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II I S 'i' () I M 


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COUNTY OF llll)>u.\. 

NKW .Ii:i{SKV, 




"Ask now of the dnys that arc p»»t."— /WW*. 

•Forsan ct hxc oUm ine.iiiaisse juvabit."— H/vW. 

" 'Gainst the tooth of time 
And razure of oblivion."— ^<i*««/>"'"'. 



No. 89 LiBEUTY Street. 



I3UMM twHuaiwa 
B nil *b 


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

1 M M-: i^' xV C K 

In the suinmer of 1809, wliik> the author was in\ ;iij: 

the title to the land now owned by the X:itit>iml Stoni^u i «iin« 
pail}', near Coniniuni})aw, lu- liad occasion to cxaMiitie 80ino olil 
records. These awakened an interest in the i)ast <»t' tiiis vicinity, 
which has increased with the subsequent }*ear3 of research and 
toil. The following pages are the result. Whatever may be il« 
imperfections, the candid reader may safely credit the author 
with considerable " work and labor done and jK'rfornjed," a» the 
lawyers say, and an honest endeavor truthfully and impartiiilly 
to reproduce the past and perpetuate the present, for the pleji.">nre 
or profit of the future. 

Not a statement has been made without authority for its jiwti- 
tication ; not a fact which could throw light upon or add i: 
to whatever has happe?ied within the County has becti oniittt-d, 
so far as the same came to his knowledge. 

The records at Albany, Trenton, Uackeiisack, AmUn- ami 
New York, besides many books, i)ai)er3 and private niatuwripl*, 
have been consulted. These have been depended on in prefer- 
ence to memories a[)proaching the '' forgetfulnes^s of all thin|r».^ 
The County was no inconsiderable part of New Nethcrland, and 
its history is contemporary and its government one with New 
Amsterdam. This suggested the starting iM>int for investiga- 
tion. It has been carried from that point until the present time. 
There cannot be much doubt but many interesting facta have 

44X 10 


escaped discovery; yet, it is believed, somewhat has been found 
and recorded new and interesting to the reader. 

As, until a few years ago, the residents in the County were 
mostly comprised in a few families, the genealogies of these 
families ai'e here inserted. In their preparation much assistance 
has been obtained from the records of the old churches. These 
in that early day were kept in a manner which should make the 
keepers of modern church records ashamed of their carelessness. 

The sketches of some of the churches would have been more 
complete, had not persons who might be supposed to be inter- 
ested therein been quite so indifferent. 

To those who have by their subscriptions encouraged the au- 
thor to publish this work he is profoundly grateful, and trusts 
they may have no cause to regret their part in its publication. 

C. H. W. 

Jersey Crrr, Fehr\iary^ 1S74. 


CHAl'TKIt I.— l(!n!t-H;:{S. 

Claims of the onrly discovertrs— Arrival «>f Henry Umlson— Tin- -.f hJn 
expfdition— Discovery of Xt'wiirk Hny — Its hcvithI name's — Attarki-d by 
the Indians — Names of Hudfon's river — He anrliont in Wi'i'linwkfn C'ovp 
— Description of the country— The Dutch West India Cnniimny chart^Tinl 
— Plans of the Company to settle tlie country — Michael Pauw |>iirrhnji>*ii 
of the natives, Hoboken, Ahasimus, Aressick and Sfaten Islaml - Nain«ii 
the colonic Pavonia — First settlement in the County— Arrival of Fiout— 
Arrival of Van Voorst — Feast at his house in Ahasimiis — Contewt be- 
tween Pauw and the directors — He sells Pnvonia, - - - 1 2-'» 

CHAPTER II.— l(j:3S-l(!4ti. 

Arrival of Kieft — Settlement in the County — DitFicuItips with the Indians — 
Murder of Smitz — The people assemble — The twelve chosen — Van Vomt 
killed by an Indian Chief — Tht; river Indians tlee to Manhattan — Tlienco 
to Pavonia — Description of the settlements in the County — The Iniiiann 
enciunp near Communipaw — Kieft orders their destruction — Af ' i'»d 

slain by the Dutch — Communipaw Massacre — Terrible reventf ia 

a desolation — Treaty of Peace — Savages again on the W'ar|)ath— Van 
Vorst taken prisoner — Peace declared, - ■2»»-4r» 

CHAPTER III.— 104(5-1 ft-iS. 

Arrival of Stuyvesant — Murder of Simon Walingea at Paulua Hoerk — Con- 
ference with the Indians — Tracts of land taken up in the County— War 
again breaks out — Pavonia destroyed — All the settlers flee— !• ' re- 

turn their prisoners to I'aulus Hoeck — Detached settlement* ! — 

Persecution of the Quakers, i7 rtl 


Deed from the Indians for all the land in the County between ihi- Harken<»«rk 
and the Hudson— The Refugees desire to return to Pavonia— Forc.-d to 
concentrate — Petition to found a village on the Hill — Tho villaxv of 
Bergen begun — Its founders and nam«' — Its manner of -^ l and 

defence — Its first charter and court — Names of officer*- 1 ;.tr« or- 

dered to take out patents — A well ordered to be dug in the villm^re— Com- 
munipaw fortified, GJ-90 


CHAPTER v.— 16(54-1673. 

New Netherland captured by the Eaglisli— Sir Edmund Ployden's claim to 
Now Jersey— Governor Carteret reortranizes the court at Bergen— Speci- 
mens of suits in this court— Names of officers— People of Bergen take 
the oath of allegiance- First tavern license— Assemblymen elected— 
Carteret's charter to Bergen— Why he granted the land to the Free- 
holders. ----------- 91-11* 

CHAPTER VI.— 1673-1764. 

Tlie country recaptured by the Dutch— Bergen summoned to surrender— The 
people comply and take the oath of allegiance— The military power of 
Bergen organized— Controversy between Bergen and its dependent ham- 
lets^Pembrepogh and Minkakwa— Bergen sends her soldiers to New 
Orange— The country surrendered to the English— Condition of the 
Counly in 1680— Its villages and farms— Queen Anne's charter— Pro- 
vision for the care of the common land— Its final i)artition, - 115-136 


The Revolutionary War— How it affected Hudson County— Incidents of the 
war in the county— Fort Delancey— Capture of Paulus Hoeck— Block 
House Point— The Cow Chase— Desertion of Sergeant Champe, &c., 
&c., -.--.------ 137-199 


The Duel Ground at Weehawken — Duels between Aaron Burr and John B. 
(jhurch— George 1. Backer and Price— George I. Eacker and Philip 
Hamilton— John Langstaff and Oliver Waldron— Augustus Smith and 
Archibald M. Cock— De Witt Clinton and John Svvartwout— Richard 
Riker and Robert Swartwout — Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton — 
Isaac Gouverneur and William H. Maxwell — Benjamin Price and Major 
Green — Stephen Price and Captain Wilson — Commodore Perry and 
Captain Heath — William G. Graham and Mr. Barton — Henry Aitken and 
Thomas Sherman, ----- - - - - 200-331 

CHAPTER IX.— Frrries. 

Communipaw ferry— Weehawken ferry — Jersey City ferry — Bergen Point 
ferry — Hoboken ferry — Brown's ferry — Douw's ferry^Pavonia ferry — 
Budd's , ferry — Bull's ferry — De Klyn's ferry — Elizabethtown Point 
ferry, ---.-•----- 233-277 


History of Jersey City — Paulus Hoeck — Paulus Hoeck race course — Early lot- 
teries — British graveyard — Names of city officials — Consolidation with 
Van Vorst township — With Bergen and Hudson City — Asa port of entry 


— Water works — Post oHicf^ Bull luiitinjf— Kloatiii^r llumlrr- Tin- old 
wlndiiull — Ilidtory of Ber^fon — Its otUcerB — IltHtory of HiirriHon— Cnptnin 
William Sandfonl — Petersboroujjh — ilintory of AhaHiniuH— Wi*hi Indin 
C'i)inii!iny's farm — Th« Duko's farm History of Hohokm -Itn (Irstt imtii- 
j>ant — Math' into a city — ItsotlkuTs — Hir<tory of Norili HiTj^i-n -Sfi-jniruH 
— Three Pigeons — The Fn'ncliinaii'H garden — History of lltidm>n City- 
Its officials — Beacon race course — Horses running aiul lime luaile, 


Organization of the County — Its olRcers — Vote for location of court liou8<i — 
Laying corner stone — Address of Chief Justice IIornblf)\ver — Repn-st-ntn- 
tives in the Legislature — List of Freeholders— List of .Iiidges, IW-i-U-lft 


Roads, traveling facilities and trallic — Banks — Newspapers — Churciies and 
their pastors — Statistics of population, schools, taxes and crime, :j.'j7-423 

CHAPTER Xlll.— (ii;N.;.vLO(;ii:s. 

Van Vorst Family — Vreehmd Famil v^an Winkle Family- \ an \S agenen 
Family — Van Buskiik Family- — Van Ripen Family — Van IIi>rn Family 
— Newkirk Family — Garrabrant Family — Sip Family — Brinkerhot!'Fani 
ily — Schuyler Family — Kingsland Family — (lautier Family — Cadmus 
Family, - 424-.")«!l 


Conamunipaw — Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or Mill Creek Point — Columbia Acad- 
emy — Prior's Mill near Point of Rocks— Fortifications on Paulus Hoeck 
— The Lee Medals — Duel Ground at Weehawken — Tablet in Hamilton's 
Monument — Views of the ferry boat Jersey, &c. — Paulus Hoeck — Corner 
of Newark avenue and Grove street — The Van Vorst Mansion at Ahnsi. 
mus — Castle Point and Elysian Fields — Octagonal Church. KWO — He. 
formed Church of 177;! — The Van Vorst Mansion, corner of Jersey avenue 
and Wayne street — The Schuyler Coat of Arms— Retirement Hall. 


The Founders of Jersey City — Col. John Stevens and Edwin A. Stevens — lacob 
M. Merseles— Robert Gilchrist— Benjamin C. Taylor. D. D.— Rev. John 
Kelly — Stephen Vreeland— Jane Vreeland— Hartnu\n Vreelaml and wife 
— Colonel Peter Schuyler. 


Bergen and Buyten Tuyn in KJtiO- Part of New .lersey Roads to Newark- 
Part of Hudson County— Bergen and the S.1ii:\ l,r Mines. 


C II A I'T !•: K I . 1 COD — 16 38. 

Claims ot the t-arly I'iscDvtTL'rs — Arrival ol' Ilcury ilu'lson — The object of his 
expedition — Discovery of Newark Bay — Its several names — Attacked 
by the Indians — Names of Hudson's river — lie Anchors in VVeehawken 
Cove — Description of the country — The Dutch West Inilia Comjiany 
chartered — Plans of the Company to settle the country — Micha<'l 
Pauw purchases of the natives, Hoboken, Ahasimus, Aressick and Staten 
Island — Names the colonie, Pavouia — First settlement in the County — 
Arrival of Bout — Arrival of Van Voorst — Feast at his house in Ilarsimus 
— Contest between Pauw and the Directors — lie sells Pavonia. 

CoNCKRNixo the discovery of the luirlwr <>t" New York Jitid the 
adjacent countrv much hasheeii written, and ditiVrent conclusion.s 
reached. It may, liuwever, be safely asserted that the honor of 
its discovery does not belong- to the distinguished commander ot 
" de Halve Maan." In IIDT, Jean and Sebastian Cabot, imder 
commission of Henry VII. of Kngland. sailed along the coast of 
Nortii Aiiiei-ica, and claiuicd tor tlieir master the entire country, 
the shore nf wliidi they occasionally saw at a distance.* 

In 1524, Jean de Verrazzano, a Florentine, in tlie service ot 
Francis I., King of France, is supposed to have visited the bay of 
New York.'- Governor Stiiyvesant, in his '' Manifesto *' to the 
Governor of Maryland, says: "The French were, in the year ot 
our Lord God Almighty 15:24, the second followei-s of the (h's- 
covery in these northern parts of this America by Johan de 

' O'Cal.. N. N., t.,2(3. ' BnncrojX. U. S., i.. 17 

3 Col. Hist, of N. y.,i., 149. 


In 1525, Estevan Gomez, a Portuguese in the service of the 
Emperor, Charles V., who had fitted out the expedition for the 
purpose of discovering a shorter passage to the Mohiccas,^ visited 
the bay of New York, How thorougli his explorations were is 
not known. As late as 1679 there was a tradition among the 
Indians that the Spanish were here before the Dutch, and that 
from them the natives obtained the maize or Spanish wheat."' On 
Ribero's map, which embodies the outlines of the map of Gomez, 
the whole country, from New Jersey to Ehode Island, is called 
the land of Estevan Gomez? 

In 1598, some Dutch in the employ of the Greenland Com- 
pany came into the bay of New York, and, intending to use it 
for winter shelter, erected a " little fort " against the incursions 
of the Indians.* 

By virtue of the discoveries of Yerrazzano, Henry lY. of 
France, in 1603, gave to Des Monts that portion of the country 
lying between the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north lati- 
tude. This included the greater part of New Jersey. But the 

1 Biddle's Life of Cabot, 271. 

2 Long Isl. Hist. Soc, i., 373. ^ Hudson's Sailing Diiections, 45. 

•> Col. Hist, of N. T., i., 149. In a letter (now in my possession) written by 
Robert Morris of New York to Abraham Ogden of New Jersey, dated Nov. 4, 
1785, occurs tlie following passage : " The only valuable property at Pavonia 
was within a fort which continued necessary for its original purposes, to wit : 
a defence against the Indians," etc. Where Mr. Morris obtained his authority 
for the statement it would be difficult to tell. 

It is proper to bear in mind that the Dutch generally denied all discoveries 
of the Hudson river prior to 1609 ; at least they denied that the natives recol- 
lected, or even had a tradition, that the bay had ever been visited by white men. 
Van Der Donck, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1643 and wrote a descrip- 
tii)n of the country in 1653, says : " The Indians, many of whom are still living, 
and with whom I have conversed, declare freely that before the arrival of the 
Low Land ship, the Half Moon, in the year 1609, they did not know that there 
were any other people in the world than those who were like themselves, much 
less any people who differed so much in appearance from them as we did." iV. 
Y. Hist. Soc, N. S., 137. The poetical account of the first arrival of Euro- 
peans at York Island which the Rev. John Heckewelder, a Moravian missionary 
in Pennsylvania, received from the Indians, bears out the same belief, that 
Hudson was the first white arrival. Ibid, 71. The weight of evidence, how- 
ever, seems to be against the position. 


ji;riint i»t the Frciuli Ivinu' \v;is ii^iiorcil hy .liiiiu'.-. I. nf Kii;^lan<l, 
who, in 1006, granted t(» Edwanl Maria Wiii^'tieliP ami his 
associates, under tlie name of the So'tf/i Yinjhiia or Lnmlou 
Compaiuj, tlu- land Ketweeii the tlnrty-fourth and forty-fii-st de- 
grees of nortli hititude, and to the jVori/i Vinjinia Comjxunj he 
irave tlie land Iviniz: l)etweeii tlie tliirtv-ei<;litli and fortv-tit'th do- 
grees of north latitude.^ 

While these buhl naviijators were facinj]^ tlic dan<;ers of un- 
known seas, and iiionarehs were elated at the prospect of extend- 
iiif their swav over a new and wonderfid land, events were trans- 
pirini; in Europe which were destined to plant an enij>ire on tia- 
banks of the Hudson. Notwithstanding the severe measures 
adopted by Charles Y. and Philiji II. to destroy the freedom an<l 
enterprise of Holland, that indomitable people not only baffled 
their foes in the field, but, in the midst of their cruel oppressions 
and the tires of long years of wars, kept alive a keen appetite 
for trade and adventure, and extended their commerce to every 
sea. The Spaniards had attempted to destroy the Dutch trade to 
the Indies, and the Xetherland merchants now boldly sought 
a route to that EI Dorado by the way of the northwest. 
To accomplish this, Henry Hudson, whom the Dutch writers 
call ''the bold Englishman," was induced to enter the service 
of the Dutch East India Company, He was an experienced 
navigator, had already, under the patronage of some London 
merchants, made two attempts (in 1007 and It'.OS) to discover 
his favorite passage, and still had unshaken faith in final success. 
The Company put him in command of a yacht or " VI ie l)oat"' 
called the Half Moon,^ of thirty lasts^ burden, and manned by a 

1 Wingfield was one of the Councillors of the Virginia Company of London, 
and chosen its first president. He was a grandson of Sir Robert \Vingfi«'ld of 
Huntingdonshire, and son of Thomas Maria Wingfield, so .-hristrncd hy liufon 
Mary and Cardinal Pole. Camden iioc. Pub., 3'c'. 43. He invested I'HS in tiu« 
venture. Force's Coll., Hi. 

2 It will be observed that the two grants lap between th.- Ustli and ll.^t de- 
grees. Why this was so, unless to reduce the prior grant, I do not know. 

3 So called from being built to navigate the Vlie, or Texel. The name i.-* now 
corrupted into " Fly Boat." * t>e Halve Maan. 

5 A last is nearlv two tons— zirmtrtc can 4,000 pond. 



crew of twenty, partly Dutch and partly English. By his agree- 
ment with the Company, dated January 8, 1609, he was to sail 
about the first of April in search of a passage by the north side 
of Nova Zembla, and to continue along that parallel until he was 
able to sail south to the latitude of sixty degrees, and then hasten 
Ijack to report to his employers. For this service he was to 
receive eight hundred guilders, and in case he did not come back 
within a year, then tliey were to give his wife two hundred 
guilders more. In case he found the passage, then the Comijany 
were to reward him " for his dangers, trouble and knowledge in 
their discretion." He was ordered " to think of discovering no 
other routes or passages except the route around by the north and 
northeast above Nova Zembla ;" but if this could not be accom- 
plished at that time, " another route would be the subject of con- 
sideration for another voyage."^ Bound by his instructions not 
to go south of the sixtieth degree of north latitude, he sailed 
from the Texel, April 6, 1609. Disregarding his instructions, 
however, in his anxiety to discover his favorite object, he coasted 
along from Newfoundland as far south as the Chesapeake, and, 
returning, cast anchor inside of Sandy Hook, on the third of 
September. Before him rose the Highlands of the Navesinck, 
while upon his left lay the shores of Monmouth. He pronounced 
the surrounding country " a very good land to tall in with, and 
a pleasant land to see.'' Here he lay for a few days, cultivating 
an acquaintance with tlie Indians, who seemed highly pleased 
with the pale face. " The people of the country came aboard of 
us, seeming very glad of our coming, and brought green tobacco, 
and gave us of it for knives and beads. They go in deer-skins 
loose, well dressed. They have yellow copper. They desire 
clothes, and are very civil."^ On the morning of the sixth, 
John Colman, with four men, was sent to sound the river 
opening to the north. Passing through the Narrows, they found 

' Henry Hudson in Holland, by H. C. Murphy. 

2 Called by the Indians, Naosh, i. c, a point surpassing all others. 

3 Juet's Journal of Hudson's Voyage. N. T. Hist. Coll., N. S., i., 323. 


*' a very good riding for ships, "^ iiiid "a narrow river t<» the west- 
ward between two islands.''- 'I'hcv found the shores on hotli 
sides " as pleasant with (irasse, and Mowers, and goodly Trees, as 
ever they had scene, and very sweet smells came from them. 
So they went in two leagues and saw an open sea.'" On their 
return they were attacked hv twenty-six Indians in two canoes, 
and Coliiiaii was killed.' His remains were interred at Sandy 
Hook, and the s})ot was named Colman's Point.'* ( )n the eleventh 
Hudson passed through the Narrows and anchored near the month 
of the Kill Van Ivull, "and saw that it was a very good harbor 
for all winds." The next afternoon he went up the bay six miles 
— about opposite Comiuunipaw. The surrounding country im- 
pressed him with being '' as pleasant a land as one need tread 
upon." At seven o'clock the next morning he hoisted anchor 
for the exploration of the lordly river, which he hoped would 
lea<l liim to the Indies; but whicli, instead of bearing his trusty 
ship to the shores of the Orient, will, as long as its waters roll on 

' Hudson's Jonrnal. This was the upper bay, or " Great Bay," as Van Der 
Donck calls it, J/bw^tort, i., 214, or quasi per excellentiam, '• The Bay." N. T. 
Hist. Soc, N. S., %., 140. 

* This wag the Kill van Kull, or Het Kill van het Cull, i. e., the creek of 
the bay. A /dll may be eltlur an inlet or an outlet. The name is now applied 
to the outlet of Newark Bay. At one time the same name was applied to Pin 
home's Creek, which is an inlet. At times it has been called After Skull River 
and Kill ran Corlr. 

This was Newark Bay, afterward called Het Achtcr Cull, \. i\, the back 
bay, to distinguish it from " The Bay," or New York Bay. By the Dutch it 
was also written Aghter and Achter Coll, N. Y. Hist. Soc, 2d, S., »., 93 : and by 
the English Aftrr Coll, Col. Hist, of iV. T., ii.. oTO, and applied to the territory 
bordering on the Kills, between Elizabeth and Amboy, as well as to the bay 
itself. It was afterward corrupted into Arthur Cull and After Kull. 

< This attack was probably made at tlw; mouth of the Kill van Kull. It is 
also probable that the canoes were from Manhattan, for the Indian."* on the .Jer- 
sey shore visited the shii) the next day, and seemed to be ignorant of what hail 
happened. This, I think, would not have been the case had the attack b<»en 
made by any of their neighbors on the west side of the bay. It must rI!*<i !>«• 
borne in mind that there was no intercourse between the tribes on the opposite 
sides of the river. They were infe.msn>ni hostrs. Moulton, i., 219. 

5 aCal., N. N., L, :J6 ." .Y. T. Hist. Col , i.. 324. 


to the sea, bear his name down to posterity.^ He did not return 
until the second of October, when, having been attacked by the 
Indians at the head of Manhattan Island, he bore gradually across 
the river, and anchored in Weehawken Cove, just above Castle 
Point.- On the fourth, witli fair weather and a northwest wind, 
he weighed anchor, and, bidding a final adieu to the river he had 
explored, passed through the Kills to Amboy, and thence stood 
out to sea.^ 

' The Hudson River has had many names, some of them striking and beau- 
tiful. The Iroquois called it CohoMtatea, i. e., " the great river having 
mountains beyond the Cohoh." The Mohegans called it the Shatemiic, i. e., 
"the place of the pelicans." The Delawares named it MaMcan-ittuck, i. e., 
■' the River of the Mohegans." By the Spaniards it was named Rio St. Antonio, 
in honor of St. Anthony ; Eio de Montaigne, from the mountains through 
which it flows. Dr. Asher thinks they also called it Rio de Oomez, in honor of 
the navigator. Hudson's Sailing Directions, 47. The French called it Reviere 
des Montaignes. The Dutch named it De Oroote Rivier, because of its magni- 
tude ; Noordt Rivier, i. e.. North River, to distinguish it from De Zuydt Rivier, 
i. e., South River, or Delaware ; De Groote Noordt Rivier van Nieiiio Neder- 
landt, i. e., The Great North River of New Netherland; Mauritius, in honor of 
Prince Maurice (Watson, Historic Tales, 21, and Schoolcraft, Proc. N. Y. Hist- 
Soc, 1844, 94, say that this last name was not applied until 1623, but Broadhead, 
i., 45., says it was already thus known in 1611) ; Riviere van den Vorst Mauri- 
tius. Col. Hist, of N. Y.,i., 13. It was also called The River of Pavonia, IMd, 
151, and The River of Manahata. The people of New England called it The 
Mohegan River. It was reserved for the English to honor their brave country- 
man by naming it Hudson's Riv r. 

2 Juet's language is this : " Within a while after we got down two leagues 
beyond that place, and anchored in a bay clear from all danger of them on the 
other side of the river, where we saw a very good piece of ground ; and hard 
i y it there was a cliff that looked of the color of white green, as though it were 
either a copper or silver mine ; and I think it to be one of them by the trees 
that grow upon it ; for they be all burned, and the other places are as green as 
grass." iV. Y. Hist. Vol., N. S., i., 331. The description answers to Hoboken in 
every particular. The only ditficulty about it is, he says, " It is on that side of 
the river that is called Manna-hata." One of two things I think is certain, 
either he intended this last remark to apply to the place where the Indians at- 
tacked the vessel, or the translator is in error. 

3 It was during this visit that the whites introduced to the Indians the most 
deadly enemy of their race. They were not slow to learn that wine tastes bet- 
ter than water., and the wild joy of one debauch gave strong invitation to an- 
other. While they were a free people, unaccustomed to servitude, and therefore 

i)p:scKii''noN »tK Till-: coixtkv. i 

A lrliimij,li lludadU failed in the cliroct ul)juft ot liis amltition, 
to liiii) mu^t be accorded the lionur of making known to Kumpe 
the finest liarhor of tlie western worM and the ii;reat river which 
is an endnriiiu' iiinnunu'Ut to his memory. He had incidentally 
opened to the old world the lo\eliest and richest part of the 
new. where nature ^eeineil to have scattered her trifts from a full 
h;ini|. The forests ahonnded in all kinds of nsefnl and orna- 
mental trees, many of them bearinijj tielicious fruit. Vines i^rew 
everywhere, yieldini;- in abundance. Plants of nearly every 
variety grew in great profusion, useful for food and for medicine. 
Through the forests i-oamed innumerable l)urtaloes, panthers, 
bears, deer, elk, foxes, wildcats, wolves, raccoons, beavers, otters, 
musks, hares, rabbits, squirrels and ground-hogs. These invited 
the Indian to the chase, for they supplied him with both food and 
clothing. The fowls of the air were numerous and of great 
variety. In the waters of the bay and i-iver life was not less 
active and varied. At tiines the bay appeareil to be alive with 
water fowl. The swans, similar to those in the Netherlands and 
'" full as large,"' were so numerous that the water and shores where 
they resorted aj)pearcd " as if dressed in white drapery.'"' There 
were three kinds of wild geese, so numerous that sixteen were 
killed at a shot ; ducks, widgeons, teal, brant, blue-bills, whistlers, 
coots, eel-shovelers, and pelicans,'^ with many strange fowls, .some 

liad ni)t in tluMr language a word to express " subjection," so, being a temper- 
ate people, unused to •' hot and rebellious liquors,'" tUey had no word in their 
language to express " drunkenness.." It was left to the pale face to name the 
monster they had brought to the red man. 

» N. y. Hist. CoL, iV. S., i., 174. Tiie upland which lay in the vicinity of 
the intersection of Grand strt^et and Hudson avcnuo was known by the Dutch 
from the earliest times as Swane Punt, i. e., Swan's Point. It is probable that 
the place received its name from the fact that it was the resort of the swans in 
the brooding season. 

- Watson, in his Historic Tales of the Olden I'iinis, and Schoolcraft, Pr<h-. y. 
V. Hint. Soc, 1841, 94, say it is not known that jx-licans ever visited the waters of 
New York. Van Der Donck speaks of them as common. The Mohegans who lived 
on the banks of the Hudson named the rivi-r Sh'iteinif, from Shuitii. a |H'lican. 
and lie, denoting locality or place, hence the name showed it to be the p'lve <>/ the 
pelican. From the fact that they imposed their name upon the river which 
they frequented. I conclude that th^y mu.-<t have been very numerous. 


of which were nameless. Many of these have long since forsaken 
the neighboring waters. The river and bay were rich in many 
kinds of fish, among which were whales.^ Among the shell-fish 
were lobsters, some of them " being from five to six feet in 
length," and oysters, some of which were " fit to be eaten raw," 
others were " proper for roasting and stewing,'' each of which 
Avould " fill a spoon and make a good bite."^ 

It was natural that such an abundance and variety of food 
should have atti'acted to the neighboring shores numerous tribes 
of Indians. Many were settled in the vicinity at the time of 
Hudson's visit. Those inhabiting the present State of New Jersey 
and the neighboring parts of New York were of the general stock 
of the Delawares, or Lenni Lennape,^ but were divided into two 
branches, called by the English Mohegans and Mincees, or Mon- 
seys, and by the Dutch Manhikans and Sanliikans.^ The Mo- 
hegans dwelt on the east side of the river, and were the heredi- 
tary enemies of the Mincees or Sanhikans, who dwelt on the west 
side.^ These were divided into numerous tribes, and these again 
into clans. On New York Island dwelt the fierce Manhattans." 
De Laet says they were " a wicked nation," " a bad race of sav- 

' In 1647 two whales ascended the Hudson as far as Cohoh, N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
N. S., i., 143, possibly, like their enterprising predecessor, seeking a northwest 
passage to the Indies ! In the Weekly Post Boy of Dec. 11, 1752, is the follow- 
ing item : " Last Saturday a whale 45 feet long run ashore at Van Buskirk's 
Point, at the entrance of the Kills from our Bay ; where, being discovered by 
people from Staten Island, a number of them went otf and killed him, and may 
now be seen at Mr. John Watson's, at the ferry house on Staten Island." 

2 Van Der Douck's " New Netherlands." JSf. Y. Hist. Col, N. S., i., 177. 

3 Original or unmixed race ; manly men. 

4 This word, according to Heckewelder, is derived from " sankhican,"' which 
signifies fire icorks, and means the fire workers, or fire work people. 

5 Broadhead, i., 73. The Sanhikans were sometimes also known as the Wa- 
bingi, or Wuppinges. This latter name is derived from the Delaware word Wa- 
ping, signifying Opossum. They inhabited the western shore from the mouth 
of the river to the Catskill. They were divided into tribes, which hereabouts 
■were the Raritans. Hackingsacks, Pomptons, and Tappaens. 

6 Mon-ah-tun-nk, place of the dangerous river, i. e., Hell Gate, and applied to 
the inhabitants of the adjoining island. They were the people of the whirlpool. 

THE EFFECT OF hudson's voyaoe. 9 

ages," " enemies of tlie Dntoli." On Lom^r Ishmd' wore tlie siiivape 
Metouwacl-!^, ^'ub(livi(k'd iiit(.> nuiiu'nuis tril>t's. The Iiulijiiis on 
the west side ut" the Hudson were a better ])eo|)le than the ^f)ln- 
hattans. They carried on considerable traflic with the Diitrh, 
exclian<i::in<; corn, beans and squashes- for trifles. Ainonp tlie 
Sanhikans some have sujiposed Hudson landed.^ If he landccl 
at all during his stay in the upper bay, of which, however, there 
is no record, it was, beyond a doubt, on the west shore. There 
the natives were friendly, while on the opposite shore they were 
])Ositive enemies. Every iiulucement which could have ]>er- 
suaded him to land existed in favor of tlie Jersey shore. The 
natives between Beriijen Point and Weehawken had extended to 
him many acts of kindness, and were neifjhbors and relatives of 
those in the vicinity of Sandy Hook, with whom Hudson lield 
intercourse for some days. 

The report of Hudson's voyaj^je, on his return in the summer 
of 1010, awakened among the merchants of Holland a great de- 

' Called by the natives Seican-hacky , i. e., " the land of ehells " — the place 
where the Indians coined their money. 

AKtittnsquash, i.f.,"viiie apple." jy. Y. Hist. Soc.N. S., i.. ISI!. Van Der I'onck 
speaking of the pumpkin, says : " It grows here with little or no labor, and 
need not yield to the apple for sweetness, so that the English, who generally 
love whatever tastes street, use it in their ]iies." 

3 Rt'V. Mr. Abeel, whose MS. is quoted iu Moiilton. i., 21i^, says that on tlip 
point where New York is now built, Hudson found "a very hostile people. 
But those living on the western shore from the Kills upward cnme daily on 
board the vessel while she lay at anchor in the river, bringing witli them to 
barter, furs, the largest and finest oysters, Indian corn, beans, pumi'kins. 
squashes, grapes, and some apples, all which they exchanged for trifles : Ilert 
Hudson landed." 

At the time of Hudson's visit there were four islands near the .lersey shore, 
viz.: Ellis Island, or Bucking l.«land, called by the Indians Kio»hk, "Gull 
Island;" Bedlow's or Kennedy's li^land (from its owners, Ii<aac Bedlow and 
Archibald Kennedy, also known as Love Islanil before its conv»>yance to Bt-d 
low, iy. V. Jlist. Soc. iVof., 1S44, !)H). named by the Indiana ,Vjh'.m<ii'». " The 
Lesser Island" (from which it would appear that at onetime it wa." smnlltT than 
Ellis Island); Oyster Island, which lay a short distancf southwest, and Robin's 
Reef, or Robyn's Rift, that is, " E"al leef," for in the Dutcli robyn signifiep a 
seal. In 106i), by request of Mr. Bedlow, the island now bearing his name was 
made a place of privilege from warrant of arrest. Dunlap's y. I'., ii'., (Jrii. 


sire to engage in and even to secure a monopoly of the trade thus 
suddenly opened to their euterprise, A new vessel was fitted 
out and freio-hted for De Oroote Rlvier. The venture was sue- 
cessful, but whether any settlement was made is not known. It 
has been said, however, on the authority of Heckewelder, that the 
Dutch made a settlement on the Jersey shore in that year.^ Of 
this fact there does not exist the slightest proof, and it may well 
be doubted, when we reflect that there were but four huts on 
Manhattan Island in 1614. in that year Sir Samuel Argall, of 
Virginia, sailed into the harbor, subjugated the " settlement," and 
placed it under tribute to the Governor of Virginia.^ This sub- 
jection M'as, however, soon thrown off", fortifications were pro- 
jected, and the Dutch were supreme for the next half century. 

The merchants who had sent out vessels had been so successful 
that they sought, and in October, 161-4, obtained from the States 
General of the United Netherlands a monopoly of the trade of 
the country between New France and (now for the first time 
called) New Netherland for four voyages within three years from 
January 1, 1615.^ This monopoly was protected by threats of 
confiscation of vessel and cargo, " besides a fine of fifty thousand 
Netherland ducats,"' upon any intruder. The merchants thus 
secured for three years assumed the name of " The United New 
Netherland Company,"* and made preparations to reap all the 
advantages now placed exclusively in their hands. Ealkins 
established a trading post near Albany ; Block, in the " Restless," 
explored the coast of Scheyielibv' and the Lennapewih'dtucW as 
far as the Schuylkil]. Treaties were made with the Indians, 
trading posts established at several points," and wealth poured 
into the treasury of the Company. 

' O'Cal, N. N., i., 68, n. 2 j^,^^^ 335^ 

3 Col. Hist, of .V. T., l, 10. 

■4 Beekman's address, N. Y. Hist. Soc. Proc, 1847, 88 ; Broadhead, i., 137. 

5 The Indian name of what i? now New Jersey. 

6 Sii?nifying the Indian River, now Delaware. 

7 There is no evidence that at this time a trading post was established with- 
in this county. Such probably was the fact, for two reasons : First, the Indians 
on this side of the river were friendly ; Second, Harsimus was looked upon as 
the natural outlet for the commerce of the interior. .The subsequent purchase 

FIRST 8ETTI.EMKN I A Tl K^rrn•:I>. 1 1 

This exclusive cliartcr cxpiivtl ny its own limitiition on the tiriit 
of Janniiry, IHIS. Its renewal was ret'iise<l, and on tlic thinl of 
June, l()21,the " ^reat armed coinniercial association," the Dutch 
West India C()ni])any, was chartered.' The cliarter <;ave them 
exclusive jurisdiction over New Xetherhuul for twenty-one yeiirs, 
power to luake contracts with tliCMiative priiu*es, l)uihl forts, ad- 
minister justice and appoint Governors. The a^overnnient of the 
Company ^vas vested in five chamhers, and the executive 
powers in a board of nineteen delegates from tiie five chamhers, 
including one to represent the States General. The nineteen 
gave to the Amsterdam chamber tlie management of the atl'airs 
of Xew Netlierland, which, in June, 1023, was erected into a 
province.^ Among the mcnd)ers of that chamlter was Michael 

In the spring of this year an expedition was fitted <>ut ami 
thirty families sent over in the ship '" New Xetherland," to 
begin a permanent settlement. It was placed in charge of 
Cornelis Jacobseu May (or Mey), who was to be the first direct- 
or of the colony. Ilis administration over this infant colony 
was a very simple affair, and histed but one year. He was 
succeeded by William Verhulst, as the second Director of Xew 
Xetherland, in iG2-lr, and he by Peter Minuit, in 1G26. 

It having l)een determinerl to establish the colonial heail- 
(juarters on Manhattan Island, Minuit ])urehased it of the 
natives for sixty guilders,^ aud staked out a fort.^ While this 
fort was being built a crime was committed, the result ot which 
a few years afterward bore heavily on the settlements within 
the territory now comprising Hudson County. .\ Weckquaes- 
geck^ Indian, with his nephew, then a sm ill l» >\\ and another 

of Pauw was opposed by his associates, <>h tlir jfrouiul that to this j)oint came 
all the native commerce, which oujrht ni>t to be rontrnUed l>y one man. The 
high commercial importance of our shore pat upon it thus early has not in the 
least depreciated. 

' A copy of this charter, in extenso, may be found in O'dd., X. X, ».. 399. 

■i Bromlhmff, i., 14s. 

3 Ibid, 104. * Valcittine's lli^t. of .V. I' . 25. 

5 Now Westchester County in tin- State of New York. 


relative, came from his home to sell beaver skins to the Dutch. 
Before he readied the fort he was met by three of Miniiit's 
servants, who robbed him of his peltries and murdered him. 
The nephew, who witnessed the outrage, swore to revenge his 
uncle's murder, and most terribly did he keep his word.^ 

In 1629 the condition of ^ew Netherland did not meet the 
expectations of the Company. The population around Fort 
Amsterdam was small and dependent ; the trading at Fort 
Orange and on the South River was very insignificant. No 
land was cultivated, save enough to supply the scanty wants 
of those attached to the Forts, and the only exports were furs 
and peltries. Plans were now devised to improve the condition 
of the Province. The Assembly of the XIX, on the Tth of 
June, 1629, granted " to all such as should plant any colonies in 
New Netherland " certain " freedoms and exemptions," con- 
sisting of thirty-one articles. Concerning them Mr. Broadhead 
remarks : " Reserving to themselves the Island of Manhattan, 
which the Company declared it was their intention to people 
first, they designated it as the emporium of their trade, and 
required all fruits and wares ' that arise on the North River and 
lands lying thereabouts,' should be first brought there. To pri- 
vate persons, disposed to settle themselves in any other part of 
New Netherland, the Company offered the absolute property of 
as much land as the emigrants might be able ' properly to im- 
prove.' To tempt the ambition of capitalists, peculiar privileges 
were offered to them. These privileges, nevertheless, were care- 
fully confined to members of the West India Company.''^ Any 
member who should, within four years, plant a colony of fifty 
adults, in any part of New Netherland, excepting the Island of 
Manhattan, should be acknowledged as a " Patroon," or feudal 
chief of the territory thus colonized. Each colony might have 
lands sixteen miles in length on one side of a navigable river, or, 
if both banks were occupied, eight miles on each side, extending 
as far back into the country " as the situation of the occupiers 
will permit." Each patroon was promised a full title, upon con- 

1 O'Cal, N. N., i., 105. 2 Broadhead, i., 194. 


ditioTi tli;it he slioiild satisfy tlu' Iiidiiuis tor tlic land taken l»v 
him. It" he establislied a city, he was to liavc " power and 
autliority to establish olKcers and tnagistrates tliere." The Com- 
pany were to protect and defend the colonists, finish the fort on 
^[anhattan, and import " as niatiy Idacks as tliey conveniently 


Till' members of the Company were not slow to avail them- 
selves of the "privileges.'' (rodyii and I>lommaert took a tract 
of land on the ''South corner of the B.ay of South River,*' and 
Van Rensselaer seize(l upon the reirions adjacent to Fort Oramje, 
called by the Indians, Skmmksseck. Michael Pauw, Ihirtjo- 
master of Amsterdam, and Lord of Achtienhoven, near I'trecht, 
finding the region on the west shore, opposite ^^aIdlattan Island, 
yet unappropriated, obtained, through the Director and Council- 
lors of Xew Netherland, on the Tith ot July and 22d of No- 
vember, 1(530, the following deeds from the Iiulians for laml 
lying within this county. They are the first conveyances, by 
deed, of any land in East Jersey, and the following deed is the 
first of record in New Netherlaiul : 

'• HVc, 5i*'fftov and Council of Mcu* ^\rthcrlalul. residing on the 
if^Uuul t>f ittiinahata'j and the Fort Amsterdam, under the author- 
ity of their 'iunli ^UinUtinco'.^CO' the Lords Statcs-( General of this 
Wn'xUA iUthcvlaiul.0 and tlic ifucovpovatcil WcA ^JwiUa Company. 
at their Chambers at Amsterdam, do hereby witness and declare 
that on this day, the date hereof underwritten, before us in their 
proper persons appeared and showed themselves, to wit : ^roni 
mcauu'. o'chuappo, and %achu"Omfch. iidial)itants and joint .iwn- 
crs of the land called i\oboran 'liarhinnh. lying over against 
(opposite) the aforesaid jfcilantl iUanahata.d, who both for them- 
selves and, nito cavern, for the remaining joint owners of the 
same land, declared that for and in consideration of a certain 
(piantity of merchandize, which they acknowledged to have 
received into their own hands, power and possession, before the 
passing of these presents in a right, true, aiul free ownership, 
have sold, transported, ceded, conveyed, and made over, and by 

' Vide Charter of Freedom and Esenii)tions at lenjjth in O'C-tl., .V. .V . i'., 1 1'2. 


these presents tliej do transport, cede, and convey to and for the 
behoof of |Hv. |Hichiel |?auiv, absent, and for whom we, ex- 
officio, accept under suitable stipulations, viz, : the aforesaid 
lands by us named 'ftaUoran ^uukinglt, extending on the South 
side, Ahasimus ; Eastward, the ^XKtX |Hauvitiu^, and on the 
West side surrounded by a valley (marsh) and morass, through 
which the boundaries of said land can be seen with sufficient 
clearness, and be distinguished ; and that, with all the jurisdic- 
tion, right, and equity, to them, the grantors, in their quality 
aforesaid, belonging: Constituting and putting in their place 
and stead the alread}^ mentioned ^r. ^auw, in the real and 
actual possession thereof, and at the same time giving full and 
irrevocable power, authority, and special command to the said 
Mr. Pauw peaceably to enjoy, occupy, cultivate, have and hold 
the aforesaid land tanquam actor et j^^ocuratov in rem suam 
acpropriara • and also to do with and dispose of the same as he 
mio;ht do with his own lands to which he has a good and lawful 
title ; without their, the grantors, in their quality aforesaid, 
saving. or reserving any part, right, action, or authority thereto 
in the least, either of ownership or jurisdiction ; but altogether 
to the behoof as aforesaid, henceforth, forever, wholly and 
finally desisting, renouncing, and quit-claiming ; promising here- 
by, moreover, not only to keep, maintain, and fulfill this, their 
grant, and whatever shall be done by virtue thereof, inviolable 
and irrevocable forever, but also to keep and maintain the same 
land against all persons free from any claim, challenge, or in- 
cumbrance to be made thereon by any person ; as also to cause 
this sale and grant to be approved of and held valid by the re- 
maining joint owners as they are by right obligated to do ; all 
in good faith without fraud or deceit. 

In witness whereof these presents are confirmed with our 
usual signature and with our seal thereto affixed. 

Done at the aforesaid Island of Manahatas, in Fort Am- 
sterdam, this 12th July, ]630."i 

"Wf, the Uivfttov and CDomml of ^lew Itethcrlantl, residing on 

' Land Papers {Albany), G. G., 1 ; WinfieMs Land Titles, '6. This is the 


tlie if.slantl of ^Hanahata.$, uikIlt the jurisdiction "f tlicir IliL'li 
Miii^litiiiesses the Lords, the StJites-Goneral of the Hluitril .^Irthcr, and the 6cncval ihirovpoiatril HVc.ct M\u\\:\ tl'ompany, do, 
by these presents, pnhlisli and declare, that on this day, the date 
nnderwritten, before us in theii- i>\vii proper persons, eanie and ap- 
peared, 'i\ihitoauiv and ^iavouu". Virninianc. iidiabitants and jnint 
owners of the hmd named Jiha&imu.'i and tlic pt-ninsnhi ^rrooirh. 
as well for themselves as, r<(to car, rcnde^ for ^Minnm, XVathhath 
and (Tauu', joint ])roprietors of the same i)arei-ls of land, and 
declared in the same <[uality that for and in consideration of cer- 
tain parcels of goods, which they, the appearers, acknowledged 
before the passing of these presents to their fnll gratitnde and 
satisfaction to have received into their })Ossession, hands, and 
power in their right and free (unincnmbered) ownershij), and by 
virtue ot the title and article of sale, they have sold, transported, 
ceded, and delivered, and by these presents they do transport, 
cede, and deliver to and for the behoof of the |"loblc ^ord J^Urhirl 
^auiv (absent), and for whom we, ex-oj/ieio, accept the same 
with suitable sti|>ulations, namely, the aforesaid land ^Vha-iimu^' 

first time tht- uiime of Hobokeu is met with. It is au Indian wonl, ami i.s saiil 
to mean tobacco pipe. The name, as {riven in the above <leeil, with its suffix, 
" Hackingli, " signifying land, jrives us the land of the tobacco pipe. Here the 
natives were accustomed to procure a stone, out of which they carv«Hl jiipes. 
" As tobacco was a natural production of the country, the natives were jrrent 
smokers. Tobacco jiouches huntf at tlieir backs, and pipas were their insepara- 
ble companiona." Trumbull's Hi-it. IT. S., i., 24. Judge Benson thought that 
Eobokeii was a Dutch name. X F. Ili.sf. Sor.. 2<I Serie.^. ii., 112. The name i» 
spelled in various ways, as: llubocan-Udckimj, JLibocnn, lloboken, II<>}i„<-k,n, 
Hobucken, Hobokina, Iloboquin, Ilobuk, Hoebuck, Uobock, lloirbnck, Ilouboek, 
Uooboiik, Uooboockeit . 

I This name is probably Indian. It was applied to that portion of tin- upland 
of Jersey City which lies east of the hill, excepting Paulus Iloeck, which 
was separated from Ahasimus by the salt marsh extending from C'nmmuni- 
paw Cove to Ilarsimus Cove, and generally from Warrm to r.e ir (Jrove street. 
The name has received many spellings, viz. : Ahu.-./ /nn-i, Ah<i.*ymuii. Ahtn$i 
mus, Ahasymes, Ahsi/mes, Achassenici, IlfirsimHM, Ilurncmim, Ilor^imug. Ilor- 
anmuH, ILu8em», Uasimn-i. Hiix-iiinin, IlanHemes, Ilminscmug, IIo.^snn'in. IIi>rrf»9i- 


and ^»;cisi,$icJi,^ by us named the WUoj^cSi <S>axntx,^ extending 
along the river Pauvitiu.5' and the ^^^knrt of tlie |rtaualataiSi on 
the east side, and the ^i&UlUtl ^Ubohi^tt liJUhittflU on the north 
side, surrounded bj swamps, which are sufficiently distinct 
boundaries, and tliat with all the action, right, and equity to 
tiiem in their quality aforesaid appertaining, constituting and 
substituting the said grantee as the attorne}'' for the said ^t. 
^auw, in their stead and state, in the real and actual possession 
of the same, and at the same time giving him full and irrevocable 
power, authority, and special license, to the said ^ttv. ^tUtlU ; and 
to his successors, tamiuam in rem sitam, the aforesaid land and 
its appni'tenances peaceably to enter upon, possess, inhabit, farm, 
occupy, use, and to do therewith and thereon, trade and dispose 
as he the cedentee may do with his own lands and domains 
honestly and legally obtained, without their, the ^, in 
their aforesaid quality, having thereto or any part thereof, any 
part, right, action, or jnrisdiction in tiie least, without reserving 
or saving any ownership, command, or jurisdiction, but to the 
behoof aforesaid from henceforth and forever, wholly and abso- 
lutely desisting, relinquishing, and renouncing by these ^Vf,$'CHt,'Si. 
Promoting, moreover, not only this their conveyance, and all 
that may be done by virtue thereof, to keep forever firm, invio- 
lable, and irrevocable, but also the said land to deliver and keep 
from all demands, challenge, or incumbrances, any and every 
one that may thereto make any pretense ; and, moreover, this 
purchase and conveyance to cause to be apj^roved and nnide 
valid by the other joint owners,- as in equity they are bound to 
do, standing thereto in all good faith without fraud or deceit. 
Witue.S'Si our several signatures and confirmed by our seal ap- 
pended thereto. 

' This was the Indian name of Paul us Hoeck, and is said to signify burying 
ground. It was applied to the circular piece of upland lying east of Warren 
street, on which Jersey City had its beginning in 1804. 

2 Hoeren Hoeck, so called from a well-known custom of the natives in enter- 
taining strangers, and with which they welcomed the Dutch when they first 
came to this vicinity. JV. 7. Hist. Soc, 2d Series, ii., 281, n. ; Col. Hist, of N. 
Y., Hi., 842. 


Done at Panahattao in tlu* -f ovt ^Vmotcvrtam this -JlM .lay of 
Nov., in the year h;;5i»;"' 

Preccdinii" tliis la^t i\vv<\, and on Aui^ust l<»tli, U\'.U), Paiiw 
obtained u decil from the Indians I'ur IStatcn Island, ''on the 
west shore of llaniers llooftden."- 

The purchase of November 22d, 1<n'>(\ was one of vast im- 
portance. Tlien, as now, thi' >hore lutween Comnuinijiaw and 
Weeliawken was of icreat commercial vafne. The Indians liehl 
it in high estimation as a place of resort, from which they con- 
veyed their peltries directly across to the fort. Pauw, latinizing 
his name, bestowed it upon the district, and thenceforth it was 
called Pavonia."' The purchase was unpopular with the Com- 
pany, l^auw's ownershi}) of the tract '' occasioned much (piarrel- 
ing; and jealousy, and prevented the colonies prospering as they 
would have done." Those of the Directors of the Dutch West 
India Company who had failed to obtain a share of the newly 
acquired spoils looked with a jealous eye upon those who, l)y 
reason of their large and well selected possessions, had become 
patroons. This strife between the "ins and outs'' waxed warm 
and warmer, until finally the fortunate Directors (except the 
patroon of Pavonia), prefei-ring peace to their wild acres in New 
Netherland, divided with their clamorous associates. 

Fp to this time there is no evidence that a settlement had 
been made on the west side of the river. 8ome writers 
have supposed that buildings were erected within this county as 
early as 1618.' It is, however, mere supposition. It will be 
borne in mind that in 1G23 there were only a few bark huts 
erected on the U»wer end of Manhattan Island, and it is not at 
all likely that the very few whites then in the country would 
have weakened their power of defence by separate settlements. 

' Land Papers {Albany), O. G., 8 ; Winfidd's Land Titha. S. 

■J Land Papers {Albany), O. O., ti. Tbua the first civilized ownorebip of 
Stateii Island connects it with New Jersey. Carteret once uiado an unsucwas- 
ful claim for it. 

aPauwonia. N. Y. IlUt. Soc, X. S., i., '20}; Broadhcad, i.,20-2. Panw in 
the Dutch, as pavo in the Latin, signifies a peacock. 

< Broadhead, t , 89 ; Whitehead's East Jersey, IG. 


After the arrival of the immigrants, consisting of thirty families, 
possessed of domestic animals and other conveniences for a per- 
manent settlement, who in this year came out from the father- 
land with Captain May, it is very probable that the inviting 
shore on this side of " De Groote E-ivier " would not long escape 
the eye of such practical agriculturists.^ Tlie attention of 
traders being attracted to our shore by its many advantages for 
traffic with the Indians, and the farmer invited hither by the 
fertility of the soil, it may well be, when the number of the 
colonists permitted, that some venturesome pioneer erected his 
cabin within the bounds of this county. But wdiere, when, and 
by whom such first cabin was erected it is now impossible to 
tell. Yet it is certain that before 1633 some sort of settlement 
had been made in Pavonia. How much of a settlement this 
may have been is not known. Pauw made his purchase in the 
summer and fall of 1630. By the third article of the " Freedoms 
and Exemptions " he was obliged, within four years next after 
he gave notice to any Chamber of the Company in Holland, or 
to the Commander or Council here, that he had taken up any 
land, to plant a Colony of fifty souls, upward of fifteen years old, 
within the bounds of his purchase, one fourth part within one 
year, and the balance within the three remaining years.' If the 
patroon of Pavonia complied with this requirement, there must 
have been within the bounds of this county, in 1633, at least 
thirteen persons above the age of fifteen years. But the patroon 
did not comply M-ith the law" respecting the settlement of his 
colonic, and this, as will be shown hereafter, was one of the 
causes of difi'erence between him and the Directors, and finally 
forced him to transfer to the Company all of his interest in 
Pavonia.^ Whether lie failed to comply with the conditions 
the first year or afterward is not known. Hence the impossi- 
bility of ascertaining the extent of the settlement. But whatever 
it was, and whether established by himself in pursuance of some 
regular plan in compliance with the " Freedoms and Exemp- 

1 Broadhead, i., 150. i O'Cal.N. y., i., 112. 

3 Wiiifield's Land Titles, 5. 


tions," or \>y iii(li\ iiliials uttraclod liitluT tor private «;aiii or 
conveiueiicc, Mit-luvi'l I'iiuliiseii, an otKcer of thv ("umpaiiy, was 
in charge of the colonic in 1«).'J."3. On the at'tern(»(>n of the 
tvventietli ctt" May in that year, Captain De Vries visited him, 
and has left this ciiti'v in hi> joiinial : *' Coniitig ti» the boat 
on Loni'- Ishmd, niyht came on and tiic tide hc'^an to tnrn, 
so that we rowed to Pavonia. We were tliere received hy 
Michiel Ponhiz, (in officer in the service of' the Comjuunjy^ 
The hitter part of this entry seems to indicate tliat Panhissen, 
or Panluszoon, was not in charge at Pavonia as an otHccr of 
the patroon. Being in the cnipk)y of the Company, he prob- 
ably occnpied a hut on Paulus lloeck, and, for ids employei's, 
purchased peltries from the Indians. In the latter part of 
this year the Company gave orders for the erection of two 
houses in Pavonia."'^ This, so far as evidence can be found, was 
the first step taken to erect regular l)uildings within this county. 
They were shortly afterward built. They were constructed and 
paid for by the Company, although Pauw may have furnished 
the means. One was built at Communij)aw, afterward owned 
by Jan Evertse Bout, and the other at Ahasimus, afterwani 
occupied by Cornells Yau \'oorst. 

' jy. Y. Hist. Soc, N, S., i., 257. It is probable that Poulaz was the first 
Dutch resident in Paulus Hoeck, and left his name to the place. Brondlitad, 
i., 22o. Judge Benson intimates that this place received its name from Paulus 
Schrick, who at one time lived in the " Town of Bergen." X. Y. IIi«t. Stc., 2d 
Series, ii.. 111. It is true there was such a man, and he may have lived in Ber- 
gen, but what has his residence in one place to do with the name of another? 
It was called " Pouwels Hoeck" before May, 1(538. I have not been able to find 
Schrick's name in the records prior to l(j.")2. The following are ilie difterent 
ways of spelling this name, adding in each instance its suttix of Hoeck, or 
Hook, viz. : Paulus, Paules, Poules, Ponlus, Poircln, Poichis, Poirla»»'», 
Powlen, Powlcss, Powlin, Poirlei/'s. Dr. O'Callaghan, \nc Xtth. Rrg., \\i<, 
puts Poulusen down as a clergyman of the Reformed Churrh. residing in 
Pavonia in K!:':}. I very much doubt that he was a clergyman. .After 
1633 no more is heard of him in Pavonia. He returned to New .Amster- 
dam, where he received a grant for a piece of land, .Ian. 21, 1*547. L<ind 
Papers {Albany), G. G., 1G3. He was admitted to the rights of a small burgher 
April 13, 16o7. New Xeth. Reff..l71. He matle his mark thus: /J i 

2 O'Cal., y. X., i., 156. Broadhnnf, i., 244. \. Y. ( W. MSH., i., »1 . l^ 


Paulnsen was succeeded by Jan Evertse Bout, who arrived in * 
New Netherland June 17, 1634, commissioned by Pauw to be 
his superintendent. He established his headquarters at Commu- 
nipaw, which thus became the capital of the colonic of Pavonia.* 
He Avas succeeded in June, 1636, by Cornelis Van Yorst, who 
came out as Pauw's " head commander," and took up his 
residence at Ahasiraus, in one of the two houses erected in ICSS.'^ 
tie had no sooner become settled in his new " mansion," 

1 Bout was a man of considerable importance in the early history of New 
Netlierland. He was born in 1601, Valentine's Manual, 1863, 611, came from 
Barneveldt, If. T. Col. M8S., in., 58, and arrived here in the ship " Eendracht" 
in 1634. He was in the employ of the Dutch West India Company in Holland, 
whence he was sent by patroon Pauw to superintend his colonic at Pavonia. 
Valentine's Hist. ofJSf. 7., 94 ; O'Cal., N. N., i., 167. His wife's name was Tryntje 
Simons De Witt. N. T. Col. MSS., Hi., 58. He held the position of superinten- 
dent at Pavonia until the summer of 1636, when he was succeeded by Cornelis 
Van Vorst. Broadhead, i., 363 ; N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. S., i., 259. He continued, 
however, to reside at Communipaw. In 1638 his wayward affections brought 
him into more than doubtful relations with a daughter of Ham, in his service. 
This coming to the notice of the authorities in New Amsterdam, Schout Lupolt, 
in his official capacity, visited the jolly Jan to remonstrate with him about the 
cause of the scandalum magnatum. But Bout was in no humor to endure for- 
eign intermeddling with the internal economy of the sovereignty of Pavonia. 
He flew into a passion, told the Schout in plain Dutch that he was een hand, 
een dief, een schohbejak (a dog, a thief, a rascal), snapped his defiant fingers in 
the face of the oSicial, and said, " If you or any one belonging to you come to 
Pavonia, I will shoot you or them." JT. Y. Col. MSS., i., 41. This blast was 
sufficient; the Schout beat a hasty retreat, and for the first time "State's 
Rights" were vindicated in New Jersey ! Bout was probably the first white 
settler at Communipaw, and was presented with the Bouwerie there after Pauw 
had parted with his interest in Pavonia. Col. Hist, of JV. Y., i., 432. In 1641 
he was one of the " Twelve," one of the " Eight" in 1643, and one of the " Nine" 
in 1647 and 1650. Shortly after the war of 1643 he became a resident in 
" Breucklen," where he was appointed Schepen in 1646. N. Y. Col. MSS., iv., 
259 ; jSfew Neth. Reg., 73. He soon arrayed himself in opposition to the gov- 
ernment, and signed the " bold memorial to the government of the fatherland." 
Col. Hist, of N. Y.,i.,%ll. In 1654 he was reappointed Schepen. He refused 
to accept, whereupon he was " directed to hold himself in readiness to return 
to Holland by the ship ' King Solomon.' " All>. Bee. ix., 118. Threats of ban- 
ishment are no longer necessary to induce men to hold office ! He died at Qow- 
anus in 1670. Valentine's Hist, of N. Y.. 95. 

- For the history of Van Vorst, tide " Van Vorst Family." 


which was a frame house thatelied witli cat-tail, tliaii the diijiii- 
tarics of New Ainstenhuii, reprcseiitiiii; both church and state, 
resolved to pay liim a visit, as well to assure him of their dis- 
tiriij^uishcd consideration as to "sample'' ids newly arrived 
Bordeaux. On the 2.")tli of June, 1030, Wouter Van Twillcr, who 
was always " iijlad to taste i:jood wine," hut on whose shoulders 
rested the wei<rlity cares of the Xcw Xcthcrland state, and Domi- 
nie Everardus Bogardus, the bold Dutch jjreacher and liushand of 
Annoko Jans, accompanied by Captain De Vrics, came over to 
Pavonia. Van A Orst entertained tlicm with princely hospitality 
from his newly tilled wine collar. As time passed on and the 
sampling of the wine was repeated, the (tovernor and the Dominie 
grew warm and disputatious, if not angry with their host. Tiie 
modest entrv in De Yries' iournal, that thev '* had some words with 
the Patroon's Commissary," plainly means that they quarreled with 
him. The subject of the dispute was a murder which had been 
recentlv committed in Pavonia. Although the discussion ran high 
and bad blood for a while threatened the peace of the occasion, 
yet another bumper or two was like oil on the troubled waters, 
for " they eventually parted good friends.'' Leaving their host 
and his good Yrouiotje^ they entered their boat and started for 
Fort Amsterdam. Van Vorst, determined to deepen their im- 
pression how royally the representative of the patroon of 
Pavonia could entertain such distinguished guests, fired a salute 
from a swiveP mounted on a pile'- in front of his house. How 
the reverberations of that primal salute must have rolled over 
the hills of Ahasimus I and what a brilliant illumination fol- 
lowed to light the way of his parting guests. "A spark utitor- 
tunately flying on the roof, which was thatched with reeds, set it 
in a blaze, and in half an hour the whole building was burned 
down."^ Thus ended the first recorded entertainment in 

In the mean time the dissatisfaction existing among the direc- 

' Steenstuk, a etone gun. 

2 " Stood on a pillar" ia the language of De Vries. 

3 ^. T. Hist. Soc, N. S., i., 259. Broadhead, i., 263. 


tors of tlie Company that a few of their associates had seized upon 
the best and most desirable portions of the country was increas- 
ing, and they became divided into two parties. They were at 
variance as to the interpretation to be given to the articles of the 
" Freedoms and Exemptions." The Company, through those di- 
rectors who had not become patroons, claimed a monopoly of the 
fur trade, and would restrict the patroons and their retainers to 
agricultural pursuits. On the other hand, the patroons claimed 
an unrestricted trade along the coast and in the rivers, and exclu- 
sive commerce and jurisdiction within their colonies, within 
which they would not suffer any exercise of authority by the 
officers of the Company. This condition of affairs could not 
long exist without producing trouble. 

On the 17th of December, 1633, the Assembly of the XIX 
resolved that Pauw, with the other patroons, should give to 
that body an account of their purchases. On Monday, the nine- 
teenth of the same month, the patroons appeared according to 
the resolution and defended their rights. It was easy enough to 
satisfy themselves that their position was impregnable, but to 
satisfy those wdio felt themselves aggrieved by the condition of 
things in New Netherland, and especially in Pavonia, was no 
light task. These were not convinced, and therefore appointed a 
committee of live to negotiate with the patroons and to defend 
the claims of the Company ; and in case no agreement concern- 
ing the points in dispute could be arrived at between them, then 
they resolved that the subject should be referred to a " Commit- 
tee of their high Mightinesses, or one of the high courts of 
Justice."^ The committee and patroons failed to agree upon a 
compromise, and the whole matter in dispute was, by resolution 
of the Assembly of the XIX, adopted March 27, 1631:,^ referred 
to their High Mightinesses, who appointed a committee of six 
to examine carefully into the cause of the dispute, and at the 
same time issued the following summons to Pauw, and, mutatis 
mutandis^io the other patroons : 

' Moulton, I., 421. ■ 2 N. Y. Col. Hist., i., 00. 


'' 7cv J//', JUic/u'el l\nni.\ Lord of Ac/itienliovi n, 

Co-Patroon in New Netherlands the VMh M<nj^ \<V.\A. 
TiiK States. 

'• Whereas we have this day (Icimted .some J.ords I'nMii our 
Assembly, to hear and examine 3'()U and the other interested 
patroons, planters in the Colonies in New Netherland, on the one 
j»art, and the delegated Directors of the West India Company 
and the authorized stockholders on the other part, relative to tiie 
differences which have arisen, with power afterwards to deter- 
mine the said differences, as by plurality of votes they shall find 
equitable; and the 23d instant havinc; been fixed and a])pointed 
l)y the said Lords, our Deputies, as the day for the business ; we 
have therefore resolved to notify you thereof, commandin<jjyou to 
attend here at the Hague, dulj- provided in all things, as the case 
requires, on the evening of the 21st instant, in order to appear 
on the next day, for the purposes aforesaid, before the above 
mentioned Lords, our Deputies, wild will then ])roceed to busi- 
ness. "Wherein fail not ; giving notice hereof to the other 
patroons, planters who are also interested in the aforesaid ditier- 
ences. Done 13 May, lG34."i 

The investigation was postponed until the l-tth of June. On 
the sixteenth the patroons put in their defence. It was in 
writing, of considerable length, and its demands for themselves 
and charges against the Company of an extraordinary charac- 
ter.^ Neither their claims nor their charges could be passed in 
silence by the Company. On the twenty-second iA the same 
month they exhibited their replication ''to and against the pre- 
tension and claim of ?.[ichael Pauw, Kiliaen Van Kensselaar, and 
Samuel Blommaert, Patroons in New Netherland, handed in and 
delivered to their High Mightinesses' deputies," in which they 
protested against the joint action of the patroons and claimed 
that as the right of each depended on its own peculiar merits. 

' Col. Hist, of N. Y.. L, 70. 

•-' Ibid, i., 83. Here also may be found a copy in ertenso of their pointu ot 


their defence should be several.^ The patroons forthwith re- 
joined, asking their High Mightinesses to construe the " Free- 
doms and Exemptions " that it might be known which party was 
in fault, and declared that the continuation or abandonment of 
their colonies depended on their Lordships' judgment.^ On the 
2ith of June the deputies resolved to postpone their decision for 
twelve days, in order that the parties might amicably settle 
their diflerences.^ In Auo-ust followino; the Assemblv of the 
XIX commissioned some of their directors " to treat and trans- 
act with all the Patroons and colonists in New Netherland" 
for the purchase of their rights.* Shortl}^ afterward (in either 
1634 or 1635, for the same is without date), a new "project of 
, Freedoms and Exemptions " was pronailgated by the States 
General.^ The fifth article contained the following language : 
" But every one is notified that the Company reserves unto itself 
the Island of Manhates, Fort Orange, with the lands and islands 
appertaining thereto, Staten Island^ the land of Achassemes, 
Arasich and Holjokinar The domains of Pauw were included 
in this reservation, on condition tliat the Company should make 
the reservation good. The Company continued the negotiations 
with the patroon, and finally succeeded in purchasing the 
colonie. They paid Pauw 26,000 florins" for his interest in 
Pavonia. Thus he ceased to be a patroon in New Netherland, 
and the annoyance which his colonie had caused no longer ex- 

During these long and bitter contentions between the Com- 

' Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 89. 2 lUd, i., 90. 3 ibid, i., 91. 

< Broadhead, i., 349. 5 CoL Hist, of N. Y., i., 96. 

* Ibid, I., 423. A florin is equivalent to forty cents. 

7 Dr. Koenen says the colony was in Pauw's name at the time of his death, 
and that his son, Dr. Isaac Pauw, having removed his residence in 1652, and 
thereby lost the privileges of citizenship in Amsterdam, afterward lost his in- 
terest in the colony of his father. N. Y. Hist. Soe. Proc, 1860, 35. This is a 
great error. 

In accordance with the " Freedoms," etc., Harsimus (in part) was reserved, 
and became known as the West India Company's Farm, but Aressick and Ho- 
boken were disposed of at an early date, without regard to the reservation. 


patiy and patrouiis, Pavoiiiu, in coiniuou with thu rest of the 
country, was retr(igra<.liii«^ instead of advancini;. Dissensions 
within had been productive of difficulties witiiout. The charac- 
ter of those who had cotne hither to seek their forttmes was not 
in all cases of the best. I )isref:;ardiniz: the exclusive priviU'<;es of 
the Conipany/niany of them, prompted by a desire of i,Min, had 
imlawfuUy entered into trade with the Indians, exchanf^iui; «rung, 
powder and lead for peltries. The savages were not slow to 
learn that these weapons were more deadly than the bow and 
arrow, and a "general feelini' of uneasiness and alarm beiran to 
spread amonui: the settlers. 

CHAPTER II. — 1638-1646. 

Arrival of Kieft— Settlement in the County— Difficulties with the Indians- 
Murder of Smitz— The people assemble— The twelve chosen— Van Vorst 
killed by an Indian Chief — The river Indians flee to Manhattan — Thence 
to Pavonia— Description of the settlements in the County— The Indians 
encamp near Communipaw — Kieft orders their destruction — Attacked 
and slain by the Dutch — Communipaw Massacre — Terrible revenge — 
Pavonia a desolation — Treaty of Peace — Savages again on the Warpath 
— Van Vorst taken prisoner — Peace declared. 

William Kieft arrived here as Director-General on the 28th 
of March, 1638, At that time there were in all New Nether- 
land only seven bouweries and two or three plantations.^ This 
backward state of the province may be attributed to the unfortunate 
disagreements between the Company and the patroons, and the 
many irregularities which in consequence grew up among tlie 
settlers. Kieft reformed the government in many respects, and 
put a stop to certain wrongs which some of the Dutch were prac- 
tising toward each other and toward the Indians.'^ Under the 
new order of things prosperity seemed to revive. Abraham 
Isaacsen Planck purchased Paulus Hoeck on the first of May, 
1638, for two hundred and fifty guilders.^ Jan Evertsen Bout 
took a lease of the " Company's fiirm in Pavonia,"^ and De Vries 
took Staten Island and established a colonic there. Other parts 
of New Netherland were active and thriving. And yet of all 
men who ever ruled over the country Kieft knew the least of 
Indian character, or how to tame the wild natures of the sons of 

' A bomcerie was the home farm on which the farmer resided ; a plantation 
was an out-farm, tilled, but not occupied. 

' O'Cal., N. N., l, 183 ; Broadhead, i., 277. 

3 JSr. Y. Col. MSS., i., 13, 14, 23. 

i iV. Y. Col. MSS., i., 53 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 48. Afterward known as 
" Gamoenepaen." 


the forest. They hclieltl the thrit't ;m<l eiiterprisc of tlio whites 
with jealoiisj, looked uj)()ii thi'ir i^rowiii^; powur with dread, and 
ho])e(l for the time when thev niiirht ;rlut their revcnire for tlie 
wrongs they IkuI endured. This feeling was not without cause. 
For in their social intercourse they had been scorned, in their 
commercial transactions they li;id hccii cheated, and without law 
or justice they had been plundered and >l,iiii by the luifi-d 
Swannekins.' Well niiirht thev live in fear of the cominir time 
when, unless they defended themselves now, while their enemie.'^ 
were yet few, they should be driven from their homes an«l the 
graves of their fathers. Regardless of the situation of affairs. 
Kieft put a match to the train and hastened the explosion. < )n 
the 15th of September, 1639, he resolved to exact a tribute of 
maize, furs, and wampum from the Indians, and in case of their 
unwillingness to pay, he proposed to em])li>y all necessary force 
to remove their reluctance.'- These wild men of the forest, who 
were born freemen and had never been taught in the school of 
subjection, were filled with indignation at such an unjust meas- 
ure. "' He must be a mean fellow," said they, for '' he has not 
invited us to live here, that he should take away our corn."" 
Thoy had extended freely their simple, yet hearty hospitality 
to the strangers who had come from an unknown land, and 
now their guests would impose upon them a degrading tribute. 
They had endured many rel)uffs, and suffered many inexcusable 
encroachments from the domineering and grasping disposition 
of the whites, and now they were to be foreed to contribute what 
before they had willingly given or sold. 

To meet the impending danger and resist the threatened im})osi- 
tion, the Indians were not wholly unprepared. Commercial in- 
tercourse, social familiarity, and domestic service among the set- 
tlers had acquainted them with the habits, disjjositions, and 
numbers of the whites. Their skill in the use of tiic guns they 

' From Seliironnark, " the salt pooplf," becanso tlnv « muf ain>^.-* tho Milt wa- 
ter. MouHoit, i., 2.55. At (irat the Indians called the Diitcli Woiijmd Lennapjif . 
that is, " the white people." 

■i N. y. Col. }fSS., ir.. 40. ' Valenlinet JIu>t. of iV. )'.. 41. 


had obtained in exchange for peltries made them confident in 
their strength, and their sense of right convinced them of the 
justice of their cause.^ Hence they were not in a mood to sub- 
mit to every indignity and outrage which the impolitic Kieft 
would heap upon them. 

Added to the general sense of wrongs endured, the Weckqua- 
esgeck boy, whose uncle had been robbed and murdered by 
Minuit's servants in 1626, had now (16il) become a man. The 
o-reat outrao-e done to his relative had not been forgotten. Dnr- 
ing all these long years he had kept the fire alive in his heart. 
The time had come for it to burst forth with the destructive- 
ness of a " consuming fire." " An eye for an eye and a tooth for 
a tooth" was the law of his race. The deep damnation of his 
uncle's taking oif demanded a just and full atonement. Its ob- 
lio-ations could not be avoided, neither could it be satisfied with 
a slight retaliation. In the execution of this law he was " right 
resolute to die." 

" What dotli the Indian love ? Revenge. 

What doth he fiorht for "? Revenge. 

What doth he pray for ? Revenge. 

It is sweet as the tlesh of a young bear ; 

For this he goes hungry, roaming the desert. 

Living on berries, or chewing the rough bark 

Of the oak, and drinking the slimy pool." 

The perturbed spirit of the slain was not at rest, for his mur- 
der was unavenged. The voice of the dead was heard in the 
moaning of the sea, in the rattling of the thunder, in the roar- 
ing of the storm, in the rustle of the leaves, in the sighing of 
the wind, chiding the tardy soul of the living. Many moons 
had come and gone since the old man was sent to join his 
fathers ; many winters had whitened and springs and summers 
adorned his rude resting place, and yet the heaven that he had 
hoped for was not his, for his nephew's duty was unperformed. 
The one must satisfy vengeance, or the other could never enter 
the hunting grounds which lie in the Hereafter. Urged onward 
by this feeling, the young man sought his victim, indifferent as 

• Broadhead, i., 308. 


to whom it niiglit be. It liapponcd to hu an inollensive old nuin, 
C'laes Cornelisz Siiiits, u '• liaadiiiiikcM-,'' liviiii^ in the vicinity of 
Canal street. Pi-etendinir a desii-r to Itartrr some heavers for 
diitlels/ he watched his opportunity, killed Smits, robhed tlie 
house, and escaped with the booty." Satisfaction and tiie sur- 
render of the savage were prom])tly dciuanded. Jiut as he had 
only acted in accordance with the custom of liis race, the Sachem 
refused to surrender him. Kieft wished to seize upon this occa- 
sion to punish the natives, but feared the people, whose interest lay 
in maintaining- peace with the savages. lie called them together 
for consultation. After deliberation they came to the conclusion 
that the murderer should be punished, " but sul»ject to Go<l and 
opportunity,'' after making all necessary preparations.' I'Ik-'V 
then chose " Twelve Select Men," and " empowered them to re- 
solve on everything with the Director and Council.'' This was 
the first representative V)ody in Xew Netherland. In it were 
Maryn Adriaensen, Jacob StoHelsen, and Ai)raham Isaacsen 
Planck, three men who were prominent in the early history of 
Pavonia. The *' Twelve " were true to the views of their con- 
stituents, and counseled delay .^ They gave their opinions sejta- 
rately, but were unanimous in advising the Director to consult 
•• time and opportunity" in executing any measure that might be 
resolved upon, and that before any action should be begun the 
Twelve were to be notified. Thus peace was for the ])resent 
maintained, but confidence was not restored. Yet a little longer 
the fires which were soon to burst forth in a consuming confla- 
gration smouldered. 

The year 104:2 closed gloomily. Universal uneasiness mani- 
fested itself. Wild stories were circulated and beliovetl. Captain 
De Vries, who had estaldished anew colonic called Vriesendael, 
at Tappaen, in passing through the woods toward "Ackensack,"^ 

' A coarse kind of cloth. ^ Broadhead, i.. 318. 

3 X. Y. Hist. Soc, N. 8.. i., 277. « Hro,tdh,ad. i.. ;V29. 

' An Indian word and said to signify low land. UiH. Mu'j'izine. Hi.. 8.1. It 
is written in many ways: Ackensack, Ackingstuk, Ackinghsitck, Akk\ng*>ikkt. 
Ackenkcshacky, Ackinkes'iacky , ILigensack, Uaghkinsnck, Ilackenmcky. Hack 


met an Indian who said the whites had " sold to him brandy 
mixed with water'' and had stolen his beaverskin coat. He said 
he was going home for his bow and arrows, and would shoot one 
of the " roguish Swannekins.'"^ He kept his word and shot 
Garret Jansen Van Yorst, who was roofing a house in "Acliter 
Col."^ Another account is, that one of the " Hacquinsacq " 
chiefs, a sort of shiftless fellow, being drunk, was taunted by the 
Dutch and asked if he could make good use of his bow and 
arrows when in that condition. He answered the question by 
killino; Van Yorst with his arrow, and then asked if he was able 
or not.^ The chiefs were alarmed at what had been done, and 
hastened to their friend De Yries for advice. They oftered to 
pay two hundred fathoms of wampum to Yan Yorst's widow, in 
order to purchase their peace.* Kieft would accept of nothing 
less than the murderer. Him the chiefs could not, or would not 
surrender. Their excuse was that he had gone two days' journey 
off among the Tankitekes, " and besides, he was the son of a 

The year 1643 opened as the last year had closed — full of 
doubt and gloom. In the depths of the winter the fierce Mo- 
hawks came down upon the Weckquaesgecks, Tankitekes and 

ingkeshacky , Hackinkasacky , Hackensack, Hackinsack, Ilackquinsack, Hacquin- 
sacq, Hackinsagh, HacJdngsack, Haghkingsack, Hakkensak. 

1 N. Y. Hist. Soc, iV". S., l, 266. 

2 The name here seems to be applied to the country lying between Newark 
Bay and Tappaen. It was the colonie of Myndert Myndertsen van der Horst^ 
the headquarters of which were at Hackensack, " an hour's walk from Vries- 
endael." Broadhead, i., 313. 

3 Bredeii Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y. iv., 102. Vide Van Vorst Family. 

* O'Cal., N. N., i., 264. The Greeks and Indians seem to have entertained 
similar ideas of atonement. 

" A son's or brother's death, 
By payment of a fine, may be atoned; 
The slayermay remain in peace at home, 
The debt discharg'd ; the other will forego, 
The forfeiture receiv'd, his just revenge." 

Derby's Iliad, Book IX., lines 731-5 

5 O'Cal., N. N., i., 263. The Tankitekes were the Haverstraw Indians, of whom 
Pacham was chief. 


Tiippaeiis, uliuiu tlu'V wi.sliL'il to placi' uihIit trilmle.' ScVfiitt'cii 
of them were slain, siml inaiiy wumun und cliiMrcn inadt- 
prisoners, *' the reiuuiiider tied thronii;h a (h,'i'p snow to tin; 
christians" liouses on and aronnd tlie Ishind of Manhattan. 
They were liiiiiiunely received, beinj;: half dead of" cold and 
huns^er, and supported for fourteen days; even some of tlu' 
Directors' corn was sent to them/' Soon another panic seized 
them, and a<j;ain they lied, ])art of them to Pavonia, where the 
Ilackiui^sacks bivouacked one thousand strong.* They came 
over to this side of the river on the 23d of Fel)rnary, I^UIJ, and 
encamped on the westerly edge of Jan de Lacher's Iloeek,'' he- 
hind the settlement of Egbert Wouterssen' and adjoining the 
bouwerie of Jan Evertsen Bout.' Here it may be proper to let 
the poor frightened savages rest for two days, and in the mean 
while take a glance at the condition of Pavouia, and learn what 
was taking place in New Amsterdam. 

Up to this time, February, 164:3, no settlement had been made 
north of Iloboken. At this place a farmdiouse and brew-house 
had been built and a bouwerie cleared and planted. Here Aert 
Teunissen Van Patten and his family resided.'' 

' N. T. lliit. Soc, N. S., i., 267. * 0-Cal. -V. N., ».. 2(55. 

3 Tlie encampment was a few blocks east of the Lafayette Reformed Church, 
and near the corner of Pine and Walnut streets, in Jersey City. 

* Col. Hist, of N. r., i., 209 ; Broadhend, i., 351. Wouterssen, from Yselstein, 
was the first occupant of the present Mill Creek Point, or Jan de Lacher's Hm-ck. 
He held it under a lease from Bout, June 20. 1040. X. Y. Co'. .tf5.S., i., 201. 
On September 1, 1041, he married Engeltje Jans van Bresteede. widow. 
Valentine X Manual, 1802, 650. On May 10, 1647, he obtained a patent for a 
" tract of land called in the Indian Ai)opcalyck, extendinjf from Direk Straat- 
maker's Kil to Gemoenepaen or Jan Evertz Kii, northeast by east and south- 
west by west, behind the kil which runs through betwixt the upland and the 
marsh, extendinjr west northwest to tiie woods." Land Papers (Albany), O- 
O., 216. This included all the land south of the Abattoir and east of Sycan's 
Creek. WinfichVs Land TUle>^. 50. He was an Adf'Uorstn-. or gentleman s.)l- 
dier. in the army in 1653. He removed from Pavonia and went t.. New Am 
sterdam, where he died in 1680. 

5 Bout's farm included all of the upland lyinjr between Commuuipaw Creek, 
where the .Vbattoir now stands, on the south, and the meadow where the engine 
house of the Central Railroad now stands, or Maple street, on the north. 

« Van Putten was the first white resident of Iloboken. He leased the farm 


At Ahasimus was the family of Cornelis Van Yorst, now de- 
ceased, at the head of which was Jacob Stoffelsen, who had 
married Van Vorst's widow. 

At Panlus Hoeck were Abraham Isaacsen PLanck^ and his 
tenants, Gerrit Dircksen Blauw,^ Claes Jansen Van Purraerendt 
alias Jan Potagie,^ and Cornelis Arissen.* 

At Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or Mill Creek Point, as an nnder 
tenant of Bout, resided Egbert Wonterssen with his family. 

At Comraunipaw lived Jan Evertsen Bout. After his arrival 
in 1634, he held this land as Pauw's representative until the pa- 
troon sold to the Company, Then, July 20, 1G38, he leased the 
bouwerie for a term of six years for one quarter of the crops.^ 
He afterward received, as a gift, a patent for the farm. The 
following is a copy of this grant : 

February 15, 1640, for twelve years from January 1, 1641. N. Y. Col. MSS., i., 
187. Kieft was to erect a small house, and Van Putten was to give as rent 
" the fourth sheaf with which God Almighty shall favor the field." He cleared 
the land, fenced the fields, erected the first brew-house in the county, stocked 
the place with twenty-eight head of large cattle, besides hogs, goats, and 
sheep, and planted a number of fruit trees. Col. Hist, of N. T., i., 328. 

1 Ibid, i., 194, 195. 

'^ Blauw occupied one morgen of land for a "tobacco plantation," underlease 
dated October 21, 1638, for twelve years from the first of the month, at twenty- 
five carolus guilders annually, "with express condition that Gerrit Dircksen shall 
not keep for himself more than six goats and hogs for slaughter, and one sow 
big with young." JSf. Y. Col. ITSS., i., 55. 

3 Jan Potagie, or " Soup Johnny," also occupied one morgen for the raising of 
tobacco. Ibid, 60. Vide Van Vorst Family. 

■* Lease dated April 20, 1643, to run for six years from May 1, 1644, for the 
whole of Paulus Hoeck, with house and garden of Planck ; " on which Paulus 
Hoeck Abraham Planck shall cause a barn to be built at his expense, which 
barn and house Cornelis Arissen must keep water tight ; said lessee shall pay 
as rent for the first year 100 guilders, for the remaining five years 160 guilders 
annually, if Jan Potagie continues to reside on the Hoeck, but if said Potagie 
shall leave, the lessee shall pay for the aforesaid five years 180 guilders." N. 
Y. Col. MSS., a., 53. 

5 This land must have been very productive. Van Der Donck says that Bout 
laid a wager that he could raise a crop of barley on a field containing seven 
morgens, which would grow so tall in every part of the field that the ears 
could easily be tied together above his head. Van Der Donck went to see the 
field of barley, and found that the straw was from six to seven feet high, and 
very little of it any shorter. N. Y. Hist. Soc, JY. S., i., 159. 


(;r.vnt of commlnii'aw lo bout. 33 

'' We, Willciu Iviet't, Govi'i-uor (jciu'ral, iiiul Council uinlcr tliu 

lii;4li ami Mighty Lords States General of the t'nited Xetlierlantls, 

lliiih ^[iJ;•htines!5 of Orange and the Honorable Directors of 

the authorized West India Company, residing in Xew Xether- 

land, make known and declare that on this day hereunder written, 

we have given ami granted to Jan Evcrse Bout a piece of land 

lyin"' on the North River, westward from Fort Amsterdam, heforo 

these pastured and tilled by Jan Everse, named (iamoenepacni 

and Jan de Laclier's lioeck,'- with the meadows, as the same lay 

within the post and rail fence, containing eighty-four nujrgens" 

" In testimony whereof are these presents by us signed, and 

with our seal contirmed, in Fort Amsterdam, in Xew 

Netherland, the which land Jan Everse took possession 

of in Anno 163S, and began then to plough and sow it. 


" By order of the Honorable Governor General and 

Council of New Netherland. 
" CoRNELis Van Tienhoven, Sec'y."* 

' This is the first time the names of these two places are met with. It has 
been said that " Gamoenepaen" received its name from being the settlement of 
Pauw. Danlap's Hist, of y. T., i., 50. Oemeente, " community or commons." 
It is a possible origin rendered plausible by the modern orthography of the 
word, which is not older than the present century. But Pauw had sold out his 
interest some time previous, and it was the land, not the settlement, that was so 
named. Up to this time the place had been included in tlie general name of Pa- 
vonia. Now it was applied to the upland east of the hill and south of the mead- 
ow between Comiuunipaw avenue and Walnut street. The orthograjdiy, and 
especially the final syllable of the word', precludes the idea of its being derived 
from Pauw. It is, I think, beyond doul)t an Indian word. It has been written iu 
many ways, c. y.: Getneeue Pus (coniiuon way '.'), Giimoeiupucn, Oiimoinipan, O'e- 
moenapu, Gamoenepa, Gemoeaepa, Gemeenapa, Gemoenepaen, Ghmocnepatn.Ge- 
meenepaen, Gmoenepnen, Commampa, Commcnnpa, Communcpnh, Communipntc. 

■^ That is, Johii, the LrtiKjher'.^ Point. It was a circular piece of upland at tho 
mouth of Mill Creek, surrounded on three sides by salt marsh and on the east 
by CommuDipaw Cove. It is probable that this name immortalizes the jovial 
disposition of Jan Evertsen Bout, who was its first occupant, and. afti-r Pauw 
parted with his interest therein, held it under a lease (.dated July 20, l"i;!^i from 
the Company. 

3 For an explanation of this measure, tide Winfidd's Land Titles. '2(5. 

4 The original is now in possession of John C. Van Horn, in good preservB 


On the blufF immediately in the rear of Cavan Point, and just 
where the Central Kailroad crosses the Morris Canal, lived Dirck 
Straatmaker.^ It is possible there might have been a few other 
families than those above named, living along the shore between 
Hoboken and^ Cavan Point, but if so the fact has not survived. 
There was no building on the Heights, and, as far as known, 
none other in the county. 

As soon as the Indians had fled to the Dutch for protection 
from the wild warriors of the north, Kieft saw the opportunity 
for which he had waited since the murder of the " Eaadmaker," 
and intimated the same to De Tries. He had dissolved the 
representative " Twelve," and yet he feared the people, should 
he attack the Indians. Well he might, for besides the retaliation 
which would fall upon the scattered w^iites and outlying planta- 
tions, the savages were the guests of the Dutch, " strong both 
against the deed." Violent and unscrupulous men, however, 
soon opened a way for the slaughter of the savages. Among the 
former "Twelve" were Jan Jansen Dam (or Damen), Maryn 
Adriaensen, and Abraham Isaacsen Planck, " three inconsiderate 
boors."^ Kieft's secretary, Cornelis Tan Tienhoven, was a 
crafty, subtle, intelligent, sharp-witted man. " He was an adept 
in dissembling. AVhere he laughed heartiest, he bit worst ; 
where he hated most, he pretended the warmest friendship. In 
words and dealings he was loose, false, deceitful and lying ; 
promising every one, but when they came to the point ' he was 
not at hoijie.' " He and Planck were brothers-in-law, and sons-in- 
law of Dam. Planck, Dam and Adriaensen were the cronies 
of Kieft. As Kieft w^as dining with Dam at Shrovetide, on the 
night of Februarv 24, 1643, and had become mellow with drink- 
ing " mysterious toasts," and so open to the approach of evil 
counsel, the host, with Planck and Adriaensen, assuming to 

tion. It is without date, but Van Tienlioven says the farm was given to Bout 
" long after the house was burnt." Col. Hist, of N. T., i., 433. The house was 
destroyed in 1643. 

I Wmfieli's Laud Titles, 58. This bluff took the name of Straatmaker's 

- Breeden Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y., ii\, 102. 


speak for the people, presented ti) Kit-ft the tolluwin^ cniel 
petition druwii up by A'an Tieiihnveii, t'm- the iimiiediiite 
shiiighter of the iinsiispeetiii<^ Indians:' 

" To the Ilonorahle Willia7fi Kieft^ Director General of ^iew 
Netherlands and his Honorable Council. 

" The whole of the freoincn respectfully represent, that thuu^^h 
heretofore much innocent blood was spilled by the savai^cs with- 
out having had any reason or cause therefor, yet your Honors made 
peace on condition that the Chiefs should deliver the murderer into 
your hands (either dead or alive), wherein they have faile<l, up to 
the present time; the rei)utation of which i»ur natinii hath in 
other countries, has thus been diminished, even, notwithstanding 
innocent blood calleth aloud to God for vengeance : we therefore 
request your Honors to be pleased to authorize us to attack the 
Indians as enemies, whilst God hath fully delivered them into 
our hands, for which purpose we offer our persons. This can be 
effected, ar the one place by the freemen, and at the other l»y 
the soldiers. 

Your llono''*' sul)jects, 

Maryn Ai)RIaensp:x, 
Jan Jansen Dames, 
Abkaham Plamk. 
By their authority, 



Although the "Twelve" had been dissolved by Kieft himself, 
and he therefore well knew that no one could speak for them, 
,he was weak enou2;h to heed the voice of three men who falselv 
spoke in the name of '' the whole of the freemen." In his an.x- 
iety to perform what he thought a great and heroic deed, he 
yielded to their counsel, and resolved to*' make the savages wipe 
their chops."^ On the following day Van Tienhoven and Hans 
Stein, at one time a deputy jailor in New Amsterdam, came 

' Col. Hist, of K. Y., i.. ;34o. « ^^««^. »•. 1«3. 

3 N. T. Hist. Hoc., N.S.,i., 269. 


over to Pavonia to reconnoitre the camp of the Indians.-^ Cap- 
tain De Vries and Dominie Bogardus, having been informed of 
what was going on, remonstrated against the whole proceeding, 
but in vain. Kieft was ambitious '* to perform a feat worthy of 
the ancient heroes of Rome."^ He immediately issued the fol- 
lowing order : 

" Sergeant Eodolf is commanded and authorized to take under 
his command a troop of soldiers and lead them to Pavonia, and 
drive away and destroy the savages being behind Jan Evertsen's,^ 
but to spare as much as it is possible their wives and children, 
and to take the savages prisoners. He may watch there for the 
proper opportunity to make his assault successful ; for which end 
Hans Stein, who is well acquainted with every spot on which the 
savages are skulking, accompanies him. He, therefore, shall 
consult with the aforesaid Haus Stein and the corporals. The ex- 
ploit ought to be executed at night, with the greatest caution and 
prudence. Our God may hless the expedition. 

" Done 25 February, 1643."* 

With such revolting blasphemy did the weak Director end 
such a cruel order ! A similar order was given to Adriaensen to 
attack the Indians at Corlaer's Hoeck. Most wicked and inop- 
portune were both. The settlers were scattered and entirely 
without notice of the impending blow. Their position and want 
of preparation for defence rendered them an easy prey to the 
savage. Under these circumstances the Dutch authorities were 
entering upon a course the end of which was destruction. 

The light of the 25th of February, 1643, was fading, and the 
shadows of the black winter night were drawing over the beau- 

1 iV". Y. Hist. Soc, N. S, l, 345 ; Doc. Hist, of N. Y., iv., 103, 

2 N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. S., i., 269. 

3 De Vries says they encamped at Pavonia, " near the Oyster Bank." Ibid, i., 
268. " On Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, near Jan Evertsen's bouwerie." Col. Hist. 
ofN. Y., i., 209. " By the bouwerie- of Jan Evertzoon." Ibid, i., 195. " Near 
Jan Evertsen Bout's bouwerie." Ibid, i., 199. " Behind the settlement of 
Egbert Wouterssen, and adjoining the bouwerie of Jan Evertsen Bout." O'Cal., 
N. I^., i., 267. 

4 ^V. Y. Hist. Soc, K S., i; 278. 



titiil bay. JIu(ldle<l and -liivt'rin<i^ on tliu western slope of Jan 
de Lacher's lloeck, under the ])roteetion of the Dutch, fhe umbus- 
pectino: Indians thouixht themselves safe from the lierce Mo- 
hawks. P>nl- wliile they drew arniiinl fhe camp fires and talked 
or dreamed of their forsaken wii.,'wams, Manhattan was all astir 
with the movement of troops and citizens. The nobledieartcd 
De Yries stood l)eside tlio Director as the soldiers under Sertreant 
Rodplf passed by the fort oii their way to Pavonia. ''Let this 
work alone," said lie ; " you will go to break the Indians' heads, 
but it is our nation vou are iroinj; to murder." " The order has 
gone forth ; it shall not be recalled," was Kieft's dogged reply.' 
The sergeant, with liis eighty soldiers armed for the slaughter, 
marclied down to tlie river, and, end)arking in boats prepared for 
the purpose, silently rowed toward the shores of J*avonia. Hound- 
ing the southerly point of Paulus Iloeck, under the guidance of 
Hans Stein, they pulled foi- the high ]xnnt at the mouth of Mill 
Creek. Here they landed. Climbing the bank, they passed 
close to the house of Egl)ert Wouterssen, and cautiously ap- 
proached their sleeping victims. Suddenly the sound of nins- 
ketrv and the Avild shrieks of the Indians raniir out in tlie mid- 
nifflit. Even at tliis distance of time, " the horrors of that 
night cause the flesh to creep as we ponder over them.'' Captain 
De Vries, who, in contemplating the consequences of the expedi- 
tion, could not sleep, says, " I remained that night at the Govern- 
or's, and took a seat in the kitchen near the fire, and at mid- 
night I lieard loud shrieks. I went out to the parapets of the 
fort and looked toward l*avonia. I saw nothing but the flash of 
the guns, and lieard nothing more of the yells and clamor of the 
Indians, who were butchered during their sleep."" Neither age 
nor sex could stav the hand of the unrelentiu'' Dutcli. Suck- 
lings were torn from their mothers' breasts, butchered in the pres- 
ence of their parents, and their mangled limbs thrown into the 
fire or water. Others, "while fastened to little boards" — the 
rude cradle of the papoose — were cut through, stabbed, and mis- 
erablv massacred. Some were thrown alive into the river, and 

' 0-Cal.. i^. If., l, 267. « JV. T. ffUt. Soe.. K S., i.. 2C9. 


when their fathers, obeying the promptings of nature, rushed in 
to save them, the soldiers prevented their coming to shore, and 
thus parents and chiklren perished. The babe and the decrepid 
old man shared the same fate. Some succeeded in hiding among 
the bushes from their destroyers, but the next morning, driven 
out by hnnger to beg for bread, were cut down in cold blood and 
thrown into the fire or river. De Yries says, " Some came run- 
ning to us from the country having their hands off, some, who 
had their legs cut off, were supporting their entrails with their 
arms, while others were mangled in other horrid ways, in part 
too shocking to be conceived ; and these miserable wretches did 
not know, as well as some of our people' did not know, but 
they had been attacked by the Mohawks.'' Isaac Abrahamsen, a 
captain of one of the vessels which had brought over the soldiers, 
and was waiting for their return, saved a little boy and hid him 
under the sails ; but toward morning the poor child, overcome 
with cold and hunger, made some noise. Instantly he was 
" heard by the soldiers ; eighteen Dutch tigers dragged him from 
under the sails in spite of the endeavors of the skipper, who was 
alone against eighteen, cut in two and thrown overboard."^ 
Eighty Indians were slaughtered at Pavonia during that night, 
and this, says De Yries, was " the feat worthy of the heroes of 
old Eome." 

Great was the rejoicing on Manhattan when the soldiers re- 
turned bearing the ghastly heads of some of the victims as- the 
trophies of their brilliant exploit. Planck's mother-in-law went 
so far as to kick these heads in her yet unappeased rage ! But, 
closer than they knew, sorrow and mourning were following 
upon the heels of their unhallowed rejoicing. How could it be 
otherwise ? What though the slayers were " Christians " and 
the slain savages ? " Hath not a Jew eyes ? hath not a Jew 
hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions ? fed with 
the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same 
diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the 

' Breeden Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y., iv., 104. 
2 O'Cal, N. N., i., 269. 


same winter ami summer, as a Christiiin is ^ It" a .lew wrong a 
Christian, what is his humility i revenge ; it" a Christian wrong a 
Jew, what .-hould liis sutierancc be by Christian example ? why, 
revenge. 77ie villdimj you tedc/i mr I loill execute ; nnil if 
s/idJl (JO Juird hut I mill better the inxtruction.''^ 

Uow suddenly had briars sj)rung up in the trail I' Whijr 
yet the liendish orgies were being enaeted, the work of 
retaliation had begun. Direk Straatmaker, in company witli 
some Englishmen and his wife, who had a baby- in her arms, 
eame at an early luuir upMii the bloody field tbr the purpose of 
l)lunder. The surviving Indians, who now saw the soldiers filing 
off toward their boats, while the others tarried, fired upon Straat- 
maker's party, with what result the following eertificate will 
show : 

" We, the undersigned, sergeant, eorporal, and soldiers, at the 
request of the Attorney Gen eral, attest that on the — February, 
1043, in the morning, after we had beaten a party of savages at 
Pavonia, behind Egbert Wouterssen's, the wife of Direk SStraat- 
maker, with a few Englishmen, arrived on the spot where the 
slain were lying, with a view to plunder maize or any other arti- 
cle. We declare solemnly we warned said Direk Straatmaker 
and his wife and told them to go home, to which Direk replied, 
' There is no danger. If there were a hundred savages, none of 
them would hurt us/ Fpoii which the undersigned left the 
spot, according to their orders, to go to the house of Egbert. 
When they arrived there they heard a shriek ; then the sergeant 
ordered some of his soldiers toward the spot, where they found 

' " There are briars in the trail between us." An Indian proverb, Hignifjinpr 
that trouble exists between the tribes. 

^ This child was saved, lie was named Jan Dircksen Straatmaker. Shortly 
afterward he was bound by the authorities in New Amsterdam to ('iaes Tea- 
nissen, with whom he had, on Feb. 28, IGoi), been livinjj for sixteen yean<. Ho 
was then in his seventeenth year. Minutrs of the Orphnn's Court, y<ir .im*t., 
96. He must, therefore, have been very youn^r at the time of the mai««acn>. 
It is probable that from him came the family of that name which for a lonjr 
time lived in Hoboken. He married Oeesje Gerrits, Jan. 14, 166.'>. WinJitUi't 
Land Titles, 58. 


Dirck, aforesaid, wounded (who died a while after of his wounds), 
and his wife dead. The soldiers saved the English, who had 
only one gun amongst them all. 

" Thomas Willet declared that Dirck aforesaid, being asked, 
' Why did you not come with us when we warned V answered, 
' I might have well escaped by running, but I did not wish to 
leave my poor wife.' 

"All which the undersigned declare to be true. Done 18th 
May, 1643, in New Netherlands. 

" JuRiAEN RoDOLF, Sergeant, 
" Peter Petersen, Corporal. 
"Thomas Willet."^ 

So unsuspecting were the Indians of the treachery of the 
Dutch, that some of them fled from Pavonia to the fort in New 
Amsterdam for protection, believing for a time that they had been 
attacked by the Mohawks.^ They were soon undeceived, how- 
ever, and forthwith entered upon a relentless war. Eleven 
tribes resolved upon the work of destruction. They murdered 
all the men they could And, dragged the women and children 
into captivity, burnt houses, barns, grain, haystacks, and laid 
waste the farms of the whites. From the Raritan to the Con- 
necticut not a white person was safe from the tomahawk and 
scalping knife, except those who clustered around Fort Amster- 
dam. Says Roger Williams, " Mine eyes saw the flames of their 
towns, the flights and hurries of men, women, and children, and 
the present removal of all that could to Holland."^ 

The people laid the fearful responsiljility of their present ca- 
lamities upon Kief t. Pie tried to shift it upon the shoulders of the 
three who had urged him to the great wrong. " I have," said 
he to Bout, " wherewith to defend my conscience, namely, Maryn 
Adriaensen, Jan Damen, and the man over there, your neigh- 
bor," meaning Planck. " You have done fine work," said Jacob 
Stoffelsen. " You must blame the freemen," responded Ivieft. 
"You have now done fine work, in causing the murder of 

1 Valentine's Manual, 1863, 541. 2 ]Sf, y. Hist. Soc, N. S., i., 269. 

3 Rhode Island Hist. Soc, Hi., 159. 


Christian blood,'" said l>lainv of Puidus llocck, alludiriir to his 
stepson, who liud hern kilhd. " You must put tho blame on 
the frecuu'i), nf whom ymii' neiijhbor, Abraham IMauck, is one," 
rejilicil the I )irc'('t«)r.' Aihi.K iiscu bccamo in<li<;nant at tlie at- 
tempt to place llie responsibility of tlic \\:ir u|iou him and his 
associates. It was more than be chose to bear, liushinir upon 
the Director with cutlass and jiistol, he demanded, '* Wliat dev- 
ilish lies are these you have been tellinii; of me ;" Ife was 
seized, disarmed, and committed to prison. II is attack was the 
signal for a general rising, M'liich was, however, readily subdued. 
and Adriaenscn was shortly after sent in chains to Holland for 

Kieft, goaded by the stings of conscience and the taimts of 
those who had suffered, attem})ted to conipier a jieace, but was 
unsuccessful. lie then turned with sup])liant voice to the same 
God whom he had mocked in his infamous order to Serjeant 
RodolF : '"Whereas, we continue to suffer much trouble and 
loss from these heatlien, ami many of the inhabitants find their 
lives and property in jeoj^ardy, which no doubt is the conse- 
quence of our manifold sins ; therefore the Director and Council 
have deemed it prujter that next Wednesday, being the fourth of 
March, shall be holdcn a general fast and prayer, for which every 
individual is solicited to prepare himself, that we may all. with 
true and incessant prayer, seek God's blessed mercy, and not give 
occasion through our iniquities that God's holy name may be 
contemned by the heathen.'"" Xeither his attempt to lay the 
blame upon others, nor his attejnpt to force the natives into sub- 
mission, nor his humbling himself before God could screen him 
from the tempest of indignatittn that burst upon him. To such 
a pitch were the people aroused that the ])roposition was made 
to depose him from his office and ship him to IIoHand.^ 

> Col ni»t. of X. T., i., 195. -^ Valcnliiif-s M'lnwil, lHfi:i. .'>40. 

3 Hendrick Kip was licard to say : " The Kivit (meaning tlu' director) DUjjlit 
to be packed off to Holland in the Peacock, with a letter of recommendation to 
Master Gerrit (the public executioner) and a povyid flemish, so that he may jjire 
him a nobleman's death." X. Y. Col. MSS., ii., 53. 


It was now approacliing the latter part of Marcli. The season 
of the year was near when the Indians must prepare for the 
maintenance of themselves and families by planting. This could 
not be done in the midst of a war. Advances were therefore 
made by Pennawitz, chief of the Canarsees, for the re-establish- 
ment of peace. This resulted in a " talk '' on Long Island, fol- 
lowed by a treaty of "solid peace" on the 25tli of March.^ 
Some of the Long Island sachems then went to Hackensack and 
Tappaen to persuade those tribes to send to the fort and make 
peace with the Dutch. Nearly a month passed before they 
could be induced to put any faitli in the Director. At length 
Oritany, sachem of the Hackensacks, invested with full power by 
the neighboring tribes, repaired to Fort Amsterdam, and entered 
into the following compact : 

" This day. the twenty-second of April, 1G43, between "VVil- 
lem Kieft, Director-General, and the Council of the New Neth- 
erlands, on the one side, and Oratatin, Sachem of the savages 
residing at Ack-kin-kashacky,^ who declared that he was dele- 
gated by and for those at Tappaen, Reckgawawanc, Kictawanc, 
and Sintsinck, on the other side, is a Peace concluded in the 
following manner, to wit : 

"All injustices committed by said nations against the Nether- 
landers, or by the Netherlanders against said nations, shall be 
forgiven and forgotten forever ; reciprocally promising, one the 
other, to cause no trouble, the one the other ; but whenever the 
savages understand that any nation, not mentioned in this treaty, 
may be plotting mischief against the Christians, then they will 
give to them a timely warning, and not admit such a nation 
within their own limits."^ 

To impress the savages with the solemnity and honesty of this 
compact, presents were mutually exchanged. But these savages, 
untutored in the elaborate deceptions of diplomacy, did not feel 
that the presents received were commensurate with the great 

' Valentine's Manual, 1863, 540. 2 Hackensack. 

3 Alb. Bee, a., 220 ; O'Cal., X. N., i., 277. 


wrono-s tliev liiid snft'ercd, ivnd tlicv went uwav I'niinhlini'. 
Hence the peace thus eonchuled was only apparent and did not 
last lonc^. The river tiihes were not at ease. The i^reat injuries 
inflietcil iipon them l»y the hated 8wannekins were uiuivenged 
or uiiatoned, and notliinij hut hlood or a full satisfaction could 
extiuiruish the lierce liatred which thev nursed. Early in An- 
jT^ust the war w]iO(»p was sounded ahovc the Iliifhiands, and thence 
rolled southward. In some instances hy stealth, in others hy 
open violence, the savages waged a relentless war. Seven differ- 
ent trihes joined the coalition, which spread terror on every side. 
In this hour of ]ieril Kicft called upon the peoj)le whom he had 
previously slighted to come to his assistance. They selected 
EiGUT representatives to confer and advise with the Director and 
Council. In this body was Jan Jansen Damcn, hut, for the 
part he had taken in bringing about the February massacre, lie 
was expelled, and Jan Evertsen Bout of Communipaw chosen in 
his stead. The Eight resolved on war, and Kieft proceeded to 
arm the people, and stationed them in small companies to pro- 
tect the outlying settlements. Ihit the savages were alert and 
gave the Dutch but little time for preparation. The force 
detailed to defend Lord Xederhoi-st's colonic were routed on the 
night of September 17th, and the house in which they took ref- 
uge was burned. Jacob Stoffelsen, then living near the i>resent 
corner of Henderson and Third streets in Jersey City, fearing 
his place might be injured, had three or four soldiers detailed for 
its protection. On the 1st of October nine Indians came to 
his house. They were kindly disposed toward him, and did not 
desire to injure his person. Under some pretence they induced him 
to cross over to the fort. They then approached the soldiers as 
friends. These, being thrown off their guard by this show of 
friendship, gave no attention to their muskets, were attacked and 
killed, and the buildings burned. The savages took young Ide 
Van Yorst prisoner and carried him off to Tappacn.' -Vert 
Teunissen of Iloboken, out on a trading excui-sion, was killed 

1 ^V. Y.Hist. Soc, N. S.,i., 272. The next day, at the re<|ue8t ..I Ku-li ami 
Stofifelsen, De Vries went to Tappacn and ransomed the " boy." 


near Sandy Hook,^ and afterward his farm was laid waste and 
his cattle were destroyed. The four bonweries in Pavonia — 
Bout's at Gamoenepaen, AYouterssen's at Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, 
StofFelsen's at Ahasimus, and Teunissen's at Hoboken — were 
laid waste and the buildings destroyed, not generally by open 
force, but by creeping through the bush and setting fire to the 
roofs, which were constructed either of reeds or straw.^ Before 
leaving, they burned every house in Pavonia, except the brew 
house in Hoboken,^ and destroyed every bouwerie and planta- 
tion, with twenty-five lasts* of corn and other produce, and killed 
or drove away the cattle.'"' Pavonia and adjoining districts suf- 
fered more than any other section. So thoroughly was their de- 
struction accomplished that from Tappaen to the Highlands of 
the Navesinck the country was once more in possession of its ori- 
ginal masters.^ All was desolation. In the language of the 
Eight to the States General : " Every place almost is abandoned. 
We, wretched people, must skulk, with wives and little ones, that 
still are left, in poverty together, by and around the fort on the 
Manhattes, where we are not one hour safe. . . . These 
heathen are strong in might. They have formed an alliance 
with seven other nations ; are well provided with guns, powder, 
and ball, in exchange for beaver by private traders, who have 
had for a long time free course here. The rest they take from 
our brethren whom they murder."" 

These troubles produced much discontent among the colonists. 
Poverty followed in the wake of the war. The comj^any's treas- 
ury was depleted, and Kieft attempted to replenish it by heavier 
taxation. This, added to the M\ar, kept the country in an almost 
disorganized condition until the spring of 1645. Then a number 
of tribes concluded a treaty of peace with the Dutch. In honor 
of this event, a " grand salute of three guns'' was fired by Jacob 
Jacobsen Poy, gunner in Fort Amsterdam. Unfortunately, one 
of the pieces — a brass six-pounder — exploded, and poor Roy was 

1 Valentine's Hist, of If. T., 47. "- Ibid, 46 ; Col. Hist, of N. Y., i.. 185. 

3 Col. Hist, of If. Y., l, 339. < Ibid, l, 190. s Broadhead, i., 369. 

6 O'Cal, N. N., i., 389. 7 ibid, i., 393. 

TKEATY uK I'KAi K IN ltJ45. 45 

badly wounded in tlie rii^lit arm.' It was in)t, however, until the 
thirtietli of August, that the river Indians consented to lay down 
their arms, and enter into tlie following treaty : 

'•This day, being the .'><itli of August, \i'A:'>, appeared in the 
Fort Amsterdam, before the Director and Council, in the pres- 
ence of the whole Commonalty, the sachems or chiefs of the sav- 
ages, as well in their own behalf as being authori/c(l b}' the neif^h- 
boring savages, namely: Ouataxkv, Chief oi Ai'k'nths-harktj; 
Sessekenk K and Wif-liam, Chiefs of 'VapiKien and Rirhjairu- 
icank ; Packam and Pennewink (who were here yesterday and 
gave their power of attorney to the former, and also took upon 
themselves to answer for those of Omintnj and the vicinitv of 
Majanicetinneinin , of Marecliowick\ u^ N>/ack and its neighbor- 
hood), and Aepjen, who personally ap})eared, speaking in behalf 
of Waj)j)in,r^ WiquaesJcecJcii, Shitsnicls and Ku-htcnrimx. 

'" First. They agree to conclude with us a solid and durable 
peace, which they promise to keep faithfully, as we also obligate 
oui*selves to do on our part. 

"Second. If it ha])pcu (which God in his mercy avert) that 
there arise some difficulty between us and them, no warfare sliall 
ensue in consequence, but they shall complain to our Oovcruor, 
and we shall complain to their sachems. 

" If any person shall be killed or murdered, justice shall be 
directly administered upon the murderer, that we may henceforth 
live in peace and amity. 

" TiiiKi). They are not to come on Manhattan Island, nor in the 
neighborhood of Christian dwellings with tlicir arms; neither will 
we approach their villages with i»ui- guns, except we are con- 
ducted thither by a savage to give them warning, 

" Foi'RTH. And whereas, there is yet among them an Engli.-.h 
girl, whom they promised to conduct to the Knglit-h at Stamford, 
they still engage, if she is not already conducted there, to bring 
lier there in safety, and we proniise in return to pay them the 
ransom \vhich has been promised by the English. 

X. v. Col. Ji.Ss'., jr., '221. 


" All wliicli is promised to be i-eligiouslj performed tlirougliout 
the whole of New JSTetherlands. 

" Done in Fort Amsterdam, in the open air, by the Director 
and Council in 'New Netherland, and the whole commonalty, 
called together for this purpose, in the presence of the Maquas 
ambassadors, who are solicited to assist in this negotiation as 
arbitrators, and Cornelius Anthonissen, their interpreter, and an 
arbitrator with them in this solemn aifair. Done as above." 

This treaty was signed by Sisendogo, Claes jS'orman, Orataney, 
Sessekemis, William of Tappaeu, Jacob Stoffelsen, Aepjen, 
sachem of the Mohicans, and Cornells Teunissen, all of whom 
affixed their mark ; and by Willem Kieft, La Montague, Jan 
Underhill, Francis Doughty, George Baxter, Richard Smith, 
Gysbert Opdyke, Jan Evertsen Bout, Oloif Stevensen and Cor- 
nells Haykens.^ 

Thus closed the first Indian war. It had been carried on for 
eighteen months with but slight intermission. On the return of 
peace, the owners and tenants of farms on the west side of the 
river came back to and rebuilt their desolated bouweries.^ 

' Valentine's Manual, 1863, 544. 

2 Bout was among the number who returned. Before he had reconstructed 
his dwelling-, however, he sold the " farm and a poor, unfinished house, with 
some few cattle, for 8,000 florins," to Michael Jansen. Col. Hist, of N. Y., i , 482. 
Vide Vreeland Family. It is probable that Jansen purchased this farm in 1646. 
Certainly he was residing there in September, 1647. The farm sold to Jansen 
was only part of the tract given to Bout by the Company. The other part he 
sold to Claes Comptah, alias Claes Pietersen Cos, for 1,444 florins, 3 stivers. 
]^eio Amst. Rec, Hi., 143. Winfield's Land Titles, 48. 

ClIAPTEi: 111.^1046—1658. 

Arrival of Stay vesant — Murder of Simon Walinjrrs at Paulus Hocrk — Confer 
ence with tin- Indians — Tracts of land taken up in the County — War 
again breaks out — Pavouia destroyed — All the settlers tlec — Indians 
return their prisoners to Paulus Hoeck — Detached settlements forbidden 
— Persecution of the Quakers. 

On the 28th of July, irt46, Petriis Stuyvesaiit was commis- 
sioned Direotor General, and arrived at Maidiattan (111 the 11th 
of May, 1047. Shortly after his arrival the Indians hc^^'an t<» 
complain that the presents promised to them when they entered 
into the treaty of peace had not been received. Being without 
money and without goods, he Avas imable to satisfy their demands, 
and yet knew that if a war should break out, he would be cen- 
sured by the fickle multitude. In this dilemma the cominunalty 
were called upon to select eighteen representatives, from whom 
the Director and Council selected Nine to advise the Govern- 
ment when requested. Manhattan, Brcuckclen, Amersfoort and 
Pavonia made the necessary selections from their best citi- 
zens.^ From Pavonia appeared Michiel J^msen, the farmer, 

• The merchants, burghers and farmers were represented in this Board. It.-* 
duties were— i''i/•s^ To promote the honor of (Jud, the welfare of the coiintrj-. 
and the i)reservation of the Reformed Religion, according to the discipline of 
the Dutch Church. Second. To give their opinion on matters submitted to them 
by the Director and Council. Third. Three of the nine, viz. : One merchant, 
one burgher, and one fanner, were to attend for a month in rotation on the 
weekly court, as long as civil cases were before it. and to act 8ub8e<iuently as 
referees or arbitrators on cases referred to them. If. in case of sickness or ab- 
sence, either of these three could not attend, his place was t<> be filled by an 
other of the NiNK of the same class. Six retired from oHice annually, to be 
replaced by an e<iual number selected from twelve name* sent in by the whole 
board. They held their sessions in David Provoost's school room, and were the 
immediate precursors of the Burgomasters and Schepens. and of a municipal 
form of government in the city of New Amsterdam, yeic ycth. Reg., 55. 


who held a seat in the same body in the years 1649 and 

Stuy vesant profited by the experience of his predecessor in his 
intercourse with the Indians. His manner toward them was 
conciliatory, and it was nearly two years after his arrival before 
any difficulty arose on this side of the Hudson, and even this was 
seized upon by the Director to prove the mildness of his govern- 
ment toward the natives. Tiie following resolution of the 
Council, passed March 11, 1649, and the subsequent conference 
with the Indians, throw all the light upon this incident which 
can now be obtained : 

" Whereas, on the 9tli of March last, at Pavonia, about Paulus 
Hoeck, one Simon Walinges^ was found dead, having been, as is 
supposed from the arrows and wounds in his head, killed by the 
Indians, although it cannot be ascertained to what tribe they 
belonged ; yet thus far it is the general opinion that it was done 
by strangers, either from the Earitan or from the south, lured to 
this crime by their avarice, because they took from the house in 
which the murdered man resided about three hundred oruilders 
in strung sewant, four beavers and five otters, with some cloth 
and friezes, which theft, no doubt, drew the man from his house, 
as he was discovered a pistol shot from the door in the path, 
lying dead on the ground, with a small ladder in his hand,^ a!id 
as the murdered man, without knowledge of the court, and 
against common usage, was carried, by some individuals, away 
from the spot where he was killed, and brought to this side of the 
river on the Manhattans before this city ; so the transaction has 
occasioned much commotion among the inhabitants and Indians 
— more so as some of our people took hold of the Indians and 
denounced them as guilty of the crime, which was then followed 

1 Mw JSTeth. Beg., 56. 

2 His surname was Van der Bilt. Broadhead, i., 509. He came to this country 
in 1636, and settled in Rensselaerwyck. 

3 The meaning of this I do not comprehend, unless he lived in a sort of block- 
house, which rendered a ladder necessary for entrance and exit, and which, in 
the excitement of the moment, he carried with him after emerging from the 
house in pursuit of the thieves. 


by a general llii:;lit of tlio Indians from tin- Manhattans, ami 
accounts of the transaction were spread tar and wide. 

" "Wherefore, to prevent its spreading turthi'r, tiif Director 
General and Council have deenu'd it advisable — tirst, to make no 
further stir about this murder, atid do our best to appease both 
Christians and Indians, and reconcile them again to one another, 
to bury the corpse, and urge the Christians carefully to al)staiii 
from betravins: any desire of revenue."* 

The Indians, fearing that the Director would seek revenge 
after the manner of liis predecessor, sent some of their leading 
men to New Amsterdam to ask forgiveness ami renew the cov- 
enant of friendship. On the 10th of Jidy the Sachems Seyse- 
gekkunes, Oratamus (Orataney?), AVillem <»f Ta[)paen, and Pen- 
nekek of Acliter Col (Elizabethtown), met the Council at the 
fort. Pennekek made a speech to the effect that the Min(|uas of 
the south desired to live with the Dutch in friendship, and, to 
signify their wish, he laid down a present for the Director ; that 
one Indian of Meckgackhanic had latelv, without the knowledire 
of his people, done some mischief at Paulus Iloeck, and asked 
that it might be excused ; that the Raritans, residing formerly at 
Wickquakeck, had a sachem, and wished him to intercede for 
them ; that Meyternaek, Sachem of Xyack, with his tribe, was 
desirous to be included in the treaty, and would continue and 
remain friends to the Dutch ; that he proclaimed the same for 
the Indians of Remahennonk ; that their heart was upright, and 
they wished to live with the Dutch in friendship, ami that all the 
past might be forgotten, and .said : '' Could you see my heart, 
then you would be convinced that my words an- sincere and 

Governor Stuyvesant readied in a conciliatory speech, and j>re- 
sented the Indians with about twenty florins, and some tobacco 
and a gun to Oratamus. The Indians were delighted, reaffirnn-d 
the treaty of peace, and returned to their homes.* 

From this time until the year 1055 the settlers on tiic west 
side of the Hudson pursued the even tenor of their way without 

' N. Y. Col. MSS.. iv., 428. « VnUntine's Manuai, 1868, 648. 



much disturbance from any source. They joined in the general 
crusade against the hard-headed Peter, very much as the masses 
now do against officials, but beyond this they were occupied in 
improving their farms. The favorable situation of the land had 
attracted notice, and nun)erous grants had been made by the 
company to individuals since the devastating war of 1643. The 
wounds of that terrible contest were healed, and health and 
prosperity were everywhere visible. Jacob Jacobsen Roy, the 
gunner of Fort Amsterdam, had received a grant for one hun- 
dred and hfteen morgens of land at Constapel's Hoeck.^ Claas 
Carstensen, the Norman, sometimes called Yan Sandt, had taken 
up fifty morgens, extending from bay to bay, and including the 
central part of the recent township of Greenville, then called 
Minkakwa.^ Maryn Adriaenseu had received a plantation ot 

1 Land Papers {Albany), G. G., 141. Winfield's Land Titles, 73. The Dutch 
word for gunner is konstapel; hence Konstapel's Hoeck, or Gunner's Point. It 
derived its name from the occupation of its first European owner. It lies east 
of Bergen Point, at the mouth of the Kill van Kull. It is a rolling piece of 
sandy land, separated from the main by salt marsh. Different parts of it are 
known as Bird's Point, Van Buskirk's Point, and Mitchell's Point. On account 
of its distance from populous settlements, it is being extensively devoted to 
those kinds of pursuits which require isolation. Its Indian name was Nip- 
nichsen. Roy received the patent in March, 1G46. His wife's name was 
Fokeltje Willems. JSf. Y. Col. MSB., ii., 29. 

2 Land Papers {Al'yany), G. G., 197. Winfield's Land Titles, 59. The map 
of the county will show that Cavan Point is about opposite Droyer's Point — 
the former in New York bay, the latter in Newark bay. The two points stretch 
out like wings. Above them are meadows, below them is a good shore, and 
only about one-half the distance across, By rowing around either of these points 
the natives had a short and easy portage from one bay to the other, and a good 
landing upon either side. Heape they named the place Minkakwa (corrupted 
by the Dutch into Min,gackque), " the place of the good crossing" — from mino, 
or min, " good," and kakiwe, " to cross over a point of land on foot." It in- 
cluded that part of the county which lies between the Morris canal, or Fiddler's 
Elbow, on the south, and the bluff where the Central Railroad crosses the Morris 
canal on the north. 

Prior to 1644 Carstensen lived on Long Island. He married Hilletje Hen- 
dricks, April 1.5, 1646 ; was admitted to the rights of a small burgher, April 13, 
1657, JVew Neth. Reg., 173, and appointed interpreter of the Algonquin language 
in 1658. Tbid, 133. 


fifty morgens at Awieliaken.' J)irc-k Ziokeii (or Sycsm) ha«l oli- 
tained a patciit tor a ]>lantatioii bel<»\v (leinoeuepaL'ii, aiul bju-k 
of Kewan.- Sycan's Crock, wimliiii^ through the meadows, l)e- 
tween C'a\!m Point aii'l tlic u|>l.iiii|, still perpetuates tlie name of 

WinfieUVs Land Titles, 36. Adriaensun was born in 1000. N. 7. Col. MSS.. 
i., 249. Came from Wre to this country in \iVM, and sfjttlcd in Rfn».'«dR<Twvrk. 
O'Cal., N. X., L, A''i\. lie shortly afterward came to New AniHterdam, wa« 
chosen one of the " Twelve," August 29, 1641, and bore a prominent jiart in 
the trouV)les of l(i43. He was a bad man, a noted freebooter ; O'Cal., y. N., i., 
434 : a drunkard, JV. Y. Col. MSS., i., 200, and a slanderer. Ibid, if., 94. His 
wife's name was Lysbet Tysen. She survived him, and married Ueerlief Mich- 
ielsen, May 3, 1G54. New Amst. Bee, i., 448. 

The name of this place is now corrupted into Wcihuirki'ii, formerly also writ- 
ten Whehockcn, Weehaick and Wtchauk-, but the true mime is as given in the 

It still retains much of its primitive attractiveness, ilalleck has sung its 

beauty : 

Weehawken ! In thy mountain scenery yet. 

All we adoro of nature, iu Ikt wild 

And frolic hour of infancy, is met; 

And never has a summer's morning smUcd 

Upon a lovelier scene. ♦ « » 

Tall spire, and glittering roof, and battlement; 

And banners floating in the sunny air. 

And white sails o'er the calm blue waters bend, 

firecn isle and circling shore— are blended there, 

In wild reality. When life is old 

And many a scene forgot, the heart will hold 

Its memory of this. 

The word is Indian, and several attempts have been ma<le at its definition. 
Weeh-ruh-ink, the termination in auk, meaning " tree," suspected to apply to 
the rock which in its structure resembles trees. JV. }'. Hist. Soc. Proc, 1844. 
106. The modern orthography gives a sound similar to Yehaickans, signify- 
ing "houses." Macanli/'s X. Y., ii., 26!. Iu a letter received frum Hon. J. 
Hammond Trumbull, of Connecticut, he says: "The last syllable of Weehatr- 
ken appears to represent the location affix, ing or ink. I am inclined to believe 
that Wehoak denotes ' the end' (of the Palisades), corresponding to the Massa- 
chusetts Wehque, 'ending at,' or wohkocw (Eliot), 'at the end of.' This 
definition seems to me to be the most probable." 

