Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of the county of Cumberland, and some places adjacent, from the earliest accounts to the present time: comprehending the local history of the county; its antiquities, the origin, genealogy, and present state of the principal families, with biographical notes; its mines, minerals, and plants, with other curiosities, either of nature or of art .."

See other formats





County of Cumberland, 






The Local Hijlory of the County / 







Particular Attention is paid to, and a juft Account given of every Improvement in Agriculture, 

Manufaftures, and the other Arts. 




VOL. I. 





■/. \ 


Sir JOH NSINCLAIR, Bart. m. p. 

president of the board of agriculture, 


The Noblemen and Gentlemen, 















F. JOLLIE, Proprietor and Editor, 



Cumberland Animals. 

thsJoUoiving Catalogue of CumlerJand Animals, with the floor t Obfervalions annexed, were 
comniHuicated by JOHN HEYSHAM, M. D. of Carlisle- 

CLA*^S I. \ diate relief. This county fupplies London witli large 

fi quantities of butter, which is failed, and preferved in 
QUADRUPEDS. g fi,kins or fmall caflcs. 

'Dw. I.— Hoofed. X Genus III— Wff/-. 

Sec. 1 Hoofed. 5 Definition of the Genus — Horns twilled fpirally. 

Genus I Horfe. X and pointing outwards. — Eight cutting teeth in the 

Definition of the Genus. — //i?^ conCfting of one X lower jaw, none in the upper. 

Piece — Six cutting Teeth in each Jaw. ^ 5. Sheep. Ov'u aries, Lin. Syll. i. p. 97. no. i; 

f . Horse.] Equus Caballus, Lin. Syft. i. p. loo. X Pen. Zool. 4. — Several varieties of this ufeful animai 
to. I. Pen. Zool. I. — In Cumberland we have almoft q are novsr to be found in this county, 
every variety of this animal. jj Genus IV. — Goat. 

2. Ass. Equus jljjinus, Lin. Syft. f./. 2. X Definition of the Genus. — Horns bending back* 
Pen. Zool. 2. ^ wards, and almoft clofc at their bafc. — Eight cutting 

3. Mule. Equus Mains. Lin. Syft. I. p. loi. »o. 2. J teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper Male, gc» 

Pen. Zool The mule is the offspring of the horfe and i ncrally bearded. 

afs, or afs and mare ; ihofe produced by the twolaft are S 6. Goat. Caprct Hircus, Lin Syft. i. p. 94. no. I» 
efteemed the beft. The mule fcldom propagates j none )( Pen Zool. 5. — The goat is fcarce in Cumberland, the 
•f the fpccies of this i^entts ever vomits. I cultivation of it being much neglefted. 

Sec. II. Cloven Hcofid. \ Genus N.—Deer. 

Genus II. 0.\-. X Definition of the Genus. — Horns upright, folid. 

Definition of the Genus. — Horns bending out late- X branched, annually deciduous. — Eight cutting teeth in 

rally Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in J the lower javi', none in the upper. 

the upper. — Sitiii along the lower fide of the ueck X 7. Stag or Red Deer. Cervus Claphus, Lin. Syft. 
pendulous. ¥>•/'• 93- '">■ 3- P*"- Zool. 6 — The ftag may be yet faid 

4. Bull, Cow, and Ox. Bos Taurus, Lin. Syft t. '^ to range, almoft in a ilatc of nature, in the fortfts and 
p. 98. no. I. Pen. Zool. 3. -We have almoft every variety X hills of Martindalc, in the neighbourhood of Ullfwater. 
of this fpecies in the cftiiniy of Cumberland. — They are a 8. Fallow Deer. Csrtiw Zl.jw:?, Lin. Syll. \. p. 
poifoned by eating ycvr hemlock, & aconite; 5t often die y 93. no. j. Pen. Zool. 7. — Fallow deer are now no where 
in confcquenre of eating grofs, fucculcnt clover, which v found in England, in a ftate of nature, but are kept in 
fills anddiftends them to an amar.lsg degree with wind, a gcntlemens' parks, and are partly domefticated. All 
If this diftention be obfcrved in time, they are eafrly ^ the fpecies al (K\% genus want the gall bladder. 
cured, by making a perforation with a Iharp knife thro' i Genus VI — Hog. 

the flank into the cavity of the belly ; upon which the \ Definition of the Genus,— No horns, divided hoofs, 
air lufliee out with great violence, and procures imme- \ cutting teeth in both jaws. 

A Hoff 

r © ] 

f. Hog or S\.'WE. Suifinfcj, L!n. Syft. i. p. 102. X on tlie lakes, and even there, they are far frcra being 

m. I. Pen. Zool. 9 We have now feveral varieties of J nuraerou'. 

thisanimil; all, however, in a lUte of domeftication- — i y^. Domestic Cat. Felij CatiU, Lin. Syft. i. ^ 

Immenfe quantities of bacou are annually fent from this X 62 ns. 6. 

county to London. — The prefent price of pork is from Gknus IX. — Badger. 

61, 6d. to 63. 8d. per (lone, 141b to the Hone. X Definition of the Genus. — Six cutting teeth, two- 

X canine in each jaw Five toes before, five behind. — 

DIV. II. --SEC. I. y Very long ftrait claws on the fore feet. — .\ tranfverfs 

„,„„>— ^^ ^,» ,^ r,,rr.^r>r. jf, OF ificc bct wccn the tail and unus. 

DIGITATED QUADRUPEDS ^ | ,^. Commom Badger. Urf., „^!es, Lin. Syft. ,. 

With large canine teeth, feparated from the cutting S />. 70. no 2. Pen Zool. ■ 3. — The badj;er is an indolent 
teeth. — Six cutting tetth in each jaw. — Rapacious, j animal ; burrows under ground, where it deeps the whole 
carnivorous. -Xday; fetds only at night. It lives upon roots, fruite, 

Genl'3 VII. — Dog. j gyafs, and infc<its. Badgar batiuy is a common diver- 

Definition of the Genus. — Six cutting teeth, and i lion in the north of InglanJ. 
two canine. — Five toes before, four behind. — Blunt a Genus X. — IVeaftl. 
claws. — Long nifage. v Definition of the Gams.Sx-i. cutting teeth, two 

10. Dog. Canis familiaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 56. ««. X canine in each jaw; fharp nole, flendcr body. — Five 
1. Pen. Zool. 10. — We liave a great variety of this 'J toes before, five behind. 

fpecies. Linncsus has given the general natural hiftory j 15. Fitchet or Foulmart. MuJIcla putoriuj, Lin. 
of the do^, in fo brief, and vet fo accurate a manner, )- Syft. 1. p. 67. tic. 7. Pen Zool. 14 — The foulmart is 
that 1 Ciall tranfciibs a p?J^ of what he fays upon the not unfrequent in this county. It has an offeofive fmell; 
Jubjeft. V preys by night ; and is extremely de.lruftive to poultry 

" The dog eats flefti, and {arlnacioiis vegetables, but s and young game of all kinds. In winter it approaches 
" not greens : its ftom?.ch digefts bones: it ufes the tops J the villages, where it commits gicat depredations in 
*' of grafs as a vomit : it void;; its excrements on a ftone : x' farm yards. 
" it laps up its drink with its tongue ; it voids its urine X I 6. M4RTIN. MuJIela martcs, Syft. I. p. 67. 

•' ndeways, by lifting up one of its hind legs ; and is no. 6. Pen. Zool. 15 The martin is much lefs fre- 

•' moft diuretic in company with a llrangedog: odorat 'i quent than the foulmart. It inliabits woods, and its 
*• a;!u>/i a/leriuj. Its fcent is moft exquifite when its ;, fmell is rather agreeable than otherwife. 
** nofe is moift : it treads lightly on its toes : fcarce ever V 1 7. Ferret. Muflclafari, Lin. Syft. l. p. 68. no, 
*' fweats, but wlien hot loll.=; out its tongue. It gene- X 8 — The ferret is not a native of England, or perhaps 
*' rally walks Irtquently round the place it intends to of Europe, but has long been domefticatcd in thi; county 
" lie down on : its fenfc of hearing is very quick, even j for the purpofe of taking rabbits. ]t is faid to be a 
*' when adeep : it dreams : it goes with young fixty- X mortal enemy to that animal. When a dead rabbit is, 
** three days, and commonly bri.igs from four to eight C for the firft time, prefented to a young ferret, he flies 
•* or nine at a time ; the male puppies refemble the X wpon it and bites it with fury ; but if it be alive, he 
" dog, the female the bitch. It is the moft faithful of X feizes it by the throat or nofe, and fucks its blood. 
•' all animals : is very docile ; hates ftrange dogs : will jf When let into the burrows of rabbits, he is muzzled, that 
«' fnap at a ftone when tbiown at it : will howl at ccr- ;' he may not kill them in their holes, but oblige them 
*• tain mufical nctcs : all (except the South Aracricau J to come out, to be taken in the nets. The ferret wilt 
*• kind will baik at ftrangers> dogs are rcjefted by v produce witii the foulmart, but whether the produce are 
*' the Mahonr,cta:is.") — The penis of a dog is furnished X fertile or not is uncertain. 
with a bone. i iS. Ermine or Stcvt. il/w/rc'/a ^wwV.'J, Lin. Syft. 

11. Fo.x. Cams v.ihes, Lin. Syft. i- p. 59. tw. j.. i .'. p. 68. no. lo. Pen. Zool. 18. — It is faid not to be 
Pen. Zool. 1 1 — The penis of the fox, like the dog, is t unfrequent in the neighbourhood of Kefwick. 
furnifiied with a bone. Compared with former times, ') 19. Common Weasel. Mttflda nivalis, Lin. Syft. 
the fox is now become a rare animal in Cumberland:,;; i. p 69. «o. 1 1. Pen. Zool; 17. — This, which is mora 
it is called in this county, a todd. — Hence the names of \ numerous than any of the other fpecies ; though the 
Todd and Todd-huntc. fmalleil, is very deftruflive to game-, poultry, eggs, 3cc< 

1£ Among its numerous bad qualities, however, it is of 
Genus VIII. — Cat. f, ufe, being a great enemy to lats, which it frequently 

Definition of tlie Genus. — Six cutting teeth, and- two \ expels from the farnceis barn. They arc capable of be- 

canine in each jaw. — Five tots before, four behind.— X ing tamed, though few try the experiment. Old ones 

Sharp hooked claws, lodgul in a flicath t!.aL may be 5 become white, except the tip of the tail which is brown, 

exerted at pleafurc—Rouud head, Ihort vifage, rough v Genus XI. — Otter. 

tongue. X Definition of the G<-«a/.— Six cuttirg teeth, two 

12. Wild Cat. Felis Catus, Lin. Syft. i. /. 62. no. -J canine, in each jaw. — Five toes on each foot, each tee 
6. Pen. Zool. 12. — Veiy few wild cats aic now to be \ palmated. 

Hist w:lh ill any of our woods, except thole bordering k io. Oxter, muftda Intra, Lin. Syft. I./. OG. no. z, 


[ 3 J 

I'ea. Zoul. 19;— The otter, thmi^'h not numerous, is X 28. Field Mjuse. Mm fylvaikus, Lin. Syfi. I./, 
ail inhabitant of alinoft all our rivtrs ami lakes, and is ( 84. no. 17. Pen. Zool. 28. 

frequently hunted by hounds trained fur the purpofc. X 29. Common or House Mouse, Mas imtfculuti 

X Lin Sytt. \. p. 83. no. 13. Pen. Zool. 30. 
SEC II ? 3°' '^'^'O'^''" TAILED Mouse. Mm Urrcjh'u, Lin. 
' ' H. Syil. \. p. 82. 710. 10. Pen. Zool 31. 
With only trx.'o cutting Teeth in each Jaiu. X Genus XVI. Skreiu. 

■.,„r».r...„^«^,,^ -r^T^^T--, .,.^r.^Trr, V Defuiition of thc Geuii!. — Two cuttin^ teeth in 

HERBIVOROUS, FRUGIVOROUS. | „,i, j,^^ p,;,,^,,,^ fo,„,,,j._Long flend« nofc— 

Genus XII H.ire. Ears fmall. — Five toes on each foot. 

Definition of 1 he G™»/. — Two cutting teeth in each 31. Fetid Shrew. Sores aranctis, Lin Syft. I. /■. 
jaw ; long e<ivs ; (liort tail ; five toes before, four be- ), 74. no. 5. Pen. Zool. 32. — It is in this county called 
hind. r, tl'.e blind m jufe, its eyes being very fnriall ; and almoft 

21. liAt-r. Lepus timi i'ui. Lin. Syft. i. p 77. no. I. y concealed by the hair. It frequents old walls, dung 
Pen. Zool. 20. — Although the hare has more enemies ; hills, &c. Cats kill them but do not cat tliem. 

than any other aniina!, 1 et from its fertility and agility, y 32. Water Shrew. Pen. Zool. 33. — Inhabits the. 
it is evciy where pltPtlfu!. )' banks of fmall Iheams, but is uot fo frequent, as thc 

22. Rabbit. Lcpus cunicufits, Lin. Syft i. /, 77. X fetid fhrew. 

no. 2. Pen. Zool 22. — Cumberland formerly boafted of 5 Genus XVII. — Cavy. 

her numerous and extenfive rabbit warrens; many of ;/ Definition of the Genus. — ^Two cutting teeth la 
them aie now, however, deftroyed, and the ground is a each jaw, — Toes, four before, and three behind. — Ears 
more ufefully occupied in the cultivation of grain. f Ihort. — Tail, none, or flioit. — LTpper lip, half divided. 

Genus XIII Squirrel. X 33 Guinea Pig. Mus Porcelliu, Lin. Syft. r. p.' 

Deiinition of the Genus — Two cutting teeth in each ;} 79. no. i . — This animal is a r.ative of Brafil and Gui- 
jaw. — Four toe; before, five behind — Tufted ears. — v nea ; but is bred and domefticated here, they are ca- 
I'all long, cloatlied with long hair. X pable of generation fix weeks after birth ; and the 

23. Squirrel. Sciurus vulgaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. ^6. \ females go with young only three weeks. 
no. I. Pen. Zool. 23. — This is a lively, adlive, and pro- V Genus XVIII. — Mole. 

vident animal, but not very frequent in any part of this X Definition of the Genus. — Long (lender nofe, upper 
county, except in thc neighbourhood of the lakes. In jaw much longer than the lower. — No external ears. — 
Cumberland and VVeftmorland they are called Conns. X Fore feet very broad, with fearce any apparent legs 

Genus XIV — Dormoufe. \ before : — hind feet fmall. 

Definition of the Gi'OT// — Two cutting teeth in each 5 34. Mole. Talpa europ.ea, Lin. Syft. I. p. 73. 

jiw — Four toes before, five behind Ears naked. — X nc. 1. Pen. Zool. 34 The mole is fometimcs of a fins 

Tail long, covered with hair. 5 cream colnur ; a fpecimen of this colour was fent to 

24. Dormouse. Mur avcllanariu\, Lin. Syft. I. />• v me, by WiUiarn Dacre, of Kirklinton, Efq. The neil 
83. no. 14. Pen. Zool. 24. — The durmoufe is a delicate X of the mole is of a curious coiiftru(ition ; 1 have exam- 
little animal, about the fize of a common moufe. It is ■*: incd feveial, and found them anfwer the defcriptio.i 
not very common in this county. It inhabits woods, v given by Buffon, I (hall therefore tr.infciibe what that 
and makes itsncft in hollow trees; collcfls nuts, &c. and X author i'avs upon the fiihjecEt. 

during froft it becomes torpid. Moil plentiful m the Q " The habitation where they depofit their young, 

voods near Ullfwatcr. v " merits a particular dtfcription, becaufe, it 's conftruc- 

Genus XV. — Rj/. ;. " fed with finguiar intelligence. They begin with rai- 

Definltion of thc Genus Two cutting teeth in each \. " fing thc earth, and forming a pretty high arch.— 

jaw. — Toes, four before, fivebehiniL — Tail very (lender, v " They have paititions, or a kind of pillats, at certain 
naked, or very flightly haired. g " diftances, beat and prds the earth, inter xveave it with 

25. Black Rat. Ratten- Cumb 3'Tm Rattus, Lin. ? " the roots of plant.';, and render it fo hard and folid, 
Syft. I. p. 83. no. 12. Pen. Zool. 25. — This rat is now X " that thc water cannot pcnetmle the vault, on account 
become very rare, having been expelled from this coun- 'i •' of its convexity and firmnefs. They then elevate 
ty, in a great racafure, by the brown rat. It is fome- «< a little hillock below, upon which they hy herbs 
times perfcdtly white ; a fpecimen of which I have in X *' and leaves for a bed for their young. In this 
my colkction. t " fituation they are above the lev^l of thc ground, and 

26. BROVvfN Rat. — Pen. Zool. 26. SmcL Tran. of X " confequently out of the reach of ord!n.\ry Inunda- 

Buffon, pi. 1^6 ^This is a moft fruitful animal. It t " tions, and are, at thii fame time, defended from ths 

breeds twice or thrice a year; and produces, each time, " rains, by thc large vault which covers the internal 
fiom twelve to fifteen young. It is thc peft of farmers, X " one, upon the convexity of which, they reft along 
and does very great damage to corn ricks. X " with their young. This internal hillock, or vault, is 

27. Water Rat. Mus nniphihius, Lin. Syft> I. p. ^ " pierced on all fides with (loping holes, whicli defcend 
82. w. I. Pen. Zool. 27. — Thisfpecicsisharmlefs,it in- X " ftill lower, and ferve as fubterraneous paffagcs for 
habits the banks of flrearas, and both fwims and dives )( '< the mother, to go in queft of food for herfelf and 
well. ^ « her 

[ 4 J 

" her offspring. Thefe, by-patis, are firm and beaten, X CLASS II. — BIRDS, 

»* extend about 12 or 15 paces; and ifllie, from the 

*« manllon like rays from a centre." y I^^^- I— -^aW Birds. 


Genus XIX — Urdin. _ | GENUS II — F^^/con. 

Definition of the Genus. — Five toes on each foot. 5 _ . . . r 1 ,-1 •t,, ,•,,.%, , 

Body covered with ftrong fhort fpines. ? Definition of the Gcms.—Tht bih is hooked, and 

35. Hedge Hog. Erinaceus europau<, Lin. Syft. X f"''";'''^'' ^'th a u-axy fl<in at the bafe. called the cere. 
1. p. 75. no. I. Pen. Zool. 35— The hedge hog is an 5 — ^^^ '^"'^ ^"'^ ""^"^ ''"'^'''y ^^^^"7'^'? feathers- 
indolent, folitary. patient, and inoffenfive animal. It "i ^he tongue bifiJ at the end.— The female larger and 
feeds in the night upon roots, faiits, and infefts ; in X ftronger than the male. 

the day it lies wrapped up, in mofs or dried leaves, in | i. Sea Eagle. Fiilco ojp.fragus, Lin. Syft. 1. /. 
the bottoms of dry buthes or hedges. When attacked X 124. )to. 4. Latham's Synopfis, 4. Pennant's Zoology, 
or alarmed, the hedge hog, has the pover of, inllantly, a 44. I am not certain whether the fea eagle breeds, at 
rolling himfclf lip like a ball, and prefentii'g, on all fides, y prefent, in Cumberland or not, but, a few years ago, 
his numerous fpines. In this fitualion, as BufFon julUy X there ufed to be an annual ncft in the rocks which fur- 
obferves, " He knov/s how to defend himfelf without J round the lake of Ullfwater, and ihe great trout of that 
*' fighting, and to wound, without making an attack." ); lake has been taken out of its neft, upwards of ten 

i pounds weight; it, however, frequently vifits this coun- 

DIV. III. i ty. Its food is principally fidi; which it takes, as they 

^„,„, ,_-T> /-.T,- ^T^ nr^r.r^T^>> X src fwlmmin.", near the furface, by darting itfelf down 

PENNA7ED QUADRUPEDS | „p^,^ ^j^^.^y' ^his bird has often been liflaken for 

With fin like feet— Fore legs buried deep in the X tbe golden eagle. 
flfin: hind legs pointing quite backwards. X j. Cinereous, or white tailed Eagle. Vulfur 

Genus XX — Seal. i alhiulla, Lin. Syft. i./>. 123: «5. 8. Lath Synop. 8, 

Definition of the Gcnut — Cutting teeth, and two X Pen. Zool. 45. — This fpecies breeds among the rocks, 
canine in each jaw — Five palmated toes on each foot. ^ {„ the neighbourhood of Kefwick, almoft every year, 
—Body thick at the flioulders, tapering towards the -^ and f^eds, chiefly, upon land animals, but fometimes on 
tail. I f,(h. When taken young, and tamed, the tail doe* 

36. Great Seal, or Sea Calf. Pen Zool. 36. — J not become white till it is feveial years old. Dr. Law, 
This animal is fometimes, tho rarely, drove upon our J the prefent blfhop of E'phin, when he refided at Car- 
fea coafts. ^ X \i([c, received a yuung one from Borrowdale, upwards 

37. Common Seal. Phoca -AtuUna, Lin. Syft. I. of twenty years ago. The tail did not become white 

/. ^e. no. 3. Pen. Zool. 37.— This fpecies is, alio, not x till it was fix years old. When his lordfhip left Car- 

very frequently met with^ upon our coafts. The feal i i;(]e, he prefented it to Dr. Graham, of Clargill. It 

is full as ufcful to the Gicen!anders, as (lieep are to Q died in the year, 1 793, aged nineteen years. 

the inhabitants of the more temperate countiies of v _ _ t 1 r. t, 

J. ' y 3" Peregrine tALCON. Lath, bynop. 52. Fen. 

'• ' ^ i Zool. 4S. — The peiegrine falcon breeds, conftantly, 

L^l^ • 1 ' • A every year either in a rock near the cafcade at Gilfland, 

WINGED ^^ADRUPEDS. >; or, in another high rock, aboi:t fix miles from that 

X place ; neat a publichoufe, called twice brewed ale, on 

Genus XXI — Bat. X ;[,„ ,.oad from Carliile to Ncwcaitle. On the 15th of 

Definition of the Cwo— Long extended toes to ^ ^.j^^^ 1 78 1, I (hot a female which had a neft on the 

the forefeet, connected by thm broad membranes, ex- v ,j,jj„ ^g,,]^ . ^.^jg^t (ilomach empty) 36^- oz. length 

tendmg to the Innd legs , . '? '9 Inches. Breadth ^ Ir.ches. the midilc toe, in 

38. Long eared Bat. Vsfpcrtiho aurtias, Lm. 5 pauicular, is very long': in the fpecimcns which 1 hare 
Syft. I. ^ 47- "^- 5- P<^"- 2ool. 40— llus fpesiesxfgg^jljj-j^j^jredarcy.infomethevarcfaidtobelu- 
inhabits Scaleby. Cattle, from whence I liave received it. f ^^^^^_ j^i^^^.^ j^ „^ ^-.^^ ;„ ^y^-^ ^^^'^jy ^,,,^g deftruc 

39. Common Bat. V^fictu:^ munnus, Lin. byil. r. 5 jj^.^ ^^ ^,^^ ^^.in the peregrine falcon. When one h 
p. 47. no. 6. Pen Zool. 41 — i he common bat is to be / ,,^3^ jj^ ^^..^^ ^„gj ^^j.,, ^^^ ,^ [3 extremely clamor- 
feen, in the d.ifl: ot a fummer evening. a!<no I in every ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ j,^ ^^j^ r^ ^^^^^ ^^j it foars ver)- hi^h in 
village. Ah the bat tribe become torpid, during ^ ,|j^, ,j^^ j^ j,^, ,,g^^j ^, ^ j;(j,„^^ . ^^^, 
winter feafon, and are to be found hanging by the timd l ^ 5^^^^ ^^j bold bhd it does not dart upon you, like 
feet, in caves, hollow trees. Sec. A ^^_^ Ring.,;! a„d Henharrier, but keeps cut of gun- 

X (hot. That which I (liot, was conllantly upon the 
y wing, upwards of five hours, before it perched upon the 

X * " Supercft halL-eetfis, darHIima pcculonim acie, libcranj 
'' ex aho felt?, vifoq'ie in mari pifci, pr.^cep9 in eum ruens, et 
y difcuiEs pseiorc aq'iis rapisns."— Pluny. 
^^'^i^l^J'iprS^'^'^^f^^^^i'^^^^'Sf^^^l rock. 

[ 5 ] 

roclr. The male feeds the young birds, after the fe- X RisgtXil Female. Fak» pygargus, L^n. Sy!l. i. 
niale is kllUd-f { />• i-<5. w. i i. Lath. Syiiop. 75. Pen. Zool. 59. 

KE. ; .•/ T'_ c ft . J. .,/; .. ' The male of this fpecits, when arrived at mature a?e, 
iTE. pako mtlvus, L,in. hylt. I. />. 120. ?.'5. u ,.„ , . / ' r ■ . r 1 

,2.' Lath. Sj-nop. 43. Pen. Zooh 53— The kite H'^^^" ^^ '^"'^^/"/'''^- P"]""^ °f ''^ P'^^^S'^V^'^'T '^^^ 
breeds, m the woods, near Armathwaite ; and alfo, in X female, as the black cock from the grey hen. The head, 
thofe near Ullfvvater. It bnilJs its neft in trees, and "°'=^'- ^^^k' ^"^ ^'T'^'^l "^ the wnigs being of a bluifh 

, ^ .1 ^^ u:,u r,,„i,:.;i, -.^u,,.. A Sfrey; and the breait, belly, and thighs, white. Whereas 

lavs two or three tcfffs, when aie or a Avhitim coiour, \ » •' ' , , r 1 r 1 / i_ i 

r .. J -.u M '' T'l,^ i:. • , ,1,;,. „„ ;, ^-,>i V t he g;eneral colour oi the tcmale (the lunip excepted, 

fpotted with yellow. Ihe kite 111 this coiiiitv, is call- a & . , \ ■ , n , \ 

\i r^j I ' h which is white, and htrice its name} is oulky brown and 

C ruft colour. The young birds refemble the female in 

5. Common Buzzard. Faico vuho, L!n. Syd. i. colour, and the fexes tlien can only be determined by the 
p. 127. no. 15. Lath. Synop. 28. Pen. Zool. 54 — j [-^e^ ji,^ female, as is ilated in the dciinition being much 
The common buzzard builds its neft foinetniies in trees, X j^j^gg^ ^^^^ jj^g xwAt?.. atwliat age the henharrier ac- 
and fometimes in rocks, and lays two or thiee eggs ; of \ ^^f^g. i,;g niafculine drefs, I cannot exa&ly afcettain j 
a dirty white colour, fpotted with dark brown. x but, I think the change takes place before he is able to 

6. HoNEV Buzzard. Falco apivorm, Lin. Syft. " procreate : as I never h;\ve feen two tingtails attend the 
I. p. I 30. no. 28. Lath. Synop. 33. Pen. Zool. 56 — t fame neft, and I have made accurate obfervations, on up- 
This bird is very rate in Cumberland. I have only j wards of twenty nells when filled with young; and, in va- 
been able to meet with one fpecimen, which was a fe- v riably foundeach neft frequented by the henharrier and 
male, which weighed 32 oz. I am informed it makes i lingtail. Mr. Pennant, however, has, upon difieftion,, 
its neft in high trees, and breeds in the woods at Low- j been able to difcover the telle- , before any alteration in 
thcr. \ the colour of the plumage took place For,he fays in his 

7. Moor Buzzard. Falco ceruginojut, Lin. Syft. ^ britifll zoology. '■ This has generally been fiippofcd to 
1. p. 130. no. 29. Lath. Synop. 34. Pen. Zool. 57. 5 " be the female of the former;" viz. the henharrier, " but 
—This bird is very frequent upon our moors. It lays v " from fome late obfervations, by the infallible rule of 
4 or 5 eggs, of a dirty white colour, upon the ground, i. " diffeftion, males have been found of this fpccies." — 
among heath or ruflics. Young moor buzzards, are al- a The great difference in the colour, and this circum- 
ways of arufty, chocolate, brown colour ; but old ones v ftance have induced, not only that gentleman, but Lin- 
have, generally, one or more large fpots of white, or X nzus, and Mr. Latiiam|| to defcribe them as diftindt 
yellow. The crown of the ! ead is, for moft part, lu- ^ fpccies. On the contrary, Briffon, Ray, and Willugh- 
teous, in fome fpecimens the chin is of the fame colour, X by, cor.fider them as male and female. 

in others there is a white mark upon the breaft, and in When fuch great names, in natural hiftory, entertain 
fome the fboulders are either white or yellow: the legs | different fentimcnts, upon a fad, if we can afcertain 
are longer and flenderer, than in any other fpecies of X which of them are light, it will be of fome importance 
Hawk ; except the following : — C to the fcience. Let us, therefore, in the firft place, 

8. Henharrier Male. Falco eyaneus, Lin. Syft. v compare the two birds together. 

I. p. 126. no. 10. Lath. Synop. 74. Pen. Zool. 58. X 1. The irides in both are yellow. 

V 2. T he wreath of <hoit ilifF feather", furrounding the 

f Hawkinp; was a favourite diverfion among our anceftors, , ears, fimilar to what we obferve in the various fpecies 
ami various f.atutes were made fur the prtfervuticn of fcvtral X ^f ^^,^^^ appears equally the fame in the henharrier as 
fpecies of Falcons and Havvka. , • ..l • -i j • . i i r * r i i • 

'^ ., ,r r A. 11 . I 1. 1 .1. • I, V m the ringtail : and is not, 1 be icve, ooieivable in any 

" If any pcrfon {hall take away any hawks or fheir egfs, °7 r, r ■ r ■, , 
"any means unlawfully, out of the woods or grounds of any {• other ipecies or hi'.wu. 

" pcrfon ; and be thereof conviacd, at the affizcs or fefiioBi, on fi 3. The form of the bill, length of the vi'ings, fize, 
" indiflment, bill, or infr.rmation, at the fuit of the kinp, or y colour, and fiiape of the legs are the fame in both. 
" of the party; he fliall be imprifoned three months, and fliall V \'he. fhape of the body is the fame. 

" pav treble damages; and after the three months are expired, X Aii .1 u i • t r .U- /• _ r ^ 

„'/i i,r ,r ■ r f J 1 c r C. Al! the henharriers are nearly ot the lame hze 

" ihall find furetics for his good abeanng lor fcven years, or re- ,1 < . , . ■ , • i i i 

" main in prifcn till he doth, j. El. c. it. S, 3." X anti weight, VIZ. J 7 inches in length, and 12 OZ. m 

*' But by a more ancient flatutc, no man fliall take any ayre, X weight. 
" faulcan, gofhawk, taficl, laner, or lancret, in thtir warren, S 6. All the ringtails which arc killed, at, or a little 
'"wood, or other places nor purpofeiy drive them out ' b^for^ ^he breeding feafon, are alfo cf the fame fize and 
" of their coverts accullomcd to breed in; to caufe them to . • 1 .. • ■ i • 1 „*i. 1 .„ „ •„ • r,* 

... , , . /, u r 1 . ;; weicht, viz. 20 inches in length, and lo oz m weight. 

" vo to other coverts to breed in, nor ilay them for any hurt V °ti,,-,i icil-j 

" done by them : on pain of icl. half to him that will fue before \ 7- «"'•' buds have the fame habits and manners. 
" thejufticesof the, and half to the king. 11.H.7.C. 17." X 8. Both prey upon, :ind feem fond of lizards. 

" And no manner of perfon, of what condition or degree he A p. In the breeding feafon both have the fame note. 
•• be, (hall take, or caufe to be taken, on own ground, or J jo_ Henharrieis varv a little in colour, fome being 
•• on any other man's, the eggs of a.=y faukon gofliawk, or ;j ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ j^j^;^ ^j^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

** hmcr out t'f the neft ; on pain (being convicted thcrcnl be v * o / 

" fore the jufticc of the peace) of imprifonment for a year and x 

" and a day; and fine at the king's will : half to the king, and X || From fome fafls and obfi.rvaf ions which I communicated to 
" half to the owner of the ground where the ej:g9 were taken X Mr. Latham, that accurate author, has altered his opinion-— 
" in."— — BuRN'e Jufticc, Vol. 2. p. 284. fourteenth edit. X Sec Latham's fupplenicnt. 

' " B II. Ail 

[ 6 ] 

'■<!. AlUlie ringtaHs '.vhich I have (5i{re(Sed, and they X young biids which were taken out of the r.eft, Trorti 
are not a few, were females ; and all the henharriers which Mr. George Blamire wounded the henharrierj 
nales. The fanne circiimftance occurred to Kramer X and killed the ringtail; one, viz. the fmallcft, was 
who opened twelve henharriers and found them all c> killed, by the others, in a few days. A fecond 
males ; and thirteen ringtails wh'ch were females. t died, or was killed by his corripanions, on the 20th 

12. The young when taken from the neft, are all of X of March, 1784: on difledtion I found it to be d 
the fame colour, and refemble the ringtail, but are of ■^. male, the teftes were very diftlnft, and were beginning 
different fizes. y to fwtll : his weight I could not afcertain, as his com- 

13. The irides of young birds are not yellow. X panions had eat a confiderable part of his breaft : there 
In the year 17^3, I had at the fame timcj and with- was no alteration in his plumage ; but the iiides had 

In 500 yards of each other, three nefts of the ringtail V undergone a confiderable change, being at his death a 
and henharrier, upon Newtown-common, about a mile X yellowidi white, September 14th, I7<S4, 12 o'clock at 
and a half from Carliflc, in fome very yoimg plantations noon, I weighed the two remaining birds which were 
of the late Mr, Davifon : — the firft had fcven ei^gs, y empt}', not having been fed fince three o'clock in the af- 
the fecond had fix eggs, and the third had four young X ternoon of the 13th. The larger weighed Ij-'oz. and the 
ones when I found them. A ringtail was upon each i fmaller i loz. and 2 drs. They had neither of i hem chan« 
neft; but the henharriers did not appear. I vilited v ged their feathers,and did not then appear to be in moult. 
them again, a few days aftei, in the evening : at the q. The irides of the fmaller were of a yellowifh white; the 
neft with young ones, the ringtail was upon the neft, irides of the larger were but little altered. The larger 
and the henharrier foon after appeared, they both flew X died, in February, 17H5 ; on difledion fcvcral eggs 
about me and darted at my head ; and, particularly, the 4 were found in the ovary. The fmaller lived till the 
henharrier came within a few inches of my head, twen- y middle of March, i 785: the teftes were verj' dilHnft, but 
ty or thirty times, when 1 was handling the young. — X not much diftended, and there was not the leaft change 
They were both very clamorous, and had the fame note. of colour in the feathers. Thus we fee a male and a 
On the neft which had feven eggs I found the ringtail,' j( female lived vf-ry near one year and three-quarters, after 
and one young bird was hatched, the henharrier came j' they were taken from the neft. 

very focn, and the fame fcene took place, as I have de- y It is highly probable, that confinement and a ditfer- 
fcribed, at the other neft. A few nights after, Mr. x ent kind of food, either greatly retards, or altogether 
George Blamire accompanied me. We firft went to J prevents the change of colour. In June, 1785; I had 
the neft with yonng ones : both birds darted at us with three nefts upon Newtowm-common, and had frequent 
great fury ; I defircd him to flioot the heniianier ; he X opportunities of feeing both birds; which were henharri- 
fired at him, wounded him, but he got away and we ' ers and ringtails; and which were almoft all (hot when fly- 
never faw him more. We then went to the firft neft, J ing about us at the nefts : fince that time I have feen fe* 
the ringtail was upon it, and there were now fix young X veral other nefts, but never obferved either two ringtails 
ones. The henharrier did not appear. When the J or two henharriers at the fame neft. The duke of Buc- 
young of the third neft were fit for taking, Mr. J cleugh's gamekeeper has deftroyed fome hundreds, and 
Blamire fhot the ringtail for me. June the 27th, the V has frequtndy fhot both male and female from the fame 
Rev. Mr Shaw went with me to the firft neft, with ' neft: lord Carlille's gamekeeper has done the fame.— 
fix young, they were of confiderable fize, but not fea- X The henharrier never fits upon the eggs, but will fupport 
thered : the ringtail was upon the neft, and he fliot her ;■ the young after the ringta 1 is killed. They make their 
immediately : the henharrier did not appear. 1 left a jj neft upon the ground ; and the eggs are white, and ra- 
rat trap near the neft. Next morning, viz. the 28th, V ther larger than a pigeon's egg. Hence it is evident they 
1 went ag;.ia and found the trap had not been touched, ; xre male and female, and not two diftinft fpecies. 
but there were two birds, viz. a lark and a fpairow, in 3 

the neft. While I remained I did not fee the henharrier, S 9- Kestrel. Fakotinnunculus, Lin. Syft. f.p. 127. 
but as I was certain, from the fmall birds in the neft, f ""• '7- 'at''- Synop. 75J. Fen. Zoo!. 60 — The male 
that he had been there fince the ringtail was killed : I v '" *^'^, diffeis much in colour from the female, 
went again at noon, and found one of the youncr birds X It burlds in rocks and hollow tr-ees. It is often fecn 
caught by the neck in the trap. The lark and fparrow * l'ov«'i"g^ m the arr, and as if fixed to one fpot for a 
were gone, and in their place were two yellow hammers confiderable length of time. 

I fet the trap and baited it with one of the yellow X -j,o. Hobby. Faio fuhluteo, Lin. Syft. f. *. 127. 
hammers, and ictued into a fniad plantation of fir trees. • „,. ,4. Lath. Synon. 90. Pen Zool. 61.— Mr. Pen- 
about iixty y.ards from the neft ; I there by concealed, v „^„^ j^p^,^^ ^^^ ^j^;^ j^j^j ,^^^^^^ -^ England, but 
and in lel^i than five minutes, 1 both heard and faw the X .migrates in Odobcr. Whether it migrates or not, I 
henharrier. He loon went to the neft, ted the young 'j 

ones with what he had brought, then attempted to feize X ^ TMs mark denotes birds which migrate, or leave the 
the yellow hammer in the trap, and was taken by the r county at particular feafons of the year. 

leg. I fent thcfe birds to Mr. Latham. Both the ? ., „ „„ , , , , . .... 

• . 1 J .1 1 1 • f .u /• J n. 1 • I " N. 15. wherever the day of the month is mentioned withorJt 

jingtail and the iienhartier, of the fecond neft, which f' , v. „ ,, ,>,. „ ,,„/ ■ .1. j n • "-"'^'^ .'""'■ 
, 9 r J 1 ■ 1 11 L , > • ^" f the, the year, 1796, is to be iinderilood ; except in th« 
had fix eggs, and which were all hatched, were always : obfervations rcfpe«ing the hcniiarrier and ringtail. 
lery Ihy, and never came within fhot. Of the four jr ani 

■ t 7 ] 

•m uncertain, but I l.ave icen it in the teginnlng of X 6114. Short earsd Owt. Laih. S^nop. 9; Pets 
November. J Zoo!. 66. — 1 his fpecies is a bird of paflage, vifits Cum- 

11. Sparrow Hawk. Fako nifiis, Lin. Syil. \. p. ): berland in Oftobcr, and rctiies in the Ipring. The 
1:50. no. 31. Lath. Synop. S5. Pen. Zool. 62. — ^, horns, as they arc called, confid of one feather on each 
The female is double the weight of the male. In the ", Tide of the head, which it can raife or deprcfs at pi- a- 
month of Oftober, I weighed an old male, which was X fnre ; and in a dead fubjeft are not eafily difcovered ; 
l\ oz, and in the month of Jinie, a iemalc, at which I which fometimes leads the examiner into difSculties — . 
time it may be fiippofed to have loll weight, from incu- J Whether the horns are obfervablc or not, it may be rea- 
bation, which was 12 oz. She had, however, a lark i dily dilb'nguifhed from all other owls, by the following 
half digefted ir. her ftoin?ch. The fparrow hawk is a X marks. The inSde of the quill feathers is of that co- 
very bold bird, and will attack partridges and pigeons, y lour which fdk mercers call a roje 'white, except about 

12. Merlin. Lath, Synop. 93. Pen. Zool. 63. — X three inches from the tip which is black brown ; each 
Mr. Pennant fays the merlin is a bird of paffage, and * feather, however, having a large fpot of the fame rofe 
does not breed in Engl.nnd, which is a miftake ; it C white. The fpot on the fccor.d and third feathers, is 
breeds in Cumberland, and remains with us the whole 5 as large as a flidling. 

year: 1 have feen thiee nells, which were upon the J 15. Common, barn or white Owl. Strix fiammea, 
ground among heath. June 22d, 1783, I killed a fe- y Lin. Syft. I. p. 133. r.o. 8. Lath. Synop. 26. Pefi. 
male merlin, on her neft, on RockliflF-mofs : flie weigh- X Zool. 67. 

ed 81 oz, but had a fmall bird in her ilomach. The % 16. Brown, or wood Owl. Strh uluh, Lin. SyiV. 
colour was almoft all either brown or ferruginous, fox '• /■• '33- ""• lO- Lath. Synop. 28. Pen. Zool. 69. — - 
that, I imagine, the female birds do not acquiie the X This fpecies is pretty frequent in our woods; where it 
blue afli coloured feathers, on the back &c. till they y breeds, generally in a hollow tree, or in the old neft of 
are fcvera! years old ; as 1 have qnly met with one fpe- X a crow, or magpie. With refpeft to \.\\ejlnxj}ridii!a, 
cimen fo marked. After catching the female, which j of Linnajus and other authors, I am uncertain whcthec 
tt-as in the evening, I left a trap at the neft, and went ^ it is to be met with in this county or not. 
the next morning and found the male taken : he was X Genus IV. — Pics. 

5^ oz. ftanding weight. The head, back, wings, co- 1 Definition of the Ccnui — ^The bill ftraitat the bafe,' 
verts of the tail, were of a bluifli afh colour. The •■; with the end more or lefs bent or hooked, and a notch 
tail had numerous bars of black, but the lad bar was X near the tip of the upper mandible — The bafe not fur- 
the moft diftin£t, and above an inch broad. There I nifhed with cere. — The tongue jagged at the end. — 
was no ferruginous colour in the tail, but the tip was x The outer toe connected to the middle one as far as the 
dirty white. The merlin lays four eggs, which are X joint. 

covered with brownifli fpots, fome of which ate very ^ 17. Great Shrike, or butcher Bird. Laniut 
fmall, and others pretty large, which are darker than V excubitor, Lin. Syft. i. p. 135. no. 11. Lath. Synop. 
the fmall fpots. 'I'he merlin, though a bird of great 4. Pen. Zool. 7 1. — I his is a beautiful and fcarce bird, 
fpirit, will not approach near you, as the ringtail and v I have only met with three or four fpeciineiis. It feeds 
fome other hawks, when you ate at the neft. He alfo X on infefts and fmall birds ; the latter of which it feizes 
flies diff'erenthy from almoft all other hawks, the lips of h by the throjt, and after ftrangling, fixes them on a 
his wings when he fails being pointed downwards. — y fliarp thorn, and pulls them to pieces with its bill. In 
I have feen a merlin ftrfke a blackbird : and three years X fpring and fumnier it iniitates the notes of other birds, 
ago, in the month of Fcbiuary, I got a fine cock par- i by wny of decoying them within reach that it may def- 
£ridj;e, which thli bird had killed the moment bcfoie. v troy them, 

X fi8. Red-eackEd butcher Bird. ZawVy ftj/Zaw, 
Genus III. — Oivt. v I-in. Syft, i.p. 136. .w. 12. Lath. Synop. 15. Pen. 

Definition of the Genus. — The bill is crooked, but ? Zool. 72. — This fpecies is more rare than the former, it 
ticit fnrniilied w th a cere. — Noftrils covered with brift- y is a bird of paffage, and leaves us in the winter. Its man- 
ly feathers — Head large. — Eyes and cars large, and v ners and habits are fimilar to the former. 
furrounJed with a circular wreath of ftiff feathers.-^ X Gfnus Xil. — Crew. 

Tongue bifid. — Outmoft toe capable of being turned p Definition of the Genus. — The bill is ftrong, the up" 
Jsackwards. v frcr msndible a little convex, the edges are cultrated.— 

13. Long farfd Ov/l. Strix otits, Lin. Syft. I. \ Noftrils covered with briftles. En<l of the tongue 
p. 132. t!0. 4. Lath. Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. 65. — This C carlihigenons and bifid — Toes, three forward, one 
fpecies is not very numerous. It breeds in this county, >' backward : the middle one joined to the outer as far as 
and lays four or five eggs in an old magpie's, or crow's, }, the firft joint. 

neft. It receives its name from a tutt, of fix feathers, *> 19. Ravbn. Corvus omx, Lin. Syft t. p. 15^. 
on each fide of the head, which are about an inch in V no. 2. I^ath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 74. — In Cumber- 
length ; and which it can eretl or deprcfs at pleafure. j land, the raven, foi the nioft part, breeds in rocks; and 
None of the Cumbeiland owls arc, except the fliort y begins to build its neft in February : tliough it has 
eared owl able to fee diftinftly, either in open day light X generally five young, never more than a pair are feen in 
or in a dark night. They therefore feck their food, X the fame neighbourhood. Its chief food is carrion ; but 
de.fing twilight or moonlight nights. ^ wheH 


orelTed wltTi hunt'ev, wPil kill lam'os, v.-«.k and ddor- X eggs ; xvlilcli are of a curious ollw colbnr, maikeJ wiflf 

and may be tatigtit to imitate uic numau vuic; ,j ma., ^..v,.^ «. .> ^...^. . j-^ ■• - -j 

Where ever there is at prefent a raven's neft, there has noifjr bird. XVhen tamed may be taught to ta.k. 
always been one in the fame place, or in the ncij^hbom-- ;< The food of this bn-d, I beaeve, conhfts altogether of 
hood, for time Immemorial. It is therefo-re evident, the ft ve-ctable {\ibftances. Many b. ds live entirely upon 
young ones miift either migrate, to diiiant parts of the v animal food; but I think no brilifh bird except the jay» 
ifland, or leave the kingdom altogether. If one of the X feeds entirely upon vegetables. 

old birds, whether male or female be killed, during the ^S- Jackdaw. Corvui monedu.'a, Lin. Syft. i. ^ 
breedino- feafon ; the furvivor foon procures a new J; 156. «». 6. Lath. Synop. 9. Pen. Zool. 8;.— The 
mate, a°id if both ate killed, a freili pair facceeds next K jackdaw builds its neil, in rocks caftlcs and fteeples ; 
year to the old habitation. and is never found far removed from the habitations of 

30. CarriosCrow, Corvus c7rone, Lin. Syft. x.p.t man. It feeds upon grain, fruits, and infecls ; but irl 
~i{c. no. 3. Lath. Synop. 3. Pen. Zool. 75'_They X the breeding feafon will deltroy young ducks and cbick- 
are more numerous in the north of England, than, per- J ens. Moll of the fpecies of this genus, will pei-mit a 
haps, in any country in the world. When they have % man without a gun, or even with an unloaded gun, to 
young, they are more deftruaive to young ducks and J approach within a few yards of them ; but if he has a 
chickens than any fpecies of hawk.J \ loaded gun, it is difficult to get within fhot, hence tne 

21. Rook. Corvu\ fruglh^us , Lin. Syit. \. p. 156. | common obfervation, •« That crows fmdl powder." 

Ti. 4. I.ath. Synop. 4. Pel). Zool. 76.— Themale feeds | Genus XIX Cucho. 

the female during the whole fealon of incubation. — jj Definition of the Genui The blU weak and arched. 

The rook feeds upon grain and infefts. ^ X Noftrils bounded by a fraall rim — Tongue fhort and 

^22. HooDtD, or ROYSTON CROW. Cofv'.ts com'n, V pointed Tail cuneated and confifting of ten feathers. 

Un. Syft. 1. p. 156. no. 5. Lath. .'^ynop. y. Pen. i( _TQgs^ t^vo forward two, backuard. 
Zool. 77 — The hooded crow is a bird of paflfage, viiits ^, €126. Cuckoo. Ciictdus carwrui, Lin. Sy.l. l. p. 
Cumberland only occafionally, and never in great num- I ,5g_ ^^^ ,_ Lath. Synop. i Pen. Zool. 82. — Au- 
fcers. It is about the fizc of the rook. The breaft, X thors fay that the neck of the female is, both before 
belly, back, and upper part of the neck, are of a pale < ^^d behind, of a brownifh red: I have, however, dif- 
a(h colour. It breeds in the orknies and highlands of x fecled three females, wich could not, from theii exier- 
Scotland. nal appearance, have been diftinguiflied from males ; 

23. Magpie. Corvui pica, Lin. Syft. I. p. 157. | ^ij^fg being not the leaft appearance of brownilh red, 
W. 13. Lath. Synop. 29. Pen. Zool. 78.— The magpie ;x eitherupon the neck or bteaft. It is therefore probable, 
when taken young is cafily tamed, andlite the raven, I {jj^^ ^-^^ brown feathers on the neck and breaft, only 
Biay be taught to imitate the human voice. The m=ig- J ^^^^ ;„ young hens, as all the your.g birds are blown, 
pie during the breeding feafon is very deftruftive to X mixed with ferruginous. 

young poultry. g In one of thefc I found two yelks of eggs in the 

24. Jay. ghndcrrhti, Lin. Syft. K p. \^6. I ovaiy, fo large that t thiak they would have been layed 
W. 7. Lath. Synop. 19. Pen. Zool. 79 — This beau- X ;„ [j^^. fp^^-g ^f ^ fe^v days, if (he had not been killed, 
tiful bird builds its neft in woods, and lays five or fi.^: i,, another which had been killed, very early in the 

X morning, by Mr. George Blamire, 1 found an egg with 
\ •• With regard to fov.l not Bfed to be eate«, together with J j,^^ ^^,„ j-,,„ f„rn,ed, and a large yolk which would 
rtrtain othcrnoxioUB animals, tlicre were prov.uons maae by an A 1 1 1 i_ u 1 -.u n. 11 • j . 

certain ou.t ' ■ ,■,, ^ ^ j^/-„, .a/a„ X probably have been covered With a ft'.ell in a day or two. 

ancient (latute, VIZ. 8. Eliz. c. 15, mtitlcd, W« ^wyor «f/r«-_'; f ; • , r y ■l 

ftrvatim of grains, which, it were to be wiflied might be revi- 5 Altho the cuckoo weighs five ounces or better, yet the 
ved, -with a proper confideration of the difference of the value egg was not larger than the egg of a hedge fparrow ; it 
«f money betwixt that time and the prefent ; by vihich it v.^as ■( weighed exactly forty four grains, was of a greyilh 
required that the churchwardens (hould levy by an affefTment, I ^j^jj^ £.0]^,^ marked with cull brown, snd violet 
and Dav, for the he^As of every three old crowes, choughs, or .' . , ,, , ^ j"/r a- •. • .. -j . 

ana pay, lui i"^ % r ,!,„ , 1,= „.. r„„t= L„ ^ brown fov ts. I rom thefe diffeCiions It IS pretty evident 

rooks, one penny ; of fixe young crowes, choughs, or rooks, one * 1^ r ; 

penny ; and for every fix* eggs of them, one penny ; for every j that the cuckoo lays at leaft two eggs. The fingular 
twelve flares heails, one penny; for every head of merlen hawks, phsnomenon of the cuckoo not hatching her own eggs, 
furefckytte, moldkytte, bufardes, fchagge, cormeraunt, or ring- 'j but laying them in the neft of fume other biid, is now 
tayle, two-pence ; and for two eggs of one penny; for v afcgftained by fo many faCls and obfervations as to place 
every iron or ofpray s heade f.ur-pence! for the head of ev.ry v ^^ circumftanc^beyond the reach of doubt or coDtro- 
woodvvall,pye, jay, raven, kyite, or kings filher, one penny; /» . 111. j r • 

bulfynce, gr other bird that dcvouretU the bloth of fruit, a vcrfy. 1. he cuckoo lays her egg and fometiraes eggs 
, &c.'" V (for two have been found in one neft) in the nells of 

" And by another ancijnt ftatute, 24th H. 8. r. 10. Every "5 feveral fmall birds, viz, water-wagtail, hedge-fparrow, 
Townfhip was re<,uired to keep a crow net, to deftroy, crmvs, 7 ^it-lark, &c. in this neighbourhood, moll fiequently in 

rook", and choughs. Bur.n s Jullice, vol. 2. p. 291. lour- V .» n r -u .• 1 1 i r ir u c j 

Tooi. , auu iiiougi.j. J , r yj .J, jj^g ^^^ qJ- jj^g tu-';irk : I myfelf have found a young 

"•" SoL/!"ri4« in WcJlmtflani.attbU timt, pay fir thcbcacU oft cuckoo ill the lall meutioiicd ucft, and feen the tit-lark 
ioufefparrowt, and offomt tticr iirdt menlitncd alove, 6 feed 




fcedlt. As the cuctoofecJs upon Infefts, indiiiiil gene- y 29. Greater spotted Woodpecker.. Ficiit ma« 
jally, if not univeifally, leads her to dcpofit licr eggs in 'ijor, Lin. Sytt. I. />. 176. no. 17. Lath. Synop. 12» 
the ncrts of birds which m.ike life of a fimilar food. j( Pen. Zoo'. 85. 

The cuckoo is & bird of paflagt , and in the neigh- •) 30. Middle spotted WoOdtecker. Picus mediuSf 
bourhcod of Carlifle is fomctimes h.furd in the lail week v Lin. Syd. \. p. 1 76. n'>. 18. Lath. Synop. 13. Pen/ 
of April, and fomctimes not till the fiiTc week in May. X Zool. S6 — Anthors have feme doubts whether thefe 
The old birds in general dlfappear in the latter end of ft -re dillinft fpecies, or only varietieii. Thefe doubts I 
Juljr. or the beginning of Auguft : the young ones are v am unable to afcertain. In all the fpecimens which I 
fcen later. The flcfh of the cuckoo is very delicate X have feen (viz. four) in this county, the vi'hole top o£ 
food. The cuckoo has a note in the fpring very unhke the head was crimlon. 
that, from which it derives its name; but as 1 have V Genus XX[1I. — Kiagfi/Iier. 
always neglefted to mark it down when I heard it, I Definition of the Genus — The bill long, ftrong', 

cannot at prelent defciibe It. The colour of the young Cftrait, fliarp pointed Tongue fliort, broad, (harp 

birds. In autumn, when they dlfappear, is fo extremely v pointed Legs fliort. — Three toes forward, and one 

different from the old ones, or any thut appear in the 5 backward ; three lowed joints of the outmoll toe 
fpring, that thofe who contend that the cuckoo docs ? connei^ed to the middle toe. 

not migrate mull be compelled to acknowledge that j 31. Common Kingfisher. yllceJo ifpidn, Lin. 
the young birds moult and change every feather during C Syft. r. p. 179. no. 3. Lath. Synop. 16. Fen. Zool. 
their Hate of torpidity. — See Swift, no. 90. As the 2 *^8. — The plumage of the kinglifher is more beautiful 
young birds arc feen a month or fiit weeks after the old j than that of any of the biililh birds. It frequents the 
ones difapptar, I a(l<, if they all becime torpid, what y banks of rivers and feeds on fifli, it balances itlelf in 
enables the former to retain all the active powers of life X the air like the keflrel, for a confiderable time, at a 
ib long after the latter have been totally deprived of all ■{, certain diflance over the w.atcr, and when it fees a fi(h, 
fenfation and motion ? The cuckoo was heard, in the i it daits below the furface, and brings the filh up with 
ncighbonrhood of Carlifle, on the 29th of April, and on X its feet. It frequents the Caldew and the Peteri!, 
the firft of May. In this county they are generally more than the Eden. Concerning the neft of this, 
attended by the tit-lark. ')( bird, the molt fabulous and abfurd relations havs 

Genus XX. — Wryneck. ,' been recorded, by antient writers, on natural hiftory. 

Definition of the Genu: The bill is roundifh, v On the 7th of May, a boy from Upperby brought 

(lightly incurvated, and of a wea.k texture. — Nolbils ; me a kingtiilier alive, which he had taken when fitting 
bare of feathers, and fomewhat concave. — The tongue \ upon her eggs the night before. From him I received 
long, flender worm fnaped, and armed at the point — C the following ♦nformation " Having often this fpring 
Ten flexible feathers in the tail. Toes, two back- > obfcrved thefe birds frequent a bank upon the river 
ward<, two forwards. j Peteril, he watched them carefully, and law them go 

^27. Wryneck. Tunx torquila, Lin. Syft. I. p. v into a fmall hole in the bank. The hole was too fmall 

172. no. I. Lath. Synop. T. Pen Zool. 83 This •'! to admit his hand, but as it was made in foft mould 

beautiful fpecies is a bird of pnffage, and appears at J he eafily enlaiged it. It was upwards of half a yard 
leall ten days or a fortnight, before the cuckoo. In '< long, at the end of it the eggs which were fix in 
the year 17S7, I had a male fent me the firft week t number, were placd upon the bare mould, there being 
in April. It lays its eggs, to the number of eight or J not the fmalleft appearance of a nejt. ' The eggs, 
nine, moft frequently, in the holes which have been J one of which he brought me, are confiderably larger 
made in decayed trees by tit-mice. It fometinies makes J than the eggs of the yellow hammer, and arc of a 
so neft, but depofits its eggs upon the bare rotten V' tranfparent white' colour. 
wood. I have taken a female upon the neft. Its note X Genus XXIV. — Nuthatch. 

is loud and harfh. Oftober firll, although I have con- Definition of the Genus. — Bill ftrait, triangular.— 
ftantly vifited the fields where, in other years, the wry- .' Noftrils, fiiiall, covered with bridles. — Tongue ftiort, 
seek was accuftomed to frequent, yet 1 have neither t horny at the end and jagged. — ^Toes, placed three for- 
heard or feen one this fummer, 5 wai'd and one backward : the middle toe joined clofely 

Genus XXI. — Woodpecker. J; at the bafe to both the outmoft : back toe as large as 

Definition of the Genus. — The bill is ftrait, flrong, \ the middle one. 
angular, and cuncated at the end. — Noftrils covered \ 32. European Nuthatch. Sitta europ.rci, Lin, 
with briftles. — Tongue very long, {lender, woim (haped, X Syll. i. />. lyj. no. 1. Lath. Synop i. Fen. ZooL 
bony, and jagged at the end; mifiilc. Toes, two c 89. — On the jithcf May, 1782, I received a male 
backward, two forward. — Tail confifting of ten, hard, ^ nuthatch fron. Atmathvvaite, where a pair of them had 
ftiff, (harp pointed feathers. a been obferved about ten days. In all probability they 

2*8. Green Woodpecker. P/i-«r virJdir, I. In. Syft. '^ intended to have made their neft that year, In the neigh- 
X. p 175. «5. 12. Lath. Synop. 25. Pen Zool. 84. ' bourlng woods. They frequently perched upon the 
— This bird is (eldom feen in Cumberland, only occa- X top of the caftle, and made a very loud fqucaking chat- 
fionally vifiting this county, but is pretty common in i tering noife. The hypochondria of this bird were of 
Yorkfhire. y a deep and bright tawny colour, the under coverts of 

C tlis 

[ 10 ] 

the tall were edged wllli the fame. They bree-l and X three weeks the male found [mother mate, and they 
conftantly inhabit the woods near Lowther-hall. The y built a neft cxaaiy in the fame part of the tree \^'herc 
nuthatch colkfts hoards of nuts in the lio'lows of trees, ^ tlie other had flood. 

from which they fetch one at a time, and place it in a ?; In fevere winter the tniffel thrufh tither leaves Cum- 
chink of a tree, and then (land above it wiih the head berland, or retires into the thickeft woods. It begin* 
downwards, flrike it with all their force, break the (hell, i to fing early in the fpring. The miffel thrufli may be 
hud catch the kernel. They alfo eat infcds, and make | diftinguiihtd from the throflle by its lupenor fize; by 
their nelU in hollow trees. v the fpots upon its bread which are larger and blacker 

Genus XXVIl [fcopcg. X than thofe on the bieafl of the throftle; and by the 

Definition of the Genus The bill long {lender and .J inner coveits of the wings, which are white. 

incurvated. — Tongue fhort and fagittal. — Toes, placed x «!J37. Fieldfare. Turdu! pilaris, Lin. Syft. i. p. 
three before and one behind ; the middle one conneded I 291. no. 2. Lath. Synop. 1 i. Pen. Zocl 106. — The 
at the bafe to the outmoll. 4 fieldfare is a bird of pafiage, appears in Cumberland in 

f 33. Common Hoopoe. Upupaepcps, Lin. Syft- i- i the beginning of Oaober, and retires in the month of 
p. 183. no. I. Lath. Synop. I. Pen. Zool. 90. This j March or April. 

beautiful bird is not a regular inhabitant of Engbnd, \ 38 Throstle. Tardus muficus, Lin. Syft. I. /-. 
it only vifits Cumberland cccafionally and fcldom. X 292. no. 4. Lath. .^ynop. 2. Pen. Zool- 107. — The 

Genus XXVIII. — Creeper. \ throfUe, like the miffel thrufh, either leaves this county 

Definition of the Genus. — The bill is flender, incur- \ entirely, in fevere winters, or retires into the moll 
vated, and fliarp pointed. — Tongue, (harp pointed- — \ thick and folitary woods. The weather was fo mild 
Toes, placed three before and one behind : back toe t and open, in January, 1796, that the throftle was heard 
large : claws hooked and long. — Tail confifting of \ to fing on the 2cth, and I myfelf heard it on the 25th 
twelve feathers. ^ cf that month. In general the throftle does not begin 

34. Common Creeper. Certhia farniltaris, Lin v to fing till February, and fometimes not till March. 
Syft. I./". 184. m. I. Lath. Synop. l. Pen. Zool. K •I39. Redwing. 7 urdus iliacus, Lin. Syft. I. p. 
91. — This is one of the fmalleft of the britifti birds, be- \ 292. no. 3. Lath. Synop. 7. Pen. Zool. 108. — The 
ing very little larger than the golden crefted wren. It y redwing comes and returns about the fame time ai tKe 
runs up and down the bi-anches of trees with the uttnolt a fieldfare. 

facility. '1 he creeper breeds in the woods at Corby. 40. Bl-ICkbird. Ttodus merula, Lin. Syft. I. p. 

V 295. no. 22. Lath. Synop. 46. Pen. Zool. 109. — 

ORDER III Piijferine. X This bird is fnbjeift to varieties in colour, being often 

Genus XXX Stare. y pied and fometimes wholly white. The male affifts the 

Definition of the Cen'4!. — Eiil fttaic depreffed.— V female in incubation : May 23d, I examined a neft at 
Noftrils guarded above by a prominent rim. — Tongue ; Netherby, and found the male upon the neft, I had 
hard and cloven. — The middle toe united to the out- v fome difficulty in difturbing him; fufpeiting the female 
inoft, as far as the firft joint. X had met with fome accident: in a little time I went 

35. Common Stare or Starling. Sturnus vul- 5 again to the neft, and fovnd the female in it, this cir- 
garis, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 290. no. l. Lath. Synop. i. v cumftance Imentioned to Sir. James Graham's, gardi- 
Pen. Zool. 104.— The ftarling may be taught to '< ner, who affured me he had often feen the cock fitting 
fpeak. In the autumn they are found in confiderable i upon the eggs. 

flocks on the fea coafts, not far from the fliore.— '^ fl4'' Ring Ouzel. Tardus torquatus, Lin. Syft. 

They bleed in old ruined buildings, ar;d 1 am told, ) i. p. 2y6 no. 23. Lath.' Synop. 49. Pen. Zool. 

fometimes in rabbit warrens. V iio. — -This fpecics is very mre in Cumberland, it breeds 

Genus XXXI. — Thrnjh. X upon the mountains, but I believe it leaves us in the 

Definition of the Genus Bill ftraitifti, bending to- J beginning of winter. 

wards the point, and fiightly notched near the end of \ 42. Water Ouiel. Sturnus cinclns, Lin. Syft. I. 
the upper mandible. — Noftrils oval. — Tongue fiightly t p. 290. no. 5. Lath. Synop. 50. Pen. Zool. i 1 1. — 
jagged at the end, — The corners of the mouth furnilh- h This is a folitary fpecies, frequents fmall rivers and 
ed with a few flender hairs. — The middle toeconnedlcd ;< brooks, and lives upon infsdls and fmall fifh. It dives 
to the outer, as far as the firft joint. X under water and tuns after the fi(h at the bottom, in 

36. MisstL Thrush. Turdtts vifcivorus , Lin. Syft. the fame manner as on land. The water ouzel makes 
I. p. 291. no. I. Lath. Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 105. X its neft in the banks of rivulets, which it frequents, and 
—In .April, 1782, a neft ol this bird was found in 5 lays four oi five eggs: the neft iscompofed of the fame 
Mr. Dacre's garden at Kiiklinton, between two branch- -^ materials, and is of the fame form, as the neft of the 
cs ot an elm tree. The female was (hot, and I took X common wren, the hole only being confiderably larger, 
the neft, which contained four eggs, which were rather ^ On the 19th of May, being upon a fil'hing party on 
larger than the eggs of the common thrufh; In colour • the Roe, I had an opportunity for the firft time, of 
& marks they greatly refcmble the eggs of the chaffinch. A feeing the neft from which we faw the bird efcape. — 
The outfide of the neft was made of mofs, and differ- '; Thete were two eggs in the neft : the eggs are of the 
cnt kinds of lichen. The infidc was compofed of fine } fame Colour as the eggs of the kiugfiihcr, but are rather 
dead grafs ; it contained ne clay or muj. In lefs than \ longer, 

[ " ] 

longer, and I think fcmewhal larger ; one of thsra X wings. The peifon by whom it was Cent, negle<?ted to 
weighed 69 grains. C deliver it for near three weeks, by which, the inteftines, 

V Sic. were become fo putrid, that I could not, after the 

Genus XXXII. — Chatterer. j moil accurate examination, afcertain whether it was 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill ftrait, convex, bend- y male or female. The rcil appendages and ycHow tips, 

ing towards the point : near the end of the upper X on the wings Joes, therefore, not depend upon the fcx, 

mandible a fmall notch Noftrils hid in the bridles — . '; but moil probably on the age of the bird : and the fex, 

Mid.iie toe cunncftcd to the outer at the bafe. — Tongue v i am perl'uaded, can only be afcertained by diffeftion. 
fliarp, cdttikigcnous and bifid. X 

^43. ]'ohemia:< or Waxev Chatterer. Aniphe- Genus XXXIV. — Grofienk. 

lis garrultis, Lin. Syft. i. f>. 297. ko. I. Lath. Synop. V Definition of the Genus Tiie bill is firong, convex 

I. Pen. Zool. 112. — This beautiful bird only vifits ^ above and below, and very thick at the bafe. — Noftrils 
Cumberland occaficnally, and then only in the winter v fmall and round, and placed at the bafe of the bill. — 
feafon. In the beginning of the year 1787, gieat X Tongue as if cut off at the end. 

mimbers were kllkd in tlie north of England. What | ^ Common Cross Bill. I.osia curviroflra, 
diibngmfhes this from all oilier birds, are lK)rny appen- v li^. jj ft. ,. ^. „,_ ,^ L^t{,_ g ,_ p^„, 

dagcs from the c,ps of the fecondary feathers, of the t 2„„,_ , ,^._TI,i,, bird is known by the fingularity 01 
colour of the very fineft red fi;Rhng wax, 1 he temalcs j -^^ i,;,,^ tcth mandibles of which, curve cppofite ways, 
are fa.d to be d.(l:nguinied from the males, by the want , .^„^ confc.iuently crofs each other. They only vifit 
of the appenuages and yellow marks >n the wing fea- ^ Cumberland feldom, and in the winter feafon. I have 
thers; which, however, is not the cafe, as v^mII appear J ouly (ten one Ipecimen, which was killed near Crofton, 
from the foUovi'ing account. One of thefe birds was j ^-^^ f^^^ „f gir. John Brifco, Bait, 
found dead, in Feb. i 7S4 near Burgh on the fands : it '. 

had fix crimfon appendages at the end of the fecond 5 45- Bulf.nch. Lo^ia pyrrhtda, Lin. Syfl. I. /, 
quills: the tips of the ouili feathers rather a ditty white; 3°°- "=• 4- Lath. Synop. 51. Pen. ZooL 116.— In 
then yellow. I could not diftinguiih, upon dilTeaion, \ Germany the bulhnch is taught to aiticulate feveral 
whether it was male or female. On the 8th of February, ^^rds. 

1787, Mr. .Story lent me a fpecimen, which was killed X ^ 1f4<5- Green Grosbeak or Finch. Lo:<ia chloris, 
near Kefwick : on the right wing were fix of the horny { Lin. Sytt. i. p 304. no. 27. Lath Synop. 35. Pen. 
appendages, on the left only five : five of the quill fea- ? ^iool. 1 1 7 — This fpecies is rarely obferved m the 
ther.s and one of the fecondarics in each wing, were 'i "■'"^<='" ^^''''"""' 1^"' becomes plentiful towards the latter 
tipped on the outer margin with a fine yellow ; on dif- f "-"''^°f y^^xzh. and beginning of April, 
feaion this proved to be a fenu^k. On the fame day V Genus ^Y.^AV .—Bunting. 

a flock of five or fix of thefe birds were feen, feeding X Delinition ot the Genus.— ^m\ fuong and conic, the 
on the fruit of the hawthorn, near Blackwell, 3 mile 4 ^"''^^ °f "^h mriudible bending inwards : n the roof 
and a half iVom CarliHe. Two of them were fliot and l °^ ^^^ "fP^' ^ ''^rd knob, of ufe to break and coramin- 
fent to me ; one had feven red appendages on the right 5 '^"'^ leeds. 

wing, and fix on the left; the other had fix on each v 5l47' Snow Bunting. Eniberiza nivalis, Lin. 
wing: only four of the quill feathers had yellow tips, X Syfl. 1. p. 308. no. i. Lath. Synop. I, Pen. Zool. 
and the yellow in both was much paler than in the laj}. 122 — This bird is never feen exeept iti the winter, and 
They proved to he males. On the 14th of February, ■' even then feldom in the plains. 

1787, Mr. Harrifon of Penrith fent mc another, which X 48. Common Bunting. Evileriza miliaria, Lin. 
was killed near Te;nple-Sowerby. On each wing were v Sytt. 1. />. 308. ;.'!). 3. Lath. Synop. 8. Pen. Zool. 
fcven appendages, much larger than in the former. — X t ' 8. — Remains with us the whole year, and has a very- 
Five of the qudl feathers, ind one of the fccondaries in | har(h difgrecable note. It makes its ncft on the 
each wing (as was the cafe of the female fent by Mr. v ground, and the eggs refemble thofe of the yellow 
Story) were tipped with yellow : the appendages were X hammer, but are fomcwhat larger. 
much larger than in the four preceding fpeclmens, and j 49. Yellow Hammer or Bunting. Emberiz^t 
the four neareft tlie body were the largell : this bird X cilrinella, Lin. Syfl. i. p. 309. no. 5. I..alh. Synop. 
was a male. On the 2 2d of March, in the fame year, X 7. Pen. Zool. 1 19. — This is one of our mofl common 
I received another, which was killed at Ravenfworth, C birds. 

and fent to me by Sir. Henry Liddell, Bart, on the'/ ^50. Rfed Bunting or Sp.^rrow. .£wim:i^yl/5jr- 
right wing there were eiglit, on the left fevcu appenda- \ nicului, Lin. Syft. 1 . />. 311. no 17. Lath. Synop. 9. 
gci, which were large. The two extreme ones, viz. 4 Pen. Zool. 120. — In marfliy countiics it bnilds among 
the neareft and fatthell from the body, were ihe fmall- X reeds, and fallens its nell to four, not at equal diftanees, 
eft. The fecond, third, fourth, and fifth from the ?■ but two, and two on each fide, pretty near each other, 
body were the largeft : fix of tlie wing feathers were v the reR of the neft hanging free. In Cumberland it 
tipped with yellow. In this bird all the tall feathers X fiequents hedges' and road fides. Moll, if not the whok 
had alfo red horny appendages at the ends of the fliafts, 'i^ of them migrate in the autumn, 
which, however were much fmaller than thofe on the 1 51. Tawny 

r x2 ] 

-err I. Tawny Buntixg Lain. Synop. 2. Pen. ;< eggs of the redbreafl. They difappear in the latter end 

Zool. 121 This fpccies, like the fnow bunting, is g of Auguil, or beginning of September. 

never fccn except in winter ; but in very feverc weiither V ^6r. Pied Flycaicher. Mufcicapa atrkapUlay 
it defceiids to the plains : 1 have feeu flocks of them X Lin. Sy{l. i. p. 236. no. 9. Lath. Synop 2. Fon; 
between the bridges at Carliile, C Zool. 135. — The pied flycatcher appears about the 

? fame time as the fpotted, but is not fo common : they 

Genus XXXVIl Finch. !\ breed at Lowlhirr. On the 12th of May, 1783, I 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill conic, flender to- v fliot there tv/o pair. They make their ntlls in the 
VPards the end and fliarp pointed. >; holes of trees. 

52. Gold FitiCH. Frirtgil/j carJuelh, Lin. Syfl:. I. J Genus XXXIX I.aii. 

*. 318. nf 7: Lath. Synop. 51. Pen. Zool. 124., — Definition of the Genur. — Tlie bill i* ftrait, fiendcr, 
Tliis beautiful bird is univerfally known in this country, v bending a little towards the end, (harp pointed. — Nolt- 
and may be taught to draw up its water in a bucket, and { rils covered with feathers and briftles. — Tongue bifid, 
feiform fcveral other curious tricks and motions. v — Claw of the back toe very long. 

53. Chaffinch. Frir.giUa cxkb!, Lin. Syft. l^ p. X 62. Skt Lark. Alauda arvnifis, I^in. Syft. 1. p% 
318. «5. 3. Lath. Synop. 10. Pen., Zool. 125. — \ 287. no. i. Lath. Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 136. 

The chaffinch, both roa!e and female, remain with us y 63. Wood 1.av.k. Aijnda arborea, Lin. Syft. l.^. 
the whole year, and make a beauiitul nell in hedges 'i 287. no. 3. Lath Synop. 3. Pen. Zool. 137. 
and difTer-nt kinds of fruit trees. In Sweden the fe- 64. Tit Lark. Alaitda pratcnjh, Lin. Syft. 1./. 
males leave the males, and migrate in the month of;/ 287. no. 2. Lath. Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. 13S. 
September, and return in the fpii.ig. * G^. Field Lark. Lath. Synop. 6 Pen. Zool. 

5f54. Brambling or Mountain Finch. Frhigillah 139. — ^This is not fo frequent a» the other Ipecies of 
viontifr'wgilla. Lin. Syft. l. p. 318. r.o. 4. Lath. K larks. 
Synop. 13. Pen. Zool. 126. — This fpecies only vifits .a Genus XL — Wagtail. 

this county in the winter, and even then is only fecn in J Definition of the Genus — Bill weak and flender; 
the phiins, when the froft is fevere. \ flightly notched near the tip of the upper mandible. — r 

55. House Sparrow. Fringilla do7neJi!ca, Lin. X Tongue lacerated at the end — ^Tail long. 

Syft. I. p. ^2^. no. 36. Lath, bynop. i. Pen Zool- J II66. White Wagtail. Motacilla alba, Lin. 

127. — Wherever there is plenty of grain, there are a- ? Syft. i. p. 331. no. 11. Liath. Synop 1, Pen. Zool. 

bundance cf fparrows ; but in fome of the vales about X 142. — Appears very early in the fpring, and does not 

Kefwick where there is little or no grain produced, and 5 leave us till late in the autumn. 

few inhabitants, it is an extreme I'carce bird. — Hov/ X %^1- Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, Lin. 

many broods the houfe fparrovv rears, each feafon, I .\ Syft. \. p. 331. no. 12. I^ath Synop. 6. Pen. Zool. 

cannot afceitsin, bat I am inclined to think they breed 5 143. — This fpecies does not appear fo early as the white 

oftencr than any other Englifli bird. I have, myfelf, V wagt?.il, and is not fo common. 

taken a neft which contained five ycung birds and five •[68 Grey Wagtail. Lath Synop. 4 Pen. 

eggs. V Zool. 144. — Appears in Cumberland in the fpring, and 

56. Common or Grey Linnet. Lath. Syncp. 73. X leaves it in Oftober, or November, and in very mild 
Pen. Zool. 1 30. (■ winters, a few, I believe, remain with us the whole 

57. RF.HHEADtD l^iSKET. Fringillij cannal>ijia,l^\n v year. 1 law two on the fifth of January, this year» 
Syft. I. p. 322. no. 28. Lath. Synop. 74. Pen. -^ betv.'een the bridges. 

Zool. I 3 I . — Not fo plentiful as the former. I 

58. Less Redheaded Linnet. Fringilla linaria, X Genus XLL — Warbler. 

Lin. Syft. I. p. 322. no. 29. Lath. Synop 75. Pen. > Definition of the Genus. — Bill flender and weak.— 
Zool. 132. — This fpecies is fcarce, and not quite half' Noftrils fmall and funk. — The exterior toe joined at 
the fize of the common linnet. It frequents alder-trees, X the under part, to the bafe of the middle one. 
Bear brooks, in which tree it makes it.^ neft. >s %'")• Red Start or Red Tail MAacilla phsni- 

59. Canary Bird. Fringilla cunaria, Lin. .Syft. i. v curus, Liii. Syft. i. p. 335. no. 34. Lath. Synop. 
p. 321. w. 23. Lath. Synop. 62. Pen. Zool./. 347. X 11. Pen. Zool. 146. — The redtail appears in April, 
. — Breeds only in houfes and cages. f and makes its neft in the holes of walK : its eggs are 

V blue. The male is a beautiful bird. V»'hen a fchool 
Genus XXXVIII. — Flycatcher. ) boy, I have known the redtail make its neft in the fame 

. Definition of the Genus. — Bill flatted at the bafe; j p'ace Jor many years fuceeflivcly. — April 27th, the 
almoft triangular : notched at the end of the upper v redtail appeared. 

mandible, and bcfet with biiftles. t 70. Kohiti Ked l!>KthiT. Motacilla rubecula, Lin. 

^60. Spotted Flycatcher. Mufcicapa grifola, !} Syd. i. p. 337. no. 45. Lath. Synop. 38. Pen. 

Lin. Syft. I. p. 328. no. 20 Lath. Synop. l. Pen. j^ Zool. 147 During the winter the redbreaft becomes 

Zool. I 34. — The fiycataher appears in the beginning /, familiar with man, and is alinoft the only bird which 
of May. It makes its neft on the fiJcs of trees, and '^ cheats us with his long, during that dreary feafi.n. — 
in holes of walls. The eggs very much rcfemble the v Childreo 

[ ^3 ] 

Children from their infancy are taught to refpcft him. X 82. Great Titmouse. Parus t/tajor, Liii. Syff. 
When a boy, the robin wns never taken in my fpringes, y i. p. 341. no. 3. Lath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 162. 
without exciting in my mind, difagrecablc and painful >; — All this genus arc remarkably fruitful, fome of the 
fenfationa. t. fpecies lay from twelve to fixteen eggs. — The great 

517 1. Blackcap. MoiacUla atricapiUa, Lin. Syft. titracnfe is not I'o ntimcrouu as fomc of the ether fpeci- 
j. p. 332. m. 8. Lath Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. 148. X es. It builds its ntll in holes of walls and trees. 
— The blackcap appeals in May, and frequents the 83. Clue Titmouse. Parus csruleus, Lin. Syft. 
woods at Netherby and Cotby, where it bleeds. It v I. />. 341. no. 5. Lath. Synop. 10. Pen. Zool. 163. 
difappears in the latter end of Auguft, or the begin- X — This bird frequents gardens and does great injury to 
ning of September. fruit trees, by bruifmg the bloffoms. It makes its neft 

^72. Petty-Chaps. Molacilla hippclaii, Lin. Syft. ^l In decayed trees and in walls. 
1.^.330. «5. 7. Lath, .lynop. 3. Pen. Zool. 149.: — Ap- 5 84. Cole Titmouse. Parus ater, Lin. Syft. I. p. 
pears in May, but rot m great numbers. The iufidc of Q 341- no. 7. Lath Synop. 10. Pen. Zool. 164. 
the mouth is red inciinnig to orange. The fong of tire ,< 85. Marsh TiT.Moust. Parus paluftris, Lin. Syft. 
petty-chaps is very melodious., * \. p. 341. ko. 7. Lath. Synop. 8. Pea. Zool. 165. 

73. Hedge Sp»rro«". M.tncilla moiularh, Lin. y 86. Long tailed Titmouse. Parus caudatusy' 
Syft. \.p. 329. 710. 3. Lath. Synop. 9. Ptn. Zool. a Lin. Syll. r./>. 342. no. 11. Lath. .'^ynop. 18. Pen, 
150. — The hedge fpariow begins !o fing in the begin- \ Zool. 166. — >o bird in this country, makes fo curious 
ning of Februaiy. y and elegant a nell as the long tailed titmoufe Itisofan 

^74. Yellow or Willow '.Vren. Motacilla tro- x oval Ihapc, with a fmall holt on the fide, near the top.— . 
chilus, Lin.. Sy '. I. p. 338. no. 49. Lath. Synop. ; The outer materials are mofs, liverwort and wool cu- 
147. Icn. Zool. 151. — Appeals about the middle of j rioufly interwoven, and lined within with the foftefl; 
April, and rs very common. In this county it is called .^ feathers. Jt ia often placed In the floe-thorn, and fre- 
the miller's thumb. April 17th, 1 heard icveral yellow j quently conta ns fifteen or fixteen eggs. The young 
■wrens, and on the 18th they were finging in almoft i follow the old birds till the fpring. 
every hedge Aiigull 2ad, I hcardone fortlielaft time, a Genus XLIV. — Sava/iow. 

.75. GoLDhN CK.ESTED U'ren. MotacUla regulus,\ Definition of the Genus. — Bill ftiort, weak, and 
Lin. Syft. I. p. 33«. no 48. Lath. Synop. 145. s; broad at the bafe, and fraall at the point. — Mouth 
Pen. Zool. 153. — This is the fmalleft of the Cumber- Ij wide. — Short weak legs. 
land birds. v fS?- Chimney Swallow. HirunJo ruflica, Lin. 

76. Common Wren. Motacilla troglo.iytes, Lin. X Syft. 1. p. 343. 710. i. Lath. Synop. r. Pen. ZooL 
Syft. I. p. 337. no. 46. Lath. Synop. 143. Pen. 5 168. — This fpecies makes its appearance about the 
Zool. 154. — The common wren begins to Cng about \ middle of .-^pril, and departs towards the latter end of 
the middle of Fcbrnary, if the weather is temperate. .■ September, or beginning of Oclober. It is the molt 

5(77. Sedge BrRO. Motacilla fdicatia, Lin. Syft. !. numerous of the fwallow tilbe. April 21ft, the fvval- 
l.p. 330. no 8. Lath. Synop. 21. Pen. Zool. Ijj. V low appeared. I have rcafon to think they breed twice 
— This is a very rare bird, I have only feen one fpeci- \ every fummer. September 19th moft of them difap- 
men, which I ftiot on the banks of the Eden, near J peered. 
Carlifle. It is a bird of paftage and comes in May. X f88. Martin. Hirundo urbica, Lin. Syft. I. p. 

f78. Wheat Ear MUacilla miantke, Lin Syft. \ 344. no 3. Lath. Synop 3. Pen. Zool 169 The 

I. p. 332. no. 15. Lath. Synop. 75 Pen. Zool. C martin is not, I think, quite fo numerous as the chim- 
157. — The wheat ear appears in the middle of March, X ney fwallow. 1 hey build their nefls under the eaves of 
ti»e females come a week or ten days before the males. (; lioufes, and appear the latter end of .' prilor bc^nning 

5179. Whin Chat. Cumb. Utick. Motasilla rube-) of May, and depart about the |third week in Septem- 
tra, i,in. Syft. 1./. 332. ««. 16. Lath. Synop. 54, .^ ber. Nir. Hodgfo.7, furgeoii, at; Burigh upon the fands, 
— Pen. Zool. 158. t a village about live miles from' ' arlide, has obfeived 

<(|8o. .'TONE Chat. Motacilla ruHcola, Syft. v that the martins which annually build their ncfts under 
I. p. 332 no. 17. Lath -ynop. 46. Pen. Zooi. ;, the eaves of his lioufc, always difappear either on the 
159.->— Thii bird appears early in the fpiing, and con- t 19th or 20th of September. -.ptil 25th 1 faw two 
tinues, I think, longer than any of tlie buds of pafTage. X martins, and one of them entered an old ntft 

^81. White Throat. Motacilla fyhia, Lin. Syft. ;) 'J he martin lays five white eggs, and begins to lay 
1. p. 330. no. 9. Lath. Synop 19 Ptn. Zool 160. i about the 27th of May In a neft which I examined, 
— The white throat comes in the latter end of April, j the firft of June, there were five eggs, and on this day 
or beginning of May, and leaves us in btptember. — I the female began to fit. On 'the 12th of July, the 
April 26th, I heard the white throat. Y young biids for the firft time, began to leave the neft. 

Genus XLllI. — Titinoufi. I they therefore muft have remained in it about twenty- 

Defii.ition of the Gf';«/. — Bill ftrait, a little compief- , eigiit days after they were hatched. July 13th, the 

fed, ftrong, hard, and ftiarp pointed Noilrils, round, X foundation of a new ntft, about fix inches from the old 

and covered with brilUes. — Tongue terminated with c one, was formed, on the 21ft the mud work or ftiell of 
briftles.. y the neft was fiailhed, on the 5th of Auguft the neft 

JJ contained 

r ^4 ] 

•contained three eggs, one of which I examined, and X 

found it was not in the lead incubated. In getting tlie y 

egg out I broke the ncft : the next morning I iavr a v 

martin in the old neft. Angiill 27th, 1 einamined both .; 

nefts, the broken one contained the two Cjjgs I left in 'J 

it : the old ned contained one young bird ; which, X 

from its fize, had probably been hatched about a week, i 

On the i/t'i of Augull, I examined feveral martins' y 

jiefts, under the eaves of a houfe in the countrj', all of i 

which contained eggs. September t2th, the young J 

bird left the neft. It is therefore evident that y; 

martins have annually, during their refiJence in this i 

country, two broods. September 19th I apprehend 6 

tUey all difappeared except a very few, whole feoond 'i 

brood had Jiot left tiicir r.efts; for, from that day till 5 

the 28th, I never oWerved more than three pair : this 

circumftance exciting my curiofity, I examined all the v 

houfes where they ufnally breed, and I found three ■; 

nefts which contained young birds, and faw the old y 

ones frequently feed them. On the 29th their numbeis ? 

jncreafed, the young having taken wing from two of J 

the nefts. Odlober ift the young of the third neft y 

took wmg. Oftober 5th I faw about twenty. Oft- > 

tober 7th I faw nearly the fame number, but after that 

day I never obferved one. X 


'I State of the Thermometer V 

" Stats of the TherniometerAfrom tlje \Jl to the lotli of\ 

from September \%th, to SepU)aober, C796, i 

t ember 24/ 

h 1796, hid lift lie. 

on. 1 













Sc/>. i8 
























I 2 


































I 2 

















; 2 












































• Mod of the martins in the 



jjeighbourhood of Curlifle dif 



appeared this day. 








49 V 

52 " 

55 : 

53 s 

56 X 

60 >; 

54 X 

57 4 

52 X 

CO : 




46 X 
46 ;< 


52 !) 

48 X 
48 f 

5' \ 
45 X 


% Martins totally difappcared this day, \ 

If all the martins v.!iich frequent Carlifle, excepft 
three pair, became torpid on the 19th ot September, 
when the h'gheft degree of the thermometer was 62, 
and the medium heat of the whole day was 564. — 
How can we account for thefe three pair (emaciated 
and debilitated as they muft in fome degiee have been, 
by the duties of incubation and fupporting their young) 
lemainiiig alive and adtive on the 23d, when the high- 
eft degiec of the thermometer was only 54, and the 
medium heat of the whole day was only 50 ? Yet 
thefe tliree pair remained heie till the 7th or 8tli of 
Oftober. But if, on the other haird, martins migrate, 
nothing is more rational than to fuppofe that thefe 
three pair were prevented from accompanying their 
companions on the 19th, by an inftinft, fuperior to 
the inftinft which impells them to migrate, viz. natural 
afleftion to their oflspring. The greatcft part of the fpe- 
cies havmg or. the 19th no duties of this kind to fulfil, 
obeyed the impulfeof nature, and purfued their courfe to 
diftant but more genial climes, and as foon as the few 
remaining had accompliihed the fame objeft, they alfo 
followed, for none were feen for more than fix or fcvcn 
days after the lateil brood had taken wing. 

5189. Sand M.artis. H^ruiido ri/Kzria, Lin. Syft. 
1. p. 344. ?/». 4. Lath. Synop. to. Pen. Zool. 170. 
— This, altho the fnialleft fpccies of the genus, which 
inhabits £ngland, appears the firft. It comes the lat- 
ter end of March, or the beginning of April. It digs 
horizontal holes three or four feet long, in the banks of 
rivers and fandbanks, at the end of which it places its 

A few years ago, Mr. Graham, of Edmund-Caftle, 
when making fome pieces of water near his houfe, for- 
med two fand banks. In thefe banks the fand martin 
foon began to breed, and as the fand is very loofe and 
dry, the banks fhoot down almoft every winter, which 
leaves none of the holes more than a foot long. I e.t- 
amined every one of the holes in both banks, the laft 
and prefent fpring. A t the end of moft of them I 
found old nefts, in fome none, and no torpid birds in 
any of them. On the 17th of April, which was very 
warm, I fpent the day at Edmund-Caftle, and was con- 
ftantly on the look out for fand martins, but faw none. — 
On the 19th, however, they made their appearance 
there in confiderable numbers, and Lveral were feen 
on the fa-ne day, at other places where they fre- 

^90. Swift or Black Martin. Hiruvda apvj, 
Lin Syft. I. /. 344. no. 6. Lath Synop. 34. Pen. 
Zool. 171. — The fwift fometimes comes the laft week 
in April ; but, in general not till the firft week in May, 
and, I believe, the lame number of pau"S come annually 
to the fame place. They build, for the moft part, in caf- 
tlcs and fteeples, where thefe are wanting under the flates 
of houfes. They depart the firft week in Auguft. 

