ceremonies ; Levi Merrick and Thomas Putnam, stewards ; Dudley 
Merrill, tyler. A committee was then struck to find a room in Lon- 
don to hold meetings, and they reported in favor of one at John 
O'Neil's, Ridout street, where Josiah Blackburn's residence now is. In 
that room John O'Neil was made a mason, Jan. 13, 1835, and on the 
same day Allan Cameron received a degree. At a meeting, February 
10, Thomas Moore and John Brown were initiated ; and in the visitors' 
list are to be found these names : King, Mackenzie, Bartlett, Hewitt, 
Curtis, Williams, and Parkinson. At this time the tyler was paid two 
shillings and sixpence per meeting. On April 7, 1835 ; John O'Neil 
receipted to Cornish for 1 11s. 3d, for refreshments. In June, 1835, 
the brethren marched to St. Paul's, and, returning, installed Joshua 
Putnam, master, and Ira Schofield, marshal. In December, G. Merrick 
was elected master and James Farley, secretary. April 26, 1836, the 
motion of allowing the landlord to hold office was voted down, after 
John O'Neil had been elected to the master's chair. This caused some 
trouble, as no records can be found from this date until August 29, 

A meeting was held August 29, 1845, at Balk will's Inn, when the 
following-named officers were present : Gardiner Merrick, W. M. ; 
Joshua Putnam, P. M. ; William Niles, S. W.; William B. Lee, J. W.; 
James Farley, secretary ; John Brown, treasurer ; David Doty, S. D. ; 
Thomas Putnam, J. D. ; Levi Merrick, tyler ; and the following 
brethren : Henry Sumner, Philo Bennett, William A. Sumner, John 
Siddall, Silas E. Curtis, Samuel L. Sumner, Ebenezer Hartwell, Duncan 
Mackenzie, James Parkinson, Andrew McCormick, John T. Travers, 
James Daniel, Jacob Leclear, Dudley Merrill, E. Gregory, E. Duns- 

On September 9, 1845, a committee was appointed to wait on 
St. John's Lodge, 209, in order to enter into friendly and fraternal 
feelings with that lodge. It consisted of John Siddall, William Niles, 
David Doty and Philo Bennett. In December, Joshua Putnam and 
the other officers were installed by the brethren of Lodge 209. In 
June, 1846, James Daniel was master, with John Norval, secretary. 
The last meeting of this took place on the 22nd of July, 1846, when 
several brethren kindly consented to form a delegation to meet the 
Provincial Grand Lodge, at Toronto, on the 4th of August. The charter 
was surrendered, and the majority of the members joined St. John's 
Lodge, 209. 

St. John's, %09(a). This is the oldest lodge existing in London, 
and is to-day the strongest in the city. In the early part of 1841, 
Samuel Peters, J. H. Joyce, William Gunn, James Farley, A. S. Arm- 
strong, George Code, and F. Cleverly, who were made Masons in Lodge 
No. 83, belonging to Her Majesty's 83rd Infantry, then stationed here, 
[it is usual for British Regiments to have charters the same number as 


the regiment, which they carry with them] made application to the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland for a warrant, the same to be styled St. John's, 
No. 209, 1. K. Although the warrant was issued Oct. 4, 1841, it was 
not received in London until Oct. 2, 1842. In the meantime a dis- 
pensation, under which the first meeting was held, was secured. It 
took place in January, 1842, in rooms at Balkwill's Inn, corner of 
King and Talbot street. The 83rd Kegiment moved to Toronto, and 
the warrant was sent by the secretary of the Grand Lodge of Ireland 
to Alexander Barker, master of Lodge No. 83, as it was the lodge to 
which the applicants belong. He, accompanied by Thomas Dillon, of 
the same lodge, arrived in London, Oct. 2, 1842, and on the 3rd, opened 
the lodge and installed the following officers iu the order of rank : 
Samuel Peters, J. H. Joyce, William Gunn, James Farley, A. S. Arm- 
strong, George Code and F. Cleverly. After installation, the following 
applicants were initiated : Thomas Frazer, Thomas Kerr, John Balk- 
will and J. H. L. Askin. The first fine imposed was that of sixpence 
sterling upon the treasurer, for being absent from meetings. The same 
officers were re-elected for 1843. Mr. Cornish, in the early part of the 
year, offered a free grant of a lot of land on which to build a Masonic 
Hall ; but lack of funds prevented its acceptance. The master for 
1844 was Hugh Falconer. 

Mr. Hamel died in February. His apron, sash, mark and brooch, 
were sold in the lodge to the highest bidder, and the amount of 
seven shillings and sixpence was handed to his widow. March 21, the 
remains of James Kivers were interred, the fife and drum band of the 
23rd Eegiment being in attendance. June 24th, an imposing turnout 
took place. The members assembled in force, and, marshalled by Wm. 
Niles, marched to the court-house where divine service was performed 
by the Eev. B. Cronyn. The brethren afterwards reformed and pro- 
ceeded to St. Paul's Churchyard, where they assisted in the ceremony 
of laying the foundation-stone of the present brick edifice, Samuel 
Peters wielding the trowel on that interesting occasion. On the 13th 
of August, Thompson Wilson offered the lodge a lot on Talbot street 
for a Masonic Hall ; but it was never taken advantage of. On Septem- 
ber 22, Sir A. N. McNab, Provincial Scottish Grand Master, was created 
an honorary member of St. John's, No. 209. 

In October, this year, the great fire occurred, during which the 
lodge-room was partially destroyed, and the meetings were held tem- 
porarily at Probart's hotel. On December 10, the old lodge-room was 
refitted, and business resumed there. Joshua Putnam was master in 
1845. Mr. Gidley, the secretary, was suspended for bad behaviour, 
but, apologizing, was restored. On February 26, Mr. Cleverly was 
buried, attended by the military fife and drum band. In the evening 
Mr. Gordon was presented with a silver cup for his services as secre- 
tary the preceding year. June 24, was, as usual, celebrated by 
attending divine service at the new Scotch church, Eev. B. Cronyn 
preaching. The procession was headed by the band of the 81st Eegi- 


merit, then stationed here. Hugh Falconer was master in 1846, and 

A. S. Abbott, treasurer. 

On April 16, several jewels were missing, and a committee 
appointed to make inquiries into the matter. On St. John's Day, the 
brethren marched to church, headed by the band of the 82nd Regi- 
ment, where a sermon was preached by Rev. B Cronyn. A. S. Abbott 
was master in 1847. October 23, the brethren assisted the Directors 
in breaking ground on the Great Western Railway. James Daniel 
was master in 1848. February 8, the lodge remitted the treasurer's 
dues (William Gordon), on account of losses sustained by him in 
endorsing notes for Probart. Gaudy was buried, February 27. H. 

B. Hewitt was master in 1849. On January 9, a new lodge-room 
was secured at Lewis's Hotel, and in the following April, a committee 
was appointed to rent and furnish a suitable place of meeting in the 
Robinson Hall (corner of Dundas and Ridout streets), for which pur- 
pose the sum of 51 10s. was set apart from the funds of the lodge. 
The new hall was first occupied on May 15. On June 25, the 
foundation-stone of the Union School was laid with Masonic cere- 
monies. The brethren marched in procession to the grounds, headed 
by the fife and drum band of the 20th Regiment, stationed here. The 
speakers on the occasion were, Simeon Merrill, Judge John Wilson, 
and Mr. Magill. James Daniel presented the lodge with a Bible, on 
November 27. In return for the gift, the lodge ordered a portrait of 
the donor to be taken, and placed in a frame on the altar. 

The installation of the officers was held on December 27, and, in 
celebration of this day, a grand ball was given. James Daniel was 
master in 1850-1, and on April 23 he was presented by the 
lodge with an address complimenting him upon his zeal and efficiency. 
On June 22, the suicide of Mr. Matthews took place ; in consequence 
of which the usual semi-annual St. John's Day celebration was omitted. 
The funeral was held on the 24th, the fife and drum band of the 23rd 
Regiment performing. 

A change was made in the election of officers, in which it was de- 
cided to hold them semi-annually in 1851. On March 11, a notice 
was given by Mr. Moore that the Grand Lodge of Ireland be requested 
to withdraw the warrant of 209, with a view to affiliation with the 
Grand Lodge of Canada. The motion was eventually dropped. On 
June 24, William Moore was installed Master. In the morning, the 
brethren proceeded to Port Stanley and installed the officers of Middle- 
sex Lodge, No. 211. On the 27th of December, J. M. Bennett was 
installed master for the first half of 1852. On June 24, 1852,- J. F. 
Rolfe was installed master. On July 13, the lodge met at eight a.m., 
and proceeded to St. Thomas in stages, with the band of the volunteer 
artillery in the lead, to assist Middlesex Lodge, No. 211, in laying the 
foundation-stone of the Elgin County buildings. In the cavity were 
deposited, along with the roll, the names of the brethren of 209. 