2 The ujiland along the shore, between the Abattoir and Cavan Point, was 
granted to Egbert W'outerssen, May 10, 1647, by the Indian name of Apo|>ca- 
lyck. Winfield's Land Titles, 36. The northerly part is known as Ritrcx-iu, 
formerly Ihgpokes, Rightpokus, Right-pocquct and Right-Coakkus. The lower 
part was Kewiin, now known as Cavan Point, sometimes as Hreat Kaywan. 
Kewan is Indian, and signifies i\ point of/'iiid. On a map in .U'lr.i/nili* M'i/.«A- 


this owner of the land on its western bank.^ In 1654 patents 
were issued for land in the southerly part of Jersey City and in 
Bayonne, down to near the present First Eeformed Church. The 
tracts were designated by this general description, " between 
Gemoenepaen and the Kil van Kol." Most of them lie within 
the district afterward known as Pembrepogh, but as that name 
is not mentioned in the patents, it would seem fair to infer that 
the same was not then known to the Dutch, or, at least, not ap- 
plied to this portion of the county. The grants were as follows : 
October 23, to Jacob Wallingen, from Hoorn,'^ - 25 morgens. 
December 4, to Jan Cornelissen Buys,^ - - - 25 " 
" 5, to Jan Lubbertsen," - - - 25 " 

" 5, to Jan Gerritsen Van Immen,^ - - 25 " 

" 5, to Jan Cornelissen Schoeumaker," - 25 " 

" 5, to GerritPietersen,'^- - - - 25 " 

" 5, to Lubbert Gysbertsen,« - - 50 " 

ington. Vol. V., dated August 27, 1776, Kewan is named " Gallows Point." In 
the olden time this point extended into New York bay much further than it 
now does. In the last seventy years the water has encroached upon it at least 
two hundred feet. A cherry orchard once stood where fishermen now stake 
their nets. 

1 This is the creek through which the water of the OfiF-fall (which stream 
took its rise in Tuers' pond, near the Bergen Reformed Church) forced its way 
to the bay. From Straatmaker's Point to the bay it is yet in existence ; above 
that point it was destroyed by the construction of the Morris canal. 

2 Winfield's Land Titles, 71. It is probable he came to this country with 
Captain De Vries in 1635 or 1636. W. Y. Col. MSS., i., 64. 

3 Winfield's Land Titles, 64. Buys was admitted to the rights of a small 
burgher, April 14, 1657. He was living in Midwout in 1663. He was known as 
•' Jan, the Soldier." 

■4 Ihid, 65. Lubbertsen was appointed clerk of the Company, September 8, 
1654, but on the 19th of March, 1658, the same position was refused him. On 
the 13th of August, 1658, he was licensed to keep school in New Amsterdam, 
" to teach reading and cyphering ;" was admitted to the rights of a small 
burgher, April 14, 1657, and appointed one of the commissioners to fortify 
Bergen in 1663. 

5 Ibid, 66. ® 1^^'^' ^^-^ 

7 Ihid, 65. Pietersen was admitted to the rights of a small burgher in 1657. 

« Ihid, 62. Gysbertsen was a wheelwright by trade ; came over in 1634, and 
settled in Rensselaerswyck. 


December 5, to Jan Cornelisscn C/ryiuieii/ - - 25 niorj^cns. 
" 5, to Gysbert Luhbcrtsen,* - - 25 " 

*' 5, to Tleiulrick Jjuiscn Vuii Schalek\vyck/25 " 

Mic'liiel Jansen liad also received a patent for twenty-six an<l 
a lialt" inori!;ens, and lii> bi-otlicriii law. (Jlaes Jansen, the baker, 
a patent tni- forty nior<2;ens lyin<; at ami near Coininnnipaw. At 
Ilobokeii, Aliasimns, I'aulus Ijocck,' and ('uiuintniipaw were 
flouribhinu- farms. ^ 

Ten years had passed since the treaty with Kiet't had secnred 
peace to the conntry. We have now reached the month of Sep- 
tember, 1055. Stnyvesaiit, in cDnnuand of a sqnadruii of seven 
vessels, liivini;- on board between six an<l seven luimh-ed men, 
had departed on tlie fifth tor the South river to ex|)el tlie Swe<lcs. 
who had made a settlement tliere.'' In his absence troul)les 
arose wliidi l)ore disastrously upon the settlements on the west 
side of the river. They i^rew out of such a trithiiLj fact that one 
almost fails to aj'iprcciato the wonderful stupidity which jirecipi- 
tated them. 

Ilendrick Van l\vck, the sehout-fiscal, had a farm in New Am- 
sterdam south of Trinitv Church, extendinir from T.roadwav to 
the x^orth river. He had with much care planted a peach or- 
chard M'ith trees imported from Holland. This fruit was a rarity 
in those days, and to the Indians it was a novelty. The sij^ht 
of the blushing peach was a sore temptation to the poor savages. 
so irresistible, indeed, that they were not loth to venture their 
lives in the dark nights to sail arouiul in their canoes, and, by a 
stealthy march and scaling of fences, to appropriate the fruit. 
The wrath of Van Dyck's wife upon discovering these raids upon 

' Winfidd's Land Titles, 68. ' ^»<'. ««• 

3 Ihid, 70. The inost of these ])atPntoo>t were soldiers. 

< This place was, during this year, called on to furnish its (juota of trwipa to 
exterminate the pirates on Long Island Sound. It furnished one man of the 
forty required for that purpose. O'CaL, N. N., ii., O")"^. 

5 Mr. Whitehead, a scholar of accurate learning, says that the several planta 
tions on this side of the river were ahandoned in lf>."jl. Whitehead's E<i»t Jtr»ey. 
20. This is a mistake. They were not abandoned until Ifrj-'). 

6 Broadhead, i., 604. 


her orchard knew no bounds. A watch was set for the thieving 
savage, but in the chase the wild rover was too nimble for the 
heavy-bottomed Dutchmen. As capture was impossible, nothing 
remained but to give the rogues a dose of shot, and Yan Dyck 
was assigned to the duty. At midnight he secreted himself in 
the orchard and waited for the intruder. A dim figure soon 
scaled the fence and began to pluck the forbidden fruit. Van 
Dyck fired ; the victim fell. It was an Indian girl, and she was 
dead. The news of the outrage soon spread, and the Indians de- 
liberately resolved upon signal vengeance. Giving no warning of 
their purpose, on the night of the 15th of September sixty-four 
canoes, carrying five hundred warriors, all armed/ landed at New 
Amsterdam and scattered themselves throuo-h the streets. Yan 
Dyck, for whom they were searching, fled to the house of his 
neighbor, Yandiegrist.^ They attacked the house, and in the 
affray Yan Dyck was wounded in the breast by an arrow, and 
Yandiegrist was cut down with a tomahawk. The town was 
quickly aroused ; the guard attacked the savages and drove them 
to their canoes. They then crossed over to the west side of the 
river, and " in the twinkle of an eye" a house at Hoboken^ was 
in flames, and all Pavonia was soon on fire. From one end of 
the settlement to the other the torch and tlie tomahawk did their 
work. Excepting the family of Michiel Jansen at Communipaw, 
every man who did not seek safety in flight was killed. All the 
cattle were destroyed, and everything burned. From Pavonia 
they passed over to Staten Island, and laid that waste.* The at- 

1 Fourteen hundred men belonging to the same expedition arrived shortly 
afterward. Valentine'i< Manual, 1863, 552. 

^ This Vandiegrist was subsequently one of the owners of Slaugh's Meadow. 
Winfield's Land Titles, 138. 

3 Vanderkemp translates this " Harbol." Alb. Bee., xiii., 327. 

* Captain Adrian Post, his wife, five children, one servant and one girl, were 
saved, Alb. Bee, viii., 158, but captured. O'Cal., JY. iV., ii., 293. He afterward 
acted for the Dutch Government in redeeming captives taken by the Indians. 
He settled in Bergen, where he became ensign, Sept. 6, 1665 ; representative, 
June 10, 1673 ; the first prison-keeper in East .Jersey, July 19, 1673, and lieu- 
tenant, July 15, 1675. He was a man of considerable influence, and the founder 
of the Post family. He resided in the town on lot 164 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 
81 ; and died Feb. 28, 1677. 


tiic'k raided for three days with all tin- t'ury of savai^c wartarc. 
The Dutch lost one linndred in killed, uuv hundred and lit'tv 
were carried into captivity, and over three hundred were de- 
priNed of their lidiius. I'wenty-eitjht houweries and a nund)er 
of plantations were destroyed, besides a lari^e amount of fjrain 
and a nund^cr of cattle,^ The savages of Ahasinius, Ackiiike- 
shacky, Ta]>paen, and others were j)resent in this contlict, an<l 
were guilty of shocking cruelties, against their solemn promise, 
contirmed by an oath, which they never took hrfore, viz. : " May 
God, wlio resides above, take vengeance on us if we do not keep 
our engagements and promises."' 

For tl\e second time Pavonia was a desohation. The settlei*s 
on this side of tlie river, in common witli those of otlier places, 
took wing and fled to Xevv Amsterdam for protection.^ Here 
the most of them remained for the next five years, until better 
days returned. As soon as Stuyvesant, then on the Delaware, 
heard of tlie attack by the savages, he hastened his return. Im- 
mediately on liis arrival he adopted plans for the defence of the 
Province. The Indians, being encund^ered with the prisoners 
they had taken, sent in Captain Post with a proposal of ransotn. 
On the 13th of October Pieter Kock* conducted Captain Post 
back to Paulus Iloeck, where he met the Indians. They were 
displeased that the captain had not returned at the tinie speci- 
fied, and gave expression to their feelings by saying, '' Ye Dutch- 
men lie so fast that we cannot trust you." They promised, how- 
ever, that all the prisoners should be at Paulus Iloeck within 
two days. " Come and see it.'-'' 

Although they had invited negotiation and accused the Dutcii 
of falsehood, they prevaricated and delayed to release the cap- 
tives. Stuyvesant soon lost all patience with them, and is^sued 
the following order : 

' O'CcU., N. N., a., 291. 2 -4^6. Rtc. x., 16.5. 

3 Valentine's Manual, 1860, 616. 

* Pieter was accustomed to come to the shores of Pavonia under more favor- 
able circumstances. It was here, but a few years before, that he wooed but 
failed to win Annetje Van Vorst. 

5 AW. Rec. .riii., 6o. 


. " Captain Post. — Whereas, the savages appear studiously to 
delay the pending negotiations, which were begun with mutual 
consent, and with a prospect of satisfactory arrangement, and as 
they appear, by their repeated excursions, to endeavor to dis- 
courage our soldiers, by keeping them constantly on the move, 
and being ferried over time and time again, meantime no deci- 
sion is come to respecting the prisoners in their hands ; 

" Therefore, we desire you, or any other person familiar with 
the Indian language, to demand in our name of the Sachems 
Pennekek, Orataney, and others, wliat is their final intention, 
and whether they have concluded to deliver over our prisoners 
or not, and if so, when. And we also require that they will not 
keep us longer in suspense or tell lis lies. 

"Done in Fort Amsterdam, October 16, 1655."^ 

On the followino; dav the Sachem of Achter Col brought to 
Paulus Hoeck a number of his captives, as appears by the fol- 
lowing action of October IStli : 

" Whereas, Pennekek, a chief of the savages, did yesterday, 
being the ITtli of October, bring in fourteen persons of the Dutch 
nation, males and females, who had been taken captive by his 
nation, and placed them again under the protection of the Dutch 
government, and at the same time, as a further token of his 
good will, brought in Captain Post, he also a prisoner, and there- 
npon solicited the Director to reciprocate his courtesy in present- 
ing him with some poNvder and balls ; 

"The Director-General and Council judge the request of Pen- 
nekek a matter of considerable importance, and having mature- 
ly considered it, resolved to send him, as a proof of their good 
will, two Indians who were taken captive by our men, as a free 
gift of the Director-General, with a small quantity of powder 
and ball, in the hope that by these means the remaining Chris- 
tians may obtain their liberty.""^ 

The fact that a body of savages with prisoners were gathered 
at Paulus Hoeck caused quite a commotion in New Amsterdam 

' W. Y. Col. MSS., vL, 153. 2 Valentine's Manual, 18fi3. 557. 


The curious rowed over to Puvuiiia and jiruwled jiround the 
camp. Those wlio were indiijnant over the f:i|»ti\ity of rela- 
tives insulted the Indians if tliey landtMl <>n >r:irdi:ittan. The 
authorities, feariiiT^ the natural result of such conduct, made a 
general order on the 18th oi' October that no pei-son should pre- 
sume to go over to Paulus Iloerk, hy boat, canoe, or other ves- 
sel, nor should any one converse with tlie Indians, under penalty 
of correction, Xo person, whoever he might be, should, on the 
arrival or departure of any boat, or when the Indians should ar- 
rive, crowd to the landing, or indulge in clamor or noise, under 
penalty of imprisonment, whether young or old. If any per- 
son crossed the river without showing a token (or permit) from 
the authorities, the Indians w'ere authorized to arrest and hold 
him for ransom,^ On the IDth Post, Claes Jansen de Iluyter. 
and Peter AVolfertsen van Couwenhoven broutrht over the above 
views of the government, with some presents for the Indians, 
and returned on the 21st with twenty-eight ransomed captives. 
The savages also sent a messao-e that twentv or twentv-four 
others would be sent in on receipt of a proper quantity of friezes, 
guns, wampum, and ammunition. The Director then wished to 
know how much they would take for the '"' prisoners en maxse, 
or for each.'' They replied, seventy-eight pounds of powder and 
forty staves of lead fa- twenty-eight persons.'* The otler was ac- 
cepted, and additional presents made. This seems to haveen<led 
the second general Indian war. 

At this time it does not appear that there was one white resi- 
dent remaining within the limits of this countv. The savage 
was again the undisturbed lord of the soil. Even Michiel Jan- 
sen, who escaped the slaughter of September, had tied to New 
Amsterdam M'ith his numerous family. Stuyvesant, being a 
practical man, attempted not only to conciliate the Indians for 
the present, but to provide for the safety of settlers in the fu- 
ture, lie had long before this, and on several occasions, made 
known his views as to the impropriety of detached or isolated 
settlements, whicli exposed the people to destruction. lie now 

' N. Y. Col. MSS., ri., 107. « O'Cnl, X. X.. ii.. 294. 


put those views into definite and authoritative shape by the fol- 

" Ordinance 

Of the Director-General and Council of New JSTetherland for 
the formation of villages, and prohibiting straw roofs and wooden 
chimneys. Passed January l^th, 1656. 

"Whereas, sad experience hath from time to time proved 
that, in consequence of the separate dwellings of the country peo- 
ple located on the Flatland in divers hooks and places, in com- 
plete opposition to the Order and good intention of the Hon^'® 
Company and its government here, many murders of People, 
killing and destruction of Cattle, and burning of Houses, have 
been committed and perpetrated by the Indians, natives of this 
Country, the most of which might have been, with God's help, 
prevented and avoided, if the good Inhabitants of this Province had 
settled themselves together in the form of Towns, Villages, and 
Hamlets, like our neighbors oi New England, who, because of their 
combination and compact residences, have never been subject to 
such, at least not to so many and such general disasters, which 
have been caused, next to God's righteous chastisement, on ac- 
count of our sins, by tempting the Savage Barbarians thereto 
by the separate residences of the Country people ; the one not 
being able, in time of need, to come to the assistance of the 
other, in consequence of the distance of the places, and the im- 
possibility of the Director-General and Council to provide each 
separate country house with a guard. To this, then, besides the 
Murders, Damages, and destruction of divers People, Bouwer- 
ies, and Plantations already suflfered, is owing also the last, to 
the serious loss and hindrance of this country and the people 
thereof, the recurrence of which is to be apprehended and ex- 
pected hereafter no less than now and heretofore, unless the 
good Inhabitants are taught by their losses and those of others 
to be wiser and more prudent, and to allow themselves to be in- 
fluenced by good law, as they are bound to be, to foi*m compact 
dwellings in suitable places in form and manner as will be laid 
down to the Inhabitants by the Director-General and Council, 
or their Commissioners, when the Director-General and Council 


will 1)C ahli' to assist aiul luaiiitaiii their suhjucts, with the jxnvcr 
intrusted to them by God and tlie Supreme government. 

"In order that this may l>c tiie better executi'd und oln'vcd in 
future, the Direetor-General and Cotmcil atbresHid do hereby not 
only warn their good subjects, Imt likewise (;li!irLC(? and eommand 
tliem to concentrate themselves, by next Sprini:^, in tlm t'Mrm of 
Towns, Villa<;es and Hamlets, so that tliev may be the more 
effectually protected, maintained and defended a<xainst all assaults 
and attacks of the Barbarians, by i-ach other and Ity the military 
intrusted to the Director-Cieiu'ral and ('(^uiu'il ; Wariuni; all 
those wlio will, contrary hereunto, remain hereafter on their 
isolated plantations, that they will do so at their peril, without 
obtainini;, in time of need, any assistance from the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council. They shall, moreover, be fined annually in 
the sum of 25 guilders for the behoof of the i)u])lic.' 

" Furthermore, the Director-General and Council, in order to 
prevent a too sudden conflagration, do Ordain tliat from now 
henceforth no Houses shall be covered with Straw or Keed, nor 
any more Chimneys be constructed of Cla])boards or Wood. 

•'Thus done, resolved, resumed and enacted in the Assembly of 
the Direetor-General and Council, holden in Fort Amsterdam 
in Xevj Netherland. Dated as above."^ 

During the following summer the authorities, on intormatiuii 

' In the latter part of this year .Tacoh StofftOsen asked for permission to re- 
turn to his farm at Harsiiuus. In his petition he set fortli that ht- linil Ween 
twice driven away by tlie Indians, that he was an old man. and was willing to 
build a small house and barn. The authorities insisted upon their i)laeard of 
.lanuary 18th. They claimed that imperious neeessity required that separated 
settlements should be discouraged. Yet they jiermitted Stoffelsen to continue 
the cultivation of his farm at his own risk during the following year. This on 
December 21, 16')0. N. Y. Col. MSS., riii.. .'?i:?. 

■i X. T. Col. MSS., pi.,22G. On the sul)jert of the prectnling ordinance, the 
Directors in Amsterdam wrote as follows, December 19, lfw6: 

" We are well pleased with the Edict your Honors have enact.-*! r««specttng 
the separate habitations of the outside people, provided it apply to the HuiUler* 
of new dwellings, and not to those whose houses are already erecte*! and con- 
structed, for we do not think it fair to constrain the latter thereto." N. Y. Col 
M8S.,xii., i'i. 


that a few Tappaen Indians were contemplating mischief against 
the whites, reaffirmed the above ordinance, and commanded the 
people to concentrate in villages.^ 

This ordinance was perhaps the principal cause which pre- 
vented the repeopling of Pavonia for several years. The people 
could not make up their minds to abandon their separate settle- 
ments and concentrate in villages. Therefore they quietly re- 
mained in exile upon the Island of Manhattan. Neither they nor 
the authorities would abandon their positions ; hence the fields 
of Pavonia remained desolate. 

During the next two years the attention of the authorities and 
people was largely engrossed with religious matters. A persecu- 
tion of "]Sr on- Conformists''' began, and Dominies Megapolensis 
and Drisius held the garments of those who stoned the saints. 
Whatever doctrine they preached, they practiced this : " Stand 
by thyself, come not near to me ; for I am holier than thou." 
They demanded that Dominie Goetwater, a Lutheran minister, 
who had presumed to come to New Amsterdam to instruct the 
people in his way of belief, should be sent l)ack in the same ship 
in which he came. The " Friends,"" who had been expelled from 
Boston, came within the bounds of New Netherland, and pro- 
claimed their simple, comprehensive creed. They were imme- 
diately pursued with pains and penalties. If they demanded to 
be informed what law they had broken, and called for their 
accusers, that they might know their transgression, tortures fol- 
lowed, such as would rival those of the Inquisition. Even those 
who entertained the persecuted, or showed them sympathy, were 
accused of treating with contempt all ecclesiastical and political 
authority. If one whose soul thirsted for the water of life waited 
upon the ministrations of any other than a duly authorized ex- 
pounder of Heidelburgh, he or she was instantly accused of being 
absent from worship and profaning the Lord's Day. So soon 
and so completely had Netherlanders forgotten the great lesson 
of the Low Land "War, in which William the Silent laid his life 
upon the altar, and whole hecatombs of their countrymen had 

' ISr. T. Col. M88., via., 56. 


been sacrificed, that cvitv ni;iii iiiii^lit i>i:iy tn (u<(\ in liis own 
language and worship lliin in what form lie iiiii,'lit, personally 
responsible to Ilini only for the honesty and i^enuinencss of that 
prayer and worsliip. Alas, for human weaknrss which natural- 
izes tvi'annv in cNcrv heart; which makes every niairs credo a 
Procrustean bed upon which he would lengthen or shorten every 
other man's credo until it litte<l with exactness. 

" Alus for the rarity 
Uf Christian cliarity 
Under the sun." 

It is some satisfaction, however, to know that these persecutions 
were mostly confined to the east side of Hudson's river. It is vcrv 
doubtful if any such cruelties for opinion's sake were indidged 
in within the hounds of this county. On Monday, the •2;kl of 
September, 1658, three persons — Tomas Christen, Tomas Cliaj)- 
man and John Cook — were carried before the Council, suspected 
" to be of the sect called Quakers, which they unrpiestionably 
proved, entering the room without paying any mark of respect 
their heads covered." They had come from "GemeenePas" 
(Cominunipaw), and requested permission to pass on to New 
England. This was denied. The sheriff conducted them back 
to Communipaw, and they were warned not to come again, under 
the penalty of corporal punishment^ 

• N. T. Col. MSS., viiL, 091. 

CHAPTER IV.— 16 5 8— 16 64. 

Deed from the Indians for all the land in the County, between Hackensack and 
Hudson — The Refugees desire to return to Pavonia — Forced to concen- 
trate — Petition to found a village on the Hill — The village of Bergen 
begun — Its Founders and Name — Its manner of settlement and defence 
— Its first Charter and Court — Names of Officers — Lot owners ordered to 
take out Patents — A Well ordered to be dug in the Village — Communi- 
paw fortified. 

We have now reached a state of peace in thehistory of Hudson 
County which is not again to be bn)ken in upon by an Indian 
war. With considerable accuracy Stuy vesant comprehended the 
policy to be pursued toward the savages, and skillfull}^ seized 
every occasion to temper their wild dispositions. Feeling that 
possibly their title to the land in Pavonia had not been satisfac- 
torily extinguished, and that this might be one cause of complaint 
with them, and urged thereto by the great desire of the refugees 
to return, he entered into negotiations for its purchase. On the 
30th of January, 1658, he received from them a deed, of which 
the following is a translation : 

" This day, the date hereunder written, appeared before the 
Honorable Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant, and the gentle- 
men of the Council of New Netherlandt, at the Council Chamber, 
in the Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherlandt, Therincques, 
Wawapehack, Saghkins, Kogkhennigh, Bomokan, Memiwokan, 
Sanies, Wewenatokwee, for themselves and in the name of Moi- 
kopes, Pepoghon, Parsoihques, and others, partners of the lands 
hereafter mentioned. Who declare to be the right owners of the 
lands lying on the West side of the ISTorth Eiver, in New Netlier- 
landt, beginning by the great Rock above Wiehacken, and from 
thence across through the lands, till above the Islandt Siskakes,^ 

1 Siskakes, Sikakes, Secaucus, is an Indian word, and signifies the place where 
the snake hides. It must have retained its peculiarity down to the times of the 



aiul frniu tlioncc aloni; the Clianncl side till Consttihle's Ilook. 
And from ( -onstahlc's Hook aL'aiii, till the atoreinentionecl Unck, 
above Wiehacken, with all the lands, islands, channels, valleys, 
therein comprehended, in such manner as the aforementioned 
parcel of lands are surrounded and encompassed by the Xortli 
Iliver, the Kill van KoU,' and the aforesaid direct line from the 
Rock above AViehacken, till above Siskakes, where it is divided 
by the Channel. Which lands they offer a])solutely to sell unto 
the Director-General and Council, ui)on which the (ieneral and 
Council on the oik- side, and tlie aforesaid Indians, for themselves 
and them that are absent, have accorded and ai^reed in the man- 
ner foUowini;, in the presence ot the hereinafter mentioned Chris- 
tian and Indian witnesses : The aforesaid Indians do acknowledj^e 
to have sold, resinjued, and transported, as they do by these pres- 
ents, all the lands heretofore mentioned, to the aforesaid Director- 
General and Council and their successors, for eighty fathom of 
wamjnim, twenty fathom of cloth, twelve kettles, six guns, two 
blankets, one double kettle, and one half-barrel of strong beer. 
Which effects they hereby acknowledge to have enjoyed and 
received before the passing and signing of this. 

" Wherefore they do declare, for themselves and them which are 
absent, to resign and transport the lands before mentioned, to tlic 
abovementioned General and Council, in full, free and perfect 
pro])erty, desisting of all actions and claims which they could or 
might pretend to the lands before mentioned — the transporters 
promise now or hereafter, not to make any pretensions thereon : 
but to keep and hold this transport tirm. sure, and inviolal)le. 
PromisiuiT also to the said Director and Council, to free and war- 
rant the said lands against all claims any other Indians might 
pretend to. and if it should happen that in future times any of 

Dutch, for thov named it " SlanghenlK-rtrli, " whicli in EnK'l'sli >>» Snake Hill. 
It is a hijrh rock rising outot tlie salt marsh on tht- east sick- of the Hackonwick 
river. It's name was transferred to all of tlu- upland lying betwetjn the river 
and Pinhornc crrck. 

I Tiie Kill van KuU included Pinhdrn.- cnck as well as the channel betwin-n 

Bergen Point and Staten Island. 


the Dutch, by any Indians, should be damaged on pretension 
they were not fully paid for the lands aforesaid, they, the sellers, 
do promise to repair and satisfy the damages. It is also stipula- 
ted and agreed, the aforesaid Indians shall depart and remove by 
the first convenient opportunity, off the lands aforesaid ; and 
that none of their nation shall come and continue to dwell 
upon it, without knowledge and consent of the Director- 
General and Council. Thus done at the fort Amsterdam, and 
signed with the marks of the Indians, after the cargoes were 
delivered to their hands, on the 30th day of January, Anno 
Domini 1658. 

( the mark of ^ \ the mark of 

T, - Therincques -^ ' | Bomokan. 

( made by himself. ( the mark of 


the mark of ' \ Wewenatokwee. 

1 Seghkow. i the mark of 

( beglilvow. j the mark of 

y, the mark of Sames. •^' ( Memirvokan. 

( the mark of ( the mark of Sames, 

/, < Koghkenningh. y, -| as witness, 

( Wairimus Couwee. ( otherwise called Job. 

\ the mark of 
■^' ( Wawapehack. 

" We, the Subscribers, witnesses hereunto, desired by the Di- 
rector-General and Council, do certifye and declare, by this pre- 
sent, that the above bai-gain for the lands before mentioned, is so 
made before us, and the lands, by the sellers transported to the 
Director- General and Council ; on the conditions and terms com- 
prehended in the bill of sale, the conditions and substance plain- 
ly told, acquainted and declared to the sellers by the interpreters 
Govert Loocquermans, Peter Wolphertson van Cowenhoven, and 
Claas Carstensen, and also by AVharimes van Couwe, formerly an 
owner of the lands aforesaid ; and whereupon, the sellers have 
consented to the bargain, transported the lands, and received the 
mentioned cargoes and wampum, signed the conditions, with the 
above marks. 

" In witness hereof, have we subscribed this, the day and yciii- 


aforesaid, at the f(»rt Ainsterclam, in Xcw Xethcilaud, in tlu* 
Council Chamber. 

" Joir. Mkgai'omcnsis, Pctrus Stlyvi-mant, 


" Oloff IIekexsin, PrrKk Tounkman, 


"Machiel Yansen, Jan Evektsen Bolt, 

" y, the mark of Claas, 
" Carstexsen Noorman, 
" T' Present, 

" Cornelius Van Rcyven, Serr.""^ 

This deed conveyed all that jiart of Hudson County whicii 
lies east of the Ilackensack river and Newark Bav, and com- 
prised the territory of the old township of Perfjen. Tlie farm- 
el's of " Gomoenepa/' who hail been <1 riven from their homes in 
1655, had, on the 22d of the same January (1058), ex]>ressed a 
desire to return to their deserted bouweries. For this purpose 
they petitioned as follows : 

"7(> the Director-General and Council in New Ntiherland : 

" Shows with all due reverence the interested farmers, wiio 
have been driven away by the Savacjes from their farms in Pa- 
vonia, Gemoenepaen, and other neighboriiiiij places, hdw that 
they, supplicants, should incliue tu reoccupy their former spot*> 

' N. Y. Col. MSS., tin., 707 ; Taylor's Annals, 46. It may be well to note here 
that the Indians, in the conference held at Easton, October 2;l, 1758, jfave to 
Governor Bernard two deeds, by which they released all their rijjlit and title to 
the soil of New Jersey, for which they received £1,000. Smith's of X. J., 419. 
These deeds were, at the request of Governor Franklin, ratifieil by the Six Na- 
tions at a conference held at Fort Stanwix (Rome), October 24. 17GS. C"l. Hist, 
of X.T., via., ir2. Not only the Dutch, but also the En>{li»h, always dealt with 
the New Jersey Indians with {^reat fairness, and extinjjuished their titles by ac- 
ceptable compensation. This fair treatment was traditional amonj; them , and 
to show their appreciation of it, at the latter conference, after a six-cial meetinj; 
upon the subject, the Six Nations conferred upon the jjovemor, as representa- 
tive of the people, the euphonius name of Sagouioiiwevogiista — " The Gn»«t 
Arbiter, or Doer of Justice.'' Il/id, viii., 117. I am quite ?ure the reader will l»e 
delighted with such a pet name, and beguile his leisure hours with it.s fre«]uent 


of residence, to restore their buildings, and cultivate their for- 
mer fields ; but as they have been greatly injured and suffered 
immense losses by the incursions of said savages, by which it 
will be highly diificult for them to renew their former business 
of farming, so they now, in their present situation, should ear- 
nestly solicit that they might be favored by your Hon, with 
some privileges, to assist them in this arduous task, so as bj an 
exemption of tithes and other similar burthens, during a few 
years, as your Hon. in their discretion may deem proper for their 
relief. Expecting your favorable apostil,^ they remain, 
" Your Hon, humble Servants, 

" MicHiEL Jansen,^ 

" Claes Jansen Backer,^ 

" Claes Petersen Yos (Cos),* 

" Jans Captain, 

" DiRCK Seiken,^ 

" DiRCK Claesen,^ 

" Lysbet Tysen."^ 

Upon this petition the following order was made on the same 

" The supplicants are perjnitted, in consideration of the rea- 
sons explained in their petition, the privilege of exemption from 
the payment of tithes and the burthens attached to these during 
six years, provided that they, in conformity to the ordei-s and 
placards of the Director-General and Council, concentrate them- 
selves in the form of a village, at least of ten or twelve families to- 
gether, to become in future more secure and easier to receive aid 
for their defence in similar disastrous occurrences; without 
which the Director-General and Council deem the reoccupation 
of the deserted fields too perilous, which, if it might neverthe- 
less happen, contrary to their order and placard, the Director- 

1 A note in the margin of a book or writing ; hie, an order. 

■^ Vide Vreeland Family. s Winfield's Land Titles, 50. 

* Ibid.Al. Ftde Garkabrant Family. '" Ibid, Go. 

" Vide Vreeland Family, note. 

■" She was the widow of Adriaeusen, patentee of Weehawken. 


General and Council consider tijcniselves not only excused, Imt 
declare that the aforesaid concession or exemption during six 

years shall he null ami Noid."' 

The })etitioners accepted the conditions imposed and returned 
to their farms, for they Ionised to escape from the city and the 
pursuits thev were obliged to follow there.'- They were rehict- 
ant, however, to forsake tiieir bouweries or to erect a viMa<^e for 
the protection it might all" in 1. Nearly two years passed after 
they received permission to return,' and yet no village was 
formed, no provision made against the attacks of the Indians, 
This delay obliged the authorities to enforce i)enalties for <liso- 
bedience of previous orders upon the subject of detached settle- 
ments. On the 9th of Februarv, 1660, thev did ordain, inter 
alias, as follows : 

" In order to prevent, and in future put a stop, as much as 
possible, to such Massacres, Murders, and Burnings, by cruel 
Barbarians, at the separate dwellings, the Director-General and 
Council of jYew Netherlaml do, therefore, hereby notify and Or- 
der all isolated Farmers in general, and each in ])articular, 
wherever they may reside, without any distinction of }>ersons, to 
remove their houses, goods, and cattle before the last of March, 
or at latest the middle of April, and convey them to the Tillage 
or settlement, nearest and most convenient to them ; or, with the 
previous knowledge and approval of the Director-General and 
Council, to a favorably situated and defensible spot in a new 
palisaded Village to be hereafter formed, where all those who 
apply shall be shown and granted suitable lots, by the Director- 
General and Council or their Agents, so that the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council, in case of any difficulty with the cruel Bar- 
barians, would be better able to assist, maintain, and protect 
their good Subjects with the force intrusted to them by God and 
the Supreme authority. Expressly warning and commanding all 

' Alh. Rec, xiv., 27. 

• Many of the Pavonians, includinj; Michael .Tansen and Casper Steinmete. 
kept tap-rooms in the rity during their exile. Xetr Amst. liic, ii., 133. 
" The exact date of their return is not known. 


and every whom these may concern, to transport their property, 
previons to the time aforesaid, into Tillages or Hamlets, on pain 
of confiscation of all such goods as shall be found, after the 
aforesaid time, in separate dwelling and farm-houses."^ 

Following closely upon the promulgation of this enactment, 
and on March 1, 1660, Tielman Yan Yleck^ 

and Peter Rudolphus, with the commendable ambition to be the 
founders of a village, sought permission " to settle on the maize 
land behind Gemoenepaen."^ They were unsuccessful ; why, is 
not now known. Undiscouraged, however, Yan Yleck, on April 
12, 166u, sent in another petition, numerously signed, for per- 
mission to settle a village and some bouweries " on the maize 
land behind Gemoenepaen.''^ This request was also refused.^ 
This second refusal put a stop to all efforts to found a village in 
this county until the 16th of August following, when several 
"inhabitants of this ]>rovince," that is, of New Netherland, 
whose names, unfortunately, have not been preserved, petitioned 
for permission to " begin" to cultivate farms and plantations on 
the west side of the river, " behind Communepah," and " to 
make there a village or concentration." On the same day the 
authorities gave the following decision upon the subject : 

" The petition is granted to the supplicants, provided that the 
village shall be formed and placed on a convenient spot, which 
may be defended with ease, which shall be selected by the Di- 
rector-General and Council or their commissioners. 

" Secondly. That all persons who apply and shall share with 

1 N. Y. Col. MS8., ix., 53. 

- Van Vleck may j ustly be regarded' as the founder of Bergen. He came 
originally from Bremen, studied under a notary in Amsterdam, came to this 
country about 1G58, and was admitted to practice the same year. N. Y. Col. 
MSS., via., 932. He was made the first Schout and President of the Court at 
Bergen, September 5, 1661. JYew Neth. Reg., 100. After the capture of the 
country by the English he returned to New York and resided there in 1671. 

3 N. Y. Col. MSS., ix., 117. ^ Ibid, ii:, 143. ' Ibid, ix , 146. 


otliers by lot, shall be obiiu-ed to iiuikc a bei;iniiini,' within 
the time of six weeks alter tht- (b-awiiijj^ (»f lots, and to send 
hither at least one person able to bear and handle arms, and to 
keep him there upon a penalty of forfeitini; their ri^^ht, Ije^^ides 
an amende of 2<» lh)rins, in behalf of the villa^'e, and to pay be- 
sides others his share in all the village taxes, whieh, dnri?i;; his 
absence, have been decreed and levied." 

The reqnirements and directions of the al>ov(' a])ostille are 
sufficiently plain. Whoever will look at the topotrraphv of the 
village, which was shortly afterward be«jjun on the'* Hill," will 
come to the conclusion that it must have been laid out in strict 
conformity to these requirements, and it is hii^hly probable that 
it was laid out by Governor Stuyvcsant hitii-df. When the vil- 
lao;e shoiild be located, the lots within its bounds were to be dis- 
tributed among settlers by lottery, without change, and within 
six weeks thereafter the erection of buiidiui^s upon the lot.s was 
to be beijun. 

Up to the date of the above petition it is manifest tiiat thr 
present " Jersey City TTeifjlits" were without a mime and without 
a white inhabitant. The place was described as '' behind Gemoc- 
nepaen." There was a small clearino; about where Montgomery 
street crosses Bergen avenue, but it is probable that it had 
been made by the savages, as it was known as the '* Indian corn 
field," or "Maize land," and, after the village was establishe<l. a- 
the '*old Maize land." If the reader will keej) in mind the date 
of the petition and permission to form a village — August !•!, 
lOGti — we will get very close to the date of the foundation of the 
village of Bergen. In a survey of a lot for Douwe llarmensen 
in November, 1(560 (the day of the month is not given in the 
return of the survey), the land is described as being "omtrent 
het dorp Berghen in't nieuwe maiz Laiit" — nrar the villntje of 
Ber(jen in the new Maize laml } This particular lot, in the de- 
scription of which tlie naiuf first occurs, lay '• in the rear i«f 
Christian Pieterse's land, in breadth twenty rods alom; from the 

' N. Y. Col. MSS., Hi., 142. As late as August 4, 1681, it was railed Xumi^ 
dorp op't maislant. 


creupple bush to the Kill," and is lot numbered seventy-nine on 
the Field Map, and is now, in part at least, owned by the Marion 
Building Company at West Eud.^ This survey is conclusive 
proof that the village then existed and had a name, and beyond 
all doubt its position was selected, the village surveyed and laid 
out, and a name given to it between the sixteenth of August 
and some time in I^ovember, 1660.^ Beautiful for situation. 

' Winfield's Land Titles, 110. 

' Many conjectures have been indulged in and somewhat has been written as 
to when and by whom Bergen was founded, and as to the origin of the name. 
Writers have generally followed Smith in his suppositions. This author 
thought the Danes had assisted the Dutch in its settlement, and that its name 
was in honor of the capital of Norway. Smith's N. /., 61. Mr. Whitehead, 
East Jersey, 16, says it was commenced about 1618, and endorses Smith's origin 
of the name. Dr. Taylor, in his Annals, 45, holds the same opinion, except as 
to the derivation of the name. Being more of a Dutchman than a Dane, he 
holds to the probability that the name comes from Bergen op Zoom, a town in 
Holland. In the N. J. Historical Collection, 226, it is said that Bergen is the 
oldest village in New Jersey, " presumed to have been founded about 1616," 
and to have "received its name from Bergen in Norway." Gordon, in his 
History of New Jersey, 7, presumes that between 1617 and 1620 a settlement 
was made at Bergen, and the name taken from the capital of Norway. Mul- 
ford's History of Meic Jersey, 41, endorses this view. Sypher and Apgar, 
History of New Jersey, 10, with a bold if not ingenious originality, say that 
Hudson's men (!) made small settlements at Bergen as early as 1617, clearly 
showing that the authors did not know what they were writing about. Yet 
this work is designed for a text-book in our schools ! Now, 

1st. By whom was it settled '' From a careful examination of the names of 
the original settlers, not only of the village of Bergen, but of the Colonie of 
Pavonia, and after an earnest endeavor to ascertain whence they came, I have 
concluded that the settlement was made by Hollanders (or perhaps more prop- 
erly speaking, Netherlanders), Danes, Swedes and Norwegians. Of these there 
were more Netherlanders than of all the others combined. Oldmixon, while 
intimating a probability that the Danes settled it, admits that " the Dutch, 
always industrious in trade, worked them so far out of it that Berghen, the 
northern part of New Jersey, was almost entirely planted by Hollanders." 
British Empire, i., 283. 

It may be proper to mention here a statement which I find in Pictures of 
New York, 10 : " It was the custom of the Dutch W'est India Company to grant 
land to those who had served out the time they had contracted for with the 
Company. Hence Bergen and Communipaw and several other places were 
settled by disbanded soldiers; and it is remarkable that the inhabitants 
of those places retain their ancient manner of living, and the very disposition 

im:k(;i:.\ rvMSADKi). 71 

easily defended, and surrounded l»y ^ood farni hind:*, tlie new 
vilhiiire was soon in a tlourisliinj' condition. It was laid out in u 
square, the sides of wliiili were eii;lit liun<lred feet lon^, with 
two streets crossini:; each other at rij^dit an^h-s in the centre,' and 
a street around the wliole ph)t. Ah)iii^ the exterior ot" this sur- 
ronndiiii^ street palisades were erected before Ajtril, HWtl, to se- 
cure the phice from the attacks of the Indians. In the centn' 
of the plot wliere the streets intersected was a ]>id)lic ])lot of 
about one hundred and sixty by two hundred ami twenty-five 

of soldiers, especially the old mon still living and tlu-ir descendants, seem most 
of them to follow tlioir footsteps." Carrying the idea of the military settlement 
still furthor, it is said that among the soldier.^ of Stuyvcsant, who were trans 
planted to HiTgen, were sunic of tiie Moorish race, wliose peculiar complexion, 
physiognomy and characteristics are, it is alleged, yet to be traced in their de- 
scendants — the swarthy complexion, the shar[>, dark eye and curling hlack 
hair, so opposite to the ruddy color, the light eye and fair hair of the Hollander. 
.V. J. Hist. Soc. Proc, \M~)-i\, 48. 

2d. As to the name. Bergen in Norway received its name from the hills 
which almost surrounded it. Bergen op Zoom, eighteen miles north of Ant- 
werp, stands on a hill surrounded by low marshy ground, which, witii its forti- 
fications, afiForded great security. Thus it will be seen that the two supposed 
godfathers of our Bergen received their names from local circumstances. Are 
not the same circumstances existing here to give the same name to the new 
village ? On two sides of the hill was marsh, and the only other place for set- 
tlement was along the river. To the eye of the Hollander, accustomed to look 
upon marshes or low land redeemed from the sea, the ridge growing in height 
as it extended north from the Kill van KuU, was no mean atlivir. To him it 
was Bergen, the Hill, and, like the places of the same name in Europe, it took 
its name from the hill ou which it was built. This I believe to bo the tnie 
origin of the name. 

There is another possible derivation, which it is proper to mention, without 
adopting it. Stuyvcsant directed the village to be located on some sjwt easy 
of defence. The motive— in fact, the primary thought— which nec<-ssity sug 
gested in the formation of the village, was sufetii. The settlers were driven to 
it as to a city of refuge from the savage foe. In the Dutch language, the verb 
hergen means " to save," probably derived homherg.a. hill, which in case of 
attack is a place of safety. If the verb be used as a substantive, we would then 
have Bergen, a " place of safety." Very appropriate and very beautiful ! 

3d. When Bergen was settled is sufficiently shown in the text. 

■' These streets were originally straight, but owing to encroachments by ad- 
joining property owners, at least the one running north and 8<iuth is 'luite 


feet. These streets quartered the town, and each quarter was 
divided into eight building plots.^ On the sides of the town, 
where the cross streets came to the palisades, were gates, called 



Jf^ JOS. 

Jf. 10d>, 

J/: loy. 
























Jf. 96. 




the northeast gate, northwest gate, etc., through which were 
roads leading into the woods. 

The beaitt}^ and general desirableness of its situation, the fear 
of the Indians, the stringent orders of the Director-General, and 
the advantages of the new settlement, caused the village to grow 
so rapidly that in May, 1661, not an unoccupied lot remained 

' By some manipulation the southwest quarter is made to contain, in 1764, 
nine lots, and the southeast quarter only seven lots. The map inserted in the 
text is copied from the Field Map made in 1764. I have no doubt that it correct- 
ly shows the town plot, as originally laid out, the shape of the lots and the gen- 
eral features of Buyten Tuyn. 


inside of the fortiiication?.' The l)>iil<liii<^s first erected were of 
logs, and, at least the harns, covered with reeds, in spite ()f the 
Director's order.'- The land within the vilhi<;c plot was hiid out 
in lots ])y Jacques Cortelyou, the sworn surveyor,'' and num- 
bered. In the saine manner the hind surronndiiiif the town 
was laid out in iariicr plots, to l»c used as i>lantations hy 
those whose house lots were within the vlHai^c. The.-^e lots ad- 
joining the town were called '* I'.uytcii 'i'liyu," OutMifJe Garrhnu, 
a name which they ret;i in tn this day. hi like manner the salt 
meadow on tlic Ilackensack, when it did not pass with the up- 
land as one lot. was mapped and nnnihci-cd. Ihit few of these 
nund)ors have been discovered, yet enouirh to inake one regret 
that the map, the disti-ibution and ownership of the lots in I'er 
gen and Buyten Tuyn, liavc not been found. An old historian 
says, " The manner o^ laying out originally is singular, I>ut 
small lots where their dwellings are, and these contiiruous in the 
town of Bergen. Theii- plantations, which they occupy for a 
livelihood, are at a distance ; the reason of ti.xing thus is said to 

' iV'. T. Col.MSS,i.r.,bQ^. 

• Powers of Atty. Xeie Amst., 65. In a lease here rerorded, dated .\pril 1. 
1G61, from Gaert Coerten to Jacob Luby, of a "lot at Oweykonrk. otlnTwiae 
called tlie maize land, being No. KJ," we learn that the town had already pa.nse*! 
an ordinance or made an order that the lots should be fenced. The lease pro- 
vided for the construction of a house thirty feet long an<l a barn fifty feet long, 
to be built along the palisades of the village. The lessee was to rut and 
smooth the timber and haul it, as also the reeds to corer it. In March the 
lessor was to deliver on the land a plow and "a wagon against the harvest fol- 
lowing," for their joint use. He was also to provide the lessee on halves with 
two young cows, and two three-year old oxen on half risk, and in tlie following 
spring two more young cows and two oxen. The lease was for six years. Rent 
for the first two years, fifteen pounds of butter from each cow : for the last four 
years, two hundred guilders in coin or good wampum. This was the first lease 
of a lot within the town of Bergen, and it shows the currency then in use. 
Cornelius C. Van Rypen now resides upon this lot. 

' Cortelyou was the first surveyor in New .\msterdam.and ma<le the first map 
of that city in 1()50. I have no doul)t that he laid out tlie town of Bergen 
and surveyed the adjoining plantations. He was the town surveyor alter the 
country was in possession of the Knglisli. He died in \*'>'Xi, l<-aving three .sons 
and two daughters. His descendants are (juite numerous, some of them living 
in New Jersev. 


be through fear of the numerous Indians in the early times of 
their settlement."^ 

The village grew rapidly. In one year it became of sufficient 
importance to merit a local government. Up to this time the 
court of Burgomasters and Schepens in New Amsterdam had, 
since its organization in 1652, exercised legal jurisdiction on the 
west side of the river. Henceforward matters in controvei'sy 
here were to be decided by a local court, su])ject to the right of 
appeal to the Director-General and CounciL On the 4th of 
August, 1661, Tielman Van Yleck, at his own request, was 
appointed Schout of the JVieuw dorp opH maislant^ though he was 
not commissioned until the 5th of the followino; month. ^ On 
this latter date was adopted the following 

" Okdinance 

of the Director-General and Council of New Netlierland erecting 
a Court of Justice at Bergen : 

" Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of the High and Mighty Lords 
States General of the United Netherlands^ the Hon^'*^ Dii-ectors 

' BmitKs Hist, of N. J., 61. - N. Y. Col. MSS., ix., 705. 

^ Ibid, i.e., 703. The following is a copy of liis commission, as translated by 
Vanderkerap : 

" Whereas, it is requisite to preserve justice in tlie village of Bergen, situated 
to the west side of the North River, in New Netherland, that a well qualified 
person officiates there as sherift', for which office being recommended to us the 
person of Tielman Van Vleck, Notary Publick within this city ; So is it that we, 
having a full confidence in his abilities, virtue and talents, commissioned and 
appointed him, so as we do by this, as sheriff of the aforesaid village, to officiate 
in that capacity in the aforesaid place and its districts, in conformity with the 
instruction which he has already received, or which he may receive in future, 
and in consequence of it to bring to justice every transgressor of any political, 
civil or criminal laws, ordinances and placards, and to have them mulcted, ex- 
ecuted and punished with the penalty comprehended in these, to promote that 
by his directions and denunciations all criminal cases and misconducts may be 
brought to light, decided with speed, and all j udgraents executed without de- 
lay ; and further, to act in this respect in such manner as a good and faithful 
sheriff is in duty bound to do on the oath which he hath taken. We therefore 
command the Schepens and all the inhabitants within the district of the afore- 
said village to acknowledge the aforesaid Tielman Van Vleck for our officer and 
sheriff, and to procure him in the exercise of his office all possible aid whenever 

FIKST ciiAUiiac oK i;i:K(ii:\, 75 

of the Ineor])orate(l AVest India ( 'otiipaiiN , Diiector-Cioneriil of 
jVcio Netherlands Curacao, Bonniri, Aruha and their drjiernh-n- 
cies, together with tlie Council, 

" To all those who shall sci- these Prest-nts. nv hear theiii read, 
Greetinji;, make known : 

''That their Honors di) not hope or wi-^h ti>r anything cbe tiiaii 
tlie j)rosperity and welfare of their good Iidiahitants in general, 
and in particular of the People residing in the Village of I'crgen, 
situate on the "West side of the North IJiver, and in order that 
>ueh may be eflected and preserved with greater love, peace and 
unity, and to manifest and to prove in deed to every Inhahitant 
of the above-mentioned \ illage the effect thereof, the Director- 
General and Council aforesaid, considering the increase and pop- 
ulation of said Tillage, have therefore resolved to favor its 
Inhabitants with an Inferior Court of Justice, and to constitute 
it as much as possible, and as the circumstances of the Country 
permit, according to the laudable custom of the city o^ AjntiUr- 
dam in Holland, but so that all judgments shall be subject to 
reversal by and an appeal to the Director General and Council 
oi New Netherlands to be l»y their Honors tinally disposed of 

•■In order that all things there may be ])erformed with pro])er 
Order and respect, it is necessary to choose, as Judges, honest, 
intelligent persons, owners of real estate, who are lovers of j)eace 
and well affected subjects of their Lords and Patroons, and of 
their Supreme government established here, promoters and ])ro- 
fessors of the Reformed Religion, as it is at ]»resent taught in the 
Churches of the United Netherlands ^'m conformity to the Word 
of God and the Order of the Synod of Dordrecht. Which Court 
of Justice, for the present time, until it shall be herein otherwise 
Ordained by the said Lords Patroons, or their Deputy, shall con- 
sist of one Schout,^ being on the spot, who shall, in the name of 

it is required, as we deem this beneficial to the service of the country and ser 
viceable to the promotion of justice." Alb. liec, xix., 221. 

This commission was issued September 5, KUJl.the same day tluit the vilU«P 
jTovernment and court were organized. 

' Schout or Sheriff. Tlie word is derived from Schuld. According to (Jrotin* 
the name is an abreviation of " Schuld-rechter," or criminal judge. His func- 



the Director-General and Council, convoke the appointed Sclie- 
pens^ and preside at the Meeting ; and with hira, of three Schepens, 
to whicli Office are, for the present time and ensuing year, com- 
mencing the 20th of this month, elected by the Director- 
General and Council, Michael Jansen, Harman Smeeman^^ and 
Caspar Stynmets? 

tions were somewhat analogous to those of bailiff or county sheriff; combining, 
however, with them the duties of a prosecuting attorney. Brondhead, i., 453. 
The " Schout-Fiscal " instituted all suits before the Council. O'Cal, N. N., i., 101. 

' Magistrates, somewhat like justices or aldermen. 

- Smeeman was born in 1G24 at Iserlow, a town in the county of Mark. West- 
phalia. His arrival here was at an early date. In 1G45 he married Elizabeth 
Everts, and she dying, he married Barent Dircksen's widow. In 1657 he pur- 
chased of Michael Jansen a farm at " Gemoenepa " for 900 florins, but where 
the same was situated has not been ascertained. In the same year he was ad- 
mitted to the rights of a small burgher. When the settlers were permitted to 
return to Pavonia, he settled on his farm. In 1663 he was one of three commis 
sioners to fortify " Gemoenepa," and received fifty pounds of powder for its 
defence. When, in 1664. Governor Stuyvesant summoned a " Landtag" to con- 
sider the state of the Provinces, Smeeman and Englebert Steenhuysen were 
selected to represent Bergen. He was reappointed Schepen in December, 1663. 
He seems to have been fond of the sports of the day, and with but little rever- 
ence for Sunday. For on that day, February 8, 1654, he engaged in the sport 
of Pulling the Goose. N. T. Col. MS8., v., 217. Yanderkemp says that this 
was a game among the farmers in Gelderland and on the borders of the Rhine. 

A goose was fastened by a rope between two poles, the neck and head greased 
with oil or soap. They who entered the lists drove on a full gallop, and 
usually fell when they missed their aim. He who carried off the goose was 
called king for that festival. Alh. Rec, ix., 84. 

■' At what time Steinmets came to this country does not appear. In the spring 
of 1652, having lost his first wife, he married Jannekin Gerrits, of Zutphen, 
probably living at Harsimus at that time. For his third wife he married 
Tryntje, the widow of Jacob Stoffelsen, and former widow of Jacob Walingen 
Van Horn. Winjield's Land Titles, 71. He resided at Harsimus, and was 
driven out by the Indians in 1655. He went to New Amsterdam, where, on 
February 22, 1656, he was licensed to tap beer and wine for the " accommodation 
of the Burghery and Strangers." mw Avist. Rec , ii., 85. He was admitted to 
the rights of a small burgher, April 11, 1657. J^ew Neth. Reg., 175. On the 21st 
of June he was appointed lieutenant of the Bergen militia. N. T. Col. MSS., 
.v., 149 ; and on the 4th of September, 1673, was made captain. Col. Hist, of JS'. 
Y., a, 597. In 1674 he was a deputy from Bergen in the Council of New 
Orange, Ibid, 702 ; and a representative from Bergen in the first and second 
General Assembly in New Jersey. Learning & Spicer, 77, 85. After his mar- 
riage with Stoffelsen's widow he took possession of the West India Company's 

I'lUsT Cll.\IiTi;U OK UKIMiKN. 77 

"Before whom all matters tinicliiiii;- civil atl;lir^, security ami 
peace of tlie Inliabitiints of Benjcn^ also justice Wetween Man an<l 
Man, shall he broujjht, heard and examined, and deti-rniined liv 
definitive Judgment to the amount of Fifty i^uilders and under, 
without api)eai ; when the sum is luri^er, the am^rieVed party shall 
he at liberty to a{)])eal to the Direetor-CJeneral and Council 
aforesaid, pro\ided that he enters the appeal within the jirojx'r 
time, and tjives security, according to law, for the principal and 

costs of >\\\\. 

'* In ease of disparity of votes and opinions on any occurring; 
eases, the minority shall coincide with the majority, without any 
contradiction. But those who are of a different advice and 
opinion can cause their advice and opinion to be entered on the 
roll or record : but in no wise make public their rendered advice 
outside the court, nor mdce it known to parties, under arl)itrary 
correction, at the discretion of the couit itself. 

"The Sellout shall, pursuant to the first Article. preside at the 
meeting and collect the Votes ; also act as Secretary until further 
(^rder and increase of |)opulation. But if he have to act for him- 
self as a l)arty, or in behalf of the right of the Lords Patroons, or 
in behalf of justice for the right of the Fiscal, in .--uch case he 
shall rise up and absent liimself from the Bench, and then have 
no advisory, much less a casting vote; hut one of the senior 
Schepens shall, in such case, preside in his place. 

" What is set forth in the preceding Article of the Schout shall 
also apply to the Schei)ens, whenever any cases or questions arise 
in the aforesaid Court between themselves as parties, or between 
others related by consanguinity to the appointed Schepens, such 
as brothers, brothers-in-law and cousins in the first or direct line. 

" All Inhabitants of Bergen shall, until further Order, either of 

farm at Harsimus, and, as was always the case with the possessore of that farm. 
becaiuu involvuil in trouble with hit* uelylibors, Van Vorst ami otln-rs. Coi. 
Hist, of N. Y., ii., 704, 7 Hi. lie died in 1702. His descendants, at one tinw. 
were quite numerous in this county, but they have long since died out. 

^^^ ^..S^^— viMis- 


the Lords Patroons or their Supreme government, be amenable 
to and subject to be cited before said Schout and Commissaries, 
wlio shall hold their Session and Court meeting in the A'illage 
aforesaid every 1-i days, harvest time excepted, unless necessity 
and circumstances require. 

" In order to provide the good Inhabitants of Bergen with 
clieap and inoppressive justice, the Schout, as president, and 
the Schepens of the Court must, for the convenience of parties, 
appear on the Court day, and at the place appointed, on pain of 
forfeiting Twenty stivers, at the disposition of the Board ; they 
being notified, at least twenty-four hours before the Court day, to 
appear, by the Court messenger to be appointed by the Director- 
General and Council; and double as much for the President, 
unless excused by sickness or absence. If appearing too late, 
and after the appointed hour, the fine to be Six stivers. 

" No extraordinary Court shall be Ordered at the cost and 
charges of parties, except on the application of botli parties, un- 
der submission to costs on loss of suit, which costs shall previously 
be deposited by the applicant or appellant, to wit: For each 
Schepen, Fifty stivers ; for the President, Three guilders, be- 
sides the fee for the Clerk and Court messenger to be hereafter 
appointed, and other Ordinary costs according to law. 

" All cases of Crime shall be referred to the Director-General 
and Council oi Neto Netherland ; saving that those of the Court 
may and are bound to apprehend, arrest, and to detain and hold 
in confinement all Criminal delinquents until they can send them 
under proper guard to the Su])reme government, and, in the 
mean time, take good and correct Information touching the crime 
committed, at the cost of the Criminal, or the Treasury, and 
such transmit at the same time with the delinquent. 

" Minor offences, such as Brawls, Slanders, Scolding, Striking 
with the fist. Threats, simple Drawing of a knife or sword with- 
out assault or bloodshed, are left to the adjudication and de- 
cision of the Court aforesaid, in which cases the Schout there 
shall have power to act before the Court as Prosecutor, saving, 
nevertheless, the clause of Appeal, in case the condemned may 
find himself aggrieved by the sentence of the Court. 

FIRST CIIAIMKK oK Hl.liiiKN. 1 1» 

"All cast's of ^^ai(•^ crimes jviid Deliutiuonts cimr^ud with 
Woundiiii;- and lUttudslicddiiiir, W liurcdniii, Adultery, j)nl>lic 
jiiid notorious Tliett, ltt)l>l)orics, Siiiu<;i;liii;^ ot" coutrahand arti- 
cles, IMasnhcinv and Pi'otanatioii of (Jod's Jloly name and 
reli<i;ion, Slandcriiii;- and Calumniatini;- the Suiireme (iovernment 
or its Ivepresentatives, shall, after the information, atlidavits and 
testimony have been taken, be referred to tlie Director-General 
and Council of JVe^c NetherlaiKl. 

"Should the situation of afiairs so require that the President 
and Schepens consider it necessary, for the c^reater security of the 
peace and (piietof the Iidiabitants, to enact, in the absence of the 
Director-General and Council, some Ordinances tor the ijreater 
advantaire and contentment of the aforesaid Villaire and Court 
in the above-named District, rcsi)ectin<; Surveys, Iliiihways, Out- 
lets, Posts and Fences of lands, laying; out of Gardens, Orchards, 
and such like matters, that may most concern the Flat country 
and agriculture; also in regard to the building of Cluirches, 
Schools and similar public AVorks, and the means how ami by 
which the same are to be eftected, they are to commit to writing 
their opinions thereupon, anil deliver them to the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council, with the reasons ujjon which they are founded 
annexed, in order, if such be deemed necessary and useful, that 
they may be confirmed, ap))i-oved and ordered by the Director- 
General and Council. 

" Said Sellout and appointed Schepens shall also be particular- 
ly careful, and be bound strictly to observe, and cause to be ob- 
served, the Law of our Fatherland, and the Ordinances and Edicts 
of the Ilon**^^ Director-General and Council heretofore Ordained 
and pul)lished, or hereafter to be ordained and published, and 
not to sufter anything to be done contrary thereto, but to see 
that the contraveners may be proceeded against according to 

"Said Sellout and Court shall not have i)owcr to enact, j>ul>- 
lish, much less to post up, any Ordinances, Edicts, or such like 
Acts, except with the previous knowledge and consent of the 
Director-General and Counril. 

"The Schout and Schepens shall also be particularly careful, 


and be bound to assist the Hon^'^ Directors, as Lords and Pa- 
troons of this Province of New Netherland, under the Sovereign- 
ty of their Higli Mightinesses, the Lords States General of the 
United Netherlands, and them to help to maintain in their Su- 
preme Jurisdiction, Eight and Domains, and all other their Pre- 

" Whereas, it is customary in our Fatherland and other well 
regulated Governments that some change be made annually in 
the Magistracy, so that some new come in, and a few continue, in 
order to inform the new, the Schepens now appointed shall pay 
due attention to the Conversation, Demeanor and Fitness of hon- 
est persons, inhabitants of their respective Villages, in order to 
be able, about the time of changing or election, to furnish tlie 
Director-General and Council with correct information as to who 
may be found fit, so that some may be then elected by the 
Director-General and Council. 

" Thus done and given at the Meeting of the Hon^'° Director- 
General and Council, holden in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netli- 
erland, the 5 September, 1661."^ 

The magistrates, before they could enter upon the duties of 
their office, were obliged to take the following oath : " We prom- 
ise and swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that we will be 
faithful to the sovereignty of the high and mighty Lords, the 
States General, the Lords Directors of the privileo-ed West 
India Company, Department of Amsterdam, as our Lords and 
Patroons, the Director-General and Council now placed over us 
or hereafter to l)e appointed, that we will respect and execute 
their commands, that we will exercise good justice to our best 
knowledge, repell all mutiny, troubles and disorders to our best 
abilities, maintain the Eeformed Eeligion, and no other, and sup- 
port the same, and conduct ourselves punctually in conformity to 
the instruction which we already received or may yet receive 
and further act as good and faithful magistrates are in duty bound 
to do. So help us God Almighty."^ 

N. Y. Col. JISS., ix., 765. -^ Alb. Rec. xix., 282. 

OFFICKKS i)F TlfK NKW V t I.I.Ac. K, 81 

Thus was established the lir^t miiiiicipal j^ovcrnment and the 
first court witliiu the present State of New Jei-sev, unless ''the 
existence of tlic suuicwliat niMx-rvphal tribunal of IIospatin<^, 
near HacUensack, be admitted.'" And it may not be inappm- 
priate to insert here the iiatnos of the members of thij* cojirt 
while under the Dutch rule, so far as the e.xistitii^ records reveal 

S( iioiTs, I'kesidknt. 
Names. Date of Appointnu-nt. 

Tielman Van Yleck. - - . . September 5, lOr.l. 

l^althazar Bayard,'- March 17, U\G4. 

Claes Arentse Toers/' - - . . Au_i,'ust 18, 107:3. 

^ OTul., N. JV., a , A2H. Hospatinfj:, Espatingh, Espatiii, •ii hill." In l<;.-,7. 
Van (le ('apellen, tliroujrli his afroiu Van Dincklapcn, cnncliKled with tlic In- 
diana atiTsity " with submission to the courts of justice at Ilospatinjjf.ncar Hack- 
insack, on Waerkimins-Connic, in New Nothcrlands." Broadhcad,i., G41. Mnt- 
tenow was chief at this place. ()'l'iil.,N. X.,iL,~u~i. In IGT-t it was derided to 
be without the bounds of the Indian ^rant to Stuyvesant, CjL Hist, of N. Y , it.. 
707 ; and therefore not within Hudson County, though it must be to the 
northern boundary. 

- Bayard's grandfatlier vvaa a jirofessor of theoUigy in Paris, whence lie was 
driven i)y religious persecution to Holland. Here his son Samuel marrittl Anna, 
a sister of Governor Stuyvesant, by whom he had throe children— Balthazar, 
Nicholas and Petues. Balthazar was a brewer ; in 16G t married Maritje, daugh- 
ter of Govert Loockermans ; was clerk in the Secretary s otHce from 1(m4 to 
IGGO; represented Bergen in the first and second General Assembly in Kast 
Jersey in 1GG8. Shortly after this he returned to New York. He was ap- 
pointed schepen in New Orange, August lii. 107:i, assistant alderman in l(iMG-.S7, 
and alderman in l(i!)l. 

■' Winfield's Land Titles, dl. It was at Toers' house in Bergen that Knat- 
sciosan, an Indian, attempted to murder his brother, Jan .Vrentso Tix^rs, by 
"giving him several dangerous wounds," on the 11th of .Vpril, 1G78. The 
Governor and Council met at Bergen on the '24th, with the Sakamakers of tho 
Hackensacks, viz. : Manoky, Mandenark, Ilamahem, Tanteguas and Capete- 
ham. They acknowledged that the otVender deserved " corporall punishment," 
but, as Toers was mending, asked for his reliase, and promised that if he ever 
again attempted the like, they vkould deliver him up " for justice without mercy 
to be done upon him." The Indians bound themselves to pay one hundnKl 
fathoms of white wami)um,or an eciuivalent in skins. within twentydays. Jlifok 
3 of Dicds {Trenton) 144. Claes was the second coroner for the county of Ber- 
gen, appointed December G, lG8il 



Town Clerks. 

The Schout, 
Balthazar Bayard, - 
Claes Arentse Toers, 

Micliiel Jansen, 
Harman Smeemaii, 
Caspar Steinmets, 
Caspar Steinmets, 
Engelbert Steenhuysen,' >■ 
Gerrit Gerritseii, ) 



Date of Appointment. 

September 5, 1661. 
March 17, 1664. 
August 18, 1.673. 

September 5, 1661. 

October 16, 1662. 

Steenbuysen was a tailor by trade, and came from Soest, tbe second city in 

Westpbalia ; arrived at New Amsterdam in tbe sbip Mocsman, of wbicb Jacob 
Jansen was sliipper, April 25, 1659, paying for bis fare and freigbt 3G florins. Alb. 
Rcc, «m., 434. Witb Herman Smeeman be represented Bergen in tbe " Landtag " 
in 16G4. Broadhead, i., 729. He has tbe honor of being tbe first schoolmaster in 
Bergen, having been licensed October 6, 1663. New Neth. Reg., 133. Tbe follow- 
ing memorial of tbe authorities of Bergen, dated December 17, 1G63, reveals some 
unpleasantness in that relation : " Shew reverently tbe sheriff and commissaries 
of tbe village of Bergen, wbicb they presume is known to your Honors, that 
before the election of the new commissaries ye were solicited for Michael Jan- 
sen, deceased, to be favored witb tbe appointment of a clerk (voorleser) who 
should at the same time keep school, to instruct the youth, the person of En- 
gelbert Steenbuysen, who possessed the required abilities, so is that the sberifl' 
and commissaries, now a year past, proposed it to tbe community, who then 
approved it, and resolved to engage him not only as clerk (voorleser), but with 
the express stipulation that he, besides this function, was to keep school, which 
the aforesaid Steenbuysen agreed to do, and did so during five quarters of a 
year, for which was allowed bim/250 in sea want annually, besides some other 
stipulations besides the school money, so as reason and equity shall demand. 
Now, so it is that tbe aforesaid Engelbert Steenbuysen, whereas he has a lot 
and house and a double farm, situated in tbe jurisdiction of tbe village of Ber- 
gen, is, by the complaints of a majority of the community, obliged, with the 
other inhabitants, to provide for the sustenance of a soldier, by which tbe afore- 
said Engelbert Steenbuysen considers himself highly aggrieved, and so re- 
signed his office, pretending that a schoolmaster and clerk ought to be exempt- 

OP'FICERS or Till': NKW Vir.I.AGi;. 



Balthazar IJayard, \ 

Adolph llanloiibruuk, - 
Ilaniiau Smeeiiiaii, ) 

Dato of Appointnii-nt. 
Dcceial)crl7, 1«W;3. 

ed from liU taxes iiiul burt1l(■n^* of tlu' villiijjc, wliicli lii< MiyH Ih llif coiniiion 
pr^ctict! tlirou;j;li the wliok^ cliriistiaii worlil, which by tho HhiTitl" ami coiniiii»- 
earius is understood that only tliat can taku ]>hic« when auch a clerk or Hchool 
master docs not possi'ss anything else but the school-wharf, but by no nii-ann 
when a schoolinartter is in possession of a house and lot and double farm, that 
he in such a case should pay nothin<; from his lot and lands, and the commu- 
nity at larjjf is of the same opinion, as he receives his salary as clerk, and not 
only is ()i)li«rt'(l to act well in his cui)acity as clerk (voorleser), but even t<» look 
out and procure himself a {)roper and convenient place to keep school, which 
he thus fur neglected, and pretends that the community must etVect this, so that 
he may keep his school in it. They cannot perceive how Engelbert Steenhuy- 
sen can be perniitted to resign his otlice when he neglected to notify his inten- 
tion a half a year before; wherefore the supplicants address themselves to your 
Honors, humbly soliciting them to insinuate to the aforesaid Engelbert Steen- 
huysen to continue in his service this second year, and to declare if the afore- 
said Engelbert Steeuhuysen is or is not obliged by his possession of a lot and 
farm to provide in the maintenance of a soldier, so well as the other inhabi- 
tants." Alb. Bee, .r.ii., 439. 


CUl.f.Min.\ .VCAUEMV. 

August 18, 16Y3. 


Names. Date of Appointment. 

Gerrit Gerritse, 1 

Thomas Fredericks,' j 

Elias Micliielse,^ 

Peter Marcellissen,^ 

Corn el is Abramse, 

Walinck Jacobse,'* ] 

Eno-elbert Steenhuys, i ^ »^ ' ^^ w^*,- ,- 

T7 1 nr- 1 • 1 }\ ah - Auffust 31, 1674.'' 

Jinocli JNlicnielse, G&moenejyas, ° ' 

Claes Jaiiseii, A/iasymus,^ I 

The parties interested in tlie above memorial were summoned before the 
Council and heard at length, and Steenhuysen was commanded to serve his time 
according to his contract. 

From this communication it appears that the school house was not yet built. 
One was, however, shortly afterward constructed on the lot where the school 
house now is. It was built of logs. The Columbia Academy was erected on 
the same lot in 1790, and taken down in 1857 to [make room for the present 

1 Thomas Frederick De Cuyper. Winfield's Land Titles, 94. He is said to 
have been a woodsawyer, and was admitted to the rights of a small burgher, 
April 12, 1657. 

- Vide Vreeland Family. 

3 He came from Brest in the ship Beaver; arrived May 9, 16G1, with his 
wife, four children and two servants. His children were aged respectively 13, 
6, 4 and 2 years. His servants were male and female. The passage cost him 
as follows : For self, 36 florins ; wife, 36 florins ; children, 90 florins ; servants, 
70 florins. He was the founder of the Merseles family in this county and 

^ Vide Van Winkle Family. s y^f^^ y^j^ Vorst Family. 

^ The appointments for this year were selected by the authorities from the 
following nominations by the people of Bergen, on the 15th of August, as ap- 
pears by the following extract from the Court Register in Bergen, which is 
preserved : 

" To the meeting a nomination of Schepens was made to be presented to the 
Director-General and Council, by a majority of the votes, as follows : 

r Adrian Post. 

"For the Village of Bergen, -' Walinck Jacobze, 

I Engelbert Steenhuys, 
[^Douwe Hartmanse. 

" For Gemoenepa, .^ ^°°^^ Michielse, 

/ Hartmau Michielse. 


Names. Date of Ap|)oinlmcnl. 

Jan Dircksen Selckcn, Minrlvaquc and Pemcrjtoch^^ 

August ;>1, 1<»74. 

Court Messengers.* 

Jan Tibout, lOr.l. 

Claes Arentse Toers, I()«i3. 

Under the necessity laid upon them, as before observed, the 
people had liuckcd to tlio now villai!;(> and taken lots (for they 
were free) in the i^eneral distribution, but had nei^lcrted to take 
patents for them. This neijlect made confusion and caused the 
enactment of the following ordinance: 

"All Inhabitants of Xew XetJierland, and especially those of 
the Village of Bergen, on the AVest side of the North liiver; also 
all others who have or claim any Lands thereabout, are Ordered 
and commanded that they, within the space of three months after 
the date hereof, at latest, before the first of January next, shall 
have all the cultivated and uncultivated Laiuls which they claim, 
surveyed by the sworn Surveyor, ami set off and designated by 

,, t:, • V ( Ide Cornelisse "Van Vorst, 

For Ahasymus, ' , ^ 

C Claes Jansen. 

" For Minckaque and \ Jan Dirckse Seicken, 

Pemrepock, ) Hessel Weigertsen. 

" From which nominations his Hon. shall be pleased to make the election. 

" Agrees with the Register. Quod attestor. 

" Claes Arentse Toeus. 

•' Secretary." 

Alb. lice. Txii.. 440. 

This was in accordance with the practice in Holland, where the StudtholJer 
appointed the magistrates out of double their number presonte<l to him. 

' This name was applied to that part of the county which lies bctwi-en the 
Morris canal and the First lli-formed Church in Bayonne. The following are 
some of the ways of writing the word : Pembrej^ogh, Peml)repock, Penierpogh, 
Pemrcpogh, Pemerapogh, Penuncrapngh. Peinmerapock. Pfinman-pocii. Pem- 
morpogh, Pemrepogh, Pamrepogh, Pamropogh, Pamreiwck, Pamrapaw, Pam- 
arapogh, Pamperpogh, Pinibrepow. 

- The duties of court messenger seem to have been to read in the cliuroh on 
Sunday, to sing with the school, to assist in burying the dead, to attend to the 
tolling of the bell, and to summon parties to court. 


proper marks, and on exhibition of the Eetnrn of survey thereof, 
apply for and obtain a regular Patent as proof of property, on 
pain of being deprived of their right, to the end that the Direc- 
tor-General and Council may dispose, as they may deem proper, 
of the remaining Lands which, after the survey, may happen to 
fall outside the Patents, for the accommodation of others. All 
are hereby warned against loss and after complaints. 

" Thus done in Fort Amsterdam in JSfew Netlierland^ the 15 
September, 1661."^ 

As the village had been palisaded for protection from outside 
attack, the people were anxious to get the full benefit of these for- 
tifications. But the cattle must be watered, and since tliere 
were no means within the defences for that purpose, the gates 
must be opened and the cattle driven to water. AYhile thus en- 
gaged, both cattle and people were liable to annoyance from the 
Indians. To obviate this danger, the court of Bergen ordained 
as follows : 

"Whereas, the Schout and Schepens have reflected and duly 
considered that some persons drive their Cattle to water outside 
the Land gate and Fence now provided and erected, they have 
deemed it advisable and highly necessary that a Public Well be 
constructed for the public accommodation, on the Square, to water 
the Cattle, 

" They hereby Ordain, on the ratification of the Hon^^® Direc- 
tor-General and Council of New Netherlands that every one of 
the Inhabitants of Bergen^ after having been notified by Jan 
Tibout, the messenger, shall be and appear, on the day prefixed, 
personally, or by substitute, on pain of arbitrary correction by the 

" Done at the Court of the Village of Bergen, and signed by 
the Schout and Schepens, the 28 January, 1662. 

" TiELMAN VAN Yleck, president, 
" Herman Smeeman, 
" Caspar Steynmets, 
" Michael Jans." 

^ N. T. Col. M8S., ix., 788. Several of the lots were abandoned and passed 

A WKF.r, Off; IN- THK SQrARE. 87 


'' Tlic Director-General and Council of Xcm Xtthcrhuul ap- 
]>r(>ve and ratify the above resolution of the Sellout and Cotninirt- 
saries of J^crr/en; they, therefore, Order all and every whom it 
may concern, on notification of the messeni^er, to appear, or to 
send a proper person in their stead, at the appointed time atid 
place, on a penalty of 5 guilders for each day, to he forfeited hy 
such as absents himself, to be applied for the benefit of the \'il- 
lao^e in i^eneral. Dated February, l»!r.2."' 

Tender this law a well was dun; iu the centre of the square. 
Troughs were placed around it for the cattle, and a long sweep 
used for raising the water. The well contiimeil in use •until 
witliin the present century, when it was covered over and a lil)- 
erty pole placed in it. This pole was taken down in the fall 
of ISTO, when the square was paved and all traces of the well 
destroyed. ~ 

Amon<T; other annoyances which arose in the frovcmment of 
the village, was the lack of men necessar}- for its protection. It 
was laid out in the ^yoods and surrounded by unreliable Indians. 
Several of the lots in the t(nvn had been taken by people living 
in Kew^ Amsterdam, who neither came here to resiile, nor sent 
men to do their part in the defence of the place, as was required 
by the charter. In all communities where one member shirks a 
duty, the other members are forced to bear unjust burdens. 
Those who resided in the town were obliired to contribute to its 
defence for their own safety, and thus protected the property of 
non-residents while securing their own. They felt this to be im- 
I'ust, and their complaints to the authorities called f<trth the fol- 
lowing ordinance, passed Xovember 1."), lG»'»o: 

" On the repeated complaints of the majority of the Inhabit- 
in Carteret's grant to the freeholders, and berame common property. These 
abandoned lots may be seen on the Field Map, and were allotteil aa common 
land. " ' \. v. Col. MSS , x., .V). 

- The destruction of this well was almost a sacrilege. Its associations and 
its memories should have ])leaded " like angels trum]>(>t tongued against the 
deep damnation f)f its " filling up. Perhaps in no other country would surh an 
outrage have been attempted. 



ants of the Tillage of Bergen, that some continue to neglect to 
occupy the Lots they obtained in said Village and to keep there- 
on a man fit to bear arms ; also, that some absent themselves 
without providing their Watch, whereby the people of said Til- 
lage are so much fatigued that they cannot any longer stand at 
their posts, and are unwilling to go any longer on guard, unless 
the others M'ho have vacant Lots keep for the guard one man 
with them for each Lot; the Director-General and Council, in 
order to prevent this confusion, resolve that all those who claim 
any Lots in the aforesaid Tillage shall, witliin 24 hours after the 
service hereof, furnish and continually maintain for each Lot, one 
man able to bear arms and to keep watch and ward, on pain of 
having the Lots with the Lands thereunto appertaining, as sur- 
veyed by the Surveyor, immediately given and granted in pro- 
priety to others. Let every one be hereby warned for the last 

Communipaw was exempt from the general order that the peo- 
ple should remove to the new village of Bergen. It was the in- 
tention to establish a village at that place also. On the eighth of 
September, 1660, Jacques Cortelyou was ordered to survey " Ge- 
meenepa" and lay it out into village lots.- The lots thus sur- 
veyed fronted on the bay and had a depth of about 200 feet. 
They extended from Communipaw avenue on the north to tlie 
Bay Shore House on the south. Within this small territory the 
village was erected and defences set up against the attack of the 
Lidians. But the settlers did not all lend a willing hand to erect 
these defences. Some of them were too willing that the others 
should do all the work and bear all the expense, satisfied that 
their individual interests would be secured in the general protec- 
tion. To this those who were willing to perform their duty 
would not submit, and on the tenth of February, 1661, Tielman 
Tan Tleck, for himself and in the name of Michiel Jansen, Cas- 
par Steinmets, and Harman Smeeman, presented a petition "that 
it might please the Director-General and Council to issue their 

' N. Y. Col. MSS., X., Part il, 389. 

-Alb. Bee, x.riv., 398. Winfield's Land Titles, o4. 








orders with rc<i^ar(l to tlie palisadoiiii; i>l' the new villar^c on (Jc- 
nioencpa, so that it nia}' be uiiaiiirnuusly iiii(h'rtaken ;" and tliatyt 
all persons be commanded to make use of the newly LrfiJf^it 
waifon road, and not of any other. 

On this petition the apostille was : " Tlu- pers(»ns namrd in 
this petition are antliorized to promote as well the palisadoinf; of 
t\\v vilianje as that of the land, so, as they considered the sitinition 
of tlic place and time. ^Imll (Uhiii proper, carefnlly observing; 
tliat the palisades which are used are of a due length and thi<-k- 
ness, viz. : between six and seven feet above the irround, and to 
communicate this to the inhabitants of the village by atti.xed bil- 
lets, C(Mnmandino; them, upon an amende of two £ llanders, to be 
jiaid in l)ehalf of tlie villaL!;e by each one who, at the determined 
dav, shall be I'uund to have neii^lected the one or the other ])art 
of his dutv. What regards the waijijon road,* this mav be de- 
layed t.i a more favorable opportunity. On the day as above."' 

' The road rofprred to in tliis proceeding was the way from Comniunipaw to 
Ber^'en, ruuniuff by tlie " Ofl'-tall." 

'■' iV. Y. Col. MSS.,i.r , 521. Such proceedings, looking to a mutual protection, 
seem to have encouraged settlers. On the 9th of May following Egbert San- 
derson and Jan Thcunissen. inhabitants of Midwout and Amersfoort, Ixng 
Island, petitioned lor leave to erect a saw-mill on a stream at " <tenu>enepae," 
and move their families there, and for a lot of land for each. The request wai* 
granted. 3'. Y. Col. M^S., ir., oOO. I have no doubt that they jjroceeded to 
erect a mill, probably on the site where Prior's mill subsequently stood, near 
Point of Kocks. In ,the patent to Claes Pietersen Cos, dated June 3, ItJTl, the 
" Mill of Ilossemus 'Yis mentioned. Wiiijield's Land Titles, 48. It was a land 
mark at that early date. From this mill the stream took its name of " Mill 
Creek." It was also called "Creek of the Woods " and " Creek of the High- 
woodlands," from the fact that it wound around the foot of the hill then 
crowned with trees. 

Sandersen, in company with oue Bartel Lott, on October COth, IGtJl, ju'litioned 
again for permission to erect a saw-mill in " the newly commenced village of 
Bergen," and, inasmuch as there were no unoccupied lots, they asked for jht- 
mission to negotiate with Jan Everse Karsebnom for one. They were refernil to 
the schepens of Bergen. This points to Showhauk brook as the stream on 
which they desired to erect the mill. Karseboom owned the land there. Win- 
field's Land Titles, Vil. 

This stream took its rise in an Indian spring in West Hoboken. and ran s<>uth 
till it came to where New York avenue crosses Palisade avenue. Tliere it 
turned down the hill through a wild ravine and emptied into Mill I'reek. .\ftor 


The good work of palisading the village does not seem to have 
been well done, if it was done at all, for on the 18th of June, 
1663, Gerrit Gerritsen, Harman Smeeraan and Dirck Claessen 
were appointed commissioners to fortify Gemoenepa.^ All this 
precaution was necessary, for the savages yet prowled hereabouts, 
though their depredations were not so frequent as formerly. Yet 
in a journal of tiie Esopus war (1663), kept by Martin Ivrygier, 
it is reported that two Dutchmen were killed between " Gemoe- 
napa " and the " Maize Land " (Bergen), but who they were or 
why they were killed is not known. 

this land came into the possession of the Van Vorst family there was a saw-mill 
on this stream at the foot of the hill. It was destroyed bv fire, December 13th, 

' jY. r. Col. MSS., X., Part iL, 133. 

CTIAPTK i: v.— Pit; 4 It;;:;. 

New Xotlicrltinil captured by the Enj^liah — Sir Edmund Plnydj-n'a claim to 
New Jcrsoy — Govi'rnnr Carteret reorrriini/es the court at Herj,'en— Siht!- 
mens of suits in tliia court — Nanit s of (jflicers — Peop'e of Beryi-n take 
the oatli tA' allegiance — First tavern license — Assemhlymen elwlwl — 
Carteret "s charter to Bergen — Why he granted the land to thf Freo 

We now approacli the downtiill of the Dutch |)()\ver in Now 
XotheHand. Events pass rapiilly, and soon hiinix iihont the 
closing scenes. For more than lifty years the Industrious Dutch 
had labored to establish a colony which would insure wealtli to 
individual enterprise and be a source of strength ami glory to 
the Fatherland. Xature, in its untamed wildness, had been to 
a laudable extent subdued ; the savage, reluctant to forsake his 
old hunting-grounds and the graves of his fathers, had yieldcil to 
purchase, or been mollified by judicious treatment. In the midst 
of the unfavorable circumstances of their brief possession, they 
hatl succeeded in planting the seeds of what may now be 
considered a grand empire. The city which they founded has 
become the commercial centre of the continent, and after the 
lapse of two centuries since they yielded to another power. l)cars 
yet upon its face many of the features of the original settlement. 
In this county the language is still used among the old inhabi- 
tants, and in a few cosy nooks and quaint old families the customs 
of the Fatherland are still held in reverence. A'7'.<f^//V/ (Christ- 
mas), with its merrymakings, good dinners and niany gifts, still 
makes its annual visit to gladden the hearts of old and young; 
Sieuic Jar (New Year), with its cakes, wine and punch, yet opens 
the door of almost every house, and all day long visitors come 
and go, smiling and greeting. I^aas (Easter) ever brings abun- 
dance of eggs, which, like Joseph's coat, are "of many colors," 
and wonderfully mysterious to the youngsters. Santa Clans, laden 
with gifts, makes his regular calls upon all devout believers. The 



footprints of his tiny reindeers are still seen in the snow, and the 
chimney shows marks of his descent. He comes, however, only 
to those who sleep in the faith that he will come, and who have 
called npon him in the following devout prayer : 

Sint Nicliolaas, good lieilig man, 

Trekt uw' besten Tabbard an, 

En reist daarmee naar Amsterdam, 

Van Amsterdam naar Spanje, 

Waar appellen van Oranje, 

En appellen van Granaten, 

Rollen door de straten. 

Sint Nicliolaas, myn goden vriend, 

Ik lieb u altyd wel gediend, 

Als gy my nu wat wilt geben 

Fal ik u dieneu als myn leven.' 

On the 12th of March, 1664, Charles II. granted to his brother 
James, Dnke of York, inter alias, all that part of New Nether- 
land lying east of Delaware bay. On the 25th of May an expe- 
dition sailed from Portsmouth, England, to perfect the Duke's 
parchment title by reducing the country to his possession. Stuy- 
vesant seems to have been informed of the intended expedition.^ 
Seeing the danger approaching, the people of Eergen took meas- 
ures to put their village in a better state of defence. At their 
request, on the 21st of February, 1664, Arent Laurens, Jacob 
Luby, Harman Edwards, Laurens Andriessen, Paulus Pietersen, 
Jan Swaen and Jan Lubbertsen were appointed commissioners to 
erect block-houses for the protection of the town.^ Whether thev 

1 Saint Nicholas, good holy man. 

Put your best tabbard on you can, 

And in it go to Amsterdam, 

From Amsterdam to Hispanie, 

Where apples bright of Oranje, 

And likewise those pomegranates named, 

Roll through the streets all unreclaimed. 

Saint Nicholas, my dear good friend. 

To serve you ever was my end ; 

If something you will now me give 

Serve you I will long as I live. 
- Broadhead, ii.,2\. 

■" N. Y. Col. MSS., a'., Part Hi., 73. Neic Neth. Reg., 158. 


were ever bci^nm or completed before the capture liy the Eii^', 
or wliere located, is not known. 

The Duke's sciuadron was vet on the Atlantic, and the country 
yet in possession of the Dutch, when he, by deeds (»f lease and 
release, dated the 23d and 24th of -Inne, conveyed to .John, Lord 
Berkeley, a brother of the (lovernor of \'iri;inia, and Sir (Jeor;^e 
Carteret,* the tract 'of land lyin<;- between the Hudson and Dela- 
ware rivers; " which said Tract of Land is hereafter to be called 
b}' the Name or Names of New Coisarea oy Ncuj Jivseyy^ On 
the Sth of September his forces, under command of Colonel 
Richard Nicolls, captured New Amsterdam. Tliis wis ilone 
without a pretence of England ami Holland beini^ at war. but 
simply by way of reclaiming his own ! Ignorant of the fact that 
his master had already conveyed and named the territory in- 
cluded in the ijcrant to JJcrkelev and Carteret, Colonel Nicolls 
"•ave it the name of Alhania. in honor of the Duke.^ 

'^Learning and Spiccr, 10. Berkley is described aa a "bold and insolent 
man, weak, not incorrupt, and very arbitrary." Carteret was " the most imsisinn- 
ate man in the world" Broadlund, it., 81. 

- This is the first time the name was applied to this Statr. It was jrivt-n in 
honor of iSir tieorge Carteret, who was born in the Island of Jersey in LVJ'J. In 
162G he was appointed Ctovernor of Jersey, in 1040 comptroller of His Majesty's 
ships, and in 1G45 was created a baronet. He stood by the Kin^ in tin- civil 
war, followed the Prince of Wales to France in 1G5'3, was thrown into the HaH- 
tile in 1057, and afterward banished from France. He entered London with 
Charles II., in 1000, was appointed Vice-Charaberlain, member of the Privj 
Council, and Treasurer of the Navy. In 1008 he was appointed one of the 
Board of Trade, and in 100!) expelled the House of Commons on ii char^je »)f 
embezzlement. In 1073 he became one of the Lords of the Admiralty, and died 
January 14, 107'.). His remains were interred at Hawnes, in the county of ]ie^\- 
ford. Col. Hid. ofN. Y., ii.. 410. 

^ Brondhead,i.,145. Col. 2i. Y.. Hi.. lu:5. It is said that for some 
time the territory was called JVric Qinan/. These are not the only names which 
the State has borne. Sir Edmund Ployden, an impecunious ditrnitary, wiiile 
in prison for debt, apj.lied to Charles I. f<ir a jtatent to .settle the river Delaware. 
Beln<r unsuccessful, he api)ealed to StafVord, Viceroy of In-land. and obtained 
the patent of June 21, 1034. The extent of the grant wa."* " four hundred and 
four score miles in compass or circuit of the mainland and country of America 
adjoining and lyinj; near Delaware Bay, between Virginia and New Knjrland." 
This included New Jersey. The territory was erected into a ' free county pala- 


Articles of capitulation were agreed upon between Stujvesant 
and ]Sricolls, two of which were as follows : 

" III. All people shall continue free denizens, and shall enjuv 
their lands, houses, goods, wheresoever thej are w^ithin this coun- 
try, and dispose of them as they please. 

" XI. The Dutch here shall enjoy their own customs concern- 
ing their inheritances."^ 

On the 10th of February, 1664-5, Berkeley and Carteret com- 
missioned Philip Carteret, a brother of Sir George, to be Gover- 
nor.^ He arrived in the latter part of July, 1665, and early in 
August assumed control of the Province. A few days afterward 
he reorganized the court at Bergen, and issued the following 
commission : 

"By Virtue of the Power and Authority Given to me by the 
Lords Proprietors ot New Jersey, I doe hereby Nominate and 
appoint you, Cap't Nicholas Yerlett, to constitute and appoint a 
Court of Judicature for the Inhabitants of Bero;en, Gemoene- 
paen, Ahasymes and Hooboocken, to be held and kept as often 
as Occasion shall Require in the aforesaid towne of Bergen, where 
you, the said Capt" Yerlett, Is by Yertue of these P'sents to be 
President of the said court, And thei-e to hear and Determine all 
Causes of Difference between party and party according to Jus- 

tine," numeiNew Albion, over which Sir Edmund became Earl palatine. For 
the settlement of this province a company was formed of forty-four lords, bar- 
ons, baronets, knights, gentlemen and adventurers, in the name of " The Albion 
Knights for the conversion of the twenty-three Kings " of Charles River. In 
1643 the Earl came to New Amsterdam and claimed his rights, but soon 
retired, " for he would not quarrel with the Dutch." He esteemed the province 
a paradise, and when speaking of it in England said : " The spring waters 
there are as good as small beere heere." This Irish patent seems to have been 
given without the royal authority or consent, and was void. By his will, dated 
July 29, 1655, proved July 27, 1659, he gave Hew Albion to his son Thomas for 
life, and then to his heirs male, with the income of certain lands in England 
for the " planting, fortifying, peopling and stocking " of New Albion. Andrew 
Wall, son-in-law of Thomas, afterward obtained possession of the letters patent 
and refused to surrender them. Thomas willed them to his son Francis, May 
16, 1698, but it is doubtful if the devisee ever obtained them. 

' These articles may be found in extenso in O'C'al., N. N., ii., 532. 

- Learning and Spicer, 26. Whitehead's East Jersey, 36. 


tice unci Ki^Iit. W the sidvice and Assistance of Ilernian 
Snieenian, Casper Steynniets of r<eri,a'n and Elyas Micliiula of 
Gemoenepacn. AVliop arc hereby appointed Ma<;istrate8 to sett in 
the said Court as yo"" Assistants, And you have herel)y Likewise 
Powci'to njioint a Rcijister or Clark of the said Court, "NVhoe is 
to keepe a Kecorde of all Actions and causes that are hrou^dit 
before you. And a iSerjant or Statesboadc to Execute all Such 
Acts and Warrants as shall ])roceed from you as occasion shall 
Kcquire, Provided that all Writs, Warrants and Sutes arc to be 
in his Ma*'^^ Kame, And -what you w^ the advice of your Assist- 
ants sJutU act by Vertue of this Power given you, shall be Etl'ect- 
luiU and good in Lawe, And that Noe Apeale shall be made to 
the Governor and his Council!, Tiid' the some of tenn Pounds 
sterling. And this Commission to continue till Wee shall other- 
wise provide for the settlement of those affaii-cs and no Lonirer. 

•* Given uiul"" my hand and scale of the Province of New Jersev 
aforesaid the thirtieth day of August, 16G5, and in the 17th veare 
of his Ma''"=^ Ptaigne."^ 

' Liber 'S Deeds (Trenton) 1. The records of this court which wouhl liave 
thrown so much li<rht on the early history of Bergen and the manners and 
customs of the jieopii", unfortunately are lost. After diligent scnrcli I have 
found the record of only two suits, both of which were appealed, and, strange 
to say, both were about hogs. I will here insert them for the curious reader: 

Extract from the Register of the Minutes of the Court of Bergen, dated 11 
November, 167;J : 

The Schout, Ci,.\es .Vrentse Toers, PVt'ff.^ 
Captain John Beuuy, Deft. 

'•Pl't'ff proceeds against the Deft on a complaint made by (apt. Sandford to 
the lit. Hon'''' the Oovernor-General in regard to the removal from Major 
Kingsland of some hogs without the knowledge of any «)tricer. Whereupon 
the Schout prosecutes for the value thereof. Deft, acknowle.lges having car- 
ried oft' the hogs to his house, but on the Statement of Sandford "s negro. Tjirk 
* * * Deft, claims that they were hia. 

"The Schout, acting on behalf of justice, maintains that no one .an be lux 
own judge on the naked saying of a negro. He proceeds therefore i-n a chnrffe 
of Theft. 


Tlie judges of this court under tlie English rule were as fol- 
lows : 

Nicholas Yerlet, President. 

Harman Smeeman, 1 

Casper Steinmets, ..^^ . .o-^-././.k 

^,. Tr- 1 • 1 ^Assistants, - - August 30, 1665. 

Elias Michielse, ' 

Ide Yan Yorst, j 

" The magistrates demand of deft, if he hath anything further to produce as 
his answer. 

" Deft, answers — Nothing else than that I claim that they are my own hogs. 

" The Schout demands that deft, be condemned criminally, and demands a 
fine of 500 guilders, and that the hogs be put back in the place from which they 
were taken. 

" The magistrates condemn the deft, in a fine of 250 guilders, one-half for the 
otEcer, one-third of the other half for the church, and one-third for the poor, 
and oue-third for the Court of Bergen, and in case the Deft, cannot furnish fur- 
ther proof that tliey are his own hogs, he is ordered to deliver up the hogs into 
the hands of the officer of the jurisdiction of Bergen, and pay, moreover, the 
costs incurred herein. 

" Agrees with the aforesaid Register, quod attestor." N. Y. Col. MSS., xiii., 

The appeal from this judgment is unique, and throws additional light upon 
several customs of that day : 

" Capt. John Berry humbly informs your Honor that, on the 11th January, 
1670, new style, I departed hence from my plantation (situate a short English 
mile from Captain Sandford), leaving 13 sows, one boar and 2 barrow hogs. I 
returned here again in July, 1670, expecting to have found at least 100 hogs, 
but instead of an increase they were diminished (according to Captain Sand- 
ford's statement) to one sow and six barrows, which were not forthcoming. But 
very early on the subsequent morning my upper servant brought me word that 
some of the hogs had come back from Milfort, whereupon I answered him they 
may carry them back there ; and about an hour after that Capt. Sandford's 
negro came there. So seeing the aforesaid hogs, he said to me, ' Here is a 
sow belonging to my master, and the old sow.' I asked him, ' What old sow ?' 
He answered, ' One of the sows which you left here when you went to Barba- 
does.' I asked him if she had had no increase, to which he gave me a vague 
reply, only saying that they had last winter 7 shoats. Whereupon I said : 
' There are six young pigs with her about the same age, and for the most part 
of the color of the sow, according to all appearance they are six of the seven.' 

• InllN KKKKV Al'I'llAI.S KIMM I III i.iIIm '.IJ 

T\ iiiiiiit'iit (Ticliiiiui i) Vau \'1l'cI<, 'rouM Clerk, < -.. , . ,. 
w -ii- < u- 1 i> • 1 . ( March s, l«;»;o 

Saiiuiol Kdsall, < either to act ) 

Lunrens Atidriesen, ) as Presidoi.t, ( ' '''^''"•'lary i:., l.;74. 

To which 111' answered, ' I believe so." Tina I saiil to liiiii. ' f,.i m, -.■ ntur liv 
and see if they do not belong to your master.' Which wr did, and when we had 
taken a ^ood h)ok at them, he said, ' No, they are not my master's ; tliev havn 
not any hoh-s in their ears" (wliich was the distinctive mark betweene ('apt. 
Sandford and Mr. Kinj^sland's). Then saitl I to him, ' One of the younjf pijfH hait 
a lame foot,' whereupon he answered that one of my sows had a broken kn»*e. 
Then said I ajrain, 'Beyond a doubt these six barrows are the priMluct •>f mv 
sow.' The ne<rro replied, ' I think so.' He earnestly re(|iieRted me not tf> h-t it 
be known that he had disclosed to me, for if his master came to know it, lie 
should be very angry with him. 'Well,' I said, 'from all ap{>earance they 
justly belong to me ; I shall provisionally convey them to my plantation." But 
two or three' days after I had reached home, I went to the i)lantation. Shortly 
afterward I had some conversation with Captain Sandford respectinjj theae 
hogs. I said to him, ' They do not belonj; to you, for you have told mys«-lf that 
all your hogs had holes cut in their ears, but to all appearance they belonjf to 
me.' He answered, ' All do not belong to me ; there istme at the plantation to 
which I shall lay claim, as it appears.' For when I retiirne<l to my i)lantation, 
my upper servant told me that Cai)tain Sandfonl's housekeeper had b»-rn there 
to look them up, saying that they belonged to them, inasmuch as the aforesaid 
sow did not belong to me, but that I had given her to Capt. Sandford, as well 
as the Boar, for the wintering of 2 oxen ; which is untrue. (These words are in 
tacit acknowledgment that they were the progeny of the sow.) But that pre- 
tense is now out of doors, for he recovered 120 from me for the wintering of the 
aforesaid oxen, and he has been allowed by the arbitrators between us as much 
as is customary for th<; wintering of oxen, and the sow and Boar remain tnine. 
But I should trust and hope more, had I to do with people who professed the 
fear of the Lord and had an upright heart. 

" When the aforesaid hogs came back to the house I had tliem caught, and 
went immediately to ('apt. Sandford, but he not being at home, the housekeeper 
and I had some sharp talk on this matter. She said to me that she had had the 
greatest trouble to bring them up, and therefore ought to have pn-fer- 
ence to any other person. I answere<l they were not hers on that account, but 
to all appearance they were the increase of my sow, and therefore belonged to 
me. She replied that they belonged to her. Then said I, ' How ; if all your 
hogs have holes in their ears?' ' See well to it/ she said, ' you will find holes 
in the ears of some, and I warn you, sir, that you will not meet with success.' 
^ Well,' said I, 'send one of your Negroes with me ; they are now in the Stone 
•house, and let him see ; if there are holes in the ears, I shall let them go, unless 
such are of recent date.' But she refused to send any one. Next morning 


John Berry, President. 
Samuel Edsall, 

Lourens Andriesen, )>.... March 13, 1676. 

Ehas Michielsen, 
Engelbcrt Steenhuysen, 

when we examined the hogs by daylight we found that they had holes in the 
ears, but the scab was yet on the holes, and matter under the scab, and they 
had a stinking smell, whence it clearly appears that the holes were recently 
made, but the mark of the plantation was of old, and 1 congratulate her there- 
on, and believe it was done when they were shoats, long before they strayed 
away. Whence it is clearly manifest that such was done to deceive the Honble 
Governor or me. For they do not belong to me. If they are of the plantation 
it is mine. The cause being small, I carried only four away from there, and 
left two to run at large there vintil my return ; but where they landed I believe 
Capt. Saudford or his housekeeper knows best, for they could not have any 
previous knowledge of my journey. Thereupon Captain Sandford craftily 
made his complaint to the Honble Governor that I had carried oft' from 
there some hogs which belonged to him or some one else ; for he knows that 
they are neither his nor his liousekeeper's. 

" On this complaint the Schout came to me and asked me if I had taken any 
hogs away from there. I answered him right out,' Yes.' He inquired how 
many. I said, ' Four.' ' Why did you do so V I answered, ' Because they ap- 
parently belonged to me.' Then said he to me I must appear before the next 
court at Bergen to justify such act. I said to him, ' It shall be done, and very 
eifectually.' I repaired thither, as your honor can see by the copy of their judg- 
ment hereunto annexed. 

" 1st. And in case I am blamed for having done so without the knowledge of 
the Schout, I answer thereto, had I known, as I did not, that the Dutch law re- 
quired me to do so, I had justly deserved censure; but not knowing that, I 
knew no better than that I might carry these hogs home, as I presumed they 
justly belonged to me, finding them so near my land and the place to which I 
had carried so many, communicating my intention therein to the person who 
set up a claim to them. 

" 3d. Had I let them run about, they would have perhaps fared no better than 
the other two which I left loose, as well as my sow that has not turned up, but 
apparently has gone the same road as the rest of my hogs and their oftspring 
have gone ; there being some people in the world who consider all as fish that 
comes into their net. 

" Right Honorable, this is the real truth of this matter, whereby I hope your 
honor will clearly see my innocence in this instance. That I carried them 
silently away, without informing any one ; and when the Schout questioned me ^ 
thereupon, denied the deed, or acted evasively, which I could have done had I 
had a dishonest intention, it might have created some presumption, and had I 

couins II 1,1.1) IN i;i:k(;kn. •••♦ 

These same persons wcrt' icapixiintt'il. Fi-oniaiv 1«',. ir.77. 

The foUowiiiij: wore appciiiicil, .luiu' I.;, I*'.?;'., iiiemltci-s t»f tin- 
Special Coiirr of ()\cr and 'I'cnniiuT, 1«> lie lu-hi at I^T'tii. .Iijtir 
2-i:, 1073, with \H)\\vv t(i tiv all causes hrouirlif Ix-torc theiii : Wil- 
liam Saiidtord, President; .Inlm Pike, .I..I111 lJisIn.p, Suinm-l 
p]dsall and (ialifiel I\Iinvielle. Tiu- (icnoral Assemhiv IiavitiL' 
provided fur holdini;- a t.enii-aniiual cnurt in each countv, the ful- 
lowing; ])ersons were appointed, Fehrnarv !•!. ICTC. to hold 
a court in Bergen on tlie first Tuesday in the f(.l!oui?i._' 

an intention to perpetrate dirty net ions, tUeri- wen- opportunitifs i-nniiyli witli 
out any one boinff knowing of thcin, before the liogs had been driven away an<i 
their number known. Hut, on the contrary, I strictly charjjed my nejfroes not 
to touch anytliinjr, but it is evident that tliey did not viobite my order therein, 
insomuch that Capt. Sandford liiniself said tluit he thoujrht tlie occurrence tfiok 
place lately. 

'• My most earnest desire is that your Honor would please to take these |)oint>« 
into consideration and to annul the aforesaid judgment, so that sudi an unde- 
served stain may not remain on me and my posterity. I i)ray forgiveness for 
having troubled your Honor with this long narrative. The liighly prized jdedge 
of an honorable name, which I esteem far more than all riches, hath caused me 
to do so. I conclude it with my prayer that the Divine Wisdom may be jdeased 
to endue your Honor with intelligence and understanding not to justify the 
guilty and not to condemn the innocent, both of which are an abomination in 
the eyes of a righteous God. 17 Proverbs, v 15. 

" I would only inform your Honor that, according to the Engli-h law. it is 
usual to do as I have done in this case, and by that law I might take these hogs 
away with me, and incase any one lay claim to them, he should summon me b*-- 
fore the public court of Justice and the Jury of 1"2 men had to decide thereu[)on. 
and if the ownershij) was found in me, then tlie Plaintitf iscondemnc«l to pay all 
my costs ; and in case they found forthe Plaintit!', then I was conilemne<l to 
restore the jiroperty and to make good his costs and damage ; that is, what the 
Defendant hath appropriated and converted to his own use. This is called an 
action of Trover and Conversion. But were an accusation of Theft made, a seri- 
ous action would be against the complainant. Had I been aware that the Dutch 
Law denumded otherwise,! would have conformed thereto. The Word of (tod 
declares that where there is no law there is no Transgression. At least, a mis- 
conception ought not to be viewed through a magni tying glass, as the Schont 
ot Bergen tried to do in the avaricious craving for a tine. 

" Your honor will i)lease to reflect that Theft is a deed of darkness and ftileoce 
and shuns the light, and confesses only on compulsion ; whereas my actions in 
this case were in every stej* the contrary." 

It is proper to state that tlie penalty in this case was. on ai<p<'al. reduci*d to 


March, viz. : John Ben-j, President ; Samuel Edsall, Lourens 
Andriesen, Elias Michielsen and Engelbert Steenhnysen. To 
liold the same court at the same place on the first Tuesday in 
March, 1679, the following persons were appointed Febru- 
ary 18, 1679, viz. : John Berry, President ; Lourens Andriesen, 
Elias Michielsen, and Epke Jacobs. Ide Cornelisen Yan Vorst, 
Gerrit Gerritse (Van Wagenen), Dirck Claes Braecke, and Elias 
Michielse (Vreeland) were chosen July 27, 1680. Lourens An- 

100 guilders, on condition tliat defendant return the hogs, or prove them to be 
his within six months. Col. Hist, of N. Y., ii., 739. 

The following record may be found in N. Y. Col. M8S., x'a;w\,218 : 

" At a Court of Sessions held at Berghen, in New Jersey, Sept. lo, 1G80. 

" The Court opened by Harry Newton. 

" A Jury empannelled & sworne. 

" The Triale betweene Mr. William Lawrence, PltfF. 
" Mr. Michael Smith, Deft. 

" The Decl. upon an action of trespasse upon the case about a parcell of Hoggs 
said to be stolen by the defts. negroes from the plttf. The deft, offers to come 
to agreemt. 

" The Court adjourned. 

" Afternoone. 

" The negroes of Mr. Smith examined. Righto confest that hee and his 3 
comrads had killed 11 hoggs in the woods and brought two home on Saturday 
night, and told his mr. of it in the morning, who was very angry, and told 
them they would bee hanged, &c. The rest were brought home after to the 
num. of 9. 

" Harman RoelofF relates his finding 2 hoggs dead in the woods the Sunday 
morning, & went and acquainted Mr. Smith. 

" The two were wounded, small holes like swan shot. 

" The negroes deny to have had any gun. The negro Jeremy confesses, also 
doth Harman. Mr. Baker's negroe confesses to have killed one hog unmarked, 
about the same time. 

" Ordered all 4 to bee secured by the court. Their masters engaging they 
should bee forthcoming, were sett at liberty. 

" Afterwards the arbitrators employed to reconcile the matter in difference 
between Mr. Lawrence «& Mr. Smith being sent to, returning answer that they 
could not bring in their report conveniently till the morning. Court adjourned 
till morning. 

" Thursday, Sept. 16, 1680. 

" In the morning 

" Mr. William Lawrence 
" Mr. Michael Smith 
"The Arbitrato", come into Co''' & declare their incapacity of ending their 

^'AMI•:s «>K mi,mi!i:ks ok riii ( .>i i:r. \tt\ 

ilriesen, President ; Saimul Kdsall. Kimcli Midiielx' and (territ 
Gerritse, Au<2;iist ;^)1, l^iSl : nml l,(Hirrii> Andriorn, I'rcsidcnt; 
Saniiu'l Edsall, ]"ji(M-li ^^i(•lli^l>(■ .•md <irn-it ( iri-rit-cii, An::ii>t 
31, ItiM'; Chves Aivntsu Toeis, llan> 1 )iedrieksaud Knucli Mich- 
ielse, Di'cenibor ;■), ITiS.'^ William I)MUM;la> \vasa]i]M.inted (!|crk, 
Maivh 2S, iOS'S: 

iirbitratiDii, liuvino- iint liburty to rhusu an L'liipirc. '1'Im' (••>" iilli>\v tUem 
liberty & grave tliem thret' hours time. 
"The court in iiieane time adjourned. 

" Afternoone. 

•'The Arbitrate" with their unii>ire brinpf in tlit-ir report. 

•' Mr. Loureuf* Andries, / ,, , .. 

,, •„, . , ^, , - named bv v i>lttl. 

" Mr. Claes Arents. the Clarke, \ " 

" Mr. John Baker, ) , 

'- bv v« deft 
" Mr. William Doufrlas, ) ' • ' 

" John Ward, Umpire. 

" The award £32 10s Od Losseof Stock : £2 lOs. Od towards hi.s bill of charjres, 
to be p^' in (i m. One halfe in o^ood winter Wheate \ lialle in specie of the 
produce of y country. 

" Judfrment accordintr to y" award, & upon default at the time, Execution. 

" Two of Mr. Smith's Negroes, vizt., Jeremy and Hannan. condemned to In- 
whipt 20 Lashes apiece, & Will, Mr. Baker's Nejrroe, the like. Hiplito, f<>r his 
engagement for the future to amend, & reveale his knowledge of any thieving 
or &c., done by other Negroes, & to be Executioner to the above three, is 

"Execution was done accordingly in sight f)f the court. 

" After which the court dissolved." 

Mr. Smith was a son-in-law of Capt. John Berry, and probably the ancestor 
of the Smith family at Secaucus. lie was sheriff of Bergen county in 16>'3, and 
hence was tlie first sheriff of the county. 

' The following commission {Book '■] of Deeds, Trenton) was sent to the court 
one week after Sandford's appointment : 

"WheredS, Emanuell, a Negro belonging to the family of Capt. Nicola.-* ^ fr 
le" , deceased, hath Maliciously and by the Instigation of the divill sett on fire 
a barne in the towne of Berggen belonging to the said family, and l>eing proveil 
against him by General Circumstances, and more perticularly by liis owne Con- 
fession to the Consumation of the said barne and divers cattle that were ther"- 
in, to y Great loss and Impoverishing of the said family, whii-h Is death accord 
to the Lawes for any person that shall comit wilfully any such abominable 
Crime, These are therefore to give full power and Authority to the Justice and 
Magistrates of the said towne and corporation of Bergen to bring the said 
Emanuel to a tryall before them, and according to the Lawes of England iff he 


In due time, after the surrender, the oatli of allegiance to the 
British crown was administered to the inhabitants of Beriren. 
The following is a true copy of the oath, to which is added the 
names of those wlio subscribed to it : 

'' The Oath of A Legeance taken by the Inhabitants Bergen 
alias and in the Jurisdiction thereof, Beginning the 20 Novem- 
ber, 1665: 

" You doe sware by the holy Evangelists Contayned in this 
book to bare true faith and A Legeance to our Gov"" Lord King 
Charles the Second and his lawfull Successors, and to be true and 
faithful to the Lords Propryeto" and their Successors and the 
Government of this Province of iSTew Jarsey as long as you sliall 
continue a freeholder and Inhabitant Vud"" the same Without 
any Equivocation or mentall reseruation Whatsoeuer, and so helpe 
you God. 

" Captt. Nicholas Yer Let, Justice, Paulus Pietersen, 
" Herman Smeeman, Magis*"", Ilendrick Tunisen, 

" Gasper Steinmets, ditto xidolph Hardenbrook, 

" Elyas Michielsen, ditto Geurt Garetsen, 

" Ider Cornellissen, ditto Bartliel Lott, 

" Hans Diedrect, Constable,^ Christian Pietersen, 

" Tynemant Yan Ylickt, towne Thomas Fredericksen, 

Clarke, Cornel is Abrahams, 

" Captt. Adrian Post, Ensigne, Herman Edwarts, 

be found Guilty by a Jury of tlie fact to passe Sentence of death upon him, 
which they are to execute in such forme and manner as they in theire Judg- 
ments and Wisdomes shall think fitt'for the terror and Example of others, and 
for their so doing this shall be to them and Every of them a sufficient Authority, 
provided that this Commission shall be of no longer power and force but for 
this present occasion. Given under my hand and seal of the province the 15th 
day of March, 1669." 

How long Bergen continued to be the seat of the principal courts of the county 
I am unable, with the information at hand, to state. But on the 20th of August, 
1703, tiie courts for Bergen county were appointed to be held at Bergen. Per- 
haps the facts upon this subject will be more fully known when the records 
now being obtained from the colonial office in England shall have been pub- 

' Diedrlcks was a representative of Bergen in the General Assembly in 1686. 

V\n<T TAVKIJN I,|( 1,.N>|; i.U.Wil.i.. 1(>3 

".Tacol) Lul)y, Ilenimn Cuiirt, 

" Arent Lawrence, lieiiicr Van (iie.seti, 

" J:m Tilx.iit, ,1.111 Kiicisfii ('usalx.u. 

" lMii;vll»ert Stet'iiliuis, .loarf \'aii<l' Lyinle, 

" Pieter Janseii, (Jarret (iarretseii, 

" LanreiU'O Andries, Claes Areiitson, 

'" Derrick Tuniseii, Lanreiute Areiitscn, 

" Douwe Ilarinenseii, I.-aak Vati Vlcclc." 

The village of Bergen M-as now four years old, ami it is alto- 
gether likely contained, within its bounds many droughty hurirhers 
t(> whom a tavern could administer great co?isolation. There is 
no evidence that such an institution existed in the villatre hv 
permission of the Dutch authorities. Hence it is jiroltahle tliat 
the following is the tirst license to keep a hotel in tliat ])lacc: 

" W/iereffs, the inhabitants of Bergen have tlioutrlit titt to Imve an 
()idiiiaiy or puMick \'ictualing House settled in their towne for 
the accommodation of Strangers and passengers and to lietaile 
all sorts of drink and other Licquers, for the Effecting Wliereof 
the Magistrates have pitched upon (hristian Pietersen,an iidiab- 
itant of the said towne, as the most tittest p''son for that Employ- 
ment, and fur Which tliey have rerpiested my Lvci'nce : These 
are therefore to perniitt and Lycence the aforesaid Christian 
Pietersen to sett up and keep the aforesaid (,)rdinary or ^'ietuall- 
ing hows for Entertainment of all Strangers and passeng""' and to 
Retaile all sorts of diiidv and Other Licq" to all p'"sons Except- 
ing Indians, provided he keep good ( )vd'^ in his hows ami titt ac- 
commodation for strangers an<l not to exceed the rates that siiall 
bf appointed upon all sorts of ilriidv and li(iuers' by the ^^agis- 
trates of the said towne, hereby i)rohibiting all other p''sons 
whomsoever to sell any sorts of drink or Licouers by wav of re- 
taile in their bowses upon the penalty of paying to the use of tlic 
])ul)li(d< tiftie shillings for Every such offence for their contempt, 
Which said Lycence is to continuf^ for on<> Whole veare fntm the 

' I'litil (juito a recent date the Judges fixed the rate of rJiarjres which might 



first clay of January next Insuiii": tlie date liereof, and so to l^e 
renewed by tlie Secretary jeai-ly.^ 

be demanded by tavern-keepers. The following were the rates at one time 
established in this county : 

"A LIST of rates to be taken by every Licensed Innkeeper, as settled Ijy the 
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, for the County aforesaid, assem- 
bled June Term, 1844 : 


For Breakfast, 

Dinner in Common, - . . - . . 

Ditto extraordinary, ..-.--- 
Supper, .-..-.-.. 

Lodging per night, -------- 

Madeira Wine per quart, - - - - - - " 1 

Claret per ditto, ...-...- 
Lisbon, Fayal and Teneriffe Wine per ditto, - - 1 
Fresh Lime Punch per quart, ------ 

Toddy per ditto, ....... 

Grog per ditto, -------- 

West India Rum per gill, - - - - - 

Geneva per ditto, --.-.... 

Brandy per ditto, - 

Whiskey and Cider Spirits i)er ditto, .... 

Cider per quart, -------- 

Cider Royal or Bottle Cider per quart, - - - - 

Strong Beer per ditto, 

Ship Beer per ditto, -------- 

Porter per bottle, ------- 

Metheglin, --------- 

Champaigne Wine per bottle, 2 

And so in proportion for a larger or smaller quantity. 

For Oats per quart, -------- 

Indian Corn per ditto, ------- 

Stabling a Horse per night on English Hay, - ' 

Ditto for twenty-four hours, - - - • - 

Stabling a Horse per night on Salt Hay, 
Ditto for twenty-four hours, - . - - - 

Pasture per night, - 

Ditto for twenty-four hours, - - - - - 

And so in proportion for a longer or shorter time." 
' Christian and his good wife, Tryntje, continued to j^ass the pewter mug to 
him that was athirst, until Feb. 13, 1670, when his license was revoked, and 
Hans Diedricks reigned in his stead. Hendrick Cornelisen seems to have re- 
ceived a license March 10, 1669. 


O * 







CAKIKkKI .- ( IIAUl I K. lO.' 

*' (Tiveii I'ihI' my hand aixl seal ot'tlic province, 14 X'", iniWI, 
ami in 18 yeare of his ^^a"' ' IJaiLrnc.**' 

( )n tilt' 7th of A})ri], ir>r».S, tlie i»coi)k' were caMeil npoti t<» 
elect representatives to an assenihly to ho hehl at Eli/.ahethtown 
on the t25th of ^fay followiim-. l-'or I>er<j;en, Ca.-par Steininet» 
and J*)althazai" Bayard were chosen.^ 

From this time until the recapture of the country hy the I )utcli, 
the only thiiiLr of imi)ortance which occurred within the hounds 
of this county, save a few irrants of land, was a charter to the 
town." Tliis chai'ter Avas <;raiited hy Carteret. The follnwiiiir is 
a copy : 

'• This Deede Witnesseth of Charter i;rantcd to the Towne and 
Freeholders of I'erijen, and to the A'illaues and J'lantatious there- 
unto hcloniiini::, cituated and heinj; in the ]>rovinceof New Cesarea 
or New .lersey : By Ilonhle Capt. Phillip Carteret, Es(|^, (tov- 
ernour of the said Province, and his Counsil, under the lli<:ht 
Ilonble John Lord Berkley, Barron of Stratton, and Sr. (Tcorije 
Carteret, Knt. and Baronet, the absolute Lords Proprietors of 
the same, Containing the Limitts and hounds of the Jurisdiction 
of the said Towne, together with the immunities and Pri\ilcdged 
thereunto belonging and appertaining, as followeth : Imprms. 
The Bounds and Limitts of the aforesaid Towne and Cor]»oration 
of" Bergen is to i>egin at the North end thereof, from a jilace 
called Mordavis Meadow, lying upon the west side of lIud>on's 
river, from thence to run upon a N. W. lyne by a Three rail 
fence that is now standing to a place called Espatin, and from 
thence to a little Creek surrounding N, N. W .. till it comes into 
Hackinsack river, containing in Bre<lth from the top of the Hill, 
lA miles or I'iO chains, from thence it runs along tiie said Hack- 
insack river u])on 8. S. W. lyne till it comes to the ])oint or neck 
of r.and that is over against Statten Lsland and Shooter's Island 
in Arthur Cull Bav, containiiiir in h-nirth ab..ut twchc miles. 

' Liber 3 of Deeds (Trenton), 10. 

• Lenminy and Spicer, 17, Ho- 

■ For information concerning tliese grants f*i*f WinJxcUi'a Lund 'Jit'r.^. 



from thence to run Eastward alonoj the River called Kill van Cull 
that parts Statten Island from the Maine to a point or neck of 
Land called Constable's Point or Constable's honck, and from 
thence to run up Northward all along the Bay up into Hudson's 
river till it comes to Mordavis Meadow aforesaid ; So that the 
whole tract of upland and Meadow property belonging to the 
Jurisdiction of the said Town and Corporation of Bergen is 
bounded at the jS"orth end by a tract of Land belonging to Captn. 
N-ichs. Verlett and Mr. Samuel Edsall. On the East side by 
Hudson's river, on the South end by the Kill van Cull, that parts 
Statten Island and the Maine, and on the West by Arthur Cull 
Bay and Hackensack river, as it is more plainer demonstrated by 
a draught thereof, made by the Surveyor-General, hereunto an- 
nexed : The whole, both of upland and Meadows and Waist land, 
containing according to the survey 1 1,520 Acres English measure : 
Wliich said Limitts and bounds, together with all the Rivers, 
Ponds, Creeks, Islands, Inlets, Bays, Fishing, Hawking, Hunt- 
ing, and all other appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belongino- 
and appertaining. The half part of Golde and Silver Mynes^ 
and the Royaltie of the Lords Proprietors only Excepted, to con- 
tinue and remain within the Jurisdiction, Corporation or Town- 
ship of the said Towne of Bergen, from the day of the date 
hereof and forever: The said Corporation submitting themselves 
to the Authority of the Lords Proprietors and the Government 
of this Province. To Le hoklen bv them, the said Corporation 
or Townsliip, their heirs and Successors, as of the manner of East 
Greenwich, in free and common Socage. 

" 2dly. That all the Freeholders of the said Corporation or 
Township are hereby jointly and severally obliged to Pay or 
Cause to be paid to the said Lords Proprietors, their heirs and 
Successors, or to their Receivers-General, within the said Prov- 
ince, on every 25th day of March,^ according to the English 
Accompt, the sum of fifteen Pounds Sterling, of good and Law- 

' The beffiuning of the new yeai\ old style. In 1752 the new style was adopted. 
That year began on the first of January, and on the tliird of September follow- 
ing, the old style ended, the next day being considered the 14th, new HtyU. 


fill nioiiev (»t' Eiiirland, 111- tlio Viiliu' tliereot", in pjcxl and ( 'iir- 
rent ]m' of the ('i)iiiirrv, a> a <Jiiit rent <lue to tlicm, tlio wiiolo 
said tract of F.and almxc nifiitiniici!, in Ijcii of tin- Ad. I'r. acre, 
ineiiti<)iu'<I in the ( 'niii-ession?, which I'aymciit is to Ix'i^in on th(? 
25th (hiy ut' March, wliich shall he in the Vear of Lord H'.TO, 
and so to continne forever, withont any chanire to the ?Jiid Lonlji 
Proprietors or their A<j:ent; and that all I'attetit.s for land here- 
before (xranted, oi- to he Granted within the said Liniitts, are to 
be aeconiptod u[)on the aforesaid Rent of Fifteen Pounds Sterlin<; 
]ir. aiimiin. 

•* 3dly. That all Freeholders livini; and Iidiabitini^ within f In- 
said Jurisdiction, Corporation or 'rowiic^liip, wether within the 
said Towne of Bergen, Coniunipaw, Ahassiinus, Arinkac(pie, Pcni- 
brepock, or upon any other Plantation within the said I.iniitts, 
shall he deemed and acconipted for Freemen of the said Corpo- 
ration or Townshi}), and having taken the oath of Aleagance to 
the King, and Fidelity to the Lords Proprietors, are to have a 
Free Voice in Election, and to enjoy All the Rights, Innniitieft 
and Privileges hereby (Granted unto the said Corporation or 

"4thly. That the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major Part of 
them, are upon the Governor's Summons to make Choice of two 
Deputies to Join with the (Tcneral Assembly for the making of 
Laws and Carrying on the Public Affairs of the whole Province. 

'Tithly. That the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them, have Power to chuse their own Magistrates to be assistants 
to the President or Judge of the Court, and for the ordering of 
all Public Affaires within the said Jurisdiction. Provided that 
one of the said ^Magistrates is to be chosen out of the Freeholders 
nf Minkai-qiie oi- IV'inbi'epock. They have Power likewise to 
nominate their Justice or Justices of the Peace and their ^[ilitary 
Officers, Provided that the Justices of the Peace and the Military 
(^tticers are to I)ea])proved of and comtnissioned by the (Tovernor. 

*• Hthly. That the Freeholders af»resaid, or the Major j>art of 
them, have Power to chuse their own ^linister for the preaching 
of the word of God, and the Administering His Holy Sacra- 
ments, and being so chosen, all persons, as well the Freeholders 



as the Inhabitants, are to contril)ute aeeordinu' to their estates and 
proportions of Land for his maintenance, or Lay ont such a pro- 
portion of Land for the Minister, and tlie keepino; of a Free 
School for the Education of Youth, as they shall think fit, which 
land being once laid out is not to be alienated, but to Eemaine 
and continue forever from one incombant to another, Free from 
Paying of any hye Rent, or any other Rate or Taxes whatsoever, 
notwithstanding it shall and may l)e lawful for any particular 
person or persones to keep and Maintain any other Minister at 
their own Proper Cost and Charges. 