Some of the (wallow tribe are faid to be now and 
then found in a toipid ftate, duiing the winter, in caverns 
and the hollows of rocks, .xc. Such examples, ho%v- 
ever, I conceive to be very rare, and if they ever do 
occur, arc moft probably difeafcd birds, or late broods. 


[ ^S ] 

There Is not the lead dontf, but that they, m general, > 
migrate to warmer climates. Tlie fwift, we fee, J 
comes in the latter end of April, or beginning of May, j^ 
and departs the firfl week in Augiift. And, as the a 
weather is, for the mod part, much hotter in Auguft, v 
than it is i:i the beginning of May, nothing can be v 
more abfurd thsn to fuppofe tliat f-.vifts fliould become -j 
torpid, during one of the warmed months in the year, y 
and more efpecially, as they fometimes appear when X 
our mountains are covered with fnow, and when we J 
liave extreme cold frofty nights, which often occur, y 
bjth in the latter end of April, and beginning of May. X 
The fpting of the year 1789, was remarkably cold ) 
and late ; yet, in that year, I obferved two fwifts flying x 
very vigourouf;y, early in the morning of the 3Cth of .» 
April. The froft had been fo fevere in the night that 
there was ice of confiderable thicknefs, and all our X 
mountains were coveied with a thick fnow. If there- A 
fore thefe birds become torpid in this country, it ap- y 
pears, I think, pretty ccitain that their Rates of torpor '< 
and adtivity, mufl depend upon fome other principle 5 
than the te:nperature of the atmofphere ; unlefs, indeed , 
it be alleged that they grow torpid from lieat, and owe ■! 
their reftoration to life, vigour, and aflivity, to cold I A 
And it is likewife evident that they mull remain in that ,. 
(late veiy near nine months of the year, and only enjoy .^ 
life little more than three ! f 

I have examined fwifts every month, while they re- • 
main with us, and could never obferve any fymptoms / 
of moulting. If therefore they do not migrate, they X 
either do not moult, or they moult in their torpid 
ftate, and it certainly is not eafy to be conceived, that y 
fo important a procefs in the ceconomy of the feather- ' 
ed tribe, fliould be carried on, during an almoft total i 
ceflation of every vital funftion. In fhort, from the X 
obfervations I have made, on the appeaiance and dif- -^ 
appearance of blidtof paffagc, I am ftrongly Inclined 
to believe that ceteris paribui as many woodcocks re- X 
main, during the fummer, in Kngland, as fvvallcrws in 
winter. Such inftances when they occur, can only be v 
confidered as exceptions to a general law of nature, X 
and, in all probability are occafioned cither by difeafe ; 
or debility of the individuals, whlcli renders them un- y 
able to obey that inftinft, by which the reft of the fpe- K 
cies are fo regularly and uniformly direifted. 



" Yea, the dork in the heaven knoweth her appoin- ^ 
*' ted times ; and the turtle, and the crane and the X 
" fvi'allow. obferve the time of their coming : but my 
".people know not the judgment of the Lord." 

Jeremiah, c. S. v. 7. ft 


May 9th, after an abfence of upwards of nine 6 
months, the fwift this day made Its appearance at Car- ;( 
lide. Between fix and feven o'eluck in the evening, 1 j 
faw a folitary one flying about the cathedial, where \ 
they fiequent and breed annually. I am fatisflcd it had X 
come fometim.- during the day ; for I had not only ft 
looked attentively myfelf, for them, every niorni.ig- X 

and evening, fince the firft of May : but had alfo em- 
ployed a perfon of obfervation, who lives near the 
cathedral to do the fame. 

Since the commencement of the prefent month, viz. 
May, the weather has been remarkably cold ; the wind al- 
moft invariably in the eaft ; the nights fiofiy ; and for the 
three lall day,":, the neareft hills, and even a part of the 
plains have been covered with fnow. Whereas, almoft 
all of the month of April was tempera'e and warm, 
and from the I 7lh to the 281I1 the weather was even 
hot and fultty. 

May the icth, in the morning, I faw three fwifts, 
and in the evening, four at the fame time. May the 
llth, in the morning, I f\w eight. May .Jjth, fome 
of them I think began to build their nefts, as I faw 
them enter holes in the cathedal. 

July 15th, I obferved fevcral frequently enter theii' 
nells, and have feen no young birds. July i8th, I, 
for the firft ti.nie, faw fevcral young fwifts. 

Augufl the 3d they began to difappcar ; on the 4tlt 
I only faw a very few: on the I5tli, I faw two pair, 
on the I 6tli only one pair, which were the laft 1 ob- 
ferved. though I looked very attentivelv for them, eve- 
ry morning and evening, till the beginning of Septem- 

Although perfedtly fatisfied by my own obferva- 
tions ; that, every day of the month of April wag 
warmer than the full ten days in May, when fwifts 
firft appeared ; and that the firft fixteen days of Au- 
guft, when they diiappeared, were confiderably hotter 
than the fame period in May : ytt in order to eluci- 
date the fubje£l as much as poflible, I deemed it ne- 
ctfTary to afcertain the exa6t temperature of the air, 
at the times when they appealed and difappeared. t 
therefore applied to J. Mackenzie, Efq. who refides at 
Brampton, nine miles from ( arlifle, a gentleman of fci- 
encc & fiiigular accuracy ; & indeed, the only gentleman 
who keeps a meteorological diaiy of the weather in the 
neighbourhood of Carlifle. He was obliging enough 
to fend me the following extrafts, from his regider : 
and alfo thofe which I have infcrteJ in the obfervatio.ns 
on the Martin. 

State of the Thcn'iometer frcvi the iji fo the 30M of 
April, 1 796, ir.dufne. 

Jpril I 




April 3 


























1 2 








Nigh t 




[ ^6 ] 

Slate of the Tkermonuier for April, continued. 

^fril 6 













; 5 

Night. ' 







1 2 


























































































1 2 





///-,-. 18 











] Firft bat obrerved. 
:} Martin firft appeared. 















































May 1 1 




I 2 



1 2 
















1 2 


















X State of the Thermometer for May, continued. 

^^^May 8 Morn. 8 ^^ May 11 Morn. 8 50 
652 Noon. 12 5c, Noon. 12 60 

52 X 




66 I 

59 1 
68 X 

57 X 

65 X 5/-7/C 5/* the Thermometer from the \Jl to the I tth of 

54 Augiiji, 1796, i/icltifvs. 

51 t 

55 ^^ Aug. 

rirft fwift fecn this day. 

49 X 
54 X 

48 X 



49 A 

50 5 
65 X 


52 V 

52 t 


47 X 
50 X 


f Swallow firft appeared. 

-5 ^ 


Aug. 9 

































1 2 

















1 2 




































I 2 














1 2 



1 2 


















I 2 

























5/a/* »^ the Thermometer from the ift te the 
of May, 1796, iiiclufive. 

May 1 


§ Mofl of the fwifts difappearcd this day. 
\ Swifts finally departed tliis day. 




May 4 






' 2 















1 2 





■T . 
4. J 






1 2 








50 X From the above extracts fron:i Mr. Mackeneies re- 
42 9 giftcr ; it app-^ars, that on the 21ft of April, the 

45 X therir.omettr fto iJ as high as 68 ; and on the 9th of 

57 t May, tlie day the firi\ fwift was feen, it flood only at 
40 46 : tl)e air was ihercfore no !cis than 22 Jeg'ees old- 

49 j; er than it was on the 2 ift of April. ';n the 3d of 
56 {: Auguft when fwifts began to n-tirc it Itood at 64; and 
42 V on the 1 6th, when the lail were fecn, 't was at 7 1 : the 

50 .■, air was therefore 25- decrees liolter when they finally 

58 ; departed, than it was whea thty firft. appeared, 

46 X 1 fliaU 

[ '7 ] 

1 Hiall here obferve, that of the Cumhcrland birJs s Definition of the Genus. — Bill convex and ftronf. 
which migrate ; thirty tight appear in the fpring, and i — Noftrils large. — Head fmall, crcfted — Spurs on the 
depart either in the autumn or beginning of winter; ■ legs. — Feathers above the tail very long, brand, e.\pan- 
and forty three appear duiing the winter, and depart .^, fible, confiiling of ranges of feathers ; adorned at their 
hi the fpring. v ends with rich ocellatcd fpots 

Genus XLV. — Goatfucker. X 95- Peacock. I\no ciijiatui, Lin. Syft. i.p. 267. 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill fliort, bent at the I no. I. Lath. Syncp. i. 
end, gape very wide ; on the edges of the upper man- v Genus XLV 1 1 1. — Turkey. 

dlble feveral llifF briftles Tongue fmall; entire at the X Definition of the Genus — Bill convex, (hort and 

end. — The tail confifts of ten feathers; not forked ftrong. — Nollrils open, pointed at one end, lodged in 

Legs fhort. — Toes united by a membrane as far as the C' a membrane. — Head and neck covered with naked 
firft joint. X carunculated flefli — Tall, broad, extenfible. 

f QF. Goatsucker. Caprimulgus europxin, Lin. •) 96. Turkey. Mdeagris galhpavo, Lin. Syll. I. 
Syft. I. p. 346. no. I. Lath. Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. \p. 208. no. t. Lath. Synop. 1. — Of this bird we 
172. — ^The goatfucker vifits Cumberland about the A have feveral varieties, 
middle of May, and difappears about the middle of Au- f Genus XtJX. — Phitado. 

guft. Towards the latter end of June, or the begin- 'I Definition of the Genus. — Bill convex, ftrong, and 
uing of July, th.ey lay two eggs, upon the bare ground, 'f-_ ftiort : at the bafe a carunculated cere ; in which the 
which, in colour, very much refemble the plumage \ noftrils lodged. — Head and neck nak^d, flightly 
of the bird. Their food confills entirely of infefts, X befet with briftles. — Wattles hanging from the cheeks, 
which they prey upon only during twilight. In the A — Tail fliort, pointing downwards, 
male theie is an oval white fpot on the inner webs* 97. Guinea Hen. Numida melcagris, Lin. Syft. 
of the three firft quill feathers, and another at the ends X !•/'• 273. no. r. Lath Synop. i — The male caa 
of the two outermoft feathers of the tail. None of v only be diftinguiftied from the female by the wattle;. 
tne young birds have thefe white marks on the wings V In the male they are larger and of a bluifli purphth 
or tail. All the males have them when they appear a colour. In the female they arc red. 
with us in the fpring and fummer : it is hence evident 

they moult during the time of their difappearance x Genus LI. — Pheafant. 

See no. 26. Cuckoo, and ny, 9c. Swift. A Definition of the Genus, — Bill convex, fhort and 

e ftrong. — Head more or lefs covered with carunculated 

ORDER IV. — Cohiuihinc. i bare fledi on the fides ; which, in fome, is continued 

Genus XLVl. — Pigeon. ^upwards, to the crown, and beneath, fo as to hang 

Defin tion of the Genus — Bill weak, flender ; ftrait '' pendent under each jaw. — Legs (for the moft part) 
at the bafe, with a foft protuberance in which the nof- .< furniflied with fpurs behind. 

trils are lodged. — Tongue entire. — Leg.?, flioit. — Toes, J 98. l}nMESTic CaCK. Fia/ianus gal/us, Lin. Syft'. 
divided to their origin. "l./. 270. no. I. Lath. Synop. I. — Of this fpecies 

92. Stock Dove. Cola?nba cnas, Lin. Syft. I. p. a we have innumerable varieties, from the large Indian, 
179. no. I. Lath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 101. — I X to the fmall bantam cock. 

am doubtful whether this bird at prefent exifts in >■ 99. CoM^70N Pheasant. Phaficinut cholclitcu:, 

Cumberland in its native wild ftate, as I have never had X Lin. Syll. i. p. 271. tio. 3. Lath. Synop. 4 The 

an opportunity of feeing it. But our common tame % pheafaiu is a rare bird in Cumberland : but Sir James 
pigeon, and nioft of its beautiful varieties derive their Graham and fome other gentlemen, are attempting to 
origin from it. X introduce them into the county. 

93. Ring Dovn. CoJumha paUnnbu!, Lin. Syft. i. X 

p. 282. no. 19. Lath Synop. 29. Pen. Zool. 102. — Genus L!II Grout. 

In fome parts of England they migrate, but remain in X Definition of the Genus. — Bill convex, ftrong and 
Cumbeiland the v.'hole year. Whtn grain, which is X fliort. — A naked (kailctflcin above each eye. — Noftrils 
their common food, becomes fcarce, they feed upon ^ fmall, lild iri the feathers. — Legs ftrong, feathered td 
turnips. X the toes, and fometimes to the claws. 

^94. Turtle Dove. Cclumha turtur, Lhi. Syft. ^ 100. Bl.^ck Cock or Black. GroI's. Tetrao te- 
I. p. 2H4. no. 32. Lath. Synop. 40. Pen. Zool. j( /?;>, Lin. Syft. I . />. 274. '.'5. 2. Lath. Synop. 3.— 

l©3. — In the fouth of England, where thefe biris arc X Pen. Zool. 93 The black cock is, at prefent, but a 

plentiful, they appear late in the fpring, and depart in ft rare biid in Cumberland : it is moft plentiful upon Sir 
autumn. It is fcldom fcen in its wild ftate in Cumber- v James Graham's eftate at N'etherby In general there 
land. One, however, a young bird, was taken in a X is an annual brood upon Newtown common, within a 
trap, in th.e year 1786, not far from Corby, but this C mile of Carlifle. 

perhaps might have been bred in a cage and made its x 101. Moor Game or Red Grous Lath. Synop. 
■elcape. t 13. Pen. Zool. 94. — Plentiful on moft of our heaths 

ORDER V. — Gallinacious. ' and mountains. — Linnajus I think has not dclcribed 

Genus XLVII Peacock. X tl"s bird. 

•£ 102 

[ ^8 ] 

"IC2* Ptarmigan. Titrao lagopus-, Lin. Syft. it The next feafon the fame contefts took place, which 
f. 274. /«. 4. Lath. Synop. 10. Pen. Zool. '95. — j terminated like the former, by the viftory of the 
The ptarmigan is become a very fcarce bird in Cum- X herons : — Since that time, peace feems to have been 
berland ; and I believe is no where to be found in this agreed upon between them : the rooks have relinquifh- 
county, except on the lofty mountains about Kefwick. ej pulfeflion of that part of the grove which the 
In winter they are nearly white. i herons ocuipy : the heions confine themfelves to tho'e 

f; trees they fivil feized upon : and the two fpecies live 

Genus LIV. PartriJ^e. X together in as much harmony as ihey did before their 

-Definition of the Gf>;iii. — Bill convex, fhort and X quarrel. 

ftrong. Nodrils covered above with a callous promi- J This bird, which is now feldom or ever feen upon a 

uent rim Le^-s naked. — Tail fhort. t table, was, in former times, efteemed very delicate 

103. Common Partridge. Tefrao perdix. | food. " In the 27th year of the reign of Edward 
Svft. J. /. 276. no. 13. Lath. Synop. S. Pen. J " the firft, an order was made concerning the price of 
Zool. 06. ' X " vitluals : a fat cock to he fold at three halfpence, 

^104. Quail. Tttrao cottirnh, Lin. Syft. r. p. J " a fat capon for twopence halfpenny, two pullets for 

278. »?». 20. i.ath. Synop 24. Pen. Zool. 97. — ' " threehalf-pence, a goofcfor fourpcnce, a mallard for 

The quail is not plentiful in Cumberland. They breed X " three-half-pence, a partrid^re for three -half-pence, a 

here ; but the whole, or mofl of them, difappear to- \ " pheafant for fourpence, a heron for fixpence, a plo- 

\vards the latter end of Ottober. v " ver for a penny, a fwan for three Ihillingr, a crane 

X " for twelvepence, two woodcocks for three-half-pence, 

, ^, , i " a fat lamb, from chriflmas to fhrove-tide, for fixteen- 

XXXXXXXXXXX >i ,, J 11 ,1. r r r >, 

¥ '• pence, and all the year alter tor tourpence. 

DIV. U.— WATER BIRDS. I ^ckar^^HiJ}. of England, Ed^vard J I p. 323. 

V ICO. Bittern, yirdea Jlellarts, Lm. oytt. I. p. 

ORDER VI [.—With Cloven Feet. C| 239. „5. 21. Lath. Synop. 17. Pen. Zool. 174.— 

Genus LXV. Heron- h The bittern is not fo numerous as the heron, and is al- 

Dcfinition of the Ger.iis — Bill long, flrong, and J ways folitary. It breeds in bogs, and makes its neft 
fharp pointed. — Nollrils linear. — Tongue pointed. — >; upon the ground. In the fpring it makes a loud bel- 
Toes, connefted by a membrane as far as the firft X lowing kind of noife. From which it is called in 
joint. Cumberland Mhe-Drum. 

105. Common Heron. Ardea Major, male: Ardra Q 
eifierea, female, Lin. Syft. i. />.' 236. no. 11. and 12. X Genus LXVII. — Curk'w. 

Lath. Synop. 50. Fen. Zool. 17^. — The male is dif- J Definition of the Genu. — Bill, long, rncurvated. — 
tir.guifhcd from the female by the length of its creft. x Noflrils linear, longitudinal, and placed near the bafe. 

The Heron, in winter is a folitary bird, and frequents 5 — Tongue fhort, ibarp pointed ^Toes conneiE^ed, as 

marlhv places, and the banks of rivers and flreams. — i far as the firfl joint, by a membrane. 
In the fpring, it is gregarious : like rooks, great num- y 107. Curlew. Scolopa-x arquata, Lin. Syft. i. p. 
bers of them breed together, and build their nefts in X 242. no. 3. Lath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 176. — The 
the highefl trees. Food, fifh and reptiles. curlew breeds upon our mountains and moors, and 

A remarkable circumftance, with rcfpeft to thefe i makes its neft upon the ground. After the breeding 
birds, occurred not long ago, at Dallam Tower, in j feafon is over they remove, for "he winter, to the fea 
Weftmorland ; the feat of Daniel Wilfon, Efq. v coafls. 

There were two groves to the park: one ;( Ic8. Whimbrel. Sc'jh^a-x phxopu!, Lin. Syft. I. 

of which, for mar.y years, had been refoited to by a >:, p. 243. no. 4. Lath. vSynop. 6. Fen. Zool. 177 

number of herons ; who there built and bred. The v The whimbrel refembles the curlew in colour and form, 

other was one of the largeft rookeries in the country. X but is only about half the fize. It is not frequent in 

The two tribes lived together for a long time without ^ Cumberland. 

any dlfputes : at length the tri.cs occupied by the v 

heions, confining of fome very line old oaks, were cut t Genus. — LXVIII. — Snipe. 

down in the fpring of 1775, and the young brood per- C Definition of the Genus. — Bill, long, flender, 

iftred by the fall of ifie timber — the parent birds imme- X weak and ftrait. — N'oRrils linear, lodged in a furrow. 

diately fet about preparing new habitations, in order X — Tongue, pointed, flender. — Toes divided, or flightly 

to breed again : but, as the trees in the neighbourhood connefted ; back toe very fmall. 

of their oU nefts were only of a late gtov.'th, and not ij 5f "9- Woodcock. Scohpax rufticola, Lin. Syft. 

fufficier.tly high to fccure them from the depredations * x. p. 243. no. 6. Lath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 17R. 

of boys, they determined to effcdl a fettleme: t in the ■{ — The woodcock is fometimes feen in Cumberland the 

rookery : the rooks made an obftinate refiftance ; but, X laft week in September : but they are feldom plentiful 

after a very violent contefl, in the courfe of which, j till the middh, or latter end of October. They begin 

many of the roiAs, and fome of their antagonifts, loft ^ to take their departure in March : but a few are feen, 

their lives, the herons at lad fucceeded in their attempt \ almoll every year, in April. Inftanccs, though very 

.—built their nefts— and brought out their young. * rare 

t 19 J 

rare, occur of their breeJi'ng in England. Like other X be a very ftiipid bird : for when I fired at them and 

birds, they are fubjedt to variety in colour. On the ^ did not kill, they only flew a few yards and fettled 

8th of October, 1786, I met with a fpecimen ; the >; again. I have never met with any in the winter. 

general colour of which was a fine pale a(h colour, j ^''8. Purre. cinclus, Lin. Syft. I. p. 

with frequent bars of very delicate rufuus. The tail? 251. «5. 18. Lath. Synop. 30. Pen Zool. 20C.— . 

was brown, tipped with white : the bill and legs were ), The putre appears upon ourfeacoafts in the beginning 

flelh colour, in Lancalhire great numbers of wood- J of winter, and difappears in the beginning of Ipring. 

cocks are taken in traps, in moon light nights : long v 

rows of ftones or fticks, about four Or five inches \ Genus LXX. — Plover. 

high, are made on the commons where the woodcocks 5 Definition of tiie Genus. — Bill obtufe. — Noftnls 

frequent. Inthefe rows feveral intervals or gateways V linear. — No hack toe. 

are Itit, in which the traps are placed. When the X 1 19. Golden Plover. Charadrius pluvialis, Lin. 

woodcock, running about in fearch of food, comes to 5 Syft. \.p. 254. no. 7. Lath. Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 

one of thefe rows he will not crofs it, but runs along < 208. — The golden plover is plentiful, breeds upon our 

the fide of it till he comes to a gateway, which he q moors and remains with us the whole year. 

enters and is taken. y If '20. DoTTtREL. Charadrius tnorinelluSyUia. Syft. 

^) ro. Green Shank. S^'Aopax glottis, Lin. Syft. i \. p. 254. no. 5. Lath Synop. 14. Pen. Zool. 210. 
1. />. 249. no. 10. Lath Synop 18. Pen. Zool. J — The dotterel conies in May, is a fcarce bird in this 
183 — This fpccies is only feen in the winter; and J- county, but is more plentiful in Weftmoreland. In 
even not frequently at that feafon. X June, I 784, ten or twelve were fliot upon Skiddaw, 

«](ni. Red Shank. Scolopax caledris, .Lin. Syft. C where they breed: on the i8th of May, 1786, I 
I. p. 145. no. t I, Lath. Synop. to. Pen. Zool. 184. X had two females fent from the neighbourhood of Ap- 
— The red-ftiank is a very fcarce bird in Cumberland ; J, plcby. On dificftion I found the eggs very fmall, fo 
and \i only feen in winter. C that it is probable they do not lay till June. They 

112. Common hNjpE. Scolopax gallinago, Lin. X leave this county the latter end of September, or be- 
Syft. I. p 144. 710. 7. Lath Synop. 6. Pen. Zool. ginning of Oftober. 1 have feen one, which was fhot 
187. — The Inipe breeds and continues in this county y on the top of Skiddaw on the 16th of Scptemlser. 
the whole year. X Genus LXXI. — Oijter-catcher. 

113. Jack Snipe. Scolopax gallinula, Lin. Syft. i. y Definition of the Genus — Bill long, compreffcJ, 
/. 244. nc. 8. Lath. Synop. 8. Pen. Zool. 189. v cuneattd at the end. — Noftrils linear. — Tongue, fcarce 

X a third of the length of the bill. — No backtoe. 

Genus LXIX — Sandpiper. 6 '21. Pied Oistercatcher or Sea Pie. Hxma- 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill, ftrait, ([e^nieiyt iopui o/lruUgus, Lin. Syft. I. p. 257. >!o. 1. Lath, 
about an inch and a half long. — Nollrils fmall. — f Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 2 13. — The fea pie breeds upon 
Tongue (lender. — Plind toe weak. our ftiores, and lays its eggs upon the bareground, above 

5(1 14. Lapwing or Pewit. Tringa vanellus, Lin. X high water inark. 
Syft. \.p. 248. no. 2. Lath. Synop. 2. Pen. Zool. 5 Genus LXXLI. — Rail. 

J 90 — The lapwing appears the latter end of February, v Definition of the Genus — Bill (lender, a little com- 
et beginning of March, and departs in Odober It X preftcd, and flightly incurvated. — Noftrils fmall 

makes its neft upon the ground ; and lays four or five C Tongue rough at the end. — Tail very fhort. — Body 
eggs, of a diity olive fpotttd with black. ;' much comprtfled. 

115. Grey Plover. Tringa fquaiarola, Lin. X ^122. "^ .'^T'e.i.'^KW.. Rallus aquaticus, Lin. Syft. 
Syft. I. p. 253. no. 23. Lath. tSynop. IJ. Pen. 'i I. p 262. no. 2. Lath. Synop. 1. Pen. Zool. 214. 

Zool. 191 They are not fo nnmerons as the pewit X — The water rail vifits this county in the beginning of 

or golden plover; and I am not certain whether they j winter, and leaves it pretty early in th'' Ipring. 
breed upon our moors or not. Genus LXXV. — Gt'lliiiuL: 

^116. Common Sandpiper. Trijiga hypoleucos,''i Definition of the Gaius. — Bill thick at the bafe, 
Lin. Syft. I. p. 250. no. 14. Lath. Synop 23. — { Hoping to the ])oint : the bafe of the upper mandible 
Pen. Zool. 204. — They appear in the fpring, and 'j reaches far upon the forehead, where it becomes mem- 
breed upon the ground, upon the banks of our rivers, i branaceous Body conipreflcd. — Wings ftiort and 

Their eggs, confidering the fize of the bird, are ex- ^ concave. — Tail ftiort. 

ticmely large and of a dirty yellowifti white, marked x 11'23. Land Rail or Corn Crake. Rallus crex. 

with numerous dun<y fpots. X Lin. Syft. 1. />. 261. no. i. Lath. Synop. i. Pen. 

fii7. buNLiN. Tringa alpina, Lin. Syft. i. /. jj Zool. 2 1 6. — The land rail appears in the beginning of 
249. w. II. Lath. Synop. 33. Pen. Zool. 205 — X May, and is generally heaid in the fiift. or beginning 
The dunlin appears the firll or fecoud week in May, 1 of the fecond week of that month. They make their 
and breeds on our moors. On the i9ih of June, C nefts upon the giound, and lay from ten to fifteen eggs. 
17S3, I ftiot feveral old ones upon Rocklift'mofs — X In the year 1794 ' ^Y fervants, when mowing a field 
I faw feveral young birds which had left the neft, tho' J of grafs, found a Deft containing twelve young birds 
they were not feathered. At this feafon they feem 10 £ which 

( 20 ) 

wWch appeared to have been hatched the day before. X 128. Little GftEnE or Dobchick. Cotymlm 
They were covered with a darkifh brown coloured ''^ atintus, Lin. Syft. 1. />. 222. 710. 8. Lath. Synop. 
down. They were taken out of the reft and put into ? 10. Pen. Zool. 226. — This bird which is not iincora- 
s hat till 1 went to the field, I replaced them in the j mon in Cuniberbud, makes its neft very thick and 
reft, but they immediately wandered from it. The v places it in the water, fo that it is conftantly wet. 
old birds did not appear while the men continued X 

mowing in the neighbourhood of the nefl;. Two days J 

afterwards they were all found in good health, in an \ 

adjoining field, by the fame men. Their ufaal note is 5 ORDER IX. — Wei footed Birds, nuith Jhort legs. 
fomething like the word creek, creek, often repeated. — Genus LXXXIV. — /luk. 

They difappear in Odlober. May 4th, the land vail x Definition of the G^««;.— Bill ftrong, thick and 
was heard this day. The egg is lefs than the egg of X convex — Noftrils linear, placed parallel to the edge 
a crow, and larger than that of the magpye ; it is of 5 of the bill.-^-Tongue almoft as long as the bill. — No 
a dirty flefh colour marked with brown and dull purple > back toe. 

fpots. I ^'291 Razor Bill. Akatorda, Lin. Syft. \. p. 

^124. Spotted Rail. RaUus poriana,Wn.^'^^. s z\o. ni. x. Lath. Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. 23c. — ^Thcy 
\. p. 262. m. 3. Lath. Synop. 18. Pen. Zool. 2iy. X do not breed here, being only feen in winter. 
— The fpotted rail is a very icarce bird, I have only ^130- Puffin. Aka arctica, Lin Syft. I. p^ 
had an opportunity of feeing one fpeclmen, which was : 211. no. 4. Lath. Synop. 3. Pen. Zool. 232. — 
a male : it was killed upon the banks of the Eden in s Puffins are only feen in Cumberland in winter, and 
the beginning of June. even then but feldom. 

125. Water Hen. Fulica chloropus, Lin Syft. i. X flij'- Little Apk. Aka aUe-, Lin. Syft. I. p\ 
/i. 258. /.'c. 4. Lath. Synop. 12. Pen. Zool. 2 1 7. — \z\}.ni].'^. Lath. Synop. n. Pen. Zool. 233. — One 
This fpecies remains with us the whole year, is very *■ of thefe birds, ihe only fpecimen which I have feen, 
common, and frequents the borders of fmall brooks and X was (hot on the river iiden, near Armathwalte-Caftle, 
ponds. They build their nell in fome low bu(h by ft in the latter end of January, 1794: it weighed 4 ^oz. 
the water fide; and lay from feven to ten eggs, which V — The cheeks and occiput were white, and formed a 
are of a dirty yellow, marked v/iih reddifii brown X white ring round the neck. 

fpots. C Genus LXXXV Guilkmot. 

X Definiton of the Genus Bill flender, pointed : 

Genus LXXVIIL — Coot. a the upper mandible fiightly bending towards the end ; 

Definition of the Genm. — Bill thick, floping to bafe covered with {hoit feathers. — Noftrils lodged in 

the point : the bafe of the upper mandible extending v a hollow near the bafe Tongue flender, almoft the 

far up into the forehead. — Body comprefled. — Wings }• length of the bilL — No back toe. 
fhort. —Tail flioit. — Toes long, furnilhed with broad y ^'32. Foolish Guillemot. Colymhus troile, Lin. 
fcalloped membranes. i Syft. i . />. 220. no. 2. I^ath. Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 

C 234 — This bird vifits Cumberland only in the winter. 

126. Common Coot. Fulica afra, Lin. Syft. i. v ^133. Black Guillemot. Colymhus grylk, Lin. 
p. 257. 710. 2. Lath. Synop. I. Fen. Zooh 220. \ Syft. i. p. 220. m. i. Lath. Synop. 3. Pen. Zool. 

236.^ — rhefe, like the former, are only feen 


Genus LXXIX. — Grebe. V winter. 

Definition of the Gwkj.— The bill is ftrong, den- ^ Genus LXXXVI.— Z)wr. 
der and (harp pointed. — Space between the bill and ' Definition of the Gentu Bill, ftrong, ftrait, point- 
eye bare of feathers. — Body depiefied. — Feathers very X ed : upper mandible the iongeft ; edges of each bend- 

fmooth and glofly. — Wings ftort No tall. — [.egs v ing inwards.- — Noftrils linear : the upper part divided 

placed far behind, comprefled and ferrated behind. — J by a fmall cutaneous appendage. — Tongue long, and 
Toes furnifhed on each fide, with a broad plain mem- t pointed ; ferrated on each fids, near the bafe. — Legs 
brane. C thin and flat. — Toes, four in number, the exterior the 

SJI27. Tippet Grebt. Coiymhus urinator, Lin. i Iongeft, the back one fmall, joined to the interior by a 

Gyft. I. p. 223. >:;. 9. Lath. Synop. 2. Pen. Zool. a fmall membrane ^Tail fhort, and confifts of twenty 

222. — This bird is very rarely to be met with either v feathers. 

in this county or in any part of the ifland. I received ^ 1I'.?4- NorthSr.s Diver Colyiitbus glacialis, 

a male which was fliot in the beginning of December, Lin. Syft. l. p. 221. no. 5. Lath, rfyncp. |. Pen. 

1782, in a fmall brook, called Wampool, not far from ? Zool. 237. — This is a large bird, weighing fixteen 

"Wigton. It was alone, at leaft the perfon who killed ,-, puunds. It vifits this idand but feldom, and for the 

it faw no more. Its flomach, which was mufcular, ^! moft part in the winter feafon. One however, of them, 

contained half digefted vegetables and a number of ) was caught alive, near Kefwick, in July, 1781. It 

feathers. I'lie breaft and belly is of a fine, glofi"y, X was as is fuppofed making for the lake, but grew tired 

filvery, white, and is ufcd for making ladies' muffs and .'. before it had power to reach it. 

tipprts. lience its name. ^ ^Mi 

[ 21 ] 

fi35- Imber. Colymlus tmmer, Lin. Syft. I. p. j and legs \ver€ rtd ; edges of die eye-lids fcarlet ' 

222. no. 6. Lath. Svnop. 2. Pen. Zoo). 2^8 This headmoufe colour, fpotted with white ; neck, throat, 

bird, which appeared to be a female, was (hot on the \ and belly, white ; back and icapnlars aih culuured ; 

Eden near Carlille, on the 2ift of Januar)', 1789 ■ coverts of the wings dulky edged with a dirty white; 

It weighed ylb. 10 oz. \ the exterior fidts. and part of the interior fides of the 

f/- c „ T> ,.„ „, T «^., T „.», c„.,„„ ^' four firll quill feather?, black : tail confilled of twelve 

I j6. Speckled Diver or JLoo>f. i^ath. oynop. , . , ^ . , ,, , . , • , , 1 1 

r? •-> \ T^i • .- • • „ c J \ ■'• feather?, ten n-.K d e white tipped with black, near aa 

?. Pen. Zool. 250. — This Ipccies is more frequent y , , , l- l r j ui 1 1 .1 . 
f, ,, , J' 1. . • r 1 -A— r \ ■ "inch broad, which formed a black bar, tlie two out- 

than the two precedincr, but is felnbm leen excpt in a n 1 n ■ >■ t ■ 1 r ..1 • j 

1 • . f. ° . .1 r • X moft almolt quite white. It is clear, troin tins de- 

the winter : there was one however taken alive, in . . . , i. . , ■ 1, .u i .u 

., r r <-■ r T? II J f; fcription, that It neither agrees with the tarrock or the 

the fummer, a few years arro, near Crois- fell; and was X " ,. ,, , ° ,• , ■ 1 -n j 

• J . . , v",-. J „ „ n,.„ V, and It coud not be a young bird as It was killed 

earned about as long as it lived, as a ihew. C r . ' , . • , '^ t? .1, 1 n. 

° X la June, and the ovary contained eggs, rrom the latt 

/-■ I VW17TTT =7- ' circumftance, it is probable it would have bred :n 

Oenus 1, AAA V 111 J err. a t •. l 1 .1 n . 

DC ■.• f .k n vfu n„'. n.-ja. „„ 1 ; this county 11 it had nol been Ihot. 

eni.ition 01 the Lmnus. — Dili Itra t, llender, and ; ' 

pointed. — Noftrils linear — Tongue llender and (harp, v 

— Wings very long. — Back toe very fraall Tail i Genus XCI. — Mergar.fer. 

forked. (• Definition of the — Bill flender, a liitle de- 

«[I37. Great or Common Tern. Sterna hirundo, '\ prelTed, furnilhed at the end with a crooked nail : ed- 

Liii. Sy(t. \.p. 227. no. 2. Lath. Synop; 14. Pen. ? ges of the mandibles very Iharply ferrated. — Noftrils, 

Zool. 254. — This bird appears in the fpring, in this k near the middle of the mandible, fmall and fuhovated. 

county, breeds here, and depaits in the autumn. 5 — Toes, the outer toe longer than the middle one. 

^138. Lesse?. Tern or Sea Swallow. Sterna '^ 
viinuta, Lin. Syft. I. p. 228. 710. 4. Lath Synop. X %HS- Goosander. Mergus merganfer, Lin. Syft'. 

18. Pen. Zool. 255 This bird comes and departs G l. p. 208. no. 2. Lath Synop. i. Pen. Zool. 260. 

at the i'ame time as the former. Both are very cla- x — l-'he goofander, which is fuppofed to be th.e male of 
morous. X the bird, we (hall next take notice of, is a large beau- 

} titul bird, and weighs about 41b. It is found upon 

Genus LXXXIX. — Gull. X our rivers only during the winter, and even then not 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill fliong, bending \ very frequently. 
down at the point : on the under part of the lower 
mandible, an angular prominence— Noftrils oblong X 1^,4(5. Dun-Diter. Lath. Svnop. 2. Pen. Zool. 

and nanow, placed in the middle of the bill Tongue j ,go -phis bird has generally been conlidered as the 

a httle cloven.— Wings long.— Legs fmall, naked C fg^^^ig ^f ,},£ goofander. The following circumftan- 
abovc the knees.— Back toe fmall. J j.^^ ^^\^^^^ have come under my obfetvatlon, however, 

139. Herring Gull. Larui fufcus, Lin, Syft. v render this opinion fomewhat doubtful. 

I./>. 225. no. 7. Lath. Synop. 3. Pen. /Jool. 246. A 1. I he dun-divers are far more numerous than the 

140. Wagel. /.ar«/«^wa., Lin. Syft. i./>. 225. Xg°°''='"^"'-, ^. „,r , l ca 
no. 5. Lath. Synop. 6. Pen. Zool. 247. I , ^- The di.n-divcrs arc all kfs than the goofanders 

.^ (the largell I have fccn being little more than ^Ib.) 

141. Winter Guil. Lath. Synop. 13. Pen. • ^^^,t ^f ^3,ious fizes, fome being under two pounds. 
Zool. 248. '^3. The creft of the dun-divei ii confiderably longer 

142. Common Gull. Lar,u camts, Un. Syft. I. y t^an the cieft (if it can be fo ca.led) of the goof- 
f. 224. fio. 3. Lath. Synop. 8. Pen. Zool, 249. — >. ^ndcr 

Thcfe four fpeclcs, I believe, all breed and remain in | 4. Dun divers have upon difTtalon, been found to 

Cumberland the whole year, and they have nearly the X l males 

fame habits and manners. | j_ The neck of the largcft dun dlv-r, and which 

^143. Blacic Headed or Pewit Gull. Zara/ '' has proved to be a male, is nothing like fo thick as the 
ridihundns, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 225, ?io. o. Lath. Synop. neck of the goofander. 

9. Pen. Zool. 252. — ^This is a biid of palTage, ap- ^ On the 26th of December, 1783, I diftcfted a 
pears upon our rivers, the latter end of April or be- X dun-diver, which was rather more than three pounds 
ginning of May. In the year 1785, I faw one fo in weight. Its length was 27 inches, and its breadth 
early as the 13th of April. It breeds upon the banks '■; 35 inches, ^t proved to be a male, the teftcs though 
of rivers, and departs early in autumn. X flaccid, were very diftinft, and about half an inch in 

^144. Brown-Headed or Red-Lfgged Gull. , lengtii. 
Lath. Synop 11. Arct. Zool. 533. E. — Sir James i( In the middle of January, 1786, I received two 
Graham, Bart, fent me a bird of this fpeclcs, which l dun-divers, both of wjiich 1 dlffeded. The firft was 
was (hot upon his eftate on the banks of the Eflc, y a fmall one, about two pounds in weight, it proved to 
June I ft, 1783: it was a female, weight 7 oz. ; X be a female ; the eggs being very diftinft. the fe- 
leiagth 14 inches ; breadth 2 feet 1 1 inches ; the bill '^ cond was much larger and weighed three pounds ; its 

F crcft 

C " ] 

ereft was longer, and ics belly \vas of a fine yellowifti K ^153- Bban Goose. Latli. Syiiop. 23. Pe«. 
rofe colour : it was a male, and the teftes weie begin- C Zool. 267. — This bird is very frequent in Cumbeilaod 
ning to gi-oiv turgid. X in fcvere winters. 

1 have only differed one goofander, and that proved J 1Ii?4- White-Fronted Goose. Anai erythropus, 
to be a male. Therefore, until a goofander be found, v Lin. Syft. i. p. igy. tio. 11. Lath. Synop. 22. 
upon dilTedion, to prove a female ; or two goofanders X Pen. Zool. 268. — This fpecies is pretty common in 
to attend the fame ncll, the doabt refpedling thefe i the winter. 

birds cannot be clearly afcerlained. J; 1I>55' Bernacle. An.i! erythropus vtiJs, Lin. 

^[147. Smew. Mcrgut albellus, Lin. Syft. r. />. X Sylt. i.'/>. 197. vo. 11. Lath. Synop. 27. Pen. 
209. no. 5. Lath Synop. 5. Pen. Zool. 262. — The i Zool. 269. — Linnaeus confiders this bird as the male of 
fmew is a beautiful and elegant bird, only to met with \ the white-fronted goofe, which is certainly an error, as 
in this county during the winter, and then but fel- \ there is now no doubt but they are dlfierent fpecies.— 
dora, j They are veiy frequent upon our coafts in the win- 

X ter. 
Genus XCIT. — Duel. \ ^[156. Brent Goose. Anas bernicla, Lin. Syft. 

Definition of the Gerun. — Bill ftrong, broad, fi;it ¥ I. p. 19S. no. 13. Lath. Synop. 27. Pen. Z.ol. 
or depreficd ; and for the mod part furnidied at the X 270. — This fpecies is not often feen, and only in tli€ 
end with a nail : edge,s of the mandibles marked with ft winter. 

fharp lamcllx or teeth. — Noftrils fmaU and oval y 157. Muscoyy Duck. y/«</r »;»/cW«, Lin. Syft. 

Tongue broad, edges near the bafe fringed. — Toes, a \. p. 199. 710. 16. Lath. Synop. 31 — This fpeciei 
middle toe the longelL I lias for fometime become domeftic, ar.d will mix with 

^148. Wild or Whistling Swan. Anas cygnus % the common duck, and produce a mongrel breed. 
fcrui, Lin. Syft. I. />. 194. no. t. Lath. Synop. I. X "IisS. Scoter Duck. Anas ni^ia, Lin. Syft. I. 
Pen. Zool. 264. — The wild fvvan maybe diftinguiflied 5 p. 196. no. 7. Lath- Synop. 36. Pen. Zool. 273 — 
from the tame fwan by the following external marks. X Thefe birds, I think, never frequent our rivers, but 
The bill of the wild fwan is, from the bafe to the 5 confine themfelves during the winter, to the fea coafts. 
middle, of a yellowift^ white, and from thence to the? 1I'S9' Scaup Duck. Anas narila, Lin Syft. 
end black. t i.p. 196. »«. 8. Lath. Synop. 49. Pen. Zool. 275. 

The bill of the tame fwan is red, with the tip and c — I'his is a beautiful duck, but very rare. I have 
fides black. y °^^y feen one fpecimen j which was fliot ii} a very 

In the wild fwan the fpace between the bafe of the " fevere winter, 
bill and the eyes, is covered with a naked yellow (liin, J <[[i6o. Golden-Eved Duck. Anas dangula, Lin. 
and the eyelids are alfo bare and yellow. /Syft. I. p. 201. m. 23. Lath. Synop. 76. Pen. 

In the tame fwan the naked (kin between the bafe \ Zool. 276. — This bird, fo called from its yellow iris, 
of the bill and the eyes, is black : and over the bafe ? is pretty frequent in the winter ; and remains longer 
of the upper mandible, there is alfo a black and callous i with us, I think, than any of the migrating web footed 
knob. ^ birds. I have feen one fo late as the 8th day of 

But upon difteftion, the wild fwan is not only found ■ April. 
to effentially differ from the tame fwan, but from all X 161. Shieldrake. Anat tadorna, Lin. Syft. \. p. 
other birds. In the wild fwan there is a large cavity •] 195. no. 4. Lath. Synop. 5r. Pen. Zool. 278. — 
in the breaft bone ; into this cavity the windpipe en- x This is a beautiful bird, remains with us the whole 
ters, and makes a turn before it enters into the caviLy ; year, and breeds upon the fea coaft, in rabbit warrens, 
of the thorax. It may be eafily tamed if taken when young. 

A flock or two of wild fwaus generally vifit Cnm- X ^162. Mallard. Anas bofchai, Lin. Syft. i. p, 
berland every fevere winter. Laft v.-inter a flock fre- I, 205. no. 4c. Lath. Synop. 43. Pen. Zool. 279. — 
quented the Eik, near Netheiby, three of which were i This bird is the origin of our common duck. They 
Ihot. i appear in great numbers in the winter, many of thefe 

149. Mute or Tame Swan. Amts cygnus inanfu- -J are ftiot, many migrate in the fpring, and a few bretd 
etus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 194 no. 1. Lath. Synop. 2. S in this county. Wild ducks, and indeed all the mi- 
Pen. Zool. 265. A grating fpecies of this genus, appear in the greatefl; 
^150. Grev Goose. Anas anfsr, Lin. Syft. i. 'J numbers during the fevereft winters. During the pre- 
p, ig' Lath. Synop. 21. Pen. Zool. 266. 1; fent winter, viz. 1 79J and 1796, which has been 
—The grey goofe is only feen here in the winter, but X remarkably mild, only few have been feen. Laft 
breeds in many of the fens in England. It is the ■) winter. Sir James Graham and his gamekeeper, (hot, 
origin of our domeftic goofe. X upon his own cftate, near one hundred brace of wild 

X ducks, a great number of wild geefo,. and three wild 

151. Tame Goose, An.if anfsr domeflicus, Lin. C fwans. This winter not more than a brace or two of 
Syft. I./. 197. no. 9. Latb. Synop. 21. var. A. X ducks were killed, at Netherby, and neither wild geefe 

A or fwans were feen upon his eftate. 

152. Chinese Goose. Anas cygnoides aujlralis, l 163. Tame Duck. Anai bofchas domejllca, Lin. 
Lin. Syft. \. p. 194. no. 1. Lath. Synop. 12. — This X Syft. \. p. 20J. no, 40. Lath. Synop. 43. 

eool'e is now tendered domeftic. '^ 164. 

r 23 ] 

5fi64. Pochard. Anas fenna. Lin. Syft. \. p.l Under ;w. loj', Common Heron, I have dated, upon 

203. no. 31. Lath. Synop. Gi. Pen. Zool. 284 C the authority of Echard, the value of different birds. 

This is a fcarce bird. I have only feeii one fpecimen \ in the veign of Ed. 1 I fliall hcie mention the prc- 

vhich was a male, and weighed 'lb. J40Z. I recciv- I fent prices they are fold at in Carlifle. 

cd it on the I ft of January,. 178S. V A cock, from is. od. to is. 6d. 

^165. Common Wigeon. Anas penchpc, Lin. X' A chicken, ... - os. 6d os. lod. 

S)-!!. \. p. 202. no. 27. Lath. Synop. 63. Pen. "j A gvei n goofe, - - - is. cd. — is. 4d. 

Zool. 286. — The wigeon frequents our rivers and v A ilubble ditto, - - - 26. od. — 2S. 6d. 

ponds, in confiderable numbers, in the winter. 1^ A fat goofe at Chrlftmas, 3s, 6d, — 5s. od. 

f 166. Teal. Anas crecca, Lin. Syft. ). p. 204. J A mallard, ... - is. od is. 2d. 

tio. 33. Lath. Synop. 88. Pen. Zool. 290. — Like ;{ A black cock, 4s od — ■ 

the wild duck. I imagine many of the teals migrate in / A moor cock or red grous, from is. 8d. — 2S. od. 

the fpring ; but a few certainly bleed in our mofles A turkey, .... 33. od, — 4s. od. 

€Very year. X A partridge, os. 8d. — ■ 

Q A woodcock, • - - - -13. 8d. — II I 

Genos XCIV Pe!ica?i, v x\ plover, ... - from qs. 6d. — os. 8d. 

Definition of the Genus. — Bill long, firong. ftrait, X 

and either hooked or (loping at the erd.—NoIhih ^ n- b, It h prohMc a f.n.j,aur b-.rds ■u.bkh only fcldom or 

- ,, » 1 1 • 1 ^ \ 1 1 ^ occafionalh ifiht thii count\\7^a\ be omitted in the above catalogus ; as 

fmall, and placed in the furrow that runs along the « i jf^^, Jy ^^,i,j j,.^/ j-„,,\, i h^^, c:.a.:hed or f»n, and ^ojl 
fides of the upper mandible, and in moll of the fpecics .a „j- ^a^/, ^re, at prcfent, in my coIUSiim. And v.-iatJoUiitus,l mi 
not to be difcovered. — Face for the moft part ddlitute % afraid is JliU mart imferfelt. 
of feathers, being covei-ed only witli a naked fein. — / XXXX 

Gullet naked, and capable of great diUenlicn — Toes X CLASS III. REPTILES. 

four, all webbed together. ^ GENtJS 1 —Frog. 

f 167. CoRvoKANT. Pc'/<.'ctf««rftfr*o, Lin. Syft. I. X Definition of the Genus Body naked.— Four 

/>. 216. nt. 3. Lath. Synop. 13. Pen. Zool. 291.— j legs._Feet divided into toes.— No tail. 

The corvorant apppears m confiderable numbers on ';^ ,_ Common Frog. Rafia temporaria, Lin. Syft, 

our coafts in the autumn. It has a very rank and .■ ,, ^. ^j^. „,, ,^. p^.,,. ZqoI. 2.— The frog not only 

difagreeable fmell ; and is, upon the wliole, a very ^ ,j^^,j^ .^^^ j^^p^ ^^.j^j^ agility, a confiderable time after 

ugly bird. About thirty years ago. one of thcfe ^ f^e heart is feparated from its body. 

peiched upon the caftle at Carhtle, and foon after re- .. 2_ Edible Frog. Rana cfiulmta, Lin. Syft. p. r. 

moved to the cathedral, where it was (hot at, upwards ^ ,^7. r,o. i c. Pen. Zool. v 

of twenty times, without effea : at length a perfon I j' ^-'oad". Ran'a btifo', Lin. Syft. r. p. 354. no. 3. 

got upon the cithedral, fired at, and killed it. In X ^^n. Zool. 4 It is now proved, beyond doubt, that 

another inftance, a flock of fifteen or twenty perched jj ^^^^3 g^g j,ot poifonous. The whole genus is tor- 

at the dude of the evening, in a tree, on the banks of X pjj Jutine the v/inter. 

the river Efic. near Netherby ; a perfon who faw them A ^_ Natter jIck.' Rana ruhta, Lin. Syft. I. /. 

fettle, fired at random at them in the dark, fix or feven v ,... ^o. 4. Pen. Zool. 5.— I believe this fpecies is 

times, without either kiihng any, or frightening them X fou„j^ ti,^ fapj grounds, in the neighbourhood 

away ; furprizcd at this, he went again at day light ? ^f Allonbv» 

and killed one of them, and the reft took wing. \ Genus II / ':~ardi 

f 168. Shag. Pckcanus graculus, Lin. Syft. i. p. k definition "of the" c/z/ar.— Slender naked body 

ai7. w. 4. Lath. Synop. 14. Pen. Zooh 292.— j^ p^^,^ , divided toes on each.— Tail, long. 

The fhag is much lefs han the corvorant, and in Cum- x ._ g^.^^^ Lizard. Laccrta -agitis, Lin. Syft. i, 

Xtferlandisa fcarce bud. X . ^6^_ ,,, , j_ pg^, i.o'A. 7. 

fi69. C.ANMETor SoLAH Gooss. PJ/V-^«aji<?P- V (^ Brown Lizard. Alice, Cumb. Lacerta vuU 
«w, Lin. .Syft. 1. p. 217. ,:o. 5. Lath. Synop. 25. X „^,.,v, Lin Svft. I. /. 370. no. 42. Pen. Zool. 9. 
Pen. Zool. 293.— The gannet does not vifit this X ^_ Watcr'Lizard. Water- Alice, Cumb. Lacerta 
county at ftated fealons, but only accidently. I have l paUpris, Lin, Syft. 1. *. 370. no 44. Pen. Zool. 8. 
only had an opportunity of feeing one fpecimcn. — a Genus \\\.— Serpent. 

They breed in great numbers upon the Bafslftand, in X d,.,-,,^;^^ ^f ^x^t Grw.v.— Body long and flender, 
Scotland; appeanng there in March, and departing in J ^^^^^^^ ^,;^i^ j-„,y pi-^tts.- No feet. 
Odlober ot November. X 8. Vu-er. Hagworm, Cumb. Coluber hr us, Un. 
\ Syft. \.p. 111. Pen. Zool. 12, — The viper is un- 

In feveral fpecies of birds, the male, in the adult 5 duub;cdly pcifonous, but in this county its bite is fel- 
ftate, differs very mateiially in the colour of ihe plu- t dom fatal to laige animals. Sallad-oil, when apphed 
mage from the female, c. g. Henharrier and R!nj;tail, r, immediately fter the bite, in a great meafure deftroys 
Black Cock and G:iy Hen, &c. And whenever this -j^ the virulence of the poifon. 

is the cafe, I believe, all the young birds, whethi'i male ^] 9. Blind Worm or Slow Worm. Arguisfragilis, 
or female, invariably reftuibk the female raoie tlian / Lin. Syll. 1. /. 392. Pen. Zool. 15. — This fpecies 
they do the male. X is not poifonous. CLASS 

[ 24 ] 

DI V. I — Cetaceous jijlo No gills ; an orifice on 

X n,ing of that month. April 28th, I examined a female 
? full of roe. From the inimenle number of eggs which 

the top of the head through which they breathe, and i this contained, they mud be allonifhiiigly fruitful. — 

ejeft water. — A flat or horizontal tail. 

Genus I Whnk. 

Definition of the Genus Cetaceous fifh without 

teeth, with horny lamina; in their mouths. 

r. CoMMO^J VVh.ile. Bjl.ena 7nfjlketus, Lin. 
Syft. I. /. 105. no. I. Pen. Zool. 16. — ^This fifh is 
fometimes, though rarely thrown on our fca coalls. 

X June 28th I examined three, two of which were males, 
C and one a female ; they had all (pawned : the liver of 
J the males was much latger than the liver of the females. 
X 6. Lesser Lamprev. Petromyzon fiuviatilis, Lin. 
'J Syft. \. p. 39a.. no. 2. Pen. Zool. 28. 
y 7. Pride or Smallest LAMPury. Petromyzojt 
A braixhijlis, Lin. Syll i. p. 394. rio. 3. Pen. Zool. 
V 29. — Neither of thefe fpecies ate very plentiful in our 
'i rivers. They appear and difappear about the fame : 
X time as the t. amprey, 

Genus V Ray. 

X Definition of the Genus — Body bioad, flat, and 
n thin. — Five apertures on each fide, placed beneath. — ■ 
Mouth fituated quite below : with (harp teeth. 

8. Skate. Rata battis, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 395. «*. 
Pen. Zool. 30. 

9. Sharp Nosed Skate. Rala cxyrinchus, Lin. 

r.o. 3. Pen. Zool. 31. 

D-;- r..ll...:.- 


White Horfe, Cumb. Raia falloiiica, 
396. no. 5. Pen. Zool. 33. 

Genus. III. — Dolphin, 

Definition of the Gcfl«/.— Cet-aceous fifli, with teeth 
in both jaws. 

2. Dolphin. Dslphimti Jelphis, Lin. Syft. I. p. 
108. no. 2. Pen. Zool. 24 — Very rare. 

3. PoRPEssE. Dtlphinus phocoena, Lin. SyiL 1. p. 
108. no. t. Pen. Zool. 25. — This fifh is frequently 
obferved in Solvvay Frith, in purfuit of falmon, her- 
rings, &c. ; our anceftors confidered them as very de- 
licate food, and hence we find them in former times, ^ Syll. 1. p. 395. 
at the tables of the great. X 10. Fuller 

4. Gkampus. Delplinus orca, Lin. Syft. I. /. Lia. Syft. !./>. 
loS. no 3. Pen. Zool. 26. — The grampus is very •; **VVith blunt teeth, 
rarely met with on the Cumberland coalls. One was A u. Thof.nback. Rasa clazata, Lin. .Syft. i. />. 
thrown upon the (hore, in the parifh of Abbey- Holme, y 397. no. 8. Pen. Zool. 37. — Both (kate and thornback 
about twenty years ago. X are plentiful upon our coafts ; but only of late years 

DIV. l\.—CartUaglno-us .;5)Z».— Breathing through \ 1«^^ been ufed, in this^ county, as food, 
certain apertures, generally placed on each fide of the '< ^^^".*. ~r l'"''^ -i , , , 

neck : but in fome inftances beneath, in fome above ; C. Definition of the Genus Slender body, growing 

and from one to feven in number on each part, except V lefs towards the tail —Two fins on the back Rough 

in the pipe filh, which has only one —The ruifcles are X ^l^'" f">ve apertures on the (ides of the neck.— 

fupported by cartilages, inil,;ad of bones. ^^""''^ generally placed far beneath the end of the 

V nofc The 

Genus IV.- — Lamti-ey. v lower. 

Definition of the G^««/.— Slender, eel-fliapedbody. X *Withoutthe anal fin, 
—Seven apertures on each fide : one on the top of the y 12. Angel Fish. Squalus fquatina, Lin. Syft. I. 
head.— No perioral or ventral fins. % no. 398. to. 4. Pen. Zool. 39 Two very curious 

5. Lam?p.ey Eel. Petromyzon marinus, Lin. Syft. 5 fifli> a male and a female, which 1 apprehend were 
1, p. 394. no. I. Pen Zool. 27 — Lampreys appear of this fpecies, were taken i^ear .St. Bees, in the latter 
in the Eden and E(l<, in ^prll and May, are chiefly X end of the year 1793, and when dried and preferved, 
caught in June when. the waters are low. They fpawn i were carried through the county as a (hew. In this 
in both thefe rivers, and afterwards return to the fea. \ fituation a drawing was taken of the male, from which 
— I eat a pact jif a very fine one, this year, the X the annexed plate was engraved. 

fides of the 
neath the 
upper part of the tail longer than the 

jjth of April} which was taken in Eden the begin- ^ 

[ 25 ] 

The flcln of the back was rough and of a grey co- X Gevus XI. — P'ipi: fiJJi. 
'lour; along the fpine was a furrow; the belly was Definiiion of the Genus. — Nofe, long and tubular, 
fmooth, and of a flefh colour, and had fome refem- v — No orifice to the gills. — The breathing aperture, oft 
blance to the human breaft and belly. The bead and \ the hind part cf the head. — No ventral iins.— The 
tail not unlike a codfifh. Length 4 feet i inch : cir- v body covered with a ftrong cruiL 
cumference of the mouth, when extended (as repre- X 18. Longer Pipe Tish. Syngar.thm lailarui^ 
fented in the plate at A.) 14 inches, furni'fhed with Lin. Syft. \.p. 217. no, 6. Pen. Zool. Co. 
near one hundred teeth, in five rows: it meafurcd, x 19. Shorter Pipe Vish. Synganlhui aaa, Lin. 
from the collar bone to the vent, 15 inches, circumfer- X Syft. \. p. 216. no. 2, Pen. Zool. 61. 
ence of the body, 18 inches. A little above the vent 5 20. Little Pipe Fish. Syiigantbus ophiiioft, Lin. 
there was a (Icinny membrane, very much lefembling a X Syft. 1. /. 417. no. j. Pen. Zool. 62. 
penis, 8 inches long and 5 inches round Within J 

each ventral fin there was an apendix, very like the \ DIV. IIL — Bony fJJy. — The mufcles in this d!« 
thigh, leg, and foot of a new born child, J2 inches in -' vifion, as in quadrupeds, &c. aie fupported by bones. 
length. At the r.oftrils were whilliers. The eyes :; — They breathe aUo through gills which are covered 
weie placed at the upper part of the head, and there ';; by thin bony plates, open on the fide and dilatable, by 

were two foramina about an inch from the eyes. X bouts which are called the radii braiichiofiigi, or gill- 

'ihere were five fpiracula, ten gills on each fide of the i covering rays. 

head underneath. The peftoral fins were large, ex- V SECT. 1. — Apodal. -^-^\\c moft imperfe<fV, want- 
tending from the collar bone along the fides of the fi(h, X ing the Afcntral fins. 
12 inches lorig. On the tail, which was 2 feet 

4 inches long, were two fins. The female refembled X Cenus XIL — Eel. 

the male in form but was rather larger, and aUb wanted J Definition of the Genus.- — Body long, (lender, and 
the legs and ll<inny membrane. The male is now in y flippery.- — Noftrils tubular. — Back, ventral, and tail 
Mr. Crollhwaitc's Mufeum, at Kefwick. X fins, united. — Aperture to the gills, fmall, and placed 

"•* With the anal fin. .{ behind the peftoral fins. — Ten branchioftegous rays. 

13. Spotted Dog Fish. Squalus canicula, Lin x 2t. Common Eil. Murxna anguilla, Lin. Syft. 
Syft. I. p. 399. m. 8. Pen. Zool. 46. X i. p. 426. no. 4 Pen. Zool. 63. 

14. Lesser Spotted Dog Fish. A'^H^A// f^/a/«/, s 22. Conger Eel. Mur.vna conger, Lin. Syft. r. 
iiin. Syft. I. p. 400. no. 10. Pen. Zool. 47. i p. 426. fio. 6. Pen. Zool 64. — I'he conger is not 

5 frequently taken upon our coafts. 
Genus VIF. — Angler. v 

Definition of the Genus. — One aperture behind X Genus XIV. — Launce. 
each ventral fin. — Large, flat, and circular head and 3 Definition of the Genus. — Head flender. — Body 
body. — Teeth numerous and fmall in the jaws, roof y long and fquare. — Upper lip doubled in. — Dorfal and 
of the mouth, and on the tongue : peftoral fins, broad X anal fin, reaching almoft to the tail. — Seven branchlof- 
and thick. tegous rays. 

15. Common Angler or Frog Fish. Lophius i 23. Launch or Sand Eel. Annuodytes tobianus, 
pifcato'ius, Lin. Syft. I. p. 402. ?io, i. Pen. Zool. 5 Lin. Syft. i. p. 430. «o. i. Pen. Zool. 66. 

5 I . — Rare. 

X SEC. — II. — yttgnlar. — The ventral fins, placed 

Genus VYl\.-~Sturgeon. G before the peftoral fins. 

Definition of th-- Genus. — One narrow aperture on | 
each fide. — The mouth placed far below; tubular, and X GENt;s XIX. — Codf.Jlo. 
without teeth. — Tiic body long and often angular. Definition of the Genus. — Head ftnoolh. — Seven 

16. Sturgeon. Acipenfer Jlurio, Lin. Syft. i. /. v flender branchioftegous rays. — Body oblong; fcales 

403. no. I. Pen. Zool. 53. — The fturgeon frequents 5 deciduous All the fins covered with a con.mon ftcin. 

both the Eden and the Eilc, eveiy fummer, but not in — Ventral fins, flender and ending in a point. — Teeth 
great numbers. They are pickled in Cailide, and X in the jaws : and in the palate, a feries of minute teeth 
from thence fent to various parts of the kingdom. I clofely fet together. 

V 24. Common CoD. Gadus morhua, Lin. Syft. j. 
Gbnus X. — Sucker, %p 436. ;«. 3 Pen. Zool. 73. — The cod fome years 

Definition of the Genus. — Thick body, arched (, frequents the v.umberland coafts, in fuch numbers, that 
tack. — Ventral fins, united. — Four branchioftegous X they are often fold at Carlide market, fo low as a half- 
rays. X penny per pound. They begin to appear on our (liores 

17. Lump Fish or Sea Owl. Cyclopterus lunipus, in Oftober, and continue there till the end of Feb- 
Lin. Syft. l. p. 414. no. I. Pen. Zool. 57. — One of X ruary. 

this fpecici was taken, at Whitehaven, fome time H 25. Hadock. Gadui egleftnus, Lin. Syft. i. p. 
»fo. Y. 435- "»• '• Ptn> Zool. 74. — The hadock is very 

G fcldoiq 

[ ^6 ] 

feldom met with on the Cumberland coaft. Wltat we X are placed on the left fide. Thi's fpecles inhabits, not 
fee are generally fent from Newcattle. Such numbers, ? only the fca, but fredi water rivers, 
however, were taken this prefent autumn, near St.;; 39- Dab or Sand Dab. PUuronenes limand.i,TL,\n. 
Bees, that t'.iey were fold at Whitehaven, for a penny 5 Syll. i. p. 457. no. 8. Pen. Zool. 105. — We, no«' 
or three-halt'-pLiice per pound. v and then, fee a fe* of this fpecies in our market a- 

**Three dorfal tins: chin beardlefs. X mong flounders. They are fma!!, but cielicate food. 

26. Coal Fish. GaJus carbonariut, Lin. Syft. I. \ 40. Sole. Pleurcieaet foUa, Lin. Syft. i . />. 457. 
f. 438. no. 9. Pen. Zool. 78. — This 13 but feldom ? no. 9. Pen. Zool. 107. 

taken. X ** With the eyes on the left fide. 

27. Pollack. Gudut pollachlus, Lin. Syft. 1. p. (; 41. Turhot. Pleuronenes /nsxi/nui, Lin. Syft. I.. 
439. no. 10. Pen. Zool. 79. 'i p. 459- no. 14. Pen. Zool. 109. — This fpecies is rare 

28. WiiiTiN'G. Gadiis merlangus, Lin. Syft. I. /. X in Cumberland, and not often found of a large fize. 
438. m. 8. Pen. Zool. 8c. \ 

***With only two dorfal fins. % Genus XXVII.— P<>r<:/;. 

29. Hake. Gad'ts mcrlucius, Lin. Syft. i.^. 439. X Definition of the Geiiui. — The edges of the gill- 
no. II. Pen. Zool. 81. covers ferrated. — Seven branchioftegous rays. — Body 

30. Ling. Gadtis viclva, Lin, Syft. i. p. 439. no. X covered with rough fcales. — Firft dorfal fin fpiny ; the 
]2. Pen. Zool. 85. S fecond foft. 

31. Three Bearded Cod or Sea Locke. Gad:is 1 42. Common Perch. Perca fuviatilii, Lin. Syft. 
miijlda, L;n. Syft. l. /. 440. no. 15. Pen. Zool, X \. p. 481. no. 1. Pen. Zool. 124. 

87. 43. Basse. Perca labrax, l.\n. Syft. I. p. 482.. 

Genus XXT Goby. X «*• S- l^^f Zool. 125. — The baffe inhabits moft. o£ 

Definition of the Genus. — Eyes placed near each X our lakes and ponds. ' 

other. — Four hvanchloftegous rays. — Ventral fins uni- Q 

ted. ' x: Genus XXVIII.— 5///V;(AW/f. 

32. Black CoBY or Sea Gudgeon. Gobhu n'lger, h Definition of the Genu;. — Three branchioftegous 
Lin. Syft. I. p. 449. no. 1. Pen. Zool. 95. u rays. — The belly covered with bony plates One 

X dorfal fin, with feveral iharp fpincs between it and the- 
SECT. HI. — Th-,racic. — The ventral fins, placed head. 

beneath the pectoral fins. v 44- Three Spined Strickle or Prickleback^ 

Genus XXII. — Bullhead. \ Gajierofleui aciikatus, Lin. Syft. I. p. 489. no. I. — 

Definition of the Genus Large flat head, armed ) Pen. Zool. 129. — Thefe fmall fifti frequent our brooks 

with ftiarp fpines. — Six branchioftegous rays. V and fmall rivers, and are often feen in company with 

33. River Bullhsad. Cottus gobio, Lin. Syft. 1. j the minow. 

p. 452. no. 6. Pen. Zool. 97. y 45. Ten Spined Strickleback. Gaflerojleus 

34. Father Lasher. Cottus fcorpius, Lin. Syft. i pungititis, Lin. Syft. I. p. 491. no. 8, Pen. ZooU 
I. p 452. no. 5. Pen. Zool. 99. — They fpawn in the J 130. — This fpecies is not fo generally to be met witlt 
winter. I opened one on the 25th of December, v as the former. It fs faid to inhabit the rivulets neat 
which was full of roe. X Ullfwater. 

Genus XXUl.—Dorce. | 

Definition of the Genus. — Body very deep, and V Genus XXIX. — Mackrel. 
compiefted fideways. — Very long filaments ifluing from i Definition of the Genus. — Seven brnnchioftigous 
the lirft dorfal fin. — Seven branchioftegous rays. y rays. — Several fmall fins between the doifal fin and the 

35. John Dorce. Zeus fiber, Lin. Syft. i. />. v tail. 

454. «9. 3. Pen. Zool. 100. — It is fometimes, though 1 46. Common Mackrel. Sceniber fomher, Lin. 
rarely, taken near the Ifle of Mann. v Syft. 1. p. 492. no. i. Pen. Zool. 132 The mack- 

Genus XXIV Flounder. t. rel is rarely met with near our coaft?. One was takcu. 

Definition of the Genui. — Body flat and thin. — ; in the river Jiden, near Rockliff, by Dr. Blaraire. 
Eyes, both on the fame fide of the head.— Branchiof- y 
tegous rays, from four to feven. x Genus XXXI. — Gurnard. 

•With the eyes on the right fide. ■) Definition of the Genus. — Nofe floping Head 

36. HoLiEUT. PleuroneSles hippoghffus, Lin. Syft. \ covered with ftrong bony plates. — .Seven branchiofte- 
l. p. 456. no, 4. Pen. Zool. 102. — This is a rare fifh % gous rays. — Three flender appendages at the bafe of 
on our coafts. V the peftoral fins. 

37. Plaise. Pleuronedes platijfa, Lin. Syft. r. />. X 47- Grey Gurnard. Trigla gurnardus, Lin. 

456. no. 6. Pen. Zool 103. — Theplaife is very plen- 5 Syft. i. p. 497. no. 3. Pen. Zool. 137. 

tiful. _ $ 48. Red Gurnard. Trigla cuculus, Lin. Syft. r. 

38. Flounder. Pkuronedes fiefus, Lin. Syft. i. />. \ p. 497. »o. 4. Pen. Zool, 138. — Both thefe fpecies 

457. no. 7. Pen. Zool. 104. — It fometimes happens, J are rare, 

as I myfelf have fecn, that the eyes aad lateral line jj ' /^ 

[ 27 J 

' AC). Piper. Trigla hra, Lin. Syrt. i. p. 496. vo. X certain, of the othev wc can ciiTy form conjeftiires:.— ; 

t; Pen. Zool. 139 The head of this fpccies is very- When they are full of fpawn, they are not conteiitf • 

large in proportion to to the fize of the body. The v merely to enter the frefh water, but' continue afccndinp; 
piper is a good fifh, but is not frequently feen in our >i the river till they are obftrufted, either by a cataratl 
maiket. V or the Ihallownefs of the itrcam. It is therefore evi-' ■ 

K dent, that the depoliting their fpawn, and propagating 

SECT. IV Abotyiinal. — The ventral fins placed \ their fpecie;, is one caufe of their migrating from the 

behind the pcfloral fins. y fea. At whatever fenfon of the year falmon firll enter 

Genus XXXII. — Lochc. X the frefh water, their fide? and bellies invariably fwarin 

Detinition of the Germs. — Eyes in the upper part ■; with infc6ts, which the hfnermen call fea-lice, vi/,.' the 
of the head. — Aperture to the gills clofed below. — '■{ krn^.v falvionstx of Linncfus : but after they have re- ' 
Several beards on the end of the upper jaw. — Body, j maineii a ihort time in the trefh water, thefe infefts ' 
of almoil ail fqual thicknefs. — One dorfal fin. j difappear : hence, it is probable, they feek the fielli ' 

5c. Be.irded Lochh. ColH.'j irriatulu, Lin. Syft. V water in order to g-et rid of them. Altliough the Eilc 
I. />. 499- «•>. 2. Pen Zool. 142. — This fpecies is c and the Eden pour out their waters into the fame 
fyund in the Earoont and fmall flreams near tJllfwater, sftuary, and are only feparatcd at the mouths by a 

y, fharp point of land, yet there is fcarcely an inllance of 
Genus XXXIII — Salmon. C a nei<j falmon ever entering the former, until the mid-^ 

Definition of the Genus.. — Brancliioftegous rays ¥ die of April or beginning of May. 'I'he fifhermen ac-'^ 
unequal in number. — Two dorfal fins ; the fecond h cou' t for this curious faft, from the different temper- 
thick and without rays. atures of thefe two rivers. The water of the Eden, they 
*With teeth. v alledge, being confiderably warmer than the water of 
51. Sai-mon. Salino falar, Lin. Syft. I. /. J the E/l< ; which is not altogether improbable, for the 

509. no. I. Pen. Zool. 143 This is the lar- bed of the Eflc is not only more flonyand rocky than 

geft fpecits of the genus, and fometimes weighs be- X the Eden : but is likewife broader, and the ftreani 
tween fixty and feventy pounds. The falmon is 5 more (hallow ; confequently its waters muft be fome- 
plentiful in mod of our rivers, in all of which they V what colder in the winter feafon. And as it is an un- 
fpawn ; but they evidently prefer, during the winter X doubted fail that fnow vi-ater prevents the falmon from 
and fpting, the Eden, to the Elk, the Caldevv, or the :) running up, even the Eden ; it is probable this cir- 
Peteril. If the weather be mild and open, what the j cumftaiice may have confiderable effeft, in preventing 
fifliermcn call nciu falmon, viz. falmon which have a them entering the Eflc till the beginning of fum- 
never fpawned, and whofe bellies are not full of either } mer when the tetnparture of the two rivers, will be 
mik or roe, begin to afcend the Eden in the beginning X nearly the fame. The Peteril joins the Eden a little 
of December, and continue to run up that river till the J above, and the Caldevv at Carli.le ; yet, up thefe rivers, 
latter end of June or July, at which time o/yyi/wow, or y the falmon never run unlefs in the fpawning feafon, 
filh which have fpawned in the river before ; alio begin X and even then in no great numbers. 
to afcend, and continue running up till Novr. or Deer.* J If the weather be mild and temperate, in the month 
at which time the bellies of both male and female J of February, the fpawn which was depofited at the 
being full, thev depofit their fpawn among the fand t bottom of the river, among the land or gravel, in Ofto- 
or gravel ; and v\ hen that is accomplifiicd, they defcend } ber, November, or beginning of December, begin to 
the river and liallea back to the fea, in a weak, Ian- i exclude their young, which are called /j-v, towards the' 
guid, and emaciated condition. f It is a general X middle or latter end of that month. But if, on the 
obfervation that few afcend the river when it is filled v contrary, the weather be cold and frofty during the 
with fnow water. As they do not begin to fpawn till . month of Feb. and March the fry do not appear till the 
the latter end of the year, it is therefore evident that j third or fourth week in March. Fry taken in Feb. or 
they muft be impelled, by two dillinft caufes. to leave v beginning of March are very fmall, weak, and eager af- 
the fait water. Of one of the caufes we are nearly i ter the bait. In the latter end of March and begin. 

?■ ning of April, if the weather be mild and warm, the 
* Sulmon,in one ftage or another ,may indeed belaid to afcend V rivers ai'e full of them, their fize is aftoniflllngly in- 
the Eden every month of the year. Inftancrs have been ^ j.,f^|-gj^ j,g;ng {■,.(,,,, ^ to 8 or 9 inches in length; they 
known where they have fpawned fo early as the month of X ^^^ become ftrong and aftive, and afford exrelltnt diver- 
Scptcr ber, and (o late as the month ol February. 1 his year s '-^ _ _ , . , ,, r n/r .1 

a full bellied falmon was taken, running up the river, on the ^ hon to the angler. _ Before the middle of May they. 
19th of January, at Stainton, and therefore would not pro- ; begin to leave our rivers, retire to the fea, and are not 
bably have fpawned till February ; however, OtSober, Novem- y ftcn under the form of fry later than the latter end 
bcr,Decembcr and January, arc the principal fpawning months. ,Qf Jung or beginning of July. t 

f After they have fpawned they are called float Jfb in -^ 
which ftate their ^ills are infefted with a fmall infccft, refem- \ ' r ■ 

Wing a grub, from one eighth, to near 1 quarter of an inch X * 'f <l>f weather be favourable, the ivy, m a great mcafuro, 
in length; and which, in all probability, has a confiderable ef- X g" to the fea in April and May ; a very few only being found 
fed in urging them to th« fait water, where thefe infeds are X in 'he rivers in June, and ftiU fewer in July, 
foon deftioyed. * WheQ, 

r 28 ] 

Wlien the young falmon, which have never fpawned, X ed with numerous blacki(h fpots — Along the lateral 
firft begin -o ran up the Edtn in the months of l)e- C hne, and both a little above and beneath it, leveral dull 
cember and January ; they vary in weight, from 6 to V obfcure red fpots — Doilal tin has twelve rays, marked 
14 pounds: as the feafn advances, they grad-jally in- 5 with feveral blackid^ fpots — Pedloial fin has twelve 
creafe, to 16 or even 20 lbs. ; and in the months of? rays, of a dufliy olive colour — Ventral fin has eight 
Augiift and September, when the old fifl} begin to * rays, of a filvery white — Anal fin has ten rays, of the 
run, they are cauglit, from 25 to 60 or 70 lbs. weight, j, fame colour. When the fcales were carefully takea 
I therefore conclude, thit, the /rji which left the risers C off with a knife, the obfcure red fpots became of a 
in May, return the full, they continue in the fea till % fine vermilion ; and were nineteen in number, and ten 
they become infelled with the fea lice ; which urge c obfcure oval bars, of a duficy blulth colour appeared, 
them to return to the frcfh water, where they remain, v which croffed the lateral line. 

unlefs taken or deftroyed, till they have fpawned : — X n. b. In a young//>' which has not acquired fcales, 
■whereas the old fidi which have already fpawned, and fl thcfe bars are very diftindl. 

which do not get back to the fea till January, Feb- X !„ the year 1796, the whole of the winter was ex- 
ruary, or March, being ftronger and better able to bear tremely mild and open, it was therefore to be expeaed 
the effcds of the lu:e, do not begin to run up the rivers ' t^^ty- „,„^,y „,i Qn the loth of Febru. 

till the .pawning fea[on again appi caches. Several I j received, fbr the fi.ft time, five/T, but (everal 
cxper.mcms have been made, which prove the rapid ^ „f ^,,^ fiaiermen had taken them upwards of a week 

growth of falmon ; and render it very probable that ^- before The largeft of the five was— 6 -I inches 

tlxey return fVoni the fea nrto thoie very rivers in a j„ length_, inches in circumference, the meal\ire 
which they uv-re fpawned. Threads of coloured filk, C ^^j^^^ ^^ j,,^ beginning of the dorfal fin— weight, 
and piecfs of f.lver wire, have been inferted into the dor- x „ j^s. c; grs. troy. Weighed and meafured after the 
fal fins of yo^ when they were pafhng down the Eden, A ^^ ,^^j ^^^^ twenty-four hours out of the water, 
in ttie months of Apiil and May. I hefe iiih have y _ 
been tetaken, with the filk and wire in their fins, af- V ^ February 23d I examined five, a few hours after 

cending the fame river, in the months of December I '^^^ '"'^f^ '^^'^^n °"^ "^ 't^^ '""'^'■- ^he largcll was 

and January following, which weighed from 8 to to v ~^ -^ *"=''" '° l«"gtl>— 3 '"ches in circumftr- 
or 12 pounds. ence — icdrs 17 grs in weight. The fmalleil was 

I have frequently remarked, that the falmon, when >' 7-3 -F '"^'''^ in length— i | inches in clrciira- 
cut up in the market, during the winter feafon, were \ f"«n"— i drachm 45 grs. in weight.— The othsr 
always, or generally, females. This circumftanc.- ap- \ ''"■'"^ "'^'''^ fomewhat larger than the fmallelL 
pcared to nie fufficiently fingular to require furcher v February 26th I examined a very fmall one, which 

inveftigation. I therefure applied to Mr. Foiler, an \ was 3 \ inches in length 1 i inch in cir- 

iatelligent filhnionger, who affured me that the miu f.JI^ \ cumference — 1 diachm 19 grs. in weight ; the fcalc« 

which run up the Eden, from December to March, y were fcarce perceptible. 

ate all females : that, even during that month very few X February 28th, the largeft of a confiderable nura- 

niales are taken : as a proof of which, he informed her taken this day, was — 7 4 inches in length.— 

me that he cut up above one hundred falmon the third f It was not weighed ; fcales dillinft. 

week of lad March, five of which only weie males. t March 12th, the largeft of a dozen taken this day, 

Moft of the falmon taken before che month of May, \ was — 6 inches, not quite ^ in length — 3 -| inches in 
are fent to London by the ftage coaches ; and if the X circumference — 10 drs, 2gra. in weight ; fcales numer- 
markct is there overllocked, they are then fent to X ous and dillinft. 

Manchefter, Liverpool, and other large towns. In J March 26th one was taken — 8 4- inches in 
the fpring it is fold, in tiie market of Carlide, from X length; pcrfcftly covered with fcales. 
nine pence to one fliilling and fixpence per pound, and in ^- April 6th there was a little fredi in the rivers, and 
the fummer and autumn, it varies from three pence to raoft of the early fpawned/?/ got to the fea. 
fixpence. Formerly it was fo extremely cheap and X April nth one was caught — 8 4- inches in 
plentiful that fcrvants, when they hired themfilves, t length — 3 X inches in circumference — 2 oz. I 
ftipulated widi their mafters that they were not to be '} drachm, in weight. 

obliged to eat fahnon oftentr than two or tl'rce days in X .\pril 14th the largeft of two doren was — 8 inches 
the week. The alteration in the price has now ren- in length — 3 |^ inclies in circumference — 14 ' drs. 

dered fuch agreements unneceCTary. X and 35 grs. in weight. The fmalleft was 3 i- inches 

r. in length — 1 4 inch in circumference. 

AJljort dtfcription c/ a fry, taker: the tqth t)f Ajjri'i, j; April I Sth I examined one, which was — 8 4- inches 
I794> — 7? inches in length — 1\ inc. in circumference. \ in length — ^ inches in circumference — 2 \ oz. and 53 

— Head dark gieen — Gill covers fine filverj'^ white f grains in weight. On the fame day I examined an - 

marked witii a dark coloured fpot — Belly and v other which was — 9 inches in length — 4 4 inches in cir- 
iides, up to tiie lateral line, of the fame colour — X cumference — z oz. 6 drs. and 47 grs. in weight. 
Back and fides, down to the lateral line, duil<y, \ This, when weighed and meafured, was dry and fhriv- 
inclining to green — Sides, above the lateral line, mark- x died 

[ ^^<) ] 

tiled fi'om expofure to fiie fun anj air. HaJ it been X fioin mid April to midfumfner ; on pa'n of liaving tliC 
meafured and weighed immcd'ately after it was taken, j nets and engines burnt, for the fiilt offence ; for the 
it would probably ha>e been -^ of an inch, or neaily, ,< fecond, imprifonment for a quarter of a year; for the 
more in circumference — and ntaily 3 oz. in weight. i- third a whole year ; and as the trefpafs incicaftth, fo 

April 19th I meafured one, almoil immediately af- J fliall the punifliment." Burn"!, vol. 2. f, 

ter it was taken out of the water, but being from home s 302. fouitecnth Edit. 

it was not weighed. It was 8 i^ inches in length j " And by the 33, G. 2. c. 27. Ko perfon fhall 

— 4 inches and rather more than -J- in circumfeiencc. J; take, or knowingly have in his poffcflion, either in the 

Mr. Joieph Bird, of Atmathwaite, informed me X water or on fhnrc, or fell, or e.xpofe to fale, any fpawn, 
that he took ten fry,- on th.e 15th of April, which 5 fryi or brood of till), or any unfizeable fifli, or fiPn out 
weighed 2lb. 2 oz. the average weiglit of each, was i of feafon, or any fmelt, not five inches long : and any 
therefore 3 oz. 3 drs. and 12 grs. and, as they were A perfon may fcize the fame, together with the ba&ets 

not all of the fame fiZ'S the largeft muft confequently package, &c &c." Burn, vol. 2, p. 303. 

exceed that weight. On the 19th he took one, with i Both thcfe ftatutes rcquiie amendment, for neither 
a falmon fly, which was not weighed ; but he is pufitive, ;* of them iuflSciently p'Otedl the brood of falmon.— — 
from its fuj>erior fizt to any of the ten which were weigh- j The firll Rates that nofiy fhall be taken " from mid 
ed, that it muft have been upwards of 4 oz. He further < " April to midlummcr." The fecond, that no Jry 
informed me, that although he had frequently fiflicd c liall be taken " not five inches long. Therefore, in 
above the bay at Armaihwaite, this fpring, he had only y mild open weather a perfon may take, with impunity, 
taken th-ree/^j". Several intelligent anglers have aflured t fry, from the middle of February to the middle of 
me, that, they have frequently taken fry in the monih April, provided he i-cturns all under five inches int» 
of May, which have been above 5 oz. in weight, but x the v.ater ; for we fee that many, even in February, 
they are unable to fpeak accurately with refpeCl to ;; are above fix inches long, 
their leng h. v 52. Gilse. Sulmo err/ix, Lin. Syfl. \. p. 509. «»• 

During the firft week of May, the weather being 1 2. Pen. Zool. 144. — This fpecies frequents our rivers, 
■very favourable for angling, upwards of three hundred \ but is neither fo numtious, nor ever altaii:s the fize of 
■dozen oi fry were taken with the fly, in the Eili, be- J the falmon. The gilfe begin to apptar in June or 
tween Longtown and the mouth of that river. 1 did i July, and continue in the frefh water till they have 
flot, however, hear that any of them were above 9 C fpavvned. They feldom exceed I2lb. in weight; and 
inches in length ; but it is a common obfervation, made y are inferior to the f:iImon in delicacy of flavour. — 
by the fiflienntn who frequent both rivei-s, ihzl fry are t Auguft 6lh the roe of a fmall gilfe, which weighed 
never fo large in the Eflc as they are in the Eden, C 44- pounds, was 4 drs. in weight, 

which is owing, in all probability, to falmon fpawning ^ ^l- Sea Trout. Salim trutta, Lin. Syfl. I. p. 
confidcrably earlier in the latter liver than they do in ^ 509. no. 3, Pen. Zool 145. — The fca trout is very 
the former. y plentiful both in the Efli and the Eden, and appears 

\r\ fry of a large or even moderate fize, the mem- X about the latter end of March or beginning of April, 
branes which contain the milt and roe are very dillinft, ' They vary in fize, from i to 3 or .[. ^ lbs. in weight.— 

but the ova are too minute to be diltinguifhed by the v When they have fpawned they return to the fca 

naked eye. X April 13th there were three in the market. April 

Hitherto, in fpeaking of fry, I have confidered them r, 27th I examined one, which weighed i^ lb. It was 
as the young of the falmon only, but there is no doubt, y a female. The roc weighed 35 grs. the eggs were 
but that many of them are the produce of the gilfe, X fmall, but very diltinft. May 14th I examined a fe- 
fea trout, and whiting, all which fifii fpawn in our mnle — Length 2 i-g- inches — CirciuTrfcrence re-'- inches 
rivers. That fome of them are the young of the whi- X — Weiglit 3^ lbs. The roe weighed 2 drs. and 35 grs. 
ting has been clearly afcertained by experiment, Se- .j The eggs were double the fize of the former. May 
veraly>;, into the fins of which filvcr wire had been 5 2jth I examined the largcll which has yet appeared ire 
inferted, have been taken in the month of July, full X the market, it was a female, and weighed 44 lbs.— - 
Jfized whitings. On the 13th of May all our rivers }, The roe weighed 5 drs. and a few of the eggs were 
were a little fwellcd, which carried almoft all the /ry y nearly as large as a fmall white pea, but 1 apprehend 
uitothe fca, very few being taken after that day. X thefe were in a difeafctl ftate. 

;3ee «ff. 58. Samlit or Branlifi. » June Z2d lire roe of one, vhich weighed 2-I lbs. was 

1' 2 drj. and 5J g'S. in vveight. 

The Legiflature have paffed fevcral afts for the pre- X June 2jlh I examined one which weighed 4 -[-lbs. 
fervation of the breed of falmon. it proved to be a male, and the lirft which I have either 

" No falmon lliall be taken, in the Humbcr, Ouze, % feen or hcaid of this feafon. The milt weighed only- 
Trent, Done, Air, Darwent, Wharfe, Ned, Yore, 'i 54 grs. Hence it appears thiit the females of this 
vSwale, Tefe, Tine, Eden, or any other water whereiir \ fpecie.':, as well as of tlie falmon, ruir up the rivers long 
falmon arc taken, between September 8, and Novcm- > before the males. 

ber 1 1. Nor flrall any young falmon be taken at Mill- j September 3d the milt of one, which weighed 4lbs, 
Pools (nor in other places, 13, R. 2. St. i. c. 19.) y was 3 oz. in weight. 

[ JO ] 

54. Bull Trout. — This fpecies Ins, I believe, ne- X and fo confiderable, as fuddenly to exceed the bulk of 
ver been defcribedby authors, having been confidered by '} the largeft famlet : for example, the fry itiat have quit- 
them as a variety of the fea tiout. AH the fifliermen in x ted the frefh water in the fpring, not larger than gud- 
this county however confider it as a dillincl fpecies,and 5 geons, return into it again a foot or morf in length, 
can diftinguifh it from the former at the firft glance. — ? Thirdlv, the fulmon attain a confiderable bulk before 
The head is thicker than the head of the fea trout, and x they begin to breed : the famlets, on the contrary, are 
It is alfo deeper at the fhoulders. The fcales upon the J found male and female*, (diftinguifhed by the milt 
back are fmaller and not fo numerous. The tail fin is 5 and roe) of their common fize. 

fhorttr, and can fcarcely be faid to be forked. The X Fourthly, They are found in the frefli waters in all 
dead or ballard fin is placed nearer the tail, and further j times of the year,f and even at feafons when the falmon 
from the dorfal fin than in the fea trout. They vary V fry have gained a confiderable fize. It is well known, 
in weight from 2 to 10, and even 2olbs ; but, in ge- X that near Skre-vojbury (where they are cnlled Samfons) 
iiera!, leldom exceed 7 or Slbs. ?■ they are found in fuch quantities in the month of S::p- 

The flefli, when cut, is much whiter than the other ;< tember, that a Hcilful angler, in a coracle, will Jake with 
fpecies, and is very infipid. t a fly from twelve to fixteen dozen in a day. 