On September 13, the first presentation of a Past Master's jewel 


was made to Mr. Daniel. The brethren, or at least those thirsting 
for office, again made an attempt to break away, and on November 
9, Thompson Wilson presented, for recommendation by the lodge, a 
petition to the Grand Lodge of England for a charter for a new lodge, 
to be named " St. George's," with the following officers named, viz. : 
Thompson Wilson, W. M. ; A. 0. Stone, S. W. ; D. Sterling, J. W. 
The required recommendation was granted. On November 12, a 
motion was brought up to secure a site for a Masonic Hall. The pro- 
posed sites were, the spot where K. Mountjoy's fruit store now stands, 
and that of the Harris property ; but as they were without funds, and the 
lottery system in its infancy, it fell through. On December 27, James 
Daniel was installed master for 1853. On March 2, W. J. Harper 
and J. Burgess, being about to leave for Australia, were entertained at 
supper, and presented with an address by the lodge. On June 24, 
James Daniel was installed master for the latter part of 1853, and 
re-elected in 1854. 

S. P. Ayers was master in 1855. This was a year of considerable 
importance to St. John's Lodge. On April 10, the question of throwing 
off allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and affiliating with the 
Grand Lodge of Canada, came up for discussion, when it was resolved 
that it was expedient to take the necessary steps towards that object. 
During the evening the sum of 25 was granted from the lodge funds 
to the English Patriotic Fund. On May 8, the masters and wardens 
were appointed delegates to attend a convention at Hamilton, to con- 
sider the question of affiliation A. S. Abbott dissenting. There was 
no election on this occasion. On October 9, another delegation front 
209, in relation to the affiliation of the lodge with the Lodge of 
Canada, was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Daniel, Moffat and Abbott, 
to attend an adjourned convention at Hamilton on the following day. 
The result was that, at the next regular communication, October 13, 
it was moved that Messrs. Daniel, Moore and Scatcherd be a committee 
to draft a resolution to the Lodge of Ireland, to the effect that St. 
John's Lodge, 209, had ceased to work under its jurisdiction. On the 
27th it was further resolved that a necessity existed for the formation 
of an independent Lodge of Canada, 209 pledging itself, as a lodge, to 
maintain the same ; also, that the Grand Lodge of Ireland be requested 
to permit the Irish warrant to remain in the lodge. 

The Lodge of Canada granted the lodge a charter bearing the 
date of November 26, 1855, and registered as St. John's, No. 14, 
afterwards No. 20. On December 27, James Moffat was installed 
master for 1856. About this time the present Law Librarian Sim- 
mons became a member. This and the two following years were 
seasons of trouble and discord. On the 22nd of April, Kil winning 
Lodge was granted the use of 209 lodge-room to meet in. Shortly 
after this period a spirit of antagonism exhibited itself among mal 
contents in the lodge and sister lodges working under the Lodge of 
Canada, some wanting to join No. 14, and others to remain as they 



were. Immediately after this, everything relating to the lodge appeared 
in a state of chaos, on account of the new St. John's Lodge officers 
having taken all books in connection with 209. 

There are no records from July 8, 1856, to May 13, 1859. Any 
meetings that were held were informal. The loyal members, however, 
retained their old Irish warrant, and continued to work under it as 
209. On May 13, 1859, the installation of officers, which should have 
taken place in the previous December, was held, and Edward Garrett 
was chosen master. For some time previously the Grand Lodge of 
Canada refused to recognize St. John's, 209, as a lodge, simply because 
it preferred to work under the Lodge of Ireland. The second installa- 
tion in this year took place on November 16, with Edward Garrett as 
master. On the same date the lodge forwarded two years' dues to the 
Lodge of Ireland, and the initiation fee was temporarily fixed at $12. 
On June 20, 1860, the lodge moved its quarters to the new hall in 
the Albion buildings, Eichmond street, on which evening Edward 
Garrett was again installed master. On September 26, the secretary 
was instructed, by a vote of the lodge, to apply to St. John's, No. 20, 
for the records of 209, or copies of the same, held in its possession. 
On December 27, Bichard Irvine was installed master for 1861. 

The lodge now began to show signs of prosperity. On the 24th of 
June, George Taylor was installed master, and a dinner was given at 
Dulmage's Hotel. On July 10, a deputation from 209, appointed to 
visit the Grand Lodge of Canada, then in session at London, reported 
that they had been refused admittance. Mr. Tully, the representative 
of the Irish lodge, promised to visit 209 and explain, but failing to do 
so, a vote of censure was passed upon him by the lodge, and, on Novem- 
ber 28th, a resolution was passed to communicate with Eepresentative 
Tully, and request him to take immediate steps towards demanding a 
recognition of 209 by the sister lodges in London. At the same meet- 
ing, a letter was read from the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of 
Ireland, guaranteeing to sustain the rights and privileges of 209 as 
long as any of its members desired to remain under its jurisdiction. 
Edward Garrett was installed master, 1862. April 2, a proclama- 
tion was submitted, issued by the Grand Lodge of Canada, forbidding 
Masonic intercourse by the Canadian lodges with 209. On June 24, 
Francis Evans Cornish was installed master. On July 16, a letter 
was received from the Grand Secretary, announcing that in view of the 
action of the Grand Lodge of Canada, in forbidding intercourse with 
209, it had instructed its representative Tully, to withdraw from the 
Grand Lodge of Canada. This action proved, to a certain extent, effec- 
tual in bringing matters to an issue, for on November 20, a letter was 
read from Tully, announcing that the Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada, had revoked all edicts and decisions passed by said 
Grand Lodge, against 209, and had declared it entitled to full and free 
recognition by the Grand Lodge of Canada, and all her subordinate lodges. 
Francis Evans Cornish was master for 1863. The war was continued 


this year on the part of No. 20, with unrelenting vigor. On the 18th 
of March, Mr. Jacobs reported that he was refused admission to No. 
20, because he was a member of 209. After this, a more conciliatory 
tone was evinced by the opposing lodges, and efforts suggested by 
them to come to terms. To this end, therefore, on April 2, 209 
appointed a committee to meet similar committees from Kilwinning 
and St. John's, 20, to discuss the question. 

On June 24, an address was sent to the Duke of Leinster, con- 
gratulating him upon attaining the election of Grand Master of Ireland 
for the fifteenth time. On June 24, Francis Cornish was installed, and 
banqueted at the Francis Hotel. On December 28, Thomas Winnett 
was installed master for 1864, and presented Mr. Cornish with a past- 
master's jewel. The other city lodges still treated 209 as clandestine 
Masons. All the troubles was simply this : St. John's, 209, desired to 
pursue their labors under the Irish warrant, and the other lodges 
wished to prevent it ; and, as they could not, hence this treatment. On 
Feb. 3, Mr. Morrison was charged by Mr. Balkwill with exposing the 
grips and signs of the order in a public tavern. He was found guilty 
of the charges, and expelled. On March 2, a communication was 
received from St. John's, 20, to this effect, that if 209 would withdraw 
all claims to the jewels and furniture in the possession of 20, that 
lodge would surrender to 209 all books, papers, and other documents 
originally the property of said lodge : this was not acted upon. On 
April 27, it was reported to the lodge that the warrant had been stolen 
from the hall, and a committee was appointed to unravel the mystery. 
In the meantime, it was decided that a new warrant should be applied 
for from the Grand Lodge of Ireland. The committee could find na 
trace of the stolen warrant. 

On May 18, a proposition was submitted to the lodge from the 
joint committees of St. George's, Kilwinning and St. John's, 20,. 
offering a warrant from the Grand Lodge of Canada, free of charge. 
The offer was treated with contempt. On July 6, a new duplicate 
warrant to replace the stolen one was received from Ireland. Thomas 
Winnett was installed master in June. On August 17, word was 
received that the Grand Lodge of Canada, at its recent session, refused 
to take action upon Mr. Tully's representations respecting the Can- 
adian lodges. December 27, Eichard Wigmore was installed master 
for 1865, and in June following, S. W. Abbott. W. S. Smith was in- 
stalled master for 1866, and W. T. Fairbrother was installed for the 
second half-year. Small-pox being prevalent, the usual dinner was 
dispensed with. On December 27, James O'Connor was installed mas- 
ter for 1867. 