" Ttlily. That in Religious Concerns and the Way of Worship- 
ping of God there is liberty of conscience Granted to all Persons 
in Generall, as well ti> tlio freeholders as to others that are or 
shall be admitted Lihabitants within the said Corporation or 
Towneship, they taking or Subscribing the Oath of Allegiance to 
the King, and fidelity to the Lords Proprietors and their Suc- 
cessors, and that no Person whatsoever shall be Injured, Molested 
or Trouljled for his or her difference in opinion in matters of 
Religion. Provided that this Liberty Granted shall not extend 
to Licentiousness or the Disturbance of others and the Public 

" 8thly. That the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them, Iiave power to admit of tlieir own Inhabitants, and to 
divide all Proportions of Land as are within their Bounds and 
Limitts aforesaid, that are not already appropriated and Pattent- 
cd by particular persons before the day of the date hereof. Ac- 
cording to their Allotments and estates, as the Justices and 
Magistrates shall in their AVisdoms and Discretions think fit, 
which Lands being so divided, every man's proportion is to be 
surveyed, butted and bounded by the Surveyor, and the same to 
be recorded l)y the Secretarie and Recorder-General of the 
Province, or by Eyther of them, which Propositions and Allot- 
ments being so Surveyed and Recorded after two years In posses- 
sion, shall not be subject to any resurvey nor Alterations of 
Bounds, but shall remain according to the first survey for ever. 
And for the better avoiding of all Frauds and Sutes at Law, all 
Mortages, Transports, Sales and Leases for above the Terme of 

» Ai:ri;KKi's i iiauikk. 1"'» 

One Yeare, aii<l all utlicr (•■>iicri-iiiii:i- Houses ami Lands aiv to Ih' 
recorded by the Seeretarv as atoresaul, tor the Xej^iectinj; thereof" 
all such coiiti'acts as at'ui'esaid, are to be void, and of no efVcrt in 

'' Uthly. That all Lands and Meadows that are appropriated and 
l)attented by particidar persons l)i't"ore the day of ye date of these 
presents sliall continue and remain unto them withoiit any alter- 
ation, unless tlie Proprietors thereof will'give tlieir Consent to the 

"lOthly. That the Freeholders au«l lidiabitants of the said 
Corporation shall have a Free Trade allowed them, and that no 
tax of Custome, Excise or any Imposition whatever shall be im- 
posed on them but such as shall be levied l)y the Governor and 
Council and General A5send)ly, for the defrayini; of the I*idtlic 
Charges and the Maintenance of the Government.' .\nd that all 
Rates and .Vssessments relating to the said Cor[>oratioM or Towne- 
ship shall be rated and levied by their Justices and Magistrates 
or whom they shall appoint. 

"llthly. That in case of Invasion or Insurrection by the In- 
dians or others, they are mutually, as well the Freeholders as all 
other Inhabitants, to Join with all other Townes and Plantations 
within the said Province, for the defence an safety of the same, 
but no AV^arr to be levied without the consent of the Governor, 
Councill and General Assembly. 

•' I2thly. That all Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major i)art of 
them, liave power annually on every first day of January, or at 
any other set tyme as they shall appoint, to chuse one or more 

' This privilege (extended also to East Jersey) was tin- source of nmch un- 
easiness on the part of New York, and the cause of many eflbrts for the anm-x- 
ation of East Jersey to that province. The following extract will show the 
general argument used by New York : " East Jersey is scituate on HudsoD'.H 
River over against Long Island, Stutcn Island and New Yorke. and they pre- 
tend by the aforementioned grant to be a free place and to have frf«« j.orts to 
trade as they please, which if admitted must certainly destroy yo' Mnj"" in- 
terest and revenue here ; for what merchant will come to New York and trade 
and pay to Yo' Maj'>' 2 and 10 p' cent with the excise and Yo' .Mnj'" dutys 
settled here, if they can at 2 or 3 miles distance over against the same place go 
and be free from any duty or imposition whatever." ( '•>l. llitt. of N. Y., Hi., 79H. 


Constables for tlie Public Service, which said Constable or Con- 
stables are to be sworne in their office l)y the Justice of the Peace 
according to the oath prescribed. 

" ISthly. That all the Freeholders and others, the Inhabitants 
aforesaid, are to submit themselves to the Laws and Government 
of the Province, and to swear or subscribe to the Oath of Alea- 
gence to the King and Fidelity to the Lords Proprietors. Aaid 
in case they or any of them have a desire to remove or Transport 
themselves to any other place, they have liberty so to do, and to 
dispose of their Lands and Estates to their best Advantages. 

" 14thly. That the said Corporation or Towneship have power 
to Errect and Ordaine a Court of judicature within their own 
Jurisdiction", and for the Limitts thereof for the Tryall of all 
causes Actionable between party and party, from whence there 
shall be no Appeal under the sum of Five Pounds Sterling, and 
also for the Tryall of all Criminal and causes of Misdemeanor, 
and to inflict such Fines and Punishments as the Meritt of the 
cause shall require, as by Imprisonment, Stocking, Piloring, 
Ducking, Branding, Whipping^ not exceeding twenty stripes, and 
the like, Which Court is to consist of a President, who is to be a 
Justice of the Peace, and the Magistrates, or any two of them 
at the least, a Clarke, and such other officers as they shall appoint, 
which said Magistrates and Clarke are to be sworne in their 
offices, and the Clarke to be appi'oved of by the Secretary Gen- 
eral of the Province, who is to keep an Exact Record of all 
actions that shall be brought in and tryed in said Court, and to 
give an account thereof unto him when thereunto required by 
the Governor and his Councill. No Freeholder is to be arrested 
or detained a Prisoner for debt until Judgment be passed and 
Execution granted, unless it can be made to appear that the party 
lias an Intent to defraud his Creditors by' running out of the 

' In the olden time there was a lock-up on the easterly side of the Square, 
near the site of the present school-house. Within the last fifty years the stocks 
were in use on the westerly side of the Square, and but one generation has 
passed since the whipping-post was a wholesome antidote to petty oftences and 
a terror to evil doers. Many an old person still living has seen the victim 
writhe under the lash, laid on with a skillful flourish by the old constable. 

CAIiTKICI.I S ( IIAKI l.l;. 1 I I 

Coniitrv. That all iici-ffoiis, as well FivdioMcrs as olhcr Inliahi- 
taiits, in Case of Ai)|»fal. tlir Apyt-llaiit .-liall j^ivf in fi-cnritv to 
pruscciitu his Appeal, nv stand to the .ludi^MiicTit <»t' the Court. All 
causes accord in:;- to the Laws of Kn^dand phall he tried hv a .liirv 
of six or twelve nun, and whomsoever shall trouble and u)ole>t 
his neiii-hhor, beini;' of the same Corporation, by arrestini; of hini 
and <xoini; to Law in another . I nrisdiction, .-hall be liable to a Kino 
according:; to the discretion of the ( ourt. The Justice or .lusticw* 
of the Peace beiiiir Coniniissioned and sworne in their otHce, have 
power to Administer the oath of Aleajrauce and Fidel itie, and all 
other Oaths that are re(]uin'(l liy the law, and to issue out in Ilis 
Majestie's name, or in whose name or names It shall or may here- 
after be appointed l)y the Lawes, their AVarrants of Summons, 
and arrest within the limitts and Jurisdiction of the said Corpo- 
ration or Towneshiji, directiiii; the same to the Constable, Mar- 
.-hall, or what other Otficer or OtHccrs the said Corporation shall 
in their discretion think tit to appoint for that Service, who are to 
l)ut the same in Execution accordinuly. and also to Issue out their 
Warrants for the apprehendino; of all Malefactors and Runaways, 
anl to prosecute them by way of IIn<;li and Cry, ami to do all 
tjucli thing and things by their authority according toLaw and Jus- 
tice as may conduce to the Peace and well Governnu'iit of the >aid 
Province, Corporation and Towneship. Provided that all Fyne> 
are to be disi)osed of for Charita])le or pid)li(' usi-s. It is to 
be noted that whereas it is said in the Eight articles' that all 
Mortgages, Transports, Sales and Leases of Land are to 1)6 record- 
ed by the Secretary, they are first to lie acknowle<lged before 
the Governor or a Justice of the Peace liy the (Tranter, or by 
two good Sufficient Witnesses, Attested on the backside of the 
aforesaid deed, wliicli is a Warrant for the Secretary to record the 

" In Confirmation of the premises, AVee the said Covernor ami 
the Coiincill have hereunto set oin- hamls the 2"Jd day of Septem- 
ber, 1668, and the 2iith year of the Reign of our J^ovn. Lord 
Charles the Second of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 

' The eighth article of this Charter. 


King, Defender of the Faith, ifec. : and the Scale was placed by 
consent before signing. 

" Ph. Carteret. 

" Eobert Yanguellen, Ni. Varlett, Samuel Edsall, Kobert Bond, 
" William Pardon. 
"James Bollen, Secretary and of the Conncill.'' 

What caused the granting of this Charter is not now known. 
The following certificate of Governor Stuyvesant may throw some 
light upon it: 

" We, underwritten, the late Director-General and Council of 
New Ketherlaudt, hereby certify and declare that in the year one 
thousand six hundred and sixty-one, by us underwritten, in quality 
as aforesaid, have given and granted to the inhabitants of the vil- 
lage of Bergen, the lands with the meadows thereunto armexed, 
situate on the West side of the North Eiver in Pavonia, in the 
same manner as the same was by us underwritten, purchased of 
the Indians, and as the same was to us delivered, by the said In- 
dians, pursuant to an instrument of sale and delivery thereof, 
l)eing under the date of the 30th of January, A. D. one thousand 
six hundred and fifty-eight ; wnth this express condition and 
promise, that the aforesaid inhabitants of the before named village 
shall not be prejudiced in their outdrift, by means of any private 
collective dwellings (saving only the right of the then already 
cidtivated farms at Gemoenepan). But that all such who have 
any lands within the district of the before named village, and 
especially at Pemrepogh, and Mingackque, all such owners shall 
1)0 obliged to remove their dwellings and place them in the vil- 
lage or town of Bergen, or by or about the neighborhood of Ge- 
moenepan before named. Conditioned, however, that the afore- 
said owners (in case they should desire the same) should be 
permitted to share and divide with the inhabitants of the before 
named village or town, in the common lands of the said town, 
and in the place and stead of their lands lying at Pemrepogh and 
Mingackquie before named. (And especially that the meadows 
laying near the village or town of Bergen, where the same begins, 


at the West side aluii^- Kill \:m l\ol, .-liouM \>v niu\ Ix-loii;^ to niul 
for tlie use of the hutore iiiumMl iiiliuhitaiits of I>er<;en). 

" And tiirtlicr, \vc the underwritten, eertify and declare, tlinf 
Micliael .Icinsciu deceased (hefore or about the time that the 
aforesaid villai^o or town was hiid out), tor himself, as also fur 
and in behalf of his brother-indaw, Xicholas .lansen IJarker,' did 
in our presence, renounce all the ri^ht they had to the pasture 
ground layini;' behind Geinoeneiian, for a common outdrift and 
pasture between the aforesaid village or town, and the neighbor- 
hood of (rcmoenepan, before named. 

" And lastly, that no more lands were given or granted to 
Dii'ck Clausen, than Right])oc(jues, with the meadows thereunto 
belonging, as by the grountl-brief thereof may further appear. 

" In testimony of the truth, we have signed these with our owii 
hands, in Xew'York, the 2<'.th of October, A. D. 

"P. Stlyvksant, 


By what in>truniciit the lands herein rctci-red to were granted 

' Backer. Winjicld's Land Tillts, 50. 

- Taylor's Annals, 50. " Tlu' year when tliis certificate wn.s given is* nut iii 
telligible in the ori»rinal instrument. But as they certify a.s former Ciovermir 
and Council, it must have been after August, 1004, when tiie English conciuered 
the country. New York, February 20th, 1704. Translat<<l from the Dutch, l>y 
Abm. Lott, .lun'r." 

The last two i)aragraphs of the lertiticate seem to refer to the meadow 
through which the Morris canal now passes, between the Cavan Point road and 
Hudson avenue. Tliere was a fierce controversy between the village of Menken 
and the people of C'ommunipaw, Haccocas and Minkakwa, relating to some land 
and the fences thereon, which was referred to arbitrators, and finally carried 
before the Governor of New Orange in July. lf>74. X. Y. Col MSS , xriii , 
:'.64, ■), 0. In their appeal the inhabitants of Bergen show that their deputies 
—Hans Diedricks and Engelbert Steenhuysen— had yielded their claim, i>y 
which they were " cut off" from the lowermost meadow," and a fence was 
erected by which they were " separated from (lemonei)a so that we cannot have 
access to the water side except by a roundabout way. " Thi.s leaves but little 
doubt as to the land in controversy, and it is the sann referred to by Governor 
Stuyvesant as having been renounced by Michael .Jan.^en. .lansen died in 10<W. 
the Dutch surrendered in 1004, Stuyvesant died in 1071 ; hence the alwve cer- 
tificate must have been dated betwei-n 1004 and 1071. It is quite probable that 
it was dated prior to Carteret's charter of Bergen. 


to the inhabitants of Bei-gen we do not know. Such grant is not 
to be found in the Ordinance of September 5, 1661, and it is 
worthy of notice that many grants from the Dutch Government 
to individuals are to be found bearing a later date ; yet the 
Governor must have understood the Ordinance of 1661 to contain 
such a grant, or else the grant to which he refers has been lost. 
Whatever the fact about the grant may be, it is quite probable 
that this certificate went far toward satisfving Governor Carteret 
that the freeholders of Bergen were entitled to all the unpatented 
lands. In this light the Charter of 1668 was only a confirmation 
of the rights which the " Freeholders, Inhabitants of Bergen," 
possessed under the Dutch Government. 

cii A P'l'K i: V 1 .-1 1;;;; i :•; i. 

The country recaptured by the Dutch — Borfjen auinniotK'd to HurrcniliT^Thc 
people coini)ly and take oath of allej^iaiict' — The inilitury power of Ber- 
gen offjanized — Controversy between Ber;jen and its dependent hanilctx. 
Penibrepogh and Minkakwa — Bergen Hends her soldiers to New Orange 
— The country surrendered to tlie English — Condition of the country in 
1(580 — Its villages and farms — Provision for the cari! of the common land 
— Its final partition. 

The war which fuUuwed the seizure (»f Xew Xetherhiiid eiultMl 
in the trcatv of Breda, July 31, KiGT, by wliich eacli jmrty was to 
hold what had been ca]>tured duriii<; the contest. Thiscontirnied 
New Netherhind to the English. In March, 1(J7'2, war ai^ain 
broke out between England and the States. The Dutcli des- 
patched a small squadron to cruise on the American coast and 
destroy the English shipping. Cornelis Evertsen and Jacob 
Binckes, joining their forces at Martinico, sailed with tlieir five 
vessels for the Chesapeake. Capturing some vessels there and ob- 
taining information as to the state of the defences at New York, 
they sailed for that place. On the :^Oth of July, KJTS, the fleet, 
now consisting of twenty-three vessels, carrj-ing si.xteen hundred 
men, anchored in the bay. The land forces of the Dutch were 
under Captain Anthony Colve, who took possessio?! of the city 
on the following day.^ Three days afterward (August 12th, X. 
S.) the following summons was sent to Bergen, one of the villages 
in the '' Province of New Yarsey," which had not yet sent dele- 
gates to the Dutch connnanders to treat concerning surrender : 

" To the Inhabitants of the Vdlafje of Bergen, and the Ilatnletn 

and Bonweries thereon depending : 

" You are hereby ordered and instructed to despatch Delegates 

from your Village here to us, to treat with us on ne.xt Tuesday. 

respecting the surrender of your town to the obedience of their 

' Broadhead, ii., 207. Valentiue'ti Hist, of iV. T., 170. 


High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United Neth- 
erlands, his Serene Highness the Prince of Orange, or on refusal 
so to do, we shall be obliged to constrain you thereunto by force 
of arms. 

" Dated at the City Hall of the city of New Orange, the 
12th of August, Anno 1673. 

" CoRNELis EvERTSE, Junior, 
" Jacob Benckes. 
" By their order. 

".N. Bayard, Secret^'."^ 

The good burghers of Bergen did not wait to be " constrained 
thereunto," but, influenced, by a national sympathy, surrendered 
most graciously. On the 18th they sent in a list of the names of 
some of their most prominent citizens, from which the authori- 
ties in New York, now called New Orange, might make selection 
of magistrates. This being done, as hereinbefore stated, a certifi- 
cate of their election was sent to them, and they were required 
to appear in New Orange to be sworn into ofiice.~ On the 21st 
they appeared, in accordance with the requisition, and took the 
followino; oath : 


" We, the Sellout, Schepens and Secretary of the Yillage of 
Bergen, qualified by the Hon^^® Council of War, do promise and 
swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that we, each in his 
quality, will, according to the best of our knowledge and without 
passion, administer good law and justice between parties in eases 
brought before ns ; that w^e will promote the welfare of this vil- 
lage and its inhabitants ; in all things defend the upright and 
true Christian Religion agreeably to the Word of God and the 
order of the Svnod of Dordrecht taught in the Netherland church ; 
in all circumstances obey, maintain and help to maintain the 
Supreme Government placed, or hereafter yet to be appointed 
over us, in the name of their High Mightinesses the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and his Highness of Orange, 

1 Col. Hist, of N. Y., a., 571. -' Ibid, ii., 571. 


and prevent, as far as in our ])o\ver lies, everything that may 
conflict with it. So truly help us God.'" 

At the time of taking the oath the ma<;istrates were notified 
that the commanders would visit I>c'r''cii on the followintr " Sun- 
day after the sermon, in order to administer the oath of allegi- 
ance to all theii" ]>eoj)le." On the 2Tth the commanders and 
Council of AVar of IS^ew Orange came over as they had ])romiscd. 
They foniid the mimber of the bm-ghcrs of I'ergen and sur- 
rounding dependencies to be seventij-c'niht^ sixty-nine of whom 
ai)peared at the tap of the drum and took the oath of allegiance. 
The magistrates were ordered to forward the oaths of those who 
were absent. The oath taken by the Dutch inhabitants was dif- 
ferent from that taken by the English, :in<l was as follows : 
" We do promise and swear, in the ])resence of the Almighty 
God, to be loyal and faithful to their Tligh ^rightinesses the 
Lords States-General of the United Xetherlands, and his Serene 
Tlighness the Prince of Orange, and their governor, already, or 
hereafter to be, appointed here, and to comport ourselves on all 
occasions as loyal and faithful subjects are bound to do. So truly 
help me Almighty God."^ On the 4th of September, the town 
of Bergen having sent in names for that purpose, the authorities 
in New Orange selected the following militia oflicers: 
Caspar Steynjiets, Captain. 

Hans Diedericks, Lieutenant} Adriaen Post, Fn.n>/n. 

« Col. Hist. ofN. T., ii., 574, 578, 580. The Schout waa afterward aiithorizi-.l 
" to fill and execute the office of Auctioneer." This position ^ave him iiw jMiw^r 
to sell i)roperty on judfjraents pronounced by the court. Ordinarily, this rijjhl 
belon^'-ed, ex-officio, to the Provincial Secretary. Xeir Ndh. Il>g., 114. This court 
had power not only to hear and determine causes brought before them, but to 
pass ordinances for the government of the people. In October, lt!7:?. this court 
[)a3sed an ordinance respecting the observance of Sunday, etc., which was a|>- 
proved by the council in New Orange. Col. Ilist. of X. Y., ii., 1>4;J. iV. >*. 
Col. MSS., x.viii., V.y.}. This ordinance is missing. 

- This I presume shows the number of white males above the age of twenty, 
one years. 

• Col. Jlist. ofN. Y., ii., ."iB'J. Mr. Whitehead, Entt Jersey, 61. says the inhab- 
itants of Bergen were " probably considered too much in their interest to re 
(|uiri' the binding influence of an oath." 

* Ihi(l,ii.,!i07. Diedricks was one of the grantees of " Hatpuvjuenunck." 


This provision for military organization was but keeping up 
what liad been practised before tlie English took possession of 
the country, and what they continued when the Dutch rule had 
passed away. In less than two years after the foundation of Ber- 
gen, officers were appointed to marshall the growing powers of 
the ambitious village and its belligerent dependencies. 

For ( Adriaen Vo,^ Ensign, | ^ j^^ed June 30, 1663. 

Bergen. ( John Swaen, ^bergeant. ) 

For \ Harman Sraeeraan, Ensign, ] ^ u ui 

Gemoenepa. ( Gerrit Gerritsen, Sergeant. \ 

As officers of a foot company to be enlisted in Bergen, (.Temoene- 
paen, Ahasymus and Hooboocken, the following appointments 
were made : 

Nicholas Yerlett, Captain, \ 

Caspar Steinmets, Lieiiienant, > Appointed September 0, 1665."' 

Adrian Post, Ensign. ) 

John Berry ,^ Captain, \ 

Adrian Post, Lieutenant, > Appointed July 15, 1675.'* 

Elias Michielsen, Ensign. )■ 

William Laurence, Captain, \ 

Jacob Lubert, Lieutenant, \- Appointed July -l, 1681. 

Enoch Michielsen, Ensign. 

Gerbrand Claesen, Captain, 

Gerrit Gerritsen, Lieutenant, )- Appointed Nov. 10, 1692. 

Jan Adrianse Sip, Ensign. 

March 28, 1679. Whitehead's East Jersey, 49. It is doubtful, however, if he 
ever settled there, for on " Thursday, the 2nd off May, 16S9, the .Justices off the 
peace off Bero^en County and East Yarsey came and mett the Governor, vizt., 
Coll. Hamilton, Coll. Townly, Capt. Berry, Capt. Bowne, and Magistrates of 
Bero'en, all promisinof that they would be aiding and assisting to reprias any 
comon enemy, and because there are noe militairy officers in commission in the 
County or Corporation off Bergen, Hans Diedrick was appointed Capt., .Juriaen 
Thomas Leftenant, and Claes Teers (Toers) Ensigne of said Corporation, and 
Commissions given accordingly." N. T. Hist. Soc, 1868, 247. 

' W. Y. Col. 3ISS., .!■., Part ii., 168. 2 Liber 3 of Deeds {Trenton), 1. 

•' Berry's house in Bergen was, on the 19th of July, 167.3, made the " prison 
for ye province," until a house could be built for that purpose, and Adrian Post, 
constable, was made keeper. Book 3 of Deeds {Trenton), 93. 

^ Ibid, 117. Michael Smith was appointed Lieutenant in this company June 
2,1677. Ibid,\U. ^ j bid, 18d. 

CONTKNlloN AUol'l' I'lU-XKN'n >I£ AM) SCIttx >I.MA<rKK. 11'.' 

SluirUy i>i'cvi(>iis to tlu' ri'-occu[);ition l>y tlie Dutch, a contro- 
versy arose between the autlioritios of the town ot' Hereon arnl 
tlie i)eo])le residing- in the " Villages of Prnirepo^^h and Min- 
ga>i;nuo," tlu-n consitleri'cl as dependent hamlets. It sccidh t(» 
have been the rnle that all tlu^ iidiabitants should, without rci^ard 
to creed, contribute to the; supjiort of the Preei-ntor' and School- 
master at HerL;en. To this the independent citizens objected. 
Thereupon, on the iSth of December, ir.T'J, the Schout and 
Majjistrates of Bergen ordered that all should pay. Tins being 
•lisregarded, they called upon the authorities in New Orange to 
compel the inhabitants of all the settlements, of what religious 
persuasion soever they might be, to pay their share toward the 
support of the Precentor and Schoolmaster.- Upon this appeal, 
it was, upon the 24:th of December, hu'o, ordered : " That all 
the said inhabitants, without exception, shall, pursuant to the 
resolution of the Magistrates of the town of Bergen, dated iSth 
Xber, 1672, and subsequent confirmation, pay their share for the 
support of said Precentor and Schoolmaster." Over tliis deci- 
sion there was doubtless great rejoicing in Bergen an<l B>i>/lrn 
Tuijn. The Schoolmaster confided to his whip a more artistic 
flourish, and the Precentor chanted with a clearer voice. But 
his triumphant cadences were soon turned into the doleful minor 
by the nnregenerate stubbornness of '' ^[ingagque and Pemre- 
pogh." These " uncircumelsed in heart" thought Old Hundred 
and Windham, piping out from under the ])ulpit, very good 
music for those who were educated up to that standard, and were 
willing to i)ay for the luxury. The Schoolmaster, " with eye> 
severe," piloting the bewildered urchin through the mazes of the 

' The precentor, or cliorister, was i,^tMu>rally tlie voorleozer or reader of the 
service ])receding the sermon. Dr. Taylor says he was also for many yi-ars the 
schoolmaster, duly appointed by the consistory of the churcii. T<ti/h>r'» An- 
nals, HI. When, therefore, as in the text, precentor and schoolmaster an- 
spoken of, it is highly probable that they refer to one and the same jwrson. In 
the case of Steenhuysen, hereinbefore spoken of, he seems to have Wen ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council, after approval by the peopl,\ his name 
having been submitted to th.' "community" by the town authorities, the con- 
sistory having nothing to do with him. 

- Col. Hist, of y. Y., a., 672. 


multiplication table by the aid of the birch, was very good in his 
wa}' to those who lived near enough to enjoy the blessing of his 
wisdom. But they resolutely refused to be thus edified or in- 
structed, and declined to contribute to the general expense of 
such benefactions. On the 24th of May, 1674, the Schout and 
Schepens again complained that some of the inhabitants of those 
"independent liamlets," in utter contempt of the previous order, 
obstinately refused to pay their quota to the support of the Pre- 
centor and Schoolmaster. This persistent disobedience aroused 
the representatives of their High Mightinesses. They resolved 
to adhere to their previous order, and, to give it force by wielding 
over the heads of the disobedient direful threats of pains and 
penalties, ordered the " Schout to proceed to immediate execution 
against all unwilling debtors."^ Thus circumstanced, the '* un- 
willino; debtors" must either hsrht or remonstrate ao-ainst what 
they considered an oppression. They wisely chose the latter 
course. Lourens Andriesen, of Mingagque, and Joost van der 
Linde, of Pemrepogh, were appointed agents to submit the cause 
of the people to the authorities in New Orange. This was faith- 
fully done, but, alas, " after due enquiry," it was formally ad- 
judged, "that the iidiabitauts of Pemrepogh and Mingagh(juy, 
shall promptly pay their share for the support aforesaid, on pain 
of proceeding against them with immediate execution."^ 

This was the end of the controversy. Judgment had been en- 
tered for Bergen in the court of final resort, and nothing remained 
better tlian submission. But contention upon one subject 
soon produced difference in views, and controversy upon another. 
The lands in the township that were not covered by grants were 
considered common for the use of all. A certain common fence 
had been constructed to separate the heifers and steers from the 
milch cows and oxen. A question then arose between the town of 
Bergen and the "dependent hamlets" Gemoenepa, Mingagque and 
Pemrepogh, respecting the making and maintenance of this 
fence. The cause of dispute was an old one, and had been re- 
ferred by Governor Carteret and Council to four arbitrators cho- 

' Col. Hist. ofN. T., a., 716. 2 ibid, it., 730. 


sen by botli sides. Those arbitrators, on the 10th of April, 1672. 
submitted thi'ir award, wliich the ])eople of I>eri;en wore willing; 
to ol)e_v. but it was rqjeeted by tlie others. l>erijen now apjteale*! 
to the Governor and council of war to compel the other partie.- 
to perform the award. On the 24th of "^[ay, lilTJ.thc inhabi- 
tants of the three '"dependent liaTulcts" were ordered to regu- 
late themselves aeeordinij to the deeision of the arbitrators, or 
M'ithin fourteen days to submit any objectioii which they could 
])roduce aii:ainst the award.' It does not aj)i)ear that any objec- 
tions were ever tiled or that they obtained anv moditication of 
the award. 

From the tirst of the Dutch reoccupat ion it had been the care 
of the authorities in New Oranrje to prej)are for the return of the 
Eni!:lisli. The fortifications in the city were enlar«;ed and 
strengthened. The people of the neighboring towns promised to 
rejiair to the city on the approach of the enemy. On the •22d 
of Decern! )er, 1673, the people of Bergen were ordered to repair 
to New Orange, according to their plighted duty. A literal com- 
pliance with the order was at first dispensed with, and the same 
was modified so as to permit some men to remain at liomc. The 
captain, lieutenant and ensign were ordered to appear with 
their company fully armed, on Friday, the 2l'th of December. 
1673, in front of Fort William Ilendrick, leaving six men in th 
town. This being done, one-third of the company was furloughed 
and ])ermitted to return liome, there to remain until they were 
relieved on the third day. The officers and magistrates were 
authorized to give orders respecting the threshing the grain 
and the ''foddering the cattle," but above all to keep ])roper 
•ruard day and ni";ht, so as not to be surprised and cut oti' froni 
the city .2 Afterward, on the loth of March, lt:74, a positive 
order was issued, commanding " all out ]>cople of the Dutch Na- 

' Col. Hist, of X. v., a, 714. From the above it would seem tliat .Minkakwa 
was the abode of strife and contention at a very early day. If the antii|uary will 
inform himself as to the present locality of that ancient district, he will be some- 
what imi)ressed with the theory that localities have much to do in the fonn»- 
tion of certain traits of character. I but. n.. 673. 


tion " to repair to New Orange without delay, witli tlieir arms, 
on the first news of the enemy's approach, or on the coming of 
more than one ship at the same time. All who failed to obey 
this order were to be declared traitors and perjurers, and were to 
be proceeded against as enemies, or punished with death and 
confiscation. This order was to be made known by the proper 
officers, that none might plead ignorance.-^ On March 22d, 1674, 
the Sellout of Bergen was notified to request the people to com- 
mission a militia officer and magistrate, with whom he was to at- 
tend a general conference at Fort William Ilendrick on the 26th. 
The Schout, Claas Arentse Toers and Captain Caspar Steinmets 
appeared in the assembly as deputies from Bergen. They pledged 
themselves for the loyalty of their constituents, and promised 
that on the first notice of danger the people of Bergen would 
" observe their honor and oath " in repairing to New Orange. 
They only asked that some boats be sent over to convey the peo- 
ple thither.^ All these precautions, however, went for nothing, 
for on the 9th of February, 1674, peace was established between 
England and Holland by the treaty of Westminster. By the 
sixth article of that treaty the country was restored to the Eng- 
lish.^ It was not, however, until the 10th of November follow- 
ing that the final surrender took place, when the Dutch rule in 
New Netherland passed away forever, and the English entered 
into possession, which they held for the next century. 

While the war was in progress, and on March 18, 1673, Lord 
Berkley sold his interest in the Province to John Fenwiek, in 
trust for Edward Billinge, for £1,000, Billinge had failed in 
business ; Berkley was his particular friend and advised him to 
invest in New Jersey lands for the purpose of retrieving his for- 
tune. He was pleased with the proposition, borrowed the money 
from his friends, and purchased the land in the name of John 
Fenwiek, who was to have one-tenth of the same. Fenwiek 
managed the purchase so well that, it is said, he would soon have 
stripped the other of all, but means were employed to compel him 

1 Col. Hist, of ]V. Y., a., 696. a Ibid, ii., 702. 

-' Whitehead's East Jersey, 62. 

Di Ki: oi' y()i;k and siu (jkoki.k cAUTKUirr. 123 

to be satisfied with Iii> tentli.' ISilliiii^e a.ssi<;iio(l liis interest, les*< 
Fenwick's tentli, to William I'cmi, (Jawii Laurie and XicholaK 
Lucas, Februarv 9 aiul !•', h'TK in trust tor his creditors. Fen- 
wick sold liis interest to .lolm FJdridi^e and E<lninn 1 Warren, 
who sold to Penn, Laurie and Lucas.* 

To clear up any shallow wliirli tlie i-occnt occupation I>y the 
Dutch might have cast upon former grants, Charles IL made a 
second grant to tlio Duke, .Iun(> '2'.K I'iTL" This was foHowed 
1)V the Dnke, 'Inly :.".•, Iti74, with a grant to Sir (Jeorgr ( 'arteret 
ot" what was afterward known as East Jersey. < )n didy I, lO"*!. 
by tlie "Quintipartite Deed," the State was divided and Sir 
George received the eastern ])ortion in severalty.' Sir (ieorge, 
by will dated Deceinber 5, ir>7S, appointed his wife, Klizabetii, 
sole executrix, and Earl Sandwich, Earl Bath. Lonl Grenville. 
Sir Thomas Crew, Sir Robert Atkins and Edward Atkins trus- 
tees, to whom he devised his interest in Xew Jersey, to be sold 
for the payment of his debts."' On the 5th and Gth of "Nfanrh, 
1680, East Jersey was conveyed to Thomas Cremer and Thomas 
Pocock, but the transfer docs not seem to have been completed. 
On the Oth of the following August, the Duke indulged in a .sec- 
ond grant to Penn and his associates of West Jersey, and Gordon 
says he also gave one to the representatives of Carteret on March 
14, 1682. This has not been discovered, but the following war- 
rant therefor exists : 

" These are to direct and require you to prepare for my signa- 
ture a Deed or fitting Instrument (agreeable to yt I havi- already 
executed unto Edward r)illing and others) whereby I may release 
and confirm unto Sir (reorge Carteret, ye heire of Sir (reorgc 
Carteret, (lately deceased,) his moyty of New Jersey (called East 
Xew Jersey) in Ameri(^a. For w'^*' y* shal be yo"" Warr', Provirl- 
ed it be entred w' my Auditor Gen" w"'in two months of its date. 
Given und"" my hand at Windsor ye Gth day of Septemlior (f^O). 

' Lonrj Tsl. TTist. Soc, i., 243. - Gordon's TTiH. of y. ./.. 72. / "", il. 

^ Lcamingand Spicer,%\. This division was contlrintHl l)y tli«« (Jen.Tnl .\i«- 
sembly in 1719. For a history of this line see WhiUhead't EtiM Jersi-y, 67. 
Gordon's N. J., 71-5. Smith's JV. ./.. 1!>5. .",4«-r).-)7. 

3 Vide Will, Perth Amboi/, Liber C'S, 17. 


" To Sir John Clnirchill Kn* my Attnrney Gen^^ or to S"' 
George Jeffreys Kn' my Sollict^ Gen"."i 

These releases were given in consequence of an opinion of Sir 
William Jones, dated July 28, 1680. The Duke's Governor of 
New York had claimed jurisdiction over both of the Jerseys, and 
insisted on his right, in behalf of the Duke, to collect duties upon 
importations therein. These pretensions were resisted with much 
spirit, until finally the Duke referred the subject to Sir "William 
Jones for an opinion. His decision was that the Duke could not 
legally demand any duty from the inhabitants of the Jerseys. 
The Duke gracefully yielded, and gave his third and final re- 
lease of East Jersey. 

On the 20th of February, 1681, Earl Sandwich released his in- 
terest in East Jersey to his associate trustees, and they again sought 
to negotiate a sale of the province. Failing to find a purchaser at 
even the sum of five or six thousand pounds, it was sold at public 
sale to William Penn, Robert West, Thomas Rudyard, Samuel 
Broome, Thomas Hart, Richard Mew, Ambrose Riggs, John 
Haywood, Hngh Plartshorne, Clement Plumstead, and Thomas 
Cooper, all Quakers. The lease and release were dated Febru- 
ary 1 and 2, 1682, and the consideration was £3,400. To 
avoid any doubt which might arise by reason of the prior sale to 
Cremer and Pocock, they joined in the conveyance. The asso- 
ciates then (June 1, 1682) executed a declaration that there 
should be no benefit of survivorship among themselves. They 
held the Province for nearly a year, but they were Quakers, and 
therefore unpopular. To quiet opposition on this ground, they 
severally conveyed, in 1683, an undivided moiety of their respec- 
tive interest to twelve others, viz. : Robert Barclay, Edward 
Billinge, Robei t Turner, James Braine, Arent Sonmans, William 
Gibson, Gawn Laurie, Thomas Barker, Tliomas Warne, James, 
Earl of Perth, Robert Gordon and John Drummond. These as- 
sociates were afterward known as the " Twenty -four Proprie- 
tors.'"^ On the 14th of March, 1683, the Duke confirmed the 

' Col. Hist. ofJSr. Y., m.,285. 

- Learning and Spicer, 73. For a sketch of these proprietors, vide White- 
Jiead's East Jersey, 199, &c. 

Qfrr-IvKM OF BERGEN. 125 

sale of the Province to the twenty-fuur projirietorrt.' ('mlcr all 
of these ditfereiit owiirrs df the soil of the Province, the riirhtn 
and powersof Govcnmicnt Imd idways attached to the o\vnorshi|). 

Many patents for hiiid in this county, east of tlir llackcnsack, 
had been taken out before the fall of the Dutch power. Hv tlur 
third article in the capitulation, " all people were perinittod to 
enjoy their lands, houses and t;-oods, and dispose of them at i)lea3- 
ure." Pnder this article tiiey felt secure until the treaty of 
Breda, dated July 25, l<)t)T. Then the freeholders in this countv 
took out confirmatory i;i;uit.> from the proprietors, subject to ji 
<|uit-rent of half-penny per acre.- To this l»iu-deii much of the 
lands in East Jersey is yet subject, thoUi:li years have f^one by 
since its collection was enforced. Whetlier it was to avoid the 
i:;rantini^ of particular tracts to individuals, or because the Dutch 
•ii;overnnient had already i^ranted to the town and freeholders all 
(jf the unapproju'iated lands in the old township, we do not know, 
but it is worthy of notice that the jtroprietors never i^ave to an 
individual an original patent for land in the township of I>eri;en. 

By the second article of Carteret's Charter the (piit-rent of 
half-penny per acre, so far as the township of P)er<Tcn was con- 
cerned, was compounded for i'l."" sterlini; per annum. In the 
course of time the payment of this was neglected, and finally 
refused. Hereupon a controversy arose between the proprietoi-s 
and the freeholders of Bergen. Finally, Cornelius Van Ripen, a 
freeholder in the township, was arrested for the debt. .V com- 
promise was then agreed upon, and the freeholders of jJergcii 
received a general release upon paying $1,500. This relea.>^e was 
dated October 5, 1 SOO. 

The condition of this county in ITiSo is nu'nutely, tlioiigji not 
in all respects accurately, described by Creorge Scott^ in a hvr.- 

' Lcdmiiifj ami Spicer, 88. 

■' The fact tluit all of the water front from Wi'fluiwkrn to the Kill van Kiill 
had been granted by the Dutch before the laws of En;.claud applied, may be 
interesting to those who grow disputatious over ripartaa rights. Should not 
these rights be construed by Dutch law rather than by English law".' 

' Colonel Nicols says that Captain Scott " was borne to worke niischiefe ft.^ 
f irre as he is credited or his parts serve him." It is also said that he aimed to 


chure entitled " The Model of the Government of the Province 
of East Jersey in America," published in Edinburgh in 1685, and 
reprinted in East Jersey under the Proprietors. He says : " Near 
unto Snake hill is a brave Plantation, on a piece of Land 
almost an Island, containing 1,000 or 1,200 Acres, belonging 
to Mr. Pinhorne,^ a Merchant at New York, and one Edward 

get from the Duke the territory which Berkeley and Carteret obtained. Col. 
Hist, of N. Y., in., 105. Quaere : was he related to Thomas Scott, who m. 
Caroline, dau. of Sir George Carteret ? 

' William Pinhorne left England in the ship Blossom, May 27th, and arrived 
at New York August 7th, 1678. Col. Hist, of N. Y., ii., 741. He was a mer- 
chant, and a man of more than ordinary ability. On the 2Gth of March, 1679, 
he purchased of Edward Earle, Jr., one-half of the Secaucus tract and " one-half 
of the Stock, christian and negro servants." Liber 1 of Deeds {T'renton), 144. 
Winfield's Land Titles, 130. On the 15th of September, 1683, he was placed on 
a commission "to inquire into any piracies, felonies, &c., committed by Capt. 
Nicholas Clough." JSI'. Y. Col. MSS., .rx.viv., 3. He was commissioned Alderman 
of New York by Governor Dongan on the 24th of November, 1683, Ibid, 9 ; re- 
ceived a captain's commission on the 16th of September, 1684 ; was chosen 
Speaker of the New York Assembly in October, 1685, Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 
716 ; appointed one of the Council of Governor Sloughter on the 31st of Jan- 
uary, 1689. Ibid, 685. He remained in this position under Governors Ingolds 
by and Fletcher. Valentine's Manual, 1864, 541. In the troubles of the period 
lie took a prominent part, and finally became one of Leisler's judges. Col. 
Hist, of N. Y.,iv., 325. In March, 1691, he was at his own request appointed 
Recorder of New York City, Ibid, Hi., 767, which position he held until Sep- 
tember, 1692, Valentine's Manual, 1864, 560, and on the 5th of the following May 
Fourth Justice of the Supreme Court of New York. Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 716. 
On the 10th of September, 1692, having removed to his plantation in New Jer- 
sey, he lost the Recordership and his place in the Council of Governor Fletcher, 
in whose " humble thoughts those who bear no part burthen should eat no 
share of our bread." Ibid, 847. Early in 1693 he returned to New York, was 
restored to the Council and raised to the position of second Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, with a salary of €100 per annum. Ibid, ic, 25, 37. Governor 
Bellomont afterward charged him with having secured these positions by pre- 
senting Governor Fletcher " with some plate." Ibid, iv., 321. On the 17th of 
July, 1693, he was appointed on a special commission to determine the propriety 
of establishing a permanent Court of Exchequer in New York. ]^. Y. Col. 
MSS., .vxxi.v., 39, 79. The auti-Leisler party coming into power, June 7, 1698, 
he was suspended from his official positions. Col. Hist, of J^. Y., it., 321, and 
charged with being a " scandalous character," and with having cheated a wool 
merchant in London out of £4.000, with a part of which he purchased his farm 
in New Jersey. He now retired to Secaucus. But by direction of the Queen he 


Eickbe.^ Its well improved and Stockt.'- Mi-. I'lnhonir jniyeil 
for his half 5U0 lib. * * * 

'• To goe back to the South part of lienjhen neck, that is oppo- 

was in 1702 taken into tlio Coiiiuil of Lord Cornbury. l.ntming und SpUtr, 
619. Then the foUowinjf commisaions came to him in quick HU('c«>H8ion : 

OctolxT 2, 1704, Second .Tudjfe of the Supreme Court of New Jersi-y. 

May 22, 1705, Judii^o of the Herpron ("oninion Pleas. 

Novi'raber C, 170.1, Second Judgt' and Aw.tistant to the Cliief .JuHtice. 

(>, 1705, Judjje of the Bergen Common Pleas jointly with Edward 

June 8, 1708. Second .Judije of the Supreme Court. 

January 23, 1709. Judjje of the Berpren Common Pleas. 

" Judge of the Bergen Oyer and Terminer. Rook of Com- 

missions (Trenton), AAA. On the removal of Lieutenant (iovernor Ingold.sby, 
Judge Pinhorne, who had married Ingoldsby's dauglitt-r .Mary, as Prt-sidi-nt of 
the Council, became Commander-in-Chief of New Jersey. Tliis |>08ition he ht- Id 
until Governor Hunter, who arrived May 7,1711, demanded Ids n-moval and 
claimed that without it there could be " noe hopes of peace or (juiet." Col. 
HUt of N. F., tJ,204. He was dismissed from all official position in the early 
part of 1715. Ibid, v , 361. He is described as " a very sensible, honest gen- 
tleman, who is a true member of the Church of England." [hid, r., 335. He 
died in the latter part of the year 1719. Ibid, Hi., 716. Piuhornea creek (now 
written by Jersey City officials Pen Horn), on the easterly bounds of his old 
jdantation, still jierpetuates his naiuf. He left a widow and four cliildren . 
John, wiio was appointed clerk of Bergen county November 6, 1705, and ad- 
mitted to the bar June 6, 1707 ; Mori/, who married Edward Kingsland, of New 
Barbadoes Neck ; Martha, who married Roger Mompesson, /6/</, c, 423, who at 
one time was Chief Justice of New Yorlv, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. I'/i/- 
fn^i/it's ^l/i^</iw<;/, 1H64, 597 (after his death she married Kicliard Warnian). and 
I'JHzabeth, who married Timothy Bagley. Winfeld's Land Title*, 131. 

' This is an error. Edicnrd Earle, Junior, was tlie name. He came from 
Maryland, and on the 13th February, 1688, married El.-<je Vreeland, of (JennH'ne- 
pa. He purchased the island of Secaucus April 24, 1676, and sold to Pinhorne one 
undivided half of it. In 1693 lie was appointed tax commissioner for Berjfen, 
and in 1694 a coniniissioucr of the liighways. Learning and Spicer, 3:15, 316. 
He was a member of the House of Deputies in 1695. Record of dor. and Coim 
cil. East Jersey, i., 17G. He was the founder of the Earle family in Hudson and 
Bergen counties, and was yet living in 1716. 

- Tlie following schedule will give some idea how the place was " atockt" : 
" One dwtdling house containing two lower rooms anil a lean-to below Btair« 
and a loft above, five tobacco bouses, one hors, one mare antl two coults, eijfht 
oxen, ten cows, one bull, foure yearlings and seven calves : between thirty and 
forty hoggs, foure negro men, live chri.-^tian Servant."^." Liber 1 Deeds [ Trentou\ 



site Staten Island, where is but a narrow passage of water, wliich 
ebbs and flows between the said Island and Bergheii PoinU called 
Constable's Hook} There is a considerable Plantation on that 
side of Constahle IIool', Extending in Land above a mile over, 
from the Bay on the East side of the neck that leads to ]^ev:> 
York, to that on the west that goes to Ilachensack and Snahe- 
hlll ; the neck running np between both from the Sontli to 
the north of Iludsoii's liiver to the ontraost extent of their 
bounds. There belongs to that Plantation about 12 or 1500 
Acre?, and its well stockt and improved : it was settled first by 
Samuel Edsall in Colonel NicolW time, and by him sold 3 years 
ago for 600 : lib. 

"' There are other small Plantations along that neck to the 
East between it and a Little villao-e of 20 families called bv the 

Indians or Penelipe,^ then further one to another 

cottage.^ There are more where Laurence the Draper lives, a 
Dutchman ;^ there may be 16 or 18 Families ; then one [on ^] to 
George TJmpane \Gemoeunepan }\ which is over against 3"6W 
York, where there is about 10 Families, within which, about the 
middle of the neck, which is here about 3 myles over, stands the 
Town of Berghen, which gives its name to that neck ; then again 
Northward to the water side going up Htidson''s River, there 
lyes out a point of Land, wherein is a Plantation and a loater 
[mill V] belonging to a merchant in New York.^ 

' This place seems to have been a port of piratical enterprises. la the Post 
Boy, August 8, 1757, 1 find the following commercial advertisement: 

At Van Buskirk's, at Kil van KuU, A Parcel of likely Negro Slaves, Men, 
Women, Boys and Girls, just arrived from Guinea in the Sloop Williams, 
David Griffiths, Commander. Apply to Rice Williams, or the said David 

- The place here referred to, I have no doubt, is Pembrepogh. But as to there 
being twenty families there I have grave doubts. The author must have drawn 
heavily on his imagination, as he did iu the population of Communipaw. 

" Probably the present homestead of the Currie family. 

* This was Laurens Andriesen, the founder of the Van Buskirk family. Win- 
field's Land Titles, 60. He lived on the shore about where Linden avenue 
strikes New York bay, in (late) Greenville. 

•■ This I take to be Weehawken. On the 10th of June, 1678, Nicholas Bay- 

UK8CRIP1 ION or ini-; county in lOso. l'j«j 

'■'■ Southward tlieiv is ii ftmdil villatji' ulmiit .'> or »; Fitmil'uj/i^ 
wliicli is eoinmonlij (.•;ilk'(l tlic Duhi's Juirm>\^ ami liatli always 
paid a small annual rent to tiio (TOvern(.)r of New York, wlio Hrnt 
granted it out for two lives, but is leased out now tor some vearn. 
yet is under the Jurisdiction of New Je /'><*• y tor (tovernnicnt ; 
further up is a i^ood Plantation in a neck of F/md almost an 
Island, called Ilohnl-. It did l)eIon«; to a Ihifrh Merrhant^ who 
forntn'lif in. the Indian war had his HV/'t', Childrin and SereantA 
murdered hij the Indians, and his house, cattle and xtoeh dentnnjed 
hi) them'} Its noio settled again and a mill ereeted there hy ane 
dwelling at New York." 

As to Bergen he says : " Here is a Town Court held Ity Select 
Men or Overseers, who used to be 4 or more as they please t<» 
choose O/nmialhj to try small causes, as in (dl the rest of the. 
Toivns ; and two Courts of Sessions in the year, from xchieh 
if the Cause exceed 2t) lib, they may appeal to the Governor and 
Council, and Court of deputies in their Assembly, who meet once 
a year. The Town is compact and hath Ik'cu fortified apiinst 
the IndUuis. Tliere are not above 7i> Families in it.^ The 
acres taken up by the Town may be about 10,000, and for the 
Out Plantations 50,000, and the number of Inhaltitants are 
computed to be 350,' but many more abroad. The greatest part 
of the Inhabitants which are in this Jurisdiction are Dutch, of 
whicli some have settled here uj)wards of 40 years agoe."^ 

ard had obtained tho Proprietors' consent to U8e the water nm nt Wichakcn 
for a saw and con mill. The CorporatJon "t" Bergen had given consent Ix-fore 

' Known also as the West India Company's Farm and Ilar.'^imurt. WinfifUi'a 
Land litlen, 1^2. ■ This was Aert T.-unisw-n. 

^ There were only thirty-two lots in the town, some of wliich w«ti> rouimon 
land and not occupied. It is (piite certain that not more tlian one family wn.« 
xipon any one lot. His several estimates are overestimated in about the same 

•» According to these figures and the number of families previously given, li.« 
makes the number in each family average but a fraction over two 1 

* It will be noticed that the above extract is a little confused and in some 
places greatly exaggerated. But it is well to renii-mber that Smtt was writing 
what we call a pinf, for which he received his reward. W/iitthfad'a Eo*t 


From the final surrender to the English until the Revolution- 
ary War — a whole century — but few incidents appear in the 
history of this county requiring notice. The people were quiet, 
domestic, unambitious, passed along through life adhering to 
truth, honesty and fair dealing, cultivating their farms and rear- 
ino; their families in the fear of God and the doctrines of the old 
church of their fathers. The most of their troubles grew out of 
their lands, two-thirds of which lay in common. 

As might have been expected, the Government of the Propri- 
etors was a failure. In the year IToO the inhabitants of the 
Province represented to King William " that there did not re- 
main among them the shadow of law and Government," and 
requested him to take from the Proprietors a power of which they 
were unworthy. The colonic, in fact, became reduced to such a 
deplorable state by factions that it was represented " as being 
without law or gospel, having neither judge nor priest."^ The 
Proprietors surrendered the Government of ]S[ew Jersey to the 
crown on the 15th, and the Queen accepted the same on the 17th 
of April, 1702. They were glad to lay oiF a burden which was 
pecuniarily unprofitable and very productive of discord. 

By this time the people of Bergen began to feel that the Char- 
ter of 1668 was not sufliciently comprehensive for the govern- 
ment of themselves and the protection of their property. They 
soon after this petitioned for a new Charter. On the 14th of Jan- 
uary, 1714, the Queen granted what has since been known as 

Queen Anne's Charter. 

^'Anne, by y® Grace of God of Great Britain, France & Ireland, 
Queen Defender of y® Faith &c. To all to whome these presents 
shall come or may in any wise concern, Greeting : Whereas our 
loving Subjects, Andreas Yan Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Eutt Van Home, Frederick Culper, Wonder Deder- 
icks and John Dedericks, Fi-eeholders, Inhabitants of y® town of 

Jersey, 236. The work was written from what was told Mm, what he had of his 
own knowledge, and what he guessed at. Ibid, 277. 
' Chalmer's Hist. Am. Colonies, i., 293, 376. 

IH KK-N A.NNi;> (llAKll.l:. l.;i 

Bei-i^cii in y' County of BiTi^nMi. In our I'roviiicc of New Jewey, 
oil behalib of tlieinsdvos ct y'' rest (»f y" FreelioMcrs cf tlie .s'* town, 
by their Humble Petition to(»ur trusty iind well IJeloViMJ Ijoberf 
Hunter. Es(j'', our Cnp^ (ieiierull :in(l ( Jovernour in Cliiefe of .uir 
Provinee of New Jersey, have sett forth that their A ncestors iVr 
Predecessors. Freeholders of y" s"' town, have itoaseSMid, held iV 
enjoyed diver- lands, tenein"' ^V- llrreditani'*, Ar used iV: re- 
ceived Divers i*iivile_i;-es vV Iniinunities by virtue ot" a (irant or 
Pattent seale<l with v'^ seal of v'' Province ot" New .lersey tfc siirned 
by Phillip Cartaret, Esq'', Late (rovernoui- of tiii> Province, <V: 
his C'ouncill, under y"" \{\^^\d Honorable .loim. Lord I'erklev, 
Barron of Stratton, 6c iS'' George Carterett, Knight iV Paronett, 
then absolute L(»rds Proi)rietors of y" s'' Provinei-. bearing date 
y*^ twenty-second day of Sep' Anno Doni. one thousand six hun- 
dred sixty tfc Eight, w*^'' s'' Lands were butted ct bounded as Fol- 
loweth, viz.'" {/le/'e folio tv.s the detscrijjtlon <is In Curt4'ri't''s C/iar- 
ter)^ "ct whereas divers of y*' s** lands remain in common tV un- 
divided for y*^ generall good ifc Penefitt of y*^ Freeholders A: In- 
habitants of s** town, on w*^'' s'' Lands y*^ neighbouring townes »fc 
settled Do coinmitt great waste and >i)oil> in Cutting Down vV 
carrying away great (Quantities of theii- timber, who cannot be 
relieved In y*^ ])remises in y*^ ordinary course of Law or Ecjuity 
through some Defects in y^ (Ti-ant of Incorporation afore.v', w*^'' to 
Prevent fory'^ F'uture they have prayed our Charter or Pattent of 
Incorporation, w*^'' request we being willing to grant, know ye that 
of our Especial! Grace, certain knowledge A: mere motion, we have 
given, granted, Katified A: confirmed, and Do by these presents 
for us, our heirs & successors forever, Give, Grant, ratitie A: coii- 
firnie unto Andreas Van Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Putt Van Ilorne, Henry Culper. Wender Dedreicks, 
John Dedreicks, in trust to A: for themselves A: y** rest of y' Free- 
holders, Inhabitants of y*^ s*^ town and their successors forever 
witliin v*^ Limits A: bounds afores'' v® l^*eeLibertv A' Privilidije 
of beinir a township. ^V: th(»v A: their successors forever hereafter 
are A: shall be by virtue Hereof a comunity or township, or 
body Corporate, or Politick in deed <Sc in name by y' name of y* 
Trustees of the Freeholders inhabitants of y" township of Bergen, 


ife that they & their successors forever hereafter shall & may have 
a perpetuall succession of y^ nuniBer of seven of y^ principall free- 
holders & inhabitants of y® s*^ township of Bergen, who shall^.be 
y® trustees of y® Freeholders inhabitants of y® township of Ber- 
gen, that is to say, that upon y® Death or other avoidance of any 
one or more of y® s^ trustees, it shall & may be lawful! for y® 
Freeholders of y® s*^ township for y® time being, being there- 
unto Sumoned or "Warned by y® Constable or Constables of y® s*^ 
township for y*^ time being by order of y** surviving trustees of 
y^ s*^ township of Bergen, or y® major part of them to assemble 
& meet together at such time & place within y® s*^ township as 
y® s^ surviving trustees for y® time Being or y^ major part of 
them, from time to time as need shall be, shall think fitt to nom- 
inate & appoint & there by majority of votes of y® s*^ Freehold- 
ers to Elect & chuse so many of y® Principal Freeholders of y^ 
s** township residing within y® bounds of y® s*^ township as may 
make y® number of y® s'^ trustees to be seaven^ w'^*' trustees so cho- 
sen & elected as afores*^ together with y® surviving trustees for y^ 
time being shall be trustees of y® s'* township to all intents and 
purposes as much as if they had been particularly nominated & 
expressed in this our s** Grant, it we do further Give & Grant un- 
to y® s^ trustees of y® Freeholders inhabitants of y® town of Ber- 
gen & their successors forever that it shall & may be lawfull to 
& for y® s"^ trustees & their Successors forever by y® name of y*^ 
trustees of y^ Freeholders Inhabitants of y® Township of Bergen 
in any of our Courts within our s*^ province of New Jerse}^ to 
Sue and be Sued, answer & be Answered unto. Implead & be 
Impleaded, Defend <Sz be Defended. And we do further Give 
& Grant unto y® s'^ trustees of y^ Freeholders Inhabitants of y® 
township of Bergen & their Successors forever Hereafter full 
Power and Lawfull Authority as Often as there shall be occasion 
at their Discretion or y® Discretion of the Major Part of them to 
Sumons ifc call together y^ Freeholders of y*^ s^ township & for 
V® s*^ Freeholders & their Successors so sumoned and called tu- 

' \'kle Pamphlet Lmra, 1804, p. 410. This charter was amended so as to make 
the office of trustee annual. 


getlier to Assemble <Sc meet tu;^etlu;r sit such certain Djiys & at 
such Place Hsy® s** trustees for y" time l)eini;, or the m.ijor part 
of them shall appoint to make ct Enter in a iJook for that pur- 
pose to be kept all such ])ru(lentiall rules and orders fur y* Im- 
provem' preservation Sc Defence of their s** Coinons as they or 
y® Major part of them shall ai;:ree upon, as also to appoint a Clerk 
& Ke<;ister for y° Doin<; thereof, vfc to ('ontrii)ute iV He*; amongs 
themselves such sum or sums as are absolutely necessary for y' 
doing thereof from time to time as need shall be Sc not otherwise, 
& further, We do for us, ourselves & Successors Give Sc CJrant 
unto y" s"* trustees of y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y" township 
of Bergen & their Successors forever, that they S: their Success- 
ors by y® name afores*^ be forever hereafter one body corpo- 
rate &Politickall ifc Capable in y*^ Law to Purchase, have, take& 
receive & enjoy to them A: their Successors forever y" use of 
y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y" township of Bergen, Lands, 
Tenem'% Messuages, Rents, Privilidges & other Ilereditam" 
whatsoever, of whatsoever ^'ature. Kind ife (Quality they be 
in fee & perpetuity as also to Give, Grant, Bargain, allott, 
Lett, Dispose of any of tiie Land belonging or appertain- 
ing to y* s*^ Comunity & as yett unappropriated, either for one. 
two or three Lives, for term of years, or in fee, >Sc also that y" 
s"* Corporation shall & may forever hereafter have A: Tsc a 
comon seal for y'^ Business of them & their Successors w"* full 
])ower to alter, break <Sz unmake y" same at their Discretion, iV' 
we do further Give ct Grant to y" s'' trustees of y*^ Freeholdi-r.-. 
Inhabitants of y° township of Bergen ct their Successoix forever, 
that it shall 6: may be Lawfull for y^ Freeholders Iiduibitants of 
y'' s*^ town Annually A: once in Every Year to Assemble ik meet 
together on y^ first Tuesday in May anmially to choose two 
Constables, one Overseer of y® ]>oor, and two (Overseers of y" 
Highways by y'^ Majority of y"' Voters of y" s'' Freeholders In- 
habitants of y® town of Bergen, w'^'' Constables vk Overseers s«.» 
chosen as afores^ shall serve in their Respective Otiices in y" 9* 
town untill y*^ next Anuall Election If they so Long shall Live 
or pay y*' sum of two pounds each Person refusing to serve for 
y^ Use of the poor of y^ s"* Town <k That in case of y'' Death or 


Refusall of any of y'^ s'^ Officers ; As often as y^ same shall 
happen out of y® Usnall anniversary Time of Election that it 
shall ik may be Lawfull for y® Freeholders Inhabitants at any 
other time & place to Assemble & meet together to Clmse others 
in their Room 6c place & that it shall & may be Lawfull for 
any Trustees of y® place w*''in The s^ Township to administer 
an Oath to v^ s"^ Officers of v® s*^ Towm for v® true & Faithful 
Discharge of their Respectiv^e Offices to have, hold & enjoy all 
and singular y" s'* privilidges, Ilights, Liberties & immunities 
afores'^ to y** s*^ Andreas Yan Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Rutt Yan Hoover, Hendrick Culper, Wonder 
Dedericks, John Dedericks, Freeholders Lihabitants of y" town- 
ship of Bergen A: their Successors forever, yielding. Rendering 
ik paying unto us, ourselves & Successors, or to our or their 
Collector & Receiver Generall of our s'^ province for y® time 
being yearly & every Year Five Shillings in Lieu & stead of all 
other Rents, Services, Dues, Duties & Demands whatsoever for 
y^ same. 

"In Testimony whereof we have Caused these our Letters to 
be made Pattent & y'^ Seal of our Province of New Jersey to be 
affixed, & y" same to be Entered of Record in our Secretary's 
Office of Our s" province. "Witness our trusty & well beloved 
Robert Hunter, Esq""., our Cap* Generall »fc Governor in Chiefe 
in & over our Province of 'New Jersey, Xew Yorke (fee. This 
Fourteenth Da}^ of January in y*" twelfth year of our Reigne &c. 

" Bass, Secretaryr^ 

This charter was confirmed by the Council on the loth of 
March, 1714. 

The principal motive in requesting this Charter was to get 
power to protect and take care of the common lands. These 
comprised about two-thirds of all the lands in the township of 
Bergen, and were used by the freeholders for common pasture. 
To avoid the difficulty and confusion which would naturally 
arise from the cattle running together in the commons, the Legis- 

Book of Coinmissions {Trenton), 154. 

m\i;ki.S(; (Aiti.k and advkkti.sin*; kstravs. 13r> 

latiii'c, (111 the Ttli (li Nmvc'iiiIx r, lt')ti>, jtrovideil ftir the niurkiii;; 
of cattk',' ami (lirectod a description ot'siidi iiiark^ t«> he entere<l 
in a hook to he kept tor that piii'iM.-,.'. |.aui-i-ii- A mlrie^eii ^vn^ 
made ixH'i'r(h'r aii<l luurkcr, A|>i'il t'>th, ItiT". This practice ot' 
inarkiiii;- tlius instituted outlived the coiiiniiin hinds an«l catne 
down even into tlie present centin'v. Tin; t'«>Uo\vini; entries, 
taken from a fraynient of tlie ohl town hook now preserved in 
the eoiintv clerk's ofUce, will j-ive a ijood idea of the wav such 
entries were made, ami ol the novelty of some of the marks : 

" Hendriek van Winkel sevn merk Een ijaffel uvt het ent van 
hct sliidvcn oor en seyn brant o[) de slinken hil. II." 

" Mejudert ger brantse seyn merk Ken i^alfcl nyt het slinken 
oor En Een slip in het ent van het righter oor en seyn brant op 
de liooren, M. G." 

" Pieter Boskerck syn merk Men half maentie ondcr nyt het 
slinken oor." 

The law also provided that whenever an estray came upon 
one's premises it was a duty to record a description of tlie saiiu' 
with the Town Clerk, to enable tlie owner to recover his projierty.- 
The followino; are a few speeimens of stich recorded notices, 
literally copied, and they afford ample proof that the Town 
Clerk and the Schoolmaster were ni)t the same person at that 
day : 

"Strayed on the premises of John Stevens IToboken a brown 
horse supposed to be three years old no artificial mark with a 
star in the forehead and left hind foot white about twelve hand- 

"A stray "Muel at the House of Garret van Derhoof Ueing a 
Dark I>rown Couller Marked on the left shoulder with the Letters 
N. A." 

" A Red Bull with a Wite Streek on the P.uttok with no mark 
at the House of Moses van Amen at liergin Point the Creator 
will Be two years old this Spring." 

Witli all tlic precaution the authorities could take, peace and 

^Leamlny and Spirer. SC. ^yecill's Latin, i. 357. 


harmony were but uncertain tenants in the township. Some 
encroached upon the common lands, cleared and fenced beyond 
the bounds of their respective patents. Others imposed upon 
them undue burdens, cut and carried away the timber.^ To settle 
all these difficulties the freeholders mutually entered into an 
agreement that they would employ a surveyor to run out the 
bounds of their respective land, and that each one would aban- 
don whatever of the commons might have been appropriated, 
until the same should be properly and fairly partitioned.'^ 

It is not now known that this agreement was ever carried out. 
The probabilities are that it %vas not ; at all events it did not 
prevent the difficulties which it was intended to provide against. 
Matters continued to grow worse until, finally, on the 7th of 
December, 1763, the Legislature passed the act providing for a 
survey of the patented lands and allotment of the commons 
among the freeholders.^ This act was of vast importance in the 
history of this county.'' 

The commissioners named in it appointed George Clinton of 
New York and Jonathan Hampton of Elizabeth surveyors (the 
latter did not act), and entered upon their work on the 6th of 
March, 1764, at the house of Stephen Bourdett at " Wiehaken," 
to which place all land owners were requested to bring their pat 
ents and title papers. Notwithstanding the extent and accuracy 
of their labors, the work was finished on the first day of March, 
1765. Owing to uncertainty in the ownership of Secaucus, the 
commons allotted to that tract was not finally allotted until the 
15th of June, 1785. 

1 Nevill's Laws, i., 285. 

- A copy of this agreement may be found, in extenso, in Winfield's Land Titles, 
10. ^Alinson's Laics,26d. 

•* The reader who may be interested in looking at this act and at the survey 
and map made in pursuance thereof, is respectfully referred to Winfield's History 
of the Land Titles in Hudson County, New Jersey. In that work has been in- 
serted many facts which throw light upon the titles to land in the county from 
1609 to 1871. The publication of that work relieves me from tracing out the 
history of the land in this volume. 


The Revolutionary War— How it atlfctt'd lliidflon County— Inridi-ntM of thi; 
war ill this County— Fort Delancey— Capture of Paulus Hiwck— Blork Houim; 
Point — The Cow-Cliase — Desertion of Serjeant Champe, &c., ic. 

l)ri;iN(. the lii'vulutioiiary \v;ir that pin-tiijii of I>er<;en Count v 
now known as Hudson (/ounty was important territory. Early 
in that contest it became manifest that wliichever party lichl the 
citv of New York must <;reatlv <lepen<l on Bt-riren as the irate to 
New Jersey. Hence, eacli party uliilr in possession was care- 
ful to strengthen it against the assaults of the otlier. 

As soon as it was understood that the British were preparinir 
to leave Boston for New York, Lord Sterlino;, then in command 
of the American forces in this vicinity, took measures to place 
Bergen in a condition of defence, and to open means of commu- 
nication with the interior of the State. On the ISth of March, 
ITTti, he proposed, ^f^rst, to make a good and broad road fmm 
Brown's ferry to Paulus Hoeck ferry, which lie considered of 
great importance to the city of New York ; second^ to make a 
good road from Weehawken to the Hackensack ferry. ^ He de- 
signed to place the Bergen militia at these works; two hundred 
men on the former, and one hundred men on the latter.' He 
devised the works on Paulus Hoeck and Bergen Neck ; the for- 
mer to prevent approach from the city of New York, and the 
latter to prevent inroads from Staten Island. For the location and 
design of them, he personally examined the ground on the 'J-^d 
of March, and proposed to have them constructed by the militia 
of Bergen, Essex and Middlesex counties.' On the arrival of 
Washinfjton orders were given for the immediate construction 
of the works at Paulus Hoeck, as they were consi<lere<l "of im- 

' This was afterward Itnown as Dow's (or Douw's) ferry. 

- Am. ArcfUves. 4th Series, v., 402. ^Life of Lord Stirling. 157. 



portance/'^ These works were soon completed, and troops sta- 
tioned in them. Of such importance were the works on Pauhis 
Hoeck considered, that one of tlie objects of the great Hickey 
conspiracy was to seize and hold them in the name of the King.^ 

On the 29th of June the look-out on Staten Island announced 
the approach of forty sail. It proved to be the advance of Ad- 
miral Howe's fleet, bringing a portion of the British forces under 
General Howe. In tw^o days other arrivals swelled the number 
of men-of-w%ar and transports to one hundred and thirty. The 
troops landed on Staten Island, and the fleet cast anchor oft' the 
mouth of the Kill Yan Kull. The tories in the vicinity now has- 
tened to take sides against the colonies and for the king. The 
people of Staten Island led off and took the oath of allegiance to 
the British crown. On both sides of the Hudson the anti-revolu- 
tionists in great numbers repudiated further resistance to his 
majesty.^ Many who had taken an active part with the patriots, 
now, looking upon the freedom of the colonies as a "lost cause," 
forsook their first love and, with the apostate's zeal, joined their 
former foes. Prominent among such were William Bayard, the 
owner of Hoboken, and Abraham Yan Buskirk of Saddle liivei-, 
who afterward became lieutenant-colonel in the British service.^ 

At this time General Hugh Mercer, the veteran of Culloden 

* Am. Ai'cJiives, 4:th Series, «i.,534. -Irving's Washington, ii., 34G. 

° Knight's Hist, of England, i., 371. 

^ The following sworn statement, found at Albany among the papers of the 
Committee on Conspiracies, is worthy of insertion here : 

" [Miscel. Pap. 34 ■.'"A30.] 

" To Coll° William Allison. 

" Whereas it is represented to us that David Baulding of Bergen County in 
New Jersey, but now in the City of New York, can give very useful and im- 
portant intelligence respecting the late discovered Conspiracy against the 
Rights and Liberties of America, 

" We do therefore in Pursuance of a Resolve of the Congress of this Colony, 

authorize and request you to bring the said David Baulding forthwith before 

us. That he may be examined touching the said Conspiracy. 

" Given under our Hand this 2i) .Tune 1776. 



OENKKAI. MKK( Klv- Al I'MIl'S IIOKCK, 1 .".'.» 

and Dii (^iK'.>iu', who at'tcrwaid fell, citvcrcMl with "Inrv. at 
I'l'iiicctDii, \va> ill coiiiiiiaiKl in New .lciSf\, witli his Hviii:x ''imM* 
at Bcrct'ii. He had hceii sent hy Washitiirtoii to I'auhjr. Ilneck 
to make arrangemoiits fc.r the I'cimsylviiiiia militia a- they 
shouhl rumc in. Fearinf]; an attack tVnm Statcn I^Iaml, <fcru'nil 
Mercer was ordered on the 4th of .Inly to j)hit'e a ijiiard «>t' live 
hinuh-ed men at l>eri;en Neck. He was also recommended hy 
tlie cominander-in-chii'f to place a ^iiard at the terries over the 
Hackensack and Passaic rivers, and was promixMl that on the 
next day an en:;ineer shonld I)e sent over from .\ew "^'ork to 
erect some works for the security of those places.' .\fter making 
an examination of the Neck and the i;eneral condition of thiii<j:s 
tliere, he reported that the cattle had not all lieen removed, that 
some families on the Point held intercourse with the enemy (at 
that time between eiu^ht and nine thousand stronj; on the Island*, 
that Colonel Ford's force tliere anioiinted to not more than thre«' 
hundred and fifty men, and that he could not reinforce them to 

"[Miscel. Pap. M : 403.J 
" The Information of M"^ David Baldin. Saitli he has liad Kfaaons lor some 
time past to believe there was a Corrcspondance kpi)t up by tin- peoph- of Raiiipo 
and the men of war as well from the temper of tlie people as from n»any 
Words Dropt from time to time he says that about the 17th Inst he told that 
Lawrence Van Bushkirk the Miller at Rampo, abraham Van Iwskerk and n 
Schoolmaster & Thoinas Van Boskirk at Saddle River was point; on Board tin- 
Man of War that something prevented all but the School Master wlio \\>- 
veryly Beleives did go & that there is one Peter Van Bushkirk Livinir at or near 
the hook or mouth of the Kills in Barijain County who its frequently ."aid has 
followed tradinjj with the men of war who he has Reasf>n to believe ('nrrys 
people on Board when Ever Requested, and has a sutficient Craft for that pur- 
pose, and that this Informant Came to New York on purjioso to let it b^• known 
that on his way he stoped at P>lses in Baruaiu \voods where he was Drinkinir 
todfly in Company with Francis Steepheiis Late a liesident of this City who t.Kik 
him the said baldin to be freindly to the tory side when said Stepliens told 
Baldin that there was .50 Sale of King's Shii)S near the hiM)k and that there 
would soon be l.")0 Sail to New York that Kris said that kn<>w9 I'ame from on 
l)oard the Man of War this Week that Stephens Char>?ed the Informant not 
to mention it to some certain freind f)f his in New York. 

" Sworn the 29 .June ITTC Before us : 


•' John Jay." 

' Am. Archirtx, it/i Series, c/., \'2i>'-i. 



five biindred after placing proper guards at the ferries. He pro- 
posed, therefore, to send the Pennsylvania militia to Bergen JSTeck 
as they arrived.^ The different "passes in Bergen Neck" and on 
the Jersey shore opposite Staten Island were to be fortified by 
the chief engineer of the American forces to prevent the enemy 

coming over. 

To meet the crisis that was approaching, in the 
early part of July General Wadsworth's brigade was sent over 
to Bergen, where it was joined by a battalion of Jersey troops.^ 
General Mercer now feeling that he was in a fair state of prep- 
aration for the enemy, who showed no disposition to enter New 

^Am. ArcJiives, 5th Series, i., 120. This post, afterward known as Fort Delancey, 
was situated on the rising ground, bounded by Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth 
streets and Avenues B and C, in Bayonne, about a quarter of a mile below the 
canal. It was held by the refugees under Captain Tom Ward for some years. 

'^ Ibid, 5th Series, i., 174. ■rbid, 5th Scries, i., 328. 

HIS I'l.AN TO AriACK llli: ItlCHISII. 141 

Jersey, Ion iK'(l a plan to iittaek him i>ii Stftteii IsIhihI. Ilisplaiih 
were all laid tor the cvoiuiii!; of the isth ot' .Inly. (Jreut cuiition 
was required in his nioveineuts, tor jjeri^cu waa filled with 
tories.^ The sixth point in liis plan of attack was as t'ollowg: 

" Sixth. A party to attempt to surprise the ouemy's guard on 
BusJdrk\s I*oi/it,' which is on the southeast corner of llergeu 
Point \ this party, or i;uai'd, does not seem to be larfje, hut it is 
said they are possessed of two six-pounders. The party that 
makes the attack must not attempt to '^^ over the causeway or 
road over the meadow, the cannon heini:- in all pi-ol)al)ility ap- 
pointed to command that pass, hut should hepro\ided with some 
hoards, and proceed in two oi' three columns over the nu-adow, 
where they will meet with no other ohstruetion than a small 
creek or ditch, which they will easily pass with the help of the 
hoards. If this place is carried, a cannonade and hond)ardinent 
shoidd, a.'^ soon as possible, conimeiu-e on the ships, a i^reat num- 
ber of which now lie within reach of the place. A cannonade 
should also commence on Bcniin Point, opposite the church 
and Z^(?('A'«?''.v, where it is said about six linndre<l men are posted ; 
this cannonade, with inund and ^ra]>r >liot, woidd confuse the 
troops in fol•minL^ and {)revent their succorini; the cjuard at 
Elizahethtown Pointy or opposini:; our party who make their 
descent near Shufter^s Island. The cannonade should also be 
kept up on such parts of the shore of Stufoi IshintI wiiere any 
boats are collected or may asseud)le. The party tor these several 
matters on Bergen Nech should be about seven hundred men, be- 
sides the rillemen."^ His plans faile<l, however, on account of 
the bad weather, which prevented his forces crossing the Kill 
Yan Kull. 

Carrying out the instructions he had received, General Mercer 
stationed at the ferries over the Ilackensack and Passaic rivers 

' To show how alarinin;:ly (lisartection had spread ainonjr the peopio of lt«T- 
<:('n, I have been told by old i)eople that only fourteen whiffs .-ould !>.• found 
in tile wliole townsiiiii. 

■ A part of Constapel's lloeek. on whirli the enemy liad ian<ted .xbortly ntt.T 
liis arrival in tlie harbor. It was the tirst landing place of the British forcf« 
in New Jersey. Mm. Archirxt, 5th .'y-riet, 1, 4-13. 


two captains and one hundred and twenty-two rank and file.^ 
About this time the troops on Bergen Point practiced occasion- 
ally on the fleet of the enemy. The following shows how ill- 
naturedly these little attentions were received : 

" New York, July 25, 1776. 
" Our troops stationed on Bergen Point give the Ministerial 
fleet and army some uneasiness, by firing at the tenders, boats, 
*fec. It so galls and provokes them, that they return the tire 
with great fury, but have not done the least damage to our peo- 
ple. Last Lord's Day a great many shot were heard in this city 
and at Bergen Point. The occasion was this : A barge from 
the fleet, full of men, landed on the Point, but were opposed and 
driven ofi' with precipitation by our troops ; a smart flre ensued 
from a tender for a considerable time, without doing any 
injury. '^ 

"While General Mercer had been putting the shore of East 
Jersey in a state of defence, the forces of the enemy bad been 
augmented by arrivals, until, in the harbor and on Staten Island, 
they numbered thirty thousand men.^ The harbor was filled 
with their shipping. On the afternoon of the 12th of July — 
eight days after the Declaration of Independence — the Phoenix, 
carrying forty guns, under command of Captain Parker, and the 
Rose, carrying twenty guns, under command of Captain Wal- 
lace, came sweeping up the bay, having the advantage of both 
wind and tide. Then for the first time the thunders of civil- 
ized warfare burst from the sand-hills of Paulus Hoeck ; then 
for the first time its batteries were trained upon an enemy. 
They opened on the ships with a spirited fire, which was re- 
turned with broadsides as they passed. The vessels sufiered but 
little damage, their decks being protected by ramparts of sand- 
bags.* On the same evening Lord Howe sailed up the harbor, 
irreeted bv the boomins; of cannon and the huzzas of the British. 

On the first of August Colonel Bradley's regiment was at 

^Am. Archives, 5t7i, Series, i., 575. -Ibid, 5th Series, i., 578. 

^Irving's Washington, ii, 300. *Ihid, it., 260. 


Ber<2^en, wliile the enemy still liekl Cuiistapels Iloeck.' With 
Bi'fulley's force, General JMcrccr liail in Kast Jersey a e()n8idoral)lc 
bdily of iiit'ii. Washiiiutoii was anxious tor rcintorcciiients in 
New York, and made known his wants to (uMieral Mercer. 
That otiicer replied as follows : 

" PowLEs IIooK, ^•l?/7//.v/ ir., 177*;. 

"Sir: [was at Elizabethtown when your letters of the 1:5th 
and 14th reached me. The men who had been prepared to join 
the army at Neio Yorh lay at Keirark. The jiosts aloni; the 
Jei'sey shore opposite to Staien IxJavd are sntliciently i;uarded, 
and more troops are daily arrivin<^. If yon a|>j>rove of it, a body 
of four hnndred men, well accoutred, from the Ihhiirare coun- 
ties, may be stationed at Powlrs Hool', and four hundred of the 
Jersey men for the Flying-Camp at Ber(jen-Tov;n^ besides what 
we may spare to be ready in case of emergency at Newark. 
Eight hnndred men will cross to-day to join 3'ou. If more are nec- 
essary, please to inform me. I shall be to-night at Neionrk. 

"I have the honor to be. Sir, your Excellency's most obedient 
servant, II. Mekokk."' 

Again upon this subject he wroti' to the President of Congress : 

"Newark, AiiguM 28, 1776, 5 o'clofk A. M. 
"Sir: General AYashini]:;ton had wrote me that some rt'in- 
forcements would be necessary tit Nevj York and Poivles ffi>t>k. 
* * On the way yesterday evening. General Wooster'^n Aid-de- 
Camp met me, with a few lines from the General, signifying that 
it was General Washingtotts orders that I should march, with 
all our army imder my command, immediately to Powh'M Ihwk. 
The necessary orders were sent to Atuhmj^ Woi»U>ri(hje and Kliza- 
leth-Town, last night, and I hope to have on Bergen, ready to 
pass over to New York, if required, from three to four tlionsand 
men. Our whole force, including the iV^<??<J ./(p/vw/ militia, from 
Poxoles Hook to Shrewsbury, amounts to eight thousand and 
three hundred. * * * * GeneranVashington, with the greater 
part of the Army, was on Long Island yesterday ; and the ac- 

Mm. Archives, 5lh Series. »., 713. 'iWd. 5//* Serits. i.. 964. 


tion was continued at two o'clock. * * Considerable firino: has- 
been heard this morning, which still continues. What troops 
are here I am pushing on to Be7'ge7i, and shall be with them im- 

At the time he wrote this letter, the battle of Long Island 
was raging, and the patriots were being driven before the 
veterans of Europe. General Mercer promised assistance, and 
the following extract of a letter will show how well he kept his 

" In obedience to those orders from General Washington, be- 
tween three and four thousand of the militia of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey assembled at Bei'gen, ready to pass on to New York, 
but were countermanded on the retreat of the Army from Long 
IslaJid. We have, however, strengthened the posts at Powles''s 
Hook and Bergen Neck to the complement of twenty-five hun- 
dred men."^ 

The post at Paulus Hoeck was shortly afterward treated to 
another little skirmish with the enemy. On the IStli of Septem- 
ber the British captured New York City. In the morning of 
that day three ships-of-war — the Roebuck and Phoenix, each of 
forty guns, and the Tartar, of twenty guns — stood up the Hud- 
son, " causing a most tremendous firing."^ The raw troops on 
the Jersey shore were little prepared for the peltings of such a 
pitiless storm. In a letter dated September 17, 1770, to Wash- 
ington, General Mercer says : 

"Sm: I received just now the favor of Colonel Graysori's 
letter of yesterday, and in consequence shall send oif a detach- 
ment of the men inlisted for the Flying Camp to Paulus Hook. 
The militia o^ Pennsylvania and New Jersey, stationed on Ber- 
gen and at Paulus Hook, have behaved in a scandalous manner, 
running off from their posts on the first cannonade from the 
ships of the enemy. "^ 

It is, however, stated in the FreeinarCs Journal of October 5th, 

^Am. Archives, 5t7i Series, i., 1193. '^Ihid, 5th Series, ii., 158. 

mining's Washington, ii., 352, 367. "^Am. Archkes, 5th Scries, ii., 367. 

TllK HKITISII CArrLRE rAl'LlS noK( K. 145 

1 TT'i, tlmt the vt'ssels '•were roui^hly greottMl l»y the Americim 
l)atterv :it I'aulus Hook." This certainly iiiiikrs lui \nn\io of 
veracity between tlie kM i-oldici- ami tlic newspaper. ( )nf 
cannot h(\-~itatc, liowcvci-, in cnniini: tn a ilecihi<tn un such an 

For H sliort time after the ciii)ture of New York, I'aiilus 
Ilocck i-einained in posses.sion of the Ainericaiis un<h'r conunan*! 
of Colonel JJurkie.' Dni'ini;- this time Washini^ton wouhl occa- 
sionally leave his camp at llarlaem, cross over to the .lerscv 
shore, and. in com])any with General Greene, who had succeeded 
General Mercer in command on the Jersey shore, reconnoitre, 
sometimes as far down as Paulus lloeck, to observe wlnit was 
going on in the city and among tln' .--hipping.'- It was manifest, 
iiowever, that this position could not be held. New York being 
in possession of tlie enemy. Preparations were made for its 
evacuation. The following is (4eneral Ciroeiie's report >>f this 
event : 

'' (\\Mi' Fort CoNSTniTiox,'' AVy>^^7///yt'y 23, ITTtl. 

•' 1)i:ai; Siii : The enemy are landed at Poirlet/'x Hook ; they 
came up this afternoon and began a cannonade on the batteries, 
and after cannonading for half an hour oi- a little more, tiiev 
lamled a party finm the shi])s. General Mercer had ordered 
off from the Hook all the troops except a small guard, who had 
orders to evacuate the place fntm the tirst a]>proach of the 
enemy, (-ieneral Mercer mentions no troo})s but those lamh'd 
from tlie ships : but C'olonel JjhII, and many others that were 
along the river ujton the heights, saw twenty boats go over from 
YofJi to Powlcifs Hook. This movement must have happened 
since General Mercer wrote. I i)urpose to visit Bergen to-night, 
as General Mer<-<'r thinks of going to his post at Amboy to- 

This li.xes the date when the place was caj)tnred. Two days 

' Valentine's Manual, 180(5, 7G8. 'Irrim/s Waa/iington. ii., :J07. 

•' Changed to Fort Lee, in honor of General Charles Lee, who arrived in camp 
at Harlaom, October 14, 1776. 

' Am. ^[n-hices, -ith .Series, ii., 494. 


afterward in a letter from lieadqnarters is a further account of 
the event : 

" Gen. Greene informs us that General Mercer^ seeing the 
enemy were determined to possess themselves by a stronger 
force of ships and men than we could oppose, removed all the 
stores and useful cannon, so that nothing fell into the enemy's 
hands but the guns that had been rendered unfit for further 
service. Our Army is posted at the town of Bergen, and our 
advanced party has possession of the mill just Ijack of Powle's 

The Americans remained in possession of Bergen until Wash- 
ington found it necessary to collect his forces preparatory to his 
retreat to the Delaware. By an extract from a letter dated 
October 4, 1770, written at headquarters, which was then at 
Bergen, we learn the time when and reason for its evacuation : 
" To-morrow we evacuate Bergen, a measure which will at first 
be condemned, and afterwards be approved of. For my own 
part, I am sorry that the enemy should possess another inch of 
American ground, but prudence requires another sacrifice. The 
reasons of leaving this place I take to be these : Bergen is a 
narrow neck of land, accessible on three sides by water, and ex- 
posed to a variety of attacks in different places at one and the 
same time. A large body of the enemy might infallibly take 
possession of the place whenever they pleased, unless we kept a 
stronger force than our numbers will allow. The spot itself is 
not an object of our arms : if they attacked, it would be to cut 
off those who defended it, and secure the grain and military 
stores. These have been removed ; and when we are gone, a 
naked spot is all they will find. lS<o other damage will follow, 
except a depression of some people's spirits, who, unacquainted 
Avith places, circumstances, and the secret reasons of such relin- 
quishments, are apt to despond as if everything was lost. "We go 

^Am. Archices, 5ih Series, ii., 523. The mill here spoken of was Jacob Prior's 
mill, near the point of rocks. It was frequently visited by both parties during 
the war, and on one occasion from its window a British picket at Fort Putnam 
(now Putnam street) was shot. 


to Fort Coiistitutinii as soon as \vv have seen the troops inarehc<l 
oif. We sliall leave a ijuartl of ohservatioii hehiml us: this mav 
prevent the ciitiuy's dij^covering oiu" removal for a day or t\v<j.''' 
The design of General Greene was to " keep a f^ood, intelligent 
officer at l*>er<;'en, to watch the motions of the ship>."' A> <>ut 
guards at liergen, IIoei)U('k, Uull's Ferry, Ilackensack and oppo- 
site Spyt-den-Duivcl, ho had jxisted one hundrrd ;md sixty-eight 
officers and men.^ 

On the 20th of November, Fort Lee was evacuated, the army 
retreated to Ilackensack and on through to the Delaware, and 
East Jersey was abandoned to the enemy. While, in 1777. tin 
conflict w^as raging above the Highlands, among the hills of 
Saratoga and on the banks of the Brandywine, Bergen was left 
in the undisinited possession of the British. They stationed a 
considerable body of troops at Paulns Iloeck and strengthened 
the works. In command of this post they ]daced Lieutenant- 
Colonel Abraham Van Buskirk of Saddle liiver, who had de- 
serted the patriot cause and gone over to the enemy. They also 
occupied the works on Bergen Xeck, which they named Fort 
Delancey, in honor of Oliver Delancey, the great tory of AVest- 
chester. These two places were garrisoned princijially by t(»ries, 
or '* refugees," as thev called themselves. These partisans were 
active and unscrupulous in the cause of the king. Their /.ral, 
however, exhibited itself more in plundering and murdering 
their old neijjhbors than in honorable warfare. The followiuir 
extracts from newspapers, both whig and tory, will show how 
the people of the county suffered from trieml and foe, and what 
generally was going on hereabouts during the greater part of 
the war : 

" A party of 300 or 4n0 rebels, returning to X'ew England 
trom Morristown to Capt. Ivennedy's House at Newark, plun- 
dered it." — JS'eio York Mercunj^ Jem. 20, 1777.* 

" The Rebels came down to Secancus last Wednesday, and 

' Am. Archives, 5th Scries, ii., 867. »/Wd, 5lh Serin, Hi.. 630. 

" Ibid. Wi Series, Hi., 063. 

^ This house was on the east bank of the Paaaaic, at East Newark. 


carried away all the grain, horses, cows and sheep they could 
get together, which they were obliged to swim over the Hacken- 
sack River, for want of Boats." — Ihid, April 7, 1777. 

" On Monday, May 12th, 300 British under command of Lt.- 
Cols. Barton and Dougan marched from Bero-en Town via Para- 
nms, to attack some rebels under Gen. Heard at Pompton." 
—lUd, May 19, 1777. 

" A party of about 40 Rebels came down to Col. Bayard's 
Mills last Friday morning near Hoebuck Ferry and carried oif 
some cattle, but being pursued by a few of the 57tli Regiment, 
now stationed at Powles Hook, they took to their heels and 
made o^P—IUd. June 30, 1777. 

" The rebels were as low down in Bergen last Friday night as 
Mr. Van Ripen's, the Blacksmith, and carried off from thence 
some horses." — llid^ Nov 24, 1777. 

About this time the sufferings of the troops for want of clothing 
were very severe, and created much comment. Among the sug- 
gestions for relief was the following by Governor Livingston, 
which, while it points out a novel store-house of relief for the 
Yalley Forge sufferers, also incidentally describes an old time 
custom among the women in this vicinity at that period : 

" I am afraid that while we are employed in furnishing our 
battalions with clothing, we forget the county of Bergen, which 
alone is sufRcient amply to provide them with winter waistcoats 
and breeches, from the redundance and superfluity of certain 
woollen habits, which are at present applied to no kind of use 
whatsoever. It is well known that the rural ladies in that part 
of Xew Jersey pride themselves in an incredible number of 
petticoats ; which, like house furniture, are displayed by way of 
ostentation for many years before they are decreed to invest the 
fair bodies of the proprietors. Till that period they are never 
worn, but neatly piled up on each side of an immense escritoire, 
the top of which is decorated with a most capacious brass-clasped 
Bible, seldom read. "What I would, therefore, humbly propose 
to our superiors, is to make prize of these future female habili- 
ments, and, after proper transformation, immediately applj' them 

KXTUA( Ttj FROM N KWSrAl'KK-S. 141' 

to screen from the inclemencies of the wcsitiu-r those iralhint 
males wlio are now fightinjji; for the liberties of their countrv. 
And to clear this measure from every imputation of injustice, I 
have only to observe that the ^^'uerality of the wonu-n in that 
county, havinjj^ for above a century ironi tfi^ hrt>rfits, it is iii;_'hly 
reasonable that the men should now, and es[)ecially u|M)n so in» 
portant an occasion, make booty of the petticoats." — X. J. 
Gazette, Der. lM, 1T77. 

"On Thursday afternoon Captain .Inhii Kiehards, of New 
badoes Xeck, on his wav to see some member of his family who 
was sick of the small-pox, was captured on the road between 
'Three Pidgeons' and Bergen by two professed ])atriots, and 
was shot dead by one (Brouwer) as he was preventing the other 
(Lozier) robbing him of his watch."' — Ihld^ F<h. 2, 17TS. 

" On Sunday, the 22d of March, 1778, a party of rebels came a.-> 
near Powles Hook as Prior's Mill, and attemj)ted to carry oft' 
some cattle. They are under comnuind of one Johnson, and act 
on their own hook." — IJnd, March 30, 1778. 

" On Sunday night. May 10th, a small party of rebels were as 
far down as Prior's Mills, and carried ofi' two Xegro men who 
were coming to Market with eggs and butter." — IhiJ, May 18. 

The daring patriots went as far as the same place on Friday 
and Saturday nights (May 15th and 16th) and carried off more 
neo-roes. A detachment from the Paulus Iloeck tjarrison frnve 
them chase, but they escaped. 

In September, 1777, Sir Henry Clinton, then in cotnnjand at 
New York, planned a raid into New Jersey. He divided his 
force into foui- columns. The general point of rendezvous was 
the New Bridge, above Hackensack. One column, under (Tcnernl 
Campl)ell, entered New Jersey by the way of Elizabethtown ; one, 
under Captain Drunimond, by way of Schuyler's ferry;' one, 

' Brouwer was arrested by the British, Feb. 15, 1778, and locked up in New 
York. Lozier was caught at the English Nuigliborhood, March 27. 1778, at th»> 
house of one De (iroote. Richard's watch was found in his pocket. — X. Y. 
Mercury, March 30, 1778. 

'•' This was afterward known a.** Dow's ferry. It was on the Hackensuick 


under General Vaughn, by way of Fort Lee, and the otlier, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, byway of Tappaen. On the 12th 
the expedition set out. Clinton himself followed, passing up 
Newark bay to Schuyler's landing on the Hackensack (Dow's 
ferry). From this point he marched over the Belleville turnpike to 
Schuyler's House, wliere he found Captain Drummond with two 
hundred and fifty men. During the night General Campbell 
arrived with his detachment and the cattle he had collected en 
route. The different columns met as designed on the 15th. 
On the follownng day General Campbell marched his force from 
English Neighborhood to Bergen Point, whence he passed over 
to Staten Island. The result of the raid was the capture of four 
hundred cattle, four hundred sheep and a few horses, taken from 
the people of Essex and Bergen. In exchange, they had eight 
men killed, eighteen wounded, ten missing, and five taken pris- 
oners.^ As an offset to this raid, we find the following account of 
an expedition by the opposite party over part of the same ground : 

" A party of rebel light Horse came down as far as Bergen 
Point last Tuesday night (July 28th), and returned next morning 
toward Hackensack. They visited Hoebuck on their way and 
carried off a great number of Cattle from the Inhabitants." — N. 
Y. Mercury^ Aug. 3, 1778. 

Smythe, in liis diary, November 8th, says : " This afternoon a 
party of our horse brought in two rebel privates from Powles 
Hook. One of them is very intelligent and communicative ; but 
the other is the most whimsical tony I ever have seen. Wherever 
he goes he carries with him a large gray cat, which he says came 
into the rebel camp on the night after the battle at Freehold 
Meeting House, and which he first discovered lapping a spot of 
dry blood on his sleeve, as he lay on his arms expecting another 
dash at the British. His affection for the cat is wonderful, a& 
hers is for him, for they are inseparable. He sa^'s if we don't 
allow him extra rations for his cat he shall be obliged to allow 
them out of his own."^ 

river at the foot of Cherry Lane, a little above the bridge of the New Jersey 
Railroad. ^Remeiiobrancer, 1777, v., 420. 

- Carver, ii., 31, cited in Moore's Diary, ii., 70. 


III 1777 r.ieiit.-C\)I..iiel Van Uiiskirk, tlu- torv, hud lii.s liirmi- 
quartri'^ at raiilus Ilueck. Fruin tlio time of his dotei-tion iti 
177t) until mar tho close of the wjir, when he sailed for Nov:i 
St'otia, he had used this ])ost as a base for his |»redatory excur- 
sions. Duriiiii' t he davs ot' his pat riotic. inipulses he had )>ecti 
intimate with dolin l-'ell, of Paraniiis, the chairman of tho I>erj^eii 
Committee of Safety, and \>y him cut rusted with many imju.rtant 
messai^es and duties. In the year 1777 .hid^e Fell was arrested 
at his home and brought to Paulus Iloi-ck as a prisoner. lie wa.s 
recoijni/ed by tlie torv Colonel. 

" Times are altered since we last met," said the Colonel. 

" So I perceive," the Judge coolly replied, looking at the Col- 
onel's uniform. 

" AVell, vou are a prisoner and irninir over to NCw York, where 
you will 1)0 presented to General linbertson, with whom I have 
the honor to be acquainted. I will give you a letter of intro- 
duction to him," said the Colonel. 

The Judge thaid-ced him and accepted the letter, which he 
afterward presented to Ctcii. Iiol)ertson. It so happened that the 
Judge and General were friends at Pensacola after the old 
French war in 1763. The ])urport of Van Buskirk's letter of in- 
troduction was that John Fdl was a nottn^iouif rehcl antl ra-iralf 
and advising that due .care should be taken of him. (teneral 
Robertson handed the letter to the Judge and said: "My old 
friend, John Fell, you must be a very altered man ami a very 
great rascal, indeed, if you equal this (Colonel Buskirk."' 

It is said in the JVeiv Jerseu Gazette of October 28, 177s, 
that the only place then held by the P>ritish in the State of New 
Jersey was Paid us Iloeck. It is probable, therefore, tiiat uj> to 
this time the post at Bergen Neck ha<l not been oecupied since 
its abandonment by the Americans. The exact date of the ocru- 

^Onderdonk's Prison Ships. Notwitbstandinjf this expro-ssion of fri«>nd»hij>, 
Fell was treated with such severity during his captivitj that the Council of 
Safety in New Jersey, Miautcs, p. KU.ou Nov. 17. 1777, ordered .Innies Parker 
iuul Walter Rutherfurd to be confined in the jail at .Murristown uoV>l Fell and 
Wynant Van Zant should be exchanjred or released from confinement i^ New 


pancy of the latter post by the British is not known, but probably 
during the winter of 1778-9. The post at Panlus Hoeck was 
held by them with great tenacity. It was the only point at 
wliich they conld with safety land their troops for incnrsions. 
Here, on the night of February 2-1, 1779, landed portions of the 
Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Eegiments of the British, under 
Lieut.-Colonel Sterling, on their way to attempt the capture of 
Governor Livingston at Elizabethtown. They marched across 
the hill to Brown's ferry, whence they were taken in boats sent 
for that purpose from New York around by the Kill van Ivull.^ 

" On Sunday morning, March 14th, 1779, Colonel Yan Bus- 
kirk received intelligence that a Captain and Lieutenant, with a 
party of Carolina troops, were at the Three Pigeons in Bergen 
\Yoods.~ He despatched Lieutenant Haselop, of the Fourth Bat- 
talion of N. J. Yolunteers, and a party of Befugees, in quest of 
them ; but the Bebels, being apprized of his approach, took to 
their Heels, when, after pursuing them twelve miles into the 
country, came up with the party, and firing a few shot, made two 
of them prisoners, one of whom was wounded ; the rest, with the 
advantage of sleighs and their wonted precipitancy, escaped." 
—Rivin<jton?s Gazette^ March 17, 1779, 

" On Friday night, April 2d, 1779, Lieut. Paul, of Colonel 
Shreve's Begiment, with twelve privates, were captured on Ber- 
gen Neck by a detachment of the Olth Begiment, which lay at 
Bowles YiQoVP—lUd, April 7, 1779.^ 

" On Saturday (April 17th, 1779), two of the Bergen County 
Militia, who with others had been out reconnoitering, suspecting, 
from the conduct of a boy the}' saw running in great haste to- 
wards a house on the bank of the Hudson Eiver, about a mile 
above Wiehawk, that some of the infamous gang of robbers that 
have for some time infested this and neighboring parts of the 

' HatfieMs History of Elizabeth, 472. 

- Bergen Woods extended from the Fort Lee road on the north to the Hack- 
ensack turnpike at Union Hill on the south. 

^ Israel Shreve at this time commanded the Second New Jersey Regiment. 
He was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, November 8, 1775, and Colonel Jan- 
uary 1, 1777. Liher G2of Commissions (Trenton), IG. 


State of New York, were concealed there, jKlvaiiced as ia«t as 
possible to flu' house; one of them entered ininiediiitrly and dis- 
covered five or six in the house, several of whom had aniM, and 
with admiral. It' j.resence of mind eallinn; aloud to his companion 
as if a lar<;f party had accompanied him, dischari^cd his musket 
and killed the chief of the g-ani;- on the spot. liL'tirin^ to load hi.«^ 
piece, the rest of the villain.s took to their hecW—yewJrrM,,/ 
Gazette, Aj>ril 2S, 17 7'.K 

"On Sunday niiiht, 2Sth ult., a party of about thirty men be- 
lono;in<:; to Lieut. -( 'ol. Van lluskirk's corps of tories and end)odied 
I\efuo;ees stationed at IIoel)Uck, in the County of Bergen, went out 
as far as Clostei- on a horse stealiiiii; .ind thievinj;; expedition."— 
Same Paper. 

" Last Wednesday (Jan. 18th) a Mr. Allen, ensiirn in the rebel 
Army, with three Jersey militiamen, were apprehended on Her- 
gen Point, by a party fro. n Capt. Anstruther's company of the 
26th Regiment." — TUvinijtonh Gazette, Jannarii 20, 1770. 

" Last Saturday, four privates of the Ilebel Army were brought 
to Tloebuck by a detachment of Col. Buskirk's Ilegiment. They 
consisted of one of Baylers Light-Horse, one continental, and 
two miliriaiiicn." — Rleliujton^s Gazette, March 31, 177D. 

'•Earlv yesterdav morning a partv of the 4th T^>attalion, N. J. 
volunteers, were ordered out by their Lieut.-Col. Buskirk, under 
Capt. Yan Allen, to intercept a gang of Rebels who paint them- 
selves black and commit rmwdi rs anel thefts in Bergen County. 
Three of them were met a small distance from the T(»wn of I'er- 
gen, carrying oti' an inhabitant, but being briskly ])ursued, one 
named David Ritzema Bogert, the other, the noted John Loshier, 
who was concerned in the murder of honest Capt. John Rich- 
ards, and whose repeated instances of villainy had rendered him 
among the Rebels deserving their earliest attention for exchange, 
when lately taken by a party of the same Battalion, who have a 
xeeoniJ time spared /i/.v /{*/'<?.'' — /*/rhit/fot>'s Gazette, Jiiti/ 24. 

"A [)arty ot Rel)els came down last Thursday as far as Prior'.x 
Mills, within a mile of Powlis Hook, and tired some sliot at the 
sentry at that i)ost, but a few jnen being ordered out after tliem, 


they soon took to their heels and made the best of their Way into 
the Bush." — N. Y. Mercury^ June 21, 1779. 

"We now come to a brilliant episode in the history of Paulus 
Hoeck. Major Henry Lee — Light Horse Harry — an active and 
dashing otticer, had frequently been employed by "Washington in 
scouring the west bank of the Hudson and collecting informa- 
tion. In the course of his reconnoitering, and from information 
derived from other sources, he had discovered that the British 
post at Paulus Hoeck was negligently guarded. General 
Wayne's recent brilliant exploit at Stony Point had piqued his 
emulation, and he intimated to the commander-in-chief that an 
opportunity offered for an enterprise quite as daring. When 
first proposed, Washington did not favor the project. Writing 
on August 10th, 1779, he says that, considering the position of 
the enemy, he deems the attempt too hazardous, and unwarranted 
by the magnitude of the object. He thought the cause would 
lose more in case of failure than it could gain in case of success. 
He thought it best, therefore, to postpone the attempt.^ Major 
Lee, however, was so sanguine of success that he had a personal 
interview with Washington, and received the desired consent 
and verbal instructions. These enjoined upon him to lose no 
time, in case of success, in attempting to bring off cannon, stores, 
or any other articles, as a few moments' delay might expose the 
party to great risk from the enemy on York Island ; and if the 
post could not be carried by surprise the attempt was to be 
abandoned.'^ The position was a strong one, and it was almost 
rashness to attempt to carry it. Yet its very strength ftivored 
its capture by rendering its garrison negligent and unwatchful. 
On the north was Harsimus cove, on the east the North River, 
on the south Communipaw cove, and on the west a marsh in 
which was a creek running near the westerly edge of the upland 
from near Montgomery street southwesterly into the southerly 
cove near the foot of "Van Yorst street. This creek had been con- 
nected with the Harsimus cove by a ditch about on the line of 
Warren street, made a few years previously by Major David 

' Spark's Washington, vL, 317. '^Jbid., ti, 3. 

MA.IOK f.KK S CAI'llKK i >K I'AI MS ItnKfK. 


riunt. Ovei- this ditch, mi tlic hiic nt' Ncwurk iivi'iuic, was » 
(lr!i\vl)ri(li::;c witli a haricMl i^ati-. Tliirty |iaces inside ot* thf (litcli 
;in<l crock was a row of abattis extoiidiii<; into the river. < )n the 
lloeck were stroni' niilitarv Murks, first constructed hv tlio 
Americans, and aftcrwai-d strengthened ]>y the I>riti>h.' The 
main works were in the line of Sussex street, extendini,' from 
about St. ^fatthew's churcli easterly to rrreene street. Tlie bar- 
racks were at the intersection of Essex and Warren streets. From 
the main fort a redoubt extended soutlierly ah»n^ Washin^^ton 
street to a half-moon furt <in the southerly side of Essex street. 
There was one fort on the northwest corner i4' Wa>hin^ton and 
Orand streets. Some block-houses had been constructed north 
of the main works, and one of them north of the road leadinj^ to 
the ferry. The burvin<ji;round was on the west of Washintrton 
street, extendino- from Sussex street to a short distance south of 

Morris street."- The accomj)anying illus- 
tration from Lossinrc's Field liook, though 
not entirely accurate, will <;ive a general 
^{^ '" '.. " """^^sssl^^X idea of the situation of the Works. One 
" ' '"'" "' " ■' (A) redoubt was circular in fi»rni, and 

mounted six heavy guns. It hatl a ditch 
and abattis. The other (R), a little south- 
east of it, was of oblong form, and had 
three twelve-pounders and one eighteen- 
pounder; (( a were block-houses; hbhhh, l)reastworks front- 
ing the bay ; (\ part of the 5Tth regiment, of five hundre<l men, 
under Major Sutherland ; '/, pioneers; t\ carpenters;/'/"/', bar- 
lacks ; y, bridge built by the British.' Lee was stationed near 
the New Bridge, about fourteen miles from the Iloeck. Fear- 
ing the treachery of the inhabitants, he carefully kept Ills own 
counsel, but gave out that he was about to go with a few troops 

' Cd. Hist, of y. Y., viii., 792. 

'' When Washington street was graded many bones and a few military relics* 
were dug up. Mr. George Dummer placed the bones in a hogsheacl and burietl 
them at the intersection of Morris and Washington streets. 

■ Marshall, in his Life (f Wnxhington, ir., V-W, nays there were one fort, three 
block-houses, and some redoubts. 


on a fbraging expedition. This effectually disarmed suspicion, 
for such parties were frequent, and occasionally quite as large 
as his proposed force. He had taken the precaution to provide 
boats, which for the purpose had been brought from Plucki- 
min, and which were to be at Dow's Ferry at a certain hour in 
the night, under the command of Captain Peyton, for the pur- 
pose of taking his troops over the Hackensack ; for it was his 
intention after the attack to retreat by this ferry and the Belle- 
ville turnpike across the meadows to the high ground on the 
east bank of the Passaic, on his way to the New Bridge. To 
hold the place with the enemy in New York was impossible, 
and did not enter into the plans of Washington or Lee. The 
object was to swoop down upon the post, strike an unexpected 
blow, and retreat, thus giving eclat to the continental arms. 
He had four hundred infantry and a troop of dismounted dra- 
goons for the enterprise. Lord Sterling moved down to the 
New Bridge, to be in a position to cover the retreat if neces- 
sary. Lee moved from his encampment about four o'clock 
in the afternoon of August IS, 1779. He detached patrols of 
horse to watch the communication with the North Paver, and 
stationed parties of infantry at the different roads leading tu 
Pauhis Hoeck. He followed what was known as the lower 
road, which came into the present Hackensack road near the 
English Neighborhood church. When reaching the vicinity of 
Union Hill he filed into the woods. Here the guide, through 
timidity or treachery, prolonged the march to three hours ; the 
troops became harassed and discouraged, and in endeavoring to 
regain the proper route some parties in the rear became separated 
from the main body. As singular as it may seem, with all this 
marching and floundering in the woods, with detachments 
stationed at difterent points and patrols along the river, they 
were not discovered. This is the more wonderful since it is well 
known that at about the time Major Lee started for Paulus Hoeck, 
Colonel Van Buskirk left that place, with a force of one hundred 
and thirtv men, on a raid to the English Neighborhood,^ and 

'^ Ritin (/ton's Gazette, August 21, 1779. 

MA.KiK I.KK's ( A1"HI{K OK I'Ari.IS IIOKCK. 157 

vet the two t'oi'ces missed cadi other in the «hirknc'.H.s. A colli- 
sion between them would h;i\f put an end to thi- ciiterpisc! upon 
which Lee liad set his licart, and wliicdi for its extent nin<ruji 
among- tlie most heroic actions of tlu' wai-.' 

Notwithstandinir all the didavs incident to a ni«rht marcli and 
iunorance or treachery of the ,i:;nide, Major Lee reached I'rior's 
Mill at throe o'clock on the moriiiiiLr of the lUth. The duv was 
near at hand, and the tide, whicli wonld fill the ditch and ovur- 
tlow the road between Warren and ( imve streets, was risini;. 
Not a moment was to be lo>t. The punctilios of rank and 
honor were disregarded, and the troops ordered to advance in 
the positions thej' then In Id. Lieutenant lindolph, who had 
been sent forward to reconnoitre the passages of the ditch, now 
reported to ^[ajor Lee tliat all Avas silent within the works, tliat 
he had fathomed the canal and found the passage possible. This 
intelligence was passed along the lines, and the troops pushed 
forward with resolution, order and coolness. Lieutenants 
M'Callister and Rudolph led the forlorn hope, who marched, 
with ti-ailed arms, in silence. They reached the ditch at the 
intersection of Newark avenue and W'airen street at half-past 
three o'clock on Thursday morning. The guards were either 
asleep or took the approaching force to be Colonel Van Bus- 
kirk's men returning from their raid. They were not undeceived 
until the advance plunged into the ditch. Immediately a tiring 
benan. The blockhouse iruards ran out to see what was the 
matter and were seized. The forlorn hope, supported by Major 
Clarke, broke through all opposition, and soon became niastei*s 
of the main work, with the cannon. &c. So raj»id were they in 
their movements tliat the fort was gained before a piece of artil- 
h'ry wa> tireil. riie troops came pouring througli the al)attis, 
and in a few moments were victorious. Unfortunately, in cros.**- 
imr the ditch the anununition was destroyed, and thus their tire- 
arms were useless. As soon as Major Sutherland, then in com- 
mand of this post, comprehended the situation, he threw himsell 
into a small redoubt, with a captain, subaltern and forty He.-.- 

Gordon's Jlist. Am. Recolution, Hi., 283. 


sians. Major Lee had no time to dislodge him or remove or 
destroy property. Daylight was at hand, and he had some 
anxiety about the boats at Dow's Ferry. Besides this, the firing 
had aroused the British in New York, who could in a few 
minutes throw a large body of troops across the river. He 
therefore ordered an immediate retreat, and sent Captain Forsyth 
to Prior's Mill to collect such men as were most fit for action, 
and take a jiosition on Bergen Heights to cover the retreat. 
Major Clarke ^vas in the advance, with most of the prisoners ; 
Lieutenants Armstrong and Reed formed the rear guard. Lee 
now rode forward to look after the boats at the ferry. To his 
dismay, not a boat was there to receive them. Captain Peyton, 
owing to the lateness of the hour, had removed them to Newark. 
He immediately countermarched his troops to the Bergen road 
en route for the New Bridge, communicated with Lord Sterling, 
and returned to the rear guard at Prior's Mill. His prospects 
were now discouraging. With troops worn down, ammunition 
destroyed, encumbered M-ith prisoners, fourteen miles of retreat 
before him, on a route liable to be intercepted by troops from 
Xew York, with no way of escape to tlie left, he could only 
depend on the invincible courage of his men. On reaching the 
heights opposite " Weehock," Captain Handy moved on the 
mountain road to facilitate the retreat. Here Captain Catlett 
came up, with fifty men and good ammunition. One part}' was 
then detached in the rear of Major Clarke on the Bergen road, and 
one to move alono^ the bank of the river. In this manner a 
sudden attack was prevented. At the Fort Lee road Colonel 
Ball, who had been forwarded to Lee's assistance, met him with 
two hundred fresh men. Shortly afterward a body of the enemy 
appeared upon the right and opened fire on tlie retreating 
Americans. Lieutenant Reed immediately faced them, and 
Lieutenant Rudolph threw himself into a stone house which com- 
manded the road. This disposition checked the enemy, and 
gave the force time to cross the English Neighborhood creek, 
at the Liberty Pole, now Englewood. Just at that moment, 
Major Sutherland, who had followed Lee, came up, but halted, 
and finally fell back without venturing an attack. Major Lee 

MAJOR I.Ee'8 C'AI>'iri;K oK I'AII.l'S HDKCK. 151) 

arrived safely at New Hridfje al)Oiit one o'clock in fho uftcniMnn, 
He had ca])tured <>iic liundrfil .iinl lit'ty-niiic of the •,'anisnn, iii- 
clndin<; otlicerf;, and h)st two kiUccl anil three wounded. 

In his report of the enterprise, he says : •• Anioiif^ the many 
unfortunate circumstances which crossed our wishes, noiu? was 
more so than the accidental ahsence of (Jolonel J>uskirk, and 
the c:reatcst ])art of liis rcijinient. * * A conijtany of vit;ilant 
Hessians had taken their place in the fort, which rendered the 
secrecy of api^roach more precarious, and, at the same time, 
diminished tlu' object of tlie enteri)rise by a reduction of the 
number of the garrison. .Major Sutherland fortunately saved 
himself by a soldier's counterfeiting his person. This imposition 
was not discovered until too late. 

" I intended to have burnt the barracks; but on findinir a 
number of sick soldiers and women with voung children in 
them, humanity forbade the execution of my intention. The 
key of the maii-azine^ could not be found, nor coidd it be broken 
open in the little time we had to spare, many attempts having 
been made to that purpose by the Lieutenants M'Callister and 

' The location of this majja/.ine was in the vicinity of the present almshouse, 
at the foot of Washington stri-et, near the canal. 

- In the Anecdotes of the Revolution, ii, 41:3, may be found a curious story 
concerning this attack. It appears that one Van Skiver, a native of New York, 
and a private in Col. Van Buskirk's regiment, was an unexceptionable rxnniplr 
of original sin. For some cause, then unknown to the AnuTii-ans, he d«'.-*erte*l 
the tories He then joine.-i the Americans, and showed so much zeal and such 
inveterate and deadly animosity against his former friends, niid siH>ke with such 
confidence of the feasibility of injuring them Ijy an attack on their outposts, 
that Major Lee listened to his plans and finally acceded to the proposal to at 
tempt the capture of Paulus Iloeck. Entire confidence, however, was not 
placed in Van Skiver. Armed with an axe, he was placed at the head of the 
advancing column, a file of men with fixed bayonets following imme«iintely in 
his rear to do speedy execution upon him should he either falter or show the 
slightest symi)toms of treachery. lie was eiiual to the emergency, and renily 
to boldly attem|)t what he had |)roposed. With steady .step and undaunted 
resolution he advanced and actually cut down two barriers in succession, giving 
free admission to the troops into the body of the place. 

It might naturally be supi)osed that such a display of hostility to the British 
would have caused Van Skiver to be ranked among the most determined of the 


This brilliant affair nnder the gnus of Xew York was very 
galling to the British and tories. Sir Henry Clinton, in a letter 
to Lord Gerniaine, dated Angnst 21, 1779, says : " On the 19th 
instant, the garrison at Powle's Hook being reinforced, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Bnskirk was detached with part of the troops to cut 
off some small parties who interrupted the supplies of provision ; 
a considerable body of rebels availed themselves of that oppor- 
tunity to attempt the post. At three in the morning they ad- 
vanced to the gate of the works, and being taken for Buskirk's 
corps returning, entered without opposition. I fear they found 
the garrison so scandalously absorbed, in consequence of their 
security, that they made themselves masters of a block-house 
and two redoubts with scarcely any difficulty." 

The tory newspapers in New York say that " early in the 
raorninor.a detachment from the Brigade of the Guards, under 
command of Colonel Gordon, and the Hessians landed at raulus 
Hoeck, and with the light infantry under Captain Maynard pur- 
sued Lee. The pursuit was continued for fifteen miles, and 
two of the prisoners recaptured. Ensign Barrett of the Seven- 
tieth Eegiment, with a small detachment, captured Captain Meals 
at the Three Pigeons. L^pon his person were found the orders 
and dispositions of Lee, relating to the march and attack on 
Paulus Hoeck. Barrett also destroyed at the English Neigh- 
borhood a rebel armory, gunsmith's implements, and a great 
quantity of musket locks, bayonets, tk;c."^ 

While the British and tories were galled, the Americans were 
overjoyed at the covp cle main. Washington sent his congratu- 
lations to Lord Sterling, and, in a letter to Congress, said : 
" The Major displayed a remarkable degree of prudence, address 

king's enemies. But even at that moment his appearance of zeal was merely 
intended as a lure to gain respect and confidence, for lie had scarcely returned 
to camp when it was discovered that he was in treaty, and actually far advanced 
in a plan, to deliver Lee and his Legion into the hands of the enemy. Severe 
was the penalty which he paid. Sentenced to five hundred lashes, he had the 
greater part of them inflicted, and was then drummed out of the army. He re- 
turned to New Yorlv, and was heard of no more. 
' Ricington's Gazette, August 21, 1779. 

(•|)N(;i:i>> ( OMIM.IM I.NTS MA.Kii: I.KK. I'll 

;m(l hravciv u|niii this occasion, which does tin* highest honor t<» 
liiiUM'lf ami to all the utHcers {ind men under his coniinjind. 'i'lie 
situation ut the post rondcrcil the iittenipt critieal ami the sui-- 
(•;'ss brilliiint." 

Fnder date of lSei)tcnil)er l", 177'.', .lames Dujuu-, in a letter 
to Alexander Ilaniilton, speaks of it a> "* ( )ne of the mo>t daring 
and insolent assaults that is to he t'ound in the re(*ord> of chiv 
ah"}'; an achievement so brilliant in itself, >o romantic in tin- 
scale of British admiration, that none l»ut a hero, inspired by the 
fortitude, instructed by the wisdom, and ijuided by the planet of 
Washington, could, by the exploit at Paulu> Hook, have fur- 
nished materials in the page of history to give it a parallel.'" 

On the 24tli of Sei)teml)er Congress passed the following reso- 
lutions respecting the atfair : 

^^/ieaolvi'd, That the thanks of C(»ngress be given to jus Excel- 
lency General AVashingt(»n for ordering, with so much wisdom, 
the late attack on the enemy's fort and woi'ks at Powli's Hook. 

'^li'esoh'e//, That the thanks of Congress be given to Majur-( Gen- 
eral J.ord Sterling for the ju<licious measures taken by him to 
forward the enterprise and to secure the retreat of the party. 

"y*V6'o/iV(7, That the thaid'CS of Congress be given to Major Lee 
for the remarkable pnidtiice, address and bi-avery displaye<l by 
him on the occasion ; and that they approve the humanity >iiown 
in circumstances prompting to severity as honoral)le to the 
arms of the United States, and correspondent to the noble prin- 
ciples on which they were assumed. 

'^Jiesolced, That Congress entertain a high sense of the disci- 
piine, fortitude and spirit manifested b}' the otKcers and .-ioldien* 
under the connnand of Major Lee in the march, action and re- 
treat ; and while with singular satisfaction they acknowledge the 
merit of these irallant men. thcv feel an additional i)leasurehv con- 
sidering them as part of an army in which vei"y many brave otticci> 
and soldiers have proved, by their cheerful performance of every 
duty under every ditiiculty, that they ardently wish to give the 
truly gloi-ious examples they now receive. 

' Jlamilton's Works, »., 86, 87. 



^^ Resolved ,, That Congress justly esteem the military caution 
so happily combined \vith daring activity by Lieutenants M'Cal- 
lister and Rudolph, in leading on the forlorn hope. 

'•''Resolved^ That a medal of gold, emblematical of this aifair, 
be struck, under the direction of the Board of Treasury, and pre- 
sented to Major Lee. 

^'■Resolved, That the brevet and the pay and subsistence of 
Captain be given to Lieutenant M'Callister and to Lieutenant 
Rudolph respectively." 

Congress also placed in the hands of Major Lee $15,000 to be 
distributed among the soldiers engaged in the attack.^ 


On one side is a bust of the hero, with the words Heneico Lee, 
Legionis Equit. pr^fecto. Comitia Americana. " The Ameri- 
can Congress to Henry Lee, Colonel of Cavalry."" On the re- 
verse : NoN obstantib. fluminibus vallis astutia & yirtute bel- 


In mem. pugn. ad Paulus Hook, die xix Aug., 1779. "Not- 
witlistanding rivers and intrenchments, he with a small band 
conquered the foe by warlike skill and prowess, and firmly 
bound by his humanity those who had been conquered by his 
arras. In memory of the conflict at Paulus Hook, nineteenth of 
August, 1779."^ 

' Journal of Congress, v., 368. 

- The joy does not seem, however, to have been universal. There is and al- 

MIDAI. STKt CK IN IIi>Ni>l: ( )I I.KK. lll.'J 

From this tiiiu' until the opeiiiiii; <>! the cainpiui^n in tin; b|iriiij; 
of lT8(t,ltut little ut ;t i;(.'ii(.'i;iU'liiiriictiT tr;iii.>i>iri'(l ill iJer^eii. Iti 
Deeeiuher tullowini:; tlie attack <iii Paiilus llot'ck, (leiKTal Wayiu- 
moved down (Vmu the vicinity of TapiJaeii and ciicaiii|>('d at I'cr- 
^cn. l''iir ;L>lii'it time he kept a vigilant eve on I'auliis Iloeck, 
and then niovetl i)aek to Westtield into winter <jiiarfers.' The 
raids hy hoth parties were kept up on the ])eoph' of this vicinity. 
Money ami valuables were buried and hiibh-n, l>ut now and tlieii 

ways will he un uudertow coutiminlly w^rkinpf to tU'stroy jfnat rfputation.x 
Jealousy is all-sufficient iu small minds to justify the meanest action. The fol- 

lowinjr letter indicates an undertow to tlif popular wave: 

"Camp Noutii ok Smith's Ci.ovb.) 
" August '2>MT7!i. f 
" Deau Siu : 

" I suppose you Lave had a variety of accounts of the sackinjr of Powel's Hook. 
which was taken by surprise about :5 o'clock the mornin;r'>f the l!lth inst., and 
instantly evacuated again by us, after doing no greater damage tlian taking 7 
officers and about IGO Rank and File prisoners, and killing aliout 20 in the Gar- 
rison. We have about 7 privates missing. Had not the officer who commanded 
— Major Lee — been in so great a hurry from the (iarrisim, mui-h more execution 
might have been done, as they did not take time to carry otf all the prisoners, 
or even to take a Major and party of men who were then in their power. Not 
the least damage whatever was done to the Oarrison. The Magazine was not 
blown up, the Barricks not sett on fire, the Cannon not spiked, no article of 
Stores, Clothing, &c., &c., of which a great plenty were there, was the leart 
damaged ; in fact, nothing further was done than rushing into the (Jarrison in 
confusion and driving out the i>risoners, mostly without their clothet*. Perhaps 
there will be an incjuiry into the reason of the confusion and great ha-^te the 
party made to get out of the fort without destroying so many valuable stonw as 
were in their possession. Several officers have been much injured in tlie Vir- 
ginia line, on account of giving Major Lee the command of :JLM) of our men to 
reduce Powel's Hook, and unjust methods taken by him to liave the command, 
by telling one of our Majors, wlio marched with the :jOO men. that his commit 
sion was older than it really is— otherwise he would not have had th.' command 
over him. I believe Major Lee will l)e arrested. I marched with a covering 
party, but did not go near the garrison. Lord Sterling, who commanda bore. 
is very uneasy at our complaints on this aflfair. Several letters have paM«d 
between his lordship and the officers of our line concerning his ordering 300 

of our men viuder Major Lee. * * * 

" W ('K(>(iH.\N. 

"Mr. Barnard (« rat/,, Phila." 

nist. Mag., 180. ' N. T. Mfrcury. Jan. 10. 1780. 


the secret places of these treasures would be revealed by the tory 
neighbors. In the house of the late Captain Howe, near Cavan 
Point, lived George and Garret Vreeland, father and son. One 
night the tories came to the house, locked them in the kitchen 
cellar (the kitchen is yet standing), and robbed the house of a 
large number of silver dollars. The next morning they were set 
free by their faithful old slave. 

In these times, for the accommodation of the British, the people 
of Bergen were permitted to take provisions over the river. On 
these occasions they would take the opportunity to purchase 
what things were needed l)y their families. This fact was soon 
found out by the tories, who, whenever they could, would rob 
these Bergen merchants of their return cargoes. The strategists 
of Communipaw were equal to the emergency. There was a 
barn just south of Communipaw avenue, tlie doors of which they 
used for a code of signals. These doors were then made in two 
parts, and if, on the return of the skiffs Irom iS^ew York, the men 
in them saw the upper part of the door open, then they knew that 
all was right and their freight safe. But if, on the contrary, it 
was closed, then the}' might know that the tories were about, and 
they must tarry at Ellis Island. The tories finally found out the 
secret, but were uncertain if the door should be open or shut to 
signify a " welcome liome " to the voyagers across the river. At 
one time, when they were waiting for the return of the richly 
laden argosies, a contention arose among them whether the do(U' 
should be open or shut to signify that the coast was clear. . Be- 
tween the two the door was opened and shut and shut and opened 
in such rapid succession that the men in the boats, doubting as 
to the condition of things on shore, gave themselves the benefit 
of the doubt, pulled back to the island, and left the ''gude vrouws" 
to fight it out with the tories. 