^^. Trout. SjAiuo faric, Lin. Syft. \. p. J09. no. C They fpawn in Nove;!iifr and DifCfi/iier, at which 

4. Pen. Zool. 146 This trout inhabits all our rivers i time thofe of the Severn pufh up towards the head of 

■whether great or fmall ; thofe taken in Carn, a fmall 5 that fair river, quitting the leffer brooks, and rtturn 
brook which runs into the Eden, at Warwick, are i into them again when they have done, 
efteemed the beil. Trouts are taken of various fizes, X They have a general refemblance to the trout, there- 
from 1 oz. or under, to 3 or 4 lbs. in weight. 5 fore muft be defcribed comparatively. 

^6. Ullswater Trout or Grey Trout. Salmo jj Firft, The head is proportionably narrower, and the 

lacujiiii, Lin. Syft. 1. p. 510. no. 6 This fpecies is, X mouth lefs than that of the trout. 

1 believe found no where in Cumberland, except in the Secondly, Their body is deeper. 

lake from whence it takes its name. Some fpecimens V Thirdly, They feldom exceed fix or feven inches in 

of this trout are faid to weigh between 50 and 60 lbs. X length : at moft, eight and a half 

For a more particular account, fee vol. I. i\rt. Ullf- Fourthly, The peftoial fins have generally but one 

water. X large black fpot, though fometimes a fingle fmall one 

57. Whiting. Pen. Zool. 147 — ^This fpecies is '; attends it ; whereas the peflotal fins of the trout are 
very plentiful both in the Eden and the Eflc, but is 5 more numeroufly marked. 

fcarcc both in the Caldew and the Peteril. They be- i lifthly, The fpurious or fat fin on the back is never 
gin to afcend the rivers in June or July, where they jf, tipped with red ; nor is the edge of the anal fin white, 
continue till they have fpawned. July Qth, I, for the y Sixthly, The fpots on the body are fewer, and not 
firfl; time, faw whitings in the maiket. July i6th 1 X fo brighr. 

examined one, this day, which weighed 13 oz. It was p It is alfo marked from the back to the fides with 
a female, the eggs were very diftinft, and the roe v fix or feven large blnith bars ; but this is not a certain 
was 37 grs. in weight. Augufl 24th I examined one, t charafter, as the fame is fometimes found in young 
which was a female, it was — in length 14 inches — '; trouts. 

circumference 7 4 inches — weight i lb. averdupois «' Seventhly, The tail of the famlet is much more 

The roe weighed i drachm 10 grains. The head is s forked than that of the trout. 

green, gill covers filvery white. Back from the head 'Ji Thefe fi(h are very frequent in the rivers oi Scotland, 
to the beginning of the dorfal fin a(h colour, the rell k where they are called Pan. They are alfo common 
of the fifh is covered with fine white filvery fcales. — ; in the IVye, where they are known by the name of 
They vary in fize, from 6 oz. to upwards of lib. ? Skirli):^s, or Lafprings." 

58. Br.^nlin or S.-iMLST. Pen. Zool. 148. — As \ To the above I (hail add, that a'moft all the anglers 
this fifh is, in general, confidered by the filhermen in ^, in the neighbourhood of Carli.le alledge : 

this county to be the fry of the falmon, I think it if I. That all the branlins they kill (and immenfe 
will not be altogether improper to tianfcribe the whole X numbers are killed every year) from the month of 
of what Mr. Pennant fays upon the fubjeft. 4 Mjy to Augiid, though they differ in fize, are fn.a'l. 

" The famlet is the lead of the trout kind, is fre- i 2. That all they kill during September and Odo- 
quent in the Wye, in the upper part of the Sezerri, and ; ber are large, or have acquired their full fize. 
the rivers that run into it, in the north of Eir^laiid, j What becomes of the old branlin-t, tiicy afl<, during 
and in Wales. It is by feveral imagined to be the fry X the fpring and a confiderable part of the fumraer ? 
of the falmon ; but our reafons for dilfenting from J .. . h has been vulgarly imagined, that there were no other 
that opinion are thefe : v than males of this fpecies." 

Firft, It is well known that the falmon fry never X + Mr. Pennant here labours under an error, for, if the wea- 

ou5 as 
all ran 

fweeps them into the fea, and leaves fcarce one bi hind. ^ rivers Uuring the months of March and April' 
Sec. ndly, The growth of the falmun fry is fo cpick,^ Admitting 

[ 3^ ] 

Admitting thtTe to be fafts, I account for them la i The eleftion for the city of Carlifle foon after co. 
the following manner. The old branlins begin to de- ming on; people's minds were fo much engaged in the 
pofit their fpawn in December, and continue fpawning X conteft that angling was not thought of, I therefore 
the whole of that month, and perhaps fome part of X had no opportunity of feeing any branlins till June 
January. i- 24th, on that day by accident I met with a perfon 

As this fcafon of the year is not favourable for ang- X who had jult begun to filTi, and had taken a fingle one 
ling, confequently few or no obfervations arc made j which was alive. — Lergth <; -^ inches. — Circumference 
during theft months. v 2 inches ^ ^nd |-. — Weight 6 drs. 4 grs. 

As loon as they have fpawned they retire, like the X July 2d I exi:mined twelve Branlins. The lar- 

falmon, to the fea, where tliey renvaia till the autumn geft of which was. — In length 6 ^ inches. — Circum- 
whcn they again return to the rivers. y ference 3 -} inches. — Weight 9 drs. 32 grs. The 

The fpawn depolited by the old branlins in the fand, J fmalleft of which was. — In length 5 ^ inches. — Cir- 
begin to exclude the young or y^v, according to the y cumference 3 -^- inches. — Weight 6 drs. 2 gts. — Eight 
temperature of the feafon, either in April, or May. — X ot thefe were ma'es, four were females. 
Theyoung branlins remain in the rivers where they were ^ July 4th I examined twenty-four, none of which. 

fpawned during the whole of the fpiing, f-mimer,and au- 5 were above 6 inches in length. The fmalleft was. 

tumn, and do not acquire their full fiy.e till the autumn, ); — In length 4 ^ inches. — Circumference 24- inches, 
about wiiich time the old ones return from the fea. — ^ — Weight 4 drs. and 37 grs. — Nine of thefe were 
Hence it is evident, that although there are branlins of 5 males, fourteen were females. 

various fizes in the fpring and fore part of the fummer, X July 6th I examined twelve, the largeft of whlcli, 
there will be no very large ones till the autumn, when and 1 was affiired it was the largeft of 12 doz. taken 
the young ones have nearly acquired their full fize, 2 by one man this day, was. — In length 6 ^ inches.^ 
and the old ones have returned to aflbciate with their X Circumference 3 4a"d4 inches. — Weight 12 drs. and 
offspring. j 52 grs Four of thefe were males, and eight were 

3. That in the month of Oftober, although they X females. 
kill fevtral males full of milt, they kill no females full n July 9th, The largeft of nine dozen taken yefter- 
of roe. V day wa.s. — In length 7 ^ inches. — Circumference 4 4- 

This alfertion I do not admit to be true to its full ? inches — Weight 2 oz. i drachm and 35 grains — 
extent. 1 have examined fevcral branlins in the latter Of thefe nine dozen I examined thirteen ; four of 
end of the fummer and found they contained roe, and y thefe were males, and nine were females. 
in the month f Oitober I have feen fume which con- i July 26th I examined a branlin,the only one I have 
tained roe fo large and turgid, that I am perfuaded it 5 feen fince the 9th, the rivers being fo much fwelled 
would, if weighed, have proved heavier than fome ^ few or none have been taken, — It was 6 -|- inches 
young branlins which are taken in the latter end of ;■ in length, and was a male, the milt was large and 
May. I mult, however, acknowledge, that in the y weighed 40 grs. 
months of vScptember and Oftober infinitely more )( Auguit 3d I examined twelve, none of which were 

males full of milt are taken than females full of roe. — I 7 inches long. The fmalleft was. — In length 5 ^ 

This is undoubtedly a curious faft, and I can only ac- y inches. — Circumference 2 -l- inches. — Weight 6 dis. 

count for it, by fuppofing that the milt of the male ^ and 12 grs Four were males, eight were females.— 

becomes full and turgid 3 confiderable lime before the j The largeft roe weighed 4 grs. — The largeft milt 
roe of the female. { weighcj 40 grs. — The fmalleft milt weighed 5 grs. 

A Jhort Difcriplirm of a eranlin. Head green V Augull4th, The fmalleft of fevcral dozen taken this 

and afh colour. Gill-covers tingeil with a pale variable ^ day was. — In length 3^ inches. — Weight I drachm 

green and purple, and marked with a round dark co- y and 2 fciuples. 

loured fpot, in fome fpecimens there are two of thefe « Augull I7lh I examined ten, the whole which a 

fpots on each gill-cover. Back and fides down to the fifherman had taken. The largcll was. — In length 

lateral line, duflty and marked with numerous dark X 7 t inches. — Circu.'ntcrence 4 \ inches. — Weight 2 4- 

coloured fpots. Belly white. Along the lateral line \ oz. and 13 grs. The fmalleft was — In length 3 \ 

there are from fixteen to thirty bright vermilion co- j inches. — Weight i drachm and 38 grs — The milt of 
loured fpots. \ the largeft weighed 2 drs. and 5 grs. — Six of thefe 

The fides are marked with nine or ten oval bars, of j were malts and four were females. 
a dull<y bluifti colour. 5 Augnft 26th I opened 3 do/, none of which were 

Dorfal fin has twelve rays marked, with a few duflty X either very large or very fmall. — Seventeen were males, 
fpots.- Perioral fin has thirteen r3ys,vcntral fin has nine, ' and nineteen were females. 

and the anal fin has ••ight rays: colour of all thefe V Augull 27th, Of fix dozen taken this day, the lar- 
iins inclining to yellow. — Tail much forked. t geft was under 2oz. and the fmalleft weighed i drachm 

May 23d 1796. The largeft of twelve was. — In S and 54 grs. — I opened forty-one of them, twenty-fix 
length 5 inches \ and 4- — Circumference 3 inches. — X were males and 15 were females. 

Weight fix drachms 35 grs. troy. The fmalleft was. j September ift, Of fevcral doz<n taken this day.-^ 

■ — In length 4^ inches,— Circumference 2i.— Weight \ The largeft was.— In length 8 \ inches. — Circumfcr- 
^drs. 10 grs. 2 ence 

[ 32 ] 

ence 5 inches. — Weight 3 oz. Ci drachms The X ** Without teeth. 

milt weighed 4 drs. the weight of the filh, independ- ^j 62. GwiniAd or Schelly. 6'.-'/;,v<5 lavaretas, I im 
cnt of the milt, was therefore 3 oz. 2 4- diachms. — X ^y't- '• /■• 5'2. kj. 15. Pen. ZooL 152. — The 
I opened fouiteen of them, nine were males and five X fche'ly, as it is called in Ciimberland, is an inhabitant 
were females. of almuft all our large lakes, and n fo numerous in 

Septt-mber iPth I examined fix, five of which were i Ullfwater, that thoufands of them are fometimes taken 
opened, two were males, 3 were females, tlic fixth | at one draught, — A few of them fometimes leave Ullf- 
weighed l drachm and 45 grs. y water, dcfcend down the river Eamont into the Eden, 

September 29th The largeft of feveral dozen taken X and now and then a folitary one is taken below the 
this day weighed 3 oz. 6 drs. — I opened nineteen of 5 bay at Annathwalte. 
them, ten were males, nine were females. 5 Genus XXXIV. — Pikt. 

During this fummer I opened one hundred and t Definition of the Genus — Upper jaw (horter than 
ninety-eight branlins, and of thefe one hundred were j the lower. — Body long, {lender, comprefFed fidtways. 
males, and ninety eight were females. 5 — One dorfal fin placed neat the tail. 

The largeft /r;' which I have ex:imined, was 9 inches 'i 61. Pike. Efox lucius, Lin. Syll. i. p. 516. «?. J. 
in length, and 4-^ inches in circumference. It was 1 Pen. Zool. 153. — This voraciois fifn is found in almoft 
taken on the 19th day of April. 'f all our lakes and rivets. Ullfwater however is faid not 

The largell branlin which I have examined was 8 -j- n 'o contain it. 
inches in length, and J inchei in circumference. It was J 64. Gaa or Sea Pike. E/bx hehne, Lin. Syft. I. 
taken the I !l day of September. Branlins are therefore v ^. 517. /??. 6. Pen. Zool. 154. — It is now and then 
confiderably thicker in proportion to their length than q taken on our fea ccafts. 
/ry. \j 6). Saury Pike or Skipper. — Pen. Zool. 155. 

The printing of this (heet was delayed a confiderable X Genus XXXVII. — Mullet. 
time to give me an opportunity of examining fry, the a Definition of the Genus. — Body and covers of ths 
prefent feafon, viz. 1797, on the 27th of April two \ gills clothed with large fcales. — Six incurvated braii- 
ivere meafured, the firft was 9^ inches, and the fecond ;< chioftegous rays.— Teeth on the tongue and in t!.e 
was 94 inches in length. 5 palate only. 

Branlins, like falmon, attempt to leap over the bay v 66. Mullet. Mugil cephahs, Lin Syft. \.p. 520. 
at Armathwaite, and many are taken there in baflcets \ no. i. Vcn. Zool, 158. — The mullet is a very good 
placed for the purpofe. firti, but is not frequently met with upon our coafts.— 

Fry never atiempt to leap over that bay. There was one in the market in the beginning of June 

If the weather be mild and open in Januaiy and K which weighed two pounds. 
February, bian'ins are taken when retiring to the fea i Genus XXXVIII. — Flying-fiJJj. 
with empty bellies, and in a weak emaciated condition, 'i Definition of the Genus. — Head covered with fcaks. 
In fiiort we fee branlins of various fizes, we fee them a — Pciitoral fins almoft as long as the body, 
with milt and roe in various ftages. and we fee them .^ 67. Flying-fish. Exocoetus volitans, Lin. Syil. 
perfectly empty, all which circumftances clearly prove}! r p. 520. no. i. Pen. Zool. 159. — One of thefe 
that they are a diftinft fpecies. | fifli was taken at Caermarthen, m the year 1765, 

y which Mr. Pennant, when he publilhed his Zoology, 
59. Chap.r. Salmo alpriui, Lin. Syft. I. p. 510. X fays is the o.^ly one that was ever found upon the 
1!}. 8. Pen. Zool. 149. — Charr, which is elleemed J britifti coafts. Another was feen at Allonby laft Sep. 
the moft delicate of all the fifti of this genus, is to be x tembcr by Mr. Chancellor Carlyle when he was ba;h- 
found in no part of England except in the counties of I ing. It was near the fhore, and upon the furface of the 
Cumberland and Weftmoiland. It is almoft a conftant i water, and came «ithin a yard of him. 
inhabitant of lakes, feldom or ever afcending the rivers X Genus XXXIX. — Herring. 
to depofit its fpawn. I Definition of the Genus. — Eight branchioftegous 

They are found In Ullfwater and Ennerdale lake, v rays. — The belly extremely (harp, and often ferrated. 
but are moll plentiful inWinandermere in Weftmotland, A 68. Herring. Clupea harengus, Um. Syft. i. /. 
where large quantities aie ann-ually taken, and when h 522. no. r. Pen. Zool. 160 Upwards of twenty- 
potted are fcnt to almoft every part of the kingdom v years ago herrings frequented the Cumberland coafts 

A full grown charr Is about ten inches in length, and, X in fuch immenfe numbers, that large buildings were 
if taken in feafon, weighs about 10 oz. i erefted at -.llonby and Skinburncfs, for the purpofe of 

y curing them. Of late years, however, they have 
60. Grayling. Salmo thmallus, Lin. Syft. i. />. X vifited us irregularly, and only in fmall quantities, fo 
512. na. 17. Pen. Zool. 150. — The grayling is now C that thefe buildings have been converted to other pur- 
and then taken, but not very frequently, I believe, X pofcs. It is pretty evident they leave the northern 
both in the Eden and Elk. i regions for the purpofe of fpawning only, and not in 

6t. SrviELT or Sparling. Salmo epeflanus, Lin. y queft of food, as they are univerfally obferved to be 
Syft. I. p. 511. no. 13. Pen. Zooh i;i — The fmelt " fat and full of roe and milt upon their firft approach, 
is a beautiful fi(h and frequents our ftiorcs, but I am \. and lean and empty upon their return. 
Uneeitain whether it fpawns in bur rivers or not. \ 6a. 

[ 33 ] 

6^. Pilchard, Pen. Zoal. i6i. — The pilchard X i. Pea Crab, Cancer pifum, I,in. Syft, j. pars 
greatly relembles the hening, in its form, iize and man- ii. p. 1639. '«5. 6, Pen. Zool. i. — Inhabits the 
ners, but is feldoin met with on our coalls. v muffel. 

70. Shad. Cltipea ahfa, Syil. I. p. 523. no.\ 2. Minute Crab. Cc!::cer jninulus, Lio. oyft. I. 
5. Pen. Zool. 164. — This is by much the largeft y /'''v ii. /. 1040. «<?. 8. Pen, Zool. 2. 

Ipecies of this genus, fometiincs weighing 7 cr 8 lbs, i 3. Long Horned Crab. Cancer kn^kornh, Lin." 

but wliat I have lecn have not exceeded Albs, May X Syll. I, pars ii. /. 1040, no. 10. Pen. Zool. 3. 

28ih I favv one in the market which weighed 4 lbs. — J 4. Common Crab. Cancer aaeiuTs, Lin. Syll. i. 

It was taken in the Eden, near Cargo, in the falmon I pars ii. p. 1043, no. 22. Pen. Zool. 5. 

nets. It was a male and the milt was very large. — j 5. Black-clawed, Crab. Caar^r pagurus, Lin. 

When tlie mouth is opened the infidc of the gills have v Syil. 1. pars ii. p. 1044. ""• ^T- ^'^"- Zool. 7. 

a very beautiful appearance. Mr Pennant lays the X 6. Bristly Crab. Cancer hirtellui, Lin. Syft. l, 

middle rays of the dorlal fin ire the longeft, which is j pan ii. p. 1045. no. 32. Pen. Zool. 1 I. 

probably an error of the piefs, for they are the fhorteft, 'I 

as his plate reprelcnts them to be. X Cylindric body. — LoniT antennx. — Long tail. 

y 7. I^OBSTER. Cancer g.^.mii'.ar us, Lin. Syft. I . /ijr/ 

GcNtjs XL. — Carp. X ii- /• 1050. w. 62. Pen. Zonl. 21. 

Dciinition of the Ger.iu. — Tl.e mouth w'thout X 8. Crawfish. Cancer ajlacus, Lin. Syft. \. pars 

teeth. — Three bvanchioilegons rays. — One dorfal fin. ii, />. lojl./w. 63, Pen. Zool. 27. — In this fpecies 

* With bearded mouths. v ftony concretions called crabs eyes, ate frequently 

71. Carp. Ciprinus carplo, Lin. Syft. i. p. 52 J. \ found. They are about the fize of the common white 
710. 2. Pen. Zool, 165. — I'he carp is not a native of' pea, but are nearly flat on one fide. 

this illand, and indeed can only be confidcred at prefent X 9- Prawn. Cancer ferratus. Pen. Zool. 28. 
asapondfilh. They can exitt a confiderable time out J 10. Shrimp. Cancer grangon, lAn. Syft. \. pars 
of water. Tarn Wadalyne, a piece of water belong- C ii. ^. 1052. no, 67, Pen. Zool. 30. 
ing to William Milbourne, Efq. contains the largeft y II- Flea Lobster. Cancer pulex, Lin. Syft. i. 
cai-p of any in this county. i pars \\, p. 10^^. no 81. Pen. Zool. 33. 

72. Tench. Cyprinus trinca, Lin. Syft. t. p. ^26, 12. I.ocust Lobster. Cancer locufla, Lin. Syft, 
no. 4, Pen. Zool. 167. X 1. pars ii. p. 1055, ȣ>. 82, Pen. Zool. 3^. 

73. Roach. Cyprinut rittilus, Lia. Syft. I./. 529. J 

710. \ 6. Pen. Zool. 172. ^ xxxxxx 

** Without beards. 

74. Chub or Skelly. Ciprinus cephalus, Lin. X CLASS VI WORMS. 

Syft. ►. />. 527. «<7. 6. Pen. Zoo). 175 — The fl<elly 5 DIV. I. — Intcfllne. — Animals of a Cmple formj 
is plentiful in aimoft all our rivers and frequents deep naked and witlxiut limbs, 
holes : in warm weather it lies near the furface under V 

the (hade of a tree. School boys make a pafte of j Genus 1. Hair Worm. 

bread and fomc narcotic vegetable, which they throw Uefinition of the Genus. — With a filiform bodyj 
into the holes in the river where they frequent, which X of equal thickntfs ; fmootli. 

the flcelly greedily devours and foon becomes intoxica- ,} 13. Water Hair Worm. Gordias aquatkus, Lin. 
ted, by which means they take great numbers. v Syft. f. pars ii. p. 1075, ?io. i. Pen. Zool. 1. 

75. MiNOW. Cyprinus phoxinus, Lin. Syft. i. p. t 14. Clay Hair-Worm. Gorditis arnillaceu!, Lin. 
528. 1:0 10. Pen. Zool. 177 The mir.ow is plenti- " Syft. 1. pars ii. p. 1075. no. 2, Pen. Zool. 2. 

ful in all our rivers. X 15. Marine Hair-Worm. Gordius marinus, Lin. 

76. Golden Fish. Cyprinus aurattit, Lin. Syft. I Syft. i. pars ii. p. 107,-. no. 4 Pen. Zool. 3. In- 

I. p. 527. no. 7. Pen. Zool. 178. — Thefe beautiful habits the inteftines of feveral kinds of fiih. 

fifti are kept as a curi;ifity in many gentlemen's houfts, X 

in glafs veftels, and if properly taken care of, thrive I Csnus II — /tfcarii. 

well and multiply, ':,_ Definition of the C<?«j«,— Slender filifijrm body,: 

f attenuated at each end. 
xxxx>tfxxxxx I 16. Vermicular AscARiDis. /?/frtr//ffr?«/Wa/-//, 

X Mn, Syft. 1. pars ii. p. 1076. no. i. Pen, Zool. 4 , 

CLASS V CRUSTACEOUS ANIMALS. X Inhabits the inteftines of men and hoifes. 

){ 17. Common Ascaridis. Jfcaris lunihricoidcs. 

Genus I Crah. X Lin. Syft. i. /.ar/ ii. />. 1076 «a. 2. Pen. Zool, 5 

Definition of the Genus. — With eight or ten feet ; | Inhabits the human inteftines. 
rarely fix. — Two of th- feet clawed — Two eyes, re- v. 

mote ; for the moft part fixed on a ftalk, moveable. — \ Genus 111 Earth-Wortn. 

Tail fohated, and Ihort, lodged in a groove in the Definition of the Gc«///.— Slender annulatcd bod)?, 
fco'^y- \ furniftied with a lateral poie. 

[ 34 ] 

iS. Common EaRTH-WoRM. Za»!l/-;Vw //rr^r;>, X 29. Great Snail. Limax tnaxinai, Uin. ^jh. I, 
Li'n. Syft. I. pars ii. /. 1076. no. i. Pen. Zool. 6. — '^ pars ii- ^. 1081. ;:5. 4. Pen. Zoo!. J 8. 
Inhabits the common foil, and alfo the bi.rian inteftines. V 30- Garden or VV^hite Snail. Liviax a^rejfii, 

19. Sea-Worm. Lumbricu; viarimu, Lin. Sjft, i. y Lin. Syft. 1. pars ii. />. 1082. w«. 6. Pen. Zool. 19. 
pars ii. p. 1077. «o. 2. Fen. Zool. 7, X 31. Ysllow Snail. Limax f.ivur, Lin. Syft. 1, 

^ pars ii./". 10S2. ;<«. 7. Pen. Zocl. 20. 

Genus IV Fluke-Worm. X 

Dshnition of the Genus- — Flattifh body ; a pore at ■< Genus XI — Aphrodite or Sea Moufe. 
the extremity, and on the belly. v Dtiinition of the Genus Body oval ; numbers of 

20. Liver Fluke-Worm. Fafciola hpatica, Lin. t fafcictili, ferving the ufesof feet, on each fide. — Mouth 
Syft. I. pars u. p. J 077. no. I. Pen. Zool. 8. — In- ft cylindtic, retraftile, placed at the extremity. — Two 
habits the livers of Hieep and hares. In rotten {heep, y fetaceouo feelers. 

the liver fwarms with them. X 32. Aculeated Sea-Mouse. /Iphrodita aculeata, 

21. Intestinal Fiuke-Worm. Fafciola ;>/?,'?/- § Lin. Syft. \. pars i\. p. 108.1. «5. I. Pen. Zool. 25. 
7ialis, Lin. Syft. I. /^i^/-^ ii. />. 1078. /w. 2. Pen. Zool. X 33. Annulated Sea-Mouse. Pen. Zocl. 28. 
9. — Inhabits the inteftines of frefti water fifh. .5 

Genus XII — Nereis. 

Genus V. — Tiile Worm. i Definition of the Gerius. — Oblong flender body 

Definition of the Genus — A flender lengthened 5 Feet formed like a pencil of rays, and numerous on 
body. — Mouth at the ver)- end ; attenuated cyiindric. J each fide. — Mouth at the extremity unguiculated.— 
— Aperture on the fide of the body. i Feathered feelers above the mouth. 

22. Naked Tube-Worm. Siput:culus nudus, Lin. ■>, 34. Nereis Noctilucous. Nereis noctiluca, Lin, 
Syft. I. pars ii /. 1078. no. I. Pen. Zool. 10. Syft i. pars ii. /. 1085. no. i Pen. Zool 30. — 

t Thefe animals which in the day time are too fmall to 
Genus VI. — Leech. <■} be feen by the naked eye, illuminate the fea in the 

Definition of the Genus. — Body oblong ; moves by x night. 

dilating the head and tail, and raifing the body into an j 

arched form. v Genus XVI Salmon Loufe. 

23. Medicinal I>e£ch. Hirudo medicinalis, Lin. X Definition of the Genus. — Body oblong, roundilli; 
Syft. I. pars ii /. 1079. no. 2. Pen. Zool. 11 — In- ; afSxes itfelf toother animals by its tentacula. — Thorax 
habits ftanding waters, and is diftinguidied from the v heart fiiapcd. — Two, fometimes three feelers in the 
horfe leech by fix yellow lines. .* form of arms. 

24. Horse Leech. Hirudo fanguifuga, Lin. Syft. :) 35. Salmon Louse. Lermca fnlmonea, Lin. Syft'. 
J. pars ii. p. 1079. no. 3. Pen. Zool. 12. 'i i. pan ii. p. IC93. "*• 3' f^"* ^"ol- 4*. — Infefts 

25. Geometrical Leech. Hirudo geometra, Lin. *. the bodirs of falmon while they remain in the fea, but 
Syft. I. pars ii. p. 1080. no. 8. Pen. Zool. 13. — .^11 5 are foon deftroyed by the frefli water. 

thefe leeches inhabit ponds and lakes. X 

\ Gi^^sXWU.— Cuttle. 

Genus Vll--//^. $ Definition of the G^««j.— Eight arms placed round 

Definition of the Gr^«/.— Slender body, carinated V tj^e mouth, with fmall concave difcs on their infides.— 
beneath.— Mouth at the extremity, ccrrated.— The i( Qften two long tentacula— Mouth formed like a horny 
two jaws pinnated.— An adipofb or raylel^ fin "ound beak.— Eyes placed beneath the tentacula.— Body 
the tail, and under the bcUy. ^ „ >! fleftiv, a ftieath for the breaft.— A tube at the bafe of 

26. Glutinous Hag. Myxine ghtinoja, Lin. Syft. X ,jjg j'^u 

■i parsVup. 1080. «.. 1. Pen Zool. 15.— Inhabits^ 6_ Great Cuttle. Sepia loli^o, Lin. Syft. 1. 
the fea, and enters the mouths of fifh winch are taken x p^^s ii. p. 1096. no. 4. Pen. Zool' 43. 
by hooks and lines, and devours the whole except Ikin .^ ^„_ £,^„.^ ^^^^^ Cuttle. Sepia octopodia, Lin. 
^•"^ ''°"^- >; Syft. 1. pars ii. p. 1095. '•'• '• Pen. Zool. 44. 

T-n-ir TT TiTii r rn a • 1 f r if v 38. Officinal Cuttle. Sepia officinalis, Lin. 

DIV. n.-M.//«/a,/y?.— Animals of afimplc form, ^ gylt, i. pars ii. *. 1095. no. 2. Pen. Zool. 47.— The 
without a fiiell, furniflicd with members, naked. v ^^^^^ fp^^,^^ ^^^^ ^ui{n^A or alarmed, emit a black 

Genus VIII. — Slug or Snail. v liquor refembling ink. 

Definition of the Genus. — Oblong body ; attenu.ited x 
towards the tall. — Above is a flefhy buckler, formed X Genus KVIII. — Sea Gellies. 

ccnvexly, flat beneath A lateral hole on the right J Dcrinition of the Genus. — Body gelatinous, otb'« 

fide for its genitals, and difcliarge of excrements. — X cular, convex above ; flat or concave beneath — Mouth 
Four horns or feelers above the mouth. r beneath in the middle. — Tentacula placed below. 

27. Black Snail. Z,/V/.'a.x a/cr, Lin. Syft. i. /^/-j v 39. Brown Sea Gelly. Medufa fufca. Pen. 
ii. p. 1081. ns. I. Pen. Zool. 16. X Zool. 48. 

28. Brown Snail. Limax rufus. Lin. Syft. I. £ 40. Purple Sea Gelly. Medufa purpura, Pen. 
fttrs V\. p. 1081. no. 3. Pen. Zool. 17. j Zool. 49. 41. 

■ r 35 3 

4.1. ToBERcrtATED Si A. GfLLY. IfLdi'fa iuher-t 5^. Painters Gaper. Mya fifloritin, Lin. Syft. 

cuiata. Pen. Zool. 50. \ I- /".'J ii- /■• 1 1 12- «»• 28. Pen. Zoo'. 17, 

42. Waved Sea Gellv. Mi.iufa unduhta. Pen. l r^. Peam Gaper. Mya inargaritiftra, Lin. Syft. 

"Zool. 51. 5 I. /'»'■.' ii- A 1 112. no. 29. Ptn. Zool. 18 This 

4^. Luxated Sea Gelly. Mcdufa lunulata. Pen. 5 Tpecies is faid to inh.ibit the river Irt. It is alfo found 

Zool. 52. i' fometiines in the Irtliing. Pearls aie frequently found 

44. Armless Sea Gellv.'hx, Pen. X in it. 

Zool. 5 5. — Thefe animals inhabit our fcas, and fome of j ^, „ 

them ifiiandled.affca the fidnfomewhat like nettles, & i S^^'^'-'} ^ '—^\'"^''''' 

others when n.bbed upon wood, emit a bright light, t ^ D^fi"'""" »/ the G«;w.-Tts ammal an afcid.a.— 

X A bivalve ; oblong open at both ends. — At tne hinge, 
Genus XIX.— .?^^ Star. \ ! f"'>"lated toojh turned back, often double ; not in- 

Definition of the G^«:w.— Depreffed body, covered X f^'^'d '" tl'e cppolite fhell. , . ^ „ 

with a coriaceous coat, furnilhed « ith five or more rays, ? .. ^G- ^-^^"^ ^'od- SoUnJihqua, Lm. Syft. I. /^rr 

and numerous rctraftile tentacula.— Mouth in the cen- t "• t>- • " 3- '•'• 34- P'^"- f ""'• 2^'-. 

. X 57. KaZOR tjHEATH. iolstl VagiKil, LlH. bytt, I, 

• ' »FIve-rayed. ' pars ii. p. 1 H^. no. ■^^. Pen. Zool. 21. 

45. Common Sea Star. AJ^crla, ^laclalU, Lin. 5 58;. Scvmeter Razor. 5./.«.«/r, Lm. Syft. i. 
Sya. ii. ^ IC99. «• S- P«- Z°°l- 54- '.^'"'' "' ^- '"'^- "^^ 35- P^"^ Z""!- "• _ „ , 

45. Cancellated Sea Star, yffena, dathrata, ? 59- Pei-lucid Razor. Sd^n pdluadm, Pen. Zool. 
Pen. Zcol. 5 J. X 2S' 

**With more five rays. j| GenUs VI — Tellina. 

47. Tev-ravuD Sea Star. Jfjierlat decasneniDSt'i Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a tcthys.— . 
Pen. Zool. 71. ^ A bivalve, generally floping down on one fide — Three 

V teeth at the hinge. 

Genus XX. — Echinus. X 60. Depressed Tellina. Te'.lina deprtjfa. Pen. 

Definition of the Genus. — Body covered with a fu- y Zool. 27. 
tured crult, often furniflied with moveable fpines. — f 61. Plain Tellina. Tellina planata, Lin. Syft. 
Month quinquevalve, placed beneath. X i. pars \i. p. 11 17. nc/. 52. Pen, Zool. 29. 

48. Eatable Echinijs. Echinus efcukntut, Lin. 62. Rayed Tellina. Tellina radiata, Lin. Syft. 
Syft. I. pars ii. p. 1 102. no. I. Pen. Zool. 74. "i I. pars ii. p. 1117. vo. 54. Pen. Zool. 30. 

49. CoRDATtD Echinus. Echinus fpatagus, Lin. i^' 63. Flesh coloured Tellina. Tellina carnaria, 
Syft. I. pars ii. p. 1104. no. 12. Pen. Zool. 75. ^ Lin. Syft. ii. p. in 9. no. 66. Pen. Zool. 32. 

j( 64. HornyTellina. Tellina ornca, Lin. Syft. 

DIV. Ill Shells. — Worms of the foft kind, and ft I. pars ii. p. 1 1 20. no. 72. Pen. Zool. 36 — Inhabit! 

fimple nuke, commonly covered with a calcareous habi- v ponds and frefti waters, 
tation. X 

t- Genus VII.' — Cockle. 
DIV. I. — Mullivalve Shells. X Definition of the Genus. — Tts animal a tethys.— . 

Genus II. —!iacle. c. Bivalve, nearly equilateral, equivalve. — Two teeth near 

Definition (,f the Gi?;;,v/. — Tts animal the triton.' — C the beak, a larger (placed remote) on each fide; 
The ftieil multivalve, unequal, fixed by a ftem, orfeflil. ^ each locking into the oppoGte. 

50. Common Barnacle. Lepas balanus,Uia.Sy&. g 65. Edible Cockle. Cardium eduk, Lin. Syft. i, 
t. pars ii. p. WO"], fio. to- Pen. Zool. 4. j pars ii. p. 1^2^. no. go. Pen. Zool. 41. — Cumberland 

51. Bell Barnacle. Lepas tintir.iiahulum, Lin. a cockles are fmall, and of an inferior quality to thofc 
Syft. I. pars ii. />. i io8. no. 12. Pen. Zool. 8. \ found on the Lancafhire ftiores. 

52. Anatiferous Barnacle. Lepas anatijera,^ 

Lin. Syft. \. pars \\. p. II09. no. 18. Pen. Zool. 9. X Genus VIIT — Mafira. 

— Thcte animals adheie to rocks, different kinds of J Definition of the Genus. — Its animal A tethys.—. 
fhell filh. pieces of wood, fhips bottoms, &c. and were X Bivalve, uncqnal fided, equivalve — Middle tooth com- 
once abfuidly imagined to produce that fpccies of duck X plicated, with a little concavity on each fide, and the 
called barnacle. 5 lateral teeth remote, mutually received into each other. 

X 66. SiMPitf, Mactra. j'17(7i?/-<77?«//»r!<»';, Lin. Syft. 

DIV. fl Bivalve Shells. X i. pars ii. p. 1 126. no. 99. Pen. Zool. 42. 

GhNus IV Gaper. y 67. Strong Mactra. Alafha filida, Lin. Syft. 

Definition of the Genus. — Its animal an afcidia. — y i. pars ii. p. 1 1 26. no. 100. Pen. Zoo), 43. 
A bivalve fliell gaping at one end. — The hinge, for i 

the moft part, furnifiicd with a thick, ftrong, and broad v Genus X. — Venus. 
tooth, not inferted into the oppofite valve. X Definition of the Genus. — Its animal 3 tethys.— 

53. Abrupt Gaper. Mya truncata, Lin. Syft. I. Hinge with three teeth near to each other, one placed 
/>arj ii. /I. 1 1 ) 2. «e. 26. Pen. Zool. 14. ;( longitudinally, and bent outwards. 68f 

[ 36 ] 

"68. Wrinkled Venus. Venur mgoft, Pen. Zool. X HIV . 11^ .—Uiiivahe JIkUj . — With a regular fpJrt, 

•>"', „. ,, jr T 1 T> "7-,,! ., 5 Genus XVII. — GoivrL'. 

6q. Waved Venus, f eirus undata, Fen. Zool. ci. X ,-,£•• c ■ r- i. -in ot n 

^ ' »" X Dehmlion of the C«;;</. — Its animnl a llug. — Shtll 

_ ^j J i fuboval, hUiiit at eacli e:i i. — The aperture the length 

Oenus XI.— .f/va. • , , ,t , 6 of the fhell. longitudinal, linear Toothed. 

Definition of the dnus. — Its animal a tetliys. — .< „ /- <-• r^ . .. j- t r • 

_,,,,., . , n^ ^ r .1 1 ■ V 8i. Common (jov.'rie. L\bnsa peaicului, Iao., 

Shell, bivavr, equivalve. — T ecth ot the lunge nuraer- j . '/ t> -7 i o, 

.\- , , ' , .L A Syll. I. /■arr 11. />. ii8o. «5. 36J.. Pen. Zool. 82. 

ous, inferted between each other. t 

70. iJiLVERY Arca. Area nucleui, I-in. Syft. I. X , 

' .. . o D 'T- 1 i Genus Xa. — l-l'helk. 

fan u. *. 114'J. «J. 184. Pen. Aool. 59. v „ ^ . . <■ 1 /-■ i» • i p a 

' ■'^ ^-^ ^ -'^ A Definition ol the G?';«j-. — Its animal a fiug Aper- 

,, .J,,, n If ^ V ture oval, ending in a fhort canal. 

Genus XII. — hcallop. n a \\ fir r> • / x-;/ » • on. 

!::,.. r .1 /-. i4 • I » .1 „ A 82. Massy Whelk. Buccmum Idt: bi\., Lm. Syft. 

Definition of the Len-.u. — Its animal a tethys. — Q .. e- -c, •-/ ^ i 

r,, „ , • , 1 111- » .1 1 r u ■ ,01. /lar/ 11. *. 1202. no. 467. Pen. Zool. So. 

Shell bivalve, unequal — ' hs lunge toothleis, having a ^ ^ ^ t^ ' . f _ , 

- „ , , ,1 ' o ^, g._ Wavfd Whelk. Buccinwi untlatum, Lin. 

imall ovated hollow. C n i ^ ■• jl . ,, . -- i>^„ '7„ 1 „^ 

„ o /^,3 • I ■ c a A Sy t. . /iij?.; n. p. 1204. ;?«. A7C. ren. Zool. 00. 

71. Great Scallop. O/Z^-c^r tnaxi"2j, Lin. bylt. v '„ / ^ ,„ ^ A'-" . ^ . , ^ d._ 

' .. o T> '7 1 <. V 84. bxRiATEO Whelk. Buccinutn Jtriatum, ren» 

II. pars 11. *. 1 144. «'■ iS?- Pen- Zoul. 61. ■' rr , j ' 

»T ' o /->/i T • K Zool. 01. 

72. Variegated Scallop. UJirea varia, Lin. 1 „ r> -iir » • .• / . 

Syl. I. /v7r/ 11. i. 1146. «. 199. Pen. Zool. 64. V » • c n . •■ . -„ -/: d '71 

■' ,(, c n,i J. /: 1 ;„ c„n v Lin. Sytt. i.turj 11. *. 1204. ««. 476. Pen. Zool. 

73. Writhed Scallop. OJfrc'a pu/.'o, Lin. bylt. X ]•■ r r t ti 

1. pars ii. p. 1146. 1:0. 200. Pen. Zool. 65. ^ ^if o 1*7 d ■ • , t> 

"^ -.-.r c a r^ urit D„„ v 1 /c^ ". 86. Small Whelk. Biicciiium mtnututn, rcn. 

74. Worn bCALLOP. Pi-a.''acfi/o/;/«i, Pen, Zool. Co. y _ , ' 
'^ ■' V Zool. 93. 

Genus XIII. — Oyfer. \ Genus yiXl.—Strovihui. 

Definition of the Gcmu Its animal a tethys X Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a fiug — Shell 

Shell bivalve, rougV.y plated on the outfide. ; univalve fplral : the opening much dilated, and the lip 

75. Edible Oyster. Oftrea edulh, Lin. Syft. I. expanding, produced into a groove. 

fars\\.p. 1148. Jio. 211. Pen. Zool. 69 Oyfters x' 87. Corvorant's Foot Strombus. Stro}>ilut pes 

of a very large fize are found upon the coaft not far ? pekcan't, Lin. Syft. i. par) ii./. 1207. la. 490. Pen. 

from Whiti.L-.Tcn : they are however coarfe and far fro.-n Zool. 94. 

delicate. 5 

Q Genus XX'I— 7If;<;«. 

Gexus XIV. Animia. X Definition of the Genus. — 'ts animal a flug The 

D;rfinition of the Genius ^-Bivalve, inequivalve. — t aperture oval, the beak narrows into a canal or gutter^ 

One valve peiforated near the hinge, affixed by that v a little a'cending. 

perforation to fome other body. t ^8. Urchin Murex. Murcx criuacctts, Lin. Syft. 

76. Large Anomia. Anoniia ephipiiim, Lin. Syft. a i. pars ii. p. 1216. r.o. 526. Pen. Zool. 95. 

1. pars ii. />. 1 1 JO no. 218. Pen. Zouh 70. — It fie- 89. Despised Murex. Muiex dcfpeftus, Lin. Syft. 
quently adheres to cyfter (hells. \ l. pars ii. p. 1222. 710. 559, Pen. Zool. 98. 

77. Small Anomia. Anomia fquammula, Lin. I, 90. Horney Murex. Murex corncus^ Lin. Syft. 

Syft. l./tfrj ii. />. 1151. ?/«. 221. Pen. Zool. 71 r. /><rr/ ii, /. 1:424. no. 565 Pen. Zool. 99. 

Adheres to oyfters and various kinds of (hell filh. X 91. Ribbed Murfx. Murex. cojlatus, Pen. ZooL 

Vaiious fpecies of this genus are found in a foffil Rate ^ ico. 

in marble and Hraeftone. X 92. Sh.irp Mu«ex. Mure^ accuminatus. Pen. 

^ Zool. ici. 

Genus ^V .—Mujfcl. _ . . X 

Definition of the Gtrnis. — Its animal an Afcidia. — >' Genus XXIII. — Top, 

Bivalve, often affixed to forae fubftance by a beard t Definition of tiie Genus. — Its animal. a Aug. — Shel 

Hinge without a tooth, marked by a longitudinal hoi- ? conic. — .Aperture lubtiiangular. 

low line. X 93- Livid Top. Trochus ziziphinus, Lin. Syft. I. 

7S. Edible Mussel. Mytilus edulis, Lin. Syft. i. ^pari \\. p. 1231. m 599. Ptu. Zool. 103, 

fars ii. p 1 157. no. 253. Pen. Zool. 73 The 94- Conulf. Top. Trochus conuius, Lin. Syft. I. 

Lancalhire muffels far exceed thefe we have upon our '{pars ii. />. 1230. no. 598. Pen Zool. 104. 

j-oafts. S 95- Umbilical Top. Trochus umhilieatitf Lin. 

79. Swan Mussel. Mytilus cy^neus, Lin. Syft. i. t Syft. i.pursW.p. 1229. no. 592. Pen, Zool. 106. 

/ar.f ii. />. 1158 ?«. 257. Pen. Zool, 78 Inhabits X 96. Land Top. Trochus terrejirii. Pen. Zool. 

both livers and ftagnant waters. Is found in the H 108. — This fmall ftiell is found on our mountains, 
Irthing. X 

80. Duck Mussel. Mytilus anatmns, Lin. Syft. X Genus XXIV. — Wreath. 

I. pars W. p. 1158. 7;o. 258. Pen. Zool 79 Tills | Definition of the Cc'/.'wj — Its animal a flug — Apcr-. 

fpegics is alfo found ia rivers and ponds. i ture round. * Veotiicofe,_ 

C 21 ] 


97. PiRRiWiNKLE V/reath, Tuih litloreus, Lin. 
Syft. I. pars 'i\. p. 1232. «j. 607. Pen. Zool. 109. 

* "Taper. 

98. Beardfd Pbrruvinkle. Turio clattrus, L,m. 
Syft. I. /arj ii. /. 1237. no, 631. Pen. Zool. in. 

99. Auger Perriwinkle. Turbo terebra, Lin. 
Syft. I. pan u. p. 1239. »«. 645. Pen. Zool. 113. 

100. White Perriwinkli;. Turbo ^Ibus, Pen. 
Zool. 114. 

Genus XXV.— 5W/. 

Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a {i;;^.— Shell 
fpiral, fub-pellucid. — Semi-lunar aperture. 

ICT. Rock Skail. He!i\- iapktda, Lin. Syft. 1. 
pars \\. p. \li.\. m. 656. Pen. Zool. 121. 

102. Grey Snail. Hd'u alhella, Lin. Syft. i. 
pan ii. p. 1242. «». 658. Pen. Zool. 122. 

103. Flat HcHx plar.orhis, Lin. Syft. \\ 
pars \\. p. 1243. n'j. 662. Ptn. Zool. 123. 

104. Whirl Snail. Hi'Ux vortex, Lin. Syft. I. 
parsxup, 1243. no. 667. Pen. Zool. 124. 

J05. DwAR? Snail. Helix nana. Pen. Zool. 125. 
106. HoRNEY Snail. Hdix cornea, Lin. Syft. 1. 
pars \v. p. 1243. no. 671. Pen. Zool. 126. 



pars ii. 


Mottled Snail. Helix rufcfient, Pen. Zool. 

, Garden Snail. Helix hicorum, Lin. Syft. 1. 
,/. 1247. no. 692. Pen. Zool. 129. 
, Shrub Snail. Helix aihuftorum, Lin. Syft. 
.pan ii. p. 1245. »■?. .680. Pen. Zool. 130. 

1 10. VariegaTcD Snail. Helix tiemoralis, Lin. 
Syft. I. pars ii. p. 1247. >;». 691. Pen. Zool. 131. 

111. Viviparous Snail. Helix vivipara, Lin. 
Syft. \.pari \\. p. 1247. r,i. 690. Pen. Zool. 132. 

112. Zoned Snail. Helix zonaria, Lin. Syft. i. 
farsu. p. 1245- no. 681. Pen. Zool. 133. 

** *0t a taper form. 
Eight Spired Snail. Helix oHona, Lin. 
.pan ii. p. 1248. no. 698. Pen. Zool. 135. 

**»*Ovated, imperforated. 
Lake Snail. Helix Stajynalij, Lin. Syft. 1. 
pars ii. p. 1249. no, 703. i"cn. Zool. 136. 

115. Mud Snail. Helix piifris, Lin. Syft. i. 
ii. /. 1249.^. Pen. Zool. 137. 

116. Smoothed Snail. Helix Lvjigatn, Lin. 




1. pars ii. p. 1250. no. 709. Pen. Zool. 139. 

117. Olive Snail. Helix tentaculata, Lin. 
I. pars ii. p. 1249. na, 707. Pen. Zool. 140. 

o; It. 

Genus XXVI — AWile. 

Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a flug'. — Shell 
.gibbous, flattifti at bottom — -Aperture fcmi- orbicular. 

118. River Nerite. Nerita fluviatilis, Lin. Syft. 
J. pars Ii. p. 1253. w. 723. Pen. Zool. 142. 

119. Strand Nekite. Nerila liityralis, hin, Sy^, 
t. pars ii. p. 1253. ;/«. 724. Pen. Zuyl. 14_3. 

X DIV. IV.— Univalve 5M/.— Without a l-egulal 

6 Genus XXVI 1 1.— £,/;///,?/. 

V Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a Aug.— Coftic 
X ftiell, without fpircs. 

j 120. Common Limpet. /"i?/!?//!? i'a.J^/7/i7, Lin. Syft. 

j( 1. pars ii. p. 1258. no. 758. Pen. Zool. 145. 

Q 121. Flat Limpet. Patella deprejfa. Pen. Zool. 

X M6- 

y 122. I><ci.iNiNG Limpet. Patella intorta. Pen. 

X Zool. 148. 

V 123. Lake Limpet. Patella l.icujlris, Lin. Syft. 
i \. pars ii. p. 1260. no. 769. PeR. Zool. 149. 

'■■ 124. Smooth Limpet. Patella Ixvis, Pen. Zool. 

": 151. 

125. Slit Limpet. Patella ffsiira, Lin. Syft. r. 
'.j pars ii.p. 1261. no. 778. Pen. Zool. 152. 

V 126. Striated Limpet. Pfl/f//aj5'r<rci7, Lin. Syft. 
i I. pars x\, p. 1262. no. 780. Pen. Zool. 153. 

t Gisxji XXIX— Tooth /pell. 

Definition of the Genui. — Iti animal a terebe'la.— ^ 
'2 A flender tubiform fhcU. 

X 127. Common Tooth-shell. Dentalium entalif, 

1 Lin. Syft. I pars ii. /. 1263. no. 786. Pen. Zool. 

X 154- •* 

I Genus XXX.—Serpula. 

X Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a terebella.— 

g Tubular ftiell adhering to other bodies. 

V 128. Spiral Serf u LA. ■Sirr/K/a^/rorW/, Lin. Syft. 
X t. pars ii.p. 1265'. no. 794. Pen. Zool. Ijy. 

129. Angular Serpula. Serpula triquetra, Ltni 
X Syft. I. />ijr/ II. />. 1265. «o. 79 J. Pen. Zool. i j6. 
X 130. Complicated Serpuv,a. Serpula intricata, 

Lin. Syft. i. pars ii.p. 1265. no. 796. Pen. Zool. 

1 '57' 

131. Twined Serpula. Serpula contortuplicata, 
¥ Lin. Syft. i. pars ii. />. 1266. no. 799. Pen. Zool. 
X 158. 

132. Worm Si^vvla. Serpula veim'.cularir, Lin. 
Syft. I. pars ii./. 1267. ;??. 805. Pen. Zool. 159. 

Genus XXXl.— -Piercer. 

Definition of the Genus. — Its animll a terebella.— 
Shell, flender, bending. 
A 133. Ship Piercer. Tei-edo n.ivalit, Lin. Syft. r. 
^ pars ii. p. 1 267. no. 807. Pen. Zool. 160.— This 
X fniall animal is extrefhely dL-ftrudllve to (lilps. — Againft 
% their depredations no cffedlnal preventive remedy, has, 
y I believe, yet been difcovercd, except covering thcboti 
X toms of ftilps with ftieets of copper. 

\ Genus XXXW.—Sahella. 

A Definition of the Genus. — Its animal a nfrcls. ■ . 

V A tubular covering, fabricated wltli fand and broken 

V (hells, coherent by a glutinous cement. 

^ 134. lioKEY-COMB Sabilla. Sahelhi aheolatat 
? Lin. Syft. 1. pars ii. /. 12 68. no. 812. Pen. Zool, 
X 162. 
\ 135. Ivi^Siiiivtt.. Sahellatubiformis,Vtn.7.oo\, 


I 35 3 

5<>*<XXx>«bs'X><><>0<>«-^<XX><XV!x:>'*<>0<.X^ Sedge Bird.— -See tie. 77, p. 13.— My fervan?, 

this year, found, in n hedge of my own paRure field. 

Swift. — See «». 90.^. 14. — Since 

X two nefts of this biid, which were the firft I had 

the (heet which « ^""^^ ^*^'^"' ^^"^^ °^ ^^^"^ contained fix eggs. The ex- 

Dfed of a pr 
a few ftrcnc; and thick 

contains the obfervations- on this fpecies was printed, X '/^"a' P^'^^, °f ^|}^ "'.^ '^' compofed of a pretty thick 
— - - . ' . . »,, . y (trattvm of mols mixed with 

weighed 23 grs. the fecond 22 grs. the third 24 grs. 
The fize, fhape, and colour of 
the eggs are reprefented in the plate, Figure Ili 

• y'/v :.' 

William Milbounie, Efq. of ArniathwaitecalUe, in 

formed me 

after the 

his houfe, difappi 

contained their neds to be fi!leJ up and well pointed ,, _ 

with moitar, with an intention of preventing them X and the fourth 20 grs 

from breeding there in future. Sometime in the be ' ' "* 

ginning of May, j 796, the ufua! number made their X 

appearance, at Armathwalte, aod foon after attempted 

40 peck o'Jt tiie lime /rom tbi holn nuhkh contdhied the 

*ld nejls. Thefe attempts though frequently repeated, X 

were incffeftual, thty then became unufually noify, 5 

and towards the latter end of the fame month, departed X 

and were not feen again. This circumftance, I think, S^^ 

Tenders the followingconclufions highly probable, — Firft, 5 

that thefe biids do not conceal theinfelves, during the X 

winter, in the holes where they breed. — Second, That X 

the fame individuals annually return to thofe places v 

where they have bfen accuftomed to frequent. — A fwift, X 

iilled in July lait, had in its mouth forty-eight flies X 

( c'lnops calc'itram ) v/hich came to life, with 

others which did not revive. 

May, 6th, 1797, at feven o'clock in the morning, § 
7, for the firfl time this year, faw a fingle fwift — 7tli, in 9 
the morning, I only law one — 8th, I looked for fwifts X 
feveral times this day, but faw no more than one — 9th, % 
J, this day, faw fix pair at the fame time, during all 5 
thefe days wind at eafl, cold, and nights veiy frody, on X 
the 'aft day the mountains were covered with fnow. J 

Sand Martin. — Seewo. 8g. /. J4. — I ha-e dated 2 
that foon alter fome fand banks were formed at Ed- X 
jnunj-caftic, they were annually frequented by fand 5 
martins. But, as part of thefe banks fall down every X 
winter, the martins were in the fpring under the necef- X Sapphip.ike Gurnard or TuSfish. 7'rjg/a hirun-' 
lity of digging new holes. Finding this to be invari- y '''» I-"'". Syil. i. p. 497. no. 6. Penl Zoo!. 140.— 
ably the cafe, they have this year totally defertcd thefe 5 On the 13th of May, 1797, I, for the firft time, faw 
banks, which flrorgly confirms the fecond conclufion X two of thefe fifh in our maiket — the laigell. was fix 
made under the article fwift, viz. that the fame indivi- v pounds weight, and two feet in length. It was a fe- 
dua's, annually frequent the fame places. X "^^le and full of roc. The flefh was firmer t^an the. 

Chimney Swallow.— See ;;<?. 87. p. 13 I have \, fiefh of CodfiHi. They were taken in Solway Frith. 

feen no fwallow this fpring without the long exteiior f Salmon — See ?;?. 51. p. 27. — 1 have related that 
feathers of the tail. 




■ See jio. 72. /. 13. — T never faw 
cither the nefl or the eggs of this bird till the fecond 
of June, 1 707, when I found one in a hedge at the 
the fojt of the gardens on the wtft fide of Bjtchard- 

X falraon ha/e been known to fpawn fo early as the 
J month of September, and fo late as the month of Feb- 
V ruary. On the loth of .May, i 797, Mr. T. Robinfon, 
X an experienced fifhmonger, cut up a female, which 
j weighed 2 libs, and which was full of roe. I faw 

gate J the'e was on thentil, which contained five y the roe, which weighed up-^.irds of 3lbs. From the 

eggs. The neft is neither fo de«p nor fo large as the 
iieft of the white throat. It w?.3 made of the dr)'ed 
flalks of the goofe grafs ( gjliuvt aparinc ) lined with 
very fmall fins roots, and contained neither hairs or 
feathers. I weighed three of the eggs, they were 
35 grs. each. They are of a dirty white colour, 
marked with numerous du.n<y brov>n fpots. The fizc, 
fhape, and colour of the eggs are rcprcl'entcd ia the 
plate, Figure I, 

!late of it, he thinks the fi!h would have.fpawacd, had 
it not been taken, early in June. He recoUeft? to have 
opened one, and only one, nearly in the fame ftate, in 
the month of March Captain Ponfonby, of the navy, 

, has taken falmon 1 71b'-. weight in tiie river Decwent, 

' which he had himfeif marked whenyr;-. 

! Charr. — See ;/<5. 59./. 32 — Very fine charr are 

; taken, in Coaiflone lake, in Lanca.'hirc, and in Butter- 

I laere lake Cuaiberland, 


r 35 ] 


WE arefurther hidehted to the Rev. WILLIAM RICHARDoON./jr preparing th foUo'wing catalos^ue of 
Cumberland Planis. He alfo favoured us with the defcription and natural liiftory of Ullfwatcr, his 

native place, and many valuable articles and obfervations in every department of tlie work. The Editors. 

We (hall omit fuch plants as are frequently met with in other parts of the kingdom. To the rate ones we 
(hull add the habitats, in older that the travelling botanill may more readily find them. 

MONANDRIA MONOGYNIA. X Alra ra5»/<7»a.— Crofs-fell, and Mr. Salkeld's ground, 

Hippuris vulgaris — In old Eden, in the paridi of Al- —— flexuofa. — Ciilgaith ir.oor, Kirkland-fell pafture, 
dingbam ; and at Low Geltbridge, in the parifh of X and lower parts of fells ; as Soulby-fell, and Bracken , 

n rigg, in parifh of Dacre. 

— — prxcox. — Blencarn near the mill j road leading 
X from Brampton to Intack ; and Mirehoufe — Storey's 

X ^'^^ 

V Melica tmiflora. — In moid woods, as Bank-hall, Na* 

A worth-callle, Dalemain, &c. 

cxrulea. — Kiikhoufe, Failam. 

Bank-rigg, Stoop-band, on Crofs- 

BramptoQ. Paddock-pipe in Cumberland. 

Callitr'iche autwnnaUs. — Ditches by river Gelt. 


Veronica fpicata Mr. Salkeld'scow pa{lure,Kirk!and. 

■ officinali;. — Brii"Ige, at Lancrcoft. 

-fiutellata.—^\r. Carlyle's Culgaith-moor, ^ Sejkria atrulca. 

>; fell, and Mr. Salkeld's fell paflure, Kirkland ; and 
Tarn-houfe, Brampton. 

i montana. — Bank Wood, Ki'tkland. 

Pinguicola vulgaris. Rot- grass, Cumb. fuppofed 

'-'^ X Boa comprcjfa. — Houfes in Brampton, Mr. Hethering- 
"'• * ton's garden wall. 

highly injurious to n-.cep, on moifi: grounds, frequeiu. ^ ton's ear 
Utricularia vulgaris 1 ^^^^ Kefwick.* \ <^/7?^«.i.— Road from Blencarn to Milbufn. 

~ r: ""'"'r'~j? „r .. rv ^ iir i. ^. ^'■fl"'" '"'"" vivipara.—Summh of C.ofs-fell, Helvel- 

Cirea<z <»///;;«.— Bank Wood by Chapel Wei!. X Jyn, Saddleback, and Skiddaw, and many lower parts 

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA. | r. ,..,... . ,,„, 

Schanus comprejfus. Hell-beck and Tindale-fell, , 

— — ?«ar//i«/.— Gelt-brldge farm. 

■^— alhus By fide of river Gelt. 

nigricans — Do. 


Scirpus cafpitofus. — Kirkland and Brarnpton. 
■ aciciluris. — Tindalefcll. 

of the fells, iflands in UlUvvaler, and mountains by 
the fides, and Lalrigg Kefwick. Mr. Gough, an 
excellent botanift (though blind) iiifurms us, it has 
continued vivaparous in his gaidcn, for feveral years^ 

ovifia. ^On moft diy heaths. 

rubra. On dry grounds, Kirkland, and 

lacujlrii. — In old Eden ; Tinda!e-tarn ; river ? 

Brampton- ridge. 

decumhtns. — Tindale-fell, Soulby-ftll, Lano-. 

Emont ; Edenhall ; and Eden in many places 

walhby, and Skirwilh-moor. 

duriufcula — Blencarn, Black Twich, Cum. 

fetacetis. — Kirkland-fell paflure, and Kefwick J Bromus fecalinui. — Tindnle-fcll, and road to coal pits. 

- holofchxnui — Maiyport 

- viaritiruu! Do. and Allonby, 

-fyhaticus. — Bank- wood. 

Eriophorum vaginatum. — On all the hiils ; and peat. 

mofles, in low grounds. 
Nardus Jlriita. — Amongft heath, frequent. 

Millium effupim. — Walks at Corby-caftlc, and at Na- 

worth caftle. 
yigrojlis fpicavenli.- — Blencarn, and Skirwith, Kirkland, 

and Xiangwathby banks. 
'■ alpiria. — Kirkland-fell, paflure, &c. 

^ vinealis — Kirkland churchlanus ; and Skir- v VT" 

h Ely?, 

arvenfis — Road from Bra.Tipton to Nawoith- 
caflle, Walton-Koule by the garden. 

■ pinnatus — Woods at liirk hoiifc, BEnk-wood 

with-Abbcy, by carriage road. 

X by Chapdweli. 

X Siipa pinnata. — Said to grow on hills between Ullf- 

water and Kawfwater, where we have in vain foup-ht: 

J for If : P. ay fays he found it at Lougflcdalc, near 

A Kendal ; we could not meet with it there, neither 

jj have we been fo fortunate ^s Mr. Alderfon, as quu- 

X ted by Whithering, in fecond edition. 

X Aiundo epigeicj, Dun.Tiallet, by front avenue, rare. 

2 caiaiiiagrojlis. — Dalemain andKIrkland woods. 

X arcnaria. — Allonby. 

'nus arenarius, — Abbey-holm, and Allonby. 

-Jlolonifira. — Kirkland. 

• pumila, — Kirkland-fell paflure. 

^ Hordeum pratenfc — Near Naworth-caflle, and Wnlton- 

^ houfe. 

I Triticum maritirnutn — Maryport, and Allonby. 

^___^ ^ ■ TRIGYNIA. 

bourhood of Kefwick, in his riiufcum; and is cur authority for v ^ontia font ana, — Banks of Irlhing, and Kefwick. 
thciiiaiim. X TETRANDRIA 

Mr. HuttDn has moft of the plantf, found in the neigh- v 

G 40 ] 

- sv -,TETRANDRIA MONOGYMIA. X freumMtitia.-^'HovgWi-a&lc woods, MU- 

P/anf a^d lanceii/ata, \ai\ ^.li.a\esa3tro\v, \hTet t'lhi,—- ^ burn, Weflmoreland. 

Soulby-fell.. X ■ ca?j!ptJirU. — Mr. Salkeld's grounds. andJlde- 

maritima. — Maryport. ^ q of river Gelt. .-iiEr 

— — coronipiis. — Skirtvith-moor, Kirkland. y'Eringium maritimtwu—AWo'Dhj, Maryport. 

Ru'jta peregrina. — Kefwick. > Caucalif nodofa. — Croglin, in a corn field, on the road, 

Galium pocumhni. — Kefwick. C to iNewbiggin. 

■ uligtncfuni. — Do. \ Dancus carota. — Culgaith pie, and Hayton. 

-fpurium. — Edenhall. J Athamanta iiianatir —Keiv/ick. 

■ I'criale. — Ullfwatcr, and Kefwick. Crithinum maritimam — South of Whitehaven, rock?_ 

Epmediutn alpinum. — Found by Mr. Hutton, on Sad- X by the fea fide. 

dleback, near Threlkeld. K Sium latifuli-jtn — Kefwick. 

ylfpenila cdorata. — Moift woods, frequent. anguflifoUum Banks of Waver. 

Alchenilla alpina — Swarth-beck-giU, Ul'.f'.vater} and i twdijiarum. — Ke(wick, and Blencarn, by the mill. 

Rofthwaite by the road to Butteritiere lake. \ Sifen inundatum. — Blencarn. 

TETRAGYNI.^. X Oenantne cr'j^ota. — Blencarn, Blencogo, and river Crum. 

Pitomogeton combreffum.—0\d Eden.' 6 "o'^'^ — Denton-Holme, and ditches which run in- 

. ^/w/««f««.— Kefwick. X to Caldew, near Carhfle, 

fitaceum—Fcat mofs by Talkin-tarn. I Phillandrium ^^tt;;;.— Kefwick. 

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNlA. X ''t d Irtht^To? ' banks of, at Waltoa 
L,thospen,:um #r,«^/.._SkLtwitU-hail. ^ „ 'x JEtkufa ;//.«;«.— Kefwick. 
. pnrpurco cxvule-Mi.—\\^o^ at <Z^^\^- r Scandi^ odorata.—Yx^o,^xtn^\^ orchards. 

carrock. p:aen — Banks of Waver at Waverton, 

Pulmonar,a officinalu.—^^^^ncV X P:;;//;^//^^ -jV«V^.- Kefwick. 

• tnantima —Abbey holm, Maryport. x „„„„ , r VMr A 

^>'»»?/#"« #--''W.- —Kirkofwald, and Maryport. X ^^\^^^^.}^^^- , 

Echiam i;H/^a/-f.— Kefwick. P^rnaffla palujins. — On moiil grounds frequent. 

Primula elatior. — Barren wood, near Armathwaite, ? PENTAGYNIA. 

and Dalemain woods, Cow Sinkin, Cumb. . •' Statice arnicria. — On fea coaft abundant, and on a hill 

far it •fa. — Kirkland, wettilh ground, frequent, v near Buttermere lake. 

Bonny Burd Eye, Cumb. X Drofera rctundifjlij. — Frequent. 

Lyftmachia f ai^<jr/V.— Patterdale, and Kirfv.'ick. 6 kr.gifiUa Kefwick, and Mr. Carlyle's Cul- 

■ tbyrftfiora — Kefwick. X gaith-moor, rare. 

' num?r!ularia. — In boggy grounds. J ap.g!ica.—^VJ\\\\ the two preceding, rare, at 

Minyanthes nymphoides — Kefwick. \ Kefwick; near Talkin-tarn, & Unity farm, Bramp- 

Anagallis tenclla — Peat mofs, Taikin- tarn. X ton. 

<:.«WW^jy^,«/a«._LowCrofby, and Culgaith. I HEXANDRTA MONOGYNlA. 

Campanula patula.— KM-,. i Galantkus nivain.—KU-zy^ near houfes. 

■' tracnehurn. — Do. 

A.^.— Woods; by Hutton Q _ narciJus.~Do. 

John, and Ilighgate, Grayftock. X ^lUum <,«/./.,^r^/««.-Houfe-holm Ifland, UUfwater,' 

"Tr'T"-^'^'^'''''''-"'^""''" J°^" ^"^ ^-S^'S^'^'i and Kefwick. 

i'lulicow, Dacre. S -n 1 j t .1. irr a 

jy- , r crt ., I J r TT„r ^ arsnanum, — Buckam wood, Lowthcr, Weft- 

Verjafcum V/M^ai-.— Lower end of Ullfwater, on i rc,oiAmA. 

T\ a"" /I ' • TTT 11 T^ ,- • , ? 'jiiteaiis. — Kefwick, and by Bravton-hall. 

JJatura Jtra-iior.:ur< Wai ow crjT, Kefwick. v r •.■■; • ; • 01 11 t, - rj 

V r ■ T-- • <■ ■- ■^^' -''"^'"'^»- \ Frtttdarta mdeagrts. — Corby walks, by river fide. 

tijokyamus ntaet. — iviiichvald : B eico;^© ; ard Ar- \ n -^l i i ± t r ■ 1 

tnur 3 round table. ft ° i n ^ t\ 

/Itropa Bili:iaor,na. — Tfell-hall woods. ^ j ,1 ■ m- t r • 1 

J- ' i-ii ua.i «uuur,. t- Anthiricum omfrazum. — Kefwick, 

jLttonymus curop^u;. — Gowbarrow-Dark, Lvul-jn s toW- ?. /^ /•••/■ r- _ j a .1 •. j 

er, by fide of the ; and KcKvIck. ^ " ^^ ' '"'^ | KcMck '""•"'''■'— ^^^-^^ ^'""'^ Armatliwaite. and 
Rihc.juhrum.~Y.A,n, in Whinfield-park, and Cul- | .'n>,/>^.,„^,«„;._Kefwick. 

.' ■\,r Ti I ,. , ^ , . . ? "Tmatu/ f.f?;//'/, Se AVE, Cumb. — -Dipped in sjreaie, and 

—— nigruK, — Mr Troutbeck's woods, Cul?aith. v r j ji , j j j 11 1 ..• 

r-i , ^ .,. o ,, ^ ,,, „', t.""-"" A uled as candles; rendered very durable, by an addu. 

i^hu-x mariUma — Salt coats, Abbey-Holm. X.- r t , r . ■ i. • l 1 

rr- ■ t- /• ■ 1 ' '■•'"""• J tion of bees wax; one two feet eight inches long • 

Vinca muior. — Kefwick. '• u .. ..v, ' j ° ^ 

X burnt three nouis and 27 minutes. 

DIGYNIA. ^. fyhaticus. — Nawoith-caftlc, and Dunmailet. '■ 

Salfola Kali. — Loofe fand, Abbey-holm. \ " DlGYNI.-\. 

Vlnius moritana.—Trcc^ucxM. ' f^ Pumx hydrclffpathm River Crujnmock. 

Cr,-fic:-7 /r-v.-7r-(7t.— Kefwick, A P-"^nr'. 

[ 41 } 

liuinex digyiius .'—'By bhck lead mine, Bo'.TOwdalc. X /Irenaria pepbidas.—hWonhj, Abbey-Holm, and Ma- 
^Trhlochin maritimum. — Abbi-y-H'jlm. ' yyport. Pickled as Sampliiie. 

.. — pahjire. — Mr. tJalktld's Baron's-hill, zvA % latkif-Aia. — Hallen-hag, Swatth-fell, and 

Talkin-tarn. X PlacefeU, Ulll'water. 


^lifma ranunciiloidcs. — PatterdniC, and Waverton. X Cotxledon tJmlelicus. — Kefwick. 

HKPTANDRI \ MOVOGYMIA. ; i'i-^w/rfAyiWaw.— Stark end in corn, and at Kefwick. 

Trientalis eurcpjea. — Kefwick, Bcwciftle. ' ^ reHexumi — Garden uallNaworth, and Kefwick. 

OCTANDRIA MONOGYN'A. l dafyphUum.—Y.<Wxcki 

Epihhium anguflifoliui'i. — Banks of Eden, Coiby. — rupejin. — Do. 

alpinum. — Kefwick, and Gowbarrowpark. v — anglictmt. — Patterdale and Kefwick. 

Chlora perfoliate Spade Adrm, near the houfe. X viHofinn. — By mill i^ream Mclmeiby moor, and 

Faeciiiium Myrtillui Frequent, Bi-eaetrry, Cum.? Harlfide-ftll. 

— i iilioinifum. — Crofs-fell, Havtfide fell, near X 0-<aHs acetocdla. — Crofs-fcll, and other high hills on 

Kirkhoufe. and Talkin-tarn. j the fummit, in rocks ; and banks of rivers. 

Vil'u Idxa, Cov.'-BER?.iES, Cumb. Kefwick, | Spergula ««6'-//f7.—- Talkin-tarn, snd Ci'lgaith moor. 

X Rcpda h.dcola. — Church yard Bromfield, banks of It- 

o^ycoccos, CR0VE3 AND Crakss, Climb. /Ifarum afarahacca Ramfl:in Martindale, and Kef- 

Culgaith moor, Longtown abundar.t, Tarn Wtd- '\ %f:\(V. 

alyne, Hefket; a bog here has produced 2ol. worth • TRIGYNI A. 

of thefe berries in one year. | ;j . /^ /v^r^A^.— Church yard Bro'n" 

Erka tetrallx. Ling, Cumb.— But too frequent. X ihinfTjand Maryporl. 

cr/w^rf— Frequent w!th vulgaris. X Euphorbia paralw.- Marvrort, and Allonby. 

DICYNIA. I '^ '^ •' ' 

ao/S/^A-«;«;« ^/r.™//:W -Moat, Naworth-caaie. v„ ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA 

'j'l^jQYfji /\. i Pfunus padus, Heckberry, Cumb. in woods Irequent, 

Polygonum hifiorl a. — Easter Magunt and Easter y PENTAGYNIA. 

Ledges, Cumb. ufed in herb pudding. In mo\W.t Spirxa Jilipendulti. — By Brayton, and Nether Denton. 

meadows. ^ | POLYGYNIA. 

TEJRAGYNrA. _ J/Ja/i A;»s/?/7w<7— Bleccarn, andMaryport. 
Paris fnadrifo/ia. — Oank \v ood, Nawortn -.voods, and f, ,v7A/;.— Poolcy, Ullfwattr. 

roadfide between Hutton moor and Penrith. j jj„^„^ ^^,rv/.— Frequent in hedges, and by fide of laket, 

.^dcxa mcfchateliwa — Frequent under hedges. i faxatilij.—GMiv.A St)a, Chriftenbury crags, 


Butomus umbcll.itiu. —Ctvxmmock nver, Eden near ^ <:/^<7W<fOT!,raf, Noiitberries. Cumb. on Crofs- 

Rickerby, and Kefwick. ,^ _ , 5 fell abundant, fmra Kirkland to Tindale-fcll ; ani 
DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. X h^^, town, Ullfwater. 
Jndromeda po/ljofia.—KiTkhuA, Crofs-fcll, Kefwi-k, C pgig^im^ argrntia Kefwick, 

and Brampton. , ^ , , ^,„^ C zr//?^.- Bankwood. 

Arhutm ?/7,2-«o''— Martindale Dale-head, Ullfwater. Geum rivale Kirkland, and Brampton. 

Pyroia «»;;/5r.— Dunmallet, foot of the avenue facing v C5OT^;.„,„/.^//(/?r<-.— Blencarn, Brampton. 


ia>:irrapancllari,.-C,oh-k\\, Patterdale, Swarth-fcll, t -^^'^"^V'^'.'— Sandwike, UJUwatcr. 

Place fell, Kirkftonc, and Kclwick. ^ Papavfr cantbrm.m^—Y.ds'.nck 

«,t.«///.— Gowbarrow-park, and Kefwick. I Nywphxa /«/^^.— Bromfidd, Abbey-holm, old Eden, 

a,aumm,lis -Patterdale, Gilfland near Spa « Drawdykes, and 

well, and Kefwick. I ■—— f^—'^nh the preceding 
j'ranulata.—Bridgfi at Lanereoft, and Kef- C'Jlu, ^/7j//r«/.— Siybrow, and B owike, Ullfwater. 

„„^,, /:e/ianlk->fiutu — Woods at Blencarn, and Hallca* 

. /r^i^^yto.— Stankend, foot of Ullfwater, J J^^p l^l'fvvater. 

and Na worth. caftle. " J" ^7-'%''' t'v/^'^m.— Banks of Edeo, Culgaltli. 
,^;/.^9/./c/.— Swarth-beck, and Gowbarrow, i a/pma.—Keh^-xk. 

Ullfwater; and Kefwick. \ POLYGYNIA. 

■cxfpitofa — Kirkftone, and Kefwick. J ThaliiRrum minus. — Kefwick, and Ullfwater. 

ScpoMaria officinalis Ufemire, and How town, Ullf- ^ majus — L^ndoubtedly grows with the pre. 

water, and Ake-beck-bridgc, by Pooley. i ceding. 

Dianthus glaucus Kefwick. t Ranunculus lingua.— Emont, by Carleton-hall. 

Cucubalus if^e-//.— Kirkland, Allonby, and Kefwick. }, auricomus Bank wood, and Culgaith. 

TRIGYNIA. 2 TroUius europicus. — Kirkland, abundant in r'loift woods, 

Stellaria nemorum. — Cooms wt>od, and Dunmallet. X meadows, &c. 

JLj JJelkhruf 

[ 42 ] 

HelUhrus fjetldus . — Kefwick. 

Nepeta cataria. — Kefwick. 
Leormrus cardiaca. — Langiigg, Bromficld. 
Scutellaria galerkulata, — Patterdale, and Kefwick. 

minor. — Culgaith moor, and Kefwick. 


X Jjlragalus glycyphyllos. — Culgaith pie, and Kefwick. 

G ■ are?iarius. — Kefwick. 

X Trifoliam fubterraneum — Kefwick. 

X —— fl:xuoJu7n. — Do. 


g Hypericum humifufum. — Ponds, Edmund-caftle, Hay- 

Melawpyrum pratcnfe. — in woods and hedges, Kirk- • 

land, Brampton, and Dacie. X 

Lathrdea fqitamaria. — In a field of Mr. Reeds, Hole- J 

houfe, Baggray. X 

Antirrhinum niajus. — Edenhall-hall, garden wall. j 

Sibthorpia eiiropiea.—G\enQo\n, and Gowbarrow-park, 

by Aircy-force ; and Kefwick. v 


Tklafpi can/pcftr;. — Bvamptonrigg. ? 

. montar.unu — Mr. Salkeld's fell pafture. 

' alpcjire. — Do. and Baak-iigg, Kirkland. 

Cochkaria officinalis. — Amongft rocks, Crofs-ftU. 

Cardamins iwpatic?u. — Kefwick. 

-amara Gelt river, Irthiiig, and Maryport 

ton; and Kefwick. 

hirfutum. — Gilfland Spa. 

mor.taniim. — Hallen-liasj UUfwater 



- pulchrum.- 


-Kirkland, Patterdale, and Kef- 

Tragopogon pratcnfe. — Kiikland, and Brampton. 

porrifolitaii. — lo grow near Rofe-caftle, 

Sifymbrium fyhefirs. — Kefwick. 

Arabitjlricla Kirkland fell-paflure. 

Brajfica muralir. — Cailifle-caftle, and Drawdykes. 
monenfis Maryport, and Workington. 

C where we have fought for it in vain. 

;< Leontodon autuvmalc. — Poo'ey, and Brampton. 

{; Hieraciuin alpinuin. — Kefwick. 

y dubium. — Do. and Patterdale. 

X auricula. — Do. Do. 

j wurorum. — Gilfland fpn, and Kefwick. 

piiludc,fu7n Kirkland, Uilfwattr, and Kef- 

A Wick. 

Hypocharis maculata. — Kefwick. 

X Serratuta alpina. — Caftle, and near church, Bewcaftle. 

A Cardiius criophorus. — BewcaiUe. 


X acaulii. — Road to Aircy force, Gowbarrow, 

Bunias Cakih AUonby, and Maryport. 

Geranium niofchalum. — On a hedge bank, at Mr. Yates' g and Sandwike ; UUfwater, and Kefwick 
Skirwith, Kirkland. y Eupatorium canabimim. — Ruleholra, Brampton. 

_ pkaum. — Kirkland, and Kefwick. X SUPERFLITA. 

/^;r«<?/f««(.— Skirwith, and Kefwick. | Gnaphaliam (fo/^aw;.— Kirkland, Brampton, and Pen 

_____ — lucidum — Rocks, Crois-fell, Maryport, x rith-fell. 

UUfwater, and Naworth-caftle. \ '- fyhaticum Brampton. 

-yj«fa;waOT.— Maryport. V Tufilago petajltc.—^mk of Eden, and Irthing. 

■ cicuiarium. — Do. 


•; Senecio vifcofut. — Nunnery walks, Brampton, and Kef- 

Alth^a officinalis.— VooXty, ^"^1}°?!^ '=^"'■«^^7f'^^.„ X So'.idago cambrica.—Mt. Salkeld'.i fill paftuve. 
Malva mofchata.—S>v^m^^ou, UUfwater, Palet-hrll v ;^„.y^^;^ /^^j„,/,;,,.__BIencarn. 

Dacre, and Kefwick. - — 

Fumaria claviculata — Patterdale, Dalemain, old gar- 
den wall. 

intermedia. — At John Johnfon's Efq. Wal- 

Lobelia dartmanna, — UUfwater, Kefwick, and Talkia- 

Impatiens noli tangere. — Kefwick, and on road from 

Ambltfide to Rydal-haU. 

Orchis lifolia. — Bankwood. 

7no>io. — Woods at Kirkland. 

— — — latifolia. — ^Do. 
maculata. — Do. 

ton-hoiifc, by farm yard ; Mr. Gough has found it ; 
near Kendal. 
Folygala vulgaris. — Crofs fell near the fummit, and in ■ 
rich pallures by ihe liver Eden, &c. 


Cenijia a?iglica. Cat Whin, Cunib. Kirkland, Bramp- 
ton, and Maryport. 

Anthyllis vuhtcraria. — Blcncarn, and Brampton. 

Orobus tubercfiis. — Kirkland, &c. Satyriujn hircinum. — Kefwick. 

I -.fyhjticui. — Under Crcfs-fVU, from Kiiklaod to y albidum. — Do. 

Gamblefby. X repens. — Dp. 

Lathyrus latifiliui. — Whitehaven. ^J Ophryt niduf-avis. — Do. 

Vicia fyhatica. — Culgaith woods, by Eden, and Kef- x cordata. — Kirkland. 

wick. % Scrapias latifolia Diinrr:allet, and Dalemain. 

■ lutea. — Kefwick. v ___-» longifolia. — Banks of Waver. 

0/;7;//D/«(/f/-/'y/7/«/.— Bkncarn, and Biampton. X MONOECIA 

— pyramidalis. — Blencarn, and Kefwick. 
— conopfea. — Do. 
X - ujiulata. — Do. 

[ 43 ] 

MONOECIA MONANDRI A. X ylaoJlichumfeptentrknale.—'PMcxMt, and Kefv.nck. 

Zannichellia pal-jj}ris. — Culgaith moor, and Stankend, 5 Acrojihhum fpicatit. — Frequent in woods and under 
Ullfwater. ;; hedges. 

Chat a vulgaiii. — Peat bogs, Patterdale, and Kirkland. t Ptsris crifpa Frequent in Martindale, &c. 

TRIANDRIA. \i——~aquilii:a. — Frequent, Brackens, Cumb. 

Caiex, as named by Dr. Goodenough, in \S\\v\(:iXi t ■^fpismumcetcrach. — Yew-crag, and Airey-beck, GoW" 
tranfaftions, vol. ii. d-cica, Brampton. .^ barrow^park, Lovvther rivei, Sandwike ; Ullfwater ; 

puli.aris. — Bra'.iipton, and Gilfland fpa. 5 and Kefwick. 

- curta — Kcfvvick. X viride Place-fell, and Swarth-feil, UUf- 

- liiHofa — Brampton. }, water; Crofs-fell edge, and Kefwick. 

■ paniculata. — Kirkland. v adiantum nigrum. — With pieceding. 

flava. — Do. X viarintim. — Whitehaven, and Maryport. 

— — — vutp'uia. — Do. 5 Pclypodium lonchitis. — Kefwick. 

cefpitofa. — Do. X fontanum. — Kefwick, and Saddleback. 

■^lurta, — Kefwick, and Brampton. X phegopUrii. — Airey-bcck, Glencoin ; Lo- 

— vcficaria. Kirkland, and Brampton. ^ core, Kefwick. 

— — ampuUacea. — Tindak-larn ; Eel Hank, by Poo- X ciijiatum. Woods at Caftle-Carrock, 

ley. - Q Cooms wood, and Kefwick. 

Sparganium eredum. — Abbey-holm, and Kefwick. v oreopteris. — Ullfwater, Crofs-fell, and Kef- 

' fiat am. — Old Eden. X wick. 

TETRANDRIA. J flix tuax, Meckins, Cumb. frequent. 

Littorella lacujiris. — Ullfwater ; Culgaith moor, fchool, v Jilix Jlemina. — Frequent. 

and Mr. Carlyle's land. X thehpteris. — Glencoin, and Blowike, UUf- 

DIOECIA DIANDRIA. water and Kefwick. 
Salh kcrmaphroditka. — We have reafon to believe, does \ ■ .. acculeatum. — Swanh beck gill, and Kcfvv. 

not grow at Alfton moor, as mentioned by Ray ; g rhaticum. — Martindale, & Patterdale, Mat- 

we have frequently fought for it in vain, and have not j terdale, and Kefivick. 

met with any fpecies, which is rare in other places, X fragile. — With the preceding. 

except the two following. • X ^__ dryopUris. — Crofs-fell, Ullfwater, and Kefw. 

— — reticulata 7 At Tyne-head, and in many places V Trichomancs tunhrigenfe. — Gowbarrow, and Kefwick. 
—— pentandiia^ zk>Q\xt Alfton, Grayftock, Abbey- X .^rf« lacujlris. — Ullfwater, lower end; Gowbarrow- 

Holm, &c. 5 wike, and Kefwick, drawn oii ihore by fifh nets, &c. 
—— herbacea. — Summit of tSkiddaw, and Saddleback. ^ MUSCf. 
aurilc. — Pooley, and Culgaith. t. Lycopodium clavaltim, Fox Tails, Cumb. on all the 

TRIANDRIA. \ l^'^'^- 

£}npetrum nigrum Crofs-fell, Kirkhoufc, and Bramp- filagimidss, Fox F£et, Cumb. frequent 

ton. V «>" ^""s- 

TETRANDRIA. I fi'^S" — Frequent. 

Myricagale.— \J\\iv/i,\.tv, at Galeclofe, Pooley; bogs J fl//;«a»A— Place-fell, and Swarth-fell. 

Naworth ; Kefwick, and other lakes. Gawan, Cum. x ^o"*'"'"''' atitipyretica. —Becks on Crols-fell, and by 

OCT.ANDRIA. X Ullfwater. 

Rbodiola w/fl.— Kefwick. \ fquamo/a.—^wirih. beck. 

MONODELPHF A. X 77—7 /'««-'^— Barton-park, Ulllwater. 

es- .^ TT„r r.1 r 11 11 1 I Pclytnckum ccnimuve. Besom Moss, Cumb. two feet 

>;itrV"" c'""'"'T u ' P'='"-f'^"'='"*^ ^'=^'^'' X high, on our higheft hills. ■ • 

Gillland. Savin, Cumb. t FUNGI 



Parietaria officinalis. — Naworth-caftlc, and Langrigg. \ 1'his county abounds with plants of the cryptcga- 

CRYPTOGAMIA FILICES. X mia clafs, and though we have to regret, that we hav-e 

Equifelum fiuviatile. — Old Eden, banks of Emont, and j hitherto paid but little attention to tliis numerous clafs', 

Kefwick. ^ and are therefore unable to determine, whether there 

hyeniale. — Low-gelt-bridge. X be many rare fpecies or not; yet, relying upon the ac- 

OphiogloJJuJii vulgatum ^\ ahon wood, and Kefwick. \ curacy of an intelligent friend, we can affure the pa- 

Ojmunda lunaria.—Kdwkk, in a field on right hand ^ tient and indnftrious botaiiill, that he may be gratifieti 

of road to Penrith, How-hill, Caflle-Sowcrby, and X by the (hfcovery of feveral mu/ci, alga-, and Aingi, in the 

Naworth park, rare. { neighbourbood'of Ul/fivaicr, which have not )ct been 

■ . regalis — Low gelt-bridge, and Kefwick. x noticed by Hudfon, Withering, or Dickfoa. ' 

C 44 ] 


T N treating of the minerology of Cumberland, a county fo rich in fubrerraneous producTuons, it will not, we 
X prcfutne, be expeftcd, that we fl)ould go into the fubjeift much at lengtli. To colktt, and arrange, in a clear, 
methodical, and fcientific manner, all the rarious fafts, and accuoiulated inforMation -which the prefent advanced 
ftate of rainerological knowledge might afford, would be an undertaking of no fiight labour or difficulty ; and 
would of itfelf form a work of confiderable magnitude and importance. Anxious, however, at al! times, to lay 
before our readers all the information which the nature and limits of eur hiftory will allow, and as the learned 
profefibr, Walker of Edinburgh, has obligingly favoured us with the analyfis of fome FoCils, fyecimens cf whic^ 
are in tlie muftums of Mr. Crollhwaite and Mr. Hutton, of Kefwick, we fnall give his obfeivations with the 
ligriatate Dr. Wr. together with inch remarks as We have ourfclves been enabled ts make. 

C/1LCAB.EGUS GENUS. thrown and g:e;n, with lead ore, Skrets. Purple and 

Limestone, Lapis calcareous. — Of various-colours, C blue, covered with crufts of white femipelkcid, Kefh. 
texture and hardntfj, abounding io many parts of the ;< burn, CroCs-gill. Flaming red, Nenthead. White, 
county, as noticed in our account of different parilhes. ? fome parts beautiful green and b:ight blue, others faint 
Shells of oftrea and cochlea genus found in limeftone purple, Nenthead. Yellow and brown, Longnor iron 
quarrii;5 at Overend ; imprdtfions of many diftVrent ) .-nines. Erown ferruginous, mines near Kefwick and 
kinds of (hells, with ammonita?. entrorfii, afteria:, &c. c Aldllon, foliated. Hixagonal truncated. Cryftallized 
&c. Bothei, Melmerby fear, Croli-fell, Kowlees, Tor- ^ in hexagonal prifras, terminated at one end by a pyra- 
penhow, Hartiide, river Jrthing near Lanercoft, Red- X mid. 

hills near Peniilh, Farlam, Kitkhoufe, near Plum- 5 Stalaiftitical (Drop Stone) Aldfton. In fmall 
lands. — ^//aVf, for^/s/W,y;<ni:/, limeftone in Giayftock V globules, Broadfield. Dogs Teeth {pyramidahs dif- 
paik, a fmall band of coal found in this limeftone. — j tinni) lead mine near Kefwick. Colutinar concreti, 
Zo'Aitlms arktes, fiieep's horns in limeftone, Overend, femi tranfparent, of a ftreated appearance, foft cream 
Stainton, Heniintrham. — Ictkilithus vertebrae, vertelra V coloured, lofes 46 per cent by folution, in nit. acid, 
of kind of filh, Muncafter ; and limeftone quarry i! found in a thin ftiatum of argilaceous marl, in a fand 

Crofs-fell. A great variety of marine exuviae in lime- jj ftone quarry, Grayilock park. 