The number of meetings held this year averaged four per month. 
On June 24, A. S. Abbott was installed master. On December 27, 
David Buckler was installed master for 1868. On June 17, James 
O'Connor was charged with conspiring with other members to compel 
young members to sign a document calculated to subvert the govern- 



ment of the Grand Lodge of Ireland. On June *24, David Buckler 
was again master. Under the difficulties in which 209 labored at this 
period, and for some time before, the Grand Lodge of Ireland did 
everything to restore harmony, and instructed its representative, Tully, 
to lend his best efforts to attain this object : 209 received no satisfac- 
tion from Tully ; and, it was reported, that he was working for the 
interests of the Grand Lodge of Canada. Every thing that was possible to- 
be done to outrage 209 was done by the malcontents. The lodge collars, 
aprons, jewels, and other property were stolen, the windows broken,, 
and other indignities offered. Still, 209 remained solid ; although, on 
one occasion, it was necessary to get tin jewels and tin swords for 
the tyler. David Buckler was master in 1869. On June 16, it 
having been ascertained who were the guilty parties concerned in 
abstracting lodge property, a call was made upon Messrs. Ferguson, 
Morden, Thomas Powell, Fletcher and John Gray, to return the- 
articles. On July 21, Andrew McCormick was installed master. 

S. W. Abbott was master for 1870, and re-elected in June of that 
year. On May 18, the lodge contributed a sum of $50 in aid of the 
Masonic Boys' Orphan School, Dublin. On October 19, the lodge 
made another grant of $50 towards the Female Orphans' School, at 
Dublin. On December 21, Thomas Peel was installed master for 
1881; and June 21, a grant of 2 was sent in aid of the lifeboat service 
on the Irish coast. On December 20, John Shopland was installed 
master for 1872. This year opened with bright prospects. On April 
17, a motion was submitted to the lodge, " That, in order to restore 
harmony among the brethren, application be made to the Grand Lodge 
of Canada for a charter, provision being made that 209 retain its num- 
ber and be permitted to continue its present ancient Irish work." On 
June 19, the new warrant was received; but, no guarantee accompany- 
ing it that the lodge would be allowed to proceed in its present work, it 
was ordered to remain in statu quo until such guarantee was forwarded. 
On July 17, John Shopland was installed master. The guarantee 
referred to had by this time been received, of which the following is a 
copy : 

" Special permission granted, with warrant, to St. John's, 209(a), G. R. C. 
" To all whom it may concern : 

"This is to certify that St. John's, 209, I. R., meeting at London, Province of 
Ontario, having affiliated itself with this Grand Lodge, authority is hereby given to 
Master, Wardens and Brothers of said Lodge to continue their work as heretofore. 
" Given under our hand and seal of Grand Lodge this 9th day of July, 1872. 
"By command, 

"Tnos. B. HARRIS, Grand Secretary." 

The report was adopted, and the lodge, from that date, has worked 
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Canada, in harmony with 
other lodges. After installation, A. S. Abbott was presented with an 
address and a service of plate, for distinguished services said to have 
been rendered the lodge. On December 27, James O'Connor was 


installed for 1873, being the first installation under the new warrant. 
The ceremony was performed in concert with the other lodges, in their 
hall, Buckley's buildings, Richmond street. The lodge now returned 
to its old form of annual elections in December. The bitter feeling 
existing between the two St. John's lodges was not yet healed, for, on 
April 16, Mr. Hawthorn reported that he had been refused admission 
to No. 20. On motion, the Grand Lodge of Ireland was ordered to be 
communicated with, asking it to return the original warrant of 209, 
cancelled, that it might be retained and hung up in the lodge-room as 
a reminder of days gone by. On October 15, the committee on lodge 
accommodation reported that terms had been made whereby 209(a) 
might occupy the hall in which the other lodges met, in the Huron & 
Erie buildings, Richmond street. On December 17, Duncan McPhail 
was installed master for 1874. On February 18, the terms of agree- 
ment between the lodges for occupying the new hall by 209 (a) were 
signed, and, on August 1 9, the first meeting was held there. 

On December 27, Thomas H. Tracy was installed master for 1875, 
and re-elected for 1876. On November 11, 1875, a new organ was 
purchased at a cost of $250. On February 10, Mr. Burnett was pre- 
sented with a past-master's jewel. On December 27, Win. Hawthorn 
was installed master for 1877. Benjamin W. Greer was installed 
master for 1878. On February 9, Thomas Haskett was buried with 
Masonic honors. March 14, the lodge presented W. Hawthorn with a 
past- master's jewel, and on May 9, D. McPhail was made the recipient 
of a jewel. On June 20, the brethren attended the funeral of Wm. 
Taylor, and November 27, the remains of Mr. Rapley were interred 
with the usual rites. A. J. B. Macdonald was installed master for 
1879. On this occasion a past master's jewel was presented to Mr. 
Greer. On June 8, the funeral of W. S. Smith took place. On 
December 21 , L. Hessel was buried with the usual honors. On Decem- 
ber 24, William H. Rooks was installed master for 1880. On January 
S, the lodge presented A. J. B. Macdonald with a past-master's jewel. 
August 12, a grant of $50 was made by the lodge towards expenses 
incurred in the celebration of laying the foundation-stone of the 
Masonic Temple. 

Henry C. Owens was installed master for 1881. On February 10, 
Mr. Rooks was presented with the customary jewel. On November 
24, resolutions of condolence to the secretary were passed by the lodge, 
engrossed and framed, on the death of his two sons, one of whom was 
drowned in the Victoria disaster on May 24 of that year. J. S. Dewar 
was installed master for 1882, and they met for the first time in the 
Masonic Temple. On January 12, Mr. Owens was presented with a 
past-master's jewel. William J. Johnstone was installed master for 
1883. On January 11, Mr. Dewar was presented with an address 
and a past-master's jewel. On April 12, the secretary was instructed 
to communicate with the Grand Secretary and prefer a claim upon St. 
John's, No. 20, for the jewels and records of 209, which No. 20 held 


in its possession and refused to give up. On the 10th was the funeral 
of James O'Brien, of Dorchester. In July, of this year, the Grand 
Lodge was held at Ottawa, and J. S. Dewar, of this lodge, was elected 
junior warden. On August 9, notice was received from the Grand 
Secretary notifying the lodge that No. 20 had been ordered to produce 
and hand over to 209 a certified copy of its old records. On the same 
evening, one of the old sets of jewels belonging to 209, while working 
under the Irish register, and found among the effects of Mr. McMullen, 
deceased, were presented to the lodge by Mr. Baxter. These jewels 
were purchased in 1846, and abstracted from the lodge-room during 
the troubles of that period. The jewels are now in a case in the 
Masonic library. 

William Noble was master for 1884. On Feb. 14, a past-master's 
jewel was presented to Mr. J. Johnstone. The same evening the 
certified copies of the minutes of 209, from the year 1842 to 1854, 
were handed into the lodge in conformity with instructions from Grand 
Lodge. Alexander McDonald was installed master for 1885. In the 
early part of March, a very pleasant conversazione, under the auspices 
of the lodge, was held. A past-master's jewel was presented to Bro. 
Noble, March 12. April 9, an engrossed address was presented to each 
of the military brethren absent on duty in the North-west quelling 
the Kiel insurrection. The brethren were Messrs. Tracy, Peters and 
McKenzie. On Dec. 10, the Grand Master and other Grand Officers 
were present to see the work exemplified. The Most Worshipful 
was presented with an address, beautifully engrossed, and the party 
were afterwards entertained at supper in the banqueting hall. The 
same evening Mr. Abbott presented the lodge, through Mr. Cooper, 
with an ancient pocket-piece, some eighty years old, formerly belong- 
ing to John McDowell, one of the old members of 209. The watch is 
now to be seen among the other curiosities in the cabinet library. 
William O'Brien was master for 1886. 