It is said that one day the British sent a fiag trom Paulus 
Hoeck to General Wayne, then on New Barbadoes Neck, which 
''Hop" Jerolamon, of the latter place, in his mistaken zeal, cap- 
tured, and took the saddle and bridle as lawful prize. Mad 
Anthony, in tnrn, captured the indiscreet " Hop," put the saddle 
on his back (tradition puts the bridle in his mouth, vide Proverbs, 

I'AIMlrii Ai; 1N( II)KNT8. in.*! 

x.wi., ;i), and >(.'iit liiui to I'aiilus Iloi-ck \,, 1m- i»mii>ht'd at tlio 
discretion of the JJritisli. " Hop'' keenly felt the mortification, 
hut a " military necessity'' pushed him aloiii^ <»ver the meadows 
and liill until lie (•aiiic ti) Pi-ioi"- Mill. Here lu; encountered the 
enemy's })ickets and wished to lay down his hurden, thinkini; he 
had carried the joke far enough. Xotso thoui^ht his captors, ami 
he was forced to trudge uloiii:: to headcpiarters '' uccuutred as he 

Jacol) \ an Wagenen, liviui; at JJer<:jen, had everythinj; stolen 
tVoni him hy the tories and Hritisli. One day they were driving 
off twelve of his cattle toward tlicir ltar<:;e, which lay in the 
llackensack, just ahove the present hridi^c of the New Jersey 
Railroad. One of his faithful ne<]jroes endeavored to jjrevent 
them. They seized the coura<:;eous fellow, and hung him to a 
tree until he was willing to withdraw all opposition to the de- 
]>arture of his master's property. 

The winter of 1770-80 was of unu.-ual severity.' The British 
in New York were in great want of fuel. It hecanie so scarce 

' 'I'hf liver between Paulas Hoeck and New York was frozen over. Six per- 
sons, in atteniiitinji to cross over, were carried into the East river. " and provi- 
dentially got on shore by the ice lod<ring on Blnckwell's Istami." — /i/c. Gm., 
Jan. 15, 1780. Governor Tryon caused the river between Paulua Hoeck and 
New York to be measured, and found it to be 2,000 yards wide.— VuUntine'* 
Manual, 1853, 4G4. The river has since been filled in to some extent on l>oth 
sides. Imitating Governor Tryon, two inhabitants of Communipaw measuretl 
the distance from that place to Ellis Island, and found it to l)e 82 chains. Th»*y 
left the following record of their exploit : 

• Januauy 'i4th. 17^«). 

"De winter heel hart /.yndo die Rivier all over Gevrosen Wy die jwrsonen 
Genamt Cornelius Garrabrants en Giliam Out water had der (iedooht om to 
meeten hoc veer het was van de oost hoeck van Hendrick Hlinkerhofleen buys 
tot het Klin Ilant is 82 Kettings." A ketting is one chain. 

It is worthy of notice that during the last IW years the river has been pass- 
able on the ice only four times, viz.. 1740-1, 1TG4-."), 1770-80, an.l 1S20-1. In 
January of the latter year an enterprising vender of wliiskey opened shop in 
the middle of the river. A " drouty crony," going from Jersey City for a glaso. 
broke through the ice. A wag standing at the door of the saloon said to tlie 
proprietor : " Sir, there has a man just n/ipprd down cdlar—yoxi had lietter look 
after him, or your li(iuors will be in danger." Ceutintl of Frnilom. Jan. 30. 


that the commandant was obliged to limit the maximum price to 
fourj)onnds sterling per cord! The high price for wood was a 
great temptation to the tories. At that time the hill from Fort 
Lee to Bergen Point, except what had been cleared for the farms, 
was covered with a fine growth of thrifty timber. This they de- 
termined to cut off and sell to the shivering British. To make it 
safe for them to enter upon the business, it was necessary to 
have redoubts, breastworks or block-houses into which they could 
retire at night, and to which they might fly in case of attack by 
day. They therefore constructed the block-house at a place 
since called Block- House Point, near Bull's Ferry. They also 
threw up earthworks on the old Bergen road, just below Wood- 
lawn avenue. They also had earthworks at Bergen, east of the 
town, near Blakeley Wilson's residence. Besides these, they had 
the fortifications on Paulus Hoeck, and at Fort Delancey, on Ber- 
gen xS^eck. At the latter place Captain Tom Ward held com- 
mand.^ His force consisted of negroes and vile characters of his 
own race. They became as notorious as himself. They were a 
band of plunderers, thieving and raiding by night over to Eliza- 
bethtown, Kewark, New Barbadoes Neck, and along Bergen Hill 
as far up as Closter and New Bridge. He is represented as having 
been a terriljle wretch. It is said that he once hired three ne- 
groes to kill a man in Bero;en to whom he was indebted. " Little 
Will," owned by Yan Ripen, was one of the three. Tom Cad- 
mus, another tory, was sergeant, and ordered tlie fire. The ne- 
groes were afterward caught and hung in the swamp north of 
Bro^v1l's Ferry road, near the present Glendale House, and the 
bodies left hanging for weeks. 

The block-house near Bull's Ferry was occupied by refugees 

' He is said to have been a native of Newark, and a deserter. Remembrancer, 
xi., 165. The latter part of the assertion may be true ; the former part is not 
only denied, but met by the avowal that Tom Ward of Newark was a well 
known and active patriot. In the N. Y. Mercury, Avgust 4, 1760, I find a 
paragraph that Thomas Ward, of Bergen County, had lost a son, who became 
mad from the bite of a wild cat. It is very probable that the father of that boy 
is identical with the notorious Captain Tom Ward, of Fort Delancey, and imitat- 
ed Colonel Van Bu^kirk in deserting the cause of his countrv. 


ami wood-cutters, iimlcr eoininand of Colcmcl Cuv1»t, It whh lo- 
cated I'll till' liiuh I'oiiit ul)ove tlie ravine wliicli exteiidn hack 
from the river, on the north side <if (iutteidicr;;. It \va» pn*- 
tected on two sides by perpondicuhvp rucks which rise tr«>ni the 
sliore and the ravine, and surntuiKh'il on the othtr ^idert by 
abattis and stockades, with a ditch and parapet. The only en- 
trance to the block-house was a covered way laffjo enoufxh to ad- 
mit but a single person/ Colonel Cuyler being temporarily absent 
from this post, Captain Tom A\ anl was in command of the 
seventy men stationed there. Washington, then near Sutrenis, 
havins: been informed that there were a lunnber of cattle on 
Bergen Neck exposed to the enemy, gent General Wayne to 
bring tliem off, and destroy the block-house at the same time. In 
the afternoon of the 20th of July, 17S<i, the first and second 
Pennsylvania regiments, with four pieces of Proctor's artillery 
and Moylan's drago<^s, in all about one thousand men, started 
from their camp on the erf)edition. They arrived at New 
Bridije about nine o'clock in the evening. Here they rested 
four or five hours, and then piishcil forward for Bull's Fen-y. 
Major Lee, the hero of Paulus lloeck, was sent to ]>ergen with 
his cavalry to bring off the cattle, while the remainder of the 
force marched against the block-house. General Irvine with a 
l)art of his brigade proceeded along the summit of the ridge, and 
the first brigade, under Colonel Hampton, with the artillery of 
Moylan's horse, by the direct road. About ten o'clock on the 
morning of the 21st, part of the first brigade reached the post. 
Moylan's horse and part of the infantry remained at the fork of the 
roads leading to Paulus Iloeck and l^ergen, i)repared to receive 
the enemy should he approach from that (juarter. (ieneral Irvine 
was posted so as to prevent the enemy landing, should he ap- 
proach by vessel. Near Fort Lee two regiments were concealed, 
prepared for the enemy. One regiment was p<isted in a hollow 
way on the north side of the block-house, and another on the 
south side, with orders to keep up a constant fire into the port- 
holes to favor the advance of the artillery. When the tield- 

Pennsyltnnia Packet, July 25, 1780. 


pieces arrived they were placed sixty yards distant, and a can- 
nonade commenced, which continued from eleven o'clock until 
noon, without intermission. Up to that time but little im- 
pression had been made on the block-house, and orders were 
given to retire. Just at that moment one regiment burst through 
the^abattis, and advanced to the stockades. They were received 
with such a galling fire from the tories that they were com- 
pelled to withdraw.^ Boats were now beginning to move up and 
down the river, but no attempt was made to land. The sloops 
and M^ood-boats at the landing were destroyed, and three or four 
prisoners taken. The cattle were driven off as originally in- 
tended, l)ut the other part of the expedition was a failure. Gen- 
eral Wayne says that he lost fifteen killed and fifteen wounded.'- 
The enemy claimed that " the brave Captain Ward pursued the 
i-ear upwards of four miles, retook twenty cattle, killed one 
rebel and took two prisoners.'" The refu|^es admitted the loss 
of four killed and eight wounded." Among the latter were 
George and Absalom Bull, residents of the immediate neighbor- 
hood. General Wayne was chagrined at his failure, and on wit- 
nessing the slaughter of his men, shed tears. Washington deeply 
regretted the misfortune, and hastened to explain away the bad 
effect which the failure of the attack upon the Block-House 
might have upon Congress. Among other things he said, 
" Wayne for some time tried the effect of his field-pieces upon 
it, but though the fire was kept up for an hour, they were found 
too light to penetrate the logs of which it was constructed. 
The troops during this time being galled by a constant fire from 
the loop-holes of the house, and seeing no chance of making a 
breach with cannon, those of the first and second regiments — 
notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the officers to restrain 
them — rushed through the abattis to the foot of the stockade, 
with a view of forcing an entrance, which was found impractica- 
ble. This act of intemperate valor was the cause of the loss we 

' Tradition says when the attacking party withdrew the tories had but one 
round of ammunition left. 

* Spark.s' WasJtuigton, tii., 116. ^Bixington's Gazette, July 22, 1780. 

RK.ioi(iN(; or riiK i:nkmv. 10'.' 

sustained, iiiid whidi aniDuiitid in the wljolc to *'. otHccrH 
wouiiiU'd, 1 .') lum-cdiumissioned ofHcrrs mill |>rivHtcs killed, :md 
4H non-t'<jinnussiono<.l ofticers and privates wounded." 

To add a keener ]>anuj to the inurtification of failure, the 
eneniv indul<rcd in i'reat exultation. Sir Ilmrv Clinton com- 
pliinente(l tlic refugees in the following tcnii>: 

" SiK : The ( 'oiiiinandir-in-iliii'f, a(hnirin<.j the<,'allantry of the 
Tlefup;ees, who in such small numbers defended their post against 
so very oonsiderahle a eorps, and withstood both tlu'ir cannonade 
and assault, desires his very particulni- acknowledi^nu-nt of their 
merit may be testified to tlieni. 

''His E.xcellency requests that you will ji;ivt,' in a return of the 
numbers present at this spirited defence, that lie may give direc- 
tions for uniform, clothing and hats being given them from the 
Inspector General's office. 

"In future you?' re*iisition of ammunition will be valid with 

the Ordinance. 

" I liave the honor to be, 

" Sir, your nu)St f>bedient 

''and most lunnble servant, 

"John Anokk, D. A. D."' 

The following sarcastic suggestion appeared in print : 

" A lady presents her compliments to the Sir Clement of the 

Philadelphia Ball Room, and desires the next country dances 

may coinmencc with a new movement, called, 




in com})liment to a certain General, who (emulating his brother 
Arnold) was lately checked on the North Kiver, by a vxilhrv- 
revse event, and his glories (now on the Wane) threatene«l ^vith 
an insuperable mortification."'' 

' Ritinff ton's Gazette, July 22, ITSO. ' I hid, July 28. ITW. 


Even the King of Great Britain sang the praises of the block- 
house defenders in the following strains : 

" The very extraordinary instance of courage shown by the 
Loyal Refugees, in the affair of Bull's Ferry, of which you make 
such honorable mention, is a pleasing proof of the spirit and res- 
olution with which men in their circumstances will act against 
tlieir oppressors, and how great advantages the King's troops 
may derive from employing those of approved fidelity. And his 
Majesty, to encourage such exertions, commands me to desire that 
you will acquaint the survivors of the brave Seventy that their 
behavior is approved of by their Sovereign."^ 

The expedition was very neatly caricatured in a mock heroic 
poem written by Major Andre, on the model of Chevy Chase. 
The whole is in three cantos. The first was published in Riv- 
ingtorCs Gazette^ August 16, 1780 ; the second, August 30, 
and the third, September 23. The last canto was sent to the 
paper the day before Andre left New York to meet Arnold, and 
published the very day he was captured at Tarrytown. Its com- 
position may have been suggested by the fact tliat Andre had 
boarded with John Thompson, the Wood-cutting Agent at New 
York. It was written at headquarters, number one Broadway, 
except the first canto, which was written at Elizabeth-Town. Its 
title was " The Cow Chase, in three Cantos ; Published on oc- 
casion of the Kebel General Wayne's attack of* the Eefugees' 
Block-house on Hudson's Kiver, on Friday, the 21st of July, 
1780.'' The following is an exact copy of the poem as it ap- 
peared in the Gazette ; 

Rivington's Gazette, Dec. 13, 1780. 

ANDIvK S ( ()\V ( MASK. | 71 

Kt,iZAi!i;rii-''l"o\\ N, A'/'/. I, ITSn. 

T 11 1-: COW (HAS V. . 


Major Andre. 

Canto I. 

To drive the Kiiie one summer's morn, 

The Tanner^ took liis way, 
The Calf shall rue that is unhorn 

The jumbling of that day. 

And Waylfe descending Steers shall kimw, 

And tauntingly deride, 
And call to mind in ev'ry Low, 

The tanning of his hide. 

Yet Bergen Cows shall ruminate 

Unconscious in the stall, 
What mighty means were used to got. 

And lose them after all. 

For many Heroes bold and brave 
From I^ew-Bridge and Tapaan 

And those that drink Passaick's wave. 
And those that eat Soupaan,- 

' Wayne's occupation. 

* An Indian dish of erround corn boiled in water — written »)tpaen. Irvinp- 
says : "Tlic Van Bruniinels were the first inventors of sujipawn, or mush and 
milk." It has liad many names. 

'* Thee the soft nntion!< roiinil the warm Ix'vant 
I'olania call ; the Krcnrh, of conrKr, PiJanf'. 
E'en in thy native reirions" how I hlii!«h 
To hear the I'enncylvnniaus call thee .Vnn/i .'" 

- ffarptr'n .Vn/ftiHn', Jw'y, IsSii. Hi. 

Modern fastidiousness dubs it hasty pudding ! 


Aud Sons of distant Delaware 

And still remoter Shannon/ 
And Major Lee with Horses rare, 

And Proctor with his cannon. 

All wond'rons proud in arms they came 

What hero could refuse ? 
To tread the rugged path to fame 

Who had a pair of shoes. 

At six the Host with sweating biiif, 

Arriv'd at Freedom's Pole,"^ 
Wlien Wayne who thought he'd time enough 

Thus spechified the whole. 

O ye whom glory doth unite 
Who Freedom's cause espouse 

Whether the wing that's doom'd to fight 
Or that to drive the cows. 

Ere yet you tempt your further way 

Or into action come, 
Hear soldiers what I have to say 

And take a pint of Rum. 

Intemp'rate valor then will string, 

Each nervous arm the better 
So all the land shall 10 sing 

And read the Gen'ral's letter.^ 

' The number of Irish in the Pennsylvania line often caused it to be called 
the line of Ireland. 

- Liberty Pole, a small hamlet, now the beautiful village of Englewood, 
where stood a hickory pole. 

•^ The letter here referred to is probably the same printed in Almon's lieinem- 
brancer, x., 290. It is from Washington to the President of Congress, July 26, 
1780. After narrating the story of the expedition, the failure of the attack on 
tlie block-house by reason of the cannon being " too light to penetrate the logs 
of which it was constructed," and the " intemperate valor" of the men causing 
such great loss to themselves, he concludes : " I have been thus particular lest 
the account of this affair should have reached Philadelphia much exaggerated, 
as is commonly the case upon such occasions." Supra. 

ANDJCK S Cow I MASK. 1 7;j 

Know tliiit sonic piiltrv Rcl'iii^'ees 

Whom \'\{> ;i mind to tii;lit. 
Arc phiyiii;^; li — 1 anionfifst the trees, 

Th:it irrow on yonder liei^ht.' 

Tlicir Fort and P>luck-I louses we'll level, 

And deal a lioiriil slani^hter ; 
We'll drive the Scoundrels to the Drvil, 

And ravish wife and daui^hter. 

I under cover ot' th' attack 

Whilst you arc all at hlow.-. 
Fnun Eui^dish Xei^hh'rhood and Tinack 

Will di-ivc away the ( 'ows. 

l'\»r well y(Ui know the lattei- is 

The serious operation 
And tii:;htini' with the Refuijees 

Is only denion^tratioii. 

' More truth than poetry, for to such an extent did the \vo<Mlcutteni jday 
■' h — 1 amonff the trees" in this county that, it is said, from Bull's Ferry to Ber- 
iSrn Point, they did not leave a stick larfje enoujtjli for a whipstock. At onf 
time the growth of timber on the ridge was fine and heavy. In the early dayi* 
New York city depended upon our forests for the defence of the city. When 
I'ornbury feared the approach of the French, he wrote as follows: 

• Np:w Yokk, May the Kith. ITOi. 

" (iKNTI-E.MKN : 

' Having had intelligence lately from the West Indies that a French Squad 
run of Men-of-Warr, with Land forces on board them, intend to attack this place, 
I ;im taking the best methods I can to put the place into a i)nsturf of defence. 
tor svhich purpose I shall want a c<)nsidenii)lf number i>f Stockades, and bi-ing 
informed that there are a great number of trees growing ujwn lx>rgen |Miint fit 
tor that i>urpose, I send this therefore to desire that you will allnw some j>er 
sons who shall be sent from hence to cut the Stockades we want, and likewis*" 
that some of your people may help with their Carts to bring them to the water 
side, for which they shall be paid. 
" I am, 

'• (ientlemen, 

■ Your assured friend. 

■ ("OUMU uv 

*• To the Inhabitants of the Town of Bergen, in the Eastern nivision ■ f Xew 
Jersey."— /Vof. of y. ,/. IIi»t. Sk-.. L, V24. 


His daring words from all the crowd 
Such great applause did gain 

That every man declar'd aloud 
For serious work with Wayne. 

Then from the cask of Kum once more 

They took a heady jill, 
When one and all they loudly swore 

They'd fight upon the hill. 

But here — the Mnse has not a strain 
Befitting such great deeds, 

Huzza they cried, huzza for Wayne 
And shoutino; — did their Needs. 

Canto II. 

Near his meridian pomp, the Sun 
Had journey'd from the horz'n, 

When fierce the dusky Tribe mov'd on 
Of Heroes drunk as poison. 

The sounds confus'd of boasting Oaths, 

Re-echoed thro' the Wood, 
Some vow'd to sleep in dead Men's Cloaths, 

And some to swim in blood. 

At Irvine's !Nod, 'twas fine to see, 

The left prepare to fight, 
The while the Drovers, Wayne and Lee, 

Drew ofi' upon the Right. 

Which Irvine 'twas. Fame don't relate. 

Nor can the Muse assist her. 
Whether 'twas he that cocks a Hat, 

Or he that gives a Glister. 



ANDKK.-' (tiW t;ilA>K. I T.'i 

For greatlv one was sijjnalizM, 

That tbut,'ht at ( 'hesniit-IIill, 
And Canada ininiortali/.M, 

The A^endcroftlu' Till. 

Yet the Attendance upon Proctor, 

They both niii^lit liave to boast of; 
For there was Business for the Doctor, 

And hatts to l)c disposed of.' 

Let none uncandidly infer. 

That Stirlin<; wanted Spunk, 
The self-made Peer liad sure been there, 

P)Ut that the I'ecr was drunk. 

But turn we to the Hudson's Banks, 

AVhere stood the modest Train, 
With Purpose firm, tlio' slender Ranks, 

Nor ear'd a T*in for AVayne. 

l'\)r then the unrelenting Uand 

Of rebel Fury drove, 
And tore from ev'ry genial Baud, 

Of Friendship and of Love. 

And some' within a Dungeon's Gloom, 

By mock Tribunals laid, 
Had waited long a cruel Doom, 

Impending o'er their heads. 

Here one bewails a Brother's Fate, 

There one a Sire demands. 
Cut off alas I before their Date 

By ignominious Hand. 

And silver'd Grandsires here appear'd, 

Li deep Distress serene, 
Of reverend Manners that declared. 

The better days tliey'd seen. 

' One of the Irvines waa a hatter, the other a physician. I>r. Wm. Irrine. 


Oh cnrs'd Kebellioii these are thine, 
Tliine are these Tales of Woe, 

Shall at thy dire insatiate Shrine 
Blood never cease to How 'i 

And now the Foe began to lead, 
His Forces to tli' Attack ; 

Ball wliistling unto balls sncceed, 
And make the Block-House crack. 

No shot could pass, if you will take 
The Gen'raFs Word for true ; 

But 'tis a d — ble Mistake, 
For every Shot went tliro'.^ 

The Hriner as the Kebels pressed, 
The royal Heroes stand ; 

Virtue had nerv'd each honest Breast, 
And Industry each Hand, 

" In Valour's Phrenz}','- Hamilton 

" Rode like a Soldier big, 
" And Secretary Harrison, 

"With Pen stuck in his Wig." 

after two years' captivity in Canada, now commanded the Second Pennsylvania 
Regiment. He died August 2, 1804. Brigadier James Irvine, of the militia, 
was taken prisoner at Chestnut Hill, near Germantown, in December, 1777. 

' Wayne attributed his failure to the lightness of his guns, which he thought 
made no impression on the walls of the house. In this he was mistaken. 
Sparku' Waslungton, vii., 117. 

- Vide Lee's trial. " When General Washington asked me if I would remain 
in front and retain the command, or he should take it, and I had answered that 
I undoubtedly would, and that he would see that I myself should be of the last 
to leave the field ; Colonel Hamilton, flourishing his sword, immediately ex- 
claimed : ' That's right, my dear General, and I will stay, and we will all die 
here in this spot.' * * * l could not but be surprised at his expression, 
but observing him much flustered and in a sort of ■pltremy of valor, I calmly 
requested him," &c., «Sic. Harrison, mentioned in this verse, had mot Andn' at 


" But U'st the ('liic'ttiiiii Wasliiiii;t..n, 
"Should mourn tlu'iii in tlio Mumps,' 

" Tlit^ Frtti' of \Vithriii:,'tou to shun, 
'* Tlicv fouifht I)cliin<l the Stumps."* 

I5ut ah, Thaihious Posset, why 

Should thy l*oor Soul olope, 
And why shoidd Titus Hooper'' die, 

Ah die without a rope. 

Apostate ^[urphy, thou to whom 

Fair Shela ne'er vva.s cruel, 
L) deaths xhaVt hear her mourn tiiy J)ooni, 

Auch wou'd you die, my Jewel i* 

' A disorder prt.-valfnt iu the Aiuoricaii liiu-s. 

- For Witherington needs must 1 wayle, 

As one in doleful dumps ; 
P^or wlien his leggs were smitten oft' 
He fought upon his stumps. 

The l)atth' of Chevy Cliase, or Otterbourne, on the borders of Scotland, wa.-< 
fougiit August 5, 1388, between the families of Percy and Douglass. The song 
was probably written much after that time, tliougli long before 1588. as Hearne 
supposes. In ihe old copy of tlie ballad the lines run thus : 

For Wetharryngton my harte was wo 

That ever he slayne shulde be, 
For when both his leggis weare hewync in to 

He knyled and fought upon bis kne. 

' This name should be written n<)|)i)er. His house was at Wagraw, above 
Aquackanonck, on the east side of the Passaic, near Hopper's mill. He wa.«i a 
miller, and the tories under John Van de Roder, a neighbor, oni- night t<K)k 
possession of the mill. Hopper's wife, hearing the noise, awoke her husband, 
and told him that some persons were in the mill. He arose, went to the door 
and demanded to know who was there, and was shot through the hand. They 
then rushed into the house, seized him, and compelled his wife to hold a candle 
while they thrust nineteen bayonets into him. At the time of this cruel murder 
Van de Roder exclaimed, " This is for an old grudge." 

*Vide Irish song, " Smollett's Rehearsal " 


Thee Nathan Pumpkin I lament, 

Of melanclioly Fate, 
The Grey Goose stolen as he went, 

In his Heart's Blood was wet.^ 

Now as the Fio-ht was further fouo;ht, 

And Balls began to thicken, 
The Fray assum'd, the Gen'ral's thought, 

The Colour of a licking. 

Yet nndismay'd the Chiefs Command, 

And, to redeem the Day, 
Cry, Soldiers charge ! they hear, they stand, 

Thev turn and run away. 

Canto III. 

Not all delights the bloody spear, 

Or horrid din of battle, 
There are, I'm sure, who'd like to hear 

A word about the Cattle. 

The Chief whom we beheld of late, 
Near Schralenberg haranguing, 

At Yan Yan Poop's'^ unconscious sat, 
Of Irving's hearty banging. 

Whilst valiant Lee, with courage wild. 

Most bravely did ojipose 
The tears of woman and of child, 

Who begg'd he'd leave the Cows. 

'Against Sir Hugli Montgomery 

So right the shaft he sett, 
The gray goose wing that was thereon 
In his heart's blood was wett. 
■■^ He kept a dram-shop. 

A.N'DKk's cow (MASK. 1 7'.> 

lliit Wivyne, of 8yiiij)atliiziii^ lu'iirt, 

Required :i rcliet' 
Not all the l)lessiii<^s eoiild iiiij)!irt 

Of battle ..!• of l.eef ; 

For now a prey to female eharins. 

His soul took more deliixht in 
A lovi'ly Ilaiiiadrvad's' arms, 

Than eow drixinu- or fiirlitinir : 

A nymph, tlie lietuf^ees had drove 

Far from her native tree, 
Just happen'd to be on the nu)Vf, 

When up came Wayne and Lee. 

She in mad Anthony's fierce eye 

The hero saw pourtray'd, 
And all in tears she took him by 

The bridle of his Jade. 

Hear, said the nymph, O great Commander ! 

No human lamentations ; 
The trees you see them cutting yonder 

Are all ray near j-elations. 

And I, forlorn ! implore thine aid. 

To free the sacred grove ; 
!So shall thy prowess be repaid 

With an immortal's love. 

Now some, to prove she was a Goddess, 

Said this enchanting Fair 
Had late retired from the Bodies,^ 

In all the ])oni]> of war : 

' A deity of tin* woods. 

2 A cant ai)i)i'llation given among the soldiery to the corps that had the honor 
to guard liis majesty's person. 


That drums and merry fifes had play'd 

To honour her retreat, 
And Cunningham^ himself convey'd 

The lady thro' the street. 

Great Wayne, by soft compassion sway'd, 

To no inquiry stoops, 
But takes the fair afflicted maid 

Rigid into Yan Yan Poop's. 

So Koman iVnthony, they say, 
Disgrac'd th' imperial banner, 

And for a gipsy lost a day, 
Like xVnthony the Tanner. 

The Hamadryad had but half 
deceived redress from Wayne, 

When drums and Colours cow and calf, 
Came down the road amain. 

All in a cloud of dust were seen 
The sheep, the horse, the goat, 

The gentle heifer, ass obscene ; 
The Yearling and the shoat, 

The pack-horses with fowls came by, 

Befeather'd on each side. 
Like Pegasus, the horse that I 

And other poets ride. 

Sublime upon his stirrups rose 

The mighty Lee behind, 
And drove the terror-smitten cows. 

Like chaff before the wind. 

But sudden see the woods above 
Pour down another corps. 

All helter skelter in a drove, 
Like that I sung before. 

Cunningham was Provost-Marshal in New York. 

andrk's cow chase. hi 

Irving and tcrn>r in the van, 
(^ame flying all abroud, 

And caniidii, colours, JKirst' and man 
Kan tiiiid)]inii: t<> the mad. 

Still as lie lied, 'twas Irving's cry, 

And his example too, 
" Run on, my merry men all — Fur why '. " 

The shot will not go thro'.* 

As when two kt-nnels in the street. 

SwellM with a recent rain, 
In gushing streams together meet, 

And seek the neighbouring drain. 

So meet these dung-born tribes- in one, 

As swift in their career. 
And so to Xewl)ridge they ran on, — 

l>ut all the cows got clear. 

Poor I'arson Caldwell,'* all in wnnder. 

Saw the returning train, 
And niournM to "Wayne the lack cf i>lunder. 

For them to steal again. 

' Five Ilefugees ('tis true) were found 

Stiff on the block-house floor, 

But tlien 'tis thought the shot went round 

Anil in at the back door. 

- Under Andre's signature to a MS. cojiy of " Tiie Cow Cliase " are enilorsed 

these lines : 

" When the epic strain was sunjr 

The poet by the neck was hunjr, 

And to his cost he fiudf< too late 

The dung-born tribes decide his fate." 

= Rev. James Caldwell, of New Jersey. His wife was shot by one of Knyp 
hausen's men. When Knyphausen made his excursion to Springfield, .NIr ('. 
collected the hymn books of his church for wadding. " Put a little Walts into 
them," said he to the soldiers. He was shot l)y James Morgan, one of the 
twelvemonths men, at Elizabethtown Point, on the 24th of Novemb«T. 17f<l 
He had gone down to the Point to meet a Miss Murray, who had come tip fmni 
New York. He had placed her in his carriage, and nturn.-d to the Iwint for a 


For 'twas his right to seize the spoil, and 
To share with each commander 

As he had done at Staten Island 
With frost-bit Alexander.^ 

In his dismay the frantic priest 

Began to grow prophetic, 
You had swore, to see his lab'ring breast, 

He'd taken an emetic. 

I view a future day, said he. 
Brighter than this day dark is, 

And you si i all see what you shall see, 
Ha ! ha ! one pretty Marquis f 

And he shall come to Panlus Hook, 
And great atchievements think on. 

And make a bow and take a look, 
Like Satan over Lincoln. 

And all the land around shall glory 
To see the Frenchman caper, 

And pretty Susan tell the story 
In the next Chatham paper.^ 

parcel containing tea, pins and mustard, when the shooting occurred. Morgan 
was not on duty at the time, and was supposed to have been bribed to do 
the act. He had previously threatened to " pop him over." Morgan was ar- 
rested and handed over to the civil authorities. The coroner's jury rendered a 
verdict against him, and he was committed by Mayor Isaac Woodruff, of Eliza- 
bethtown. He was tried at Westfield, in the January term, 1783, John Cleves 
Symmes, presiding Judge, found guilty, and executed by Xoah Marsh, sheriff 
of Essex county, January 29, 1782. The trial was had in the church, and Col- 
onel De Hart, of Morristown, was assigned to defend him. 

' Lord Sterling. He led a foray into Staten Island, in January, 1780. in 
which 500 of his men were frost-bitten. 

* La Fayette. 

^ The JSfeiP Jersey Gazette was published at that place during the war. Su- 
sannah, the daughter of Gov. Livingston, wrote occasionally for that paper. She 
married John Cleaves Symmes, and became the mofher of President Harrison's 


Tliis solciiiii ]ir()j)Iicey, of coiirsc, 

Gave all much consolation, 
Except to Wayne, who lost his jiorse 

Upon the great occasion. 

His horse that ciirrieJ all his prog, 

His military speeches, 
Ilis corn-stalk whiskey for his grog. 

Blue stockings, and brown breeches. 

And now I've clos'd my epic ntrain, 

I tremble as I show it. 
Lest this same warrio-drover, Wayne, 

Should ever catch the poet. 

In the followins November the Block-house at Bull's Ferry 
was deserted, and its tory inmates went to Fort Uelancey on 
Bergen Neck.^ But the wood cutters did not cease their work. 
A good story is told of Garret Vreeland, who had a tine growth 
of timber where the Xew York Bay Cemetery now is. In this 
the wood-cutters were fiercely at work. One day he went to 
New York ami obtained an order from the proper authorities, 
that no more of his trees should be cut. This order was duly 
presented to a burly knight of the axe, just as he was iibouf 
felling a stately white oak. He leaned upon his helve, looked 
at the order and then at the tree. lie was obliged to obey the 
one, yet greatly coveted the other. " Well," said he, " we can't 
cut any more, that's sure, l)ut we can [I'lnlU them ami ijit fh-'in 
ready for ne.rt year ! " And so he did. 

On the 24th of August, lT8i», the light camp, under command 
of La Fayette, marched from the vicinity of Fort Lee down tin* 
road toward Bergen. About one o'clock the next morning tlu-y 
arrived near the town, where they halted, and threw out picket** 
and patrols. Colonel Stuart, with his regiment, took post within 
musket shot of Paulus Iloeck. In the morning the whole camp 
was on the brow of the hill, east of the town, in full view of the 

' Ricington's Gazfittf. Xov. '25, 1780. 


enemy.^ The infantry spent the whole of that day in foraging, 
as low down as Bergen Point. Here they were fired npon by 
the enemy on Staten Island. But they unconcernedly loaded 
their wagons with grain, and drove off the cattle. The people, 
who were thus deprived of their property, received therefor cer- 
tificates, which might " procure for them, at some future day, 
compensation." Besides this, they were reminded that they had 
" contributed heretofore very little to the support of this war, 
and that what was taken * * * * does not amount to the value 
of their taxes, "' * * * * which they could have paid in 
no other manner, owing to their particular situation." But the 
party did not confine themselves to foraging for the use of the 
army. They used the occasion to pilfer from the people. For 
this one of the soldiers was hung. This bold appearance, in 
sight of the enemy, was considered by the Americans as an offer 
of battle to the enemy, and they taunted him for not accepting 
it. '^ We have done the same thing, precisely, as a man in 
private life who has been injured, and who twits the felled w by 
the nose, or shakes a cudgel over his shoulders, who abused him. 
Clinton has behaved like the fellow who quietly submits to the 

The following jeti cVesjJrit. supposed to have been written 
by Susannah Livingston, daughter of the Governor, shortly after- 
ward appeared. It refers to this expedition of La Fayette, and 
is a fair offset to Andre's " Cow Chase" : 

" To THE Printer. 
" Sir : 

'' As the inclosed letter, which was intercepted coming from 
New York, may possibly entertain some of your readers, it is 
sent to you for publication. The writer will perceive that 
proper care has been taken to conceal her name. I have only to 
ask the lady's pardon for the few comments that are added. 
—Atigust 30, 1780." 

' The exact position was on the hill, immediately over the Jersey City cem- 
etery, and around the " oude boom," or old tree, which stood between Magnolia 
avenue and Henry street. This tree was cut down Dec. 20, 1871. 

- N. J. Gazette, Sept. 6, 1780. 

roFrrioAL account ok tmk k\ii>. 185 

"Ni:\\ Vi.KK, Antjiixt'll, 1780. 

•" We've {iliMost, sweet sister, Keen t'li^liteiied to dciitli. 
Nor have we, as yet, quite reeuvered our l)reatli. 
An Aiiiiy of rebels caiiie down t'other ni'dit. 
Expecting no douKt tliat flie liritish would fi<;lit. 
Next mornini; we saw tliem parade at the Hook,' 
And thought, to he sure, tins was too nmch to hrook ; 
That soon would the river be crowded with boats. 
With Hessian and Eni^dish, to cut all their throats: 
So we dressM in hiiih taste to see them end»ark, 
Not thinking Sir Ilarrv would go in the dark : 
To light a retreat, as seen in his letter- 
He once used the moon — for want of a better ; 
Much less, having sworn, that the rebels he'd maul. 
Could it enter our heads, — he'd not go at all. 
Tho' now T think (>n't. ere since Greene beat old Knyp,^ 
Not <^ne of lii> heroes have opened a lip. 
Except to abuse them for fighting so well 
AA'itli rirccne at tlieii" head — to find <[uarter> in h — 11. 
— Ah ! Tabitha, these men can swear with such grace, 
One can't 1)6 offended, tho' done to one's face. 
All day I was hurried without knowing why. 
Each moment exi)ecting to see them pass l)y. 
The otHcers bowing, the drums in a clatter, 
Their heads rising up, like ducks out of water. 
Then glancing on nic w ith a ])assionate air, 
Turn round to their men iV: most charmingly swear. 
But why should they thus our soft bosoms alarm. 
Should they <lo like their masters — where is the harm ? 

' Paulus Hoeck. 

■' The battle of Monmouth, where Sir Harry Clinton says that he tookadran- 
(age of the moon. I .suppose that is wliat th«> lady allmles to It may Iw w»>n 
enough, however, to set her right by .seying that he did not begin his retreat 
till the moon had gone down, which, vulgarly speaking. wa.«» really to take ad- 
vantage of the moon. 

^ Knyphausen, comtnaiider of the*ian8 at the battle of Springfield, near 
Newark, June 23, 1780. 


Bat this was all vision, Tabitha, to nie, 

Not an officer came, so ranch as to tea. 

The Major himself, wlio has always some story 

To lessen the worth of American glory, 

Or ashamed to be seen, or else of the day, 

Would not venture to cross me, tho' just in the way ; 

But stopp'd, like one shot at, then whisked up a lane : 

I'm sure the poor man felt a great deal of pain. 

At length came the night, overloaded with fears. 

And shew'd us on what we had leaned for live years. 

The men who had wished for occasions for blows, 

Now suffered themselves to be pulled by the nose. 

Sir Harry it seems, was more sullen than ever. 

And Andre, complain'd of much bile on the liver. 

The Generals all met, as grave as magicians, 

The magii of law, or the sagest physicians : 

But all that was done, tho' they sat till near night, 

Was to keep at their bottle — and not go to fight. 

Pray tell me, what think you of these men in York, 
Who formerly cross'd like a bit of dry cork, 
When nothing was nedr but a regiment or troop. 
As easily drove as a boy drives a hoop ; 
But when that the rebels come close to their eyes, 
Pretend not to see them, tho' thicker than flies ; 
Let Washington's army do just what they please, 
While they in their cliolic, would seem at their ease. 
For my part, dear sister, I hate all conceit, 
You know I love something that's solid to eat. 

* * * -;•:- ****-;•£■ -k- 

Seest thou, my good sister, where you are, these rogues, 
Who fight us to death, without stockings or brogues. 
They say a French Marquis commands, my dear girl. 
Is it not the same, would have cudgeled an Earl ?' 

* * * ^v- vf vf ■;■!• * * * 

Lord Carlisle. 


A'rrEMIT TO SKri'RK AKNor.I). 18i 

But stop with this chittcr, what, wliat (h) I sav '. 
Here's news tliat the rehels have all ^onc away; 
At least they have inarchM to a j)lace called Fort Lee, 
Twelve miles from the Alajor, and twelve miles trnm mr.' 

* * * x- * -x- * * * * 

From the time that Major Andn- was captured (Si-pt. '2'-i) un- 
til he was executed (Oct. 1), Washinjjton was anxious to spare 
his life. This could not he done, however, without some suita- 
ble substitute. The people were clamorous; but he thouf^ht if 
he could secure Arnold, and oflf'cr /rim as a sacrifice, the people 
would be satisfied. He devised a plan to sound the British (Jen- 
eral as to his willingness to exchange Arnohl for Andrr. 

After the conviction of Andre, Washington sent to Sir Hmry 
Clinton a letter, stating the finding of the court, together with a 
letter from the prisoner. (Japtain Aaron Ogden,' a worthy ofli- 
cer of the Xew Jersey line, was selected to bear these dispatches 
to the enemy's post at Paulus Hoeck. He was requested to call 
on the Marquis de La Fayette before his departure. The Mar- 
quis instructed him to sound the commanding otticer at that 

post (who was Ayres) whether Sir Henry Clinton might 

not be willing to deliver up Arnold in exchange for .Vixin'-. 
Ogden arrived at Paulus Hoeck on the same evening, Sejitcmlier 
30, and made the suggestion as if accidentally, in the course of 
conversation with the officer. He was immediately asked if 
he had any authority from Washington for such an intimatit>n. 
'* I have no such assurance from (General Washington," he re- 
plied, " but I am prepared to say that if such a proposititm were 
made, I believe it would be accepted, and Major Atidri' set at 
liberty." Full of hope, the officer crossed the river during the 
night and coramunieate<l the matter to Clinton ; Imt the |>rojM)si- 

' N. J. Oazette, Sept. 6, ITW. 

-' Subsequently Governor of New Jersey. He was the father of the late Judjjn 
E. B. D. Ogden, who for a numlier of years presiiled at tlie <'irruit Court in this* 
county, and the grandfatlier of Frederick B. Ogden, now of Hoboken. 


tion was instantly rejected as incompatible with honor and mili- 
tary principle.^ 

After Andre's execution Washington matured a plan to seize 
the person of Arnold and bring him to the Jersey shore. The 
object was twofold ; fird,^ to bring the traitor to punishment, 
and second, to clear up suspicions of treachery which rested on 
one of his generals.- 

To get a man to carry out the delicate and dangerous enter- 
prise, Major Lee suggested the name of John Champe, of Lou- 
don County, Virginia, a sergeant-major in his command, full 
of bone and muscle, with a saturnine countenance, grave and 
thoughtful, full of courage and perseverance. Washington was 
pleased with the qualifications of the man, and intimated that he 
should be amply rewarded. The Major pictured to Champe the 
consequences of success ; that he would be hailed as the avenger 
of the people, and would bring to light new guilt, or relieve the 
innocent. Champe's objections being finally overcome by the 
ai'guments of Major Lee, he entered into the enterjirise, on condi- 
tion that he should be protected if unfortunate in the attempt. 

The first difficulty which lay before him was a successful de- 
sertion. The patrols in the vicinity were numerous, and occa- 
sionally extended southward beyond the Liberty Pole. Besides 
these there were many irregulars, who sometimes scouted after 
booty as far south as Paulus Hoeck. To make his desertion ap- 
parently genuine, he could not receive any noticeable assistance. 
Tiie only thing which Major Lee could promise was, in case his 
departure should be discovered before morning, to delaj' pursuit 
as long as practicable. 

It was now nearly eleven o'clock in the evening of October 
20, 1780. His course would be devious, in order to avoid the pa- 
trols, and, comparing his watch with Major Lee's, he begged him 
to delay pursuit, which he was convinced would take place. The 
Sergeant returned to camp from his interview with Major Lee, 
took his cloak, valise and orderly book, drew his horse from the 
picket, and mounting him, pushed out into the darkness, trusting 

^Irving's Washington, in., 148. " St. Clair. 

JOHN (iiAMi-Ks i»Ksii:ri()\. Ih;» 

to furtuiR". Within half an h..ui- Captain ( 'iinies iiifonncMl 
Major Lee that one of his patrol ha.l fallen in with a dra^^'f.on, 
who, beinf^ challen^'od, pnt spnrs to his h..r.s(! iiiul escaped. Lee 
pretended not to nnderstand what had hcen said, and the cap- 
tain was ol)lii,red to re})eat it. ** Who can the fellow 1m- i" >aid 
the Alajur ; " a conntrvnian prol)ai)l\ ." •* \o," rcplie<l the eait- 
tain, '* a dragoon sure; prohahly one from the arinv, if not one 
of our own/' Lee ridienled the idea as quite impossible; for 
durinn; the whole war hut one drap;oon liad deserted from the 
legion. The eaptain withdrew and assend)led his s<puidron. 
He soon returned. The scoundrel was known, and he was none 
other tlian tlie sergeant-major, wlio had left with his horse, hag- 
gage, arms and orderly book. The captain ordered a party to 
prepare for pursuit, and then requested the Major's written 
orders. Lee made numerous inquiries and suggestions during the 
captain's remarks. I*resently the pursuing party was read v. 
Major Lee directed a change in the eonnnanding otHeer. He 
would liave particular t)usiness for the lieutenant in the morn- 
ing. Cornet Middleton must command the J^arty. This caused 
further delay. When the cornet appeared the ^lajor gave in'ni 
instructions : •" Pursue so far as you can w ith safety Seigeant 
Champe, who is suspected of deserting to the enemy, and has 
taken the road leading to Paulus Iloeck. Ihing him alive, tiiat 
he may suffer in the presence of the army ; but kill him if he re- 
sists, or escapes after being taken." Detaining the cornet yet a 
few minutes, advising him what course to pursjie, enjoining him 
to look for the enemy, he dismissed him and wisiied him sucees.-*. 
It was now a few minutes after twelve o'clock, and Champe 
was over an hour in advance. The pursuing party was occasion- 
ally delayed by examining the roads to find the tracks of Clmmpe's 
horse. This was rendered the more easy, as a sh(»wer had falli-ii 
soon after Champe's dei)arture. When the day broke Middleton 
pressed on rapidly. Reaching the smnmit of the hill north of 
the "Three Pigeons,'" he saw the fugitive not more than half a 
mile in front. At the same time Cliamj)e saw his pursuers. Thi* 
gave new wings to his flight, and a race ensued, like the ride of 
Tam o' Shanter. From where Union Hill now is there was a 


sliort route through the woods to the bridge over Mill Creek. 
Here Middleton divided his force, some taking the near cut, 
while the others followed the track of Cliampe. The fugitive 
was not forgetful of the short cut, but avoided it, fearing he might 
meet scouts returning from their nightly expeditions near the 
enemy. Satisfied that Middleton would attempt to intercept his 
fiiglit to Paulus Hoeck, he resolved to flee to the British galleys 
lying in Newark bay, near Brown's ferry. These were there as pa- 
trol boats to protect Bergen Neck. Entering the village of Bergen, 
Champe followed the beaten streets, and took the road leading 
to Bro.wn's ferry. Here Middleton lost track of him, but has- 
tened on to the bridge over Mill Creek at Prior's mill. Reaching 
the bridge, he found that the fugitive had slipped through his 
fingers. AV^ithout delay he returned to Bergen, and inquired ot 
the villagers if they had seen a dragoon that morning. They had 
seen him, but could not tell with certainty whither he went. 
Middleton then spread his party through the village to find the 
tracks of Champe's horse. They soon found it, and with renewed 
vigor started in pursuit. They descried Champe in the distance, 
and he, with a Parthian look, beheld his pursuers. As he dashed 
on he prepared himself for the final act. He lashed his valise to 
his shoulders and threw away unnecessary inipedimenta. His 
pursuers were gaining upon him, and by the time he got abreast 
of the galle_ys were within two or three hundred yards of him. 
Then quickly dismounting, he ran across the meadow, plunged 
into the bay and swam for the boats, calling for help. This was 
)-eadily given. The British fired upon Middleton, and sent a 
boat to meet Champe. Thus he was safel}^ within the enemy's 
lines, and they were fully satisfied of the genuineness of his de- 

Champe enlisted in Arnold's American Legion. He soon dis- 
covered that the suspicions of other ofiicers being connected with 
Arnold's treason were groundless. After much delay and prep- 
aration he sent word to Major Lee to meet him with a party of 
dragoons at Hoboken on a certain night, when he would deliver 
up Arnold. The day named arrived. Lee, with three dragoons 
and three led horses, was at the place appointed. The long. 

KXri.'.\( 'Is lUii.M NK\V,->rAl'KKS. 1 '.» 1 

anxious Iioui\s after iiiidni^^lit caiiic and wi-iil, l»iit hnnii^'lit no 
Chaiiipe. no Arnold. Tlir ]ilans hail niiricarricd. On tlic pru- 
cedini; dav Arnold had niovetl Ids hcadcjuartcrs to another part of 
tlie city. Pool- Chanipecndnr-cd many hardships hefort* he could 
I'ctnrn to his old conii'adcs. He tinally escaj)cd while sci-vinir 
undci" Jjord Curnwallis at Petersburg-, Virfijiina.' 

In connection with Ai-nold, it is said tliat one day Mrs. 'I'uors. 
of I>cr<;cn. while attending market in New York, went into 
'' l^)lack SauTs" liotel. Sam, under ])lcdi;e.s of secrecy as to the 
source of her information, told her that a conspiracy existed some- 
where in the Anicrican camp, foi- lie liad overheard the P»ritish 
officers talkinp; about it. She tolil hci- brother, Cornelius \'an 
Ivipen (t;;randfather of the present Cornelius C.) lie went to 
Ilackensack and told General Wayne, M'ho sent the infoi-mation 
to Washiufijton. The General ofiered to reward Van liipcn, l)ut 
he said, '' No, I do not serve my countrv for money ; but 1 woidd 
like, if I am captured, that General "Washington would protect 
me.'' P>ut a few days afterward the treason of Ai-nold was dis- 

" On Satui-day morning last the Itefu<;ce Post at Pjertren Point, 
under command of Captain Thomas Ward, was attacked by a 
pai-ty of i-ebel infantry and horse, consisting of about 200 men. 
After receiving a smart fire from the artillery and muski'trv of 
the Refugees, assisted by a cannonade from the gallics, they were 
foi'ced to retreat. 

"On the preceding night, as Caj^tain Frederick Ilauser, in the 
Refugee gun-boat, was rowing guard, he met, near lirown's ferry, 
with a detachment of the i-ebels in live boats, which it seems were 
intended for the purpose of making good a retreat for tlie abovi- 
mentioned party, in case they should hapjien to be prevented 
from reti'cating by the way of ]>ergcn. Ij^on being hailed and 
refusing to give an account of themselves, Caj>tain Ilauser im- 
mediately fired upon them, when two of the boats struck, in 
\vhich were made ]>risoners four (»f the Continental light infantry ; 
the others on board had iuni]ied ashore and made their csca{)e. 

* Lee's Memoirs, ii., 15!>. 


One other boat was sunk, having, it is said, one killed and two 
wounded left on board by the crew who deserted it, 

"Mr. Charles Homfray, with two others and a boy belonging 
to the Refugee party, who had landed some time before the rebels 
were discovered, were taken by some rebel horse ; they were im- 
mediately pinioned, and otherwise cruelly treated, according 'to 
the usual custom of the rebels, when American Loyalists are so 
unfortunate as to fall in their hands, in which cruelties they 
are likely to persevere until a full and spirited retaliation shall 
take place. 

" An inhabitant of Bergen, named Yan Waggener, was taken 
by the Refugees on his return from the rebels. He had gone, 
after reconnoitering the Refugee Post, to give intelligence of the 
situation. It is also said that the rebels have carried off Mr. John 
Phillips, a quiet inhabitant, on a suspicion of his having been 
friendly to our people."— A'. Y. Gazette and Weekly Messenger^ 
Oct. 16, 1780. 

" The rebels on Satui-day burnt Colonel William Bayard's 
New House and Barn at Castile, on the Noi'th end of Hoebuck, 
and destroyed all the forage and timber to be found there to a 
very large amount." — N, Y. Mermiry^ Aug. 28, 1780. 

" Generals Washington, La Fayette, Greene and Wayne, with 
many other officers and large bodies of Rebels, have been in the 
vicinity of Bergen for some days past. They have taken all the 
forage from the Inhabitants of that place. Their officers were 
down to Prior's Mill last Friday, but did not seem inclined to 
make any attack." — Same Paper} 

1 In one of these visits to Bergen, Washington and La Fayette dined under 
an apple tree in the orchard back of Hartman Van Wagenen's house, close by 
the Bergen Square. This was blown down by the great gale of Sept. 3, 1821. 
A pleasing reference was made to this incident when the Marquis visited this 
country in 1824. On Thursday, the 23d of September in that year, he landed 
in Jersey City. At Lyon's Hotel he was introduced to Governor Williamson 
and others. Accompanied by a large retinue, he moved on toward Newark. At 
the Five Corners the Bergen people had gathered in large numbers to do him 
honor. He was presented with a superb cane, made of the apple tree under 
which he and his chief had dined, elegantly mounted with gold, with this in- 
scription : " Shaded the hero and his friend Washington in 1779 ; presented 


"Four Uot'uiieus that went itvcr to Socacus last Satunlay touk 
three llehel otKeors, ami hroui^ht them to town yesterilay morn- 
ing.*' — y. )'. }F' ri'iifij, S, j>f. Is, 17S0, 

•• Ar.i, 
"• Lo^ Ai. Ukki (JKEs 
TiiAT aie in want ol enipluynuMit, and can Itiin;^ |)in|.L'r rertiti- 
cates of their loyalty, and are willing to enter thenipelvi-s under 
Captain Thomas Ward, now eommanding the imi)ortant post at 
Bergen Point, will meet witii the I'reatest eneonragemcnt, hv 
applying to Ca[)tain 1 Iomkk.w at the sign ot" the Ship, corner of 
P^iir Street, Broadway." — Rivhujtoiin GazeW', J)e<.'. 2.'^, 1780. 

On the 25th of Jannarv, 1781, six or seven tories, under com- 
mand of Cornelius llattield, and known as Hafp'iiiVx p<ii'tij, 
perpetrated a great outrage in the execution of^Stephen F>all, of 
Railway. The unfortunate man had heen deluded l>y a declara- 
tion of Sir Henry Clinton, then on Staten Island, that all per- 
sons who would bring provisions to the Island should have 
liberty to sell the same and return unmolested. Ball carried 
over several quarters of beef, expecting to I'eturn undiscovered 
1)V his neijxhbors. Soon after landinii; ou the Island, he wa.- 
captured by Hatfield, plundered of his beef, ami taken l)efore 
General Pattei'son. This officer refused to call a court-martial 

by the Corporation of Bergen in 1824." It was accompiinitd by the follnwinir 
address from Dominie Cornelison : 

" Geneual : In behalf of my fellow citizens, I bid you u hearty and cordial 
welcome to the town of Bergen, a place through which you traveled during our 
revolutionary struggles for liberty and independence. .Associated with our 
illustrious Washington, your example ins|)ired couragi' and patriotism in the 
heart of every true American. 

•'You, sir, left your abode of ease, aHluence and happiness, to endure the 
hardships and privations of the camp. To enumerate your martiardintls is at 
this time unnecessary ; yet they awaken and call forth our warmi>8t gratitudo. 
As a tribute of esteem and veneration, permit me, sir, to ask the favor of your 
acceptance of this small token of respect, taken from an apple tree under 
wliich you once dined, and which once atfordt-d you a shelter from the piercing 
rays of noonday ; and, although it possesses no healing virtue, may it still b*- a 
support. And may you, sir, after ending a lift' of usefulness and piety, be ad- 
mitted into the regions of everlasting joy and felicity." — >kntin<l of Freedom. 
Sept. 28, 1824. 



to try him, on tlie ground that he had not coniniitted ott'ence. 
He was then taken before General Skinner, who also refused to 
try a man who had brought them relief. Then Hatfield held a 
raoek trial over him, under the pretence that he had injured one 
of his party. The accounts of his treatment previous to execu- 
tion greatly differ. The following account of the whole affair is 
supposed to have been written by the Rev. James Caldwell, " the 
rousing gospel preacher" : 

"Then Hetfield and his party robbed Ball of what prop- 
erty he had with him, took him to Bergen Point, and without 
the form even of a trial, immediately told him he had but ten 
minutes to live. Ball urged that he only went over with pro- 
visions under the declaration ; and when he found they were 
determined to take his life, he begged for a few minutes longer, 
but his request was refused ; but if he had a desire tliat any 
person should pray with him, one of their party should officiate. 
When he was near expiring, James Hetfield, one of the banditti, 
put a knife in his hand, and swore that he should not go into 
the other world unarmed. His executioners were, Cornelius 
Hetfield, John Smith Hetfield, Job Hetfield, James Hetfield, 
sen., James Hetfield, jr., Elias Mann and Samuel Mann, all of 
Elizabethtown, and Job Smith of Secaucus. 

'" Ball's father obtained a flag to get the corpse of his son, but 
was not suffered to land."'^ 

The refugees claimed the following to be a true statement of 
the case, and which, without doubt, should be taken cum grano 
■salis : 

" He was taken to Bird's Point, and indulged with a fair 
hciu-ing and regular trial before a court-martial, consisting of 
Eleven members appointed for the purpose. Without hesitation 
he confessed himself to be a spy, and that he came out of the 
rebel lines under Col. Dayton's pass. It also appeared that Ball 
had acted a principal part in the late tragedy of Thomas Long's 
sufferings and death, and that he stripped Long of his boots and 

'N. Y. Packet, March 1, 1781. 

KXIKACIS IK(>M Nl:\VSf.\|-KU>. 1 '.>') 

stockings, when he \\;i> wniiiidnl. |;,ill took piijior steepnl in 
spirits, :ui<l dressed the woumls :m»l then set the jmper <»ii tire. 
Jjonjj^ wti8 then driven a Innir distanee (his toes haviii;^ heen 
c*rashcd with the butt eiul of a musket), put into a lio<j pen and 
fed on corn. He was then put to death hy Uall and othei-s, as a 
8]>v. Upon this state of facts he was coiuhMnned and exeented 
as a sj)y.'"l 

He is said to iiave been huiii:: on a small persimmon tree near 
the tide mill on Constapel's Hoeck. After his death the rope 
was ent and he fell into his <!;rave. His remains were afterward 
removed to Newark. 

At tlie close of the war, Cornelius Hatfield tied tn \ova 
Scotia. In ISO", he returned, and was arrested for the crime. 
He was broup;ht liefore .ludge Pennington on JIa1)eaH Corpnn, 
and discharged on the 13th of October, 1807, on the ground that, 
by virtue of the sixth article of tlie treaty of 17^;', he was not 
answerable. ' 

'' A party of rebels came to, ami plundered Bergen last 
Friday." — .V, }'. Mercvrij, Aj'fil 2, 1761. 

" Last Friday night a party went from Newark and captured 
two sloops lying near the Refugee Post on Pergen sliore, out of 
which they took 8 prisoners, who were sent to Morristown." — 
xV. Y. Packet, Aiuj. 30, 1781. 

" On the 21st of August, 1780, Captain William Harding with 
about 40 men of the Refugee post on Bergen Neck, went out as 
far as Newark, and took four pris<mers and about 30 cattle, 
whicli lie brought to Fort De Lancey.'' — Iil>'in</f(>n''f< (rn^ftte, 
xYo. 511. 

" Last "Wednesday night a party of Ward's plunderers fmm 
Uergen Neck, came to the Neighborhood of Hackensack, where 
they collected a number of cattle, which the inhabitants retook, 

' N. y. }ferriirii, March 5, 1781. Tlie probability is stronjr tliiit tluTi" i» not 
a word of truth in ibis atteini)tt'(l jii.ititicatidn. Lonp was a Ni-w .Ifn^r torr. 
who was put to death in 1779. 

■ Centind of Freedom, Oct. 21, 1H07. Counsel for the jirL-Jonor. Col. t)i;d.'n. 
Mr. Chetwood and I. H. Williamson ; for the prosecution, Messrs. McNVliorter. 
Van Arsdale and Ilalscv. 


and killed and wounded several of the miscreants." — -iV^. -/. 
Journal^ Sept. 5, 1781. 

" On Wednesday evening last a party of eleven men under 
Captain William Harding went from Fort De Lancey on Bergen 
Neck to Closter, and captured a Rebel Guard of six men, and 
fifteen cattle, and took them safely to the Fort." — N. Y. Mer- 
cury^ Sept. 17, 1781. 

In September, 1781, Prince William Henry, the third son of 
George III., afterward William lY., then a midshipman under 
Admiral Digby, arrived in New York. Among the British and 
tories he was the lion of the day. The Refugees on Bergen 
Neck, on the first of October, laid at his feet the following sub- 
missive address : 

" To His Royal Highness Pbince William Henry. 

" We, his Majesty's dutiful and Loyal Subjects, the Refugees 
stationed on Bergen Neck, beg leave to address your Royal 
Highness (through the channel of our commanding ofiicer) on 
your safe arrival in America. It is impossible for us to express 
the satisfaction, that is visible in the face of every individual, 
belonging to our small party, at so distinguished an honor, paid 
to the loyal inhabitants of this continent, by the arrival of so 
amiable and distinguished a character as the son of our Roval 

" The measures pursued by a designing, base set of men, early 
in this unnatural contest, obliged us to leave our habitations, and 
fly for safety to his Majesty's troops ; since which we have let 
our persecutors (who meant our destruction) feel the effects of 
our resentment ; and convinced them that we contended for 
that, which every man at the risk of his life ought to defend. 

" Therefore we flatter ourselves that your Royal Highness is 
convinced of our sincerity, of our attachment to their Majesties, 
and the Royal Progeny ; (which we are always ready to give 
fresh proofs of,) praying for that day when rebellion may be 
crushed, and peace established throughout this continent, and 
his Majesty's Standard displayed triumphant by land and sea. 
May Heaven protect your Royal Highness in time of danger. 


and pciniit vou to rctiiiii crowiu^d with the hiurels of vii'turvt<> 

your Tloyal Parents. 

^^ Fort De Lancey on Berrjen Xcrh^ \}<t Octoh'r, IT^^l." 

Thiri acKlic'ss \va>s iirenciitcd to the I'riiicf hy Major 'r..iii Wanl 
and his officers. Through Admiral Digby, the I'riiiee replii-d : 

" Comm.\nd.\nt's IIousk, 

'• .\<>r York, Od. 3, 17.S1, 
''The liumble aihlrcss of liis Majesty's dutiful and loyal Suh- 
jeets, the liefuuees stationed on Uergcn Xeek, has heen received 
bv his Royal Iliiihncss. 

" His Royal Highness has seen with jilcasnre the loyal Senti- 
ments contained in the address, ami lit ar Admiral Digby will 
take care to make them known to his Majesty. 

"Robert T)I(;i!Y. 
" To the CommandlrKj Ojficer of thr Loi/nJ 

Refugees stationed on Bergen ^?«"/'."' 

"Last Thursday sennight Captain I'aker Hendricks with a 
party of mou in whale-boats went down Newark r>ay lU'ar the 
Kills, where he boarded and stripped two wood-boats and took 
one prisoner; and on Thursday night last, he landed a small 
party of men on Bergen Neck, near the Refugee Post, where he 
took two prisoners; and on his return took three noted villains." 
—K. J. Journal, Dee. 12, 1781. 

" Last Thursday morning a detachment of tiie Jersey Brigade, 
under Captain Bowmay, who were joined by a party of Militia, 
went across the sound on the ice to the Refugee Post on I'ergen 
Neck, where they captured three of the miscreants, one of whom 
was of a sable hue ; they bayonetted the negro, who refused to 
surrender.'^ No artifice could induce them to sally out ; therefore 
no other trophies were obtained than those above mentioned." 
— X.J. Journal, Feb. 13, 1782. 

The following is a tory account of the same atiair : 

' liiciiigton's Gazette, Oct. 6, 1781. 

■' Jaspi-r Zabriskie saw this nr^rro three days afterwanl (Toinf; over the river to 
New York, apparently all right. 


" On Thursday morning before sunrise, two hundred Rebels 
from a New Jersey Brigade, attacked Fort De Lancey, com- 
manded by Major Ward. They had meditated the attack for 
some time and lay for two nights upon their arms. The ad- 
vanced sentinel, a negro, was bayonetted. They were driven 
off. They then formed in three columns on the ice, were again 
attacked and fled."— iV^. V. Mercury, Feb. 11, 1782. 

" Fort De Lancey, If arch 31, 1782. 
" The night of the 29th instant, a party of rebels came down 
from Newark and landed at Bergen Neck, took seven prisoners 
who lodged in houses along the shore. The commanding officer 
sent a party to intercept them, and coming to the whale-boat 
almost simultaneously, the party hailed the rebels and were 
tired upon, and at that time not knowing that they had any of 
our men along with them, returned the fire, killed two of our 
own men that were prisoners and wounded two others. One 
rebel was killed and two mortally wounded." — Rivington^s 
Gazette, No. 573. 

" April 20, 1782. 

" We are informed that it was Lieut. John Buskirk of Lieut. - 
Col. Buskirk's Battalion of the New Jersey volunteers, who went 
from Staten Island to Second River, and at Schuyler's House, 
captured Sir James Jay."^ — Ihld, No. 580. 

About the first of September, 1782, Fort Delancey on Bergen 
Neck was evacuated and burned f and on Saturday, October 5, 
Major Ward with his despised and motley crew of Refugees 
embarked for Nova Scotia, carrying with them implements of 
husbandry, one year's provisions, and the undying hatred of all 
Americans.'^ From this time until the close of the war, Paulus 

' A brother of John Jay, and a member of the State Senate of New York. 
■^ N. J. Journal, Sept. 11, 1782. 

^ Ibid, Oct. 9, 1783. The patriots who had suffered at the hands of their tnry 
neighbors rejoiced at their exile, and in song sneered at their future home : 

" Nova Scotia, that cold, barren land, 
Where they live upon shellfish and dig in the sand." 


Iloec'k was tin* nuly t'ootliold which the Hritish hiid in Xrw 
Jersey. From this iM.iut tliey contimicd to torugc over tho 
county and i-aid into adjacent parts. 

Tlie enemy evacuated Paidus Iloeck on the 'Jiid (hiy (»f Xo- 
veniber, 178i5.' On the 25th tliey evaeuateil Xcw York, and u 
few days afterward Wasliin<i;ton passed throu<;h the Iloeck on 
his way to liis home at ^[ount Vernon. Peaci; once more 
smiled upon an atllicted hind. 

'Jroing's Washington, ic, 4.38. 


The Duel ground at Weeliawken — Duels between Aaron Burr and Jolin B. 
Church — Goerge 1. Eacker and Price — George I. Backer and Philip 
Hamilton — John Langstaff and Oliver Waldron — Augustus Smith and 
Archibald M. Cock — De Witt Clinton and John Swartwout — Richard 
Riker and Robert Swartwout — Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton — 
Isaac Gouverneur and William H. Maxwell — Benjamin Price and 
Major Green — Stephen Price and Captain Wilson — Commodore Perry 
and Captain Heath — William G. Graham and Mr. Barton — Henry Aitken 
and Thomas Sherman. 

Perhaps the most interesting spot in the County of Hudson, 
around whicli, in spite of its horrors, fancy loves to linger, is the 
Duel Ground at Weehawken. Before the iconoclastic hand of 
enterprise had touched it, tlie whole region round about was 
charming beyond description. Just south of the bloody ground 
was the wild ravine adown which leaped and laughed the Awie- 
haken.^ Immediately above was King's Point, or " Highwood," 
boldly looking down upon the Hudson. From this height still 
opens as fair, as varied, as beautiful a scene as mortal could wish 
to behold. The haze-crowned city, the bright, broad, tranquil 
river ; the long reach of waters down to the Narrows and beyond ; 
the vessels at anchor, or flitting around the harbor ; misty, blue 
Staten Island — the Hamels Ilooftden of the Dutch — swelling up 
from the lower bay ; the opposite shore lined with a forest of 
masts, while over and beyond the restless city, sparkles and 
widens the East Eiver. This beautiful but fatal spot, in the 
early part of the century, strangers coming to New York were 
sure to visit. It is now partly destroyed by the construction of 
the Fort Lee Railroad. Its location was two and a half miles 
above Hoboken. The rocks here rise almost perpendicularly 

' This creek took its rise in the swampy ground near Guttenbergh, flowed 
southwardly to Union Hill, thence down to the Hudson. At an early day 
Nicholas Bayard had a mill on this stream. Winfield's Land Titles, 37. 


i>ii:i.s Ai \vi;i;iiA\vKKN. 201 

to OIK' liundrctl and liltv feet ahovc tliu ri\cr. I inlrr tlieso 
liei^lits, ahoiit twenty feet above the water, (»n a ;; shelf 
about six feet wide, and eleven i>aces loni;, reache<l by an alniosit 
inaccessible flii;:lit of steps, was the dark and blotjdy i;n»nn(l. 
The old cedar which sheltered tlic jilatcau when Hamilton fon<:ht 
was there until about tV'ur years a<^o. 'Jhe sandstone boulder 
aii'ainst which he fell was about the same time removed tn the 
ti>]) (if the hill, where it n<iw lies. The ground was singularly 
siThiilc(1 fi-oiii inquisitive neiijhbors and mediUesome ofhcial>. 
A\'itli no jiatli loadini; to it alonji; the river or from the heijxhts, 
its only ap{)roach was by boat. About oni'third of a mile below 
stood a little tavern, where occasionally the cond)atants would 
breakfast on their way to the i^round. In the early ])art of this 
century Captain Deas owned the ])roperty, and resided on the 
hill immediately over the fatal s})ot. lie was a ])eace man. 
Whenever he scented a duel, he wouM hurry to the ground, 
rush in between the parties, and by his fiuaviter in modo or for- 
i'lter in re, heal their wounded honor and establish jieaco. 

An account of some of these duels in their order will be inter- 
estiui; to the general reader, who, it cannot be doubtctl, will re- 
gret that the challenged party had not the courage to say of the 
challenger, what Ctesar said of Anthony : 

" Let the old rufSan know 
I have many other wavs to die." 

Aako.n JUuk and Juu.n J5. Ciiikcii. 

Colonel Burr fought his tir.-t duel on the 2d of September, 
1700. There was a bit of scandal afloat throughout the State of 
iS'ew York that, for legislative services rendered, the Holland 
Company had canceled a bond held against Burr for s-Jo.noO. 
Mr. Church,' who was a brother-in-law of General Hamilton, 
and sympathized with that eminent man in liis dislike of Burr, 
spoke at a private table in New York, with much freedom of the 

' Church lived in Robinson street. N. Y. The funeral ot Hamilton was from 
his house. 


existing rumor, and apparent belief in the truth of the charge. 
This was reported to the victim of the slander. 

Condemn the practice of dueling as we may, there are offences 
against personal reputation for which society has not furnished 
a remedy. The good name, dearly earned and prized above 
rubies, may be lost without deserving by the foul breath of the 
backbiter and slanderer ; and where is the remedy ? It is not 
necessary that he render himself open to an action at law ; a 
shrug of the shoulder is sufficient to start on its career the lie 
that shall bowl down a dozen reputations. Contradict it, do you 
say ? Why, the strongest proof of the total depravity of the 
human race is found in the fact that nine-tenths— is it put too 
high ? — of the community would believe a lie rather than the 
truth. Let the slander go, say you; it cannot liurt a solid reputa- 
tion. Why, the brighest steel may be tarnislied with a breath. 
Upon this subject, one can readily believe that an intelligent 
man might soon argue himself into a belief that dueling, under 
certain circumstances, would not be such a Imd thing after all. 
Certainly one effectual method of silencing slanderous tongues 
would be to subject the head in which it rudely wags to the dam- 
affing: effects of a well-aimed minie. 

For this slander Burr sought about the only redress which 
such a vile crime affords — he challenged the slanderer. The 
challenge was accepted ; Mr. Hammond acting as the second of 
Mr. Church, and Judge Burke of South Carolina as the second 
of Colonel Burr. The parties, attended b}^ their seconds and a 
surgeon, met on the duel ground at Weehawken on Monday 
evening about sunset. Mr. Barton says that connected with 
this duel was an incident which furnished the town-gossip with 
a joke and a by-word for many a day. Before leaving home 
Colonel Burr had been particular to explain to his second that 
the balls were cast too small for his pistols, and that chamois 
leather, cut to the proper size, must be greased and put 
around them to make them tit. Leather and grease were put 
in the case with the pistols. After the principals had been 
placed at ten paces apart. Burr noticed his second vainly endeav- 
oring to drive in the ramrod with a stone, and at once suspected 

l»li;i,S AT W K.KIIAWKKN. 20;i 

tliat the ijroasc had been fuvirotteii. A moinent iift<»r, thr i»i8ti>l 
\v;i> liunded to liiiii. With that siti'jular coolness which he wnn 
wt>nt to exhibit at critical inoinents, he dit-w the raiiimd, felt 
the ball, and t.>ld the jiidi^e it \va> not home. 

'* 1 know it," r..|)lied the second, wipiiii^ the perspinitiun troni 
his face. "'I for<jjC)t to jj^rease the leather; but you .hih", your 
man i> ready; don't keep liini waitini;. dust take a crack as it 
IS, and I'll i^rease the next." 

At the word, shots were cxchaiii^ed, without any othei- efiect 
than that the bail tVoiu ^[r. C'hurch's pistol passed through 
Burr's coat. The pistols were about beinf^ reloaded for a second 
shot, when Mr. Church made an apolo<;y which was acceptai)le 
to Burr's second, whereupon the i>rincipals shook hands, and 
returned to the city.* 

Eackek and Price — Eacker and 11 amhion. 

George I. p]acker was born at Palatine, in the State of New 
York. At the time of the following event lie was twentv-seven 
vears of age, a promising member of the Xew ^ ork Par, and in 
politics a sympathizer with Colonel Burr. Price, a friend of 
Mr. Hamilton, is supposed to have been a son of Stephen Price, 
lessee of the Park Theatre. Philip Hamilton was the eldest 
son of Alexander Hamilton, and in the twentieth year of his age. 
On the 4th of July, 1801, Eacker had pronounced an oration in 
the city of New York, which was commended by nearly every- 
body, and would have been by all, only for the party spirit, 
which at that time was very bitter, and blinded one to every 
virtue in an opponent. On Friday evening, November l'o, 
I8t)l, Mr. Eacker. in company with Miss Livingston and othei-s, 
occupied a box in the Park Theatre. In an adjoining box were 
voun<r Price ami Hamilton. Thev made some ironical remarks 
about Eacker's Fourth of July oration, which seemed to l>e in- 
tended for the ear of the voung huly. Eacker looked Jinmnd, 

^Pmton't Life of Burr, 240. CeiUinel of Freedom, Sept. 10, ilM. 


and saw Price and Hamilton lano-hing'. The foUowino; account 
of what happened between this time and the meeting at Wee- 
hawken was written by Mr. Lawrence, a young gentleman who 
went to the theatre with Mr. Eacker, and accompanied him 
through every stage of the controversy : 

" He took no further notice of their conduct, but joined im- 
mediately in conversation with his party, and made use of every 
means to prevent its being observed by them that he was the 
subject of ridicule to the gentlemen behind. Immediately pre- 
ceding the pantomime, the box being full, Messrs. Hamilton and 
Price, leaving the opposite side of the house, again intruded into 
the box occupied by Mr. Eacker and his party. At the moment 
of entrance, they commenced a loud conversation, replete with 
the most sarcastic remarks upon Mr. Eacker. Their manner 
was more indecent, if possible, than their conversation. Mr. 
Eacker himself, thus pointedly the object of contempt and ridi- 
cule, and his name being mentioned aknid, could no longer sus- 
tain the painful sensation resulting from his situation. He 
determined to leave the box, and remonstrate with Mr. Hamilton 
privately, in the lobby. As he stepped into the lobby with his 
back toward Messrs. Hamilton and Pi-ice, covered with agitation 
and shame to be thus treated, he exclaimed, ' It is too abomina- 
ble to l)e publicly insulted by a set of rascals I ' ' Who do you 
call danmed rascals ? ' was the immediate inquiry, repeated again 
and again. Mr. Eacker felt anxious to avoid a brawl in a theatre, 
and observed to the gentleman that he lived at No. 50 Wall 
street, where he was always to be found. ' Your place of residence 
has nothing to do with it,' was the reply. Upon this, some per- 
sons observing an intention, as they supposed, to assault Mr. 
Eacker, and desirous to prevent a disturbance in the theatre, 
stepped before the gentlemen, and with difficulty prevented 
their approaching Mr. Eacker. Mr. Eacker then requested them 
to make less noise, and proposed retiring to some private place. 
On the way to the tavern, Messrs. Price and Hamilton peremp- 
torily insisted upon Mr. Eacker's particularizing the person to 
whom he had applied the appellation of rascal. Mr. Eacker 


demaiulecl of theiii, ' w/iet/wr thcij fK/nf hitit the hoj' nu pnrpnse 
to Insult hlrn." 'That is nothimj to the pnrpose^^ wa.s the rt-plv. 
' W>' insist upon ijour pat'ticnlarizinij the person yon jneant to 
tHstin(juish by the uppeUittion of rascal. ' '/>/'/ ijttu mean to 
insult me f again rL'[)eatcd Mr. I'^ackcr. ' W'c insist upon ;i 
direct answer,' was reiterated. ' Wril then, vcii an- both rascals.' 
Upon leaving the lumse, ^^e^srs. Price and Hamilton ciinductrd 
tiieinsclves in sncli a maiuuT as would inevitaMy, if continned. 
have drawn the attention of persons in the street. Nfr. Kacker 
said, ' (rentleinen, you had better make less noi>e ; I shall ex- 
pect to hear from you.' " I'liat you shall/ was the inimediate 
reply. Mr. Backer returned to the theatre, and had not been 
there long before he received a message from ^[r. Price, request- 
ing him, in very laconic terms, to appoint his time and iilacc of 
meeting." — -Am. Citizen <{; A<h\ Xo. o'iO, enl. ii. 

Mr. liumilton, on the same Friday night, called on Mr. I )avid S. 
Jones, who consulted John B. Church, the uncle of young Ham- 
ilton. They framed a message to .Mr. Eacker, re(juiring an ex- 
planation of the offensive expressions he had used to Hamilton. 
This was delivered to Eacker about half-{)ast eleven o'clock on 
I'Viday night, in the presence of Mr. Lawrence. No explana- 
tion was given, but Mr. Eacker said that after tiie affair with 
Price was over, he would receive any communication froin 

On Sunday, Novend^er 22, 1801, at twelve o\-lock, noon, 
Eacker and Price, accompanied l)y their seconds, Mr. Lawrence 
and James Lynch, met at Weehawken. They exciianged tiiree 
shots, without effect, when tiie seconds interposed. The parties, 
however, wished anotlier shot, and agreed that after that they 
would shake hands. The fourth shot was had without etl'ect, 
and a reconciliation ensued. Price remarking that Eaekei- was 
such a damned lath of a fellow that he might shoot all day to 
no purpose ! 

As soon as young Hamilton ascertained that the atl'air with 
Price was over, between one and two t»'clock on Sunday after- 
noon, he renewed his commuiucation to Mr. Eacker. On Mon- 
day, November 23, ISOl, about tiiree o'clock in the afternoon. 


tlie parties, accompanied by their seconds, Mr. Cooper, tlie actor, 
in behalf of Eacker, and David S. Jones in behalf of Hamilton, 
met at Weehawken. After the word had been given, a pause 
of a minute, perhaps more, ensued, before Mr. Eacker dis- 
charged his pistol. He had determined to wait for Hamilton's 
fire, and Hamilton, it is said, reserved his fire, in obedience to the 
commands of his father. Eacker then leveled his pistol with 
more accuracy, and at the same instant Hamilton did the same. 
Eacker fired first, but almost simultaneously with Hamilton. 
The latter's fire, it is said, was unintentional, and in the air. 
The ball from Eacker's pistol entered Hamilton's right side, just 
above the hip, passed through his body, and lodged in his left 
arm. He was immediately taken over to the city, where he 
died the next moi-ning at five o'clock. 

Eacker died of consumption in 1804, and was buried in St. 
Paul's churchyard, near Yesey street. 

Langstaff and Waldron. — SMrrn and Cock. 

These duels were fought on the I25th of December, 1801, at 
Weehawken, though the papers of that da}' speak of Powles 
Hook. This place and Hoboken were spoken of indiscriminatel}'^ 
in the Eacker and Hamilton duel, when we know that it was 
fought at the regular dueling ground. From the Daily Adver- 
tiser of Monday, Dec. 28, 1801, the following is taken : 

" In consequence of a difterence arising between Mr. John 
Langstafi'and Mr. Oliver Waldron, Jun., of this city, they met 
on Friday afternoon at Powles Hook, accompanied by their 
seconds, when, after exchanging two shots, the matter was ami- 
cably settled ; but the seconds, Mr. Augustus Smith and Mr. 
Archibald M. Cock, having some dispute on account of the 
ground, they exchanged shots, when the latter received a slight 
wound in the face." These parties were mere striplings, not 
over twenty years of age. 

On the same day the following leading questions were put to 
the young duelists in the Spectator : 


Dl Kl.S Al WKJ.IIAWKK.N. I'n7 

" Ist. What was tlie caut^e that i^ave rise to no serious a mode 
of settliii*,' a (litVereiice^ Is this the new and fasliionalde wav of 
honor; or wh\ could it not have been setth-d without ex(dum;;inp 
shots ^ 

•' 2d. What wa^ tlie dilhrence lii'tween the .-eeond.^ re^jteetin^ 
the «:;roiind ; and <lid the eaijer and ti<^htin^' appetites of the 
prineij)als insist oji tightiiiii- without having the ground settled? 

" 'Si\. Did von not tight at 7 n'clock in the evening — and was 
not tlie niglit so dark you could not see eacli other at ten vards' 
distanced A. W." 

From the ahovc it will ho noticed that the information respect 
ing the innuediate facts and circumstances of the duels were 
meagre even at the time. It is the same, to a greater or less 
extent, witli all the duels of which an account will l)e jriven 
The reason is that they were in violation of a positive law, al- 
though sanctioned aiul demanded l)v society. Thouirh under 
this demand the law was dead, yet it had sufficient terrors to 
induce the covering up of facts connected with this mode of heal- 
iniT wounded honor. 



John Swartwout was a })olitical friend ot Colonel Uurr, and 
De AV^itt Clinton of (reneral Ilannlton. Around these last two 
names seemed to cluster all the ])i)litical likes and dislikes of that 
day. In a nioment of forgctlulness ^Ir. Clinton had usi-d certain 
language concerning Mr. Swartwout, which called forth the fol- 
lowing letter : 

'•Mi:w YoKK, 25/// Ju/i/, l3ni>. 
''Sik: I am infoiMued that you have lately, in a conversation 
held at Mr. Ezekiel liohins's, taken very unwarrantable liberties 
with my character, permitting yourself to use expressions rela- 
tive to me too gross to be repeated. From your character aiul 
standing in Micicty, I [>resume you will not hesitate to recognize 
or disavow these charges, and if true, to make me a prompt and 
suitable reparation. 


" I have made uiy friend Col. Smith acquainted with my feel- 
ings and expectations on this subject ; at my particuhir request he 
does me the lionor to present this. He will receive your answer, 
and act accordingly. 

" I have tlie honor to be, Sir, yours, &g., 

*' John Swartwout. 
" The Hon. De Witt Clinton, Esq." 

Colonel Smith delivered this letter on the morning of the 26tli. 
Mr. Clinton asked what the expressions were to which objection 
was taken. Colonel Smith replied, Llai\ Scoundrel and Ylllaln. 
Mr. Clinton said he recollected having applied the first two to 
Mr. Swartwout, explained how he came to use them, but refused 
any apology. The following is his letter : 

" New York, Juhj 26, 1802. 

" Sir : Having understood that you have, on various occasions 
and in relation to the controversy respecting Mr. Burr, represent- 
ed me as being governed by unworthy motives, I liave, without 
hesitation, affixed to such suggestions such epithets as I thought 
they merited. 

" With regard to the conversation that took place at Mr. 
Robins's, it was predicated upon a full conviction that this s^'S- 
tem of conduct had been adopted by you. As you have not 
thought proper to detail, in your letter, the expressions attributed 
to me, but have referred me to Col. Smith for them, he will in 
the same way inform you of those which my recollection recog- 

" I have only to add that any further arrangements you may 
think proper to make will be attended to by me, with all the 
promptitude which a regard to the circumstances of the case may 

" I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

" De Witt Clinton. 
" John Swartwout, Esq." 

On the same (Monday) night Mr. Clinton sent for Richard 
Riker, who called the next morning and consented to act as Mr. 
Clinton's friend. Mr. Riktr called upon Colonel Smith on Wed- 

hi i:i.> A I w i;i II \\\ KIN. •_()'.; 

nesdiiv iiiMiniiio; at ten .I'l-lock. Tlu'V a;^rci'(l that the 'Miiisim'sn 
lui^hr !»(.' uiiiicalilv adjnstfii."' Mr. IJikcr wrote out tlif fnllou- 

" If Mr. Swartwoiit will lU'chire that In- lias rmt represeiitc'd 
Mr. Ciintttii, in relati<»ii to tlu? i-untruMTsv rospcctiii<r Mr. Hiirr, 
as beiii<^ ^overne<l \>y iiiiworthy inotivcs, Mr. ('lintoii will declare 
that housed the e[>ithots with respect t<» Mr. Swartwout, t>n/i/ in 
coiise<|ueiu'o <»t" this supposed imputation, which heiiif; disavowed 
by Mr. Swartwoiit, he (^Fr. CMiuton) readily withdraws the epi- 
thets coiiiplaiiit'd ot, and as a i^^entleinan ajioloj^izes for the use of 
theui. These mutual declarations to be made in the j)reseiice of 
Col. Smith and Mr. Hiker, and a written statement, signed by 
Col. Smith and Mr. Riker, to be exchanged." 

This proposition was submitted to ^Ir. Swartwoiit, and by him 
rejected, and tlie following was declared to be the only apoloL'y 
acceptable. It was sent to ^fr. (iiiiton for his signature : * 

'' navin<^% in the course of a conversation, ma(.le use of e.\{>res- 
sions reflecting on John Swartwout, Esq., I do fully and freely 
withdraw those expressions as intemperate aiul unfouiuled, and 
request Mr. Swartwout to accept this apology from me for having 
used them." 

Mr. Clintoti peremptorily refused to sign anything of this kind, 
and nothing remained but to settle preliminaries for a meeting of 
the parties. At one o'clock on AVednesday, July 28, 1802, Col- 
onel Smith and Mr. Riker met at Mr. Little's, on the 2l)tli select- 
ed the place of meeting, and on the 30th agreed upon the follow- 

" x\KIiAN(;EMKNT. 

" 1. To leave this Island from different points in two boats 
l)recisely at 5 o'clock on Saturday P. M., and to jn-oreed to the 
place proposed. The party first arriving will wait the landing 
of the other : each boat shall be rowed by four contidential per- 
sons onli/, who shall remain in their respective boats until called 
for. These persons are not to be armed in any manner whatever. 
There will be but seven persons in each boat, viz., the Principal, 
1 ( 


his Second, one Surgeon, and four Oarsmen. The Surgeons may 
attend in silence on the ground. 

'" 2d. The distance between tlie parties to be ten yards, measured 
by tlie seconds, and the i;)ositions shall be distinctly marked. 

" 3d. The seconds shall determine by lot the choice of position. 

" 4th, The pistols are not to exceed eleven inches in the barrel. 
They are to be smooth bores, and to be loaded by the seconds in 
each other's presence, showing a smooth ball. 

" 5th. The gentlemen will stand with their backs to each other 
at their respective stations, and in this position shall each receive 
a pistol, and the seconds having determined by lot who gives the 
-word, he to whom the lot falls shall take his position in the centre, 
retired from the line of fire, and shall distinctly say : ' Attention, 
gentlemen — To the right face'' — upon which the}' shall face to the 
right and fire with promptitude; if one fires before the other, the 
opposite second shall say, 'One, two, three, fire,' and he shall fire. 

" 6th. The left hand shall not be brought in support of the riglit 
arm, nor be placed on the right breast or side. 

" 7th. If either should be wounded before he has fired, and 
means to fire, he shall, if he can stand unsujjjwrted, be entitled 
to his shot, and not otherwise. If either has fired, is wounded 
and means to proceed, he shall receive no assistance ; his second 
will only exchange the pistol. If he falls forward the second 
will repost him. 

" 8th. At the exchange of pistols correct positions are to be 
resumed, and the words given as in Article 5. 

'' 9th. A snap or flash to be considered a fire. The pistol must 
not be recovered. 

" 10th. Neither party to quit his station without the order or 
consent of the two seconds. 

"R. RiKEU, 

"W. S. SMrrn. 
" New York, July 30, 1802." 

With such positive and strict rules and regulations did the 
parties solemnly proceed in their innocent way of adjudicating 
the difference " 'Twixt tweedledum and tweedledee." 


At the time agreed u]><>ii tlic |)arti<'s, :iee<)iii|)iiiiic(| liy I)«icturs 
John II. DouLjhiss iiml Isaac Ledyanl, left t'<>i- tli<- Jersey .shore. 
There the seeoncls tos.^ed n\) tor ])ositioii ami wlm should ^ivetiie 
word. I'oth were won by C(»IoiieI Smith. There i.s some ditier- 
enee between the seconds as to what occurred after this, and 
therefore both of their statements are given. Mi'. liikerRays: 

"The ])arties havinir theii- ]iositions, (^ol. Smith gave the 
worils distinctly, as he did iireceding each succeeding tire. They 
tired without eti'ect. ^fr. Clinton then requested me to ask Mr. 
Swartwout — which I did tlnoiigh Col. Smith — whether he was 
satisfied, declaring at the same time that he bore him no resent- 
ment, and would lie willinu' to meet Idm on terms of their oriir- 
inal friendship. Mr. Swartwout declared he was not satisfied. 
The pistols were again loaded and delivered to the gentlemen. 
They turned at the word and tired, as before, without etiect. The 
same declarations were made by Mr. Clinton, and the same ques- 
tion j)ut, the answer being as l)efore. The pistols were a third 
time loaded, and upon the words, \[/te/)f'ofi, <ientbm<n^ ])eing 
pronounced by Col. Smith, I observed Mr. Swartwout turning, 
and he was nearly round l)efore Col. Smith had pronounced the 
words, ^to the rif/htface^" upon which I >aid, ' stop.'' He paused 
a moment, and tired a little before Mr. Clinton. I remon>trated 
against it immediately after, and requested Col. Smith to inform 
Mr. Swartwout that it must not he repeat*'^!. I observed that 
Mr. Clinton had been shot through the coat, and then said to 
Mr. Swartwout through Col. Smith, and by request of Mr. Clin- 
ton as before, ' Mi-. Clinton has no ennn'ty to Mr. Swartwout ; he 
is sorry that this disagreement has happened, and is willing to 
bury all in oblivion : that he was shooting at a man whom he did 
not wish to injure.' < )n asking whether he was satisfie<l, the an- 
s>ver was no, nor wouM he be until the apology was made which 
had been demanded A certificate was then ]>resented to Mr. C. 
by Col. S. Mr. C. read it, handed it back, .saying he wouhl 
sooner fire all night than ask his pardon. The parties again took 
their stations, with noticeable coolness. The word was given, tiie 
gentlemen fired with more deliberation than usual, Mr. C. rather 
after Mr. S. His ball took effect, upon wliich Mr. S. immediately 


called for another pistol. While the pistols were being reloaded 
the blood flowed profusely from the wound in Mr. S.'s leg, and 
he looked pale. His snrgeon, Dr. Douglass, went to him, and it 
is said quietly extracted the ball from the other side of his leg. 
This was contrary to the 7th article of the code adopted by them, 
and unbeknownto Mr. Riker. When the parties were again ready, 
Mr. S.'s looks prompted one of the surgeons to remark, ' Mr. 
Swartwout requires a surgeon,' whereupon Mr. Riker begged 
Col. S. to repeat to Mr. S., ' Sir, are you satisfied ? Mr. Clinton 
bears you no resentment. He is sorry for what has passed, and 
will meet you on the score of original friendship.' Mr. S., 
standing in his place, replied, ' I am not ; it is useless to repeat 
the question.' Then said M;-. C, ' I beg you all to bear witness, 
I have no enmity to Mr. Swartwout, and I am compelled to shoot 
at a man whom I do not wish to hurt ; but I will sign no paper 
— I will not dishonor myself.' The word was then again given, 
the parties fired, and Mr. C.'s ball again took effect. Mr. S. 
coolly said he was ready to take another shot. Preparations were 
being made to load the pistols, when Dr. Ledyard, calling from 
the bank, said: 'J//\ Clinton. donHjire again ; Mr. Swavticout 
loants our assistance.'' Whereupon Mr. C. stepped toward the 
bank and asked, ' Will it be right to fire again ?' Dr. L. said, 
' No, by no means.' Mr. C. then asked Mr. Riker what he ought 
to do. His second, reflecting a moment, said to Col. S. : ' Mr. 
Clinton shall not fire again.' Mr. S. was then assisted into the 
boat, Mr. Riker supporting him on the right side and Dr. Ledyard 
on the left." 

Colonel Smith's statement is as follows : 

" The ground being correctly measured and intermediate ques- 
tions adjusted, the gentlemen took their stations, were each pre- 
sented with a pistol, and, by order, facdd to the right and fired, 
ineftectually. At the request of Mr. Riker I asked Mr. Swart- 
wout: 'Are you satisfied, sir V He answered, ' I am not.' The 
pistols then being exchanged, and their positions resumed by 
order, the gentlemen faced to the right, and fired a second shot 
without eft'ect. At the request of Mr. Riker, I again addressed 


Mr. Swartvvoiit : ' Are V(Hi siitislicil, sir?' Ilr :iiiswcre(l stroiu'lv 
in the iioi^^iitivi'. We pmcceded, and a tliiid shut was oxehaii^^ed 
without injury. At the request of Mi-. Kiker, I a^'ain asked Mr. 
Swartwout : ' Arc you satisfied, sir T lie answered : ' I am not ; 
iieitlior shall 1 he until that apology is nuide which T have de- 
manded. I'ntil then wc must j)rocecd.' I then presented a paper 
to Ml'. Rikcr (•ontainin^• the apujofjy demanded for Mi". Clinton's 
si<i-iiariirc, ohserviuii; that we eouhl not spend i>ur time in e..nver- 
sation ; that this ))a})er must he siorned ^r pinci'ed. ^Ir. ("jinton 
declare*! he would not sin;n any jiapcr <>n that subject; that ho 
liad no anim<jsity against Mr. Swartwout ; would williuijly shake 
hands, and ao;ree to meet on the score of formei- friendship, 

"Mr. Swartwout insisting on his sigiuiture to the apolo<ry, and 
Mr. Clinton declinintr, they stood at their posts, and fired a 
fourth shot. Mr. Clinton's ball struck Mr. Swartwout's left leg 
about five inches below the knee ; he stood ready and collected. 
At the request of Mr. Kiker, I again addressed Mr. Swartwout : 
' Arc you satisfied, sir i ' lie answered. ' It is useless to rej)eat 
the (juestiou ; my determination is fixed, and I beg we m&y 
proceed.' Mr. Clinton repeated that he had no animosity 
against ^Ir. Swartwout; was sorry for what had })assed ; pro- 
posed to advance, shake hands, and bury the circumstance in 
oblivion. During this conversation, ^Ir. Swartwout's surgeon, 
kneeling by his side, extracted a ball from the ojjposite side of 
his leg.^ Mr. Swartwout standing erect on his i)ost, and posi- 
tively declining anything short of an ample apology, they tired 
the fifth shot, and Mr, Swartwout received the ball in the left leg, 
about five inches above the ankle; still, however, standing 
steadily on his post, perfectly conijiosed. .\t the request of Mr. 
Riker, I again addressed Mr. Swai-twout : "Arc you sati.sfied, 
sir?' lie forcibly answered, '1 am nut, sir; ]n-oceed.' ^Ii-. 
Clinton then quit his station, declined the combat, and declared 
he would fire no more. ^Ir. Swartwout expi'essed himself sur- 

' While Dr. Douglass was performing tliis oix-nition, the .second.'* wrre at tho 
pistol cases. Colonel Smith turned around and paid, " Doctor Dou^jiass. what 
do you do there, sir V go away, or you will be shot." 


prised that Mr. Clinton would neither apologize nor give hiin 
the satisfaction required ; and addressing me, said, ' What shall 
I do, ray friend ? ' I answered, ' Mr. Clinton declines making 
the apology required, refuses taking his position, and posi- 
tively declares he will fight no more ; and his second appearing 
to acquiesce in the disposition of his principal, there is nothing 
further left for you note but to have your wounds dressed.' The 
surgeons attended, dressed Mr. Swartwout's wounds, and the 
gentlemen, in their respective barges, returned to the city.''' 

It was said that after the last shot, and while Mr. Swartwout 
was sitting on a stone bleeding, Mr. Clinton approached him, 
offered him his hand, and said, " I am sorry I have hurt you so 
much." Then turning to Colonel Smith, he said, " I don't want 
to hurt him, but I wish I had the principal here. I will meet 
him when he pleases." He had reference to Aaron Burr. 

Hiker and Swartwout. 

Richard Hiker, at the time Deputy Attorney-General of the 

State of New York, afterward liecorder of the city, and known 

as Dickey Riker, and Robert Swartwout, a brother of Samuel, 

Collector of the Port under General Jackson, fought a duel at 

AVeehawken, on Monday, JSTovember 21, 1803. The cause lay 

in a political quarrel — Riker being a firm adherent of De "Witt 

Clinton, and Swartwout a strong personal and political friend of 

Colonel Burr. Riker fell at the first fire, from a severe wound 

in the right leg. The wits who subsequently edited " The 

Croakers " refer to this combat in the following irreverent 

lines : 

" The Riker. like Bob Acres, stood 
Edge-ways upon a field of blood, 
The where and wherefore Swartwout knows, 
Pulled trigger, as a brave man should, 
And shot, God bless them — his own toes." 

These two parties were indicted in New York for duelings 
Novem.ber, 1804. 

r>\ \iU AM) II WIll.rnN. 

Ar last [hv two political rl,i,.ftain> ..f N.-w V,,i-k aiv ahoiit \,, 
meet in mortal eoiiil)at. 'rinir full., wits, at iiitrrvais fm- the 
past five years, juul met and f..n-Iit to settle [...litical aii.l jter- 
sonal (litreri'iicej;. N.,\v Weeliawken is to witness the last meet- 
iii<j of the riwil leader^, aii-l on lirr m.-ky shore tliey part 



to liis ^n-ave, the other to he a fui^itive on the earth. The duel 
was fought on the mornini:^ of July 1 1, 1S(I4. It arose, or rather 
a pretext for it was found, in what may he ealled the tattliiii; of 
one Dr. Cliarles D. Cooper. For political purposes, he had re- 
ported that he "could detail a st/// tnore dexpir^hh opinion 
which General Hamilton had crp/'i's-f't/ of Mr. I»urr." What- 


ever this silly remark may have meant, it was the cause of the 
controversy which followed, and which ended in the untimely 
death of a truly great man. 

As soon as this expression of Cooper was brought to Burr's 
attention, he, ripe for a quarrel with his great rival, called upon 
General Hamilton for " a prompt and unqualified acknowledg- 
ment or denial of the use of any expression which would war- 
rant the assertion of Dr. Cooper," and selected William P. Yan 
Ness as In's friend, to deliver liis letter. Hamilton replied on the 
20tli of June, but it is manifest that he could not be held 
responsible for Dr. Cooper's inferences. On the 21st, Bui-r 
rejoined as follows : 

" Siii : Your letter of the 20th instant has been this day 
received. Having considered it attentively, I regret to find in 
it nothing of that sincerity and delicacy which you profess to 

" Political opposition can never absolve gentlemen from the 
necessity of a rigid adherence to the laws of honor and the rules 
of decorum. T neither claim such privilege nor indulge it in 

''The common sense of mankind affixes to the epithet adopted 
by Dr. Cooper the idea of dishonor. It has been publicly applied 
to me under the sanction of your name. The question is not 
whether he has understood the meaning of the word, or has used 
it according to syntax, and with grammatical accuracy ; but 
whether you have authorized this application, either directly or 
by uttering expressions or opinions derogatorj' to my honor. The 
time 'when' is in your own knowledge, but no way material to 
me, as the calumny has now first been disclosed, so as to become 
the subject of my notice, and as the effect is present and 

" Your letter has furnished me with new reasons for requiring 
a definite reply." 

Mr. Yan Xess delivered this letter. Hamilton told him that 
he considered it rude and offensive, and unless it were recalled, 
tlie only answer which it was possible for him to make was that 


J//', /ii/r)' )iiiist tiiki' Niif/i sttjtN Its III m'nj/it thiiik j)r(>ji*'r. 

^^('vortliclcss, lie i'c|)li((l in writing as follows; 

'* Sii: : "^'oui- tii^t letter, in a style j)ereiii])torv. iiijuU- a «le- 
iiiaiid. ill my opiiii'iii. iiiipreut'dciitcd and imwarraiitahlf. My 
answer, point ini; out the emban-assnicnt, <^ave you an o|ijior- 
tunity to take a less excoptit>nal)le course. You have not clioscn 
to do it ; hut by youi- last li'ttcr received this day. (•(Hitainin'r 
e.\i>ressions indecoroiis and iinjirojier, you have iMcreascil the 
ditficiilties to explanation intrinsically incident to the tiaturc of 
your ai>plication. 

"If by a 'definite iv])ly' you mean the ilireet avowal or dis- 
avowal I'eijuired in youi' first letter, I have no nthei' answer to 
give than that which has already been given. If you mean any- 
thing <liflerent, admitting of greater latitude, it is recjuisite yon 
should e\i>lain." 

This letter was delivered to his friend, Judge Nathaniel Pen- 
dleton, who had been Aid-de-Camp of General < li'cene, on the 22d 
of June, but by reason of certain conversations l)etwcen him aiul 
Mr. \'an Xess it was not delivered until the 25th. P>efore the de- 
livery of this letter ^fr. Van Ness had addressed a note to (Tcneral 
Hamilton asking him •' when and where it would be most con- 
venient to receive a communication.'' It will be seen, therefore, 
that Colonel lUirrhad resolved on extreme measures before Gen- 
eral Hamilton's second note was delivered to him. 

Pending the negotiations previous to the delivery of the letter 
of the 22d, Judge Pendleton submitted to ^^r. Van Ness tlie fol- 
lowing paper, whif'li shows how far(ieneral Hamilton was williiiLT 
to concede : 

" General Hamilton says he cannot imagine to what Or. Cooper 
may liave alluded, unless it were to a conversation at Mr. Taylor's, 
in Albany, last winter (at which he and General Hamilton were 
present). General Hamilton cannot recollect distinctly the par- 
ticulars of that conversation, so as to undertake t«^ rcjieat them, 
without running the risk of varying or omitting what might be 
deemed important circumstances. The expressions arc entirely 
forgotten, and the specific ideas imperfectly remembere<l ; but to 


the best of his recollection it consisted of comments on the politi- 
cal principles and views of Colonel Burr, and the results that 
might be expected from them in the event of his election as Gov- 
ernor, without reference to any particular instance of past conduct 
or to private character." 

After tlie delivery of Hamilton's second letter, Judge Pendle- 
ton submitted another paper, dictated by the same kindly spirit : 

" In answer to a letter properly adapted to obtain from General 
Hamilton a declaration whether he had charged Colonel Burr 
witli any particular instance of dishonorable conduct, or had 
impeached his private character, either in the conversation alluded 
to by Dr. Cooper, or in any other particular instance to be specified, 
he would be able to answer consistently with his honor and tlie 
truth in substance, that the conv^ersation to which Dr. Cooper 
alluded turned wholly on political topics, and did not attribute 
to Colonel Burr any instance of dishonorable conduct, nor relate 
to his private character ; and in relation to any other language 
or conversation of General Hamilton wliich Colonel Burr will 
specify, a prompt and frank avowal or denial will be given." 

These propositions being unacceptable to Colonel Burr, a cor- 
respondence between the seconds followed. Finally the formal 
challenge was given by Burr and accepted by Hamilton. The 
parties prepared for the meeting, which was to be on the 11th of 
July. Hamilton executed his will, and signed cogent reasons why 
he should not light a duel. His own good judgment, his keen 
sense of moral right, his obligations to his family, his duty to his 
country and to the requirements of the law, all united to convince 
him that he had no right to jeopard his life to the demands of a 
false sentiment. But louder than all these the public voice called 
upon him to meet his foe in mortal combat, and he, wdio had 
faced death on the battle field, had not the courage to refuse. 
Burr, on tlie night of the 10th, wrote several letters — one to his 
Theodosia, the pride of his heart — and then lay down and slept 
till morning. Better for him had that sleep been his last — better 
for him had that morning never dawned. At daybreak a few of 
his friends gathered around him. Shortly afterward they pro- 


ceedcd from Burr's lioiisc. No. ;>'> I'.ntitiun, now l-'iiltmi street, to 
the shore, where Burr, Viui Niss, Matthew I,. I)avis {i!nl aimthii- 
(probably Swartwout) etnl)arkc(l, and wert- rowcil over to Wce- 
hawkrn.' They arrived on the sjjround about halt"-j»ast six o'clock, 
for it had been previously aj^reed that he shoidd arrive tirst. 
]>urr and Van Ness, with coats utl", were leisurely renioviui; tlu- 
underbrush from the "ground, " so as to make a fair opening;," 
when Hamilton and his second, accompanied liy I )r. llosack, 
who had been mutually ai^reed ui)oii as the surgeon, arrived a few 
minutes before seven o'clock. Thr jirincipals and their secoiuls 
exchanged salutations, and the seconds proceeded with the usual 
preparations. They measured tlie distance, ten full paces, then 
cast lots for the choice of position and to decide who shoidd give 
the word. The lot in both cases fell to General Hamilton's 
second, who chose the upper end of the ledge for his principal. 
The pistols were then loade<l in each other's presence and the 
principals placed, Hamilton looking over the river toward the 
city, and Burr toward the heij^hts under which they stood, d udgc 
Pendleton gave Hamilton his pistol, and a>ked : 

'' Will you have the hair-spring set ?" 

*'xVb^ this time,"' was the quiet reply. 

Judge Pendleton then explained to the parties the rules which 
were to o-overn them in Urini;-. which were as follows : 

•' The parties being placed at their stations, the second who 
gives the word shall ask them whether they are ready : being 
answered in the affirmative, he shall say Present ; after this the 
parties shall i>resent and fire when, the;/ please. If om* tires before 
the other, the ()i)posite second shall say, ' One, two, three, tire.* 
and he shall then tire or lose his fire." 

He then asked if they were prepared. Being answered in tlie 
atlirmative, lie gave the word Pres<nf, as had been agreed on, 
and both parties presented and tired in succession. The inter- 
vening time is not expressed, as the seconds do not precisely 
agree on that point. The tire of Colonel Burr took efl'ect, and 

' Wilson was one of the rowers. 


General Hamilton almost instantly fell, his pistol going off invol- 
nntaril}'. Colonel Bnrr then advanced toward Hamilton with 
a manner and gesture which to Judge Pendleton seemed to be 
expressive of regret,^ but, without speaking, turned about and 
withdrew, being urged from the field by his friend, shielded, as 
it is stated, by an umbrella, with a view to prevent his being- 
recognized by the surgeon and bargemen, who were tlien ap- 
proaching. Colonel Burr entered his barge and returned to the 
city to hreahfast ! 

When Hamilton fell his second immediately sprang forward 
and lifted him to a sitting posture. The ball had struck the 
second or third false rib, and fractured it about in the middle ; 
it then passed through the liver and diaphragm and lodged in 
the iirst or second lumbar vertebra. Dr. Hosack says: "His 
countenance of death I shall never fors^et. He had at that instant 
just strength to saj^, ' This is a mortal wound, doctor,' when he 
sank away and became to all appearance lifeless. His pulses 
were not to be felt, his respiration was entirely suspended, and 
upon hiying my hand upon his heart and perceiving no motion 
there, I considered him as irrevocably gone. I, however, observed 
to Mr. Pendleton that the only chance for his reviving was imme- 
diately to get him upon the water. We therefore lifted him up 
and carried him out of the wood to the margin of the bank, 
where the bargemen aided us in conveying him into the boat, 
which immediately put off." Before they reached the opposite 
shore he revived. He survived until the next day about two 

' Burr was considered a good shot, and he is said to have remarked on the 
afternoon of the same day, by way of apology for firing a little below the 
breast, that had it not been forsmol^e or a rising momentary mist, or something 
of that nature, which intercepted his vision, he should have lodged the ball 
exactly in the centre of Hamilton's heart. N. Y. Spectator, July 38, 1824. 

When in England, in 1808, he gave Jeremy Bentham an account of the duel, 
and said he was sure of being able to kill him ; and " So," records Bentham, "/ 
thought it little better than a 7nurder." Sabine on Dueling, 212. Such was the 
view held by the grand jury of Bergen county. That body indicted him in 
November, 1804, for murder. On November 20, 1807, this indictment was 
quashed by the Supreme Court, on motion of Colonel Ogden. Centinel of Free- 
dom, Nac. 24, 1807. 

DfEI.S AT \VI' r.lI.WVKKN. Z_ I 

o'clock in the at'teninoii, wlicn lir died, in ihr t'orty-i'i.i;litli year of 
his age. 

Iiuinediately after tlio duel :i (|iu'sti»>n arose as to llamilton's 
firiiiiT — whi'tlu'i' it was intent ional i>r nut. 'I'he next dav Jndi'e 
Pendleton and a friend went ovei- to the ground to see if they 
could discover sonic traces of the course of the hall from Hamil- 
ton's pistol. They ascertained that the i)all passed thniu<^h the 
limh of a cedar tree^ at an elevation of about twelve and a half 
feet from the ground, hetween thirteen and t'ourteeii teet ti-om 
where Hamilton stood, and about four feet wide ol the direct 
line between him and ("ol.mel Burr on the right side. 

A few months after the duel the St. .\ndrew's Society, of 
wdiich Hamilton was president, erected a monument to his mem- 
ory on the ground where he fell. It was surrounded with an 
iron railing, and while it stood was visited by thousan«ls every 

It was intentionally dc.-^troyed abuut the year 1820. The 
monument seemed to arouse in the people of New York a spirit 
of emulation. A writer in Tlie CoJumhlan, o\\ ■\\\\y 13, 1>>1.'», 
who signed himself '' IIohokkn," wrote of the existence of Hamil- 
ton's monument, and said. " It is a .-ubject of complaint to the 
citizens in the vicinity, and a standing absurdity and outrage 
on the morals, manners and feelings of society. Wy the perni- 
cious effect of a conspicui>us example, the young and chivalrous 
are invited to combat and feel a degree of vain glory in measur- 
iiiir firround on the snot where that great man fell from all his 
glory and usefulness, and furnished a bloody beacon to posterity, 
which should be at least shrouded from the light of day. Now- 
adays the boats arrive from your island in daylight, 
the combatants take their stand on each side of the (»minous 
iiiomnnent, and before the inhabitants can reach the sjHit the 
mischief is done, and the xnfortiniaie survivors hurried otV, too 
soon to ba arrested by the gathering neighborhood. Such is the 
sensation, I understand, excited by the use of this nioUeru 

' This tree was destroyed when tin- Nlw York and Fort Ia-o Kailroad was con- 



Aceldama, that it is not to be expected tlie pillar will lono- retain 
its station, it being considered as a baleful nuisance, not a ves- 
tige of which should be suffered to remain on the earth. But 
for the eminent cause of its origin, I should be almost as willing 
to have a gallows near my house." 

With such a feeling growing in the community, it could not be 
expected that the m.onument would long survive. Stansbury, 
who visited the place August 20, 1821,i says, " The monument 




-F" E L L , '^iiiililS;ii*;^5SK, 

Julv 11- IS o^*>l|»#f$i|? 

EXAJv D E R Ham iltoSt! 

^'Of their affectionate Regard !l©ll''!M,i,,; 
to bis AIeiTiory__^ ^ ' 

and of tlieir cleep rej^ret 

i:^^:^:.,.. u 



.'i!i:i ;'vi„ 


^ the ,jSp^j<j ^JVett YORIC, 

■■""''''' have erectea y:^Mi^'.-. !i , ii\, 


that was erected here to the memory of General Hamilton is 
now taken to pieces by the proprietor of the soil and conveyed 
to his house, under pretence of its having been too much resorted 
to for purposes of dueling." From this language it is inferable 
that the removal was then compai-atively recent. Captain James 
Deas was the OM'uer of the property at the time, and Avas the 
person who removed the monument. By some means the slab 

^Pedestrian Tour, 14. 

Dl i:i> AT W I'lll.WVKKN. -J'J."? 

which hure the inscri])tioii was takt'ii trum (Captain Di-as's i«>s- 
i?essioli. About tlic vt-ar 1838 ]Vri-. Ilui^h ^^axw('ll, President of 
the St. Andrew's Society, h ;niic(l tliat it had heen seen in a junk 
shop in New Ymk. Tie traced it iiji, rcdct'im-d it fmni its iijno- 
ble positinii and pri'si'UttMJ it \i> the late .lanic- <i. K'iiitr. who 
abont that time iiad hecoiiii' the (»wiier of the property on winch 
tlie inonuMient had been erected. The tabk't still remains in 
possession of his family at IIit(hwood. It is thirty-fonr inches in 
lenijth by twenty-six and a halt inches in width and two and a 
half inches in tlnckness. 


(h\ Monday, duly 10, 1815, tlie xsew York papers announced 
the death, "after a short illness,'' ttf Isaac <4ouverneur, the second 
son of Nicliolas (Tonverneur. This death, followiiii; a " >hort ill- 
ness," was caused by a duel between him and William 11. Max- 
well on Saturday, the 8th of Jidy, about seven o'clock in the 
evening. It was fought with ])istols, " near the monument of 
Hamilton, a beacon which shoidd dissuade and <leter, like the 
pillar of salt, from folly and madness, rather than allm'e, like an 
if/nis fatuiis, to rashness, error ami destruction." (Tcorge 
Watts and Doctor Worthiuijton wi-re the seconds in the duel. 

Price anmi (trken. 

Benjamin Price was a grocer at lihinebeck, a brother of Wil- 
liam M. Price, who lived in Ilackensack, and of Stephen Price, 
of the Park Theatre. Green was a major in the Pritish army, 
serving in Canada. Price was at the theatre one evening with a 
beautiful woman, when (Jrecn, in an adjoining box, took the 
liberty of turning around and staring her full in the face. She 
coniplained to Price, and, on a repetition of the oti'ence, lie turned 
and seized the nose of the gallant othcer full between his finger 
and thumb and wrunir it most ertectuallv. The otheer left the 


theatre, and soon after a knock was heard at the door of Price's 
box. He opened it, and there stood tlie officer, who, with a 
refreshing simplicity, asked Price what he meant by snch beha- 
viour, at the same time remarking that he had not meant to insult 
the lady by what he had done. " Oh, very well," replied Price, 
"neither did I mean to insult you by what I did." Upon this 
they shook hands as sworn brothers. Some time after this 
Green went to Canada to join his regiment. The facts of the 
afi'air, however, had reached Canada before him, and were soon 
the subject of discussion among his comrades. The officers of 
his regiment brought it to the notice of his brother officers, one 
of whom, a Captain Wilson, insisted that Green should be sent 
to Coventry unless he returned to Xew York and challenged 
Price. Green, thus goaded, set to work and practiced for five 
hours a day until he could hit a dollar at ten paces nine times 
out of ten. He then came to New York and challeuffed Price. 
They fought at Weehawken on Sunday, May 12, 1816, Price 
was killed at the first fire. The ball crashed into his head and 
the blood streamed from the wound as he fell. Numerous boats 
lined the shore, a number of spectators viewed the transaction 
from the neighboring rocks, and a more horrible sight could not 
have been imagined. The seconds ran off, and Green took a 
small boat, crossed the river and boarded a vessel in the bay just 
about to sail for England. The body of Price was found at 
Weehawken, with a piece of paper attached to his breast, on 
which were inscribed the following words : " This is Benjamin 
Price, boarding in Yesey street. New York ; take care of him." 
The body was taken to the city quietly and buried. 

As a sequel to the foregoing duel, Millingen, in his History of 
Dueling^ relates the following : 

"Some years afterwards, Captain Wilson of the British army, 
whom we have mentioned above, arrived in this city, from 
England, on his way to Canada, and put up at the Washington 
Hotel. One day, at dinner, the conversation turned on the 
death of Benjamin Price, and the manner thereof. Captain 
Wilson remarked that he had been mainly instrumental in 

DUKI.S Al' U KKIIAW KK.N. 2'jr» 

hriiii!;!!!^;- aliotit the diit'l. ami detuiled tlii' (;ireiimstjincort con- 
nected tlierewitli. This stjitenu-nt was ciirried iinnicdiiitidy to 
Steplit'ii I'ricc, will) was Iviiiij,- ill of the ^unt, at hoinr : hit; 
tViends say tiiat he hcncetortli implicitly oheyed the instructions 
of the physician, obtained tlierehy a short cessation of the j^'out, 
and was enabled to liohMe out of doors, Ids U)Wer extrendties 
swaddled in tlaiuiel His first course whs to seek the Washin^'- 
ton Hotel, and his first in([uiry was, 'Is Captain Wilson within '/ 
' He is,' said the waiter. * Show nie to his room,' said Stej»hen. 
and he was shown ac('ordini;-ly. He hol)l)led up >tair:' with<:;reat 
ditticulty, cursing at intervals the gout and the captain with 
ec^ual veiiemence. Uc at last entered the ca|)tain's mom, hi> 
feet cased in moccassins, and his Invnd grasping a stick. Captain 
Wilson rose to receive him, when lie said, 'Are you (Japtaiii 
Wilson ( ' • That is my name," replied the gallant captain. 
•Then, sir, my name is Ste})hen Trice. Vou see, sir, I can 
scarcely put one foot before the other ; I am attlicted with tiie 
gout. My object in coming here is to insult you. Shall I have 
to knock you down, or will you consider what 1 have said a 
sufficient insult, and act accordingly ^ ■ N'o, sir,' replie<l the 
captain, smiling, '1 shall considei' what you have said tjuite 
.-ufHcient, and shall act accordingly. Vou shall hear from nu-.' 

" In ilue time, there came a message from the (Japtain to 
Stephen Price; time, place and weapons wi-re appointed, and 
early one morning a barge left New York, in which were .seated, 
face to face, Stephen Price and Captain Wilson, and two friends ; 
they all landed at Bedlow's Island, the principals took their posi- 
tions, and Captain Wilson fell dead at the first shot. The cap- 
tain was buried in the vault there, and Price ami the two .seconds 
nturtied to New York ; but his friends (Wilson's) thought that 
he had gone suddenly to Canada, and always thought that he 
had died suddenly, or had been killed on iiis way to England to 

join his regiment." 

PeKRV AM) Hk.vth, 

Oliver H. Perry, the hero of Lake Erie, was post-captain in 

22G HISTORY OF Hudson county. 

the navy of the United States, and John Heath was captain of 
marines. While on duty in the Meditterranean, in 1815, a quar- 
rel arose between them. In the moment of excitement Perry 
struck Heath. A court-martial followed the difficulty, tind both 
were privately reprimanded by Commodore Cliauncey, who 
commanded the American squadron in that sea. After their 
return to the United States, Heath sent a challenge to Perry. 
The communication was received in Ehode Island, where the 
civil authorities would not permit the duello. Commodore Perry, 
as early as January, had secured the services of Commodore 
Decatur as his friend, in anticipation of the challenge. On the 
lOtli of October he went to Washington, to give Captain Heath 
the satisfaction he demanded. The absence of Commodore 
Decatur rendered it necessary that he should have another 
friend for a time, that Captain Heath might be informed of his 
arrival, and for what purpose he had come. -This was done, and 
the following preliminary arrangements agreed u])on between 
Major Hamilton, on the part of Commodore Perry, and Lieu- 
tenant Desha on the part of Captain Heath : 

" 1st. It is understood that Commodore Perry is to proceed to 
Philadelphia, or its vicinity, by the route of Baltimore, where 
he is to remain until the arrival of Captain Heath's friend. 

" 2d. That Captain Heath is to proceed by the way of Freder- 
ick and York to Philadelphia, and to I'emain in the suburbs 
until the arrangements are made for a meeting between himself 
and Commodore Perry — his name not to be on the stage bills. 

" 3d, Lieutenant Desha and Major Hamilton are to meet at 
Kenshaw's, on Wednesday, after the arrival of the Newcastle 

" -tth. The meeting between Commodore Perry and Captain 
Heath is to take place on Saturday morning, or as soon after as 

" Washingt07i City, Oct. 12, 1818." 

Endorsed on this preliminary arrangement was the following 

" Captain Perry desires it expressly to be understood, that in 


uccurdinj^ to Captain 1 Ii-atli tin; pcrsnnal ,>iiti.sf"iiilii)ii hi- lia.-> *\v- 
mandc'd, he has bL'i'ii iiitluLMiL-ud ciitiri'ly hy a (sense of what he 
considers ihie from hiiu as an atonement to the violated rides of 
the service, and in it hy any consideration of the (daims which 
Captain Heath may have for making such a (Usmand, which he 
totally denies, as such claims have been forfeited hy the measures 
of a public character which Captain Ibatli has adopted towards 
him. If, therefore, the civil authority should produce an impos- 
sibility of a meeting at the time and ])lace designated, of which 
he will take every ])recaution to prevent, he will consider him- 
self absolutely exonerated from any responsibility to Captain 
Heath, touching their present cause of ditt'erenco. 

" J. IIamii,ton, Jun. 

" (For Caj)tahi Pernj), 


Pi. M. Dkmia." 

In consequence of the foregoing, the parties assembled at 
Philadelphia, and Major Hamilton then transferred the above 
memorandum to Commodore Decatur, introducing to him at the 
same time Lieutenant Desha as the friend of Captain Heath, 
when the followini; arrangements were made : 

'' 1st. It is understood that Captain Perry and his friend are to 
proceed to New York, or its vicinity, where he is to remain untd 
the arrival of Ca]>tain Heath, or until the period which is named 
in^tliis paper for their meeting. 

'• 2(1. That Captain Heath, with his friend, are to follow and 
remain at some convenient point on the Jersey shore, near the 
city of Xew York, and to give information after their arrival to 
Captain Perry's friend, where such arrangements will bo made as 
may be deemed necessary. 

" 3d. The parties to be on the point specified, and the notifica- 
tion required by the 2d article given, prior to the approaching 
Monday, the 19th. 

" The parties accordingly met at Weehawken on Monday, Octo- 
ber 19, 1818, at 12 o'clock. Captain Perry received the tire of 
Captain Pleath without returning it. when Commodore Decatur 


immediately stej^ped forward and declared that Commodore 
Perry had come to the ground with a determination not to return 
the lire of Captain Heath, in proof of which he read a letter from 
Commodore Perry to him, which he had written (and which is 
herewith subjoined), soliciting him to become his friend, and, 
therefoi-e, he presumed the party aggrieved was satisfied. Cap- 
tain Heath having expressed his acquiescence in this opinion, 
and that the injury be bad received from Captain Perry was 
atoned for, the parties returned to the city. 

" We do hereby certify the foregoing is a correct statement. 

" Stephen Decatur, 
" K. M. Desha." 


" Washington, January 18, 1818. 
" My Dear Commodore : You are already acquainted with the 
unfortunate aflair which has taken place between Capt. Heath 
and myself. Although I consider, from the course he has thought 
proper to pursue, that I am absolved from all accountability to 
him, yet, as I did, in a moment of irritation produced by strong 
provocation, raise ray hand against a person honored with a com- 
mission, I have determined, upon mature reflection, to give him 
a meeting should he call on me ; declaring, at the same time, that 
I cannot consent to return his fire, as the meeting, on my part, 
will be entirely as an atonement for the violated rules of the ser- 
vice. I request, therefore, my dear sir, that you will act as my 
friend on this occasion. 

" Yery truly your friend, 

" O. H. Perry. 
" Com. Stephen Decatur." 

Thus fortunately terminated this unfortunate quarrel between 
these two worthy officers. 

Graham and Barton. 
William G. Graham was associate editor of the New York 


Courier and Inquirer, and a native of Catskill. Mr. I5:irtnii \va> 
a son of the celebrated Di-. Hartoi), of I'liiladolpliia. Tlie duel 
was fought at AVceluiwken on Wednesday, Xoveinber 28, 1S27. 
It is said that a dispute arose hctwecn them while at the canl 
tal)le at a friend's house, in the course of which (Irahaiii stru<-k 
I'arton. A challenge was the coTise(iuence, Lewis Ashury and 
W. McLeod acting as seconds, and J)ocr(»r R. Pcniiell as surgeon. 
The night before the meeting Mr. (ii-aham wrote the followiui; 
letter to his associate, Major Xoah : 

'■ 1 1 o'clock. 

" Dkak SiK : What may he the result of the uuhai)iiy rairantri 
which is to take place in the morning between Mr. l'»arton and 
myself cannot, of course, be predicted by tne. In the supposition 
that it will he fatal, I bid y on fareirell, in the only language that 
is now left to me. I am perfectly inditl'erent as to my.self, but I 
trust most earnestly that Mr. Barton (toward whom I have not 
the faintest enmity oiany kind) may escape. / admit that I ant 
in the wrong — that, by giving him <i blow, I have forced him into 
the condition of a challenge ; and by not doing what he has he 
would have blasted his character as a gentleman forever. In com- 
mon justice I am bound thus to al>solve him from all suspicions 
of unbecoming conduct respecting the challenge. The provcx'a- 
tion, though xlight^ was still a provocation which I could not over- 
look. It is out of the question for me to explain, retract or a|>ol- 
ogize. I will not hear of any settlement short of some abject and 
craven submission from him.^ 

"Mr. Barton is a talking. man, who dwells very complacently 
on his own skill as a marksman, on his ex|)erience as a duelist, 
and on his accuracy as a person of ton. I ]>retend to none of 
these, and therefore must oppose the inflexible obstinacy. 
After he i8^;t'7;A't'r^/// .sv///.s//'<y/, I may, perhaps, apologize — that is, 
in case I am fatally wounded. It is needless for me to say I 
heartily despise and detest this absurd mode of settling disputes 

' It is probable that Mr. (trahain intPiidod to say. " lb- will not iu'arot any 
settlemt'ut sliort of some abject ami cravt-n submission from ute." 


and salving the wounds of honor. But what can a poor devil do 

except bow to the supremacy of custom ? 

* * * * * * * 

" God bless you. 

"W. G. Graham." 

Here we see a nian of fine genius and noble impulses, who, 
like the talented Hamilton and the gallant Perry, could coolly 
stand before the cannon's mouth, yet yielded like a child to the 
omnipotence of public sentiment. How perverted must be that 
society which, while it condemns dueling, yet shuns and spurns 
the man who refuses to acc€i)t or send a challenge when he is in- 
sulted. And how weak and ineffectual are laws for the preven- 
tion of crime, when those crimes are approved by public senti- 

On the fatal day Graham arose at four o'clock in the morning, 
and both parties were on the ground at twenty minutes before six- 
o'clock. The principals took their positions, and at the word 
exchanged shots without effect. Mr. Graham's second proposed 
that the parties each advance one step. At the second fire Gra- 
ham said, " I arii shot — I am a dead man — Barton, I forgive you," 
and fell. He was immediately conveyed to the boat in waiting. 
When laid down, the only words he uttered were, " I am in great 
pain," and died a few minutes afterward. The ball had entered 
the right side, about two inches from the umbilicus, and passed 
obliquely through the body, injuring in its passage several im- 
portant organs, and coming out on the left side about four inches 
from the spine. 

The certificate of the cause of death, which Dr. Pennell gave 
the next day, is quite unique : " I hereby certify that William 
Graham, aged 34 years, died on the 28th inst. of vulnus." 