Hone on the moors near Gililand fpa. There is in X Marl. Marga friabilis. — In thin beds on th« 
Mr. Crofthwaite's rauieura a horfe's fiioe imbedded ":. banks of the Irthing, in Mr. Johnfon's grounds.— 
and grown ov;r in limeftone. Ettetby fear. Wreay lane. Near Mr. Graham's, 

Marble. — With (hells in it, of a brownilh colour, X Barrock Lodge. Near Brifco, in confiderable quanti- 
Lillle Stainton, Dacre. Leek or duflty green veined J tiss, both immediately aboT.'e and below the ftratum. 
with white, Crofs-fcU. Blackilh brown, Broughton. \ of gypfum at Newbiggin on the Peterel. With (hells, 
Yellowifli grey, lead colour and brown, with and with- X iu Mr. Haflsl's ground, near Flofcoe. 
oiit (hells, banks of Peterel. Bluith black, clouded i Ma k lite. — We fufpedt many of the meagre lime- 
with lead grey, veined and fpotted with white, hard, \ ftoncs of this county to belong to tliis clafs, as thofe 
free from cracks, admits <jf a very fine pohlh, near a of Chalkbeck and BioadSeld, b\it have not examined 
Kirkofwald. t them fo particularly as to be able to fpcak with cer- 

SwiNE Stone. Lapis SuiJlus. — Almoft black, ofXtainty. 
fine fcaly texture, coal mine Warnel-fell. 5 Argilliferous MARtrTE. — Large rounded bodies 

Agaric'js mir.eralis. Berg mikh, Lac lztt:.-e. — White, x of abrownifh blue colour, in compartments interfeftedby 
friable, dufty, in Dr. Brownrigg's cabinet, faid to have X veins of ivhite fpar.called LiidtHdn!07:tii,o'c waxen veins, 
been found in the fiffure of a rock, in a mine at Banow, ? near Mr. Gill's Lec's-h;il. Hollow cor.ical ftalaftitcs, 
near Kefv.ick. Duflcy white, rather unfliious, peat x Dr. Erownrig's collection, faid to have been found in 
niofs, on the moors near Gildand. X old workings of coal mines at Whitehaven. 

Spar. Sp.ithum cakareun:, Lin. — Beautiful fpeci- 5 Gvpsur.?. Seleftifc, jUahafier. — Is found in many 
mens of vaiious colours, arnr.phous, and oryftallized in X parts of the county. Near Whitehaven on the fouth 
different forms, found in the lead mines o: Aldftcn ^ fide. Near Newbiggin, and in many other places on 
moor, great quantities of which have, of late years, \ the Peterel. On the Eden at Culgaith, &c. Near 

been fold to l^ondon at high priecs ; four guineas hav- X Coat-hill, &c. Its colour is n-.ottly white, veined, 

ing been given for a fingle piece. Diaphonoiis, Opnke, j clouded, and fpotted with red ; (ometimes brown and 
RefraAing, Nenthead. Grten, Crofs-gill. Purple, v grey. Of compaft, even fiaflure. It frequently, 
Nenthead, Garragill and Tynehead. Amethylline, i. however, exhibits a confiderable variety of appearance, 
Tynehead, Crofs-ftll. Piirple with iron 01 e, t^krees. t even in the fame quany — as at Newbiggin, where we 
Elack hexagonal pyramidal cry(laIs;Nejithead. White, x find 

r 45 ] 

find it, Firft Compaq as r.bove, but fometimes of a X EARTTJC GENUS. 

fpliotci J-, and foinctimes hackly or pointed fraftute. — C' Barjiei, terra pondirofj. 

Hccund, Fiiratis, fibres fine and Clky> niollly ilraiglit '^ BAK^ST.tE'siTZ,Biiry/(^r comliir.eJ'wilAfu/phur/c ac/J. 
and par;dlel, colour Ihining white ftieakcd with bright ^ In great abundance at Aldftoii-moor, where it is called 
red, toft. Fibres coarfe, undulated, p'.irple and claret 'v -C^ujif; *8*lfo in the ncig-hbouihocd of Kefwick. Der- 
colotiv, with fparry white laminas intervennig. Third, ; went lake Dr. Wr. It occurs in fuch various forms that. 
Foliated, com ie ffr:iined,of afcaly texture, fcales ftraight, i as Mr. Kirwan obferves, even the patient Werner def- 
glaffy, colour brownifli red. Finer grained, dark grey v paiis of cnnunierating them. In Cumberland it is found, 
mixed with diificy white. Fourth, Crtfiul/ized. Pure '^ ¥hi{ Ccmpadf. Second Fo/iaUd. Third Slrhh-d. Both 
colouvlefs dnilcji cryftals, arrowheaded, irregularly dif- 6 amorphous and cryllallizcd. IVanfparent feinitranf- 
pofcd, farming the refemblance of a cock's comb, fonic V parent and opaque. Colours various, fiequently white, 
of the arrow lieads double and triple, cryilals in fome .; bluifh white, yellowifh wliite, yi'low, fawn colour, 
parts rhomboidai. Gypfuni is here raifed in larger !", pnle red, brownifli red, flefli colour, blniili, bhiifh gicy. 
quantities, we bdieve, than at any other quany in the '■ Cryftals of many different (liapes, quadrangular prifms, 
eounty. The yeaily vend, befoic the commencement o hexangular prifms ofcen very flat and ending in a four 
of the prefent war, was from 2co to -joo tons ; fince v fided pyiamid, Aluminiforni, rhomboidal lamellar, lab- 
that time however, it has not exceeded 40 or 50 tons. >; ular bevilled at the edges, very frequently refembh'ng a 

The principal market Dublin. It lies imbed- t number of fmall fenl'es fet clofe logetlier on a giound 

ded in red argillaceous marl, betv.-ecn two large ftraia V n/armor vietallicu?)! druf.cum cryfiatum of CroniTadt — 
of fand ftone, the upper folid, hard, fine grained ; the X ThiJ}ria:ed, .ind indeed molt of the varieties of this 
under loofe, friable, coarfe grained, the ftratum varies v mineral, appear to be of a radiated l!ni6ture, its parts 
fo much in thickneis, thai it fonitlimes appears to be v diverging f.s from a common centre. It is now gene- 
in huge irregular maiTes, fcarccly connected together. \, rally underflood that Barclite /Icratcd Barytes is no 
It is found on the north fide of a dyke or trouble, by j- where to be met with in Aldlton-rr.oor ; at leall it is 
which it has been forced up almoft to the fuiface. — >: certain that Dr. Whithering obtained his from Angle- 
It has a confiderable dip to the north. In fonie places c fare near Chorley in Lancartiirc ; there i?, however, a 
immediately below il, there is a thin bed of a foft ■; fpecimen of this fubftance, in Mr. LoHi's coUeftion, 
blackifli umbcrlike fubftance, which, on examination, X lent him amongft fevcial other miHt-ials, by Mr. 
we found to be decayed wood, fonie parts of whfch had C Hodgfon, of Aldfton, as the produce of a mine in that 
evidently been oak. C neighbourhood. 

There is a variety of foliated sfypfum, placlef iiMri^, * . ^ _ 
which in lome places is ibund Verlcftfy tranlparent { MURUTJC, Or lUGNESIAN GENUS, 
and of an extraordinary fizc. At Florence there are, v Talc, Mica, Gli!iimer.\ 

It is laid, columns of it fifteen feet high, in a church \ . Shisto?i; Talc, found fometimes, though rareljr, 
window, inllead of panes of glafs. M. Maquart and -' '" ^""^ ^'^"''^^ °f ^^"^ ''^^^' Bo"owdale, and near 
M. Guettard, aflure us that it is alfo ufcd for window X P"f«'atcr. Mica of mar.y different colours is found 
panes in fome parts of Ruffia ; this however M. Kar- X intcrfpcrfed and rricorpoiattd with feveral kinds of 
itn pofitivel'- denies. V "°"fs, particularly in mod of our fand Hone rocks.— 

We behev'e gvpfum has not, in. any inftance, been X ^^hite, in ftone of a harfh gut, of rediih giey colour, 
fiiccefifully employed as a m inure in this county .' perforated with Pholades, on the fhore between Work- 
May not the ground to which it has been applied, ^ '"Rt"" ^"^ Wh.tehaven. Grey Mica, in ftone fpolted 
have already been faturated, as it weie, with this fub- X ^^'^n l^'^ck, Skrets, and at Kefwick. Stone fpotted 
hance formed bv the union of lime with falphuric acid j ^'"'^'^ ^""^ "■'"'^'- '^'^h grey m:ca, Edcnhall. Brown 
extricated in the decompofition of pyrites, ,vhich )( g''"y ^""e- ^^'■^' ''p^"g'" °f fi''"?" '=^<^' ^'■^"'Vl^row. 
abound in many of our foils, efpecially in coarfe mar- X '" layers of ftone, inte.mixed with coal, Whitehaven, 
^^j] (.)ayg, f Broad fealtd finning filvtry m'ca, with very tliin 1am- 

(■ inx of coal intervening, Warnel-ftll. Talcy ftone, 

Fluor.— A great variety of fltr.r., compaa, and '■ ^fembling emery, Skiddaw. White, ftringy, fibrouj, 
filiated, amorphous and cryjiallized found in the differ- v CulgEith, Kirkland. Spangles of filvery mica, m a 
cnt lead mines of Aldfton-moor. Cryftals cubical with ?' '■^^' ^^-^1^ f""^!^'* '^'^"^ > ■"'^^ ^ ='''^«"'' riumpton> q"ar- 
thc edges fometimes bevilled, oaohsdral, polygonal, I l"'" °" '^^^ ?■•'«"'' ^'''^ "'^"'y °'''«'' P"""'^'' Sometimes 

irregular. Colours verv, red, green, blue, \ '" "=*'<-* quanifs in the intcrlhces between tne pofts 

yellow, purple, violet, colouiltfs and of all gradations, X ^" 8''^""'^ '" '"""V P^"^ "^ '"^ '^='"''*>' — ^"'='' "i'"> 

from very pale to almoft black. Often of a drofv X Derwent, Cockermouth. 

furface, compofed of different minute cryftals, and not Steatiles, soaprock.— .9f;/.7 indurated. White, 

unfreqnently frofted over with marcafiles. Veiy com- I ftreakcJ with pale green, HiU top, St. John's, Dr. 

inoniy found mixed with lead ore, blend, fpar, &c. X Brownngg's cabinet. 

fometimes, though rarely, ftuddcd with brilliant quartz f ^ i, would pcrl.aps have been more corrcfi to have fepcr- 

Cijftab, and with cryftallizcd Galena. t ated Mkasnd lak. 

[ 46 ] 

^j/i-f/w/SAvyjM/.'/i?/, of Cronfledt, Coome two miles, 5 Carnelian. — Of various colours, tut chiefly of 
and Hindfide five miles from Rofsthwaite, Borrowdale, C different fhades of red. Not unfrequeut on the ftore, 
Longnor iron mine, Dr. Wr. >; ar.d near the furface of tlie earth in many places. 

Serpentine. — In ftr.all rounded malTes on the fea 5 Flint — In loofe detached nodnks, generally with 
fhoie in many places, and in ploughed grounds, but v a greyifh craft or rind. On the fea (here, in beds of 
rare. X jivers, in gravfl pits, and at the furface in many part* 

AsHESTUS. — Lead mine at Nenthead, and in fome of the county, 
of our mountain rocks, where it prefcnts much variety ? Chirt, Petrosiles, Horn-stone. — FrcqueDt» 
of appearance, as it fecms to graduate iiito different i Crofs-fell, thin layers in -limeRone, near Caldbeck. 
fubflances. J Jasper. — Of different colouis, often veined, cloud- 

SILJCEOUS GENUS. ;< cd, and fpotted, met with generally in beds of rivers, 

^iartz and Rock Cyfidl I ^"'' °" "^ """^ "^^^ '^""^" "^ ^''^ ground, in detached 

■ ... . . ,,.. ri Jumps br fragment* Black with veins of quartz, 

Of feveral varieties found 1.1 our mines at Aldfton, 5 u,^^,^ Armathwaite, near Kefwick-Dr. Brownrigg. 
Kcfwick, Caldbeck, &c. m clefts and veins of rocks, v p^^OT Spi& Contained in granite and other ag- 
in the beds of rivers and brooks, and foinctimes in \ „^^„^^^ fton,;^ ^pj fometimes found adhering in con- 
ploughed fields. In the two hft fituations it generally J (idgrable quantity to quartz, in veins of (hiftous rocks, 
occurs in dubnft maffes of different fizes, rounded ap- f Agate. -In nodules, by the fide of Ulifwater, io 
parently by attrition. k^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ Bewcafde church, and river Irlhing, 
. Mountain Crystal. Nitrum cryjtallut mcntana, \ Gililand 

-Uxi. partzum cryjlailizatum, CronUatit, Skiddaw, % Perhaps this ought to have been clall^d with the 
.Dr. \\x Lchinated cryflalline ball, Skiddavv, Dr. X ^ ^^^^^^ j^^^^^_ j^^,.,.^;.^^ as Werner obferve?, it doc. 
Wr. Ftora,-,.i prifruitica. Fibrous ^artz,^^^^iX, ^^ f^^^ ^ ^-.^-^^^ f -^^^ but coniifts of quartz, 
piifmatic hbresDr. Wr. W..low.crag near Keiwick. V cryilal, hornftone, flint, calccdony, amethyft, jafper, 
Qiiartz of fibrous (hufture on the fur^ce, KeRvick, 5 carnelian, heliotropium, and jade, in binary, ternary, 
Dr Wr Glafly, fat quartz, generally of different y ^^ ^^^e numerous combinations. See Kirwan,/.. 33a. 
Jliadcs ot wfiite, Irequent. Iriable and of fcaly tex- if 

ture, rrandclhow-mine, Kelvvick. Pure gLiOy py- f ARGILLACEOUS GENUS. 

Xammal cryttals do. Fine white quartoze land, fome ^ Porcelain Clav. Tirra torceUanca, Kaolin of 
of It mixed with minute grains of ores of lead and a t^^ chintfe.— White, and cream colour, moilly friable 
zinc do. \\ hite, opaque cryftals, Aldfton-moor _ \ 3,,^ dully ; but fome of it, efpeciallv that which is the 
quartz is often met with both amorphous and crytbl- X hardeft, rather compaft, feels meag're. Falls to pow- 
lized, in our mmes, intermixed with mica, plumbago, j j.^ in water. Contains minute particles of fcuiiuix 
the du:erent ores of lead, copper, iron, zinc, Sec— ^^^ „,;,^_ gurns to a white brick in appearance. 
The mines at Aldfton prodiice beautiful tran^arent t ref^.-^bling porcelain ware— tarrock, nearNebffeps. 
ciyftals of various forms and colours, the yel W ,n J Pottos Clay, and Pipe CLAV.-Borroudale, 
particular are fome of them, little inferior in brilliancy v near Broughtcn, Wythburn, Potter-pitts, Wreay cora- 
to the Brazilian lopaz. _ _ ]<" common, between Cockermoutha.i'l Whitehaven, Lit- 

GARNFT.-Not unfrequent m micnceons nones.— tie Barrock and in many other places. 
Mr. Hutton of Kefwick, has leveral beatitiful ones, y I^„uj,^t,„ CLAV.-Of v^ious colours, Little 
t^^gh ftnall, fVom ftonea Ibund ,n that ne.ght.our- | b,,.,^,^, in a coarG; grit fond-lloue quarry, and iti 
°p ■ T r T • • r n o . 5^' many parts of the county. 

SHORL._In (everal mies of ffones. Sometime, x Shistose Cl.v, Shale Sniv^.-Giinand. KeC 

{thotigh rare) incluaed in cvyaals of quartz. In \ „.;^k, &c. in thick ft.ata and in moft coal It 

pieces of ftones u-luch have been Roman ouerns, or \ ,-3 ^f,,,, „f ^ tabulated llrudure, refembling the leaves 

hand mills, leveral of which have been found by J, X gf ^ book 

John(bn Elq. at Caftle-ftcads, and are now at Walton- %, ic .■' j- , t 11 i- .^ j t\ T-rr ci -j 

r c 11,^ r> ni • 1 • 1 • <• T^ V i -Xc^r-is radiala, I.amcU:e radiated. Dr. \<x. Skid- 

noule. Mr. Croltliwaite has in his mufeum at Kef- > j. ' x? j 1 c ■ c r .1 

. , r n V L ' " '"'^>"' "^ "-'^^ 'daw. Nodules of various fi/.es are frequently met 

wick, Gueins or cvlteolithus levis, or fponsre (tone, ;■ -.i ■ a . f ..1 ■ r 1 n i,- 1 u l i 

. . , .^ r n 1 • • . '^ "' ')f^"h'- ""'"^j ' xvith in Itrata ot this iubilance which, when broken, 

witn bits or (norl intermixed. ^. , •■ •• • n- e \ . i- ■ i j 1 

r, o • • r' ,f • ■ • , " exhioit imprellions ot plants. It is reckoned an al- 

Z.EOLITE. — oometimes in Imall cavities m tran and y _ n. . ■ • j- .• " t- 1 c 1 

, ■ n »■ o . vo .11^0 w<n^ aim ; j^^j^ certain indication ot coal; we frequently meet 

t~, ' T, • , ^ ^ , ■ I- ,y *vith it, however, where no coal is found, particularly 

CALCEDONV.-Rare, ,n detached pieces, of rough i ^^j^cn it contains mica, 
uneven ftirface, on the fea fhore, and m ploughed ^; Bituminous SHALF.-Colour generally black, or 
ground. WliitC m imall irlobules,creneraIlv wit i auartz, * 1 1 i -a. r c r. ^ rr .. r 1 r .. 

° n u- A I J 11 J Aijii ' '^* '¥ blackifh furface often Hoffy, not unfrequently piefcnt- 

cryllallized galena, and blend, Aldllon-moor. 0- .1 r i • u ^i j • /i • 

•' 6 » » ii.vui. /. ing the appearance of having been ftamped m ftripes, 

.,,. •- I r . V fpots and other rcivuhr figures or pancrns. In coal 

jW c join expunged rock cr)-flaUvith<;uartz,becaure we do not X '^. . ,1,. •. . ^ , ,, '^ rr., • , ,. 

Vnov/ that the fpccific difference pointed out by M. Fcurcroy, X '"'"^^ ^^ Whitehaven, .yid other parts. This and the 
Jias been generally admitted by minero'ogifts. Mr. Kinvan •*• foregoing variety foniclimcs Contain alum. 
■?«jr» their only difference is in their fradurc and iranrparency. '^ LiTHOMARGAj 

[ 47 ] 

£.iTHOMiiRGA, Stone manow. — Both crumlling and X arc vciy hard and durable ; tlieir farface 13, IiowsvoVj 
indurated, found fametimes in i-efls in cracks or clefts \ rough and uneven, and colour unftghtly, being molUy 
of fand-ftcn: rocks, Peteri!, and liden. f of a dingy brown ; when the heat of t'le kiln is too 

Bo:.E (by this we mean fine chy of various colours X ftrong they melt to a blackifli flag, which fhews that 
containing iron).— Grey Bole, Broughton, Warnel- ^ the calx of iron is united to the argillaceous particles, 
fell, &c. — Red Bole, Ruddle, Rubrica falrilis, X not to the filicious. 

Hobcarton crags, Lorton, Crofs fell, Htlvellyn, Sec. 5 Mullen Stose. — Great Barrocfc, in a large inafs, 
and frequently in brooks and rivulets, and on the fur- and in detached lumps with a grey ocky rind, tlierc 
hz^ of the giound in fniall pieces. X and in many other places. 

Terrs Vep.te, Green earth. — Found at Goldfcap, C. Trap. — Great Burrock and many other places.— 
in Newbnds, and in other mines, will be noticed in x The under ftratuni of this hill (B.irrock) fccms to be 
another place, as it evidently derives its colour from j formed of this and the preceding llone. 

copper, which it appears to contain in confidcrable Basalt ^Crofs-fill and other parts. 

quantity. The reader will here be plcafed to obfeive < Whin Stone — Forms the dykes in many of our 
that as, in general, we hive been guided by external \ mines. In detached pieces on the furface almoft every 
appearances only, it '\i fcarccly pofTible that this cata- v where. In large raafles, Aldfton-moor and other places, 
logue (hould, in every inftance, be entirely free from < Toad Stone. — In detached pieces on the furface 
errors; we would not, however, be undcrftood by ,J almoft every wheie. 

this, to infiniiate any thing againll the ufefulnefs of v Rowley Ragg. — In delachcd pieces on the furface. 
external chura&ers; on the contraiy, we are thoroughly X Shistus. Agri 1 LACtoi5s Shistus or Slate.— 
fenfible how much the fcience of m'nerology is in- h Of fevsral varieties of colours in many parts of the 
debted to the admirable fagacity, minute difcrlmina- '\ county. Found in immcnfe ftrata. 
tion, and uncommon induftry, of profelTor Werner. — X Lavagna veredcfccns, Simple ptimitive rock, con- 
Yet after all, it muft, we think, be allowed, that a tol- * filling of ttte fhillic earth, or that earth which is the 
crably accurate knowledge ol the component parts of x bafis of all flates and whin ftoncs. Dr. Wr. Kefwick, 
minerals can only be by the judicious applica- « near Cockermouth, Crofs-ftll above coal, Workington, 
tion of chemical tefts, " e fola namque pofllbilitate in y with vegetable imprcffions iir it, above the Coal. 
" philofophia natural! nihil ilabilire convcnit. Qnotidi- X Green Jlate, fii^i^ coloured, of a granulated texture. Dr. 
" ana edocet experienlia, q'.ia: maxime probabilia viden- 5 Wr. Bonowda'e : Purple, Patterdale : Pale arecnijh 
" tur alio tempore revcia falfa reptriri." — Bergmann } brov:n, Caldbcck-fells : Pali bronvn glittering with 
Meditationea de Syflemate Fofliliiim Naturali. X mica, Patterdale, Martlndale : Comvton blue f.atc. Dr. 

Argillaceous Marl. — Found in confiderahle J Wr. Skiddaw, Patterdale, Borrowdale, &c. Ajh-co- 
quantities in many parts of the county. Moft of the ); loured oi- Grey Jlaie, Saddleback, Place-fell, Patterdalei 
fpecimens wc have tried burn to a red brick, this in- X Martindale. Pale bluijh grey, above coal, Renwick, 
dicates the prefencc of iron or pyrtcs, both of which \ Warnel fell. 

being geneial'.y unfriendly to vegetation, marks of this 2 Grapholite, Bluilh black, Skiddaw, and elfc« 
defciiption, we therefore prefume, would not be ad- X where, 
vantageoufly applied to ground as a manure. Aluminous Schist, Gilfland, Warnel-fell. 

Umber. — KirkHone, Bioadiield, fometimes in ere- v Aluminous Clav, near Caldbeck. 

vices of limeftone. rock. Whether the fpecimens we i, Pvritous Schist, Warnel-fell, 

have fcen be real umber, which confifts piineip.iUy of J 

particles of decayed wood, mixed with bitumen, or a ^ The Bilhop of Landrff after having weighed many 
brown ockrous earth often called umber, we have not X different forts of flate fo-and the medium weight of a 
determined. cubic foot to be 2^67 ounces. His lorddiip alfo in- 

Tripoli. Rotten Stone. — Brown, on the banks of v foims us that 42 fquare yaids of building will be cov. 
Ullfwattr, in rounded lumps, comnunly of a greenirti ,^ cred by copper — its thicknefs about the 40th part of 
colour, being apparently difintegrat.d (lones : in gravel S an inch, — __■___— — 
beds fometimes, an.! in cOai fe martial clays. X Lead '/lb. to the fquare foot, _ _ — 

CoMMOs COARSE Clay. — Forms the llratum im- X Fine Slate, — __ — ___ 
mediately beneath the foil thro' a conflderab'e part of jj Coa:fer Slate, _____ ., 
the county. Colour generally brownidi red, with a X Common Cambridge Tile, _ _ _ 
trifling admixture of white and bluifli grey ; abounding * A piece of flate and a piece of tile were immerfed 
with rounded pebbles of various fi/,es and kinds, moflly in water for ten minutes ; the tile had imbibed about 
C'>ntaining a good deal of irOn, and without any calca- * -^th of its weight of water; the flate had imbibed only a 
leous earth, or containing it in very fmall quantity. — ft 200th part of its weight.— —Chcm. Eflay?, Vol. 4. 
Bricks made of this fort of clay, when pioperly burnt, v STRA TA 

C 48 ] 



The following fcftion of Strata, cannot from the nature of it be [Kfrfeftly corrcft, but it may convey fome 
idea of the variety in one part of the cojuty, while other parts near the lakes tonfill of very different boditi : 
from the fummit of Dun-jW, near Crofa-fell, mines have in different places, and in Aldtton-moor, been worlici! 
to the depth of upwards of 450 yards, meafuring the different ftrata, of different mines, each of which is to 
be met with, from the funamit of Crofs-fell, downwards, though of various thicknefs in different work'ngs. — 
" Tf'-e Striata of earth and mountains are generally RagPi>:e, then Slate, Maihlt:, fiiled with petrifadlioiis, Fourth, 
"Slate, and the lowefti^^ivyi'sw.— Ama;nit» Acid. Vol. II." 





1 1 








^ - 





Hazell, S'axiwi cos, whiiifli free- 
ilone, lamellar ; nothing above 
but Mofs, idc. . . . 
Plate, Schijlus viger, . 
Hazell, or Grindllor.e, Sill, 
Plate, a coal in the middle, m 
fome places three feet thick, in 
others fliata of plate between 

the cual, 

Hazell, . . . . . 


Limeftone four feet, highefl in 
AlRon-inoor, .... 



Hazell, . . ^ . . • 


Wheldone Sill, Saxuvi cos, 
Plate, .... . . 

High Slate Sill, Saxum cos, 


Low Slate Sill, 

Plate in fome places on Hazell 

eight feet, 

Iron ftcne, Fsrrum, 

Plate (a ccal in H oni foot ) 

Great freeilcne or Fire ftone, 


Pattinfon's Sill (Freefone) 


Little limellone, . . . 

White Hazell 

Plate (a coal in 12 inches high 


High coal fill 

Plate, and low coal, . . 

Low coal fill 

Plate upon great limeflone. 
Great limeRcne, fis yards of the 
top is in detached pieces, called 

tumble) 3, 

Tuft (in the middle fometiraes 
coal two feet) . . . . 
Plate, scar the bottom feveral 
entrochi and marine fubftances, 
Quarry Hazel!, . 
Plate and girdle bed, . , 
Four fathom lime, 






















X No. 

V 37 

i. 38 

6 39 

X 43 

X 41 

\ 4^ 

V 43 

h 44 

5 45 
I 46 

6 47 
\ 48 

t 49 
5 50 
X 5' 
X 52 

\ 53 

I 54 
i 55 

I 57 















Plate, coal near the bottom, 



Limeftone, ..... 



Sear lime, 



Plate, coal in it, . , . 







Cockle fhell limeftone, entrochi, 
anomia, oftrea, and other marine 
fubftances in it, . . . 




Plate . 

Limeftone, Garragill-bridge, 


Grey ftone, .... 

Grey plate on which Garragiil 

gate bridge ftands, 

1 ine bottom lime, 

Whetftone Sill, . . . 

Great whin fill, Schijlsu, . 




Limeftone, lower part full of 

entrochi, Sec 

Hazell and plate, . . . 

Limeftone, .... 





Limeftone, . t . . . 










i 2 









Ft. h: 
1 I 6 

80 Plate, 

t 49 I 









J 00 





iP-iatt, : : : ■ : : 


Plate : 



Gicy beds, ..... 
RuikIIc, or Mdmerby fcKr lime, 



Plate, and a fmall coal, . 






Plate, ..... . 



Limeftone, . % . . . 
Hard freeftone, 
Plate, coal in it feven inclies, 
Freeftone, . . . - . 
Girdle bed, .... 



Plate, upper part blaclc, the 
lower reddifti, .... 
Great fill red, near the bottom 
is alabafter, gypfum ah.hafiriim, 
freeftone, the rivers Eden and 
Pcteril run in many places, 
Plate, m fome phccs coal in it, 
Limeftone, the thickeft and 
deepcft in the north of England, 
Coal, feveral ftrata intermixed 
with ftone, &c. . . 

































The whole of this will give the height of CrofiS-fell 
•confiderably Icfs than it has been generally eftimated ; 
•but we have rcafon to believe that our ftatement in vol. 

I. p. 265, is near the truth. The following heights 

were determined by the barometei, 

Kefwick, — 
Eaglesfield, — ^ 
Carlifle, — 
Scotby, — 
Dalfton, — 
Caldbeck, — 
Cairock Weft Pike, 
Eaft Pike, 

Bowfcale Tarn, — . — — 

Penrith Beacon, — — 

Penrith, — — — 

Emont bridge, — — 

Winder barton, Weftmoreland. — 
Mr. Lehman obfcrves the loweft ftratum, in recent 
fountains, compoRd of (Irata, is always pit coal ; and 

Above the fea ih yards. 

— 81 

— '5 

— 35 

— 4? 

— 1S3 

— 741 



''!: tills rcfts on a coarfe fcruginous gravetfir farid. Ato'-'/; 
i^' t!ie pit coal we find ftrata of ilate, ftiiftus, &c. and 

> the upper part of the ftrata is conftantly occupied by 
j' limeftone and fait fprings. It is eafy to perceive the 

V utility of thefe cbieivations, when it is intended to 
X \Vork for minerals. 

> The more we are elevated above the furface of the 

V earth the colder it becomes. At the height of about 
* 4600 yards above the level of the Tea, no plant what- 

V ever is found to grow : and it appears, from the obfer- 
X vatichs cf M. M. Condamine, &c. the Academicians 
.; fcnt to Ou'ito in 1735, that at the height of 4868 
I yards the !nov/ is perpetual, and never melts at any 
X time of the year, even under the Equator. Herbace- 
^ ous r.'illow, falix herlacca, the leaft of britifh trees, 

V grows on the fummit of Skiddaw ; and is the tree that 
X grows highcft in this county. Mountain A(h, Sorbtts 

Aucuparia, is the next, viz. about 850 yards above 
;' the fea, on Crofs-fell, 600 on Skiddaw, and Hawthorn, 
K Crafcgtis Moncgyia, about jo yards lower than the 
y laft mentioned. 


y Inflammable Air, Hydrogenous Gas. — Found 
; in many mines, particularly in thofe of coal at White- 
C haven, where its deftruftive effefts have been too fre- 
i quently experienced. To prevent its explofion, the 
} mines are fometimes lighted by fparks from flint and 

fteel produced by a fmall wheel turned by a boy. 

X Mephetic Inflammable Air. — Carbonated hy^ 
\ drogenous gas ; frequent in marfliy, boggy groundsi 

V and ftagnani pools. 

X Hepatic Air, Sulpkuratid Hydrogenous Gar.—'' 

1 Found in many fprings of water (generally) ifl"ulng 

V from peat moftts. : in the medicinal water at Gilfland. 
X Plumbago, Carbure of Iron, Blacklead. — Mine 

V in Borrowdale, near Kefwick : fometimes in fmall 
v pieces at the bottom of Dcrwent lake ; thefe how- 
l ever, have probably been originally brought from Bor- 
rowdalc, ard bsii'g depofited in fome pait of the lake 
X for concealment, have been difperfed, and carried to 
\ the different ftiorts, by the motion of the waters.^ 
w This fubftance is found in many diffcicnt parts of the 
t. world, but always greatly infeiior to that of the Bor- 
O rowdale mine, which, however, produces it of very 
|; different qualities. Its chief ufe is for pencils, fome 
X of which we have feen, made by Mr. l.adyman, of 
Kciwick, of lead of fo very fine a texture as to bear to 
J: be cut to a point almoft as (liarp as that of a needle. 
AKzr.i, SiiccinuJ!: eUnnwi. — In fmall pieces, rare, 
]^' on the fea ftiore. 

X jEt, Gagas, Succlntim nigrum. — In thin layers 
t (raie) In rocks on the Irthing, in fniali detached piece* 
% in the bed of that liver, on tlie fea ftiore, and in other 
X places near the furface of the earth. Wallerius and 

V other eminent chymifts believe jet to be afphaltum 
X coiid^nfed and haidened by length of time. It takes 
\ a fine poliih, and -'s ufed for toys, being worked into 
X bracelets, boxes, buttons, &c. 

§i Lithanthra;*;( 

Pyrites, Martial Pyrites, Sul/jhur of Iron 
Pale Yellow Pyrites. — Contains a nota- 

C 50 ] 

LrTHASTHR«, F03II Ccah Pit C^^A-Found in X be made into peat for burning. A conrtJerable pro- 
•various pans, and of different qualities, as noticed in portion of our moors conluls of this kmd of flow, 
the refneaive parilbes. The moft valuable mines are, x which is often found extending for fevcral miles ; and 
the Earl of I onfdale's, at Whitehaven; J. C. Lurwen's, t it is remarkable, that .t rnoa Irequentiy occurs on the 
Efq. at Workington, and the Earl of CarliHe's, at J moft elevated ground 
Tindale-fel!, near Brampton. Crow Coal, near Aid- S 

flon, and at Crofs-fell, contains a lar^'e proportion of ^ . ui v • 

pyrites, burns very flowly, intenfely hot, but with very ? ble proportion ot fu.phar, is very mflanrimab e; it 15 
little flame, and emits a llrong fmell of fulphur. C found. Fnft ot compaft texture, becond fteelgra.ned, 

Cannei. Coal or Kennel CoAL.—Found near X Third coarfe grained, Fourth, in nooulcs radiated, 
Bolton, but of very inferior quality to that of Lanca- { ftrix diverging as from a common centre, Fifth llnx 
ftire In many of the coal mines areillaceona ITiiftus x m concentric nogs, Mxth cryftalhzed in almoft innu- 
js often found fo much impregnated with bitumen as I merabie forms— found m moll of our mines of coal, 
to burn like coal. After burning it prefervesits fiiape ^ lead, and copper. Very beautiful mundic and mar- 
and fometimes its hardnefs. X cafite of different colours and mixed «ith the fpars 

Geanthrax, Peat— Abundant in. many parts of j and ores in Nent head and other mines at Aldlton- 
the cou uy * Peat mofs is very common on the fum- S moor : grey Goldfcap, yellow, do. Red and purple, 
wits of the higheft hills, O. Vol. I. p. 446. we find it X mixed with yellow Caldbeck, rocks by Buttermere 
of two different forts. Firft black, or peatmofs which ' lake, flate qiiarue. Patterdale. Moa of the combina- 
ftems to be comT^ofed chiefly of the roots and other 2 ''o"s p* lulphur will fa 1 to be mentioned araongft the 

' metalic fubftances. 

parts of heath and other vegetables, in a decayed (late ; 
confiderably folid and tenacious, and is that which is 
■ufed for fuel. Second white or flow mofs, in Ireland 
called red inof;. Tliis is capable of retaining fo great 
a proportion of water that it appears to be almoft 
fluid ; when dry it feems compofed of a whitifh light 

fpongy fubftance not unlike tow,t which is not fit to i les mines) il n'y point de plomb nu monde, celui _( 

Vilhch que ne contienne de I'argent. The fuperi 

Silver, Arg nt:im. — Is found mi erallized with 
the ores of lead in every mine in the county ; and i.i- 
i' deed if we may believe the affertion of Lehman (fur 

■ ■ de 

The public are ir.debted to the Earl of Dunrlonalii and to 
Dr. Andcrfon 'or much ufuful information en the fubjecSl of . 

purity of this lead is, however, molt probably owing tc 
tha method of firelting it; the grtatell part of it be- 

I 2 to 18 oz. per quintal (ililb.) the poorell about 
60 grs. When ores contain about 1 oz. per quintal. 

conntie; , 

and on other accounts well to dcferve the attention of men of 

fcience. Attempts to reclcim peat mofs, have indeed frequently 

.been made, and, as might be expsfted, from our very itrperfeijl X thetilver is reckoned to only jnft repay the expence of 

knowledge of its i«ture and jropcrties, with various fuccei^.— g^^t^^^^in jj. The Bifhop of Llandaff mentions a 

Of the many different praelical improvements of this kmd, y . . -S .. , , , • v • ,, . . j /c„ 

which have come to our knowledg^ thole made upon that i"'"e m Patterdale, which yields between 50 and 60 oz. 

and Crafford moffes, in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, ;^ 

by Meffr«, Wakefield and Rofcoe, appear to be the moft 

extcnfive and compleie. An account of which may be feen 
in Alkie's Manchctler. We underlland that Mr. Wilkin- 
fon, of StafTorafhirc, has alfo been very fuccefsful in draining 
and cultivatin-' a brge tracl of mofs in Lancafhire : none of 
the various methods which have y ;t been adopted, feem, how- 
ever, to be fo generally applicable to the improvement of peat 
earth as that now comraonl/ prailiieJ in Ayrfiiire, and for 

which we are obliged to the ingenuity of iVIr. Smith, of Swind- 
rig-moor, near Beith, in that county. The reader may find a 

detailed and circumftantial dcfcription of this mode of reclaim- .. 

ing peat mofs in a printed report on the fubjecl, from which it t been obtamed. 

appears that the profit on an acre will be, ■ "^ — "*" 

For the firft year, - - - - 0117 

Second year, .-- . - 430 

Third year, JljS 

Fourth year, .,. . . 10 10 

Fifth year, ----- 348 

Gain in five years, per acre, — ij 13 9 
When it will let for palture, at ll. 5s. per acre. 

(.^ -^ Sphag;!ullre, partly decayed. 

of tilver from a ton of the lead ; the ore of this mine 
" is reckoned to be poor in lead ; he adds, that it- is 
y very commonly obferved, that the pooreft lead ores 
X yield the moft liiver. 

A Copper, Cupum. — Confiderable mines near Cald- 
>/ beck, and He.'ket-New-market, in Borrowdale, and in 
X Newlands. in the neighbouihood of Kefwick where 
X the famous mine of Goldfcalp is fituated, from whence, 

V by the old vvorkinj;S and other documtnls, it appears, 
X that immenfe quantities of this mineral have formerly 

Sinall fpecimens of different ores of 

copper fometimes alfo occur in the lead mines of 

n Aldftonmooi; copper ore has likewife been found, 

although not in confiderable qjantitics, in many other 
X places, as in Mr. l.athes's liberties, near Wythburn, 
X in Mr. Gaff's, in the manor of Uldale, and in the 
4 mountains called Hardknot and Wrynols. 

X The ores moft common are thofo which are mlner- 
X alliztd with fulphur, and generally containing alfo iron 

V or arfenicj or both of different colour, accordin;; to 

1 tSjc 

[ 5« ] 

tlie difftrent proportions of theft fubllances with which X in coarfe fand, Barrow. Fibrous, lead ore mixed with 
they happen to be united. 5 copper, Barrow. 

Red Coppi r Ore. — Mineracupri calciforniis, pura ;< Lead ores are found in the mines of Aldflon-moor, 
et indurata, colore nibro Cronftedt, Dr. Wr. CalJ'oeck. X lying in cracks or fiifurcs of the ftrata. Small filTuits 
Glass i'oppfr Ore, Miiu-ia Cupri Pyritacca, and I'uch as have not altered the level of the corref- 
•♦ Hypeflionus viridefcens, greenifli copper pyrites, V ponding {Irata on each fide, are called by the miners 
" pyrites mineralizatiis amoiphus non fcientellans, Kin. f; there, Jlriiifis : thofe which are fo large as materially 
" Dr. Wr. Borrowdale. Hypellionus fulvus, yellow \ to afled the coincidence of the ftrata, raifing one fide 
" copper pyrites. Pyiites cupri fuUus, Lin. Dr. Wr. X or deprefling the other, are denominated veins. Thefe 
" Goldfcalp, Devil's batli bone, lynehead." Copper t fifluves though commonly nearly perpendicular, are ne- 
In fpar, Nenthcad. Oehva veneris friabilis inipura ^ ver perfedly fo ; and in whatever direftion they are 
Cronftedt. A kind of viride montanum, a loofe friable t found, they always incline downwards from that fide 
green tuft of copper with an unmetallic earth which t where the ilrata are higher, towards the other: thus in 
we have not yet examined, Goldfcalp. Cccruleum v a vein from north to fouth, if the ftrata (hould be 
montanum, not common. Vitriolum coerulcum, blue X found to be raifcd higher on the fouth fide of the fif- 
vitriol. Small globular malachite, rare. "^ cobble y fure than on the north fide, its inclination will theu be 
near Snittlegaith containing a fmall portion of cop- >; from the fouth downwards to the north, 
per. X 


Nati vt Lead, It is faid has be.-n found in Aldfton X Native Iron — Said to have been found at Skreesj 
moor, but we have great reafon to qucftinn its exlftence y a piece faid alfo to have been found in a coal mine at 
either there or in any oiher part of the county ; ore, y Tindale-fell, of which the agent Mr Gray had a knife 
however, is found in Nenthead mine, of fo pure a kind X made. 

as to be In feme degree malleable. Calciform Iron, Friahle, powdery Iran ochre, 

CAiCiFORM LvAD. — Thefe are all carbonats or v yellow and red, Skrees, Langron ; yellow in the coal 
minerallized with fixed air. Spatofmn, Lead .?/>«>•, S mines at Whitehaven and elfewhere; Brown, Ormath- 
White, cryftallized in a prifmatlc figure, Cronftedt, '} waite. 

185, Dr. Wr. Newlands. Of various colours and '< Bog ore. — Concreted ore of iron, Cronftedt, Dr. 
mixtures of colours in the different mines of .'-\ldfton- \ Wr. Langron ; rich, little rufted, Drayton, near Af- 
moor, and in the neighbourhood of KefA-ick. » patria : poor, Ormathwaite, Drayton, and in many 

White Friable Lead Ochre, Cerujpi nativa. — "places in fwampy grounds. Ochreous iron ores, re- 
Thornthwaite, ytllow and brownilh, tinged with iron, S fembling thofe called by Mr. Kirvvan, highland argil- 
do. i laceous ores, are very commonly met with on or near 
. Fihroui, White, yellow, green, brown, bhiilh black, ; the fuiface in moll parts of the county, efpecially in 
and of many {hades of thefe colours in feveral mines at moory foils and where the undtr llratum is a coaiTe 
Aldfton-moor, and at Brandlehow, Barrow, Thorn- V martial clay. They appear to have been depofited by 
thwaite and other places near Kefwick ; thefe are ge- i water, as they are generally found concreting with 
nerally coloured by iron, with whieh they are not fmall ftones, roots, and other fubftances. They oc- 
unfiequently found mixed ; feldom by copper. V cur in lumps or cakts of an indeterminate figure, and 
Minerallized Lead, Pl'imhnm ///■jwra/Z/zj/fiw. .X are generally fuppolcd to be inimical to vegetation ; at 
Minerallized laith fulphur (always containing filver, -j leaft they are very rarely found but In fterlje grounds. 
and often arfcnic, iron, or antimony) Galena or b'ey- % The iron produced from bog ores is of a brittle na- 
glanlz of the Gtrmans, is found in all its varieties iri ^, ture, particularly when cold, and is called ccUJJjort. — 
the mines in tha neighb.iurhood of Allfton, Kefwick, v Fourcroy fays, it derives this [properly from a portion 
and Caldbeck, as ftctl grained, fcaly, with large X of phofphoiic acid with which the o:<yde is combined, 
fcalcs, with fmall fcales ; radiated, of fine, and of Indurated, I^lood Ston f, H,a:r4ATiTfs. — Bluilh 
coarfe fibres or rays. Teftllated or potter's ore, of , blackifii red, often form its (hape called kidney ore, 
large cubes, of fmall cubes, cubes with the corners X fonictimes folld and of uniform texture, frequently con- 
cut off; cryftallized in irregular pyramids and other fifting of concentric layers compofed ol radiating 
Irregular figures: this f")it is generally accompanied X needles, furfice often rer.iform, fonietimes ftalaiSlitlcal, 
with blende, quart'/, different fpars, and miindic ; de- X botiyoldal, tubuliforin, fomctlmes in ;i cellular form, 
tached cryftals of galena, in an exoctoedral form, found V fometimes (caly or of a tclhiceous appearance called 
loofe in clav, .Aldfton moor. Exoftoedral cryftals of,' iron glimmer. All thefe varieties are found at Lang- 
galena, hollow and lined with fpars, Aldfton, galena of X ron, between Whitehaven and Egrcinont, and in otiier 
beautiful prifmatlc colours, Aldfton. ^ parts. Cryftalline ore of iron, in a cellular form, Cron- 
Pjriioui lead ore, Aldfton, Thornthwaile and Ban- X lltdt. Di-. Wr. Borrowdale, and Longron. Lamiiia- 
ow, Kefwick. ,X ted iron ore, Eifcnram of the Germans, with quartz 

""d red ochre found in a perpendicular tilfure, or pipe 

Minerallized by phoffhoric acid, Thornthwaite, Dr. i an 
J^'rownrigg's cabinet. Galena in fmall paitides .< 


r 52 7 

♦eiiT, as th! miners call it, in a rock of granite, in t great abundance in moft of onr lead mm?!:, anJ are 
Eflcdale, near Ravergb.iE. 5 generally interfperfed with fpars, mundic, gnlena, &c= 

Hbterogeneous Iron Ores, Calx of Iron, mixed '5 It is not a great many years iince rinc, or at lead 
with calcareous earth. Sparry Iron Ore, Stahlftein of X' the method of extrafting it from its ores, was firfl: dif- 
the Germans, Skrees, Aldflon-moor. Rhomboldal covered in this kingdom ; it is now, liovvcver, obtain- 
fpathofe, iron ore combined with galena, &c. Aldftoa- i ed in fuch quantities that it is become an article of 
moor, mixed with argillaceous earth. Bole; this is of * exportation. 

every gradation of hardnefs, from the reddle, called by 't Antimosy, yinthiionluin., Slihiiim. " Stibium 
the coimtry people clayey iron ore, rud and fmit and X " minerallizatum fibrofum plumbicolor, Lin," Steel- 
ufed by them for marking their fheep, to the hardeil 5 grained ore of antimony Cronftedt, Dr. Wr. Baffen- 
bioodilone, it is found at Skrees, L:ingron, Ouzbyfell, v thwaitc ; this is a fulphur of antimony. Jezebel 
and in detached pieces in the beds of rivers and brooks, X painted her eyes with antimony on Jehu's entry into 
and in ploughed lands alinolt in every part of the » Samaria, 
county; miners call it mother of the mine. X Arsenic, jirf^n-aim — Minerallized with fulphur 

Geodes. — Crofs fell, Gilflnnd, Langron, &c. \ and iron, arfenical pyrites, Goldfca'p and other mines. 

Iron Stone. — Crofi-icli, Gilfland, &c. V mixed in fmall proportion with other metals. 

Bluish Iron Ore, Catfcaup, or Cat's Scalp (f<J X Cobalt, Cobahun. — Minera cobalti calciform is in- 
called by the workmen) Broughton pits. C durata, Cronftedt, Dr. Wr. Cowdale, Kefwick. — This 

Native Prussian Blue, Cttrukum herclincnfe na- ;j fpecimen has upon its furface a little of the Zaphora 
ihum. — Sometimes in peat mofs, and in clay, particu- X alht, or white ochre of cobalt mentioned. — Cronftedt 
larly in that of Etterby fear, near Carlifle. Bergmann Seft 248. Cobalt is chiefly valuable on account of 
obferves that althoguh this fubftance is analogous to ;< the fine permanent blue colour it gives to glaff^'S and 
the artificial Pruffian blue, yet it differs from it in its X enamels. 

intenfity, in the mode of its produftion, and in various * Manganese, ManganeJtum.—'Qh.c'k m.anganefe, of 
properties. % a flaggy texture, Cronftedt, Dr. U'r. Caldbeck. In 

Emerv. — Milbeck-hall, near Ormathwaite ; this J the ftratum under the coal at Tindalc-fell, tinged and 
greatly rcfembles the emery of Arundal, in Norway. intermixed with pyrites and mica. 

Miserallizsd, Ferrum miwraJlizatum.—Wkh ful- X Woi fram, Spuma Lnp'i.' — " Sydera micans, called 
phur, fulphure faturatum, Marcafite with little fulphur, \ " by our miners blue blind ake. Molybdenum, fpuma 
brown rufty marcafite wi;h fulphur and clay mixed, " lupi Lin. — It is to be referred to that variety men- 
inartial pyrites, all common, as mentioned before. " Py- X " tioned by Keutman with the name of plnmbago 
" rites mineializatus amorphus fcientellans Lin. Dr. " ftemmi fimilis, and by Wallerius with the name of 
" Wr. Thornthwaite, Kefwick.'' With vitriolic acid, v " fpuma lupi ilriata. It is a fpecies of Wolfram of 
vitriol, fulphat of iron. Devil's back bone, Tynehead* X " the Germans, but quite diftinft from what is found 

Kidney ihaped nodules of bog ore are often found " in Cornwall and other places were tin abounds" Dr. 
on the furfacj of the ground, the cruft; of which only v Wr. This mineral is found in Mr. Stanley's manor, 
is ore, the infide confiding of radiated pyrites. The j fouth weft of Borrowdale head. Wolfram has been 
cavities of Hjematites are fometimes lined with beauti- found by MeflVs d'Elhuyar to be a combination of the 
ful fparry cryftals, at Langron. Staladitic iron ore, t acid of Tungften with iron and manganefe. 
Skrees, Langron, river Irthing, Gilfland. \ 

lu the walks near Navvorth-caftle is a heap of iron SAXA PETRM. 

flag, evidently the remains of iron works, lately dif- X Sai:a comp^fita ct conglutinata, Croriftedt; agregates 
covered by digging up an oak, the growth of many cea- i and derivatives, Kirwan. 
tunes, jj Granite. — Compofed of united fragments of 

SEMI MET/ILS. X quartz, fclJt fpar, and mica, " Pfaronium friabile, 

ZINC, Spelter, Ziicuhi. C friable grey gianite. Granites particulis conftans pa- 

Calciform Zinc, Pure. — Of a whitifli grey co- y rum coherciitibus Cronftedt 270. Dr. Wr. Moorftone» 
ioui ; Dr. Walker afiured Dr. Brownrigg that he had X Kefwick, Little Salkeld moor, Kirkland, &c. Red 
found this ore of zinc in Brandtlhow lead mine. Per- C granite, fyenitesrudia, Lin. Syft. /i. 76. coarfe red gra- 
haps this may be carbonate of zinc. Mixed, Cala- v nite; it abounds in the fell-i above Shap, Dr. Wr. rocks 
Kim, Lapis caiajfiinaris. — Oxide of zinc, Borrowdale, S^ of it near Hawes-water, in detached maffes in tnany 
Oufby. y places. Granite of various colours, at Irton and near 

Minerallized by fulphur. Blende, Pfcudo Galena, or l it; and in loofe llones very common. 
Black Jack. — Of different colours and forms, bluifli q Gri7«i?//>cj being a triple compound of quartz, mica, 
lefembling galena, black or grcenifh black like pitth, \ and fliorl, quartz feldt fpar ftcatite, feldt fpar, mica, 
Pecheblende, of a glaffy (V.ining furface, often cryftal- t hornblende, &c. &c. Alfo Graiiitsll a binary aggre- 
lized in irregular pyramids and other irregular figures, A gate of quartz, mica fliorl, feldt fpar, &c. and Grauelite, 
fometimcs containing filver, arfenic, &c. Redifli, \ which contains more than three conftituent parts, Kir. 
>v»wnifli, ycllowifh, thefc varieties arc met with in X «» 

: V mafies, having had their angles rounded off, apparently 
s X by attrition, as Dr Watfon believes, in antediluvian 

[ 53 J 

311 detached pieces on the fea (l\ore,jn f.loughed grounds, a They are found garduating into aimed cv£ry imagtna' 
on moors, &c. Stellftein or Gfjicljlcb:, compofed of ' ble variety. Indeed we believe we may fafely aflert 
quartz and mica, Tindalefell, very rcfriiftoiy, and X that in no part of this ifland will the mineralogift meet 
therefore ufed for building furnaces and fixing grates, \ witli a greater variety of compound ftcncs than m 
e:c. Mica and hornblende, of dark green colour, y Cumberland : efpecially of that fort to which Mr. 
Grunftein. X Kirwan affixes the appellation of derivatives ; but to 

PoRPHYRV. — Argillaceous, filicloiis, trap, granite 5 have attempted an adequate defcrlptlon of all or rr.olt 
aiid of many other vaiietics ; found in loofe (loncs in v of thcfe, would have required much more time, and a 
many parts. t much clcfcr application to the fubjeft, than v.e have it 

Bp.cccia and Pudding-Stose — Water foot fear, $ in our power at prefcnt to aHbrd it. The cobbits we 
Ullfwaterj near Ravenglafs, a thin bed in a ftratum of v have been fpeaking of are found of different degrees of 
fand ftone, near Low-houfe, and in detached pieces * fize. I'hey are generally enveloped in a thin whitifh 
common ; VarkUtcs, rare. J or browniih grey criift, occauoned by the gradual de- 

Sasd Stone. — Argillaceous, filicious, calcareous, x compofition and oxygenation of their parts, beginning 
ferruginous, red (which colour is moft common) white J at the fiirface ; and evidently have been fragments of 

ycUov.ifn, grty ; of coarfe and of fine grit,. Thcfe * ~ ■ - - _ 

form conliderable flrata (fee ftrata) and afford quarries 

of very durable and fonie of them very beautiful flone 5 waters. To account for this, however, in afatisfaftory 

for building in almofl every part of the county j manner, and alfo for the different firuaticns in which. 

Scythe Stone, Penrith fell, Chriftcnbury-crags, &c. X we fir.d them, arc difficult'es, which have never yet 
molt of our iar.d ftones contain minute particles of C been, and probably never will be completely foKed.^ 
micji ; lumps of clay and argillaceous marl are not un- v To afcertain with precifion, by a feiies of well direfted 
frequently foun.l imbedded in them, and fome of thefe X experiments, the compofition and properties of thefe 
occur in the form of a fort of net work refembling '• and other aggregated ftones vi'ou'd, we prefurae, afford 
fepta of ludus hclmontii. The ftratum cf fand ftone X an interelling and valuable addition to the prefent ftock 
.which in many places forms the channels of the rivers g of mineralogical knowledge; and fliould our hiftory, 
Eden and Peteril has been (we believe erroneoufly) J through the favourable :eception of the public, ever 
fuppofed to be the Rcthe todt ligcndes or Red deadliiT X arrive at a fccond edition, we truft we fhall be enabled 
under which no more coal, it is believed, is to be to prefent our readers with much additional inforraa- 
found. 'i tion of this kind, drawn from the analyfes and obfer- 

RuBiiLE Stone. — Containing concretions of fanidi- X vations of a who is at prefent cccupled in 
um or feldt fpar, Dr. Wr. near Kefvrrck. Stomoma inveftigating this fubjeft. We think we cannot better 
ghweratum, a Ipecies of compound rock cemented with X conclude than in the words of the learned biiliop of 
iron ochre. " I found it once ne^r an old mine, by }■ Llandaff, wliofe opinion of the ufefulne.^s and impoit- 
" the fide of Kef.vick lake. It had then been only ance of enquiries cf this nature, we have the fatisfac-- 
" the rubblfh and gravel thrown out of the mine, which X tion to find perfectly coinciding with our own.- — ^Vol. 
" in the courfe of 200 years has been conglutilated \ 4. p. 35'3. Experimental invettigations of this fort 
" into a compound rock, by means of iron ochre," v made with ability and camion, in different parts of the 
Dr. Wr. Thornthwaite, Kefvvick. This property of t world, are the only Aire foundations on which we can 
femi-oxydes of iron is well known. {; ever hope to build any probable fyftem concerning the 

Trap. — Mixed with and graduating iuto various ;/ formation of mountains, the antiouitv of the piefent 
fubftances, as granite, hornblende,. Kragg, fiiillus, &c. X form of the globe, and the caufes of the vicillitudes 
^tartz penetrated by iron, Z<c. Shijlus penetrated } which it has undergone. It is the proper province of 
with calcareous and oti'.er ftones. Gr,;/;.-/if mixed with j( natural plulofuphy to t'uplore feccndary ca:ifcs\ they 
arg llite, &e. &c. Steatites with mica, &c. &c. )' are the Heps on whJcli the mind of man afcends^ from 

BefiJes the above there are a number of compound j Earth to Htavcn : for the more dlllinfily we appre- 
ftoncs, not having as yet received any names, under V hrnd the number and connefiion of the ftcondarv 
vliich they can well be claffed ; fome in fixed rocks or .} caufes operating in this little fyflem uiiichis fubmitttd 
ftrata, bu: moft of them in loofe detached laalfcs, com- \ to o: r view, tli-; more certainly (liall v.e perceive the 
nionly ly'ug on or near the fuiface of the earth, on \ nectfTily of their ultimately depending, like tlie links, 
the fea ftiore, cr in the beds oi- channels of rivcis, and ) of Homer's chain, on a FIRtjT. 
here known by the general denomination of Cobbles. — \ 

WE are under great olllgatlons to JOHN LOSH, E/q. «/ Woodfidc, for the valuable apjlance he hat ren' 
4(red us in l-his part oj the wor^.— The Editors. 

O River- 

t 54 3 

Rivers and Lakes in the 
Ward above Derivcnf, A. 
low Der'went, E. EJkJale 
Cumberland IVarJ, 

Bleng, A. above D. 
Caldcw, C. 
Calder, A. ab. D. 
Cocker, do. 
Croglin, L. 
Derwent, A. ab. D. 
Dudden, do. 
lEamont, L. 
Zden, C. 
Ehen, A. ab. D. 
EUen, A. be. D. 
Eflc, E. 
Efi{, A. ab. D. 
Gelt, E. 
Greeta, A. be. D. 
In, A. ab. D. 
Jrthing, E. 
Kingwatcr, E. 
Kerfhcpe, E. 
liddel, E. 
Line. E, 
Mite, A. ab. D. 

Count';, A. ab- D. is AUerdale X 

he. D. is AUerdale Ward he- \ and Dijlances from Car life 

Tows, ^c. in the County, their Markets, Fairs', 


Ward, L. Leath Ward, C. x Abbey-Holm, market Sat. fair Oftober 29. 17 

X AUonby, Sat. -.-..-.--- 23 

g Aldfton-moor, Sat. f. lad Thurfday in May, del „ 
}( fit ft Thurfday in September. - - J ' 

X Bootle, Wcdnefday, f. April jtb, do. Septr. 24th. 66 
Brampton, Tuef. f. fecond Wed. after Whifun-l , 
X week, do. laft Wed. in August. - - J 

X Carlifle city, Wed. and Sat. f. Aug. 26th, Sept. 19th 
firii and fecond Sat. after 0£l. 1 oth. 

Nent, L. 
Peteiel, C. 
8ark, E. 
Tecs, L. 
Tyoe, L. 
Viza, C. 
Wampool, C. 
Waver, A be. 


Baflfenthwaite, A. ab. D. 
Buttermere, A. ab. D. 
Ciummock, do. 
Derwent, do. 
Devock, do. 
Ennetdale, do. 
Lovvfwater, do. 
Overv.ater, A. be D. 
Therrelmeer, do. 
Ullfwater, L. 
VVaftwater, A. ab D. 

X Cockermouth b.irough, Mond. f. firft Mond. in") 

D. I May and Oft. K) y 

^ Egremont, Sit. f. Sep. igtb. . . . - 
X Ireby, Thurfday, f, Feb. 24tl), Sept, 2i{l:. 
Kefwick, Sat. f. Aug. 2d. roads by Dalfton, War- 1 

7enrith J 





;i nel-fell, and Longlands, 27 miles, by Pen 

X KIrkofwald, Th f. Th. before Whitfunday, Au. 5 
C Longtown, Th. f. Whitfun-Th. Th. after Martin- 
X mas and Nov. 22d. .... - j 

X Maryport, Friday. ....-.- 27 

C Penrith, Tuefday, f. Ap. 3jlh and 26th, Whit " 
)i fun-Tu. Sept 27th, Nov. 11,. 

.; Ravenglafs, Sat. f. June 8th, Aug. 5th, - - 60 

V Whitehaven, Thurfday, f. Auguil ill, - - 41 

V Wigton, Tu, f. March 25tb, 11 

X Workington, Wed, f. Holy Th. Wed. before! 

X Oct. 18. - i 5^5 


Enala — Nalural Hijloyy. 

2. Ass, for Ajpnui, read AJInus, 
7, Stag, for Claphus, read Elafkus, 
31. Fhtid Shrew, for Arancus read 

Araneus. "» 
36. Great Seal, for drove, re&& driven. 

I. Sea Eagle, after Trout, add Salmo 


6. Honey Buzzard, for 'which 'weighed, 
read and -v^eighed. 

7. Moor Buzzard, ior, fir vicjl part, 
read yor the trtojl pjrt. 

8. Viper, for Hag'v.-orm, read Edder. 

In vol. 11. page 683, of additions. 

23. «(3. 9 . Blind W"oaM, after Worm add ffag' 

Ivor!?! Cumb. 

27. no. 49. Piper, ^h<t proportion dele to. 

27, «;. 51. Salmon, column fecond 32d line 

from the top, for tevibartwre, read temperature. 
28 Column firft, ftxthline from 


the bottom, for 1794, read 1796. 
■ - 32. r.o. 59, Charr, for Cumberland and Wefi- 

morlatid, read Cumberland, IVeJlmorland and 

■ : . ■ For, and EnnerdAe lake, 

read Ennerdale and Buttermere hkes. 

line, for Alderman read Aldermen. 

Literary Intelligence. 

It is propofed to publifh a new Ht story of 
UORTHumberland, upon the fame plan as the hiftory 
of Cumbeiland, provided a fufKcient number of fub- 
fcribcrs can be procured to defray the expence — by the 
auth.or, editor, and other affiftanls in the liiilory of 

ALSO, A topographical defcriptioji of Lancafhire, 
Weftmoreland, the lakes in Cumberland, and the cave» 
in Ycrkfliire, from a number of tours made by Mr. 
JoHM HouSMAM, One of the afCftants in the hiftory 

of Cumberland, and from many other authentic do- 

This work is intended to be printed in large 
oflavo, vi'ith a fmall type, to accommodate tonriils ; 
with a number of views, plans, and a large (beet map. 

About the end of the prefent year, i 707, will be 
pubiifhed, a new map of the counties of>ca(hirc, 
Weftmoreland, and all tlie lakes in Cumberland, neatly 
engraved, on one large ftiect, with an alphabetical lift- 
of all the towns, villages, churches, gentkmen'e fcats^ 
tables of the roRds, &c. 


Lijl of Sheriffs »/ Cumleyhnd. 

Henry id. 

2 I 


HiUlrcJ de Carliflc. 

Richard de Lucy. 

RoSeil Fitz Tioytc, for \G rears. 

^dam fon of the faid Robert, for 2 ycnrr-. 

Robert do valilbus (V'.iux) for ic years. 

X 37 Chviftopiier de Morefby, for 4 years, 
j 4t William de Windtfor, for 2 years. 
>; 4^ /^dam de Parving, for 3 years. 
I 46 John dc Denton. 
V 47 Robert de Moubiay. 
X 48 John de Derwent.vater. 
{, 49 Jolin de Denton. 
50 John de Dtrwentwater. 
A 51 John Ic Bruvn. 
\ ' Ricbaid II. 

John de Dervventwater. 
William dc Stapletoii of EdciiL:!!', 
Gilbert Ciirvvcn. 
John de Derwcntwatcr. 
Aniand Monceaux. 
Kobert Parvinp-. 
Amand Monceaux. 
8 John Thiilewall. 
¥ 9 Amand Monceaux. 
X 10 John Thirlewall. 
I 1 Peter Tylliol. 
y 1 2 John Ireby of Ireby. 
s 13 Richard Redman of Redman. 
S 14 Chriftopher Morefby. 




H'jgh de Morewick, for .). years, 
Richard i. 
1 William fon of Adeline, for g years. 

10 Robert de Taterihall of Tatfhall, I_incon(hire. 

I William dc Stiiteville, for 4!- years. 

Robert Id. Courtney, Bt. of Cockermo;uh, for 

the remaining half year, and one year further. 
7 Roger de Lacy, conllable of Chefter, 5 years. 

1 1 Robei t dc Vcteripont, lord of Wtftmorland. 

12 Hugh lord de Nevi!, for 4 years. 

16 Robert lord de Rods of Hamlake, Bart. 

1 7 Robett de Vallibus of Gilfland. 

Hen. i\. 

I Robert de Veteripont, f«r 5 years. 

6 Walter Mauclerk, bp. of Caili.Oe, for ro yrs. 
17 Thomas de Mtilton of Egremont, for 4 yeaj^. ^ 
a I William dc Dacre, for 12 yearr". |. t 'J Jo^m Irtby. 

33 John de Balyol, baron of By well, for 7 yis: I "^ T!"""^*^ .Mufgrave. 
40 William de lovlibus, El. of Albemarle, 5 yrs, 

45 Robeit de Muncafter, of Mupealtcr. 

46 Eiidachiiis de Balvol, for 4 years. 
50 Roger dc Leybarne, ior 2 years. 

52 Wilham de Dacre." 

53 Ranulph de Dacre, for 3 year?. 

Edward I. 
I Robert de Channccy, bp. of Carlifle, 2 yrs. 
3 Robert de Hampton, for three jears. y 

6 John dc Swynburn. X 

7 Gilbert dc CuK.en, for 4 years. r, 
1 1 Robert de Brut, fur 3 years. y 
14 Michael dc Haicla, for 12 years. y 
26 William de Mulcaftre, for j years. \, 
3 1 John de Lucy, for 2 years. * 
33 William de Mulcaftre, for 2 years. 'i. 

Edward n. \ 

I Andrew de H^rcla, fou i^ years. V 

16 Anthony lord f ucy. X 

17 Henry de Moulton, for 2 years. 
19 Robett le Bruyn of Drumbugh cadle. 

Edward in. 

1 Peter de Tylliol, for 3 years. 

4 Ranulph de Dacre, for 6 years. 
)o Richard de Denton. 
I f Anthony de Lucy, for 7 years. 
1 7 Hugh de Morefby, for 2 years. 
19 Thomas de Lucy, for 5 years. 
24 Richard de Denton, for 2 years. 
26 Hugh de I.outhrc, for 3 years. 

30 William de Thirlkeld. 

3 1 Robert dc Tylliol, for 2 yearj. 
33 William dc I.ancaftcr, for 2 years. 
35 Rob«it de Tylliol, for 2 ycais, 



17 Richard Redman. 
? 18 Peter Tylliol. 
J 19 John Ireby. 

20 Richard Redman. 

21 AVilliam Cnrwcn. 

22 Richard Redman. 
Henry IV. 

J William Lcgh of Ifell. 

2 William Lowther. 

3 Richaid Redman. 

4 'William Ofmunderky of Langrig. 

5 Pttcr Tylliol, for 2 years. 

7 Richard Skeltun of Branthwaltc. 

8 William Lowther. 

9 Robert Lowther, for 2 years. 

1 I John de la More. 
12 Robert Rotington of Rotington. 

Henry V. 

1 Richard Redman. 

2 Ifaac Harrington. 

3 William Stapltton. 

4 Chriftopher Cnrwtn. 

5 John I.ancafter of Rydall. 

6 William Ofmunderlty. 

7 iwibert Lowther. 

8 John Lamplugh of Lamplugh. . 

9 William Stapleton. 
JO Nicholas Radcliff of Dcrwentwater, 

Henry VI. 
: William I egh. 

2 Chriftopher Cuhven. 

3 Chriftopher Morefby. 

4 Nicholas Radcliffe. 

5 John Pennington of Muncafter. 


6 Chriftopher Culwen. X 1 1 Chrlilopher Morefty. 

7 Chriftopher Morefby. ^12 Thomas Beauchamp. 

8 Thomas de U More. v 13 Chrillopher Dacie, for 7 years, 

9 John Pennington. X 20 Hugh Hutton of Hutton Joho, 

10 John Skelton. 21 Chriftopher Dacre. 

1 1 John Laniplugh. 22 John Hodlefton. 

J 2 Chriftopher Culwen, X 23 John Radclyffe, of Derwentwater. 

13 John Pennington. 5 Henry VIll. 

14 John Broiighton of Broughton Tower. X l Thomas Curwen. 

15 Henry Fenwick of Fenwick Tower. g 2 John Pennington. 

16 Chriftopher Curwen. v 3 John Skelton. 

J 7 Chriftopher Morefby. X 4 John Crackenthorp. 

18 Hugh Lowther. j 5 Edward Mufgrave of Edenhall. 

19 John Skelton. _ 8 6 John Radchft"e. 

20 Wilham Stapleton. ' X 7 John Lowther. 

2 1 Thomas Beauchamp. { 8 Thomas Curwen. 

22 Thomas de la More. >; 9 Gawen Eglesfield, of Alwardby, 

23 Chriftopher Curwen. X 10 John Radcliff"e, 

24 John Skelton. ft 1 1 Edward Mufgrave. 

25 John Broughton. X '2 • 

26 Thomas de la More. X 13 Chriftopher Dacre. 

27 Thomas Crackenthorp of Cockermouth. ra. 

28 Thomas Curwen. X 15 John Radclyffe. 

29 John Skelton. X ,6 Chriftopher Curwen, 

30 Robert Vaux. S 17 Chriftopher Dacre. 

3 1 Thomas de la More. X 1 8 John Radclyffe. 
3* S 19 Edward Mufgrave. 

33 John Hodlefton of Milium. x 20 William Pennington. 

34 Hugh Lowther. X 2 i Thomas Wharton of Wharton. 

35 Thomas Curwen. 622 Richard Irton of Irton. 

36 Richard Salkeld of Corby. J 23 Chriftopher Dacre. 

37 Henry Fenwick. X 24 William Mufgrave. 

Edward IV. | 25 Chriftopher Curweo. 

1 Richard Salkeld. X 26 Cuthbert Hutton. 

2 Robert Vaux, for 2 yeara. ^ 27 Thomas Wharton. 

4 John Hodlefton. 28 Thomas Curwen. 

5 Thomas Lamplugh. ^ 29 John Lamplugh. 

6 Richard Salkeld. X 30 John Thwaytes of Thwaytes in Milium, 

7 Robert Vaux. y 31 Thomas Wharton. 

8 John Hodlefton, for 2 years. X 32 Thomas Dalfton of Dalfton. 

10 William Legh. X 33 William Mufgrave. 

11 Chriftopher Moreftjy. J 34 John Lowther. 

12 William Parr of Kendal Caftle, X 35 Thomas Salkeld, 

13 John Hodlefton. l 36 Edward Aglionby of Aglianby. 

14 William Legh, for 2 years. J 37 Thomas Sandford of Howgill Caftle. 
l6 Richard duke of Gloucefter, of Penrith Caftle, X Edward VL 

for J years. I I Thomas Wharton, 

Richard IH. | 2 John Legh. 

1 Richard Salkeld. X 3 John Lamplugh. 

2 John Crackenthorp. 4 John Lowther. 

Henry VII. ^ 5 Richard Eglesfield. 

I Chriftopher Moreftiy, X 6 William Pennington. 

2 Philip and M»ry. 

3 Chriftopher Morefljy. X I Thomas Legh. 

4 Thomas Beauchamp. , X 3 Richard Mufgrave. 

5 ' ' ;^ 3 Thomas Sandford, 

6 X 4 Robert Lamplugh. 

7 John Mufgrave of Fairbank. A j John Legh, 

8 • Elizabeth. 

9 Edward Redman. 2 i William Pennington. 

10 Richard Salkeld, X % Thomas Dacre. 






Thomas Lamplugh. 

Hugh Ayl'coiigh, and Henry Curwen. 

William Mufgrave. 

Anthony Hodlefton, 

7 Chrillopher Dacre. 

8 William Pennington. 

9 Richard Lowther. 
lo John Dalilon. 

i I Cuthbert Mufgrave. 
1 2 Simon Mufgrave. 
'3 Henry Curwen. 

14 George Lamplugh. 

1 5 John Lamplugh. 

16 William Mufgrave. 

1 7 Anthony Hodlefton. 

18 Richard Salkeld. 

1 9 Henry Tolfon, of Woodhall. 

20 John Dalfton. 

3 1 George Salkeld. 

32 Francis Lamplugh. 
83 John Lamplugh. 

34 Henry Curwen. 

35 Chriftopher Dacre. 

36 Wilfrid Lawfon, of Ifell. 

37 John Dalilon. 

38 John Midleton 

39 George Salkeld. 

30 John Dalfton. 

31 Richard Lovrther. 

32 Henry Curwen. 

33 Chriftopher Pickering of Threlkeld. 

34 John Southaik. 

35 William Mufgrave, 

36 Gerard Lowlher. 

37 John Dalfton. 

38 Lancelot Salkeld. 

39 Chriftopher Dalfton of Acorn Bank. 

40 Wilfrid LawfoD. 

41 Thomas Salkeld, 

42 Jofeph Pennington. 

43 Nicholas Curwen. 
William Orfeur of High Clofe. 

James L 
Edmund Dudley of Yanwath. 
William Hutton of Penrith, 
John Dalfton of Dalfton. 
Chriftopher Pickering. 
Wilfrid Lawfon. 
Chriftopher Pickering. 
Henry Blencowe of Blencowe. 
William Hutton. 
Joftph Pennington. 
Chriftopher Pickering. 
Wilfrid Lawfon. 
Thomas T amplugh. 

13 Edward ivlufgr;..c of Hayton Cattle, Bart. 

14 RicharJ l-'letcher of Hutton. 

15 William Ml .^ravc of Faiibank. 

16 William Houufton* 

17 Gvorge Dalfton. 

1 8 Henry Curwen. 








John Lamphigli. 

Henry Featherftonehaugh of Kirkofwald. 

• • • Dudley. 
Richard Sandfoid. 

Charles I. 
Richard Fletcher. 
Henry Blencowe. 
Peter Senhoufe of Netherhall. 
Chiiftopher Dalfton of Acorn Bank. 
William Layton of Dalemain. 
William Mufgrave. 

Chriftopher Richmond of High-head Caftle. 
Leonard Dykes of Wardhole. 
John Skelton of Armathwaite. 
William Orfeur. 
Richard Barwife of Hildkirk. 
Wilfrid Lawfon. 
Patricrus Curwen, Baronet. 
Thomas Dacre of Lanercoft. 
Timothy Fetherftonehaugh, 

Chriftopher Lowther of Whitehaven, Bart, 
Henry Fletcher, Bart. 

Thomas Lamplugh, and Wilfrid Lawfon, 

William Brifco of Crotton. 

William Brifco, and Henry Tolfon, 

John Barwys of Waverton. 

John Barwys. 

Charles Howard of Naworth. 

William Brifco. 

John Barwys. 

William Halton of Grayftock, and Wilfrid 

Wilfrid Lawfon, for 4 years. 

George Fletcher of Hutton, Bart, 

William Pennington. 

Charles IL 

William Pennington. 

Daniel Fleming of Rydal. 

John Lowther of Lowther, Bart, 

Francis Salkeld of Whitehall, 

John Lamplugh. 

Thomas Davyfon of Durham. 

William Dalfton of Dalfton, Bart, 

Richard Tolfon. 

William Layton. 

Miles Pennington. 

Thomas Curwen of Camerton. 

Anthony Bouche of Cockermouth. 
. Richard Patrickfon of Calder Abbey. 

Bernard Kirkbride of Howe, for 2 years. 

William Orfeur, for 2 years. 
I William Blennerhaffet of Flimby, for 3 years. 

Wilfrid Lawfon of Brayton. 

Gfor;;;' Fletcher, Bart. 

Leonard^Dykc, for 2 yeara. 

Edi ..rd Hailel of Dnlemain, 
i anclicvv Hodlvi.-n '•» iluiton John. 







1 1 









! I 
T 2 



3 : 

1 2 








I I 


Jaines II, 
Richavd Mufgfave, Batt. 
Wniiani Pcnniagtoi, Bart. 
John Datilon, Ban. 
Henry Cuiwen of Workington. 

William III. 
Edwartl Stanley rf Dakf;artli. 
Wilfiid Lawfon of Ifell, Bait. 
Richard LampUigh of R.ibton. 
Chriilopher Richmond of Caterlane. 
Jofcph Hodlelton of Miiiom. 
Henry Broiiglitou of Scales. 
John Ballendyne of Crookdake. 
John Ponfonby of Hale. 
John Latiis of Beck, in Millom, 
Tiuiothv Featherf^onehan^h. 
Thnma"! Da'vcs of Bnitoii. 
Robcit Cjrle'.on of Carleton hal!. 
Th' Lamplogl!. 

Richard Crsckenthorp. 
John Dalllon;' ■ 
John Seuhoufe of Seafca'e. 
,J.)hn Briico. 
Chriilopher Curwen. 
'Robert Penninjjton. 
Richard La:np!u^:;l!. 
Richard Hiittoii^. 
William Br.llentine, died 7 July. 
Robert niacklock; 
Robert Blacklock. 
John Fifher of U'.lf.Wter. ■ 
Cnarles Dal.lon. 
Thomas Palti.nfon ..if Mtlmerby 
-*'• ■ ••'• ' Georc;e I. 

H'JTiphrey Senhouf; of Nether hall. 
Tnomiis Broaghton. 
Heniv Blencowe. 

!\o'ut t Lamplugh of Dovenby. 

John f onfonby." 

Tb-.inas Fletcher. 

John Stanley. 

Jofi-iUi Laithes of Dalehead. 

l-ctc- Brougham of Serif. 

Jofej-h Dacre Apphby of Kirklinton. 

John Fletcher of Colohay. 

Thomas Lutwich, merchant in Whitehaven. 

John Ballentine of Crookdake. 
George II. 

Edward HaiTcl of Dalemain^ 

Guftavuo Thonipfon. ■ 

Eklred Ciirvven. 

Richard M'-ifgrave of Haytcn-cafllc, Bart. 
,Ed\v.ird Stantley of Ponfonby. 

Henry Aglionby of Nuntrery. 

John Benn of Henfrnghsm. 

Fletcher Partys of Tallentyre. 

John Dalfton of Acorn Bank. 

William Hicks, merchant in Whitthaven. 

John Galkaith of Hill-top. 

Julepli Dacre ApplAy of Kirklinton. 



































































1 1 


1 ** 











I 'T 










2 1 


































Richard Cock of Camerton-hall. 
Montague Farrer of Carlifle. 
Henry Fletcher of Hutton-hail. 
Humph'ey Senhouf.- cf Nether-hail. 
Jeroinc Tullie of Carlifle. 
Jolhna Lucock of Cockermouth. 
Chriilopher Pattinfon of Catleton-hai!. 
Thomas Whi. field of Claregill. 
Walter Lutwich, rn.;rchant in W hitfchavcn . 
Henry Richmond Brougham. 
John Poiiibnby. 

Kichatd Hylton of Hayton caiV.e. 
George Irton of Irton. 
Georjje Dalfton of Dnlfton. 
h'enry Curwen of \Vorkington. 
William Fleming of Rydai, Bart. 
Timothy Fetherftonhaugh of Kirkofwald. 
Wilfrid Lawfon of Brayton, Bart. 
John Stephenfon cf Kefwick. 
John Senboufe of Calder-.'^bbcy. 
James Sprdding of Ormathvvaite, 
John Gale of Cleator. 
William Dalfton of Millrlg. 
George 11*. 
John Langton of Cockermouth. 
John" Richardfon of Peniiih. 
Henry Aglionby of Nunnery. 
Henry EUifon of Whitehaven. 
Samuel Irton of Iitos. • 
John Chriftian of Unetigg, 
Thomas Lutwich of Whitehaven. 
Gilfrid Lawfon of Brayton. 
John Robinfon of Watermillock. 
Michael le Fleming of Rydal, Bart. 
John Spedding of Ormathwaite. 
WiUir.m Hicks of Papcaftle. 
John Dixon, merchant in Whitehaven, 
George Edward Stanley of Ponfonby. 
Anthony Bcnn of Hcnfingham. 
Roger Wilhamfon of Snitlegarth. 
Robert Waters of Whitehaven. 
Jijin Brifco of Crofton hall'. 
William Hafcll of Dalemain. 
Chriftopher Aglionby of Nunnery. 
Thomas Stoiy of Mirihoufe. 
William Dacre of Kirklinton. 
Jchn Oifeur Yates of Skirwith-abbey. 
John Chiillian of Unerigg. 
fcdward Knubley of Wigton. 
William Wilfon cf Braconburgh. 
Thomas Whelpdalc of Sinfgill. 
Fiedcrick Fletcher Vane of Hutton-halJ, Bart. 
Thomas Denton of Warnel). 
William Browne of Tallentire-hall. 
Edward I rmplugh Irton of [rton-baU. 
Edward Hafell of Dalemain. 
Thomas Pattinfon cf Melmerby. . ' 

Will. Hem-y Milbourneof Arma'Lhwaite-caftle, 
James Graham of Neiherby. Bart. 
James Graham of Barock- lodge. 
Hugh Parkin of Skirfgill. 




Antiquated Words occurring in the Work. 

ACOLITE, acollthus ; an inferior church fervant, who, next under tlie fubdeacon,y5//flii'fi/and waited 
upon the prieft and deacons in feveral parts of the divine offices. 
Agister, in tlie king's foreft ; an officer to take an account of the cattle <5r^(/7fi therein, and to collcft 

the money due for the fame. 
Assart, is cultivating ground in the foreft by grubbing up the wood, vi'hereby the covert for deer )» 

deftroyed : and freedom from afTart, is an exemption from a fine or penalty for fo doing. 
AssiSA, a rent or affcjjmcnt in general. 
AusTURCUs, a gofs or foar hawk, 
AvERia, beads, cattle. 
AvERPEN-NV, money paid towards the king's carnages by land, inftead of fervlce by the beads (avfria) in 


Barnekin, the outermofl ward of a caftle, within which were the larns, ftabks and cowhoufes. 

Baslaerd, a poignard or dagger. 

Bercaria, a iheepfold, or other inclofure for keeping (heep. 

Bloodwite, an amercement for bloodfhed. 

Bordeshalfpenny, money paid for fetting up hoards, or a ftall in a fair or market, 

BoRTHEVENLiG, feems to have been an exemption from attendance at the borough or leet court. 

Boscage, is that food which trees and wood yield to cattle : alfo, it fignifies a duty paid for wind-fall, 

wood in the forert. 
Boscus, wood. 

BovATE {oxgang) of land : as much as one yoke of oxen can reafonably cultivate In a year. 
Bredbrich, bridcberth ; jurifdidtion of punifhing the breach of the aflize of bread. 
BuCKSTALL, a fervice in the foreft in attending a caiainjiation to watch deer in hunting. 

Calcetum, a caufeway. 

Cariage, carreitii , a fervice of the tenant's carrying the lord's goods in carts or waggons. 

Caruca, a plough. 

Carucage, a tax paid for every carucate of land. 

Carucate, of land, from caruca, a plough, fjgnifies as much land as can reafonably be tilled in a year 

by one plough. 
Chiminage, a toll, due by cuftom, for having a way through a foreft. 
CiviTAS : an immunity de civitatibus was a privilege from attendance at the city courts. 
Cleugh, dough ; a gill or valley. 

Danegeld, a tax on land for keeping out the Danes, and afterwards impofed to prevent other invafions, 

or on any other extraordinary occafion. 
Dapifer, a purveyor for the houfehold. 
Don UM, a benevolence ; fometimes called an aid. 

Escape, efcnpium, wat. the punifliment, or fine, of thofe whofe beafts were found trefpaffing in the foreft. 

EsKEP, a mcafure of corn ; differing in different places. 

ExcLusAGiuM, ajluice for carrying water to the lord's mill. & 

EsPEDiTATiNG mafliffs in a foreft, is cutting off the three claws of tR forefoot clean off by the fliln, 

Fengeld, a tax Impofed for the repelling of enemies. 

Ferdwite {Jxom fcrd an army) a penal' y for not going out on a military expedition. 

Flemensfrith, receiving or lelieving a fugitive or outlaw. FtiTWiTif 


TL\TW\Ti.,fied'wite,Jiight'wite ; an amercement where a perfon having been a fugitive, returns of his 

own accord, or without Hcence. 
FooTGELD, an amercement for not expeditating dogs within the foreft. 
FoOTWiTE, the fame ?i.% footgeU. 

Forestall : an immunity irom foreflall, was an exemption from amercements for foreftalling. 
FoRRAY, an inroad or invalion by plundering parties. 
Foster xe.\\\., fojler corn ; the word feeras to be a contra£lion oi forejlcr, being the fame z%foreftage, a 

duty paid to the forcftcrs. 
FRiDSTALL,y'7vfti'?(?//, ( from yr/i/ pcacc, im.\ Jlall ■a. ftation) a feat or place of peace, whereunto a criroU 

nal flying would be in faftty ; faniluary. 
Trisca forcia, frefh force; a jurifdiftion of force newly committed within a cityoi other franchi£e» 
FuRCA, the gallows; a jurifdidion of tryiug and punifliing felons. 

Gavel, ^<?#f/; a toll or tribute. 

Gkld, a line, tax, or tribute. 

Greeshub, any thing that bears a green leaf in the foreft» 

Grith, peace. 

GRrTHBREKE, grldlrih, gridkbrcke ; breach of the peace. 

Haia. an hedge. 

Hamsoken, was a franchifv; granted to lords of manors, whereby they held pleas oF the violation of » 

man's houfe or h;ms. 
Haverpenny ; the fame as Avcr^em. 
Haybote, a liberty to take wood for hedging 

Headpeny, hevcdpiny ; a fmall fum of money at fo much a head, a poll tax, paid to the lord of the Itet. 
Hengwite, Hangivite . a penalty for fufFering a felon to efcape. 
HiDAGE, a tax paid for every hide of land. 
Hide of land, fccms to be the fame as an oxgang, being as much as one yoke of oxen can reafonaHy 

plough ill a year. 
IloBLER?, ^5^c'/j/-/;; light hoifcmen. 
HoRNGELD, a tax paid for hornidhtz'ik.% in the foreft. 
Housebote, an allowance of timber for repairing of houfes. 
HousGABEL, hiifgavel, hujgahiilnm; houfe rent, or a tax laid upon houfes. 

HuNDREDSPENY, z tax Or aid paid to the officer of the hundred for thefupport ol his office and dignity. 
HuNDREDUM, z tax Or paym.ent due to the hundred or ward. 

IsFANGTHiEF, a privilege of lords of manors to judge any thief taken within their fee. 
Inseighe (infight) houfchold goods. 

Jack ; armour worn by horfemen, not made of folid iron, but of many plates failentd together. The 

boots ufually worn with the faid armour are Hill called jack boots. 
Jampnum, gorfe or fuize. 

Kaiage ; a toll paid for loading or unloading goods at a kiy cr wharf. 

l^kiKV/iTZ, kgerwiie, leir-wite ; a fine for adultery or fornication. 

liASTAGE, or lefiage ; a cuftom or duty for goods in market or fair (old hy the /a/?, as corn, wool, her- 

ings, pilchards, and the like. 
Latrocinum ; an immunity dc latrocinio was a privilege of non-attendance at the courts which had 

fole jurifdi<!lion of robbery in a particular place. 
L.IBRATE of land, is a quantity containing four bovates or oxgangs. 

Maeremium, any fort of timber fit for building. 

Mail, a rent. 

Marcius, a lake or great pond that cannot be drawn dry. 

M.VRCHET, marchetiim, was a pecuniary payment, in lieu of tKe right which the lord of the manor, in 
many places, claimed and had. of lying with his tenant's wife the firfl night after their marriage.— 
It is faid that this fervice, in fome parts of the Highlands of Scotland, is not entirely gone into dif- 
uetude. And from tlus, perhaps, originally might arife the ftridt adheience and coaaexion of the 



clan as one great family ; for If the firft born child fliould come fo as to correfpond with the time of 

the marriage, the prefumption would be that the lord was the father of fuch child. 
MiSKENNiNG ; an unjull or vexatious citation into the courts. 
MuLTO, a mutton or flieep, a wether. 
MuRAGF, a toll taken for a cart or horfe laden going through a walled city or town for repairing the 

■xvatls thereof. 
Murdrum : an exemption de murdro was a privilege from attending the courts of tliofc that had the 

fole jurifdiflion of murder in a particular place. 

Namium, dtftrefs. 

Nativus, a fervant or bondman, fo horn. 

Navage, a duty on the tenants to carry their lord's goods in liJJiip or vefTel. 

Ordele, a trial of offences by fire or water, as paffing barefooted and blindfold amongft red-hot plough- 
(hares ; or being put into water, wherein if they funk they were adjudged innocent, if borne up by 
the water they were taken for guilty. 

Oreste, feems to be a jurifdiftion of holding courts in cafes penal. 

OsTURCUs, aujlurcus , a gofs hawk or foar hawk. 

OuTFANGTHiEF, a privilege of the lord of the manor to call any inhabitant of his manor to judgment 
in his coutt for felony, though he were apprehended out of his manor. 

OxGANG of land, as much as' one yoke of oxen can plough in a year. 

YiL-aM^KOZ, pafnage, is that food wliich fwine feed on in woods, as the mail of beach or acorns. And 
freedom from pannage is a privilege from paying any thing for the fame in the king's forefts. 

Passage, a duty paid {or pa jing over a river. 

Peoage, a duty paid for paffing by foot or horfe through any^ country, to be employed for the protec- 
tion of the paffcnger. 

Penigelp, a tax paid in money; a {iher penny was the current coin of the ancient Saxons, and was 
equal in weight to our 3a'. 

Piccage, money paid for breaking up ground for a ftall in a fair or market. 

Planus, level ground or groimd cleared of wood. 

Ploughland, as much as can be cultivated in a year by one plough. 

Pontage, a toll taken for pafling over a biidgc, to be employed towards the repair of fuch bridge. 

Preeke ; to prick at, to fkirmifh. 