On February 10, A. S. Abbott was, with due formality, made an 
honorary member. The lodge presented Mr. McDonald with a past- 
master's jewel. On May 6, the remains of George Taylor were 
interred with Masonic honors. On August 12, the lodge was 
honored by a visit from Henry Robertson, the newly elected Grand 
Master, on which occasion, the third degree was exemplified. On 
November 25, the lodge was officially visited by the D. D. G. M., of 
No. o District, R. W. Slater. A. E. Cooper was installed master for 
1887. In March, of this year, they visited Strict Observance Lodge, 
No. 27, of Hamilton, to give an exemplification of their work. On 
Wednesday, November 30, Hamilton returned the visit. On the 
27th of December, James Smith was installed master for 1888. So, 
after years of trouble, 209(a) remains the strongest and most popular 
lodge in the city. Richard Irvine is the oldest living member of this 

St. George's, No. 42, A. F. <Sc A. M., G. R. C. This lodge verged 


out of 209 in the year 1852, as will be seen in the history of 209, and 
is, consequently, the next oldest lodge now in existence in this city. Its 
warrant was granted by the Grand Lodge of England through Sir A. 
N. McNab, then Provincial Grand Master of Canada, dated November 
22, and called St. George's, 895. The following is a correct copy of 
the charter members: Thompson Wilson. Ashbell Charles Stone, 
David Sterling, J. M. Bennett, Thomas Basket, William Barker, 
Wm. Shiphin, Patrick Hennessey, and William Niles, who was a past 
master of Mount Moriah Lodge 773, and the founder of the village of 
Nilestown. The first meeting was held in Robinson Hall, Decem- 
ber 1, 1852, when the following officers were installed, in the order 
of rank, by Past Masters Shepphard, Bennett and Hennessey : 
Thompson Wilson, A. C. Stone, David Sterling, Parke, Hyman, W. 
Smith and D. Mackenzie. 

On December 21, this lodge acted in conjunction with 209 at the 
installation of King Solomon's Lodge, Woodstock. On the 19th of 
January, 1853, Lieutenant Charles Carnegie, of the 20th Regiment, 
was initiated into the first degree, being the first in this lodge. He 
being only 19 old, a special dispensation was granted by the 
Provincial Grand Lodge for his initiation. On June 24, the lodge 
went to St. Thomas to assist at the installation of a new lodge. 

On September 14, the master asked the lodge to advance the 
amount of a Royal Arch Warrant, about to be obtained from the 
Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of England, by a number of 
Royal Arch Masons belonging to this lodge, and which chapter is to be 
attached to St. George's Lodge. The amount was ordered to be 
advanced, and to be repaid as soon as the chapter was in a position to 
do so. About this time the members were anxious to build a hall, but 
not having sufficient funds, the subject was dropped, and they agreed 
to use the same hall as 209. On the same date, December 14, an 
invitation was received from St. Thomas Lodge, No. 232, to attend a 
ball to be held there on the 27th. On that date, Thompson Wilson 
was installed master for 1854. On January 11, the master ordered 
that if any of the officers absent themselves from the lodge without 
showing just cause, they pay the sum of sevenpence half-penny ; 
but this fine was afterwards abolished. An invitation was received 
from J. T. Lundy to assist at the opening of the revived Union 
Lodge, No. 494, Grimsby. This was accepted. The amount of work 
up to this time was very large. The following are some who were 
initiated : Frederick Brock, captain 23rd Regiment ; Jas. Duff, lieut- 
enant 23rd Regiment ; Richard Burrows, Ethan R. Paul, Wm. Warren 
Street, George Macbeth, John B. Smyth, Chas. Hutchinson, M. Holmes 
Hammond, Edwin Heathfield, and John Kipp Brown. On the 24th 
of June, this lodge joined with 209 at a dinner at J. McDowell'^ 
hotel, tickets being ten shillings each. On December 27, John Hard- 
ing was installed master for 1855. On June 6, the master appointed 
Messrs. Holmes, Hennessey and Muir to find a suitable room for the 


lodge. W. K. Muir was at this time connected with the Great Western 
Railway in this city. On June 24, they again associated with 209 at a 
dinner in celebration of the day. At the regular meeting, July 11, it 
was moved by A. G. Smyth, and seconded by Mr. Urquhart, that the 
delegates from St. George's Lodge to the Provincial Grand Lodge do 
use every lawful endeavor to support any motion that may unite all 
Masons in the Province of Canada under one Canadian Grand Lodge. 
This was carried ; only a few members objecting. Strife again began to 
show itself a little. 

On August 22, a lodge-room was procured on the fourth story of 
Whitehouse's building, corner of King and Eichmond streets, at a rent 
of 30. On September 5, the lodge attended the funeral of William 
B. Lee, of 209. On October 3, it was moved by J. B. Smyth, and 
seconded by J. K. Brown, that Mr. Harding be a delegate to the 
Grand Lodge, in Hamilton, on the 10th inst. This was carried, while 
the amendment by W. K. Muir, seconded by R. R. Grindly, that this 
lodge take no action relative to convention to be held in Hamilton, as 
they wished to remain under the Grand Lodge of England, was lost. 
This time things were getting in a bad state, for, at the same meeting, 
W. K. Muir moved, seconded by J. B. Smyth, that the master, wardens 
and the past-masters attend the meeting of Provincial Grand Lodge, to 
be held in Toronto, October 25th, and this lodge pay the expenses. The 
first meeting was held in the new hall November 7, when it was 
moved by J. K. Urquhart, seconded by Geo. Holmes, that the thanks 
of St. George's Lodge, No. 895, be tendered Mrs. S. W. Scobell for her 
valuable present to the lodge, the same being a cushion. By the minutes 
of this meeting, it was not allowed for any member to receive a degree 
unless he was able to pass a proper examination. On November 28, 
Mr. Muir moved, seconded by Mr. Grindly, that the thanks of this 
lodge be tendered to the members of St. John's, 209, for their kindness in 
allowing them so long the use of their room and furniture ; and, that 
they wish to reciprocate by offering the use of St. George's Hall to 
said members, provided they are allowed by the Grand Master. This 
motion was lost. 

In December John Harding was installed master for 1856. Among 
the members of this year are found Andrew Cleghorn, P. T. Worth- 
ington and T. W. Thomas. On March 12, the lodge was styled 
St. George's, No. 895, English register, and No. 35, Provincial 
register; for this reason, the Grand Lodge of Canada was in its 
infancy, and at least a dozen others were trying to get the lead, while 
nearly everybody was seeking office of some kind or other. On May 
28, the master read to the lodge instructions sent to him by the 
Provincial Grand Master, which were that he t was to suspend the 
members of St. George's Lodge who had formed Kilwinning Lodge. 
The Master, not wishing to be arbitrary in the matter, gave such 
members two months to consider their position. (The members' names 
will be found as the charter members of Kilwinning Lodge.) W. G. 


Chambers, in the heat of the debate which followed, refused to pay 
proper respect to the chair. He was admonished, and, upon apology, 
he was pardoned. On .June 4, Harding was appointed by the Grand 
Lodge of New York as their representative. On December 17, the 
petition from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Canada, wherein it 
requested the Grand Lodge of England to give them entire indepen- 
pence, was read. It was moved by P. J. Dunn, seconded by John K. 
Brown, that the prayer of said Provincial Grand Lodge be received and 
adopted. Moved by H. D. Moorhouse, seconded by T. Mackie, that 
this lodge request the Grand Lodge to use their best endeavors to 
secure the co-operation of the fraternity in Canada East, so that, if 
possible, it may be a Grand Lodge of Canada East and West. Both 
resolutions were carried, and a copy of the above sent to the Provincial 
Grand Secretary. 

On December 27, John K. Brown was installed master for 1857. 
This was a year of great importance to the lodge, for in it occurred the 
separation from the English Grand Lodge. On January 7, a sum- 
mons was read from the Provincial Grand Secretary to send delegates 
to a meeting of the Grand Lodge at Toronto, on the 8th. Past-master 
Harding was appointed ; his report was never taken any notice of. On 
the first of April, L. S. King was appointed. The first lodge of instruc- 
tion was held by the lodge, May 14, 1857. On June 17, a communi- 
cation from the Provincial Grand Lodge, desiring a full attendance of 
representatives, was received. It was then moved by Bro. Barnard, 
seconded by Bro. Mackie, that, inasmuch as the memorial sent to the 
Grand Lodge of England by the Provincial Grand Lodge, upon the sub- 
ject of complete independence, has not been even recognized, this 
lodge, therefore, resolves to alienate itself from the Grand Lodge of 
England, with a view to an amalgamation with the Grand Lodge of 
Canada, as such a step is conceived to be of immense importance to 
the welfare of the Masons in this country. The master, with Messrs. 
Harding and Wilson, were asked to attend the meeting, and vote in 
accordance with the foregoing resolution. No notice was taken of the 
report brought back by these members. Again, on September 2, the 
master and past-master were asked to act as delegates to the Provincial 
Grand Lodge, to be held in Toronto, September 7 ; at the same time, 
giving them full powers to act as they saw fit, saving, that the old 
charter be retained by them, and returned to the lodge. These members 
did act as they saw fit, for they brought back a charter, styling the 
lodge, St. George's Lodge, No. 37(a), G. R C. The first meeting of this 
lodge was held October 7, 1857. It was moved by A. G. Smyth, 
seconded by J. K. Brown, and carried, that this lodge receive the 
explanations of P. M. Carding as satisfactory, for giving up the warrant 
of St. George's Lodge, No. 895, E. K. 