On Monday, the 19th of October, 1835, Henry Aitken and 
Thomas Sherman met on the ground at Weehawken. On the Sun- 
day evening previous they had a difficulty in New York respecting 

DUKLS Al \VKi;ilA\\KKN, 231 

a female, which resulted in a chalieni^e on the part of Sheniiaii. 
Tills was accepted hy AitUeii, .ind ten ci'd.ick on the folluwiiiir 
morning was Hxed upon as the hour to decide the matter in dif- 
ference. Mutual friends endeavored to reconcile the «litHcultv, 
hut in vain. On >[ondav morniiiir they crossed the Ilohoken 
ferry and went to the ground. Hefore the i)reliminaries were 
settled, Andrew Boyd, a constahle, arrived and arrested them. 
They were hrought before Stjuire Paradise, in Jersey City, who 
committed them to the Hackensack jail to await the action of the 
grand jury. 

On Tuesday I*. ^[., ^[av 10, 1837, a duel was fou<;ht at this 
place between a Spaniard from Guatemala and a l'"renchman 
living in New York, in which the former was slightly wounded. 
Some ])ecuniary transaction was the subject of disj)ute. 

Without being able to discover the particulars, I liave met the 
general fact that a duel was here fought at quite a late period, 
and that one of the jiarties, named Bird, was shot through the 
heart, sprang up nearly ten feet, and fell dead. 

So far as I can learn, the last duel fV>ught on this ground was 
on Sept. 28, 1845. Without the knowledge of the prinel])als, tlie 
seconds loaded the ])istols with cork. The performance was 
solemnly gone through with as if in mockery of the many trage- 
dies which had there been enacted. The heroes of this afalre 
rVhonneu)' are not known, but with their farce the curtain dro])s 
upon the stage at Weehawken. But as we read its sad history 
may we not quote from Dr. Nott's funeral oration over Hamil- 
ton : '• Ah ! ye tragic shores of Hobokeil, crimsoned with the 
richest blood, I tremble at the crimes you record against us, the 
annual register of murders which you keep and send up to God I 
Place of inhuman cruelty I beyond the limits of reason, of duty, 
and of rellorion, where man assumes a more barbarous nature and 
ceases to be man. What poignant, lingering sorrows do thy law- 
less combats occasion to survivini; relatives." 

CHAPTEE IX. — Ferries, 

Communipavv ferry — Weebawken ferry— Jersey City ferry — Bergen Point 
ferry — Hoboken ferry — Brown's ferry — Douw's ferry — Pavonia ferry — 
Budd'sferrj^ — Bull's ferry — De Klynn's ferry — Elizabetbtown Point ferry. 

The Common Council of New York have always claimed and 
occasionally exercised the right of establishing the rates of fer- 
riage. New Jersey has always claimed and frequently exercised 
the same right. It is not to be supposed, however, that either 
jurisdiction ever claimed greater authority than to regulate the 
fare to be demanded on its own side of the river. On the 6th of 
February, 1709, the State of New Jersey transferred this right to 
the Board of Chosen Freeholders in the several counties in whicli 
the fenies were.^ The Chosen Freeholders of Bergen, so far as as- 
certained, never attempted to exercise the power so given to them. 
But the Chosen Freeholders of Hudson took hold of the subject 
with more zeal than discretion. The proprietors of the ferries 
denied their power under the law to establish the rates of fare on 
ferries not wholly within the county. The contest waxed warmer, 
until finally an appeal was made to the courts, and then the ferry 
companies went to the Legislature for relief. That body again 
took the subject into their own hands, and on the 10th of March, 
1853, established the rates of ferriao-e as they now are.^ 

The Communipaw Ferry. 

The first ferry legally established on the North Eiver, connect- 
ing our shore with Manhattan Island, was the Communipaw feny. 

' Patei son's Laws, 3.51 . 

- Tbroughout tbis cbapter, wben tbe lease of a ferry is spoken of, it generally 
refers to tbe lease of tbe slip and ferry privileges on tbe New York side, by tbe 
Common Council of tbat city. 


It was erected in Kird, alxmt the tiiiic that the new villaire <>f 
Berfijen received its first cliarter, at the foot of ('()iininiiiii)aw uve- 
mie. AVilliain Jaiiseii was licensed to takci cliarfjc of it, and 80 
became the first le<xali/ed ferryman on thf North river.' He hehl 
the position for about (M^j^ht years, hut it (hies not seem to havi; 
been a peaceable one. On the '2iM of Deceinbei-, 10»»1, at his 
request, the G(»vernor-General and Council fixed the rates of 
ferriaije, wliich. it may betaken for i:;ranted, Jansen was not sh»w 
in demandiui;.'' Whetther tiiese rates were exorbitant whether 
he was too exact in enforciiiij: i>ayment, whether he failed to pro- 
vide proper accommodations, or whether tlirouj^h the pcnurious- 
ness of the burii-hers of Beri^en, troul)le soon lie«;an to thicken 
around him. and the ])eople sou<^ht to get to and from New Am- 
sterdam by some other route. Jansen, under his license, chiimed 
the exclusive riirht to transport people over the river, and evi-n 
insisted that the inhabitants could not lawfully ferry themselvi'S 
over, but must patronize liis ferry — the first monopoly in the State 
of New Jersey. This claim the people resisted, and were clam- 
orous for the right of each one to keep his boat. The authorities 
took the popular side in the controversy. Tielman Van Vleck, 
sheritl', and Engelbert Steenhuysen, commissary of I'.ergen, ad- 
vised the people that each one had the right to keep his '' schuyt," 
and ferry over whom he pleased. Thus the issue was fairly ma<lc. 
Jansen aj^peared before the authorities in New Amsterdam and 
entered his complaint against Tielman Van Vleck and Engelbert 
Steenhuysen. Upon this complaint they were, on the 28th of 
December, 16f)'2, commanded to appear before the Governor- 
General and Council and put in their defence.^ This they did. 
and, carrying the war into Africa, they charged that Jansen had 
not done his duty, and had refused to ferry over certain parties. 
Jansen replied that he had never refused to ferry over those who 
would pay.' Upon this state of the case judgment seems to 

' Neir Neth. Reg.. 117. « JV. F. Cd. MSiy.. is.. 'J'^l. 


* This original Cliaron of Communipaw muat have learnod his rijrhts from the 
robust son of Erebus fttid Xox, who would not ferry the shades of the dead over 
Acheron without the customary obulus. 


have been given against both parties, for it was, on the 4th of 
January, 1663, decided that the sheriff must assist the ferryman 
"in getting his pay," and that he must do his duty or be dis- 

Whether Jansen departed this life previous to June, 1669, or 
whether he was dismissed, is not known, but certain it is that 
another was chosen in liis place, as appears by the folloM'ing : 

" By the Hon'^'^ Phillip Carteret, Esq'', Gouernor of the Pro- 
vince of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey, under the Right Hon'''® 
John Lord Berkeley, &c., &q. 

" ^Yhereas the Inhabitants of Bergen and Communipaw have 
made choice of Pieter Hetfelsen to be their ferryman betweene 
Communipaw and New Yorke for the constant transporting to 
and againe their persons, goods and Cattle, for which they have 
Requested my Ly cense. These are therefore to Ly cense and 
appoint the said Pieter Pletfelsen to be the only and constant 
ferryman between the saide Communipaw and the Citty of New 
Yorke, for and during the time of three yeares from the day of 
the date hereof, and to be continued for a longer time, unless y® In- 
habitants of the townes aforesaid have any just Exceptions against 
him. AVhicli said Ferry the said Pieter Hetfelsen is to liave and 
to hold to his own proper use and Benefit, Upon the conditions 
hereafter mentioned hereby prohibiting all persons whatsoever 
to transport or Carry over any person, goods, corne or cattle 
without ye consent or license of tlie said ferryman upon the pen- 
alty of paying to the use of the ferryman aforesaid the sum of 
tenn shillings sterling for every such default, being first convinced 
thereof by the Justices or Magistrates of the place, and shall 
notwithstanding pay to the ferryman the fraiglit for such per- 
sons, corn or cattle as shall be so Illegally transported to the 
prejudice of the said ferryman. Notwithstanding it shall and 
may be lawful for any person to keep a canoe or boate of his 
owne for the transporting and carrying over of such goods, corne 
and cattle as properly belong unto himselfe and the persons of 
his own family and no other upon the penalty aforesaid. 

W. Y. Col. MS8, Part ii , 4. 

llli; (OMMl'Ml'.WV Kl.KUV. 235 

"' Coiiclitioiis, The ferryman aturesaid is ti) iiiaintHiii <»nc ^mkI 
sufficient boat m- nioi-e t'nr tlie convenicMt transporting of all 
])assengers to and a^ain tVoiii ('ninMinni|»a\v tn New York, to- 
i!;ctlier with their iroods, corno an<l ('attk' at all tynics and Mn all 
occasions, l»nt more particularly he is herehy nl»lii;ed to attt-nd 
upon the said Inhabitants of Ijci'i^en and Communipaw three 
dayt's in the week unless some other Extraordinary ()c<ui»ions 
does hinder him, viz. : Mondayes, Wednesdayes and Fridayes, or 
ujioii such other dayes as they shall unanimously aj^ree ujKtn, on 
wliicli dayes tlie said Itdiabitants are to attend with their goodri 
and cattle at the hoiu r and tyme a])pointed, and punctually to 
pay and satisfie the saitl terryman t<>r his fraight according to 
these following rates, Wlioe is to Recover the same, For case of 
Delay or Kefusall, by ord"" of Jtistice without any charge or 
forme of process ; Always provided that the (iouerno"" and his 
family are to be freed from paying of anything for their ])t'rsons 
transporting as aforesaid. 

There shall be paid to the ferryman six stuivers a head 

Wam])um for every passenger, - - - - »i ;>t. 

For his fraiirht Extraordinary at all other tvmes itf Imt 
one man 4 Guilders in Wampum, but iif by night 
and unseasonable weather as the parties cann agree, 4 gl. 

For every Scheppell of corns 2 stiv. in "Wampum, - - '2 stiv. 

For .V a barrell or ^ a fatt of beere lo stiv. in Wampum, 
for a whole barrell 20 Stivers for all other goods vfe 
Lieg^in cash proportionalde, 2<>stiv. 

For a horse or Mare 4 Gl. in Wani]Mim, - - - - 4 irl. 

For a cow 3 guilders, for an o\ 4 guilders in Wam]>um. 

For a hogg or sow 15 Stivers in Wami>um, - l."> stiv. 

For sheep 15 Stivers a head in Wanijium, - - - 15 stiv. 

" Secondly the ferryman is hereby obliged on all occasions to 
ferry over any person for the sum of four guilders in wamptim 
excepting what is before excepted. 

" Thirdly, the said ferryman is at all tymes an«l on all occa 
sions for the publicq service when thereunto IJciuired by the 
Governor or those Authorized by him to carry over any pers4.n. 



letter, packett or message gratis, but if it be upon any business 
that concernes any particular man's interest, although com- 
manded by the Governor, he is to be satisfied and paid according 
to the rates above mentioned. 

" Given under the seal of the Province the day and year above 

" June 25, 1669."^ 

Hetfelsen continued to manage the ferry until the 18th of 
January, 1672, when John Tymensen was commissioned to take 
charge of it, upon the same conditions, and with power to receive 
the same fare. 

From this latter date no mention is made of this ferry for more 
than a century. It is probable, however, that it continued in 
operation until swallowed by its more successful and pretentious 
rival at Paulus Hoeck. Attention is attracted to it ao-ain in 
1783. After the war was over and peace declared, but while the 
British were yet in possession of New York and Paulus Hoeck, 
an advertisement appeared by which Aaron Longstreet & Co. 
made it known that " constant attendance was given bv the 
boats at the Ferry Stairs, near the Exchange, at 3 P. M., to 
bring Passengers to Communipaw, where the Newark Stage " 
would be ready to convey them to Newark, and thence by " The 
Excellent New York and Philadelphia Running Machines," in 
one day to Philadelphia.^ 

When the enemy evacuated Paulus Hoeck, the line of travel 
turned again in that direction, and the Communipaw Ferry again 
slept for nearly another century. When it awoke the old sail 
boats and periaugers^ were no more, and it was honored with the 
finest ferry boats on the Hudson. When the extension of the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey from Elizabethport to Jersey 
City was completed, the ferry was revived and now runs from 

' E. J. Eec. Lib., in., 27. '^Rivington's Gazette, August 20, 1783. 

^ A periauger was the old Spanish pirogue, which had found its way into 
Dutch waters. It was pointed at both ends, had two masts, but no bowsprit. 
When horses and carriages were to be transported they were detached and 
lifted into the boat. 


tlie Central Kailroiul deput in Jersey City t<» the toot of Lihorty 
street in New York. 

\ames of hoiit-a, (tnd w/uti jilaod iij>nn tin t> I'l;/. 

Central, ...---- Ani^nst 1, 18(;4. 

Coinniunipaw, ..---. ISi'.'). 

i:iizal)etli, .Tune 25, isf',:. 

Plaintieltl, June iJ, l60U. 

Names of Sujjerintcndents. 

George W. Howe, - - - - A].iil, 1863, to 186«;. 
.lames J. Winant, - - October 17, l^'It;, to OctolK-r 1. I87-_'. 
•laccl) Winant, ------ October 1, ls72. 

W Ki:n A W K IN VVM K Y . 

The exact date of the commencement of this ferry is not 
known. The first record concerning it is an act passed in tlie 
third year of the reign of George the First (Jan. 2»!, 171'^), by 
which the rates of ferriage were established as foHows : 

Man and horse to or from Xexo York, - Fiiglitein l^if. . 
Sin<de Person, - - - - - One ShiUhuj. 

If above three Persons, per piece, - - T/tree reno\ 
Hvcrything per liusliel, - - - - Onf Penny. 

Hogs, Sheep, <!i:c., per head, - - - Tico Pence. 
Beef per Qnarter, - - - - - Three Peive. 

Barrels, - - Four Penee. 

Hogsheads, One i<hUrnoj. 

Pipes, E'Kjhteen Pen,;} 

The ferry was erected, liowever, before i\\v year 170(», as 
appears by the petition of Samuel Bayard, which seems to have 
been prompted by a desire to destroy an opposition ferry. There 
is no date to the petition, but (Tovernor Hunter, to whom it is 
addressed, was not Governor of New York after 171U, and as 

^NeviU'8 Laws, i., 60. 

238 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

the petition alleges that the ferry then had been in operation for 
upward of twenty years, it is clear that it must have been in 
operation prior to the date above mentioned.^ Bayard was then 
owner of Weehawken.^ His petition was as follows : 

'' To His Excellency Robert Hunter, Esq., Cap' Generall & 
Govern'" in Chief of the Province of New York, &c., & Yize- 
Admiral of the same : 

" The Humble Petition of Samuel Bayard humbly showeth : 
That your petitioner having a small parcell of land called 
Wiehake in Bergen County in the Eastern Division of the Prov- 
ince of Nova Cesarea, most convenient for a ferry of any between 
New Yorke Island and the southermost clifts of Tappaen and 
Ahasimes, w*^'' place hath been the accustomed ierry for trans- 
portation of passengers, cattle, horses and country produce in 
these limmits for upward of twenty yearcs, and as such hath 
been assessed & taxed by the Assembly of the said Province, 
as by the printed acts to w'=" your petitioner refers may appear. 
Notwithstanding seaverall persons and places bounding upon the 
River within said limmits not assessed or taxed by the Assembly, 
nor permitted by the Crownes grantes have for some time made it 
theire Buysenesse to transport passengers, cattle, horses tfe coun- 
try produce to and from New Yorke Island at the same rates as 
the ferry at Wiehake, and do keep and suffer other people have- 
ing no propertys npon the Riverside to keep Boats and Canowes 
for transpoi'tation to and from New Yorke Island to the greate 
prejudice of the ferry at Wiehake. 

"Wherefore your petitioner humbly prayes that y"" Exce'^ 
would be pleased to faevour your petitioner with her maj'^^ 
grant under the seal of the Province whereby the ferry between 
the southermost clifts of Tappaen and Ahasimus might be lim- 
niited to be keep at said place called Wiehaken, only upon the 
usuall and accostomed ferridge, and that no person or persons in 
said linimits haveing a property upon the River might be per- 
mitted to transport to or from New Yorke Island any passen- 

' This petition is bound up between two papers, dated respectively, Sept. 29, 
and Oct. 19, 1710. - Witifield's Land Titles, 38. 

1111. W 1.1 HAW KKN KKKkV. 2.IU 

n;er.s, horses, t-attlc or coiiiitrv prudiicc l.ui wlmt propi-rlv l»clii»ip» 
to themselves, nor siitlrr :iiiy nth.r jicrson whatrtot-viT that hnvp 
not any i^n-pi'ity iijiLn thi- Kivor tn keep any vcjwcU tor tniii* 
portiitiiiii t(i thi' pnjiidiee of saiM tm-y at Wirhakc. Ami fui in 

duty 1x11111(1 ,>Iiall I'vcr prav. vVrc. 

■•>\M111 II.V^ AKIi."' 

Xotliini;- further is heard ..f the ferry until Octohpr '2\i, 1742. 
when Francis Covenhovi-n and Samuel l>ayard join in a petition 
to the (ntviM-iior and Council of New York fur a ferrv to •* Wv 
liawk."' The petition was <rranted. Tntil the Ilohuken ferry 
was elected, this was the po|)ular, and. in fact, oidy n-i^ular forrv 
to New Yoi'k for the farmers in the upper [>art of i'lfri^m 
County, and even for half a century after its jMjwerful rival 
started upon its career, it continued to l)e patronized. Its Innd* 
in.U' i>lace on the Jersey side was at or near the mouth of the 
Weehawken Creek, just below Kini^'s Point. 

On the 0th of July, ITs.^. the privilege of landini; on the 
Kew York side for the " Weehaack'' ferry was ^'rante«l by the 
common conncil to Joseph Smith for three yeai*s for £20 jwr 
annum.'' .lohn Stevens bein^^, at that time, owner of the IIoIm»- 
ken ferry, made an efibrt to secure the control of this ferry. 
but failed.' 

On the 5th of August, 1802, Charles and Phihp Earle 1k'- 
came the lessees for £50 per annum."' Shortly after this a 
" new AVeehank ferry" was put in operation. On the 15th of 
April, 1 S05, the '* old ferry'' was leascil to Garret Net'tie. and 
the ''new ferry" to Charles Earle. each at i'50 per anniun.* 
iSeetie soon gave up his lease, and Lewis Concklin took charge 
of the "old ferry."' From this time nothing is heard of it until 
June, ISIO, when Charles Watts, of New York. JH-came it.* 
lessee. It is then pronounced a '' very ancient ferry." gn^wn 
into disuse by the improvements in Powles II(:>ok and IloUiken 

LV. Y. Col. MSS. (Land Papers), v.. 69. *N. T. litrordt. t.. 51. 

Hhid,ix., 101. ^Ihid.U.. 197. 

•/Wrf, j-m.. 383. *Ibid. rr tTrt 
' fbid, XV., 518. 


ferries. "Watts took a lease of it for fifteen years from the 1st 
of May, 1819, on the following terms : For the first five years, 
rent free ; for the second five years, 850, and for the third five 
years, ^200. The landing place on the Xew York side was to 
be between the north bounds of the Hoboken ferry lease and 
Christopher street. On the Jersey side it was to be within one 
quarter of a mile on each side of " Wehawk." By the terms of 
the lease, he was bound to keep a " team boat."^ He found the 
expense too heavy for the income, and at the expiration of five 
months abandoned the " team boat." For this the Common 
Council of New York annulled his lease, and let the ferry to 
Philip Howe, on condition that he should, on or before the fii'st 
of May, 1821, put on the ferry two good sail boats, and one 
horse boat.^ But the days of sail boats and horse boats had 
passed. A mightier agent had come and supplanted them. And 
already, even in so short a time, the " AYehawk '' ferry is 
almost forgotten. It was, however, spoken of as a "present 
ferry " in the charter of the Paterson and Hudson River Rail- 
road, approved Jan. 21, 1831. 

The present WeeJiawken Ferry Company was incorporated 
March 25, 1852, and the ferry revived on the 1st of January, 1859. 
Its present landing place on the Jersey side is at Slaugh's 
Meadow, and on the New York side at Forty-second street. This 
Company bought of the Union Ferry Company two steamboats, 
the " Lydia " and " Abbie," used on the East River. The name of 
the " Lydia" was changed to " \Veehawken," and the "Abbie" 
to " Ilackensack." Owing to the navigation laws, however, the 
old names were soon restored. The " Abbie " was afterward 
sold and taken to Albany, where it is yet in use as a ferry boat, 
under the double name of " Abbie " and ." Eli Perry," and plies 
between that city and Greenbush. The " Roslyn " was placed 
on the ferry in the summer of 1 870, and the " Midland " on the 
1st of August, 1872. 

It is proper in this connection to produce the grant of George 

'i\r. T. Records, xxxviii., 367. 27 bid, xli., 249. 


TM K W K K 1 1 A W K UN H i: K K J ^ 1 

the Second to Stephen 15ayiinl in 17.".J. It covcn* tin- grotind 
now nsed by the feny. It is us follows : 

"Geoi-fje the Second, \>y the j^'raee of God of (In-at nritiiin, 
France and Inland, \\\]\<j:. I >( fender of the Fnilh, I'tc. : Whornii* 
onr lovinjj; snbject, Stephen Hiiyiird, by his huinblo iH'titioii pre- 
sented unto Jonathiin I*elelu'r, Ks([^, (':ij»tain-(fcneral tind < 
nianderdn-Chief of onr Province of New Jersey, hnth sri lortJj 
that a ferry over the Xorth Iliver, from the irovj'rrwnent of New 
Jersey to the opj)osite shore, within the Uoinids hereafter de- 
scribed, would be of great advantage to his Majesty's sid»j«<-t<. 
who liave occasion to ijjo to New York, especially in the winter 
Season when the Ice renders the Pnssajxe from the usual Ferry .■» 
very dangerous, and therefore Praying our letters Patent to hini, 
his Heirs and assigns for keeitinir the said Ferrv under such eon- 
ditions as are usual in like C'ases. Know Yk that the taking the 
Premises into our Royal Consideration, and being desirou?. to 
facilitate the Passages of all our loving S»d)jects over the said 
North Kiver, and also to encourage the said Stephen P»ayard to 
the Expenses & Trouble he has and may be at for the Publie 
benefit. Have, of our special Grace, certain knowle<Ige and mecr 
motion for us and for our Successors, given, granted, ratified and 
confirmed, and by these Presents Do give, (irant. Ratify and 
Confirm unto the said Stephen Bayard, his Ileire ami assigns the 
Sole keeping of the said Ferry over the North Tliver, IVginning 
at Bergen North line and so along the Sliore half a nnle below or 
to the Southward of a Place called the Great Slaugh,' Hereby 
iriviuir and jxrantini; exclusive of all otheiv, unto the said Stephen 
Bayard, his heirs and assigns, our Royal License and Authority 
to Transport Passengers, Horses, Cattle and Goo<ls over the said 
North Kiver within tiie Bounds aforesaid, for so long a time h» 
he, the said Stephen Bayard, his heirs and assigns shall sutficiently 
attend and keep, or cause to be attended and kept, one or nion* 
ferries within the Bounds afores'' for the Transporting of Pa- 
gers, Horses, Cattle and Goods over the said North River wituiu 
the Bounds aforesaid. And We by these Pro- ' T* ♦•■". 

' Once the property of Jacob Slanjrl>. from whom it rrrdvwl It* n»ro»> 


Grant, ratify and Confinn unto tlie said Stephen Bayard, his 
heirs and assigns, Power and Authority to ask. Demand & re- 
ceive from all and every the Passengers for Transporting- or 
Ferrying over of them, their Horses, Carriages, Cattle and Goods, 
all Rewards, benefits and advantages whatsoever, as are already 
Legally established, or hereafter may be within our Province of 
New Jersey, for performing the Services aforesaid. To Have 
a?id TO Hold the keeping of the said Ferry ov Ferries over the 
North River within the Bounds aforesaid, with all the benefits, 
perquisites and advantages whatsoever, unto him, the said Ste- 
phen Bayard, his heirs and assigns, to the Sole use, benefit and 
behoof of the said Stephen Bayard, his heirs and assigns, for so 
long time as he and they shall Avell and sufiiciently attend and 
keep, or cause to be attended and kept, the Ferry aforesaid, 
Yielding and paying therefor yearly and every yeai- during the 
Term aforesaid unto us, our Heirs and Successors, at the City 
Hall of Amboy, on every twenty-fifth day of March, the sum of 
Two Shillings lawful money of America, if the same be lawfully 
Demanded. In Testimony* whereof we have caused the Great 
Seal of our said Province to l)e hereunto afiixed, and these our 
Letters to be made Patent. Witness our Trusty and Well be- 
loved Jonathan Belcher, Esq""., our Captain-General and Com- 
jnander-in-Chief in and over our Province of Nova Caesaria or 
New Jersey in America, Chancellor and Vice Admiral in the 
same, at the Borough of Elizabeth, in our said Province, the 
Seventh day of February, in the Twenty-Sixth year of our 


The Jersey City Ferry 

was established June 18, 1764.^ In the JVevj York Mercury of 
July 2, 1764, we find 

" Good News for the Public. 

" The long wished for Ferry is now established and kept across 
the North River, from the Place called Powless's Hook to the 

^Diinlap's History of N. Y., n., cxci. 



City of New York ; :mi| Itoat- i>n»j)t'rly consiructfil, an well for 
tlieConveniciu'v of'nj^i'is a.s f«)r tlH'cjirrvin;; (ivur of II 
and carriaf^C's, dd now (H)iistaiitly ply rn>iii oiu; .nlioru to tin* oHht. 
Tlie landiniz; mi the New V«)rk Side is tix«'d ut tlio I)«M.'k 
nionly i-alled Mesier's Dot-k, and at I*owIrr»-.*s Hook i(* mIh... 
nearly 0{)p(>site to the said Dock, the di>tamT ln'twireii thu two 
Places hein<^ ahont tliree t^nartei-a of a Mile, and i\» thu Umt.H 
may pass and repass, at all Times of the Tide, with alnn»«t iMjual 
Despatch, it is tlmn^ht by far the most convenient I'hiee for u 
Ferry <>f any yet establislied, or that i-an he estahlisheil, from the 
Province of New Jersey to the dity of New York ; and what 
will ijjive it the Preference l>y far of all the other ferries in the 
Winter Season, is that rarely a Day hajipetis l)ut that P»t»at.H nuiy 
pass at this Ferry without hcini; obstructed or cndanirtTcd by lee. 
Constant attendance is i,dven at Powless's Hook by Michael C'or- 
nelisse, where the best of Stabling and Pasture is provided for 

It was started as an important ]»art of the new route to Phila- 
delphia v/« Bergen Point and Staten Island. Abraliam Mesier 
and Michael Cornelissen were its founders. They made arrange- 
ments with Cornelius Van Vorst for a landing place at Paidns 
Hook. Cornelissen then built the house afterward known ha 
Major Hunt's tavern. The landing place on the New York side 
was fixed at Mesiers Dock, at the foot of Cortlamit street. The 
two periangers first on the ferry were the *' Liberty "and '* Prop- 
erty.'" The projectors of the ferry did not consult the autht»ritics 
in New York as to the propriety or necessity of the same. 
Thereupon the Aldermen, on the 10th of September, 17»54, «!►• 
pointed a committee to take the opinion of counsel whether the 
people of " that part of Jersey called Powle.** Hoi»k have any 
right of ferriage to and from this city."'' What the opinion of 
the counsel was, or that he gave any, or that anything further wa* 
done, does not appear. At that time Van Vorst was ..wner .>f all 
the land between the road leading to Bergen on the north, the 
Hndscii River >>u the east, Communipaw ('..v.- ■iu,\ tho i'nvk of 

'^V. )'. Records, vi.,2\-i. 


the Woods on the south and west. The route to Philadelphia by 
boat to Amboy was about to be superseded by a more certain 
means of conveyance. Transportation was to be by stage. Tliis 
nmst be reached by means of a ferry, and there was no point so 
convenient for that purpose as Paulus Hoeck. And, what was 
more to the purjsose, Yan Vorst saw that it was an enterprise 
which in the end would pay. The millions who annually pour 
across that ferry, and the thriving city built on his old tarm, more 
than realize his utmost expectations. 

Others were not slow to see what a harvest would be realized 
from this ferry, and could not forego an attempt to reap it for 
themselves. Van Yorst's hereditary enemy of the Duke's Farm 
— Captain Archibald Kennedy — anticipating trouble between 
Yan Yorst and the Common Council of New York, joined one 
William McAdams in a petition to that body on the third of 
May, 1765, for an exclusive right of ferry between New York 
and the Jersey shore. This, if granted, would take the ferry 
from Paulus Hoeck to Ahasimus, whei*e the Pavonia Ferry now 
is. Yan Yorst was not slow to head off this movement by a 
counter petition on the 14th of October in the same year. He 
set forth that he liad been to a very considerable expense in erect- 
ing his ferry " at a place called Powles Hook, lying in the county 
of Bergen," and that he was obliged to maintain a causeway half 
a mile long and a lane nearly twice as long ; he therefore desired 
the board to establish and regulate the ferry on such reasonable 
terms as would be for the public good. In consideration of the 
expense he had been put to, he requested the privilege of receiv- 
ing for some time the benefits of both sides of the ferry. ^ On 
the 31st of January, 1766, these petitions for an " exclusive 
grant of the right of ferriage " across to " their respective lands 
on the Jersey shore " were taken into consideration by the Com- 
mon Council of New York. That body saw the necessity and 
advantage to their city of a ferry to the Jersey shore, and 
appointed a committee to make the best arrangements they could 
get.^ To that committee Yan Yorst proposed that he would give 

'N. Y. Records, vi., 286. •'Ibid, vi., 306. 


to tlie City of New York i!4(> a year tor 8ovon ycan», niul ihc 

corjioration should huvf tlic |m»\vci- to tix thu mtoH of fori 
tliat after said term ho would j^ive thr corporation a frw hiinliii^ 
on his side for the |)urj)oses of a ferry, j>rnr'nlt'«l he nhnuM have 
the same priviU>i;e of landiiit; in New ^"ork. lie stated that he 
had three hir^e and two -mall hoats for the ferry, whirh he in 
tended to keep in repair ami ready for use. Ih* eouitentiMl tliat 
the corporati()n miijht decide upon tin' iandini; plae«' (»n tlu* New 
Yolk side, though lie iccoiiimended that it should ho at the 
place then used for that purpose. These propositioriH were 
accepted, and the lan<lin«; ]dace fixed at the " i;round or pier of 
Nicholas Roosevelt, Esqr., at the lower end ot Thonui.H stix»et."' 
it seems, liowever, that these arranixement> were never eon»- 
plcted, for on the 2.'kl of March, 17«'>T, tlu* ferry \v.i.s let at public 
outcry to Jacoh Van Yoorhis, a nu-rchant in New ^ ork, for 
£810 per annum for four years from the first of M.iy, 17»»7.' 
Abrahani Mesier, Abraham liussing and Peter ^lesier, jr.. were 
at the time, or shortly afterward became associattnl with Van 
Voorhis. They soon found that then- were other ex|)cnHO» 
tliaii those of the ferry properly connected with the enteq>ri»e. 
The causeway between Paulus Iloeck and the upland of Aha*i- 
mus was occasionally overflowed by the tides. This inconven- 
ienced travelers and diminished the lessee's revenue. lie then*- 
npon sought and obtained an abatement of half a year's rent, for 
the puri)Ose of repairing the causeway.^ Long before the e.xpini- 
tion of his lease he found that his exj>enses and heavy rent ren- 
dered the business unprofitable, lie therefore abandoned the 
lease, and on the first of March, 177 1, the ferry wa.H let to Abra- 
ham Mesier for three years for the sum of l*l*2i> |>or annum. 
Thus was saved to the " firm '' £180 a year for the balaneo ..f 
the term.' The unpaid rent of Van Voorhis was acquitted for 
the reason that from May 1, 1707, to May 1, 1771, his di.Hbur»e- 
ments and rent paid equaled his receii)ts. lie ha<l lost l»i« ialior, 
and it was thought unjust that he should ]>ay the balance of mnt 

LV. T. Records, ti., lil 1. '^^'*- ** • ^^ 

Hbid, vi., 381, 466. *^'^''- "' • ^ 


and thus lose money along with his labor.^ On the first ot 
March, 1774, Abraham Mesier obtained a new lease of the ferry 
for three years from the first of May following at a rent of £-210 
per annnm.^ Shortly afterward Mesier died, and the Hoboken 
Ferry coming into existence, his executors obtained an abate- 
ment of £50 on the last year's rent. The probability is that 
Mesier's widow remained in charge of the ferry during the war, 
subject to military control. Soon after the war her name is 
again connected with the ferry, and in 1786 she petitioned for 
repairs to the ferry stairs on the New York side.^ The ferry 
was now but poorly appreciated. The Legislature of this State 
had imposed upon it a tax of £50, which had not been paid. 
The rent had fallen off from £310 a year in 1767 until on tbe 
15th of April, 1789, John Holdron obtained a three years' lease 
for £50 per annum.'* But under his management the ferry be- 
came so prosperous that at the end of his term in 1792 he was 
obliged to give £380 a year for a three years' lease, and in addi- 
tion provide ferry stairs and all other conveniences.^ Whether 
this sum was drawn out of him by auction puffers or not is im- 
possible to tell. One thing is certain, he soon found the load too 
heavy to carry, and called for an abatement of rent. It was 
agreed on the 5th of May, 1794, that upon his paying £250 the 
balance of the rent should be remitted. At this rent he held it 
up to the first of May, 1796.^ On this date he took a new lease 
for three years at £300 a year. He agreed (and this is the first 
regulation looking to the accommodation of the public) to pro- 
vide two large boats for horses, cattle, carriages, etc., and two row 
boats for passengers. He also agreed to run the boats from sun- 
rise till 9 o'clock P. M. from May 1st to Oct. 1st, reserving the 
privilege of charging double ferriage after sunset.'' 

On the 11th of March, 1799, the Common Council of Kew 
York City established the following rates of ferriage for this 
ferry, viz. : 

'N. Y. Bee , mi., 244. -Ibid, tii., 297. ""Ihid, mil., 480. 

'Ibid, i.i'., 186, 199, 206. 'Ibid, .c, 200. 'Ibid, xi., 120, 222. 

'■ Ibid, ai., 3Q5. 

■IirK JKKSKV (in I KKIJV. ' 17 

A Pussenjjor, 

A Coach, Cluiriot, Coiichet', or covernl VVapm, 

A Phaeton, - - - - " . 

A Chaise or top chair, - . . . 

A Chair, .... 

A iSlcigli, - ..... 

Horses and Cattle, .... 

A Sheep, Calf or IIo<j:, .... 

A larije trunk or chest, 

A >inall do do - 

A Pipe or iro<^shead of Wine, Spirits or Molasses, 

A Ixirrel of do - - - 

A Barrel of Beef, Pork, Flour or Fish, 

Plank of every kind, each, 

l^xiards do 

A side of sole Leather, .... 

do upper do - 
A Raw Hide, ..... 

Iron, Steel, Lead, &c., per cwt., 
A Desk, ..--.. 
A large table, ..... 
A small do . . , . . 

A mahogany Chair, .... 
A common do - 
Basket or Bag of Fruit of 2 Busliels, 
Bag of Grain do - 

Bag of Flour or Meal, ... - 

A Crate of Earthen "Ware, 
A Tierce of Earthen Ware, 

A Feather Bed, . . . . - 

A Clock Case, - - - - - 

A chest of Tea, . . . - - 

Dye Wood, per cwt., .... 
Indigo and Copperas, per cwt.. 
Gunpowder, per cwt., . - - - 

A large Bale of Cotton, .... 
An empty Hogshead or Pipe, - 















1 ) 



1 1 




1 1 




































1 1 





1 ) 



• 1 





1 1 




An empty Barrel, - - - - - £0 3 

Shad, per hundred, - - - ' - 2 

Cabbages, per hundred, - - - - 1 6 
And all other articles and things in like proportion.^ 

These rates, in the light of the present day. j-eem somewhat 
exorbitant. They appeared the same to the people on this side 
of the river at that time. How could they exist and \)i\j ferriage 
on their cabbages at the exorbitant rate o^ one sh'dliiKj and six- 
2^ence per hundred. Hates must come down, or the Knicker- 
bockers must go unfed of cabbage, and pine in want for their 
hohl slaugh .' But cabbages beget sixpences, and sooner than such 
a shining progeny should be untimely cut off, and their ghosts 
left to haunt the unplanted gardens, the people M'ould make 
km iwn their grievances. This they did. They held a public meet- 
ing, and, in true modern style, passed sundry " "Whereases" and 
" Kesolves" upoa the subject. Over this meeting Isaac Nichols 
presided with a dignity becoming the occasion. After the solemn 
deliberations were ended, good old " Isaac " was chosen to pro- 
ceed to New York, and there make known their grievances, to- 
gether with their views expressed " in public meeting assem- 
bled." This he did in a becoming manner. It is sad to relate, 
however, that the whole effort was wasted. Mr. Nichols and the 
resolutions were duly received, the former bowed out, tlie latter 
laid upon the table, and no attention paid to either. 

At this time, colored Abraham — Brom for short — the most 
skillful master of a sail boat in his day, was the man of this 

On the 5tli of August, 1802, Holdron took another tliree years" 
lease at $2,125 per annum. As usual, in 1803 he sought an 
abatement of rent, and alleged as a reason that a new ferry had 
been erected for ten months past, which had injured his business. 
It is probable that this was Budd's ferry at Ahasimus. If so, 
Budd had erected his ferry and put it in operation before he 
asked for permission to land on the New York side, as may be 
seen by reference to the remarks on that ferry. But his request 

^N. T. Records, xii., 458. 

TitK .irKSKY crvy vv.nux. i-l:» 

was refused. Nevertheless, hy reiiewjils i.t ilu- Ictiso, he hcM on 
to \hv t'cirv. On tin- 22(1 of Fohniai v. l*^ns_ )„. (,M»k a now 
ieiise fur twc years and nine months.' 

From the commencement of the terry u|» to 1>U4, rorncliuft 
\ an A'orst was its owner, as he was of the ailjoinitii; huiil. On 
the 2(1 of I'Vltruai'v, |S(»4, he contractftl with Anthony Drv to 
•^ell Powles Hook and the ferry, suhject to a h-ase which Major 
David Hunt held, to ex])ire in ISO.'.. I )(>y received a deed for 
the satne on the 2t;tli of March, Isi'l. On the h'.th of April. 
1S(I4, Dey agreed to lease to Hunt the ri^jht of ferriaj^e for two 
years after tlir Ist of ^fay, 1805. The Major continuiij in 
charge of the ferry for a numlter ot' year>. In l^^oj "The 
Associates ot' the Jersey Company " were ineuijidiated, when 
the land and terry were conveyed to them. After Major Hunt 
tame Joseph Lyon, of Kli/ahethtown, as ferrymaster. IIe«M-cu- 
})ied the (»ld tavern. His stables were in the rear, and to acconi- 
modate him the ferrv landing was movetl from the foot ot'CinuMl 
street (a little west of Hudson), to opposite the gate (»f hi.-* yanl 
l)etween Grand and York streets, so tliat people coming from 
Xew York could signal the hostlei to have their earriagi> 

T]) to thi> time the accommodations for the terry had been a 
few row boats, each with two oarsmen, with a few spare oan^, 
which the passengers were expected to use if they wished to cnw-- 
in o-ood time; and a couple of open ])oats with sails, used when 
the wind suited, or when it was required to take a horse ami 
carriage over. When the wind was favorabU- the passage could 
be made in half an hour, but sometimes three hours were con- 
sumed in crossing. 

About this time the success of steamboats on the Hudson 
attracted the attention of ^Mr. Durand. Elisha r.oudinot, (iencrai 
Cummings and others of Newark to the possibility of steam 
ferryboats. In the autumn of ISOl), they .-ub.>*cr i bed #oO,(>)i» 
to carry the i)lan into etVect. Robert Fulton was re<|ue^te^l to 
construct sucli a boat as, in his judgment, would answer the piir- 

LV. Y. Records, j-mii., 181. 


poses of a ferry. Application was then made for a lease of the 
Jersey City ferry. Immediately a competitor in the person of 
Daniel French arose. He had obtained a patent for an improve- 
ment in the use of steam in propelling boats. Elisha Monell 
and Levi Kendall claimed that they had an invention which was 
superior to all others.-^ All of these rival interests strove to get 
control of this ferry. The Jerseymen incorporated February 7, 
1818, in the name of the Yorh and Jersey Steam Boat Ferry 
Company were successful.^ In March, 1811, they obtained a 
lease of the ferry, and of the right of landing on the New York 

In December, 1810, the New YorJc Evening Post announced 
that arrangements had been made with Fulton for the construc- 
tion of steamboats for this ferry. In May, 1811, two boats were 
being built by Charles Brown, and were 80 feet in length and 
30 feet in width. " One peculiarity is, they never put about." 
On July 2, 1812, one of them, the "' Jersey," was finished, and 
put in operation, but owing to some needed alteration was taken 
off for a few days. On Friday, July IT, 1812, it began its 
regular trips. A writer, on the following day, says : " I crossed 
the ISTorth River yesterday in the Steam Boat with my family 
in my carriage, without alighting therefrom, in fourteen minutes, 
with an immense crowd of passengers. I cannot express to you 
how much the public mind appeared to be gratified at finding 
so large and so safe a machine going so well. On both shores 
were thousands of people viewing this pleasing object."^ 

On this occasion a grand entertainment was given at Joseph 
Lyon's tavern in Jersey City to the Mayor and Common Council 
of New York and others. The followino- illustration will ffive a 
correct idea of this boat, if the reader will imagine two cigar- 
shaped fioats fastened ten feet apart, with the paddle-wheel work- 
ing between them. 

Fulton's description will explain it fully : 

" She is built of two boats, each ten feet beam, eighty feet long 

W. T. Records, .vxi , 1. Ubid, xxxiii., 159. 

^Centinel of Freedom, July 21, 1812. 



and five feet tlecp in tlu* liuM ; wliicli bouts un- <li»taiit from i 
titlicrten feet, confined l>v stmni; tnmsverse hviuu knecnaiHl di >,- 
onal traces, fornHn<:j a deck thirty t<'ct wide ami «'ii;lity fi-ft long 





The propellini; water-wheel is placed between the »>.«t« to prermt 
it from injury from ice and shocks on entering or nppn^aching 
the dock. The whole of tlie inftchinery being placed Ix-lwccn 


the two boats, leaves ten feet on the deck of each boat for car- 
riages, liorses and cattle, &c., the other, having neat benches and 
covered with an awning, is for passengers, and there is also a 
passage and stairway to a neat cabin, which is fifty feet long and 
five feet clear from the floor to the beams, fnrnished with benches 
and provided with a stove in winter. Although the two boats 
and space between them give thirty feet beam, yet they present 
sharp bows to the water, and have only the resistance in the 
water of one boat of twentv feet beam. Both ends beinir alike, 
and each having a rudder, she never puts about. 

" Of the dock, he savs it ' is one hundred and eidity feet lono-, 
seventy wide ; the bridge is fastened to the middle of the bulk- 
head. The boat, being only thirty feet wide and the dock sev- 
enty, leaves twenty feet vacant on each of her sides : in each of 
these twenty feet spans and in the water are floating stages, made 
of pine logs, which lie favorable to the boat for thirty feet, and 
these run diagonally to the extreme end of the wharves, so that 
the boat, when coming in, hits within the seventy feet, and the 
stages guide her direct to the bridge.' " 

She was in service for many years, and ended her career as 
material for the construction of a stable in Greene street built 
for the elder Isaac Edge. 

In 1813 the '"York," built on tlie model of the "Jersey," was 
completed and placed on the fen-y. It is said that these boats 
were " slow coaches"— that they would ordinarily take an hour 
and a half to make a trip— that when they met in the river pas- 
sengers could hold quite a conversation before they got beyond 
talking distance ; in fact they were 

" Like fat green turtles fast asleep. 
On the still surface of the deep." 

They started on their daily duties every morning at sunrise 
from each side of the river, and ran all day every half hour by 
" St. Paul's Church clock.''^ 

But the experience of the ferry company was similar to that of 

Centinel of Freedom, June 20, 1815. 


prior les.sees. Ip to tlii" I'Tth ..f May, IbHJ, tlicy IukI iiimlu l-ul 
one (lividuiid of live per cent. Vm- this ri-arioii thcv rri|iii-»lv<l 
that tlie Common Couiuil of New York wouhl either piirehnM; 
the ferry, retluee the rent or increase thr rates of ferrinjje. Tlic 
only relief oi)tainecl was an inereaseof personal toll to 12^ eeiit*,* 
In those (lays the fare was collectc<l on the boat <iurin^ the |»n>» 
sage over. On the 1st of May, 1823, the cuniiKiny took a lenm; 
of the ri<j:ht of ferry from New York to so nuu-h of thr Jerx-jr 
shore as lies between a point " immediately sonth of llolxtkrn mu\ 
a point due west from the Uattery ( 'astle." l!ut their ex|»iTienii' 
was not a success. They sank all of their capital, one of thrir ImwiIh 
blew up in the sli}t, and the year 1S24 found them unable to con- 
tinue. In September, 1825, they assii^ne<l their lea.-se to I'>anci« 
B. Ogden, Cadwallader I). C/olden and Samuel Swartwout. The 
Common Council of New \ovk consented to the assignment, and 
gave the assignees a tu'W lease for fifteen years and six months 
from the first of November, 1^2."). The lessees were to provide 
twogi»od steamboats, but in tlie place of one of these were after- 
ward ])eriiiitted to use a team l)oat. They were also to provide 
the ferrv with row boats. They boui^it and idaced on the tVrr>" 
the " Washington." In October, 1820, Ogden and Swnrtw«>nt 
transferred their interest in the lease to Mr. Golden. He faile<I 
to make the ferry remunei'ative, and surrendered it to tlie owners, 
'' The Associates of the Jersey Company." (^n the tir>t of Jan- 
uary, 1831, the " Associates" leased it to the New Jersey Hail- 
road and Transportation Company for 12.^ years. By renewal* 
the latter company continued to hold until 18.'>:{, when the les.-t'e* 
bought up the stock of the " Associates," and thus became the 
owners of the ferry. It continues to be nonunally operntiHl 
under the old lease of the ''Associates," and the latter company, 
which has become a nomimil body, nominally receive an annual 
rent of S1S,000 from nominal lessees. 

The line to the foot of Desbrosses street wais .started in 1865. 
These ferries were transterre<l to the Pennsylvania Kailruad 
Company in 1871. 

'if. Y. Records, xxxi., 482. 


In 1849 the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson County 
fixed and attempted to force upon the ferry the following : 

" Rates of Ferriage to be takex by the Jersey' City Ferry, 
AS fixed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hud- 
son County. 

Every person on foot, above ten years old, - - 3c 

Under ten years and above five years old, - - 2 

Man and horse or horse only, - ... 9 

Ordinary fourwheeled trucks, loaded, two horses and one 

person, --.... 371 

Ordinai-y fourwheeled trucks, light, two horses and one 
person, - - - - - . - 25 

Ordinary wagons, or market wagons, including loads of 

green clover or grass, two horses and one person, - 25 

For ever}' additional person, - - . _ 3 

Ordinary wagons or market wagons, including loads of 

green clover or grass, one horse and one person, - 12^ 

For every additional person, - - . . 3 

A coach, coachee, chariot, barouche, phaeton, pleasure 
wagon or sleigh with more tJian one seat, two horses, 
one person, ------ 30 

For every additional person, - . - . 3 

A light pleasure carriage, barouche or pleasure wagon, 

two horses, one person, . - - - . 25 

For every additional person, - - - .3 

A light pleasure carriage, barouche or pleasure wagon, one 

horse, one person, - - - . . 1S| 

For eveiy additional person, - - . . 3 

A cart with driver, one horse, loaded or empty, - 12^ 

A wagon load of hay or straw, with two horses and one 
person, ---.... 50 

Wagon or cart load of hay or straw, with one horse and one 

person, ...... 37^ 

Any kind of carriage or sleigh, without horse, half price. 

A wheelbarrow and one person, loaded or empty, - 6 

A hand cart and one person, loaded or empty, - 8 


Cattle, siiiglt' iir ill ilroves — cueli, - 

Calves and Imgs, (.lead di- alive, 
Sheep, lainhs and slioat-s, dead or alivi-, 
Suckiiio; pitrs, do, 

IJaw hides, .... ;; 

Skins, --.-... 0^ 

Drv hides, ... j 

P)iin(llt's ot" sole and u|i|'ri- h-athrr, pfi- side, 1 

lliindles of hay, - . . m 

Paper, per ream, in l)nndlt'>, - . - ii^ 

Wheat, corn and other <;rain, jxi- bushel, - nl 

C) Its, irreen peas and beans, \>vy bushel, I 

J'otatoes, per bushel, . - . - 1 1, 

Parrels eontainin^ apples and vegetables — each, »;J 
Pdxes of oranges and lemons — each, 
P>askets containing fruits or vegetables, 

Oysters, per bushel, - - •• 

Ilnrse i'cci], do. - - - - 1 

Meal, tliiur or i-otiee, in bags — each, - '.\ 

Large boxes containing live fowls tor market— each, l*Ji 
Small boxes and large baskets, containing live fowls, in 

Salt in bags, per bushel, ... 

Sugar, per cwt., - - - •"• 

Pi|)e, hogshead of spirits or wine, each, 5n 

When empty, . . - s 

Tierces of sj)irits or wine, - '''^ 

When empty — each, ''i 

Barrels of sjtirits or wine — each. l**f 
When empty — each. 

Hogsheads of molasses or sugar, - - - 37^ 

When empty, - - ■ ■ ''\ 

Tierces of molasses or sugar — each. -•'» 

When empty, do. .» 

Parrels of molasses, sugar, beer, beef, jmrk and oil. !•» 

Piarrels of Hour and lime, - - - - •** 

When empty, two cents each, except tiour barrels. I 


Baskets of wine, - - ... . - G^ 
Crate, hogshead, tierce, &c., containing earthenware or 

glass — eacli, - - - - - - 12i 

And when empty, tierce or erate-^each, - 4 

Large size firkins, do, - - 5 

Second do do, - - - 3 

Pails of butter, do, - - 1 

Cheese, ham, codfish, &c., per cwt., - - - 5 

Chests of tea — each, ----- 4 

Half chests of tea, do, - - - - - 2 

Tobacco in kegs, do, ----- 4 

Churns containing milk, - - - - ' ^i 

Iron, steel, lead-paints and other metals, per cwt., - 5 

Boxes of window-glass — each, - - - . 2 

Boxes of soap and candles — each, - - . 3 

Kegs of nails, do, - - - - 5 

Specie in large kegs or boxes — each, - - - 25 

For less size, and for every §1,000, . - . 12^ 

For fancy chairs — each, _ _ _ _ 2 

For common do do, - - - - - 1 

Sofas and pianos — each, - - - - 25 

Bureaus, ------- 12^ 

Bedsteads, beds, tables,writing desks and small bureaus — each, 6^ 

Tool chests, ploughs and corn machines — each, - - 6^ 

Stoves and grates, large size, - - - - 12|- 

Small size in proportion. 

Joists and boards — each, ----- 1 

Lumber and timber, per thousand feet, - - $1 00 

" And all animals and things not herein enumerated shall be 
charged proportion ably to the foregoing rates. A true copy from 
the minutes of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson 
Connty, in the State of J^ew Jersey. August 7, 1849. 

" H. Yan WactEnen, Clerk 
" Of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson County. 

" 1^^ The above Bates are to take eifect on and after the 1st 
day of Sept., 1849." 

nil. .IKKSKV < IIV KH;i;V. O'J 

Tliev wore never eiiforccil. I'lic Ijiudinj^ \Anrc >n\ t\ni Sew 
York side is at the foot of Cortlaiult strert. ( )t« tin* New .Iit>h>v 
sidc it was at first at the font i.f (}raiiti street, alxMit oiii* hliti<lri'<| 
ttt't \\('>r i>\' Hudson strei't. It was afterward phirc*! hrtwi'cn 
<ii:iui| and York streets, with thi- slip upiMiiiii; diaj;i»nallv up th«> 
river.' Thence it was rcinoved to the foot of York street. On 
the tirst of April, IS.'jl*, it was chan^'ed to the corner of Mtint- 
ii;;omerv and IFmlson streets. In ISiiCt the hlock east of MndiHin 
street was tilled in, and the landin:,' place chan;^tMl to its prej»ent 
h)cation. < 'n May .">, 1S.">1, the (-oininon Coinn-il of New York 
gave their pernnssion for the Desbrosses street ferry. 

The Ixiats on this ferry, since the introduction of stcntn, hjivo 

Jersey, - - - - - - - - I•^l:i. 

York,' - lsl:l. 

New Jersey,^ .... . . 

Itichard \'ariek,' - Novcmhcr, 1*<-J»I. 

George Washington/' April. \>-2»i. 

' Between the landing and the hotel waa a smii <irriilar plot, nrouinl wKirh 
the staijes wouUl run to unh)atl their pa.Hsentfera In thf r»'ntr»' of thin pli>i 
was a wiUow tree, whicli was sometimes used as a whippinjf |M»t H<>r«. «« 
late as 1814, a white-headed old man received thirty-two loAhe*. 

- Coldi'n's Life of Fulton, -274. 

• The boiler of this boat exploded while lyinsr in the slip, j^hortly iift«T hi-r 
(•ompletion, killing a Miss Nelson, who was making her home with X\w Van 
Vorst family, while she attende<l srhool in New York. Hilly West, h«T • 
.il.-^o HMoived injuries from whirh he afterward died . and u ro|ori>«l 
n:unf<l Knoih Doi-son, was badly sealded, but recovered. The fourth Ixiat. 
a tailur.', was always known as " Tom Vermilye's folly." She w«* flinali. w»ti 
!i (liiiiinutive engine and boiler, and it is saiil that in rrt>»««inir •' 
would have to stop to get up steam. She was the «-nus«' ot much h •• 

the river men ; and her flues being very sniall, the story jrotw that, in order to 
clean them, they would put a live cat -in at the bottom ami th.-n \y 
when the rat would travel throuirh in a lively niannt-r t- ' ">•-' ■ . , ,. 

elean the flues 

^ This boat was i)uiit for an eight-horse boat, but w«» changed into a atrani. 
er with two engines. It was first desigiu'd to name her " (<<'ner»' ' ~ i ' 

This boat was built for the Catharine stre.T ferry. F.a«t river, i i**.-.! 

for the Jersey City ferry in .\pril. !««, durinjr the lew**' of Swartwout k <o It 
became the first night boat in .Tune. IM^Io. 


258 HISTORY OF hudson county. 

Sussex, ... - (launchec 

1) September G, 1833. 

Essex, ------- 

- March 31, 1835. 

Bergen,^ ------ 


New Jersey,' ------ 

- May 25, 1836. 

Mouse of the Mountain,^ 


Aresseoh, ------ 

- 1841. 

Hudson, ------ 

November 12, 1849. 

Golden, ------- 

October — , 1851. 

Philadelphia,^ _ . - - - 


D, S. Gregory, . . - - . 

- June 16, 1853. 

John S. Darey, ----- 


John P, Jackson,^ ----- 

- 1860. 

Jersey City, ----- 


New York, ------ 

- 1863. 

Newark, ------ 


New Brunswick, ----- 

- 1866. 

Hudson City, ----- 


The ferry masters or agents have been 

Michael Cornelisse, from 

- 1764 to 1769. 

Yerdine Elsworth, from 

- 1769 to 1776. 

Major David Hunt, until 

- 1805. 

Joseph Lyon, - . - . . 


C. Rhina, in ----- - 

- 1822. 

Benjamin Greaves, - - - . 

- . - 

Jonathan B. Jenkins, - - - . 


William Woolsey, - . . - 

- - _ 


John Clews, ------ 

1833 to 1835. 

Darwin F. Rockwell, - - - - 

- 1835 to 1845. 

Charles A. Woolsey, .... 

1845 to . 

' I have not ascertained when this boat was put upon the ferry. In 1838 it 
was repaired at a cost of $10,000, and put on as a night boat. It was sold and 
taken to the Albany and Greenbush ferry March 15, 1847. 

■-' The New Jersey, Washington, Sussex, and Essex were sold to the New Jer- 
sey Railroad Company January 1, 1839, for $70,000, and the ferry improvements 
for $18,224.99. 

•' This was a toy steamer, and ran occasionally for passengers only. 

■* Sold to the fnited States in 1861, and turned into a transport 

'"• Sold to the United States in 1861, and turned into a gunboat. 

TlIK I!KK(!1:N I'i.INT KKKItV. 259 

TiiK BKU(iKN Point I'kukv. 

On the ir.tli of Septonihor, 17r>0, JhcoI) (\>r.4en |»i>titioiu><l tliv 
Goverimieiit of New V^ik tor letters |>.iteiit to orrct hin ferrv, 
between Staten Isliui«l ;iiel I'.ei-cM r«»int, into ii i-nhlic ferrv, 
and also fof a arrant of the ><<\\ between lii<;l» and li»w water 
murk wiihin a mile and a halt on each siije of his land. In an- 
swer to his jtetitiun he received tile Kiiii^'s i;rant in accordance 
M-ith liis petition, execpt that he received the ri;;lit to the shore 
in front of his own land oidy.' I'rom this petition it is manifi'st 
that Corsen had been operatin<^ his ferrv prior to 17.'»(). Nearly 
fourteen years afterward it received, in conne«'tion with the 
Panhis Iloeek ferry, the foUowiniij notice : 

" A Ferry is established and kept across the Kill van Kull, 
and that Boats constantly attend for that Purpose, at a Place 
l>elonijinp; to John Beck, and commonly called Moodds«.'s, situate 
near tlie Dutch Church on Staten Island, from whence Pa."*don- 
^ers are transported directly across to Bergen Point, from which 
place there is a line Road leading directly to the saitl Powh*!*j*'* 
Ilook ; so that a short, safe, easy and convenient Way is fixed 
by Means of these two Ferries, for all Travelh'rs passing to the 
City of New York, fiom any of the Southern (lovenimiiif-'"' 

From this notice it wouhl seem that this ferry was then t.-r the 
lirst time used as a part of the new stage route to Philadelpliia 
and the South. On the l'.>th of July, ITr.4, Anthony White JM'Ut 
his petition to Lieutenant-Crovernor ("olden of New '^ ork for n 
ferry or ferries across the *• Kill van Corle," from the north side 
of Staten Island to Bergen Point.' In this petition he 9et» 
forth that in the twentieth year of the reign of Georjfi* II. 
(1747) he had obtained letters patent under the seal of New Jer 
sey granting him the sole right of keeping a ferry acrosn the 
" Kill van Corle " from Bergen Point to Staten Island. He 
then petitioned Governor Clinton of New York for a like excln- 
sive right, which he failed to get. llib pre-"-' ".•':';■•" 1.".l.».l 

'N. r. Col. MSS., xxi, '.m. 'y- y ifrrcurj,. Julg 2. 17M. 

^N. T. Col. MSS.,.rcii, 121 : Winjield'a Land TitUt, 136, 141. 144. 


toward a monopoly. Whether he was then the owner of Cur- 
sen's ferry or whether he was raising an opposition does not 
appear. He was tlien the owner of the land where the La Tou- 
rette House now stands, and near which the ferry landing then 
was. Michael Van Tuyl was the proprietor of the ferry in 1705. 

As we have seen, the stages on their way to and from Phila- 
delphia passed over this ferry. A serious accident occurred here 
in 1767. The scow was taking over one of the stages, in which 
some of the passengers retained their seats. On apjiroaching the 
shore the stage by some mishap was overturned into the river. 
By this accident Mrs. Morris and her maid were drowned. She 
was an actress,^ and at the time her husband was performing the 
part of King Henry in Richard III. in the Old Play House in 
John street, New York. 

After the travel to the South was turned to the route which 
was made over the meadows on or near the present line of the 
Newark Plank Road, this ferry gradually declined. It was in 
operation yet in 1786, and in November of that year was as- 
sessed bv the Legislature of this State tlie sura of £5. This the 
owner was unable or not inclined to pay. To persuade him 
thereto, on the 7th of June, 1787, a supplement was passed which 
declared that if the proprietor should persevere to keep up the 
ferry after the first of the following August without taking (»ut 
a license, for which such assessment was made, he should forfeit 
and pay £10. 

When it suspended operations is not known. Several attempts 
to resuscitate it have been made, but without success. A horse 
boat was plying on it between 1840 and 1850, but only for a 
short time. In 1S6- a slip was built at the foot of Avenue C 
on the Kills, and a boat put upon the ferry. It continued in 
operation for a few months, and was then destroyed by fire. In 
March, 1868, " The Bergen Point and Staten Island Ferry Com- 
pany " was incorporated, but never gave any signs of life. On 
the 15th of June, 1869, Walter H. Frazee attempted to revive 
it. He placed thereon a small steam yacht called '' Jennie." 

^N T. Mercury, December 14, 1767. 

TlIK llDiiOKKN KKItUV. 2<J| 

After twelve (hiys' cxj>erienc(' lie \v;is eonviticiMl nf tin- iinprofitA- 
bleness of the oiitcriirisi' ;iiitl iihiunloiuMl it. Tlio l<N:ntiun in w 
out of the line of travel that its revival is douhtful. 

TiiK lIi>i!(>Ki:\ Fi:ui:v. 

Early in the year 1771 this terry was (MtiihlishtMl to connf«'t 
the eorporation dock at the Hear ^[arket in New York with H... 
hokeii. It was leased t.. H. Tallinan fur two yonr^ ni £50 a 
year.' It {h>v> not seem to have heeii jnu into fietivo (>]>cniti(>n, 
however, until May i-f thi' followini^ yt-'Jii*, «s appears fri»in the 
folliiwinir notiee : 

"■ CoKNi:r.n> 11; 

I')I;gs leave to present his most respectful compliments to the 
Pultlic, and to infoi-m them that he intends, on .Mond.»y, the tirst 
of ^[ay next, to oj)en the Nkw Esr.vni.isMKO Fkkkv, fnun the 
remarkable pleasant and convenient situate place of William 
liayard, Esq., at the Kind's Arms Inn; from whieii plaw all 
gentlemen Travellers and otlu-rs who have occasion to «to«w that 
ferry will he accommodated with the best of Inrnts, of every 
kind, suitable to the winds, weather and tides, to convey tliem 
from thence to the New Market near the new ('orporation Pier 
at the North lliver, opposite Vesey Street, in New York, at 
which place a suital)le house will be kept for the recepti' 
travellers passini]^ to and from his house, and will havi- his 1. ■. - 
in good order. 

" Said nAKiN(. takes this public method to inforni all gentle- 
men travellers and others that he has a most elegant and conven- 
ient house, suital)le for the purpose, where they will l>c providi**! 
with lodging, eatables and li<iuoi*s of the best kind ; and particu- 
lar attention will be given to the clean feeding and doing strict 
justice to all travellers' horses. The elegance of the situation, 
as well as its affording many amusements, such as fishing and 
fowling, added to these, its l)eing stocked with tin' i»n>ate!*t vari- 
ety of tlie best English fruits, will m ik.- it :in ^..'n^.iil.le pl.i<H^ 

'i\r. F. Records, Hi. 


for the entertainment of lai-ge companies ; having besides a 
number of convenient rooms, one of fifty feet in length, by 
which means (as he will have the best cooks, particularly for the 
dressing of Turtle and every other dish fit to set before either 
Gentlemen or Ladies), he hopes to be honored with their com- 
pany ; assuring them there shall be nothing wanting on his part 
to make it convenient and agreeable, as well to entitle him to 
the honor of their countenance as custom. And as his boats 
will always be ready to attend travellers and those Gentlemen 
and Ladies from the City of New York as well as those of the 
Province he lives in, at a minute's warning, flatters himself he 
will make it so convenient that during the summer season such 
as do not choose to come over to dine may always be provided 
with tea, &c., &c., pass the afternoon, have the best of fruit the 
different seasons afibrd, and return to town again before night, 
or honor him with their ctistom longer, as he will be strict with 
having good beds for the accommodation of Gentlemen and La- 
dies that are going to any part of the Jersies, Philadelphia or the 
northern country, and choose to have their horses and carriages 
l)rought over that night, and set out early the next morning ; or 
such as are coming from Philadelphia or elsewhere, that choose 
to stay at his Inn that night, and the next morning go over to 
the City of New York. He has one of the best wharfs for land- 
ing horses and carriages at all times of the tide ; and he may say 
the completest causeway in this country, between the island he 
lives on and the main ocean. 

" 1^^ The boats are to be distinguished by the name The 
Iloobook Ferry, painted on the stern. "^ 

During the war which shortly followed, this ferry, like its 
neighbor at Paulus Hoeck, was subject to the control of the 
army occupying New York. On the 7th of August, 17T6, orders 
were issued from headquarters, in the city, that a subaltern and 
twenty men should be placed at the Hoebuck ferry to examine 
the passengers crossing there.^ This was done to prevent dis- 
afi"ected persons passing into New Jersey, as also to prevent the 

'Eivington's Gazette, April 27, 1775. '^Am. Archives, 5th Series, i., 912. 


desertion of the i-oiiliiieiitiil troops, whii-li iit tluit liinr wm of 
frequent Dccurreiice.' No inentiun i^ i\\:u\v of the ferrv fr..ii; 
this time until 1784, wheii .lolm AUfii. on the ^tli of ()■ 
secured a lease i>t' it tor three years at a rent of i;r»7 n ycnr.' 
Uv soon grumbled al)init the terms, and at hi« own rcrjuoul wjin, 
on the 20th of" August, ITS;"), released from his contrnct,* ami 
Sylvamis Lawrence took the lea^e for three years at a rrnl of 
£37 a year.^ In June, 17S7, he sold out his inten-st in th ' 
to Charles A. Wiessenfels,' who, on the i>th of July, IT"-', "i' 
taiiu'd a lease from the city for three years from the IUmI of 
Aui;iist, 1 VSS, at a rent of £5 a year." This arrangement w>«>n fell 
through, and the ('(tmmon Council asked fi>r projHMals for thn 
ferrv lease. On Wediu'sday, the l."»th of April, 178l>, the hid- 
were openid. -lohn Stevens, the owner of Ilol>oken,' otfen**! 
£10 a year, ami was the highest hidder." This is the Hrst tim«« 
the name of that gentleman appears in connection with this ferry, 
thouo-h there can he no doubt that he was at this time its owner. 
He held the lease until the 12th of December, I7'.U, when J.w.»p!i 
Smith obtained it for three yeai-s at the rent of l".>l a yrar. Tin- 
was pr()bai)ly in the interest of Mr. Stevens. \U various renew- 
als, Smith held the lease until the -Jt'.th of March, 17i)'.>, when th.- 
same was obtained by Z;ulock IIe«lden.'^ In the niean time the 
ferry had improved, and the rent increased. At tliis time KI i- 
Ilaynes was in charge of the ferry on the New Yi>rk »ido, nn.j 
John Town on the Jersey side. Town aimoimced that he ' 

" no expense to render Ilobuckin House and Ferry eoinmo»uou?, 
iind that "he had the best boats on the river."'" 

On the llth ..f March, 1 709, the Common Council of New 
York established the following rates of ferriage for " FIoNkm-. 
ken : " 

A Passenger, 

£0 «• 


K'im. Arcluren, oth Series, L. 886. 'S. i li'mr.U. r.u . 1*4. 

Hbul, viii.. :309. '^'"'''. "••■• •^"• 

^ibid. inii., rm. */'"■<'. •'•• ^01. 

^Winfield'8 Land Titles, iO. »y. Y. Reo>nh. ir. m. 

UUd xii., 470. '^Ctntitul of fy^fdom. April 13. ITT 


A Coach, Chariot, Coachee'or covered Wagon, 
A Phaeton, .----.. 

A Chaise or top Chair, ----- 

A Cliair, -------- 

A Sleigh, --...-- 
Horses and Cattle, - - - ' - 
A Sheep, Calf or Hog, - - - . . 
A large Trunk or Chest, - - - . - 
A small do . . - - 

A Bnshel of Salt, ------ 

A Pipe or Hogshead of Wine, Spirits or Molasses, 
A Barrel of do - - 

A Barrel of Beef, Pork, Flonr or Fish, 
Plank of every kind, ----- 

Boards do - - . - - 

A Side of Sole Leather, ----- 

Do of Upi)er do - 
A Raw liide, ------- 

Iron, Steel, Lead, &c., per cwt., - - - - 

A Desk, ------.. 

A large Table, ------- 

A small do --_._- 

A Mahogany Chair, ------ 

A common do - . - . _ 

A Basket or Bag of Frnit of 2 Bushels 
A Bag of Grain of do - - 

A Crate of Earthenware, - - . - - 
A Tierce of do . - . . 

A Feather Bed, ------- 

A Clock Case, ------ 

A Chest of Tea, ------- 

Dye Wood, per cwt., - - 

Gunpowder, per cwt.,- - . - . . 

A large Bale of Cotton, ----- 

An empty Hogshead or Pipe, _ - - . 

Do do Barrel, 

Cabbages, per hundred, - - - - - 






























































Shad, \>vv liiiiulrL'tl, .... ri, 

And all otlit'i' :iitirK'.> and things in likr pro|M.iti->ri. 

II"lilin held tlic leiuso only tor ii ft-w iMi»iit)i!«. E\|HTii'ncv 
had taught t hr ( 'oninion ( 'ouncil that a |>i'oiiiis<> to |mv niid tlir 
payment ot rt-nt tor terry leases were two very difVemit •' 
■^rn make sure of" the rent, they demanded sertirity Irom II 
lie wa.xed width at the donht ot" his honesty which the (h ......... 

seemed to imply, threw np the lease, ami retustoil to liavc miy- 
thiiii; more to do with the terry." Krom thi?* time until it wii«» 
leased to (iarret Covenlioven, the ferry was l>ailly inniinf;e<|, an«l 
caused miieh eomj>laint from the jieoph'.' Covciihoven timk it 
in .\u<:;iist, 180*2, for three years, at a rent of JJ^'JoO u year. At 
the termination of his lease, Peti'r Voorhis took tlie h-ui^e, at a 
rent ot" §3r>(> a year. His man.ii^ement was no more nppr> 
than that ot" (^)veni»oven.' Then David (ioflwin desirt-d t<> iii\< 
the ferry, thinkin<; he eoidd meet the demands of the j- ..•.'.• 
Beiny encoiiraired hy the lVri;en Turnpike Company,^ li- 
ceeded on the 4th of Jaimary, 1808, in securing; a lease forthn-© 
vears at a rent of s3.^0 a year.*' Durini; all these year*, sine© 
the 26th dav o\' duly, 17>+, John Stevens had l>een the owner »»f 
Hoboken, hut remained quiet, with only an ocen^Hional renion 
strance airainst the manai,'ement of the ferry. Xow. Detfni- 
ber n, 18<»1', he eame forward as the dise<»verer of a new 
poAver in uavi^.itlon, lie claimed to he the first man in the 
eountrv who had successfully applied steam ns a pro|Kdlinjr 
power. At the same time, he claiTued to he the proprietor i>f 
this ferry, and earnestly remoiistJ-ated aijainst the pr«»p«witi<»n »•• 
o-ive to Elisha l>oudinot and his associates the exclusive r . 
ferry bv steam between New York and New Jersey. In Sej>- 
tember, IS 10, he asked for a lease of the Hoboken ferry, anil 
promised to place a steamboat thereon." On the 13tli of 
April, ISU, he obtained the lease for the Ijimlini; on the Now 
York side," and immediately set to work to eomph »-' • ....... 

^N. Y. Records, xii., 458. 
*Ibid, TV., 435. 
'•Ibid, .rxii., 2G3. 

«/Wd. rii.. 554. 

'Ibid, xiii . 60. 
*Ihid, tviii , 7. 


ferry-boat. This was completed about the middle of September, 
1811, and shortly afterward was made the trial trip of the first 
steam ferry-boat in the world. At this time a Mr. Godwin, of 
Hoboken, had charge of the ferry, and he employed the steam- 
boat. It was immediately put into use, and on the 23d of Sep- 
tember, 1811, made sixteen trips, with an average of one hundred 
passengers each trip.^ At this time, the landing place on the 
New York side was at the foot of Vesey street. On the 21:th 
of May, 1813, Colonel Stevens secured the lease of the Spring 
street ferry.^ On the Yesey (now Barclay) street ferry, he soon 
abandoned the use of steam, and returned to horse boats as more 
profitable, and he claimed that this movement " promised to be 
highly valuable in facilitating the intercourse between New 
York and the Jersey shore. "^ He continued to operate both the 
Yesey street and Spring street ferries until January, 1817, when 
he sold to John, Robert and Samuel Swartwout the exchisive 
right of ferriage from Hoboken to New York. The Swartwouts 
proposed to have on the two ferries, by the first of the folk)wing 
May, " two horse boats and other craft for the accommodation 
of the public."^ On the 7th of April, 1817, the Common Coun- 
cil consented to the transfer of the ferr}' leases and an extension 
thereof for ten years, on condition that the Swartwouts would 
give to the city $516.25 a year for the Yesey street ferry, and 
within six months from the first of the following May place 
thereon " two good horse boats of not less than eight horses to a 
boat ; " and for the Spring street ferry to give $25 a year, and 
place thereon " as many sail or ferry boats as the corporation 
may deem proper."^ About this time the landing on the New 
York side was changed to Murray street. But that location was 
found to be too " remote from the market to accommodate the 
country people," and as Yesey street was " too much covered 
with carts, &c.," Barclay street was selected as the landing place 
on the 8th of June, 1818. At this place it has remained ever 

^Centinel of Freedom, October 1, 1811. Mr. Valentine fixes the date of the trial 
trip, October 11, 1811. Valentine's Manual, 1859, 604. 
^N. T. Records, xxxvii.,1. ^Ibid,xxxmii.,22\. 

*Ibid, xxxiL, 109. ^Ibid, xxxii., 331. 


since. The Swiirtuouts hcM those terries l)Ut little DVer one 
year. They assiy;iie(l them to Philip Ilnno, of New York. Tlio 
Coiiiiiiini (\)iiiicil consiMitcil to the transfer. They pivf him n 
lease for twelve years, and priinitteil him t(i " Huhntitiito n j;o«m| 
substantial team boat in tlif phice of a st«>aml)OHt."' Alxxit tho 
1st of ^[arch, 1S21, an ejectment suit was he^nn aifainst Hone to 
take from him the ferry.' I'eforc this suit canio to trinl the 
parties comi>romise(l, and the two ferries reverted to tlic Stmen* 
family. In ^lay, IS'il, John ('. and Ilohcrt L. Stevens purelumed 
the interest which Hone had in them.'' Tln-v now proposed to 
l)lace on the ]^»arclay street ferry "asnperior >teanilM»;it, from 
ninety to a hundred feet on deck, and forty-two feet l>cam, hiiilt 
of tlie best cedar and oak," and ]iromised to pnt on more than 
one if necessary. I'or the Sprinj; street ferry tliey pro|)o8e<l nn 
eiijht-horse team boat. The Common Council consented that J<»hn 
C. Stevens slionld have the lease of the I'arday street tV-rry for nine 
years from May 1, 1821, at a rent of >^:>*M^ a year, and that he 
and his brother Robert L. shonld haw the Sprint; street ferry 
for fourteen years, payini; tlu'refor. ft)r the lij*st four years one 
cent a vear : for the ne.xt tive vears ^.'>tt ji vear, and tor the next 
tive years, $200 a year. It was further a«;re»'d tlint the iJarclny 
street lease should be extended for tive years at a rent of ;?>»H) 
a year,^ The Ilohoken St^amhoat Femj Company wa« inci>rj»o- 
rated November 3, 1821. 

On the 22d of April, 1822, the Messrs. Stevens made n trial 
trip of the first steamboat placed on the ferry since ISH.^ Thi^ 
was the '' Iloboken." Thereafter it made trips " every h<»ur by 
St. Paul's Church clock." On the 21.>t of July, 1^2.1. they re- 
ceived permission to start the Canal street ferry and nse steam- 
boats thereon.^ On the first Friday in September, IH-J.'J, the 
" Pioneer " made its trial trip." In these boats the ladies' cHbin 
was below deck, carpeted and warmed In- open tire-places. Fr.«m 
1821 until the present time these ferries have been tinder the 

'iV. T. Records, XXXV., ^-n. -Ibid, xUi., 2A9. Hbui.itiii.l. 

*lbid, xliii., ;3;3r.. Ibid, ilc, 211. VW. ririii. 316. 

'Ibid, xlciu., 44r,. 


control of the Stevens family or of the Hoboken Land and Ini- 
prov^enient Compan)-. The Christopher street ferry was started 
in July, 1836. 

List of hoats on the HohoJcen Ferry. 

Hoboken, ------_• April 22, 1822. 

Pioneer, -----.. September, 1823. 

Fairy Qneen,i -----._ April, 1828. 

Xewark, ---.-..- April, 1828. 
Passaic,^ ------___ 1844. 

John Fitch, ------__ 1840. 

James Rumsey,^ - - - - - - . _ 1846. 

Phffinix, -------_. 1851. 

James Watt,^ ---.--__ 1851. 

Chancellor Livingston," -.---__ 1853. 

Paterson, ---.--___ 1854. 
Hoboken," - - - - - . . _ _ 1861. 

Hoboken, ----.-.._ 1863. 

Morristown, - - . - . . _ _ 1864. 

James Pumsey, - - - - - _ _ - 18<'»7. 

Wiehawken, ----.-__ 1868. 

Secaucus, ---.-._ March 10, 1873. 

The Pavonia Ferry. 

Standing out boldly on the first page of this ferry's history is 
an exclusive right of ferriage, the King's Patent for which is as 
follows : 

' This boat was rebuilt in 1851, and then named the Phoenix. It was the night 
boat in the summer of 1856. 

- This boat was taken from the line to Xewark. 

'■' Destroyed by fire in 1853 while lying in the Barclay street slip. Her ma- 
chinery was afterward put in the Paterson. 

" Destroyed by fire August 2, 1870. 

•'' Chartered by the United States Government in 1861 for a transport. It was 
in the service about one year. 

" Chartered by the United States Government in 1861 for a transport. It was 
lost in the Burnside expedition to North Carolina in 1863. 


" CTeorf]:;(' tlic ScchikI, by the ^rnc«^ of (io<l, of ( liriium. 
Iraiict' iuid Iiclaiul, Iviii;^, Di-fcMuler of the Kuith, tVr. 

'• Tu sill to wlumi those |»res(Mits sliall CDine, {^ivetiii;;. When-n*. 
the convenient, speedy ami sjife carridj^e, transportiitiuii ari<l 
conveyance of passeiiiijers, hoi'ses, j^oods, wares niul iiicrchiin 
ili/.('> tViiiii oiir [rhuT 111- one |in>vinecto another is the life of 
trade and conuiu'rce ; aii<l whereas it hii.H been huniMy n*pri'- 
sented unto us hy nur loviiii; snliji'ct Arehihald Kenru-dv, K** 
i[uire, one of our Council of the nei^hhorintc province o( New 
Vork, that the County of lierijen is a <;rowin<; eounty uml yearly 
increases in its innnher of inhabitants and productions (»f all 
.-^orts of necessaries, and that it lies the most contiguous to our 
city of New York, in our said province of New York; and 
whereas there hath not liithcrto been anv rei;ular ferrv or vha 
sa2;e boats, except from <>ur -aid dersey shore to our sjiid City of 
New York, so as to transport or set over any passengers, ^kmI* 
or merchandizes, with any safety or certainty, to the j;reat inron- 
veniency and detriment of all our lovin;; subjects, the inhnbi 
tants of both our said provinces And whereas tlie said Archi- 
l)ald Kennedy hath proposeil and undertaken, thou;^h at very 
i^reat expense and trouble and without any pn»l)aibility of !ui\. 
present advanta<i|;e, to build a boat or boats, scow or scows, « , 
a wharf or wharves, and do everything necessary and coinnuMli- 
ous for the keeping up and employing a regular ferry or ferries, 
for the transporting of passengers and horses, poo<ls, wares and 
merchandizes as aforesaid, providing he might olttain our letter-* 
patent, granting to him, his heirs and assigns, the sole liberty 
and privilege of keeping and em[>loying a ferry or ferries, at 
such place or places, and in such manner and under such pnv 
visoes as hereafter mentioned. And we, having always at heart 
the benefit, ease and safety of all our loving subjects, and Iwing 
ready and willing to give proper encouragement to all thosv who 
shall undertake to contril)ute to the s;ime, we have thought fit to 
give and grant, and wc do hereby, of our sjK'cial grace and men- 
motion, give and grant unto the said Archibald Kennedy, hi* 
heirs and" assigns, the sole liberty and privilege of keeping, using 
and employing a ferry or ferries, at a place called Pavoiiia, ali.-i* 


Aliasimus, situate on Hudson's, or the North river, in our said 
province of New Jersey, and at a certain distance on each side 
of the said place along the shore, that is to say, from the said 
place called Pavonia or Ahasinius, to the most southerly part of 
a place called Communipaw, down the said river, and up the said 
river from the said place, Pavonia or Ahasimus," a quarter of a 
mile beyond for above Weehawk, for transporting and carrying 
of passengers, goods, wares and merchandizes, with the liberty 
of taking and receiving such sum and sums of money, ferriages 
and hire for the same, as hath been usually taken and received 
in such cases, or now is, or at any time hereafter shall be legally 
established or appointed for that purpose. To have and to hold 
tlie sole liberty and privilege, ferriages and hire aforesaid, to the 
said Archibald Kennedy, his heirs and assigns, to the sole 
and only proper use, benefit and behoof of the said Archibald 
Kennedy, his heirs and assigns forever. And we do strictly for- 
bid all our loving subjects to carry any passengers, horses, goods, 
wares or merchandizes, contrary to the liberty and privilege afore- 
said, under the pain of our displeasure and the highest penalties 
the law can inflict, provided always, and these presents are upon 
this condition aud limitation, that the said Archibald Kennedy, 
with all convenient speed, shall provide a sufiicient boat or boats, 
scow or scows, and sufficient persons or hands for the transport- 
ing, carrying and ferrying of passengers, liorses, goods, wares and 
merchandizes as aforesaid, and the same being so provided shall 
from time to time and at all times hereafter, continue to keep, or 
cause to be kept such boat or boats, scow or scows, in good and 
sufficient repair, with good and sufficient persons or hands to 
give due attendance for the transporting, carrying and ferrying 
of passengers, horses, goods, wares and merchandizes as afore- 
said, according to the true intent and meaning hereof, otherwise 
this present grant, and every matter and thing contained herein, 
shall cease, determine and be utterly void to all intents and pur- 
poses whatsoever. 

"In testimony whereof we have caused these our letters to be 
made patent and the seal of our province of Nova Cesarea, or 
New Jersey, to be affixed. Witness our trusty and well-beloved 


William Cosby, Escj., Cai)tiiiii-General and Govoruor-in-Chief in 
ami over t>nr provinces of New Jersey and New Vurk, and ter 
rituries depeiidiiii; thereon in America, \' of the 
same, and Colonel in our army, ^Vc. At I'ort (Jeorj^e, in the 
city of New York, this ISeventh day of .January, in the seventh 
year of oiir reiijn, and in the year of our Lord One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Thirty-three.''' 

It is (juite certain that ("aptain Kennedy did not fidtill the 
conditions of the above patent, and so forfeited all the ritijht- in- 
tended to be ;^ranted thereby. The next notice of this ferry is a 
l»etition to the Common Council of New "^'nrk b>r a ferry from 
the "west end of Pearl street" to llarsimus, on the '2'M of 
March, 1753.'- Nothiui; came of this movement. On May .'1, 
1705, Archibald Kennedy and AVilliam McAdam made an at- 
tempt to secure for tliemselves the exclusive rii^ht <d' ferriage 
from New York to tlie Jersey shore.^ This was a blow at the 
Pauius Iloeck ferry, but it fell short. P^xcejtting Budd's ferry, 
the next tliat is lieard of a ferry from Ilai-simus is on the 13th of 
April, 1818, when a number of j)ersons petitioned for a ferry 
from the foot of Chandjers street to llarsimus.' Notldng mon- is 
hcnrd of this ferry until on the completion of the P>ergen Tunnel 
l)y the Long Dock Company in 1801. The Erie Railway Com- 
pany, lessees of the Long Dock Company, revived the Pavotua 
Ferrv.^ It began business May 1, 1801, with three old boats — 
Niagara, Onalaslxi and Onala — from tlie J>rooklyn ferries. 
The Erie Railway Company have since put upon the ferry the 
Pavonia, binit in - - .- - - - 1801. 

Susquehanna, built in . _ _ . 1804. 

Delaware, built in . _ . - - 1S05. 

The Twenty-tliird street ferry was established in May. 1^0^. 


Jay Gould, built in - - - - I'^O'i. 

James Fisk, Jr.. l)uilt in - - - - 1^»'>1>. 

Erie, built in ----- - 1^73. 

Liber C 3 of Deeds {Trenton), 224. «.V. Y. Rrrortit, r.. 829. 

Ibid, ci., 269. *If>i(i. rTxr.. 149. 

The Pavonia Ferry Company waa incorporated February ".IS. 1841*. 

272 history of hudson county. 

Brown's Ferry. 

The Commissioners who were appointed on the 20th of June, 
1765, to lay out a road from Newark to intersect the road leading 
from Bergen Point to Paulus Hoeck, were authorized to erect 
ferries over the Passaic and Hackensack rivers, together with all 
necessary ferrv buildings.^ Bv the same act the owners of the 
land where the ferries were to be erected were permitted to oper- 
ate the same for their own benelit, on condition that they would 
equip the ferries and keep in repair the causeway over their 
land. Thomas Brown, of Bergen, was one of the commissioners, 
and owner of the land on the east l)ank of the Hackensack where 
the ferry was erected.'^ From a supplement to said act, passed 
June 28, 1766,^ it would seem that the ferry was erected before 
the latter date. Then arose a dispute between Captain Brown 
and Garret Newkirk concerning the title to the hinds on the east 
side of tlie Hackensack, and the right to the ferry. It was decided 
in favor of the former, and from that time until the Revolution 
the ferry was known as " Brown's Ferry." For nearly thirty 
years this was the only thoroughfare between Paulus Hoeck and 
Newark and the extensive country beyond. It may well be sup- 
posed that it did a thriving business with its row boats and scows. 
A horn hanging to a tree served the traveler to summon the fer- 
ryman to his duty and reward.^ The safety of the ferries over 
the Passaic and Hackensack rivers was an early care of the 
xlmericans in the Pevolution. On August 7, 1776, Richard 
Stockton, a delegate in Congress from New Jersey, sent to the 
New Jersey State Convention, then in session at Burlington, cer- 
tain resolutions of Congress requesting the Convention to make 
such provision for keeping open these ferries as would be effect- 
ual. They were accompanied by a Congressional promise to 
reimburse such expenses to the State. So prompt was the Con- 
vention in carrying out the wishes of Congress that on August 
they passed an ordinance for keeping open the communica- 
tion between New Jersey and New York by way of these ferries. 

^Allinson's Laios, 276. - See the genealogy of the Gautier family. 

^AUinson's Laws, 289. * Booth's Hist, of jf. Y., 399. 

Dol W S FEKKY. 21'-> 

Tlie preamldt' ut" tlir oidinancc (lecliires tlie ferries jxtorlv 
cquippt'd jviid the i)n»j)rietor.s iR'<;lii;eiit. The act took them out 
of the proprietor's hands and put them in the hands of William 
( anij) and Joseph Jledden until the Hrst of Deeemher followiii",'. 
They were to provide four scows to each ferry, supply a sutlieient 
number of hands, and stretch ropes across the rivers. 8oldicr> 
were to be ferried over for one-third of the rcf^ular rates.' .\fter 
the capture of New York the ferry was susj»ended. When tin- 
war closed the ferries were rej)aired, and continued in use 
until the bridi^es were built on the turni)ike. Thev then fell 
into disuse until 1805, when they were again repaire<l. They 
remained in use until supplanted by the bridges built after the 
old road across the meadows was made into a ])]ank road. 

Douw's Ft:KKY. 

Tliis ferry was located at the westerly end of Chwrry lane, about 
175 feet nortli of the present l)ridge of the New .Jersey Railroad 
over the llackensack river. It was jirobably set up about the 
time that Colonel John Schuyler constructed the Belleville turn- 
pike during the French war, and remained in operation imtil 
suj)erseded by the bridge erected in 1TV»4. It received its name 
from John Douw, a friend of Colonel Schuyler. Ilr had for- 
merly operated the fen-y over the Passaic at Belleville. The ferry 
house was on the west side of the llackensack. Dojiw used it 
also as a public house, where he entertained travelers ami guests. 
Bangs says that here, June 27, 177G, l)y him and Schuyler, " many 
Decanters of Wine sutfered shipwreck, and many Bowles of 
Grog were poured down. - * Xor was Egg I'op forgot among 
our Dainties."- It was at this ferry that boats had been provided 
on the night of Lee's attack on I'uuln- ll-n'ck to carry over the 
troops on their retreat. Their delay induced those in charge to 
believe that the forces had retreated along the hill, and there- 

'Am. Archives, Ath Series, vi.. 1659. '/Vex-. X ./. Hist. Soc.. riii.. 122. 



fore the boats were taken away. Lee's advance, passing down 
Cherry Lane, reached the ferry only to find it deserted. 

13 udd's Fekry. 

In the year 1802, Nathaniel Budd, without any license, built 
or extended a dock in the Harsinins Cove, afterward known as 
Budd's Dock, and erected a ferry to New York. The western 
end of this dock was in Eighth street, about the middle of the 
block east of Provost street, and thence extended southeasterly 
between one hundred and two liundred feet. The exact date 
when this ferry was erected is not known ; though, from a peti- 
tion of John Holdron, dated in May, 18U3,nhat the Jersey City 
Ferry had been injured by a " new ferry " which had been in 
existence for ten months, the proxinuite date is ascertained. On 
the 22d of November, 1802, the Legislature appointed commis- 
sioners with power to lay out a road from the *' Great Iload 
leading from Newark to Paulus Hook '' to Budd's Dock. The 
act also authorized Budd to erect a ferry from said dock to the 
city of New York. It would seem from the preamble to the 
act that he had been operating the ferry for some time, for therein 
it is said the ferry " liatli acquired a great share of public patron- 
age." lie had landed on the New York side without the per 
mission or even knowledge of the authorities there ; for, in their 
report on Iloldron's petition, on the Kith of May, 1803, tlie 
committee expressly say " the corporation was not aware of " any 
ferry as complained of by Holdron, and they recommended that 
unauthorized ferries be restrained. Just previous to this report, 
and immediately after the petition of Holdron, on the 9th of May, 
1803, Budd petitioned the Common Council of New York " for 
liberty to establish a new ferry from the Barclay street wharf across 
the North Eiver.''~ There seems to be a conflict between this 
petition and the act of 1 802, explained probably by the fact that 
hitherto he had run it without authority. The request of the 
petition was refused on the 16th of the same month, for the rea- 

'Proc. K J. Hist. Soc, xiii., 713. -^IMd, mil., 694. 

nui)i)'s i-KUK\- hill's kkuu^ . 275 

Sun that the terries existiiii; on the North Iliver were then under 
lease for tliree years, .•md it wnuld Kc iniproj)er tor the corpora- 
tion to lease other terries duriiii^ that time, and, in the ((pinion of 
the eonimittee, "the puhlic interest woidd not i»c promoted by 
erectinj; anotlier ferrv on the Xoi'th River.''' 
2s\»t\vithstan(lin<;- this, lie advertises as foll(»\v>: 

" III l)l)'> I'KIJin . 

'* The snbserilier itit'orms his friends and the ))nhlic tiiat he 
has erected a Feriy hetween Powles Hook and Ilohooken Fer- 
ries, ha> also proviiU'd <j;iun\ Iloats and earefnl Ferrymen tor 
carrying Passengei's, Horses, Cattle, Cai-ria»^es, (iuods, Wares and 
Merchandize to and from the City of X»'\v York, as he hath 
obtained liberty from the Corporation of ^«'e\v York to land and 
take ott' from the same Dock and Ferry Stairs as the Powles 
Hook Boats do at the foot (»f Courtland Street, in the City of 
New York — and also entertainment for them and Horses, and 
hath erected convenient Stables adjacent to the sai<l Ferry for 
those who wonld wish to bring with them their own forage for 
teams or without. 

" Oct. 24, 1803." —Centinel of Freedom. Oct. 25, 1803. 

There is no record in the minutes of the Common Council of 
New Y'ork, \\\) to 1S24, that Budd ever received permission to 
land his ferry boats on that side of the river; yet, from Hol- 
dron's petition, there can be no doubt that his boats were running 
in 1802, and from the evidence in Gourjh vs. Bdl'^ that " for 
some years after " 1804, he had a ferry and kept a ferry house. 

Bull's Fekkv. 

When and by whom this ferry was erected has not been 
discovered. The name was well known at the time of the 
Revolution. At that time there lived a family by the name of 

^ProcUn-'s N. J. IUkI. Soc.xiii., 711. •' 1 Zab. Hep., 1G4. 


Bull, at the place now known as Bull's Ferry, and the probability 
is that it took its name from that family, who then owned the 
land on the Jersey shore and ei-ected the ferry. Nothing par- 
ticular concerning it is to be found in the New York JRecords. 
The following named persons have been lessees, and probably 
managed the ferry, or had an interest in it : 

Cornelius Huyler, - - - - - - 1788 to 1792. 

Theodoras Brower, ----- 1792 " 1805. 

Garret Neefie, ----_. _ _ 1805. 

Lewis Concklin, _---_-. 1806. 
Abraham Huyler, - - - 1808. 

De Klyn's Ferry. 

On the 14:th of October, 1799, John Towne and Barent De 
Klyn erected a ferry from the new wharf '' south and north " of 
the State Prison to Hoboken.^ In March, 1806, the location of 
it was referred to a committee of the New York Common Coun- 
cil,^ but nothing more has been learned eoncernino; it. 

The following attempts were made to erect other ferries across 
the North River. There is no evidence, however, that either of 
them were successful. 

On the 19th of May, 1805, Anthony Lispenard and others 
petitioned the Common Council of New York for " a new Feri-y 
across Hudson River, between De Klyn's Ferry and the Market."^ 

On the 2d of September, 1805, Joseph Watkins and others 
petitioned for a " new ferry trom the Market in Greenwich 
street," and Gabriel Y. Ludlow and others petitioned for a 
" ferry from the foot of Duane street."^ 

The Elizabethtown Point Ferry. 

This ferry is only incidentally connected with Jersey City. 
About the year 1808, it was purchased by Colonel Aaron Ogden, 

W. Y. Records, xil, 548. ^Ibid, xv., 518. 

'^Jbid, XV., 328. ^Ibid, xv., 349. 

rilK KIJ/AUKIinoWN I'niM 11;i;KV. -it 

and l>y him lujiscd to John \l. ami Kolicft .1. Liviii::;.stnii, win) 
ctwiied ;i monopoly of ii;ivi<x:itiiijj; Nuw \ oik wiitcrs hy stciiiii. 
Tlit'v placed on this tV'iTv thu /iifn'fun, the first stcjiincrlu'twri-n 
Xew York and Eli/.:il)othto\vn l'<»int. It was not lon*:^, liowcvcr, 
before Colonel Oirden had hiiilt, hv Cornelius Joralenion, of 
Belleville, a hoat, tonrtcen feet beam and seventy-five feet keel, 
in which Danit'l Dod, of Mendham, put a twelve-horse en«:inc. 
It was called the Sea-IJonte. This boat the ('(donel placed on 
this feny, luit, to avoid seizure under the New York navijjation 
laws, ran her to .lersey City. On the 18th of >ray, 1S1,*5, she 
was advertised as " an oleijjant steand)oat provided to run between 
Elizabethtown Point and Paulus Hook: fare four shillin:,'s." She 
made two trips a day. The fare was afterward reduced to 
three shillings and sixpence. On the 2 1st of June, 1814, she 
was advertised to meet the team l)oat Snhstitvtion^ at Paulus 
Hook, which would eari-y the passengers to New York. 

" The Bellona, owned by Gibbons, ran from Klizabethtown t.i 
Jersey City, fare \^h cents. In the advertisement was flung to 
the breeze a banner inscribed with the motto, ' Xew Jersey must 
he ivQQy'—Sentind of Freedom, Jnh/ :',!. 1821. 

I'owLKs Hook and Brooklyn. 

Durino- the Eaces at the Union Course on Long IslaiuK in 
October, 1822, a Brooklyn ferry boat made four trijts a day 
between that city and Jersey City. 


History of Jersey City — Paulus Hoeck — Paul us Hoeck race course — Early lot- 
teries — British graveyard — Names of city officials — Consolidation -witli 
Van Vorst township — With Bergen and Hudson City — As a port of entry 
— Water works — Post-office — Bull-baiting — Floating theatre — The old 
wind mill — History of Bergen — Its officers — History of Harrison — Captain 
William Sandford — Petersborough — History of Harsimus — West India 
Company's farm — The Duke's farm — History of Hoboken — Its first occu- 
pant — Made into a city — Its officers — History of North Bergen — Secaucus 
— Three Pigeons — The Frenchman's garden — History of Hudson City — 
Its officials — Beacon race course — Horses running and time made. 

As WILL be seen hereafter, the territory comprised within the 
county of Hudson includes all the land within the limits of the 
old township of Bergen, and that part of New Barbadoes Neck 
now within the bounds of the townships of Harrison and Kear- 
ney. This territory has, since the erection of the county, been 
cut up into several municipalities, a brief sketch of some of 
which we now propose to give. 

Jersey City was incorporated January 28, 1820, l)ut remained 
a part of the township of Bergen. It was then bounded on the 
west by a creek and ditch between the lands of the "Associates 
of the Jersey Company " and Cornelius Yan Yorst (Warren 
street nearly) ; east by the middle of Hudson's river; north by 
Harsimus Cove (First street), and south by Communipaw Cove 
(South street). This territory was the old Paulus Hoeck of the 
Dutch and Aressick of the Indians. It was sold by the West 
India Company to Abraham Isaacsen Planck, May 1, 1638, for 
the sum of four hundred and fifty guilders, calculated at twenty 
stivers to the guilder.^ It remained in the Planck family until 
August 2, 1699, when it was sold to Cornelius Yan Yorst for 
£300, " current money of New York."^ From this time until 

'N. Y. Col. MSS., L, 14. '■ Winfield's Land Titles, 45. 




1764 it was used as t'ann laiul, as most of it (•(iritiiiiu'<l tolx- until 
1S04-. In 17t)4 the terrv was estahlished, and Micliutd Curnelison 
l)uilt, just north of (Ti-and street, near tlic water, a low trame 
house about forty teet in l('ii^;th, with a [)ia/./.a in tVi.nt and an 
extensive Dutch roof which projeeted over the pia/./.a. In 1*^00 
tliis liouse, used as a tavern and tV-rry house, and several spacious 
barns and stables and a store house were the oidy buildiiii^s on 
the TToeck. Here, when passen<2;ers arrived by sta<;«' and no 
boat was at hand to take them to New York, they could ^ct 
both food and drink. In addition to this, the host woidd resale 
them with an inexhaustible fund of anecdote, for he was well ac- 
(|uainted with the world ; had seen much of it ; had taken part 
in the War of the Revolution, and was a shrewd observer. Such 
was the Rtrai<:;ht, stout, jolly ^[ajor David Hunt. 

Late in 1800, f>r early in isoi, u small shanty was put up aloni; 
the turnpike, a little way from the ferry house, and occupied, as 
is now supposed, by John Afurphy. The portentous si^i, 
Ovt;n-STOKS for sale heak, put on the side of the establishment, 
indicated to the hunirry traveler <,n)o(l cheer within and incipient 
opposition to the sirloins of the Major.' 

The old tavern, at least as much of it as could be moved, was 
iinally taken to a lot of Colonel Dod, so well known as the vet- 
eran post-office man, who for so many yeai-s buffeted the storm 
and plouirhed his way throui,di fields of ice in performance of 
the laudable duty of transporting; the Tnited States mail over 
the river in a row boat I 

Tlu' Tlot'ck was nnide up of a number of sand hills, some of 
them of consitlerable height. Around these, and iijenerally alonsr 
the edo-e of the ujJand, Cornelius Van Vorst, in the summer of 
1709, made a track for horse racin<;. It was one mile in length. 
Here the lovers of fast horses and good sport gatliered from the 

' I find the following in a paper of tliat date : " The Steer fattentKl by Major 
Hunt and killed by Aaron Munn & Co. weighed 

The Quarters, ■ ^•^'' 

Hide and fat. J^ 

Total, '''■'^•" 


iiei^liboring city and surrounding country, until the Eevolution 
broke out and war put a stop to fun. Tlie first notice met with 
relating to this course is as follows: 

" FowLEs Hook Haces. 

" On Monday, the 9th day of October next, will l)e run for 
over the 'New Course at Powles Hook, a Purse of Fefty 
Pounds, New York Currency, by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, 
not more than three Quarters Blood ; and those less than three 
Quarters Blood to be allowed 5 lb. The best of three 3 Mile 
Heats ; thi-ee Years old carrying seven Stone ; four Years old 
seven Stone, eight pounds ; five Years old eight Stone, two 
Pounds; six years old eight stone, eleven Pounds ; and aged 
Horses 9 Stone, seven Pounds, Saddle and Bridle included ; Fil- 
lies to be allowed three Pounds. Any Horse, ifec, running two 
Heats shall not be obliged to start a third to save his Distance. 
To run according to the King's Plate Articles. 

" Tuesday, the loth, the beaten Horses to run the best of three 
Heats for the Stakes. 

" Wednesday, the lltli, there will be a Fox Hunt in Bergen 
Woods,^ and on Tuesday, the 12th, there will be a Purse of 

' This sport was continued until quite recently. Some are yet living who 
took part in the chase through Bergen Woods. The following receipt for din- 
ners shows that some of our best citizens belonged to the hunt, and that when 
the fierce delight of the chase was over they knew how to quiet their over- 
strained nerves : 

"Jersey City, February 18, 1831. 

"Gentlemen Fox Chasers, 

To Freeman Anderson, Dr. 

Colonel Ogden, to 1 Dinner, $1 00 

Doctor Gotier, " « ....... i 00 

" Cornelison, " '■ ........ l 00 

Henderson, '< <« I qq 

HughMcCutcheon,2 " - - - 2 00 

Gilchrist, 1 " ....... I 00 

Mr. Miller, .. .< - 1 00 

Mr. James, .< .. j qq 

Mr. Freeland, ■■ " I 00 

.ii:ksi;\ ( nv. 281 

Twenty Pouiuis, free for uiiy TIoi-sc, M.ii-c or (JcIiliiiL; not iiioro 
than (^narter Blood, Wei^'ht tor A^r^c as al)()\i'. Tlii* Ilorni'S, 
vV;c'., to he sliown and entered at thr Sfartini; Post, the Siiturday 
hefore running, between the llonrs of ;i and .') in tlio afternoon, 
in presence of the .Indices, who will he present payini; .'0-.. 
Entrance for eadi Horse, vfec, that starts for the Plate of .'.n|., 
and 20s. for every Horse, I'irc, that starts fur the 201. Plate, 
Any Dispute that may arise to ho determined hy a Majority of 
the Subscribers present. 

"No Quarter Blood that ever won the value of 4(»s. can start 
for the Purse of 201. 

" Good Crafts will he ready at each lerry t<» convey over all 
Persons who may incline to seethe Paces; jrood Stables, with 
I'xcellent Hay and oats, will be provided for the Horses, and 
ijood Accommodations for the Grooms. To start at 2 o'( 'lock 
precisely each Day ; Certificates of the Acjes of the Horses, ikr., 
to be produced at Entrance, from under the hands of tlu' Breed- 

The race came off at the time named. Four horses started fi>r 
the £'.50 purse. It was won by Anthony Ilut<;er's horse Liiijijx. 
Mr. Morris' horse PaHner had the misfortune to run over a 
doir. The cur threw the horse and the horse threw tlie rider, 
wdio was very much hurt. I'p to the time of this mishaj* the 

7 Bottles of Charapaijrne. - - 14 00 
3 " Port. - . . . :{ (K) 
1 " Madrira. 2 00 

0) 29 00 

3 22i 

" April 20. IKH. 
" Received by the hands i>f .). D. Miller thr.-.- Dollars 22 100 from Doctor Oau- 
tier, Dr. Cornelison, David HonderHoii. Uohert (iilchrist an 1 .1. D. .Miller, n-s-jx-ct- 
ively, being their (juota of amount on the above bill, and acrt. in full for the 
game Frkeman Anderson." 

•' Received, Jersey City, December 4th. 1830. of Ilonry Lyon. Twenty IVilIani. 
in full, for the Use of the Ilminds and myself attendintr the Club of the Jerwy 
Hunt, which is full satisfaction to me. 

"$20.00. .FoiiN Ban<»iikh " 

'N. Y. Mircury, Auf/ust 14, 17fi!>. 


race " in doubtful balance hung," as Luggs had won the first 
heat and Partner the second.^ 

The proprietor of the course was anxious to keep the races in 
good repute. One of the rules was : " No persons to be con- 
cerned in a confederacy in running their Horses together or in 
dividing the Plate."^ Thus it would appear that it was whole- 
some for horsemen to be subjected to a little watching even in 
those days of honesty. 

On the 27th of August, 1771, a purse of £100, and on the 
following day a purse of £50, was run for. For the first purse, 
Captain De Lancey's chestnut colt Sultan^ Mr. Perkins' black 
horse Steady^ Mr. Dick's gray horse Vitriol and Israel Waters' 
bay mare Xettle started. Xettle won without difticulty. For 
the second purse, Whitehead Cornell's horse Booby ^ Armstrong's 
horse Ilero^ Elsworth's gray colt Quiehsilver^ Butler's bay horse 
Bastardy Timothy Cornell's black horse Richmond^ Dick's gray 
horse Vitriol, Perkins' black horse Steady and Van Home's 
gray mare Dove started. The race was won by Booby in three 
straight heats, hard running.^ 

On the 31st of May, 1773, a fine race was run with the fol- 
lowing result : 

Elsworth's bay horse, Cyrus, _ . . . 

Jackson's gray horse. Quicksilver, 

Tallman's gray mare. Dove, . - . _ 

Wickoffs Ijlack horse, Richmond, 

Patterson's black horse, Gimcrach, - 

Waters' horse, Valiant (5 years old), 

On the following day the four-year-olds ran for a purse of 
£50, with the following result : 

Anthony Rutger's bay colt. Macaroni,^ - - - 1 1 

- 5 






- 4 





- 2 





W. Y. Mercury, October 16, 1771. "^lUd, April 15. 1771. 

^Ibid, Seineniber 2, 1771. 

* This was a beautiful horse. His dam was out of Ariel, by Old Spark. His 
sire was Wildair, he out of Old Cade, and he out of Lord Godolphin's Arabian. 
Wildair's dam was Roxana, daughter of Bald Galloway, and granddaughter of 
Old Spark: 


1 :'. 


1 -1 


■1 1 


:; .li 


:» (Ir 

I'AUI.rS IlOKi K KAlKiS. 283 

Patterson's bay iiuire, V'/i(/li)^ .'i 'J 

Waters' l)rown horse, Xanthi'H^ - - - 2 'A <> 

Cornell's bay hoi*se, Jias/iaw, - - - . | | o' 

On the 23d of May, 1774, a race was run for a £'")<• purse, :i> 
follows : 

Corneirs bhuk iiorse, Strady^ - - - 
Ilutt^ers' bay horse, J/a(Y//y>>(/, - - - - 
"Waters' bay horse, Aiicfioneer, . . . 
Elsworth's bay horse, Ci/ru.'i, . _ . . 
Jackson's i^ray horse, Quirhsilver, 

At this rare the sjK'ctators were numerous, the weatlu'r line, 
the sport excellent, but the most contitlent in the liettin^ branch 
were grievously disappointed.* 

Immediately after the I'ace Elsworth (" Dine '' Elsworth, of the 
Panlns IToeck Ferry) boui^dit the horse Macat'oni, and entered 
him tor the race on June 7, at Centre Course, near Philadel- 
phia.' Sometimes the programme was changed from a race of 
blooded horses to a scrub race of Dutch horses, in which the 
steeds of P>ergen and Communi]i:iw had an op])ortunity to show 
the metal of their ]>asture.' 

These are the particulars of a tew ot" the races run on this 
course. It was not used during the Mar, but revived afterward, 
and continued until the Associates graded down the sand hills 
and began a new city. A track was then laid out at Ilarsiinus, 
about where Henderson street crosses the Erie Railway tracks. 
Tin's was in successful operatii»n in 180S and 1809. 

About a century ago lotteries were much in vogue and veiy 
]iopular. Churches, colleges, schools, road.-^ and prisons wi-re 
built, and many charitable institutions sustaineil by them. Patdus 
Iloeck was a favorite place for this enterprise. The tii-st lotti-ry 
drawn here was in the summer of 177'». It was noticed as fol- 
lows : 

^liinngtoii's (iitzrtte, June 'i, 1778. ^Ihid. Mnii Jt;. 1774. 

'Ihid, June 2, 1774. ^Y )'. M>reHry, Mnjj U. 1774. 


" PowLES Hook Cash Lottery. 

" Subject to a deduction of 15 per cent, on the Prizes to be 
given for Purses to be run for at Powles Hook. 

1 Prize of 400 Doll, is - - - - 400 

- 200 

- 300 

- 310 

- 945 















500 Prizes. 

1 ,000 Blanks. 

1, 500 Tickets at 2 Dollars each, . - . _ 3,000 

" The Lottery has two blanks to a prize ; will be drawn as 
soon as full After the drawing, printed handbills with the for- 
tunate numbers will be distributed among the adventurers, and 
the prizes regularly paid at Powles Hook."^ 

During the lirst quarter of this century Yates and Mclntyre 
conducted the lottery business in Jersey City, and in March, 1824, 
advertised a " Queen's College Literature Lottery." 

During the British occupancy of the Hoeck there was a bury- 
ing ground south of Sussex street and west of Washington street. 
In this ground many of the enemy were buried, among whom 
was Major John Smith. Connected with his grave is an interest- 
ing fact. The equestrian statue of George III., which was set 
up in 1770, in the centre of Bowling Green, New York, was torn 
down on the 9th of July, 1776. It is said to have contained four 
thousand pounds of lead, covered with gold leaf.^ The slab upon 
which the statue was placed now lies in the sidewalk in front of 
Cornelius Van Yorst's residence, on the south side of Wayne 
street, near Jersey avenue. It is a coarse marble, and is said to 

' Rivington's Gazette, June 3, 1773. -Proc. If. J. Hist. Soc, mil. 125. 

•iKKSEY ( irv. 285 

have been bruuglit from Eii^laiul. The holes in wliieli three 
of the hoofs of the leaden ehari^i-r wi-re fa>tene(l arc yet to be 
seen. During the war it was brought to Paulus Ilueck -when, 
bv whom or for what purpose (unless for the purpose to which it 
was afterward put) is not known. ( )ii IViday cxcning, Jnlv 23, 
1788, ^lajor John Smith, stationed at Paulii;^ lloeck, died, and 
was buried on the following SinKhiy with military honors.' Tlii.> 
slab was i)lace(l ovci- his grave, with the following inscrij)tion 
engraved upon it : 

In Memory of 

Major John Smith, 

of the 

XLIIiid or Royal Highland Reg't, 

Who died 25 July, 1783, 

In the 48th Year of his Age, 

This Stone is erected 

Bv the Officeks of that licir't. 


lira very, Genenjsity A: Humanity 

During an honorable service 

of 2;» Years 

Endeared him to the Soldiers, 

To his Acipiaintancc ik Friends. 

AVhen this part of Jersey City was graded, Mr. Van \'orst 
(" Faddy '') took the slab to his house in Harsimus, where, from 
supporting the charger of a king, it became the stepping-stone of 
a republican. That building was torn down in 1818, when the 
stone was taken to the residence of his grandson, on the north- 
east corner of Wayne street and Jersey avenue. It there b^ame 
a step at the kitchen door. When this building was torn down, 
in (about) 1854:, the slab was placeil where it now i.-«. In 1828 
an English gentleman offered Afi-. \':in \'or>f i\\i' hundred dol- 
lars for it. 

The Hoeck remained in |io3session of the \ an \ orst family 
until the 2(ith of March, 1804, when, with the ferry rights, it was 

'Ritdngton'aGmctte, July 30, 1783. 

286. HISTORY (»F HUDSON county. 

conveyed to Anthony Dey. of New York, for an annuity of six 
thousand Spanish milled dollars. On the 18tli of April, 1804, 
Dey conveyed it to Abraham Yarick, who, on the 20th of the 
same month, conveyed it to Richard Yarick, Jacob Radcliif and 
Anthony Dey.^ These three men were the founders of Jersey 

' The founders of Jersey City were three eminent and successful lawyers. 
RrCHAKD Varick was born in 1752: licensed to practice law, Oct. 22,1774; 
appointed Military Secretary-General in June, 1775, with the rank of Captain ; 
in February, 1770, appointed by Congress Deputy Commissary-CTeneral of Mus- 
ters for the northern army, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He was pres- 
ent at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga. After Burgoyne's surrender. 
Colonel Varick was stationed at West Point until after the treason of Arnold, 
to whose family he was for some time attached as aide-de-camp. Shortly after- 
ward he became a member of Washington's military family, and was by him 
appointed his Recording Secretary. After the evacuation of the city of New 
York by the British in 1783, Varick was appointed Recorder of the city, which 
office he held until 1788. In 1789 he held the office of Attorney-General of the 
State of New York, and in the same year was appointed Mayor of the city, 
which office he held for twelve years. He was President of the Cincinnati for 
nearly thirty years. He died in Jersey City, July ;30, 1831. 

Jacob Radcliff was the eldest son of William Radclifif, a Captain and 
Brigadier-General of Militia in the Revolution. By profession he was a lawyer ; 
began practice in Poughkeepsie, and was soon raised to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court. He then removed to the city of New York, and in a short time 
resigned his judicial office and resumed the practice of his profession. He was 
xMayor of that city in 1810, '15, '16, '17. 

Anthony Dey was born at Preakness, Bergen County, N. J., in the month of 
February, 177G. His father. General Richard Dey, and his grandfather, Colonel 
Tunis Dey, were both of them officers in the Revolutionary army. He was a 
lineal descendant (the oldest son of the oldest son) of one Derrick Dey, who 
came to New York city from Holland in 1640, and established a mill and ferry 
at the foot of Dey street in that city. He resided on Broadway, at the head of 
that street. The mother of Richard Varick was a Miss Dey, and sister of An- 
thony Dey's grandfather. At the age of sixteen years Anthony came to the city 
and studied law in the office of his cousin, Colonel Richard Varick, to whose 
influence and connection he probably owed his early success in the practice of 
his profession, for he became a very successful and wealthy lawyer. He was 
also a very energetic, industrious and persevering man. He made it a rule 
through life to ignore political preferment, and never held any office, but was, 
nevertheless, foremost in everything that could be called a public improvement, 
especially in Bergen County, or that part of it now called Hudson County. He 
was the owner of large tracts of meadow land lying between the Hackensack 
and Passaic rivers, and during a long life made their improvement his particular 
interest and hobby. He was a Director for many years of the New Jersey Rail- 



.IER6EV CITV. 287 

City. Tlioy divided their }>nrcliaso into one thousand feliares, 
and assofiiitcd other persons with themselves.' The whole plot 
was mapped by Joseph F. Manikin, and the map, dated April 15, 
1804, entitled, "A Map of that part of the Town of .lei-sev coni- 
monly ealU'd rn\\l.> llnnk." Aiiticipatinu' the completion of 
this map, the owners, on the li'th of April, advertised a sale of 
lots for the KJth, afterward postponed until the ir)th of Mav. If 
is proliahlc that thi> sale was preeipitated I»y the advertisenu'nt 
of John Stevens for a sale of lots in Ilohoken. The |>arties in- 
terested now agreed upon a name for their future corporation, 
and ijave notice of an application for an act of incorporation. 
The reciuired act was passed by. the Le<i;islature on the Itith of 
Xovembcr. 1:S04, and the ''Associates of the Jersey Company" 
became not only a body, but a power in the State. For fifteen 
years, like an nnjxrlinn in Iviperlo, it possessed the «;overnment 
and shaped the destiny of the infant city."' To this corporate body 
Varick, Radclitf and Dey conveyed Paulus Iloeck, Feb. 1, 1805. 
The title of the act of incorporation of 1820 reads, "An .\et to 
incorporate tlie city of Jersey, in the county of 13eri;en," while 
the body of the act reads "■ Jersey City."-' Hy this act the '' ta.\- 
able inhabitants" were authorized to elect aiinually live free- 
holders to conduct the atfairs of the city, and to be known as 
" Tlie Board of Selectmen of Jersey City." The act named 
Doctor John Condit, Samuel Cassedy, Joseph Lyon, J(din K. 
Goodman and JdIhi Seaman a> the first board. 

road, the owner, iit one time, of tlie entire tract of land now known a» Ea«t 
Newarii, and for many years expended larure sums of money in the introduction 
and improvement of l)looded stock, hotli liorses and cattle. He died in lH."iO. 
at his residence, in wliat i.-< now a part of Jersey City, at a jf<>otl (dd a;re. 

' In noticing this new enterprise, a pai»er of that date says ; " Wlio knows 
but tliat a very few years will make it the emporium <»f trade and commerce of 
the State of New .Jersey V" Ccntinel of Firedoiii , }f<iirh l;j, ISOJ. 

■ By this act of incorporation the Clerk of Berjfen County was re<|uire<l to 
appoint a Deputy Clerk for Powles Hook, to keep the records and record the 
deeds, &c., in that i)lace, Samuel Cassedy wa.-< appointed. 

" It is said that tiie Board of Selectmen, who prepared this hill, were desirous 
to have the place named " The City of Jersey," hut it was altertnl as in the text 
by the representative of Bergen county. 


On the 23d of January, 1829, the corporate name was changed 
to " The Board of Selectmen and Inhabitants of Jersey City," 
although the old name " City of Jersey " was still retained in 
the title. 

On the 22d of February, L838, the name was changed to the 
" Mayor and Common Council of Jersey City." Up to this 
time the place liad remained a part of the township of Bergen. 
It now became a separate municipality. 

On the 8th of March, 1839, its boundaries were extended 
westerly along the northerly side of First street to the centre of 
Grov^e street, thence southerly into Comraunipaw bay to the line 
of South street extended. 

On the 18tli of March, 1851, the city received a new charter, 
which extended its boundaries so as to include the township of 
Van Yorst. The act was not to take effect until a majority of the 
electors in each municipality voted in favor of annexation. The 
vote was taken on the 27th of March, with the following result : 


Vote in Jersey City. 

Whole number of votes, 495 

"Charter," - - 489 

"No Charter," - - 3 

Rejected, - - - 3 

Vote in Van Vorst.. 

Whole number of votes, 426 

"Charter," - - 377 

"No Charter," - - 47 

Rejected, - - - 2 

By this charter the city was divided into four wards, each 
entitled to four aldermen. 

On the 28th of February, 1861, the Mfth and sixth wards were 
erected; on the 21st of March, 1867, the seventh ward, and on 
the 17th of March, 1870, the eighth ward. 

From 1820 to 1838, the ofHcers of the " Board of Selectmen " 
were as follows : 


Joseph Lyon,^ 1820-3. 
William Lyon, 1824. 
Joseph Kissam, 1825. 
George Dummer, 1826-30. 


Joseph Kissam, 1820. 
Philip R. Earle, 1821^. 
A. Ogden Dayton, 1825. 
Robert Gilchrist, 1826-8. 

1 Died at Lyon's Farms, March 21, 1839, aged 65. 

.IKKSKV niv. 


/'n.s/'(/< /its. 

Diivid ('. ('..Idoii, ls:ii-L>. 
Williiiiu Ghvze, ls:W. 
Jnliii F. Kllis, 1834. 
Iu>l)ert (ulehrist, 1885. 
Willi:iin (ila/.e, 188«; 7. 

iVr.r MrM.iitiii, is-j'.t :;•_'. 
Potor JK'iitlcy, 18.").';. 
Kilimiiid I). I'.arry, jr., l8.'{4. 
Williuiii \\ . .Nronrn, 1 s.'5.".. 
lIiMirv 1). Ilult, I8;{t; 7. 

Since 18.'?s. the ntliciM> liavf lu'cii : 

J/ 1 1 I/O /■■'<. 

DiRJk'V 8. (Iivouiv., '30, 

'41, '58, '59/ 
Peter McMaitiii, 1S40. 
Tiioniiis A. Ale.xaiuler. I84:i. 
Peter P>entle.v, 1S4:'.. 
Phine!is('. Diinimer, ls44-7. 
Henry J. Taylor, 1848-9. 
K(.l)ert (iiieiirist, ls.5()-l. 

David S. ^[aIlncrs, 185"J «!. 
Sanniel We8cott, 1857. 
Cornelius \'an Voi-st, ISOO |. 
.luhn P. Roniar, 18«)i> :;. 
()re6te> (Meveland, 1864 ♦). 
.lames (iopsill. lsri7. 
CliarU's H.O'Neil, is^is.-;.. 4.' 
William Clark-r. 1809.- 

Henry I). Ilult, 1838, '40 4. | Geurp^ W. ( assedy, ls"»n 64. 
Thomas AV. James, 1839. .lohn E. Seott, 18<:4 until tin- 

Edii^ar P. Wukeman, 1845-7. present time 

Joiiii H. Voorhis, 1S48-50. | 

Un till" "Jil ot April, l8t)9, an act was approved providing' tor 
a vote by the electors of the several cities and townships in tlu' 
county, east of the Hackensack river, to decide in»on c<>nsolidat- 
ini; the several municipalities into one, under the name of .rei*sey 
Citv. The electi<»n was held on the ."ith of October, with tin- 
followin*; i-esult : 

' In 1868 an act was passed by tin- FA'jri.xlaturi- (»\t«'nilinjr tli»' Mayor's t»Tni 
of ottirt^ to twr) vears. Mr. ONeil. who liad Ixnn i-lfctfd a tew day.s Iwfori' its 
past'ajic, ret used to hold the otWci- ln-yond tin- time for whicli h»» had lK>vn 

•' Appointfd by the Common Council. 




No Chartei 















J 05 







Jersey City, 
Hudson City, - 
Town of Union, 
West Hoboken, 
Xorth Berg-en. 
T^niun Township, 

Thus Jersey City, Bei-gen and Hudson City became one. On 
tin- ITtli of March, 1870, the Legislature made provision for the 
government of the consolidated city. The territory was divided 
into sixteen wards, the eight wards of Jersey City numbering 
from one to eight inclusive ; the wards of Hudson City, begin- 
ning with the first, numbering from nine to twelve inclusive, 
and the w'ards of Bergen, beginning with the first, numbering 
from thirteen to sixteen inclusive. In 1871 the local govern- 
ment was reorganized, the wards abolished and six aldermanic 
districts erected in their stead, each district being entitled to 
two aldermen. In 1873, the township of Greenville was an- 
nexed to the city by legislative act, and became part of the sixth 

Captain s of th e ^Y(lt( 7/ . ^ 

Benjamin F. Charapney, 

John Ft. Benedict, 1852-3. 

Charles J. Farley, 1854. 
Thomas B. Kissam, 1854-5. 

Hiram H. Fenn, 1854 

Chiefs of Day Police. 

I Charles J. Farley, 1855. 

' September 19, 1845, the city watchmen were directed at each hour, from 
the " setting of the watch until the hour of calling off arrive," to call the 


( hicfn of I'oli<-t'. 

Tlioiniis B. Kissaiii, 1S5«;-T. i Joseph McMhiius, 1805-8. 
Bc'iijaiuin IIaiiu'.>, jr., 1857 8. Nathan R. Fowler, 1808-71. 
.lacoh Z. Marimis, 1855) r.l. Edward McWilliains, 1871-2. 

Kdwanl I >. liiley, 18(:2-4. Benjamin F. Chanipney, 1873. 

Patrick .lordan, 1N>)4. 

( 'nhiiubia College Scholarshijf. 

On the 13th of flulv, 184ri!, the Trubtees of Cohimbia Culletre 
:^tive " to the Corixu atidu of .lersey City '' the privilege of liaving 
one student educated in the college free of charges for tuition. 
The gift was accepted on the 1 7th. On the L^Gth of March, 1847, 
the Ciininiun Council passed " an ordinance concerning the aj)- 
puintnient of a student tu the scholarship in Columhia College." 
The fiilldwing have had the benetit of this scholarship : 

William T. Van Ri])er, appointed August 3, 1852. 
William K. Ilillyer, '' December 2, 1850. 

(diaries \'. Uillyer, " October 4, 1864. 

William lluldane, " 1868. 

S. T. S. Henry, " June 24, 1872. 

Jeksey CiTV AS A Fort of Entry. — By Act of Congi-ess, 
March 2, 17l>0, Hudson County Avas i)laced within the district 
(.f Perth Amboy. This district included all of East Jersey, 
e.\cei)t such parts as were within the district of Little Egg 

March >, IbUG, •' The town oi' landing place of Jersc}', in the 
State of New -Jersey," was made a port of delivery, within the 
district <»f Perth Amboy. 

March 2. 1811, the whole county was annexed to the district 
of New York. 

.lune 30, 1834, the westerly part of the county was annexed 
to tlie district of Newark. 

From 1811, Colonel Aaron Og<len was Assistant Collector, 
residing in Jersey City. In 1845 the otiice was abolished. 