Preiffe ; proof, trial. 

Pulture. puture, a cuftom claimed by keepers or other officers in forefts, to take man's meat, horfe 
meat, and dog meat of the inhabitants within the forelt. 

Purpresture, in the forell, is every incroachment made therein by building, inclofing, or ufing, any 
liberty, without lawful warrant 

Regard, was the view and inquiry of offences within the forcft by an officer called the recorder : and 

to be free from the regard of the forefl, was an exemption from his jurifdnftion. 
Re IF ; plunder, robbery, or any other taking by violeuce. 

Sac, faia, a privilege of the lord of holding a court. 

Sale I, ahead-piece. 

Skep, /fc/, a mcafure cf uncertain quantity : in a furvey of the forefl of Englewood in 1619, it is dC' 

fined to contain 12 bufhels, and evrry bufliel (Penrith meafure) 16 gallons and upwards. 
ScYRA ; an immunity de fciris, was an exemption from attending the fhirc or county court. 
ScoTTUM, a tax or contribution, Txjljot. 

ScuTAGE, a tax on thofe that held lands by knights fervice towards furnlfliing the king's army. 
Seneschal, ftewatd. 

StCiUELA, fignified the wife and children, goods and chatties, of a tenant in villisnage. 
Sewer, in old evidences, the fame as dapifir, purveyor or caterer for the houfehold. 
fif.EVGHjJceiughtJhu'u}: a wood-ground upon the (lope of an hill. 
Soke, foe ; power to hold courts and adminifler juftice. 
So8.i;s, a for or foar hawk. Speir^ 


Speir, (Scotch) to inquire. 

SrAGNEs, ftagna ; pools of ftanding water. 

Stallage, raoncy paid for creeling a ftall in a fair or market. 

SuBBOscus, underwood. 

SuMAGE, a fervice of the tenants carrying the lord's goods on horfeback. 

Tallage, a tax in general. 

Team, theam; a privilege of the lord of a manor for ordering of bondmen and villiens> with theic 
chidren, goods and chatties. 

Tenmentale, themmentak : an exemption from tenvtentak is a privilege of not attending the court of 
the decennary or tithing. 

Thelonium, toll. 

Thenage, fervice to the thain or lord of a manor. 

Thendingpeny, thethiiigpeny, tritkingpeny, an aid or fubfidy paid to the fherlfFor other cflEcer of tb'c 
tithing, for the fiipport of his office and dignity. 

Toll, thol, in a grant to the lord of a fair or market, fignifies a power to take toll. 

Trewes : days o( /rewes were, when the commiffioners of both kingdoms met for the redrefs of griev- 
ances, during which time there was a truce or ceflation of hoflilities. Alfo the articles agreed upon 
were ftyled the laws of trewes. 

Tridinga, trittinga , an immunity de tridingis was a privilege of non-attendance at the trithing courts. 

Trist, an intcrcommoning, alliance, or fricndfliip. 

Tristris, an obligation to attend the lord of a foreft in hunting, as to hold a dog, to follow the chace, 
or Hand at any place appointed. 

Utfangthief, the fame as Outfangthief. 

Vaccary, an houfe or place to keep cows in, a cow pafture. 

Vaumure, an outwork ot bulwark for defence againfl an enemy. 

Verderer, an officer to take care of the vert in the foreft. 

Vert, any thing that bears a green leaf in the foreft. 

Villenage, a fervile kind of tenure by bondmen or villeins, of whom there were two forts, one termed 
a villem in grofi, who was immediately bound to the pcrl'on of the lord ; the other a villein regardant 
to a manor, being bound to his lord as a member belonging to and annexed to his manor. 

Virgate of land; 2, yard oi land confifting (as fome fay) of 24 acres, whereof four virgates make an 
hide, and five hides make a knight's fee. 

VisNETUM, 'oifne, vicinetum, a neighbouring place ; vaflttm et •uicinetum, far and near. 

VivARY ; a place where living creatures are kept, as in a park, warren, fifh-pond, or the like. 

Wapentac, an obligation to attend the wapentake or hundred courts. 

Warda, a duty of attendance in the keeping of a town or caftle. 

Wardpeny, money paid for watch and ward. 

Wharfage, money paid for (hipping or landing goods at a ivharf. 

WoODGELD, a payment in lieu of fervice to be performed in cutting or carrying wood in the king's forefls. 


abcdcfghij k Imnop q r ftv u w x y z 
abc'oep^hijklmnopcqjvj'rvu pxyz 

Th D, '6, That ■?. 


s6cDefjj5 i (t I mnop qr'istiiutDrjf 



Thomas Adams, Elq. Alnwick. 

Rev. Ci. -\ildifon, A. M. Workington. 

Mr. W. H. / ddifon, Workington. 

R. Addifon, Temple Bar, London. 

The Hon. the Faculty of Advocates, 

Mifs Julia Aglionby, Crofsfield. 

Mr. Henry Airy, Nevvcaftle. 

James Allgood, Elq. Nunvyick, Nor- 

Georcre Allan, Efq. Grange, Durham. 

Alcxaadcr Allan, tfq. Edinburgh. 

William nllanby, Efq. Flimby, Cum- 

George Anderfoo, Efq. Captain In the 
^4th Regiment, Newcaftle, 

Mr. Thomas Anderfon, Carlifle. 

Alexander Annefley, Efq. Cloak-Iane, 

John Mackenzie Applecrcfs, Efq. 

Mr. Jamss Appleton, Smedley, Lanca- 

The College of Arms, London. 

Charles Armllrong, Efq. Brampton. 

Rtv. J. Afhhridge, Keath, Derbyfhire. 

Mr. James AHiburner, Kendal. 

Henry A/l<cvir, Efq, R.'..'d-hewgh, Dur- 

Mr. Cuthbett Atkinfon, Ravenglifs. 

Gcriard .Atkinfon, Whitehaven. 

Ji,hn Atkinlun, Douglas, Ifle of 


Right Honourable Lord Aukland. 


Rev. J. B. Backhoufe, M. A. ReSor 
cf Edburton, EfTex. 

I Nicholas Bacon, London. 

John Bacon, Efq. London. 

John Baliey, Efq. ChiUinghara-caille. 

Lawfan Dykes l3alIeiiLi:-.e, Efq. Crook- 

Richard Bamber, Efq. Nunnery. 

Bambrough Pablie Llbr^.ry Society. 

Mr. John Baii^er, Newcaille. 

Rev. William Barker, Holm Cultram, 

George Hollington Barker, Efq. Bir- 

Mr. JonTi Barnes, Attorney at Law, 

William Barnes, Carlifle. 

William Barnes, Newcatlle. 

- Matthew Barnet, Workington. 

Mr. Michael Barnet, Workvigton. 

Samuel Barras, Kelslicld. 

James Barrow, Efq. Lane after. 

Mr. Miles Barton, Surgeon, Orm(l<ifk, 
apreparercf the late William Hill's, 
Efq. Ormf]<irk Medicine. 

Rev. Samuel Baceman, Carlifle. 

Richard Baty, M. A. Chancellor 

of Worccller. 

Mr. Fiancis Beaty, Carlifle. 

John Beaumont, do. 

John Beck, ditto. 

William Beckford, Efq. M. P. 

Mr. John Bell, land furveyor, N-caftlc. 

Anthony Benn, Efq. Hcnfingham. 

Mr. William Benning, Baniard-eaRle. 

Thomas Benfon, Efq. Carlifle. 

Thomas Benfon, Efq. Cockermouth. 

Calverley Bewick, tfq. Clofe houfe, 

Rev. John Bird, vicar of Plumbland, 

Daniel Birket, Efq. Hatton-Street, 
Holbotn, London. 

Edvsrard Birket, Efq. Carlifle. 

Mr. R. BirtwhilUcFoie St. London. 

John Blackburn, Efq. M. P. London. 

Mr. John Blacklock, Netherby. 

James Blacklock, Yellington, Nor- 

ThomasElain, Suighmire, Cumb. 

George Blamire Efq. Carlifle. 

Thomas Blamire, M. D. Carlifle. 

H. P. Elcncowe, Ifq. Blencowe. 

W. F. Blencowe, Efq. Beck, in Mil- 

Mrs. Boak, Ironmonger, Carlifle. 

William Borradaile, Lfq. London. 

Rev. Jonathan Boucher, Epfom, Surry 

John Bourbeck, Penier. 

Mr. Edmund Bownefs, Workington. 

Benjamin Bowfer, Carlifle. 

Robert Doycs, Carlifle. 

Mrs. Braddyll, Conifiiead-prlory. 
Mr. Hev.';n Erzgg, Newcallle. 
Charles Brandling, Efq. M. P. Ncw- 

William Cray, Efq. Great Rufi'dSt. 

I ondon. 
F. W. T. Bridges, Efq. Tiberton, near 

Sir Johr. Brilco, Eait. Crofton- Place. 
Briftol Public Library Society. 
T. H. Broadhead, Efq. F. A. S. 

Portland- Place. 
Mrs. Langford Brooke, Mere, ncai 

Kr.uliford, Chefhire. 
George Brooks, Efq. London. 
Rev. J. Brougham, F. R. S. 

Henry Brougham, Efq. Brougham* 

Rev. John Brown, Carlifle. 
William Brown, Efq. Wis;ton. 
Mr. John Brown Gill, Cumbeiland. 
William Browne, Efq. Tallentire-Hall. 
Vv'iillam Biownrigg, M. D. F. R. S. 
Mr. John Brownrigf, Morcland. 
M. D. Puckeridge,' Efq. St. John's, 

Mr. Richard Burnet, Dublin. 

George Burnet, do. 

Thomas Bufliby, Wigton. 

John Calcy, Efq. F. A. S. Grey's Inn, 

Mr. Michael Callinder, Newcaftle. 
Cambiidge Univcrfity Society. 
The Honourable and Right Rev. Dr. 

Vernon, Lord Bifliop of Cathfle. 
The Right honourable the Earl of 

Rev. J, D. Carlyle, A. M. ChanccUof 

of Carliile. 
Dr. John Carr. Hertford. 
Mr. Robert Carlik, Carlifle. 

Mr. Thomas Cailifle, Dalfton. 

Mcffrs. Cl.ampante and Whitrowr, Lon- 
Mr. ■William Charnley, Newcallle. 
R. M. Trench Chifwcll, Efq. Debden- 

Hail, Effex. 
John ChriRian, Efq. Uncrlgg-h.ill. 
Edward Chtifiian, Efq. Profeflbr of 

the laws of England, Cambridge. 
Rev. Edward Chriftian, B. D. Reftov 

of Workington. 
Mr. William Clachcr, Chelmsford. 
Charles Clarke, Efq. Gravefend. 
Mr. U'illiam Clarke, Bookfeller, Lon. 

don, 6 ctipics. 
Robert Clarke, Sebergham, Cum- 
Rcbfon Clarke, Sebcrghara-bridge, 


Clcaflcy, B<arnard-ca3.Ie. 

Mr. George Clcmlifou, Newcallle. 

Rev. J. Middleton Clowes, Beverley, 

Cockerniou(h Public Library Society. 
Robert Collins, Efq. I'ethril-greenCum. 
Rev. Dr. CoUinfon, Qjjccn's College, 

M. Collinfon, Efq. Grofvcnor-Place, 

E. Conilable. Efq. Eurtcn-Conftable, 

Mr. John Cookfon, Fentith. 




|faac Cookfon, Efq. Newcaille. 

Rev. Mr. Cooper, Wateniigbury,Kent. 

Jolin Cowley Efq. London. 

Mrs. Coivley,Cateaton-3uect, London. 

ChriftopherCraokenthoip, Efq. Penrith. 

Mr. William Crajrg, Workington. 

— E. Cragg, Workington. 

—- John Cram, GatcJhcad-park, Dur- 
•—— W^illiam Ciaifipton, Kirkofwald. 
" Ciane, ijookfdler. Livtrpool. 

— Jonathan Crtighton, 


Peter Crofthwaite, Keluick. 

— — Tliomas Cruthers, Cuudiek, near 

'~. — Robert Currie, Ne\wa(lie. 
J. C. Curwen, Efq. M. P. Workington- 



The Right Honoiuable the Earl of 

The Right Honourable the Countefs of 

3»Ir. Jonathan Dalfton, Carlifle. 

Thomas Davidlon, Efq. Newcaftle. 

John Davidfon, Efq. Hrlltop, WcR- 
.: morland. 

Mr. Davidlon, Ifleworth. 

—— Benjamin Davvfon Bath. 

5o't,n Dean, Efq. London. 

Mr. William Dean, Hexham. 

Mrs. Deane, Keckle-brow, W-haven. 

Mr. John Denton, Bolton -Street, Lon- 
don. . 

»— — Thomas Dickinfon, Newcaftle. 

— — Daniel Dickinfon, Ulverfkin. 

•— — Daniel Dickfon, Epfom, Siwry. 

R. Dimfd3ie,Efq. Grey's Inn, London. 

Henry Dixon, Efq. Whitehave:j. 

Thomas Dixon, Efq. Calthvvaite. 

Mr. George Dixon, jim. Calthwaice. 

— William Dixon, Penrith. 
>— -- Henry Dixon, do. 

.^— John Dixon, Durham. 
Mrs. Dixon, Denton- holme, Carlifle. 
Jlr. Jofeph Dnbinfon, Parfonby, Cum- 
Jofeph Dodgfon, Efq. Carlifle. 
Rev. Thomas Donald, Anthorn, Cum- 

-5 ■ ':■: berland. 
Mr. David Donald, Carlifle. 
Kicholfon Doiiblcday, M. D. Durhaoi. 
John Doiigall, Efq Kirkaldy. 
Rev. William Dowfon, D. 1). Princi- 
pal of St. Edmond's-hall, Oxford. 
Di'-ir.frics PnWic Library Society. 
Mifs Dykes, Dovenby-Hall, Cumb. 
Mr. Tbomas Dykes, ShadvveU, 

Mr. J. Eafton, Gatefliead, Durham. 

William F.ckford, Workington. 

Sir Frederick Eden, Bart. London. 
Richard H. Edmonfon, Efqi Acron- 

Mr. John Edmonfon, Surgeon, KeX- 

Francis Edmunds,Efq.Wor/br&' York- 

The Right Hon. the E. of EgrcmOnt. 
Mr. John Elliot Flat, Langholm. 
The Right Rev. Dr. Law, Lord Ep. 

of Elphin. 
Mrs- Eliifon, Egremont. 
Alexander Eiphinfton,Efq. Edinburgh. 
Mr. Jacob Elwood, Carlifle. 
Samuel Ewer, Efq. Hackney. 

Rev. John Falcon, Gatefliead, Newcaft. 

Mr. Michael Falcon, Workington. 

Thomas Falcon, Efli-meals, Cum- 

John Fallow field, Southernby, 


Mrs. Fane, London. 

Mr. Jchn F^ulder, Cowley- Street, 

Timothy Featherilonhaugh, Efq. Kir- 

Rev. J. Fearon,Chrift's-Church, Hants. 

Mifs Frances Feddon, Carlifle. 

Mr. John Fergufon, Carlifle. 

Thomas Fifliburn, Jan. Efq. Whitby. 

Robert Fifher, Efq. Staioing-lane, 

Thomas Fiflier, Efq. Carlifle. 

Mr. Riciiard Fiflier, NcwcaiUe. 

Jofeph Fiflier, Eafthoufe.Embleton. 

Mrs. Fiflier, Pat ton, Cumberland. 

The Honourable, Thomas Fitzwilliam, 

Sir. H. Fletcher, Bart. M. P Clea-hall. 

Sir. Frcdeiick Fletcher Vane, Bart. 
M. P. Hutton-hall. 

Rev. Janie? Fletcher, A. M. vicar of 

Walter Fletcher, A. M. Dalfton. 

Mr. Richard Fletcher, Whitehaven. 

John Forfter, Printfield, Carlifle. 

John Fotfter, Caftle-Street, do. 

Rev Jahn Fofter, Northon, Chefhire. 

Tliomas Fotherglll.D. D. Provoft 

of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Mr. ChaiJes Fonrdiinier, LombardSt. 


John Gaff, Efq. Whitefield. 

Mr. Thomas GaiUJceH; London, 

T. Garth, Efq. Steeton-hall, Bradford, 

Mr. Ifaac Galkin, Jun. Penrith. 

George Gafa, Carlifle. 

Philip Gcll, Efq. Hopton, near Derby* 

Mr. John Gibbons, Carlifle. 

Charles Gibfon, Efq. Lancafter. 

Francis Gibfon, Efq. Whitby. 

Mr. John Gibfon, Kirklinton. 

John Gibfon. Newcaftle. 

Thj^mas Gibfon, Newcaftle. 

Rev. J. Gilbanks, Cockermouth. 

Mrs. Giles, Carlifle. 

Major Gilpin, Broiighton-tower. 

Mr. William Glaifter, Red-flat, Cum- 

R. Goldrng. Architeft;. London. 

George Golding, Mufick-feller, do. 

WilL Goldfmith, Efq. Warwick-courti 

Mr. William Gordon, London. 

R. Gough, Efq. F. A. S. Direaor. 

Sir James Graham, Bart. Nethcrby. 

James Graham Efq. Barrock- Lodge, 

John Graham, Efq. Low-houfc, Cum. 

Rev. Fergus Graham, L. L. B. Ar- 
tiiuret, do. 

Thomas Graham, Efq.. Edmund-caflle. 

James Graham, Efq. Lincoln's Inn, 

Mr. David Graham, Attorney at Law, 

Thomas Graham, Hayton, Cumb. 

Robert Graham, Cark ton-hill, do. 

E. Greenalegh, tfq. Myerfcugli, Lan- 

Francis Gregg, Efq. M. P. London. 

Mr. John Grey, Shicld-Fjeld, Newcafife 

Rev. Brown Grifdalc, D. D. Caihfle. 

Mr. Jofeph Gunfcn, Surgeon, White- 

■Rev. William Hall, A. M. Haydon, 

Meffrs. Hall and Elliot, Newcaftle. 

Mr. James Halton, Carlifle. 

Rev. Mr. Hanftope, Buckinghamlliire. 

C. F. Harford, Efq. Briftol. 

Jeremiah Harman, Efq. London. 

Jofeph Harriman Efq. Whitehaven. 

John Harris, Efq. Eaglesfield. 

Rev. Jonathan Harris, Matteidale. 

Jafper Harrifan, Efq. Wickham, Dur:- 

Thomas Hartley, Efq. Whitehaven. 

Thomas Hartley, Efq. Jun. do. 

J. Adair Hawkins, Efq. London. . 

Mr. Samuel Hazard, Bath, 2 copies. 

Thomas Head, Jun. Newcaftle. 



Mr. William Head, Suhowj, Mon- 

Sir Ifaac Heard, Garter principal King 
of Arms. 

Robert Htnderfon, Efq. Cleugh-heads. 

Mr. Lancelot Heion, Attorney at Law, 

Rev. John Hewer, Baflentliwaite, Cum- 

Mr. George Hcwit, Attorney, Carlillc. 

Mr. Richard Htwit, London. 

John HcyHiam, M. D. Carlifle. 

R. Hill, Efq. Plymouth Furnace, near 

Sir Richard Hoare, Bart. London. 

Sir Richard Hodgfon, Knt. CarliHe. 

Rev. Hugh Hodgfon, Eglingham, Nor- 

Mr. John Hodgfon,Charch-lanc,White- 
chapcl, London. 

— John Hodgfjn, South-fhore, Dur- 

— — John Hodgfon, Jan. Carlifle. 

John Hodgfon, Jun. Beaumont, 


Jofcph Hodgfon, Attorney,Carlifle. 

Mrs. Ai.n Hodgfon, Carlifle. 
James Hogarth, Efq. Whitehaven. 
Mr. Lancelot Hoggart, Wigton. 
James Holder, Efq. Afl<-park, Hants. 
William Holme, Efq. Clapham. 
Rev. J. Holme, fhap, Wcllmorland. 
Mr. Done Holme, Carlifle. 
—— William Holmes, Callees, near 

J. Houf:nan,Land-fiirveyor, Corby. 

Rev. Peter How, Whitehaven. 
Henry Kowaul, Efq. Corby- caftle. 
Cap. Jofeph Huddatt, F. R. S. Lon- 
Mr. James Hudfon, Caldbeck, Cumb. 
-— Thomas Hudfon, Penrith. 
Rev. H. Hunter, D. D. Wentworth, 

William Hutchinfon, Efq. Eglefton, 

Robert Hutchinfon, Efq. Newby, Rear 

Rev. J. Hutton, Houghton-le-fpring, 

Benjamin Incledon, Efq. Pittonhoufc, 

The Hon. William Heuiy Irby, Lon- 

E- L. Iiton, Efq. Irton-hall, Ciunb. 

Mr. George Irving, Newcaille. 

-— . Walter Irwin, Longtown. 

M. Ifmay, Sutt«nvalcriK-, Kent. 


MeflVs. Jackfon and Barclay, London. 

Mr. T. R. Jackfon, Bread-Street, Lon- 

J. B. Jackfon, do. London. 

Ricliaid Jackfon, London. 

J. Jackfon, No. 3. Green-lettuce- 
lane, London. 

Thomas James, Efq. Carlifle. 

Mr. Robert James, do. 

John Janus, Jun. do. 

Thomas Jamcfon, Efq. Worfley-hall, 
near Manchefler. 

Rev. J. Jefferfon, A. M. St. Anne's 

Jofeph JeflFerfon, BaffingHock. 

John Johnfon. Efq. Walton-houfe. 

Mr. Edward JohnRon, Mercht. White- 

Jolin Johnfton, Merchant, do. 

James Johnilone, M. D. Worcefter. 


Mr. John Kay, Workington. 

John Keay, Attorney at Law, 


Montague Kelfick, AVhitehaven. 

Jofeph Kenible, Efq. London. 
Charles Kerr, Efq. Abbot-rule. 
Thomas King, Efq. London, 2 copies. 
Mr. Ch.arles King, Carlifle. 
Rev. J. Kirkby, Oelhorn, StafFordfhire. 
Mr. William Kitchen, Excife export 

furvcyor, Manchefler. 
Edward Knubley, Efq. Wigton. 

Samuel Lacy, Efq. Salkeld-lodgc. 

Chas. Lambert, Efq. F. A. S. London. 

Mr. John Lancake, Workington. 

Rev. George Law, A. M. Prebendary 
of Carlifle. 

Meffrs. B. Law and Son, Loud an. 

Mr. John Lav/rcnce, Fleet-St. London. 

Sir Wilfrid l.awfon,Bart. Brayton-hall. 

Sir John Lawfon, Bart. Brough. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Leictfter. 

Rev. S. l.ewthwa^te, Reclor of Hut- 

Mr. Jofeph Lewthwaite, Carlifle. 

Sir T. H. Liddcll, Bart. Ravcnfworth- 

Mr. John Liddcll, Hatfield, near Don- 

John Liddcll, Bouftead-hill, Cum- 

Jofeph LlddtU, Baldwinholme. 

R. Lid-krdale, Efq. 

Francis Lind, Efq. London. 

William Linikill>Efq. North-lhiclds. 

Mr. John Lifter, St. Chriftopher'Si 
Wefl Indies. 

Thomas Liitlefare, Ncwcaftie. . - 1 

Liverpool Public Library Society. ftM 

Mr. Ralltcn Longrigg-, Burntbwaite.' 

John LonMale, Carlifle. 

Mark Lonfdak', Iflington.- 

John Lofli, Efq. Wooaflde. 

James Lofli,- Efq. do. 

George Lofli, Efq. Nevvcaftle^ 

Mr. Thomas Lo(h, Carlifle. 

John Lowes, Efq. Ridley- hall. 

Mrs. Lowes, Wigton. 

Rev. Tliomas Lowry, A. M. Croflyy. 

John Lowry, Efq. Newtown, near Car- 

Richard Lo\w)-, Efq. Dutnhill, Cum- 

Mr. R. Lowthian, Attorney, Carlifle, 

Mrs. Lowthian,Stafford,near Dumfries. 

Jolhua Lucock, Efq. Cockermouth. 

Mr. George Ludlow, Newcaflle. , 

Henry Lulwidge, £{q. Whitehaven. 

Henry Maire, Efq. Lartington,. York- 

Mr. John Mann, Carlifle. 
Rev. Francis Marrs, Mungrifdale, CunK 
iv!r. John Marfliall, Workington. 

Jofeph Marfhall, do. 

Jofeph Marfl^.ail, Newcaftle. 

J. Maitindale, Attorney, Wigton. 

Thomas Marton, Cheapfide, Lon- 

Francis M;ifcill, Cockermouth. 

_ William Mafon, Carlifle. 

Jofeph Matthews, Newcaftle. 

Thomas Maude, Efq. Bohon-hall, 

T. R. Maunftll, Efq. Sedbury, Here^ 

Rev. John Mayfon, Thurftiy, Cumbd. 
Mr. Richard I- dward Mcrcier, Dublin. 
John Mefiengtr, Efq. Newcaftle. 
Rev. R. Meficnger. Bewcaftle. 
Francis Metcalfe, A. M. Kirbride» 

Ralph Mllbank, Efq. M. P. Seaham» 

Patrick Miller, Efq. Dalfwinton. 
Abraham Mills, Efq. Fincehoufe, near 

James Mihi, Efq. Wakefield. 
John .Mitchinfou, Efq. Carlifle. 
Rev. H. Moifcs, Jun. Newca.11e..v-)H 
Mr. Molteno, St. James's- Street, Lon« 

don. '■ 

Rev. T. Monkhoufe, Bulby, Chefhii*^ 




Rc7. William Monk'houfe, Raughton- 

hsad, Cumberland. 
Mr. William Monkhoufe, Penrith. 
Daniel Moor, Efq. Aun's-hill. 
James Moore, Efq. F. A. S. Stamfcrd- 

Street, Chriil-church, Surry. 
Rev. J. Moflop, A. M. Biighton. 
J. Moiinrcy, Efq. Pattci dale-hall. 
Mr. William MuUindtr, Carllfle. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord MimcaRcr, M P. 

John Murray, Efq. Murraythwaite. 
Mr. John Murray, London, 2 copies. 
Sir John C. Mufgravc, Bart. Eden-hall. 
Jofeph Mufgrave, Efq. London. 
Rev. Thomas Myers, L. L. B. Barton. 
» John Myers, Edenham. 

Mr. John Nelfon, Carlifle. 
Edward Nevinfon, Efq. do. 
Neiy Church Public Library Society, 

near Penrith. 
Mr. William Nixt>n, Cumdivock. 
William Noble, Efq. Pall-mall, London. 
Mr. Will, Noble Caileton, Egremont. 


Lancelot Oliphant, Efq. Ilay-clofe. 
T-Ir. John Orr, NewcalUe. 

■ Thomas On-en, Carlifie. 

— — Richard Cyes, Whitehaven. 

James Allen Park, Efq. Lincoln's Inn, 

Timothy Parker, Efq. Hornby-hall, 

Kenion Parker. Efq. ShefHelJ. 

Mr. Jofeph Parkins, Jun. Seaton, Cum- 

Robert Padcy, Efq. Moimt-Annan. 

Rev. Jofeph Pattifon, Carlifle, 

— — Thomas Pattlnfon, Kirklir.ton. 

Mr. John P.^ttrickfon, Carlifle. 

f— J. Peacock, Darlington, Durham. 

rr John Pcarelh, London. 
Wilfon Pearfon, Efq. Bridekirk. 
Jubo Ptarfon, Efq. Csrlifle, 
Mr. Anthony Peat, Seaton, Cuniberld. 
►— ^ Robert Peat, Seavllle, do. 
— Jonathan Peil, Cockri mouth. 
Thomas Pennar:t, Efq. 2 copies. 
Mr. Penny, Mile-end. 

William Pin. Cailifie. 

Jofeph Pocklington, Efq. Potklington's 

lilanti. . ; : 

Mr. Robert Pollard, Eilgravir, London. 
ivr-T William Pollock, Dacif . 

Jofeph Porter, Efq. Hatton-gardcn. 
Rev. William Porter, vVorfbro' York- 

Samuel Potter, Efq. Whitehaven. 
Mr. Jame? Potts, N'cwcattle. 
Matthew Pringle, Efq. do. 
Mr. Thomas Pringle, do. 

George Pi ingle, Seven Dials, 


Qiieen's College Library, Oxford. 
Queen's College Library, Cambridge. 


Rev. William Raiiton, Cumberworih, 

W. Raiiton, Efq. Cheapfide, London 

Rev. Matthevi' Kaine, HartfoTth, York- 

Thomas Ramfliay, Efq. N^worth- 

Mr. R. Ramfhay, Dumfries. 

W. R. F. Ricardfon Randal, Efq. 
Hunter-hall, Cumb. 

Rev. Jeremiah Reed, RocklifF, do. 

John Relph, M. D. London. 

Mifs. Relph, Woodford, EfTex. 

William Kichardfon, Efq. Rickeiby. 

Rev William Richardfon, Cheadle. 

Mr. William Richardfon, NewcalUe. 

J. Richardfon, Penrith. 

John Richardfon, Printer, Workington. 

Sir James Kiddell, Bart. 

John Ridddl, Efq. Bath. 

Sir Matthew White Ridley, M. P. 
Heaton-hall, Northumberland. 

John Henry Rigg, Efq. Qjieen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge 

Rev. John Robiufon, Balfaver, Derby- 

Thomas Robinfon, Cro^'in. 

John Robi.ifon, Efq. Pardfiiav. 

Mr. George Robir.fon, Carlifle. 

William Roui;ifon, Liverpool. 

George Robinfon, London. 

John Robinfon, Wigton. 

Anthony Kobinfon, London. 

Mrs. Rnbir.rori, Cargo, near Carhfie. 
Mifs. Mary Robinfon. Ncwcaftle. 
James Robfon, Efq. New-Bor.d-Strcet, 

Mr. Jofeph Robfon, Coventry. Street, 


Jofeph Robfan, do. 

John Rubion, Dalfvrn. 

John Roddam, Gateihead, Durham 

Edwa:d Rogers, Efq. Liverpool. 

H. Rooke, kfq. F. A. S. Wood-houfe. 

The Right Hon. the Esrl of Rofebery, 

Mr. William Rothery, Windfor-Lodge, 

— — Edward Rowland, Carlifle. 
William Rudd, tfq. Durham. 
James Rudman, Efq. Newcaftlc. 
Mr. John Uiimney, Workington. 
Robert Rumney, Warden, near 

John Rutter, M. D. Liverpool. 

The Right Rev. Dr. Douglas, Lord 
Bhhop of Sahfoury. 

Richard Sanderfon, Efq. Ircby. 

Rev. Jofeph Sanderfon, Tunbridge, 

Mr. T. Sanderfon, Chelfea. 

Thomas Sanderfon, Beaumont. 

J. C. Satterthwhaite, Efq- M. P. Pap- 

Mr. Savage, Printer and Bookfellerj 
Howden, Yorklhire. 

Walter Scott, Efq. Advocate, Edin" 

James Scott, Efq. Forge, near Lang- 

Humphrey Senhoufe, Efq. Nether- 

Sir Jofeph Senhoufe, Kt. Arkleby-hall. 

Mr. Samfon Senhoufe, London. 

Robert Sewel, Caftle-Sowerby, 

Rev. J. Sharp, Macclesfield, Chefhite. 

William Sheeplhanks, Prebeadarj" 

of Carhfie. 
Francis Sheldon, Efq. WyclifF, York- 

C. Shepherd, Efq. John's Strest, The- 

obald Road, London. 
Rev. Th-omas fchepherd,, ,ICIrkbamp- 

M.-. Brack Shorter, Picktree, Durham, 

.^ Simco, London. 

John Simms, Carlifle. 

\Villiam Simpfon, Efq. Bombay. 

Henry Simpfon, Efq. O.'tford. 

Mr. John Simpfon, Redmain, Cumb. 

Richard .Simpfon, Caldbeck, do. 

Jofeph Simpian, Little-bulh lane, 

Thamci Street, London. 

Jeremiah Skelton, Holm-Cultramj 


Ifaac Slack, Ai-malhwaite, Cumb. 

John Slee, Stainton. 

C. Smalwood, Efq. Surry- Street, Lon- 



Rev. Mr. ffmeddic, Forcet, YorkHiire 
Sir John Smith, Bart. Sydliiig, Dui. 

Francis imilh, Eiq." ,',l^ewbuildings, 

Yoikfliirc. ' , " ■ , 
Leonard Smitli, Efq. Cailifle. 
Mr, John Sm-th, Surgeon, f arliilc. 

K. Srailhfoii, Qucen-St. London. 

Geo. Sumner, Efq. M. P. HolmhilL 
Mr. Anthony Soulby, Penrith. 
John Sourbcy, Efq. London. 
Majur James Sott-tiby, Royal Artillery. 
Iv. Spe.Trman, Ffq. Eachwick, Nor- 
Mr. Robt. Spence, GateiTiead, Durham. 
The llight Hon. Larl Spencer. 
Mr. Fiancis Spilfbury, London. 

• Daniel Stalkei, do. 

Thomas Stanger, do. 

Hugh Stanger, London. 

G. E. Stanley, Efq. Ponfonby-hall. 
Edward Stanley, Efq Flimby, Cumb. 
Mr. Foxier Stanley, near Cheilerfield, 

Rev. S. Stanwix, Worfbro' Yorkfliire. 
M. W. Staples, I- fq. Cornhiil, London. 
Rev. J. Stordy, Orton, Cumberland. 
Mr. John Stoidy, Thurftonfieid, do. 
T. Story, Efq. Mire-houfe, Kefwick. 
Mr. J. Story Ye'ando, Lancadiire. 

Jolin Stor)', Bl.nckwell, Cumb. 

•*** Strong.Efq. F. A. S. Red-Craf^ 

Street, London. 
Mr. Timothy Strong, Sowerby, Cum 
.— Richmond R. Stubbs,He(l(et-Ncw- 

Maiket, Cumb. 
Rev.WilliamStuddart, Bradford, Wilts. 
Mr. Jofeph Studholm, St. Nicholas, 
near Carlifle. 

John Sutton Cailifle. 

J Swainfon, Efq. Frith-Street, Soho, 


Sir. C. Sykes, Bt. Sledmere, Yorklhire. 

Michael '\ngclo Taylor, Efq. M. P. 

\Vh!tehal!, 1 ondon. 
W. Taylor, Efq. Maze-hill, Greenwich. 
Sir Henry Temped. Bart. Hope-end, 

Sedbury, Herefo^dfliire. 
John Tempell, Efq 
J. Tennilwood, Efq Lincoln's Inn, 

Rev. George Thomfon, Carlifle. 
Mi. G. Thompfon, Newbiggin, near 

T. Throfby, Efq. Leicefter. 
Richard Tolfon, Efq. Gravefend. 
John Tomlinfon, Efq. Carlifle. 
Mifs. Thomlinfon, Pelton, Northamp- 

J. Turner, Efq. Great-Portland-Street, 

Tynehead Public Library Society, near 

Rev. Ifaac Tyfon, Harwood, Yorkfliire. 
Mr. Richard Tyfon, Carlifle. 
Timothy Williamfon, Efq. Great- 

RiilFel-Street, London. 
Mrs. Williamfon, Snittlegarth, Cumb. 
Mr. William Wilkin, Newcaflle. 
Rev. KobertWilkinfon, B. D. Halifax, 

Joffph Wilkinfon. Carlifle. 

Robert Wilkinfon, Efq. Stang-cnds. 
Thomas Wilkinfon, Efq. Gray's Inn, 

Thomas Wilkinfon, Efq. Paper build- 
ing;;, London. 
Mr. John 'ilmote, EfFcx-St. Stiand, 

John Wilfu;)., Efq. Liverpool. 
I'aniel Wilfon, Efq. Dallam-towcr. 
Mi. Daniel Wilfon, Maryport. 
—— Alexander Wilfon, Carlifle. 

— — Ifaac Wilfon, Cockermouth. 

James Wilfon, do. 

— — Benjamlii Wilfon, Allerby, do. 

George Wilfon, Biimingbam, 

John Wilfon, Stainton, Cuni. 

John Wilfon, Burj;h, dg. 

John Wilfon, Low-teams, Durhainr 

John Wilfon, High-teams, do. 

Rev. Jofeph V\ ife, Bromfitld, Effex. 
Mr John Wife, Seavi'le, Cumberland, 
William, Woatton, Efq. London. 
John Wood, Lfq Biidge-StrettjBlaclftr 

Fliers, London. 
Mr. George Wood, Durham. 

George '-Vood, Kefwick. 

Mifs. A. Wood, Carlifle. 
William Woodville, M D. London. 
Richard Wordfwoith,Efq. Whitehaverf, 
Mr. John Martiiidale Wright, Carlifle, 

L. Yates, D. D. Mailer of Catharine- 
hall, Cambridge. 

Mrs. Yates, SkirwitlvAbbey. 

The Right Hon. Lord Yelverton,' 

Alexander Young, Efq. Edinburgh. 

Mr. John Young, Carlifle. 

Mr. Peter How Younger, Attorney at 
Law, Whitehaven. 

Yowart, do. 


Rev. T. Zorich, Wycliff, Yorkfliire. 

AJJUli iial SuhfcriLers. 

Thos. Donald, Efq. Lovvfwater, Cum.. 
Rev. J. Graves, Yarm, Yorkfliire. 
Mr. John Halliburton, Aflierton, do. 
Rev. John Humphrey, A. B. an(S 

F. A. S. 
Mr. John Richardfon, rec.iver of the 
aflefled Taxes, Cumb. 

The poll commenced on Wednefday the 30th dr;y of ) 
March, and ended on Wednefday the 20th of Apiil, con' 
tinuing nineteen poll days, 

Alkidale v\ aid 








Additions to the Table of Population, ^c. Page 684, Vol. II 

WE have been favoured with a table of the poll books / 
at the general eleftion, at Cockei mouth, for two , 
inemberB to be fetuined to parliament ; in the year 1768, ' 
the candidates were, Sir James Lowther. Bart, of Lowlher- 
hall, Henry Curwen, Efq. of Workington-hnll, Humphry , 
Senhoufe, lifq. of Nether. ball, and Henry Flttclicr, Efq. ,i 
of Clca-hall ; the htterS C. F. L. S, aie the initiitls of the 
candidates names. y 

AUenlale Ward 
below Dcrwent 



Leath Ward. — 4S2 

Efledale Ward 241 

Cumb^ rid. Ward. — 44c 

Since the above period there has been a great incrcafe to \ 
the freehold lift, but we could not find any means to alcer- ^1 
tain the exa£l number. Suppofed to exceed 6000. J' 

Total foreachatthel 
clof: of the poll. \ 




369 300 311 










Total of Total of 








1442 721 







^ US3i 



Volume I. Emblematical 
vignette title page, repre- 
senting the eaft window of 
fit. Mary's Cathedral, a caf- 
tle in ruins, a druidical tem- 
ple, runic pillar at Bewcaf- 
*le, tomb iloncs, RonMn 
fculptures, bridges, lake , 
jnountains, &c.* 

A weft view of Lanncr- 
coft Priory, to front the ti- 
tle page of Vol. I. or page ;^ 
Map of the County, 34 
Infide view of Lannercoft 
Prioiy, — —54 
Roman wall and plans of 
ftations, — — 63 
Burdofwald Altars, 67 
Dewcaftle Monument, So 
Caftle-lleads Altars, &c. 
No. I. — — 103 
Do. No. 2. — 118 
A view of Walton-houfe, 
an elegant building, with a 
Kiew of the adjoining well 
improved eftates of J. John- 
fon, Eiq. — 118 

NaworthCaftle, 133 

Gelt rocx, with the Ro- 
jnaii infcription, — 139 
A view of the houfe of 
^. Waiwick, Efo^. (an ele- 
gant building, erefted fince 
the firft vol. was printed J 
TVaiwick bridge In the front 
and the church on the high 
ground.* — 153 

A view of Wetheral fafe- 
guard, and MiiTes Waugh's 
fummer houfe, which was 
erefted iince the fir.1 v.l, 
was printed: the ladles with 
great tafte and judgment, 
iave added much to the 
beauty of this mod romantic 
j>lace, in whofe family We- 
t)>eral priory has been for 
feveral generations. ' 161 
Druids' monument at 
Great Salkeld, and ether 
antiquities, — 225 

View of the Giants cave 

near Edenliall, — 291 

View of Brougham -hall, 

i Caftle, &c. — 305 

Mifcellaneous antiquities 

at Mayborough, I'enrith, 



Maps of roads and Ullf- 
watcr, — — 312 

Vlewof Penrith-caft. 317 
GiayHock Antiquities, 
&c. — — 34S 

View of Blencowe, 414 
Map of the mountains 
where a remarkable Ignis 
Fatuus was feen, 417 

View of Dacre-caftle, 466 
Antiquities, at Old Pen- 
rith, Sec. — 481 
View of Millum-callle, 
Furnef» feal and aims, and 
Bootlefont, — 523 
Plan of Furnefs-Ab. 538 


A view of Carlifle from 
the N. E. Frontis piece. 
Vignette title page, view cf 
thecathedral,dtanry, fratci-y, 
&.C. fiom Denton-holme.* 

A large ftieet plan 

Whitthaven, — 
View of the Harbour, 4 
St. Nicholas church, 43 
Trinity church, 44 

St. James's chutcli, 45 
Catlle, — 48 

Plan of Wojkington, 
with two vignettes of Work- 
ington-hall, — 137 

Lakes in Cumberland, 153 
Pocklington's liland, 165 
Druids' monumciU at Kef- 
wick, — — - J92- 
View of Grange. 208 
BowJerftone, — 210 

BaiTenthwaite lake, 238 

Cockermouth caftle, and 
Biidcklrk font, — 254 
Roman and other anti- 
quities in the polTefGon of 

Humphrey Senhoufe, Efq. 
of Netherhall, moftiy found 
at EUenborough, ; 1 6 difTer- 
ent articles engraved upon 
fis large plates, — > 284 

Antiquities found at Af 
patria, Arcleby-hall, 288 

View of Ilolm-Cultram 

Abbey, taken in 1739 by 

Mr. Buck, — 346. 

,View of Arcleby-hall, 351 

Ireby, — 368 

Birds eye view of Carrock 
fell and ground plan, 381 

Birds eye view of Yever- 
ing Bell, and ground plan, 
Northumberland, — 384 

Howk at Caldbeck, 388 

Antiquities found at Old 
Carlifle, Wlgton, &c. 410 

Antiquities at Stockle- 
wath, map of Roman en- 
campments near Carliile, 
route of the rebels, their 
iiations and the duke of 
Cumberland's, defcvibed, />. 
656, — _ —. 430 

Infide view and ground 
plan of the Keep of Rofe- 
caftle, — — 435 

View cf Rofe-caflle, 438 

■ ' .■ Chalk quarries, 

fhewing the Roman infcrip- 

tion there, — 439 

Fac fimile of the Roman 
infcription on Chalk rocks, 
and a fac fimile of a curious 
puzzle infcription on Dal- 
ilon-Hall, -— 443 

King Edward I. monu- 
r>i'-nt on Buigh marfh, 504 

View of Netherby, 533 

A great number of Ro- 
man antiquities at Netherby 
on three large plates, 535 

Aithuret church, 545 

Map of Solway-mofs and 
vicinity, — 548 

Kirkandrews church up- 
on Elk, — 549 

Antiqs. found at 3tanwix» 
Carli.le, &c. — . • 557 

Map of Cailifle, 585 

Two views of Carlifle, one 
from the road at Harraby, 
the other from a field behind 
the village, — 585 
N. B. The latter was 
given as a fubftitute forfomc 
of the former being wore 
faint in printmg. 

View of CatliCe-caftle, 
• from Battle-holm, 593 

View of the Cathedral, 
from the N. VV. with the 
arms of Hay earl of 
Catllfle, fio. I, Henry Clif- 
ford earl of Cumberland, na 
2. Henry Fitz David earl 
of Carlifle, no. 3. The city 
arms ?«. 4. Marcatus earl 
of Carliile, no. 5. Ranu'ph 
Mefchines carl of Carlifle nc, 
6. Andrew Harcin eail of- 
Carlifle, ^19. 7. Prince Ru- 
pert duke of Cumberland 
?;i>. 8. A vlewof the dean- 
ery, fratery, and two views 
of Carlifie-cadle, 597 

Ground plan of the Ca- 
thedral,- and a curious in- 
fcription, — 598 

View of tlie legends of 
St. Anthony and fct. Auf- 
tln, — — . 600 

Bifliop Bell's monument 
coloured, — 6oz 

View of Wood fide from 
the road, — 641 

A view of" Carliile-caftle 

from Catcoat bank where 

the duke of Cumberland 

j erefied his batteries in j 74J, 

J this view includes a great 

part of the city, 657 

A curious fifh defcribcd 
in the natural hlilory, 24 

Two rare birds eggs, do. 

^♦^ As the fccond Volume 

much extended beyond the Ceo pages each was intended to contain ; thofe who wifh 
tbcm of a uniformity may bind the natural hlilory, lift of IherifFs, gloifary, and fubfcribers nanses, before the introduftion in 
the firft volume. 

N. B. The two engraved title pages, and the plates marked thus* in the above direftigns, were addititional ornaments, 
aad charged feparate fiora the firft fubfcription price. 


THE General Hiflory of this county necciTarily ought to engage the reader's 
attention, before he enters upon a dcjcriplivc viezv of each place, and the 
particular hiftorical incidents relative thereto. 

From the Roman hiftorians, very little light is thrown upon the ancient (late of 
this part oi Britain. It was not, till the time of Agricola, that the Northumbrians 
fubmittcd to the Roman arms, in the eightieth year of the Chriflian cera. The 
Briganlesy according to Roman writers, poirefTed a very large trad of country on 
the weflern coaft of Britian ; but as our attention in this work is confined to a 
narrow boundary, it is enough for us to obfcrve, they inhabited the diftrid now- 
called Cumberland: they are defcribed to be a fierce and warlike people ; refllefs 
in their dilpofuion, and mconftant in obligations to ftrangers ; inured to hard- 
Ihips, indefatigable in their adventures, valiant in arms, of a nice honour to- 
wards their own nation, and faithful to each other, even under all the wretchednefs 
of defpair. It is conceived they had the name of Brigantes from the mountainous 
country they inhabited, and the Tartar-like bands in which they maruuded. Straba 
fpeaks of the Brigantes of the Alps, and calls them grajfa tores, robbers, and plunder^ 
ers : if we admit of this definition, the appellation, mofi: probably, was derived 
from the Romans, as a mark of their hatred and contempt ; and we fliall yet remain 
uninformed of the true Britifh name of the inhabitants. 

The accounts given by the Romans, are, of themfelves, confufed and contra- 
divftory ; and we have no pofitive proof of their having travcrfed the mountains, 
the Britifh Appenincs, and having pafled to this weflern region, at the time that 
the fubmilfion of the NorthumMans is recorded. The extenfive territory of the 
Brii^antes., occafions the hiflory of that people, as received from the Roman writers, 
to be fo full of inconfillcncics, that it is not pofTible for us, with any degree of 
certainty, to place the events, recorded by them, in this particular diflrid:. The 
infamous flory of Cartijmandua does not claim its locality with us; her treachery 
to CaracJaclis, the fovercign of many Hates, of which Brigantia was one that fhc 
ruled over as a tributary, is efleemed fabulous; though it is delivered us by 
lacitiis. It is not pertinent to our prefcnt work to enter into difquifitions and 
criticifms on this dark part of hiflory; attention to that circumftance, indeed, is 
fo far confident, as, infome degree, it difcovers to us the manners of the age, and 
the difpofitions of the natives of the northern parts of Britain. In thofe days, ic 
was no difgrace, to the braveft people, to be governed by a "jooman ; difguflfut 
efieminacies had not then contaminated the fex; the fripperies and infignificancic^ 
of the female accomplifliment were refervcd to a very diflant age: even men inured 
to indefatigable labours and toils, conllantly in arms, fubfifling chiefly by warfare 
or the chace, and bred up to feats of valour and the fimple rules of native honour, 
were not afliamcd to be led to battle by a woman; and to receive the maxims of 

VOL. I. B their 


their interior police, from the dicflates of female judgment : fior is the hif- 
rory of Carlijmandna blotted, till, by the intercourfe of the Romans, the native 
virtue of the Brigantes was corrupted. In Stewart's difcourle prefixed to the 
fecond edition of Sullivan's LeSIures, ir is faid " The Britons were debauched into 
♦' a refcmblance with a moft corrupted people. They renounced the fatigues of war 
" for the blandifhments of peace. They forfook their huts for palaces ; affedled 
*' a coftlinefs of living, and gave way to a feducing voluptuoufnefs." Thofe 
foreigners introduced enjoyments of life, of M-hich the Britons had not hereto- 
fore formed an idea; their wealth taught corruption, and their luxuries vice. The 
diffipation derived from two fuch dreadful channels, foon overthrew the empire 
of this queen; flie liflened to the infiduous whifpers of an infamous lufl; {he ex- 
pelled her hufband, and took to her bed his armour-bearer. To the Roman 
manners wc muft attribute this moft flagrant breach of conjugal duty: it was no 
new thing with the invaders ; but among Britons, before the Roman acceffion, we do 
not hear of one inftance. The Roman writers* prefumcd to impute to the natives 
the groffeft ftatc of incontinence; a view of the Britifh habitations might pro- 
mote, in the minds of Grangers, an erroneous conception of the manners of the 
people; that the women held a common intercourfe with a whole family: one 
fmall hut was their general dormitory; whilll their occupations were in the fields 
in the day time; befides, fuch a criminal ftate of life as is imputed to them, was 
not confiftent with the general tenor of the polity of the Druid adminiftration, the 
tenets of which were deduced from moral obligation : and whnt utterly controverts 
the poficion is, that if incontinence, inccft, and infidelity in the marriage contrad:, 
were the habitual vices of Britifli life, the error of Lartifmandua would never have 
involved a whole nation in civil war, and engaged the Roman arms, when there 
was nothing but a familiar faift to provoke, which cuflom would have rendered 
inoffenfive. The Brigantes were divided: one party attached themfelves to 
Venulius, the injured hultand, the other to the queen, to whom they owed an old 
affecflion for the virtues of mind which flae had difplayed before fhe was infeded 
"with Roman manners. The divided country was wafted with inteftine broils, and 
though it did not inftantly fall under the Roman fword, it funk into luch imbe- 
cility, as afterwards rendered it eafy of conqueft. 

There were ftill remaining of this people, many who would not fubmit to the 
Roman yoke ; and we are told they were driven northward ; Hadrian afiumcd the 
imperial purple in the year 117 ; in his time, to fecure the Roman province from 
being incclTantly haraftcd by a banditti, who defcended the northern mountains 
like wolves, and marked their paflage with deftrudion, the Romans, about the 
year 121, drew from fea to fea the Pratentura of earth, with its ditches, in the 
progrefs of this work particularly traced and defcribed. From this a^ra we may 
date the complete fubmifTion of the territory of the Brigantes, which lay fouth of 
Solway Frith: for it would be inconfiftcnt to conceive, that within this line, any 
peoplcwereincludcd, who had not fubmitted themfelves to the Roman government, 
and given due teftimonies of their fidelity and attachment to the new rulers. 

* Caefar and Tacitus. 



The Brigantes fettled north of the Pratentiira oi Hadrian, aflumed the name of 
M<eat<e; and being ever contentious and difcordant, and retaining an inveterate 
hatred to the Romans, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, raifed fuch dangerous 
commotions, that Lollins Urbiciis, his legate, was obliged to advance agaiaft them 
with great power, and, after many conflicts, fubdued them. 

In Ridpalh's Border Hijlory , we have the following account of the Maata fo ju- 
dicioufly drawn up, as to merit particular notice, *' Ihe Ma-atie* appear to have 
" inhabited the lower lands of Scotland, while the mountainous parts were poifefltd 
" by the Caledonians ; but it is doubted whether thefe M^ala were the inhabitants 
" of the fouch of Scotland, or of the lower tracts of country to the north of Edin- 
♦' burgh F"rith ; although the former opinion feems more probable. The ancient 
*' hiftorians defcribe the Caledonians ^x\<\ Maata as entirely refenibling each other, 
•* in their manners and cuftoms, both in war and peace. 1 heir arms were the 
" fame as thofe ufed by their anceftors in the time oi Agrieola. For olfencc they 
♦■ were provided with a fhort fpear, a broad Iword, a dirk, and javelins ; for de- 
" fence they had nothing but a fmall target. They lived in tents, f having no 
" houfcs, towns, or villages: hence their food was chiefly the milk and flelh of their 
" cattle, and the game they took in hunting, together with the roots and fruit-s 
" that the foil naturally yielded. They are faid to have had fouie fort of food, 
•' or rather medicine, a quantity of which, no bigger than a bean, prevented all 
•' fenfe of hunger and thirft; and this they made ufe of in their long marches. 
*' They abltained totally from fifh, though their feas and rivers produced it in 
♦' great plenty. Inftead of drefs, they painted their bodies, which were moftly 
*' naked. Property was very little regarded by them. They were fwift and fure 
" of foot; patient of toil, hunger, thirft, and other hardfliips. They had horfes, 
" fmall but fleet, and retained their ancient cuftom of fighting in chariots. In 
*' almoft all thefe particulars, and alfo in their language, they refembled the 
" Brigantes, ivitb whom they appear to have been originally the fame people.'" 

'i he peace obtained by Vrbicus was of fliort duration ; and, after iucceflive iij- 

•* Their name is derived from the Britifh word Meath, a place. Dio fays they had no towns ; but It 
is evident, from Ptolemy's Geography, that there were fome towns at that time in the fouth of Scotland 
Dio alfo mentions Severus's returning afler he had made peace with the Caledonians, into the country of 
friends or allies, (e(? thk (piXiat) whicli Carte interprets of the country between Hadrian's wall and the 
Friths, which, though not reduced into the foim of a province, was inhabited by people that were de» 
pendants and allies of the Romans, (but why not ipiAiet denote the Roman province itfclf) but that 
the inhabitartts of this country were the Maeatas of Dio, is niferred from this faying, That, at the time of 
Severus's expedition, '■ there were two nations of the Britons that remained unconquered, the Caledonians 
and the Maeatae, whereof the latter dwelt next the wall that divides the illand into two parts, and that 
the Caledonians were beyond thefe." Now, according to Tacitus, the country of the Caledonians began 
from Antoninus's rampart ; and therefore the MaeatcE mud have lain between the walls of Hadrian and 
Antoninus. That the poffefllon the Romans had of the country between thefe walls was very ftort and 
imcertain, and that Hadrian's rampart, or Severus's wall, was the mod ufual boundary of the Romau 
province, is inferred from various infcriptions, found in the ftations upon that wall, or near it, relating ta 
both the former and latter emperors, whilft there was no fuch evidences of lafting Roman fcttlements in 
the country adjacerrt to the rampart of Antoninus.— Ridpalh. Carte, p. 141 .— Horfley,p. 73.— Goodall's 
Preface to Fordun, c. viiL— -Innes's Eflay, c. ii. f Huts. 

B 2 furre<flionB 


furredlions and depredations committed upon the Roman province, it was not till 
the reign oi Severn s, who went as^ainft thofe ferocious bands in perfon, that they 
fubmitted to the Roman power, withdrew themfelves from the frontiers, gave up 
a large trad: of their country by way of barrier, north of the fortifications ereded 
by Hudyian, and bound themfelves in a folcmn manner, not to violate their truce. 

Then it Vvas, that S events C2i\iitd the fecond Prtztentura to be formed, from Sol'u;ay 
Frith to the mouth of Tyne, built with ftone, ftrengthened by an outward ditch, 
and guarded by towers, and a chain of forts or Rations ; to the remains of which, 
the flrideft attention will be paid in the courfe of this work.. 

We have been more particularly attentive to the Roman affairs in this county; 
than in the Pleiv of Norlbiunberld>/d. Confident, from obfervations made on thxi 
natural face of the country, that here the chief incuriions were pradifed againft 
the Romans. Scotland If retches out to the wert and northweft from Soizvay Frith i 
the lands adjacent t-o the Pnvlev.tura, on account of their mountains and moraflcs, 
and from the many forefts that then covered the face of the country, were mofc 
capable of concealing and maintaining the tribes of rovers, who conftantly were 
attempting to make dcfcents upon the Roman province, and commit depredations 
on the allies. Nortburnherland, from the toot of Cheviots, is more level and 
open, lefs adapted to fuch purpofes, and lefs fubjeil to furprifc. ^ be foreft of 
Jedburgh long continued a refort for the tumultuous inhabitants of the northern 
regions, who alFembled to make war upon their fouthern neighbours. The pa{- 
fage from 'Jiviotdale into the heights of Nanhumberland was dangerous and 
difficult, and fo barren and thinly (locked, that an army could not fubfift; which 
reafons lead us to conclude, that the chiet incurfions were made within tlie diftriiii: 
of CumbeHand. 

Before we advance to a more extended period of the Roman polTelHon in this 
part of the ifland, it may not be unprofitable to take a ilight view of the religious 
injliliitions and the police of the natives^ fo far as the obfcurity in which they are 
involved, will permit. 

We do not find that the Britons, from the firfl: accounts of them, in this part 
of the ifland, were enveloped in that dreadful darknefs of mind, in which mofl: 
other nations, on their lirli difcovery by Europeans, have been defcribed to us: on 
the contrary, they were not igiiorant of the Deity, and had not corrupted their 
theology \\ith idolatry. 1 hey feem rather to have been wonderfully enlightened; 
and probably they derived this blefling from an intercourfe with the Phoenicians, 
improved by maxims brought with the firfl: fettlers from Germany^ having their 
Druids and Bards. In times of unlettered ignorance, it is no wonder the priefts 
had great influence over the multitude, efpecially the Druid, who was at once 
preceptor, lawgiver, divine, phyfician, and judge. This order of men poireifed all 
the learning of the age ; it is believed they knew the Greek alphabet, and ufed 
that charader in their numerations, as well touching ftate aflairs, as obfervations 
in aftronomy and natural philofophy: but their fludy of divinity vvas arduous, no 
charader or writing being permitted therein: nor was writing admitted, even in 
xht ethic fchool.. 



It is an argument, yet unfolved by the learned, whether that kind of religious 
influence was not a bleffing, rather than a prejudice to the people. In this 
polite age, we have diflblved thofe prevalences, and have fhaken offail holy vene- 
ration for the priefthood and their dodtrincs, under the dctertable appellations of 
cnthuliafm, bigotry, and fuperrtition ; we have refined our religion into levity, we 
have brought the fcrvants of God into contennpt ; the houfc of prayer is defcrtcd ; 
and the Deity almoft forgotten. It reminds us of Nero^ who grew fo familiar 
with the divinity he worihipped, that at length, it is faid by the hiflorian, he 
defiled it, in a manner too indelicate to be defcribed here. Modern levity, touch- 
ing things divine, has almoll: reduced them to the like contempt. The vulgar, 
when not kept in awe, are infolcnt ; and when at liberty, are licentious. When 
we look back upon the volume of human life, and reflcrt that the knowledge of 
mankind was progrefTivc, and that innumerable ages had elapfed to bring them 
to the eftate of civilization in which they now are, we mult conceive a moll 
melancholy idea of the firft race of men. From the hiftory of ancient ftates, we 
are led to determine, that innovations in religion and contempt of facred things 
marked the advancing difTolution of each empire; difobcdience to government 
fuccceded ; the bonds of public faith were thenceforth loofened; the compadl 
between citizen and citizen was fo far difiblved, that corruption prevailed againft 
private virtue ; and vice, like the fecret progrefs of poifon, ftole into the vital 
parts of the ftate, and gradually brought on defhudion : when luxury had difFufcd 
its corruption to the root of manners ; w'hen crimes from familiarity were deprived 
of the fling which confcience prepared; when religion, the trier of truth and rec- 
titude, was no longer the arbiter of the foul, each fatal event rapidly enfued. Men 
who had few natural virtues were deterred from open vices, by the cenfures of 
the church, more than the penal law ; and thofe who were blelTed with good 
talents, were exhilerated by the profpecl of great temporal rewards, as well as the 
lj)iritual confolations of an enlivened faith. 

But to return to the Druid: — he taught the adoration of the divine elTence, and 
deduced his arguments from examples difplaycd in the book of nature. He 
chofe the loftieli groves and molt fblcmn fcencs, for the convocation of his people; 
he pcrform.ed the facred rites with the greateft magnificence and awful pomp; 
and all the exercife of his religion, was with that iolemnity of ceremony, that 
deeply afteded the fpedator ; nay, in fo powerful a degree did they maintain this, 
that, it is faid, even the deterting Romans " Jiood afionijhedy and trembled." They 
inftituted religious feftivals, and fandificd the vidims by facrificc. In all public 
ailen-.blics for adminiftring juflicc, or confulting on national or provincial matters, 
the duty of the day was preceded by an av.ful lacnlice ; the viclivu for which 
V. ere fometimcs crnninals condemned for atrocious crimes; who then fuR'ercd 
public execution : What could make a ftronger imprcflion on the fpeO:tator, or be 
dcviftd to flrike the human mind with greater terror, againft committing the like- 
offences ! It warnot fimilar to our modern executions ; merely the lopping off of 
life ; but a tremendous mode of remitting to an offended Deity a reprobate and 
incorrigible fpirit, to fuller the judgment of heaven. This county, it is appre- 

hcndedj . 


hended, was pofTefled by fome of the chief Druids ; many of their monuments ftill 
remaining, and one the moft noble and extenfive of any in the ifland ; as will 
appear, when compared with Rollrkh and others. Stonebcnge, we conceive, is 
not of the like nature, the work of the fame people, or for the lame appropriation ; 
the ftones there being wrought with a tool ; — a defilement prohibited by the an- 
cient Hebrews, and never inftanced in the druidical remains. 

The land was divided into feveral fmall ftates, governed by their refpecflive 
potentates, whofe authority was little more, than that of being leaders in war : for 
in the deeper maxims of llate, the Druids were fuprenie ; and even in the bufincfs 
of the field, the people had that power over their prince, that he murt necellarily 
yield to their councils : this leems clearly derived from the Gaulijb polity. The 
people, from every evidence which the obfcure age has furniihed, appear to 
have been entirely free, throughout all ranks of men ; and no original traces of 
villeinage are to be difcovered in thofe remote times. It has been matter of 
difpute with the learned, from whence this abjedt ftate of men was derived. 
Whilft Germany had not yet fent out her colonies, from whence, we prefume, the 
coafts of Britain were occafionally fettled, it is pretty certain no fuch order of 
men exified there ; the Scrvi fpoken of by Ca/ar and Tacitus, hc'mg forcage men, 
though not in that perfeift privilege \\\i\z\\. Joe cage tenants afterwards gained. It is 
moft confiftent, to prefume they were captives in war; the Roman Haves being 
fuch. Lord Coke, who fupports his opinion on BraSIon Fleta and the Mirror, fays, 
*« The condition of villeins, who palled from freedom into bondage, in aticient time, 
'« grew by the conftitution of nations, and not by law of nature; in which time ail 
*• things were common to all ; and by multiplication of people, and making proper 
*' and private, thofe things that were common, arofe battles. And then it was 
*' ordained by conftitution of nations (he means by the tacit confent of civilized 
«' nations) that none fhould kill another, but that he that was taken in battle 
<« fliould remain bond to his taker for ever, and he to do with him, and all that 
«' fhould come of him, his will and plcafure, as with his beaft, or any other cattle, 
" to give or to fell, or to kill : and after, it was ordained, for the cruelty of fome 
" lords, that none fliould kill them, and that the life and members of them, as 
" well as of ficemen, were in the hands and protedion of kings ; and that he that 
" killed his villein fliould have the fame judgment as if he had killed a freeman." 
This ftridly correfponds with the account the Roman civil law gives of the rife of 
vaflalage. Our lawmen have not agreed what people firft introduced villeinage 
among the Britons ; it is moft probable it was the confcquence of the Roman 
conqueft, and was afterwards maintained by the Saxons and Danes: but as it is 
evident villicnage had not gained an eftablilhment in this country, at the period 
we have fixed on for our digreilion, we will leave the fubjedl for the prefent. 

Whether the Britifh fovereigns had any public revenue, we have not difcovered ; 
or whether they had any fubfiftence granted from the flocks and herds of their 
fubjeiffs, to fupport their dignity. It is probable each potentate was maintained 
by the produce of his own cftate ; and that he had no other reward for his 
public duties, than the joy of ferving his people, and the acquifition of popular 




love and public fame. The exigences of ftate were fupplied by a public tax on 
the fubjects in genera!, the Druids only being exempt. 

It was a powerful device of the Druids, in order to keep the legiflative power in. 
their hands, to declare to the people, that laws xvere the ordivmtres of heaven, and that, 
with other religious matters, the'y folely appertained to the minijlers of the Deity. The 
Mofaic ordonances feem to have dictated this fyftem. It is probable the Britiili 
priells ha<i a perfccft code of lazvs ,- but as they were not permitted to be reduced 
into writing, but were taught orally, as a Icience to their own tribe only, they 
expired with the extindion of that people. 

The habitations of the Britons were rude and incommodious, being little more 
than a hovel ; from the huts in the north of Scotland, it feems probable they were 
round, fupported againfl a tree in the centre, and roofed by boughs placed in an 
inclining order, covered witii turf, where a whole family lodged. They crowded 
ihofc ercifHons together without attending to order, convenience, or regularity, 
round the hutof their leader: ami as they were conflantly in a warfaring ftate, thofe 
colleded huts were embowered in the thickeft forefts, defended by an outward 
ditch, and a vallum of loofe pebbles, piled up to a vaft: magnitude; and frequently 
the whole fcttlenient was barracadocd by timber trees, felled and thrown together 
in the rudcft, but moft intricate form. The veflige of one of thofe walled towns 
reniains in the county of Durham, the only one we ever faw ; of a fquare form, 
the plain inclining to thefouth-weft, defended by an outward ditch, and a vallum 
of incredible magnitude, compofed of loofe pebbles, piled up to fuch a ridge, that 
the interior huts have been eftcdlually covered and concealed by it. Strutt in his 
Cht onicle of Eng!and,\ fays, " Their ftrongert places were only furrounded by a ditch 
♦■ and vallum of earth ; and the entrances blocked up with trees, cut down and laid 
" flcrofs them,* or, inftead of the vallum, a rude wall of great loofe ftones, without 
" mortar or cement.";}: They knew not even the common conveniences of the 
houfchold, they entered the hovel, laid down to reft, waked and departed to their 
fcveral avocations in the field. It is certain, they knew nothing of tillage in thefe 
northern difkicis; they had a few herds and flocks, and in fummer fubfilted chiefly 
by the chace. 

Their art of ivar conlifted of few manoeuvres: — ftrength, fortitude, intrepidity, 
and an infatiable paflion for achievmcnts and the love of glory, were the chief 
accomplifhments of a foldicr. They fought in tribes, each commanded by its 
proper chieftain, fothat what was wanted in art, was amply recompenfed by fide- 
lity, and the ftrongeft attachments. They engaged on foot, on horfeback, and in 

The infantry conftitutcd the chief part of the Britiflt army,§ whilft the fouthern 
foldiers were clothed in the manner of the Belgic Gauls, with a coarfc woollen 
tunic, over which was caft a cloak, reaching below the waift, || their legs and 
thighs covered with braca, or ftockings ; thofe oi our province , wore the Ikinj of 

\ Vol. I. p. 261. * C«far Bel. Gal. Lib. 5. % Tadt. Anna!. Lib. 12. Ch. 8. 
i Tacit. Vit. Agr. II T«yo'5 ^rtSSarw?. Cafibck's Died. Sic. fedt. V. 



animals, bound round the waifl: with a girdle; they were lightly armed, carrying 
a fpear, and a fvvord of brafs or iron, and a light target on the left arm ; the more 
northern people fought almort naked, having the iTiin of fome wild beafl: call 
loofely round the waifl-, or lufpended from the flioulder; and, to render themfelves 
hideous, they ftained their faces, breafls, and parts expofed, with various dyes ; 
they bore a target and a fvvord fufpended by chains of iron; and were very dex- 
terous in the management of Ihort fpears, which were pointed with brafs, and had 
a pendulous bell of the like metal adjoining to the focket; which, being fhook as 
they advanced, gave a harili and difmal clangour, whereby the horfes of an enemy 
were frighted and thrown into diforder. They were fwift of foot, and made iudden 
attacks, wheeling and retreating in fuch a manner, as greatly to harrafs heavy 
armed troops. 

The cavalry confided of very fmall horfes, but being trained to fuddcn evolu- 
tions, were of infinite fervice ; the horfemcn were armed for fighting on foot ; and 
frequently, after haraffing the flanks of an army, difmounted, and lupported the 
infantry; — infl:antaneous, as the occafion offered, they remounted, fell upon the 
difordered troops where an enemy's line was broken, and charged in flank, or in 
rear ; changing their manoeuvres with the utmoft alacrity and (kill. 

The zvarchariols were of three forts: the Covinns was armed with hooks, t and 
contained only the charioteer; all its execution depending on the force and ra- 
pidity with which thofe hooks were driven through the enemy's array. The 
Rheda and Effedum arc fuppofed not to have been armed with hooks, and had their 
diftinftion folely from the number of light armed troops they carried ; who, being 
difciplined to great expertnefs in throwing the javelin, on palling the enemy with 
the horfes at full fpced, would make great flaughter. Caefar defcribes this chariot 
fighting, and their method of charging, as being very formidable : the Britons 
retained great numbers of them in their armies, infomuch that when CalFivellaunus 
reduced his troops on a treaty of peace, he retained four thoufand chariots, as a 
neceflTary flandisig force. Their order of battle was generally with the chariots in 
front as the van ; their centre was entirely formed of the beft armed infantry, and 
the flanks compofed of light troops and cavalry: their favourite difpofition wason 
an inclining plain ; where the corps de refcrve, or back ranks, might be feen by the 
enemy, and prcfcnt to them a more powerful fhew of forces. They had no in- 
ftrumcnts of martial mufic, but the onfet was with hideous hovvlings and outcry, 
mixed with the clangour of beating their weapons on the iliield, and fliaking the 

We have no certain evidence whether the Britons of this diftricft had any dif- 
tintfl trade : if we confider the merchandife they had, we may form fome probable 
conjciflurcs, though we want pofitive evidence. The firft commodities we read of 
were lead, tin, and \V^jkins of beajh, which the people fold to the Phoenicians, and 
afterwards to the Greeks, and received, in exchange, fait, earthen ware, and in- 
ftruments, or trinkets, made of brafs. % No part of the ifland was more likely to 

t Mela, lib. iil. chap. iv. t Strabo, lib. iii. 



produce lend and Jii-rn than the mountains and forefts of Cumberland. Tin is 
mentioned by Homer, fo antient was that branch of trade with the Greeks. The 
intercourfe with civilized nations, whofe luxuries had rendered neceflary other 
articles found in Britain, foon extended their traffic, and we find the following 
things were in requeft after the coming of the Romans: gold, filvcr, iron, corn, 
cattle, Jlitves, dogs for the cbace,* various precious ftones, pearls,X chalk, and baskets of 
wicker, which were fo delicately made, as to be in very great eftimation at Rome.§ 
The Romans brought in return nothing but articles of luxury and magnificence. 
Of the laft-mentioned articles of Britiih traffic, many of them were produced in 
this country. There were yJ'/'yfr mines at Kefwick, as will be particularly obferved 
in the rourie of this work; indeed, fo foon as the art of refining lead took place, 
lilver mufl: have become more abundant. Iron has been wrought here, as the 
heaps of refufe, or flag, as the miners call it, found in many places, teflify ; but after 
the forefts were deHroyed, the want o{ fuel put a Hop to that manufaftory. Cat- 
tle, it is to be conceived, abounded in the vallies; but no corn. 6'laves are men- 
tioned, and mufl: have been the ufihappy captives of the northern nations, taken 
in v/ar : for we read of no vaflalage in this sera. Jgdtes, vdined pebbles, coarfe 

cornelians i 

* Strabo, lib. iv. 

X Tacitus defcribeS therti of a dai-k and livid hue, Vit. Agric. Pliny fays the fam^. *' In Britain fome 
" pearls do grow, but they are fmall and dim, not clear and bright.'' " Julius Cxfar did not deny, that the 
•' breaft-plate which be dedicated to Venus and her mother, within the temple, was madeof Bfitifh pearls." 

Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. YA. chap. xxxv. 
J The following infcription was found in Zealand, 1647; by which it appears that chalk was a Biitifk 
export of great antiquity : — 

Deae Nehaknnlafe 

ob MerCes fe£le conftr- 

vatas rfecnnd. Silvanus 

Negotor Cretarius 


V. S. L. M. 

To the goddefs Nehalennia, for his goods wdl preferved, Secundns Sylvanns,a chalk merchant «f Britain, 
willingly performs his merited vow. 
Martial fpeaks of thefe Britiih baffcets, 

Barbara depiftis venl balcanda BritaBnis 
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma faani. 

Lib. XIV. chap. xlix. 

From the Manufcripts of ItOGER GALE, Esci.. 
Extrafi of a Letter fr»m Sir John Clerm, dated tie Sf/; of /Ipr'il, 1742. 

Thefe ftatues and infcriptions were fent to me by Mr. Yard, miniftcr in the diflenting church at Camp. 
Tere : moft of the ftatues and altars were of (lone, but fome of them of ftucco, of which he fent me a piece. 
I fuppofc the chalk which was fold by the negociator Lrttarius, under-mentioned, was ufid for this pur- 

pofc } it is extremely white, but hard like ftone. I am to write to him to fend me fome of them, which 
lie at preftnt at an old church in the neighbourhood. The drawings he fent me are not very corrcd, and 
I have n(jt made any alteration'* 

mot. I. C yo„' 



cornelians, blood-Jlones, and fome others of the moft ordinary kind of flones ufed in 
jewelry, are frequently found within this diftrid ; and fometimes in the mines the 


You may obferve the good honeft goddefs Nehalennia is dreft in a (hort cloak, like fome of ouv women 
going to travel in a ftage-coach. My correfpondent tells me (he is the fame way dreft on all her ftones, 
and that (he never wants a little dog, or a baflcet of fruit. They were difcovered about ninety years ago, 


^1,T^Rt^J V ,y 

TRtNl VJ F.\V0TO SV Ml. 

and fo long, my correfpondent fays, they have lain In the old church without any cnrious eye to take no- 
tice of them, fo that the difcovery, as he fays, is as new as ever. Nehalennia feems to be derived from the 
Greek Nsa SsA/im, the new moon, or the goddefs Luna. The following alfo I received from him : 

Dcae Nehalenniae 

Ambafthius pro 

fe et fuis 

1 2 "1 

I Nehalenniae | 

\ L. Juftus falto et }> 

I L. Secundinus Mode ( 
J ratus Fratres V. S. L. M. J 

Dese Nehalenniae 
ob merces refte confer 
vatas M. Secund.Silva 
nus Negotor Cretarius 
Biitannicianus. V. S. L. M. 


I. O. M. 


faai. V. S. L. M. 


I On the 

J> pedeftal 
I is a ftatue 
J of Jupiter. 

Diis Dcabufq 

Provinciarum ^ 

Concotdiae I 

Fortunae I 

Conciliorura J 

Negotor in the 4th Infcription is Negociator Cretarius, to a trade then drove on in chalk or clay, or 
what we call fuller s earth. — N. B. It is probable gypfum was an article of commerce. — Britannicianus 
is not a common word, S.c. 


To Sir John Clerk, in ^vpwer to the above from R. Gale. 

Dear Sir, Sernton, lylh April. 

I am veiy much obliged to you for the Zealand infcription, but your correfpondent was a little 

mlftaken, when he informed you that they have lain ninety years in an old church, without any curious 

eye to take notice of them, fo that the difcovery of them is as ucw as ever : ptrlwps no infcriptlons that 



marcafilcs are difcovered. Pif^jrA- are found in the river Iret, which difcharges 
itfelf into the ocean a few miles north of Ravcnglafs. It is a very clear ftream, 
flowing on a pi.bbly channel ; the mufclcs producing them are of the large hurfe 
mufcle kind, found in many other rivers in the north of England. /.,-w/f ai-)ounds 
in this county, and that fpecies commonly known by the name of gypfum, or 
alpli'jler, f which might be known to the Romans, and ufed in their elegant 
edifices. BafKcts, no doubt, were manutacTured here, one fpecies of the Druid 
execution of criminals, was inclofing them in a gigantic figure of Hercules, (the 
emblem of human virtue) made of wicker work, and burning them alive, in fa- 
crifice to the divine attribute oVJuftice. 

'1 he boots ufed by the Britons are chiefly defcribed to us, as being made of 
wicker ware, covered with hides of oxen,* or of timbers framed and covered with 

time has left us have been oftener reprinted and commented on. Nine of them were difcovered in tlie year 
J 647, and weie foon after publifhtd by Olivarius Vrcdicus, in his Antiquitatis Fiandria:, and Boxhoinius 
in Diitcli : next by Reineflus in his Syntagma, and then by Spon in his Mifcclla. Crud. Antiquitatis, 
who made them up ten. After that you have an account of them in Altingius's Notitia Batavise Antique, 
but none of the infcriptions inferted, becaufe it may be fuppofed, they had fo often been already pubhfhed. 
That of Kcgotor Cretarius, or rather NEGOXTOR CRLTARIVS, (for fo it is upon the ftone) was 
taken notice of in my father's commciitary on Antoninus's Itinerary, A. D. 1709, p. 43. Then comes 
Ml . Keifler, who has been very copious, and given feveral draughts of them, but not having the book by 
me, I cannot be particular. Laft of all comes a Benedl£line of the congregation of St. Maur, and in his 
Religion du GauloilUree de plus rares fources de 1' Antiquite, printed at Paris, 1727, p. 78, he gives 
you a defcription of no lefs than feventeen of thefe monuments; without any infcription, except upon 
three, whofe figures he has engraved ; one of which, is that of the goddefs in her (liort cloak, dog at her 
right i)0t, at her left Den upon the prow of a fliip, and underneath her, the letters Massom Saevs Q. B. 
— that which I received from you has Salus. He tells you he will not fubjedl himfelf to explain any of 
the infcriptions, fince they give no light to the matter. All thefe authors concur in making Nehalcnnia 
the new moon, and have attempted feveral derivations of the name, particularly the Benediftinc, who has 
twilled and turned it feveral ways, to make it fpeak his mind : but the fimplell and moft probable, in my 
opinion, is that of Altingius, as being formed from the old German language NIli-HEL Novum Lumen 
Nw Sf>.)in) very near the fame both in found and fignification. 

The Negociator Cretarius Biitannicianus was, as you obferve, a dealer in chalk, or fuller's earth, or 
marie ; but Britannicianus does not denote the country where he was born, for then he would have been 
called Britto, or Britanus, but the place to which he traded : he was a Britilh trader, as we fay at this 
day, a Holland's trader, for any of our iflanders that trade to Holland. You have, however, the Brittan- 
niciani, as well as the Britanes mentioned in the Notit: Imperii ; a word, perhaps, crept into the lan- 
guage of the Lower Empire, and fonned from Britanstic, the country word, being a near rtfcmblance 
to it. 

1 mufl; confefs the ftatue erefled to Nehalcnnia, by M. Tarinus Prinius, is not taken notice of by any 
of thefe authors, no more than that of Januarius Ambafthius ; fo thefe are likely to be new, as well as 
that I. O. M. Textouifuis, &c. that of Diis Deabufq. is in Spon, with a line betwixt the 4th and cth 
of yours, but fo much defaced, that only the letters — NA — can be read in it, yet the fenfe in yours feems 
complete. The Hercules found with them is Hercules Magusanus, and commented upon by Keider 
and the Benediftine. 

The latter of thefe has fhewn, in a fecond work of his, that the fhort cloak of Nehalcnnia was the 
wlial wear of the Gauhfli women, and not the Gaulilh fagum, in oppofition to one Deflaudes, who fayg 
it was, in which he is certainly r ght ; the fagum being a long garment: yet he will not allow Dcflaudes's 
image that wears it, to be a woman or a girl, fo blind is the fpirit of contradiftion. 

Your's, &c. R. G. 

f The lygdintim niarmor of the ancients. * Lucan lib. \. Pliny, Nat. Hill. lib. IV. chap. xvi. 

C 2 leather, 


leather,* and with thcfe they navigated the fes between Britain and Ireland. B)f 
the following difcovcry, it appears that their boats were of a much fuperior con- 
flrudlion to thofe mentioned by hiftorians. 

In a letter from Sir John Clerk to Roger Gale, Efq. dated Edinburgh, nth- 
June, 1727, among the manufcripts of that learned antiquarian, are the following 
particulars. " I fliall acquaint you with a very ancient curiofity, found about 
" eighteen miles from this place. The wafh of the river Caron difcovered a 
" boat, thirteen or fourteen feet under ground ; it is thirty-fix feet in length, and 
" four and a half in breadth, all of one piece of oak ; there were feveral flrata 
" about it, fuch as loam, clay, (hells, mofs, fand, and gravel ; thele ftrata demonftrate 
" it to have been an antediluvian boat. |) The tree of which it was made, was, no 
" doubt, very big, but rtill no bigger than one which is yet alive not far from that 
*' place ; it is about twelve or thirteen feet in diameter, and we have a pretty good 
" document from an old author, who wrote the life of Sir William Wallace, a Scotch- 
" captain in the time of King Edward I. that it was an old decayed tree at that time. 

" Some fancy this boat is Roman, becaufe it was found not far from Arthur's. 
" Oven, or Templum Termini; but there feeras to be no great probability ia 
" this. If Sir Hans Sloan, Dr. Mead, or Dr. Woodward, want an account of this 
" boat, let me give you the trouble of remembering me to them." 

In thefe manufcripts, there follows this from a newfpaper. " Edinburgh, May 
25th. " We have an account from Airth, eighteen miles weft nf this city, near 
*' to the influx of the river Caron, of a very rare piece of antiquity, found in the 
*' fouth bank of the Forth, viz. a canoe of thirty-fix feet long, four feet broad in the 
** middle, four feet four inches deep, four inches thick in the fides, all of one piece 
" of folid oak, Iharp at the ftem, and fquare at the flern. The river's wafhing away 
" the banks difcovered a part of her ; flie was ordered to be dug up by Mr. Graham, 
"judge-admiral, and proprietorof the place. Whatwasdifcoveredof her, was found 
*• to be above fifteen feet under ground. It is remarkable that flie is finely polifhed, 
•' being perfedlly fmooth on the outfide and infide, and the wood of an extraordi- 
" nary hardnefs, and not one knot in the whole." To this follows a note by 
«' Mr. Gale, figned with his initials, R. G. When hlarton Mere, in Lancafhire,. 
" was drained by Mr. Fleetwood, no lefs than eight canoes, Uke thofe in America,, 
"were found in it, which, it is likely, were funk in that lake by the Britons, &c. 
'• Fid. Britan. Antiq. et Aov. in Lanea^jite, p. 1284." 

At what period the Britons improved their art of navigation, and enlarged their 
ve{rels,is uncertain ; in the fea engagement on the coafi; oiAnnoi ica, hy the united for--, 
ces of the Britons and Gauls, againll the navy of C^r, it is imagined that the Britifh. 
vefTels were of equal force with thofe of the Feneti; though there is no evidence to- 
maintain this pofition, and the Britons might only afTift to man the Gaulifh fleet; 
for M hen Cafor invaded Britain, he was not oppofed by any naval force. The fhips 
of the Veneti are dcfcribed by Cafar\ to be built with keels flatter than the Roman 
vefTels, that they rnight lie more conveniently in the fhallows ; their prows were 

* Solinus, lib. III. |[ Sir John's love of antiquity was extravagant. f Cxf..£el. GaL lib. 

III. chap. xiii. 



very ered:, and their flerns raifed to refiO a florm : they were conRrucfted of oafr, 
the feats of their rowers were beams a foot broad, and faifened with iron pins an 
inch thick: the anchors had chains of iron inftead of cables, and the fails were 
made of hides, or tanned leather. They v\erc fubliantial veflcls to bear the fhock 
of the iron beaks of the Roman gallies; but miferable things for navigation. 

The Romans introduced many improvements in maritime affairs; Ciaudius gave 
great encouragement to fhip-buildmg,:^ his veflels were of fuch dimenfinns as 
would carry three hundred and twelve quarters of corn •. but how they were rigged 
is not mentioned. About the year 359, no lefs than 800 fliips were employed by 
the Britons in exporting corn to Gaul. The Romans alfo had a great na\al force 
to protect the trade, commanded by a chief officer, whofe diftindion was Lord High 
Admiral of the Brili/h Seas. || And in the time of CaraHJins, about the year 286, 
and AleBiis, 293, the naval force was rtnowned: fa rapidly did thofe improve- 
ments advance after the coming of the Romans. 

Various defcriplions have been given of the apparel of the Britons, v.hich was 
not uniform through the iOand, but adopted, perhaps, from the different nations 
with which they had intercourfe. Some wore long black garments, bound round 
the vvaifl; with a girdle; others a fhort mantle, plaited on one flioulder and faflcned 
with a pin, a fibula, or clafp: and again, the more barbarous were covered with 
flcins of deer, wolves, and other beads of chace. Their manufadlory of za-oollen was 
rude, being wool unfpun, beat, and driven together with much labour. The 
Gaulic manufacflory fpoken of by Dwdorus, lib. v. and in Pliny's Natural Hijlory, 
lib. via. chap. 48, was woven cbequer-wife, in various colours; of which our Scots 
plaids are perfedt remains ; they were not received till our greater mercantile 
intercourfe with that country enabled us to import their articles of luxury. Alfo 
the linen manufaStory was not prolecuted here, till long after the aera at which wc 
paufed from the hiftcry of Roman affairs to make this review. The mofl: elegant 
Bntifli drefs we read of, was that oi Boadicia :§ " She was a large well-made woman, 
*' of a fevere countenance; her voice was loud and flirill, her hair was of a deep 
«' yellow colour, and hung down to the bottom of her wailt ; on her neck fhe wore 
" a mafTy chain of gold : flie was habited in a tunic of various colours, over which 
" was a robe of coarfer woollen, bound round her with a girdle, faftened with 
" buckles." The chief ornaments of the northern Britons, were chains for their 
necks, malfy bracelets for the arms, and rings for the fingers; and where gold was 
not to be obtained, they ufed them of brafs and iron. 

Among Mr. Gale's manufcripts is a letter from Air. Maurice JoLvtfou, which 
contains the following particulars, •• In the mufeum at Oxford, I was fhewn fome 
" forts of civil and military inftruments of flints, made and ufed by the ancient 
*• Brifons, before they knew how to flux metals. I have a large brafs ring, fuch 
" as they are faid to have hung round their waifts in leathern thongs, for ornaments, 
" which is formed of two concave pieces fixed together, either before they knew 
" foldering, or becaufe it might not be thought on to fix them otherw ife. With 

X Sueton. in Claud, chap, xviii aod xix. || Archigubernus Clafli« Britan. § Xiphil. ex Dion, 
in- Mcrone.. 

*• this 


" this a ring, very thick, and much too little for any woman's finger was dug up, as 
" Captain Pownel aflured me, (trom whom I had them) made of flint vitrified, 
" and ftaincd yellow with the juice of fome berry, as it feems, being of a pale 
" lemon colour. Thefc rings, they fay, were in like manner the ornaments of the 
" Britifh ladies, before the Romans taught them to drefs." There is the following 
note by Mr. Gale. " Thefe inflruments of flint have been found all over Europe, 
" as well as in the Eafl: and VVefl: Indies; fo that the ufe of them feems to have 
•' been univerfal mold times: by their fliill in arts, fciencesand arms, our Britifh , 
" anceftry, and their ladies, feem to have been, at the Roman invalion, arrived to 
" much the fame degree of learning, knowledge, and politenefs, as the lavages in 
«' the Weft Indies, when difcovered by Columbus." 

Their diet was fimple ; fifli, hares, hens, and geefe, they had an averfion to; they 
drclTed their viands by boiling or roafting, and drank of liquor made of honey 
and barley. They burnt the bodies of the dead ; the allies of fome were depofited 
under hillocks of earth, others in ftone chefts, compofed of five flat ftoncs, and 
covered with a pile of earth, Thefe are the general lines of our northern Britons 
near the period before related to. 

The Romans, with innumerable artifices, endeavoured to infinuate their maxims 
intothe lives and m.annersofthenatives: they fludiedtopromote the adoption of their 
habits, c'ujloms, luxuries, ajid pleafines. It was fome time before the people could be 
brought to tafte the enjoyment of thofe fafcinating exotics, and partake of the infinu- 
atingvicesof the conquerors: their enormities towards the fair fex feem to have been 
the moft otfenfive and difguflful ; for when the Romans treated the daughters of Bo- 
adicia with (liamcful indignities, the people were irritated to a formidable infurrec- 
tion ; which coft the aggrefTors much time and bloodllied to fupprefs and appeafe. 

At length we find the Britons incorporated with the Romans : by their abode 
in this ifland four hundred years, they became fo much reconciled and united, as 
to intermarry; the diflinc"lion of nations was loft, they became one people, and of 
one religion ; like the Romans, they built temples to the gods, ereded palaces, were 
frequent at \.\\e. baths, and places of public divcrfion, and at length adopted every 
art and fcience the Romans had brought with them. Converfion in religion is not 
fo remarkable, if we confidcr the Druid tribe was extirpated; and the minds of 
the people were conciliated, by the Romans adopting the worfhip of the Deity the 
Britons had been taught to adore, under the names or diftinctions of Bel, Bal, 
Magon, &c. of which many inftances arc found in infcriptions to topical divinities; 
and this in particular, in thofe parts where the Druids formerly held their grand 
conventions; as ftiall be particularly obferved in the courfc of this work; fo that 
it appears the ceremonies of worfhip, and not the ohjeil, underwent the change. 