St. George's Lodge, No. 895, did not cease to exist at this date, nor 
for some time after, as will be seen. After ceaseless bickerings as to 
which lodge owned the jewels and furniture, it was settled that they 


belong to No. 895. Among the members who remained under the old 
warrant, were Thompson Wilson, Edwin Heathfield, David Sterling, F. 
McMullen and Thomas Francis. No meeting was held, of which there 
are any records, until March 24, 1858, with Thompson Wilson as 
master. At this meeting it was carried that the lodge meet in St. 
John's Lodge, No. 209, and that the initiation fee be $40. Thompson 
Wilson was elected master. The following were declared members- 
elect, for the assistance rendered the brethren of St. George's Lodge, 
No. 895, in getting them together: Past-Masters, S. P. Ayres r 
Thomas Francis and James MofYat ; also William Pickett, Thomas 
Allen and T. F. McMullen. On July 26, 1858, it was moved by Mr. 
Heathfield, and seconded by Mr. Sterling, that the warrant of the 
lodge be returned to the Grand Lodge of England ; moved by Mr. 
Sterling, and seconded by Mr. Taylor, that the furniture, etc., be sold, 
and the proceeds applied to the purchase of K. Morrison's Masonic 
Library, and it be presented to the Masonic bodies of this city. The 
furniture was sold to John Thompson, master of Mount Brydges Lodge, 
Mount Brydges ; and so ended St. George's Lodge, No. 895. 

When the first meeting took place, with J. K. Brown, presiding officer,. 
John Smith was the first to receive a degree in this lodge, October 7, 
1857- This lodge was charitable, for on December 2, the sum of $5 
was granted to Mr. Lee, a travelling brother in distress. On Decem- 
ber 28, Kichard Eoe Grindley was installed master for 1858. The 
festival was celebrated in conjunction with St. John's, No. 20, and 
Kilwinning, No. 64. On January 20, a committee reported that 
Mr. Wilson, D. G. M., would agree to give St. George's Lodge, 37, the 
furniture, with this proviso : " That the St. George's Lodge, No. 895,, 
E. K., have the use of it twice a year while they hold the English 
charter." On March 3, it was moved that Mr. Wilson be com- 
pelled to give up the furniture without any conditions. Nothing 
would please either party. Finally this lodge had to leave the old 
room. They then moved to the hall occupied by St. John's Lodge, to 
which lodge the sincere thanks of St. George's, No. 37, were tendered, 
for the kind way they aided them in their trouble. On the same date, 
the thanks of the lodge were tendered to Kilwinning Lodge for the 
loan of their jewels and the many kindnesses rendered by them. At 
this same meeting, a resolution condemning the actions of Mr. Wilson 
was passed, but was expunged on the 7th of May, 1858. On March 
17, a concert was given in aid of the widow of Mr. Eugemer, the 
sum of $200 being realized. On April 14, the lodge attended the 
funeral of James Moffat, sen., of St. John's Lodge. This year J. K. 
Brown was appointed delegate to attend the Grand Lodge. 

The festival of St. John was again celebrated in conjunction with 
Kilwinning and St. John's Lodges. On September 1, circulars were 
printed and sent to the members of the late St. George's Lodge, 895, 
requesting them to state whether or not they considered themselves 
members of this lodge. 


On account of its being necessary to fill up the blanks sent from 
the Grand Lodge of Canada, the names were given, and now all is 
peace and harmony. On December 27, H. D. Moorhouse was installed 
master for 1859. Captain Wilson, P. D. D. G. M., acted as installing 
master. On this same date, the lodge presented J. K. Brown with a 
past-master's jewel. On March 2, the proceedings of the Grand Lodge 
were read to the lodge. On August 3, the secretary read a copy of a 
letter from the Grand Lodge of England to the Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of Canada, referring to the difficulties now amicably 
settled, in which the Grand Lodge of Canada was recognized by the Grand 
Lodge of England. On September 7, a communication was received 
from the Grand Lodge of Canada, with notification of change of number ; 
that, in future, the lodge should be known as St. George's Lodge, No. 
42, of London, Canada West, and was so registered in the Grand 
Lodge of Canada. In September, this lodge assisted Kil winning Lodge 
inlaying the foundation-stone of St. James's Church. 

On St. John's Day, D. D. G. M. Thomas Willson, with a staff of 
Grand Lodge officers, dedicated the new hall in ancient form, and in- 
stalled Thomas Mackie as master for 1860. At a special meeting, held 
April 11, the following resolution was moved by P. M. Moorhouse, 
seconded by Mr. Thomas Mahon, " That we, as a lodge, do hereby 
signify our disapprobation of the course of conduct pursued by Lodge 
.209, I. R., throughout, and request our master to refuse them admit- 
tance to this lodge until the views of the Grand Lodge of Canada shall 
officially be made known." On June 6, the master ordered that three 
medals be struck in commemoration of the union of Masonry in 
Canada, one of which was presented to R. R. Grindley as a mark of 

On December 27, Thomas Mahon was installed master for 1861. 
A little wrangling with Kil winning, over rents, characterized the busi- 
ness of the year. On December 27, P. J. Dunn was installed master 
for 1862. In the evening a ball was held in conjunction with the 
other lodges. On March 5, a communication was received from the 
Grand Master of Canada relative to three lodges working in an 
irregular and unconstitutional manner : St. George's Lodge, 643, St. 
Lawrence Lodge, No. 923, E. R., at the city of Montreal, and St. John's 
Lodge, No. 209, I. R,, at the city of London ; and requiring all Masons 
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Canada not to give 
countenance to, or receive into the lodge, any person hailing from the 
above-named lodges. On July 2, St. George's Lodge, No. 42, 
received an invitation from the master of Grand River Lodge, Berlin, 
to assist at the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of a church on July 
15. This was accepted, and the members attended. On December 
3, a circular was received from the Grand Master, containing his 
decision in the case of St. John's Lodge 209, I. R., enjoining the 
brethren to cultivate and exchange friendly intercourse with such 
lodge and its members. On the same date, a letter of condolence was 


sent to the widow of William Maldin. On December 27, George 
Burdett was installed master for 1863. On December 29, 1862, a ball 
was held at the Tecumseh House, lodges No. 20 and 64 attending. 
The amount of work done in 1863 was very considerable, and harmony 
prevailed. On December 28, Francis Westlake was installed master 
for 1864. 

On January 25, a special meeting was called by the master, in 
consequence of receiving an invitation from St. John's Lodge, No. 209, 
I. K., to attend the funeral of D. McPherson. After consulting the 
masters of St. John's, No. 20, and Kilwinning, 64, he decided upon 
calling this meeting to hear an expression of opinion from the members 
of the three lodges. After some discussion, they decided to attend, on 
April 6. M. D. Dawson, of St. John's Lodge, 20, stated, that he 
had been instructed to solicit the appointment of the past- masters, 
master and wardens of St George's Lodge, No. 64, as a committee, to 
act with like committees from Kilwinning, No. 64, and St. John's, No. 
20, for the purpose of trying to settle the difficulty, then exist- 
ing, between St. John's Lodge, 209, I. R, and the above named lodges. 
The committee was appointed. On May 4, a report from the joint 
committee was read. This was the offering of a warrant from the 
the Grand Lodge of Canada, to St. John's, 209, I. R., free of charge, 
which offer was treated with contempt, as will be seen in the history 
of that lodge. On October 5, a dispensation was granted by D. D. 
O. Master, to confer two degrees on S. Bigwood, of No. 4 Battery, 
R. A., in one day, on account of leaving the city. Charles S. Askin 
was D. D. G. Master at this time. On December 27, F. Westlake 
was installed master for 1865. 