Feb. 21, 1863, the M'liole county was annexed to the district o: 


New York. This act provided for an Assistant Collector to 
reside in Jersey City, with power to enter and clear vessels, but 
subject to sncli rules and regulations as the Collector of New 
York might establish. Phineas C. Dunimer was appointed. 

Feb. 25, 1865, the Assistant Collector was empowered to enroll 
and license vessels engaged in the coasting trade and fisheries, 
owned in whole or in part by residents of the Counties of 
Hudson and Bergen. 

Water Works. — The territory east of Bergen Hill, lying but 
little above tide water, and the most of it salt-meadow, was 
poorly supplied with water. The yield of the wells was, as a 
general thing, of an inferior quality. To supply this deficiency 
quite a business was, at one time, can-ied on in carting watei' 
from the hill, and selling it by the pail from door to door. As 
the city grew, the necessity for good water became more urgent. 
As early as March 1,1839, the ''Jersey City and Harsimus 
Aqueduct Company" was incorporated, with an autliorized 
capital of »4U,00<t, and authority to " search and bore for water" 
in Jersey ( 'ity and Bergen, make reservoirs for the collection of 
water and lay pipes for its distribution through the city. Nothing, 
however, came from this company. 

On the 1st of November, 1847, Clerk & Bacot, City Surveyors, 
recommended the taking of water from a small reservoir near 
the New Jersey Railroad, on the west side of the hill. But the 
supply to be had from that place M'as too insignificant to merit 
serious attention. 

On the 18th of March, 1851, Edwin A. Stevens, Edward Coles, 
Dudley S. Cregory, Abraham J. Yan Boskerck and John D. 
Ward were constituted a Board of Water ( ommissioners to sup- 
ply the t(jwnships of Hoboken and Yan Yorst and Jersey City 
with pure and wholesome water. This Board selected William 
S. Whitwell, then late of the Boston Water Works, as engineer, 
lie began his labors near Belleville, August 26, 1851. 

Besides the plans already referred to several other> were 
suo-crested to the Commissioners. One was, to dam the Jlacken- 
sack Biver near the Newark turnpike bridge and thus keep out 

.ii:ksi:v (mv. 


the suit water. uimI |iiiiii]i troui altuve the <iaiii ; another, to brin«2; 
the water from Kucklaiul Lake; and another was t<» use the west- 
ern sh)pe of l^eri^en liill for a leathering j^round, and, by a system 
of nnderdraininij. collect the water at the foot of tlie sloj>e and 
then juimi" it u|>. Another plan was to bring it from tlie Passaic 
river above the falls : another to take it from the Passaic above 
the Dundee ilaiu ; another to take it from the Morris canal on 
tiie level between Little Falls and I'loomfield. All these plans 
were, however, laid aside for the one now in operation. The 
Commissionei'S pronounced this the best plan. They had also 
received a report from l*rofess(U- Ilorsford of New Haven, dated 
Novend)cr 20, 1851, as to the quality of the water taken from 
the Passaic at I5elleville. The followinor table exhibited its 
relative ipiality M'hen compared with the water supply of other 

In one hundred thousand parts in 

Solid nsiduc 
Inorganic . . 
Oriranic . . . 





9.4170 1M.7100 
7.2938 I ll.:52fi5 
2.1232 7.373J 







5.3500 ' 18.4800 11.8600 
3.05(i0 14.5200 8.2400 
2.3000 3.9G00 2.6400 

The engineer submitted his jdan on the 9th of December 
1851. On the 25tli of the following March legislative authority 
was given to construct the works. The enterprise was so far 
completed on the :^)Oth of June, 1854, that water was let into the 
pi])es from Belleville, and on the 15th of August distributed 
through the city. The cost of the works up to that time was 
s652,h95.7'1 a grand water celebration was had Oct. 3, 1854. 

Connected with the water works a general plan of sewerage 
was adopted. It was based on the plan of a tidal canal, extend- 
ing from ConnnunipawCove to Harsimus Cove, generally on the 
line of Mill Creek and Iloboken Creek, M'hicli, when filled by the 
tide, was to be emptied through the sewers at low water. The 
canal is yet unbuilt, and every year adds to the difficulty and 
cost of its construction. Besides the benefit to sewerage which 
it would give to the city, proper locks would <»i>en it for naviga- 


tion, and on its banks would grow up lumber, coal and stone 
yards, besides foundries and factories. The dullest eye can see 
the benefits of such an enterprise. 

Post Office. — -Previous to the establishment of a post office 
in Jersey City, the residents here received their letters througli 
the post office of New York or Newark. The post office in Jer- 
sey City was set up in 1831. The post-masters have been 

William Lyon, - - 1831-35 ; Samuel Bridgart, - 1846-4i) 

William Pv. Taylor, 1835-37 David Smith, - - - 1849-53 

Samuel Bridgart, - - 1837-41 ' Samuel M. Chambers, 1853-^1 

David Smith, - - 1841-45 Henry A. Green, - - 1861- 
John Ogden (resigned),l 845-46 

Bdll-Baiting. — About the year 1825, there was constructed 
on the south side of Sussex street, between Hudson and Greene 
streets, a large amphitheatre, capable of seating three thousand 
people. Here, for about two months, on every Friday, large 
numbers, mostly from New York, would gather to see the sport 
affi^rded by bulls, bears, buffaloes and dogs fighting. The price 
of admission was fifty cents. 

Floating Theatre. — About the year 1842 an attempt was 
made to introduce upon the Hudson and Connecticut rivers what 
had proved a profitable enterprise upon the Mississippi — a float- 
ing theatre. It was constructed on the hull of a large barge, 
and would hold an audience of one thousand people. This thea- 
tre, in the summer of 1842, had been up the Hudson, and in 
February, 1848, was brought to Jersey City and moored in the 
Morris canal basin, in the rear of Judge Lynch's Thatched Cot- 
tage Garden, which was on the south side of Essex street, 
between Washington and Greene streets.^ The actors, during 
this " season," were mostly amateurs of Jersey City, well known 
for wit and humor. The audience, composed of the <'lite of the 
town, crowded the theatre from " pit to dome." The pieces 

' Samuel S. I>ynch, then late of Castle Garden. 


{»erfoniR'(l were, ''The lioiit Day,*' "Three l!ruthL'r.s "' an<l 
'• IJoiubastos Furioso." The casts in the several plays were as 
follows : 

Luke Wurrliiirto!!, - - - Mr. William A. Towiir^eiid. 

Cornelius Crinij), a lawyer, - - - Mr. William Penny. 

Old Grasp, Mr. John (\ M(»r«i;an. 

Frank, - Mr. Charles A. Ileckman.^ 

P>olt, a /v>j/<', Mr. Joseph (J. Ed^-e. 

Harry Markham, his friend, - - ^^^. AVilliaiu Sanderson. 
Arnold Ileadly, ------ Mr. David Seott.' 

AEary Warrini^ton, ------ Mrs. Scoville. 

Susan, - - - Mrs. Sharpe. 

Three Brothers. 

Philip, . - - . - Mr. William A. Townscnd. 

Reginald, ------ Mr. .lohn Pruce. 

Stewardof the Castle, eighty years old, - Mr. William i'enny. 
Giles, a servant, . . - - - Mr. David Scott. 
Fanny, - - - Mrs. Sharpe. 

Boiuhasies Furioso. 

Kin<r Arta.xomines, - - • - - - Mr. Daviil Seott. 
(icncral Pomhastes, ----- ^U. William Penny. 

Fresbos, - - - - - - - ^fi'. John Pruee. 

Distatina, - ------- >rrs. Sharpe. 

It is said the parts " were rendered in a manner that actors 
of a lifetime might have envied." Petween the play and farce 
a sons: was iriven l)y General Edwin R. V. Wright, James S. 
Gamble and William Penny. Mr. Penny, in order to render 
the soii<; more etiective, l)orrowed the black tights of the trajjc- 
dian Townscnd. After the song, he found the •" heavy man "' 
sitting in the cold, with bare limbs, waiting for his tights. "Ah, 
my boy," said Penny, " do you hear the applause '. how did my 

' .\cw General Heckman. * Died Oct. 14. 1870. 


song go ? " " Oh, cnrse your song,'' said the irate tragedian ; 
" give nie my tights, I am ahnost frozen/ ' 

The entertainment was repeated in 1845 by the same company, 
many of whom are well known ; some of them have gone behind 
the scenes, Avhile the others are yet before the foot-lio-hts. The 
stage manager on the occasion was Gabriel Harrison, afterward 
manager of the Park Theatre, Brooklyn. The orchestra was 
com^Dosed of residents of Jersey City, the leader being William 
Robertson, the hardware merchant of Newark avenue, popularly 
known as '' Po]) '" Pobertson. The ])erformance was nominally 
for the benefit of tlie poor, but, though the " house *' was full at 
fifty cents a ticket, not a cent found its legitimate destination. 
It is yet a question among the old patrons of the " Floating- 
Theatre "' what became of the funds. Plato might mention the 
proverl), " One may see a great deal of money carried into Lace- 
dsemon, but one never sees any of it brought out again.'' On 
this last occasion the proprietor was subjected to a fine of fifty 
dollars for exhibiting without license from the city. He 
attempted to defend under a coasting license from the United 
States. The hull of the theatre afterward found its way to 
Coney Island, where, in the summer season, it was used for the 
more substantial purposes of a restaurant. 

Wind Mill. — This old landmark was built in 1815 by Isaac 
Edge, who for a lono- time was miller and baker for and distribu- 
tor of bread to the ])eople of Jersey City. Burmley and Oakes 
were the contractors and millwrights who built it. It was con- 
structed in all particulars like the inill of Mr. Edge's father 
in Derbyshire, England. Its location was about seventy-five 
feet north of Montgomery street and fifty feet east of Greene 
street. It was a prominent feature on the Jersey shore. At 
first the fans on the wings were of canvas, but the severe 
storm of September o. 1821, tore them to pieces and broke 
one of the fans. Then Mr. Edge put in iron fans. When the 
track of the New Jersev Railroad was changed from the south 
side of Montgomery street to its present location, in 1839, the 
mill was taken down, its material put on vessels and conveyed to 


.ILK8KV i\[\. 


Town Ilurlioi', l.oiii;- I>l:iii»l, wliL'iici- it w a.-^ taken to Mill Hill, in 
the town uf Soutlioid. Here its walls were reared ai^aiii, and it 
starti'd anew n|)i>n its <>ld cai'ecr of usefulness. It was there 
kni>\\ii a> 77i' Great Wt'ste/-/i I'lournKj Mill. At (»ne time a 
steam euii-inc \\a> put in. luit it was soon i-cinoved and the nld 
inachinerv restored. It \va> in use until hetween one and two 
o'clock on Saturda\ m.>riiiii<:-, dune i!."). I'^Th. when it, with s2.'>0 
worth iif i:i-ain. wa> consunuMl hy tire. R. ^''illcfcn' wa.- then 

In 18.") 7 there were 
Dwelliuir- in Jersey City, 
Stay-es and earriasjes, " 
Horses, " 

( ^attle. 
Doss, " 

'l\'-j\ in \ an \ Orst, 

145; " 
U; " 

In 1841, in dersey City, they were 
86 houses.^ 

9 eoaelies and >tages. 
58 chaises and waijons. 
1«; cattle. 

Of scholars there were in tlie 

(Trammar Department 
Boys, - - - l» I ; Uoys, 

Girls, - - - - 83; Girls, 

In 1842 there were 
450 dwellings. 
1 lyceum. 
1 classical .>ciiool.- 





71 doii's. 
943 vacant lots. 
206 single men. 

2<> merchants. 
829 polls. 

Primary Department 
- ■- - - 73. 


1 bank. 

5 taverns. 

2 foundries.-' 

' I iiave no d<)ul)t tliat this is an error. It plioiild ]<rol)ahly bo oSfi. But tluia 
I find it in a newspaper of the day. 

'i'lie old academy adjoining St. Matthew's Church wag the first 
oa Piuiliis Hoerli. It was in modern times used for a city prison. Aliout fifty 
feet west of it was an Indian spring in tlie ohie.n time. 

■• One of these was Fulton's foundry, located on the corner of Morgan and 
Greene streets. It was erected in tsl2, and managed l)y Fulton until hi8 death, 
on the '24th of Fehrunrv. 18]."). Here he also erected a drv dock. 

298 nisTOEY OF Hudson county. 

40 stores. 1 candle factory. 

1 glass house.^ ' 1 firework factory. 
1 pottery.^ 

The first cartman in Jersey City was Fortunatus Stone, in 


Street lamps were first used in 1843. 

Streets were lighted with gas for the first time on tlie 4th of 
December, 1852 ; one hundred and seventy -four lamps being the 
number then required. Gas was first used to light houses in 
Jersey City, Dec. 1, 1852. 

The first vessel built expressly for the Jersey City trade was 
the Dudley S. Gregory, launched at Burlington, on the Dela- 
ware; made her trial trip on the Hudson, July 11, 1845. She 
was of 180 tons burden, and cost §8,000. 


The bounds of the township of Bergen were fixed by the grant 
of Governor Stuyvesant in ir>»U, confirmed by Governor Carteret 
in 1668, and reconfirmed by the Charter of Queen Anne in 171-1. 
It then conformed to the lines of the present county east of the 
Hackensack. By the erection of cities and other townships its 
territory had been greatly reduced, until on the 24th of March, 
1855, its boundaries were the New Jersey Kailroad on the north, 
Mill Creek and the bay on the east, the Morris Canal on the south, 
and Newark bay and Hackensack river on the west. It was 
then erected into " the Town of Bergen,*' with slight powers 
vested in a board of five councilmen. On the lltli of March, 
1862, its charter was amended, its territory divided into three 
wards {Columbian, Frcmliln and L'ominunipaid), and further 

' This was established in 1824 by George Dummer and others. Its location 
is now occupied by the New Jersey Sugar Refining Company. 

■' The original name of this establishment was The Jersey Porcelain and 
Earthenware Company. It was started by George Dummer and others in 1825, 
for the manufacture of Staffordshire earthenware. Its location was between 
Morris, Essex and Warren streets. 



|»i>\\'ers vested in a, hoard of seven couiiciliueii. On the 2'.Hh ot 
Mareh, IStiO, the ehurter was still further anieiidcd. '' The City 
(»f Heri^en " was incorporated on the 11th of Mareh, 1S*>8, divid- 
eil into four wards, and the powers of mmiicipal j^ovcnnnent vest- 
ed in a ^rayor and (bnneil. ft was consolidated witli Jersey 
City in 1870. 

llcnry Fiteli, iStlC. 
.Iohn-(J. Cornelison, 1807. 
John Hilton, 1868. 
Stephen D. Harrison, 1809. 

Ilemv- II. Xewkirk, 1800-7. 
Sanmel MeBurney, 1808-0. 

Wlien this was the only niunici[)ality i)etween the llutlson 
and Ilackensack rivers its affairs were managed by trustees 
chosen at first for life, afterward annually by a plnrality of voices. 
.Vt this annual town meeting the freeholders were accustomed to 
gather and decide questions of general interest which were con- 
sidered too weighty for tlu' trustees. This meeting was presided 
over by a moderator chosen for the purpose. The town clerk 
was clerk of this meeting. 

The township was divided into road districts for the better 
regulation of the highways, and an overseer a|)i)ointed for each. 
They were known by the names of Bergen, (Tcmonepa, Peni- 
erahpogh, Sekakes, Weliauk, Maisland (now New Durham >, 
Bergen Woods, Bull's Ferry and Bergen Point. 

For the accommodation of the people at elections, the polls 
Would be opened in one part of the township for one day and 
then in another part for one day ; •". y., in 1803 the polls were 
opened at Widow \'an Horn's, Bergen Woods, and closed at 
Peter Stuyvesant's. The latter place was a tavern, on the south- 
west corner of Bergen and Glenwood avenues. In 1801: the ]iolls 
opened at the Three Pigeons, and closed at Peter Stuyvesant's; 
ditto in 1805 and 1806. 

Townslii]i was. In* the act creating the county of Hudson, set 


off from the township of Lodi. It embraced all of the county 
Ivinir west of the Hackensaclc rirer ; also the township of Union, 
in Bergen county. In 1867 the tow^nship of Kearney was set off 
from the northeily part of it. 

The neck of land lying between the Passaic^ and Hackensack 
rivers, and extending from their junction to the Boiling 
Spring (now Kutherfurd Park), was known among the Indians 
by the name of MUjhgeci/icock. It was estimated to contain 
5,308 acres of upland and 10,000 acres of meadow.' Captain 
WilHam Sandford^ bought it of the Proprietors, July 4, 1668, for 
4'20 sterling yearly, in lieu of the halfpenny per acre quit rent, 
and on condition that he should settle on the tract six or eight fam- 
ilies within three years. On the 2<>th of the same month, with 
the consent of the Lords Proprietors, he bought of Tantaqua,^ 

' Passaic, Paclisajerk. Pachsaick, Pechiesse, Pishawack, is an Indian word, 
and signifies "valley;" also called the northwest Kill, to distinguish it from 
the Hackensack or north Kill. Loiuj Isl. Hist. Soc, i., 156, 266. 

- Winp eld's Land Titles. 324. 

'• Captain William Sandford came from the West Indies ; resided in Newark 
in 1675 ; was member of the Council in the years 1681, '82, '84. In his domestic 
relations he seems to have loved " not wisely." In a deed to Mrs. Sarah 
Whartman, dated April 24, 1677, he acknowledges that four of his children 
were naturally born of her, and yet in his will, dated Jan. 2, 1690, he acknowl- 
edges her to lie his lawful wife, " formerly Sarah W^hartman, while some con- 
siderable reasons engaged us to cpnsaile our marriage," and annexes thereto 
a certificate, which sets forth that the two were married " on board the Pink 
Susannah, in the river Surinam, March 27, 1667." He raquested to be buried on 
his own plantation, and implored some of his friends " to assist and favour the 
concerns of a jioor Ignorant Widdow and five Innocent Children with their best 
advice, hel{) and Councill, to preserve them from those Vultures and harpies w''' 
prays on the Carkasses of Widdows and fatten with the Blood of Orphans." 
He died in 1002. His children weve.JVedimah, married Richard Berry (Consta- 
ble of A(]uackanonck and New Barbadoes in 1695) ; Catharine, married Dr.Van 
Imburgh : Peregrine, married Fytje, daughter of Enoch Michielse Vreeland : 
William, ffrace, and Eliznhetli married Captain James Davis. 

^ Tantaqua, known also as Jasper, lived at Hackensack, and was a great 
friend of the whites. Once, in a time of scarcity of food, he fished for and re- 
lieved the necessities of the Dutch. When asked why he was so kind to the 
whites, he replied : '• I have always been inclined from my youth up to do 
good. I took the fish to them because Manito said to me, ' You must take fish 
to these people,' whispering ever in my ear, ' You must take fish to them.' I had 
to do it, or Manito would have killed me." Lonfi Isl. Hist. Soc.,i., 149. 


T;iiii;ik, AiKiivii, llaiivaliaiii, 1 1 . ( ioxjiic and W's. k'ciiurciuiWitok, 
representatives of the Iiitliaiis claiiniiii;- an interest in the saiiu: 
tract, all tlieir ri^'ht and title. In this (hc{\ the tract is ([eseril»e«l 
as Ivinii; between the *' Ilackensack and I'asawack *' rivers, l»e- 
irinniii"'- at the niniitli "I the >aiil two ri\ers, then 'Mo L;oe u]> 
Xorthward into the countrey about seaven Miles till it lonies to 
a certain Brook or Sj)i-in<:: i"'^^' called Sanford's Sprinii." I'"'" 
their interest he paid to the Indians •• IT<» fathoms (d' J'.laok 
wanii)uni, 'JOO fathoms While wampum, !'.• hlaek ( "oate>, !•> 
(iuns, ♦iO double hand.- ut powder, li> paire of Hreetches, »»<> 
knives, «•" Barrs of Lead, one Anker of Brandy, three half Fats 
of Beer, Eleven Blankets, :!i» .\.\es, 2ii Uowes, and two eo(.kes 
of dozens."' 

From this time until the division of the province into coun- 
ties New Barhadoes Neck was under the jurisdiction of New- 
ark." From the latter date until the 21st of January, 1710. it 
was within the county of Essex.'' Shortly after this .\rcnt 
Schuyler purchased a plantation ojjposite l>ellcville, and in 171'.', 
through a negro slave, discovered the copper mine. Thi> mine 
was not worked much in the days (jf Arent 8(;huyler, but his 
son, Oolonel John, worked it profitably. The ore was sent to 
England. In 1753 the first steam engine brought to this coun- 
try was set up at this mine, at a cost of t'o,000 sterling. It was 
capable of throwing about eighty hogsheads of water y>vv min- 

' Probably "coats of duffels." Proc.N.J. Hut. Hoc.,vL,^. DuflFels was a 
coarse <;lotb. 

•' Whitehead' n EaKt JcrMi/, d->. 

'■'■ In 1CS2 East .Jersey was divided iuto four cuiinties for the ' Ijetler j^overn 
irifj: and settling courts in the same. " Bergen County contained " all the Set 
tlements between Jfudson's lliver and Hackensack River, beginninfr at Constti- 
hlei* Hook, and so t<« extend to the u]ii>ermost bound of the Province Xorthwanl 
between the .-^aid Rivers."' Leoiuiiiij ami Sjiirev. 2'2!i. The territory l)etwren 
the Hackensack antl Passaic; rivers was included in the county of Essex. 

In 109:5 the counties were divided into townships. Tlie townsliip of Ifacken- 
saik included all the land in the county of Rergen north of the bounds of tin- 
corporation of Bergen. Barhadoes Neik was included in the township of 
Aiiuickanick and New Barhadoes in the county of Essex, beaming and iSpifer . 
:52!l. The bounds of Bergen county were extended on the 31st of .Fanuary. 1710. 
so as to include New Barhndofs Nrck. 


iite.^ It was destroyed by tire about 1772, and lay in ruins dur- 
ing the Revolution. 

The faru) opposite Newark owned by Colonel Peter Schuyler 
was known as Petersborough. It was afterward owned by 
Archibald Kennedy, who had married Colonel Schuyler's only 
child. In 1768 he had it in a flourishing condition. It contained 
006 acres, 26^) of which were covered with timber, 393 nnder 
cultivation ; the rest was salt meadow. On it was a two-story 
brick dwelling house, a green house seventy feet long, coach 
house, stables, barn, overseer's house, cider house, ice and root 
house, an excellent garden, an orchard capable of yielding two 
hundred barrels <tf cider, a large quantity of cedar timber and a 
shad tishery.- 

This farm was also graced with a deer park. In 1800 the 
orchard produced three luuulred barrels of cider. There were 
on tlie place two dwelling houses, a green house containing a 
large number of orange, lemon, lime and other West India fruit 
trees. In the early part of 1802 the land was laid out into 
ninety building lots of at least one acre each, and advertised as 
a JVew Town. 

At the close of the celebration of the Fourth of July, 1815, 
the people of the j)lace resolved that they '* would henceforth 
<listinffuish the small district of country formerly known as Ken- 
nedy's Farm, and to the extent of one mile north of the north- 
erly bounds thereof, by the name of ' The Village of Lodi.' " 

In the early part of 1776 a com])any of continental troops 
was formed on New Barbadoes Neck ; Jacobus Jerolamon, Caj'- 
tain ; Peter Sanford, Flrd Lieutenant ; Elijah Sanford, Second. 
Lieutenant ; John Jerolamon, Ensign. 

The Township of Yan Yokst 
Was set otf from the township of Bergen March 11, 1841. Its 

1 Whitehead's East Jersey, x., 37. Joseph C. Hornblower, father of the late 
Chief Justice, came with it as engineer. 

- Wood's Neicark Gazette, December 28, 1796. 

VAN \(>1{S1 'Ki\VN'>nil'. 


territory iueliidt'd iieiirly the wlioli' of wliiit was at one time 
known as Aliasiinus. Its name wa^ in lienor of tlie family, 
wliieli had hecii .-o closely identified with its history since 1GJ^6. 
The West India Company's Farm, Van Vorst's patent and a few 
small patents comprised the whole district. The farm, after tak- 


imr out the private grants, included three hiindre(l and eighty- 
three acres. As this farm has a i)ecnliarly interesting history, 
some particularity of detail will be ])ardoned. 

In 10:)() Cornells Van Vorst lived here near the water, hctween 
Fourth and Fifth streets, in a frame house thatched with reeds. 


This house was burned on the 2oth oi June in that year. After 
the Company had j)urchased the interest of Pauvv in Pavonia, 
Ahasinius was reserved f<jr their own use. Van Vorst remained 
in possession of it until Ins death, before which event he liad put 
up another house. On the 31st of March, 1039, his wiih)w took 
a lease of the " Company's l^ouwerie at Ahasimus " for twenty 
years, agreeing to buihl a new frame iiouse and keep those 
already built in repair.' She married Jacob Stoffelsen shortly 
afterward, and, dying in 1641, left him in possession. Tie held 
it as tenant of the Company until February 19, 1647, when he 
took a lease of it until the 1st of May, 1661. During the war 
of 1643 he was driven from his home, his buildings burned and 
the farm laid waste. Shortly before the expiration of his lease 
he appeared before the Director and Council and said '' that he 
two times had been expelled from there by tlie savages, all his 
property burned," and asked for an extension of Ins lease. This 
was granted for five years, at a rent of one (piarter of the pro- 
duce ; house and buildings at the expiration of Ids lease to 
belong to the Company. ' 

In 1655 the buildings were again burned by the Indians and 
the bouwerie laid waste. lu consideration of this fact the farm 
was granted tf) him on the 21st of December, 1656, without rent 
for one year.^ In the latter part of 1658 a new house was built 
on the place.'* In 1661 he obtained a lease for a year,'' which 
was renewed in February, 1662." Next door to him lived his 
step-son, Ide Van Yorst, in a house built shortly after the war of 
1655. Van Vorst returned to his home sooner than most of his 
neighbors, and probably without the sanction of the Govern- 
ment, which now did all in their power to discourage isolated 
settlements. His position placed him in great risk from the 
savages, who ])rowled about watching for an opportunity to 
strike a IjIow.' 

Jacob Stoffelsen. who had married Tryntje, the widow of 

'N. T. iJol. MS8., i., 93. ''■Albany Records, .rir., 90. 

■W. Y. Col. MSB., via., 313. ^Ibid, nU., 1044. 

''Ibid, I.V., 572. ''Ibid, x., part i., 40. 
''New Amst. liec, ie., 68. 


K\ ni\\i\r'mm\ 

^ ^ 

3 >" 

a — 

S. I: 

•*! - 

Si d 

ft ^ 

^ H 



I in; i>i kk's lAivM. 305 

Jiicol) \\ ;iliiii;cii \ ail lluorii, on the iTth n] Auy;iidt, ltl.">7, was 
in possession ol tlir houwcrie when tlif country was surrendered 
to the English in lOiU. Ife remained in possession as the tenant 
of the West India ('oni|)any, wliose proj)erty the farm remained 
h_v \irtiif ot the first of the •' Articles of Capitulation:" *• "NVc 
consent that the States-( ieneral, or West India ( 'ompany, shall 
freely injoy all farms and houses (except .-iicli as arc in the 
forts), itc."' Stottelsen, heing" in possession, moved t.> improve 
the farm. This hein^- in derogation of the rii;lits of the L'>r<U 
I'roprictoi's, they served liiin with the followiui;' notice: 

*• Whereas I am informed that dacoh Stottelsen Is ahout the 
fencing and taking In a Certainc ])arcell of Land In and about 
hasseuius to the great jirejudice of the other Iidial)itant> there 
and wMiout any order ov Authority from me, these are therefore 
to Require the said Stotfelsen to forl)are the fencing and Manur- 
ing of the said Land till farther Order. Given und"" my hand 
the 5th March, 16(55. Pu. CARTKUKri."' 

This notice was not served. It was hiinu'd at the house of 
Samuel Edsall, and renewed -Inly IS, 1672. 

War between England and Holland havini>- been declared, 
(rovernor Nicolls, by proclamation in Xew York on the L")th of 
dune, 1665, " at the ringing of the bell," declared the real ami 
personal property of the Com[>any confiscated to the Iving.'- 
From this time the Duke's governor> in New York claimed the 
same for their nuister, and leased it in his name. By the treaty 
of Breda, -Inly 1, 1667, each power was to keep the territory 
then held. This confirmed Xew Netherlamls to the English. 
At the time of the surrender only tin- \'an N'orst family, viz.. 
Stott'elsen and wife, Ide \'an \'oi->t and lii> brother-in-law. 
Claes Jansen \ an I'linncrcndt. were living at .Vhasimiis. ( )ii 
the 1st of March, IMI, '"in consideration i)\' the (ireat Paines 
Sc Changes in buildiuii- as well as clearins: and manuriuii- a (rood 
part of the land belonging to the said ffarme," Stott'elsen and 
wife received from (rovernor Nicolls a lease of "the bouwerie or 
llanne aforesaid w"' the Dwelling House, Barnes, Stables, SUdls,'' 

' O'Cal, y. y., a., 532. -Neic Am^t. Rec. 



etc., from the first day of January, 1()67, " during all the termeor 
ternies of y'^ Naturall life or lives of the said Jacob Stoffel 
and Trintje his wife or the longest liver of them, Yielding & 
Paying therefore Yearly and every Yeare duering the said 
Terme the Sutne of two lunidred & fiftv Guilders sewant, or 
one & forty Schepels' of winter Wlieate or the Yallue in other 
Goods Pay to the Governo'' of this his Royall Highness his Col- 
ony or his Order."^ Stoffelsen died before the expiration of the 
year, leaving his wife in possession. She married Michael Tades 
June 17, 1668. Tades died shortly afterward, leaving his widow 
still in possession. She then married Caspar Steinmets, and with 
him retained possession of the farm. Acting upon the terms of 
Governor Nicolls' lease to Stoffelsen and wife, and claiming that 
it inclnded all the " Land w'^'^ he, the said Jacob Stoffells, hath 
cleared, or which he and Trientje his wife or either of them shall 
cause to be cleared," Steinmets enclosed some of the land adjoin- 
Ina. In 1671 Governor Carteret ordered him to take down his fence 
and abandon L.iese lands. With this order he complied. When 
the Dntch re-established their authority in the country, Ide Yan 
Yorst and his brother-in-law, Claes Jansen Yan Purmerendt, 
[)rotested against Steinmets having any greater privileges than 
he had under Governor Stu^'vesant.' Steinmets then asked for 
a confirmation of the lease of the bouwerie granted to his wife 
and her former husband by the English government. This was 
granted, and he obtained a lease on the 12th of April, 1674.-' 
This stirred up Yan Yorst and Yan Purmerendt. They laid 
their grievances before the authorities in New Orange, charging 
that the lessee of " the public Bouwerie situate at Ahasymus " 
was appropriating too large a share of the " valleys and pasture 
lands.'" Steinmets was, however, permitted " to fence in all 
the ungranted valley appei'taining to Ahasymus," and Yan Yorst 
and Yan Purmerendt to fence in "all the tillage and valley 
lands belonging to them in lawful property."* It will be observed 
that all the ungranted land at Ahasymus was held to belong to 
the public bouwerie or West India Company's farm. 

'Book of Patents (Albany), U., 177. K'ol. Hist, of N. T., ii., 598. 

UUd a., 704, '^liid, ii, 716. 

Til !•; i)i Ki;"- I ARM. 307 

When the English returned, Steiiimet.s wjis yet in po.ssessicjn. 
Shortly after (iovernor Carteret had reorganized tlie ^^uverninent, 
he oi'dered the [trosecution of Steininets, hefore the court at 
IJer^eii, for the rerit whieli he chiinied to he due to the Pi-opric- 
turs. 'I'liis l)n(l\- laid claiiii tn the lai'in. on the ground that tht; 
tract (Ud Hot |>ar-s to the {'"rceholdcrs of I^ergen by the charter of 
lOtJS. The people of Bergen insisted that it did so pass, and 
hence helonujed to thcni, while the (iovernor of New York 
claimed it for the Duke on the ground that, by the tenns of tlie 
surrender to the Englisli, this farm remained the pro{)erty of the 
West India C\>inpany, and as the same was not confiscated until 
after the grant to IJerkley and Carteret, it could not have passed 
hy that grant. Under this claim for the Duke, Governor 
Amlross, on the Hth of March, 1675, sent George Cook to Hergen 
to defend the suit which Governor Carteret had instituted against 
Steinmets.' What became of this suit is not known. On the 
17th of August, 1<)7S, Governor Andross, '• in regard of the long 
])ossession of the >'' Bowery oi- fi'arme by the s'' Jacob Stoffells " 
and wife, *' together with the good deportment of Casper Sty- 
metts the Survivo'"," leased tt» Steinmets the " Certaine Bowery 
or ffarnie at Hassems near Communipon," except what had been 
granted out of the same by the "* Authority of the s*^ Com])any 
unto Ide Cornelissen, Claes Jansen, Arc," "for and During the 
Terme and Time of his Xaturall Life and one Entire Veare 
after," " Yieldhu/ and paying therefore yearly and every Years 
tlie sume of ffourc hundred Guild" Sewant '' to the (iovernor of 
New York.^ This lease was rej)udiated by the authorities in 
New Jersey, and Steinmets was, on the 25th of October, 1G78, 
again summoned to appear before the court in Bergen, at its next 
sitting, and show his authority for occupying the farm, and was 
commanded to ])ay no more rent in the mean time. He did not 
obey the sununons until the 2;id of November, when he gave as 
an excuse for not appearing sooner, that he could not read the 
summons, and did not know what it was until the constable told 
him. < )n the same day he was directed by Governor Andross 

^Oeneral Entries {Albany), iv., 177. *Book of Patents {Albany), it., 144 


to continue in possession.^ It is not known that Governor Car- 
teret exercised liimself any further about the farm, but in I680 
Samuel Groom, one of the East Jersey Proj^rietors, demanded 
rent from Steinmets. Governor Dongan of New York sent him 
a threatening letter, which eftectually silenced this neM' enemy of 
the Duke's lessee. 

While the Proprietors were thus seeking uii acknowledgment 
of their claim, the people of Bergen were a continuing source of 
trouble to the Governor of New York, by annoying his tenant 
and preventing the collection of rent. To avoid further trouble 
with the " farm at East Jersey belonging to his Majesty," I)on- 
gan gave to Judge John Palmer- a lease of the reversion for 
ninety-nine years, " from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
next ensuing after the determination of the estate " of Stein- 
mets. This lease was dated August 13, lt)85, and was uium 
condition that Judge Palmer should pay " as a tine the summ of 
Sixty pounds to the King, in case hee should not think lit to for- 
give it, and the rent of twenty shillings p'' annum and to defend 
the title."^ 

Steinmets was now getting old, and his two sons, John and 
Garret, managed the farm. On the 5th of February, 1686, they 
bought of Judge Palmer his lease for £i'A). After the death of 
their father, in 1702, they divided the farm between them, John 
taking the southerly half and Garret the northerly half. On the 
24th of February, 1708, John Steinmets conveyed all of his 
}>roperty to his wife for life, and, after her death, to the children 
of his sister Hannah Prior, his nephew, Jacob Prior, to have his 
interest in the farm. After the death of .lohn Steinmets, his- 
widow married Peter Van Wooglem. These two, with Jacob 
Prior and Lea, his wife, assigned to David Union, aliasDaniel- 
son, the remainder of the term under the Palmer lease for £675. 
Danielson entered into possession of the southerly half of the 
farm about 1715, and remained there during the nine years fol- 

' General Entries (Albany), xxxii., 78. 

• Palmer was a member of tlie Council in East Jersey for several years. 
Whitehead's East Jersey, 96. He was a man of influence. 
^ Book of Entries {Albany), nl, 170 ; Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 411, 494. 


Tin-; dike's kai:m. '^>'>"-) 

lowiiiu'. At tliis time till' only huildiii-s in 1 lar-imus were the 
lirtusc, l»:irii and hrcwlioiKSO of" Daiiiclsoii ; the lioiix-, l)iii-ii ami 
cow -lioiisf I'f lleiidrick Ciaes Kiivpcr; tlic house: and barn ot 
Ide \'aii \'orst, and the lioux', harn and an "Id huiirio (l)uilt in 
ItiTtS), (.(■ (iai-ret Steiiimets. All theric were (jiiite close together 
aloniij the shore, now the line ol Henderson street, between Sec- 
ond and I'it'th >treets. 

In tlie earl V part of the year 1 Tli4, Ai'chihald Kennedy, the 
Kinij's Jieceiver-Cienerai in Xew York, fixed his eve on tlie 
Dtike's fai'in. The title eanie to him as follows : Ilohert West, 
on the l>t and 2d of April, lOS-t, conveyed liis interest in Kast 
Jersey to Tlionias Cox. Cox conveyed to Sir Engenius Cameron 
of Lochiel ];;(>fhis interest of 5', on tlie 2d and ^)d of April, 
1«!S5, Sir Kngeniiis conveyed to Donald Caiueron, -Inly '^>", 
i 71t">. who conveyed to Evan Drunmiond' on the ITth n\' Xoveni- 
ber, 1 TiM . I >nininiond conveyed one-half of the nnappropriated 
land of said .[-j to dames Alexander on the 17th and 18th of Jnly, 
1722, and the remaining half on the ."ith and 6th of April, 1723. 
.Vlexanderi-econveyod to Drmnmond 3S3acres of nna))i)ropriated 
lands on the 22d and 23d of February, 1725. On the 2Gtii of 
the same month this amount (^f land was surveyed to JJrummond 
by the Sin"veyor-(Teneral, " u\>i>\\ a tract of land formerly called 
the West India Company's l-'arni."' This survey was endorsed 
with the approval of i[; of the Proprietors. The money for the 
purchase of the land and the cost of the location was furnished 
by Kennedy. On tlie I3tli of T'ebruary, 172-t, Drmnmond exe- 
cuted a declaration of trust'^ that he held the land for the benefit 
aiul use of Kennedy. In 1725 Drmnmond filed a bill in Chan- 
eery against Daiuelsoii for the possession of that part of the farm 
occupied by him. Oovernor ihirnet made a decree, according 
to the prayer in the bill, August 17, 1727. On the 18th of 
the following mourh 1 )anielson accepted from K'ennedy a lease 
of the southerlv half of the farm until the 1st of the followinjr 
May.^ On the 10th of October, 1727, Garret Steinmets, who 

' Drummond was appointed Hijfli Sheriff of Middlesex County in September, 

• Liber F2 [Amhoi/), 509. 'LUter 112 (Aniboy), 7U. 


held the northerly half of tlie farm under the Palmer lease, sur- 
rendered to Kennedy and accepted a lease for life at the rent of 
one ear of Indian cornyAxQw demanded, and a proper propor- 
tion of the Qnit Rents reserved to the Proprietors.^ His interest 
in this lease he assigned to Mattjs De Mott, February 20, 1729. 

On the expiration of Danielson's lease, Kennedy took possession 
of the southerly half of the farm and began to improve and 
stock it. In a letter of James Alexander to (xovernor Hunter, 
dated May 20, 1731, is the following notice of this farm : 
" Though there be no place near Inians Ferry,' tit for a settle- 
ment, to be purchased, yet I beg leave to mention one much 
better situated and that is the place called Horsamus, over 
against New York, where you used to meet the Jersey Council.^ 
It contains about 400 acres, but out of this there's two small 
pieces, one of 20 acres and another of 6 acres, belonging to other 
persons. It has on it a pretty good country house and barn, 
about 500 apple trees ; there's of stock, 27 black cattle, 72 sheep, 
some hoi'ses, hogs and other country stock, all Ijolonging to Mr. 
Kennedy, which lands, stock and all together he M'ould sell now 
for £3,000, which is a moderate price when it is considered that 
the lands thereabouts sell very commonly for £20 per acre." 

Garret Steinmets died in 1733. This gave Kennedy posses- 
sion of the northerly half of the farm. Drummond's will was 
dated December 13, 1736.'' Andrew Johnson, his surviving 
executor, transferred the title to Kennedy, April 24, 1747.^ Thus 
his possession was complete, and his title as perfect as the pro- 
prietors could make it.*^ 

The residents at Ilarsimus feeling that the farm belonged tu 
the freeholders of the township in common, and that they were 
kept out of their rights by power rather than justice, gave them- 
selves up to the annoyance of its possessor. Mattys De Mott 
was especially active. When he was obliged to give up ])0sses- 

' Liber 772 (Amhoy), 77. - Now Xew Brunswick. 

•■* The Council met here April 17, 1714. It had l)een arranged to hold this 
meeting at Communipaw, but was changed to " Horsimus " by the Governor. 
•* Book C of Wills {Amhoy], 1 40. '•Liber F 2 (Amhoy), 522. 

'■ WinfeliVs Land Titles, 182. 

riu; i»iKK s fai:m. 


siuii ill 17-!-"5, at'Ct)r(.liii^ to tlie terms of the lease under wliidi lie 
held, he pulled up seventy-one youui; apple trees. On another 
occasion, six of Kennedy's hest ai)ple trees were girdled ; a fine 
hull, worth I'lO, was pushed intu his well ; a stallion, worth £40, 
j)ushed into a salt hole and killed, and a steer had a pitchfork 
stuck into him. De jVfott used to threaten to knock out the 
hrains of Kennedy's servants, and Xnu Vorst wnuld heat his 
negroes, and on one occasion knocked over Black I'etcr with a 
stone, for driving Van \'orst's cows out of Kennedy's cahbagc 

garden, lii 1738 Van \'orst committed a ti'espass upon the farm, 
that he might he prosecuted, and so have the question of title 
settled. Kennedy did bring suit, hut <lid not press it to trial. 
In 174-4 the trespass was repeated for a like object, but no suit 
followed. In 1753 he repeated the experiment. Self respect 
now forced Kennedy to sue him for The case was 
tried at the bar of the Supreme Court at Amboy, in August, 
1753, Van Vorst set up his right to enter as a freeholder of 


the corporation of Bergen. A verdict was rendered in his 
favor. Things noM' looked serious for Kennedy. On the 12th 
of December" following, he filed a bill in chancery to restrain 
Van Yorst from further proceedings, and threatened to appeal to 
England in case of failure. This threat had more restraining 
influence on Yan Yorst than the injunction. The plain people of 
Bergen could not think of contending with a crown officer in 
English courts, and they remained quiet until a successful rebel- 
lion destroyed an appeal to tlie courts of the mother country. 
Then they renewed the controversy. 

In 1 776, by permission of the Earl of Casselis (son of Archi- 
bald Kennedy, who died June 14, 1763), Thomas McDonald 
built a small cottage on the farm, and occupied it, with a quarter 
of an acre of ground adjoining, until his death in 1770. Jacob 
Brill, as tenant, lived on the farm in 1776. When the conti- 
nental forces gathered at Paulus Iloeck, they destroyed certain 
property, for which a claim was rendered as follows : 

Ten acres of corn, and three bushels sowing of 

Buckwheat, .------ £36 

Six empty hogsheads and one empty pipe, - 18 

Sixteen hogs, large and small, - - - - 10 

During the Bevolution, the British destroyed all the fences and 
buildings except McDonald's cottage. In 1779 Kennedy^ re- 

' Archibald Kennedy Cid) became a captain in the Royal Navy, April 4, 175^. 
In 1700 he was in command of the Flarnhor'iUfjh at Lisbon, where he attacked 
and defeated a French iricrate. For this valiant behavior he was put in com- 
mand of a frijjate of thirty-six .ffuns. JV. Y. Mircury, October "20, 17G0. He was 
afterward in command of the Blonde. When the Revolution broke ont he was 
in command of the Cocentry, lying in New York harbor. To save his extensive 
estates which he had received by his first wife, he took up a residence on his 
farm at Petersborough, at present East Newark. But his friendliness to the 
colonics was susi)ected. lie was arrested and brought before the Council of 
Safety, January 13, 1778. He was permitted to return home, to appear again 
in fourteen days. At that time the Council concluded that his residence at 
East Newark was dangerous to the State, and Ordered, " That he remove within 
eight days from the date hereof, into the county of Sussex, and there remain 
within one mile of the Court House at Newton till the further orders of the 
Board resp.cting him." On Mry 7. 1778, the Counc'l released him on his parole 

'iiii: DCKi;'- I'AKM. •■'il:'> 

moved tri>iii ^Si-w .Iit^cv. l(';i\ iiii;' .Inliii and .lacnl) n_vrc. Iii.- 
tenaiits, in possossioii. uihUt the care nt Ilohcrf Watts, liis 
attoniev ami liri>tli('i--iii-law. Slidrtly at'tci'waiil. William <'i'ay 
becunie tenant, and licld until 1 ?>>;!. Tlien came Philij) Dowers 
jis tenant for one ycivr. and he was snccceilcd by one Ilcid. (in 
tlielst of .\|>iii, I T>^4, tlic Tiustees of tlic c'or|ioniti<»n of Hcriicn, 
dcsiriiiiT to ii'et possession of the farm, indncod the widow of 
McDonahl, who was tlien a tenant npon cliaritv, \o remove from 
the eottaiio built bv her linsband. No sooner liad she done tlii- 
than the trustees i)ut Barnt Kverson into the eottaii;e as tlu-ir 
tenant. This act was followed by a notice published in the Xetr 
}'<>rk (razetteer and Coiintr;/ Jounidf^ warn imr all persons not 
to purchase or hire any portion of tlie farm, ^\^ltts being in- 
tbrmetl of these facts, on the l.^th of ^lay. 1784, got together 
materials to build a house on the farm, and was putting U]i the 
frame, when the ti-ustees. at the head of a multitude, swooped 
<lown upon him, demolished the frame, and carried off the ma- 
terials in trium]ili. They then ])roeured about thirty teams, 
j»loughcd up a pait of the farm and sowed it with l)uckwheat. 
For the part he bore in this roup (VHat, Daniel Van Uipen wa.> 
indicted for forcible entry and detainer. Tie was tried at ?Iack- 
ensack, Chief Justice Brearly j>residing, in the October term, 
17S4, and convicted. The case was taken into the Supreme 
( 'oiirt. the verdict set aside, and the indictment quashed in Sep- 
teml)er, 178"). Ivennedy also sued \ an Ripen and John Deyfor 
the frame and building materials carried ofl". They justified in 
the name of the corporation of l^ergen. The trustees now 
o])ened a cross fire by in>tituting suits in ejectment against 
Kennedy's tenants. i\eiine<ly i(>plied by bill for injunction and 

for liis jrood licliavior, unci pcriiiittcil liim to return to liis larni on New Barlia- 
(loef Neck. He succeeded liis great <ifran<lfather as eleventh Earl of Casselis, 
in till- Scots Peerufrc. His first wife was the only child of Colonel Peter 
Srhnvler. of New Barhiidoes Neck. His secoivl wife was Anne, daughter of 
.lohn Watts, of New York, whom Ik- married April "27, ITfiO. He died Decem- 
ber "21), 17!)4. leavingf two sons, John ami Hnlicrt. wlio, l)y his will, dated January 
1(1, 1704, inherited all his property in America. In ISO;; tliey made Robert 
Watts their attorney to si-Il tluir lands. 


quiet possession, filed on the 8tli of September, 1786. After a 
lono; contest, Chancellor Patterson dismissed this bill on the 6th 
of March, 1793. On the lOtli of July following, a petition was 
filed before Governor Howell to open the decree of dismissal, 
and for a rehearing. This was granted, and the cause reargued 
on the 11th of February, 1794. On the 20th of the same month, 
the Chancellor ordered that the trustees should give up possession 
to Kennedy and then bring an ejectment suit in the Supreme 
Court, t(» be tried before a special jury from the county of 
Somerset, at the bar in Trenton, the verdict to be certified to the 
Chancellor. Kennedy dying in 1794, Robert Watts was put 
upon the record in his place on the 26th of April, 1796. The 
trial began on Thursday, the 25th of February, 1800, and con- 
cluded on Saturday evening. On Monday morning a verdict 
was rendered in favor of the plaintiffs.^ 

Notwithstanding this defeat, Watts held on to the farm. Then 
the trustees tiled a bill asking tlie Court of Chancery to give 
effect to the verdict, but before the court decided what should 
be done, a compromise between the parties was effected, and the 
trustees were virtually the losers. Both parties disposed of their 
interest in the farm to John B. Coles,^ of New York, on the 4th 
of Februar}^, 1804. Kennedy received for his interest §20,000, 
and Bergen received §14,285.75, out of which were to be paid 
the expenses of law suits, &c., amounting to s3,057.50.^ Thus 
was the magniticent farm of the West India Company, which 

' Aaron Ogden and Mr. McWhorter were tlie counsel for the plaintiffs, and 
Richard Stockton and Mr. Lake for tlie defendant. — Sentinel of Freedom , ilarrh 
11, 1800. 

- John B. Coles was born on Long Island, December 81 , 1760. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin Underbill, September 22, 1781, and died 
January 2, 1827. He resided in the city of New York from 1780 until hisdeath. 
He was Alderman of the First Ward and State Senator. 

•* The items of this bill were as follows : 

A. McWhorter's lawyer's bill, ------ |400 13 

C. Van Vorst for money advanced, - . . . 134 27 

Sundry bills in connection with suit, - . - - 2,523 10 

$3,057 50 






IIOBOKEN. ^il.") 

liad l)eeii tlio ])ri(]e <'t the IiKliaiis iuul the Diitdi, rritttTcd 


■ There oust was two cats in Kilkenny, 

And aicli thought then- was one cat too miiny : 

So they <|iiarrfiled and lit, 

And they jjou^ed and they bit, 

Till, exrciitini: their nales 

And the tip of tiieir tails. 
Instead of two cats there wasn't any." 

'i'he i)e(»j)le in Jlarsiiiius, \>vinv to tlic introduction of tlic Ta.— 
sale watei', depended on well.s. Many of these were sunk and 
kt'j)t in ivpair bv assessment on property l)enefited. Tliose wliich 
had been sunk b}' individuals prior to 1841 were surrendered to 
the townsliip. 

The first street lainj) put uj) Ity ])ublic authority was on the 
corner of Grove street and Raih'oad avenue. This was on tlie 
3d of December, 184'), Lamps were put up only where a ma- 
jority of the owners of lots li<i;lited ]>etitioned for them. 

The followinij is taken from the Wt'plJt/ Post Bo;/, January 27, 

'' AVe are credibly informed that some days ai^o a ti>h was 
found dead, asliore, near Ilorsimus, in Ncm- Jersey, opposite the 
back of this city, having a head nearly resembling- that of a man. 
with hair on it." In a few days the crows carried off the bod v. 
except the bones, " wdiich, 'tis said, about the breast and rib>, 
verv much resembled the human anatomv, but as it draws toward 
the tail, entirely in fish. This strange j)h<'noinenon has occa- 
sioned no small speculation all over that part of the country, as 
well as in some parts of this city. However, we are told it has 
since been discovered, or at thought to be, only a ]K)rjK)ise 
with his snout cut off I" 


The first white oc('U})ant of Iloboken was Ilendrick Cornelissen 
Van Yorst, eldest son of Pauw's Commissary at Ahasimus. AVhon 
he first occupied this bouwerie is not known, but on the 12tli of 


Mai'cli, 1630, he took a lease of it for twenty years from the 1st 
of January, 1040. In the lease tiie place is said to have been 
" heretofore occupied by him." lie agreed to give as rent " the 
i part of the crops which God may vouchsafe to the soil, either 
in sheaves on the field or as shall be considered best, and twelve 
capons every year," and to deliver back the land unsown.^ In 
the summer of 1630 he returned to Holland, and there died. On 
the 15th of February, 1640, Governor Kieft leased the place to 
Aert Teunissen Van Putten for twelve years from the 1st of Jan- 
nary, 1 6-1:1. Xieft agreed to erect a small house on the place, 
and Teunissen agreed to yield as rent " the fourth sheaf with 
which God Almighty shall favor the Held."' There is no doubt 
that the house which Kieft built for Teunissen was the first build- 
ing in Hoboken. Van Vorst, the former occupant, was mimar- 
ried, and most likely lived at his father's in Harsimus. 

Teunissen forthwith began to improve his leasehold. He 
fenced the lands, cleared the fields and erected a brew-house. 
Thus he became the first brewer within the county, if not within 
the State. He stocked his bouwerie with twenty-eight head of 
large cattle, besides various small stock, su(;h as swine, goats, 
sheep, &c., together with many fruit trees. With a true Dutch 
farmer's pride, Teunissen continued to improve the place until 
the war of 1643 broke out, when he, having gone out on a trading 
expedition, was killed near Sandy Hook.'^ His cattle and other 
stock were destroyed, his dwelling house, barns and stacks of 
grain burnt, the brew-house alone remainino;.' On the 12th of 
March, 1645, his widow, Susanna Jans, married Sybout Claesen, 
a house carpenter in :^rew Amsterdam. He shortly afterward 
claimed a riglit to the possession of the bouwerie in the name of 
his wife ; but Kieft leased it to Dirck Claesen, from Bremen.'' 
This lessee soon aI)andoned the place, after which it remained 
nn<iccupied for some time. 
At what time JS'icholas Verlet (Varlet, Varleth) came into pos- 

'.V. V. Col. MSS., L, 70. Ubid, L, 187. 

■* Vak'iitme's Hist, of JST. Y., 47. ^Col. Hist. JV. Y., i., 328. 

^ Wliif eld's Land 'Titles, 5(5. 

MOIIOKKN. .".17 

session ut tlu' lioiiw uric i> ni>l kiniwn, liuL in Miircli, 1 ••.")»!, ho 
sold the franu' of ii house at lluhokcn to Michiol J.inseiuand <u 
the :i8th of that month rei|uested of the <^ovenmient six oi- cii^nt 
soldiers to aid him in ijettin^ it away. I>nt the Indians claiin- 
ini:- fli«' Iranie (except the nails), his re(|nest was refused, on the 
grouiui that tiu' Indians iniujht coniinence a ti^ht, which it was 
feared nii<j;ht heconie <j;eueral.' 

On the return of the ])lanters t(^ their farms in Pavoiiia, there 
is no douht hut Vorh't canu' with them. Ihit it was not until the 
ath of Fchruary, l(!Go, that he ohtained from Stuvvesant ajtatent 
for the land. This was confirmed bv (Tovernor Carteret on the 
liith of May, \(\C)S. Niclnjlas Bayard (whose widow \'frlet had 
married) Mas his partner in the Secaucus ti'act, hut it i> not 
known that he was ever interested in Kol)oken. On the It'th of 
>runc, 1711, however, it came by purchase to the IJayardfann'Jy.- 
who used it for a summer residence. The farm was worked 
hv tenants, and greatly improved through the liberality of its 
owners. In 1700 there was on it a garden of ti\e acres tilled with 
a choice collection of English truit,such as ]>eaches. pears, plum-. 
<]iei'ries, nectarines and aprict)ts ; a large dwelling house, which 
I5ayard occupied as his summer residence, and another adjoining 
under the same roof used as a farmdiouse, with convenient cellars 
and an "extraordinary icitchen ;" out houses, a new smoke house. 
fowl house, a large stable, with stalls for ten horses on one side,. 
ii\er which was a (j;ranarv and hav loft, which would h ild twentv 
loads of hay. Upon the farm were thirty milcii (vtwsand thirty 
young cattle, twenty fat hogs, six fat cattle and a i)air of oxen. 
Besides an old orchard capable of |)roducing eighty barrels of 
cider a year, there were about one thousand young trees, all 
grafted with the best of fruit. It was considered that scarcely 
anything in America could equal its ccnvenience for marketing, 
as in good weather one might ''cross, take one time with another, 
in half an hour."* 

'iV. }'. Col. MSS., vi., 347. 

■■' Winjield's Land Titles, 3i), wlierealso seo a sketch of Verlet. Altlioupli th< 
owner of Hobokcn, lie lived in Berj^en. Ibid, 108. 
iV. Y. Meixury, Dccembn- H,nGO. 



The Bayard mansion was on Castle Point, or " Castile,"^ and 
A^-as burned l>y tlie patriots on Saturday, the 24th of August, 1780, 
and tlie farm laid waste. The owner at this time was William 
Bayard.~ This gentleman being a loyalist, his property was con- 
fiscated, and, on the 16th of March, 1784, sold to John Stevens. 
In 1804 the place was laid out upon a map, which was entitled, 

'N. Y. Mvrcuti/, August 38, 17.S0. 

' William Bayard was associated with Jay, Lewis, etc., the Committee of 
Fifty Whi<T sympathizers at tlu- begiuuingof the war. lu 177^ Mr. Quincy,of 
Massachusetts, in passing on his way from the South, recorded in his journal : 
" Dined with Col. William Bayard, at his seat on the North River." In 1775 
the Massachusetts delegates to the Continental Congress were his guests at the 
«ime place. The capture of New York by the British in 1776 induced him to 
believe that they would succeed in the contest. Hence he forsook the pa- 
triot cause and became a loyalist, active and zealous as new converts generally 
are. The tories in this vicinity were indebted to him for the watch-boats fur- 
nished to the Jersey volunteers. N. T. Mercury, February 3, 1778. At the 
close of the war he went to England, where he lived to be a very old man. He 
died in 1804, at his seat, Greenwich House, Southampton. 

ii(ii;iiKi;.\. :il'.> 

-AMupot till- iii-w City llohukeii." On the -JOtli uf March. 18<>4, 
( 'oloiiel Stevens advertised » fonr days' side of eh^\\\ hundred 
lots at Ilohokcn. Tins saU' was to he at puhlic auction, on Mon- 
day, April 1>, at the Tontine Cottre House, New York ; on Tues- 
day at llohoken, on Wednesday at the Tontine ( 'ollee House, 
and on Tlmr-day at Ilohoken. Ten per cent, of the purchase 
price was to he paid within ten days, the balance in four annual 
payments, the deed to be ij^iven on inakinu- the first annual pay- 
ment. I)a\ id Dixon was the auctioneer. The purchasers wei'c 
requested to meet at the Tontine on Saturday, the 1-tth of April, 
to give names to the streets, each person to have as many votes 
as he liad lots on the streets to be named. 

The Iloboken Land and Improvement Company was incorpo- 
rated February 21, 1838, and tlie heirs of John Stevens* conveyed 
to it the unsold property. May (>, 1839. 

The township of Iloboken was set off from the township of 
North Heri^en on the 1st of March, 18-il> ; organized April !<!, 
1841>. It was incorporated as a city on the 28th of March, 1855, 
in the name of " the Mayor aiul ('ouncil of the (.'it}' of Iloboken." 
The acceptance of the chartei' was left to the j)eop]e. The vote 
thereon was taken on the 2ltth of March, and stood : " Charter," 
:}87 ; " No Charter," 185. 

Cornelius \'. Clickener, 1855-7' Frederick B, Ugden, 1805-7. 

Franklin 13. Carpenter, Frederick W. Bohnstedt, 

1857-8, 185<)-61. 1867-9. 

George ^Y. Morton, 1858-9. Ilazen Kindjall, 1869-71. 

John K. Johnston, 1861-3. l''rederick L. Schmersahl, 
Lorenzo W. Elder, 1863-4. 1871-3. 

Charles T. Terry, 1864-5. , Peter McGavisk, 1873. 

' Colonel .lohn Stevens was the fouiulcr of Hobnken. He was horn in New 
York in 1749, and died in 18'38. His frrandt'ather, .lohn. was a native of l'3ng- 
land, and came to New York as one of tlie law olDcers of the crown. His father. 
John, became a resident of New Jersey, and married Elizabeth Alexander. He 
was at one time Vire-I'rcsideiit of the f'oiincil. Colonel .John married Rachel, 
daughter of John Cox, of Bloomsburjj, N..). He was for several years Treasurer 
of the State. His sister married Robert U. Livingston. Chancellor of the State 
of New York. 


Samuel W. Carey, 1855-T. 

Henry M. Brandis, 1857-8. 
Augustus O. Evans, 1858-9. 
William R. Harrison, 1859-Gl. 

John Kennedy, 1861-70. 
Frederick E. Rowald, 1870-2. 
John R. McCUilloch, 1872- 

On the 15th of April, 1814, Samuel Swartwout and his brother 
Robert purchased a large tract of land at Hoboken, They im- 
mediately commenced to reclaim the land by erecting permanent 
dikes and opening ditches. Part of the land drained came under 
successful cultivation. About one hundred cows were, in 1819, 
fed upon these reclaimed marshes, and their milk sent to Xew 
York market. Grain of various kinds, and vegetables in abun- 
dance, were also raised. In 1819 their funds gave out. They 
apjilied to the Corporation of l^ew York for ai<l. They were 
not successful, and the project was abandoned.^ 

Water was introduced in October, 185!S. 

North Rkkgen. 

On the 10th of Februarj^, 1843, all that portion of the county 
lying north of the New Jersey Railroad and the Mill Creek was 
set off from the township of Bergen, and named the township of 
North Bergen. It has been, from time to time, despoiled of ter- 
ritory for cities and township,s. until at jn-esent it is confined to 
Secaucus and that part of the county lying north of the Paterson 
plank road and west of Dallytown road. Secaucus is an island, 
lying between Pinhorne creek and the Hackensack river. It is 
mentioned in the deed of the Indians to Stuyvesant by the name 
of Sickakes.-^ On the southerly end of the island is a bold blutf 
rising out of the salt marsh, known as '• Slangen Bergh ''-^ and 
" Snake Hill." It is now owned by the county, and the Alms 

1 N. T. Evening Post, July 34, 1819. 

^ For a minute history of this island, cide Winfield's Land Titles, 130. 
" Loiirj. Id. Hist. Soc, i., 156. " And is so named on account of the numeroui* 
snakes which infest it." 



Ilont^e, i.un.itic Asvlum ami PeiiiU-iitiiiry jire tiierc. Jutjt north 
(»f Snake Hill is an flevated piece of npland, once known as 
"Mount I'inliorne." This hitter place, in all probahility, was 
the residence of -Iudy;e Piidiorne. In 1729 tlie plantation was 
said to contain "(KM) acres of timber, 200 cleared land, 1,000 
meadow, new honse and barn, two orciiards of about 1,200 bear- 
ing apjde trees."^ Three hundred acres of this phmtation now 
constitute the " Poor House Farm."" The purchase of this farm 
for county puriwses was Hrst agitated in November, 1845. It 
was not, however, nntil December, 1855, that the Board of 
(./hosen Freeholders resolved to buy it. Several townsliips and 
cities liad been set off from Bergen, withont reserving their right 
to tlie farm, so that at tliis time it was owned by Bergen, North 
Bergen, ITobokcn, and Hudson City. On March 7, 1801, the 
Legislature named Commissioners from these f<iui' municipalities, 
with power to convey the same to the count}'. The purchase was 
completed, and in February, 18(»2, the title passed to the county 
at a cost of !^12,000. Pi-eparations were immediately made for 
the erection of the Alms House." dames McLoughlin contracted 
for the carpenter's work at Sl4,<)00, and William C. "White for 
the mason work at §12,50<>. The building was completed in 
1863, and the first person received as an inmate was Andrew Don- 
ohoe, August 25, 1863, The building now (1873) has accommo- 
dation for five hundred inmates. There are in the institution 
427 persons, and the cost of maintaining it is §1.71^ per inmate, 
weekly. Up to November 19, 1873, 2,840 persons had been in- 
mates of the Alms TTouse. whoso average age and nationalitv are 
as follows : 





No. of 








vra. m. 
":J0 () 






' J^. Y. Gazette, July 7, 1729, and May 18, 1730. 

'' In the olden timt; the poor were cared for by selling thcintothe lowest 
bidder. The following extract will give a clear idea u]>on this subject : " At 



The contract for tlie Penitentiary was awarded to Peter Doyle 
and David Ewling, August 9, 1866, for ,§83,456. It was com- 
pleted in 1870, Patrick Warren api)ointed its first keeper, and 
Michael Kinney, convicted of breaking and entering and larceny, 
admitted its first inmate, September 19, 1870. The building has 
accommodation for 180 persons. On November 19, 1873, ninety- 
four males and nineteen females were prisoners therein. The 
following table shows the number of commitments : 

i*bisoners commtted to the hudson countt penitentiary fbom september 19, 1870, to 

November 20, 1873. 

































o to 

OJ o 

> S 
S p, 








02 >» 

^ o 




i 21 




=> _■ 

"o s 

o o 







s . 





i £33 





by 1 

































3 — 

75 177 

61 ! 144 
88j; 200 








The Lunatic Asylum was completed in 1873. Tlie first 
patients were received March 8, 1873. The building has accom- 
modation for one hundred and forty patients. Since its comple- 
tion, up to November 19, 1873, one hundred and two patients 
have been received therein, of whom fifteen have been discharged 

New Durham, which up to 1803 was known as the Maisland, 
lies within this township. In this village is the tavern named 
" Three Pigeons," a name well known prior to the Revolution. 

Here also, near where Macpelah cemetery now is, was the once 

Bergen town meeting, December 15th, 1784, at a public Outcry is sold Enoch 
Earle to the Lowest Bidder for the sum of seven pounds, ten shillings ; the 
conditions are as follows, the Byer is to find the said Enoch Earle a Good Bed, 
Washing, Lodging and Victuals and Mending his Close ; the Overseers of the 
Poor are to find all the New Close and then the said Enoch Earle is to work for 
the Byer as much as he is able to do until the years End." Until the comple- 
tion of the present Alms House, the old red building north of the Boonton 
Branch Railroad was used for that purpose. 

THE fkenchman's garden. I^>2H 

celebrati-d *" Freiu-liniaii'.s Gardt'ii."' Conct'iniiig thi» i^iuxk-n I 
have met. with the folh)\vin<i: poetic and somewhat boiiorous ae- 
comits : 

•* III ii wild and nmiantic situation on Bergen Creek, nearly op- 
posite the City of New York, thirty acres of Land were purchased 
for a garden and fruitery by the unfortunate Louis XVI., who as 
proprietor became a natin-aiized citizen by act of tlie Legishiture."- 
This statement of AVarden seems to have been based on a notice 
rehiting to this garden in the Xew Jersey Journal, June 27, 1787, 
in wliich it is said, " Part of this space is at present enclosing 
witii a stone wall, ami a universal collection of exotic, as well jls 
d.omestic plants, trees and flowers, are already begun to be intro- 
duced to this elegant spot, which in time must rival, if not excel 
the most celebrated gardens of Europe. The situation is natu- 
rally wild and romantic, between two considerable rivers, in view 
of the main ocean, the city of New York, the heights of Staten 
Island and a vast extent of distant mountains on the western 
side of the landscape.'' As '' tall oaks from little acorns grow," 
so these exaggerated statements had their origin in the following 
simple fact. On March 3, 1780, Andre Michaux, in his petition 
to the Legislature of this State, set forth that the King of France 
had commissioned him as his botanist to travel through the 
United States, that he had power to import from P>ance any 
tree, plant or vegetable that might be wanting in this country, 
that he wished to establish near Bergen a botanical garden of 
about thirty acres, to experiment in agriculture and g.irdening, 
and which he intended to stock with French and American 
plants, as also with ))lants from all over the world. The Legis- 
lature granted his petition, and permitted him as an alien to 
hold not exceeding two hundred acres of land in this State. 

He came to this country fortified with a flattering letter of in- 
troduction, dated at Vienna, September 3, 1785, from the Mar- 
quis de La Fayette to Washington.^ He was attached to the 

' Winfield s Land Titles. :502. 

^ Warden's History of the United States, ii., 53. 

^Correspondence of the American lictolution, ir., IIG. 


Jardin des Plants in Paris. He brought with him the gardener, 
Paul Saunier, who took the title to the ground bought for the 
garden. The place was stocked witli many plants and trees, among 
which was the Lombard poplar. From this garden tliis once 
celebrated tree was spread abroad througli the country and pro- 
nounced an exotic of priceless value.^ 

Hudson City. 

On the 4th of March, 1852, the territoi-v within this city was 
taken from the township of I^orth Bergen and incorporated as 
"The Town of PLudson in the County *>f Hudson." Certain 
powers were invested in five supervisors, but for all general pur- 
poses the place remained a part of the township of IS^orth Ber- 
gen. On the 11th of April, 1855, it was incorporated " The 
City of Hudson," with powers of government vested in a Mayor 
and Common Council. The charter was left to the acceptance or 
rejection of the people. At an election held on the 12th of April, 
1855, a majority of 120 votes was cast for the charter. The 
Mayor and Common Council were sworn into office by Judge 
Haines at the court house on the 7th of Mav. It consolidated 
with Jersey City in 1870. 

Mayors. ( 'le/'ks. 

Edwin K. Y. Wright, 1855. Alexander Watson, May, 1855 

Garret D. Yan Ripen, 1856, ' -Sept., 1855. 

'61-8. Thomas Harrison, Sept., 1855 

Edmund T. Carpenter, 1857-8, i -May, 1856. 

'60-1.2 I Charles J. Roe, May, 1856- 
Abraham Collerd, 1859. May, 1870. 

Benjamin F. Sawyer, 1869. ! 

Within the bounds of this city, and partly on the southerly 
end of the new reservoir, and extending easterly, was the Beacon 

' Old New York,2'i. 

' Died in otfice in 1861, and was succeeded by Garret D. Van Ripen. 


liace Coiirso. It was owned by ('ynis S. Hrowiiing, wlio was 
lu're killed bv beiii<^ fliiv»wii from his Canadian horse "Hops," 
November 5, 184r», in a hurdle race. The followinj^ list of 
faces over this once popular track will be interesting to " whom 
it may concern " : 

Bkacon TIace (\)DRSK. 

Ajax, Rattier, May !'(», 1844; 3 miles ; dis., 8:02. 
Americ'iis, Ilipton, to wajjjon, Sept. 20, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:17, 5:20. 
Dutcliitiaii. Ripton, Sept. 21. 184:'); :} miles; 8:04, 
^:I1. 8:20, <):40. 
" Lady Suliblk, Columbus, June 27, 1844; 3 miles; 

' 7:524, 8:01. 
Amina, Coliiinbus, Doctor (3 dr.). May U, 1844; 1 mile; 2:3Ti, 

2:38, 2:37. 
Awful. Lady Suffolk. Oct. 8,1838; 2 miles; 5:28, 5:21^. 

" Dutchman, to wagon, Oct. 28, 1839 ; 1 mile ; 2:41^, 2:40, 
Beppo, Tndepeiulence, June 25, 1843 : 1 mile ; 2:32^, 2:3U, 2:33, 

2:38, 2:35. 
Rilly, Seneca Chief, pacers, duly 14, 1841 ; 1 mile; 2:32. 
Brandywine, Vern(jn Maid, Mingo Princess, June 15, 1841 ; 2 

miles ; 5:24, 5:24. 
Brooklyn Maid, Mingo, Rattler, June 7, 1841 ; 3 miles ; S::iT, 
" Snartle, Don Juan, May 5, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:22. 

Cayuga Chief. Aaron Burr, June 12, I S41 : 1 nule ; 2:38,2:38, 
2:4f;, 2:37. 
" AVashington, Americus, June 19. 1844; 1 mile; 

2:35^, 2:35^, 2:40, 2:42, 2:45. 
Celeste, Henry. Americus, Oct. 4,1839; 2 miles; 5:22, 5:32^, 

Colund)Us. Ajax, Oct. 21, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:24^, 5:32, 5:36. 
Confidence, ^Washington, June 10, 1841 ; 2 miles; 5:24, 5:28. 
" " June 28, 1841 : 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:37, 2:30. 

" Riptoii. Awful, Oct. 4, 1841 : 2 miles; 5:13, 5:17. 

Don Juan,AVashington, July 12, 1841 ; 2 miles; 5:21, 5:39, 5:22.V. 


Duchess, Cayuga Chief, Pleasure Boy, Sept. 19, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 
5:15i, 5:25, 5:35. 
" Hector, May 20, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:28, 5:22. 

Snaffle, Hector, June 15, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:26^, 5:20. ^ 
" Lady Suffolk, Oct. 8, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:37, 2:35^, 2:35f, 
Dutchman, Eattler, Oct. 8, 1838; 3 miles; 7:45^, 7:50, 8:02, 

Kattler (dis.), Oct. 15, 1838 ; 3 miles ; 8.0U. 
Lady Suffolk, April 27, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:16, 5:19. 
Awful (dis.), July 4, 1839 ; 3 miles ; 7:41. 
" " July 11, 1839 ; 3 miles ; 8:18, 7:59. 

" July 18, 1839 ; 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:32, 2:35. 
against time, Aug. 1, 1839 ; 3 miles; 7:32^.^ 
Awful, Oct. 4, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:11, 5:16. 



' This remarkable speed and endurance made Dutchman king of the turf, 
which position he held for thirty-three years. The following- is an account of 
the race as told by Hiram Woodruff himself, who rode Dutchman, in his valua- 
bli! work on the trotting horse in America : 

" The 1st of August came. The course was firm, a large concourse of people 
were in attendance, and the odds were two to one on Dutchman when we 
brought him out and stripped him. At six o'clock in the evening he was sad- 
dled, and I mounted, feeling fully confident that the feat set would be done with 
much ease. We were allowed a running horse to keep company, and I had a 
nice blood-like mare, she being under my brother Isaac. We went off at a 
moderate jog, gradually increasing the pace, but conversing part of the way at 
our ease. The mile was accomplished in 2:34i, and Dutchman never was really 
extended. Now occurred a circumstance which must be related, because it was 
curious in itself and had its effect on time. Mr. Harrison, the backer of Dutch- 
man, had sent his watch to a friend and was not keeping time of the horses 
himself as they went round. As we came by the stand some bystander, who 
had a mistake in timing, told him that the time of the mile was 2:38, which 
was a losing average. He therefore called out to me as I passed him to go 
along, and go along I did. Dutchman struck a great pace on the back stretch, 
and established such a fine stroke that the running mare was no longer &h\e to 
live with him. My Ijrotlier Isaac got alarmed and sung out to me that I was 
going too fast. I replied that I had been told to go along. It was not my con- 
viction that the horse was going too fast even then, for if ever tliore was one 
that I could feel of and that felt all over strong and ca])able of maintaining the 
rate, Dutchman did then. Nevertheless I took a pull for Isaac, and allowed 
him to come up and keep company for the balance of the mile. It was per- 


DutchiiKin, \V;i^hiii.i;tuii, Sci)t. 2U, 1S40 ; 2 inilc:^: :>:\7i, rrA7, 
" I-inly Sutlulk, Americus, Oct. 5, 1848 ; 2 miles ; r):19, 

^ 5:20, 5:22, 5:29. 

Fairy t^iieen, Oayn<ra Chief, May 6, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:30, 2:80. 

Calhotni. .luly s, 1844: 1 mile; 2:84, 2:81. 
(Greenwich Maid, Dutcliiuan, June 21, 1888 ; 2 miles ; 5:2<>, 5:22. 
Hector, Kate Horn, May 14, ls42 ; 1 mile; 2:41, 2:41, 2:42, 2:30. 
" Snatiie, Pleasure JW, Sept. l'1. 1842; 2 miles: 5:18i, 
J..I111 ('. (Calhoun, Fairy (^leeii, ( )et. 81, 1S44 ; I i.iilr ; 2:82. 2:3C>. 
I-.iidy Clinton, Chancellor, J-lrooklyn Maid, lirandywine, Ijiick- 
skin. Hector (1 dis.\ Sept. 20, 1841 : 1 mile; 2:41, 2:4'-', 
2:4U, 2:41. 
Lady Suffolk, Lady Victory, l^laek Hawk 1 1 dis.), Cato (1 dis.), 
Sarah Paff (1 dis.), June 22, 1888 ; 2 miles ; 5:15, 5:17. 
Apollo (1 dis.), April 26, F^89 ; 2 miles ; 5:21. 
Cato (1 dis.), July 8, 1830 : 2 miles ; 5:30. 
Henry, Celeste, Cato (8 dis.), Oct. 8, 1830 ; 2 miles ; 
5:28, 5:28, 5:26. 

formed in 2:"3S very handily. Tlic third mile we kept tlie same relative posi- 
tions, Diitchnian beings under jjfood pull all the way, and able to have left the 
ninninjcr niaie had he been called upon so to do. The rate was now very even, 
and it was maintained until we were within about two hundred yards of the 
stand, when I was notified to check n\> and come home at a more moderate gait- 
I therefore crossed tlie score at a J<)<rtr()t, and Dutchman was at a walk within 
fifteen yards of it. The last mile was ::2:30, the whole bein^ 7::52i. Great as 
this [)erformance was thought at the time, long as it has stood unequaled. and 
great and deserved as has been and is the fame of those who have endeavored 
to surpass it, I declare that it is not by any means all that Dutchman could have 
done that day. 1 am positiv(> that if I had bei'n called u])on to do so. he could 
have trotted the three milesin 7:27 or better. This is no light opinion of mine, 
taken U[) years afterward on inadi'<|U!ite grounds, and whiai those who might be 
opposed to it iiave gone Irom among us. It was the Judgment of those who 
saw him in the; feat, observed him all through and noticed how he finished. It 
has always been my conviction, and will remain so to my dying day, that Dutch 
man could have done the last mile in 2:26, and I even hold to the ojiinion that 
he cuuld have done it in 2:25. The people who witnessed the race thought so 

Dutchman's time was beaten by Huntress at Prospect Park Sept. 21,1872. 


Lady Suffolk, Don Jnan, Oct. 23,1839; 2 miles; 5:16, 5:24. 
"" Aaron JBnrr, Sept. 21, 1840; 2 miles; 5:22, 5:21, 

" Kipton, Jnly 6, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:37^. 

" Awful, July 22, 1841 ; 2 miles; 5:26^, 5:23, 5:24. 

« Oneida Chief (1 dis.), Jnly 27, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:05. 

" Beppo, Independence, July 4, 1843 ; 1 mile; 2:28^, 

2:28, 2:28, 2:29, 2:32. 
" Beppo, Oneida Chief, July 12, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:26^, 

2:27, 2:27. 
" Beppo, July 25, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:30^, 2:42^, 2:28. 

" Confidence, Sept. 14, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:38, 2:39, 2:41. 

" Americus, Ripton, May 21 ; 1844; 2 miles; 5:17, 

5:19, 5:18. 
" Duehess,Washington, Sept. 9, 1844; 1 mile; 2,38, 

2:33i, 2:34, 2:37. 
" John C. Calhoun, Fairy Queen (4 dis,), Oct. 7, 

1844; 1 mile ; 2:39, 2:31, 2:28, 2:29, 2:30. 
" Moscow, Oct. 13, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:34, 2:29^, 2:31, 

2:34, 2:36. 
Lady Tompkins, Amina, Oct. 17, 1844 : 1 mile ; 2:37, 2:36, 2:39, 

Moscow, Reality, Oct. 6, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:39^, 2:44. 

" Lady Suffolk, Ofct. 16, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:33^, 2:3H, 2:40, 
Oneida Chief, Miss Saratoga, June 19, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:14, 5:09^. 
" Awful, June 17, 1840; 3 miles ; 8:17, 8:20|^. 

Lady Suffolk, Nov. 1, 1841 ; 3 miles ; 7:50, 8:04. 
Aug. 14, 1843 ; 3 miles ; 7:44, 7:52. 
Rattler, " (3 dis.), July 4, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:29, 

5:17, 5:40. 
" Dutchman, Lady Suffolk (1 dis.), Oct. 1, 1838; 2 miles; 
5:17, 5: 13^1 . 
Ripton, Brandywine, Don Juan, June 22, 1841; 2 miles; 5:21, 
" " Post Boy, Sept. 21, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:32, 5:24. 

" Quaker, Duchess, Nov. 1, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:13, 5,20. 


Kil'toii, l.nily Surtclk. Coiitideiic-i'. A ii<;-. I, ls42; •". miles; 8:00, 

Ainericns, Oct. 2(i, \S4'2: :". miles; 8:03, 8:01, 8:04. 
Lady Siiflulk, Coiitidenee, May 7. 1842; 2 miles ; 5:10^, 
Amerieiis. May l."., 1843; 3 miles; 7:53, 8:03. 

" May 22. 1843; 2 miles; 5:12, 5:12, 5:17. 
('uiifidenec.Jnnoi:.. 1S44: 1 mile : 2:40, 2:41, 2:38, 2:42^ 

Sii' Willjiim. Aja.x. Jersey iJlue (3 (lis.), Oct. 8, 1844; 3 miles; 
S:04A, 8:(>lt, S:(iOi. 
" Heotcr, Oct. 31, 1S44 ; '2 miles; 5:20, 5:27. 

SnatHe, IJruoklyn Maid, Hector. ( )ct. 1 7. 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:26, 5:27. 
'' Ritle, Tom Benton, Sorrel P.illy (2 dis.), May 16, 1844 ; 
2 miles: 5:23A, 5:20. 
Soldier V.oh. Span<;le, ( 'ayui,'a Chief, Awful, Oct. 18,1843; 1 

mile ; 2:35^, 2:38, 2:39^, 2:41, 2:46, 2:47. 
Unkn()wn, Fairy Queen (1 dis.), Aut;. 2, 1844; 1 mile; 2:23. 
Volcano, Stranirer, Watei-man (1 dis.). June 28,1841; 1 mile; 

2:3!>, :>:3H, 2:34^, 2:38A. 
N\)lcano, Drover, Waterman (1 dis.), Seneca (.'liiet' (1 dis.), 'luly 

5, 1841 ; 1 mile; 2:32, 2:35, 2:38. 
Washington. Green wicli Maid, Dutcliman, Rattler, June 22, 
1838; 2 miles; 5:19, 5:17. 
" Dutchman, Greenwich Maid, July 4, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 


( 'ayun-a ( 'hief (2 dis. ), T\"ov. 2, 1 840 ; 2 miles ; 5:37, 

Dnchos. Ilitlc. >ray 23. 1S44 : 2 miles : 5:17A. 5:2(t. 

The iietipie in the vicinity i;i-e\v weary of the races an<l the 
character of the visitors. It was presented by the grand jury as 
a "nuisance to the i)ublie"* in 1845. It was shortly afterward 

In 186- the Hudson County .\gi"icultural Society, for the pur- 
pose of developing a superior species of pumpkin, constructed a 
race course on Secaucus. It was kept up for some time with 


great spirit, but after the lapse of two or three years the racing 
was abandoned. The land belonging to the company was sold 
to Bishop Bayley, Dec. 14, 1870. It is not yet tnrned to relig- 
ions nses. It has in part relapsed to its former condition ; per-- 
haps it would be proper to say its last state is worse than the first, 
for it is now devoted to " scrub " racing, Indian exhibitions and 
otlier amusements of an equally inferior character, 

Toivnshqj of Weehawhen was set off from the city of Hoboken 
March 15, 1859. 

Townshij) of Union was set off from the township of North 
Bergen Feb. 28, 1861. 

Townshij) of West Hohoken was set off from the township of 
North Bergen Feb. 28, 1861. 

ToiLmshlp of Bayonne was set off from the town of Bergen 
March 15, 1861, and incorporated as a city March 10, 1869. 

Toionship of Greenville was set oft' from the town of Bergen 
March 18, 1863, and consolidated with Jersey City in 1873. 

Town of Union was set off from the township of Union 
March 29, 1864. 

Township of Kearney was set off from the township of Harri- 
son March 14, 1867. 

Considering the rapid absorption of adjacent territory by Jer- 
sey City, it is perhaps proper that the names and location of vil- 
lages and hamlets, as they have existed and do now exist, should 
be given for preservation. Beginning at Bergen Point, we go 

CentreviUe is a small village about two miles north of Bero-en 

Bayonne is a small village about three-quarters of a mile north 
of (Jentreville. 

Pamrepo is a village in the northerly part of the city of Bay- 
onne, formerly known as Salterville. All of these places are 
within the city of Bayonne, and the Xew Jersey Central Rail- 
road Company has a station at each place. 

Greenville was a small, poorly constructed village about three 
miles from the Jersey City ferry, on the old road leading to Ber- 


gen Point, settled mostly by CTerniiiiis, It fiiuilly ^ave its n;mir 
to a township, wliicli \v;is annexed to Jersey City in 187'>. 

Claremont was a name i^ivcii nioif to a tract of land that was 
mapped out for sale than to a village. It lies (Hi tlu- heiirhts, 
north and south of" the Newark and New York liaili'oad. 

LafaijHti- was the name «jiven l»y the owners ot the land to 
tliat portion ot" Jersey City which lies south ot'tlie iSforris canal, 
in the vicinity ot" Pacific and (ommnnipaw avenues. 

Centre IIIJI^ like Claremont and J^afayette, was a name which 
grew out of a land speculation. It is now quite thickly settled. 
It lies in the upper part of Jersey City, a little south of the Pat- 
erson plank n^ad. 

West Hoboken is a thriving village which has given its name 
to a township. It lies upon the heights, adjoining the north 
])oundarv of Jersey City. 

Union Hill is quite a large town on the heights, east of the 
Ilackensack plank road, and about two miles north of lloboken. 
It was settled an<l built up almost exclusively by (Tcrmans. 

JVV'?r Durliani, is a small handet lying at the northerly foot of 
Weehawken hill, on the Ilackensack plank road. 

Giittenherg \& a small village on the heights, a little south of 
Bull's Ferry, settled and built up l»y ixermans. The name 
was applied to a tract of land mapped for sale. Incorporated 
March 9, 1859. 

West Nev) York lies on the westerly brow of the hill back of 


Organization of the county — Its officers — Vote for location of Court House — 
Laying corner stone — Address of Chief Justice Hornblower — Represent - 
atives in tlie Legislature — List of Freeholders — List of Judges. 

The act to set off the county of Hudson from ]3ergen county 
passed tlie Legislature February 22, 1840, by a vote of twenty- 
iieven to twenty-three in tlie Assembly, and nine to seven in the 
Council. This large negative vote was the result of political 
considerations. The county then comprised the town of Jersey 
and townships of Bergen and ilarrison. East of the Hacken- 
sack its boundaries were identical with the old township of 
Bergen. West of the Ilackensack it included not only the 
present townships of Harrison and Kearney, but the township 
of Union in the county of Bergen. This last named township 
was then included within the township of Harrison, and was set 
off into Bergen county February 19, 1852. 

At a joint meeting of the Legislature, February 27, 1840, the 
following appointments of county officers were made : 

Kobert (lilchrist. Clerk. 

Edmund W. Kingsland, Surrogate. 

Lewis D. Hardenbero;, Prosecutor of the Pleas. 

Stephen Garretson, Cornelius Y. Y. Kingsland, Judges. 

The first term of the County Court began April 14, 1840, at 
Lyceum Hall, in Grand street, Jersey City. 

Joseph C. Hornblower, Chief Justice., j^residing. 

Cornelius Yan Winkle, Henry Southmayd, Stephen Garretson, 
ixeorge C. De Kay, Judges. 

George H. Brinkerhoff, Sheriff. 

Archer G. Welsh,i Abraham' Yan Winkle, Oliver H. P. Kil- 
burne, Thomas Marin ns, Con-stalAets. 

Nathaniel Ellis, Marshal. 

Crier of the Court from this time until October Term, 1870; died November 


Tin: t'OL'KTS oK«ANi/.i;i). 'S'.y.l 

Grand -I nni. 

-lohn l^ovett, (Tiirret (1. Newkirk, .lolm I. Spt'L-r, \>a\\v K^. 
riulorliill, ^[icliael Fisher, Bonjuiniii Mills, .loiiii 15iiiic(', Lorenzo 
Jac({uiiis, Conielins \'^an Vorst, Charles F. Durant, Uodmaii M. 
Price, .loliiiF. Ellis, John (Jrithth, .lames Drake, .lames Devoe, 
.lohii (.'. Mori^an, Afcrselis Parks, .John l>rinkerhoft", .Toshna .1. 
Benson, .Jacob N'reeland, Jacob D. Van Winkle, .lulm (i. Speer,' 
Ilichard Outwater,' ^\'illiam Seeley.^ 

Petit '/aror-s. 

Morris Smith. .Facob M. Vreeland, Henry \'an Horn, -lohn 
Garrctson, Nathaniel II. ( arpentei', ( 'alviii 'r.>;ii[)kins, Creorjije 
De Mott, Charles (iartlner, Henry ^^sborn, .lames \\\ IIi^<2;ins. 
Haniel Crane. Henry Drayton, .rohn P. Hill. Afindert \'reeland. 
Albert ^f. Zal)riskie, P. N'anSchaick. (iarret Ackerman, Willium 
C. Kingsland. .lohn (i. McLonghlin, Walter Woods, Charles P. 
C. Pacot, .Tose)>li Danielson, (reorge W. E(li::e. .Iose])h Stone^ 
Abraham ( '. \ an Poskerck, .Jacob Yan Horn. ,l(.|in (iilbcrt, 
.lames Lott, Smith Penedict, Peter Yan Horn, .lames ^[alone. 
.foshua Ilenstis, .Tames Talman, Garret Yan \'orst, Dudley S. 
Gregory, .Tohn P. Nforgan, Henry \'aii Fmbergh, Paul Salter. 
Garret Newkirk, Arent H. Schuyler. 

The courts continued to be held in the Lyceum Hall from that 
time until September 19, 1843, when the Poanl of Chosen Free- 
holders having accepted the "Newkirk House,"* at the Five 
Corners, as a Court House, the courts were o[)ened there Sep- 
tember 2<>, 184:>. Here the courts were held until March 11. 
1845, when the })resent Court House was completed. 

The location of the Court House was a subject of considerable 
interest to the people. Each district was offered as the desirable 
spot. The following places were put wi nniiiination : 

1. Washington si|uaiv in Jersey (ity. 

7, 1870. He was succeeded by his nephew, Jolin Wesley Welsh, who yvX " cri«» 

Did not appear. 


2. The Public Grounds in Harsimus. 

3. Bergen square. 

4. Public Grounds in Hoboken. 

5. West Hoboken. 

6. East Newark. 

7. The Five Corners. 

8. Near Depot, Paterson Railroad (West End). 

9. Bergen Ilidge, from road to (^ommunipaw to West 

10. (^oniniunipaw. 

11. Secaucus. 

12. Bero-en Point. 

13. New Durliam, 

14. AVeehawken. 

J^^^ Centre nf the county, Poudrette Company, on Hacken- 
Htick ri ver ! 

As an inducement to have the Court House located in Jerse}'^ 
City, that municipality offered to donate to the county land worth 
$10,(10(1 and $8,000 in money. 

The vote upon the question was taken June 2, 1840, with the 

following result : 

Vote in Bergen. 
For Bergen, --------- 506 

Rejected, ---------- 2 

Whole number of votes. ------ 508 

Vote in Jersey City. 
For Bei-gen, - - - - - - - - - 20 

" Jersey City, -------- 281 

" Harrison, --------- 2 

Rejected, _ - - - 2 

Whole No. of votes, - - 304 

Vote in Harrison. 
For Bergen, --------- .5-1: 

" Jersey City, 2 

Whole No. of votes, - - - - . . _ 5^; 


After the above vote tlierc was nineli delay in decidiiiii; on the 
localitv lor the biiildhiir, and it was not until December 5, 1843, 
that tlie contract for thebuildini; of the Court House was given 
to Tlionuis Thomas, Carpenter, and William l>rown. Mason, for 
$14,o(Mi, whJL-h was the lowest bid. (inninil was broken for the 
buildin<; May I, 1S44, and the corner stone laid October 17, 
1844, with ijreat ceremony. A procession was formed at Dray- 
ton's Hotel, at the Five Corners, in the followin<r order: 

1. Architect, Su]»erintcndent and Builder. 

2. Mechanics and laborers employed on the building, about 
1<>0 in number. 

.'i. A noble band of music from the U. S. Ship North 

4. Comnuttee of Arrani'ements. 

5. Board of Chosen Freeholders. 

6. Clergy. 

7. Chief Justice of the State of New Jersev. 

8. Mendiers of the Bar. 

9. .ludges and Justices of the county. 
1(>. Clerk and Surrogate. 

11. Sheriff and Constables. 

12. Mayor and Common Council of Jersey City. 

13. Trustees of the Freeholders Inhabitants of the Township 
vi Bergen. 

14. Strangers. 

15. Citizens on foot. 

16. Citizens on horseback and in carriaijes. 

Prayer by liev. B. C. Taylor, D.D. ; corner stone laid by 
John Tonele. jr.. Director of the Board of Chosen Freeholders. 

In the stone were deposited the news[)apers of the day, pub- 
lished in Xew York, Jersey City, Newark, Trenton, iVc, Reports 
on Education, School Fund and Finances of the State and county, 
several coins, a parchment roll containing a list of all the countv 
officers, the (rovernor. State officers, the President of the Fnited 
States, and other officers of the General Government. 


Chief Justice Hornblower made an address, and llev. Mr. 
Ballard pi-onoiinced the Benediction. 

The following is a copy of a paper on file in the clerk's office, 
which shows the situation of the Court House : 

"Latitude and ]^ongitu<le of Hudson County Court House, 
North Bergen, New Jersey : 

" Latitude, - - - . 40° 48' 50" N. 
" Longitude ill time, - - -1-'' 5r)"i \P^'- T 


14 48 44 1 

74 03 4<i 5 
"West from Greenwich. 

" Variation of compass in 1841, 5° 52'. 

" W. C. Wetmoke, 

" U. S. Navy. 
"July 7, 1840.' 

The first session in the new Court House was opened March 
11, 1845, with Prayer by Rev. B. C. Taylor, I ).!)., and the fol- 
lowing address by the Chief Justice : 

" Gentlemen^ Members of the Board of Chosen FreehMers^ 
of the Grand Jury, and my Fellow C'iHzens at hir(/e of the 
County of Hudson : 

" Assembled, as we are, for the first time within this beautiful 
building, which has Ijeen erected by 3'our patriotism and liber- 
ality, whose corner stone was laid in prayer, and in ])rayer 
fervent, appropriate and eloquent, has just been dedicated to the 
administration of justice, I feel it my pleasure, my privilege, to 
address you in words of congratulation as well as in the language 
of official advice and judicial instruction. Since the frailty, not 
to say the depravity of our nature, renders it necessary to estab- 

I'll III \ 111 )N oi' I'orur iiorsE. •'^>''i 

lish ;iml iiuiiiilaiii i'i>iiil> ni Justici'. to st'ttlc tlu- riulit> .>t indi- 
viduals, to jiutiisli the j^iiilty and pi-ottct the innocent, it i.- 
(K-riiral)lt' and liccuinini; that the |inl)lie should pn.vide convenient 
and snitahlc hnildinu-s in which to discliar<j;c that hii;-li and 
rcsponsihic dut\. Voii, mv t'cllow citi/.fn>. have met that 
ilcniand with ;i noMc and generous spii-it. In the (.Trction o| 
this edifice yon have nniint'estcd your attachment to the in>titu- 
tions of vouf counti'v, and voni- I'cadiness to sustain thr adniini,-- 
trators of public ju>tic»' in the execution and di^chai'i;c ol their 
dut\. Accept, tiieretni'e, I |>i-ay you. iVoui nie, in belialf of 
)nyself and (^f c\ci-y iiicnd)ei' of the coui't, atu/ <>f flmsc who via;/ 
soon succeed nic and luy associates iti the seats we now occujty, 
unfeigned thanks for the convenient and eleujant apartments you 
have provided for the acconimodation of coui-fs and their otticer.-. 
When you first conceived the plan of being erected into a sepa- 
rate county, it met with my approbation and secured my support, 
from no sinister motive. I renu'mbered tlie old town of I'orii-cn, 
when it had very few inhabitants except old-fashioned, honest 
Dutchmen, and \cry tew houses except those not l)uilt for show, 
but for domestic comfort and convenience; long, low and unju-e- 
tending in appearance, but durable in materials, and o})em'nij.- 
upon the streets some two or tlnee hos|Mtal)le door>. into which 
the friend and stranger might enter and find a welcome, and 
from which thev miicht retire and leave a blessini,^ behind them. 
lioboken then consisted of little else besides a well-kept jmblic 
house, and a beautiful retreat from the noise and bustle of the 
neighboring metropolis. Xo Jersey City tlien adorned your 
shores — nothinu' but a large, long ferry h(»ii>e. occu[)ied succes- 
sively by an Ellsworth, a Smith, and a Hunt, with liore and there 
a l)oatman's or a fishernnin's cabin, stood uj^in the ln'(ij> <>f sund 
called Powles' Hook: your settlements were s])arse. your occu- 
pations agricultnial and indn.-trial. and your population snudl, 
but healthy, peaceful and honest : you needed, for many years 
within my recollection, but oiu' ])hysiciaji to adnunister to your 
])hvsical necessities, but one man of (rod to supply your s])iritual 
want, and not even onr l<(ici/,?,' to satisfy your litigious propensi- 
ties, for von had none to be satisfied. Peace reiirned throughout 


voiir borders — simplicity of life and manners and honesty of pur- 
pose were the prevailing characteiistics of tlie good old Dutch, 
who almost exclusively occupied the soil of your county in the 
days of my boyhood. A court at Hackensack and a fcAv Dutch 
justices at home were all you wanted to punish the few offenders 
and settle the few lawsuits that troubled you in those days. But, 
alas ! we fear those good old days have gone by, never to return ! 
The rapidly increasing population of our country, the vast im- 
provements in science and the arts, and the enterprising spirit of 
the age in which we live, have wrought a mighty change within 
the period even of m}^ memory. The facilities of steamboats and 
railroad cars, and the increasing spirit of trade and commerce 
and manufactures and the arts, have brought the good old town 
of Bergen into contact with the world, cut up her territory into 
small localities, studded her shores with splendid buildings, 
turned her farms into pleasure seats, her cabbage ground into 
]»leasure gardens, and her dwelling places into workshops and 
manufactories. Such, in fact, has been the change in appearance 
and po])ulation of that part of the old county of Bergen which 
now constitutes the county of Hudson, that I can scarcely retrace 
the footsteps of my boylutod when, in my visits to friends here 
or in the city of New York, I used to traverse these hills. 
When, therefore, you first contemplated the formation of a new 
connty, I favored the ol)ject, because I was satisfied that, if not 
then absolutely necessary, the time was ra])idly approaching 
when the increased number of inhabitants, the diversified charac- 
ter of your population, the rapidly extending trade and commerce 
with the city of New York and other places, the consequent in- 
crease of bargains and contracts, of litigation and of crime, would 
call for a stronger police, for increased vigilance on the part of 
magistrates and peace officers, and for a seat of justice nearer 
your own doors. I i-ejoiced, therefore, in the consummation of 
your wishes, and was the more gratified from the reflection that 
your courts would be held within my judicial district, and thus 
give me an opportunity of meeting more frequentl}^ than I other- 
wise should with my respected friends and fellow citizens of the 
county of Hudson. T have long since inarkcd it down in the 

OKDIUATIO.N OK l-orUT HOUSE, •■;■"-".• 

eliroiiit'le of those events, the meinory of which I i-hcri:-h. uixl 
which 1 (h'sirc ti« l»e transmitted ttj and remembered 1»\ my chil- 
dren, that I had the lionor of i)i-esidinii- at the tii-st court evei- 
hehl ill Hudson C'ounty. To that 1 have since been permitted to 
add the interesting fact that I was privileged to act a conspicuous 
part in the solemn and imposing ceremony of hiying the founda- 
tion stone of this edifice, and now shall have tlie pleasure of 
adding to this history the gratifying circumstance that I have 
been spared by a kind Providence to pi-eside at the first court 
and address the first Grand Jury tluit ever assembled within 
these walls. For this privilege I feel thankful, and 1 invite vou 
all to unite witli mc in rendering thanksgiving and praise to 
IliM who is Judge over all, and in whose hands our lives are, that 
throui^h His kind and protecting care this edilice has been reared 
from its foundation to its superstructure without any fatal acci- 
dent or the slightest injury to any of the worthy and industrious 
mechanics and laborers who have been employed in its erection. 
•■ Mav the same all-wise and merciful Providence ever preside 
over the councils and the deliberations of judges and jurors 
within these walls : may the ermine of justice, by whomsoever it 
mav be worn after we shall have gone to our final account, ever 
be kept pmv and unspotted here, and this sanctuary of justice 
never be desecrated by bribery or corruption — never be an arena 
for the indulgence of prejudice, i)artiality or uidiallowed passions 
of anv sort ; but mav the unadulterated -stream of public and 
|)rivate justice ever tiow from this sacred hall, and from the 
pure fountain of eternal truth and righteousness." 

The Chief Justice then addressed the Grand Jurors upon their 

The following Justices of the Supreme Court have presided over 
the courts in 1 1 udson ( 'ounty, being regularly assigned to this circuit: 

Chief Justice Josiah Ilornblower. 

" " Henry W. Green. 

Associate Justice Elias J>. D. 0<;den.' 
" " Joseph D. Bedle. 

Died Feb. 24, 18U5. 



George H. Brinkerlioff, ISin, appointed by Joint Meeting; 
Henry Newkirk, 1840-2; Jolm Garretson, 1843; Abraham 
Van Winkle, 1844-6; Lorenzo Jaqnins, 1847-9 ; Jacob M. Mer- 


seles/ 1850-2; .lasper Garretson, 18r)3-5 ; Henry B. Beaty. 
1856-8; Jolm M. Francis,- 1850-61 ; Bernard Mc Anally, 1862 
-4 ; Jacob M. Merseles, 1 865-6 ; Jolm H. Midmer,^ 1 86T-S ; 
Andrew Monnt, 1869-70 ; Jolm Eeinliardt, 1 871-4. 

Died Jau. '2/lS6o. 

•2 Died June 10, 1873. 

- Died Sept. 17, 1872. 

Koliert Gik'lirist, 


Countij t '/rr/.-.s. 


l.S-iH t!5 

George W. Cassedy, - 1865-7(t | John Iveniiedv, - - 1870-75 


Edmuiul W. Kingsland, 1840-55; James O'Neil/ 1855-70; 
Tiiibcrt ^[cCagiie. Fcl).. 1870, present incumbent. 

Prnsccntorf< of t lie Pleas. 

Lewis D. Ilai'denbergli, 184ti-5; Isaac W. SciuMer, 1845-50; 
Edwin R. V. Wright, 1850-5; J. Dunn Littell,^ 1855-60; Isaac 
^\. Scudder, 1860-0 ; Richard D. McClelhind/ 1865-8 ; J. Har- 
vey Lyon, 1868-0 ; Abrani Q. Garretson, 186'»-74. 

Mkmuers of iMK LKfiisLATURE lunder the old Constitution). 


Abraham Yan Santvuord, 1840; Joliii S. Condit, 1841-2 ; 
Edwin R. V. Wriglit,' 1843. 

Died in oflBce. 

Died .Ian. 00. 1871. 



John S. Condit, 1840; Abraham L. Van Boskerck, 1841-2 ; 
Benjamin F. Welsh, 1843. 

Members of the Legislature (under the neM' Constitution). 


Richard Outwater, 1845-8; John Tonelc/ 1848-50; Jolm 
Cassedy, 1850-1; Abraham O. Zabriskie,~ 1851-4; Moses B. 
Bramhall, 1854-7; Cornelius Y. Cliekener, 1857-60; Samuel 
Wcscott,-" 1860-2; Theodore F. Eandolph, 1862-6 ; Charles H. 
Winfield, 1866-9; Noah T). Taylor, 1860-72; John B. McPher- 
son, 1872-5. 


Hartman Van Wagenen, 1845-7 ; Benjamin F. Welsh, 1848 ; 
Oliver S. Strong, 1849 ; James J. Yan Boskerck, 1850 ; Edmund 
T. Carpenter, 1851 ; John Yan Yorst, 1852. 

1853 — John Yan Yorst, Edmund T. Carpenter, Joseph W. 

1854 — Jolm Dunn Littell, James S. Davenport, Jacob M. 

1855 — Albert Augustus Hardenbergh, Clement M. Hancox, 
Jacob M. Merseles. 

1856— John M. Board, Dudley S. Gregory, jr., Jacob M. Mer- 

1857 — Bobert C. Bacot, Eobert Gilchrist, jr., George Y. De 


1858— Robert C. Bacot, William Yoorhis, (rarret Yan 

1859 — William TI. Hemenover, Samuel A. French, Garret 
Yan Horn. 

I860— Garret Yan Horn, Nathaniel C. Slaight, William H. 

1861 — Franklin B. Carpenter, Theodore F. Randolph, Michael 
J. Yreeland. 

' Resigned ; died Nov. 3(5, 18)?. - Died June 27, 1873. 3 Resigned. 

mi:mi;i:ks ok iiii: i,i:(;i>i.ArfKK. JH'> 

1802— Echvar.l I). liilcy, (n'orire McL()ii<,'liliii, .l.-lm I'.. I'.tiv, 
Josluia .1. Ueiison, Josiali Couley, Michael J. VrccIaiKi. 

1863 — James Lynch, Georii^e McLoughlin, John U. I*cii-y, 
Joshua J. Hensoii, Joshih (Donley, (Jarret D. Van liijx'ii. 

1804 — James Lynch. Jolm II. Drayton, John V:u\ \'(»rst, 
Josluia J. Benson, Abram W. Diirvea, Garret D. \ an liipen. 

1805 — Delos E. (^ilvi'r, William L. Broking, John \'an V'orst, 
Leon Ahbett, Ahrani W . nurvca, Hiram \'an B>uskirk. 

1800 — Xoah 1). Taylor, John Ramsey, Obadiah D. Falkcn- 
bnry, Leon Al.bett, Charles F. Knh, DcWitt ('. Morris. 

18«;7— Noah D.Taylor, llosca F. (Mark, ( )l)acliah I ). Falken- 
bury, Augustus ( ). l-^vans. John Dwycr. DeWitt C. Morris. 

1868— Xoah 1). Taylor, V. (lark, John \'an Voorst, 
Augustus ( ). F\an>. John Dwyer, Ileni'v (lay Smith. 

1809 — Leon .Vhhctt, Sidney B. Bevaiis. .lauK-s B. Dorcmus, 
Flhridge V. S. Besson, ^lichael Coogan, Henry Clay Smith. 

187"' — Leon Abbett, Sidney B. Bovans, James B. Dorcmus, 
Herman D. Busch, Abel L Smith, William Brinkerhoft'. 

1871 — James F. Fielder, John Aiiness, Herman D. Busch, 
Michael Coogan, Josiah Ilornblovver. 

1872 — George H. Fai-rier, Dennis Ileardc)n, George S. L'lymp- 
ton, llcmy Gaede, Jasper Wandle, James Stevens, John A. 
(VXeil, Anthony II. Ryder. 

1873 — George II. I'ai-riei", Dennis Rcardon, George S. Plymp- 
toii, Hem-y Gaede, Jasper Wandlc. Bichai'd C. Washhiini. John 
Lee, Anthony H. Ryder. 

1S74 — Alexander T. McGill, Patrick Shceran, John D. Cars- 
callen, Alexander McDonnell, Henry Combs, Richard C. ^Vash- 
burn, Rudolph F. Rabe, James K. Sclleck. 

Board of ('iiosen Frkeholdkrs. 


The first meeting of this Board was held May BJ, 1840, in 
Drayton's Hotel, at the Fivi" Corners. The following is a list of 
the members since the erection of the county. Thi.s list also in- 
cidentally shows when municipalities were formed or <livided into 



Bergen— Garret Sip, Abel I. Smith. Jersey CrrY — John 
Griffith, Abraham Yaii Santvoord. Harrison — Joseph Biidd, 
William (\ Kingsland. 


Jersey City — John Dows, Jonathan Jenkins. Van Vorst — 
Henry M. Traphagen, David Jones. Bergen — Garret Sip, Abel 
T. Smith. Harrison — Joseph Budd, William C. Kingsland. 


Jersey City— John Dows, Phineas C. Dummer. Bergen — 
Cornelius Yan Winkle, Edwin B. Y. Wright. Yan Yorst — 
David Jones, Henry M. Traphagen. Harrison— Joseph Bndd, 
William C. Kingsland. 


Jersey City — John Dows,^ Phineas C. Dummer. Bergen — 
William C. Yreeland, Garret G. Newkirk. Yan Yorst — Cor- 
nelius Yan Yorst, Selah Hill. Harrison — ^George Kingsland, 
Peter W. Kipp. North Bergen — Edwin E. Y. Wright, John 
Tonele, Jr. 


Jersey City — Henry Southraayd, Job Male. Bergen — Wil- 
liam C. Yreeland, Garret G. Newkirk. Yan Yorst — Cornelius 
Yan Yorst, Selah Hill. Harrison — George Kingsland, Peter 
W. Ki]ip. North Bergen — John Tonele, John Yan Boskerck. 


Jersey City — Phineas C. Dummer, .Joseph W. Morgan. 
Bergen — Jacob D. Yan Winkle, Jacob Yreeland. Yan Yorst — 
Cornelius Yan Yorst, Selah Hill. Harrison — John S. Condit, 
George Jvingsland. North T5ergen — John Yan Boskerck, Dan- 
iel Yan "Ripen. 

' Kesigued in Pre, 1843. Henry Sontlimayd appointed. 

tup: ciioskn kkkkiiih.dkks. 345 


.Ikkskv ( riv- Pliiiu'as ('. Duiniiier. ( "nnicliiis Kaiioust'. Ukk- 
<;EN — Al)r!ili;ini Ucckcr, Jacol) I). \iui Winkle. \'an Voksi 
(.'orni'lius \';in \ Orst, llenrj M. Trapliai;-eii. IIariuson — .loliii 
S. Cuiulit, ( oiiiulins C. Jerolomnii. Nouiii IJKKfJKN — John 

Tonele, Midiael Fisher. 


.Ikkskv Cnv David 11. Wakenian, Peter McMartiii. J>i;u(;k5 
— Ahrahaiii Txi-kei-, (Teorp;e Thonia>. V.\n Yokst — Erastus 
llamlall. pKMijainiii ^^ills. Harrison — loliii S. (!ondit, Corneliu.s 
('. .leroleiiidii. Xoirni I>krgkx — lolin 'i'dnelc. Michael Fisher. 


Jersev Citv — 1 )avi(l B. AVakenian. Peter McMartin. Bkkgen 

— (Garret Sip, Jacolt M. Yreclaiid. Van Vorst — ]>enjainin 

Mills, TIenrv M. Traphaijeri. Harrison — George Ivingsland, 

Arent IF. Sehuylei'. Xortii Bergkn — John J. Newkirk, John 



Jkrskv City — David P. Wakeman, James Fleming. Bergen 
— John l)rinkerhofF, Jacob M. Yreeland. Van Vorst — Mat- 
thias B.Wai'd, TIenrv M. Trapliagan. Harrison — George Kings- 
land, Arent H. Scliuyler. Xorth 1)Ergen — James Harrison, 
John J. Newkirk. TToboken — Garret Benson. William FTersee. 


Jkrskv < '(IV — David P. Wakenian, duhiiM. Cornclison. Pkr- 
gen — John Priid-cerhuir, Garret AVaters. Van Vorst — Matthias 
B. Ward, John Van Vorst. Harrison — George Kingsland. 
Arent IT. Schuyler. Xorth Bkrgen — John Shields, John 
Hague. IIonoKKN — J. Dunn l.ittell. Charles T. Perry. 


Jersey City — J')'/'st 11 a/v/. (Tenrgc Dummer, P. W. A. Dur- 

fec; Semutl If '/^y/, George W. Fdge. Robert B. Farle ; Third 

ir^/v/, Pobert Mchoiighlin. IP nry E. Inslev ; Fourth Ward, 


John Van Yorst, John Boyce. Bergen — John Brinkerhoft, 

Jasper Gavretson. Harrison — Stephen Kingsland, Thomas 

Watkins. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, Abram 

W. Dnryea. IIoboken — Gilliam Yan Honten, Denniston B, 



Jersey City — First n^^/v/, George Dunimer, Benton \\. Grin- 

nell ; Second Ward., Jacob J. Banta, William dimming ; Third 

Ward, Robert McLoughlin, Henry E. Insley ; Fourth Ward, 

John Yan Yorst, William Dugan. Bergen — Mindert Yan 

Horn, Hartman Yreeland. Harrison — Arent H. Scliuyler, 

Jabez B. Pennington. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, 

Abram W. Dnryea. Hoboken— Charles Chamberlain, Peter 



Jersey City — First Ward, Minot C. Morgan, David Smith ; 
Second Ward, Jacob J. Yan Buskirk, Jacob J. Banta ; Third 
Weird, Nehemiali Knapp, John S. March ; Fourth Ward, Clem- 
ent Hancox, Hervey M. Soule. Bergen — Hartman Yreeland, 
Mindert Yan Horn. Harrison — Thomas Lang, Cornelius 
Shepherd. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, Abram W. 
Duryea. Hoboken — Charles Chamberlain, Peter Powless. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Minot C. Morgan, David Smith ; 
Second' Ward, Jacob J. Banta, Samuel A. French; Third 
IFarc?, Nehemiah Knapp, James Gopsill. Fourth Ward, Her- 
vey M. Soule, Jacob 13. Schenck. Bergen — Mindert Yan Horn, 
(reorge Yreeland. Harrison — Cornelius Shepherd, William S. 
Ogden. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, Abram W. 
Duryea. Hoboken — Benjamin S. Taylor, William C. Arthur. 


Jersey City — First Ward, David Henderson, Berryan R. 
Wakeman ; Second Ward, Francis Jenkins, Hugh McComb ; 
Third Ward, Nehemiah Knapp, Charles M. Holmes ; Fourth 

TiiK ( iK.sKN i-Ki:i;ii()i.i>i;i{s. ;14T 

Wa/-i/, llvvwy ^^. SmiiIc, .);ici>l) \'>. Sdieiiek. 1)KK<;kn — Mindcrt 
Villi I loin, .l;ici)l) A. \ an Horn. IIakkison — Cornelius Slie|i 
herd, Williiun S. Oi^jden. N'ourn r>i:K(JKN--Jolin Sturf^es, Alinini 
W. Duryea. Hohoken-- /'//■v/' U'l//-'/, .lolni W . llarny, L()\ii> 
Iluseman; S>ofu/ HV/r//, Tlieodore Nan Tassel, Khcnezer Mon- 
tague; /'////v/ ir^/zv/. .lames II. 1 )ewey, Charles W. Fisher. Ihi- 
s()\ City — Jolin II. Piatt, (iilliani \'an Ildutcii. 


Jkkskv (Jity — Firsf ll'/zv/, Minot C. Morgan, .leremiali 
Mulford ; Second ^V(lr<l, l"'rancis Jenkins, Henry French : 
Third Ward^ Charles M. Holmes, Ge(M-n;e "^^cLouglllin ; Fourth 
Ward, Hervey M. Soule, Erastus llandall. Bekoex — Mindert 
Van Horn, Jacob A. Van Horn. IIakkison — William S. Og- 
den, Jabez I>. Pennington. Nortif Bergkn — Abrani W. Durvea. 
.lohn Sturges. Hoboken — First Ward, John W. Harny, John 
Walker; Second Ward, David Pollock, Julius G. (larvelle : 
Third Wan/, James 11. Dewey, William Ilersee. IIidson 
C^iTY— John H. Piatt, P.aily P>. Brown. 


•Iersey City — First IH/zv/, Ai Fiteli ; S,rnud Ward,\\ii\\v\ 
French ; Third Ward, George McLoughlin ; Fonrtli Ward, John 
Doyle (in January, 1858, Ephraini Pray). Hudson Crry — Jacob 
.1. Xewkirk. Bergen— ^lindert Yan Horn. Haurison — lliram 
Gilbert. Noktu Bekcjen — Abram W. Durvea. IIohoken — 
First Ward, John Mather; Second Ward, Peter J. Powless (in 
January, 1858, John Dcmpsey) ; Third Ward, William Ilersee. 


Jersey City — First \Viir<L Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, Alexander 
Wilson ; Third Wan/, Georije McLouirhlin ; Fourf/i Wmd. 
Kphraim Pray. North Bergen — Abram AV. Durvea. Hidson 
(JiTY — Jacol) J. Newkirk. IIohokex — First WnnL -bthn M. 
Francis; Second Ward, AVilliam P. Harrison; Third WanK 
William Hashing. HEK(iE.\ — George Vreeland. Harrison — 
Hiram W. Davis, 



Jersey City — J^/'rst Wa/'d, Ai Fitch ; Seco7idWard, Alexander 
Wilson ; T/iird Ward, James F. Fielder ; Fourth Ward, Hervey 
M. Soule. Harrison — Hiram W. Davis. FIudson City — Jacob 
J. Newkirk. Hoboken — I^^irst Ward, James Stevenson ; Second 
Ward, Lonis Kanfman ; Third Ward, William Hartung. Bkr- 
GEN — George Vreeland. North Bergen — Al»ram W. Duryea. 
Weihawken — Denning Dner. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, James 
Lynch ; Third Ward, James F. Fielder ; Fourth Ward, Elliston 
Duncan. Bergen — (George Yreeland. Harrison — Hiram W, 
Davis. HonoKEN — First Ward, James Stevenson ; Seco7id 
Ward, William Hartung; Third Ward, James H, Dewey. 
Hudson (-ity — Charles Luxton. North Bergen — Abram W. 
Duryea. Wkkhaavken — Denning Duer. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, James 
Lynch; Third Ward, John Pringle ; Fourth Ward, Charles IL 
O'Neill; Fifth TFar^/, Patrick Keiley ; SixthWard, Hohny^he- 
man. Bergen — Hartman Van Wagenen. Bayonne — Albert 
M. Zabriskie. Hoboken — First Ward, James Stevenson ; 
Second Ward, Hoyt Sandford ; Tfiird Ward, James H. Dewey. 
North Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. Harrison — Hiram W, 
Davis. Hudson City — Charles Luxton. Weehawken — Den- 
ning Duer. Union — Jacob Sweitzer. West Hoboken — Daniel 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, James 
Lynch; Third Ward, Patrick H. Nngent ; Fourth Ward, 
Charles H. O'Neill ; Fifth Ward, Patrick Keiley ; Sixth Ward, 
Patrick DufF. Hoboken — First Ward, James Stevenson; 
Secojid Ward, Hoyt Sandford ; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
Bergen— Jacob J. Newkirk. Harrison— Hiram W. Davis. 

N'mkiii liKKiJEN — Ahiaiii \\ . I'lirvca. lli i son Cnv- .lames l{. 
I)i\. Hayonnk— .loscpli I!. (ln>f. Cmon- .lacol) SweitztT (in 
Dt'cemhci' .Ii>liii (iardiici" took \\'\> jihicci. W i si I Iiii:i >ki.;m- 
I);mit'l Laki'. Wi:i;iiawkkn — Denninc: I )ut'r. 

1 8(53. 

.Ikksk\ Citv — /''//'.v/ II (//v/, I'VaiK-is St(i\c'krii ; Sro/n/ \\i//,/. 
.laiiios LyiU'li ; Tliird Wt(}v/, yte|>lioii (^)nait"e; Foui'th Wnrd, 
Charlo II. O'Xrill; /•'/>/// \\>iril. Ilciirv l''iiick ; S'l.rlh W.inl^ 
.l.'liii Mc(-iuii;aii. I I(iI!(iki;n- I'n'st Ih/zv/, Jaiiies Stevenson; 
S('('onil 11 '//v/, Jloyt Sandturd ; Third W ii rd ^ .\\\\\\v> II. I)c\\cv. 
lliDsox City — Georcie \'. DelSfntt. Xourn Ukhgen — .Muain 
\\. Diirvra. IIaurl-^on — Ilirani \V. Davis. Bekoen — .Vbraliam 
Spt'cr. li.vvo.NXE — Peter Vrecland. Tnion — Cornelius Van 
\()rst. ^^ isi IIor-oKEN — John Ilao-ne. WEKnAWKEN — Donniii"- 
I )uer. (Jki;i;.\\ H.r.i; — Henry D. Vaii Xostrand. 


Jersey City — Jurst AVard, Francis Stoveken ; Second Ward, 
•lames Lynch; Third Ward, Thomas Gross; Fourth Ward, 
Charles II. O'Neill (resigned in October, Christ(»pher Mills ap- 
pointed); F^ffh }\'a/'d, John Lowrey ; /Sixth H'/z/v/, John 
McOnigan. IIouoken — Tirst 11 rtyr/, .lames Stevenson; Secoiu/ 
Ward, James T. Ilatticld; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
Weeuaavkkn — Denning Duer. IIavonne — Peter Vreeland. 
Hudson CrPY' — First HV//'(/, llurman ^\ . ^loller ; Scrond Ward, 
George V. DeMott ; Third Ward, John M. Wilson; Fourth 
Ward, George Glaubrecht. 1>ergkn — Cornelius Vreeland lin 
< )ctober Mindcrt Van Horn took his place). IIakkison — Josiah 
Conley. Moktu Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. Unton — .lohn 
Dvvyer. West Houoken — .lolm Hague. Greenville — Henry 
I). Van Nostrand. Town di I'nion— .Tohn Gardner. 


.Ikksey CriY — Firxf ]\<ird, Peter ( luley ; Second W,ird. 
■ lames Lynch; Ihird Wirrd, Thomas Gross; I'ovrth Waril, 
•lohn II. Smyth; Fifth W<ird, .Tohn Lowrey; Si.rth Wu'id, 


John McGriiigan. Hoboken — First ^Yard^ Lafayette Tomp- 
kins; Second Tr«T<^, James T. Hattield ; Third Ward^ James 
li. Dewey. Union — Francis Pollock. Town of Union — John 
Gai'dner." JSTorth Bkrgen — John Stiirges. Bergen— C6»ZwwzJ/« 
Ward, Jacob J. Newkirk ; Communipaw Ward, Mindert Van 
Horn ; Franldin Ward, Garret Vreeland. Hudson City' — 
First W<ird^ John H. Piatt ; Second Ward, Michael C. Brown ; 
Third WanL John M. Wilson ; Fourth Ward, George Glau- 
brecht. Harrison — Josiah Conley. Bay'onne — De Witt C. 
Morris. Green\ille — Henrj' D. Van Nostrand. ^\'I•:sT Hono- 
KEN — lohn Hague. Weemawken — Denning Duer. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Peter Curley ; Second Ward, 
James Lyneii ; Third Ward, iS'. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
John H. Smyth ; Fifth Wanl. John Lowrey ; Sixth Ward, John 
McGuigan. Hudson City — First Ward, John H, Piatt ; Second 

Ward, Michael C. Bruwn ; Third Ward, John M. Wilson; 
Fourth Ward. George Glaubrecht. Hoboken — First Ward, 
Solomon Middleton ; Second War'd, John p]. McWhorter; Third' 

Ward. James H. Dewev. Bergen — First Ward, -Jacob J. 
Newkirk ; Second Ward, Edgar B. Wakeman ; Tliird Ward, 
Mindert Van Horn ; Fourth H'a/Y/, Garret Vreeland. Bayonne 
— De Witt C. Morris, Greenville — Henry D. Van Nostrand. 
NoRTn Bergen — John Sturges. Harrison — Charles L. Gilbert. 
West Hoboken — John tlague. Union — HngliMooney. Town 
OF Union — Frederick Etzold. Weehawken — Joshua J. Benson. 


Jersey* ( 'ity — First Ward, Peter Curley ; Second- Ward, 
James Lynch ; Third Ward, N. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
Adolph Kirsten : Fifth Ward, Moses K. Kellum ; Siu-th Ward, 
John Lennon ; Seventh Ward, John Fleming. Hudson City — 
First Ward, John H. Piatt ; Second Wa?'</, John W. Smith ; 
Third Ward, John W. Wilson ; Fourth Ward, George Glau- 
brecht. PIoBOKEN — First Ward, S. S. Middleton ; Second Ward, 
John E. McAYliorter; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. Bergen 


— First irr//7/, ,1. Ncwkirk ; Seroml HV//v/, John I'.iinkcr- 
hntl'; 7'////v/ ll'^//v/, Miii<K'rt N'aii Iloni: I'^mrlh Il'^^/v/. Samiirl 
A. liessoii. II \i;i;i^oN— liiraiii ^\■. I>avis. Uayonne— Ilenrv 
('. Siiiitli. (iiJKK.w ii.i.K Henry I >. \aii Nusfraiid. Wi-rllo- 
i:.>I\i:n .loliii Ila<^iic. Xoii'iii I'l aa.KN — .John Stur^o. I .\U).\ 
— F. W. IltM-Hiann. Town of I'mon— Fre<lerick Kt/uld. Wkk- 
II AW KKN— Joshua .1. Benson. Kkaknky — AVilliain E. Skinner 
t^resiirnod in October; N. Norris Ilalstead took his jdacei. 