They became at length fo much one people, that, to fupport the Roman ambition, 
the Britilh youth having been incorporated -with the legions, went forth with 
Maximus, a Spaniard by birth, and fubducd Gaul and Spain ; but extending his 
views too far, he loft all he had acquired, and facrificed his troops in a vain attempt 
to reduce Italy. The fatal projcdt of Conjlantine was a fucceeding blow, which 
Britain could never recover: her inteftinc ftrength thus lapped, opened the channel 
for thofe depredations, which the northern nations afterwards carried, even into 



the fouthcrn provinces. When the declining empire, rendered it neceflary to cal 
from Britain the Roman legions, our youth fired by amhition and the dcfirc of 
military glory, were received among their troops; and all thofe, nearly connccfted 
with the departing people, joined in the emigration. The difl-radled pcalants, 
deferted by thofe in whom they had long trulted for fafety, when oppreflcd by 
the influx of an enemy from the northern mountains, were twice relieved by the 
coming of a Roman legion: the firfl: repaired the wall ox pratcn'.urr. o'i A;ilouinus ; 
the fecond, the work ol Sevems. Even in the Roman empire, the arts had then 
declined very greatly ; and when the lad legion made its final departure from 
Britain, and gave melancholy alTurances they Ihould never return, artificers could 
not be found to maintain the barrier with mafon work; but the breaches were 
fupplied with turf. Then it was, as hiflorians tell us, the diftracted inhabitants 
looked abroad on their deferted country, and faw nothing was left them but poverty 
and difmay: either the Romans had kept thofe left behind them in profound 
ignorance as to the manufactory of arms and tools of hulbandrv, or the work- 
men had deferted them with the Romans ; for fo it was, that none remaining had 
either military fkill or arms to defend themfclves from the ravages of the enemy. 
1 he warlike and ferocious bands, who poffeiTed the northern regions, from their 
implacable avcrfion to the Romans, remaining uncontaminated with their vices, 
and not become imbecilitated by their luxuries, rufhed forth like a troop of liens 
on the affrighted country, and fpread defolationand ruin on every hand ; carryin"" 
back with them the herds and flocks of the afloniflied Britons, many of whom, with 
their wives and infants, were made flaves; whilft others fled fouthward, to fave a 
miferable exiftence. Such is the aftlidting pidure given of this country. But \n 
the heightening of this grievous delineation, writers omit the proofs neceflary to 
reconcile this deplorable defcription of the eflate of Britain, fo immediately after 
the departure of the Romans; for it could only be derived from the emigration of 
thofe who had become intimately connefted with the Romans, had participated 
in the luxuries and pleafures of their manners, and had alfo acquired a knowledge 
of arms, arts, and manufactories; fromfuch the art of war could not be withheld, 
as it was to be obtained by example. 

At this period, it feems mofi: probable, that vajfalage was growing into a cuflom ; 
and that the captives made by contending powers, were in retaliation carried into 
ilavcry. It is mentioned that one of the original articles of traffic with Greece was 
jlaves: but there is no evidence, who thofe miferable objcdls were; whether cap- 
tives or criminals. It is the cuflom of moft barbarous nations, in their warfare, 
to enflave the unhappy captive. 

In the introducftion to the View nf Norlhiimbcrland, we took notice of the deplo- 
rable efl^ate of the Britons, before the arrival of the Saxons; regarding this as a 
work connecled with our former publication, we forbear the repetition. 

It doth not appear that this diflricT: experienced any of thofe calamities which 
marked tiie eaflcrn coaft, and Northumberland in particular, on the firft approach 
of the Saxons : neither did they poflefs the lands on the weftern fide of the Bririfh 
Appcnines, (which divide the counties, according to their prefent limits) when they 
firrt dcvifcd the plan, and concerted meafurcs to fcize the empire, and fnatch 



from the hand of impotence and imbecility, the government of a country fo blefl: 
U'ifh the bounteous gifts of providence, and fo perfectly adapted to the happy 
exiflence of mankind. 

The fettlement of the Saxons in Northuml/erland was effefted in or about the year 
454; but it was not till the year 547, that Ida came over with his reinforcements, 
and eftabliOied his kingdom. 

This country was inhabited at that time by a people who affumed the name of 
Kumhrt or Khnbriy from whence the etymology ot kumbri Laud is very eafily and 
naturally deduced. f 

There is no degree of evidence to fhew, that Ida carried his arms acrofs the 
mountains; but it feems he was content to fettle on the eaftern coiift: and by 
making Bebbanboroug!) his royal fortrefs, the pofition feems evidently proved. Such 
proofs as we have, tend to confii m the idea, and that this province, now the ohjedl of 
our particular attention, was not fubjeft to his controul ; for the Kiiidri had become 
conciliated to the Maat£, the Fiiis and Scols, who dwelt upon, or lived adjacent 
£0, what we now call the Borders : and they appear to have joined in feveral incur- 
lions on the Saxon fettlements, ravaging their frontiers by flying parties ; and, after 
TTiarking their hafty paffage with blood and rapine, retreating again with equal 
rapidity to their impenetrable faftnelfes in the mountains and forefts, where no 
other people could fubftft. 

The twelve years of Ida's reign were full of warfare; and all that he reaped from 
his military achievements againft the Britons, was barely to retain his firrt fettle- 
ment in Northumberland. 

Adda, his fon and fucceffor, reigned for the fhort period of feven years; one of 
his chieftains Ella is faid to have added to this fovereignty the province of Deira, 
from whence he expelled the Britons ; but in this acquiiition, it is prefumed, we 
cannot include the territories of the Kimbri ; but that thole conquefts were ex- 
tended fouthward; and that Ella did not crofs our Appenines in tins war. 

It is not till the reign oi Ethelfrith, which commenced in the year 593, that we 
hear any thing of the conflicts of the ^<7.vowj with the PiRs ; and under this general 
appellation of their enemy, we are inclined to include the Kimbri. 

That prince extended his conquefl much further than any of his predeceflbrs ; 
and many tribes of the Britons fubmittcd, his arms being deemed irrefiitible, and 
his mode of government excellent and full of demency. It is in this a?ra we are 
induced to place the firft footing of Saxon power within this diftric^t; for hiftorians 
fay, that, by the extent of empire gained by Ethelfrith, the Scots began to look 

f Ex Lib. 2. Galfridi. 

SuccccfBt Cadwallardus, qtKm Beda vocat Ceduuallam Juvenem. 

Quam vcro fainem peftifera mortis lues confecuta ell quae in brevi tantam populi multi'udinem flravit, 
quantam non poterant vivi humare. Unde miferae reliquix patriam, fadlis agminibus, dlffugientes tiauf- 
marinas petebant regione^, &c. 

Britannia eigo cundlis civibus, exceptis paucis qiilbus in Gualliaium partibiis mors pq>ercerat, defolata 
per novem annos Dntonibus horrenda fuit. Quod cnm iplis indicatura fuiflct, nefaiidus populus ille 
coUedla innumeiabili multitudine virorum, ct mulicriim applicuit in panibus Northumbriae ct defolatat 
piovlncias ab AUauia ufque cornubiam i'lhabilavit. 

Lel. Col. t. 2. 



tipon his growing fame with a jealous eye, and upon his government as advancing 
to too eminent a degree of power, for the I'ecurity and peace of the adjoiningffates:' 
under fuch apprehcnlions, the Scots taking up arms, a dccifive vidory was detained 
by the Saxons at Deegltane, or d'Egleftane, a? fome authors have it,* where the 
{laughter was fo great, that the natives were not able to advance ag-ain into the field 
againfl: the invaders for feveral years. The M ^e a/ ^ Sind Pi ff^s have, by all hiftori- 
ans, been accounted a more fnuthern people, than the Sco/s ; and it feems probable, 
that the accelFion of Cumbria excited their jealoufy: and what ftrcngthens this 
fuppolition, that Cumbria was added to Ethelfrith's dominions, is, his prolecuting 
a war againd the fouthcrn and wedern tribes of Britons, over whom a decifive 
vidlory was obtained near Caer Leon, in Wales. 

Jn the reign of Edwin, the Mercians overran the kingdom of Northumberland, 
and laid it walte; in that general devaftation it is to be doubted, the Kimbri were 

In 684, E^frU had pofTefRon of the wedern coad, as he invaded Irelc^nd: and 
afterwards, contrary to the advice of St. Culhbert, then Bifliop of Lindisfarn, he' 
turned his arms againd the Pitls, and was flain. At this period of time, the city: 
of Cariijle was given to St. Liithberty and his fee ; and he was brought thither to 
preach to the inhabitants. The kimbri then were reconciled and fully united to 
the Saxon government. 

Though we have alleged, that Cumbria was joined to the Saxon kingdom of 
'Northumberland ; yet it appears only to have been a tributary province, under the 
referved government ot its own potentates. It continued to hold the privilege to 
about the year 946, at which time, as Camden's words are, " King Edmund.J 
*' withtheaffidanceof Le -line, King of Wales, fpoiled Cumberland of all its riches; 
*' and having put out the eyes of Dunmaile, king of that country, granted that 
*♦ kingdom to Malcolm, King of Scots, to hold of him to proteft the northern 
*' part of England, by fca and land, againlf the incurfions of eneniies. Upon which, 
" the elded fons of the Kings of Scotland, as well under the Saxons as Danes, were 
" diled governors of Cumberland. But when England had yielded tothe Normans, 
" this county fubmitted with the red, and fell tothe diareof Ranulphde Mefchines, 
" whofe elded fon was lord of Cumberland, and at the fame time, in right of 
" his mother, and by favour of his prince, Earl of Cheder." [Such is the tranda- 
tion, 1695; but in the Latin edition, 1594, to which, in the courfe of this work', 
we refer in the notes, the words are " C«;;; autem Normannis Anglia Je dedidiffet, 
" tjac etiam pars in illortim manus concejfit, Ranulpboq de Me/chines obtigit, cujus 
*' Jili/is natii maximus materno jure Comes fuit Ccjiria, minor vcro Gulielmus Dominus 
" Copulandia."] " However King Stephen, to ingratiate himfelf with the Scots, 
" redored it to them, fo hold of !iim and his f ucccdbrs. Kings of England. But his 
*' immediate fucced<)r, King Henry II. confidering what prejudice this profufe 
*' liberality of Stephen's was like to prove, both to him and his kingdom, demanded 
•* back from the Scots Northumberland, Cumberland, and Wedmorland ; and 

* Prefumed from the TvirauUis. and other monuments, to be Eglefton, on the river Tees, in tlic 
county of Durham. :j: Flori^ellus Wcilinonaft. 

VOL I. D " the 


" the Scotifh king, as Neivhrigencies has it, wifely confidered, that fince the King 
" of England both had a belter title, and was much ftronger in thofe parts (though 
*• he could have alleged the oath, which he was faid to have made to his grand- 
*' father David) did very fairly and honeflly reftore the aforefaid bounds, at the 
" king's demand, and in lieu of them had Huntingdonlhire rcftored, which be- 
•' longed to him of ancient right." 

Such are the general circumftances related by Camden; but we mull revert to 
an earlier date than 946, to colleift fome very material incidents antecedent to 
that aera. 

In the year 873, the Danes made their landing at Tynetnouth, and wintered in 
that neighbourhood ; in the enfuing fpring, they fpread their ravages from the 
eaftern to the weftern ocean, over thofe parts of the Northumbrian kingdom, which, 
in their former incurfions, they had not traverfed. They pillaged and afterwards 
burnt the city of Carlifle. It doth not appear that they met with much refinance in 
thisdiftricft, or made any confiderable ftay, for there are no remains of their military- 
works, either entrenchments or forts, except at Brampton: and in our opinion this 
greatly denotes the poverty of the land, its being thinly peopled, and the unreco- 
vered flate it lay in, from the defertion of the Romans, the ravages of the northern 
nations^ and the warfare of the Saxons. 

In the year 894, Alfred reduced the whole kingdom of Northumberland. Fordutt 
relates that the northern provinces of England willingly fubmitted to Gregory, King 
of Scots : Donald fucceeded, and retained the acquifitions of his father; and after 
him Conftantine. This author is not always to be confided in, efpecially when he 
has a means of aggrandizing the Scotch name. Alfred divided his realm into /hires 
and their fubdivilions of wards or hundreds,- of which there are five in Cumberland, 
\iz. Allerdale ward above Derivent, Allerdale ward bi low Derwent, Cumberland ward, 
Lcelh ward, and Ejidale ward. 

In the year 941, Edmund fucceeded to the Englifli throne, and two years after 
Malcolm was King of Scotland. The Englifh monarch, provoked by the perfidy of 
the northern provinces, wafted Cumberland, and granted it to Malcolm, on terms 
that Induf, the heir apparent to the Scotch crown, and his fuccelfors, likewife heirs, 
Should hold it as their principality, and a province of that realm, by fealty and 
homage. As a tcftimony of this grant, the Scotch hiftorians fay, the Reay-crofs 
or Roy-crfs was placed on Stainmore, on the boundary of //^y?;/wr/rt«i and Torkjhire, 
the arms of England being fculpturcd on the fouthiide, and the arms of Scotland on 
the north, as a memorial of that convention, andthedivifion of the two kingdoms. 

We have taken a fliort view of the melancholy events which marked this dillrid: 
under the ravages of a foreign enemy, and barbarities of the ferocious inhabitants of 
the north, then uncivilized and unenlightened with the Chriftian revelation: fuch 
incidents of the likecaft, as follow in our narrative, were derived from natives, who 
it might be conceived would haveacfled with greater clemency and humanity towards 
their neighbours ; born in the fame land, and brcthern in the pale of the fame church. 
About the year 1031, Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland, began to commit depre- 
dations on Cumberland, fupported by the Danes. Malcohn led forth his army, and 
engaged them near Burgb on Sands, where, after a doubtful battle, maintained with 



equal valour for a long time, the bioorly honours of the day were gained by the Serfs. 
Daman, the heir-apparent of the crown, held the principality, agreeable to Edmuna's 
compad: ; but Malcolm, regarding Canute as an ufurper, would not permit his fon to 
do homage. C<2««/f made a pilgrimage to Rome, and on his return, having levied 
a great army, he advanced into Cumberland to take revenge for the indignities re- 
ceived from the crown of Scotland: authors difagreeexceedingly in the event of this 
expedition; if we give credit to the Saxon chronicle, Canute fubdued Malcolm, with 
two other potentates, Mielbeatb diXiA Jobmarc ; but who thofe perfonages were, wc 
are in the dark, nothing being left us but their names. T. his account is adopted by 
Malmjbiiry ; but Symeon of Dinbam, and Florence, of ll'orcejlcr, are totally filent 
thereon. Fordun correfponds with the chronicle, z.Vi^Matlhe'ia of li'fjlminjhr fpeaks 
in the following exprefl'ions : " Contra Scotos rebellantes hcjUleiu expcditionem duxtt^ 
" et Malcohnuni. rcgein, cum duohus aliis regibus, Icvi negotio, fuperavil."^ But we 
are inclined to adopt the account of more modern writers, who tell us that, by 
the interpofition of the great men of both ftates, and a circumftantial invclligation 
of the right of the Scottifh crown, Cumberland was confirmed to Duncan, and the 
homage required was paid. 

Thefecond year afterthe ufurpation of thccrown of England by William the Nor^ 
man, the northern malccontents were in arms, and the aid of Mrf/fo/w, of Scotland, 
was promifed ; but he not being able to bring up his troops in time to aid the allies, 
the two ftates were indebted to the good offices oiEgelwin, Bijhop of Durham, for ef- • 
fe(fling a reconciliation and ceiTation of hoftilities ; and the Scotch king did homage 
accordingly forthisprincipality; but this was notapermanent peace, for, in the fuc- 
ceeding year, IVillidm having fcnt Robert Cummin into Northumberland, with a chofen 
body of troops, in order to keep the malccontents in awe, they eluded the leader's 
vigilance, in the night forced the gates of Durham, where Cummin then lay, and put 
his men to the fword. This, with the (ubfequent rebellion at Tork, and theinva- 
fion of the Scots, whofe forces were ftrengthened with an army of Danes and 
Northumbrians, headed hy Earl Gofpatric, incenfed IVilliam to march with a power-. 
ful army, and to lay wafle the whole country northward from lork* Malcolm 
entered Cumberland, and there exhibited a fcene of exploits as infernal as the 
Normans. He carried his devaftation into Teefdale and the county of Durham. In 
1072, IVtlliam came again into the north, and entering Scotland, was met by 
Malcolm at Abernethy, where the Scotch monarch, confenting to perform the 
accuftomed homage, a peace was concluded. But it doth not appear that Lumber- 

J Page 209 
* A. D. 1070. Infinita Scottoium multitudo ducente Malcolmo Rege, per Cumberland tradu£la eft, 
Terfus orientem, divertens univerfam Tefedale, ct ejus finltima loca ultra citraqiie feroci vaftavit, depopu« 
latione. Ubi autem ventum eft ad locum, qui dicIturAnglicasHundredeflcelle (Hunderthwaite) latineautem 
centum fontes, trucidatis ibidem quibufdam gentis Anglics nobilibus, rex parte exercitus retenta, partem 
per viam quam venerat cum infinita praeda domum remilit, &c. 

Cofpatritiuscomes ftrenuus Cumberland invadit. Erat enimeotemporeCumberland fub Regis Malcolmi 
dominio, non jure pofTefla, fed violenter fiibjugata. 

Malcolmus, offenfus prsedatione Cofpatricii, juffit Scottis, ut null! gentis anglicae parcerent; unde in« 
credibili imroanitate multi a Scottis interfedi. 

Lel. Col. toI. 2. 355 
D 3 lancl^ 



■land, from this period, W'as any longer deemed a province of Scotland; but being re- 
aflumed by fViHimn, was granted to Ranulpb de Mefchines.X \ 

The events attending the contentions oi the two crowns were dreadful to this 
country: the inhabitants were continually harafled with warfare, the herds and 
flocks were fwept away, women and children carried into bondage, multi- 
tudes of men put to the fword, towns, monafteries, and churches facked, pil- 
laged and laid in alhes: fo that this diftrid:, which bore marks of the rcfentmeni: 
and violence of both parties, mufl: have worn the countenance of dcfolation and 
diflrcfs for many centuries. The confliAs were as favage and ferocious, and at- 
tended with as great barbarity, as appear in the annals of any country; they did 
not ufe thefcalping knife ^nA tomaba-dok, but they flained the foil with every degree 
of cruelty the age had devifed. As far as poffible to remedy this public evil, Ihe 
BORDER SERFICEcommcnccA; dilfinc't in its nature, and totally unconncded 
with other military fervice. Its rife was cotemporary with the divifion of C>/;;/- 
berland under Ranulpb de Me/chines. At the fixingoi beacons,^ or the alarm given 
by the born, the owner of every landed eftate, according to his rank, was obliged 
to arm and array: but as this inftitution, in its infant ftate, did not effcd the pur- 
pofes for which it was devifed, and until the reign of King Edzvard 1. was not 
brought into a regular conftitution, we will, in the intermediate time, take a view 
of the feveral incidents in which this county was concerned. 

In theyear 1091, Malcolm, of Scotland, diffatisfied with the acceflion of William 
RufustothecrownofEngland, in dcprivationof his brother Robert, tookadvantageof 
the timewhenadifcontent prevailed, entered the borders with his army, and ravaged 
the country, returning with great fpoil. Rufus foon after coming from Normandy, 
prepared with a vaft armament by fea and land, to make a formidable attack upon 
Scotland; but the feafon was too far advanced, the equinoctial winds prevailed, his 
fleet was great part of it wrecked, and his army fufl^ered aimoft an equal diftrefs by 
the inclemency of the weather: a peace was cffedled, and Malcolm did homage, to 
hold the poflcflions from the crown of England, which were granted to him in the 
time of William the father; viz. twelve towns in England, and an annual penfion 
of tzrelzT marks 0/ gold. Though the war produced no beneficial event in favour 
of this county, yet the prcfencc of the fovereign did; for King William Rufus was 
delighted with the fituation of Carli/le,- he faw it was placed under a clement iky, 
and happy climate, furrounded with a fertile country, and capable of receiving all 
the bounties of Providence, by the hands of Induftry. He ordered the city to be 

J " Rex Willms cognomine Baftardus Dux Normanivic conqucftor Anglie DedJt totam terram de 
" Com. Cumbrie Ranulpho de Mefchincs, et Galfrido fiatii ejufdcm Ran John Com. Ceftrie. Et Willma 
•" fratri eodem totam terram inter Duddcn et Derwent. 

*• Rar.ulphus de Mefchines Feoffavit Hubcrtam de Vaux. de Baroiiia de Gilfland, &c. 

Es Chronicis Cumbri in Rcgiftro de VVederhall irrotulat. fo. i6i. 

W. Milbourn's Coll. added to Denton's M. S. 

■\ Malcolm had a compenfation, by a grant of twelve towns in Enghind, and a yearly penfion of twelve 
anark* of gold. 

§ In Cumberland, the places appointed for beacons were, Blackcorab, Mulcafter Fell, St Bees Head^ 
Workington Hill, Moothay, Skijdaw, Sandale Top, Carlille Callle, Lingy Clofe Head, £eaconhiU, 
?€iuilb, Dale Raughton, Brampton Mote, and Sgade-Adam Tog. 



rebuilt, which had lain in afhes from the time of the DaniJJj incurfion, in 874;! he 
forcined the whole, and built a fortrefs for its fecurity; and therein placed a ftrong 
garrifon. In a fhort time afterwards, he removed the former garrifon, and fent 
troops thither, drawn from the fouthern counties, flvilful in agriculture; who intro- 
duced tillage : for, from the time that the Romans departed, the ploughfhare had 
not divided the foil ; and the inhabitants are defcribed to have become as totally 
ignorant of the cultivation of their lands, as if corn had never grown in the diflri(fl. 
Before this time, the fcanty provifion of bread for the people was brought by land ; 
for they had no navigation but by canoes and open boats, with which they feldom 
ventured to Inland or the Ijle of Man; and Scotland was an hoflile land. Their 
chief furtenancc, was the produce of their flocks and herds. J 

In the year 1135, David, King of Scotland, incenfed at Stephen's ufurpation, 
entered fuch parts of England as were ncareft to his place of rcfidence; and, at the 
head of a powerful army, compelled the inhabitants to fwear allegiance and fidelity 
to his neice, the Emprefs Maud ; and to give hollages. He took poilefllon of the 
chief places of flrength; and, among others, reduced therZ/y of Carlijle, and placed 
a Scotch garrifon there. In the year 1138, as David advanced fouthward, previ* 
ous to the battle of Allerlon, beft known by the name of the battle of the Jlandardf 
he was joined by the men ot Cumberland and Carlijle. 

In 1 154, King Henry II. demanded oi Malcolm IV. then King o^ Scotland, that 
he (hould make full rcflitution of the northern provinces, which King Stephen had 
imprudently given up : the young monarch not only acquiefced with the requefl, 
but bemg prefent with the King of England at Chejler, in the year 1 157, when he 
was making war againft i\\c Welch, received confirmation oi Huntingdonjhire, and 
did homage for the fame. 

Prince Henry having conceived a projedt to depofe his father. King Henry II. by 
promifing to rcfl:ore to the crown of Scotland the counties oi Northumberland Tund 
Cumberland, engaged William the Lion, King of Scotland, to aid him ; among other 
fruitlefs attempts, he befieged Carlijle, and was obliged to withdraw his troops 
with difgrace; but coming again before it, the city capitulated. 

In the year 1 194, King William ofScotland,onthe accefTion of King Richard L- 
claimed I'dlitution of the ancient honours of his crown, part of which was the 
province of Cumberland ; the death of the EngliOi monarch happening foon after, 
the matter remained undetermined: but the Scotch king, unwilling to relinquifh 
his claim, renewed it with King John, who evaded bringing the bufinefs to a con- 
clufion. The Scorch king, dying in the year 1214, left Alexander II. his fon and 
fucceflbr, a youth fifteen years of age. To him the northern Englilh barons had re- 
courfe for protciftion againfl: the tyranny of King John; and did homage at Fel- 
lon: the wrathful tyrant made an expedition to the north, with an army of merce- 
naries, among whom, it is faid, he retained many Jews to exercife tortures. He 

\ A. D. 1092, His aftis, rex in North umbriam proftflus, civitatem, quae Britannice Caileil, Latiiie 
Lugiibalia vocatur, reftauravit, fet in ea Caftellum ncdificavit. Htcc enim civitas, lit illis in part ibus alias 
nonnuliee, a Danis Paganis ante due. ntos annus diruta fuit, et ad id Tcmjjus manfit dcfcrta. 

Lel. Col. vol. 2. p. 356. 

<. . % Grants to Lanercoft, &c. fhew they milited Ihcep and goats. 



marked his progrefs from Tork northward, by burning and laying wafte the whole 
country, and fuch adls of inhumanity and bloodfhed, as never defiled the hands 
of a Carabbee or American chieftain. The Scots were irritated to follow the fanne 
favage example; they penetrated into England as far as Richmond in Yorkfliire : 
and returning home by ll^eftmorland and Cunibei land, deftroyed thofc mifcrable 
counties ; fo that, by the arms of thofc fpoilcrs, the ruinous marks of the mod 
favage warfare were extended between fea and fea, through the whole tradt of 
country from Toik to Haddingloii. The exafperatcd barons called upon L.onis of 
France to receive the crown of England ; but the timely death of King John put 
a flop to an accelTion, which the hands of defpair and rage were upon the eve of 
eftablifliing, to the utter ruin of Britifli liberties and rights. King Alexander, in 
this interval, took care to obtain a recognition of his right, from the barons of 
Louis's party; and that prince's confirmation o{ the province of Cumberland. 

In the year 1235, Alexander, the Scottifli King, made a peremptory demand of 
reftitution oi the county of Cumberland, See. from King Henry HI. and threatened 
hoflilitics, which, in the fituation of the young monarch, were to be avoided by all 
pollible means ; a conference was appointed to be held at Tork, at which Otho, the 
pope's legate, prefided ; when, in full fatisfacftion of all the claims of the King 
of Scots, King Henry agreed to adign lands of the yearly value of 200I. within 
the counties of /Northumberland and Cufnberland, if lands of that value could be 
found therein, without the limits of thofe towns where cajllesv,'erc erefted. Atex~ 
ander feems to have been induced to accept this compromife, in confideration of 
the pope's great influence ; who even claimed the kingdom of England from the 
interdicft ot John : the King of England's alliances, by marriage, were very power- 
ful; and the didident barons, in \\\\ovn Alexander \\^<\ placed fome confidence, 
grew cool on his fide; all which unpropitious circumflances influenced the King 
of Scotland's refolutions. It was not till the year 1:242, that Nicholas de Farneham, 
Biffjop of Durham, was appointed, by royal commifllon, to afTign the lands ; when 
Penrith and Sowerby were allotted : from whence it appears that the cajile of Penrith ^ 
now in ruins, is of a later date than that tranfaftion ; and that Maylrough, in that 
neighbourhood, was never confidered as an ancient fortrefs. 

The firft regular order in the fervice of the Borders, and the laws inflituted for 
that purpofe, appear to be fubfequent to Alexander's refignation ; and in the reign 
of King Edward I. Robert de Clifford was the fir ft who bore the title of Lord IFar- 
dcn of the Marches, to which he was called in the twenty-third year of his age, 
A. D. 1296, The authority of the Lord IVarden was of a mixt nature, military 
and civil*. 


• A BRiEr declaration of the fpsc'tal heads, orders, and forms of the ItttxH of Marches of ancient time ufei 
upon the Borders, by the lords •wardens of England and Scotland at their tyieetings and days oftreiues ; 
conipofed by Richard Bell , clerk of the Wejl Marches o/"England. 

In the time of wars denounced by the princes of both realms, the lords wardens are to ufe both by 
policy, fire, and fword, or martial forces of their o£Rce, for to make invafion, and take hoftile revenge upon 
and againft the inhabitants of either of the other's Marche, reciprocally, as time and occafion may beft 
afibrdi for the exploits of fervice, tending to the honour of their realms, and harm of their enemies : 



In his military capacity, he was a generalifTimo to prefide and give command ; 
to place and appoint watchmen ; to fire beacons, and give alarm on the approach 
of an enemy : and for the fafcty and defence of the city and cajlle of CarliJJe, fo 



In time of peace, by fending over their clerks, interchanging of bills containing the offences feverallr 
attempted, appointing and keeping of days of trcves, fouling of bills, and making of delivery, with all 
other good offices, for to entertain the peacable amity betwixt the realms to the defence and comfort of 
all true fubjefts, the daunting of the infolent and difobedient under their rules, agreeable to the good con- 
cordance of the princes treaties of peace, and to the ufe and cullom of the borders, bills of faults are in- 
terchanged, days of trewcs agreed on, bills fouled and delivered of principal offenders made, without refpeii 
of perfon or furname. 

Days of Marche fo appointed, proclamation is to be made, and ftraite letters of commandments diredled 
in the queen's majelly's name, for all lords, knights, efquircs, gentlemen, and feveral officers, with con- 
venient numbers of their charge and tenants (as time and fcrvice require) for to repair the night before, 
and give their attendance upon the lord warden unto the faid day of Marche, defencibly arrayed, witU 
their bcft horfes and nags, the morrow next following. 
Which done. 

The lord warden, attended with the gentlemen, officers, fervants, and their powers, is to ride from the 
place where he inhabiteth, unto the Marche bank, all flaying there without riding any further, or going 
over the ftream, if there be water, or bounds if it be dry land : 

The lord waiden of England fii-fl of all (the oppofite warden known to be come to the place appoint- 
ed) doth fend either his deputy, or fome other fpecial gentleman of good worth whom it pleafeth him for 
to make choice of, with a convenient number of the befl horfed and mofl fufBcient gentlemen of his com- 
pany, unto the warden of Scotland, fignifying his repair thither, and craving affurance during their meet- 
ing until the funrifing (if the next day following. 

Which affurance being required by England and granted by Scotland ; the Scotch warden holding up 
his hand, engages for pei forming thereof in all refpedls. 

Then the deputy and other gentlemen of England, returning back to the lord warden of England, arc 
to make relation of the affurance granted, and confent for the prcfervation of the amity. 
Foithwith after. 

The lord warden of Scotland fendeth his deputy, or fome other fpecial gentleman, accompanied with 
others of t)ie befl fort of horfemen, unto the lord warden of England, Ihewing that the lord waiden of 
Scotland yieldcth to allow and confirm the affurance demanded for England, craving the like for Scotland: 
which the warden of England, holding up his hand, grantetb. 
This done. 

The deputy of Scotland and his company return back to the warden of Scotland, declaring the grant* 
ing of the affurance by England. 

The lord warden of England, before he or any of his company enter Into Scotland, caufeth proclama- 
tion to be made for obfervation of the peace, for old feuds and new, word, deed, and countenance, from 
the time of the proclaiming thereof, until the next day at the funriling, upon pain of death. 

The like proclamation, after their return furtli of England, by the Scotch warden made before meeting.- 

The lord warden of England with his company cijttrcth into Scotland, riding to the place where the 
lord warden of Scotland is, and lighting off horfeback flands llill, until the Scotch warden comes to him 
then and there, in all friendly and orderly manner, mutually embracing the one the other". 

After meeting and conference had between the lords wardens, they draw themfelves remote to fome 
quiet place, interchangeably calling the rolls and bills of both fides, in the prtfence of the gentlemen of 
the befl forts of both the countries. 

If any doubt arife touching the fouling of the faid bills, then the fame is to be tried either by the lord 
warden's honour-, or a jury of fix gentlemen of England and fix of Scotland, or by a vovver publiquc.-l- 

f A perfon agreed upon by both parties, who was to be of the tountry of the party accufed, 



cf^ten as any danger of allege appeared, to.mufter all fenfible men, between- the 
ages of fixteen and fixty, within the marches ; and all men at arms, billmen and 
archers, according to their degree, who were to rcfort to him properly armed ; to 
be maifli l!ed in thoufands, hundreds, and twenties ; and fo arrayed to defend and 
keep the fame. He had authority to agree to ccfTations of arms, and conclude 
treaties of peace ; to appoint deputies and warden ferjeants and other otTicers. 

In his civil capacity, he was to take cognizance of all breaches of the border laws, 
imprifonmcnts, robberies, and fpoils ; to hold warden's courts and feffions, therein 
to hear all matters between the people of both kingdoms ; and by the laws ella- 
bliflied, to redrefs all grievances; to arreft and imprifon all perfons difcovei"ed 
to be in league with the enemies of the crown of England. 

The border laws obliged the lord warden yearly to produce his commiflion, and 
take the oath of office, at the Midfummer Affembly of the people of both nations,. 
•^A council was to attend the lord warden, chofen of difcrete borderers. The 
offences chiefly to be enquired of, were murder, wounding, and maiming, burning 
of houfes, corn, &c. rapme and theft, deadly feud, a threatening of life in revenge; 
cutting and taking away timber trees ; fowing corn, and depafturing cattle beyond 
the effablifhed limits, hunting out of proper boundaries, &:c. A thief might be 
purfued into the oppofite realm within fix days, and the chace carried on, as the 
term is, in hot /rod, with hound, and horn, with hue-and-cry : in which putfuits, 
receivers and refcuers of the fugitive were equally punifhable with the principal: 
Loiterers not having vifible occupations, were not permuted. Letters of fife con- 
dudf were granted to perfons, whofe neceflary buiimfs required them to travel into 
the oppofite realm. Days of public juftice were ftipulated for redrefs of griev- 
ances, and to put in execution the laws of the borders ; in which perjury had a 
penalty. If any one attempted to make retaliation, he loff his remedy at law. A 
perfon thrice found guilty of an offence, was to fuffer death.* 


The oath for the jurors is, 
Toujl:) all dean no hills luorthy to he foiiL-d, you Jh all foul no hills •worthy to he cleaned, hut Jhall do that 
mihich afpeareth •with truth, for the maintenance of the Peace, and fupprefing of attempts : So help you- God, 

The ancient oath for excufing bills : 
Youfhall fnuear hy heaven above you, h^ll beneath you, hy your part of Paradife, by all that God made in 
J!i days and feven nights, and by God hitnfdf, you are 'whart out facklefs of art, part, nvay, 'witting, ridJ, 
kenning, having, or reciting ef any of the goods and cattels named in thii bill : So help you God. 

The oath of fwearing of bills fouled : 
Tou fhall lieL' price make, and truth fay, luhat your goods nuere 'u.'orth at the trine of their taking to have 
been bought and fold in a market taken ali at one time, and that you kmiu no other recovery but this : So 
help you God. 

The names of the noblemen and gentlemen of Scotland, prifoners, to he fent unto the king's majc/ly from Sir 
Thomas Wharton, knight, 'with the names of their takers, as follo'weth : 

The Earl of Caflill. Batill Routlcdge his taker : John Mufgrave claimeth. 

a part for the loan of his horfe to the faid Routledge. 
In plea The Earl of Glencame, otherwife called the WiUye Grame called Wat ;> Willye, Willyc 
amongft Lord of GilmawTea. Gtame of the Balic, Sir Thomas Whaxton^. 

ttera, and Thonws Dacre. 



Notwithftanding thofe regulations, the devaftations made by the Scots, were the 
moft dreadful in the time of King Henry II. In the year 1312, Robert Brus 
entered Cumberland by Solway Fj-ilb, ravaging Giljland in his route to Norihumber~ 
land, where he raifed contributions to the amount of 2000I. and on his making a 


In plea T The lord Fleming, one of the king of Scots George Pott and Stephen James clairaeth t© 
between J- privy council. be the taker. 

them. 3 

In pica T The lord Maxwell, admiral of Scotland, Edward Aglionby, or George Fofter hit 
between > warden of the Weft Marches of the fame, taker. 
them. J and one of the king of Scots privy council. 

The lord Somcrville. Richard Brifco his taker. 

In plea ) The lord^ Ohvant. Thomas Denton, or James Alenfon, his 

between C his taker, 

them. 3 

The lord Graye. Thomas Whyte, Willie Storye, and George 

Storye his taker. 

Oliver Synkeler, one of the king of Scots Willie Bell his taker, 
privy council. 

A L'tjl of ths GsntUvun of the County, called out hy 5;> Thomas Wharton, upon Servki of the Bvrdcrt, 


Sir William Mufgrave, 60 horfe and 40 foot (befides Bcwcaftle.) 
Sir Thomas Ctirnxen, horfe at his pleafure. 
Sir yohn Loiuther, ico horfe and 40 foot. 
William Peitnington, all his tried horfemen. 
John Laniplough, for his father, I o horfe. 
John Leigh, (befides Burgh horfe and foot) 10 horfe. 
John Thiuaitei, houfehold fervants. 
John Skeltori, of Branthwaite, 4 horfe, 
Thomas Dykes, 4 horfe. 
Richard Egteifield, 6 horfe. 
/lle-xander de; jlppleby, 2 horfe. 
Mr. Lattis, for the lord of Milium, 60 horfe. 
William Porter, 2 horfe. 
Thomas Salkeld, of the Whitehall, 4 horfe. 
Anthony Barivis, 2 horfe. 
John Senhoiife, 4 horfe. 
William Afmothcrly, 2 horfe. 
John S'viinhurne, houfehold fervants. 
Anthony Highmore, 2 horfe. 
Robert Ellis, 2 horfe. 
Robert Lamplough, houfehold fervants. 

William Sands and Ed-'^ard Berdtfey, for the lord of St. Bees, I o horfe. 
Robert Brifco, horfe and foot. 
Ciithbert Mutton, 6 horfe and 10 foot. 
Ednuard Aglionby, horfe and foot. 
Thomas Dacre, of Grayftock, horfe and foot. 
William Skelton, 6 horfe. 

Themas Dal/ion, (befides Caillflej 10 hoife and 20 foot. 
VOL. I. E 7lionta.t. 



fecond inroad, about the month of Augiift, he levied the fame fum on Cumberland ; 
coming to Laiiercoft, he pillaged that religious houfe, and ruined the tenants of the 
monaftic poll'eflions, by his cxadions and rapine. In the year 1315, after the 
difgraceful defeat of the Englilh army at Bannock-bum, a band of Scotch marauders 


Thomas Blenerhajet for Gilfland, horfc and foot. 

Chrijiopher Thrdkdd, 4 horfe and 6 foot.. 

^ohn Miifgravc, for Bevvcaflle, horfe and foot. 

'iVill. Picherhig, for Barton, Martindalc, Paterdale, and his own tenants, 20 horfe and zoioot, 

WiUiuin J'aux, 4 horfe and 6 ioot. 

Richard BUncoiu, 6 horfe. 

Richard Hutton, 4 horfe. 

Richard IFarivick, horfe and foot. 

Lancelot Lorxither, for Derwcnt water, all Iioifemen. 

Tenants of the Biftiop and College, all horfemcn. 

The lordfhip of Holme, all tried horfe. 

N. and B. Hist. CuMSi 

In Haines's State Papers, p. 5i> &c. we have the following account of the glorious achicvments- 
performed under thefe armaments. — •543- 

Towns, towers, ftedes, barnekins, } parilh churches, baftel houfes || burned or caft down tg'S 

Scots flain — — — — — — — — — — 403 

Prifoners taken — — — — — ■— — — — — 816 

Nolt {/. e. horned cattle) — — — — — — — — lo.^Sff 

Sheep, — — — — — — — — — — — 12,492 

Nags and geldings — — — — — — — — — 1 296 

Goats — — — — — — — — — — — 200 

Bolls of corn — — — — — — — — — — 890 

Infight (/. e. houfehold furniture) not reckoned. 

In 1545, under the Earl of Hertford. 
Monallerles or friar houfes, burnt or deftroycd — — __ _ _ __ tj 

Caftles, towers, or piles — — — — — — — — — 16 

Market towns — — — — — — — — — — 5 

Villages — — — — — — — — — — — 243 

Milns — — — — — — — — — — — 15 

Hofpitals — — — — — — — — — — — 3 

Extras from the Report of Sir Thomas Carlton, of Carlton-Hall, 1547. 

i " We mad<" a road into Tlviotdale, and got a great booty of goods, and that night we lay in the old 

I walls of Wawcop tower, and builded to-falls ; went to Dumfries and lay there, who hilimitted themfelves 

[ to become the king's fubjefts. But the town of Kirkobree rcfufcd, infomuch, that the lord Wharton 

'• moved nic, if it were poffibie, with fafety, to give the fame town a praiffe to burn it. And fo we rode 

I thither one night, and coming a little after funrifing, they who faw us coming barred their gates, and kept 

their dikes ; for the town is diked on both fides, with a gate to the water-ward, and a gate in the over-end 

to the lell-ward. There we lighted on foot, and gave the town a (harp onfet and affault, and flew one 

honell man in the town with an airow ; infomuch, lliat one wife came to the ditch, and called for one, that 

would take het hulband and Give his life. Anthon' Arnillrong being ready, fald, fetch him to me, and 

I'll warrant his life. The woman ran into the town, and fetched her hufband, and brought him through 

the dike to the faid Anthon', who brouglit him into England, and ranfomed him. We gave Bombey 

the oiifct, and io we returned, feized about ?ooo fliccp, 200 kye and oxen, and 40 or 50 horfes, and 

brought the fame towards Dumfiies. The country beyond the water of Dee gathered, and came to a 

5 The outwarj warJ of a caftlc, within which, were the barn?, ftables, and CJW-houfcs, 
11 MoJ'-'fl'r'" or hofjiitals. 



led by Ydzvard Briis and Si7- Javies Douglas, having entered England by Rcedefdale^ 
returned through Giljlaiid, where they made the inhabitants take the oath of" alle- 
giance to Robert Brus ,- and exa(!l:ing contributions, the county of Cumberland paid 
600 marks. It is faid by fome authors, that the Scotch leaders took up their 


place called the Forehead Ford. So we left all our flieep, and put our word horfcmen before the nowte 
and nags, and fent 30 of the befl horfed to preeke at the Scots, if the)' would come over the water, and 
I to abide with the ftandard in their relief: which the Scots perceiving, came not over. So that wc 
paffed quietly that night to Dumfries, leaving the goods in fafety with men and good watch. In the 
morning we repaired to the goods, a mile beyond Dumfries, of intent to have divided and dealt the booty ; 
and fome claimed this cow, and fome that nag, to be under affurance, and ran through the goods. Above 
all, one man of the laird of Empsfield came amongll the goods, and would needs take a cow, faying, he 
would be ftopped by no man, infomnch, that one Thomas Taylor, called Tom with tlie bow, being one 
of the garrifon, and being charged with keeping the goods, ftruck the faid Scotfnan on the head with his 
bow, fo that the blood ran down over his flioiJders. Going to his mafter there, and crying out, hio maftei- 
went with him to the ma'ier Maxwell. The mafter Maxwell came, with a great rout after Iiim, and 
brought the man with the bloody head to me, " Is this, think ye, wele ; both to tak our goods, and thus 
10 (bed our blood :" I confiderirg the mafter at that prefent two for one, thought beft to ufc him aui 
the reft of the Scots with good words, and gentle and fair fpeeches, for they were determined, even there, 
to have given us an onfet, and to have taken the goods from us, and to have made that their quarrel. 

I thought it good to pratlife fome way we migiit get Fome hold or caftle, where we might lie near the 
enemy, and to lie within our own ftrengtii in the night, where we might lie down together, and rife 
together. Thus practifing, one Sander Armftrong, fon of ill Will Atmftrong, came to me, and told me, 
he had a man called John Lynton, who was born at the head of Annerdale. near to the Loughwood, 
being the laird of Johnfon's chief houfe, nnd the faid laird and liis brother (being the abbot ot Salfide) 
were taken prifoners not long before, and were remaining in England. It v,^as a fair large tower, able to 
lodge our company fafely, w ith a barnckin, hall, kitchen, and ftables, all within the barnekin, and was 
but kept with two or thiee fellows, and as many wenches. He thought it might be flolen in the morn- 
ing at the opening of the tower door, which I required the faid Sandee to praftife. At lail it was agreed 
tliat we fliould go with the whole garrifon. We came there about an hour before day ; and the greater 
part of us lay clofe without the barnekin : but about a dozen of the men got over the barnekin wall, and 
Itolc -clofe into the houfe within the barnekin, and took the wenches and kept them fecure till day light. 
And at funrifing, two men and a woman bemg in the tower, one of the men rifing in his ftiirt, and going 
to the tower head, and feting nothing ftir about, he called on the wench that lay in the tower, and bade 
her rife and open the tower door, and call up them that lay beneath. She fo doing, and opening the 
iron door, and a wood door without it, our men within the barnekin brake a little too foon to the door; 
for the vvcnch perceiving them, leaped bnck into the tower, and had gotten almoft the wooden door to ; 
but one got hold of it, fo that (lie could not get it c'ofe to ; fo the fldrmifh rofe, and we over the barnekin, 
and broke open the wood door, and ftie being troubled with the wood door, left the iron door open, and 
fo we entered and wan the Loughwood ; where we foimd, truely, the houfe well purveyed for btef falted, 
malt, big, havermeal, butter, and cheefe." 

This extradl fhcws the manner of thofe marauding parties, which conftantly diftreffed the borders. An 
iuftance or two from Sir Robert Carj-'s memoirs, will ftiew the deadly ffuds, and favage manners of the 

" I wrote to Sir Robert Ker, my oppofite warden ; after he had filled my man with drink, and put 
him to bed, he and fome half a fcore with him got to horfe, and came into England, to a little village ; 
there he broke up a houfe, and took out a poor fellow, who (he pretended) had done him fome wrong, 
and before the door cruelly murdered him, and fo came quietly home and went to bed. The next morn- 
jng he deliverd my man a letter in anfwer to mine, and returned him to me. It plcafed me well at the 
reading of this kind letter, but when I heard what a bravo he had put upon me, I quickly refolved never to 
have to do with him, till I was righted for the great wrong he liad done me. 

There was a favourite of Si( Robert's, a great thief, called Geordic Bourne. This gallant, with fome 
of his aflociates, would in bravery, come and take goods in the Plaft Marche. I had that night fome of 

E 2 the 


refidence at Rofe Cajlle, from whence the troops were fent out in parties to levy 
the funi demanded, and on refufal to burn and dcftroy. 

Although the plague raged dreadfully, both in England and Scotland, tvi'o years 
vere fcarce elapfed from the lalt incurlion, before the Scots made another inroad, 
under the command of Lord Dong/as, and penetrated as far as Richmond, in York- 
Ihire, and Furnefs in Lancafliire, marking their palTage with defolation and ruin : 
and in the 13th year of the fame reign, they made another incurlion and wafted 
the whole country, from Giljland to Burgh under Stainmoie. 

In the year 1322, Andrew de Harcla, governor of Carlijicy was invefted with 
military command over the northern counties, to fupprefs the infurredlions : but 
it was foon difcovered, that this confidence was improperly placed in one who 
was confederate with the Scots : of which being convicled, he was degraded, and 


the garr!foa abroad. They met with this Geordie and his fellows driving the cattle before them The 
ganilon fct upon them, and with a (hot killed Geordie Bourn's uncle; and he himfclf bravely leiifting, 
till he was fore hurt in the head, was taken. After he was taken, his pride was fuch, as he a/lted, who 
it was that duril avow that night's work I but when he lieard it was the garrifon, he was then more quiet. 
I called a jury the next morning, and he was found guilty of marche-treafon. When all things were quiet, 
and the watch fct at night, after fupper, about ten o'clock, I took one of my men s liveiies, and put it. 
about me, and took two other of my fervants with me in their liveiies, and we three, as the warden's men, 
came to the provoft Marfhal's, where Bourne was, and were let into his chamber. We fat down by him, 
end told him, that we were defirous to fee him, bccaufe we heard he was (lout and valiant, and true to his 
friend ; and that we were lorry our mailer could not be moved to fave liis lite. He voluntarily of himfelt 
faid, that he had lived long enough to do fo much as he had done, and withal told us. that he had lain 
witli above forty men's wives, what in England, what in Scotland ■ and that he had killed feven Engliflr- 
men with his own hands : that he had fpent his whole time in wlioring, drinking, dealing, Fnd taking deep' 
revenge for flight offences. After I heard his own confcflion, I was rclolved no conditions fhould fave his 
life ; and fo took order, that at the gates opening the next morning, he Jhould be carried to execution, 
which accordingly wss performed. 

Among other malefaftors, there were two gentlemen thieves, that robbed and took purfcs from travel-, 
lers in the liighways (a theft that was never heard of in thofe parts before) I got them betrayed, took 
ihem, and fent them to Newcaftle goal, and there they were hanged. 

There had been an ancient cuftom of the borders, when they were at quiet, for the oppofite border to 
fend the warden of the Middle Marche, to defirc leave that they might come into the borders of England, 
and hunt with their greyhounds for deer, towards the end of fnmmer, which was denied them. Towards 
the end of Sir John Foifter's government, they would, without afting leave come into England and 
hunt at their plc;ifure, and ilay their own time. 1 wrote to Farnehui ft, the warden over againll me, that 
I was no way willing to hinder them of their accuftomed fports ; and that if, according to the ancient 
euftoni, they would fend to me for leave, they Urould have all the contei;tment I could give them ; if other- 
wife, they would continue t'neir wcnted courfe, I would do my bell to hinder them. V/ithin a month 
after, they came and hunted as they ufed to do, without leave, and cut down wood, and carried it away. . 
Towards the end of fummcr, they came again to their wonted fports. I fent my two deputies with all 
the fpeed they could make, and they took along with them fuch gentlemen as were in their way, with my 
forty horfe, and about one o'clock they came up to them, and fet upon them. Some hurt was done, but 
I gave efpecial order, they !hould do as little hurt, and (hed as httie blood as poffible they could. They 
took a dozen of the principal gentlemen that wcic there, and brought them to me to Wilherington, where 
1 then by, I made them welcome, and gave them the bcft entertainment I could ; they lay in the 
caftle two or three days, and fo 1 fent them immw, they alFuring me that they would never himt again wth« 
out leave. The Scots king complained to Queen Elizabeth very grievoully of this faft." 

«' Mr. Addifon, in liis celebrated criticifm en that ancient balLid of Chevy Chace, Speft. No. 20. mif- 
" takes the ground of the ijuarrel. It was not any particular animofity or deadly feud between the 

" two 



decollated at Co.rlijle. Robert Briis had taken advantage of the delay in the intended 
armament, and heading a choice band himfclf, entered England near Cnrlijlcy de- 
ftroyed the abl/ey of Holm Cullram, and proceeded into Lanca/hire, M'here, being 
joined by a body of forces under the Eorl of Murray, who had advanced through 
the interior parts of the country, they returned with an immenfe booty. Yet not 


•* two principal aftors, but was a contcft of privilege and jurifdi£lioii between them, refpefting their ofiicesj 
"as lords wardens of tlie marclies aliigned." They are fet out in N. and B. Hill. Cumb. p. 84, Sec. ■ 
We will, in the next place, fet out a muller in 1584. 

Able men muftered : 
Ught horfemen nmongfl: the gentlemen and their houfchold fervants, furninicdl 
according to the ufe of the Borders — — — . — . — j 

Light horfmen furnldied ; 

Burgh Barony — — ^ -j^, _. — 100 

Gilfland — — — — . — " .i.' sll'"" '«. 60 

Holm Cultram — — — __ __ .^ .^ >o 

Leven, Kirklinton, Solport — — — — — — 30 - 

Saike debateable ground — — — — — — 18 

E(ke — — — — — __„ __ __ioo 

Queen's Hames — — — — — — — 40 

Foreft of Englcwood — — — — — — __ jO 

The office of Bewcaftle — — — — — — cq 

Archers furnifhed — — .^ — _ _ _ iioo 

Billmen furnifhed — — — —,-__-_ 1200 

Ablemen unfurnilhed — — — ■ __ _ «_ _ 1340 


Another mufter : 
AUerdale above and beneath Derwtnt — -«.___ 5405') 
Leeth Ward — — — — — — — 1590 [-9153 Total. 

Cumberland Ward — — — — — — 2Ij8j 

This appears to be a general mufter of all between the ages of fixteen and fixty. 

The trewcs was the iufticiar)' meeting before the lords wardens, to hear all complaints, and adminiitef 
juftice. The following proceedings were had at a meeting of this kind, in the year 1587. 

Weft Marches again/} Liddefdale. ■ 

June 1581. 
Sir Simon Mufgrave, knight, with f Robin EUint of the Park, Sim. T 60 kle and oxen, a horfe, and the 
Thorn of the ToddhiU and his < Elliot, Clemie Crofer, Gawen's > taking of Thome Rootledgc, pri- 
neighbours, complain upon l.J'^'^^> 3"^^ ^^z\x accomphces, for J foner. 

July 1581. 
rWlU. Elliot of the Redheugh,"! 
James Foftcr of Symwhaite com- J Adam of the Shawcs, Archie of (50 kine and oxen, and all his in« 
plains upon "j the Hill, and John Elliot of flight.* 

(,Hcugh-houfc ; for J 

* Viz. houfcltglJ goods^ 



content with the devaftations they had made, they lay encamped near Carlijle five 
days, whilft parties went out into the adjacent country, burnt Rofe Cajtle, and 
deftroycd ail the ttanding corn within their circuit. 

In 1323, a truce was concluded, and Ralph de Dacre, John de Havering, and 
Adam de Skelton, were appointed confcrvators on the Cumberland fide. One of 
the articles ftipulatcd was, that no fortrelFes were thereafter to be ereded, or others 
repaired, except thofe already Handing, or fuch as were ereding. 


June 1582. 

f 1 140 kie and oxen, 100 fiieep, 20 

Matthew Taylor, and the poor j Old laird of Whithaugh, young gaite, and all their infight, 200I. 

widow of Martin Taylor, com- \ laird ol Whithaugh, Sim's Thorn, ^ flerling : and the flaughtcr of 

plain upon j and Jock of Copefhawe ; for j Martin Taylor, John Dodfhon, 

L J John Skelloe & Mat. Blackburiie. 

15 Oftober 1582. 
Thomas Mufgrave, deputy of ("Walter Scott, laird of Buckluth,") 200 kine and oxen, 300 gaite and 
Bewcaftle, and the tenants agalnft (^ and his complices; for J (heep. 

fThe laird of Mangerton, laird's T burning of his bams, wheat, rye, 
Sir Simon Mufgrave, knight, ) Jq^-Jj^ gim's Thorn, and their J- oats, bigg, and peas; worth 
complains upon (.complices ; for J loo&l. fterhng. 

St. Andremas 1582. 

r Robin Elliot, Will, his brother.! g^ kie and oxen, 100 (heep, aU 
Andrew Taylor complains upon -j George Simpfon, and tlicir com- J- j^jg inflgjit^ and money 60L 

(.plices ; for J 

July 1586. 
war- ("The laird's Jock, Dick of Dry-] 400 kine and oxen, taken in open 
upon |upp, and their complices ; for \ f°""|'« f"^"™ ^^^ ^'^^'^^ '" ^^^^'- 

July 1586. 

Thomas Mufgrave, deputy 
den of Bewcailk, complains 

September 1587. 
Andrew Rootledge of the Nuke, ("Laird's Jock, Dick of Dryupp.T 50 kine and oxen, burning his 
complains upon -i Lancie of WhifgiU and their J- houle, corn, and infight, lool. 

(.complices ; for J fterling. 

November 1587. 
Clemic Taylor complains upon | Archie Elliot, Gibbie Elliot and j 50 kine and oxen, all his infight, 

(their complices; for J 100 merks llcrling. 

Martinmas 1587. 
The poor widow and inhabitants f" Laird of Mangerton, laird of T the murder of John Tweddel, 
of the town of Temmon, com- < Whithaugh, and their complices ; > Willie Tweddel, and Davie Bell ; 
pkin upon (.for J the taking and carrying away of 

John ThirKvay, Philip Thirlway, 
Edward Thirlway, John Bell of Clowfegill, David Bell, Philip Tweddel, Rowley Con-ock, Thomas 
Allifon, George Lyvock, and Archie Armftrong, ranfoming them as prifoners ; and the taking of 
100 kine and oxen, fpoil of houfes, ^yritings, money, and infight, 4C0I. fterling. 

John Forfter 
John Sclbie 
Richard Lowther 



Alexander Hume of Hutton Hall 

Mr. George Yonge. 



In the firft year of the reign of King Edward III. the Scots under the command 
of the earl of Murray and lord Douglas entered England near Carlijle : the tioops 
confifled of twenty four thoufand horfe; they penetrated through Cumberland into 
the mountainous parts of Northumberland and Durham ; and though king Edward 
had advanced with an army of 100,000 men, they avoided coming to battle, and 
made a fafe retreat, returning with confiderable booty. 

In the year 133 J, lord ylrcbtdald Douglas with 3000 chofcn men entered CUjlandy 
and laid warte the eflateof /or^ Dacre, for thirty miles in extent: a retaliation was 
made by Sir Anlbony Lucy, in which it appears, that the Englilh were not inferior 
to their neighbours in barbarity and rapine. 

In the lyth year of King Edward III. the Scots made an incurfion by Carltjh^ 
which place they laid in alhes; then advancing to Penrith, they facked and burnt 
that town; and returning through Gi'jland, carried olf much cattle. In the fuc- 
cccding year King David Brus headed the deftrudive bands, wafted Cumberland 
as far as DerzveHt fells ; and on his return made his route by Aldjlone Moore. En- 
couraged by this fucccfs, the Scotch monarch the next year, advanced to the city 
&f Durham, where at the battle of Nevil's Oofs, he was made prifoner, and his 
powerful army totally routed. In 

"J he Brevhte of Liddefdale agaiitjl the Weji Marches, is of the fame "Tenor, arid confifs of the Crimes of the 
like Nature, as nxiere alfo the counter Complaints of the Marches at large. The follo'wing general Eft'- 
mate ixiillfiiffice here. 

Eftimate of the Bills fouled; 
Weft of England againft 

Liddefdale — — — SZio/O 

Liddefdale againft j-477o/. in furplus- 

Weftmarchcs of England — __ __ 8000/. J 

Wcftmarchcs of England 

Weftmarches of 8cotland — — — • — ^470/. " 

Wcftmarches of Scotland '> , . . , 

againft f 2713c/ in furplus. 

Wcftmarches of England — — — — 33600/. J 

Sum total for England gjocl. 
for Scotland 41600/. 

Sum total to the furpl us whatT To Liddefdale — — __ _ 477c/. "J 

England hath to anfwer to Scot- > > 31,900 

land, viz- J To Weftmarches — — — — 27130/. J 

A. D. 1606. The king's proclamation touching the tranfportatlon of certain criminals, fets forth, 
" That the offenders are all in our mercy, and do all confefe thcmfclves to be no meet perfons to live in 
•' ihofc coiuurics, and therefore have hiunbly bcfoiight us, that tliey might be removed to fome other 
" parts, where, with our gracious tavour, they hope to live, to become new men, and to defcrve our 
" mercy: a thing more agreeable to our nature, than the taking of fo much human blood, as v\'ould be 
" filed if we fliould leave them to the juft ccnfure of the law," &.c. 

In 1606, a tax was aftefrcd on Cumberland and Weftmorland for thia tranlportatloa, amounting tc* 
408/. I gs. gd. They were (liipped at Workington lor Ireland. 



In the 6th year of the reign of King Richard II. the Scots paired through the 
forefl: o\' Englewood, and entered Penrith at the time of the fair, where they caiifed 
much bloodfhed and pillaged the town. With the merchandife, it is fuppofed 
they carried the peftilence into their own country, by which one third of the people 
died. The Englifh to retaliate, made their paffage over Solway Frith, and took 
great booty, but in return, fell into a defile, where 400 were (lain, and many in 
their precipitate flight were drowned. 

In the I ith year of King Richard II. the Scots pafled over the Frith, furprifed 
Cockermoutb : and with their plunder, returned through the heart of the country. 

In the reign of King Henry VI. inroads were frequent, and attended with in- 
crcafed barbarity, and want of mercy ; the produce of the land, the flocks and herds 
were fwept away; the women and children were made captives, and carried into 
the fevercft and mori: abjedt flavery : fo much did the calamaties of war prevail, 
that this country was then almoft totally dcfolated and deftroycd. Hiftory doth 
not record bafer adls of hottility committed by the Scotch, than thofe of which the 
Englifii were guilty ; it was our purpofe, in this review, only to relate the fuccef- 
five diftrefTes, to which the diftrid: where our attention is placed, was fuhjeft : the 
Scotch borders often fmoakcd in ruins ; their towns were facked, their lands were 
overrun, the inhabitants brought into bondage, and the hoflilefword drenched the 
Vallies in blood : fuch were the reciprocal miferies of the border zvar. The detail is 
dreadful; but in the hiftorian it is a necelfary though painful talk, to enumerate 
the circumftances ; as they lead the mind of the reader at once to determine, how 
miferablemufthavebeentheeftateof this land under the contentions of two ferocious 
nations, wafting their ftrength in inteftine broils ; whofe nature and fpirit, from the 
climate, are adapted to warfare and military achievements ; and in the next place, 
he is led tothehigheft exultation, in the retrofpccftionof thofe bleflings which have 
flowed from the union, and that glory which the Britilh arms have every where ac- 
quired, fuperior to any ftate in Europe, fmce the kingdoms were united. It is not 
vain boafting, to fay, the Britifti navy and troops, are not to be equalled in the 
circuit of the globe. 

It isconfcfTed, the tribulation of the borders did not ccafe, with the reign of King 
Henry VI. yet the incurfions were Icfs frequent within this diftridt ; the dreadful 
•delineation is fufliciently protrac'ted, from which we would now wilh to withdraw 
the reader's thoughts. 

We have not been able tocolIeA any certain evidence, at what period navigation 
was advanced in Cumberland;;}^ it is, prefumed, that the ports were little frequented, 

\ A luivcy was taken by commlfiion from the crown, in the year 1566, of the trade and ftiippi'ng of 
•this county, ( inter aU.i ) /f7>/.V(f(7yf« was then fo far fiora promifingit would ever arriveat its prefent wealthy 
and flouriihing ftate, that it oonfiftcJ only ofy/v collages fcattcred on the bench, and hidden in the creek 
frotn the eye of an enemy; and to thisdeje&ed pore one fmall bark, only belonged, of nine or ten tnns 
burthen. Nay, it is not more incredible than true, that there was, at that time, only one veffel apper- 
taining to the whole county that was of ten tuns burthen. The mariners were fifhermen, whofe hazard- 
ous employ got them a hard fubfiftence. The whole exports of this extenfive county were nothing but a 
fmall quantity oi l^frrbigs an.{ codfijl}, and the inhabitants knew, even at that sera, fo httle of the luxuries 
and enjoyments of life, that the whole of this great coaft received no other imparts than a little fait. 



till after the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and remained almofl: infignificanc till the 
acccHion of King James I.* t^P'orkijiglon was the chief haven, and the place of the 
exportation of certain criminals fentenced to banilhmcnt in ito-j, but in that fer- 
vice very few velTcls were employed. The rife of H^'bitehaven within a century, 
under the aufpices of ibe Loivther Jamily, w here, at prefent, upwards of an hundred 
veflels of confiderabie burthen are conrtantly employed, belonging to that port 
only : — but as fuch matters will be efpccially treated of, as we proceed in the hif- 
tory of each place, this fupcrficial notice nnirt fufHce here. 

The local wealth of this county confifts principally in its mines, of which the 
chief are of coal: copper, lead, black-lead, and flates, are alfo won here, and 
Camden fays, veins of gold and filvcr were difcovercd in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; but fince that time they have not been fearched for. The falmon 
trade hath, of late years, become coniiderable, and much is fenr frefli to the London 
market; but little or none pickled or cured, A coniiderable number of black 
cattle and llieep f are bred within this diftrid:, but not of fo large a fize as thofe 
in Northumberland : large quantities of bacon and butter have, of late years, been 
fent to the London market; and within thefe thirty years, large calico printfields 
and check manufatftories have been eflabliflied in Carlifle and its vicinity ; fuch 
articles of trade as we have enumerated have arofe to a degree of fignificance within 
a century : in fhort, one may fafely date the progrefs of that flourifhing ftate in 
which this county now appears, to be of no greater antiquity than from the union. 
Population increafes rapidly, cultivation is advancing on every hand : and the moft 
flattering appearances, that this county will become of the greatefl: confequence to 
the ftate, and of import to the mercantile world, within the courfe of another cen- 
tury, may be deduced from the growing manufa<ftories, the increafe of tillage land, 
the fheep-walks and wool, the improved breed of cattle, the advance in fliipping 
and number of mariners, and the flourifhing Ifate of the mines. 

* At the latter end of the fixteenth centurj', even under the aufpiclous reign of Queen Elizabeth, when 
the naval power of tliis empire was advancing into a rivalfhip with all Europe, when trade and commerce, 
as from their native land, began to flourifli in Britain, fupetior to the reft, of the European dates; when 
our interior lliength and power dilplayed itfclf to the aftonifliment of the world, this county Hill lan- 
guidied under its inaufpicious (lar ; dillant from the capital, unhappy in its vicinage, is improvements 
were much behind thofe of the more fouthern counties. At this period, in or about the year 1582, the 
Earl of LiNcohi, being Lord High Admiral, caufed an account to be taken of the fliips and mariners with- 
in this county, when all the vefiels amounted only to twelve, and not one cairied eighty tons. Mariners and 
fifhermcn made up the number j 98, of whom many had never navigated a veffel fupetior to an open boat. 

•|- It is of the utmoft confequence to this, and th; other northern counties, to promote an explanatory 
law, touching the commoning of flaeep ; for if legal determinations (hould take place, to rcflrain the 
fliepherd, to a rule of commoning or depafturing no greater number of fliecp on the moors than can be 
wintered and fuppotted in the inclofed grounds, this great ilaple of the country would be almod loft; 
the poor (hcpherds would be riu'ned, the llock of provilion and wool would be diminidicd in a very great 
degree, and the common lands would lie walle. An attempt of this nature, by a perfecuting neighbour, 
has been made upon a poor fliepherd, who has a llock of about 1500 (heep, in a neighbouring county, and 
he has been brought to two adizes ; at the firft the fliepherd hdd a nonfuit in his favour, under tiie fa(il, 
that the plaintiff exceeded in (lock of fliecp, nearly in as great excels as the fliepherd, as appeared by 
the ftatement his own council made on the calculation of rentals ; at the next affize the fliepherd obtained 
a verdict, it is prefumed, upon the fame idealltiking the minds of the jurors If this example fliould be 
followed by any one of an opprtffive mind, the confequence might be very injurious to the public, as well 
as the poor individual. It is therefore a great provincial concern, to promote a law to encourage the 
breeding and depalluring (heep on the moors of the northern counties. \V. H. 

VOL. I. F This 



This county began to fend members to parliament in the reign of King Edward 
J.* and befides the two knights of the fhire, it hath two boroughs that are alfo 
reprefented ; the city and borough of Carlijle, and the borough of C.ockermouth: 
there was anciently added a third, Egraiiont : but on account of the expence at- 
tending reprefentation, the franchife was difufed, at the inftance of its burgeffes. 

As to ecclefiajlical junfdif/ion, the whole county, except the ward of Allerdale 
above Denventy is in the diocefe of Carlijle ; that ward being a member of the 


Knights efthe SniREySr Cumberland ; colkBed from the heji AtUhoritiet. 

Thofe marked thus * or thus | are not noticed in Prynne. 

r8th K. Edw. 1. Walter de Mulcaftre 
. . William de Boyville 

23d — — — Robert de Haverington 

25th — — Robert de Wittering 

28th ■ Richard de Slayter 

25th — ^— John de Wiggeton 

30th Robert de Joiieby 

34th ■ John de Lucy 

35th — — — John dc Denton 

ift K. Edw. II. WiUiara le Brua 

2d William le Brun 

3d William de Mulcaftre 

4th — — ^— Robert de Leyburne 

5th Will'am de Mulcaftre 

^— — — ^— — Robert de Leyburne 

6th Andrew de Harcia 

7th John de Wiggeton 

A pud. St. 8th Robert de TiUiol 

9th Alexander de Baftenthwaite 

loth ■ Robert le Brun 

12th Robert de leyburne 

— — John de Boy villa 

Hugh de Louthre 

Richard de Denton 

■ Robert de Mulcaftre 

Robert le Brun 

K. Edw. III. Robert le Brun 

John de Orieton 

Peter Tiiliol 

Peter TilHol 

— — (Robert dc Eglesfield 

-^— — Peter Tiiliol 

Peter Tiiliol 

— — John de Orreton 

5tli Richanl de Denton 

6th l^icha.d de Denton 

Richard de Der.ton 

Pttcr de Tlliiol 

th Pete, de Tiiliol 

—- Richard de Denton 

8th ' Hugl. de Moriteby 

————— Ricliard dc Demon 

5th Peter Je Tiiliol 

jith — i.*— — Peter dt Tiiliol 

Apud. St. ift. 

Apud Wig. 2d 
Apud Eb. 

Apud El. 4th. 

Apud Weft. 
Apud Eb. 

Hubert de M niton 

Hubert de Multon. 
William de Bopille. 
Robert de Wittering. 
Robert de Tiiliol.* 
Nicholas de Apreftjy. 
WiUiam de Bampton.* 
William de Langrigg.* 
Alexander de Bafthenthwaite.* 
Alexander de Baftheiithwaite. 
Alexander de Biftcnthwaite.* 
Walter de Bampton. 
Henry de Multon. 
Walter de Bampton.* 
Alan de Grinefdalc* 
Robert dc Leyburne.* 
Henry de Multon. 
Walter de Kirkbride.* 
John dc Skelton.* 
Alexander de Bafthenthwaite. 
Adam de Skelton.* 
John de Orreton.* 
John de Skelton.* 
Robert Paynwick. 
John de '. 'rreton. 
John de t^rreton. 
Robert Paiving. 
Robert ParvinLT. 


John de Skelton. 
Richard de Salkeld. 
Robert Parving.* 
John Qrreton. 
Thomas Hardegill. 
P..obert Parving.* 
John de Haverington.* 
Robert Parving. 
Richard de Denton. 
Richard de Denton.* 
John de Haverington. 
William Englllh.* 
John de Haverington.* 
Richard de Denton. 
Riwhard de Peuton.* 




archdeaconry of Richmond, and under the diocefe of Chcfier. 1 here were anciently 
four deanries in the diocefe of Carlifle, viz. Carlijlc, f fig/on, Pemilh, and Appleby ^ 
and one archdeacon ; but " the fniallnefs and poverty of the diocefe, rendering a 
" current jurifditflion both inconvenient and burthenfomc, he gave up the fame 
" for a penlion of 3I. 19s. 6d. per annum, only retainmg the more ancient rights 
" of examining and prefenting perfons to be ordained, and of induding perfons 

« inftituted 

Richavd de Denton 
John de Orreton 
Thomas de Haidegill 
John de Boyville 
Peter de Tilhol 
John de Oireton 

Ap. Weft I ith K. Edw. III. 

Ap. Walt. 1 2th 




Hugh de Moiiceby. 
Thomas de ' kelton. 
Richard de Berry. 
Adam de Skelton; 
John de Haverington.* 
John de Haverington.* 

Alexander de Bafthenthwaite Robert le Brun. 

17th . 
18th . 
2ift • 
22d ■ 
23d - 
24th • 
26th ■ 

27th • 
28th . 
29th • 
31ft - 

34th . 

36th • 
37th . 
38th ■ 
39th ■ 

42d ■ 

43d • 
45th ■ 

46th ■ 

47th . 

50th - 





. <;th 

Peter de Tilliol 

John de Otreton 

Peter de Tilliol 

Richard de Denton 

.^__ Hugh de l-iouthre 

Peter de Tilliol 

I ' ' — John de Orreton 

Peter de Tilliol 

— Richard de Denton 

— — Richard de Denton 

Henry de Malton.* 

— — — — — Richard de Denton.* 
. — — Thomas de Rokeby 

— — Richard de Denton 

— John de Orreton 

Robert de Tilliol 

— — • John de Orreton 

■ Henry de Malton 

Robert Tilliol 

William Englifli 

Richard de Tilliol 

■ Chrillopher Moriccby 

— — Jofeph de Pykering 

William Engh'lh 

—— Robert Curwenne 

'■ ' Gilbert de Curwenne.* 

^— — — Robert Mowbray 
Gilbert de Curwen 

— Gilbert Culken or Curwen 

Gilbert de Curwen 

John de Denton 

K. Rich. II. Robert Mowbray 

Peter de Tilliol 

— — John de Derwentwater 

Richard de Mowbray 

Peter de Tilliol 

— — Gilbert de Curwen 

•^^ Richard de Salkeld 

Clement de Skelton 

■ - Clement de Skelton 
F 2 

John de Orreton. 
John de Haverington^* 
Hugh de Louthre. 
John de Orreton. 
Henry de Malton, 
John de Orreton. 
Thomas de HardegilL 
John de Orreton.* 
John de Orreton. 
Robert de Tilliol.* 

Thomas de Hardegill. 
John de Orreton. 
Robert de Tilliol.* 
Adam Parvlng. 
Chriftopher de Moriceby. 
Robert de Tilliol. 
William Englifti 
Chriftopher Moriceby.* 
William Englifli. 
William Stapilton. 
John de Denton. 
Richard Mowbray. 
William de Stapilton.* 

John de Denton. 
Adam Parving.* 
John de Camberton. 
William Stapilton.* 
Amand Monceaux.* 
Richard del Sandes.f 
Clem, de Skelton. 
lliomas de Whitrigg.-f 
William de Cur\ven. 
William de Hutton.f 
John de Denton. 
John de la More.j 
Thomas Bowet. 
Thomas de Dalfton.! 




" inflituted into their refpedlive livings ; all the reft of the archdiaconal jurifdic- 
" tion, is now devolved upon the chancellor of the diocele." 

All the felicity of this county is not to be attributed to the union ; many 
bleflings, though partially, flowed in upon the people, by the dilTolution of the 
feudal tenures. There are yet the moft numerous and llrong remains of vaflalage, 


7th K. Rich. II. Thomas Blenkinfop 
John de Kirkby 

1 0th 
1 2th 
1 6th 
17 th 
1 8th 










2d - 

^d - 


6th — 

7th — 

8th — 

9th — 

13th - 

15th — 

20th — 

25th — 

27th — 

2 8th — 

29th — 

33d - 

38th - 

7th K 

12th — 

Thomas de Lamplough 

Peter de Tilliol 

Amand de Monceaux 

John de Derwtiitwater 

Robert de Mulcaftre 

WilUam de Thtelkeld 

—— William Stapilton 

Peter de Tilliol 

Geoffrey Tilliol 

Clement de Skclton 

William Stapilton 

1 John de Ireby 

Peter TUliol 

K. Hen. IV. William dc Leigh 

—— Robert de Louthre 

William de Leigh 

— — — — — Robert de Louthre 
—— — ^^— John de la More 

■ Robert de I.outhre 

•^— WilHam de Stapilton 

K. Hen. V. Peter Tilliol 

— — Robert Louthre 

Chriftopher de Curwen 

Peter Tilliol 

Peter Tilliol 

Peter Tilliol 

•K. Hen. VI. Peter TiUiol 

■ Chriftopher Curwen 

Peter Tilliol 

Peter Tilliol 

— — — — ^ Chriftopher Curwen 

Thomas Parr 

Thomas Parr 

— — Chriftopher Curwen 

Thomas Curwen 

- William Stapilton 

Ra. de Dacie 

John Pennington 

. Thomas Curwen 

•^— John Skelton 

Thomas de la More 

Thomas Colt 

Thomas Curwen 

Fdw. IV. John Huddlcfton 
John Parr 

Amand Monceaux. 
John de Brougham. 
John dc Ireby. 
Richard de Beaulicu. 
John de Thirwall. 
John de Ireby. 
Amand Monceaux.f 
Amand Monceaux. 
Thomas del Sandes-f 
John de Louthre. 
John de Louthre.-j- 
Robert de Louth re.-{- 
Thomas del Sandes. 
Clement de Skelton. f 
William de Ofmunderlowci 
Rolhnd Vaux. 
William de Stapilton.f 
John de Skelton. f 
William de Louthre f 
WiUiam de BeauUeu.-}- 
John de Skelton. f 
William de la More. 
William de Beaulieu, 
William dc Leigh. f 
John de Eglesfield. 
Robert de Louthre. 
Thomas de la More. 
Nicholas Randolf. 
John Skelton. 
William de Leigh. 
Chriftopher Curwen. 
Hugh de I outhre.-j- 
Nicholas RadclifF,. 
Thomas de la More. 
Thomas de la More.f 
Hugh de Lowther.-)- 
William Dykts.. 
John Brougham. f 
Thomas Curwen. 
William Martindale. 
Hugh Lowther. 
Richard Bellingham. 
Thomas Crackenthorp. 
Thomas de la More. 
William Leigh.-j- 
Rickard Salkeld. 


II Prynne_3 tabkb ij; the Erivia JPar'.hmivt, rcdiviva advance nc further^ 




and fervility retained in the cuftoms of the manors within this county, that are to 
be found in any part of England ; and as this was the conftant feat of war, it feems, 
from the circumftanccs and arguments before deduced, a natural confcquence that, 
it would alfo become the feat of fervility, valfalagc, and flavery. We will put 
down a few thoughts on thofe cuflomary tenures, and then proceed to a defcriptive 
and bijlorical viezv of the rcfpective places and parts of the county, feparately. 
Our law books fet out, that ellates held in villeinage, were under a fpecies of 


17th K. Edvv. IV. William Parr 

ill K. Edw.VI. 


ift Queen Mary. 

rft Phil. &Mary. 

Qiieen Eliz. 



3, ft 




21ft . 

ift King Charles 



King James 



12th K. Chas. II. 


7 th 

K. James II. 
K. Wm. Ill, 

ill Qu-cn Anne' 




ift K. Geoige I, 

» » # * » 

Thomas Wharton, Knight 
Richard Mufgrave 
Thomas Wharton, Knight 
John Leigh, Efq. 
Thomas Dacre, Efq. 
Thomas Threlkeld 
Leonard Dacre 
Leonard Dacre 
Leonard Dacre 
Henry Percy 
Simon Mufgrave, Knight 
Thomas Scroope 
Robert Bowes 
Thomas Scroope, Knight 
Nicholas Curwen 
John Pennington 
William Huddlefton 
Wilfrid Lawfon 
George Dalfton 
George Dalfton, knight 
George Dalfton, Knight 
George Dalfton, Knight 
George I )alfton, Knight 
George Dalfton, Knight 
Charles Howard 
Charles Howard 
Sir Wilfrid Lawfon 
Charles Lord Howard 
Patrick Curwen 
John Lowther, Efq. 
John Lowther, of White- 1 
haven, Eart. j 

Edward Lord Morpeth 
George Fletcher 
Richard Vifcount Prefton 
George Fletcher 
George Fletcher 
George Fletcher 
George Fletcher 
Fdward HalTel, Knight 
Richard Mnfgrave 
George Fletchir 
James Lowther 
James Lowther 
James Lowthii" 

James Morefby. 
• * « » * 

Ricliard Mufgrave, Efq. 
Henry Curwen, tfqs. 
Thomas Dacre, jiin. Knight. 
Robert Penruddock, Efq. 
Robert Penruddock, Efq. 
Henry Methuen, Efqs. 
John Dalfton, Efqs. 
Henry Curwen, Efqs. 
Henry Curwen, Efqs. 
Simon Mufgrave, Knights. 
Edward Scroope, Efq. 
Thomas Bowes, Efqs. 
Henry Leigh, Efqs. 
Robert Bowes, Efq. 
Wilfrid Lawfon, Efqs. 
Chnftopher Pickering, Knighti. 
Gerard Lowtlier, Efqs. 
Edwaid Mufgrave, Efqs. 
Henry Curwen, Knights. 
Ferdinand Hudlefton, Efq. 
Patrick Cunven, Efq. 
Patrick Curwen, Efq. 
Patrick Curwen, Efq. 
Patrick Curwen, Efq. 
William Brifcoe, Efqs. 
William Brifcoe, Efqs. 
Colonel WiUiam Brifcoe. 
Wilfrid Lawfon, Efq. 
George Fletcher, Barts, 

Richard Lamplough, Efq, 

John Lowther, Bart. 
John Lowther, Barts. 
John Lowther, Bart. 
John Lowther, Barts. 
John lowther, Barts. 
J( lin 1 outf.ei, Barts. 
John Lc.wtlicr, Baits. 
G.'uigc Fletcher, Efq. 
Gilfrid Lawfon, Efqs. 
Richard Mufgrave, Efqs. 
Gilfiid Lawfon, Efqs. 
Gilfrid Lawfon, Efqs. 
Gilfrid Lawfon, Efqa. 



tenure, neither ftriclly Fcodal, Norman, or Saxon ; but mixed and compounded of 
them all : the hcriots that attended them, befpeak. them to have a tincture of Danifh. 
Sir William Temple, in his introduction to his Englifh hifl:ory, fays, " Villeins 
" "jcere in a condition of downright fcrviinde, tijed and employed in the mojl fervile works, 
" and belonging, both they, their children and effeHs, to the lord of the foil, like the reft ' 
" of the cattle or flock upon it." This never could have arofe among the troops of 
adventurers, who came here for booty and conquefl: : there muft have been a degree 
of equality, though under a military fubordination, in thofe people ; and the villein, 
afTu redly was originally the captive in war. After the lord had referved to himfelf 
a dcmefie, fufficient for the maintenance of his houfehold in corn and cattle, he 
allotted out the remainder of his territory mlo four part s : xhtfirft to his military 
tenants, to the intent, that their fcrvice to the fuperior lord, in arms, might be 
performed ; xhtfecond allotment was to his tenants mfocage, who held their lands 
by fervice of the plough in the lord's demefne, or by rendering corn and cattle for 
the fupport of the lord and his military men, when arrayed: the third for villeins, 
who had fmall portions fet out for their fuftenance, were amoveable at pleafure : 
and in confequence of the lands being aliened, went over to the new acquirer, with- 
out any fpecial grant. Thofe villeins were of two diftincft natures in the eye of the 
law : that is, villeins regardant, annexed to the manor or land ; or in grofs, that is, 
annexed to the perfon of the lord, and transferable, by deed, from one owner to 
another. Lord Molefworth defcribcs the Danijh boors, and Stiernhook the Traals 
in Sweden, to be greatly iimilar to our villeins, which Judge Blackflone fays, 
" confirms the probability of their being, in fome degree, monuments of the Danijh 
" tyranny." The fame learned writer is of opinion, that, on the arrival of the 
Normans, it is not impoffible, that they, who were flrangers to any other than a 
Fcodal flate, might give fome degree of enfranchifement, to fuch of the wretched 
flaves as fell to their fhare : many lords, by permitting the villeins and their children 
to continue in poiTefTion of their lands, without interruption, for a feries of years, 
gave them right of prefcription againft their lords, by common law ; and, on 
performance of the accultomed fervices, they became entitled to hold the fame, 
in defiance of any determination of the lord's will : thence arofe thofe cnftoms, 
which having gained an entry by the lord's fteward on his roll, grew into a copy- 
hold tenure. Sir Edward Coke fays, that though copyholds are meanly defcended, 

8th K. George I. Chriftopher Mufgrave, Bart. Gilfi-id Lawfon, Efq. 
ift Iv. Geo. II. James Lowthcr, Bart. Gilfrid Lawfijn, Efq. 

^th __— James Lowther Jofeph Pennington, Barts. 

14th . James Lowthcr Jofeph Pennington, Barts. 

Jill James Lo.^ther John Pennington, Barts. 

28th James I.owther John Pennington, Barts. 

■ WiHiam Lowther, Bart, on Sir James's death. 

Wilh'am Fleming, Bait, on Sir Will, am Lowther's death. 

ift K. Geo. III. James Lowther, of Lowther John Pennington, Barts. 

Wilfrid Lawfon, Bart, on Sir James making his eleilion for Weftmorland, 

——— Sir James Lowther re-cletted, on Sir Wilfrid's death. 

8th ■ ■ - ' Henry Curwen Henry Fletcher, 1 fqs. 

15th — — Sir James Lowther, Bart. Henry Fletcher, 1 fq. 

20th Sir James I owther Sir Henry Fletcher, Barts. 

24th ' Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. William Lowther, Efq. 

30th ■ ■■ ■- Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. Humphry Seuhoufe, Efq. 



yet they come of an ancient houfe: and Judge Blackftone adds, " Copyholders are 
" in truth, no other but villeins, who, by a long feries of immemorial encroach- 
" ments on the lord, have at length, eftabliflied a cuftomary right to thofe eftates, 
" which, before, were held abfolutcly at the lord's will : which affords a very 
" fubftantial reafon for the great variety of ciijhms that prevail in different manors, 
" with regard both to the defccnt of the eftates, and the privileges belonging to 
" the tenants." 

At the time of the ftatute of King Charles II. it is obferved, that there was 
fcarce a pure villein, that is, a villein in grofs, annexed to the lord's per/on, in the whole 
kingdom. Sir Thomas Smith, who was fecretary to King Edward VI, fays, he 
never knew a z-i!lcin in grofs, throughout the realm ; and the few villeitis regardant, 
that were then remaining, were fuch only as had belonged to bilhops, monafterieSj 
or other ecclefiaftical corporations, in the preceding times of popery: *' the holy 
" fathers, monks, and friars, had, in their confefTions, and cfpecially in their ex- 
" treme and deadly ficknefs, convinced the laity, how dangerous a praftice it waa 
•• for one Chriflian man to hold another in bondage : fo that temporal men, by 
" little and little, by reafon of that terror in their confcicnces, were glad to manu- 
" mit all their villeins. But the faid holy fathers, with the abbots and priors, did 
" not in like fort by theirs; for they alfo had a fcruple in confcience to impoverifh 
" and defpoil the church fo much, as to manumit fuch as were bond to their 
" churches, or the manors which the church had gotten ; and fo kept their villeins 
" ftill." So great was the bondage of the villeins, in the reign of King Richard II. 
that the Commons petitioned, " That no villein of any bilhop, or other religious 
" perfon, fhould purchafe any land, on pain of forfeiting the fame to the king j 
" and that no villeins do put their children tojchool;' fo that by their ignorance they 
Ihould not afpire above bondage, but remain no better informed than brutes.* 

This county, as has been obferved before, abounds in cuftomary manors: fome 
of which have /jt-r/oAf, boon Jervices in the chace, ploughing, making hay, reaping, 
&c. various rents, as coals, corn, &c. and on death of lord or tenant, or alienation 
of the lands, fines arbitrary, fines certain, &c. as will be fliewn in each refpecflive 
manor. Thefe bafe tenures greatly retard cultivation, and the improvement of 
eflates : for the miferable tenant, who is to pay an arbitrary fine and a heriot, is 
perpetually impnverifhed ; preluming the arbitrary fine to be two year's rent, it may 
happen, that the land may be fubjecT: to two fines in one year ; by death of tenant 
and lord ; and the event muft fvveep away four year's value, together with a cow, 
a horfe, or other his bcft beaft ; what has the unhappy heir to pofTefs? he ftands 
forth incumbered with debt, and has the fhackles of adverfity and misfortune on 
his hands for life: his tenement (as many are) not above ten pounds a-year, lies 
unimproved ; bred to a rural life, he cannot betake himfelf from an indolent habit, 
to manufadiory and labour; but he finks down to old age, through a ftate of ab- 
jedlnefs and inutility. It would be greatly to the advantage of the ftate at large, 
and of the lords of thefe manors feverally, to cnfranchife ihe tenants, as fome of 
them here have done : many parts of this county is capable of high improvement ; 
and the utmoft encouragement ought to be given to it. f 

* Piynne's Col Rec. p. 345. f If the cruelty of an obfolete, and almoft unintelligible law (Tiould 

reftrain thera in their flieep-wtilks, the wictchcdiicfs of the inhabitants would tc greatly aggravated- 



The ftatute of the 12th of King Charles II. chap. xxiv. which extinguiflied 
knight's fcrvice, declares in the 4:h fedlion, ♦' That all fines for alienations, &c. 
" and all charges incident and arifing for, or by reafon of wardfliip, &c. or tenure 
" of knight's fervice, and other charges incident thereto, are taken away and dif- 
" charged, any law, ftatute, or ufage, to the contrary notwithftanding." And by 
" the 5 th fedlion, " All tenures by knight's fervice of the king, or of any other 
" pcrfon, and the fruits and confcqucnces thereof be taken away and difcharged, 
" any law, &c. to the contrary notwithftanding ; and all tenures of any honours, 
" manors, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or an eftate of any inheritance at the 
" common law, held either of the king, or of any other perfon or perfons, are 
" turned into free and common focage." — There are three provijoes in this law, on 
which the bafe tenures in Cutnberiand, mull: inevitably ftand or fall. The Jirjl is, 
that this ad ftiould not take away rents certain, heriots.or fuits of court, belonging 
or incident to any former tenure, thereby taken away or altered, to grow due to 
the king or any mean lords. 

The Jecond is, that fines for alienation, due by particular cuftoms fliall not be 
taken away. 

The third is, that it fliall not alter or change any tenure, by copy of court-roll, 
or any fcrvice incident thereto. 

By thefe provijoes only, the arbitrary fines on the cuftomary tenures are to be 
Hjpported : and to that end it feems to be incumbent, to prove that tbeyj'uhjijlcd, 
end zvere eJiabliJJjed preceding the year 1 660, when the lazv ivas made, and it is greatly 
to be queftioned, whether that proof could any where be found ; and, indeed, it is 
totally inconfiftent with this benevolent ftatute, that it ftiould ever be left in the 
power of an infolent lord, who had, perhaps, entertained an unjuft averfion to his 
tenant, or being of an avaricious mind, in his want of the common feelings of 
humanity, to impofe a/«f beyond the ability of his tenant, or even the value of the 
land ; however that power may be reftrained by fubfequent laws. It would be an 
aft oi great bcnevdence in the man, who Ihould point out the general mode oi dif- 
Jolving thofe bafe tenures, and lead on a meafure for the enfranchij'nnent of the 
whole race of cuftomary and copyhold tenants. 

Leland's Boundaries of this County, in his Itinerary, vol. vii, fol. 71, is worthy 
of attention : " The lenght of Cumbreland by the fhore is, from a water caw led 
" Dudden, the which devideth Furneiland fro Cumbreland onto a lythe water or 
" mere cawlcd Polt-rofe, the which devideth the cownte of Northumberland, on 
*' the eft fide, from Cumbreland." 