On February 23, P. J. Dunn was buried by this lodge, as he had 
requested the Masons to do so, the priest having refused to perform 
any burial service. On March 1, it was moved by Herman Water- 
man, seconded by Mr. Ellis, that the members of St. George's Lodge wear 
mourning for the space of one month, as a token of respect for the 
deceased. On May 3, this lodge, in conjunction with Kilwinning 
Lodge, purchased a burial lot in St. Paul's cemetery. On the 24th of 
May, this lodge assisted at the laying of the corner-stone of the Pres- 
byterian Church, at St. Thomas. On June 7, an invitation was 
received from Eastern Star Lodge to attend a picnic at Port Stanley on 
Jiine 28. At the same meeting, at the request of the Master of King 
Solomon's Lodge, Toronto, Mr. Smith was raised to the sublime degree 
of a Master Mason. On December 27, H. Waterman was installed for 
1866. December 27, Thomas Mahon was installed master for 1867, 
and a ball was held at Tecumseh House in commemoration of the day. 
On April 3, the lodge attended the funeral of Mr. Taylor. On August 
7, a vote of thanks was tendered to Herman Waterman for the very 
efficient manner in which he had represented this lodge at Grand 
Lodge, and had paid his own expenses. 

On December 27, Thomas Beattie was installed master for 1868. 


On January 1, St. John's Lodge, 20, was granted one-third share 
in the Masonic burial lot in St. Paul's cemetery. On April 1, the sum 
of $200 was granted toward an entertainment for the Grand Lodge. 
On the 15th of July, the lodge attended the funeral of W. Griffith. The 
amount for charity that was expended this year was very great. On 
December 28, by consent of masters of the several lodges, a general 
lodge was opened in St. John's, No. 20, by Jas. MofFat, for the installa- 
tion of officers-elect for the ensuing year. G. Burdett was master of 
St. George's Lodge, No. 42, for 1869. During this year great efforts 
were made for the building of a Masonic Asylum, but they proved 
fruitless. On December 27, Wm. Skinner was installed by P. D. 
D. G. M., F. Westlake, as master for 1873. At the regular meeting, 
March 2, P. M. Baron de Gamin, of Industry Lodge, No. 86, London, 
England, gave a short lecture, which was well received. On October 

5, the master appointed Messrs. Burdett, Arnold and Balkwill to act 
with committees from the other lodges to procure a new lodge -room. 
On December 7, the committee reported having secured a room over 
the new building of the Huron & Erie Savings Society, at an annual 
rent of $125. 

On December 27, Isaac Waterman was installed master for 1871. 
On January 5, occurred the funeral of Mr. Hill. On July 1, this lodge 
laid the foundation-stone of the Charing Cross Hotel. On September 

6, Messrs. Smith, Skinner and Vinney, were appointed by the master 
to confer with the committees of the sister lodges, for the purpose of 
dedicating the new Masonic Hall the sum of $50 was granted by the 
lodge to assist in defraying expenses of said dedication . On December 
27, a joint meeting of the lodges was held for the purpose of installa- 
tion, and John Balkwill was installed master for 1872. On January 
3, the lodge was called for the purpose of attending the funeral of D. 
McKinney, of St. John's Lodge, No. 82, Paris. On June 30, the 
brethren attended the funeral of Thomas R. Westcott, and on July 2, 
that of N. Watson. The membership of the lodge increased very 
materially during this year. On December 27, by consent of the 
masters of the several lodges, a lodge was opened for the purpose of 
installing the officers elect, with F. Westlake presiding. W. F. Green 
was installed master for 1873. The first meeting was held in the new 
hall, on January 8 ; William Moore (land agent) was the first to receive 
a degree in this hall. On December 29, William Thornton was in- 
stalled master for 1874. On May 6, the officers presented the lodge 
with a silver water pitcher and goblets. William Watson was buried 
by this lodge on the 26th of October. On December 27, the lodge 
attended divine service at St. Paul's the sermon being preached by G. 
M. Innes, Grand Chaplain. William Green was installed master for 
the year 1875. 

On the 19th of May, there was some trouble about the formation 
of a lodge styled Eden Lodge, which was organized at that time ; also a 
motion, that the Grand Lodge grant Corinthian, 330, a charter. Decem- 



ber 27, William Fleming was installed master for 1876. February 2, 
William Green was presented with a jewel and an address. A sediti- 
ous Grand Lodge was formed at this time, consisting of members of 
the several city lodges. The members were ordered by the Grand 
Master to hold no intercourse with them, also requested the master of 
this lodge to confer degrees on members of Eden Lodge who so desired. 
December 27, H. E. Nelles was installed master for 1877; Dr. Sut- 
ton, installing officer. A. S. Murray was master in 1878 and J. C. 
Bennett was installed for 1879. This installation was performed in 
Corinthian lodge -room, K. W. Bro. Cascaden, installing officer. Febru- 
ary 5, past- master's jewels were presented to Messrs. Murray and 
Nelles. On June 4, it was moved, that this lodge assist the committee 
appointed by Grand Lodge, viz., Messrs. Moii'at, Lewis, Birrell, and 
Hungerford, to heal the members of the so-called Grand Lodge of 
Ontario, by starting a new lodge, to be called Union. On the 19th of 
December, the lodge attended the funeral of J. M. Bennett. Andrew 
Ellis was installed master for 1880. James Priddis was master in 
1881 ; Mr. Hungerford being installing officer. On April 6, the com- 
mutation of dues was carried. On June 1, a letter of condolence 
was sent to Mr. Skinner, on account of the loss of his daughter in the 
Victoria disaster. Same date the sum of twenty-five dollars was 
ordered to be sent to the Mayor (John Campbell), to assist the dis- 
tressed. On December 2, George Angus was installed master for 
1882. On February 1, the lodge presented P. M. James Priddis with 
a past-master's jewel, and on September 6, the first meeting of the 
lodge was held in the new Masonic Temple. 

On November 12, they attended the funeral of Adam C. Johnston. 
No business was done this year. On December 27, Thos. H. Brunton 
was installed master for 1883. On January 27, George Angus was 
presented with a past-master's jewel. On March 7, J. Gauld and J. 
Sargent received the first degree in this hall. On the 27th of Decem- 
ber, Thomas J. Burgess, M. D., was installed master for 1884. On 
December 29, Thomas Millman was installed for 1885. On the 31st 
of January, the lodge attended the funeral of James Heron. On the 
3rd of July, they attended the funeral of Lewis Olmstead. On the 29th 
of July, they attended the funeral of John Oliver. On October 17, 
they attended the funeral of John Watson. On December 28, Andrew 
Dale was installed master for 1886. On December 27, Wilbur R. 
Vining was installed master for 1887. On March 13, they attended 
the funeral of James Donnelly. On the 27th of December, H. Bapty 
was installed master for 1888. 

List of Deputy District Grand Masters of London District : James 
Daniel, 1856; Thompson Wilson, 1857; James Moffat, 1858; 
Thompson Wilson, 1859; T. Wolferstan Thomas, 1860; George 
Masson, 1861 to 1863 ; C. J. S. Askin, 1864-5 ; Francis Westlake, 
1866 ; John E. Brooke, 1868-9 ; George Billington, 1870-1 ; Francis 
Westlake, 1872 ; D. B. Burch, 1873 ; W. D. McGloghlon, 1874-5 ; 


Dr. James Sutton, 1876 ; J. M. BaDghart, 1877 ; J. Cascaden, 1878 ; 
JR. B. Hungerford, 1879 ; Robert McKay, 1880 ; William Milner, 1881 ; 
L. G. Jarvis, 1862 ; H. G. Lindsay, 1883 ; W. G.Lumley, 1884 ; John 
Simpson, 1885-6 ; Luke Slater, 1887 ; and C. N. Spencer, 1888. 

St. John's Lodge, No. W, A. F. & A. M., was chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Canada, November 26, 1855, and registered as No. 14, 
and is now called No. 20. The following is a list of the charter mem- 
bers:- James Moflat, William Thorn, John T. Mackenzie, William 

William Daniel, 1862; John Innes Mackenzie, 1863; John Barry, 
1864; John K Clare, 1865-6 ; R. Booth, 1867 ; James Moflat, 1868 ; 
Graham Glass, 1869; M. D. Dawson, 1870 ; William McBride, 1871; 
Robert Wallace, 1872; William Kollmeyer, 1873; R. Luxton, 1874; 
H. L. Kifner, 1875 ; John Wright, 1876 ; A. B. Greer, 1877 ; Henry 
Dreaney, 1878 ; Levi Hall, 1879 ; F. H. Mitchell, 1880 ; William 
McCadden, 1881-2; Joseph Hook, 1883; James Dunn, 1884; James 
H.Wilson, 1885; A. B. Greer, 1886; George Elliott, 1887; Joseph 
H. Marshall, 1888. James Moffat, P. M. W, G. M., is the only 
charter member left. 