.Ikkskv City — FiM HV//v/, Teter Curley ; St'<-i)U<l Wan/, 
.lames Lyneh : Third ]V<ir<l, N. II. Co.vkendall ; Fourth Wan/, 
( ieori;e Wari-in ; Fifth ^Var(^, Patrick Keiley ; Si.cth Ward, John 
l.ennon; Serrntl, Ward, John Fleming. IIudso.n City— First 

Ward, Joliii II. Piatt; Second Ward, Clinton W. Conger; 
Fhir(/ ir^/y/, William E. P.enjamin : 7un/r/h HV//v/, James K 
Tate. IhmoKEti— First Ward, Herman \). i'.useh ; Second Ward, 
.John E. MeWliorter; Third Ward, Timothy Foley. Bekgk.n 
—First Wan/, Cornelius C. Van Ripen : Second Ward, John 
Hrinkerhoff; T/iin/ Ward, Jerenuah P.. Cleveland; Fourth 

Ward, (iarret Yreeland. Hakrison— Hiram AV. Davis. Wkst 
HoHoKKN— Charles (ialbraith (in January, 1869, resigned, and 
William II. Alcorn api>ointed). Noinii P.ekoen— John Sturges. 
l>AVo.\.M-;—Henrv C.Smith. Ctkek.wii.i.k— Henry D. \'aii Nos- 
trand. I'mon— Henry Meyer. Town of Union— Frederick 
Etzold. Weeiiaw KEN— Joshua J. Benson. Kearney— IS". Norris 


Jerskv City — First Wa>t/, Franc-is Stoveken ; Second Ward, 
John Barrv : Third W.m/, N. II. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward. 
George Warrin : Fi^fth War(/, Charles D. Throckmorton ; Si.rth 
HV;/v/. John Lennon ; .Vr^/J^// Ila/Y/, Edward Murpliy. Hidson 
City— /V/'.sY ir.//v/, John II. IMatt; Scconf/ Wan/, John F. Pode- 
felt; Thin/ W<(n/, John M. Wilson ; Fourth Ward, James Mont- 
gomerv. West Hoboken — William II. Ah-orn. Uni )N — 
Frederick W. Hermann. AVekiiawken — John Frost. Ho- 


BOKEN — First ]Var<l, Herman D. Buseli ; Secoyid Ward. 
John E. McWhorter ; Third Ward, John A. O'Xeill ; 
Fourth Ward, Michael Healy. Bergen — ?lrsit Ward. Jacob 
J. Newkirk; Second Ward, John Brinkerhott'; Third Ward, 
Jeremiali B. Clevehind ; Fourth If't^r^, Garret Vreehmd. Hak- 
RisoN — Abraham Phelps. North Behgen — John Sturjjfet^. 
Battonne — James W. Trask. Greenville — Henry I). \-aw 
Nostrand. Town ok Union — Henry Bridges (resigned in July : 
John Morgan appointed). Kearney — N. Norris llalstead. 


Jersey City — Fir^t Ward, Michael Doyle; Second Ward. 
John Barry ; 77w'/y/ ir^/zv/, Patrick H. Xngent ; Fourth Ward. 
George S. Plympton ; FiftJt M\ird, Charles I). Throckmorton ; 
Sixtli Ward, John Lennon ; Seventh Ward, Daniel Hartigan ; 
Fi(/hth Ward, Andrew J. Ditniar : ^^inth ]]'a/-d. .John H. !*latt; 
Tenth Ward, John P. Rodefelt ; Llewndh Ward. John M. Wil- 
son; Twelfth Ward, James Coj-le ; Thirteenth Ward, Jacob 
J. ISFewkirk ; Foarteenth Ward, John Brinkerliott'; Fifteenth 

Ward, Jeremiah B. Cleveland; Sixteenth Ward. Garret Yree- 
land. HoBOKEN — Frrst Ward, Frederick Agatz ; Second Ward, 
Richard Burbank ; Third Ward, John A. O'Xeill; Fourth 

Ward, James Kilduff. ]S"ortu ]]ekgi:n — John Sturges. Har- 
rison — Abraham Phelps. Bayonne — William C. Hamilton. 
Union — P. W. Hermann. Town of Union — John Bernhard. 
West Hoboken — William H. Alcorn. Weeiiawken — John 
Frost. Greenville — Henry D. Van X(»strand. Ivearney— 
N. Norris Halstead. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Matthew Doyle ; Second Ward, 

John Barry ; Third Ward, Patrick H. Nngent ; F^oxirth Ward, 

G. F. Plympton : Fifth Ward, C. D. Throckmorton ; Sivth 

Ward, John Lennon ; Seventh Ward, Daniel Hartigan ; Fighth 

Ward, Adam J. Ditmar; Ninth Ward, John H. Piatt; Tenth 

Ward, John F. Eodefelt : F/erenth Ward, John M, Wilson : 

Ttve/fth Ward, James Coyle ; Thirteenth ^Vtrrd, Jacob J. Xew- 

kirk; Fourteenth Ward, John Brinkerhoft'; Fifteenth Wa,'d. 

rm: ciiosi.n kui:i:iioi.i)i:i:s. '.io-> 

.1. I J. ( '1(_'\ chiiid ; Sij-tecnt/i II r//v/. < Jaiirt Vreohuul. IIohokkn 
— I'iisf Wiiril. IVc(l. Aij^atz ; Sirinid Wiirtl. William Stulir; 
Tlunl ll'.////, J..I111 A. O'Xuill : /-'nurth ll'^^/v/. .liiiiics Ivikluff. 
XoKiii IJkkmjkn- -IkIui Stiu'i^es. Hakkison — Ahruliaiii Pliel|).s. 
IIavoxm: — William ('. Hamilton. I'nion— AVolt/t' Kamt'iia. 
Town of Fnton — John Uernliard. ^\' Ksr IIobokkn — Alex. X. 
Sliarpi'. \\'i::;n.\\VKi;N — Albert I!. I)nil(]. Gkkknvii.i.e — II. I). 
\'an Nobti'and. Kkaknky — Jolm I'ovd, ji'. 

\\y till' act to ri'ory;anize the local i;-ovoninient of Jersey City, 
a|>|>roveil April 1. 1^71. the \\ar(l> in Jerocy City were alx-l- 
i>hed and aldernianic distrietvS erected in their stead, each disti"ict 
heinu:; entitled to three chosen freeholders. Candidates were 
chosen under the old as well as the new law. Those elected un- 
tler the old law were admitted into the Board ; those elected 
under the new law were excluded. The latter then instituted 
proceedings in the SujU'eme (vourt to compel the Board to admit 
them to their seats. In this they were successful at the Novem- 
her term, •> I'/w^/z/.v h^jto/iK^ 2<)li. and took their seats Dec. 1, 
1871, as representatives in the Board from Jersey City : 

First Df'sO-ict, Wm. B. Rankin, James L. Love, J. \l. Par- 
sons; Second District. Daniel JIartigan, John Jiarry, John Len- 
non ; Third District, John E. Cronham, H. M. Sonle, Wm. R. 
Clayton; Fntirfh District, Andrew Leicht, Martin llanley. 
Charles Kost ; Fifth District, Jacob J. Newkirk, John Brinker- 
holf', Geo. A. Toffey ; SiuiJi District, Jnmcs II. Startup, r4arrct 
Vi'eeland, J 15. Cleveland. 


Jkrskv Crrv — First District, William A. Lewis, Jabez R. 
Parsons, John II. (xarretson ; Second District, 'hdmos Harper. 
Thomas Harmon, Daniel nartigan : Third District, Hervey ^f. 
Sonle, John K. Cronham, J. C. I )e La \ er<j:;ne ; Fourth District, 
James Coyle, Mai-tin Ilaidey, KmilStii^er: Fiftli District. A -.{{.-.oh 
.1. Newkirk, (Teori.fe Tott'ey. .lohn Prinkerhotf ; Si.rth District, 
James H. Startup, Ilenr}- D. \ ww Xostrand, John V, R. Vree- 
land. IIoisoKKx — First Ward, William Winges; Second \V(frd. 



AYilliam Stnhr ; ThirdWai'd, John E.. AViggins ; Fourth W(t/'<1, 
John Gaffney. Bayonne — AVilliam C llamilton. Harrison — 
John Kohan. North Ber(;en — William J. Danielson. West 
HoBOKEN — Daniel Lake. AVeehawken — John Frost. Town of 
Union — Jacob Hofmeister. Union — M. Klein. Kearney — N. 
Norris Ilalstead. -. o^o 

Jersey City — First District, William A. Lewis, Jabez E. 
Parsons, John H. Garretson ; Second District, David C, Jones, 
John O'Rourke, Michael O'Grady; Third District, Hervej M. 
Sonle, John K Cronham, Paul Schober ; Fourth District, Jacob 
Newkirk, Henry Meinken, Emil Stiger; Fifth District, Jacob 
J. Newkirk, AVillard E. Dndley, William Frost ; Sixth District, 
James H. Startup, Henry D. Van Nostrand, John A-^. E.. A^ree- 
land. HoiJOKEN— i^«V«^ TUar^Z, William AVinges ; SecondWard, 
AVilliam Stnhr; 7'hirdWard, John R. AViggins; Fourth Ward, 
John (xafthey. Bayonne, William C. Hamilton. Harrison — 
John Rohan. North Bergen — William J. Danielson. AVest 
IIoBOKEN — William Roseman. AVeehawken — John Frost. 
Town of Union — Jacob Hofmeister, Union— F. W. Hermann. 
Kearney — Alexander Jacobus. 

Directors of the Board. 

Abraham A"an Santvoord, 

John Dows, 1841-3. 
,loiin Tonele, 1843-4. 
John S. Coudit, 1845-7. 
Garret Sij), 1848. 
David B. AVakeman, 1849-50 
Robert McLoiighlin, 1851-2. 
Edmund T. Carpenter, 1853. 
AVilliam ('. Arthur, 1854. 
(rilliam \'an Houten, 1855.^ 
Abram AV. Dnryea, 185r)-6i>. 
Charles H. O'Neill, 1863-4. 

Directors of the Board. 
James Lynch, 1864-8.^ 
John Brinkerhoff, 1869, '70, '72. 
John A. O'Neil, 1871. 
James. H. Startup, 1873. 

Clerks of the Board. 

Hartman A^an Wagenen, 

Garret L Van Horn, 1855-64. 
Cliarles J. Roe, 1864- 

County Collectors. 

Jacob D. A"an AVinkle, 1840-2. 
Edmund AV. Kingsland, 1843 
until the present time. 

Killed at the liattle of Chancellorsvillc. 

•-' Died June 21, 1869. 


Jlldijis iif the ('ollUliOll /'/{'U.S. 

Fobniavy -J", 1S40 — John .1. Van Piiiskirk, Cornelius V. \'. 

Kin<;slaii(l,' Sti-pliun (larretson/ Petor II. 
Kipj),'[)Ii Claik.' 
Novcinlicr l-'., 1S4<» — liichard Outwater.' 
Xovember 'i, 1841— (Tilbert Meiritt,' Richard Outwater. 
November !<», 1S4I — Stephen 11. I.iitkins.' 

(^etobci- '2~, 1843 — Cornelius \ an \V inkle.' John G. Speer,' 

Michael Saunier,' James Striker, James J. 
November 10, 1843 — John (rriftith/ George C. De Kay,' Jabez 

March 3, ls4T — Stephen (Tarrctson. 
March 2, 1848 — Thomas A. Alexander. 
Fel)rnarv 28, 1849 — Cornelius Van Winkle. 

" John (TrilHtli, /.vVv Alexander. 

March ♦;, 1850 — George Thoinas. 
February 21, 1851 — Edmund T. (Jarpenter.- 
February B, 1852 — Samuel M. Chambers.- 

'• Samuel Browning, y/ceCarpenter. 

March 4, 1853 — John (iriffith. 

'" Richard Kidney, Jr., y/ce Van ^V inkle, dec'd. 

Marcii 8, 1854 — Edmund T. Carpenter. 

" Selah Hill, cice Chambers (resigned Sept. 20. 

February 8, 1856 — Samuel Browning. 
February 18, 1850 — Edmund Charles. 

" Charles Fink, vice Browning, dec'd. 

March 17, 1859 — Jacob M. Merseles. 
March 15, 1860 — James Pope, vice (Jharles, dec'd. 
April 9, 1861 — Wm. C.Morris (commissioned by the Governor). 
March 5, 1862 — Samuel M. Chanil)crs. 
March II, 1863— John Sturges. 
April 1, 1863 — William (_". Mori-is, rice Merseles. 
March 2, 1864— Frederick W. Bohnstedt. 

J udgf and Justice. 'Resigned. 


February 27, 1867— Stephen Q naif e (resigned April 1. 1870). 
March 11, 1868— John Sturges. 

April 9, ] 868— Bennington F. Eandolph, Law Judge. 
March 25, 1869— Frederick W. Bohnstedt. 
March 16, 1870— John Brinkerhuif, vice Quaife. 
1S72 — James M. Newkirk. 
187?)— William T. Hoftiuan, Law Judge. 
1873 — James Wiggins. 
By the apportionment under the census of 1870 Hudson Coun- 
ty became a Congressional District, and Isaac W. Scudder was 
chosen its first representative in 1872. 

Hudson County may be credited with the following: 

November 8, 1858— Eodman M. Price, elected Governor. 
May 1, 1866 — Abraham O. Zabriskie, commissioned Chancellor. 
June 29, 1869— Kobert Gilchrist, appointed Attorney-General. 
Jan. 19, 1870 — Robert Gilchrist, appointed Attorney-General. 


Roadp, trnvflinij facilitifsaiul tniflic — Hanks — NewHimpors — Churches and their 
i'astors — Statistics of population, taxca and crime. 

Pkkvioi'S to the st'ttleineiit of Pliiladelpliia. in I0S2, coiii- 
munication between ^ranliartan Island and the South rivei- whs 
by water. Occasionally niessaoes were sent overland by means 
"t" Indian runners bearing them from tril)e to tribe. The first 
post route seems to have been establislied about tiie year 169-'>. 
It was yet a loni;- while after tins, however, before any road was 
laid out forthrouo'h travel. 

The first road in the county of Hudson was the one leading 
from Communipaw to the village of Bergen. This was over the 
present Communipaw avenue to Palisade avenue, thence north- 
erly along Palisade avenue to Academy street, thence westerly 
to the village. It was probably laid out in the latter part of the 
year 1060, by authority. In KITO it was described as " a fine, 
broad wagon road."' 

It was not until Scptendjer In, 1 T'!.'), that ('umniuni[)a\v avenue 
was extended from the IJergen Point plank road to IJergen ave- 
nue, although there was an old private road on nearly the same 
line, connecting the king's highway with Communipaw avenue. 

In Kis-j, by act of the General Assembly, . I ohn Berry, Law- 
rence Andries (Van Boskerck), Enoch ^lichielsen (Vreelandi, 
Hans Diedricks, Michael Smith, llendrick Van Ostrum and 
Claes Jansen \'an Purmerendt wen- a{)pointed commissioners of 
highways for Bergen County, with full power to lay out, con- 

Long Id. Hist. Sor., i., I.")."). The old people were accustomed to sjji-ak of 
this road as the " offfall road." This nann^ was derived from a stream of water 
which, takinff its rise in Tuers' pond, near the intersection of Mont^omi-ry 
street and Palisade avenue, jiassed southerly, tumbled over a ledge of rock at 
the intersection of Grand street and Communipaw avenue, and emptied into 
Syran's Creek, near the canal bridge. 


struct and repair roads at the expense of the county. This was 
the first " street commission " in the State of New Jersey ! In 
1694 Gerbrand Claesen was appointed in the place of Van Pur- 

On September 9, 1704, the General Assembly " Eesolved, 
That y^ Grand Jury of each & every Eespective County shall 
yearly in y*" February and March Court, w"' y* Approba'on of 
y^ Bench, appoint two persons in Each County, precinct, district 
or Township to lay out all other necessary cross Roads & by 
Roads w'^'" are to Consist of y® Width of four Rods, & also settle 
what is proper to be allow'd to those who shall be appointed, for 
their Service in Laying out y*^ said Roads." 

On the 3d of June, 1718, a road was laid from "• Crom-kill to 
AVhehocken " ferry. What place was then known as Crom-kill 
is not certain, but probably it was the English Neighborhood. 
The road then laid must be in part the present Hackensack 

At an early day the dwellers at Ilarsimus laid out a road by 
the way of Prior's mill to Bergen. The following return, with- 
out date, when compared with the Field Map, will give a general 
idea of its course, as well as show that some of the residents pre- 
ferred the war path to a highway : " By y'' Surveyors of y^ 
Highways for y'' County of Bergen. Application having been 
made to us by Archibald Kennedy, Esq'"., of some hardships A: 
trespasses he meets with from his Neighbor Mattys De Mot for 
want of particular fences, and We having heard the Allegations 
of both parties, & having Viewed the Premises, doe order that 
])artition fences be forthwith put up round y® six acres belonging 
to Mattys De Mot, as it is now marked out by us, y^ North 
Easterly one half to be fenced & Kept up by y*^ said Archi- 
bald Kennedy, and y° South Westerly other half to be fenced 
and Kept by y^ said Mattj^s De Mot. 

" As also that y*^ Rhoad for y'^ Use of y" plantations at Pavonia 
or Ahasiraus to y^ Mill A: Church shall l)e for y*^ future to begin 
at y® North East Corner of y*^ barn belonging to y*^ said Archi- 
bald Kennedy, and to run through y° said Six Acres one Rodd 
and a half wide, to be sup])orted and fenced of by said Archibald 

iiii': (H.i> KoAns. ;»')!> 

Ivciiiicdy, where, if lie |>leases, tlu^y may li.i\e Swini^iiig (ijite?, 
:ill()win<r to v"^ said de Mot So mudi niit ot' liis hind as is taken 
out of y" Six Acres of y'' Rlioud, all u liirh we have Determined 
and Stalked out, of which you are to take Notice as you will 
Answer y® contrary. We have, accordiiii; to tlu; hest <tf our 
• iudi^nients, allowed y"" said de Mot an Equivalent for y" lilu>ad 
ui»on y" South Side of his Six Acres out of land hchiniritiL;; to y'" 
said Archibald ivennedy." 

On January 12, 175o, the above road w^as widcm-d to four rod.-. 
It came to the shore just south of Kennedy's orchard, at about 
the corner of Second aii<l Henderson streets, thence passed up by 
\'an Vorst's to a place ou Keiine(ly's land called " Sand Point.'' 

\t what time the road fi-om Deriren to Beriren Point was laid 
it is now (litHcult to tell. < )n the 2d of November, 174^i, James 
Alexandei-, of the Council, repoi'ted a bill "for continuinfij the 
Kinti's Iliijhwav, which leads from ISeriren Point to IkMmMi 
Town, to some convenient place on Hudson's River, for crossing 
that River to New York." The bill " ]>a.ssed in the negative.'' 
On October U\ 1 T<)4, a King's Highway was laid out froui Hen- 
drick Sickles' barn to a point opposite the Dutch (church on 
Staten Island, and the old road was vacated. The reasons for 
this vacation were that in ])art it was through a swamp, and if 
laid along the bay it would be over sandy soil. This road then 
became a pai-t of the great stage route between New York and 
Philadelphia. It is probable that this road w^as not then con- 
structed in such manner as to meet the reipiirements of travel. 
On June 28, ITtJG, an act passed the Legislature providing for a 
I'oad four rods wide from " the most convetuent and suitable 
Place from the Southwest Point of Bei'(jtnh aforesaid along uji 
Xewai'l- Ba;/,'"^ and from thence over to Paul us Hoeck. This 
road was laid September 12, 1766. The causeway between Hai-- 
simus and Paldus Hoeck, at present Newark avenue, w^as to be 
'' cleared and imvintained " by the owner of the ferry. 

' Allison's Laws, 288. Ori(rinally tlu^ road at Berpfen Point was on the wi^st 
side of t!ie "Ferry Lot." It was c'.ianfjod Fcbniiiry 17, ISOl. to unite this lot 
with land belon<;injr to the same owner on the west side. 


The road from the intersection of Waverly avenue and the 
New Bersreii road to Bero;en Point, and recently l^nown as the 
Beri^en Point plank road, from CurrieV Woods southwardly, 
was laid June 29, 1796. 

On June 20, 1765, on petition of the people of Morris and 
Essex counties, an act was passed by the Legislature providing 
for the construction of a road from " the lower end of the Great 
Neck belonging to Newark '' to the public road leading from 
Bero-en Point to Panlus Iloeck. Nine men were named as The 
Tpustees of the road and Ferries from Xetvarh to the Road 
leading from Bergen Point to Paulus Hoeck. It was soon 
afterward constructed on the ground now occupied by the New- 
ark plank road,^ except east of the Hackensack, where it lay 
further to the south. This part of it was known as Broion's 
Ferry Road. It was vacated April 29, 1799, and the road laid 
in its present position. 

On the 24tli of November, 1790, the Legislature provided for 
locating and l)uilding bridges over the Hackensack and Passaic 
rivers and laying out a road four rods wide from the court house 
in Newark to Paulus Hoeck. On the meadows the width was 
afterward changed to six rods. By the act five commissioneis 
were appointed and authorized to raise by lottery £4,000, after- 
ward increased to £27,000, part of which was to aid in complet- 
ing the road, part in building a bridge over the Raritan and 
part ill providing suitable buildings for the Legislature. 

Surveys were then made to ascertain the most practicable 
route. The map of these surve_ys, a reduced copy of which is here 
inserted, is taken from the JSfi'io York Magazine, vol. ii., 367 
(July, 1791), as also the explanations : 

•' The courses described in the map are the several routes pro- 
posed to lead to different stations on the rivers, at one of which 
it may be judged most advantageous to erect the bridges. The 
distance from Newark court house to Powles Hook, by the se\ - 
eral routes, is as follows: 

' This Company was incorporated as The Newark Pleink Road and Ferry 
Cempiiny, February 134, 1840. 



Nu. I Ciinn)'s I)oc1< 
Route, - 

It i;; 





18 41 

Dock lioiite, - 7 •';"» 
No. :! Beet- I'oi lit 

Route, - - 8 
No. 4 Prefieiit Ruatl. 8 
No. 5 

<h(trtene<l, - 7 

•• The leiiu'tli ot caiisewuv re- 
([uireii over tlie meadows is as 

follows : 

Miles. Chains. Links. 
No. 1 Camp's Dock 

Route, - - 4 
No. - lleddeii's 

Dock lioute, - o 
No. ?, Beef-Point 

Route, - :3 
No. 4 Present Road, l' 
No. :. " '• 

sliortened, _ 44 77 

NO ^ T V\ 


1 02 
.55 40 

•it; 75 

"The breadth and depth of tlio 
rivers is as follows : 

Hdckensarh- River. 

1 At the place where the ])resent 
ferry is estahlislied. 

Feet. Inches. 

P>readth.- - 1,448 

Depth at eastern shore, 8 8 

•' western - x 11 \ 

Greatest Dei>th in the 

channel, - - '^5 4 



Feet. Inches. 
2 At the place more northerly, called Douw's Ferry, 

Breadth, ------- 846 

Depth at eastern shore, - - - - - 19 10 

" western " . _ _ . 12 

Greatest depth in channel, - - - - 35 S 

Passaic River. 

1 At the place where the present ferry is established, 

Breadth, ----- 1 - 
Depth at eastern shore, - - - - . 

" western " 
Greatest depth in channel, - _ - - 

2 At a place more northerly, called Beef-Point, 

Breadth, ------- 

Depth at eastern shore, - _ - - 

" western " - - - - . 

Greatest depth in channel, - - - 

3 At a place more northerly, called liedden's Dock 

in the town of Newark, 

Breadth, ------- 

Depth at eastern shore, - _ - - 

" western " 
Greatest depth in channel, - - - _ 

On February ID, 171)3, the commissioners contracted with 
Sanmel Ogden and thirty-six others to build the l)rido;es, and 
gave them a lease thereof for ninety-seven years from Nov. 24-, 
17H2. On March 7, 1797, the stockholders under the lease were 
incorporated The Proprietors of the Bridges over the Rivers 
Passaic and Harkemaclc. The bridges were completed in the 
summer of 1795. The company thenceforth cUiimed a monopoly 
of the right to erect bridges over these rivers. Their claim was 
adjudicated in The Bridge Go. vs. The Ilobohen Land and Im- 
provement Co., 13 JSr.J. Chancery Reports, 81, 503. 

" The Newark Turnpike Company " was incorporated Decem- 
ber 1, 1804. The State took two hundred and fifty shares of 




















iiii: i>r.i> iioADs. :U>'-\ 

tlu' ('ii}>ital stock. Tlie eoiniiaiiy \\;is autliuri/cd to cuii.-.tnict a 
road from the Avestcrlj line of tlic .Icisry Associates" land (now 
Warren street, .Fersey City i to tlic cast side of tlic I lackcn.-ack 
river. It was coii.-tiucfetl in 1^0"). 'riiidiiL;Ii IIaivinni> tlic 
company was re(|nii'c(| to make tlicir inad contonn to the line ol 
the streets laid down on ( 'olo' Ma]). 'riii> i'c<|uircnH'nt wa> dis- 
rci:^arded, the i-oad laid diii<j;onally aci'os> the lilock.-. and Newark' 
avenue hi-i-amc a pcrnianent nni.-ancc. 

The road from the l'i\e ( 'orner.> to lloliokcn I'crry was anthoi-- 
i/ed February 17 and laid April 1», I7*.»4. On the loth of diinc 
folh)win<; the commissioners were authorized to eonstrnct an em- 
bankment alonjx the road over the lioliojxi'ii meadow, and lay 
the road six rods wide at the same place. l''roiii (cntral avenue 
to the brow of the hill the I'oad bore to the east more than now. or 
took a strai(:;ht line from the ( 'orners to the hill on the line of 
the present Hoboken avenue, west of CJentral avenue. From 
Central avenue eastward the road was chano;e<l to its pi-esent 
position March ?>(>, I S4s. 

The JJer^-en Turnpike Company was incor[)oratcd Movend)er 
30, 1802, for the purpose of constructiiii;' a road "from the t(^wn 
of ITackensack to Hoboken." It was constructed in 1804, and 
is known as tlu^ JFackensack turnpike. 

Durini;- the last French war, Colonel John Schuyler con- 
structed the causeway from the ii])land near Ilelleville to the 
ITackensack river at Douw's Ferry, '• at a very great expense." 
It was at first a corduroy road. In April, 1774, an act was ap- 
j)r(»ved to enable certain persons to erect and draw a lottery for 
raising £1.050 to cover this causeway with gravel. The cause- 
way is said to have been made by sailors, whose vessels were 
blockaded in the harbor of New York. In 1784 Arent J. 
Schuyler complained that too much of the rei)air of this cause- 
way fell upon him. Thereupon the Legislature enacted that lu' 
should keep in repair the causeway thirty-three chains and thirty- 
eight links east from tlie Passaic river, and also the fen-y stairs, 
and that Archibald Kennedy should keej) in repair the balance 
of the causeway to the ITackensack river and the ferry stairs 


Prior to ls4S all travel from Bergen and the lower part of the 
county to Panhis Hoeck was around by the Five Corners and 
Newark avenue, or by the Mill road via Prior's mill. Even the 
residents at Communipaw were obliged to take this roundabout 
way. Put in 1S4S Grand street was extended from Jersey City 
across the meadows. 

The foregoing list includes the principal roads in the county 
of ancient date. There were others, as the Middle road, which 
was approached through the northwest gate of the village of 
Bergen, and the Bergen Woods road, which opened into the 
woods through the northeast gate. There are also the Daily- 
town and Buirs Ferry roads. But the dates of their laying out 
or construction have not been ascertained. For convenience in 
keeping the roads in rei)air the township was divided into dis- 
tricts, which bore the following names, viz. : Bergen Town. 
Gomunipa, Pamerpugh, Bergen Point, Wehawk, Maisland, 
Bull's Ferry, Sekakes, and Bergen AYoods. 

Traveling Facilities. 

In 17<!-t stages were lirst "'set up"' to start from Paulus 
Hoeck for Philadelphia, via Bergen Point and Blazing Star 
ferries. The vehicle used was a covered Jersey wagon without 
springs. Three days were consumed in dragging it to Phila- 
<lelphia. It was modestly called a " Flying Machine I " 

In the fall of the same year Sovereign Sj'brant gave notice 
that he had fitted up and completed in the neatest manner a new 
and genteel stage wagon, which was to set out from Philadelphia 
on Monday, and get to Trenton that day ; the next day to Sy- 
brant's house, " known by the sign of the Roebuck," two miles 
and a half from Elizabethtown, where, with a good assortment 
of wnnes and liquors, and by ''Assiduity, Care and Despatch," 
he hoped for the " Favour and Esteem of the Public." On 
Wednesday the stage reached " Powless's Hook," by the new post 
road (tver Bergen and return to the i Roebuck. Thence it would 
start 'in Thursday, and reach its destination on Friday. 

TKAVKi.iN(i i!v si.\t,i>. ;{«;5 

III 177-i.I(ilin MrrsiTi'au ;ij)j»i'.iii'(l with lli.-^ '" Machiiie.s."' Jk- 
left Paiilu.N llitei'k tlii-ec times u week, aiid went tliroii;;]i to 
l'hila(U'l|)lii:i in a ilav ami a lialt. In \1~'-) \\r e>t:il)li>lic(l a liiu.' 
of stai^e couches wliicli left I'aiilus llocck om riuxlay ami 
I"'ri(lay, ''at or liefore >unrise,"" and went hs tar as '■ J'riiice-town "' 
the same iiii;ht. Ilei'e they e.\chani;-e(l ])a»eiiifer> with the coach 
troiii Phihi(lel]ihia, and returned the next (hiv. Iii>i(h' passeii- 
Ui'i-s paid thirty shillings tare; outside passengers twiMity shil- 
liuiTS. l"]ach pussen:;er \\a> alk)\\ed tuurtcen pounds of hai^j^Jii^e : 
Ix'Vond that weiijlit the eharue was two-pence a })uun(i. 

In 17i''.i a new route from Paulu> llocck to Philadelphia was 
selected \>\ .loscj)h ( 'ranc and .l()^ia!l 1'. davenport, rn/ Xewark, 
l'!li/alicth, 1 Miiiiidhrook and the nui'th luanch ot the Karitan. to 
( orrielTs ferry on the Delaware. They ju-uposed tu leave the 
Iloeck every 'J'uesday moining ity sunrise. Passengers were re- 
'juested to cross over from New York the night before. The 
-tages met at the South Praueh. exchanged jtassengers and n- 

In 1771 Abraham iSkillmau started his " Plying Machine'" to 
Philadel})hia. via Newark, l->lizabeth, W(»odbridge, New Bruns- 
wick, Princeton, Trenton and Pristol. Time, one day and a 
half; fare, twenty shillings imtclamation money; '* a good wagon, 
sober drivers and able horses/* 

In I7t*>7 Matthias Wai'd informed the public that he had for 
Some time kept a stage wagon from Newark to '* Powdas Hook."* 
Having met with some encouragement, he |)ro])osed tt) make tlu' 
lound trip each day, leaving Xewaik at sunrise and I'auhis 
IJoeck ''sun "J hours higli.'' All persons might expect the 
" best Usage at 1*. 6 each for coming and goinii;. or ;] 8hillin<rs 
for I)oth." 

In 17<>S Andrew Van Puskirk gave notice that he would 
erect a " Staije Waijon "' in IIacken>aek at the New P>ridi>e, to 
set out for Paulus Iloeck on September 17. to go twici- a week; 
fare, 28. in/. In 177."> he changed the terminus from Paulus 
Iloeck to Hoboken, ami named his vehicle a " Mying ^[achine.*" 

In the same year and year following, some proprietoi's a<Iopted 
the system of having their stages on each side of the Ilackcn- 


sack river, where they would exchange passengers, " which en- 
tirely takes oft' the Inconveniency of detaining Passengers by 
ferrying of the Wagon over said River." 

For some years prior to 1774, Peter Stuyvesant ran a stage 
from the Hoeck to Brown's ferry, where he met Josiah Crane 
with a stage from Newark, and exchanged passengers. 

In 1770 a stage was run from Morristown to the Hoeck by 
Daniel and Silas Barnet,and from Hanover in 177.''> bv (^onstant 

In 177") Abraham Goodwin ran a stage from the (ireat Falls 
(Paterson) to the Hoeck twice a week. In May of the same 
year Thomas Douglas erected his stage to run from Haeketstown 
once a week, via Flanders, Black Iliver, Mendham and Morris- 
town, consuming two days en route. 

In the same year Verdine Elsworth brought out his '' new 
caravan'' betweei the Hoeck and New Bridge. He informed 
the public that his horses were " very quiet, and the caravan 
new and in excellent order." 

In 1783 Adam Boyd '• established a stage waggon to run be- 
tween Hackinsack and Hoebuck ferry." He boasted that the 
roads were very good, his wagon and horses in prime order, and 
hoped that such a useful institution would be encouraged. 

From almost every direction in the interior part of the State 
stage lines were organized, and all sorts of vehicles started to- 
ward Paulus Hoeck to accommodate the public. To such an 
extent did this system of travel increase, that before the construc- 
tion of the New Jersey Railroad, as many as twenty regulai- 
stages would daily leave the ferry for dift'erent parts. 

The Morris Canal. — The Morris Canal and Banking 
(Company was incorporated December :51, 182-1. Banking 
privileges were not in the charter. It was authorized to con- 
struct a canal from the Delaware to the Passaic. The canal was 
completed in 1831. On January 28, 1828, authority was given 
to extend the canal to Hudson^s River at or near Jersey City. 
This extension was completed in 1836. The canal and its appur- 
tenances, with the chartered rights of the company, were sold 
under a decree of the Court of Chancery, October 21, 1844. By 



an act of the LouMslaturi', l-Y-hriiary it, 1^4'.», the haiikiiii!; ])rivi- 
leijes wt'iv takt'ii t"r(jin the C()iii])any. The lullowiiij; tal)h.' 
fxliihits the extent of the trntlic on tliis cumil sinee the or<^aiii/.a- 
ticin of tiie new coinjnuiy : 






109 />()") 































554.0;}4 ' 

















723,5(27 1 



77ie J-'aferwn mid Ifudson Jilver lla'droad Company wa.s 
incorporated Jamiarv iM. is:51. The road went into operation 
hetween Patersoii and Aqnackanonck (now Passaic) Jnne 22, 
ls;',i>. The I'ollin^ stock at that time consisted of " tliree s])leii- 
(h"d and conunodions cars, each ca]>al)le of accomnio(hiting thirty 
passengers." which were drawn hy '' fleet and gentle horses.'' 
It was thought to he a ** rapid and delightfnl mode of traveling." 
The trial trip over that part of the road was June 7, 1<S8'2. It 
connected with the New Jersey Kailroad at West End. The 
road was leased to the Union Kailroad Company September '.». 
1 ^.■)2. This lease was assigned to and the road now forms part of 
the main line of the Erie liailwav. Ildtli the lease and assignment 
were conlirmed liy the I^'gislature Mai'di 14, \'^W,^. 

The Xi'w 'Ji rse>i Itaih-oiiiJ mid Tnutsportntlon ('oiiijxoii/ was 
incor])oratcd ^fai-ch 7. 1>^.">l'. The tii'st excursion over the road 
was on Septenilicr 1. 1>;'>4. in the '• passciigci car Washington," 
'• a S])lendid and licautiful speciuu'n of workmanship, containing 
three ajtartments, besides seats on to|>." ivcgulai- trips began 
Se]>tember I •'., 1 ^^U. Kight trips a ilay were made. The cars were 
drawn by horses, stopped at the hotels to receive passengers, and 
ran from Newark to Jersey City in one hour and a half. At that 
time, ami up to January 1. 1n3s, when the Bergen cut was com- 



pleted, tlic cars were drawn over the hill. The first engine 

passed ovei- the road from Jersey City to NeM'ark December 2, 

1885. " Newark " was the name of this ])i()neer locomotive. 

This road consolidated with the Camden and Amboy Railroad, 

nnder authority given by the Legislature, February i^T, 1S67, 

and the consolidation was leased to the Pennsylvania Hailroad 

Company in 1870. 

The following table will show the growth (»f Ijusiness upon 

this road. It is to be regretted that more com[)lete statistics 

could not be obtained : 

Passengers. • 


102,359 1 




293,559 ' 


















3,684,992 i 















Freight — [tons). 

Tlw Morris and Essex Railroad Company was incorporated 
January 29, 1835. At first this was connected with the New 
Jersey Kailroad at Newark. It was extended to Hoboken 
November 19, 1802, by the completion of the NfU^arlc and Hoho- 
Ti'eiiBdih'oad; leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad Company December 10, 1808. 

' 464,087 tons of frciglit were moved /rom New York in 1872. It is e.stimated 
that 30 per cent, of this was taken via Amboy. 



The following t;il)le shows the iminbcr of passengers curricl 
over this road from 1^.");J until it \v;is loused: 


•2:5S/.»01 h 






17: '.,205 




5!)() 77:i 




1 ,0:i2,!i7:{ 


•28!), 75 1 

1 S(i5 

1 ,025,4!)8 













27i>' Erie Railirmj Company was iirst recognized l»y the laws 
of New Jersey March 14,' 1858, as the Xew York and Erie Bail- 
road Companij^ then as the Erie Railioay Company. After 
leasinir the Paterson uml Jlutlson River Railroad and the 
Paterson and Rafnajfo Railroad, wliich two roads formed a 
direct line from Jersey City to Sutterns, Piennont was aban- 
doned as a terminus, and the cars were run to the dejjot of 
the New Jersey Ilailroad Company in Jersey City, until May. 
IS61. "The Long Dock Company," incorporated February '2i>, 
1850, in tlie interest of the Erie Railway, completed the Bergen 
tunnel January 28, 1801, The first passenger train passed 
through it May 1, 1801. Then the Erie traffic was transferred 
to its present terminus at the Long Dock, 

T/w Central Railroad of JVew Jersey for many years 
terminated at Elizabethport. Li 1800 an act was passed 
authorizing the company to bridge Newark Bay and extend the 
road to Jersey City. This extension was completed and opened 
for travel August 1, l^O-t. ISince its termination in this county, 
its traffic has been as follows : 



Table showing the live stock brought to and slaughtered at the Abattoir, 





















, 246,323 




470 717 


1,025,1 'J 6 






Besides the foregoing;, this company are bringing over their 
road to the National Storage Oil Yards about 1 ,500,000 barrels 
of petroleum annually. 

The Norther7i Railroad Company of New Jersey was incor- 
porated February 9, 1854; completed October 1, 1859. It was 
leased to the Erie Railway Company in 1869. The following 
table shows the amount of business done from 1861 to 1869 : 


No. of Passen- 


Tons 1 
of freight. 



No. of Passen- 

of freight. 











Besides the foregoing, the following named railroads are in 
active operation, many of them doing a thriving business, viz. : 


' Tbe '^^%^x was opened for business October 17, 1866. Nearly all of 
the s.tocl|yJilogght to this place was carried over the Central Railroad of 

New-Jeifify.f'^f'f; .c- i 
■■' The above figures^ for the year 1873 include receipts up to December 17. 


llie Neimirk nml .\ i m York' L'd'il rmul^ iiicurporatcil March I, 
I >(>(»; went into {ictivo upiTatioii August 2, Isc'.t; uikIlt ihf 
Control of tlif Ciiifnil lid'iJ roiid. Its terminus i> at the depot 
of the hist named companv. /'/// Nfin Jersey M'kIIhikI h'liil- 
•<0<ty, ineorporati'd March 1^, l^tlT, and The Xnr }'<)rl,- mnl Os- 
wtgo M'lilliiinl Rallwai/, projected in Isfir); incorporated danu- 
aiv 1, istlt!; construction begun dune l".'. ImIs; first train run 
over the western end of tlie road jS'oveinl»er 5, ISdJt ; first thruugli 
train, August IS, ls7-".. 7Vi> Jirsti/ (^Ifij <ni(J Alhtm;/ llnili'oad^ 
opened to Taj)paen duly ;5t», 1S7:;. The present terminus of 
these three roads is the Peniisjlvania Railroad depot in Jersey 
("ity. The Ilacly'ensack ((nd New York RtiUiuxul , incorporated 
March II. is.")*;, completed December -'+, isoi^ and The Pat- 
erson^ Nevxirh and New York RnUroad terminate at the depot 
of the Erie Railway Company in Jersey City. The Boonton 
liranch of 2'he Morris and Essex Railroad connects with tlie 
main line at the west approach of the Bergen tunnel. The New 
York and Eort Lee liallroad^ incorporated March o, lsf)2, is 
completed as far north as Guttenberg ; is under lease to the Erie 
Railway Company^ and used exclusively for oil, coal, and live 

OcKAN Steamers. 

The Canard Line was the first to terminate in Hudson Coun- 
ty. On the 14th of October, 1S46, Samuel Cunard communi- 
cated to the Common (\nmcil of Jersey City the fact that he had 
made arrangements to bring the ships of that line to Jersey City. 
He desired their approval, which was given December 20, 184(5. 
The Uihcrnia, Captain Ryrie, arrived in December, 1847, as 
pioneer of the line. At first the trips were monthly. They 
have increased until now two ships leave weekly. For some 
time this line had ships plying between Jersey City and liler- 
muda and St. Thomas. Besides the Cunard Line there are now 
the Ilamhu)'<jh Line, the Bremen Line, tho White Star Line and 
the Cardiff lAne. The business on these linos has grown to 
immense propoi-tions. On the Cunard Line alone it amounted 


ill the year 1872 to 94-,535 tons of in freight ; 143,620 tons of out 
freight; 32,017 in passengers, and 10,559 out passengers. 


On November 13, ISOl:, The N'eioark Banhing and Insurance 
CoTTipany were authorized to establish a branch at Paulus Hoeck, 
witli the consent of the Associates. The State reserved the right 
to subscribe $50,000 to the stock of this branch bank. This 
privilege was afterward sold to Colonel Aaron Ogden for $4,00(>. 
The branch was established under the name of The Jersey Banl., 
and books opened for subscription January 24, 1805 ; directors 
elected April 2, 1805. The bank building, on the southwest 
corner of Greene and Grand streets, was erected in the summer 
of 1805. The Legislature laid a tax of one-half of one per cent, 
on the capital of the Jersey Bank, jSTovember 2, 1810. The 
directors attempted to evade the payment of this tax, and sold 
their bank building. The sheriff, however, levied upon and sold 
it at public auction, the State being the purchaser, February 23, 
1811. In March, 1811, the directors procured a charter in New 
York in the name of the Union BanJc ; removed to that city, and 
began business at No. 17 Wall street, April 11, 1811. 

The Jersey Bank (No. 2) was incorporated February 6, 1818, 
under the name of The President^ Directors and Company of the 
Jersey Bank ; capital $100,000. The condition of the charter 
was that the company should purchase of the State the banking 
liouse formerl}^ owned by the old Jersey Bank, for $5,000. It 
failed on Thursday, July 6, 1826. This caused a " run " on the 
Weehawk and Franklin Banks. On the 24tli of November 
following three commissioners were appointed by the Legislature 
to inquire into its affairs. 

John, Bobert and Samuel Swartwout having beconje the 
owners of the meadows lying between Hoboken and the 
hill, and on the Hackensack, and desiring to improve the 
same, obtained a charter for The New Jersey Salt Marsh 
Com-ijany, January 2S, 1820, with a capital of $3O|^00. It 

BANKS. 373 

received power to '" drain, ditrli, dykt-, einlijink, cidtivate iind 
improve'' the inarslies. On November 15, IS'22, this company 
were autliorized to erect a hanking house in Ihihoken, and 
use onedialt" of their hankinj; ca|)ital \\>v haid<in;Lr purposes 
for fifteen years, in tht' name of 77it' Ilolxikm Banking and 
Grazing Company. They forthwith erected the bniMin<^ on the 
southwest corner of Washington and Second streets. On No- 
vcmber 24-, lS2t», a commission was appointed to examine into its 
att'airs, to inquire if the capital had l)een subscribed and paid, 
and whether one-half of the stock had been employed as directed 
in the act incorporatiui; the Salt Marsh Company. 

The New Jersey Mamifacturing and Banking Company was 
incorporated December'.', is^.']; raj)ital sl,")0,000. It went into 
operation in March. 1S24. On February 4, 182S, the Legislature 
required it to make a full report of its affairs. It suspended 
payment in March, 1S2!>, and then the Chancellor enjoined it. 

The Franklin Bank of New Jersey was incorporated Decem- 
ber 28, 1824: ; capital s;;()0,000 ; bonus to the State, S2r,,000. Its 
whole capital was subscribed ]\Iarch 22, lS2r); directors elected 
April 8, 1825. It did not live through its appointed time, but 
suspended in 1826. On the 24:tli of November in that year com- 
missioners were appointed to examine into its aliairs. Proceed- 
ings in court were also instituted against it. These were discon- 
tinued, and it resumed payment April 2, 1827. It again sus- 
pended July 14, 1827. It resumed once more, and was enjoined 
May 29, 1828. Its charter was repealed February 22, 184:'., and 
so its spasmodic existence ended. 

77ie Weehawk Banking Company was incorporated December 
28, 1824; capital, $125,000; bonus to the State, S5,000. On 
November 30, 1825, the company received authority to change 
the name to The Washington lJajiki?ig Company, and locate the 
bank at Ilackensack. Its charter was repealed February 22. 

The President and Directors of the New Jersey Protection 
and Lmnhard Bank\\QYe incorporated December 20, 1824 ; cap- 
ital, $400,000 ; charter limited to twenty-one years ; bonus to the 
State, 1^,000. A " run '' was made upon the bank November 

374 HISTORY or HUDSON county. 

17, 1825, and on the next day it failed. Its charter was re- 
pealed November 23, 1825, and trustees appointed to take charge 
of its property. Its bills fell to 37i cents on the dollar. 

The more recent banks, some of which endnre, while the 
others had a brief and profitless existence, are as follows : 
Name. Incorporated . 

Hudson County Bank, ----- July 7, 1851. 
Mechanics' and Traders' Bank (First Nat.), - - 1853. 

Jersey City Bank (Second Nat.), - - - June 25, 185G. 
Hoboken City Bank, - - - - March 18, 1857. 
Marine Bank, . - . - - September 21, 1857. 
Hudson Kiver Bank, . - - - March 24, 1862. 
Bank of America, ...--_ July 4, 1862. 

City Bank of Jersey City, - - - - September 0, 1862. 
United States Stock Bank, - - - - October 17, 1862. 
Highland Bank, ----- December 4, 1S62. 
North Kiver Bank, - - - - December 10, 1862. 
Union Bank, January 2, 1870. 


The Bergen County Gazette and Jersey City Advertiser, 
weekly, was established in 1830 by E. B. Spooner, son of the 
editor of the Long Island Star. It was printed in Hackensack. 
He soon abandoned the enterprise, and his brother George, after- 
ward of the Saratoga Whig, took it in charge. It existed but a 
few months. 

The Bergen County Courier, weekly, was first issued Feb. 1, 
1832. It was printed in Jersey City by John Post and Joseph 
E. Handley. They not only furnished the matter, but printed 
and distributed the paper. Enterprise and economy were not, 
however, equal to the occasion, and the paper died Nov. 14, 
1832, with the forty-second number. Part of its material went 
to the outfit of the Philadelphia Ledger. 

The Jersey City Gazette and. Bergen ( 'otinty Courier, serai- 
weekly, was first issued Feb. 11, 1835, l)y Kobert W. Lang, son 


of the editor of" the iV<3ir }'<)/-k iiazettc. Tlie paper was printe<i 
at No. 2 lliiriover sijimre, New York (^ity, and was l)iiriit out in 
tlie great fire of Decenil)er, 1S35. 

The Jersey Bine and Bo'gen County Democrat^ weekly, was 
established in July, 1835; burnt out Aug. 8, 1838. It was puli- 
lished in IIol)oken by Childs v'v: Devoe. 

The Jersey City Adrertiser and Bergen Jiepuhlican^ seini- 
weekl}', was first issued Dec. 2,1837; Henry I). Holt, editoi*. 
It became a weekly Dec. 14, 1838. When Hudson (Jounty 
was set oft" from Bergen, its name was changed to the Jersey 
City and Hudson Jiipuhliran. It united with i\ni Sentinel in 184s. 

The Jersey City Democrat^ weekly, was first issued May 14, 
1842; M. Cully, editor. It suspended Jan. 1.5, 1848. 

The Morning Sentinel., daily, was first issued Aug. 23, 1845 ; 
Mr. Reynolds and Luther A. Pratt, editors. It united with the 
Jersey City Advertiser and Hudson Jiepuhlican in 1848, and 
was thence known as the Sentinel and Advertiser. 

Tlw Daily Evening Sentinel was established in December, 
1844; Luther A. and William W. Pratt, Publishers. 

The Jersey City Telegraphy semi-weekly, was first issued 
March IT), 1847: John PI. Yoorhis, editor. It became a daily : 
suspended June 25, 1S51>; John A. Ryerson, editor. Its ma- 
terials went to the outfit of the American Standard. 

The Hudson i-ounty Union., weekly, was first issued Aug. 12. 
1852; A. R. Speer, editor ; became a daily Jan. 24, 1854; S. 
P. Hull and William T. Rodgers, jr., editors ; suspended in June, 
185+. Its materials went to the outfit of the Hudson County 

The Hohohen Gazette., weekh% was first issued Sept. 12, 1853: 
Thomas W. Whitley, editor. Became a semi-weekly in Feb.. 
1S55 ; a daily in Aug., 1S55, and suspended in Oct., 1^55. 

The Hudson County Democrat, weekly, was established in 
September, 1854 ; Augustus O. Evans, editor ; published in 
Hoboken ; became a daily in 18<59. 

l^he Jersey (^ity ('Ourier, weekly, was first issued Aug. 1. 
1855; William B. Dunning and II. F. Milligan, editors. In a 
short time it became a daily ; merged with the Sentinel and 


Advertiser in Jan., 1856 ; tlience known as the Courier and Ad- 
vertiser : suspended in May, 1861. In connection with this 
paper was a weekly, the Hudson (Jounty Courier and Adver- 
tiser : suspended in 1861. 

The Citij Gazetti- (tnd Hudson County Ghronide and Culti- 
vator^ Thomas W. Whitley, editor, was issued for a short time 
after the suspension of the Hobohen Gazette. When this paper 
suspended, the same editor, havini;- been elected a justice of the 
peace, brought out a few numbers of the Circuit Judge. 

The HolKiken City Standard, weekl}^, was iirst issued Oct. 9, 
1856 ; P. M. Reynolds, editor. 

The American Standard., daily, arose from the ashes of the 
Daily Telegraph, and was first issued Aug. 8, 1859, by Metz 
c% Brother. John H. Lyon became proprietor Oct. 14, 1859. Tt 
is ]»ublished in Jei'sey City. 

TJte People's Advocate, daily, was established by John C. 
Clarke & Co. It was published in Jersey City, and merged in 
the Jersey City Times. 

The Jersey City iVd-Jo^^, weekly, was established in 1854 by 
Daniel E. Gavitt. It existed about one year. 

The Jrrsey City Herald, weekly, was Urst issued July 19, 1864, 
by Hugh McDermott. It merged with the Iludsoi) City Ga- 

Jersey City Times, daily, was Iirst issued Sept. 14, 1S64 ; Z. 
K. Pangborn, editor; changed to a weekly ^o\. 8, 1873. 

The Evening Journal, daily, was first issued May 2, 1867. It 
is published in Jersey City by Z. K. Pangborn, Wm. B. Dun- 
ning and Joseph A. Dear. 

The Hudson City Gazette was established in March, 1867; 
William D. McGregor, editor. It merged with the Jersey City 

Jersey City Chronicle, semi- weekly, was first issued Feb. 14, 
1863, by Davidson & Colston; discontinued Aug. 24, 1864, and 
merged in the Jersey City Times. 

The Hudson Count/y Volhshlatt, weekly, was established in 
1868; published in Hudson City by Dietz & Timm. 

The Bayonne Herald and Greenville Register^ Aveekly, was 


first issued Doc. ^."i, ISO!*; lioswcll ( li-avcs, editor. It is ynh- 
lit^liod !Vt l)('rtj;t'n I'oint. 

77" IladKon Countii '^<'i"'""l, weekly (fTonnaii), was 
issued Dee. 11', 1808; |)ul»lislie<l in Iloboken by Kabe & 
Haver, now l»y l'»ayer and KautHiaiin. 

Jersey (^itij !!< raid and Oazetti\ weekly, was established in 
I'^T*' bv McDerniott ^ McGrei'or. It was the result of the 
meriijini; of the Ji nfvy City Herald and Hudson City Gasettc. 

Hudson County Register^ weekly, was first issued July '.io, 
1870, at West Tloboken, by Peter Y. Everett, editor. 

Palisade News, weekly, was first issued Aug. 0, INTO, ;it West 
lloboken, by Alfred E. (Tregory, editor. 

Hudson County Times, weekly, was established in August, 
1870; published at Bergen Point by the Times Printing Com- 
pany of Jersey City, now by Edward Gardner. 

Die Wac/it am Hudson, weekly, was established in 1871 ; 
published in Jersey City by tiie Hudson County German Pul)- 
lishing Association. 

Hiijhland Sentinel, weekly, was first issued March 29, 1873, 
at West Hoboken ; Joseph Paul Pugie, editoi-. 

Hudson County Independent, weekly, was fii'st issued May 3, 
1873, at Hoboken, by Augustus C). Evans, editor. It had but a 
brief existence. 

Dif^patch, weekly, was established in 1873; published at East 
Newark by Trelease, Simmonds & Co. 

The Evening Ptdisades, daily, was first issued June 30, 1873, 
at West ITob.ikeu, by the Palisades Publishing Society. 


history of hudson county. 
Sketches of the Churches in the County. 




































































1850.. . 








1860. . . . 




















































1850. . . . 

1860. . . . 



$3,000 i 












tal value 

of property 


1870.... S 









The foreffoino; table is made from the United States Census 

for the years named. 

The Reformed (Dutch) Churches. 

The Bergen Reformed Church is the oldest church in tlie 
county, and probably the oldest in the State. It was organized 
about the time, or at least very soon after, the village of Bergen 
was settled. In December, 1662, the schout and schepens of the 
village petitioned the Governor-General and Council of New 
Netherland for a minister, as follows : 

" Shew with all reverence the schepens of the village of Ber- 
gen, how that they supplicants, having observed and weighed 
your Honor's fatherly care and direction, the building of churches 
and schools, they deem it expedient and highly desirable to pos- 

rilK UKKOKMKl) ClUKt IlKS. 87'* 

sess a pious niiin :is miiiistiT, wlio may instnutt, edify and learn 
them to fear (Jod. This wouhl he a desiral)]c ()l)jeet for the 
eoninmnity of IJcr^en and its district ; on wliicli the seliepcn.- 
have deemed it j^roper and highly desirable to pro])ose a similar 
plan to each individual to inform themselves what sum each of tl)e 
inhahitants shoidd he willini:; to contrihute, annnally, moved hy 
the imj)ulse of a f^ood heart, by pure afi'ectioTi and an ardent love 
for God's holy and i)lessed name with the view to ol)tain a j^ood 
minister till that time when the Noble Directors of the Privi- 
Icijed West Indian ('om])anv. after the custom of this country 
shall receive the tythes. 

" When this was pro{)osetl hy tlic >chcj)cns, the following- per- 
sons, (goodly minded, declared to he willin<j; to pay annually, 
which sum of similar voluntary ])romissor?, amounted, as it was* 
calculated nearly to 417 i;l. in scawant, however, there arc yet 
amonp^ them a few who i^ivc to understand that, if the Lord om* 
(ioi\ did bless them, and their pi'operty increased, that then 
they would perform, in pn)porti()n to their abilities, what mirjht 
be in their power. The second class, by whose names no sums 
are annexed, contains yet some who are willini;, but many very 
stupid, but as the numl)er of those willinei; to contribute is the 
greatest majority, and declare that Avhen a minister should be 
called, that in such case they would join others to the utmost of 
their abilities, and wlicrcas the supplicant> ai'c not informed if 
those of Stacr Simens^ are included in it, it is not in the suppli- 
cants' power to give a correct account <>( it, neither can ascertain 
what they would be willing to contrihute. Tli(> schepens deem 
it advisable and highly necessary that the village should be pro- 
vided with a gospel minister, and therefore they submit it, with- 
out hesitation, toyour Honor's mature consideration and decision, 
which then might be cijuimunicated to the Lords Patrons with 
the vessels now ready to sail. Your llonoi's know with what 
couraije the settlint'- and concentration of the village Bergen 

' I am unable to jrivcany clue to tin; whereabouts of this pliice. Wearkimins- 
Connie was somewlu-re in this vicinity, but I have not been able to locate it. 
'Pile two names may refer to the same place. 



was undertaken by its inhabitants without any burthen to the 
Lords Directors. The community, therefore, is of opinion, that 
this by the patrons shall be taken in consideration to support in 
their discretion the village of Bergen, and to provide them with 
a minister during one or two years at their own expense, about 
which time tlie country, no doubt, under God's blessing shall 
liave arrived at a higher prosperity, to which then might be 
added what this liberal minded community would contribute for 
its assistance. 

" Specification of the Avell intentioned Promissors with the 
quantity of the pronnse of each individual." 

The following is a copy of the subscription referred to in the 
body of the petition : 

Tielman Van Yleck, - fi. 
Michiel Jansen, 
Ilarman Smeeman, 
(Jasper Steynmets, - 
Jan Schulten, 
Michiel Tunisen, 
Dirck Gerritson, - 
Jan Lubbertsen, 
Jacob Laenderse, - 
Jan d'Engelsnian, 
Paulus Pietersen, - 
William Jansen, 
Adriance Post, 
Douwe Harmanse, - 

At this time, and until 1680, the people used the log school- 


Jacob Sergeant, - 

fl. 8 


Arent Lau reuse, 



Jan Cornelis, 



Cornells Abrahams, - 



Claes Pietersen, of Gemen 



epa, - - - - 



Geurt Coerten, 



Dirck Claeszen, - 



Jan Losercht, - 



Gerrit Gerritsen, - 



Claes Arentsen, 



Joost Yan Linden, 




41 7^ 

' iV. T. Col. MSS., X., pt. i., 277. 279, 281. A singular error concerning this 
subscription has been made by Dr. Taylor in his Annals of the Classis of Bergen, 
llO. Not having seen the original manuscript, but depending on information 
received from the late J. Romeyn Broadhead, he says : " As early as 1662 * * 
four hundred and .seventeen guilders * * were raised by tax, in the town- 
skip of Bergen, towards the erection of a church."' It was raised, not by t(i.r, 
but hj subscriplion ; not for the erection of a church, but for the support of a 
miiuiter. I am happy to be able to make this correction. 



house fur a pliicH- ot wursliij). This wns on the site of the [.reM-iit. 

scliool-honse frontiiii; the s(iu;irr.' In the spriiiir of the ye;ir 

Ifiso, the first chiireh biiihl- 

iuij: in r.ergeii was bei^fuii.'^ 

Willein Day was the biiihl- 

er. Its form was octagonal, 

with the wimliiws i[uite 

liii^h from the Lri"<'Uiid,. 

probably as much for a 

protection against the In- 

(Hans as to prevent the 

youngsters looking out 

(liirin<r the services. The 

accompanying illustration, 

enlarged, is taken from the 

I'^ield Map. It was located 

in the old graveyard west 

of Bergen avenue, and 

south of Vroom street, and 

was vet standingr in IH'A. 

In 1773 a new building was placed on the site of the old 
Octagonal. Over- the frunt door was a stone, with this inscrip- 
tion : 

" Kerk Gebouwt in llet Yaer 
IGSO. Her Bouwt in Het 
Yaer 1773." 

The bricks in the windows and arch over the door were brought 
i.-om llolland. The corner stone of the present building was 
laid August 20, 1841. The building was dedicated July 14. 

Previous to the arrival of Rev. Henricns Selvns, Dominie 
van Nieuwenhuysen did most of the preaching at Bergen — 
statedly from 1072 to 1080. lie preaclunl and administereil the 
Lord's Supper three ti'nes a year, for which he received " thirty 
bushels or fifteen bags of wheat."^ He preached in Bergen on 

OCTAdONAI, ellURCU, 1680. 

' Winfield's Land Titles, 10."). 

■A. r. Hist. Sor..i., I.j7. 

J bid, (., 15!S. 



week days. He is represented as a tliick, corpulent person, 
with a red and bloated face. There can be no doubt, however, 
that previous to tlie services of Yan Nieuwenhuysen, Dominies 
.Johannis and Samuel Megapolenses preached in Bergen. The 
village in its corporate capacity seems to have been responsible 
for the pay of these clergymen. 


Their salaries were not fully paid, and on May 21, 1674, the 
authorities were informed that there was yet due from the town 
of Bergen tp,.,efi|gh, oi^ them fl. 100, " for earned salary," which 
tlie magistrates were recommended to pay forthwith.^ On Mr. 
Selyns' jirr|;*f^],j;iii l.|]§^„,he found at Bergen a new church, and 
134 n].^j|ib|ers,,|j-,,]g:je.3.j9piljt/nued the previous arrangement of 
l)i-eacl)^i3g,j^1|jij,9rg;9^_ ^W-^i times a year. He died on Saturday, 
PM.i Jiiay,il:^;,JTj9^4fS^^^**' Kev. Gualtherius Du Bois be- 
cam.fe^gfg^eif'^fe§y^^yt]\,,^;t ^^It^s, and served the church in 

^isd.mwbf N. r.74i„m.:b j^m .i a 

"'N. Y. Hist. Soc, i., 390. 


I'.ergeii until Septfiiilifr, 17.')1. He \\;is horn in 1 1',7 1 , at Struct 
Kerf, Holland, wliere his father, Petnis dii Txiis, was tlie Dutch 
pastor. He was educated at the University of Leyden, h'censed 
ill lt)l)7, preached until Septeinher, 21», IT;")!, and died on Wed- 
nesday, Octoher '.', 17r»l, in the eighty-tirst year of his age.' The 
following eloquent tribute tn his memory is from the 11 'v/;/// 
/' .v/- lioij^ October U, IT.")! : 

A Gentleman of a spotless Character 

and undissembled Goodness; 

Amiable in his Temper, and in all Points exemj)lary : 

Of a benevolent Disposition, a diffusive Charity, 

and for his engaging Manners, 

and for the sanctity of his Morals, 

Beloved by all but the Foes of Virtue. 

Great was his Knowledge in sacred Literature ; 

Nor was he ordinarily skillM in the liberal Sciences: 

But for human Prudence, and the Knowledge of Men, 

To most superior 

and surpassed by none. 

Of a catholic Disposition, aiid a christian Charity, 

He never usurp'd the Province of God, 

Nor thundered his Anathemas against those of different Sects, 

whose lives were irreprehensible. 

On controversial Points, and polemic Theology, 

often destructive to vital Piety, 

He scorn'd to emj)loy his ])recious Moments: 

Yet stripping an Argument of its specious Glare, 

He had an admirable Talent to expose 

its Disguise and SophistiT. 

The awful Majesty, and the liigour of lleligicm. 

He soften'd by the winning Mildness of his Converse : 

And those Virtues which appear stern and forbidding in others, 

Shone in him with attractive Beauty, 

and inetfal)le Lustre. 

Doc. Hist. ofN. r, Hi., 537. 


His Deportment was grave, venerable and solemn. 

yet open, unaffected and familiar. 

His Discourses remarkable for a pleasing Variety, 

of the Natural and Sublime, 

Yet intelligible to the most illiterate : 

His style was nervous and emphatic, 

Yet neither destitute of flowing Periods, 

Nor the Flowers of Ehetoric. 

To ecclesiastical Dominion, and spiritual Bondage, 

To blind Superstition, and frantic Enthusiasm ; 

with every species 

of ghostly Tyrann}^ and Priest-craft, 

He was a resolute and irreconcileable Foe : 

But for primitive Christianity, and the Gospel of Christ 

(unadulterate with human Inventions 

or the Iloguery of Priests), 

Together with a Freedom of Enquiry and the Liberty of Man, 

A Triumphant Defender. 

Unambitious of Power, Affluence, or Honors, 

He consecrated his literary Acquirements, 

to inculcate Peligion 

in its Evangelical Purity : 

And looking on the glittering Toys of mortal Life 

with a wise Lidiffierence, 

He laid up Treasures in the Regions above, 

Where he now p^artakes, as the Reward of his Toils, 

Pleasures immortal 

and everlasting Repose. 

By his Doctrine, his Prayers, and his Life, 
He liv'd the Blessing and Ornament of his People, 

for above the Space of Fifty-two years ; 

And longing for Heaven, and for Heaven mature. 

He departed this Life with Serenity and Joy, 

or rather Acclamation and Triumph ; 

Bequeathing to his Church Lamentation and AYoe, 

And to his Followers a bright and shining Example. 


His ri'iiiaiiis wen- iiitrirM in the <)lil 1 )iiteli^( liureli, 

where they sleep in Expei tatioii 

ut' :i glorious Resurrection. 

Ma\ hi.-- ( ■(.iigrey.iitiuii ]);iss rnmi tlie \\'t;iktiess n[' rej:;rettiiii,^ him. 

To the (Jontcniplatinii of his N'irtues ; 

And rather adorn his Memory with deathle.-.-^ Traises 

I5y iniitatinii^ his Pattern, 

and adopting- his Excellencies. 

In 1750 I'etrus De AVint was chosen Pastor, hut turning out 
to 1)0 a i-(^gue, though carrying a shepherd's crook, was not 

On June 2"2, 17.");5, AVilliani Jackson was selected. He then 
went to Holland, finished his studies, returned, and was installed 
September 10, IT.")?. On account of mental infirmities, he was 
relieved froin duty in Decend)er, 1789. He died July 25, Isi:;, 
and was buried in Bergen. 


^[e>[okv of 

the Rev. Willia>[ Jackson 

who departed this life 

July 25!!', 1813 

Aged 81 years 

He faithfully fulfilled the pastoral 

charge of the united Congregations 

of Bergen and Staten Island, for 

32 years, until bowed down 

under grievous afflictions. 

He was esteemed for his piety. 

" Be ye followers of them who 

through faith and patience inherit 

the promises." Heb. 6, 12. 

He was an uncompromising whig among the uncertain patriots 
of Bergen during the trying times of the Revolution. Tradition 
says that he preached for the Refugees once at Fort Delancey. 
His text was : W/iat will ije give me, <nu1 I ir'dl deliver him 


unto you f And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of 
silver. Matt. 2b', 15. His sermon was a caustic application of 
the text to his tory hearers — some of them of his own congrega- 
tion. For this he was arrested and taken before the commanding 
General in JS^ew York. He was asked why he preached against 
his Majesty. He confessed the fact and justified it as the per- 
formance of his duty. He was forgiven and permitted to return 
home, where he continued to thunder against the enemies of his 
country. One day old Helmagh Van Houten found fault with 
the political complexion of his sermon. The dominie replied, 
" Lord Howe has forgiven me ; can't you? " 

Rev. John Cornelison became pastor of this church May 2t5, 
1793. Up to this time the preaching had been in Dutch. He 
died March 20, 1828, and was buried in Bergen. 


of the 

Kev. John Cornelison, A. M., 

who died 

March 20, A. D. 1828, 

In the 59th year of his age, 

and 35th of his ministry 
as Pastor of this church. 

In life 

Active, amiable, judicious and pious. 

He was useful, respected and beloved. 

In death 

He triumphed, tlirough faith in Jesus, 

As the Eternal God. 

"Remember them who have spoken unto you the 
WORD of God." Heb. 13, 7. 

Rev. Benjamin C. Taylor was installed July 2J:, 1828. De- 
clared by the Classis Emeritus Pastor September 22, 1870. 

James L. Ammerman was installed May 7, 1871, and is the 
present pastor. 



Tin: F'l I'fit lii funned C/iurc/i dt /itn/n/uie w&s organized Jjin- 
iiarv U, 1820, as tlie Ret'oniied J^utch Churcli of 15ur<ren Neck. 
First building was erected in 1S28 ; dedicated January 10, 1^29 ; 
abandoned February 10, 1867. The second building, the corner 
stone of which was laid September 4, 1866, was dedicated March 
31, 1867. It is on the north corner of Avenue C and Bayonne 


K.v. Ira C. Boyce, from Sept. 15, 1820, to Jan. 22, 1844. 
•• .lames Komcyn, from INlay 28, 1844, to May !.">, 1850. 
•' Jacob C. Uutcher, from Oct. 8, 18.50, to May 2."), 1S54. 
•• Aaron L. Stillwell, Oct. 4, 1854; (died) June 24, 1864. 
" Theodore W. Wells, from June 22, 1865 to Sept. 4, 1873. 

The First Reformed Chnrch of Jersey City was organized 
December 15, 1825, as The First Presbyterian Church <f Jer- 
sey City. February 16, 1830, the congregation resolved them- 
selves into a Dutch Church. First building was on the site of 
the present one ; the corner stone was laid by Colonel Varick, 
May IS, 1826. It was moved across the street in 1853, where it 
became " Park Hall," and was destroyed by tire December 12, 
l^t!4. The second building, the corner stone of which was laid 
September 22, 1853, was dedicated April 5, 1857. It is on the 
south side of Grand, between "Washington and Warren streets. 

Rev. Stephen 11. Meeker, from May 9, 1830, to Oct. 20, 1830. 
. *' James E. Talmadge, from Feb. 8, 1831, to Jan. 30, 1833. 
" Matthias Lusk, from Nov. 19, 1833, to Oct. 26, 1848. 
•' John Austin Yates (called), July 31,1849; (died) Aug. 

26, 1849. 
'• Daniel Lord, fnjrn June 16, 1850, to May 5, 1851. 
" Alexander W. McClure, from May 19, 1852, to April 18, 

•' David II. Ptiddle, from April l:*, 1857, to Dec. 22, 1862. 
" Henry M. Scudder, from Dec. 5, 1864, to May 23, 1865. 
" George H. Peeke, from Aug. 1, 1865, to Dec. <!, ls69. 
•' William AV. Ilallowny, jr., June 11, IsTl. 


The Reformed Church at New Durham was organized April 
12, 1843. The building known as " The Grove Church " is lo- 
cated on the west side of the old Dallytown road at Union Hill, 
" overlooking the region it was appointed to guard." Dedicated 
September 27, 1847. Enlarged to double its capacity in 1862, at 
a cost of $12,000. A parsonage is attached. 


Rev. Philip Duryee, of English Neighborhood, acting until 
" Wilham J. R. Taylor, from Oct. 6, 1844, to Sept. 8, 1846. 
" William Y. Y. Mabon, from Oct. 4, 1846. 

Second Reformed Church of Jersey City was organized March 
15, 1846, as the First Reformed Dutch Church in the Township 
of Yan Yorst. The building is on the south side of Wayne, 
between Grove and Barrow streets. The corner stone was laid 
August 24, 1847 ; building dedicated May 28, 1848. 


Rev. William J, R. Taylor, from Sept. 27, 1846, to Oct. 4, 1849. 
" Paul D. Yan Cleef, from Dec. 30, 1849. 

The First Reforined Church of llohoken was organized Octo- 
ber 27, 1850. The building is on the west side of Hudson, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth streets; corner stone laid July 12, 1852 ; 
dedicated August 27, 1855. 


Rev. Charles Parker, from April 1, 1855, to Jan. 18, 1858. 
" Alexander M. Mann, from March 23, 1858, to March 25, 

" Matthew B. Riddle, from April 15, 1S62, to Feb. 26, 1865. 

" W. H. Yroom, from June — , 1865, to April — , 1867. 

" J. K. Allen, from June 18, 1868, to April 19, 1870. 

" Charles D. Buck, from Dec. 21, 1870. 

The Third Reformed Church of Jersey City was organized 

May 7, 1852. The first building— the '• Tabernacle," on the 

THK Kl KuU.MKl) ( ' II C UCII KS. 3^0 

sontlieast corner of Erie and Sixtli streets — was dediratcd A]>ril 
10, 1.S54. The seoond ImildiiiLi- is nn tlic corner of Eightli street, 
and front ini:; on TIaniilton scpiarc; cornoi' stone laid September 
'20, l.s:)l) ; dedicatc.l May 0, isGo. 


Kev. William .1. R.Tajl.-r. fnmi Ani^. 10,1852, to Nov. 14, 1854. 
'' J. Paschal Stroni;, .Ian. '21, 1S55, to Nov. 25, 1856. 
" Calvin Soldcn, from May 10, 1S5T, to Oct. 5, 1857. 
" Cornelius L. Wells, from June 13, 1858, to March 5, 1863. 
" .1. liMineyn P.erry. from Nov. 25, 18()3, to Nov. 1, 1868. 
" , I. Howard Snvdani, from .Tan. ;!1, 1869. 

77/ «' Gerinan Evangelical CJiurch of North Bergen was or- 
ganized October 4, 1853. The building stands on Columbia 
street ; was dedicated March 28, 1854 ; enlarged and rebuilt in 



Kiv. Leopold Molm, from August 5, 1855, to April 21, 1857. 
'' Charles Becker, from Dec. — , 1857, to Sept. 12, I860. 
" John Justin, June 25, 1865. 

The Reformed Church of Hudson City was organized Decem- 
ber 14, 1853. The congregation worshiped in a room connected 
with Miss Graves' female seminary. Rev. Aaron Lloyd was 
missionary from September 15, l.s54, to July 19, 1855, and Rev. 
I'l-ederick L. King from October 16, 1855, to October, 1857. The 
church was afterward disbanded. 

The Reformed Church of Bergen Point was organized May 
16, 1854. The l)uilding is on the west side of Avenue T, be- 
tween Second and Third streets; dedicated August 21, 1853. 


Rev. Jacob C. Dutcher, from June I 1, 1 ^.■)4, to June 30, 1857. 
'' Charles Parker, from Feb. s, 1S5S, to Dee. 13, 1859. 
" Henry W. F. Jones, from August 7, I860, to . 


The German Evangelical Church of Jersey City was organ- 
ized August lY, 1856 ; occupied Franklin Hall, on the southeast 
corner of Montgomery and Warren streets; disbanded in May, 



Kev. C. Doeppenschmidt, from Aug. IT, 1856, to April 14, 1865. 
" Charles Meyer, from April — , 1865, to May, 1866. 

The Bef armed Church of Lafayette was organized May '^^ 
1863 ; incorporated June 1, 1863. The building is located on 
the northwest corner of Communipaw avenue and Pine street ; 
was dedicated ISTovember 25, 1866. 

Pastor — Rev. William Eankin Duryee, from July 31, 1861, 
to . 

The Second Reformed Church of Hudson City (German) was 
organized November 6, 1859 ; served by Rev. C. Doeppen- 
schmidt, as missionary in connection with Jersey City ; united 
with a mission at Washington Village, April 12, 1863, under the 
care of Rev. Leopold Molin. The church building is located on 
Central avenue, near Franklin street. The Pastor of the United 
Church, Rev. C. Doeppenschmidt, was installed December 1 1, 
1864. Hammond installed July 23, 1871. 

Beformed Church of West End was organized November 7, 
1869. The chapel stands on the corner of Academy street and 
Broadway ; dedicated November 8, 1868. 

Rev. Alexander Shaw was appointed missionary in 1868. 
Rev. William H. Yan Doren, pastor, installed July 23, 1871. 

Reformed Church of Greenville was organized February 19, 
1871, and supplied by neighboring ministers until January 19, 
1873, when Rev. Alexander H. Young was installed pastor. 

Free Reformed Church, Jersey City. The Morgan street 
(afterward called the Bethel) Sunday School, from which this 
cliurch sprang, was begun March 1, 1861, under the care of the 

TIIK Kl'lSCol'AI, (III K('lll>. 391 

tliree Reformed Cliiin-lu's ofJcrsey City. Tlir first chapel stood 
on Morgan street. Tlie present one is on the sontii side ot" First 
street, east ot"(ii-ovo, and \v;i> dedicated October 2, ls7o. 

Rev. Alexander Shaw was niissionai-y nntll Octoher, \X7'2. 
Rev. Andrew .1. Pai-k, pastor, instalh'd Jannary 12, 1873. 

Gentian Evaniji'l'ictO ('kurch, Iloltoken^ was organized Sej)- 
teinber 10, 1850. Tlie cliurch bnihh'ng stands on the corner of 
Garden and Sixth streets. 

Pastor — Rev. J.eopold Mohn, from April 21, 1857, to . 

Reformed Church of Gutteiiherg was organized November, 
1868. The chapel is located on Hndson avenue, and was dedi- 
cated in Jannarv, 1808.' This cono-resration <:;rew ont ot" a Sun- 
day school established in 1804 by Rev. W. V. V. Mabon, D.D., 
who, assisted by others, kept up regular ])reaching until August, 
1872, wlien Rev. Peter B. Crolius was installed pastor. 


itral Avenue Reformed Church was organized .Inly lo. 
1872. The chajiel is on Central avenue, corner of Bowers street ; 
dedicated J )ecember 31, 1871. The church was supplied with 
preaching by neighboring ministers until September, 1872, when 
Rev. G. II. Pool was installed. lie continued until April 21, 

The Third lieformed Church of Bay o tine 6'/Yy (German) was 
organized May 3 and 20, 1S72. The church building is, located 
on the corner ot" Avenue T and Fourth street; corner stone 
laid October 12, 1^73. 

Platik Road Chapel. — A Sabbath school was organized in 
this locality by Rev. AV. \. \. Malx.n in 185S. In ISOO, by the 
liberality of ^Ir. .lames Brown, a chapel was (>rccted. This 
chapel is connected with the Grove Church, and tlie services are 
maintained ])y the ])astiir, Rev. AV. V. Y. ^labon. 

EpiscorAi. Churches. 
St. Matthi'urti^ Jerf-ej City, was organized August 21, 1808, 


The trustees were elected December 8 in the same year. At 
first the services were held in the " Jersey Academy," built by 
the town authorities, and completed in February, 1807. The 
buildinir is located on the north side of Sussex, between Wash- 
ington and Warren streets ; corner stone was laid October 
22. 1831; building was consecrated E'ovember 26, 1835; de- 
stroyed by lire December 4, 1869 ; rebuilt and opened for service 

October 15, 1870. 


Eev. Timothy Clowes, from organization until May 1, 1809. 
" Edmund D. Barry, from May 5, 1809, to 1816. 
" Cave Jones, from 1816 to 1824. 
" Edmund D. Barry, from 1824 ; became rector May 13, 

1831; died April 20, 1852. 
" A. C. Patterson, assistant pastor from June, 1844, to May 

12, 1847. 
" Charles Aldis, assistant pastor from July, 1847, to Maj-ch, 

1849. ,^ .j 

" James J, Bowden, assistant pastor from Juiie-, 1849, to Ma}- 

4, 1852. 
'' James J. Bowden, rector from May 4, 1852, to June, 1859. 
" J. Brinton Smith,i from Nov., 1859, to Dec. 31, 1865. 

" William A. Matson, from Sept. 1, 1866, to . 

" Bichard Abercrombie, from Jan. 7, 1872, to . 

' Raleigh, N. C, November 13, 1872. — The coroner's jury rendered a verdict 
today in the case of Rev. Ur. J. Brinton Smith, supposed to have been poisoned 
l>y members of his family on the 1st of Octoljer : That the deceased, J. Brinton 
Smith, came to his death on the morninof of the 1st day of October, 1872, from 
tlie effects of strychnine mixed in a dose of seidlitz powders, administered by 
Francis L. Mann, and that Mary E. Smitli was the custodian of the key of a 
closet in which was found a vial of said poi.sonous drug. 

Mrs. Mann is the daughter and Mrs. Smith, the wife of deceased. Dr. Smith 
was an Episcopal clerg-yman, and President of the Augustine College of this 
cit}'. The affair has caused great excitement, as all parties held high social 
position. Mrs. Smith and Mann were committed to the county jail this morn- 
ing. Applications will be made by counsel for their release on a writ of habeas 
corpus. The sentiments of the community are divided as to the guilt of the 
parties. The stomach and brains of deceased were examined by Dr. Genth, of 
Philadelphia, upon whose professional opinion the jury rendered a verdict. 

THE Kl'ISCOI'AI. < lit RCIIES. 393 

In 1832 Episc'Oj><il services wei-e for the first time held in 
Iloboken, Kev. AVilli.iin Tryon ofliciatinir. For about a year 
the district selioolhouse was used. 'I lien -lohn and Abraham L. 
Van Iloskerck built a schoolhousc, in which services were held 
for two (»r three years. 

*SV. PiiuVs, Hohohn^ was orn^anizod ^larch 2, 1835 ; incorpo- 
rated !^^arch IG, 1835. The first bnildinc; was on the northwest 
corner of Hudson and Third streets : corner stone laid ^fay 27, 
1830; buildini:: consecrated Novend)er 1, 1S3G ; enlarged in 
1851 ; sold in 1869. The ])rcsent building is on the east side of 
Hudson, between Eighth and Ninth streets. The chapel was 
opene<l for service June 12, 1870, and the church September 4, 


Eev. John M. Ward, from April 4, 1835, to Oetol)er, 1830. 
''C.'F. Cruise, to 1844. 
'^Richard H. Burnham, to July, 1851. 
" Van de Wort Bruce, from 1853 to 1866. 
'' N. Sayre Harris, from 1866. 
" — Hartung, from 1873. 

Grace, Jersey Citij, was organized April 26, 1847, under the 
care of Bev. A. L. Patterson, missionary for the whole county. 
The first building was on the west side of Grove street, a little 
to the Rnrtli of Newark avenue. This building is now in 
Morgan street, occupied as an Africaii church. The present 
building is on the northwest corner of Erie and Second streets; 
corner stone laid December 6, 1850 ; building consecrated ^fay 

18, 1853. 


Bevs. A. L. J*atterson, from May 5, 1847, to Se]it. 20, 1848; 

Milo Mahan, from Nov. 26, 1848, to ; David H. Macurdy ; 

Charles Arey ; Spencer M. Bice. 

Holy Trinity, late Hudson City, was organized September 
10. 1851. The building is on the north side of St. Paul's avenue, 


a little to the west of Central avenue. The corner stone was 
laid December 10, 1851 ; the building was consecrated May 19, 



llev. AYilliam R. Gries, from 1851 to 1855. 

" Norman W. Camp, from May 17, 1855, to 1858. 
" Louis L. Noble, from Nov., 1858, to 1872. 
" James Chrystal, from July, 1872, to . 

Trinity, Hohoken, was organized September 16, 1853. At 
first the services were held in an engine house near the Napoleon 
Hotel, then called the Town hall. On May 1, 1851, the place of 
meeting was transferred to Odd Fellows' Hall. The building is 
on the northeast corner of Washington and Seventh streets. 
The corner stone was laid December 18, 1855; building com- 
pleted in November, 1856. Grace chapel, on Seventllbj. street, 
adjoining the church, was erectecl and preseft|;ed to the parish by 
William P. Wright, as a meiiiitaiiivl- of his daughter, Grace^ It 
was consecrated November 9, 1850. 

Rev. Norman W. Camp, from Sept. 16, 1853, td\Aug. 29, 1855. 
" John W. Clark, from Oct. 7, 1855, to May, 1856. 
" N. Sayre Harris, from 1856, to Sept., 1865. 
" Frederick Fitzgerald, from Sept., 1865, to Apg. 31, 1867. 
" Reuben W. Howes, jr., from Dec. 2, 1867, to . 

Trinity Free, Jersey City, was organized in September, 1854. 
The first building was on the north side of York, between Grove 
and Barrow streets; was opened for service June 10, 1855. It 
is now occupied as a livery stable. It was abandoned by the 
parish in 1862, and the Unitarian church building, on the south- 
east corner of Grove and Montgomery streets, secured until 18()S, 
when the church collapsed, and St. Mark's entered upon the 



Rev. Stephen Douglas, from June, 1854; died Jan. 21, 1857. 
" Charles H. Canfield, from 1857 to April, 1859. 



Rev. Rohert R Travis, ji., May, 1859 ; died Oct. 20, ISfifi. 
" Thomas Coleman, to An--. I. 1S<)8. 

C/irlsf ('hiif<'h, B<)'<ien, was organizod in 1858; iiicorpoi"atc'<i 
May 21, 1851>. Thelmildinc; is on the northeast corner of Clare- 
iiiont avenue and Clerk street, and was consecrated in Auijust, 
1 SCT. 


Revs. Orlando llarrinian, Charles Ritter, Stephen 11. IJattin. 

Trlniti/, Bergen Pointy was organized in August, 1859. The 
building is on the southwest corner of Avenue E and Fifth 
street ; consecrated Sept. 4, 1862. 


Rev. Franklin S. Rising, from Aug., 1860, to Jan. 20, 1802. 
" ■ Thomas A. Jaggar, from xMaj 1, 1862, to Sept. 26, 1864. 
" George Zal)riskie Gray, from Feb. 12, 1865, to . 

St. PauVs^ Bergen, was organized August 1, 1S60. The 
chapel,. on the north side of Duncan, between ]>ergen and Grand 
avenues.Was built in the spring of 1861, and opened for service 
May 20, 186JL. 

PASTORr^Rev^Ternando C. Putnam, from October, I860, to 
the present t^liie. 

Graee (late Greenville) was organized January 14, 1864. The 
first building, on the west side of the old Bergen road, between 
Danforth and Linden avenues, and formerly a whalebone fac- 
tory, was opened for service June 12, 1864. The present build- 
ing, on the corner of Ocean and Pearsall avenues, was opened 
for service December 25, 1872. 


Rev. AVilliam G. Hughes, from Oct. 22, 1864, to Nov. 1, 1867. 
" John R. Matthews, from April 20, 1868, to Oct. 20, 1869. 
" Frederick M. Gray, , to June 29, 1873. 


Calvary^ Bayonne, was organized March 22, 1867. Occasional 
services liad been held in the neigliborhood from August 24, 
1 SSQ, by Kev. Robert F. Travis, jr., of Jersey City, and Eev. Wil- 
liam G. Hughes, of Greenville. In May, 1865, Trinity Parish 
of Bergen Point assumed charge of the enterprise. It then be- 
came known as St. Bartholomew Mission. From this time until 
November 19, 1865, Rev. William G. Hughes had charge of it, 
and was then succeeded by Rev. Frederick M. Gray. The build- 
ing is on the southw^est side of street, between Avenues C 
and D ; corner-stone laid ISTovember 3, 1866 ; building opened 
for service June 29, 1867. 


Rev. Frederick M')Gray, from July 30, 1867, to Sept. 6, 1868. 
" Samuel G. Appleton, from March 28, 1869, to . 

St. Paul's, Jersey City, was organized February 14, 1868. 
The first service was held February 5, J 868, in Luxton's Hall. 
The building is on the northeast corner of New York avenue 
and South street ; corner stone laid February 19, 1871 ; building 
opened for service May 28, 1871. 


Rev. Thomas M. Thorpe, from Feb. 24, 1868, to July 1, 1868. 

" William Wardlaw, from Oct. 1, 1868, to Sept. 9, 1872. 

" David G. Gunn, from Oct. 10, 1872, to Aug. — , 1873. 

St. Maria's, Jersey City, was incorporated December 8, 1868. 
The building occupied is on the southeast corner of Grove and 
Montgomery streets, built by the Unitarians in 1856. 

Rev. David H.Macurdy, from March 4, 1869, to April 30, 1871. 
" John F. Butterworth, from June, 1871, to . 

St. John's Free, Jersey City, was organized March 4, 1869, as 
Zion Free Church. The building is on the east side of Palisade 
avenue, opposite Gardner avenue ; ground broken for the foun- 
dation November 30, 1870 ; corner stone laid May 7, 1871 ; base- 


inent opened for service Noveiiilx-r 2."), l^^TI ; liuiMiiii,' <litt<>, 
February 2, IST'J. 

Pastor — N. S. Kulisoii, Iroiii l^tll* to tliu present tiiiic. 

jSt. John^n, West Hobokeii, was incorporated .lune 1'.', 184<J. 
The cliurch building is on the iiortlieast corner ot" Warren street 
and Chnton avenue; completed in October, ISV.K 


licvs. Orlando llurrinian ; T. M. Thorpe; Wni. T. Jarvis; — 
Maturen; C. V. Jones; W. C. Cooley, lSTO-3; George Cham- 
bers, from Nov., 1873, to . 

East Neicai'k- /'. A'. Church was organized about 1843. The 
church buildinir is on the corner of Tliinl and Warren streets. 
The following are a few of the 

Pastors : 
Ilev. ;Messrs, Mycr, Hooper, AVcbb, Orr, Webb. 

!>t. JoluCs^ liayonne, was organized in 1872 ; incor])orated 
March 12, 1872. This church was organized as a mission of Trin- 
ity, of Bergen Point. 

Pastor — Tiev. AVashington Rodman, from 1872 to the ])resent 

ISt. L^ikes^ Jersey City, was organized in August, 1873. The 
place of worship is on the corner of iSouth street and Central 

Pastor — liev. David (i. (iunn. 

Cliurch tpfthe Ato/ie/nent, Hoboken, was incorporated May VJ, 


7 he Particular liapt'i'<i Church af Jcns'ij Citij and Jlartn- 
//^v.y was organized March 11, ls30. The building occu[)iod is 

398 HISTORY OF hudson county. 

vet stauding- on the west side of Barrow street, between ]S"ewark 

and Railroad avenues. 


Rev. Joseph Houghwout, from 1838 to 1841. 
" John O. Edmunds, from 1841 to 1842. 
" ■ Arus Haynes, from 1842 to 1844. 
" William Smith, from 1844 to 1847. 

The Jersey City Baptist Church was organized March 11, 



Rev. William Rollinson, from May to Nov., 1843. 
" Silas C. James, from March to Sept., 1844. 
" Joseph M. Morris, from April 1, 1845, to Feb. 26, 1846. 
" William Gooding, from Aug. 11, 1846, to Feb. 15, 1847. 

The Grand Street Baptist Churchy Jersey City, was organized 
ill 1844. 

Pastor — Rev, Arus Haynes, from 1844 to 1847. 

The Union Baptist Church, which, by legislative act in 1868, 

was changed to The First Baptist Church of Jersey City, was 

organized March 1, 1848, out of the material composing the 

other Baptist churches. The building is on the east side of 

Grove, between Wayne and Mercer streets. The basement was 

opened for service April 11, 1852 ; the building was dedicated 

July 17, 1853. 


Rev. O. C. Wheeler, from April 6, 1848, to :N'ov. 21, 1848. 
" William Yerrinder, from Dec. 1, 1849, to April 1, 1854. 
'' Wheelock H. Parmly, from Se})t. 1, 1854, to . 

The First Baptist Church of New Durham was organized in 
1837. The first building was on the Secaucus road, at the foot 
of Weehawken hill. The present building is on the east side of 
the Hackensack turnpike ; erected in 1854. 

Pastors — Rev. George F. Hendrickson, Joseph Perry, George 


P. Martin, Julin Gibbs, Win. I)onii:iii Wriulit, Jiiiiies A. Met/., 
Jolin E, Perrino, and Thomas F. Clancy (present pastor). 

The First Baptist Churc/i, Hudson City, was organized in 1857. 

Tlio buildinjz: is on the west side of I>er£^en avenue, near tlu' Five 



Kev. Marvin Eastwood, from 1858 to 1860. 

*' Jiev. Halsey J. Knapj^, from 1860 to 1864. 

'' .1. W. Custis, from 1865 to 1867. 

" Charles E. Cordo, from 1867 to . 

" T. K. Howlett, from 1861» to 1872. 

" W. r.. Harris, from Feb. 6. 1872, to . 

The Bethesda Bajdtst Church, Jersey City, was recognized 
July 11, 1858. The building was located on the north side of 
Fifth street, between Erie street and Jersey avenue. The church 
was disbanded in 1863. 


Rev. Mr. Paymond, at tlie time of recognition. 

" Matthew C. Kempsey, from Sept. 30, 1858, to I860. 
'^ George A. Post, from 1861 to 1863. 

The First Baptist Church, Hoboken, was organized in 1845. 
The first building, on the northeast corner of Washington and 
Third streets, was sold to the First Presbyterian Church in 1851. 
The present building is on the northwest corner of Bloomfield 
and Tliird streets ; dedicated November 4, 1852. 


Revs. Aaron S. Patton ; Josiah llatt, from 1846 to 1855; A. 
Harris, from 1860 to 1870 ; — Maull, 1873. 

The West IFoloken Baptist Church was organized in 1854. 
The first building, on the northeast corner of De Mott street and 
Clinton avenue, was built by John Syms in about 1856. The 
])resent building is on the corner of C^linton avenue and Serrell 
street; begun in 1866; to be dedicated January 15, 1874. 


Pastoes. ^ 

Kev. C. A. Buckbee, - — • James, Eobert McGonigle/-^U2^ A 
Devan, William Gilkes, 1870, present pastor. 

The F'lrnt Bajjiht CJmrch, Bergen, was orgiinized Feb. 7, 
1859 ; recognized June 17, 1860. The building is on the north- 
west corner of Clinton place and Madison avenue. The chapel 
was dedicated in September, 1860. The corner stone of the 
building was laid May 8, 1871; the building dedicated March 

31, 1872. 


Kev. W. B. Shrope, from Sept., 1859, to Aug., 1860. 
" G. W. Pendleton, from Nov., i860, to Sept., 1862. 
" J. S. Ladd, from Oct., 1862, to March, 1864. 
" William Bollinson, from Oct., 1865. 
" Walter W. Hammond, present pastor. 

The Noi-th Baptist Church, Jersey City, was organized Sept. 
28, 1865. The building is on the east side of Jersey avenue, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets; dedicated in April, 1867. 

Pastor — Be v. Henry A. Cordo, from Oct. 1, 1866, to Nov. 
26, 1871, when he resigned. In 1872 he was recalled, theie 
having been no intermediate pastor, 

lite First Baptist Church of the Town of Union was or- 
ganized in 1864; incorporated Jan. 19, 1865. The building, 
erected in 1866, is on the northeast corner of Bergen Line avenue 
and Franklin street. 

Pastors — Rev. Washington Wicks, James Metz, Edwin Shaf- 
fer, George F. Hendrickson, who resigned in August, 1873. 

The German Pilgrim Baptist Church, Hudson City, was in- 
corporated June 1, 1866. 

The First German Regular Baptist Churchy West Hoboken, 
was organized in November, 1868 ; incorporated February 15, 
1869. The building at present occupied is in Hoboken avenue, 


near Clinton uveniit'. Tlu' huildini; of the I'irst liiiptist (JlinrQli 
will be occupied \\\ivu that body occupies their new building. 


Revs. ('. Frederick Bluinenberg, Au.sternielil, (ieorge 

Knablach, ^[ichael Jliitlin. 

The Hamilton /'(///,■ Ji'i^itlxt Chiir<h was recognized May 21>, 

Pastor — Rev. Aaron S. Patton. 


In ISOIJ a society was organized in Jersey City under the care 
of Rev. Dr. ]\riller. In April, 1813, this society obtained the 
privilege of holding service in the " Jersey Academy," alternat- 
ing the Sundays with St. Matthew's P. E. Clinrcli. A Presby- 
tciian ('liurch was organized December 15, 1825. A frame 
building was erected on the site of the present First Reformed 
( litircli in (iraiid street. The corner stone was laid by Coltjiid 
Richard Yarick, ]\Iay 18, 182^). Rev. James S. Olcott was pas- 
tor until 1829. On February ir», 1830, the church, by action of 
the congregation, diss(jlved its connection with the Presbyterians, 
and became the F'irst Reformed ( 'hurcli. 

2 he Flnt Preshi/terlan CA^y-cA, Jersey City, was organized 
April 22, 184-1-, the services being held in the First Reformed 
Church. The buildiny; is on the northeast corner of AVashiiiiiton 
and Sussex streets ; cui'uer stone laid October 4, 1844 ; dedicated 
May 25, 1845. This building was brought from Xew York city, 
where it stood un tln' north side of Wall street. It was known 
as the " stone-steepled Meeting House ; '' built in 1718 ; enlarged 
in 17(58 ; rebuilt in 181(> ; destroyed by fire in the fall of 1^34. 
and immediately rebuilt. It was the only church in the city in 
which Whitfield could obtain a hearing. He preached in it 
many times. Its sizeand shajjc are now what they were prior 
to its removal to Jersey City, only the basement has been added 
and the pews and pul]»it have been reconstructed. 


Rev. John Joliii.-ton, from May 20, l.s44, to May 27, 1850. 
•21 i 


Rev. Lewis H. Lee, Associate, from Nov. 15, 1848, to Jan., 1850. 
" David King,i from Jmie 12, 1850, to Oct. 12, 1851. 
" Charles K. Imbrie, from Feb. 11, 1852, to present time. 

The Second Freshjterian Church, Jerse)^ City, was organized 
September 9, 1851. The building is on the north side of Third 
street, between Erie street and Jersey avenue ; dedicated Janu- 
ary IT, 1858, and, after enlargement, March 21, 1869. 

Rev. Charles Hoover, from June 30, 1852, to 1850. 

" George C. Lucas, from May 31, 1860, to 1863. 

" James M. Stevenson,^ from Oct. 15, 1864, to 1871. 

" Hiram Eddy, from May 30, 1871, to present time. 

The Scotch Presbyterian ChurcJi, now known as The Third 

Preshyterian Church, Jersey City, was organized May 29, 1856. 

At first the old building in Barrow street, between Newark and 

Railroad avenues, was occupied ; then a building in Grove street. 

In October, 1862, the congregation secured the " Tabernacle," a 

frame building on the southeast corner of Erie and Fifth streets. 

A building, nearly completed, is now being erected in Mercer 

near Yarick street. 


Rev. James Petrie, from Nov. 5, 1856, to 1858. 

" AVilliam Cochrane, from June 7, 1859, to March 28, 1862. 

" James Harkness, from Oct. 21, 1862, to present time. 

The Third Preshyterian Church, Jersey CHty, was organized 
May 13, 1859 ; Rev, James Cubby, jjastor. Union Hall, on the 
southwest corner of Grove and Fourth streets, was, for a while, 
occupied as a place of worship. Though a '' feeble folk," the 
'organization was very zealous in committing harl-harl. It was 
altogether too militant. Its existence was turbulent, happily 
brief, and its nunc diinittis applauded by all who believe that a 
church should lift its members above the level of the hei'o of 
Donnybrook Fair. 

The Presbyterian Chiirch, Hoboken, was organized June 9, 

1 Died May 15, 1853. -^ Died October 18, 1871. 


1852. A moveiiiuiit tor such .ui ur^Miiizutiou was luado as early 
as October, IS.")!, and in Novetnber of tliat year the building of 
the Baptist Church, on the southwest corner of Washington and 
Third streets, was purchased. The present building is on the 
southeast corner of Sixth and Hudson streets; dedicated Feb- 
ruary 23, 1865. 

Kev. Isaac 1'. Stryker, from June 11, 185-1-. 
'' William 11. Babbitt, from 1859 to 1864. 
" E. P. Gardner, from 1865 to 187<». 
'' James ^Farshall, present past(»r. 

The Fii'.st Pre.sljijti rill n Churcli, Hcrgen, was organized Oc- 
tober 24, 1855. The building is on the north side of Emory 
street, between Bergen and Montieello avenues ; was dedicated 
October 28, 1858. 

Kev. Edward W. French tlie only pastor. 

Prospect Amuir J*r< shi/ferian Churchy Jersey City, was or- 
ganized June 13, 1871, although regular services had been main- 
tained in a hall on Xewark avenue from December 11, 1870. 

Pastor — Kev, John Glendenning, from Oct. 26, 1871, to pres- 
ent time. 

The First Presbyterian Churchy AVest Iloboken, was organ- 
ized June 12, 1850. The building is on Clinton avenue; corner 
stone laid September 4, 1850 ; dedicated June 25, 1851. 

Kev. James C. Egbert, from June 13, 1855, is the first and 
oidy pastor. 

The Claremont Preshyterian Churchy Jersey City, was organ- 
ized in February, 1868. The building is on the south side of 
Claremont avenue, between Ocean avenue and Clerk street ; cor- 
ner stone laid August 8, 1869; opened for service December 30, 

1S69. -D 


Kev. Samuel W. Duffield, from May 8, 1870. 
" J. McNulty,from 1872 to August, 1873. 

TheWeehawTcen Pre-shyterlon Church was organized in Octo- 


ber, 1868, The church building is located at Weehawken, on the 
west side of Park avenue extended, and north of Nineteenth 
street; begun in August, 1870; dedicated in May, 1871. 

Revs. Robert Pror.dlit ; George P. Noble, from Feb., 1870, to 
April 1, 1871 ; Robert R. Townsend, from Aug. 1, 1871, to the 
present time. 

The First United Preshyter'ian Chtirch, Hoboken, was organ- 
ized November 29, 1854, as The First Associate Fresbyterlan 
Church j took its present name in 1858, when the union between 
the Associate and the Associate Reformed churches was consum- 
mated. The church building is on the southeast corner of Bloom- 
tield and Seventh streets ; erected 1856; opened for service on 
the last Sunday in November, 1856. 

Rev. Wm. G. McElhany, from May 10, 1855, to May 20, 1860.^ 
" Samuel C. Marshall, from July 16, 1861, to April 1, 1863. 
" Henry Allen, from April 3, 1867, to Dec. 26, 1867.^ 
" Robert Armstrong, from Dec. 2, 1868. 

The First United Presbyterian Church, Jersey City, was or- 
ganized October 15, 1862; incorporated August 1, 1863. The 
society occupies the old church building in Barrow street, between 
Newark and Railroad avenues. 

Rev. Robert A. Hill, from Nov. ~, 1864, to Nov. — , 1870. 
" Thomas W. Pollock, from May 17, 1871, to present time. 

The Second United F I'eshyterian Church, Jersey City, was or- 
ganized in April, 1871. The building is on Hancock avenue, 
south of Bowers street. 

Rev. Robert Armstrong, tirst and only pastor. 

Methodist Episcopal Churches. 
As early as 1811 an ettbrt was made to establish an M. E. church 
' Died in charffe. 


in \]uA county. Tlie uppointmetits were made to " Berp^cn/' 
which in.iv inivin the Coiuitv <>f Bertreii. Thcv were as follows: 

lievs. ,Iolm Kohertson, 1811-12; Daniel Fidler, 1812-13; 
.l()se])h Totten, isl;',-14; Stei^lien Martiiidalo, 1S14-15 ; David 
Host, ISI.VIO; dulm Fiiilev, 1810-17; Peter Van Ness, 1817-18; 
Jos. Sybrand, 1818-11) ; John Potts, 1810-20 : George Banghart, 
1820-2; Manning Force, 1822-3; Bcnjaniin (Vdlins, 1823-4; 
P.artholotnew Weed, 182-l-2(;; David P.artine, 1820-27. 

At tliis date the ap{)uintrnents seoin to ha\e hroken off. 

January 20, 1820, Antliony Cathlin, Archer G. Welsh, Iliram 
L. Meeker, James J. Seaman and Josiali llornhlovver certified to 
their election as trustees of ^^T/ie Fimt Metliodist Society of the 
7o)vn and Covntij of Bergen P It is prol)able that this referred 
to the " Berfjen Mission," which afterward revived and became 
the Simpson (Jhurch. 

The next effort was at Bergen Neck, where a mission was 
started, to whicli appointments were made as follows : 

Revs. Thomas G. Stewart, 1831-2; John H. McFarland, 
1832-3; John N. Crane, 1833-4; John Nicholson, 1834-5. 

This mission terminated in the Bergen Neck (now Mattison) 

Trimfii M. E. Church, Jersev Citv, was oro-anized in 1835. 
The first building was a frame structure, and stood on "legs " — 
Methodism was more itinerant then than now. The present 
building is on the south side of York street, between Washing- 
ton and Warren streets ; corner stone laid May 5, 1843; dedi- 
cated December 25, 1843. 


Revs. John McClintock, 1835-6; Wesley C. Hudson, 1830-7; 
Benjamin Day, 1838-9 ; Charles H.Whitecar, 1835>-41 ; James M. 
Tuttle, 1841-2 ; Vincent Shepherd, 1842-4; AVilliam Roberts, 
1844-6 ; Francis A. Morrell, 1846-8 ; Joseph B. Wakely, 1848- 
50 ; James M. Tuttle, 1850-51 ; Israel S. Corbit, 1851-3; James 
Ayars, 1853-5 ; Charles IF. AVhitecar. 1855-7 ; Isaac W. AViley/ 

' Mr. Wiley left in August, 1853, and was succeeded by Mr. Monroe for the 
n-mainder of the year. 


1857-9; Jonathan T. Crane, 1859-60; James Ayars, 1860-1; 
William P. Corbit, 1861-2 ; Kobert L. Dashiel, 1862-4; Isaac W. 
Wiley, 1864-5; Samuel Y. Monroe, 1865-6; Hiram Mattison, 
1866-8 ; George H. Whitney,^ 1868-70 ; David W. Bartine, 1870 
-3 ; John Atkinson, 1873- 

The Simpson M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized in 
1841, the first service being held in a schoolhonse near the Five 
Corners. Previous to 1844 it was known as the " Bergen Mis- 
sion." The first building was the present police station in Oak- 
land, between Newark and Hoboken avenues. The present build- 
ing is on the west side of Central avenue, near St. Paul's avenue ; 
basement dedicated in 1857 ; building dedicated in 1858. 

Kevs. Benj. N. Keed, 1839-40 ; Lewis T. Maps, 1840-41 ; 
Wm. M. Burroughs, 1841-2 ; Abraham T. Palmer, 1842-3 ; Wm. 
E. Perry, 1843-4; Aaron E. Ballard, 1844-5; David Graves, 
1845-6; John W. Barrett, 1846-7; Garner R.Snyder, 1847-8; 
Wm. M. Burroughs, 1848-9 ; F. Bobbins, 1849-50; F. S. Hoyt, 
1850-1 ; John Dean, 1851-2 ; Edwin A. Day, 1852-4; Edward 

A. Adams, 1854-6; Alex. H. Mead, 1856-8; A. L. Price, 
1858-60 ; John O. Winner, 18(50-2 ; Thomas H. Smith, 1862-4 ; 
Michael E.Ellison, 1864-7; Ralph S. Arnt, 1867-70; Robert 

B. Lockwood, 1870-3; Wm. Tunison, 1873- 

The Mattison M. E. Vhiirch, Bayonne, was incorporated June 
22, 1844, as The Bergen Neck Chtirch. The name was changed 
by Legislative act, February 26, 1868. The building was erected 
on the east side of Avenue D, near Twenty-ninth street; corner 
stone laid in 1854 ; dedicated in 1855. In 1808 or '69 it was 
moved to the southwest corner of Oakland avenue and Avenue I). 

Revs. Waters Burrows, 1857-8; James H. Dandy, 1861-3; 

' Mr. Whitney was elected President of the Seminary at Hacketstown in Au- 
gust, 18(59. 

'^ The Pastors of the Greenville Church were in chargre of this church until 
1865, except the years 1857-8 and 18(51-3. During these three years it at- 
tempted to stand alone, l)ut was too feeble. 


Steplieii K. liu^sell, isiw; 8; Kiioc-li \'. K'iii<r, 1868-1) ; A. C>ai<r, 
l86!>-70; .1. Kmi.rv, lsTO-1 ; Ahiu. .1. I'lilmcr, ls71-2; W. L. 
Hoaghuul, 1S72-4. 

*S^;^. /'(tid'n JI. 1'.. C/ku'c/i^ Jersey City, was ()r<»;imize(l in July, 
1848, as the J/. I'l. ihiin-h at I*inu)n}ii. The buildiiii;- is on the 
north side oF Third, hctwecn Grove and Erie streets ; corner 
stone hii<l I)ecend)er 25, 184'.> ; l)aseinent opened for service June 
80, 1850; dedicated November 27, 1850. 

Revs. Dayton F. Reed, 1849-50; John Parker, 1850-1 ; Rol)- 
ert Given, 1851-2; George Iluglies, 1852-4 ; Michael E. Ellison, 
1854-»;: Richard Van Horn, 1850-8 ; Wm. Tiinison, 1858-60; 
Lewis \l. Uunn, 18t;0-2; Ricliard Van Horn, 1862-4; Wni. 
Tunison, 1864-7; Lewis R. Dunn, 1867-70; Charles Larew, 
1870-3; Daniel R. L.wrie, 1873- 

The Greenville M. E. Church was incorporated July 20, 1845. 
The building is on the south side of Linden avenue, between 
Ocean avenue and Bergen road; dedicated January 6, 1846. 
This society was connected with Bergen until 1S51. 


Revs. Waters Burrows, 1851-3 ; David Waters, 1853-4; Ben- 
jamin F. Woolston,^ 1854-5 ; Edwin A. Day, 1855-6 ; William 
C. Nelson, 1656-7; Waters Burrows, 1857-8; Isaac W. Ilaff, 
1858-6i>; Thomas E. Gordon, 1860-1 ; S. L. Baldwin, 1861-2 ; 
Richard Johns, 1862-3; William (t. Hughes, 1863-4; Bront 
Slaight, 1864-5 ; Ambrose S. Compton, 1865-7 ; Fletcher Lum- 
mis, 1867-70 ; Egbert Clement, 1870-3 ; Charles R. Barnes,' 1873. 

The Ifohol'cn M. ?J. Churrh was incorporated June 24, 1846. 
The Urst building was (»n the corner of Fourth and Garden 
streets; cornerstone laid Octol)er 1, 1846; dedicated April 12, 
1848. This was upon property belonging to the city. A new 
buildino; was erected ^n the east side of Washington, between 
Seventh and Eighth streets ; cornci' .^tnnc laid 0('ti)l)er 15,1869; 
dedicated Februarv 25. 1872. 

' Mr. Woolston left in September, 18")4. mid .Mr. Day took his place. 

408 history of hudson county. 

Kevs. David Graves, 1846-8 ; G. K. Snyder, 1848-9 ; William 
W. Christine, 1849-50 ; Michael E. Ellison, 1850-2 ; Joseph B. 
Dobbins, 1852-4 ; Charles S. Coit, 1854-5 ; J6nathan K. Burr, 
1855-7; Joseph K. Knowles, 1857-9; J. O. Kogers, 1859-60; 
Alexander L. Brice, 1860-2 ; John O. Winner, 1862-4 ; Jona- 
than Iv. Burr, 1864-7; Michael E. Ellison, 1867-70; William 
Tunison, 1870-3 ; Jonathan K. Burr, 1873. 

The Redding M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized 
March 20, 1855; incorporated May 10, 1855. The building is 
on the north side of Montgomery, between Grove and Barrow 
streets ; corner stone laid August 15, 1855 ; lecture room dedi- 
cated January 20, 1856; building dedicated April 11, 1858. 


Eevs.Waters Burrows, to April, 1855 ; Kobert B. Yard, 1855-7 : 
William Day, 1857-9 ; Charles Larew, 1859-61 ; James E. 
Bryan, 1861-3 ; William Day, 1863-6 ; John Hanlon, 1866-9 ; 
James M. Freeman, 1869-72 ; Robert B. Yard, 1872-4. 

The Coinminiipaio M. E. CJturcJi was incorporated April 14, 
1853. The building is on the south side of Communipaw avenue, 
near ]^ew York bay ; corner stone laid June 8, 1854 ; dedicated 
October 15, 1854. At the time of this dedication, Bev. T. C. 
Carman was pastor. He is the only pastor the society ever had 
exclusively. Since then it has been connected with Greenville, 
Trinity oi' Emory. 

The Emory M. E. Church, Jersey City, was incorporated 
July 8, 1862. The first building was on the corner of Mill road 
and Colden place. It is now occupied by the First ITniversalist 
Church. The second building is on the north side of Belmont, 
between Bergen and Westside avenues ; corner stone laid June 
18, 1871; dedicated in 1872. 


Bevs. Charles E. Winans, 1863-4; John J. Morrow, 1864-7 ; 
Daniel E. Lowrie, 1867-70 ; John Atkinson, 1870-3; S. Van 
Benschoten, 1873- 

iiir; MKTiiODiS'r ciirui iiks. 401) 

Tlte r<iHxa<li' j\I. v.. Cfmrch^ Jerscij ^ V^^, was incorporated 
May 20, lSr)S. Tlii' l)uil(liiiii: i?^ nn the west side of Pjilisade 
Mveinie. a little soiitli nt tiiu I'atersoii l'l;mk rojid. 

P.\sn ti;s. 

Ke\>. 'rii(iiiia> I", (iiiidoii, lst;i 2: Henry ^I. Siniprioii, 
ls»*.!> ;', : .lames .1. r.nswell, lS()3-4 : .James N. Fitzgerald, 
ls»;4 7: IJenjamiii (). Parviji, 1S67-70 ; John S. Porter, 1870-8; 
(reortxe Winsoii. 1^78- 

'J'/ir CrnhiKiri/ M. /:'. (Inirr/i^ Jersey City, was ori^anized 
April 17. 1S07, in('or])urated September 27, 1807. The huildiiii:- 
i> oil the nortli side of J*avonia avenue, between Cole and Mon- 
mouth streets ; corner stone laid Se])teniber 26, 1S70 ; basement 
dedicated >\piil 30, 1871. J*rior to this latter date, services 
were lit'ld in Pnion Hall, on the southwest corner of Grove and 
Fourth streets. 


Pevs. David (h-aves, 1807-8: Hamilton C. McBride, 1868-9 ; 
James P.. Faulks, 1809-72; Edson W. Purr, 1872-4. 

The Wext Etui M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized 
September 1, 180S. The]building is on the east side of Toncle 
avenue, between St. Paul's and Tuers avenues. 

Revs, lleiuy M. Simpson, 1869-71 ; Charles R.Parnes, 1871-3 ; 
Thomas II. .lacobus, 1873. 

lltf Lafai/ctte M. E. Church, Jersey City, was incorporated 
April 21, 1873. The building is on the west side of Pine street, 
between Communipaw avenue and Lafayette street. 

Pvevs. AV. L. Iloagland, 1809-72 ; A. IT. Tuttle, 1872-3. 

The W<ir<:rlij M. E. Clivrvh i liock Jiidiic Cha})il), Jersey 
City, was incorporated December 20, 187<». The building is on 
the corner of Palisade and New York avenues ; begun in De- 
cember, 1870; dedicated November 19, 1871. 

Revs. Henry Baker, 1870-3; Abraham .1. Palmer, 1873. 


The Janes M. E. Chui^ch was incorporated March 10, 1870. 

Revs. Thomas Hall, 1870-3 ; J. F. Dodd, 1873. 

The Porter M. E. Church, Bonnville, in West Hoboken town- 
ship, was incorporated November 14, 1870. It was a mission, and 
had no pastor until 1873, when Rev. John Campbell was ap- 
pointed. The building is on the east side of Bergen Line avenue, 
and a little south of the Hackensack turnpike ; dedicated Sep- 
tember 19, 1870. 

The Arlington M. E. Church, Kearney. The corner stone 
of the building was laid (as per newspaper) November 23, 1873. 
Pastor — Rev. Mr. Blaine. 

The East Newark Wesley M. E. Church was organized some 
years ago. A second building is now being erected ; corner 
stoue laid July 2, 1873 ; dedicated January 4, 1874. 

Pastor — ^Rev. J. L. Hayes. 

St. Johan^ie's M. E. Church ; building in Central, near New 
York avenue. 
Pastor — Rev, C. Brockmeyer. 

There are several colored churclies in the county of the M. E. 

Roman Catholic Churches. 

The Roman Catholics of New Jersey were under the jurisdic- 
tion of the diocese of New York until October 30, 1853, when 
the diocese of New Jersey was created, and James Rosevelt 
Bayley consecrated bishop. 

St. Peter'' s R. C. Church, Jersey City. The first building 
erected for this congregation was on the north side of Grand, be- 
tween Washington and Warren streets ; begun in 1831 ; opened 
for service in 1837 ; consecrated in 1839, by Bishop Hughes, 
assisted by Bishop Fenwick, of Boston. The present building 
is on the northeast corner of Grand and Van Yorst streets : 




(;orner stone laid in August, 1865 ; opened for service Deccniber 
ir», ISO"). The .Jesuit Fatliers took possession of tliis parish 
April i:^., 1871. 


Rev. Fathers Burns, Molian, (Quarter, Ro<^ers, Heiiney, Reilc\ . 
John Ivelly, from Noveniher 1-J, l'^4-l-, to ISfW; ; Patrick (yorii- 
^r;in, tioiii 18«5»5 to 1871 ; Victor Raudcvin, from 1871. 

St. Mni'if>i li. ( '. ( '/nn-c/i, -lersey City, dates from April, 1S.")'.». 
The lMiiUlin<^is on the northeast corner of Erie and Third streets ; 
corner stone laid in June, 18t')l ; consecrated in May, 1808. 

Pastor — Rev. Dominick Senez, from A})ril 1, LS.Mt. 

St. Mdi'ifs Ii. C (7iur(7i,Wetit IToboken. The l)uildinor is on 
the northeast corner of High street and Clinton avenue ; erected 
in 1851 ; consecrated November 23, 1851. In this church is a 
copy of an oil painting of " Our Lady of Mercy," presented by 
Cardinal Brignole, of Rome, who received it from Paci Typoliti, 
of Rimini, as an e.c-voto for his preservation from death. 

Pastor — Rev. Anthony Cauvin, from 'Fuly, 1851, to Ai)ril 21. 
iMll. On this latter date the t-hurch was placed in charge of 
the Passionist Fathers of the Monastery. 

St. Mni'iji< li. ('. C/^?^/'t?/', Iloboken. Services were first held 
in Ploboken in June, 1841, by Father Mohan, of St. Peter's, Jer- 
sey City. On December (!, Ib44, Rev. John Rogers read mass 
in Plueni.x Hotel, and continued in charge of the enterprise until 
April 1, 1845. In July, 1851, Rev. Anthony Cauvin took 
charge of that parr of the county which lies north of the Five 
(■orners. The church building is on the corner of Willow ami 
I'ifth streets ; corner stone laid Sei>tember 3, 1854 : consecrateil 
•lune 24, 185"). The large i>ainting in this church is a co])y of 
the Madonna of I'oliguo, by Raphael, executed by order i>f 
Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, by him be(pieathed to the Duke 
of Genoa, brother of the Kingcjf Italy, and by him presented ti> 
I'ather Cauvin in 1S54. It was crowned by P)ishoi) IJayley Jum- 
20, 1858. The crown was presented by the Duchess of Oenoa. 
In a side altar repose the " Relies of St. Quietus, Martyr," de- 
l)0sited June 1, 185(5 ; found in the Catacombs January 2i>, 1840 ; 


presented by Pope Pius IX. The chalice and sanctuary lamp 
were presented by the Emperor Napoleon III. ; the silver osten- 
i?orium by Victor Emmanuel, and the painting of the Crucifixion 
l)y Henry Hoguet, of New York. 

Pastok— Eev. Anthony Caiivin, from July 1851, to Aug., 1873. 

St. Josephh R. C. Church, Jersey City, was organized as St. 
Bridgefs in June, 1856. The first church building was a frame 
structure on Hopkins avenue, erected in 1850. The second 
church buiidino; was on the southeast corner of Baldwin and 
Pavonia avenues ; corner stone laid in August, 1857 ; opened 
for service December 25, 1857 ; consecrated October 17, 1858. 
The third church l)uilding is on the site of the second ; corner 
stone laid July 19, 1869 ; basement opened for service June 8, 
1871; building consecrated September 14, 187.3. 

Pastors — Eev. James Coyle, 1856-7 ; Aloysius Vanuta, 1857. 

St. Mart/ 8 Star of the Sea R. C. Church.^ Bergen Point. The 
church building was consecrated March 18, 1860. 

Pastors — Fathers Callan, Vincent, Timothy, Neilass and 

St. Patrick'' s R. C. Church, Jersey City, organized May 1, 
1S70. The church building is on the northeast corner of Ocean 
and Bramhall avenues; corner stone laid November 13, 1870; 
chapel opened for service November 10, 1872. 

St. MichaeVs R. C. Church, Jersey City, was established as 
St. Mary's. The first building was on the southwest corner of 
Erie and Tenth streets ; erected in 1855 ; opened for service Oct. 
21, 1855. The present church building is on the north side of 
Hamilton square ; corner stone laid Septembers, 1872; dedicat- 
ed August 17, 1873. 

Pastor — Father Da Concilio. 

St. Boniface R. C. Church, Jersey City, was organized in 1862. 
The church building is on the north side of First street, between 
Erie street and Jerse}' avenue ; corner stone laid in June, 1864 ; 
]>asement opened for service in November, 1864. 

Pastor — Rev. Dominick Kraus. 

rilK KOMAN CAriloMC CM I liC II KS. 4l'i 

Our l.aihj of (jvace li. ('. <'/i'in-fi, .Iciscv City, wf.s iiicorjto- 
rated September 2<>, 1S04. 

St. Paurn li. ('. Churchy (rreenvillc, was iiK.'orporated Octo- 
ber 1-i, l^t'.4. 

('/mrr/i i>f fli, IIdIi/ 1'\i mil ij.^ ("iiicii Ilill, was iu(ror|)urate<l 
FebriKiry 28, 18(»'.'. The chureli buildini; is uii the north side of 
-lellersoii street, l)etw(,'en I')ert:;eii Wuoil and Ber^eii IJiic avenue^. 

Pastok — liev. Vincent Xagler. 

St. PauVs of the Cross Ji. ( '. ('/mrr/t.^ -Jersey City, was ineor- 
l)orated September 15, 1867. The church buihlinii; is on Han- 
cock avenue, near Bowers aveiine : corner stone hiid in ISTn; 
opened for service in 1871. 

Pastor — Rev. P. Bandiiu-lli. 

St. Bi-ohjefs li. ('. CAw/'fA, Jersey City. The church buihlinij 
is in Mercer street; consecrated .June 5, 1870. A new building 
is nearly completed. 

St. Pius R. ( '. Churc/i, Hoboken.was incorporated June *J, 1801. 
Pastor — Rev. James J. McCjahan. 

St. I'u'fl'.s R. ('. i'/iurch. Jersey Citv. The church is on the 
corner of Manners and Bergen avenues ; corner stone laid in 
May, 18t!l); basement opened for service January 1, 1870. 

St. J*aars German R. ('. C/mrch^ Ilnbuken, was organized 
in October, 1871. 

Pastor — Rev. Angelus Kempcn. 

St. JosepKs R. ('. C/titrr/i. (-ruttenberg, was incorporated 
March PJ, 1860. 

Pastor — Rev. Tiiuutliy Pacitti. 

R. ( '. ( 'hurch, East Xewark, corner stone laid August 13, 1871.^ 

R. C. Church on Washington avenue, near Van Yorst avenue; 
corner stone hiid in 1869; consecrated October Itl, 1^70.' 

Of these two cliurdn-s I havf no n-liablc iuJ'onualion. 


St. MichaeVs Monastery, West Hoboken, founded in 1863 ; 
corner stone laid July 18, 1864. 

Congregational Churches. 

The First Congregational Church, Jersey City, was incor- 
porated September 10, 1841. It did not thrive. 

The Tahernacle Church, Jersey City, was organized April 14, 

1858; incorporated April 13, 1859. The building is on the 

southeast corner of Henderson and York streets ; dedicated in 

May, 1862. In 1858 services were held in Franklin Hall ; in 

18<il in the Lyceum in Grand street ; from 1861 to 1862 in the 

Unitarian church on the corner of Montgomery and Grove 



Eev. William C. Bartlett in 1858 ; Eev. John Milton Holmes,^ 

from May 23, 1861, to May, 1869; Kev. Giles B. Wilcox, from 

December 8, 1869, to the present time. 

The Second ( Congregational ('hureh, Jersey City, was organized 
June 9, 1869 ; recognized October 13, 1869. The building is on 
the southwest corner of Summit and St. Paul's avenues ; dedi- 
cated May 8, 1870. 


Eev. Leavitt Bartlett, from June, 1869, to July, 1871 ; Rev. 
George Lewis, from August, 1871. 

German Churches. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran St. PauVs Church, in 
Harsimus, was incorporated October 24, 1850 ; Rev. A. Geissen- 
heimer, pastor. Its existence was brief. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran St. Matthias Church, 
Jersey City, was organized in 1860. The society purchased the 
Bethesda Baptist Church building in 1862. 

' Died September 20, 1871. 

TIIK (JKK'MAN < 111 i;( lll>. 41. 


Revs, ('arl iM. Wiissidlo, tmiii NoVfuilicr, iStiO, tu l^'chruarv, 
1802; Julius Augustus I>;ini:;eroth, tVom Fcbrusirv, 1SM2, to Miiy 
28, 18l'>*'> ; (Teuri^e Ewli, from -luiie 17, 186f), to the present time. 

The (rirman h'i:<(n<f> Ileal Lntlicran. SI. Mattlinni i'lnireh, 
Ilobokeii, was or<!;aiiize(l November 23, lSr)<;. Tlie church ])uihl- 
inijj is on the southwest corner of AVashini:;ton and Third strect>. 
purchased of the First Presbyterian ('hiircli, Aj)ril 10, 18»>4. 

Pastor — Rev. Carl M. AVassidlo, from the ori^anization to the 
j>resent time. 

I nitiiamuT f< ('hnrch of flu KediKjelicnl A-s-soctntlna, Union 
Hill, was organized in 1805; incorporated June 27, 18(55. The 
bnildini^ is on the west side of New York avenue, between 
I'nion and Lewis streets; erected in 1865. 

Revs, (.'hristiun Meyer, 1865-7; Adam Ciatchel, J8<i7-1>: 
(instav Sharp, 18()0-70; Nicholas Gable, 1870-3; T. A. Plat- 
tenberg, 1873. 

Zion Cliurch of tin EcaiujeUcal AnaooiatUm, Greenville, was 
organized AEay 30, 1866. The building is on tlic south side of 
Waverly avenue, near Bergen avenue; begun in IStWI; com- 
pleted in lS<i7. The name was afterward clianged to Eccuujeli- 
cal Lutheran Zion Church. 


Revs. Ryaha. Kuhn, Shuner. 

Salein ('hur<-h of the Ecahijelival Atinociation^ Greenville, was 
incorporated June 3, Tlie building is on the west side of 
Bergen avenue, between Pearsall avenue and Factory lane; 
erected iu 1870. 


Revs. Nicholas Goebel ; Emanuel Glazer. 

The German Independent Congregation, IIol)oken, was incor- 
porated April 3, 1867. 

416 history of hudson county. 


The Unitarian (Jhwrch, Jersey City, was organized in 1853, 
The building (now St. Mark's) is on the southeast corner of 
Grove and Montgomery streets; dedicated September 19, 1S5». 

Pastor — Rev. O. B. Frothinoham, until 1858. The oro-aniza- 
tion shortly afterward disbanded. 