" The bredeth of Cumbreland is, from a water cawled Emot, that devideth on 
•' the fowth fide, on the one part, Cumbreland from Wcftmerland, ontyl he enter 
" ynto the ryvcr of Edon, ij myles fro Pereth by eft, and fo on the eft fide of 

" Edon, up to a broke cawled* , the which lykwife devideth Cumbreland 

" fro Wcftmerland, onto the ryver of Efke on the north fide, the which devideth 
" Cumbreland fro the batable grownd, ontyl yt cum to the aime of the le, the 
*' which devideth England fro Scotland." 

* Here is a vacancy botli in the original and in Stowe. 


We cannot clofe this Introduiflion to our Hiftory better, than by fubjoining to 
the foregoing extraifl from Lcland, the following quaint defcription of the county 
from Speed; and fome remarkable lines from Drayton. 

" Ihe forme of this countie is long and narrow, pointing wedge-like into the 
*' fouth: which part is altogether pcftered with copped hills, and therefore hath 
*' the n:xu\eoi Copland. The middle is more level, and better inhabited; yielding 
*' fufficient for the fuftenance of man: but the north is wild and folitarie, and 
** ccmbred with hilles, as Copland is. 

" The air is piercing, and of a Iharp temperature, and would be more biting, 
" were it not that thofe high hilles breake off the northern ftormcs, and cold 
*' falling fnows. 

*■ Notwirhlianding, rich is this province, and with great varieties of commo- 
** dieties is replenilhcd : the hilles, though rough, yet Imile upon their beholders, 
" fpread with Iheep and cattle, the vallies ftored with graffe and corne fufficient: 
" the fea affordeth great ftore of fifh, and the land is overfpread with great varietic 
" of fowles, 

" Many memorable antiquities remaine and have been found in this county : for 
** it being the confines of the Roman's pofTeffions, was continually fecured by their 
" garrifons; and in many places their ruines remaine, with altars and infcriptions 
" of their captaines and colonies, whereof many have been found, and more as 
" yet lie hid. 

•* This county, as it flood in the fronts of afTaults, foAvas it ftrengthcned with 
" twenty-five caflles, and preferved by the praiers (as was then thought) of the 
*' votaries in religious houfes at Carlile, Lanercoft, Wetherall, Holme, Daker, and 
*' St. Bees. Thefe, with others, were diirolved by King Henry Vlll. and their 
" revenues fhadowed under the crown: but the province being freed from charge 
" of fubfidy, is not therefore divided into hundreds in the parliament rowles : only 
" this is obferved, that therein are fcated nine market towns, fifty-eight parifh 
*' churches, befides many other chapels of cafe." 

" Ye northern di-yades, all adorn'd with mountains fteep, 

" Upon whofc hoary lie ds cold winter long doth keep; 

" Where often rifing hills deep dales and many make, 

" Where many a pleafant fpring, and many a large fpread lake 

" Their clear beginnings keep, and do their names beftow 

" Upon thofe humble vales, through which they eas'ly flow. 

" Wlierea the mountain nymphs, and thofe that do frequent 

" The fountains, fields, and groves, with wond'rous merriment, 

" By mounihine many a night do give each other chace 

" At hood-wink, barley-break, at tick, or prifon-bafe, 

" With tricks and antique toys, that one another mock, 

•' That flcip from crag to crag, and rock to rock: 

" O all ye topick gods that do inhabit here, 

" To whom the Romans did thofe ancient altars rear, 



" Oft found upon thofe hills, now funk into the foils, 
" Which they for trophies left of their vi<5lo»-ious fpoils ; 
«' Ye genii of thefe floods, thefe mountains, and thefe dale* 
" That with poor (hepherd's pipes, and heidfmen s tales 
" Are oft regal'd— our bold attempt, O guard, 
" And be our county's pleafure our reward !" 

Dkayton's Poly-Olbion,. Song xss. 



Camden's defcription of the general face of this county, is not ill adapted to its 
prefent ftate. " Though the northern fituation renders the country cold, and the 
" mountains are rugged and uneven, yet it has a variety, which affords a very 
♦' agreeable profpcdt; for after fweliing rocks and crowding mountains, big as it 
" were with metals, (between which arc lakes llorcd with all forts of wild fowl) 
" you come to rich hills, cloathed with flocks of flieep; and below thofeare fprcad 
" out, pleafant large plains, tolerably fruitful. The ocean alfo which breaks upon 
•' this ihore, affords great plenty of the beft fifh, and, as it were, upbraids the 
♦' inhabitants for their idlenefs, in not applying themfelvcs to the fiihing trade." 
The banks of Eden afford many beautiful and rich inclofures ; improvements have 
made a rapid pace there, and in the environs of Netherly, within the prefent 
century; the lands near Penrith are well cultivated, and around IVigion is an 
extenfivc plain, properly fenced and kept in good hulbandry : in the vsile of Lorto/z 
and near to Cocketmoutb the lands are excellent ; but many other parts of the county 
confilt of large and irregular fvvells, which, towards the fca, extend their fkirts 
even to the very fliores. The interior parts are crowded w ith rugged and llu- 
pcndous mountains, around whole bafes pretty vales are fcattered. Little corn is 
produced, except in the low lands and vallies ; the climate and nature of the foils 
being beft adapted to grazing ; the mountains afford excellent fliecp walks. A 
hilly country gives innumerable changes of landfcape; and in this, in particular, 
fuch variety of enchanting and romantic fccnes are to be found, as, perhaps, few 
pans of Europe, within a like com pafs, can boaft. The climate of this part of the 
illand is cold, from its vicinity to the ocean, and on account of that current of air 
which follows the channel of the Irifh fca; but it is healthful and invigorating; 
and the inhabitants are remarkable for their ftature, ftrength, and beauty.^ 


The part of Cumberland where we entered from Northumberland, is called the 
barony of Gillland,* of which Camden fays, " A tracft, io cut and mangled with 
" the brooks, or fo full of rivulets, that 1 fliould fuppofe it to have taken its name 

" from 

" William Gilpin, Efq. of Scaleby caftle, from whofe copy this was taken, fays, tliat the original is 
" left imperftft in many places, with large blanks, and the whole confufed and without order ; fo that 
" it fecmed to have been only a colledlion of materials, which he intended afterwards to have difpofed in 
" better form." 

" Mr. Gilpin firft undertook to place the greater baronies in order, and to reduce the places, under 
" their refpective baronies ; he has hkewife made fome ufeful additions and annotations, and continued 
•* the pedigrees of feveral famihes down to the year 1687 ; among many copies I have feen, his is 
•' much the beft." Mr. Milbourne's Note prefacing the MS. 

X A flcilful perfon, who lately traverfed the county, has furnifhed the editor with remarks on the 
foil, cultivation, cattle, &c. which, in the progrefs of this work, will be introduced by way of notes, 
diftributcd to each parifli. 

* The boundar)' of this barony, is thus dcfcribed : — 

" Beginning at the head of Croglin water, and fo till it comes to Knaihead, as heaven water deals; 
•*■ and from Knarhead to Black law-hill, as heaven water deals; and from Black-law- hill to the Blackbroolc 

" above 



from thofe gills, had I nor read in the regifter of Lanercofl church, that one Gill, 
fon oi Buclb, who, in the charter of Henry II. is alfo called Gilbert, anciently- 
held it, and probably left his name to it." — His laft editor adds, " Gilfland 
micht alfo take its name from Hubert de Vaiix, fmce De Vallibus and Grills mean 
the fame; or from the river Gelt, which runs through the middle of it. The 
bottom wherein the brook runs, is the ^;7/."J 

Camden, Ipeaking of the lords of Gillland, fays, " The firft lord of this Gillejland 
that I have met with, was IVilliam Mcfchiues,* brother of Radulphus, Lord of 
Cumberland, (not that William, who was brother of Ranulph, Earl of Chcfter, 
from whom defcended Ranulph de Rnelcnt, but brother of Radulphus) who 
could not, however, wrcll: it irom the Scots: for Gill, fon of liueth, held the 
grcatcft part of it by force of arms. f After the death of William de Mefchines, 
King Henry II. bcltowcd it upon Hubert de Vaux, whofe arms are cheque argent 
and gules. jj His fon Robert founded and endowed Lanercoil priory. But after 
a few years, the eflate was transferred by marriage to the Multons, and from 
them, by a daughter, to Ranulph Lord Dacre, whofe pofterity have continued to 
flourilh to the prefent time.§ Camden's laft editor adds, " The heirefs of Vaux 
married Thomas dc Multon, and brought the barony into his family in the time 

" of 

* above the Kelds, as heaven water deals ; and from Blackbrook to Biers pike, as heaven water deals ; 
*' and from Biers pike to Biers park wall ; and fo dcfcending the faid wall, unto the water of Blackburn, 
*• where there ftands a crofs that patts Cumberland and Northumberland ; and fo defcending down the 
" faid water, unto where Foulpot fallcth into Blackburn; and from thence up the cleugh as Cumberland 
*' and Northumberland divide, and fo ftreight forth unto the crofs at the head of the faid cleugh; and fo 
" from the faid crofs unto Preaquepot Lane, and fo from Preaquepot Lane unto Edclflone; and from 
" Edclftone through the mofs unto Witch Cragg, dcfcending Poultrofs water fink, where it falleth into 
" Irthing ; and fo up Irthing unto Rodrehaugh, there being two low places having common within the 
" liberty of Tindale; and from the faid Rodrehaugh, unto the head of Irthing as the water runneth to 
" Forr.beekhead; and from. Fornbeckhead unto Bolclcugh; and from Bolcleugh at Kiibeck, as it falleth 
« into Whitelevin, and fo down Levin, unto the north end of Sparlinholme, ilreight over thwart to the 
" gi'eyftone of Crofbv moor, within the end of the Bifhop's Dyke ; and from the faid greyftone to the 
" Pidis wall, ilreight forth unto the joining of the BLfliop s Dyke; and fo following that dyke, unto the 
*• weft, end of Ntwby; and from the faid end of Newby, down Forefcue fyke, until it fall into Irthisg; 
" and fo down Irthing, until it fall into Eden; and fo up Norfcue beck, unto North-gill-beck-head; and 
" fo to Joan-fykehead; and from Joan-fyke-head, as it runneth into Croglin; and fo up the faid water, 
" till it come to the head thereof." 

\ Gough. * From an old miffal. R. Cook Clarenceaux calls him Ralph, as do the regifters 

of Fountains and Holme abbies. 

\ One of the editors adds, " Though this could be but for a little while, for the father was banifhed 
" into Scotland, in Earl Randolph's time ; and the fon Gilles Bueth, as he was called, was flain by 
" Robert de Vallibus, at a meeting for avbitiation of all differences; fo that family feems never to liave 
«' claimed it after." Gibsok. 

II Denton fays. Or and Gules. 

i " It is to be obferved, that in the account of the lord-s of GilHand, the chronicles differ vey much; 
" for according to others, Ranulph and Radulph are the fame name, and Ranulph de Mefchines is called 
^' indifferently by thofe two names. Then Ranulph de Mefchines, v.ho was Lord of Cumberland, by 
M grant from the conquei'or, was the very fame who was afterwards Earl of Cheiler by dcfcent, after the 
M .death of his couCn-germain Richard, fecond Earl of Chcller, who was fon to John Bohun and Margaret 

«' hii 


" of King Henry III. and their great great grandaiightcr conveyed it in the fime 
" manner, in the time of King Edward II. to Ranulph de Dacre, of Dacrc Caftlf. 
" In this family it continued till the death of the h(\ male heir, George Lord 
" Dacre of Gillefland, Grayllock, and Wcmm, who left three liltcis coheirelfcs. 
" In the partition of the eftate, this fell to Elizabeth, married to Lord William 
" Howard, third fon of Thomas Howard, Duke oi' Norfolk, in whofc pollcrity it 
" rtill continues. "ft Having prefented to the reader a tranfcript of what is faid 
by Camden and his learned editors, we will purfuethemanufcriptbcibreus. " This 
"•great barony was given, by the Earl Ranulph Mdchines, to one Huhcrtus, to 
«' be holden of him by tv.o knights fees and cornagc; he was called De ymlibus, 
" or Vaulx, from the dales or Vallies, whereof that country is full. The Frcncli 
" word Vaulx (pronounced Vaux) becaufc thence a furname to hisn and his pof- 
•* terity there, and to divers other families, that took their beginning from the 
" younger brothers of this houfe ; as Vaux of Triermaine, of Ainltaplygh, of 
'• Caterlen and Caldbeck, &c. 

" Hubertus was a kinfman or a follower of the faid Earl Randolph, in the 
" latter end of the conqueror's time, when the peace of the county began to be 
" crtablillied, and ferved under the earl's brother, William Mefchines ia 
" Gilfland," 

" King Henry confirmed this barony unto the faid Hubert,! to be holden of the 
" crown m capite, when the Earl Randolph rcfigiied the county ot Cumberland 
" to the king, and obtained the earldom of Chefter, after the death of Richard, the 
" fecond Earl of ChclTer, who wiih the fixid king's children, coming out of Nor- 
" mandy, was drowned on the coaft of England; to which Richard, the Earl 
'• Randolph was next heir, and coufin-german, the fon of John Bohun, by his wife 
" Margaret, the filler of Hugh Lupus, the firff Earl of Chcfler," 

" The faid Hubert did bear to his arms, cheque d'or and gules: his feal was a. 
" griphon eating a lacert. 

" his wife, fifter to Hugh Lupus, firft earl of Chefter. Again WiHiam de Mefchines, broi her to Ranulph 
" dc Mefchines, was lord of Coupland, but not of Gilfland ; for upon Randolph's refignation of the county 
" of Cumberland, into the hands of King Henry I. Randolph liad given Gilfland to Hubert de Vallibus, 
" which grant the king confirmed to him, and his fucceffors snjoyed it." G;bson. 

ff Gough. 

•f- Henricus &c. Sciatis me concefTifle dedilTe et confirmafle Huberto de Vallibus in fcodo et heriditate 
fibi et hcredibus fuis, totam terram quam Gilbt filius Boet tenuit die qua fnit vivus et mortuus de quocunq* 
illam tenu'.flet. Et de incremento Korkeby cum pifcaria et aliis p'tin quam Wefcubrich (ilius W'mi Steftaii 
tenuit. Et Kaderling cum molendino quam Uctiedus filius Haldani tenuit. Lt totam itlam terram teneblt, 
ipfe et haeredes fui de me et hxredibus meis per fervitium duorum niilitum: Quare Volo &c. cumo'ib's 
p'tin' fuis in bofco et piano, in prat is et pafcuis, in viis et femitis, in aquis et molendin. et pifcar. et marifcig 
et ftagnis, infia burgum et cxtia, in o'ib's rtbus et locis, cum Thol. et theolon. et foca et faca et infang- 
theof, cum o'ib s aliis libertatibus et liberisconfuetndin. quiete ab omiii Kcnii'gcld (QJ'>Jeutegeld.) Tellibus 
R. Archiepo R, Ep o Lincoln. H. Dunelm. Epo H. Comite Norf. Comite Albrieio, Comite Gatfr. 
Rico de 1 ucie Manifer Bifs. Dapifero. rl. de EfTex Conllabular Hugone dc Morevill, Rob'to de Dun. 
llanville, Wmo filio Joh'is, Simone filio Petri, Rigell' de Broch. W'mo Mallet, Rogero filio Richardi. 
Rob'to de Stutevill, Turg. de Rufedal. Apud Novum Cailrum fupper Tynam. 

E* M, S. Antij. Pen. F. W. Arm, In Milhurne's CulkQkn of Record), anntKed to Denton's M. S,- 

" After. 


" Afrer he was peaceably pofTefTed of the barony, he gave divers portions there- 
" of by the name of manors, and other lands ; fome to the ancient inhabitants, and 
♦* others to his friends and kinfmen, and fiich as he fo preferred, to be bound by 
" alliance and marriage to his houfe, and by all other fuch good offices as he 
" could devife. 

" He gave Denlon, in Gildand, to one Wefcop, by deed of feofment, thus 
" addrefled, " Omnibus CiimbrenJibHs, Francigenis, Aliejtigenis, Pants, et Normannis, 
*' Hiihertus de Vallibus Sal. i^c." which ferves to prove his antiquity, and what peo- 
" pie did then, or late before, inhabit that country. 

" Hubert de Vallibus had two brothers, Robert de Dalflon and Reginald de 
" Soureby; to this Reginald he gave Carlatton, in GUHand, and Heverby, near to 
" Carlifle ; which gift Randolph Mefchines confirmed. 

" He gave alfo Far Ian to one VVeftfarlan, and Chorkby to one Odard, and divers 
** other manors and lands in Gilfland, partly to his followers, and partly to the an- 
•' cient inhabitants, to bind them more firmly to his intereft; yet they continued 
*• but a fliort time his friends, for in King Stephen's time, when the Scots, under 
*• their King David, and Earl Henry Fitz David, pofleflcd the county of Cumber- 
" land, they flood with the ancient heir, one Gilles Bueth, againit Hubert's title to 
" Gilfland. 

" I read of one Bueth, a Cumberland man, about the time of the conqueft: he 
" built Biiecajile, and was lord of Buecaftle dale: his fon GiUes Bueth. had or 
*' pretended a right to all, or part of the barony of Gilfland, at leaft to that part 
" thereof, which adjoineth to Buecaftle. He was kinfman to the ancient lord's of 
*« Burgh barony, which were before the conqueft, either by confanguinity or affinity. 
^« This Gilles Bueth, and Bueth his father, it is faid, flood with Hubert de Val- 
** libus, and before him, with William Mefchines, when he lay there in garrifon, 
" by command of his brother. Earl Randolph in the conqueror's time: the father 
" Bueth being then a follower of Gofpatric the great.* — But attemptivgjomeihing 
" ajternoards for the recovery of his ancient right, of zvhich it fcems he zvas difpofftfjedy 
" or upon/ome other dijcontent, he ivas banijhed.\ And though the regifter book of 
" Abbey Lanercoft reports, his fon Gilles Bueth, who is there called Gil-fil Bueth, 
•' to be lord of Gilfland, yet he never poflefled a foot therein, for he was an infant 
" at the time of his father's baniffiment, and was afterwards feated in Scotland, 
•« where he dwelt, till he Mas flain ; as afterwards is noted. His children and 
*• poflerity in Scotland were called of his name Gilles Bueth, or lairds of Gillef- 
" bueth, corruptly Gillefbies, or lairds of Gillcfby, of the place where he dwelt, 
" which was fo called, becaufe he ftrft built there. 

" Being thus difinherited and malecontent, he wafted the country ;§ and in King 
'• Stephen's time, xvben the Scots ivere let into Cumberland, he took that opportunity to 
*' incite as many as he could, to ajjifi him to recover his ejlate in Gi-Jland fr m Hubert 
** de Vallibus: and it feems, notwithjlanding the alliances and other obligations which 
*' Hubert had laid upon the inhabitants, to bind them to him, they took fart with Gilles 
*' Bueth as the right heir.\ 

♦ Dentoi.'s M. S. t Gilpin's Additions. J Denton's M. S. 

Gilpin's Additions. 




" Afterwards, when Henry Fitz Emprefs obtained the crown of England, and 
" took Cumberland again from the Scots, he regranted the barony of Giifland to 
" Hubert de Vallibus.f Afterwards, about the tenth year of King Henry II. 
*• Hubert died ; fo that the king rather confirmed Giifland to Hubert de Vallibus, 
*' than made a primary grant of it ; for, if Hubert then lived, he was of extreme 
" old age; yet the copy of an inquifition, returned by the fherifF of Cumberland 
*' into the Exchequer, faith, " Robertas de Fallihiis tenet tcvramjuani de d'no rege p. 
" lervic. diior. milit. quam Rex Hciiric. pater d'ni regis dedit Hugnnt de Vallibus ante~ 
" ee fori /no p. fervic. p'diB." — This inquifition was taken in King John's time. 

" By virtue of the grant by King Henry II. unto Hubert de Vallibus, Robert 
** de Vallibus, his fon, a valorous gentleman, and well learned in the law of this 
" land, entered into the barony of Giifland, and enjoyed the fame ; |j " hut yet not 
"Jo, but that Gilles Biietb Jlill continued to give him diflnrbance," * whereupon a 
*' meeting for agreement was appointed between them, under trufl: and mutual 
" alFuranceof fatety to each other, (which meeting they called Tryjle) at this meet- 
'• ing Robert de Vallibus § flew the faid Gill, which fliameful offence made him 
•' leave arms, and betake himfelf tohis Itudiesattheinns of court, where he became 
" fo great a proficient, that he was made jufticc itinerant into Cumberland, in the 
" twenty-third year of King Henry II. with Ranulph Glanvill and Robert Pick- 
" nell, his aflbciates: which Ranulph Glanvill fucceeded Richard Lucy in the 
" office of Lord Chief Juftice of England, in the twenty-fixth year of that reign ; 
" when Richard became a monk in the abbey of Lenos, or WelHood ; refigning 
" that office for age and debility. Robert de Vallibus was of fo much account with 
" King Henry II. that he did little in Cumberland, without Robert's advice and 
♦' counfel : yet could not his confcience be at quiet, until he made atonement for 
•' the murder of GiUes Bueth, by endowing holy church, with part of that patri- 
*' mony, which occafioned the murder y and therefore he founded the priory of 
" Lanercofl: in Giifland. 

•' The king remitfcd I'i pence cornage rent, due out of thofe bnds, yet he was 
" fined for fullering money to be current in his liberties, which the king had for-. 
" bidden by proclamation; and for the efcape of fome prifoners. Robert died 
" without iffue male, and Hugh his kinfman and next heir fucceeded him ; to whom 
*' King Henry li. for the better ftrengthening of his title, confirmed the barony of 
«' Giifland, as appears by the inquifition, taken in King John's time; to whom 
" fucceeded Ranulph de Vallibus in the feigniory of Giifland, in King Richard I's 
" time ; and after Ranulph his fon and heir, Robert de V^allibus, otherwife called 
" Robert fil. Radi.;}; This was the fame Robert de Vaux that was found to be tenant 
" of the lands, by the before-mentioned inquifition yet remaining on record. He 

f Ml". Denton places the grant before fet forth, to tills period of time. || Denton's MS. 

* Gilpin s Ad'itions. 

§ Robertus de Vallibus, Cuftos Carleoli. Lei. Col. vol. I. p. 287. He fuftaincd a fiege by King 
William of Scotland, in which the gan ifon was reduced to great dillrefs for want of provifion. In the 
23d year of Henry II. he was witnefs to the memorable award made by that fovcreign, betwcea 
Aldtphonfus King of Caftile, and Sanftiis, King of Navarre. 

I Richard I. confirmed the barony to him. 

VOL. I. H " confirmed 



♦* confirmed to the priory of IVederhall, certain lands in Korby, Denton, Nevcby, 
" and Burdofivald, as lord" paramount. 

" After this Robert Vaux, Hubert was baron of Gilfland, whole daughter and 
" heir, Matilda, or Maud, lady of Gilfland, was married to Thomas, fon of Thomas 
" de Multon and Ada Morvill, daughter of Hugh Morvill, by whom Ihe had iffue 
" the third Thomas Multon, called Thomas de Multon de Gilfland, who died in 
" the 23d year of King Edward I. By this Maud, the Vaux's lands in Cumberland 
" were transferred to the Mukons, who enjoyed the fame four defcents,t from fa- 
" ther to fon, named all fucceflively Thomas, with fome additions. 

" The firfl Thomas Multon married Ada Morvill, late wife to Richard Lucy, 
" by whom he had iflue Thomas the fecond, called Thomas fil. Thomas ; and by 
" a former wife he had iffue Lambert Multon and Allan Multon, whom he married 
*' to the two daughters and coheireffes of Richard Lucy, named Annabel and Alice; 
" Lambert, by his firft wife Annabel, became Lord oi Egremont : and Allan, by 
" his wife, was lord of the moiety oi Allerdale, and the 20th part oi Egremoiit. 

" The fecond Thomas Multon, named Fitz Thomas, married Matilda Vaux, as 
" before-mentioned, and by her had iffue Thomas Multon de Gilfland, his heir of 
" Burgh and Gilfland, and two younger fons, Edward and Hubert, to whom he 
" gave Jpall, which Hubert bore for his arms, the fame coat with the Lighs of 
" Ifliall, his heirs by blood now give; viz. five pieces bar-wife, azure and 
" argent.:}; 

The following table of defcents will give a clear idea of the fucceffion of the 
lords of Gilfland. 

Robertas 1 
2. Dom. J 

Hubertus dc Vallibus prim. Dom.* 

ob. temp. Hen. I. 

Gracia uxor ejus. 


Ada Engayne 
rclitft. Sim. de Morvill. 

Robertas || 

i Robert us' 
4. Dom. 



Ranulphusl C 
3d. Dom. J I X 

Dom. de Triermaine^ 

t The lady Maud furvived her hufband and fon Thomas ; for in an old record, " aJ caff, apul Penrith in Com, 
■" Cumb. An. R. Ed. I." I find her " Dna dc CUjhnd it mantrU dc Cumjuinlon, infra Baroncam Ulam.'' 

Gilpin's Additions. 

; Denton's M. S. 

* A Norman. 
j6th of his reign. 

§ 1 7th King John, was Governor of Cumberland and of the caftle of Carlifle : took part with the baront, and forfeited 
lands m Cumberland NorfQik, Suffolk, Somerfstlhire, and Porfetlhire ; was reftored 6th King Henry HI. and went a 
pilgrimage to Jetuiilcm: 


King John extorted from him two fines; 750 marks, 12th of his reign ; and 666L 13s. 4d1 



Hubertusl f 
5. Dom. S I I 


§ Thomas Multonl C Matilda 

mar. ejus 6. Dom. ^ I l ob. 23. Ed I. 

ob. 25. Hen. III. I p. ejus deceff. fuit Dna de Gilfland* 

Thomas Multon 1 f Alicia 

7. Dom. ob. J {_ Ux. de Bruce. 

33. £dw. I. 

1 C Ranulphus Dacre • 1 f Margaret 

I I9. Dom._ ]■ J "[ob. 35. Edw. III. 

8. Dom. 
ob. 7. Edw. II. ob. 29. Edw. Ill, 

Ranulphus Dacre 1 f Margaret. Hugo "1 f 

10. Dom. ob. 49. £dw. III. J \ 11. Dom. ob. 7. R. II. J I \ 

Wilhelmusl t 
12. Dom. J I > 
ob. 23 R II. 


Thomas 1 r 

13. Dom. ob. 37. Hen. VI. J j \ 

14. Dom. ob. I Edw. IV. 

Humphidu!r7 f 
15. Dom. 3 I I 

I Hen. VII. 


i6.Dom.ob. 17. Hen. VIII. j" 1 



17. Dom. ob. 6. Elizabeth. J I 


Thomas "I f 

18. Dom. ob. 8. Elizabeth. J I I 

§ There appears an error here, the firft Thomas Multon, and who married Maud, was fon of Thomai by his fecooi 
fvife Ada, daughter and coheir of Hugh de Morville, and is faid to have died 21ft King Edward I. 

* Dacre of Dacre caftk. From him, it is faid by fume authors, it palTed to eleven of bis dcfcendants before it came t« 

H 2 Georgmi 




•}• Georgius Anna 

19. Dom. ob. Niipfit. fil. Com. Arundel. 

II. Eliz. f. prole, pr. gen. Thos. Due. Notf. 

ob. tern. pat. 


Sir William, a Kt. 
21. Dom. Gilf. 


r Mary fil. Will. 
|_Dom. Eure. 

§ John. 

Will. Howard 
ter. fil. Due. Norf. 
20. Dom. Gilf. 

r Mary fil. 

(^ Sir John Carrel. 

.} r 

zabeth. i 



m. Th. Vifc. FairfaK. 



II Char 
22 Dom 

hil JA 
m.j |d 

* Edwardusl 
E. Carlifle j 

I ^1 I I I I I J 

i.nne fil. Edw. Phil. Tho. John Marj' Eliz. Cath. Frances, Margaret. 

)om Howard m. Sir m. Sir m. Sir m. Sir ra. AJexander 

de Efkrick. John Thos. John George Leflie, 

Atkins. Gower. Lawfon. Downing. E of Lev. 



r Eliza fil. Sir Will. 
\ Ufedale, Kt. and 
vid. SirW. Beikley. 

•j-f Fred. Chriftian. Mar^- m. Sir John Ann m. Sir Catharine 
Fenwick of Wal- Rich. Graham d. unm» 
lingtoD, Northum. of Netherby, bt. 

it Charles "1 
E. of Carlifle J 
24 Dom. 

TLady Eliz. Capel fil. 
1^ Arthur Earl of EfTex. 


d. unmarried. 

Lady Fra. 
only d. of the 
Earl of Sund. 
I ft wife. 

1 r Henry, T 

J. .J E. of Carl. j. 
J I (.25 Dom. J 

Charles Robert 
Lord d. unm. m 
d. unmar. 




fifabella, Charles, Kt. Eliza, ifl m. Anne ift Mary 

■i fifter of of the Bath, Nich. Lord m. Ld. Vifc. d. unmar. 

C Lord gov. of Carl. Lechmere ; Irwin ; 2d 

Byron, & M. P. for 2d Sir Tho. Ja. Douglas. 

2d wife, that city. Robinfon. 

|— - ;■ I ^ I I T~^ 

Frederick, theT J" Caroline Anne. Frances Ehz. Juliana. 

m. Jolin 

m. Thos. prefent E. of ( J fil, M. of 
ow- f J Stafford. 

Duncombe, Carl. Vifc. How 
Efq. ard of Morpeth, J {_ 

Baron Dacre of 
Gilf. and Kt. of 
the thiftle. 


■f Lord of Gilfland, Grayftock, and Wcmm. 

^ In the partition, the barony of Gilfland fell to the lliare of this lady.' 

5 Fell at the battle of Rowton hc.i:h, in tlie fervice of King Charles I. Hlj Fell there alfo. 

11 In the year 1660, was chofen member for Morpeth, and having been of Gngular fervice to King Charles 11. was, by 
letters patent, 20th of April, 1661, created Baron Dacre of Gilfland, Vifcount Morpeth, and Earl of Cailifle. A. D. 
1663, he was AmbalTjdor to the Czar of Mufcovy, and in the following year to the Kings of Denmark and Sweden. 
Was made Governor of Jamaica, where he died in 1686, and was interred at York. 

* Died .It V.'ic'.iham, 1692, and was interred there. 

+f Born at Copenhagen, and Ilain at the battle of Lutzenburg. 

^\ Was Lord Lieutenant and Ciiftos Rotuloruni of the counties of Weftmorland and Cumberland, one of the gentlemen 
•fhis majefty's bedchamber, Deputy Earl Marlhall of England, firft commiflioncr of the treafury. Governor of the Town 
and Ciftle of Carlifle, Vice-Admiral of the Scacoaft adjacent, and one ef the privy council : afterwards Governor ol 
WindfoT Caftle, and JLwd Warden of the f oreft of Windfor. 


<< ^ i wi i iiiii i l i i,«i 'ii iiii ii ''" i ;" ' "'""" " T^ 







THIS parifh is of large extent, being bounded by Haltwhiftle on the eaft, the 
two Dentons on the foutheafi:, Walton on the weft, Stapleton on the north- 
vert', Brampton on the fouth, and fouthwcfl:, and Bewcartle on the north. 

The parifli is divided into four quarters, viz. Burtholme, Waterhead, King's 
Water, and Aflcerton ; and each quarter maintains its own poor. It compreliends 
five conrt;ablewicks, viz. Banks, Burtholme, Afkerton, Waterhead, and King's 

There are four manors within this parifli, Lanercoft, Walton-Wood, Trodder- 
maine or Tryermaine, and Aflcerton: the manor of Lanercort: has in it, about 
thirteen freeholders, and fixty cufl:omary tenants. The manors of Walton-Wood, 
Troddermaine, and Afkerton, are within the cuflom of the barony of Gillland; 
and pay an arbitrary fine of two year's value on the death of the tenant, or on an 
alienation, and a twenty-penny fine certain on the death of the lord. They do 
fuit at the lord's court; and the lord claims all the wood, except the hedge-rows. 

The villages in the parifli are Burtholme, Wefl:hall Moorguards, Sogdlin, and 
Kirkcambeck, (formerly a parifh of itfelf, but now incorporated with the parifli of 
Lanercoft) lying within that quarter of the parifli called Afkerton, 

We approached the venerable remains of 


The vale in which the abbey and remains of the monafl^ery are fituated, takes its 
name from the dedication of the church, and is called St. Mary's Holme. The 
land is fertile, and the vale is Ihut in on every fide by lofty hills, fome cloathed with 
wood, and others divided into fine inclofures: the river Irthing flowing through, 
the valley in meanders: the whole fccne is beautiful, folemn and majeftic. Ihe 
approach to the remains, is by a flone bridge of two elliptic arches. Some parts 
of the monaflic buildings are converted into a farm houfe, fo that it is not 
pofliblc, at this time, to diftinguifli the particular ofiices of the religious houfe. 
The chief part of the monart:ery was repaired in the fixteenth century, for the 
manfion of one of the Dacres, and yet retains the old ftatcly projcding centre 
window of the convent. Part of the cemetery grounds have been converted 
into gardens, which approach dole to the walls ot the abbey, on the fouth; and 
fcveral flone coflins and infcribed monuments lie among the trees. 

We entered the church, which is in the form of a crols, at the wefl: door: the 
gateway conflfls of a circular arch of many members, richly ornamented and fup- 
ported on pilaflers, the capitals and bafcs of which are without any other embel- 
liflimcnts than plain rolls. Jn a nich, above the entrance, is a flatue of Mary- 
Magdalen, of excellent workmanfliip, in flone. The figure is foniewhat mutilated, 
but the drapery is elegantly difpofcd. On the right hand is a diminutive figure 


54 ABBEY OF LANERCOST. [Eskdale Ward, 

of a kneeling monk. The canopy of the nich is circular, fupportcd on pilafters, 
ornamented with the heads of cherubs. This part of the edifice, has, of late years 
been put in repair; it is fitted up in a plain and decent manner for divine ler- 
vice, being the parochial church of the parifli of Lanercoft, and capable of con- 
taining a great number of people. 

On the right of the communion table, is a tablet fixed in the viall, with this 
infcription: — 

"Robertus de Vallibus filius Hubert. Dns de Gilfland, fundator Priorat. dc 
" Lanercoft A", dni. 1 1 16. ^dargan Uxor ejus fine Prole."t 

In the great window, above the communion table, is the following infcription, 
faid to be removed from the window of the hall, now ufed as a barn: — 

" Mille et quingentos ad quinquaginta novemq. 

" Adjice, et hoc anno, condidit iflud opus; 

" Thomas Darer, Eques, fedem qui prim, in iftam, 

" vencrat, extind:a religione loci. 

" H^ec Edvardus ei dederar, devoverat ante 

•' Hcnricus longe praemia militias. 

" Anno Dni 1559."* 

The walls of the other parts of the church, and the centre tower, are {landing, 
but unroofed. 

The crofs aile is thirty-two paces in length, and the quire twenty-fix. The 
tower has formed a Ipacious cupola, each corner fupported by a cluttered pillar, 
light, and well proportioned. An open gallery or colonade runs round the upper 
part of the whole edifice, fupported on fingle pillars, without any dead fpace or 
interval, — a circumftance uncommon in fuch buildings, and which gives a light 
and beautiful appearance to this. The arches of the gallery are pointed, but the 
principal ones of the building are circular: though moft of the windows are 
lancet under pointed arches. The tower is low and heavy, without ornament, 
except an embrazured battlement. The ceiling of the cupola is of wood work, 
but retams no efcutchions of arms, or other decorations. The quire is lighted to 
the eaft, by three long lancet windows below, and an equal number above, and two 
•windows on each lide. The whole ftrucflure is plain, of excellent mafonry, and 
conftru(flcd of a durable ftonc. At each end of the crofs aile, are feveral tombs 
richly fculptured with the arms of the Howards and Dacrcs ; from their expofure, 
the infcriptions are obliterated, the ornaments defaced, and the whole grown green 
with mofs. The veneration for anceftors, in former ages, was an incitement to 

f Which n^ay be read thus — Robertus dc Vallibus, fon of the Lord of Gilfland, founder of the priory 
of Lanercofl:, in the year of our Lord 1116, Edargyne his wife having no ifliie. e 

By this date, the monaftery was founded fifty-three years before the dedication of the church: this i« 
not much to be wondrcd at when we confider the ftate of the borders in the reign of King Stephen. 

• Which may be read thus — To one thoufand five hundred r.dd fifty and nine, and in that year Thomas 
Dacre, Knight, erefted this work. He was the firfl. who came to this feat, after the difTohition of the 
priory. It was given to him by Edward, tliough before proraifed by Henry, as a reward for his long 
njihtary fervices. 



pradlical virtues: we lament to fee any thing which fhould tend to promote good 
works, finking into ncgleift. Thefc monuments are fliamefully forgotten, now- 
overgrown with weeds ; and not fo much veneration is paid to the remains they 
cover, as to preferve them from rapacious hands, or their refting place from 
reptiles, vermin, and loathfome iilthinels.* 

We were told by an old pcrfon who lived near the abbey, that fomc years ago, 
one of the fcpulchral vaults fell in, which excited his curiofity to view the remams 
depoiitcd there, where he found feveral bodies entire ; one in particular with a 
white beard down to his waift: but the air in a few days reduced them to dufi:. 

In the manufcript before us, this place is noted — " Lancrccfly a.i cojleram vallis, 
" was firft a lawn or plain in that glen or valley, where the Pids wall ftandeth : and 
" Walton wasfo named, as the firft habitation which was built on part of that wall. 
" At chetimcof theconqueft, it was a great foreftand walte ground; in Henry II's 
" time, this tradt of land was given by Robert fon of Robert Vaux to the prior 
*' and convene there, by him firft founded to the name of Mary Magdalen. The 
" deed made to the prior &:c. is pro anima regis Hen. II. et Hui'crti -patris met et 
" Gracice Malris, &e."-f 

This was a monaftery of the order of St. Auguftine, according to the tablet in the 
church, founded in the year 1 1 16, but it doth not appear in public records until 
about the 16th year of King Henry II, A, D, 11 69. It was endowed with all the 
lands laying between the Fu7s W/j/Zand Irtbing, fcilicet inter murum antiquum et Ier~ 
tbino.m ; alio between Burgh, Poltro/s, et inter Bitreh et Poltres, and feveral other 
valuable pofTefllons.:}; The church was dedicated by Bernard, bifliop of Carlifle, to 


* Puhlijloed in the Nenx;cajlle Ncwfpaperj, 
" Whereas fome evil-difpofcd perfon did, fome time this fpring, enter into the rurnous part of Laner- 
" coft cliurch or prior)', &c. and did ftlonioudy take away, from out of a vault in the fald church, a lead- 
" coffin, which contained the remains of Loid William Dacre, Knight of the Garter, &c. Sec. a reward 
•' of ten guineas on the conviction of the offender." 
Na'worth Caflle, <jth May, ITJS' 

In Ecclcjia Parochali de Lanercojl. 
" Sir Rowland Vaxjx, that fome time was the Lord of Triermalne, 
" Is dead, his body clad in lead, and ligs law under this flane; 
" Evin as we, evin fo was he, on earth a levand man ; 
" Evin as he, evin fo moun we, for all the craft we can. 

MMourn'j jidJj. to Denton's MS. — Ex. MS. Antiq. penes F. W. Arm. 
f Denton's MS. 

\ Walton, and the church, with the chapel of Treverman or Triermaine — The churches of Irthing, 
Brampton, Carlatton, and Farlam. — Lands of Warthecolman, Rofwrageth, common of pallure through, 
all his vvalte lands, with his freemen, and unam Scalingam, Aptltrethwaite, and Bron(l<ibeth — Failure for 
30 cows and 20 fows — Pannage in the forell of Walton — Bark of timber wood in Gilbueth's lands, and 
fallen wood for fuel, — et ad fiijlineiidam do>nw7i fuam, with mills and filhings in Irthing, King, Herting- 
burn, or elfewhere. 

Regist. Lanercost. 

Befide the above, the founder alfo granted to this priory, the two Alkertons, the tithes of all the veni- 
fon, as well in flcfh as (Icins, of ihe (Icins of foxes, wherever through his lands in Cumberland they (hould 
be hunted, of his lakes and fifhings, and the tithes in his wafte lands, of fowls, calves, lambs, pigs, wool, 
chccfe, and butter; and when cultivated, tithes of the produce of the lands. Other benefatlois Ada 
daughter of W. Engain and Euftacia his wife, 30 acres of land in Burgh marfli, two fait pans, and pafture 




[EsKDALE Ward. 

Mary Magdalen. King Richard I. by his charter, confirmed to the priory the feveral 
grants made thereto as well by the founder as others, and King Henry III. and 
Edward I. did the like. The priory having been burnt, and the lands and tene- 
ments belonging to it wafted and fpoiled by the Scotch, King Edward I. granted 
to the prior and convent, the advowfons of two churches in his patronage, Mitjord 
in Northumberland, and Carlatton in Cumberland, when they fliould fall void, with 
power to appropriate them for ever to them and their fuccelTors : and he wrote an 
epiftle to the pope, requiring his confirmation. This fovereign, in the 24th year 
of his reign, was detained at this place by fickncfs, whillt he was on a Scotch ex- 
pedition. J Many other liberal donations were made to this monaftery, fome of 
which are very remarkable, as the tithes of vcnifonand the fl\^ins of deer and foxes; 
tithe of the muldure of a mill, pafture for milking of ilieep, the bark of trees, a 
well or fpring, and fundry villains, their iflue and goods. 


for 200 fheep, a free net in Eden, three marks of filver in the church of Burgh, Lefingby, and Grenefdale 
churches, and little Harfcon. A carrucate of land in Blenecreye, and pafture there ; for daily remem- 
brance at the altar of St. Katharine, for the foul of Simon de Morvill, her hu(band. — By David fon of 
Terric, and Robert fon of AIl<elil, Lefing's hennitage, and common padurc in Denton. — By Alex, de 

Windefover, tithe of mulfture of Korby mill. — By William fon of Udard, a toft near Korby mill By 

Peter dc Tilliol, Simon de Tilliol, and Henry Noreis, land in Scales. — By Robert fon of Bucth, and 
Robert fon of Aikelil, a carrucate of land in Denton, and pafture for one milking of flieep, 20 cows and 
one bull. 

Regist. Lanercost. Mon. Angl. vol. il. p. 130. 

William fon of Aftin, and Eva his wife, gave lands in Aftineby. — Adam fon of Michael, land 'wi 
Ainftapellyth. — Ra. de le'Forte, land in Beaumont. — Maud and Thomas de Multon, and Robert fon of 
Adam, lands in Brampton — Walter Bennv, lands in Burdofvvald. — Euftace de Vallibus Robert de 
Caftlccayrock, William Laveill, lands and paftiirage at Caille-Carrock. — Robert de Vallibus fon of Ralph, 
pafture at Camboc. — Walter Pykering, John de Buetliby, William de Marfcal, and Ux. and Robert 
Tybay, tenements and rents in Carlifte. — Walter de Windefover, lands in Clovefgill. — Matilda dt Vallibus, 
a well at Crechock. — William de Croglin, lands at Croglin. — Robert dc Vallibus, and Walter Benny, 
lands at Cumqucr.sch. — Robert de Vallibus, and Robert fon of Afkelil, the church of Ovcr-Denton. — 
Robert fon of Bucth, lands at Denton. — Walter de Windefover, Robert de Carlatton, Chriftian fil. Adam 
hi. Hermar, lands ac Farlam. — William de Ireby, confirmed by Robert de Brns, lord of Annandale, 
conunon of pafture on the mountains of Gameltfby and Glaffonby. — Euftacious de Vallibus, lands in 
Greenwell. — William de Sor, lands in Grindfale. — Alex. fil. Roger fil, Baldwin, lands near King river. 
— Alice fil. Henry the chaplain, lands in Kingfgill. — Adam Salvarius, a meff. in Kirkofwald. — Matilda 
de Multon, all her lands in Knovern. — Hubert Breoice. — Thomas fil. Thomas fil Ramburch, lands at 
Lazonby. — Walter de Hamant, lands at Milnholme. — Walter de Savage, lands at Ncwbiggin. — Thomas 
Brune, a Burgage at Newcaftlc. — Thomas de Multon, lands at Preftover. — William de Mora, and Agnes 
Ux. third part of lands at QuinquathiU. — himon and Jeficry de Tilllcl, lands at Sca'eby. — Alan fil. Gilb. 
de Talken, Adam alt. fil. Richard Haldencficld, and Avyle Ux. lands at Talken. — William fil. William 
tie Ulvtfliy, Adam de Crakthove, Richard de Ulvcfby, and l*~udo de Sk'rwith, lands and rents at Ulvefhy. 
— Alicia fil Henry the chaplain. Alex fil. Robert fil. Baldwin, lands at Walton. — William fil. Odaid, 
lands at Waithwyck. — Plugh de Moivill, and Ranulph de Forte each a free net in Eden. — Walter fil. 
William de Ireby, granted the villain Walter (on of Simon de Gamelefby, with all his iffne and cattle. — 
Ageline de Nevvby, gave Henr)' fon of Ledmcre, and all that belonged to him. — Robert de Caftlccay- 
rock, gave Gamcl de Walton and his iffue. — x'Vnd Robert dc Vallibus, gave Jeftery Pitch, his wife, and 
poftciity for evermore. 

J; Prynne'a Chron. Vind tom iii. p. 1 159, the letter to the cardinal, p. 1 192, ibid, grant. Robert de 
Vallibus fiUus Hubcrti &c, Sal. Nov. univers. &c. me conccfTdfe &c. Canonicis de Lanercoll liberam clec- 



The patronage of the priory was granted, very early, to the ecclcfiaftical body. 

By the manufcript chronical of Lanercofl, depofited in the Britifh Mufeum, it 
appears, that Henry de Burgh was prior here, and died in the year 1;? 1 5. It is therein 
faid that he was a famous poet ; but no part of his v.orks are now extant. He 
was fuccecded by Robert de Mel>nrn, chofen by the convent, and confirmed by the 
bifhop of the diocefe. IVilliam de Southayke was next, and died in 1337, when 
John de Bowetbby was in like manner chofen. The next fucceilbr was John de 
Bothecajlre : but he,on account of old age and inilrmities, rcfigned, and had afligned 
him a cell in the convent for life. Thomas de He>:toldeJhmii\ was elecled in his place, 
who, befides the oath ot canonical obedience, was obliged by the bifhop to make a 
folemn promifc, " Ao/ to frequent public huntings, or to keep Jo Imge a peck of hounds 
'• as he had formerly done." On his demife, diffentions arofe touching the elecflion 
of a prior; one party being in favour of Richard de Rydal, a canon of Cuilifle, 
and the other for John de Menyngton, a cannon of tiie houfe : on an appeal heard at 
the biflnop's caflle of Rofe, Rydal was confirmed. \\ 

In the year 1360, the prior abfenting himfelf, the bifliop conflituted Martin de 
Brampton, one of the canons, guardian of the houfe. It is remarkable that in all 
the repofitories we have had accefs to, we have not found an account of the fuc- 
cefllon of priors from the above period. 

tionem. Quate volo quod obennte D. priore, vel quolibet fucceflbre ejus, ille fit prior, quem Jam difti 
canonic!, vcl major pars eorum ct fanftor. fecundum Deum eligerint. et ut &:c. His teftibus, Roberto 
Archidiacone Karliolenfi, Waltero Priore, Rob. Aukitell, Rob. Ckrico de Leventon, Hen. de Radulpho 
Prefbyteris, Alex, de Windefover, Will fil. Oderdi, Bernardo de Leverfdale et mullis aliis. 

Ex Regist. Lanercost. Rymer, torn II. p. 1047. Letter to the Pope. 

f In Dei nomine Amen. Ego frater Thomas de Hextoldertiam prior prioratus de Lanercoft, ordinis 
S. Auguflini, Karliolenfis Dioceleos ero fidelis et obediens vobis veneiabili in Chrifto patri ac Domino meo 
Domino Gilberto Dei gratia Karlioli epifcopo, ct etiam fuccefToribui vedriscanonice intrantibusofficialibus 
ct miniftris in canonicis et licitis mandatis : ficut Deus me adjuvit et hac fandla Dei evangelia. Et hoc, 
propria manu mea, fubfcribo. 

II Lanercoft, an abbey of black canons, viij miles from CaerluU, upon the north fide of the river Ytthing. 

Lel. Itin. vol. VII. p. 71. 

A. D. 1306, Rex apud Lanercofl commorans mifit Juftlclarios ad Bervvicum. 

Lel. Col, vol. I. p. 398. 

Stowe fays, they tried hundreds and thoufands of breakers of the peace and confpirators, many of whom 
were hanged. 

VOL, I. I The 



[EsKDALE Ward,, 

The arms of this mo- 
naftery, as fet out in Tan- 
ner's ]Slotitia,werea77i7/^«i' 
Or, and Gules. At the time 
a prior, and fevcn canons 
here; the revenue 77I. 7s, 
I id. as reported by Dug- 
dale, and 79I. 19s. accord- 
ing to Speed. * 

The fitc of the religious 
houfe, together with feveral 
of the adjacent lands, were 
granted to Thomas Dacre, Armig. in the 34th year of ^ 

Kino- Henry VIII. at that time deemed the patron, as being a lineal defcendant of; 
the founder, and heir to Robert de Vallibus, /o hold the fame of the king in capitc, to 


* Tanner's Notitia. 

Vide in Mon. Angl. torn. II. p. 130, 131, 132, Caitam fundationis et pa'genem fundatoris, necnon; 
eonfirmationem donationum, p. Rich. I. ex car t. 9. Ed. II. n. 58 per Inlpex, 

In Prynn's Papal Ufurpations, vol. Ill p. 1159, 1192. Rol. Rom. 34, 35, Ed. I. EtPat. 35. Ed. I. 

TO. 25, 

In Rymeri feod. etc. torn. II. p. 1 147. Rol. Rom. 35. Ed. I. m. 3. Chronlcon Lanercoft. M. S. in 
Bibl. Cotton. 

Cartularium de Lanercoft, olim penes Will. dom. Howard de Naworth. 

Fin. 16. Joan. m. d. de terris m Cleburn. 

Pat. 31. Ed. I. m. 24. pro advoc. ecclefiarum de Carlton, Gumb. and Mitford, Nortliumb. 

Pat. 2. Ed. II, m. 8. pat. x. Ed. II. p. 1. m. 24. de Ten. in Prefton, Ibid. p. 2. m- 22. pro. Meft. 
in Civlt. Carliol. Ibid. 

7he Editor o'wes his inojl gratefid acknonvledgements to John Bacon, Efq. of the Firjl Fruits Office, for a. 
perfefi Copy of the Survey of Ecclejiajiical Rights, in the County of Cumberland, taken in purfuance of the 
Ah of Parliament of the 26th of King Henry VIII. — ivhich valuable record is parcelled out under the 
head of each ref(ie8ive paiifh,for the eajier application of each local reader. 


Sp'ual p'tinet.1 Joh'es Robyfon prior ejufdem P.'ioratus h'et Rcfloria p'ochie Marie £. /. d. 
didt. Priorat. J Magdalene de Lanercoft que val' co'ib's Annis in Lan. Agn, Vitul. 

Lafticis Oblacoi'b's cum Libr. tempore Pafchalis, — — — — 11116 

Idem P'ior habct Garbas Dec'al. de Walton cu. p'tinentijs que valet co'ibus ann. 3 3 4 

Idem P ior habet Garbas Deci'al de King et Irdinge cu' p'tinentijs que valet coi b's 

annis. — — — — — — — — — 500 

Idem P ior habet decim. Garb, de Brampton cu' pertinentiis que valent co'ib's annis, 500 

Idem P'ior habet decim Garbar. de Irdington cu' p'tinen. q, valent co'ib's annis. — 400 
Idem P'ior habet decim. Garbar. de Laifingby que val. p' annu'. — — 6 13 4 

Idem P'ior habct Garbas Deci'a! de Grynfdale que. val. p. annu'. — — 400 

Idem P'ior habet Garbas Deci'al de Farl'm que val. p. annu. — — — o 40 o 

Idem Prior habet decim'. Garbar. de Metfarthe in Com. Northu'brie que val. p.annu. 10 00 

Sm. Sp'ual 51I. 8s 2d. Ex. 
X«niporal P'tincnt.l Idem Prior habet cert. Terr. & Redd' in Villa de Walton que va- 
dift. Priorat. J lent p. annu. 



him and the heirs male of his body, lawfully begotten, or to be begotten, for ever, 
by the fervice of the twentieth part of one knight's fee, and nine fhillings fieri, 
rent. In this grant there was a refervation of the parifli church of Lanercofl:, the 
church-yard, a houfe called the Uttergate, with the ftable, granary, and garden, 
for the dwelling place of a curate or vicar.* King Edward VI. by his letters 
patent, in the 6th year of his reign, granted to the fame Thomas Dacrc, then a 
knight, the patronage and advowfons of the churches of Lanercofl, Grenldale, 
Farleham, Lafingby, Brampton, and Irthington, and the chapel of Walton, with 
the lands and revenues late belonging to the priory of Lanercofl:. To hold of the 
king in capite, by the fervice of the 40th part of a knight's fee, and 55/. i-js: -jd. 

£. s. d. 

Idem Prior habet Terr. & Ten. in Villa de Thornemoor que valent p. annu. — 0230 

Idem Prior habet Terr. & Ten. in Villa ds Gwhitehilie que vale't p annu. — O 22 11 

Idem Prior habet Terr. & Ten. in Villa de Burthome et VValle q. valent p. annu. 410 o 

Idem Prior habet cert. Terr, et Ten. in Villa de Bank et St. Marye Holme cu. p'tin 

q. valent p. annu. — — — — — — — — 4io<? 

Idem Prior h'et unu. Terr, vocat Hcrkehew q. vale't p. ann. — — o 30 o 

Idem Prior habet div's Redit. jacent. in div's Hamlett. viz. in Karlioln. Irdinge et 

King que valent p. annu. — -- — — — — — 524. 

Idem Prior h'et Terr. D'm'cal eid. Priorat. p'tin. viz. xx acr. Terr, arabilis q. valet 

p. annu. — — — — — — — — — 20 

Idem Prior h'et unu Molendinu. Granaticu. infra precinft. Priorat. p'd'ce que val. p. 

ann. — — — — — — — — — — o 10 o 

Idem Prior h'et unu. Molendinu. acquaticu. juxta. Villa de Walton q. val. co'ibus 

annis. — — -^ — — . — — — — -^0268 

Idem Prior habet Grangiam de Warthool Man. cum Terrls Pratis Pafcuis eidem ja- 

centibus viz. 20 acr. Terre in mauibus dift. Prioratus qui valent per annum. o 20 O 

Idem Prior habet Grangiam de Sewynefe cu. Terris, p'tis pafturis eid. jacentib. viz. 

14 terr. acr. que vale't p. annu. — — — — — 0134 

Sraa. Temporal. 28I. los. lod. 
Sma. toi. t'm Sp'ual qm. Temporal. 79I. 19s. od. Dc quib. 

Oj. '.y' > In Soluco'es faft D'no Ep"o Karlii, p. lenaeio annuatim folvtnd. 080 

rdmarijs. J r j' r & « 

In Soluco'es faft. eidem D'no Ep'o Karlij, p. Vifitaco't de tricnnis in tricnnium 2 is. 

4d. nu'c in trib. equis porc'o'ibs dividat. que val. an'im. — — — O 7 r 

In Soluc. faft. Vicar, de Layffingbye pro 2 Eflcepps Ferr avtnacie annuatim. — 012 o 

Refolut. Rcddit.") In feod. folut. Johni Hetherington & Mattheo Stevynfon Ballivis dift. 

& Feod. folut. J P'orat, Antim. — — — — — — — 0200 

Sma. oim' deduft. P'd. . . 47s. id. 

Et Rem. 77I. iis. iid. xmainde"'7l. 15s. 2 i-2d. 

* Henricus 8""' &c. Sal. Sciatis quod nos in confideratione boni vcri & fidelis fervlc. &c. Dedimus & 
conceffimus &c. eidem Thomse Dacre Totuiii domum & fcitum nuper monafler. five priorat. dc Laner- 
eoft, &c. ac om'ia Mefl". Domos, Orta, Stabula, &c. Necnon totum illud Moleiidin. gran, aquat. Ac to- 
tum illud claufura Terre pafture & bofci, &c. vocat. Le Parke 5 acr. VViudhill banks 4 acr. claus prati, 
&c. Ktldeholme, claus Terre & pafture voc. Pifhc. Flat. 8 acr. — Burtheflat 9 acr. Barkehoufe I'lnt 10 
acr. — Lc Tannhoufe ac omnia Ortos. Pomaria, <Scc. MefTuag. voc. I^e Stonehoufe, &:c. in Watlicolman 
fO acr. prati xi acr. terr. arab. Paftur. in Mora voc. Banksticld. MelF voc. Serbre Nefccjux. Burne 
TylTott More, xxvj acr. prati. & com paft. Meff. voc FuUpotts, S;c. Except, &c. &c. Habendum, 
&c. ptxfato ThomiE Dacre et ha:red. mafculis de corpore fuo legitime procreatis & procreandis in perpe- 
tuum. Tcnend &c.— Apud Weftm. 2 2''''- Novembris, A. R. 34''' 

Per brevs de privalo Sipillo. — Milhourns'.s to Dmtofi's MS. 

I 2 rent. 




rent. The fird grant limited the eftates in tail-male ; the grant of King Edward 
VI. was in fee-fimple. 

This Thomas Dacre was called the Ballard Dacre, and wasefteemed an illegiti- 
mate fon of Thomas Lord Dacre of the north; and the Lanercofi: family bore in 
their arms the bar of difference. He repaired the conventual manfion for his 
refidence, as before mentioned. 

Sir Thomas. \ . -J A d. of Denton. 


r Alice of Knevet. 



ob. f. p.. 



A d. of Salktld, Corby. 

£ir Tho, 

} V 

oro. Braithvvaite. Humph, 
had ' 

lumph."! Richard T ] 
lad 2 f. ( cr. a banneret in ( ra. 
& I d. (" the field, 6 K. f Fe 
J Ch. I. ob. f. p. J of 

ob. f. p. 

Sibfon. 3 

f Henry. \ 

fzd Margaret! Tho. 
|_ Charlton . j ob. f. p. 

Mary "J Anne 

Tho. (mar. Mufgravc, 

Featheritonehaugh f of Crookdale. 
Kirkofwald. J 

Dorothy 7 Catharine 
m. J. Child. 3 d. unmar. 

■) Mary T 
V m. Bafd [■ 
J Fielding. J 

Thomas! Dorothy 

ob. f. p. 3 m. Jofeph Appleby. 

m. a d. of Sir John Swinburn, 
of Capheaton, in Northumb. 

Jofeph I 

who took the name of Dacre, Margaret 

and was grandfather of Jofeph d. unmar. 
Dacre, Efq. of Kirklinton. 

The male line failing in Sir Thomas Dacre's family, the fiteof the priory rever- 
ted to the crown, under the grant of King Henry VIII. and is now in the tenure of 
the prcfent Earl of Carlifle, who holds a court baron and cuftomary court. The 
cultomary lands pay a certain fine on admittance of a tenant, or change of lord, 
without any heriots or other fcrvices. The widow's right is one full third part for 
life, or during her viduity, of the tenements of which her hufband died feized. 
This cullomary tenure is of a mixed nature, and partakes of freehold, the lands 
pafTing in alienation by deed, which is confirmed by the lord's admitting to the 
roll of tenants in court : the lands will alio pafs by furrender in court and admit- 
tance. There is an ancient referved rent payable annually out of each tenement to 
the lord, on which each fine is computed, viz. every penny of the ancient or re- 
ferved rent is multiplied by twenty, which gives the accepted term of a twenty- 
penny finej payable by the cuftomary tenants of this manor. 



Lanercoft is, at prefent, no more than a perpetual curacy, was certified to the 
governors of Queen Anne's bounty at 14I 5 s. and hath received one allotment of 
200I. The Earl of Carlifle is patron.* 

The public were indebted to George Smith, Efq. a corrcfpondcnt of the editor 
of the Gentleman's Magazine, for the publication of the two following curious in- 
Icriptions difcovered at Lanercoft, and firft publilhed in the 14th vol. of that 
valuable repofitory, p. 369. f 

" The following Roman infcription, being the head (tone of the upper paflage, 
*' betwixt the pillars and out-wall of the old abbey of Lanercoft, has efcaped the 

• Aspect.] The general afpeft Is towards the fouth; 

Soil and Produce.] The foil is various: iu the vale of St. Mary's Holme, the foil is chiefly loam, 
with a mixture of fand, and is very fruitful. The bank-lands, lying upon a linieftone, produce every kind 
of grain; but the cultivation, by veafon of the llecp declivities, is laborious. Further up the river Iithing 
the foil is colder and moic barren. Some timber trees and much brulhwood cloath the bord-is of the 
river. Kingfwater quarter lies to the northcail: the valley is fliut in on each fide by ileep hlUs of com- 
mon or wafte lands, and is of a ftrong fruitful foil producing, good com. The awrage rent of inclofed 
ground is about fifteen (hillings, fome lands let for thirty jhilliDgs per acre. The cxtenlive common- , 
light is certainly of confiderable value. 

Common Lands and Cattle.] The waftes and common lands are very extenfive and afford pallurage 
for a great number of cattle; Lord Caihfle's farms have a valuable priviledge, in the maintenance of large 
llocks, as well thofe bred there, as thofc brought from Scotland : the breed is of the Scotch kind, both ia 
black cattle and horfes, aSd are generally fold off at two or tlirce years old. Near one thoufand liead of 
black cattle are bought yearly, and brought on to the common lands in Oftober or November, and are fold 
again to the graziers from Leicefterdiire, Lincolnfhire, &c. at Brough-hill fair the lad day ot September 
and firll of Odlober, iu the fucceeding year with an advantage of about twenty (hillings a head, upon an 

Sheep.] The (Keep ftocks are fmall, on account of the wetnefs of the wafte grounds: wool, in the laft 
year fold from eight (hillings to twelre (hillings a Hone of i61b. — The fleecfs of (heep that departure oa 
the heights are not fo valuable. 

Market.] The chief market for the ordinary necelTaries of life is at Brampton, diftant two miles. 

Fuel.] In the northern parts peat and turf, iu other parts coal from Tindalefell, diltant about A.-i miles. 

Game.] There is mucli game, particularly groufe. 

Juniper.] It grows here, in fpots of barren foils, compofed of clay and cankering gravel, which 
hardly admits of any otiier vegetation: and we do not know that it grows any where elfe in the 
county Housman's Notes. 

Population.] The number of families within this pari(h (including Kirkcambeck) amount to about 
300, 26 are Prelbyterians, 2 Quakers: — the inhabitants are nearly 1400II 

We acknowledge ouifelves greatly indebted to the Rev. George Gilb.inks, for much information 
touching this parllh: and alfo to the Rev. Jonathan Boucher, for his biographical note*, and other 
valuable contributions to this work. 

f George Smith, £fq. was a native of Scotland; a man of genius and learning; but of an a(ruming^ 
air, irritable temper, and fufpicious principles as to religion. After being fome time an a(rillant in fome 
feminiu-y of learning, in or near London, he lived with and adifted Dr. Dcfagulier in his philofophical ex- 
periments. Marr)'ing foon after, he engaged in an academy at Wakefield, afterwards lived near Brampton j 
and finally fettled at Wigton, where he lived on a fmall annuity, but from what fource it was derived, was 
never known. He inllrufted feveral perfons in that neighbourhood in Mathematics and philofophy, and 
was a great contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine. Both he and his wife died at Wigton. He had 
the merit of exciting, in that neighbouihood, a very general attention to literature; and the demerit of 
promoting a fpirit of fufpicion and infidelity. He had a daughter, Mrs. Sarah Smith, who, for fome 
time, was a preacher among the Qu^akers. Biographia Cumb. 

The publications were dated from Carllfie, June 8th, 1 744. — Ir is remarkable that the learned and 
laborious Mr. Gough (hould have omitted thefe infcriptions in his Additions to Camden, in the fpl«ndi(t 
edition he publilhtd. 

H Two Auabaptiiis and two Fapifis, reported by N. and B. 

" obfervation 



" obfervation of all antiquaries, by its obfcure fituation: it was difcovered by two 
** mafons at work there, who informing me of it, 1 went this day to examine it, 
" and by the help of a ladder, noted down thefe charaders: — 

" Jovi Optimo maximo. Cohors primae /ILliae Dacorum, cui prseeft 

Mf/^\ " Julius Saturninus Tribunus. The reft has been obliterated by the 

"^ '^y " workmen, at biiildmg the abbey. To underftand it, we arc to con- 

] ^. Q Af/', *' fider, that, befides the legionary troops employed in the Roman 

, J. .. ,\ " fervice, there were ten auxiliary cohorts, which made a legion of 

C rlUl /l.\ c< foreign troops, andalTumed the name of the conquered province 

DAC'^CVJ-TI " ^° which they belonged, and fometimes added another title, in 

A " honour of fome of their emperors, under whom they were probably 

^5 Tf VLUj" inlifted. This cohort was then called j^h'a Dacica* ^lia in ho- 

iP^VilKYj/" nour of Hadrian, who was ftiled Titus lEXms Hadrianus, and 

TRtT^VK'/ " ^^^'^^ from their country. Dacia comprehended all that tracft of 

I ' '^^^^^1 " ground north of the Danube to the Carpathian mountains, betwixt 

\//m/.'/////////// " ^^ rivers Tibifbifcus and Pruth, comprehending now part of Hun- 

" gary, Tranfylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. We have many 

" other ftones which mention this cohort, parcicularlyat Burdofwald, 

*' the Roman Amboglana; here the Notitia, that was written under 

*' Theodofius, junior, places this legion, which feems to have fucceeded the legio 

"fexta viHriXy and very likely garrifoned this place, to the final departure of the 

" Romans from Britain, The name of the tribune is diiferent from that on any 

" other of the ftones afcribed to this cohort. 

*' WhilftI wascopyingthis ftonc, thefarmer's fon who refides atthe abbey, told me 
'• there were fome kind of letters, over a ftaircafe in an old tower, belonging to their 
'•' houfe which excited my curiofity. I found it a piece of as valuable inscription 
«' as any yet difcovered in Britian, whether we attend to the odd irregularity of the 
" letters, the fhape or variety of them; for there are Roman, Runic and Saxon, 
«' fometimes in the compafs of a ftngle word; and it is hard to fay, which of the 
" alphabets of thofe three nations, has the greateft Ihare in the compofition. It is 
" great pity that it is not complete, the workmen having cut it, to adjuft it to the 
" place, fo that part of it is covered by the adjoining ftones, which cannot well be 
«' removed. The form of the letters is exactly reprefented. 

j . / ~" ^ S^ " In my opinion we read it, " i?f^?« 

1 f I tT fS'\/ f T I TT V " ncjlri primo maift tertio anno Do7n, 

[•^"'-^ jN>--' Xlil ^-^ " Mlllrjtvio triiciilejivw feplimo." — 

■-^^^ ^ " Edward IJ. began to reign that 

% " very year, 1307, July 7th, fo that 
" the third month after would ftill 
" happen in that year fpecified, and 
" fcems to note a grant for building 
" the out conveniences of the faid 
abbey. The lingularity of the 

e NsV I in 




• The reader will pkafe to refer this reading to the opinions of Mr. Horfley, and other learned antiqua- 

^e« whofc conftnidion o£ and comments upon ancient infcriptions, aie given in the notes to this work- 

' ♦' method 

EsKDALE Ward."] ROMAN WORKS'. 63? 

" method of writing in that obfcure century, renders it very remarkable ; for in' 
" the fingle word it is difficult to fay to which alphabet the letter T 
" belongs ; but it moftly refembles the Cello-Scytbic. R is Roman, E is Runic, 
" M the old Gothic ; and in other words, fome are Saxon. 

" The Roman wall, which palTcs jult above it, has furnifhed the principal ma- 
" terials for this edifice." 

]n this paridi is that famous medicinal fpring, befl: known to the public by the 
name of Wardrew Spa, near to Shaws, on the banks of the river Irthincr. Ic 
breaks forth at the foot of a rock pretty fluently ; and from the virtues of the water, 
anciently obtained the name of Holywell, having had the bcncdidion of fome re- 
ligious perfon of note for his fandity. The editors of Camden fay, the waters are 
impregnated with Rilphur, nitre, and vitriol, and are good for the fplcen, the ftone, 
and all cutaneous diftempcrs ; but the authority for that analylis, is not given. 
Dr. Todd fays, the vvatcr is deeply impregnated with fulphureous and faline parti- 
cles, and on that account has a cathartic and emetic virtue : Dr. Short clalTes it 
among the fulphureous waters, and fays it contains a very confiderable portion of 
fulphur, a fmall quantity of fea fait, and very little earth : the place is greatly re- 
forted to in the fummer (eafon ; but it feems to us not at all calculated for a place 
of recreation and amufement, fituated in a deep retirement, furrounded by uncul- 
tivated eminences, covered with heath ; the vale narrow, and fhut up from thofc 
pidurefque fcenes, which are difpofed at fome little diftance, near to Lanercoft 
and Naworth : the air is often found heavy, by the vapours and gloom which too 
frequently obfcure the fky, and impend on the brows of the mountains. The 
place is well luited to the reception of thofc, who really feek the benefit of the 
waters ; being a ftill and folemn retreat. Good accommodations render ic a de— 
firable feat of feclufion for the invalid. 


The ftation of Carr-P'oran, f the magna of the Romans, featcd on the extreme 
boundary of Northumberland, was defcribed in our former publication. * From^ 
thence we now take our progrefs along the works of Hadrian and Severus. 

The Roman military road, called the Maiden Way, which we obferved entered 
Northumberland near Whitley caftlc, pafTes through Carr-Voran, and extends along 
the northern part of this county, over the heights, to the eaft of Bewcaflle, ;f in a 
direction almofl: duly north, and enters Scotland near Lamyford, where it croffes 
the river Kirkfop. The Roman road which leads from Walwick Cheflers in 
Northumberland, has lain in a direction a little to the fouth of Carr-Voran, but- 
leems to terminate in the fuburbs, the traces of it not being difcovered beyond the 
fort. At the time Mr. Warburton and Mr. Horfley vilited this country, they- 
fpeak of it, as being '« very vifible upon the moor loutheaft, and not far from Carr- 
Voran:" but the great turnpike road, lately made by the diredlion of government,. 

•f We adopt the name of Carr-Voran, from the example of Mr. Hordey, rather than the vulgar name 
Caer.~-\n Leland's Itin. it it called Maiden Caftle, perhaps from its ftanding on the Maiden Way. 
f Vi«w of Northumberland. % About fu Eoilcs diftant from Carr-Voran. 

64 ROMAN WORKS., [Eskdale Ward. 

has fallen upon it in feveral places, and in many parts has greatly defaced the 

The pfgetenturas of Severus and I-Iadrian, with their ditches, are \'eryconfpicii- 
ous from Carr-Voran down to the river Tippai, which flows at the foot of the 
eminence : notwithflanding the country people are inceflantly robbing Severus's 
vail for materials to build, and other purpofes ; yet under the force of fo many ages, 
and fuch endeavours to deftroy the work, through the hardnefs cf the cement, grcai 
remains (till appear : fome tiers of the outfide caiings are in many places ftanding, 
and where thofe are removed, the infidc filling ftones fliew thenifelves laid in an 
inclining pofition, as clofe as their natural furfaces will admit,and run full of mortar. 
This mode of building is excellent, as a v. all of that conltrudion is nearly as Iblid 
in the centre, as any other part ; and by the pofition of the ftones, is admirably 
linked and bound together. Both Severus's wall and Hadrian's vallum leave the 
caftle of Thirlwall to the north. According to the before-mentioned authors, § 
it was " here, as a tradition fays, that the Scots and Picts broke through the wall : 
*' but the caftle might be fo called, from the pafTage of the river through the wall." 
As we continued to travel, with the works of thofe two learned authors before, us, 
(having done the fame in Northumberland) we carefully obferved the feveral fix- 
ations of the ancient works they noted, to gain from thence, if pofiible, the argu- 
ments which led them to their determinations, and which they have been pleafed 
to omit in their publications. Here it was evident to us, that the ftation of Carr- 
Voran, of fuch peculiar ftrength, placed on an eminence immediately commanding 
that part of the wall, where it is fuppofed a breach was made, by the northern nations, 
■within the reach of their mifiile weapons and engines, muft have been evacuated, 
before fuch breach could be eff'cifted ; and confequently we are inclined to think, 
the name of Thirlwall, or through the wall, was not derived from any fuch event, 
but was occafioned by the fluice or bridge where the river paffed through the works. 
Ihii-l is a name of common acceptation in the north, for an opening left in moor 
iences, for fhccp to pafs to and from the commons adjacent to inclofed grounds. 

A little further weft, are the vifiblc remains of a caftellum, within which an 
edifice now ftands, called the chapel ; but how it gained that appellation we could 
not learn. At this point all the works are particularly diftind and plain ; the 
•walls are diftant from each other about five chains ; at a little place called Fowlton, 
the military way is not to be traced, but Severus's wall is diftinguifhable, and, in 
fome parts, the ditch; yet where the works lie through a trad which has long 
been cultivated, they are more and more defaced, and rendered difficult to be traced. 
The wall and earth fence afterwards run out to a greater diftance from each other, 
nearly to the length of fix chains. 

: We obferved here, the work which the learned authors point out, being a vafl 
^gger on the north brink of Severus's ditch. Mr. Warburton fays, " Whether it 
•• is natural or artificial I know not." To us it had all the appearance of art, as 
being calculated to enable aflailants to ufe their engines and miflile weapons with 
advantage, againft thofe who defended the wall. We are told that the difpirited 

f Warburton and Horfley, 



Britons, forfaken of their allies, vTere dragged by hooks, from the fortifications 
they attempted, in vain, to defend, and were put to a miferabic death. 
We now paded over the little brook of Poltrofs, and entered 


On the weft fide of the rivulet, are the remains of a caficHum : the walls of 
Severus and Hadrian, for fome diflance gradually incline to each other, and about 
a quarter of a mile further, they run within the length of a chain of each other, 
and continue much in the fame pofition, all the way to the brink of the river 
Irthing. Near to the lafi: mentioned caftellum, Severus's wall having fiiot out to 
a more northern direcflion, makes a quick turn to the fouthweft. 

Mr. Warburton fays, " At Willoford, on the eaft fide of the river, the military 
" way feemcd to be fouth of both walls ; and at the head of the bank, on the weft 
*' fide, near Burdofwald, there feemcd to be a military way on the north of them 
♦' both, which was pretty vifible. If the appearance be not mifiaken, this is the 
" only inftancc of Severus's military way running out between the two walls, in 
♦' the whole track." This defcription is quoted, becaufe, though the northern 
road is very difcernable, it is confefled we could not difcover the fouthern road ; 
and as our author, neither in his map or text, points out where he difcovered that 
it left the vallum of Hadrian, or where it joined it again, our rcfearchcs were dark 
as well as laborious. 

It is obftrved in the Northumberland tour, that where the maiden way came to 
the brink of a river, and was diflinAIy to be traced on both fides, no remains of 
bridges were found. The great military road attending the wall, where it ap- 
proached the rivers Ii thing and Poltrofs, fliews no marks of having had a bridge 
at either place; the fliores were circumfpcdly examined, and no appearance o£ 
mafon work difcovered : if any bridges were ufed there, probably they were con- 
Itrufted of wood, or were moveable platforms ; the banks of the Irthing are ficcp, 
and the ftream frequently rapid; the military way fetches a compafs, and goes 
with a flope down one fide, and rifes on the other, much in the fame form : but 
this might be, as well to gain an eafier palTage for carriages, as to approach a more 
fit part of the river for crolfing it. 

Near Thirlwall cafile, are the breafi-works fpoken of by Mr. Wallis, called the 
Black Dykes; where he fays, *' Bullets have frequently been found." This is the 
ground, on v\hich Lord Hunfdcn with the garrifon of Berwick, defeated Leonard 
Dacre, with 3000 of his retainers, when he took up arms againfl: the crown, after 
he had ufurpcd the pofilfiions of the Dacrcs, on the deccafe of the laft: of the male 
line, who died in infancy by the falling of his vaulting horfe. 

The diflance from Carr-Voran to Burdofwald, by the line of the wall, is two 
miles and three quarters : in this fpace three cafitlla arc vifible, at equal difianccs, 
each interval containing jufi fix furlongs and a half. 

We approached 


It was " in King John's time, and before, the freehold of Walter Bavin, Willianri 

" Bavin, and Radulf Bavin; who fucccfiively held it; — part thereof was given to 

>0L. I, K •' the 

66 BURDOSWALD. [Eskdale Ward. 

" the houfe of Wedderhall, and lands in Combquintin, to the houfe of Lanercoft. 
" In King Edward I's time, one John Gilict held lands there: but the Lords of 

" GilQand 

From Ml. Horsuey's Britannia Romana. 
There is no ftation upon the wall, to which fo great a number of infcriptions belong, as to this at 
Burdofwald ; for to this place mufl be referred the twenty-five that follow. 



At Willoford, on the cart fide of the river Irthing, and not half a mile from Burdofwald, are this and the 
two foUowint^, which, no doubt, have been brought from Burdofwald, or the neighbourhood of it ; for 
there is not the leaft reafon to imagine that there ever has been a ftation there. This was in an out-houfe 
built up in a chimney, and near che top^ which covered part of the infcription. What we could fee was 
all very legible, though we could not come near it. The M in this infcription is of a very remarkable 
figure, as is alfo the C in the third line, the whole favouring of the low empire. The name of the 
commander is covered in the chimney. The word Dacorum is at length in the third line, which (hews 
the reading to be, not Cohors jElia Dacica, but Dacorum. So it is alfo in the Notitia, according to 
which, the Cohors .£lia Dacorum kept garrifon at Amboglana. And the multitude of infcriptions which 
we meet with here, make mention of this cohort under feveral different commanders, and fome of them 
plainly of the low empire, is a very ftrong argument to prove this Ration at Burdofwald to be Amboglana. 
I cannot find that either this infcription, or that which follows, have been pubhfhed before. 

MAXIMUS TRIBUNUS. This was built up in the court wall, at the fame place, but by removing 
the rubbilh that lay in the way, with fome difRculty we faw under it ; and the face of the altar being' 
downward, fo much of the infcription was feen, as I have given, the letters of which were very clear and 
apparent. But the left fide of the altar was fart in the wall, and fo part of the letters on that hand could 
not be difcovered. However-, enough was certainly feen to fliew that this altar had been eredled by the 
fame Cohors SX\3. Dacorum, when Maximns (as I read the name) had the command of it. 

3. This large altar is built up in the corner of the houfe, but there are no letters upon it now, that 
are legible. I take it for granted, that fome one of thofe infcriptions, which Camden took at this place, 
has been on this altar ; though by being fo fully expofed to the weather, the letters are now entirely de- 
faced. And as it is a large altar, and broad, though low, I fancy the following infcription,* whofe original 
I can find no where elfe, may have been it, becaufe the length and number of lines feen to fuit it belt. 

I. O. M. "1 Jovi Optbno Maximo 

OH. I. A EL. DA ( cohors prima Adia Da- 

C ... C ... A. GETA { corum cui praeft Aurelius Get a. 


This altar has been alfo erefted by the fame cohort as the former. I fuppoCe the fecond C in the third 
line has been for cui, and the P iox prxejl, is effaced. The laft line is fo confufed as not to be reftified. 
Befidcs thtfe there are fome other houfes, which, I believe, have had infcriptions upon them. In the 
jamb of the door of the dwelling houfe, is a flone with the centurial mark, and fome obfcure letters upon 
it, b'.;t only an I that is legible ; and another of the fame fort, with the fame mark, and letter vifible, in 
another door of the fame houfe. On another large ftone, built up in a corner of the fame houfe, is a 
large E very vifible, but nothing more. Perhaps it has been H. S. E. for hie Jitiu eft. There is alfo 
another large ftone built up in the court- wall, upon which there may pofllbly be an infcription ; but the 
fide on which it muft be, if at all is entirely covered. 

4. SIGNIFER TORAS. TOUTO ^ELIA DACORUM. At Underhaugh, a houfe at the foot 
cf the hill between Burdofwald and the river Irthing, was this altar, in the jamb of the door of a dwelling 
houfe. Only part of the infcription is now to be read, part of it being covered, and the reft effaced, 
though the letters which remain are \ery plain, and well cut. The laft three look like A . . . DA . . . 
and perhaps have been .£lia Dacorum. For I think it probable, that NI in the firft line, may be part 
of the word Signifer ; then perhaps follow his two names TORASIVS TOVTO, both which are ia 

♦ Cough's Camden, vol. HI. p. 177. 


linrfn'sn (f In 

f AA 


DM nk\'\\ 




11 .V 



L 1 i \\/C. 
) V (U 

V s I A 

N A 






^^^r( Khi 



if >'"^' 




;!Vir. PF 


Kirk,/ . I \ /I 'in- /If II' III //ir ( '''//,-i/i,'ii "/' ,'''ir./,iiii,:y ( in'/x'iii /iii-'ii> .\'''//ii-ih 


** Gilfland in fuccceding ages being poffefled of this territory, have at length de- 
** mifed the farms to tenants."* 


Gruter,f and fo the infcriptlon, as to the form of it, agrees with what remains of number 6, which is yet 
at Burdofwald. 

in the ftation of Burdofwald this and the two following infcriptlons are yet remaining, which all belong to 
the fame cohort with the preceding. This is an imperfcS: piece of an altar, the under part of which is 
broken off and loft. It has been publifhed before by Mr Gordon, { but the two laft letters in the fecond 
and third lines are omitted by him. Anio muft be the name, 01 part of the name, of fome perfon, who 
belonged to this cohort. The name Anioniui is in Gruter.J but I will not fay that this has been the name 

6. SIGNIFER ETHE EAAM DACORUM. Mr. Gordon has publiihed this likewife. || 

who fuppofes the laft letters to have been AED, though to me they feem evidently A EL, for Mlia, 
This ftone is now in the wall of a yard or garden near the fouth fide of the ilation. 

SIGNATUS TRIBUNUS. The fubftance of this infcription has been publifhed by Camden.ft but 
he neither defcribes the fhape of the altar, nor expreffes either the irregular order of the lines, or awkward, 
ihape of the letters. Part of the commander's name I could not well difcern. Camden makes it Lutritiui or 
Lttticius ; but to me it rather appeared to be P. OluUBius. The altar is built up in the fore wall of a houfe, 
that ftands within the fort. It has been erefted by the fame cohort, but under a different commander. 
I know not well, whether to read the third line Tetriciana Romana, or Tetricianoriwi. I fuppofe it to have 
taken this name from one of the Tetrici, who are among the thirty tyrants, and had a confiderabJe power 
in Britain, and whofe coins arc alfo found here. This fame cohort is called Gordiana in the very next 
number. Such fort of Appellations are not unufual, and are deiigned as compliments 1 o thofc perfons from 
whofe names they are derived. There is no doubc, therefore, but the cohort, by affuming this title, in- 
tended to exprefg thf ii adherence to Tetricus. So Pompeianus, Casfarianus, Galbianus, &c. is ufrd to 
fignify one who had efpoufed the intereft and party of Pompey, Caefar, Galba, ft^c. This brings ug 
down to the reign of the Emperor Gallienus, (after the middle of the third century) and fo may help 
us to fix the time and date of this fo odd an infcription, and which I fufpeft, has been cut by two or three 
different hands. Mr. Ward chufes to read the third and fourth lines, " Telricianonwi cut p!\eeft Polulius 
" RomiViur, and fuppofes the remaining letters of the word Rornanus, or part of them, to have been on 
" the fifth line, though now effaced. Romanus is a name that very frequently occurs in Gruter, and we 
" have it before in this colleftion.|JJ But the grcateft difficulty feems to lie in the following word 
" DE.'>IGNATVS, if taken in the ufual fenfe. Eor a perfon was faid to be defignatas to any office be- 
" tween the time of his being eleftcd, and his entering upon the execution of it; which don't fo well 
" agree with the words cut prcceji, that go before, and feem to intimate, that he had aftually the com- 
" mand of the cohort at that time. Defignatui, therefore, may probably be a third name of this 
«• officer. And it appears from Gruter, who has this infcription, ${ that Sir Robert Cotton was appre- 
" henfive of this difficulty; for referring to the word DESIGNATVS, he fubftitutes DESIDERA- 
*' TVS, (a name which we find in another of his ir.fcriptions|| 1| ) as if the workman might poffibly have 
•' made a miftakc; and he cites for it Cotton Shcdx." However we have here plainly another tribune, 
and it is remarkable how each infcription appears to have been erefted at a different time and by a 
different commander. 

PR^jEEST. This, with feveral others mentioning the fame cohort, are now in the garden at Naworth, 
and were all brought from Burdofwald, moft of them being the fame with thofe which Camden copied, 
and afterwards publiflied.f ff The name of the prefedl is effaced in this, but by the title of Gordiana it 

• Denton's M. 8. 

f P. 179, No. III. p. 807, No, U. } Itin. Septcn: p, 80, pi. xlvii. fig. J, inferted at p. 81; J ?• 5*°) No- IV, 

II Itin. Septen. pi. xlvii. fig. 4. ff Cough's Camden, p. 177. |( Tacit. Hift. Lib. I. chap. li. \\\ Northunjb, 

NcUiXVIII. 5S f- 10631 No. X. nil P. 707, No. V. jtt G''"S*''»Camden,p. I7;j 

K a appear* 

^8 BURDOSWALD. [Eskdale Ward. 

Burdofwald is the firft Roman ftation on the way, which lay in our route. In 
Camden, we find it thus mentioned, — " On the wall is Burdofwald. Below this, 

" where 

appears to have been done in or after the time of the Emperor Gordian. In Gruter,* it is GOR- 
DIANAE, by miilake for GORDIANA. The capital and bafe of this altar aie {Iriick off, fo that 
only the plane, with the infcription upon it, remain. — Thii infcrhtion it now dcpofited in the miifium of 
J. B. S. Morrit, Efq. at Rokehy, in Torkjhire, of the colk{lion left there by the late Sir Thomas Rohinfin, 
ivho brought it, ivith feveral others, from Naivorth Cnfle: as the copy -we took differs from that before 
vietitioncd in Mr. Horfey' s ivorks, ive give it a place here. No. 8. 

Camden; but as all the reft, without any draught of the ftone, or particular notice of the letters.f There 
is nothing very remarkable in this, only a new name of the prcfeft, and date of the infcription. For if 
PETVO be a part of the Perpetuo, then this brings us to the year 237, according to the Falti Confulares, 

though t he cut of the letters feems rather too good for that age The draiving ivas taken from the original 

in Mr. Morrit' I, and ive have given it, rather than a copy from Mr. HorjWs. 

STATIUS LONGINUS TRIBUNUS. This is another of the fame kind, having nothing new but 
Statiut Longinus, the name of the tribune. This infcription is finely cut, aud the letters are yet fair and 
dlllind. Both thefe names, Statiui and Longinus, occur in other Britifh infcriptions.J — This llone is now 
at Roktbv. 

IG . . . This is alfo of the fame nature with the preceding. There are onl;- the two letters IG remain- 
ing vilible in the name of the prefect, but thefe are fufficient to fhew it is different from all the others. This 
infcription is upon a very beautiful altar, that was Handing in the walk, with a fundial upon it. — The 
letters having been fo long expofed to the weather, are now become very obfcure, though yet difcernable 

Thefe are the infcriptions that were pubhfhed long ago by Camden. The few miftakcs that are in his co- 
pies will eafily appear, by comparing them with what I have here publilhedfrom the originals. The principal 
defedt was in their being expreffed only in Roman capitals, and no defcription of the ftones. But thofe 
few which were publifhed in the additions to Camden, and are continued in the edition, 1722, (two of 
■which at leaft are the fame with what Camden had pubhihed before) are very much mifrepiefented. 
Several of the curious infcriptions that are in this garden, have been very fortunately preferved in a great 
roeafure from the injuries of the v.cather by a laurel hedge, which grows againfl a wall where they are 
placed. But many of them have been long expofed to the weath.-r, and fuffered greatly by that means. 
This has rendered them obfcure and difficult to read, which has been the true reafon, I believe, why feve- 
lal of them have not been publilhed before. And among thefe which have not yet been made public, 
I reckon the fix following. 


Thisfecras to belong to the fame cohort, (jEha Dacorum) and to have been brought with the reft from 
Burdofwald. But the firft and third lines are fo obfcure, that I can't offer at the reading. Spon has given 
\is two infcriptions, in which V. S. for F'otitm folvit ftand in the fecond line; though indeed L. M. for 
lihens merito, immediately follow them in the fame line, and are not thrown to the end, as in the infcrip- 
tion before us. The two infcriptions in Spon are thefe following.} 


V. S. L. M. 


V. S. L. M. 




This infcription MATRABVS confirms me much in a conjefture, that MAIRABVS in Montfaucon,|l 
has really been MATRABVS, and this for MATRIBVS. 

• P- 1063, Ko. II. t Cough's Camden, p. 177. \ See Chefhirc, No. XI. Northumberland, No. XX. 

§ Mifcelian. Irudit. Antiq. p- 105. || Tom. XI. pi. cxcii. fig. 3. 

13. DEO 

EsKDALE Ward.] 



" where the Pifts wall rrolTcs the river Irthing on arches, was the ftation of the 
" Cobors prima jElia Dacomm, at a place now called Willoford, as appears from 

" the 


, TRIBUNUS. Dranuii from the original in Mr. Morrii'j mujeu7ii. The letters of this infcrip- 

tion arc rude anJ ill cut, and now become vciy obfeuie. But the ill fpelling,or corrupt way of writing, adds 
moll to the difficulty in reading it. I believe it has been an altar ereftedto Mars, by an emeritus of the 
fame Cohrj JElia Dacoruvi, and by the remaining dark veftiges of the tribune's name, who commanded 
it, he ftems to have been a dilfercnt pcrfon from all that are mentioned in the other inlcriptions. The 
emeriti were old experienced foldicrs, who, having ferved out their legal time, were, on any particular 
occafion invited into the army, and treated with marks of elleem. On which account they were alio 
exempted from labour and the common duties ol foldiers, fuch as the watch, guard, cScc. They are fup- 
polcd to be much the lame with thofe who are ftiled evocati and bcneficiarii. 