Kilwinning Lodge, No. 64, A. F. & A. M., was chartered by 
the Grand Lodge of Canada, July 30, 1856, with the following charter 

members : William Muir, Wrn. Gore, Chambers, T. Wolferstan 

Thomas, D. Mclnness, C. M. Smith, S. W. Scobell, D. McDonald, S. 
A. Allen, T. F. McMullen, Thomas Francis, Charles Lea Davidson, A. 
C. Hammond. List of Worshipful Masters : William Muir, 1856 to 
1858; T. W. Thomas, 1859; John Harrison, 1860; James H. Flock, 
1861; Robert Lewis, 1862; David, Glass, '1863; John Wylie, 
1864-5; Robert Lewis, 1866; T. F. McMullen, 1867 and 1869; 
Morgan L. Morgan, 1868 ; John R. Peel, 1870 ; William Carey, 1871 ; 
H. A. Baxter, 1872; John Overall, 1873; John Ferguson, 1874; C. 
A. Sippi, 1875-6 ; Thomas Brock, 1877 ; R. B. Hungerford, 1878 ; W. 
R. Browne, 1879 ; James Smith, 1880 ; Rev. E. Davis, 1881 ; John 
Hargreaves, 1882; A. 0. Jeffery, 1883; A. L. McMullen, 1884; 
Henry Sutherland, 1885 ; J. H. Ferguson, 1886 ; Peter Birtwistle, 
1887; Charles C. Reed, 1888. Robert Lewis is the only charter 
member left belonging to the lodge. 

The Tuscan Lodge, No. 195, A. F. & A. M., was chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Canada, July 9, 1868, with the following members : 
Thompson Wilson, John Macbeth, Gilbert L. Barn well, James Moffat, 
Thomas McCracken, Edward De la Hooke, Thomas D. Mahon, John 
Beattie, Charles Hutchinson, John Henry Jackson, E. B. Griswold. 
The first master was Thompson Wilson, 1868 ; Alfred G. Smyth, 
1869-70 ; James Moffat, 1871 ; George S. Birrell, 1872 ; Edward De 
la Hooke, 1873-4 ; Charles Richardson, 1875-6 ; A. W. Porte, 1877 - 
R. W. Smylie, 1878 ; Charles F. Goodhue, 1879 ; Charles S. Hyman' 


1880 ; John Taylor, 1881 ; John Macbeth, 1882 ; A. W. Porte, 1883; 
E. W. Barker, 1884; William J.Eeid, 1885; George F. Durand, 1886 ; 
G. D. Sutherland, 1887 ; E. Paul, 1888. 

Eden Lodge, A. F. & A. M. A dispensation was granted to this 
lodge May 19, 1875, by the Grand Lodge of Canada. Charter mem- 
bers: Francis Westlake, John B. Peel, William H. Street, James F. 
Latimer, W. W. Fitzgerald, Daniel M. Bowman, William D. McGlogh- 
lon, Stillman P. Groat. Charles A. Conover, John H. Ley, and others. 

The first and only master was W. W. Fitzgerald. The lodge 
applied for a warrant at the annual meeting of the Grand Lodge, but 
it was not granted ; although E. W. Bro. Francis Westlake did his best 
to procure it. The only concession allowed by the Grand Lodge was 
that the work begun might be finished, and then for the Worthy 
Master to return the dispensation. A return of the work done was 
sent to the Grand Secretary, but the dispensation was not. 

February 7, Mr. Francis Westlake asked the M. W. the G. M. 
(Mr. J. K. Kerr) for a dispensation, either general in its terms, or to 
extend until the next meeting of Grand Lodge, that they might again 
apply for a warrant, but the M. W. explained to him that until the 
dispensation be returned, he, the G. M., could not trust him (Westlake) 
with another, nor would he say on what terms the new dispensation 
would be granted. On account of this interview and certain actions 
of other members of Eden Lodge towards the D. D. G. M., Dr. James 
Sutton, and having secured the incorporation of the Grand Lodge of 
Ontario, this lodge and the brethren were suspended by the M. W. 
the Grand Master. 

Corinthian Lodge, 330, A. F. & A.M., received its charter from 
the Grand Lodge of Canada, June 1, 1875, with the following charter 
members : William Fleming, William Mills, William A. D. Fraser, 
William Hayman, Samuel Crawford, Titus McNaughton, M. D. Daw- 
son, D. Y. Hoyt, A. M. Koss, James Cook, William D. Eckert, James 
Ardill, Isaac Waterman and James Campbell. The first place of 
meeting was Allister's Hall, Adelaide Street, London East. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the Worshipful Masters : William Fleming, 1875 ; 
A. M. Eoss, 1876, died 1880; James Cook, 1877; James Ardill, 
1878-9, died 1883. On December 27, 1878, the new Masonic Hall 
(Crawford's Block) was dedicated by E. W. Bro. Cascaden, assisted by 
E. W. Bros. Waterman, Tracy and Eev. Eichardson. Basil W. 
Hamilton, 1880, died 1883; Herbert C. Simpson, 1881; George F. 
Childs, 1882; Eobert Bonney, 1883; Charles N. Spencer, 1884; 
Alexander Irvine, 1885 ; Otto E. Brener, 1886 ; Frank W. Lilley, 
1887; J. J. Cuthbertson, 1888. 

Union Lodge, No. 380, A. F. & A. M., was chartered September 
10, 1879, with the following members : William Halton Street, Jas. 
Francis Latimer, George M. Becher, Eichard B. Hungerford, James 
Moffat, George S. Birrell, Eobert Lewis, W illiam w - Fitzgerald, 
William D. McGloghlon, Edward Lounsbury, William L. Judson, Joseph 


B. Sabine. David B. Burch, Edward K. Slater, O. J. Bridle, William 
Miller, John E. Peel, Daniel M. Bowman, Egerton E. Eobinson, Archi- 
bald McPherson, W. Y. Brunton, Charles A. Oonover, Alfred Y. Brown, 
Basil W. Hamilton, J. W. Jones, John C. Brown, Benjamin W. Greer, 
W. T. Edge, F. C. Hood. The masters of the lodge are named as 
follows : William Halton Street, 1879-80; L. G. Jarvis, 1881; E. 
E. Eobinson, 1882; Oliver J. Bridle, 1883: C. L. Sanagan, 1884; 
David Schwaitzer, 1885 ; James Peace, 1886 ; A. C. Stewart, 1887. 

Enoch Council, No. 10, K & S. M., received its warrant from the 
Grand Council of Canada, July '23, 1874, with the following charter 
members : James O'Conner, John Burnett, W. E. Browne, H. L. 
Kifner, Joseph Pigott, W. D. McGloghlon, H. A. Baxter, D. B. Burch, 
and William Thornton. List of Thrice Illustrious Masters : James 
O'Connor, 1874 and 1876 ; H. L. Kifner, 1877 ; W. E. Browne, 1878 ; 
H. A. Baxter, 1879 ; William Hawthorn, 1880 ; W. H. Eooks, 1881. 
No meetings have since been held, but the Council still holds the 

St. John's Chapter, No. 3, R A. M., G. C. C., was originally 
numbered 209, I. E., connected with St. John's Lodge, 209. The 
charter was granted May 13, 1844, by the Grand Chapter of Ireland, 
to the following members : John McDowell, Samuel Peters, William 
Gunn, Alexander S. Armstrong, David Coombs, James McDowell, 
George Code, Henry Groves, Andrew McConnick. The list of High 
Priests is as follows : John McDowell, 1844 ; Samuel Peters, 1845. 
No trace of the minutes from this date up to 1859 ; neither can be 
found the exact date of the different High Priests, viz., Joseph F. 
Eolfe and Edward Garrett, Joseph F. Eolfe, 1856-7. There was 
some trouble in the year 1859. The charter was surrendered by 
some and held by others, who continued to work at odd times, with 
Joseph F. Eolfe as High Priest. 

No minutes from May, 1859, to March, 1863. Edwin Heathfield, 
1861 ; James Moflat, 1862 (by Grand Chapter return) ; A. S. Abbott, 
1863; Eichard Irvine, 1864; George Taylor, 1865 ;-W. S. Smith, 
1866; James O'Connor, 1867; Andrew McCormick, 1868; S. W. 
Abbott, 1869 ; Eichard Irvine, 1871 ; S. W. Abbott, 1872 ; James 
O'Connor, 1873 ; while Thomas Winnett, Eichard Wigmore and F. E. 
Cornish were also High Priests of this Chapter. 