As early as 1852 an attempt was made to organize a church of 
this faith. Services were held in a schoolhouse near the Five 
Corners. The effort did not succeed. The attempt was renewed 
December 10, 1871. This resulted in an organization in Janu- 
ary, 1872, which was incorporated as The First Cfniversalist 
Church of Jersey City, March 13, 1872. It purchased the old 
Emory M. E. Church building on the northeast corner of Mill 
road and Colden place; opening services October 20, 1872. 


s^TATI.^lIi S < K l'< ri [.AllMX. 
PtUMl, \TioN of Hfrir''ii ('niint\-. iiiclmiinj; llmlsMn t'ounty 


nxN •.'.-.MS 


17-15 ;t.tx>f» 

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IHIO lt),tJ08 


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JNfajor David limit ami family, Julm Mur|)liy and wife and 
Joseph Hrvant. 









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Table showing assessed valuation of property within the county 

1860 $*5,101,925 

1861 ?..'... 33,319,413 

1862 40,698.056 

1863 40,318,884 

1864 49,837,349 

1865 |54,fK)5,r55 

1866 63,K;W,913 

1867 72,3tJ0.17(> 

1868 78,849,212 

1869 85,133,272 

1871 . 



. 97,478,477 

. 95,064,5StO 

Table showing the bonded indebtedness of the county : 


1862 $81,-500 00 

1863 14.5,421 87 

1864 140,421 87 

1865 1,182,921 87 

1866 $1,308,121 87 

1867 1.287,121 87 

1868 1,280,221 87 

1869 1,298.421 87 

1870 $1,1:38,421 87 

]«71 l,i:«,421 87 

1872 1,128,000 00 

1873 l,12;3,0t)i> 00 

Tablk showing the coub 

ty and city 

taxes : 



Jersey City. 


Hudson City. 

Hobokcn. Baj 



$100 OO 



100 00 




100 00 



100 00 


m) 00 



300 00 




300 00 


■ > . > 

300 (XI 


300 00 


300 (Ml 


300 00 


300 OO 


m) 00 



> • • . 

2,. 500 (XI 


3.165 28 


$.3,000 00 

3.180 24 


3,000 00 

3.000 00 



3,00(1 00 

3,200 00 


2,000 00 

4.,500 00 

si.-iio (K) 


4.(X)0 00 

5.395 13 

8.50 (K) 


4.000 00 

(1.000 00 

■ 8.50 m 


4.(X)0 (H) 

S..3(X) (Kl 

1.1.50 m 

. .. 


S.IKX) 00 

12.000 (HI 

1.275 (X) 


5,(M) m 

13,.500 00 

1,6.50 (X) 


6.000 00 

1.5,000 m 

1,490 (Xt 

$1,625 (X) 


6,000 00 

15.000 00 

3,l(iO (X) 


2,725 (X) 


10,0(K) 00 

35.000 00 

2.6.50 (XI 

2.075 (X) 


10,(KX) M 

:3S,000 00 

2.7(X) (X) 

2.8.50 (X) 1 



20,000 (10 

.55,800 00 

3.700 (X) 

3.1INI (Ml 


^^.(KK) 00 

lill.SOO (Kl 

4.(XK) (XI 

3.. 505 (XI 1 


20,(HX) (10 

r9,.")O0 00 

4,2.50 (XI 

§7.(Xi2 (X) 

11,.S(MI (Ml 


20,(.K.>0 IK.I 

Sl,f».30 00 

-!.7(XI tXI 

8,925 (X) 

14. 7 "Ml (X) 


2(J,000 00 

S7.2.50 00 

.5.500 (X) 

1.5,188 (Ml 

1.5,7(MI 00 


20.(K)0 00 

88.200 00 

(i.SOO (XI 

13,923 25 

l(i.375 (X) 



■.'(1,(100 00 

87,310 00 

7,9(X1 (XJ 

17.181 (X1 

20.805 (Ml 


•.'.").( H HI (X) 

105.788 28 

7.i»25 (X) 

18..575 (X> 

22,012 20 


:-!(l.(KK) (.10 

94,188 17 

().(XX) (HI 

l(i (XX) (X) 

2:3.495 00 1 


:^(l,il()0 (XI 

107.794 28 

l).(XXI (XI 

18,;-i(N) (XI 

23,495 1X1 


.")(),( KM) (XT 

124,7.52 30 

22,(X)0 (X) 

21.260 (XI 

24,495 00 


(iO,(!00 00 

194,253 78 

26.271 25 

40.2(NI (X) 

:3:3,(i95 (Ml 


1(J0,(XX) IX) 

267,000 00 

70,371 08 

41.125 00 

55,795 00 

If 66 

200,000 00 

310.220 40 

75.iK>2 00 

44,.5(X) 00 

70.510 00 


270.' -*^, 

404.270 (14 

81.405 00 

.58,4<X) (X) 

103.3(i6 00 ; 



-»iai,579 4:3 

106,525 IX) 

s«,8(X) m 

108.031 00 


:»' .. 


1.54,141 67 

IKi.l.^O (XI 

142..54.3 .50 «3 

,620 00 


425,000 00 


160,0:35 .50 .5) 

3,!X)6 00 


4;«,ooo 00 

1,103,456 (i5 

Con solid 

ited with 

lKi.1.55 .50 a 

\tm 00 


485,(XX) 00 

1,445.882 81 


• Citv. 

131.:329 0() 6' 

4.975 (X) 


500,000 00 

1,231.111 20 

151.1:35 00 7' 

M'3 62 

Taim.k sliowing Hudson County's quota of State tax:* 




$4U) no 

(115 00 





?tl() IH) 

11, rw (»H 

(«.H.-)2 Mi 




. ... $V.t,XA 19 


S20 (H) 

8-J) (K) 

'A !M)3 88 





B.'i 135 27 


820 U) 

820 00 

830 00 


2!t.2»0 00 

. 88 ti70 !)5 




;is,2r.o IK) 

51,914 OO 

101,(M9 28 



146,217 71 

* From 1848 to 18()0 inclusive, no State tax was levied. 

Stiite school tax paid by the county uiuler the present law — 
1871, ^177,341.90; 1872,'$202,00S.5(i ; 1^73, .^194,950.95. 

Amount received by the county from tlie State under the 
l>rosent law— 1872, 'lt),052.88 ; 1873, 8172,034.2(; ; 1874, 

CHAPTEE XIII. — Genealogies. 

Van Vorst Family— Vreeland Family— Van Winkle Family— Van Wagenen 
Family— Van Buskirk Family — Van Kipen Family— Van Horn Family— 
Newkirk Family— Garrabrant Family— Sip Family — Brinkerlioff Family 
— Scliuyler Family — Kingsland Family — Gaiitier Family — Cadmus 

Mich labor has been expended in writing np the following 
brief genealogies, and yet the result is confessedly imperfect. 
All tliat can be said in its favor is, the author has done the best 
he could in the face of difficulties and discouragements which 
need not be described. One who has not undertaken a similar 
task is not prepared to comprehend how difficult it is to trace 
out the genealogies of the old Dutch families. There was not 
among those who originally settled within the limits of this 
county, more than one family which had a name. That single 
one was Van Voorst^ now Van Vorst; and even this sat so 
loosely, by reason of its novelty, tliat Icle, of the second genei-a- 
tion, was as often called Ide Co/'nc/isscn, i. e., Ide, the son of 
Cor?} eh' 8, as Ide Van Vo7'st. iS'early all of the early settlers 
here were of the peasantry, who came out as farm servants or 
soldiers in the service of the Dutch AY est India Company. This 
class of settlers had no surname, for they had not earned one. 
They were known from each other of the same name by using 

^ote. — The figures in parentheses (56) point forward to that number in the 
family name. The figures in brackets [3] point backward to that number in 
the family name. The figures in parentheses (35) following the second name 
of parties married refer to the number of that person in his or her respective 
family name. The figures 1,2, 3, etc, indicate position in the family genealogy, 
while the numerals XII. denote the nimiber of the child in the particular fam- 
ily. For illustration : 

Enoch [o] had ch. : 
21. XII. Joris (56), b. Sept. 25, 1710 : m. 2d. Annetje Van Wagenen (35). 

This reads as follows : Enoch, who stands third in the Vreeland genealogy, 
had children, the twelfth of whom stands the twenty-first in the same genealo- 
gy : that this son, Joris, had for his second wife Annetje Van Wagenen, who 
stands thirty-fifth in the genealogy of that family : and that the first child of 
Joris stands fifty-sixth in the Vreeland genealogy. 

Abbreviations. — b., born; m., married: d., died; s., son; dau., daughter; 
unm., unmarried : ch.. child or children: s. p., without issue; bap., baptized; 
inf , infancy ; mos., months ; yrs., years : wid., widow : set., age. 

THE VAN SDUSl IA.MI1.\. 42."> 

the lather's chiistiaii iiiiino as a siii-iiaiiie tnr tliciiisclvos. For 
L-\aiii}>le. 'lun had a t^oii naiiiod M'nhiiil. He would he known 
as Mir/tad JaiiS'n, i. e., Mnlanl, the son of Jan. If M'lrJmel 
had a son named Picti r, 1m' would be known sis Pider ]\fl<-fiarl- 
■^"/i, i. e.. P'nti i\ son of Mi<J,iii}. 15ut if the fathers hm-o the 
>anie ('hi'istian name, of course the sons would heai' IIk; same 
surname: and thus difficulties and uncertainties were multiplied. 
I?i some eases it was not until the second i;-eneration that family 
names were chosen. These were i!;enerally (especially those hav- 
ini,' the j)reti\ '* Yan "') derived from the business, occupation, 
place of emigration, or some peculiar trait of the founder of the 

The S,-/i If ///>,- and Gnidnr families were not among the ear- 
liest settlers. The other families herein mentioned were. As a 
nde, the hounds of the county and the names of the families 
limit the extent of the ffenealoii-ies. <)iilv in a few instances has 
there been a trespass beyond. 

Tax Voorst — Van A^orst. 

This -name is snjtposed to be derived from a small ])lace in 
(relderland. near the river Yssel, called Yoorfif. There was an- 
other place in P.eli:ium. in the jirovince of Antwerp, called 

How many of this name came to this country prior to the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century is not known. In 1638 a suit 
was pending before the council in New Amsterdam against Coi-- 
nelis and .Ian \'an Vorst.^ It is quite certain that the second 
defendant in that .-nit named was not the son of Cornelis, for he 
was yet a minor in lO-tl.^ Iii 16.30 the AYest India ConqiaTiy's 
'"•nwerie Xo. 0, on Manhattan, was leased to a Jan Van, 
\vh-» is probably the one named in the above suit. It is also 
pr<:»bable that he was a brother of Cornelis. That he could not 
liav»; been the son is strengthened by the fact that in 1642 one 
(rarret, son of dan A'an \'or.>t. was of sufficient age to be em- 
ployed in the construction of buildings,^ and to have a family. 
.l,i!i (ii-rit^en \ an Vorst is presumed to liave been his son, and 
quite young when his father was killed. He m. Sara AValdron, 

T. )'. C.l .1/-SS.. a-.. 11. 

■ llild, ic, N9. It is well to hi-iir in niind, however, that under the Dutch Inw 
ehihlren did not attiiin their niajority uutil they reached the age of twenty-five 

"> tiiotnlhend, i., o4T. He was sliot by an Indian while thatching a roof near 


July 9, 1662; had cli. Joliannis, bap. June 29, 1663. This son 
lived in New York; m. Anneke TIei-eks, Aug. 26, 1685 ; liad cli. 
I. Sara, bap. May 24, 1686; II. lierek, bap. Jan. 1, 1688; III. 
AVyntje,bap. Jan.' 19, 169(i; lY. Sibout, bap. Aug. 12, 1692; Y. 
Annetje, bap. Sept. 19, 1694, 

Cornelis Yan Yoorst came to this country at an early date. 
Wliile the Lord of Achtienliuven was yet Patroon of Pavonia, 
and Walter the Doubter was Director-General of Xew Nether- 
land, Yan Yoorst settled at Ahasinius as superintendent of the 
colonic. The date of his arrival has been set doM-n as 1036. 
This is probably an error. In X. Y. ( 'ol. 21 SS., i., 127, is a certi- 
fied copy of a note, dated Sept. 8, 1634, made by \'an Yoorst in 
favor of Peter Cock, for the price of two-thirds of a sloop. 
From this it is inferable that he was in this country at that time. 
If this be so, it is probal)le tliathe returned to llclland in 1635, 
was appointed by Pauw to superintend his colonic, returned and 
settled in Pavonia prior to June 25, 1636.^ His second wife was 
Yrouwtje Ides. lie died in the summer of 1638; she died in 
March or April, 1641.' She was an energetic wt>man, not easily 
overcome by difficulties. After the death of her husband she 
leased the farm at Ahasimns for a term of twenty years, agree- 
ing to pay therefor one quarter of the produce, to build a new 
frame house, and keep those already l)uilt in repair — the Director 
agreeing to furnish the necessary brick for the chimney.^ She 
also hired from the Director-txeneral thi-ee eNves and two rams, 
yielding therefor one-half of the milk and of the increase.* In 
the latter part of the year 1639 she married Jacob St(»ifel&en.'' 

' N. Y. Hist. Soc. Iv. 8., i., 259. -X. Y. Col. 3/,s;S., /.. 238, 241. 

•' Ihid, L, 92. Bricks were brought from Holland at that time. 

■* Ibid, i., 117. 

^ StofiFelsen was born in 1601, Col. Hist, of N. Y., /., 194 ; came from Zirickzee, 
the chief city of the island of Schowen, and the oldest city of Zeeland, to this 
country at an early date. Power.^ of Atty. New Amst., 09. In 1033 he was 
" Commissary of Stores,"' New Xeth. Reg., 30, and overseer of the Company's ne- 
groes, N. Y. Col. MSS., i., 84; chosen one of the '• Twelve " in 1641, Col. 
Hist, of If. Y., i., 415 ; one of the " Eight " in 16 1") : in the same year one of 
the Directors' Council, pro har vice, to consult on Indian affairs. Xrw Xi'tlt. RffJ-, 
15. In 1656 he hired the Company "s Bouwerie at Ahasinius, where he contin- 
ued to reside until his death in 1077. In 1639 he married the widow of Cornelis 
Van Voorst, and in 1657, being a widower, married Tryntje, the widow of Jacob 
Walingen Van 'Roovn, Vale nt in e' fi Mamcal, 1S61, 048, by whom he had two chil- 
dren, viz., StofFel and .Jacobus. /^«V/, 1863, 813. In tlie same year he was ad- 
mitted to the rights of a small burgher, Xein Xeth. Reg., 183. He was an un- 
educated man, but greatly resjiected, and of considerable influence with the In- 
dians. That he was a man of integrity appears from the fact that on the ex- 
piration of his term of service he was re-hired at increased wages, the direc- 
tor saying, " No more industrious and faithful workman as overseer could be 
emploj-ed in the Company's service." Alb. Rcc, vL, 14. 




Iininediately after hor deatli dominie P,.>«2;:inlus arid Tynien Jsm- 
seii, fis ii'uardians of her children, canic forward and chiiined her 
property. An inventory ^vas nnuU- A])ril 15, K'.-il, a copy of 
wliieh IS hero inserted for the ])nri»ose of sho^ving the personal 
etfects of a \yell-to-do family in those days: 

" Inventory of goods belonging to dame Ides and Jacob Stof- 
felsen, which, in presence of^Everardns Bogardus and Tyinen 
Janson, guardians of Anna and Ide Van Vorst, surviving chil- 
dren of (lame Ides, were found in Pavonia at her house •} 

."! Jacobuses a 12 florins each, - - - - fl. 36 

i;U Holland shillings, 38 

i;]Rix dollars ^r 50 stivers, - 32 10 

In double and single stivers, . . - - - 15 

2 pieces a 10^ stivers, 1 i 

In English gold, ^ 

1 croUriioop ring; 1 silver medal and chain; 1 ditto undergn-dle 
with ring to hang kevs ; 3 silver spoons ; 2 small silver brandy 
cups ; r silver goblet ; 2 ells black wampum ; 2 two-year-old 
oxen ; 3 yearling heifers ; 4 old ewes ; 2 ewe lambs and 3 rams 
of this year; 5 cows ; 2 mares : 1 yearling stallion ; 1 bull and 1 
heifer of this year; 4 yearling hogs ; 1 boat with its apparel; 1 
old yawl ; 1 old-fashiuncd clock'; 2 ]iairs of old stockings ; 1 
damask furred jacket, half worn ; 1 new blue kersey petticoat, 
unmade; 1 new'red bodice : 3 ells of red camlet ; 1 white waist- 
coat ; 2 table cloths, colored, of English manufacture ; 1 pair of 
new and one pair of old pattens ; 1 black camlet jacket, lined ; 
1 borst of woolen yarn ; 1 pair of damask sleeves, half worn ; 1 
black coarse camlet jacket ; 1 Avoman's steel gray lined petticoat; 
1 'black coarse camlet petticoat, lined, half worn ; 1 reddish 
morning gown, not lined ; I white waistcoat of Harlem stuft ; 1 
l)air of spectacles Avith case ; 1 pair of Spanish leather pattens ; 
1 new purple apron; 19 cambric caps; 4 linen ditto; I half 
worn red ])etticoat; 2 old black skirts; 1 old iron gray doublet ; 
1 new black kersey doublet ; I fur cap trimmed up with beaver; 
1 little black vest with two sleeves ; 4 pair of sheets, good and 
bad ; 4 new blue cotton aprons; 9 linen handkerchiefs with lace ; 
1 do without lace; 2 pillow slips; 3 shifts, half worn ; I old table 
cloth; 4 napkins; 5 bear skins; 40 ells of duflels ; 2 beds ; 4 
blankets, old and new ; pieces of mink; 10 pewter platters,^ 
large and small ; 1 pewter basin ; 1 tankard and two cups of 
pewter; 4 tin funnels ; 1 little goblet; 2 English salt cellars ; L 

'Alb. Rec, L, 2;3S, 241. 

428 HISTORY or Hudson county. 

pewter mug ; 1 wooden mortar and pestle ; 1^ pewter mutsje ;^ 3 
little pewter enps ; 1 pewter mustard pot ; 1 small tin can with 
screwed cover ; 1 brass warming pan ; '2 brass candlesticks ; 2 
brass snuifers ; 2 little brass scales and one balance ; 9 pewter 
plates ; 1 iron tongs ; 1 iron gridiron ; 1 old wagon ; 1 good foot 
plow witli ] coulter ; 1 old wheel plow ; 2 harrows, 1 M'ith iron 
and 1 with wooden teeth ; 2 pine boxes ; 7 copper stove kettles, 
one partiaBy old among them ; 4 milk pails ; 1 churn ; 6 scythes; 
2 new spades ; 4 old geese ; 2 ganders ; 1 iron pan ; 2 snap- 
haunce f 1 broken ditto ; 4 pistols ; 2 silver spoons ; 1 English 
shilling; 4 old goats; 2 young ditto; 1 yearling sow. 
In shillings, double and single stivers <fe English money, 11. 19 

1 Jacobus a - - - - 12 

17 Eix dollars a 50 stivers, - - - - - 42 10 

1 single dollar a 30 stivers, - - - - - - 1 11 

" All the preceding is thus foimd at the house of Jacob Stof- 
felsen, at Ahasimus, who on his manly troth declares that he has 
not and does not know of any more chattels than are hereinbe- 
fore mentioned belonging to the aforesaid estate. 

" Done in Pavonia the" 15th April, A° 1641, New Netherland. 

" This is the — j— , mark of 
" Jacob Stoffelsen." 

Second Generation. 
Cornelius had ch. : 

2. I, Hendrick, b. in Holland. So far as appears he was 

the first white person who cultivated the bouwerie 
at lloboken. He went to Holland in the summer 
of 1639, and d. unm. shortly after his arrival there. 

3. II, Jan, b. in Holland about 1616. On arriving at his 

majority in 1641, he took possession of his inherit- 
ance,^ but so far as appears did not reside in this 

4. III. Annetje, m. Claes Jansen Yan Purmerendt, Nov. 11, 

1656. In the marriage record she is named "An- 
neken Cornelissen of Voorst." Her husband was 
a tobacco planter on Paulus Hoeck. In 1650 she 
was engaged to be married to Pieter Kock, her 
father's former partner in the sloop. He was a 
man of some note, a sergeant in the war of 1643, 

'A gill measure. - Snaphaans, a firelock, fusee. ^Alb. Bee., i., 270. 

IIIK \ A.N \()KST KAMII.V. 42i> 

and (.'imdlcd as a small l»iiri::lior in \\'>'>4:. Diin'nu- tlieso liappv 
(lays many pi-uscnts were made to her l)y I'ieter. Wlieii she was 
wooed and won by the tobaeco ])lanter, Pieter brought suit ''in 
the matter of matrimony " before the r>ur^t)masters and Sche])en8 
ill New Amster<hiin to recover tlie ]ire?ents. Tlie snit was jxMid- 
in^ for more than a year, tiie record in the mean wliile havinj^ 
been sent up to tlieir *' High and ^[ighty Lordships, the Uireetor- 
General and Councillors, to obtain thereon a verdiet."' The judj^- 
ment was : " Whereas a eertain process has been moved before the 
court of the city of New Amsterdam by I'ietei- Kock, single man, 
a burgher and inhabitant of the said city, as plaintitfat and against 
Anna Van Vorst, single woman, living at Ahasimus, defendant, 
respecting a marriage contract or a verl)al ])romise of marriage 
between the said I'ieter Kock and Anna \'an Vorst, mutually 
entered into, and in eonfirnuition thereof certain gifts and pres- 
ents were made by the plaintitf to the aforesaid defeiulant, iiow- 
ever, it appears by certain documents exhibited by the parties 
to the defendant and bride of the plaintiit" in conse<iuence of cer- 
tain misgivings is in no way disposed to be mariied to the said 
I'ieter Ivock, and it is also proved by two witnesses on the 24th 
of Decend^er, 1()5;', testifying that Pict(U- Kock had given her up 
with a promise of a written acijuitlal, therefore the Burgomaf-ters 
and Sehei)ens of the city having perused the documents exhibit- 
ed by the parties, and having examined, do by these presents de- 
cide that, as the ju-omisc of marriage has been made l)efore the 
Ominscient (iod, it shall renuiin in force, so that neither the j)lain- 
tiif nor the defendant, without the kiu)wledge and approbation of 
their Lordships, the Alagistrates, and the other one of the regis- 
tered parties shall be itermitted to enter matrimony with any 
other person, whether single num or single wonuin, provided, how- 
ever, that all the presents made in confirmation of the marriagi' 
contract shall remain in the possession of the defendant," while 

'Alb. Jin-., v., 2r)0. 

-' Tliis was no misfortune to Pieter, for what of liis worldly goods the jjcntle 
Annctje had not received, a thievinj; fellow named Marten \'an Waert, son-in- 
law of Abraham Isaacscn Planck, in j)art appropriated. For this he was sen- 
tenced to " be severely scoarjied with rods in a closed chamber, banislied ten 
years out of this jurisdiction, and further in tin; costs and ///m« of Justice." His 
father-in law secured his pardon. Valentiiu'K }[(in\i<il. 1S4!>, 400. On the oc- 
casion of liis luarriajre with Susanna Planck. I)ecember 4, IGfiO, Marten at- 
tempted to cheat the jrovernment out of the excise on a half barrel of beer. 
Occasionally he " committed jj;reat insolence, noise and uproar by iiifrht, and at 
unseasonable hours, as well at Obe's house as in the street ; yes, so much 
that many sprunjf out of bed, opened doors and windows, not knowinjj what 
was i,^i)in<f <in." He finally came to grief, for " Pieier, the negro," executed 
sentence upon him. fhul, 18'il, .")41. A likely heir to Paulus Hoeck 1 


the parties remain together in good will and con- 
tentment M'ith each other, or lawful marriage or 
until the consent of one another, thej shall be ex- 
empted from the contract. Furthermore, both the 
plaintiff and the defendant are condemned equal- 
ly in the costs of this suit." 

This sentence was pronounced May 18, 1654.' 
From it Annetje appealed, but it was confirmed. 
She united with the church in Bergen, Feb. 19, 
1672 ; d. Jan. 12, 1725 ; her husband d. Nov. 30, 
1688. Their cli. were known bj the name of 
5. IV. Ide (6) is said to have been the first white male child 
born and married in New Netherland.^ In the 
war of 1013 the " little boy " was captured by the 
Indians and taken to Tappaen. Captain de Tries 
and a couple of friendly natives, a few days after- 
ward, went up and ransomed him. Hem. Hilletje 
Jans, of Oldenburgh,-' Oct. 18, 1652. That he had 
a good time at his wedding is learned incidentally 
from the record of a law suit between him and his 
stepfather about two years afterward. It appears 
that Stoffelsen had some time previous given a 
dinner to Captain Geurt Tysen and his friends, 
and" in return the captain had presented Stoffelsen 
with a negro. Two sheep were rec^uired for the 
entertainment, and these being taken from the 
common Hock, Ide claimed to own one-half of 
them, and therefore one-half of the negro. Stof- 
felsen replied that Ide had two sheep at his wed- 
ding, and these having also come out of the com- 
mon flock balanced accounts, leaving the negro to 

He continued to reside at Ahasimus as a farmer, 
accumulating wealth which was to enable him to 
become the owner of not an inconsiderable part of 
the domains of Pauw.® He braved the dangers of 
border hfe, and exposed his property and family to 

' New Amst. Rec, i., 463. - Winfield's Land Titles, 42. 

'■^Valentine's Manual, 1862, 768. 

* Oldenburgh was a place of considerable importance in Holstein,on the river 
Brockaw. It was at one time the capital of the Wagri and Venedi, two warlike 

■rind, 1849, 383. New Amsf. Bee. « Winfield's Land Titles, 40, 44, 131. 

TllK \ AN V()i:>T IA.MII.\. 481 

tlie uttiick of the sti-altl.y s;iv;iir<' riitlici- than ahaii- 
ilnii liis home. l)iiriiiii' the war of \ij't'> he took 
ivfiige ill New Aiiistenhiiii, hut returned to his 
farm when peace was cstahlished. ^'et Ik* was in 
<hinijei', and occasionally i>l»lii;od to tly t'i>r liis life. 
One (.hiv in ( )ctoher, lO.")*.*, tlie fndians came down 
ni»un him as lie was enijai^i'd in (h-essin<^ some 
meat near his house. Seizinj;- the meat, lie tied to 
]i\> l)oat, and ]>u11ed across the river to New Am- 
sterdam. The iSolons who ailministered justice in 
that great city could not wink at such u gross 
hreach of the law, and they solemnly fined him 
twenty ^•^Iil(lers and costs. "" for lu-iiiiiing meat 
t(» thecitv without takinii; out exci.-e license.'*^ 

In illustration of the strictness with which the 
laws were enforced in his day, the followiui!; is in- 
sorted : " CDrnelis Aersen, Ide Van \ orst and their 
.servants, complained of, for that their servants 
raced on Sunday evening after sermon, with horses 
and wagons, and much noise and singing, from 
which great damage and disaster might have 
arisen."" Each master was fined three guilders, 
and they were ordered to watch thejnselves, so 
tliat all daiigers and irregularities might be ])re- 

Jlis name, Ide, was probably the name of his 
mother's father, as her name was Ides. Ilis wife 
survived him. and d. .lulv is, 17<.'5. 

Til I I'll lii nerotvni. 
Ide [5 I had ch. : 
♦i. I. Vronwtje, ba)). Aug. '1\. \y\W.\ \ m. Andries Aleyer, of 

New York, Nov. ."), 1671. 
7. II. Annetje, b. in l(i55: m. John Meyer, of New York. 

J line l:>, 1<)77. 
N. III. Coi'iielius, bap. Aug. 2i'>, It>."»7: d. in inf. 
9. I\. Pietertje, bap. Nov. !♦, 16.50; m. Merselis Pieterse in 

If.sO; d. Sept. ;'.. 1744. 
1". ^^ ('orncliu> (1-Ji. haj). duly ;5n, 1<;(;2; m. Fitje (ierritse 
\'an Wagenen (4», of C'ommunipaw, April 6, It'.S.") ; 
d. .lulv — , 17."t;5. 

'JV«tr Amst. Rec, if., i>M. 


11. VI. Joanna, bap. April K!, 1G<)(3; ni. Jan Adrianse Sip (3), 

April 22, 1084. 

Fourth Generation. 
Cornelius [10] liad eli. : 

12. I. Ide, bap. July 1(», 1<;87 ; d. Dec. T, 1()81». 

13. II. Jannetje, b. June 5, IGSS; d. unra. 

14. III. (Territ(23), bap. May 1, 1080; ra. Sarah Yan Winkle 

(19), May 22, 1714; lie removed to New Barba- 
does Neck, near Aquaekanonck ; his will, dated 
June 13, 1T*)4. was proved June 15. 1785. Some 
of his descendants returned, and settled near West 
Hoboken and Union Hill. 

15. lY. Ilillegond, b. March 2, 1()82: d. Jan. 31. Ulo. 

16. Y. Annetje, bap. Jan. 28, 1»)1»4; m. Martin Winue, Dec. 

9, 1713. 

17. YI. Ide, b. Dec. 4, ; d. iimii. ; A'll. Juhauuis, b. Mav 

7, 1697. 

18. YIII. Hendrick, b. Jan. 29, 1691>; d. num. 

19. IX. Cornelius (31), b. March 8, 17<iO; m. Claesje, dau. «.f 

Mattys De Mott, Nov. 26, 1726 ; d. Dec. 5. 17<iU. 
He represented Bergen in the 18th Provincial As- 
sembly, in 1751. 

20. X. Jacob, b. July 7, 1702. His luime does not a[»pear in 

his father's will, hence it is inferred that he was 
then dead, s. p. 

21. XI. .1 annetje, b. March 7,1704; ni. Walter Ileyer, Auij'. 

8, 1723. 

22. XII. Maritje, b. May 22, 1706 ; m. Isaac Hennion, in 1726. 

Fifth (reneration. 
Gerrit [14] had ch. : 

23. I. Fitje, m. Gerrebrand Jurrianse Yan lli]ien (32), Jan. 

6, 1742. 

24. II. Annetje, m. Frederick Yan Ri])en (34), Dec. 2, 1742. 

25. III. Jenneke, m. Johannis Yreeland. 

26. lY. Cornelius (34), m. 1st, Annetje Toers, Dec. — , 1752 : 

2d, Annatje Outwater, wid. of Abraham Berj-v. 
July 2, 1778. 

27. Y. Waling, b. April 5, 1729 ; d. in inf. 

28. YI. Waling (37), b. March 30, 1731 ; m. Catrina Yan Eyd- 

estyn, Sept. — , 1755. 
2!». YII. Maritje: IX. Hilletje. 


\ AN \ uli-l I AMI I. V. 438 

'MK \'III. Cutiiiia lia.l cli. : f. (\itriii;i. 1>. lice. :.':;. IT.".* ; vader 

( 'unieliiis [li> I hiid cli. : 
81. I. Corticlius (4:^), b. Nov. 25, 172s; ni. .\iiiietjt; V^m 
Horn (S), April 21, IT."):;; d. St'pf. 8<i, (sfs. He 
was ])Opiilarly known as " Faddy ;" was one of the 
wcaltliiest men in the county, full of fiiii and 
jn-actical jokes. He was fond of fast horses, and 
drove the best team in th(^ vicinity. He estal)- 
lished the race course on Paulus Iloeck in IT").",, 
and was the lion of that " Derby." I'ut wliile he 
loved the genial side of life, he did nc^t forget its 
weii!;htier duties. lie established the Jersey City 
ferrv in 17(54. When the Revolution l)roke out 
he took decided <;r(»und on the side of his C(»untry. 
At a meetiiif^of the inhabitants of Jjci'gen county, 
lield at Ilackensack, June 25, 1774, he was ap- 
pointed one of a " committee for corresponding 
with the committec.'s of the other counties in this 
]>rovince, and particularly to meet with the other 
county connnittees at New Brunswick, " * * 
in order to elect delegates to attend a general 
Congress t>f Delegates of the Ainericcni Colonies.'''^ 
On June 2i>, 177<i, the Provincial Congress ap- 
pointed him lieutenant-colonel of the battalion of 
foot militia in the county of Bergen.'- It is doubt- 
ful, however, if he ever was in actual service. 
Shortly after the capture of New York by the 
British, and the fall of Paulus Iloeck, his house 
at Ilarsimus was occupied by the otlicers of a de- 
tachment of cavalry. He and his family were 
crowded into the kitchen.^ The fact that he con- 
tinued to reside on his i)lace while in possession of 
the enemy aroused suspicion that he had become a 
tory. On Nov. 10, 177G, he was charged before 
the court with having joined the British. After 
a thorough investigation he was honorably ac- 

During this occu]>ancy of his house by the enemy 
^ the otticers were in the practice, for their own 

' Am. Archives, 4th Scries, i., 450. -Ibid, ri., 1633. 

'' Part of this kitchen is yet standing. 



amusenient, of discharging muskets np the chimney. One day, 
liis niotlier being sick^ he requested theui to desist. This they 
haughtily refused to do. Being a powerful man, he proceeded 
to vindicate his rights by administering a drubbing to the insolent 
soldiers. Incarceration in the old sugar house was the conse- 
quence of attempting to administer justice inter arma. Sir Henry 
Clinton, then in command at New York, was an old school com- 
panion of Yan Yorst,^ and released him with the admonition not 
to let such a thing happen again. But being impetuous as well 
as powerful, he was soon in another diliiculty — by taking up the 
cause of a cobbler. An otiicer refused to pay for the repair of 
his boots, whereupon Yan Yorst satisfied the shoemaker by thrash- 
ing the officer. For this he was again locked up in New York, 
and again discharged with a like admonition. 

The presence of the enemy, always oifensive to the sturdy 
patriot, finally became unendurable. They not only lived in his 
house, but seized his horses and confiscated his cattle. Deter- 
mined to separate from their company, which he loathed, he 
took his family to Pompton and there resided with Philip 
Schuyler. On his return he went to Paulus Hoeck, and lived in 
the ferry house until the close of the war. 

Like his opulent neighbors, " Faddy " was a practical believer 
in the patriarchal institution, and kept his spacious kitchen well 
stocked with slaves. Among the number was a character known 
as " Half Indian Jack," who died at Ilarsimus February 2, 1831, 
at the age of 103 yeai-s, and was buried on what is now the rear 
of lot No. 153 Wayne street. Jack ran away from Yan Yorst 
during the Revolutionary war, and became a spy for the British. 
He was generally in the company of a white sp}', named Meyers. 
Both did their work for i)ay — Jack for whiskey, Meyers for 
gold. Meyers deposited his money in a box, which he kept 
buried. Whenever he was in a condition to add to the deposit, 
he and Jack would unearth the treasure. When uncovered, 
Jack would be dismissed, and Meyers buried the money in a 
different place. The story, as told by Ja(dv, was that, as often 
as he had helped Meyers dig up the box, he had never seen 
it buried, nor was it ever buried twice in the same place. At 
last the patriots entrapped and shot Meyers, but Jack was too 
wary and escaped. After Meyers' death great efforts were made 
to discover his treasure. His widow, ever looking for the end of 
the rainbow where rests the pot of gold, every sprin"^when the 

1 Clinton liad probably met Van Vorst at school in the city while his father, 
Admiral Clinton, was (iovernor of New York. 

TIIK VAN \iii:<l 1\MII.\. 435 

irroiind was soft, would iro over wliiit was roccntlv 
tliu I'Oui'tli and I'^it'tli wards of" .lerscy ('Itv, ])ros- 
pectitii; with an iron roil, wliiili she pushed into 
the i^round, hopirii;- to strike the box. She lu^versuc- 
<ree(h'(l. thouti^h she worked and hoped while slie 
live(h It is i)ossihle that the old spy's hox of IJrit- 
ish u^oltl yet lies l)ui-i<Ml in that ])art of the city, 
awaitiiii:' its resurrection bv the si)ade of some luckv 

-lack pretended anions;- the slaves to be an Indian 
doctor. Jle induced them to believe that he was a 
]>articular favorite of the devil, and <ijave them to 
understand that, nnless they helped him to a few 
pennies, old "clootie" would come for them some 
day. In time this mode of raisino; the wind failed 
Jack, and he was left to sufter from his chronic 
drought. But, fortunately for him, one day a man 
came to Jersey City with a horse nineteen hand> 
high. He could be mounted only by means of a 
ladder, and his foot was like a peck measure. He 
was put up at Holmes' stable, near the corner of 
AVashington and ^Montgomery streets, .lack saw 
the " huge, earth-shaking beast " ]mss down the 
avenue. Hastening to the slaves, he reminded them 
of his frequent wai-nings that the devil would come 
for them and how they had disl)elieved him ; but 
now he was at hand and had put his horse in 
Holmes' stable. The poor creatures wondered, yet 
doubted, and resolved to see for themselves. ]>ut 
when they came to Newark avenue and saw the 
jn-ints of the horse's feet, they fled in wild dismay. 
From that day till he died the devil would come at 
Jack's bidding, coppers were not wanting for his 
whiskey, and he was prophet and king in Faddy's 

32. II. John, is said to have been m. and had a family. 

•>.'). Ill, llcliMia, m. Ilenrv Kiiii^sland. IV . Kli-anor. 

/S/xf/i Goici'atHm. 


Cornelius [20] had eh. : 

34. I. Arie, 1). April 20, 17r>0 ; m. Lena 1 '.eny, Jan. ."), I 777 ; 
removed to the west. 


35. II. Gerrit (46), b. Xov. 21, 175S ; in. Mary Yan Evde- 

styn, Aug. 5, 1786 ; d. April 2, 1834.' 

36. III. Annatje, b. Aug. 25, 1764; d. in inf. 

AYaling [28] had ch. : 

37. I. Gerrit, b. April 30, 1756; d. in inf. 

38. II. Sarah, b. April 14, 1761 ; m. Casparus Yan Eydestyn, 

Feb. 1, 1784. 

39. III. Gerrit (51), b. June 22,1764; m. Elizabeth Biljn, of 

Staten Island, Ang. 19, 1786. 

40. IV. Casparus (54), b. Sept. 3, 1769 ; m. Margrietje Yan 

Buskirk, June 9, 1799. 

41. Y. Hendrick (55), in. Annatje Fiekston, Dec. 7, 1800. 

Cornelius [31] had ch. : 

42. I. Johannis (56), b. March 3, 1761 ; m. Sarah, dan. of 

Jean Francois Yasher,^ June 20, 1816 ; d. Jan. 13, 
1832 ; she' d. Feb. 23, 1851, get. 64 yrs., 1 mu., 
20 days. 

43. II. Cornelius (60), b. Sept. 6, 1763 ; ni. Hannah Gilbert. 

44. III. Claesje, b. Aug. 31, 1765 ; d. Oct. 9, 1773. 

45. lY. Neeltje, b. Sept. 16, 1768; m. Ilenrv Traphagen, 

Jan. 25, 1803 ; d. March 4, 1824. 

Seventh Generatioji. 
Gerrit [35] had ch. : 

46. I. Ann, b. Feb. 24, 1787 ; m. Daniel Smith. 

47. II. Catharine, b. Oct. 17, 1789 ; m. John K. Holmes. | 

48. III. Annatje, b. Nov. 28, 1793; m. Benjamin McCollum. i 

49. IV. Cornelius (63), b. Dec. 14, 1799 ; ra. Letitia, dau. of " 

James Warner, Jan. 1, 1826. 

Gerrit [39] had ch. : 

50. I. Waling, m. Maria Kip ; had ch. : I, Hendrick and 

II. Garret, twins, b. Jan. 21,1814; III. Joanna, 
b. Dec. 6, 1816; lY. Catharine, b. Sept. 1, 1819 ; 
Y. Jacob, b. Aug. 28, 1821 ; YI. John, b. July 25, 
1825; YII. Christian, b. Oct. 11, 1828; YIII. 
William Oscar, b. Nov. 13, 1831. 

' Vasher was a Frenchman. He came to tliis country durinj? tlie Revolution- 
ary war ; was a surgeon in the fourth New York regiment ; an intimate friend 
of Washington and a member of the Cincinnati. He m. Miss Potter of Madison, 
N. J. His ch. were, I., Sarah, m. John Van Vorst ; II., Eliza ; III., Frances, m . 
Robert Gilchrist, Oct. 1, 1812 ; her son Robert is now Attoruey-Cfeneral of N. J. ; 
IV., Frank, d. in inf. 

O ^ 

— ■» 

o I 

< V 


TIIK \AN \(>HST lA.MlI.^. -t^M 

.">1. n. JmcoI) (t)7), li. .lul.v 17, ITSS; 111. Cliristinji Eversoii, 

.l:iM. Ml, lMi:>; (l. July 4, I.S57. 
iy2. nr. OerritiTU), h. .Iimr 2*'., ITiX); ni.('vnthi:i llciinioii, 

Dec. 25, IS 10; (1. M.ii-ch 25, 1852; slie b. Dec. 

24, I7S!> ; <1. All--. 11. 1S52. 

53. IV. .loliii. I). Xnv. 18, I7;>:.. 

Ca.<parus |4i>| luul eh. : 

54. T. rathariiia, 1). April 12, l^<»<'; 11. Thomas, 1). Sept. 

11, 1802. 

Tlendnck |411 liad eh.: 

55. I. Catharina, 1.. Sept. 17, ISO]; H. Isaac, b. Auir. 23, 

180;; ; III. Waiiii- 1). Oct. 16, 1805, d. in inf.; 
IV. Walincr. b. Sept. 22, 1806; Y. Antje, b. 
March 7, 1801); VI. Saartje, b. Fel>. 12, 1S13; 
VH. Oarret, b. March 5. iS21 ; VIII. Eliza Jane, 
1). April 7, 1823. 

Tohannis [42] had cli. : 

56. I, Ann Eliza, b. June 2, 1817; ni. J. Dickinson Miller, 

Feb. ll», 1835. He was a prominent la\v}'er in 
Jersey City, and, for several years, Alderman. 

57. II. Cornelia, b. Nov. 15, 1810; m. Ilenry Augustus Boo- 


58. III. Sarali Frances, b. Sept. 12, 1820; m., 1st, Charles B. 

C. liacot; 2d, Michael Lienau, March 17, 1859. 
5'.t. IV. John (73), b. Sept. 25, 1823; m. Emily H., dau. of 
Peter Bacot, of Charleston S. C, Jan. 10, 1850. 
He was Alderman of Jersey City and a member 
of the General Assemblv of N. J. for several years 

Cornelius [43| had ch. : 
6t». 1. Cornelius (74), b. Aiii,^ •;, 171>4: m. 1st, Sarah S., dau. 
of AVilliam l>rower, Dec. — , 1816; she d. Aug. 

12. 1835 ; 2tl, Antoinette, dau. of Cornelius Roose- 
velt, Oct. 10, 1836 ; d. Jan. 23, 1852 ; she d. Sept. 
14, 1840. 

61. II. Susanna, b. March 15, 1708; d. March 26, 1815. 
^>2. III. Anna, 1). March 26,1803; m. Joseph Cooper, March 
11, 1830; d. Jan. 1, 1865. 

^')//i th (.iene ration . 
Cornelius [49] had ch. : 



63. I. Garret, b. Oct. 30, 1826 ; m. Abigail Hazard ; had cli., 

I. Garret ; II. Lena. 

64. II. Letitia, b. June 26, 1828; in. Charles W. Ward. 

65. III. Cornelius (85), b. May 25, 1830; m. Phebe Jane, dan. 

of Tlionias Gardner. 

66. TV. Jane Ann, b. Sept. 18, 1832 ; m. William II. Tise ; d. 

Dec. 6, 1870. 

Jacob [51] had ch. : 

67. I. Elizabeth, b. Auej. 4, 1809 ; m. Henry Spier, Dec. 19, 


68. II. John, b. in 1820 ; d. in 1824. 

69. III. Sarah, b. Feb. 22, 1822 ; m. Isaac Ilalenbeck, Jnly 8, 


Gerrit [52] had ch. : 

70. I. Elizabetli, b. ^ov. 6, 1812; ni. Abraham Shotwell. 

71. II. David (86), b. Feb. 20, 1823; m. Fanny, dan. of 

Charles Heritage, Jnne 1, 1851. 

72. III. Garret (87), b. Jnne 21, 1826 ; m., 1st, Sarah, dan. of 

John Everson ; 2d, Marv, dan. of John Spier, Jan. 
10, 1861. 

John [59] had ch. : 

73. I. John, b. Oct. 18, 1850; 11. Dickinson M., b. May 15, 

1854 ; III. Engene C, b. March 2, 1856 ; lY. Emily 
H., b. Dec. 1, 1857; Y. Sarah, b. Oct. 24, 1860 
YI. Henry H., b. Dec. 3, 1865 ; d. Jnly 14, 1866 
A"II. Harriet B., b. Feb. 10, 1870 ; d. July 15, 1870 
A^II. Mary S., b. Sept. 11, 1872. 

Cornelins [60] had ch. : 

74. I. Elizal)eth B., b. Nov. 3, 1817 ; II. Snsan, b. Ang- 

22, 1819 ; d. in inf. 

75. III. Cornelins (88), b. March 7, 1822; m. Sophia A., 

dan. of Edward Phillips of Providence, K. I., Jnne 
16, 1846. He was Alderman and Mayor of Jersey 
City for several years. 

76. lY. Mary' B., b. Feb.'l, 1824 ; m. William P. Powers, 

Aiig. 14, 1851. 

77. Y. Snsan, b. April 17, 1825; d. in inf. 

78. YI. Sarah, b. Feb. 25, 1831 ; m. Ptobert Sewell, April 

24, 1860. 



::>. \'II. AtiiiH (;.. 1.. April L'.'), 1S:>.2: \'1 1 1. .1 iiliet J.. Au<,'. 
:», is;u. 
i.\. .iiiiia, I). Oct. 27, 18;;:. 

X. Susan, I), ^^:llvl^ 30, ls;','.t; in. Louis Do/. Arniaiild, 

Xn\. 17, l^*>'-). 

\I. Antoinette, 1). Nov. li-t, 1841 : «1. in inf. 
\II. William 15., b. Doc. «», 1842; ni. Katie, dan. ..t' S. 
E. Swain, Mav 31, 1871 : slie d. Ani;. :'.l, 1872. 
84. .\'1II. .Vntoinette, I). Jan. 27, 184(; : in. Ihi'-h Toler Boo- 
raein, Mav 14, 1n«!7. 



A'i'}} th Gen >' ration . 

Cornulius [ t)5 | had cli, : 

85. I. (vurneliufe ; II. Charles : III. Garret Thomas ; I\'. Har- 

rison; y. Howard; YI. William; VII. William; 
\ 111. llrwin ; IX. Letitia, 

David I 71 | had ch. : 

86. T. Maria Frances, h. Oct. 7, 1852 ; II. Garret F., b. Nov. 

Kl, 1n:.4: 111. Fill Louisa, b. May 17, 18(U. 

(Jarret [72] had ch. : 

87. I. Sarah Ann, b. Sept. 18, 1851 ; 11. Cvnthia, b. May 19, 

1854; III. (4arret, b. Julv 23, (863; IV. George, 
b. May 10, 1807. 

Cornelius | 75 | had ch. : 

88. I. :NLirv U. ; II. Cornelius P., b. March 2!), ls40; 111. 

" Edward P., b. Jan. 19, 1852; d. iu inf.; IV. Eliza 
P., b. Jan. 20, 1853. 

\'kKKI,.VNI) — VkEE[,.\XI)T — FUEEI.AM). 

There was iu Holland a place named Vreelandt^ but whether a 
handet. parish or manor has not beeu ascertained.' The family in 
this county now bearing the name is descended from Mlclutl 
■/an.'<<ii, who canjjit'rom Proeckhuysen (North Prabant).^ He 
left Holland Octoberul, 1(>3G, in the shij) Peui^selaerwyck,^ with 
his wife and two chiydreu. He settled at what is now Green- 

' Col. Hist, of-^fr-^, Uy. 18:3. 
» O'Cnl., N. N., i, 437. 

-■ Valentidc's Hist, of N. Y., 138. 



bush, opposite Albany, as a hoerehiecJit, or farm servant.* It 
Avas not long befoi'e he f^rew weaiy of agi-ieultural pursuits and 
the narrow road thereby opened to weafth, and engaged in the 
fur trade, in which " he made his fortune in two years." Such 
])rivate speculation being prohibited by law, soon brought him into 
difficulty with the authorities. He thereupon abandoned his farm, 
and came to Manhattan. The date of this change is not known, 
but he was a resident in Kew Amsterdam November 4, 1G44, on 
which date he empowered Arent Yan Curler to settle with Pa- 
troon Van Rensselaer all accounts and difterences. In 104«) he 
came over to Communipaw, and settled on the bouwerie owned 
by Jan Evertsen Bout. In the years 1647, '49 and '50, lie repre- 
sented Pavonia in the Council of " Nine,"- and joined his asso- 
ciates in their crusade against Governor Stuyvesant.^ It was at 
his house that the journal of Yan der Donck was seized, and it 
was suspected upon information furnished l)y himself.* He was 
a signer of tlie ap]>lication for the first municipal government in 
New Netherland, July 26, 1649.^ 

The following record of June 15, 1654, shows that he had not 
yet overcome his reluctance to farming : 

"Michiel Jansen, residing at Pavonia, belonging to the juris- 
diction of New Amsterdam, appeared before the Court of Bur- 
gomasters and Schepens of this city aforesaid, and stated that he 
intended, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the place, 
to brew some beer, and, as it was very inconvenient to give in the 
same every time, and to procure the excise certificate, wished 
therefore to make an agreement with the Burgomasters and 
Schepens about the excise ; which being granted to him, tlie 
Burgomasters and Schepens have made an agreement with 
Michiel Jansen for one year, that for all the beer he shall brew 
and sell at the aforesaid place, he shall pay 50 guilders, each half 
year the half, and it is hereby allowed to him to sell beer by the 
small measure also, to persons coming over to that place.''" Thus 
he has the honor of being the first licensed tapster in the State of 
New Jersey.^ 

During the troubles of 1655, the Indians drove him from his 
home, wlien, on September 15, they made a raid on Pavonia and 
killed every man there, except the family of Jansen.^ From the 

' Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 4B1. 'New Neth. Reg., 55. 

■■' Col. HUt. of N. Y..i., 275. *Ibid, i., 344. 

' Valentine's Manual, 1851, 407. ''iV^w Amst. Bee, i.,A92. 

'' Aert Teunissen, of Hobokeu, who was killed in 1043, was the first brewer in 
New Jersey. Contra Valentine's Manual, 1800, (512. 
■" Albany Rccovds, xiii., 327. 

THK \Ki;i;i..\.M» I AMii ,^ . \ 1 1 

daiifjers and uiu'crtiiinties nf holder life :it "■ Gimioonepa,"' lie 
took I'ct'iii^ff! on ^Nfaidiattaii, where, because lie was an ''old man 
with a hi'avv fanuly," and had lost his all, he was, Xo\eMil>er 'J2, 
Hi.")."), permitted to keep a tap room.' Like many niodei'ii tap- 
sters, he soon leai'ned how to kei')) the letter of the law while he 
violated its spirit. An oi-chiiance j>r(_»liil)ited tappiiin- alter bell- 
riiii;, and on October l'."!. IiIo*!, the schout prosecuted Jansen tor 
its \i()Iatiou. The di-tendant confessed that two soldiers were 
l>la_vini;- at back->j;ammon and three sailors M'aitin^- tor tlieir skip- 
per; denied that he had tai>ped after bell-rin<i; : ailmitted that his 
quests" had their cans by them and <>:ot ehattinii-,"' but shrewdly 
omitted to state that lie had tilled their cans against the time 
when he could not lawfully tap.- 

For the .sime reason that he was pernntted to tap he received 
'//■i(fis\ in February, 1(">.')<», a lot of ground in the city."' (^n Feb- 
ruary 21, l<>r)7. he was a))pointed one of the Measurers of J Ame 
iind Grain} On .\pril l-'J, H).")?, his name was placed on tlie 
roll of small bui'ghei's."' Much to his credit, he soon grew weary 
of tap ro(jm life, and longed to return to his wheat])roducing 
bouwerie. During the war he had not ]iarted with the title to 
all the land which he had previously bought of Bout^ for 8,000 
florins.'' In IH.^S he sold ]»ai't of it to Harman Sujeeman.*^ On 
danuarv 22. Hir)8, he asked for jK'rmissioii to return to Pavonia, 
and to be relieved from certain tithes." In September, lOGl, lie 
had become a man of "competence,'"" living on liis bouwerie at 
<Temoene|)a. He was one of the first magistrates of the new 
court at ilergen.'^ In December, ir>02, he joined his neighbors 
in asking the Governor for a nunister of the gosjiel, and for 
whose sup]>ort he subscribed twentv-five florins.'- He die<l in 

His wife was I'itje Haitnians. In 1670 she was living at 
•' (ihmoenepaen," and had *' many gi-andchildi-en, all of whom 
were not unjust." The fai'in owned by hei- is marked on the 

' New Amst. Rec, ii., 275. - Thid. ii., 603. 

s iV. Y. Col. MSS., vi., 269. ■* New Neth. ller,., 1 IG. 

■* lipid. 176. " Powira of Aftornei/, Xcir Amst., 1.V2. 

' Col. IliHt. ofN. Y.. i., 4:!'2. •* lYew Amsf. Rec, i'ii., 20. 

* iV. r. Col. MSS., riii.. (i4». '" Valentine:* Mmiunl, 186:1, .-)6n. 

" Neir Neth. Ii>:g., IdO. '■ .V. }'. Vol. MSS.. j-., fart i.. 277. 279. 


field map as lots numbered 14 ai'd 15/ The Lal)adists, in Octo- 
ber, 1679, dined with her. An old lady in Brooklyn told them 
that Fitje came from Cologne. Thej have left this quaint 
record concerning her : " A\^e found her a little pious, after the 
manner of the country, and you could discover that there was 
something of the Lord in her, but very much covered up and 
defiled."'^ This is no light testimony to the old lady's religious 
attainments, considering that it is given by two men who seem 
to have looked upon all mankind, except that small portion 
which accepted their own ])eculiar views, as destined fuel for the 
everlasting bonfire. She was a member of the Bergen church 
in 1661:; d. September 21, 1697. 

If tn^s^n^^Jjj-'^^^ ■ 

Second Generatton 

Michiel Jansen had ch. : 5 \J^" 

1. I. Claas came to this country withiiis father ; m. Annetje 

Maria Gerbrants, of Norden, April J 4, 1657. 
2 II. Elias (9), was a carpenter by trade ; m. Grietje Jacobs 


Yan Winckel, of " Hazymus," Aug. 30, 1665; 
took the oath of allegiance to the kino; Nov. 
22, 1(565 ; was commissioned xVssoeiate Judge of the 
Court of Bergen in ir)73, '74, '77 and 1680 ; en- 
. sign in Captain John Berry's company at Bergen, 
July 15, 1675 ; was representative in the General 
Assembly in 1683, '93, '95, '99 and 1708. During 
the year 1683 he was commissioned one of the 
Judges of the County of Essex. In March, 1684, 
he united with his brothers Hartman, Johannis and 
Cornelis (and others) in the jnircliase from the Pro- 
prietors of " Haquequenunck."^ They had pre- 

' Wiiifield's Land 'Titles, 51. -Loncj hi. Hist. Soc, i., 155. 

^Tni/lor's Annals, Ij9. 

TlIK VKKKI.ANK lAMH.'S. 44.'^. 

viously ]turcliase»l the Indiiui title, ami lie was an 
actual resident there in \(\S'A. In Mi'.C^ Ik; was ap- 
]»()int('<l to raise revenue t'nr the war between Kn<^- 
land and France.' 
:;. III. Enocli (10), bap. Oct. 26, HUD ; in. 1st, Direksje Meyers, 

of Amsterdam, June 20, l»;7t» ; .she d. ( )et. T), 1088 ; 
2d, (irietje Wessels, witl. of Jan Janse Jvanii^edyck, 
Oct. 23, 1693; slie d. Nov. 20, 1697; 3d,^Aagtie 
Van Ilooren, Jan. 13, 1704 ; d. Aug. 17, 1714. lie 
was a member of the (General Assembly of the 
Trovince in 167.')- 88, 17<>7, "OS and '09.'" In the 
last year lie was not prompt in his attendance, and 
the sergeant-at-ai'tns was directed to ])ring him 
fortliwith before the House. He was commissioned 
ensign of the militia of Bergen, July 4, 1G81 ; As- 
sociate Judge of the Court at Bergen in 1673, '74, 
'81, '82, and '83 ; Comniissione;? of Higliways for 
the County in 1(!82 and '02 ; and Assistant Judge 
of the Bergen Conniion Pleas, May 22, 17'»5. He 
lived on the bluff where the Central Railroad 
crosses the Morris Canal, Jiear Cavan Point. ^ /) 
4. I\'. Ilartman (22), bap. Oct. 1, KuA ; ni. Met;je,' 'dau. of 
JJirek Claase Braecke, in lt')72.' He was a wheel- 
wright by trade ; lived at Rechpokus on part of his 
wife's inheritance ; purchased of Sachem Ca])ta- 
hem and Christoi)her Iloagland (who was the first 
])urchaser, July 1."), 1678), 27<» acres of land, in- 
cluding ''Stoffel's Point" (so named from Hoag- 
land), and an islaml in the Passaic river near 
Arpiackanonck. named by the Indians M< inhiU- 
ivkv., by the English " Hartman's Island." In 1693 

' Lemninrj and !>picei\ 'd'-i-i. -Ibid, 346. 

" Braecke, or, as he was jrenerally known, Dirck C'laeson, was patentee of 
<"avan Point and Stony Point, liavini; purchased the former place from Efjberi 
Woutcrsen. He held a lease of Iloljokcn for a short time about the year 1640, 
Col. Hist, of N. Y.. /., :{2!( : was skipper of the sloop Union, from which he was 
dismissed, April, 20, IClIS, for disobedience of orders, Tl'id, riii , S,")! ; and was 
one of the <omniissioners to fortifv Comninni])aw in 11)6:5, yew Netli. Reg.. 15!), 
He d. March 26, l(it»:i ; his wife.'Neesje .Jacobs, d, Dec. 2:5, lOdM. His three 
daughters m. three l)rothers, and amon^ them liis pro])erty was divided. 


lie was Receiver of Taxes in Bergen ;^ d. Jan. 18, 
5, Y. Joliannis(35), bap. Oct. 1, 1650 ; m. Claesje, dau. of Dirck 

Claase Braecke, May 14, 1(;82; d. June 1>G, 1713. 
0. VI. Cornelins(44),b. Jnne3,i660; m.l,st,Metje, dau. of Dirck 

Claase Braecke, May 11, 1091 ; 2d, Lysbet Jacobs, 
wid., April 17, 1692. On Mareb 17, 1696, be pur- 
cbased of William Douglas'- land at Pembrepogli 
(noAv Pamrapo, in Bayonne), on wbich be afterward 
lived ; d- May — , 1727 ; sbc d. Aug. 17, 1724. 

7. YII. Jannetje, m. Dirck Teunissen A"an Vechten, wbose 

fatber succeeded Miebiel Jansen as occupant of 
tbe farm at Greenbusb, in 1646. He settled on 
tbe Baritan, not far from Somerville, and some of 
bis descendants still live tbereabouts. 

8. VIII. Pryntje, m. Andries Claesen, Marcb 25, 1688; d. April 

21, 1711 ; be d. Aug. 7, 1710, leaving tbree sons, 
wbo became tbe progenitors of tbe iVndersons in 
tbis county. Tbis generation was known indiffer- 
ently as Vreeland and Micbielse. Tliey wrote the 
name Michielse, as Knock Michielse, &c. 

Th Ird Gen e ration . 
Elias [2] bad cb. : 

9. I. Micbael, bap. April 7, 1666; II. Jacobus, bap. April 8, 

1688; III. Fitje, bap. Dec. 25, 1669; m. Jolm 
Tbomas, of Elizabetbtown ; IV. Trintje, bap. 
Marcb — , 1672 ; m. Lourens Van Galen, June 15, 

' Learning and Spicer, 337. 

- William Doug-las (Doeckles, Douckles) lived at Pembrepogh, and was elect- 
ed to represent Bergen in the General Assembly of N. J., in 1G80, but was ruled 
out of that body bec/tuse he was a Roman Catholic, Alb. Bee, xxi.r, 110. This 
is the first, and I believe is the only instance, of such jiersecution for religious 
opinions in the State of New Jersey. 

riiK \ ki;ki,aM) ia.mikv. 44.') 

ITOo (she h;i<l five cli. Ijup. in the Uer^eii Cliurcli); 
V. Ua-cl, 1.. MhivIi S, 1(;7<; ; VI. .liicnh, 1». An- U, 
liiTS; 111. Aiitjc LoiircMisu Toers, Sept. - , ITi'^!. 

Eiiucli [;}| had eh. : 

10. I. Klsje, hap. X.»v. 12, h'.TI ; iii. K<l\\ai<l Knvlv, jr.," Feh. 

■ i:;, If.SS. 

11. II. Catliariiia, hap. ^[av I.">, 1(!T'>; in. .Vert, of 

X. v., Juno 2«;,' l<;i>L\ 
l-^. ill. Alichael, hap. -Jan. '27, 1<''7.') ; d. iinin. He was noit rn)ii- 

jjos meyitis. 
I.".. \\ . Johaiuiis (52), hap. April 7, 1<;77; ni. ^laria JJerijjer, 

June s, 1701. 

14. V. Alii-aliain (53), h. June 22, 107S ; m. ^[ai'grietje \'an 

Winkle (5), Oet. 28, IC.DO; his will, dated L)ee. 10, 
I 734, was proved Jan. 8, 1748. Jle was a meniher 
of the church at Aqnackanonck in 1725. 

15. \1. Fitje, hap. Feh. 28, U't80 ; m. Peregrine Sauford, of 

New l^arhadoes. 
U). VII. Isaac, h. July 4, 1G83; in. Tryntje Newkirk (25), 
March 2;', 170<i: was a nienihcr of the church at 
Aquackanonck in 1 725. 

17. VIII. Knoch (55), hap. Aug. 4, 1<)87; in. Maria St. Leger, 

Oct. 22, 17"!-); was commissioned captain in Col- 
onel Parker's regiment in 1724. 

18. IX. Benjamin, h. MarclHt, 17<»5 ; d. Oct. 17, 1725. 

n>. X. Elias, resided at " Peniinerepogh ;'' d. April 2, 1747, s. p. 

20. XI. Jacoh, hap. Oct. 18, 17o8 ; d. March 0, 1732, nnin. 

21. XII. Juris (5(;), h. Sept. 25, 171<>; m. 1st, Annetje Van 

Winkle; 2d, Annetje \'an Wagenen i^35i, of 
Aquackanonck; d. June 21, 1795. He owned and 
resided in the house now owned by the heirs of 
Captain William I lowe, west of Cavan Point. With 
Rynier \;\\\ Ciesen, he represented Pergen in the 
ll»tii Provincial Assembly of N. J. in 1754. 

Ilurtman [4] had ch. : 

' Earle came from Marylafid. On A])iil 24, 1076, he purchased the Sccaucus 
Patent. Wirijield'n Lund 2'itlis, l:>(). He was Commissioner of Revenue in Ber- 
gen during the English and French war, Leniniiifi <nid Spirer. :j;55 ; constable 
in Ui!)4-'95, and Assistant Judge of the Hergen ('omm(m Pleas in 170."). On 
.Inly 2!t, 1702, he purchased of tlif Indians a tract of land on Hechawack river, 
in West Jersey, I'tvc. of X. J. lUM. f^oc, i., 1!)8. He was the founder of the 
Earle fanuly in Hfrgtn and Hudson Counties; d. Dec. 15, 1711. In 1701 Earle, 
Judge Pinhorne and W'illiaiii Sandford were considered "Persons of y* Best 
Estates in East Jersie." 


22. I. ClaaSj.b. April <i, I<i75; in. 1st, Annetje, dan. of 

Hans Harmanse, tiien of New Utrecht, Long Island, 
afterward of Coustaples Hoeck, May 24, 1697 ; she 
d. Nov. 26, 1698, leaving one ch., Hartman, b. 
March — , 169S, who by his grandfather's will re- 
ceived one-half of the Hoeck ; 2d, Elsje Pieters, 
Aug. 19, 1699. He was a member of the clmrch 
at Aquackanonck in 1725. 

23. IT. Aeltje, bap. Oct. 8, 1677. 

24. III. Michael, b. Dec. 31, 1678; d. Jan. 14, 1692. 

25. IV. Dirck [66), b. April 3, 1681 ; m. Margrietje Diedricks 

Banta, of Hackensack, Oct. 20, 1702 ; resided at 
Aquackanonck. His will, dated Nov. 8, 1769, was 
proved Dec. 9, 1773. 

26. y. Fitje, b. Feb. 21, 1683 ; m. Dirck Paulusen of Gemoe- 

nepa, Aug, 19, 1699 ; resided at Aquackanonck, 

27. YI, Styntje, b. Feb.'21, 1683, 

28. YII. Aagtje, b. Oct. 28, 1684 ; m. Cornells Blinkerhoff (8), 

then of Midwout, L. L, May 24, 1708; d. Feb. 20, 

29. YIIL Dedricksje, b. Nov, 27, 1685, 

30. IX. Marietje,' b. Nov. 23, l<i:?7 ; m. Thomas Fredericks, 

alias De Cuyper, April 27, 1711. 

31. X. Jannetje, b. July 22, 1691 ; m. Gerrit Yan Ripen (11), 

June 19, 1718. 

32. XI. Michael (67), b. Dec. 26, 1694; m. Elvsabet Yan 

Ptipen (21), May 30, 1719 ; d. April 6,'l766. 

33. XII. Arriantje, b. July 19, 1698; m. Zacliarias Sickles, 

Nov. 7, 1719 ; d. Dec. 2, 1731. 

34. XIII. Enoch, m, Jannetje Yan Blerkum ; had ch. : I. 

Michael, b. May 23, 173(i. 

Johannis [5] had ch, : 

35. I. Michael, b. Sept. 14, 1684; d. Jan. 27, 1710. 

36. II. Dirck, bap. Oct. 11, 1686 ; m. Fitje Direkse Banta, 

May — , 1716 ; was a member of the church at 
Aquackanonck in 1725. 

37. HI. Fitje, bap. Oct. 28, 1688 ; d. Jan. 27, 1710, unm. 

38. lY. Enoch, bap. Oct. 28, 1688 ; m, Mercy ; among 

his ch. was Abraham, who lived in Elizabeth, and 
whose will, dated March 22, 1768, was proved 
April 6, 1771. In it his ch. are named : Enoch, 
James, Abraham, Aaron, Hannah, Elizabeth, 
Rachel, Sarah and Mercy. 

riiK \ i;i:i;i,AM) iamii.v, 447 

;',0. y. A:in;tjt', l.ap. April I'-J, IC'.tO; m. Cunirli^ I IcliniL'scii 

\';iii II..iitL'ii, April I'.', 1711. 
40. \ I. I l('lcii;i. III. .loliaiiiii.-- I IcliiiiLCScii \ an lloiitt'ii, .luiio 

17, 171".'; '\, March 15, 1771. 
tl. \'II. .laiiiictje. 111. Martin AViiiiif, Doc. '2\, 171''.. 
}•_'. N'lil. Mlias 111. ^Maritje Van llooren (.">i. May 11. 1 7i':! ; 

(]. .\pril •_', 174^; had eh.: .lohunnis, i». Aug. 

:'.", I 7:'>" ; )-c'sickHl at Aqujickationck. 
4:5. \X. .loliaiinis, 1». .Inly 1, 1705; ni. Antjo Dicdricks in 

1 7-2ti ; d. Fel). 1 i, 1 7S;5 ; slie d. So[)t. !'.•, 1 7.sO ; had 

c'h. : Johannis. I>. July i^)^, 1781 ; d. Jan. 25, 1758. 
There were sevi'ral more rji. than those here named; 

the l-".tli ell. and Cth dan. was h. July l!*, ICHS. 

Cornelius [(I | had eh. : 

44. 1. Aa^tje, 1). .\pril Is, 1»'>S'2; ni. Tioeluf Ilelniigse Van 

Ilouteii, April iM, 17nl ; d. Any-. 14, 170S. 

45. II. Fitje, hap. duly 22, HiS3 ; m. Laui-ence A'an Ihis- 

kirk (S), Sept. 18, 170!»: d. Oct. 1'.', 1756. 
4t). III. ]\[irhael, haj). Aui;-. 2, 1<;n5: d. in inf. 
47. I\ . Michael, bap. Feb. 2:>, 1<>S7; d. in inf. 
48 V. Jannetje, ba|). Nov. 28, 1(588 ; m. Daniel \'an AN'inkle 

(<»), Sept. a, 17011; d. Ajn-il 12, I7»;:t. 

49. Vr. IS'eeltje, bap. July 23, lf!!»0. 

50. VII. Michael i71), b. Sept. 18, 1»;'.»4; ni. Jenneke, dau. 

(»f Ilelnius \'an Ilouten, Oct. 28, 1713. 

51. VIIT. Metje, b. Oct. 3, K'.DS. 

FniiiiJi Generation. 
Juhanuis 1 13J had ch. : 

52. 1. Maria, bap. Nov. 2'.t, I7i»2: 11. Catharina, bap. Nov. 

I'.t, 17<>4; III. Fnoch, bap. Jan. 22, 1707; IV. 
Martinus, bap. April 3, 1700. Tiiese were all ban. 
in N. Y. 

Abraham [14] had ch. : 

53. I. Enoch, 1). :\rarcli 14, 1700; his will, dated May 14, 

1777, i)roved June24, 1777, names his wife Rachel 
ami son Daniel, who had a son John. 

54. II. Jaeoli: III. .lohannis; IV. Simeon; \. Isaac, d. in 

175(); VI. .\])rahani; VII. Ilendrick;' VIII. 
Derrick; L\. Lea; X. Anna. ()ne(»f these dau. 

m. Robert Ra^-ley. Simeon m. liachel , 

and removed to I'erijen (V»uutv. IIi> will, dated 


May 29, 17^1, was proved Feb. U. 1T<;5. At its 
(late his wife was enceinte. 
P^nocli 1 17J had ch. : 

55. 1. Enoch, bap. Oct. 4, 171»>; II. Helena, bap. Jan. 14. 

1713; III. Elias, bap. March 4, IV15 : IV. Ben- 
jamin, bap. Dec. 11, 1717, d. Aug. 2t;, 173r>. These 
were all bap. in N. Y. 
Joris [21] had eh. : 

56. I. Aagtje, b. Sept. 18, 1738; ni. Helniig Van Honten ; 

marriage bond dated May 4, 1753. 

57. II. Enoch, b. Sept. 22, 1737 ; d. in inf. III. Garret, b. 

May 17, 173U ; d. Jan. 26, 1751. 

58. lY. Enoch, b. Feb. 18, 1741 ; m. Cornelia Kip in 1764; 

removed to New Barbadoes. 
51>. Y. Jacob, m. Jenneke Cadmus (13) ; removed to Staten 


60. YI. Juhannis, b. Sept. 21, 1719; m. Helena Garra- 

brant (33), June 21, 1778; d. Oct. 27, 1824, 
s. p. ; his only ch., Joris, b. Jan. 10, 1779 ; d. in inf. 

61. N\V. Garret (80), b. Nov. 1, 1751; m. Jannetje Cadmus 

(9) ; d. Feb. 13, 1825. 
T)2. YIII. Effie, m. 1st, Jacob Yan Wagenen (34) ; 2d, John Yree- 

63. IX. Lena, b. May 20, 1756 ; m. Garret Yan Ripen (^53); 

d. March 7, 1846. 

64. X. Jenneke, b. Dec, 1, 1758 ; m. 1st, Henry Kewkirk (17); 

2d, Joseph Yan Winkle (46), Mav 26, 1798 ; d. J une 
28, 1847. 

65. XI. Annatje, ni. Michael Yreeland (78) ; d. Feb. 23, 1803. 

Dirck [25] had ch. ; 
'o'o. I. Hartman, b. Jan. 24, 1704; II. liachel, b. July 16, 

1707 ; III. Marritje, b. April 7, 1709 ; lY. Hester, 
b. Feb. 25, 1712 ; Y. Dirck, b. Nov. Itl, 1716 ; YI. 
Johannis, b. Oct. 12, 1719; VII. Antje, b. July 
4, 1722. Besides these, his will mentions Claesje^ 
Michael and Marcji^'ietje. 

Michael [32] had ch. : 
67. I. Hartman, m. Marritje Garrabrant ( 15), Nov. 20, 1739 ; 

removed to Wesel, near Aquackanonck ; his will, 
dated Nov. 4, 1776, proved April 14, 1785, names 
his ch. : I. Michael, II. Cornelius, III. Jennie, lY. 
Elizabeth, Y. Beelitje, b. Jan. 5, 1757. 


r.8. II. <iarrct, lived ;it rnimiiuni|>,i\v : '1. Fcl). S, 17.^4, tinin. 

«;•.). ill. Claas (SC), hap. March oO, 17l'4; in. 1st, Catlyntje Sip 
(18), May 1-"., 1757; -Jd, Aiitje, flan. uF Steplicii Bas- 
set, D.'c* I.'!, 17»;(i; tl. Feh. 'O, lS()-_>; she h. March 
•29, 17:^«>; d. March 1. 1S1!». Tiio foilowini!: is a 
cupy of his Ijuiid in this s:ecuiul niarria^t- : 

'* Know all men l)y these presents. That ^Vc, 
Nicholas Yri'clandt, of the ('onnty of JJeriren and 
Province of New Jersey, iSc Michael Vreelandt, of 
Essex County «fe Province af, are holden and do 
stand justly indebted unto his Kxcellency Thomas 
IJoone, Es(f, (Toveriior-in-riiief of New Jersey af, 
in the sum of Five Hundred Pounds, of (Mirrent 
lawful Money of New Jersei/ ; to be paid to his 
vsaid Kxcellency, Thomas Boone, Esq"", liis Succes- 
sors or Assigns ; For which l*ayuient well and 
truly, to be made and done, We do bind ourselves, 
our Heirs, Executors and Administrators, and 
every of them, jointly & severall}', lirmly by these 
l^resents. Sealed with our Seals; dated this Sec- 
ond Day of J)ecem]jer, Annoque Domini One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty. 

" The condition of this Obligation is sucli, That 
whereas the above l)ounden Nicholas A^reelandt 
hath obtained License of Marriage for himself of 
the one Party, and for Nancy IJassett, of Essex 
County af, of the other Party; Now, if it shall 
not hereafter apjiear that they, the said Nicholas 
Vreelandt A: Nancy Jiassett, have any lawful Let 
or Lnpediment, of Pre-Contract, AtKnity or Con- 
sanguinitv, to hinder their being joined in the Holy 
P>ar.ds of Matrimony, and afterwai'ds their living 
together as Man and Wife ; then this Obligation 
to be void, or else to stand and remain in full 
F^orce and Virtue. 

"Nicholas X YuEEi.AMrr 

"Michael VKEELANnx. 

" Sealed and Delivered / 
in the Presence of | 

•• Liw I- ( )i;i)EN." 


70. IV. Beelitje. b. March 19, 1733; m. Cornelius Sip (16) 

July 4, 1701 ; d. Oct. 20, 1789 ; Y. Maritje. 

Michael [50] had ch. : 

71. I. Metje, b. Dec. 28, 1720 ; m. Abraham Yan Tnyl, 

Dec. 8, 1738. 

72. II. Jannetje, b. Nov. — , 1722 ; m. Joris Cadmus (6) ; d. 

Nov. 12, 1766. 

73. III. Cornelius (93), b. Jan. — , 1726; m. Cartrintje Cad- 

mus (5) ; removed to English Neighborhood. 

74. lY. Helmagh (94), b. Feb. 20, 1728 : m. 1st, Neeltje Yan 

Horn (7) ; marriage bond dated April 1, 1752 ; 2d, 
Jannetje !Sip (20) ; removed to Staten Island ; his 
ch. returned and settled at Centreville, near Bergen 

75. Y. Aagtje, b. Feb. 14, 1732 ; YI. Abraham, b. Aug. 

10, 1734. 

76. YII. Dirck (97), b. March 11, 1737 ; m. and removed to 

English Neighborhood. Durino; the Ilevolutionary 
war he was accused of disaftection, and Major 
Hayes ordered to arrest him, July 11, 1777 ; he 
was confined in the jail at Morristown ; John Mead 
became his bail, and he was released Aug. 20, 1778. 

77. YIII. Jacob, b. March 11, 1737 ; removed to Fort Lee. 

78. IX. Michael (98j, b. June 24, 1739 ; m. Annatje Yree- 

land (64) ; d. Dec. 5, 1804. 

79. X. Johannis (102), b. March 2, 1742; m. Iveetje Hoog- 

landt, April 29, 1767; d. July 30, 1823; she b. 
Nov. 13, 1747; d. Sept. 24, 1819. 

Fifth Generation. 

Garret [61] had ch. : 

80. I. Joris, d. Nov. 7, 1786, in inf. 

81. n. Jacob (106), b. June 25, 1781 ; m. Catlvntje Brinker- 

hoff (37), Jan. 21, 1801 ; d. in 1866." Previous to 
his death he removed to Rocky Hill, N. J. 

82. III. Annatje, b. Feb. 15, 1784 ; d. NoV. 14, 1786. 

83. lY. George (112), b. July 12, 1787; m. 1st, Catharine 

Newkirk (31), June 17, 1809 ; 2d, Maria, dan. of 
Moses Schoonmaker and wid. of xVbraham Collerd, 
Dec. — , 1857 ; 3d, Josephine Griffith, Dec. 8, 1872. 

84. Y. Jannetje, b. March 14, 1790 ; m. George De Mott, Oct. 

1, 1808 ; d. July 14, 1826. 

/ \ 



8:.. \\. Kicliiir.l (PJ2i. I.. .Iiilv -Jl, 17'.>-J; ni. Miir«,'aret, dan. of 
Mirliacl Dc M.-tt', 1 )(.'(-. ;♦, 1S15. 

Claas I <;;» I had cli. : 

8G. I. Michael (i:;.".), h. .1 iilv ;)!, IT-'.s; m. (ieertjc, dau. of 

Daniel Sickles, Sept. 10, 17S1 ; d. March 10, lS2;"i: 
she (1. .Iidy2, ISl.j. By his uncle Garret's will, 
dated .June Hi, HOC, j^roved ^larch 2."!, I7s4, he 
received land at A(juaci<anonck, 
87. 11. .\ntje, 1>. Feb. 28, 17G2; ni. Jiirrio Van llipen, of Slot- 

terdam ; marriage bond dated June 2(i, 17>>7. 
8.^. III. Elisabet, b.. May :'.'', 1704; ni. Cornelius Van Ripen 
(7;>); uuu'riai];e bund dated -Ian. 20, 1787 ; d, April 
8, 1788. 
8it. lY. Sarah, b. Oct. 7, 1 7(;(! ; d. in inf. 
9U. V. Sallv, b. Sei)t. 14, 170'.*; in. Jacobus A^an JUiskirk 

(V.Si, Dee. IC, 1787: <1. .\ug. 12, 18;-!2. 
I'l. \'I. Beelitje, b. April 17, 1774; ni. John Westervelt, of 

02. VIl. Stephen (142), 
b. Alay ;;i, 1778 ; m. 
1st, Jenneke Vree- 
land (104), Dec. 10, 
17!t7: 2(1, Elizabeth 
\'an Kipen(^l>3), (Jet. 
14, 1817; 3d, Altje 
Van Winkle (83), 
wid. of John Afande- 
ville. Xov. 2i.«, 1S2S; 
4tli, Ellen Schoon- 
niaker, of Flatbush, 
L. I. ; she d. Feb. 
14, 1840; 5th, Ra- 
chel Van AVinkle, 
wid, of Thomas \'an 

,Cy//'' ■ •-••--V. ^.') 


Ripen <80); she d. >_X^,^^ , ^ /^-r.rCcc^y'i^ 
Jan. 20, ls.^1; Gth. ^ ^ ' 

Hannah W. Gross, widow ; d. Aug. 31, 1805. 

Cornelius [73 J iiad eh. : 

93. I. Michael, b. Xov. 24, 1757; II. Direk, b. May 25, 1700; 

III. Cornelius, b. Sept. 20, 1702, m. Oct. 5, 1788. 
Ifelmagh [ 74 1 had ch. : 

94. I. ^Liehael, b. Jan. 14, 1759. 



95. II. William (153), m. 1st, Rachel Yan Biiskirk (37); 2d, 
Catharine Sickles, wid. of Leonard Johnson, Oct. 
12, 1822 ; d. May 2, 1854, set. 84 yrs. ; she d. June . 
28, 1847, »t. 58'yrs. 

90. III. Cornelius (159), h. in 1769 ; m. Elizabeth Van Bus- 
kirk (36) ; d. Sept. 2, 1824. 

Dirck [76] had ch. : 
97. I. Fitje, b. Aug. 16, 1751 ; II. Metje, b. Oct. 31, 1754; 
III. Leya, b. Sept. 17, 1758.' 

Michael [78] had ch, : 

98. I. George (167), 
b. Jan. 31, 1762; 
m. Jane Brinker- 
hoff (30), Oct. 21, 
1780; d. July 19, 

99. II. Annatje, b. 
July 19, 1764; m. 
Jasper Zabriskie, 
Au<r. 17, 1781. 

100. lil. Jenneke, b. 
in 1775 ; m. Dirck 
A^an Eipen (74), 
Oct. 1792 ; d. July 
1, 1S48. 

101. IV. John,b. May 
1, 1780; m. Aegi'e 
Cadmus (15), March 

17, 1804; d. April 1, 1832, s. p. 

Johannis [79] had ch. : 

102. I. Michael (178), b. April 18, 1768; m. Annatje Garra- 

brant (39), Nov. 5, 1789; d.Nov. 29, 1827. 

103. 11. Jannetje, b. Oct. 22,1772; m. Aaron Newkirk (25), 

Nov. — , 1791 ; d. June 4, 1830. 

104. III. Jenneke, b. Jan. 23, 1774 ; m. Stephen Vreeland (92), 

Dec. 16, 1797 ; d. Aug. 16, 1816. 

105. IV. Cornelia, b. in 1782; m. Garret Van Winkle (96), 

Oct. 3, 1801 ; d. July 26, 1826. 


Sixth Generation, 

Jacob [81] had ch. : 


lOt;. I. CJan-et {l^-^}, 1>. Nov. 2i), 1801; m. .lane Vrcclaml 

(16:^), Dec. lU, 1822; removed \n li.-cky Hill. 
107. II. TIciirv (IS.-)), 1,. Mill-ell 2.'{, 1S04- ; in. .Margaret V'ree- 

laiul (Iti-I), Dec 24, lS2r); ri'inuved to Delaware. 
H»S. HI. (ieorire (18<»)5 I'- Auor, 3^ IsOT; in. Ann \'reelan<I 

(251)), Dec. 81, 18*31; removed t^ Lisbon, 111.; 

d. isT.'V 
ItHi. 1\'. .I(.lin OMt, I). ,l:in. 4, 1>U); 111. Eli/.a, dau. of Corne- 

lins Van Ri[)en, Aug. 18, 1886 ; removed to 


110. V. Crnelius (ISS), h. Auj^. 20, 1812; m. 1st, Catharine, 

dau. of Ilenrv Van Horn, Dec. 25,1884; she d. 
March 12, 1842; 2d, Maria, dau. of Henry Vree- 
laiid, of A(juackanonck, April 18, 1843 ; d. Aug. 4, 

111. VI. Jacob, I). Sept. 21>, 1817; m. (iitty \'reeland (227j, 

Dec. 20, 1838 ; removed to Rocky Hill, X. J. 

George [88 | had ch. : 

112. I. Garret (l!t4), 1). Oct. 30, 18<)'J; 111. Catharine, dau. 

of Merselis J. Merselis, Feb. 23, 1884. 
li;i. II. Jane, b, A})ril 7, 1812; m. 1st, Andrew Cadmus 

(30), May 29, 1830; 2d. Oliver P. Sinitli, Xov. 2t^ 

114. III. Maria, 1). Jan. 28, 1814; m. William Smith, Dec. 

14, 1833. 

115. IV. Geor«,n' (105), b. Oct. 8, 1816 ; m. Cathalina New- 

kirk' (64), Feb. 23, 1837. 

116. \". Marn-aret, b. Julv 28, 1818 ; m. ^Merselis M. Parks, 

Nov. 26, 1835 ;'d. May 25, 1861. 

117. VI. Hannah, b. Jan. 1<>, 1820; m. John Meyers, Feb. 

22, 1887. 

118. VII. Henry {20)i). b. Dec. 28,1821 ; 111. Julia Ann Pharo, 

June 28, 184C ; d. ^[ay 15, 1865. 
]1<». A'in. Helen, b. Dec. 22, ls28; in. Jasper Cadmus (40), 
Dec. 26, 1844. 

120. IX. Jacob, b. July 17. 182»;; 111. 1st, Ellen M., dau. of 

Moses Schoonmaker, of Rochester, N^. Y., Nov. 5, 
1857; 2d, Anne, dan. of Henrv Uosencamp, Julv 

121. X. Catharine, b. March 15, 1829; d. Sept. 16, 1832. 

Richard [85] had ch. : 

122. I. Garret (208\ b. Sei)t. 20, ISit): m. 1st, Elizaborh 

454 HISTORY OF Hudson county. 

dan. of Stephen Terlmne, Sept. 27, 1838; she d. 
July 7, 185S; 2d, Phebe Ellen, dau. of Andrew 
Eapp, Aug. 23, 1862 ; she d. Feb. 2, 1868 ; 3d, 
Mary Anna Van Kipen (155), March 5, 1869. 

123. 11. Michael D. M. (205), b. Nov. 21, 1818; ra. 1st, 

Ann, dau. of Henry Yan Horn, Nov. 22, 1838 ; she 
d April 20, 1852; 2d, Ann Elizabeth, dau. of 
Archer G. Welsh, April 1, 1854. 

124. III. Eichard C. (208), b. Dec. 14, 1820 ; m. Margaret 

Ann, dau. of David Demarest, May 27, 1846 ; re- 
moved to Lodi, Bergen Co. 
125 IT. Henrv (210), b. Oct. 19, 1822; m. Elizabeth Jane, 
dau.-of Charles Musk, Feb. 25, 1852. 

126. V. Catherine C, b. Mav 17, 1825 ; m. Watts Burrows, 

M. D. 

127. VI. George (212), b. Nov. 3, 1827 ; m. Susan M. Yree- 


128. VII. John, b. March 23, 1830; m. Jane, dau. of Albert 

Ackerinan, Oct. 12, 1859; had ch. : I.Albert, b. 
April 19, 1866. 

129. YIII. Jane, b. July 11, 1832 ; d. Dec. 5, 1837. 

130. IX. Mary Anna,' b. Nov. 11, 1834; d. , 1861, unm. 

131. X. Jacob B. (213), b. May 11, 1837 ; m. Kate Ann, dau. 

of Archer G. Welsli, Dec. 15, 1863. 

132. XL Peter, b. Nov. 24, 1839 ; d. May 18, 1844. 

Michael [86] had ch. : 

133. I. Catlynti'e, b. Aug. 28, 1782 ; d. in inf. 

134. II. Catlyntie. b. Jan. 9, 1785 ; m. Henry Van Horn, 

Dec. 17, 1809; d. March 24, 1848. 

135. III. Antje, b. Dec. 14, 1786 ; ni. Jacob D. Van Winkle 

(84), Dec. 31, 1812; d. Feb. 19, 1866. 

136. IV. Nicholas (214), b. Feb. 20, 1789; m. 1st, Annatje, 

dau. of Edo Winne, March 15, 1814 ; she b. Nov. 
3, 1794, d. July 5. 1832; 2d, Eh'zabeth, dau. of 
John Van Pipeii, of Wesel. Sept. 21, 1834 ; d. Dec. 
23, 1873. 

137. V. Daniel (218), b. Feb. 27, 1791; m. Cornelia New- 

kirk (46), Jan. 23, 1813 ; d. Aug. 22, 1867. 
13^. VI. Garret (225), b. Jan. 31, 1793 ; m. Jannetje, dau. of 

Edo Winne, July 21, 1814; d. Oct. 1, 1858 ; she 

b. June 8, 1797, d. Sept. 27, 1858. 
139. VII. Abraham (231), b. June 27, 1795; m. Annatje Van 

Kipen (101), Nov. 30, 1816; d. July 23, 1868. 


140. VIII. Corncliu.- M. (241), b. in 1 T'.''^ ; in. Catliiirine Ncw- 

kirk (48), Nov. 2S. 1S22; removed to Lisbon, 111. 

141. iX. (ieiTtniv. I.. Fd.. '2.S, 1S()5, d. Oct.—, isof); X. 

(iuilliaiiu d. March .MO, 1S()7. 

StoplicTi \\)-2\ had eh. : 

142. I. .Xiitjc, 1). I'Vl). 4, 1700; 111. Peter V. li. Vreeland 

(K'.IM, March 1«J, iSlC; (h dniie 15, 1850. 
14:i II. (Cornelia, b. Nov. 10, 1801 ; d. May 28, 1802. 

144. III. Kli/abeth, b. March 2S, ISO.H; d. Feb. 21, 1816. 

145. I\'. Cornelia, I). Julv 2, 1800; in. Garret Wautcrs,Ja!i. 

2!), 1S25. 
146- A'. Maria, b. Dec. 10, 1809; ni. Peter Van Ptipen, of 

Aqiiackanonck, Dec. 13, 1828. 

147. VT. Isabella, b. Jan 2(5, 1813; ni. Leonard Johnson, 

Dec. 15, 1832 ; d. July 21, 1830. She had ch. : L 
Gertrude, who in. Theodore F. Morris, M. D., of 
Jersev City. 

148. VII. Eliza, 'b. Fel). 18, 1810; ni. Cornelius Cadmus of 


149. \III. Nicholas S. (247). b. Nov. 21, 1818; m. Ellen Jane, 

dau. of" Stephen Van Ripen, Oct. 1, 1840. 

150. IX. Fannv G., b. Feb. 27, 1821 ; X. Janet, b. Sei>t. 2, 

1823, d. Sept. 18, 1823. 

151. XI. Stephen B. (248), b. Dec. 21, 1824; in. Mary, dau. 

of Merselis J. Merselis, Dec. 25, 1845. 

152. XII. Helen, I.. \n<^. 18, 1820; d. Sept. — , 1820. 

William [95] had ch.: 

153. I. Elizabetli, b. Dec. 10, 1704; in. John Cadmus (22), 

Dec. 3, 1814. 

154. TI. Mar<;aret, in. Jasper Cadmus, Dec. 17, 1817. 

155. III. Wiliiam (249), b. Dec. 2, 1801 ; in. Maria Jane, dau. 

of Cornelius Van Horn, April 25, 1822. 

156. IV. Peter V. B. (255), b. Aug. 30, 1811; m. Jane Van 

Horn (44), Feb. 27, 1840. 

157. V. Cornelius, m. Caroline, dau. of James Simonson, June 2, 

18:',S ; ,1. Feb. 13, 1840, ;vt. 25 yrs., 2 mos., 22 days. 

158. VI. .lane Maria, b. Sept. 23,1823; m. Samuel Meyers of 

Oranii;e county, N. Y., May 31, 1843; VII. Rachel 
V. B., b. Oct! 30, 1826. 

Cornelius [90] had ch. : 

150. I. William C. (259), in. Cornelia A^reeland (180), Nov. 

:'.ii. 1M4; renmved to Middiebu^li, N. J. 


160. II. Peter Y. B. (262), 1). Aug. 27, 1795 ; m. Antje 

Vreeland (142), March 16, 1816 ; d. Dec. 12, 1867. 

161. III. Eliza, b. June 18, 1798; in. Stephen Terhnne, 

Jnne 1, 1815; d. March 21, 1848.^ 

162. lY. Cornelius C. (270), 1). Xov. 26, 1800 ; m. Catharine, 

dan. of John Outwater, Dec. 23, 1824; d. Dec. 17, 

163. Y. Jane, m. Garret Yreeland (106), Dec. 19, 1822. 

164. YI. Marcfaret, m. Henry Yreeland (107), Dec. 24, 1825. 

165. YII. Kachel, m. Henry J. Mandeville, Dec. 19, 1831. 

166. YIII. Ann, m. Michael M. Yreeland (183), May 1, 1830. 

George [98] had ch. : 

167. I. Michael (274), b. Oct. 31, 1781 ; rn. Aeltje, dau. of 

Gnilliam Outwater, Nov. 30, 1801 ; d. April 10, 
1828 ; she b. Dec. 11, 1781, d. in 1846. 

168. II. Hartman (282), b. March 15, 1784; ni. Eliza B., 


i^ i^/^c^/mi^t^T. ■ ^T^< ^- 

>/ t 

dau. of Andrew Gautier, Dec. 17, 1808; d. Feb. 
6, 1868, s. p., but had adopted his wife's nephew, 

' As to Terliune, ride Genealogy of the Bergen Family, lOG. 

rilK VKKELAND lAMHV. 4.i( 

IlaitiiKiii, SOU of Garret \ .in Horn {-il), wlioso 

name was changed to Yreelaiid. 
]♦;»). III. Aiiiietji', 1>. March iiO, 1780 ; iii. Tlinmas McDoiiaM. 
17<». 1\. Cornelius, h. Fch. 25, 17S1>; d. Jan. IC, 1 Si :',, urini. 

171. \. -lolin (t. (2S;I), 1). Jan. 3, 17!>2; ni. Catharine, (hm. 

of Ilelinii^h \'an Ilonten, I'^oh. I, Isl7: d. Jul\ 
17, 18;i2; she d. Oct. !(», ls4l>. 

172. VI. Clao?.jr, )). Doc. 20, 171)4; in. (ieor<j:;c \'an liipcn 

(71),'of Slotterdain, July 2:!, ISU. 
17.:. Vir. Jacoh, h. Oct. 1 1, 17l>7 ;"d. Dec. 'J, 1707. 
174. \III. ITenry (287), h. Oct. 11, 17!>7; ni. Lucinda, dan. of 

Cornelius .ferolainon, ^fay 28, 1820. 
17^). IX. Jacob, h. July 5, 1800; d. in inf. 
17('>. X. Garret (296), b. June 26, 18(»3; m. Marv, dan. of 

Baker Smith, May 15, 1824 : d. Feb. 10," 1852. 

177. XI. dacol), h. ]\[arch 9, 1809; d. Feb. 1, 1811. 

Michael [102) had ch. : 

178. I.- Lvbertje, b. Aucr. 14^ 1700; m. George Cadmus (21), 

"^Noy. 14, 1812. 

179. 11. John :N[. (:'.01), h. Sept. 30, 1792; m. 1st, Kachel, 

dan. of Nicholas Mandeville, Nov. 19, 1818; she 
d. Aug. 23, 1853, ii't. 53 yrs,, 9 mos., 6 days; 2d, 
Fllen Sclnvab; d. July 18, 1864. 
18<>. III. Cornelia, b. Dec. 24, 1794; m. William 0. Vreeland 
(159), Nov. 30, 1814. 

181. IV. Annatje, b. March 4,1797; m. Nich(das C. Prior, 

Dec. 30, 1818; d. Feb. 6, 1866. 

182. V. Myndert (3(»5), b. .luly 1,1800; m. 1st, Catliarine, 

"dau. of Jasper Cadmns (29), Jan. 18, 1823 ; 2d, 
Annatje Van Ripen (110), Nov. 24, 1836 ; removed 
to Pu. ckv Hill. 

183. VI. Michael (311), 1). Dec. 3, lSo7 ; ni. .\nn Yreeknd 

(166), May 1, 1830 ; removed to Pocky Plill. ■ 


Seventh Generation. 

Garret [106] had ch. : 

184. I. Jacob, b. Dec. 25, 1828; II. Elizabeth Catharine, b. 

Nov. 7, 1831 ; III. Jacob Henry, b. Oct. 11, 1834, 
d. March 8, 1855; I\', Margaret Amelia, b. Jan. 
19, 1836. 

Henry [107] had eh.: 


185. I. William Henry, b. Nov. 19, 1830; II. Catharine Jane, 

b. Feb. 3, 1839. 

George [108] had ch. : 

186. I. Jacob, b. Dec. 11, 1832 ; II. Cornelia Elizabeth, b. 

July 23, 1835 ; III. William Henry, b. Feb. 15, 
1838 ; lY. Catharina, b. x\ug. 29, 1842 ; Y. Anna, b. 
Feb. 10, 1845, m. Jacob M. Yan Winkle (163), 
Feb. 26, 1862; YI. Cornelius, b. Aug. 12, 1849; 
YII. Martin L., b. Nov. 18, 1852. 

John [109] had ch. : 

187. I. John Henry, b. Aug. 7, 1839 ; II. Hannah Y. B., b. 

Nov. 29, 1841 ; III. Cornelius Y. R., b. Dec. 20, 

Cornelius [110] had ch. : 

188. I. Jacob, b. Nov. 7, 1836 ; m. Mary Jane Yoorhis, Dec. 

29, 1858 ; removed to Princeton. 

189. II. Cathalina, b. March 8, 1838; m. Robert B. String- 


190. III. Henrv Y. II., b. Jan. 1, 1840; removed to Brooklyn. 

191. lY. Cornelius, b. May 16, 1844 ; d. July 25, 1845. 

192. Y. Amelia Ann, b. Jan. 16, 1846 ; d. March 15, 1867. 

193. YI. Eliza Jane, b. May 13, 1848 ; m. Theodore R. Cad- 

mus (86), Dec. 3i, 1865. 

Garret [112] had ch;: 

194. I. Susan M., b. Jan. 25, 1840 ; m. George R. Yreeland 


George [115] had ch. : 

195. I. Sophia Jane, b. Dec. 7, 1837; m. Andrew Cadmus 

(71), Oct. 28, 1859. 

196. II. Cathalina, b. Aug. 26, 1839 ; m. Peter S. YanWinkle 

(157), Dec. 26, 1861. 

197. III. George W., b. June 3, 1842; m. Helen G., dau. 

of Oliver P. Smith, Jan. 15, 1868; had ch. : I. 
Jennie, d. in inf ; II. Catharine. 

198. lY. Rachel Emma, b. July 13, 1844. 

199. Y. Mary Frances, b. Sept. 4^ 1847 ; m. Peter C. Yree- 

land (353), June 28, 1870. 

200. YI. Francis N., b. Sept. 17, 1849 ; d. in inf. 

201. YII. Jefierson, b. Sept. 12, 1851 ; YIII. Oliver P., b. 



Oct. 10. In.").".; IX. l\nliii;iii.l, 1>. March 14, 


Henry [ llS] liad cli. : 
i^i'-j. L Miirv ('., 1). Oct. 21, is.M ; II. .luli;, A.. 1.. Fcl,. l'.», 
'1854; II[. Annie W., 1.. An- Ls, 18r,(;; IV. 
Goortrc II.. 1.. Dec. 15, 1851) ; V'. Helen J., 1). Dec. 
24, ISC I ; VI. Henry (1., h. .Inne '2:i, \S*k>. 

(iarret Tt. 1122] liad ch. : 

208. T. Eliza Jane, I). Dec. 28, 188'.); in. ,](>lin D. Roniaine, 
Dec. IS, is«;o. 

204. II. Steplien T., d. in inf. 

.Michael I). M. 11281 1>:^<1 ^'J'- : 

205. I. Catharine Jane, b. Nov. 22, 1843; ni. .Inhn H. Car- 

rafjan, Sept. — , 186'.>. 
20n. IT. Peter, b. April 11, 1845; m. Hannah, dan. of 
Arclier G. AVelsli, Dec. 14, lS«;it; had cli. : I. 
Reuben C. b. :Mav 11,1872. 

207. III. .\braham P.., b. Jan.'21. 1848; lY. Margaret Louisa, 

b. Nov. 22, 1851 ; Y. Lvcenia D. M.^ b. Nov. 11, 
1855; VI. Joseph W.,b. Nov. 16, 1858; YII. 
Henrv P., b. Dec. 25, 1800, d. Aug. 17,1807; 
VIII." William P., b. Au£r. 11, 1802; IX. Wallace, 
b. March 20, 1865; X. Ella, b. March 31. 1867; 
XI. Matthew, b. April 20, 1870. 

Richard C. [124] had ch. : 

208. I. James C. b. May 7, 1847; m. Mary Elizabeth, 

dan of Henry Norman, of Englewood, Sept. 28, 
200. IT. Henry P.. b. June 1, 1850; HI. David D., b. Oct. 
2l", 1858; IV. Marfraret P., b. June S. IS.50; 
V. George W., b. Aucr. 21, 1858; VI. Lavinia, 
b. Jan. 1, 1801; VII. William P., b. Julv 0, 

Henry [125 ) had ch. : 

210. I. Mary Marirretta, b. Mav 20, 1S58: m. Garret Van 

Horn i08), Aj^ril 22, 1878. 

211. II. Kate C, b. duly 2, 1S55, d. X..v. :!, 1>.^7; III. 

Emma Elizabeth, b. A]>ril 8, 1857 ; W. Hamilton, 
b. Manli 28, 1851); V. Anna P... b. Feb. 27, ISOl ; 
\'I. Kirh.ird. 1,. Sept. 21, 1S(U, .1. Oct. 18, isi^,-, ; 


YII. Cliarles M., b. Jan. 1(\, 1867 ; YIII. Henry, 
b. March 18, 1870. 

George [127] had ch. : 

212. I. Catharine Anna, b. Aug. 5, 1802 ; II. George B., 1). 
Oct. 10, 1870, d. May 21, 1871. 

Jacob B. 1 181] had ch. : 

218. Edgar, b. Jan. 4, 1865 ; II. Lena, b. Dec. 22, 1808; III. 
Charles Winlield, b. Jan. 20, 1870. 

Nicholas [186] had ch. : 

214. I. Nicholas, b. Aug. 7, 1810 : d. Aug. 14, 1817. 

215. II. Nicholas,' b. April 3, 1886; d. March 18, 1887. 

210. III. John Y. K. (320), b. Dec. 8, J 887; m. Anna Mariu 
Newldrk (107), Oct. 16, 1861. 

217. lY. Gitty Ann, h. March 14, 1841 ; m. Samuel D. Tomp- 

kins, Jan. 2, 1808. 

Daniel [137] had ch. : 

218. I. Jane, b. Nov. 15, 1813 ; m. Cornelius Brinkerhoff (41), 

Dec. 16, 1830. 

219. II. Michael D. (321), b. Jan. 31, 1817; m. Eachel, dau. 

of John Sturge, Dec. 8, 1885. 

220. III. Aaron N. (320), b. Dec. 4, 1819 ; m. Eliza, dau. of 

Isaac Pow, Dec. 12, 1844. 

221. lY. Gitty S., b. April 17, 1822 ; m. John B. Welsh, June 

29, 1843. 

222. Y. Cornelius Y. E. l330), b. July 24, 1825 ; m. Susannah 

Jane, dau. of Henry Smith. Dec. 31, 1849. 

223. YI. Nicholas D. (331), b." Feb. 20,1828; m. Catharine, 

dau. of John Zabriskie, Sept. 20, 1848. 

224. YII. Daniel S., b. Nov. 1, 1831 ; m. Sarah Catliarine, dau. 

of Thomas Anderson. 

Garret [138] had ch. : 

225. I. Garret (332), b. Nov. 26, 1814 ; m. Catharine Yan 

Buskirk (Ol), Oct. 22, 1834. 
220. II. Jane, b. July 9, 1818 ; d. Sept. 0, 1818. 

227. III. Gitty, b. Jan. 7, 1820 ; m. Jacob J. Yreeland(lll), 

Dec. 20, 1888. 

228. lY. Anna Jane, b. Jan. 27, 1822 ; m. Michael J. Yreeland 

(801), Dec. 17, 1840. 


'J'J'.K \' . .\i('li()l;i>, 1). l-'.'l). 1, IS-jKI; <1. Sept. H',, iS47, uniii. 

ii;;<). \-i. Al.i';ili;iiii, 1.. .Iiin(> in. is;;:. : .1. July 2!t, 1S:55. 

Al)r:iliaiii i l.".!*! li; 

Hi eh. 

L';;i. I. Ilichard, 1). .liiii. IC, IMS; .1. Sept :;, IMs. 

'j:i-2. 11. Michiu'i i;U(t), 1). April;], 1S1'.»; m. Kacliel ('adiiius 

(48i. .laii. :!1, 1S3'.>; d. March !'.», 1S4U. 
'j:V.\. III. Ricliani, 1). .Inly 'J'.*, IS-jo; m. Kleaiior P.. -lau. of 

,I(.jiii S. Winner, Dec -JO, 1S41 : she d. Mav IT, 

1S4;'. ; had di. : I. Eleanor P. W., I.. Apri'l ;M, 

1S4:>; d. ill inf. 
*284. TY. Abraham (;i4t;), h. Jan. L"., 1^2i';in. Eachel, dau. 

of John Vreeland (285), Oct. 18, 1845. 
285. \'. Nicholas, h. Aug. 2<;, 1825 ; d. Feb. l-'>, 184T, 

iiiun. • 

2;;t;. VI. Cornelius (847), b. Feb. 16, 1828 ; ni. Marv, dau. of 

(Garret Newkirk i80), Sept. 19, 1841) ; reinoved to 

Wvckoff, Bergen Co. 
L':)T. A'll. Kli/a .lane, l).'()ct. 21, 1820; iii. IFenrv N. Van 

\Va--encn (4l»i, Mav 12, 184!»; d. Oct. 22, 1806. 
L':'.8. \' 1 1 1 . ( iarret, b 1 )ec. 22, 'l 8:U. 
L'-i'.t. IX. (rittv, b. Mav21,18;>3; ni. George ]S"ewkirk (54), 

Dec. :•>, 1S54. 

240. .\'. Hannah, b. May 20, 1830: ni. Garret Vreeland 

1:5:5:'.), Xov. :5, 1850. 

Cornelius M. [140 J had ch. : 

241. 1. Jane N.. b. Oct. 2s, ls24 ; in. John A^an Pelt. 

242. II. ( iitty Ann, b. June 0, 1827 ; ni. Abraham \^an Kipcn, 

ot'X. v., Oct. 1, 1851. 
24:j. 111. Caroline, b. Sept. 13, 1820 ; m. Isaac Van Uipcn, of 
X. Y. 

244. \y. Hannah W., b. dune 1, 18:52; m. Richard V. Van 

15uskii-k (76), Dec. ;^1, 1840. 

245. \'. Cornelius, b. July 4, 18:34; ni. Rebecca Bro\yn. 
24f). y\. (Garret: VII. Cornelia; YIII. Sardi Catharine. 

Nicholas S. L14!»l had ch. : 

247. I. Sophia Klizabeth, i). Nov. 23, 1843; II. Stephen, b. 
March 17. 1846. d. Oct. :!1. 1851; 111. .Vnn 
Maria. 1.. -Ian. 20, 1848, d. Ai^'il 26, I.^.M; 1\'. 
P.enjamin F., b. Nov. 14, 1850, d. Ajn-il 20, 18.54; 
v. Stephen J]., b. Jan. 22, 1853; W. .\iin Hel- 
ena, b. Mav !>. 1855; VII. Allie Teresa, b. Dec. 


24, 1S5T; VIII. Jennie, b. Auo;. 5, 1S03, d. Aug. 
15, 1803. 

Stephen B. [1.51J had ch. : 

248. I. Elizabeth C, b. Feb. 16, 1847, d. Dec-. 28, 1860 ; II. 

Susanna, b. May 6, 1851 ; III. Stephen S., b. Nov. 
22, 1854 ; lY. Fanny G., b. Oct. 17, 1856. 

William [155] had ch. : 

249. I. William (349), b. Jan. 5, 1823; m. Euphemia B. 

Vreeland (298), Nov. 26, 1846. 

250. II. Cornelius V.~ H. (350), b. Oct. 27, 1824; m. liachel 

Jane, dau. of Nicholas Ackerman, Jan. 27, 1853. 
253. III. Sarah, b. Dec. 7, 1826 ; m. Anthony Dougherty, June 
4, 1846; d. Aug. 23, 1855. 

252. lY. Ira C. B., b. Nov. 22, 1829 ; d. Dec. 21, 1858, unm. 

He and his brother Jacob were drowned in New- 
ark Bay. 

253. Y. Eachel Catharine, b. April 22, 1832 ; m. Richard C. 

Yan Eipen (^150), May 27, 1852. 

254. YI. Jacob C. D., b. Aug. 6, 1835, d. Dec. 21, 1858, unm. 

Peter Y. B. [156] had ch. : 

255. I. Ann E., b. March 11, 1841 ; d. July 16, 1850. 

256. II. Eachel Jane, b. Oct. 13, 1842. 

257. III. Cornelius, b. Aug. 21, 1844; m. Alice L., dau. of 

Alonzo Nutt, Nov. 18, 1868; had ch. : I. Jennie 
Louise, b. Nov. 2, 1872. 

258. lY. Agnes Y. H., b. Sept. 6, 1848; Y. Anna, b. Dec. 12, 

1851 ; YI. AYashington, b. Aug. 13, 1856. 

William C. [159] had ch. : 

259. I. Ann, b. April 21, 1815; m. George Yreeland (108), 

Dec. 31, 1831. 

260. II. Michael (351); m. Jane D., dau. of Walter Woods, 

March 7, 1839 ; removed to Middlebush, N. J. 

261. III. Cornelius, b. July 22, 1816; d. July 1, 1828. 

Peter Y. B. [160] had ch. : 

262. I. Cornelius (352), b. June 28. 1821; m. Ann Eliza- 

beth Yan Buskirk ((U), Dec. 3, 1841. 

263. II. Jennet, b. July 31, 1823 ; m. 1st, Freeman Atkins, 

Dec. 11, 1840; 2d, Anderson. 

264. III. Elizabeth, b. June 10, 1825 ; m. Nicholas Yan Bus- 

kirk (56), March 16, 1843. 


265. l\'. Miun^Hict Ann, h. Au^^ lil, iM^T ; ni. Henry C. Post, 

Nov. 4, 1S47. 
2(5<;. V. Cornelia 11., h. Oct. 25, 182!i ; \I. Marv Jane,!). 

Ft'l). 23, 18;'.2. 
207. \'JI. liachel Aletta, 1.. J\Iareh 1^7, l^.'.l; ni. William 

Klswortli, Jan. 20, 18(54; d. jyiarch 18, 1869. 
26S. VIII. ( ;ittv (^itharinc, h. Mav 2S, 18;'>6 ; d. Nov. 2(», 1889. 
2«;".>. I.\. William P.. 1.. O.-t. i:.", 1S40; d. Sept. 12, 1S41>. 

Cornelius [ Iti-j | lia<l di. : 

270. I. Cornelius, b. Dec. 6, 1825; d. Jan. 23, 1826. 

271. 11. Kllen, h. Xov. 26, 182S; d. Aui;. II. 1840, unm. 

272. ill. Elizabeth \. P., b. Oct. 20, 1834 ; m. Amos Harrison, 

March 6, 1852. 

273. ly. John ()., b. Sept. 27, 1845 ; m. Maria E., dau. of Geo. 

Cozine, May 2, 186S; had ch. : I. Ellen, b. Sept. 
24, 1860. 

Michael [167J liad ch. : 

274. r. George, b. Jan. 25, 1S02 ; m. Hannah Tisc. 

275. II. Anna, b, Feb. 17, 1805; m. Tennis \'an Pelt, Sept. 

21, 1S26. 

276. III. Gilliam, b. Feb. 10, 1807; d. in inf. 

277. IV. Jacob M. (355), b. June 8, 1808 ; m. Jane, dau. of 

John Van Clief, May 8, 1830 ; she b. Oct. 8, 1808. 

278. V. Jane, b. Aug. 22, 1810; m. John Ilousman, Dec. 

31, 1820. 
270. VI. Matilda, b. Jan. ♦',, 1S13 ; m. Andrew P. Simonson, 
June 11,1^31. 

280. \'ll. ('ornclius, b. June 25, 1816; m. Susan, dau. of 

Paul Salter, Sept. 7, 1830 ; removed to Young 
America, 111. 

281. N'lll. llartman (364), b. Nov. 8, 1823; m. Seny, dau. of 

Clayton Cranmer, of Egg Harbor, Jan. 2(3, 1844. 

Hart man [16S] had ch. (by adoption) : 

2S2. I. llartman (368), b. Dec. 7, 1S26; m. Margaret Cadmus 
(65), June 1, 1853. Vide Van Horn family (41). 

•lohn Ci. [171J had ch. : 

283. I. Jane B., b, June 14, l8lb; m. Michael Terhune, 

March 11>, 1835. 
2S4. II. Catharine, b. Mav 14, JSiH; ni. Jasper Cubberlv, 

June 3. 1840 ; !l. April 2, 1^^41. 







Eacliel, h. March 18,1827; m. Abraham Vreeland 

(234), Oct. 18, 1845. 
Eliza Ann, b. Oct. 19, 1829 ; m. Michael Yreeland 

(306), Feb. 2, 1848 ; d. March 24, 1861. 

Henry [174] had ch. : 

287. ' I. Jane, b. Oct. 17, 1821 ; m. John Salter, Oct. 19, 


288. II. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 28, 1824; m. Cornelius La Tou- 

rette, May 29, 1841. 

289. III. Cornelius, b. Dec. 24, 1827 ; m. Catharine Ann, dau. 

of Israel Decker, June 10, 1857. 

290. IV. John, b. May 12, 1830; ni. Jane B., dau. of 

Thomas McDonald, March 27, 1850; had ch. : I. 
Thomas McD., b. March 1, 1857 ; d. March 1, 1860. 

291. V. George, b. Aug. 17, 1832 ; m. Eleanor Ann, dau. 

of John Corsen, of Staten Island, June 27, 1855 ; 
had ch.: I. Irwin, b. Dec. 22, 1861. 

292. VI. Mary Ann, b. Sept. 6, 1834 ; d. Feb. 21, 1861, unm. 

293. VIT. Garret (369), b. Oct. 21, 1836 ; m. 1st, Isabella Dar- 

ling, March 2, 1858 ; 2d, Rebecca Jane, dau. of 
Stewart H. McFarlane, March 9, 1861. 

294. VIII. Hartman, b. Jan. 27, 1839 ; d. July 22, 1842. 

295. IX. Sarah Catharine, b. May 2, 1841 ; m. Addis Eino, 

Aug. 12, 1860; d. March 27, 1869. 

Garret [176] had ch. : 

296. I. Elizabeth, b. April 7, 1825, m. John Post, May — , 


297. II. John, b. July 22, 1826 ; d. July 28, 1826. 

298. III. Euphemia B", b. Aug. 12, 1827'; m. William W. Vree- 

land (249), Nov. 26, 1846. 

299. IV. Phebe Ann, b. Sept. 15, 1829; m. David Pollock, 

Nov. 11, 1869. 

300. y. George (370\ b. Sept. 6, 1831 ; m. 1st, Cornelia Vree- 

land (323), March 24, 1858 ; 2d, Pachel, dau. of 
Amos Salter, and wid. of George Malcolm, March 
26, 1868. 

John M. [179] had ch. : 

301. I. Michael J., b. Sept. 3, 1819 ; m. Anna Jane Vreeland 

(228), Dec. 17, 1840 ; removed to Rocky Hill ; was 
a member of the Assembly of N. J., from Hudson 


302. II. Eliziibeth, 1). May 14, 1S22; in. Wiiitield Stringlmin, 

]\Iarcli 4, \Mi. 

303. III. Ilaiinali, 1). Oct. I'.t, 1824; in. (Garret P.iisli, Dec. 3, 


304. IV. Nicholas (371 i, 1.. April 8, 1S2T; m. Martha (^a<l- 

niiis (47), Nov. 8, 1848; d. April 20, l.s:,7. 

Miiulert [182] lia.l eh.: 

.•505. I. (\itharino, b. June 12, 1824 : d. Oct. 12, 184(>. 

30(). 11. .Michael, h. Nov. 19, 182(; ; in. Eliza Ann Vrcoland 
(2S(;), Feb. 2, 1848. 

307. III. Hannah, b. Jan. 13, 1829; ni. Andrew Van Horn, 
Feb. 3, 1848. 

30*^. IV. JasjKM-, b. Auf?. 1, 1832; m. Ann Maria, dan. of 
Tennis Van Pelt, April T), 1854. 

309. V. John, b. Jan. 13, 1834; m. Sophia Van Cleef ; re- 
moved to ^Millstone, N. J. 

31'"). \\. .la(!ob, b. Aui^. 2, 1839; in. Louisa, dan. of Jeremiah 
W, Updyke ; removed to liucky Hill. 

Micliael [183] had ch. : 

311. 1. Michael (373), b. Sept. 28, 1831; m. Catherine 

Sarali, dan. of Jeremiah Skillman, Nov. 18, 1863. 

312. II. Elizabeth, b. Oct. 24, 1833; m. Henry H. Brinker- 

hoff (53), June 0, 1855. 

313. III. ('(.melius, b. Sept. 8, 1835; d. in inf. 

314. IV. William, b. March 19, 1837; d. in inf. 

315. V. Cornelius, b. June 1, 1838; ni. Emma N., dan. of 

Weslev Morris, Oct. 8, 1802; had ch. : I. Emma 
M., b. July 14, 18(;«;. 
3Hi. VI. John Ilenrv, b. Oct. 31, 1840; d. Aug. 2H, 1841. 

317. Vil. Mindert, b." Nov. 11, 1842; m. Elizabeth, dan. of 

Garret Mandeville, Nov. 18, 1866; had ch. : 1. 
Gittv Ann, b. June 24, 1870. 

318. VIII. Stephen T., b. July 15, 1846; d. July 6, 1865. 
31!>. IX. .Vnnetta, b. Feb. 26, 1854. 

KlijldJi Geno'iitioii. 

John \'. K. [216] had ch. : 

320. I. Anna Louisa, b. Aui;. 6,1862; II. John Edwin, b. 

Sept. 14, 1864 ; III. Frank, b. Aug. 5, 1870. 

Michael D. [21'.»] had ch. : 

321. I. Jane P., b. Aug. 21, 1836 ; d. in inf. 



322. II. Abigail P., b. Nov. 13, 1837 ; m. John G. Wanters, 

Dec. 13, 1854 ; previous to her marriage her name 
was changed to Post, by act of the Legislature. 

323. III. Cornelia, b. Oct. 11, 1840 ;' m. George Yreeland (300), 

March 24, 1858 ; d. March 26, 1863. 
324 IV. Kachel Ann S., b. March 3, 1843 ; ra. George V. N. 
YanDuyn, Oct. 11, 1871. 

325. V. Jane, b. Oct. 26, 1844, d. in inf. ; YI. Eunice, b. 

Oct. 19, 1846, d. Nov. 16, 1863 ; YII. Daniel, b. 
Dec. 2, 1848, d. in inf. ; YIII. Susan Jane, b. July 
1, 1854. 

Aaron N. [220] had ch. : 

326. I. Sarah Jane, b. July 26, 1845 ; m. Augustus Jackson. 
327 II. Cornelia Ann, b. Jan. 13, 1847; m. Frederick Y. L. 

Yoorhis, Feb. 1, 1865. 

328. III. Gitty Catharine, b. Jan. 4, 1840 ; m. Nicholas P. 

Allen, Aug. 10, 1869. 

329. lY. Daniel A., d.^Dec. 3, 1870, aet. 18 years 2 nios. ; Y. 

Rachel G. ; YI. Susan. 

Cornelius Y. R. [222] had ch. : 

330. I. Cornelia Ann; II. Matilda; III. Garret; lY. Corne- 

lius ; Y. Cornelia. 

Nicholas D. [223] had ch. : 

331. I. Mary Lavinia, b. Aug. 22, 1850; 11. Jane; III. Cath- 

arine ; lY. John. 

Garret [225] hadch.: 

332. I. Catharine Jane, b, Oct. 8, 1835 ; m. Andrew A. 

Rapp, April 6, 1853. 

333. II. Garret (374), b. Dec. 19, 1837; m. Hannah Yree- 

land (240), Nov. 3, 1859. 

334. III. Sarah Arabella, b. Dec. 10, 1840 ; d. June 16, 1843. 

335. lY. Anna Elizabeth, b. July 28, 1843. 

336. Y. John Y. B. (375), b. Sept. 6, 1845 ; m. 1st, Lilla 

H.,dau. of Ira H. Taylor, April 16, 1868; shed. 
June 5, 1870 ; 2d, Mary, sister of his first wife, 
Jan. 16, 1872. 

337. YI. Lawrence M., b. June 21, 1849 ; d. July 29, 1850. 

338. YII. Nicholas G., b. June 21, 1849 ; m. Catharine Yan 

Wagenen (54), April 12, 1871 ; had ch. : I. Henry 
Garret, b. Oct. 4, 1873, d. Dec. 25, 1873. 

339. YIII. Edward W., b. Feb. 22,1855. 


Miclmel | 23-_>| h.ul di. : 

340. I. Ann, I). Oct. 29, 1840. 

341. II. .Mtraliaiii, tii. Elcaimr F., chiii. of Al)i-aliaiii Kajt]), 

April ;5, lS(i:.. 

342. III. .la>|HT ('., 1.. \[av 15, 184;'.; ni. Ist, I'lllcn K., <laii. of 

llciiry .MaiulJvillo, Nov. !!•, isC", ; she <1. July 16, 
1867; 2(1. NIary E. LewLs .liilv lU, 1871 ; <1. Xov. 
;5, 1873, s. i>. 

343. IV. Jane, d. Dec. 10, 1845, a't. 10 ino.^^., 1>« days. 

344. V. Mai'^-aret, b. Oct. 5, 1845; m. George Carra<^an, Aug. 

15, 1860. 

345. \]. Tlachel, b. May :!1, 1848. 

Abraham [ 2.">4 ] had ch. : 

340. I. Ilartniaii, b. Dec. 1, 1848 ; m. Letty J., dau. of John 

V. 11. C'lendennv, April 8, 1872 ; had cli. : I. . 

b. Oct. 20, 1870'.' 

Cornelius [230] had ch. : 

347. I. ruichel, b. Marcli 5, 1851 ; ni. Joliii D. P,oard, Sept. 

4, J 872. 

348. 11. Marv Catharine, b. Jan. 21, 1853; III. Lewis, b. 

March !'.», 1850; IV. E<lgar, b. Feb. 11, 1800. 

William [249] liad cli. : 

349. I. Cornelius V. II., b. Sept. 6, 1847; II. Mary Elizabeth, 

b. March 12. 1849, d. Oct. 25, 1851 ; III. Garret 
G., b. April 7, 1850; IV. George, b. March 5, 
1853 ; Y. Ira C. B., b. April 28, 1850 ; YI. Jacob 
C. D., b. Aug. 29, 1859 ; YII. William, b. Feb. 2, 
1802; YIII. Phebe Ann, b. Dec. 31, 1804; IX. 
Ilartiiian, b. Oct. 24, 1807. 

Cornelius V. II. [250] had ch. : 

350. I. William Henry, b. July 14, 1858; II. John Jacob, b. 

Oct. 14, 1802 ; III. Bertha Celesta, b. Nov. 11, 1868. 

Michael [260] had ch. : 

351. 1. William, b. Feb. 25, 1840; II. Sarah Ann, b. April 10, 

1841 ; III. Eliza Jane, b. May 23, 1842: lY. 
Sarah, b. May 1, 1844; Y. Eleanor Ann, b. July 
20, 1840 ; Yi. Cornelia, b. Dec. 23, 1848 ; Yll. 
Mary Frances, b. Oct. 15, 1850; A'lII. Puth Al- 
mira. b. Feb. 9, 1853 ; d. Oct. 10. ls.-.4. 


Cornelius [262] had ch. : 

352. I. John Henry (377), b. Sept. 14, 1841 ; m. Anne E., 

dau. of liavid L. Van Horn, Dec. 24, 1863. 

353. II. Peter C, b. March 16, 1847 ; m. Mary Frances Yree- 

land (199), June 28, 1870; had ch. : I. George 
Francis, h. Oct. 30, 1872. 

354. III. William P., b. Jan. 1, 1850; IV. Sarah Arabella, b. 

Dec. 2, 1853. 

Jacob M. [277] had ch. : 

355. I. Gertrude Ann, b. Dec. 8, 1830; m. 1st, Jasper 

Garretson, Nov. 6, 1850; 2d, Horace H. Driggs ; 
he d. Feb. 3, 1865. 

356. II. Eliza Jane, b. Nov. 8, 1832; m. Henry Iv. Van 

Horn, Dec. 25, 1850. 

357. III. Michael G., b. May 23, 1835 ; m. Joanna, dau. of 

John N. Van Buskirk (98), March 25, 1869. 

358. IV. Mary, b. Nov. 30, 1837; m. John Huddleston. 

359. V. John, b. Nov. 25, 1839 ; ni, Anna, dau, of Abraham 

Simmons, Nov. 11, 1863. 

360. VI. Sarah, b. Sept. 29, 1842; ra. William Hageman. 

361. Vll. Jacob M., b. Ang. 11, 1844; m. Fanny Eichards. 

362. VIII. Cornelius, b. March 28, 1847 ; d. July — , 1850. 

363. IX. William Henry, b. March 18, 1850. 

Ilartman [281] had ch. : 

364. I. Ezra C, b. July 23, 1845; d. Sept. 14, 1846. 

365. II. Ann Matilda, b. Jan. 20, 1847 ; m. William Sand- 

ford, Oct. 10, 1867. 

366. III. Garadata A., b. March 29, 1849 ; lA^ Edwin P., b. 

Nov. 4, 1851, d. in inf. 

367. V. Jane E., b. Aug. 23, 1855 ; VI. Hartman M., b. Nov. 

23, 1858. 

Ilartman [282] had ch. : 

368. I. Crossfield G., b. Oct. 20, 1855 ; II. Philip E., b