A charter was granted by the Grand Chapter of Canada, 13th of 
August, 1873, to the following members : S. W. Abbott, Andrew 
McCormick, James O'Connor, A. S. Abbott, John Siddons, George S. 
Birrell. Thomas Peel, Duncan McPhail, John Scandrett, John Burnett, 
Eichard Irvine, Joseph Pigott, Eichard Wigmore, W. S. Smith, Thomas 
Winnett and George Taylor. The list of First Principals is as follows : 
James O'Connor, 1873-6; Thomas H. Tracy, 1877; Duncan Mc- 
Phail, 1878; William Hawthorn, 1879-80 ; William H. Eooks, 1881 ; 
William Hawthorn, 1882-3; Benjamin W. Greer, 1884; John S. 
Dewar, 1885 ; Joseph Hook, 1886 ; Alexander McQueen, 1887 ; A. E. 
Cooper, 1888. 



St. George's Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M., received its warrant from 
the Grand Chapter of England, February 1, 1854. The charter mem- 
bers were : Thompson Wilson, Patrick Hennessey, J. M. Bennett, 
J. W. Little, G. F. Parke, A. G. Smyth, Mark Burgess, A. Walsh, 
T. F. McMullen. The list of First Principals is as follows : Thompson 
Wilson, 1854-55; Patrick Hennessey, 1856-57; Thompson Wilson, 
1858-59. A charter was granted by the Grand Chapter of Canada, 
March 8, 1860. The list of First Principals is as follows : Thomp- 
son Wilson, 1860-61 ; James M. Bennett, 1862 ; Thompson Wilson, 
1863-64-65 ; A. G. Smyth, 1866-67 ; Thomas F. McMullen, 1868 ; 
A. G. Smyth, 1869 ; Thomas F. McMullen, 1870; F. Westlake, 1871; 
William Carey, 1872 ; W. D. McGloghlon, 1873 ; H. A. Baxter, 1874; 
Isaac Waterman. 1875; K. Lewis, 1876-7; M. D. Dawson, 1878; 
John Ferguson, 1879-80; John Overell, 1881; Thomas Brock, 1882; 
Andrew Ellis, 1883 ; Albert 0. Jeffery, 1884 ; H. C. Simpson, 1885 ; 
Edward Burke, 1886 ; A. B. Munson, 1887-88. 

Kilwinning R. A. Chapter, No. 10, was chartered July 10, 1858. 
The list of Excellent Companions comprises the name of William 
Daniel, 1858-62. As there were no returns made to the Grand Chap- 
ter, the warrant was taken back August 11, 1863. 

London Chapter of Rose Croix, C. H. R. D. M., Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, was warranted by the Supreme Grand Council 
of England and Wales and the dependencies of the British Crown, 
July 14, 1868. 

July 13, 1888, Colonel McLeod Moore, Sov. G. Ins. G., 33; Capt. 
Thompson Wilson, 18; J. W. Merton, 32 ; William Eeid, 32 ; Chas. 
A. Birge, 32; William Edgar, 32; Hugh A. Mackay, 32; and Eev. 
James D. Gibson, 32, held a meeting in the Masonic Hall, and pro- 
ceeded to constitute the following brethren Knights of the Eagle and 
Pelican : Eev. St. George Canfield, Thomas McCracken, A. G. Smyth, 
G. T. Barnwell, Thomas B. Eobbs, Thomas B. Harris, James Moffat, 
Thomas Beattie, W. S. Smith, David Borland, Benj. F. Byron, and 
Thomas F. McMullen. 

Thompson Wilson was installed Most Wise Sovereign for 1868-70 ; 
James Moffat, 1871-3; William Simpson Smith, 1874-5; William 
Carey, 1876; Thomas Beattie, 1877; George S. Birrell, 1878; John 
Macbeth, 1879; Andrew W. Porte, 1880; James Priddis, 1881; 
Hamilton A. Baxter, 1882; James Ardill, 1883; Dr. James Niven, 
1884; I. Danks, 185; C. Norman Spencer, 1886; and John Shar- 
man, 1887. 

London Lodge of Perfection, No. A, Ancient and Accepted Scot- 
tish Rite, is worked under the same warrant as the chapter, but was 
started separately, May 30, 1884. The following is a list of Thrice 
Puissant Grand Masters : A. W. Porte, 1884-6 ; C. Norman Spencer, 
1887; J. D. Sharman, 1888. 

Sattanat Temple, A. A. 0. U. M. S., was warranted by the Imperial 
Grand Council of the United States, Grand Orient, New York, on the 

344 ftlSTORY OF THE 

13th of July, 1886. The charter members were John S. Dewar, Thomas 
Beattie, Joseph Beck, George S. Birrell, Albert E. Cooper, William 
Hawthorn, Frederick J. Hood, Charles B. Hunt, Alexander Irvine, 
Eobert F. Kingsmill, A. W. Porte, John A. Eose, H. C. Simpson, C. 
N. Spencer and W. E. Viniug. J. S. Dewar presided in 1886, and A. 
W. Porte in 1887. 

Richard Cwur de Lion, No. 4, K. T. & K. M., was wan-anted 
by the Grand Commander of England and Wales, May 29, 1857. The 
charter members were, Thompson Wilson, James Daniel, Peter James 
Dunn, Andrew McCormick, Andrew Walsh, John Stewart, William 
Grey. List of Commanders, Thompson Wilson, 1857 to 1859 ; William 
Muir, 1860; T. Wilson, 1861 ; Thomas McCracken, 1867-8 ; Thomp- 
son Wilson, 1869; James Moffat, 1870; A. G. Smyth, 1876; David 
B. Burch, 1877-8 ; Thomas H. Tracy, 1879 ; William Hawthorn, 1880; 
H. A. Baxter, 1881; Dr. James Sutton, 1882-3; John B. Smyth, 
1884 ; John S. Dewar, 1885 ; Herbert C. Simpson, 1886 ; Thomas 
Brock, 1887 ; William Hawthorn, 1888. 

The list of Eight Excellent Grand Superintendents is as follows : 
James Daniel, 1858-60 ; Thompson Wilson, 1860-2 ; Edwin Heath- 
field, 1863; Thompson Wilson, 1864; Charles Kahn, 1865-8; T. F. 
McMullen, 1869-71; John A. McKenzie, 1872; William Gary, 1873; 
Thomas McISTab, 1874 ; James O'Connor, 1875 ; George E. Murphy, 
1876 ; A. G. Smyth. 1877 ; Eobert Lewis, 1878 ; H. A. Baxter, 1879 ; 
St. George Caulfield, 1880 ; William Hawthorn, 1881 ; James Noble, 
1882; Eobert McKay, 1883-4; E. B. Hungerford, 1885; David 
Trotter, 1886 ; Samuel S. Glutton, 1887 ; Edward Burke, 1888. 

The Grand Lodge of Ontario was formed by Francis Westlake, 
John E. Peel, William H. Street, James F. Latimer and William W. 
Fitzgerald. These brethren, without the consent of one lodge, pro- 
claimed themselves a grand lodge, although there were at that time 
305 lodges, representing 16,000 Masons in active membership, and at 
least an equal number unaffiliated. They found many discontents 
and dupes, and flourished in a small way for a short time. Lodges 
were instituted in this city, also in -the surrounding towns ; but now 
all is passed, and only the name remains, for all the brethren of any 
consequence were healed at the formation of Union Lodge, 380, and 
King Solomon Lodge, 378. 

The Masonic Temple was begun May 12, 1881, when the following 
contracts were sold : For the brick work, Messrs. Goldsmith & Gar- 
rett ; carpenters' and joiners' work, Thomas Green & Co. ; cut stone 
work, John Matheson ; slating, George Eiddell; galvanized iron, 
Messrs. Douglas Bros., of Toronto ; plumbing and gas fitting, S. Saun- 
ders; steam fittings, McLennan & Fryer; plastering, F. Mclntosh; 
painting and glazing, W. Noble ; iron stairways and gallery fronts, 
Poulson & Eger, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; stone and wood carving, Holbrook & 
Mollington, Toronto. The gentlemen who have represented the stock- 
holders are : President, Col. Lewis; vice-president, Geo. S. Birrell; 



treasurer, H. Waterman ; directors, Messrs. W. J. Reid, J. Beattie, C. 
S. Hyman, I. Waterman, H. D. . Long, and J. Priddis. Of these, 
Messrs. Lewis, Birrell, H. Waterman and C. S. Hyman, composed the 
building committee. To Messrs. Tracy and Durand belong the credit 
of designing the structure and bringing it to a successful completion 
March 7, 1882, when it was opened with great ceremony. The con- 
tract price of the structure was $82