14. AMMIANUS VICTORINUS TRIBUNUS. Here is no more left than the name of the tri- 
bunc, Ammianus Victorinus, wliich is a different name from all the preceding ; yet I can't but think 
lie was a commander of the fame Ccliors /EUa Dacorum. 

15. SOi-1 INVTCTO Here are but few letters vifiblc, and even thofe which 

feeni to appear, are not very plain and certain. — There feems to be three prEefericula upon the top of the 
capital, which is very fmgular. As for the infcription, it is hard to form a probable conjeftuie from fuch 
imperfect remains. However 1 ihall propofe the following, tdl a better offer itfelf. I imagine then, that 
the altar may have been erefted SOEI INVICTO, or DEO SOLI INVICTO, by the fame cohors 
prima iElia Dacorum, under the command of fome tribune, whofe name is effaced. I take the VS, in 
the third viiible line, to be part of the name of the tribune, and the lafl line to conlill of the lafl ftroke of 
an N and VS, making the lafl fyllablc in Iribunus. There appears fome affuiity between this and the 
infcription on an altar at Scaleby ; where we meet with Soli inviiHo Sexttis Sevcrius Salvator.* Mofl of the 
altars eredled by this cohort are to Jupiter optimus maximus ; but befides this exception, we had another 
jull before DEO MARTI, and there is one altar infcribed to the local god Cocis, which is yet remain- 
ing at Scaleby. f — T/v al/ar is in Mr. Morrifs mufiimi. 

There v\as, btlides all thefe, an half altar fet uj) tor a gate-pofl ; it was cut through the middle, from 
top to bottom, but not a letter to be feen upon it, though the face was entire. 



There is yet ano^ther infcription among thofe which Camden 
hiinfelf copied at Willoford, or tlfe at Burdofwald, and is thus, 
as he has defcribed it.J 

PRO SALVTE Before I had difcovered the original, 

DN MAXIMIANO 1 found it not eafy to underlland the 

I'OR .... CAE meaning of this infcription. But the 

VA altar at Corby callle, which, I hear, 

has been there, time immemorial, is, 

OAED. doubtlefs, that on which this infcription 

was cut ; for all, and more, than Camden has given us, may 
yet be dileeriied upon it. It has been ])ubli(hcd lately by Mr. 
Gordon, but as a new onc.|| lie thinks the reading may be, 
Pro fiilutt doiiiini nojiri Mpxiini Augujli imperatoris Ccejarii. 
But neither the letters of the original, nor of his own copy, will 
admit of this reading: Mr. Camden s copy I have given be- 
foi'e ; Ml". Gordon's is thus : 



t No. XVII. I Cough's Camden, p. 177. 

Itin. Septcn. pi. uliv. p, 96. 

I took 

70 BURDOSWALD. Eskdale Ward. 

** the notitia.and from feveral altars dedicated to Jupiter optimus tnaximusthy the faid 
" cohort, of which I ihali fubjoin the following, though almoft defaced by time."t 


I took the copy very carefully, and afterwards re-examined it with the ftrifteft attention, and by comparing 
allthefe together, Camden's infctiption will evidently appear to be the fame with the other, only he ha* 
taken the C at the end of the feconJ line for an O, and obferving feme contractions in the forgomg letters, 
has read them at length Maxhniano. But the two laft letters are plainly AC, and will admit of no other 
reading; but in this Mr. Gordon concurs. The I has been included in the fecond M, though now not 
very difcernablc; which is not uncommon in other infcriptions: fo that the word has been MAXIM for 
Maximi, and Camden's reading vey much favours this. And thus the fenfe runs vei-y eafily and natu- 
rally for three or four of the firft lines; Pro falute domini noflri Maximi ac foitijfimi imperatoris Cafarit 
Alarci Aureli Maximiatii, Sec. The titles and eipthets in this infcription, are fuch as are ufually afcribed 
to Maximian; and the combinations of the letters very well fuit that age. Camden's V, in the fourth line, 
is plainly the middle part of the M with which it begins; and the other four letters, OAED, which he 
gives us at the end of the infcription, do alfo agree with our copy ; only he feems to have reprefented 
them as the laft, which they are not ; for IF follow, and arc very vlfible, and being clofe both to the 
edge of the ftone and bottom of the plane, muft have been the laft letters in the infcription. This looks 
like ^edifcavit, as the laft words in the preceding hne do like exujlmn; fo that poftibly it may have been 
templum exiiflum a folo icdeficavit. Mr. Ward thinks, " HOC may have preceded, and fuppofes that 
" appears like the firft V, in the fixth line, to be the middle part of a M, like Camden's V in the line 
•• above. There is room enough for PL. EX after it in the fame line. And perhaps the perfon's name, 
" who built the temple, might be infcribed on the bafe." I have annexed, under the fame number, a 
view of the head of the altar, the focus of which has a very peculiar figure, yet Is not in full proportion, 
becaufe there was not room in the plate. 


PR^FECTUS VOTVM SOLVIT. There is one Infcription more, though now at 

Scaleby Caftle, upon which the cohort JElia Dacorum is plainly mentioned. It has been piibllfhed in 
Camden, J but as we are there told, it is uncertain where it was found, though I am of opinion it be- 
longed to this ftation. It is an altar erccfled to the local deity Cocis; but as I know nothing more of 
this deity, I have only to add, with refpeft to the infcription, that the letters are well cut, that the A in the 
laft line has been probably a part of PRAEF for priefedus, and that the laft VS may be the ufual votuM 

It Is curious to obftrve the vaft number of Infcriptions which have been found at this ftation, mention- 
ing the Cohcrs pri'ua JElia Dacorum^ and tkcdiffeient commanders, with the different dates and forms, 
which, upon 1 1 c whole, render the evidence of this being the ftation Amboglana excecdmg clear and 
convincing. For there arc no lefs than thirteen infcriptions, which make exprefs mention of this cohort, 
and nine different commandcts, befides four others in which the fame coliort has, moft probably, been 
mentioned, though now the name be doubtful, or effaced. To which I ftiall only add this obfervation 
further, that the date perbetuo confute, which was in the year 236, and the name Gordiana, which 
muft have been affiuncd by the cohort about that time, or not long after it, (hew that they were at this 
place about the middL- of the third century; and the name Tetticianorum, with the mention of 
Maxim^anus, ftiew that thev continued here till the beginning of the fourth. 

which belong to the fct at Buidof« aid, are moftly of the centurlal fort, having been erefted either by the 
legions or cohorts, or elfc by the centuries cr their centurions. This and the next have not been taken no- 
tice of before. This is on the fide of the door of the principal dwclhng houfe in a fmall village, called Mur- 
ray, which Is about a quarter of a mile eaft from Burdofwald. It has beenerefted by one Cajfius Prifcut, 
a centurion of the fixth cohort, or by the century under his command, and no doubt,has been brought from 

\ In the Latin editon, 1594, this paffage is not noticed. Camden declares, that from fear of the 
mofs troopers, he did not vifit forae of the ftations. 

§ Gongh^s CamdcD, p. 177- 



This ftation, according to Mr. Warburton's fcale and furvey, is marked number 
XII. It has been determined by moil of our learned antiquaries, and particularly 
by our prefent guides, that this flation was the 


Of the Notitia, where the Cohors prima JEUn Dacorum Fay in garrifon. There 
is the ftrongell confirmation of this, in the many infcriptions difcovered here. 
Mr. Horfley fays, " feveral of thefe (tones have been brought crofs the water to 

the face of the wall, fomewhere near tliis place. I find other centurions of the name Prifcui, but with a 
different praenomen, as in one of thofe in Naworth garden, and another at Coufin's Houfe. || 

19 CKNTURIO DADA. Here is nothing vifible but the letters DADA, which have, I fuppofe, 
been a centurion's name. The name Menius Dada is upon a portable altar found at Carr-Voran, which 
I have in my poffeflion, and has been already defcribcdf The letters are but ill cut. It is, at piefent, in 
the fore wall of a houfe within the fort at Burdofwald. 

is without the garden at Naworth, in a wall near the back door of it. It is remarkable for being erefted 
by the fame century of Julius Tertulliaiius, who fct up that now at Oldwall. § And as this century is there 
faid to belong to the legio fecunda Augufta, fo this (hews that the cohort here mentioned mull have been 
of that legion. 

with tlie three following, are in the garden at Naworth, or near it, and have, I fuppofe, been brought 
from the face of the wall, and, mod probably, from feme part of it near Burdofwald, or between that and 
Cambeck. Thofe which mention the legion, have, it is moll likely, come from the ftation itfelf. This is 
over the back door in the garden, and has been erefted by the centuria Voluftana of the fecond legion, cal- 
led Augujla. The letters are difUndl, and it much refe-nbles fome other of thefe infcriptions. I believe 
one of the infcriptions,iM the additions to Camden, is intended for this, though the reading is very different ; 
for it is thus reprefented in Camden. IVL. AVG. DVO. MSILV . . VM, inftead of L. iT AVG 

22. CENTURIA CLAUDII PRISCI POSUIT. This has been erecled by the century Claudtis 
Prifctts. 1 cannot find that either this or the following has been publidied before 

fcription with only LEG. II. AVG. in Camden, f is the fame with this, the lower line being omitted 

24. LEGIO SEXTAVICTRIX PIA EIDELIS FECIT. Thh ( m-w in Mr. Morrht's mufeumj 
is a very fine and beautiful infcription, the letters being yet as diftinft as they were at firft. I find 
Camden has publiflied it among the infcriptions at Wllloford or Burdofwald ;* which makes it the more 
probable, that the others of this kind, which are now in this garden, have either come from this llation, 
or the wall hereabouts. The fimphcity of the infcription, and beauty of the charaffer, inclined me to 
think this, and fome others like it, as ancient as Hadrian's time ; but of this there can be no certainty. 
I muft now leave this inviting garden, and advance along the wall ; though I fhall be obhged once more, 
in a little time, to pay it a flioi t vifit. 

35. CENTURIO COHORTIS PRIMiE POSUIT. I was told there were fome Hones with letters 
on them at a place called Lameiton, above a mile weft from Burdofwald, and clufe by the liver Irthing. 
I went thither in quell of them, but found them to be only centurial. There are two, one of which is 
in a wall under a pair of flairs, near the door of the houfe, with an imperfeft infcription. It has been 
erefted by a centurion, or century, of the firft cohort ; but the name is effaced. The other was in the 
fouth fide of the fame houfe, but nothing vifible upon it, except the centui ial mark, and that faint and 
obfcure. It was of the fame fliapc and fize with the other, fo that I have given no draught of it. I was 
told that thefe ftones had been lately brought from the face of the wall near this place. 

g No. XXII. and Northumb. No. IV. \ Northumb. No. LXVll. § No. XXXVI. f Coughs Camden, 
p. X77. • Gough'j CamdcD, p. 177. 

" Willoford, 

73 BURDOSVVALD. [Eskdale Ward. 

*• Willoford, which led Camden to fuppofe the ftation was there: but it is ftrange 
" that any one who has been upon the fpot, and viewed the two places, fhould 
" fall into fuch a miftake ; for there are no appearances of a ftation at Willoford ; 
" whereas the ancient remains of the ramparts and buildings at Burdofwald are 
" beyond all exception." 

The fituation of this ftation is excellent, on a large plain, which terminates with 
a very fteep defcent towards the river ; the eminence gives it command of profpecft 
over the adjacent country ; and the afcent of the plain on every hand, at fome little 
diflance from the fort, gives it great natural flrcngth. Severus's wall formed the 
north rampart of this flation : and it fcems as if Hadrian's vallum had been cut 
through to open it on the other hand, for the work difappears without any other 
apparent caufe ; and, in the diredion in which it runs on each fiue, if it had remain- 
ed, it would have clofed in with the fouthern rampart. The appearances which 
lUU remain, are the diftindl lines of the vallum and foflc of the intire ftation ; many 
out-buildmgs or fuburbs to the fouth-eaft ; the entrances on the north and fouth. 
fides are immediately oppofite to each other, in the centre of the vallum ; and fomc 
faint marks of leffer ones on the eaft and weft fides; but thofe arc not exadly in 
the centre, nor, as we think, to be inlifted on as original. 

. At the fouth entrance, the foundations of turrets, or members of gateway towers 
are to be difcovered : in many other Rations we have remarked the like, though 
not conftandy on one certain fide of the ftation, but as fuited the grand approach ; 
and from thence we conjetftured that many of the larger ftations were ftrcngthened 
with towers. In the interior part of the ftation, the foundations of houles are 
fcattered, but the regular ftreets, as at Walwick Cheftcrs in Northumberland, are not 
to be traced. In the northern part of the ftation, there appear the ruins of a build- 
ing larger than the reft, which led Mr. Horfley to conceive, they were the remains 
of a temple. The fite ot the pra^torium is very diltinct, though filled wiih a mo- 
dern eredion. 

We have given in the notes, the feveral infcriptions found at this ftation, with 
Mr. Horfley's readings and remarks, carefully extracted from his learned work ; 
prefuming the curious in fubjeds of Roman antiquity, will pardon the prolixity 
of a complete repetition of what that author deemed worthy of his obfervation, 
rather than be lliut up, by a mere abridgement. 

Several infcriptions have been difcovered fincc Mr. Horfley's time : the follow- 
ing were publifaed by Mr. Smith in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1746, p. 537. 

The firft, Mr. Smith informs us, is in the fouth-eaft 
wall of Naworth garden. He read it — Peditinn centum 
qninquaginUi Brilanitoruvi, and thus proceeds. '• We 
" never knew, before this, that the Romans indulged any 
" national troops the favour of garrifoning their own 
"territories; but here are 150 Britifti foot ailigncd to 
" that ufe : whether that was at Burdofwald, or elfe- 
" where, appears not, becaufe we arc not pofitively fure whence fome of thofe 
" ftones at Naworrh camc; many of them are certainly from Burdofwald ; but to 

" aflirm 

EsKDALE Ward.] 



*' affirm all are fo, would be taking too much upon me, till future difcovcrics ex- 
" plam the matter." 

) O I^ 


CP-' MA%C 


COV) ) Ml. 

A^ya c? 

PKOB ^r 



r . " yovi Optimo inaximo cohors prima Mlia Dacormn Pojlumiana^ cui preeejl Marcus 
" Gallictis TribiinHs. — Pojiumiana is remarkable, and feems to be an appellation an- 
" ncxed to, or afTumcd by this cohort, tor fome diftingiiiflied officer of that name ; 

" as Telriciana is in one publifhed by Mr. Horflcy, belonging to this garrifon. 

•' The ligature, line fecond, has not yet been obferved by any antiquarian : thofe 

I E 

" of the fame affinity difcovered, arc E or -E for le or el, to which this L mufl: now 
" be added."* 

2. " Jovi optima maxima cohors prima Mlia Dacorum Pojiumiana cui pVcceft Probus 
•' Augendus Iribunus. — Thefe two altars were lately dug up at Burdofwald, about 
" loo yards without the principal camp, calhvard, in a kind of old ruin, which was 
" fo deftroyed, as to leave no conjcfture what it might have been, and within 
" about feventy yards of the precipice, where the Roman wall crofled the river 
" Irthing. Ihey feem both of the lower empire, by the bad execution of the 

" fculpture : 

• In the gentleman's Magazine For 1752, p. 106, three altars or iiifcriptions, faid to be found at this 
place, were communicated by Francis Swinhow, of the college of Edinburgh. The firft fecms to be the 
fame with tliat communicated by Mr. Smith. 

tot. I. L lOM 

74 PRii:TENTUR.^. [Eskdale Ward, 

" fculpture : they are the more remarkable, as they make it paft doubt that Burd- 
" ofvvald was the Roman Amboglana." 


The diftance from this ftation to the next adlinlam valli, called Cambeckfort, or 
Caft-flceds, is near fix miles and a quarter. In this fpace the remains of (e\e.t\ 
caflclla are to be obfervcd at equal dilbnccs, each interval being exadly feven fur- 
longs. From Burdofwald, Severus's wall is open and diftind: for above a mile ; in 
fome places the facing ftones for two, three, and four ranges, or courfcs, are to be 
obferved: Hadrian's vallum is rather hidden and confufcd for fome little diftance, 
but afterwards, both it and the ditch are to be traced, and as we advanced weftward 
ftill increafed upon us, till at length all the works were plain and diftincfl. Near 
to Wallbours, the wall is a great height, and the military way perfed. After we 
had paffed the brook called Bankhiilburn, we obferved the ridge of the ruins of 
Severus's wall very high, but no facing ftones are remaining in that part. It was 
at this place, we prefume, Mr. Warburton fays, " Is the highcft part of the wall, 
" that is any where now to be met with ; we meafured three yards and a half from 
" the ground, and no doubt, half a yard more is covered at the bottom by the 
*' rubbifh; fo that probably it ftands here at its full original height." The wall 
having been defaced at this place, renders the height of the ruin or innerfilling very 
remarkable; in many places in Northumberland, and particularly above the river 
Tippal, and to the heights of the cliffs there, where, by the frelhnefs of the fcattered 
lime, it appeared that the facing ftones had been removed of very late years, no fuch 
remains of the interior parts of the wall were to be obferved : and no certain reafon 
can be alfigned for the remarkable quantity of materials found here: we were led 
to conjedlure, indeed, fome repairs have been made in this part, of worfe workman- 
fliip and quality, and not worth defacing and robbing, as the more perfed parts of 
.the wall ; but thofe are fuppofitions, acceptable or not, as the reader's fancy inclines. 
Near Birch-fliaw, the diftance between the works meafured fix chains. Severus's 
wall takes a fwecp, and runs over the top of the hill, whilft Hadrian's vallum 
avoids it. Near High-wall-town, all the works are obfcure, and feem to have 
been defaced, in the progrefs of cultivation, and for the building of the village. 
Mr. Warburton fays, " At this place there feems to have been fome fortification 
" or encampment ; one fide of the fquare is yet vifible, and the ramparts pretty 




RS . . . 



Mr. Swinliovv reads it. — jfo-ji ojitimo maximo cohors prima JEUa Dacorum Pojlu- 
miana cui pi Acft Marcus Ccllius fuperjles tritunus. " This cohort had this appclla- 
" tion from its taking part witli Postumius, one of the thirty tyrants. In other 
" infcriplions, we find this cohort called Gordiana, from the Emperor Gordian, and 
" Tetfkiana from Tetricus, a fucceflbr of Poftumius. The appellation Poflumia, 
" afccrtains the time of thefe infcriplions ; for Gallienus began to reign alone about 
" the year 259, which appears from Trihelliui, Pollio was before Pojiumius was made 
" emperor in Gaul. We may therefore reafonably fuppofe the time of thefe infcrip. 
" tions to have been the years 260, 267, or 268. I chofe ttibunus to complete the 
" firft infcription, becaufe in other infcriptions this cohort appeared to have been 
" conamanded, not by a prafcB^ but by a tribune. 

" large 

EsKDALE Ward.] 



" large, about eight yards long. Somewhat alfo like a fitnilar rampart may be 
'• feen in the middle of the ditch, and fomcthing like a covered way beyond it, 
" refembling the double or triple ditch and rampart, with which fome forts are 
*' encompafled, but lefs than ufual. There feems to have been nothing of flone 
" about it, nor any ruins of ftone buildings within; it is pretty high ground and 
" dry : perhaps it has been a fummer encampment, or exploratory fort, for the gar- 
" rifon of Cambeck, if it be a Roman work, of which I cannot be certain. The 
" wall after this paflcs by a few houfes called Sandy Sykes, and fo on to Cambeck- 
'* fort." — We confefs, we were not able to trace the lines fpoken of, or to make out 
the leaf! charatfler of a fortification : The want of an accurate direcftion, and the 
changes which take place in a fhort time, in a country where cultivation is advan- 
cing, as in this part, will, it is hoped, fufficiently excufe us to thofe, who have 
lately pafled the fame trad:. 







THIS is a very mountainous and barren diftridl : the vales arc narrow, and 
afford fome pidurefque fcenes, but in general they exhibit poor and fcanty 
inclofures, mean cottages, an indigent race of inhabitants, fmall cattle, and a very 
ordinary kind of flieep. In this article, the people feem particularly to fliew the 
■want of fpirit for making improvements. This animal, like many other of the 
producTiions, both of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, is well known to dege- 
nerate, by breeding from one conftant race, without mixing and crofTing the kind : 
and the flieep here have had no change for centuries : hence they are become fmall- 
limbed, goatifh, and hairy fleeced. The mutton, with the fummer feeding, is de- 
licious, but it is fo very fmall, that a quarter feldom exceeds eight pounds weight, 
and the wool is only fit for the coarfell manufadlory, fuch as happings, horfe-fheets, 
rugs, and very ordmary blankets. It is obvious, that a better breed would profper 
well, from the experiments made in Northumberland and fome parts of Scotland 
within the laft feven years. The hills afford a fine verdure, wild thyme and other 
aromatic plants, and are excellent fheep-walks : it is a late obfervation, by a very 
judicious writer on national improvements, that wool of ncgledted flicep, in thefe 
mountains and northern climes, will be of three diflincl: growths and degrees of 
finenefs, according to the changes of feafon, which renders it unfit for the better 
manufacliories ; as the temperature of the air alters, the wool varies, fo that in the 
mildcrt, or middle feafon, between the greatefi heat of fummer, and the extremity 
of cold in winter, the middle part of each thread becomes finer than the bottom, 
and the outward points are as coarfe as goat's hair. The mode of improvement 
has been pointed out, and pradifcd with fuccefs, and in thefe mountains might be 
cafily cffcded, by the flicphcrd's change of ftation, and driving his flocks to the 
fouthern afpeds m the depth of winter, and to the northern ones in the height of 

•• • Bothc^flre, alias Bewcajlle. " Northw.^rds, above Levington, towards the waftes 
between Nicholforeft, (part of Liddale) and the barony ot Gilfland, lies Be-wcafile 
Dale, which took that name firlt of the caftle there built by one Bneih, which 
was called Bothcafire, afterwards Bewcaflle; and thereupon the dale where it ftands 
was called Bewcaflle Dale." 

" Anciently it was the feat of the faid Buelb, then Lord of Gilfland, or a great 
•' part thereof; but he being banilhed for taking part with the Scots, in King 
" Stephen's time, feated himfelf in Scotland, as did his fon Gilles Bueth after him, 

" and 


" and this Dale, together with all the reft of his lands, was given by Henry II. to 
•' Hubert de Valiibus ; but whether or no he enjoyed it, does not appear.." f 
•' But (hortly after it was poflcfTcd by one Addock, who married with the Lord of 
Denton, which Denton, the faid Hubert de Valiibus had then lately given to one 
Wefcop, his follower or kinfman. But whether the faid Addock was kinfman, 
friend, or enemy to Bueth's poftcrity, I find not." " It would fecm that Gilles 
•' Buelh being difpofTefled himfclf, and he and his poilerity forced to fettle in 
•' Scothind, he made the place too hot for any of Hubert Vaux's pofterity, wafting 
•' all that part of the country in revenge, by frequent inroads upon the fame ;"§ 
" for, being greatly infeftcd by the Scots, as it is to this day, none durft inhabit 
there, till the barons of Burgh barony took upon them to fummcr their cattle there, 
and made them ftiields and cabbins for their people, dwelling themfelves in tents 
and booths for defence; at which time it was a wafte foreft ground, and fit for the 
depaUuring of the cattle of the lords of Burgh and their tenants, they hav- 
ing no other pafture for them, becaufe the barony itfelf was very populous and 
well inhabited, fitting better for corn and meadow than for pafture. And there- 
upon it was always found in ancient inquifitions as parcel of that barony, and to be 
holden of the fame. But it is not within the faid barony, for the (cignories of 
Liddale and Levington lie between Burgh and it. It became inhabited long before 
Henry Ill.'s time, upon the building of that caftle, which is now there Ifanding. 
And in Henry III.'s days, Richard, Baron of Levington, by his right in Burgh, 
held there demefne lands and other lands, rents and ferviccs, as parcel of Burgh." 

" In Edward 11. 's time Adam de Swinburne held the fame of the Lord of Burgh, 
Ranulph Dacre, and Margaret his wife, and after him, Adam Swinburne his fon." 

" In Edward lll.'s time. Sir John Striveling, Knight, in the right of his wife 
Jacoba, Swinburne's daughter." [Hiatus in M. S.*j 

The parifti of Bewcaflle is very extenfive, bounding on the parifii of Symond- 
burn in Northumberland on the N. and N. E. on Gilfland on the E. and S. E. by 
the foreft of Liddale, and part of Levington barony on the W. and S. W. () 

We find this place mentioned in the following manner by Camden : J " Leven 
" arifing in the very limits of the two kingdoms, runs by nothing memorable 
" befides Bewcafllc, a caftle of the king's, which, in thofe iolilary parts, was de- 
" fended by a fmall garrifon. In the public records it is written Bucth Caftle ; 
*• fo that the name icems to be derived from that Bucth, who, about Henry I.'s 
" time, had almoft got the entire government of thofe parts." It fecnis to be in- 
difputable, that the name of the place was derived from the family of Bucth, v\ hofe 

t Gilpin's Aflds. to Dcnlon's MS. § Gilpin's Adds, to Denton's MS. * Denton's MS. 

Ij It contains four towndiips, Biwcaftle qiiaiter, Nixon's quaitcr, Bdlbank quarter, and Bailey quarter, 
and is calculated to contain 32,960 acres: it is defcrlbed to be nearly circular, and ten miles in diameter : 
liie inhabitants live chiefly in fingle houfes, difperfcd over the whole paridi, containing 2^4 families, con- 
filling of 1,029 inhabitants; all of whom are of the church of ILnglaud, except 21 families, who are 
Piclbyierians, and one Quaker. 

A Piefbytetian meeting-houfe w'as erefted about ^ years ago. — We acknowledge our obligations for 
this and other valuable information relative to Bewcadle, to the Rev. T. Mcffenger, curate. 

f Et magis ad boream inter prxrupta faxa Beawcaftle, caftrum regium militum manus tuetur. 

Camd. L.^t. Edit. 1594. 



poflefTion it was before the Norman conqueft. The fortrefs appears to have been 
erected, like many others, in the north, upon a Roman ftation ; the limits of which 
are yet diftindly to be traced. f 

Bueth's pofTefTions having come to the crown. King Henry II. granted them to 
Hubert de Vallibus, the laft of that name in GilHand, whofe daughter and heirefs, 
Matilda, married Thomas de Multon. It is oblerved that Thomas de Multon, being 
alfo lord of Burgh upon Sands, permitted his tenants and vaffals, of that lordlhip, to 
drive their herds and flocks for fumnicr pafturage into the waltcs and mountains of 
Bewcaftle, the lands of Burgh being chiefly in tillage ; and this practice occalioned 
a confuiion in the records of thofe territories, as from that period, Bcwcaftlc came 
to be ftilcd parcel of the barony of Burgh. 

Bewcaflle, after the Multons came to the pofl^cflionof theSwinburnes for fevcral 
generations. In the ftvcrith year of King Edward I, John Swinburne obtained a 
fair and market to be held here. In the time of King Edward II. \\c find it was 
held by Adam de Swinburne, as a member of the feigniory of Burgh; and in the 
reign of King Edward III. it came to Sir John Striveling, by marriage of Jacoba, 
the heirefs of the Swinburncs, as mentioned by Denton. It was in the crown in 
the reign of King Edward IV. and that prince granted it to Richard, Duke of 
Gloucerter. In the reign of King Henry VIll. one Jack Mufgrave§ was governor, 
but in whofe right he held it, is not mentioned. King James I. demifed it to 
Francis, Earl of Cumberland, for 40 years term ; and King Charles I. granted the 
feetoRkhard Graham, knight andbarrifter, to hold ot the crown in capite, by one 
entire knight's fee, and 7I. los. rent. In 1641, the caftie was deflroyed by the 
parliament's forces, by whofe fury many of the ancient fortrelFes were laid in ruins. 

Bewcaflle fccms to have anciently been an extenfive town, by the fites and ruins 
of houfcs, which yet remain : it is about eleven miles from Brampton, the nearefl: 
market town. 1 he remains of the caftie, the fouih fide of which is pretty entire 
and about fouitccn yards in height, fliew that it was a dark and gloomy fortrefs, 
built in the molt barbarous order, and merely calculated for defence againfl: thofe 
ferocious bands of marauders, who conftantly annoyed this country, before the ac- 
celTion of King James I.* The tower forms a fquare of equal fides ; each front 29 
yards long. From its vicinity to Scotland, it was continually fubjed: to the fpoils 
of war. In 1298, this territory fuflcred greatly ; the Scots, after burning Hexham 
and Lamcfly, in Northumberland, returned through Gillland and the forefl of Nico- 
lai into theiV own country, carrying with them vaft quantities of flieep and cattle. 
In the expeditions of Robert Brus and Edward Brus, Gilfland was the particular 
mark of their fury. In 1333, Lord Douglas made great ravages here ; and in the 
19th year of King Edward III. the country was pillaged and deftroyed. 

+ Both the church and caftie are furrounded by a dyke and fofs. 

Cough's Additions to Camden; 

{ It is probable it was then in the pofleflion of Sir William Mufgrave, fee the array, note to the 

• There was a place called Bueth, with a caftie on the Welch borders, which may occafion raiftakeS 
with thofe who read Lei. Col. vol. I. p. 245, and other paits of that valuable collcdion. 



This is a manor of Sir James Graham's, Bart, the cuftom of which wasj efta- 
bliflicd under a decree in Chancery, grounded upon a deed of agreement dated 
a7th May, 6th King Charles I. entered into between Sir Richard Graham, then 
lord, and feveral of his tenants. 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary.f is recflorial, andjs fituated on a rifing 
ground, at fome little diftance from the caftle; and contains fomc remains of 
Doric architecture; it is covered with flate, is twenty-five yards in length, and 
eight yards and a half in breadth ; without any lide ailes. It had no bell till 
w ithin about five years ago.§ The date of the foundation, and the founder's name 
are not known; the advowfon about the year 1200, was given to the prior and 

;f A fine of four years ancient rent, on change of lord by death, or of tenant, by death or alienation — 
with fuit of court and at the lord's mill — cull.omary works and carriage, and other boons, duties and 
fervices — and that for a heriot, the lord (hall have the belt bcaft of which every tenant fliall die poflefFed, 
the riding hcrfe kept for the lord's fervice excepted. If the tenant has no bead, he pays ios. in lieu of 
the heriot. No tenant to let or mortgage his tenement for more than three years, without licence of the 
lord : the lord took a bounty of eight years ancient rent, on giving his aflent to the cuPtum. 

Number of tenants, io6. jf. s. d. 

Yearly cnftomar)- rent ----......,..--.16124 

Quit rent for improvements .-.----...---- 2178 

Carriage money ..-.....--....---. 214 

T. Messenger. 
■j- B. and N. fay it is dedicated to St. Cuthbert. 


King's books 2I. — Prcfcript for tithes, 60I. — Synodals psid 4s. — Prior and conv. Carllfle prop. — 
Dean pnd Chapter of CarUfle Patron. 

Incumbents. — 1 306, Robert de Southake pr. and conv. pr. — Henry de Wlilteberge by ref. Southake 
— 1360, John de Bromfield. — 1361, Adam Armftrong, p. ref. Bronifield — Robert — 13S0, John de 
Stapletou — Thomas Aghonby, alias Nickfon — 15^0, William Lawfon, p. mort. Aglionby, pr. Bifhop 
of Carl, by lapfe — 1623, Chas. Forebench, p. King James I. deanry, &c. vacant — 1643, Hen. Sibfon, 
D. D. — 1663, Robeit Lowther, LL. D. chancellpr of llie diocefe — 1671, Ambrofc Miers, A. M. p. 
moit. Lowther — 1673, Geo. Ufher, B. D — Jam. Lamb, A. M. — 1699, Je(Fei-y Weybridge, LL. B. 
p. ref. Ufher — Edward Tonge, A. M. — 1713, Matthew Soulby, A.M. p. ref. Tongc — 173S, Edward 
Birkct, A. M. p. mort. Soulby — 1758, James Farifh, CI. LL, B. p. ref. Birket. — The prefent incum. 
bent — John Bird, CI. p. ref. Farifh. 

Three feveral valors of the diocefe of Carlifle were made in the following order : — ^the firft A. D. 1 291, 
by order of Pope Nicholas : vide Cotton's MS. in the Britifli Mufeum. Tiberius C. X. — The fecond 
was made in the time of King Edward II. on account of the high valuations of the former, which the 
clergy ivcre unable to pay. It was made in purfuanceof a royal mandate, A. D. 1318. — The third was 
made in the reign of King Henry VIII. A D. 1546, commonly called the king's books, by which rule 
the firft fruits and tenths aie paid to this day. 


p j^ T King Edward IL f King Henry VIIL 

-,,-,{, ■ n , > Eccl. de Butliccallre non tax. quia < Bewcaftell recSloria valet per annu'. 

Ecclefia de Botecaltre lol. I ^^ n- v n • I . _i . -i -i 

■' J non iuil. pro. Itipendio capellam. (.tcnip- P^c. 2l. temp, guerre nihil. 

Thomas Aglionby canonic, rcgularis monallerij B'te Marie Karlij reftor ejud'm que val. 1 r 
eo'ibs anni» tempore pacis — — — — — — — j*j" t 

S'a in tempore pac. 4s. x'maindc 4s. 
Tempore vera Guerre nil. 

Ecclesiastical Survey. 


8o PARISH OF BEWCASTLE. [Eskdale Ward. 

convent of Carlifle, as Dr. Todd fays, by Robert de Biiethcajlre; but this muft 
have been Robert de Vallibiis, who never appears in any record we have feen, by 
the name of Buethcaftre || We do not find when the appropriation was made. The 
dean and chapter of Carlifle are the prefent patrons The living ftands valued in 
the king's books at 2I— The glebe confifls only of fome fmall gardens. — Thepar- 
fonage houfe is but a mean ftrudlure. — The whole revenue of the church confifts 
of a prcfcript payment of 60I. for all tithes and other dues.* 

In the churchyard isanobelifk, which has for many years engaged the attention 
of the curious. Drawings of it appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, in the 
year 1742, in wood-cuts, communicated by G. Smith, Efq. and Mr. Armfi:rong,t 
the furveyor of land, engraved it a few years ago, out of regard to his native place. 
In BifhopGibfon's edition of Camden, there is a longaccount of this monument, by 
bifliop Nicholfon ; all thofe we have examined with the original, and fliall be bold 
enough to give our remarks in the fequcl, as an attempt to illuilrate the annexed 

In the abovementioned edition of Camden, it is thus dcfcribed : '* In the church- 
" yard is a crofs of one entire fquare Ifone, about twenty feet high,§ and curioufly 
" wrought ; there is an infcription too, but theft letters are fo dim, that they are not 

II This Robert gave lands in Bcwcaftle to the priorefs and nuns of Morrick, in Yorkfliire. 

* The comment on this prefci iption by N. and B. p. 478, fliews the humour which prevails with church- 
men when tliey appear in the charafter of hiftorians. 

■\ Captjin Annjlrong, whom wc obferved had publifhed a plate of the Bewcaftle monument, and 
was a native of that parirti, inlilled into a marching regiment of foot, as a private foldier, when he was 
about twenty years of age: he had received a common fchool education, at or near Low Grains, his na- 
tive place; and though he chofe the ai-my, was of an Induftrious difpofition, and of a Heady and perfe- 
vering mind. His good conduti gained him the attention of his officers, and he was advanced firft to a 
corporal, and then to be a ferjeant, in the courfe of a fliort fervice. In the latter capacity he became 
niore and more ufeful in the corps, and his friends were multiplied ; fo that at length he was prefentcd 
to William Duke of Cumberland, with fuch warmth of encomium, and his conduft was fo proper, that 
his royal highnefs rnifed him progreffively to the rank of captain of a company. About the year I 764, 
he retired on lialfpay, and took up his abode at an inn near Naworth callle. 

Mr. JcfTtrys, known to the world by t' e denomination of the Geographer, and fevcral others, were 
about that time very defrrous of promoting county furveys; Mr. Armftrong, ever aftive and induftrious, 
was willing to engage as au affiftant in an undertaking, for the due execution of which he was then alto- 
gether unprepared; not having ftudied in that branch of the Mathematics, or gained the leaft knovy- 
ledge of the neccffary inftruments, He had been fortunate enouglr to gain the acquaintance of the prefent 
Thomas Ramflray, Eiq.| a yoirth then about frxtecn years 01 age, and a good furveyor. They engaged to 
attempt a furvey of the county of Durham, and that work met with much approbation; from ftrength 
of genius and a Iteady attention, M. Armlhong, in a rTiort time, became an expert furveyor, and Mr. 
Ramfhay accompanied him till the greateft part of Northumberland was done. He then became fo pub. 
lie a characfler, as to require from us, in this place few other anecdotes, than to add, that he was indefa- 
tigable, a cheerful companion, temperate, aflable, and friendly. 

J By N. and B. it is faid to be " A crofs of one entire ilone, about five feet and a half high, two feet 
" broad at the bottom, and one foot and a half at the top, in which top a crofs heretofore was fined." 

Under Mi'. Armflrongs drawing, it is faid to be one entire ilone, fifteen feet high, befides a crofs, 
jjow broken off. -j-f A miftake, vide Infr-a. 

} Now Lord CarliQe's chief agent in Uic Nurth. 

" legible 






*' legible, but feeing the crofs || is chequered like the arms of the family of Vaux, 
*' we may fuppofc that it has been eredled by fome of them. The letters of this 
" infcription appear ftill legible upon a later view, a few of them were copied, but 
*' unfkilfully, A. D. 1618, as 5ir Henry Spelman witnefTcs A. D. 1615, others 
*' are explained in a letter to Mr. Walker, fent him by the fame learned, and now 
" right reverend perfon ; (Bifhop Nicholfon) who communicated his thoughts of 
" that at Bridekirk, to Sir William Dugdale, as follows: 

Sir, Carliflc, ^tb Nnv. 1685. 

" It is now high time to make good my promifc of giving you a more perfecfl 
" account of the two Runic infcriptions at Bewcaftle and Bridekirk. The former 
" is fallen into fuch an untoward part of the country, and fo far out of the common 
" road, that I could not much fooner have either an opportunity, or the courage to 
*' look after it. I was afliired by the curate of the place, (a perfon of good fenfe 
'• and learning in greater matters) that the charad:ers were fo miferably worn out, 
" fince the Lord William Howard's time, by whom they were communicated to 
" Sir H. Spelman, and mentioned by Wormius Mon. Dan. p. ibi, that they were 
" now wholly defaced, and nothing to be met with worth my while. The former 
" part of this relation I found to be true, for though it appears, that the forcmen- 
" tioned infcription has been much larger than Wormius has given it, yet it is at 
" prefent fo far loft, that in fix or feven Imcs, none of the characters are difccrnable, 
*' fave only Xi/'1'M!R • ^"^ thefe too are incoherent, and at great diftance from 
*' each other. However this epiftylium cruris (as Sir H. Spelman, in his letter to 
" Wormius, has called it) is to this day a noble monument, and highly merits the 
" view of a curious antiquary. The beft account I am able to give you of it, be 
*' pleafcd to take as follows : 

" It is one entire freeftone, of about five yards in height, waflied over, as the 
*' font of Bridekirk, with white oily cement, to preferve it the better from the 
•' injuries of time and weather. The figure of it inclines to a fquare pyramid ; each 
*' fide whereof is near two feet broad at the bottom, but upwards more tapering. 
•' On the wefl: fide of the ftone, we have three fair draughts, which evidently enough 
" manifeft the monument to be Chrifiian, The lowefl: of thcfe, reprefents the 
" portraiture of a layman with a hawk or eagle perched on his arm. Over his head 
*' are the forementioned ruins of Lord Howard's infcription ; next to thefe, the 
" pidure of fome apofile, faint, or other holy man, in a facerdotal habit, with a 
•' glory round his head. On the top Hands the effigies of the B. V. with the 
" babe in her arms, and both their heads encircled with glories, as before. On the 
" north, we have a great deal of chequer work, fiibicribed with the following 
" charaiflcrs, >i!gjriXXBnRrt -X-U, Upon the firfi: fight of thefe letters, I 
" greedily ventured to read them Rynburn; and I was wonderfully plcafed to fancy 
" that this word, thus fingly written, mufl: nccclTarily betoken the final extirpation 
" and burial of the magical runze in thefe parts, reafonably hoped for upon the con- 
" vcrfion of the Danes to the Chriftian faith ; for that the Danes were anciently, 

II Ita iiiter{lin£la is Chequy Hoi, 

vox.. I. M "as 



" as well as fome of the Laplanders at prcfcnt, grofs idolaters and forccrers, is be- 
" yond controverfy; and I could not but remember, that all our hiflorians tell us, 
" that they brought Faganifm along with them into this kingdom. And therefore 
" it was not very didKult to imagine, that they might for fome time pradife their 
" hocus tricks here in the north, where they were moft numerous and leaft dif- 
" turbed. 1 his conceit was the more heightened, by rcflccfting upon the natural fu- 
" perltition of our borderers at this day, w ho are much better acquainted with, and 
" do more firmly believe their old legendary llories of fairies and witches, than the 
'■ articles of their creed : and to convince me yet further, that they are not utter 
" Grangers to the black arts of their forefathers, I accidently met with a gentleman 
" in the neighbourhood, who fliewcd me a book of fpells and magical receipts, taken 
" (two or three days before) in the pocket of one of our mofs troopers ; wherein, 
" among other conjuring feats, was prcfcribed a certain remedy for an ague, by 
" applying a few barbarous charaders to the body of the party diftempered. Thefc, 
" methought were very near a-kin to Wormius's HAT^IRVMER, which ho 
" fays, differed wholly in fnape from the conmion Run.x, for he tells us thtfe 
" Ramruncr were fo called, Eo quod nvAeJlias dolores, morbofqiie hi fee injhgere, mimitis 
" folilijint -magi. Yet his friend Arug. Jonas, more to our purpofe fays, that His 
*' etiani nft fiint ad hcnefaciendum Juvandum, medtcandum lam anhni quani corporis 
" morbis ; alque ad ipfos Cacodamones pellendos et f Uganda s. I fliall not trouble you 
" with a draught of this fpell, becaufe I have not yet had an opportunity of learn- 
" ing, whether it may not be an ordinary one, and to be met with among others 
" of the fame nature, in Paracelfus or Cornelius Agrippa. If this conjedure be 
•• not allowable, I have. Sir, one more which, it may be, you will think more 
" plaufible than the former: for, it inftead of making the third and fourth letters to 
" be two IvIvNI/'T^ "'^ fliould fuppofe them to be VXE.E/ the word will be 
" Rye Burn, which I take to fignify, in the old Daniili language, Cemeterium, or 
" Cadaverum Sepulchrum : for though the true old Runic word for Cadaver be 
" ufually written ^fi^flpcy ^f^c:e : 1^'^ ^^^ ^ "^^7' without any violence to the 
" orthography of that tongue, be omitted at pleafure ; and then the difference of 
" fpelling the word here at Beaucaftle, and on fome of the ragged mountains in 
" Denmark, v\ ill not be great. And for the countenancing of this latter reading, I 
" think the above-mentioned chequer work may be very available, fincein that we 
" have a notable emblem of the tumuli, or burying places of the ancients, (not to 
" mention the early cuftom ot eredling croffes and crucifixes in church-yards, which 
" perhaps being well weighed, might prove another encouragement to this fccond 
" reading.) I know tne chequer to be the arms of the Vauxs or de Vailibus, the 
" old proprietors of this part of the north ; but that, I piefume, w ili make nothing 
" for our turn : becaufe this and the other carved work on the crofs, muff of ne- 
" cefTity be allow ed to bear a more ancient date, than any of the remains of that 
" name and family ; which cannot be run up higher than the conqueff. On the 
" cafl: we have nothing but a few flourilhes, draughts of birds, grapes, and other 
'« fruits : all which, I take to be no more than the ftatuary's fancy. 

♦« On the fouth, flouriflies and conceits as before, and towards the bottom, the 
"following decayed infcription, JiV/vni^^XP-MTsU:' • The defeds in this 

" ftiort 



" fhort piece are fufficient to difcourage me from attempting to expound it ; but 
" pofUbly it may be read thus, /. e. Latrones Ubbo vicit. I 

" confefs, this has no aflinity, at Icaft being thus interpreted, with the foregoing 
" infcription ; but may well enough fuit with the manners of both the ancient and 
" modern inhabitants of this town and country. 

" Thus far of that ancient monument, befides which, there is a large infcrip- 
" tion on the weft ; and on the fouth lide of the ftone, thefc letters are fairly 
*' difcernable." JVVRKHIh M bn D- 

In Gough's additions to Camden, we have a remark to this purport. " When 
•' Biflwp Nicholfon was here again on the vifitation in 1703, he tried to recover 
" the Runic infcription on the weft fide of the crofs; but though it looked promifing 
*' at a diftance, he could not afluredly make out, even fo much as that fingle line, 
" which Sir H. Spelman long fince communicated to Olaus VVormius."* 

Having given the learned prelate's fentiments, we will turn to Mr. Smith's, 
publifhed in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1742, p. 132. The editor of that col- 
ledlion, previous to the infcrtion of Mr. Smith's papers, fays, 

" We infert the following infcription, not doubting that it 

iR^Tf/ [(l'(0\;i " ^^''" f^'^ 'n^° ^^^ hands of fome gentleman who underftands 

■■ " the language, and will pleafc to give us the explication. And 

" fpeaking of the Magna Britannia,fays, "This book gives us a 

" very imperfecfl account of the infcriptions,and offers no other 

" reprefentation, than that here annexed." f" That part of 

" Cumberland w hich lies beyond the banks of the river Eden, 

" northwards, having been often expofed to the wafte of war, 

" and the people ruined by almoft continual depredations ; 

" the barrennefs of it (cems rather to proceed from the negleifl 

" of culture, than the natural poverty of the foil. Within the 

" embraces ofthe frontier mountains of this tradl, lies Beaucaftle 

" church, on a rivulet called Kirkbeck, near an old ruined 

" cadlc of the proprietors of that part of the country before the 

conqueft ? and both church and caftle are built on the remains 

of a large Roman fort. Oppofite to the church porch, at a {avi 

yards diftance, ftands the obelifk of one entire (lone, fifteen feet 

and a half high, fpringing through an octagonal pedeftal, whofe 

fides were alfernaccly equal ; it is nearly the frufium of a fquare 

pyramid, each fide being equal two feet broad at bottom, and 

one foot and a half at top, wherein a crofs was fixed, which has 

_— — . -- been demolifiicd long ago by popular frenzy and enthufiafm; 

i/jM\>yB ti l\r> j " and probably its fituation in thefc unfrequented deferts haspre- 

« ferved 



* Mr Gough adds, " I take fhem to be thofe given on the bead of the crofs, 161 5,* pait of it now 
" a.graveftone, though bifliop Nicholfon confiders them as part of the ruins cf the infcription over the 
« head of the figure on the weft fide, plainly confounding the ttaiifvirfe [■lece o{ the crofs, with tlie up- 

t Gentleman's Magazine, July 1742, p. 368, Mr. Smith's aKTcitiition. 

• CqI. JLib. Doni. jviij. 7. 

M 2 " right 

ftj PARISH OF BEWCASTLE. [Eskdale Ward. 

" ferved the remainder from their fury. In the bottom and top divifions of the 
" north fide are cut vine trees, with clufters of grapes in demi-rclievo, probably 
" the Danifli fymbol of fertility, as amalthea's horn was among the Greeks. 

" In a fillet above the under vine are the charaders fairly legible, which the 
" learned Billiop Nicholfon expounds Rynburn, and thinks that it intimates the 
" expulfion of the magical Runic, and their acccfTion to Chriftianity. But if I 
" may be allowed to diffent from fo great a name, I had rather think it to be a 
" fepulchral monument of one of the Danifii kings, flain in battle, and the reading 
" I think will lupport my conjecfture ; for there is no infiance of any nation ufing 
" the firft character for an R, nor do I remember to have feen it fo explained in any 
" of the Runic alphabets of Olaus Wormius, but the Danes about the Sinus Coda- 
♦• nies made ufe of it for K : befides the R is Roman, wherever it occurs in this and 
" other infcriptions on this monument. The fecond is the Mafaycftic U, a people 
«' about the Tanais. The next two letters are wrong copied by the bifhop; the 
*' firft is a Q^ or Scythian N, and the other an I, the following are Buru plain, 
" and the laft is K final, for the initial and final K differing in this form, was com- 
" mon in thofc nations, as the initial and final M to the Hebrews. Upon the 
" whole I read it Kuniburuk, which, in the old Danifh language imports Sepnlchrum 
" Regis. And the chequer work included betwixt the two magical knots, (the 
" Scythian method of embcllifliing funeral monuments) very much corroborates 
" my opinion. However, I fo far agree with the billiop, that it may alio kem to 
" have been defigned for a fianding monument of converfion to Chriflianity, which 
" might have happened on the lofs of their king: and each mutually celebrated 
" by it. For Buchanan tells us, that in the reign of Donaldus, the fixth of that 
" name, the Danes having wafted Northumberland, were met and engaged by the 
" united troops of England and Scotland, with fuch uncertainty of victory, that 
" both fides were equally glad of peace, by which the Danes obliged themfelves 
" to embrace Chriftianity. This, therefore, was a very proper monument for fo 
" great a change, and the figure on the welt fide greatly contributes to favour this 
■' conje(5lure, as I fhall fhew in my next dillertation on the other three fides. This 
" tranfacflion happened about 850 years ago, and none believe the obelifk to be 
" older than 900. 

" That the monument is Danifli, appears inconteftible from the charadiers ; 
" Scottifli and Pidifli monuments having nothing but hieroglyphics, and the 

■" right of the crofs itfelf. Thefe make the third line.f being copied from a flip of paper, inferted in 
" Mr. Camden's copy of his Britannia, ed. 1607, in the Bodleian library, accompanied with the follow- 
«' ing note. 

" The imiiation of the Pi6iiJheJlone, taken out by imprejfion or printing the paper, •within the very lettiry.: 
" of the Jioane. I receaved this fitcirning a Jlo?! fro7n ?iiy Lord of Arutidel, fent him from my Lord William. 
" It luas the head of a crofs at Be--wcajile; all the letters legable ar there on on line ; and I have fet to them 
"fuch as I can gather out cf?>!y Alphabet ts ; that like an A. I can find in non. But 'whether this may be 
" only letters or •words,! foKiennhat doubt. § 

♦' An infcription from this crofs had been fent by Spelman, for Lord William Howard, to Wormius, 
" who publilhedit in his Mon. Dan. p. 162, i68,|| which he reads thus, q. d. Riiiofatu Runafiiuod ! 
i, e. Rino lapides hot Runicos fecit, but he fays thefe were in epiftylio crucis." 

f See Mr. Cough's plate 14, £g. 4. f- SCO. § The Uiird liae cf the above iofcrlptloo, plate 14. £g. 4, p- 200. 

fl Tbe (ame liae. 

« Danifh 


«' Danifh both ; and except Bridekirk font, it appears to be the only monument 
" of that nation left in Britain."* 

As fucceeding villters, we have to lament, that Mr. Smith never favoured the 
public with his promifed dilTcrtation on the other fides of this monument: his 
afleftion was hally of the Scottifh and PicHfh monuments, as will be Ihewn by the 
comparifon we are led to make between this monument and thofe vifitcd by Mr. 
Pennant, and other antiquaries. 

A friend, at our inrtance, before wc had feen this monument, took fomc pains ta 
gain the infcription on the north lide, in a manner we have often pradifed 
with fuccefs, by oiling the ftone and preffing in wax, and then with printer's ink, 
taking upon paper thecharad:er: it was very confufed and imperfet:!:, but appeared 
much in this form, Sli1v;'/»4^J>"BhR-U>|t of which we confcfs, we arc not 
able to give a probable reading. The ornaments of knots, flowers, and grapes, 
evidently appear to be the effecft of the fcuiptor's fancy; and wc think it would 
be extending a defire of givmg extraordinary import to works of antiquity, to 
fuppofe they were intended to carry any emblematical meaning: they are limilar 
to the ornaments of the capitals and fillets in Gothic Itrudures of the eleventh cen- 
tury, or near that time, and no one yet prefumed to alTert they were to be conftrued 
as hieroglyphics. Should we not attempt to objeft to the readings of the infcription 
on the north fillet, and admit it might imply that the ground was famous for royal 
fepulture; inourapprehenfion it doth not advance the antiquity of the monument 
the leaft. The infcription itfelf is uncertain; for the prelate and Mr Smith took 
it varioully, and the wax imprefllon varied from both, and fuch, we conceive, would 
be moft accurate; the copies taken by the eye being fubjedt to the effedis of light 
and ihade. 

Let us examine the work, and perhaps we may draw from thence a more con- 
vincing argument.! Thcfouth front is decorated in the upper compartment with a 

knot, , 

* " Vertue (hewed four drawings" (of this monument) " to the fociety of antiquaries, 1746, which . 
" I have not been able to recover." Gough's Edit. Camd. 

f Leland's AJfsrtio Arturil. Colleii, vol. v. p. 45 — Pyramides San£ii demeterii. 

In fepulchrcto, quod Avalonije facrofanftum eft, ftant dus Pyramides antiquiffimx ftruftura;. Imagines 
et literas pra: fe ferentes, fed venti, procellK, tcmpus edax rerum, poftremo invidiola vetuftas ita operum 
eximias olim figuras, ct infcriptiones devenuftaverunt, ut vix ullo labore deprehendi vel a lynceo poflint. 
Has freqiiens fcriptorum pagina commemorat et pr^cipue Gulielmi Meildunenfis antiquarii cura magni, 
quern ct filvefter Giraldus, amator, et ipfe rerum veterum fubfequitur. Uterque equidem dofte; ille quod 
labore exquifito imagines, et titulos ante quadrajrintos annos tantum non obliterates, luci in pulcherrimo, 
juxta ac eltgantinimo libello dc antiquitate GlefToburgenli reftituerit; hie quod, jultis fietus argumentis et 
veterum relatione fepulchrum Arturii vel inter Pyramides aut loco ab eisnonlongc diffito, aliquando pofi- 
tum fuifle probet. Plura de Giraldo in fepulchro Arturii invento dicemus. Interea defcriptionem Pyra- 
midum, ab ipfis Gulielmi peniciUis graphice dcpiftam, velut in luculenta Tabula, fpeftatoium ocuh'a 
fubjiciam " lllud quod clam plane omnibus eil, libenter prxdicarem, fi veritatem cxfculpere poifem, quid 
" illae Pyramides fibi velint, qus aliquantis pedibus ab ecclelia vetufta politse cseraeterium monachorum 
»' prartexunt? Procerior fanae et propinquior ecclcfia- habet quinque tabulatus et altitudincm vio-inti fex 
" pedum. Hkc prae nimia vetuftate etfi ruinam minetur, habet tamcn antiquitatis nonnuUa fpeftacula 
•' qu2E plane poflint legi, licet non poflint plane intelligi. In fupeiiori cnim tabulatu eft imago pontifical], 

" fchemat* - 


knot, the next divifion has fomething like the figure of a pomegranet, from whence 
iffue branches of fruit and foliage, the third has a knot, the fourth branches of 
fruit and flowers, beneath which is a fillet with an inlcription, copied thus by 
Mr. Smith, but now appearing irrecoverable by any device : /\\^?.r^,A|^F5l 
Beneath this, in the loweft compartment, is a knot. The eaft front is one entire 
running branch of foliage flowers and fruit, ornamented with birds and uncouth 
animals in the old Gothic ftile. The crown of the pillar is mortaifed to receive the 
foot of thecrofs. The north fide has, in the upper compartment, foliage and fruit, 
in the next a knot, in a large fpace next fucceeds the chequy, then a knot, beneath 
•which is the fillet with the infcription, treated of by the Prelate and Mr. Smith. 
The wefl: front is the moil; ornamented, having the following fculpturcs; m rhc loucft 
compartment well relieved, is the efligies of a perfon of fome dignity, in a long robe 
to the feet, but without any drefs or ornament on the head ; it is greatly fimilar to 
thechief figure on the north front of Bridekirk font, as tothcfalluonof the garment; 
on a pedeftal, againft: which this figure leans, is a bird, which we conceive, is the 
raffen, or raven, the enfignia of the Danifii fliandard. This figure leems deiigned 
to reprefent the perfonage for whom the monument was eredlcd ; and though ac- 
companied with the raffen, bears no other marks of royal dignity. Above this 
figure is a long infcription, which has confiflied of nine lines; Mr. Smith delineates 
the firft three letters thus; I H N.f The S, in many old infcriptions, is formed 
like an inverted Z, and fometimcs chat letter, in its proper form, is fubflituted. 
Late vifiters, as well as we, have great doubt whether any fuch charaders were ever 
legible. Great care was taken to copy the infcription, as it now appears ; which may 
perhaps affbrd a new conftruiflion. Immediately above this infcription is the figure 
of a religious perfon, the garments defcending to the feet, the head encircled with 
a nymbus, not now appearing radiated, but merely a circular rife of the fl^one; the 
right hand is elevated in a teaching pofture, and the other hand holds a roll; a fold 
ot the garment was miftaken by Mr. Armfl^rong, (who drew the monument, and 
had it engraved, through regard to the parifli where he was born,) for a firing of 
beads. We conceive this figure to reprefent St. Cuthbert, to whom the church, 
as Nicholfon and Burn fet forth, is dedicated. The upper figures Mr. Armllrong 
reprefented like a mitred ecclefiaflic; but in that he was manifeflly mifiaken, the 
€ffiy;ics being that of the holy virgin with the babe. There is no doubt that this 
was a place of fepulture, for on opening the ground on the eafl: and weft fides, above 
the depth of fix feet, human bones were found of a large lize, but much broken 

" fchemate faiSa. In fccundo imago rfp;iam prxtendens pompam et literse, Her fexi, et Blifwettli, In 
*' tertio, niliilom'nuo nomiiia, Wcmcrcfte, Bantomp, Winewcgii, In quai'to. Hate Wulfrede, et 
•' Eanfledc. In qin'nto qui et inferior eft, Imago, et hxc fcriptura, Logwer, Wefficlas, et Bregdcnc, 
" Svvelu es, Hwingendeftjcrne. Altera vcro pyramis habet oftodecim pedes et quatuor tabulatus, in qui- 
" bus liTC Icguntur: Hedde Epifcopus et BiegoneJ et Beorwalde. Quid hxc fignificent non temere 
" dclinio, fcx ex fufpicione colllgo, eorum interius in cavitis lapidibus contineri ofra, quorum exterius 
" Icguutur iiomina Ccitc Logwtr is pro certo afferitur elTe, de cujus nomine quondam Logwerefbeorth 
" dieebat\ir, qui nunc Mons aciitus dlcitur, Beorvvaldc nihilomimus abbas poll Hemgifelum." Hxc 
Meildunenfis cui dofti illuftratas Pyramides omnino acceptas ferre debent. 

•j- This lias been objeftcd to by many, who infill that they could not make out ihofe charafters; we 
jjegieavt to refer to Mr. Smith's cuts in the Gent. Mag. where thofe charadcrs are dilllndly fet out. 



and difturbed, together w ith fcveral pieces of nifly iron. The ground had been 
broken up before, by perfons who either fcarched for treafure, or like us, laboured 
with curiofuy. 

Whether the chequers were defigned or not for the arms of the family of Vaux, 
or de Vallibus, muft be a matter of mere conjedure ; we are inclined to think that 
armorial bearings were not in life at the fame time with the Runic characflers. 
We muft obferve, that on the old fculpture, found at Norhani, in Northumberland, 
where the effigies of St. Cuthbert, St. Peter, and the royal faint Ceolwulf are cur, 
on a tlone which, perhaps, formed a part of fuch a monument as this, in the fillets 
are the remains of an infcription, beginning with the charac^ters I. H. Z. and con- 
taining fevcral Runic charaifters, 

'1 hat Hone was found at fome little diftance from the church of Norham, to- 
wards the eafl, where the prefent vicar, the reverend Mr. Lambe, in order to level 
the ground of the church-yard, cleared away the foundations cf what appeared to 
him to be the ruins of a cell appertaining to Lindsfarn. Mr. La«ibe, in his notes 
to the poem of Flodden Fight, of which he was editor, fays, — " Out of the 
" foundations of this cell, which belonged to the church of Holy Ifland, I dug a 
" flone on which were cut the effigies of the three patrons of Norham church." The 
fad is that Norham was wholly a cell to Lindisfarn, and was built about the middle 
of the ninth century : had any confidciable ftrudure flood where the ground was 
levelled by Mr. Lambe, (prcfuming the eaft limb of the church extended no 
funher than the prefent edifice) it would have obflruded and blocked up the great 
light of the altar: but we are apt to think, the chancel of the old church was 
totally dellroyed, and the fculpture buried in its ruins. 

The reafon given in billiop Nicholfon's letter, is applicable to our conjedures 
on this monument, "That the Danes weremofl numerous here,and leaftdiflurbed," 
which reconciles the mixture of Runic charader in an infcription of the eleventh 
century, as in fuch defert and little frequented tracks, that the charader might 
remain familiar both to the founder and thefculptor : where the Danes continued 
longefl and leaf! difturbed, their imputations would alfo continue unaffcdcd by 
other modes, which were gaining acceptation and progrefs, in more frequented 
and better peopled lituations. 

Monuments of a fimiliar nature to this, obferved by travellers, arc, 

A crofs in the high road in Vdenor parifln, in lirccknockfliire, mentioned by 
Camden, p. 703. On this the infcription is cut from top to bouom, and the charac- 
ters are various. 

A monument in Flintfliire, called Macn-y-Chwyvan, of which a cut is given by 
Camden, Ed. 1695, and there a kind of rude infcription is rcprefented. It has 
been vilitcd by the ingenious traveller Mr. Pennant, and he has given an elegant 
engravingof it, in which the part fuppofed to be an infcription by the former- author, 
is rcprefented as a kind of chain work, furrounding a naked human figure. Mr. 
Pennant's dcfcription is, "In the higher part of this tounlhip (TreMollynj flands 
" the curious crofs called Main Achwynfau, or the ftone of lamentation; becaufe 
" penances were often finiflTed before fuch facred pillars, and concluded with wcep- 
*' ing, and the ufual marks of contrition: for an example, near Stafford flood one 

" called 


" called the Weeping Crofs, a name analagous to ours. This is of an elegant form 
" and fculpture : it is twelve foot high, two feet four inches broad at the bottom, 
" and ten inches thick. The bafe is let into another ftone. The top is round, and 
*' includes, in raifed work, the form of a Greek crofs: beneath, about the middle, 
*' is another in the form of St. Andrew's, and under that, a naked figure with a 
" fpear m its hand, clofe to that, on the lide of the column, is reprefented fome 
" animal; the reft is covered with beautiful fret-work, like v/hat may be feen on 
" other pillars of ancient date in feveral parts of Great Britain. 1 do not prc- 
*' fume, after the commentator on Camden has given up the point, to attempt 
•• a guefs at the age, only obferve, that it muft have been previous to the reign of 
*' grofs fuperftition among the Wellh, otherwife the fculptor would have employed 
•' his chiflel in ftriking out legendary ftories, inftead of the elegant knots and in- 
*' terJaced work that cover the ftone. Thofe who fuppofe it to have been erected 
" in memory of the dead flain in battle, draw their argument from the number 
*' of adjacent tumuli, containing human bones and fculls, often marked with mortal 
*' wounds; but thefe earthly fepulchres are of more ancient times than the elegant 
•♦ fculpture of this pillar will admit. 

Inthefirft vol.ofthe Archteologia, a plate is given ofa monument in Landevailag 
church-yardj two miles north of Brecknock. The fculpture appears, from this 
reprefentation, very rude; the dcfcription given by John Strange, Efq. to the An- 
tiquarian Society, is to the following purport, p. 304. " It is a flat monumental 
** Itone, feven feet ten inches long, and about fifteen inches wide in the middle. 
" The ftone was, I prefume, originally fepulchral, upon the upper part is carved, 
" in very low relief, a rude, unpoliihed figure, reprefenting, perhaps, fome king, 
" or military chief, arrayed with a fort of tunic, and holding a fceptre, fvvord, or 
*' other inftrument, in each hand. Over his head is a crofs, and under his feet an 
"" infcription; the characters of which are remarkably plain, exclufivc of their be- 
•* ing a little disfigured by a fradlure in the ftone. What is really the meaning, or 
*' even the language of this infcription, is not eafy to determine, as the laft let- 
f ter appears reverfed, and fome of the others are different from any I can find in 
*' the Britifh charadlers. They continue very legible, as may be obfervcd from 
" the exadl copy of them in the engraving given of this ftone, which 1 am induced 
" to efteem a remain of Danifti antiquity, from its perfed:!: refemblance to many 
" others allowed to be fo. It was probably the workmanfliip of the filth or fixth 
" century." 

In Mr, Pennant's fccond volume of his Tour in Scotland, p. 166, he fays,— 
" On dcfcending, find ourfelves at Aberlimni. In the church-yard, and on the 
»' road fide, are to be feen fome of the curious carved ftoncs, fuppofed to have 
<« been ereded in memory of vidories over Danes, and other great events that 
*' happened in thofe parts. Thefe, like the round towers, are local monuments; 
•' but ftill more confined, being, as far as I can learn, unknown in Ireland ; and 
*' indeed limited to the eaftern fide of North Britain, for I hear of none beyond 
" the frith of Murray, or that of Forth. The greatft is that near Forres, taken 
"notice of in the Tour, 1769, (and mentioned in the fequel) and is alio the 
■<« fartheft north of any. Mr. Gordon dcfcribei another in the county of Mar, 

" near 


" near the hill Benachic: the next are thefe under confidcration. The firfl; dcfcri- 
*' bed by that ingenious writer,* is that figure which ftands in the church-yard. 
" On one fide is the form of a crofs, as is common to moft ; Mr. Gordon juflly ima- 
*' gines that this was eroded in memory of the vidory of Loucarty ; for in the upper 
*' part are horfcmen, fccmingly flying from an enemy ; and beneath is another, 
" (topped by three men on foot, armed with rude weapons, probably the pcafant 
" Hay and his two fons, putting a flop to the panic of the Scotch army, and ani- 
" mating his countrymen to renew the fight. The next which I faw is on the road, 
" with both fides full of fculpturc. On one, a neat crofs included in a circle; and 
*' beneath, two exceedingly rude figures of angels, which fomc have miftakcn for 
" charadcrs. On the other fides are the figures of certain inftruments, to me quite 
♦'unintelligible; beneath two men founding a trumpet, four horfemen, a foor- 
•' man, and fcveral animals, feemingly wild horfes purfued by dogs; under them is 
" a centaur, and behind him a man holding fomc unkown animal. This is the 
«' ftone mentioned by Boethius, to have been put up in memory of a defeat of a 
'• party of Danes belonging to the army of Camus on this fpot. Quo loco ingens 
" lapis eff eredus. Huic animantium effigies, nonnuUis cum charaderibus artifi- 
•' ciofe, uttam fiebat. qua; rem geffam pofieritati annunciarent, funt infculptas.f 
*' On a tumulus, on the road fide, is a third, with various fculptures pafl: my com- 
*' prehenfion. In the ornaments about the crolFcs, and the running patterns along 
*' the fides of fome, is a fancy and elegance that does credit to the artifts of thofc 
" early days. Boethius is willing that thefe engraven pillaj-s fliould be fuppofed 
" to have been copied from the Egyptians, and that the figures were hieroglyphic- 

" 1 muft take notice of a new dii'covered flone of this clafs, found in the ruins 
" of a chapel in the Den of Auldbar, near Careflon, by Mr. Skene, who was fo 
" obliging as favour me with a drawing of it. On one fide was a crofs ; in the 
" upper compartment of the other fide, were two figures of men, in a fort ofcloak, 
" fitting on a chair, perhaps religious pcrfons; beneath them is another, tearing 
" afunder the jaws of a certain beafi ; near him a fpcar and a harp; below is a 
" perfon on horfeback; a beafl: like that of mufimon, which is fuppofed once to 
" have inhabited Scotland ; and lafl ly, a pair of animals like bullocks, or the horn- 
" lefs cattle of the country, going fide by fide. This flone was about feven feet 
" long, and had been fixed in a pedeftal found with it. 

" In the church-yard of Glames, is a flone fimilar to thofe at Aberlimni. 
*' This is fuppofed to have been ereded in memory of the afTaffination of King 
" Malcolm, and is called the graveftone. On one front is a crofs ; on the upper 
*' part is fome wild beafi:, and oppofite to it a centaur ; beneath in one compartment, 
" is the head of a wolf; thefe animals denoting the barbarity of the confpirators : 
" in another compartment are two perfons fhaking hands; in the other hand is a 
" battle-axe : perhaps thefe are reprefented in the ad of confederacy. On the 
" oppofite front of the ftone are reprefented an eel and another fifli. This alludes 
" to the fate of the murderers, who, as foon as they had committed the horrid ad, 
" fled, and were drowned in the lake of Forfar, by the ice giving way under them, 
«< as they palTed." 

• Itin. Sept. 151. t Boc-th. 1. ix. p; 243. 

vot, r. N In 


In Mcigle church-yard, a column, " in the upper part of one front are dogs and 
" horfenien, below are reprefented four wild beail:s, refcmbling lions devouring a 
•' huoian figure. The country people call thcfe Queen Vanora's gravertones; and 
" relate that fhe was the wife ot King Arthur. The next is very curious, on it is 
" engraved a chariot, with the driver and two perfons in it; behind is a monftcr, 
" refembling a hippopotamus, devouring a prottrated human figure. On another 
" itone is the rcprefentation of an elephant, or at Icaft an animal with a long 
" probofcis. 

" Mugdrum Crofs, an upright pillar, with fculptures on each fide, much de- 
'• faced ; but ftill may be traced figures of horfemcn, and beneath them certain 
" animals. Near this place flood the crofs of the famous Macduff, Thane of Fife, 
•" of which nothing but the pedeflal has been left for above a century pafl. On 
" it were infcribed certain macaroni verfcs. Mr. Cunningham, who wrote an 
" elfay on the crofs, tranOated the lines into a grant of Malcolm Canmore to the 
«' F^rl of Fife, of feveral emoluments and privileges; among others, he allows it 
" to be a fanduary to any of Macdufi's kindred, within the nnith degree, who 
" fhall be acquitted of any manllaughtcr, on flying to this crofs, and paying nine 
" cows and a heifer. 

" The pillar of Doftan is at prcfent much defaced by time, but ftill are to be 
" difcerned two rude figures of men on horfeback, and on the other fides may be 
" traced a running pattern of ornament. The ftone is between fix and fcven t'ccc 
" hiiih. and mortifed at the bottom into another. This is fliid to have been erec'ted 
" in memory of a victory near the Leven, over the Danes, m 874, under their 
•' leaders Hunger and Hubba, by the Scots, commanded by their prince Con- 
" ftantine II." 

The column of Forres mentioned in page 88, is thus defcribcd by the ingenious 
traveller, " Near Forres on the road fide, is a vaff column, three feet ten inches 
" broad, and one foot three inches thick; the height above ground is twenty three 
" feet. On one fide are numbers of rude animals and armed men, with colours 
" flying: fome of the men feemed bound like captives. On theoppcfite fide was 
"' a crofs, included in a circle, and railed a little above the furface of the flone. 
" At the foot of the crofs are two gigantic figures, and on one of the fides is fome 
" eletrant fretwork. Ihis is called King Sueno's ftone; and fcems to be, as Mr. 
" Gordon conjectures, ereded by the Scots, in memory of the final retreat of the 
•' Danes; it is evidently not Danifh, as fome have afferted; the crofs difproves the 
" opinion; for that nation had not then received the light of Chriflianity." 

in Mr, Pennant's voyage to the Hebrides, he gives a plate of a fine crofs in 
Oranfay Itle, and another m Hay; both richly fculptured, and having infcriptions, 
but he gives no reading or conjee'ture on their import. 

Another monument is mentioned in Mr. Pennant's Welch tour, p. 373, called 
the pillar of Flifeg, and conceiving it to be pertinent, in comparilbn to our fub- 
\e6t, we here infert, " I met with the remainder of a round column, jx^rhaps one 
" of the moll ancient of any Britiili infcribed pillar, now exifting. It was entire till 
" the civil warsof thelaff century, when it was thrown down and broken by fome 
" ignorant fanatics. The field it lies in is called Llwyn-y-Grves, or the Grove of 
*•' the Crofs, from the wood that furrounded it. It never had bc^n a crofs. It was 

" a memorial 


" a memorial of the dead : an improvement on the rude columns of the Druidical 
" times, and cut into form and furrounded with infcription. It flood on a great 
" tumulus ; perhaps always environed with wood, as the mount is at prefcni, ac- 
•' cording to the cuftom of the moft ancient times, when (landing pillars were 
*♦ placed under every green tree.* It is faid, that the llonc, when complete, was 
** twelve feet high, it is now reduced to fix feet eight inches. It flood infixed in 
" a fquare pcdcllal, fliil lying in the mount. The beginning of the infcriptioji, 
" gives us nearly the time of its eredion : Conceun jilnts Cattcli, CaltcU jiluis Urocb- 
" mail, Brochmail filiiis Eli/eg, Elifegfilius Cnoillaiiie, Conceun Itaqne pronepos Elifc^ 
" edificavit bunc Lapideni pro avo Jiio Elifeg. This Conccnn was the grandfon ot" 
•• Brochmail-ys-cithroe, who was defeated in 607, at the battle of Chcficr. The 
«' letters on the ftone were copied by Mr. Edward Llwyd ; the infcription is now 
♦' illegible; but from the copy taken by that great antiquary, the alphabet nearly 
" refemblcs one of thofe in u(e in the fixth century." 

The laft monument of this kind which we fliall trouble the reader with in this 
place, is delineated in Mr. Gordon's lliu. Scptentrionale, p. 160. He remarks that, 
♦' it was a nice obfervation of that learned and judicious prelate, ('Bifliop Gibfon) 
*' that the monuments whereon no letters are engraved, are Scottiili and Pidifli, 
♦' and the others, with Runic charaders, are true Danifli infcriptions." 

After reprcfcnting and defcribing many monuments in Scotland, where proccf- 
fions and the marching of troops are fculpturcd, and others with hieroglyphics, he 
gives two plates of a monument, which he thus defcribcs : " One I faw which 
" differs much from all monuments hitherto dcfcribed; it lies flat on the ground 
" within the church of Ruthvel, in the flcwartry of Annandalc. This obelifk, feme 
" think, was originally of one entire flone, but is now broken into three parts. It 
" conlifts of four regular fides, of equal height, and is in form, like the Egvptian 
" obelifksat Rome; the bafisthercofisconfiderably broad, but diminifliesgraduallv, 
•' till it terminates in a point at the top. On the lowcft of its three divifions, is a 
*• rcprefentation of our Saviour upon the crofs, with two figures, one on each fide 
** much defaced. On the tniddle part, on two oppofite fides, are beautiful orna- 
•' mcnts of waved flowerings, with grapes, and fundry kinds of curious animals, 
*' in very high relievo; round both v\ hich are infcriptions in Runic charadcrs. On 
•' one of the other oppofite fides, is the figure of our Saviour, uhofe right hand is 
*' crcifed f in an adion of benedidion ; in his left he holds a fcroll ; his head is 
" encircled with a glory, and beneath his feet is the rcfemblance of two animals, 
•• with their fore feet elevated. In the compartment below this, are tw^o rude figures 
*' of men bare-headed, and above them SanBiis Paidiis, in Saxon charadcrs." On 
•■ the oppofite fide is alfo the figure of our Saviour, with his right hand erected in 
*' a praying poflurc ; in his left he holds a book, on which is the form of a fmall 
•• crofs : Mary Magdalen is here reprcfcnted, wiping his feet with her hair. On 
•' the lower compartment are two rude figures, one of whofc heads is alfo encircled 
*' with a glory : thcfc fcem to reprcfent Jofeph and the Virgin Mary. The Runic 
" infcriptions, round the two firfi fides, I have faithfully copied, and exhibited, plate 
-*' LVII, but not being fufiicicntly acquainted with their charadcrs, 1 fiiall not, 

• 1 Kings xlv. 23. -j- Over Ills bofom; with two forefingers ereft. A glory round the liead, 

tvlth rays in the form of a crofs I H Z, the charafters above the head of tlie figure. 

N 2 "at 

92 PARISH OF BEWCASTLE. [Eskdale Ward. 

" at prefent, pretend to explain them. The Saxon infcriptions, round the other 
" lidcs, feem to exprefs the general defign ot the figures engraven upon them, and 
" flievv them to have been Chriftian : they are wrote in Latin, and allude to feveral 
" paflages in the New Teftamcnt, Sec. &c. 

" The middle part of the Hone is eighteen inches broad at the bottom, fourteen 
•' at the top, and four feet eight inches in length. This obelilk is not more re- 
" markable for any thing, than the two different forts of charaders infcribed there- 
*« on, namely Saxon and Runic." 

This monument has been engraved by the London Antiquarian Society, with 
notes upon it, and therein the fcripture texts are made out, but no reading or con- 
jedure'on the Runic infcriptions. It is noted, that fince that account was read 
before the Society, the drawing has been fliewn to Mr. Profeffor Thorkelin, who 
has been inveftigating all fuch monuments of his countrymen in this kingdom ; — 
but that he has not returned any opinion upon it. 

From thefe feveral quotations, the reader will make his own conjedures ; every 
vifitant has done no more. 

The ruins of a large Roman ftation are ftill obfervable here, the ditch yet re- 
maining of a confidcrable depth, and the vallum lofty The caftle Oands in the 
well corner ot the area, Telfelated pavements, coins, and altars, have been dif- 
covered in this ftation. — The antiquities preferved by Mr. Horfley, and noticed 
in his work, are as follows : 

" Many Roman coins have been found here, one of which I now have in my 
" poffellion, which I take to be Philip, though the head is obfcure. Camden tells 
" us that he faw a ftone in the church-yard, made ufe of for a gravcflone, with this 
•* infcription— 


" — Andjuft fuch a fort of ilone, with the very fame infcription upon it, did I find 
" in Naworth garden, not unlike half a graveftone, which I conclude to be the 
*' fame, and fuppofe it to have been removed from BcwcalUe to Naworth, by the 
" gentleman who made the colledion. Camden intimates that it had been brought 
" from fome other place to Bew caftle, but for what rcalbn he fliould fuppofe this, 
" I cannot imagine, lince it is certain this has been a ftation, and that it is not the 
" only infcription which has been found here: — 

,, Imperntori defu'^iTtajaHO Hadriaiio Aiigujlo Legiones 

_^...,,„..,.,_____ ,^, " Secundd AiiguJJa et Fieejiwa valens viHrix fiti 

CA Ev5 \mMm^^ " Licimo Prifco Legato Aiigujl all Fropr^ lore:' This 

^/|2«^^^»f> \ 'fy^ remained on the fpot when Mr. Horftey vifited the 

1 l/WQ tO'>:x'V I ftation, and was then in the church-yard, at the 

f G iSr 0«;^i B^i:# k^ ^^^^ o^ ^ grave, fet upright on the edge. "It has 

i®V^/«>P1\PR If " L-'een a very curious infcription, though it is now 

^ i^^^.i5ssls=sij I " imperfed. It was found at firft at the bottona 

■it t, f-^ i A'^-^--^-r' , ™- a J « of a grave, and has not been publifticd before. — 

J " The laft letters P. R. P. R. are plainly for Pro- 

" prjetore, and confequently there can be no doubt, but what went before has been 
*' Leg, Aug. for Legato Auguftali, though V only is now vifible, the preceding 


" letters being broken off from the ftone, and the G quite effaced. The line above 
" muft therefore have contained the name of the lieutenant. I take it to have been 
" an honorary monument, ereifted to Hadrian by the Legio Secunda Augufta and 
" the Legio Vicefima. I cannot find any name of a Propraetor, that fully fuits the 
" letters in the infcription; but we have Prifcus Licinius mentioned in the infcrip- 
" tion in Hadrian's time, which feems to approach the nearcft. The two names 
" Licinius and Pnfcus might be inverted in an infcription, as we find names are 
" fornctimes in authors, perhaps the whole infcription was originally in this form: 





LEG AVG P. R. P. R. 

" Mr. Ward thinks the two lafl: lines may have been thus : — 

OB, VIC. ^o. PR. Lie. 
IN. L. AVG, P. R. P, R. 

" This is Ob Vidoriam Nobilem, Prifco Licinio Legato Auguflali Proprietore, 
" Curtius applies the epithet Nobilis in the fame manner, fpcaking of Alexander 
" the Great, 

" I was told of another ftonc found at this place, with TEMPLVM diftindly 
" upon it, but it was then broken and deftroyed, 

*' As the Legio Secunda Augufta was at this place in the reign of Hadrian, fo 
" it is moft likely that they were quartered here at the time when his vallum was 
" built, to cover the workmen, and to bear a ihare in the work. I am inclined to 
" believe, that the ancient name of this place was APIATORIUM, mentioned* 
" in a former infcription ; if that ftone was not brought diredly from Bewca^'.-. 
" which, indeed, he fays he does not remember; it might how ever come origin, 
•• from thence." 

To thefe may be added a ftone we difcovered over the channel at the gate 
the public-houfe-yard : — 


s o n 

f COM i DAC.X/^j 


* Northuinb, 77, 



f £ Liu IS SI; M 


;^ —— ^ The altar reprefcnted in the cut was found latel}', 

^"~— --^ /Mn '^"'^ '^ ^" ^^'^ pofl'effion of the Rev. J. D Cailjle. 

' Before we turn our fteps and leave this moun- 

tainous and defert trad, no curiolity inducing u-j 
to proceed cowards the north, we muft remark 
that the inhabitants of this diftricl long retained 
their ferocity, and licentious kind of liberty, after 
the accelTion of King James, which, in a great 
mcafurc, put a Uop to the depredations made by 
the banditti on the borders. It had forages been 
the reforc and receptacle of defperadoes, who were 
out-lawed by both nations, with whom the com- 
; /V'' S^J1*/V\ * ^^^ mon bufinefs of life was robbery and pillage. This 
^•^ *" " I '""' '^\i^ parilli was terrible, even in modern times, to of- 

iicers of juftice, and it is but within this century, 
the fherilf's officers dared to go thither to execute 
the procefs of law. The name of Bevvcaftle men, carried with it a degree of 
terror, only lately fliaken off.* In the year 1593. articles for rcpreffing enormities 
committed on the borders, were propofed and agreed on at Newcaftle, by the Earl 
of Huntingdon, lord lieutenant of the north, with the confent of Thomas, Lord 
Scroop, of Bolton, lord warden of the wed marches, and Sir Robert Gray. Knr. 
deputy'vvarden of the weft marches, and others, in which it is ftated, " Whereas 
" within Bewcaftlc, and other places, the head officer challengeth to have the 
*' efcheacs of all offenders under him, by which means the flieriff perceiving 
" that the goods and chatties do go to the officer, and that himfelf fliall have only 
♦' his labour for his travel ; therefore the flicriff forbeareth to make an arreft-, and 
" to apprehend any offenders^ when he feech that he may not, with the pirty, 

" make 

• Rude as tlie wilds around his fylvan home, 
In favnge jrrandeur fee the Briton roam ; 
Bart vcrehis limbs, and Urung with toil and cold, 
By untam'd r.alure call in giant mould, 
O'er his broad brawny flioulders loofely flung, 
Shaggy and long his yellow ringlets hung. 
His waift an iron belted falehion bore, 
MafTy, and purpled deep with human gore ; 
His icar'd and rudely painted limbs around 
Fantallic horror (Iriking figures frown'd, 
Which m.onller-like, e'en to the confines ran 
Of nature's work, and left him hardly man. 
His knitted brows, and rolling eyes impart 
A direful image of his rulhlefs heart ; 
Where war and human llaughter brooding lie, 
Like thunders loweting in a gloomy ll<y. 

When o'etthrown, 
More keen and fierce tht tlamc of freedom (hone. 

Ye woods whofe cold and lengthened tracks of fhade 
Rofe on the day wheu fun and ilars were made ! 
Waves of Lodore, that frotn the mountain's brow. 
Tumble your ilood and (hake the vale below ! 
Majeftic Skiddaw, round whofe tracHIefs (leep, 
'Mid the bright funfliine darkfome tempefts fweep ! 
To you the patriot tied, his native land 
He fpurn'd, w hen proffered by a conqueror's hand. 
In you to roam at large ; to lay his head 
On the bleak rock, unclaJ, unhous'd, imfed. 
Hid in the agiiilh fen, whole days to reft. 
The numbing waters gather round his breafl ; 
To mark defpondence cloud each rifing morn. 
And dark deipair hang o'er the years imbora. 
Yet here, e'en here, he greatly dar'd to lie, 
And drain the lulcious dregs of liberty. 
Outcaft of nature, fainting, wafled, wan. 
To breath an air hfs own, and live a iiran. 

Pcem on the Original Britons, Co. liidwdj, j4. B. OriJ. C'jl. Ox. 1791. 

" make 


•' make feizure of his goods alfo; fo is the felon rcfervcd by that means to do 
" inifchicf, without further punifliment than by appcafing his own officer with a 
•' part of the things ftolen, (as fome inform] the officer not carrying how many 
" evil men lived under him, feeing that by them growcth fo great a benefit 
" unto him." 

There are feveral romantic fpois which engage the attention of travellers; to the 
north of Bewcaftle, two hills called the Black and White Preftons, and Chriflian- 
bury Crags, from whence extenfivc profperts are had. There is a rock bafon oil 
the fummit of thcfc crags conflandy full of xvatcr; but whether fupplicd by a 
fpring or not, is not yet afcertained. 

There are two fchools in this parifli, fupported by public fubfcriplion : the mailers 
arc hired for about lo/. a year, and they go about with thefcholars in rotation for 
vidhials, a privilege called in many places, " a ivbitlle gale." 

The poor-houfe is on a regular foundation, the mailer of which has a fixed 
falary of about ill. a year, with a lliilling a week for every pauper, the number 
feldom cxcccdmg half a dozen at a time. The inhabitants in general are of rough 
and unpoiifned manners, of a fliy temper, but not inhofpitablc to Ihangcrs — their 
inclination does not tend lo agriculture: horfe-dealingand the care of their flocks 
and herds fcem to occupy their attention chiefly. Mechanics there are few. 

The ealtern parts of the parilln are fliut in by a range of mountains extending 
from north to fouth. The foils confift of a fandy gravel, fome light foils lie oa 
lime Hone, hut much on clay; and it is laid, a vein of blue clay runs through 
the whole pariili, which holds the water, and renders the furface continually moiit. 
The tillage lands produce wheat, beans, peafe, oats, barley, and potatoes; the 
chief crop is of oats, and that very mean, no grain producing more than between 
five to eightfold : fcarce one-third of the parilh confifts of inclofed lands. The 
annual rental of this parifh is 2140/. and the poor-rate amounts to between iGd. 
and I SJ. yearly on an average, occafioned by paying out-pcnfions, to perfons not 
received to the poor-houfe. The flock of ilieep is generally about four thoufand, 
and one thoufand head of black cattle, which depafl^ure on the wafbes. Heifers of 
the Englifli breed Mill bring a price between 6/. and 8/. and a Highland bullock 
from two to five guineas. The prices of provifions do not vary much from the 
Carlifle and Brampton markets. The daily hire of labourers is from 'id. to \od, 
with their vi(!;hials; mechanics lid. male fervants wages from 10/. to 12/. and fe- 
male fervants from 5/. to 6/. by the year. 

The fuel ufcd by the inhabitants is peat and turf, with a mixture of coals. — The 
coals are dd. a horfe-load at the pit, fix pecks to the load, and twenty-four quarts 
to the peck. 

I'here are two medicinal fprings in Bewcaftle, but negleded; one chalybeate, 
the other fulphur. 

The Maiden- Way runs through this diftricfl. — There are two great diove-roada 
through the parifii, one from Scotland to the louthern parts of England, the other 
from the weltcrn parts of Scotland to \ht caftern parts of England, by which many 


^6 PARISH OF BEWCASTLE. [Eskdale Ward. 

thoufands of cattle and fheep pafs yearly : and yet it is to be remarked, that there 
are no (latutc fairs in BewcaiHe, for either the fale of cattle, or hiring of fervants. 

No one is at the expence of taking a licence to fell ale or fpiriis; yet at every 
turn there is a hut where whilky is fold in abundance. No excilemen ever fets 
a foot in this territory ; and though the natives frequently qurrrel among them- 
felves, yet they feldom trouble the magiftrates. — At prefent there is no magirtrate 
nearer than Carlifle, which is more than twenty miles diftant, and great part of the 
road through dreary wades. 

The women in general go without (lockings, and many without fliocs,* 

* Wood.] Fir, afli, fycamore, oak, willow, alder, and bitch. 

FrsHF.s.] Grey trout — fingeryfide, marked with regular and dark-coloured triangles, from the back to 
the belly — the redtin — minnow — loach — filver eel, very large — ^lamperies, very large — fnlmon, late in the 
feafon, from twenty to thirty pound weight — falmon-trout late in the feafon — gille late in the fealon — 
falmon-fry in March and AJjril — brandling. Of this fidi it is remarkable all that are taken are males ; 
they abound from March to October. 

Birds.] Black game rare — red game or groufe in great plenty — curlews, fnipes, herons, bitterns, 
green and grey plover — wild gecfe in fpring and autumn — wild ducks in winter — teals, partridges, field- 
fares, fterllngs, mofs-cheepers, woodcocks, ciickow, fea-gulls and fea-pyes fometimcs — blackbirds, thrulh, 
ficylarks, fandlarks, redbreafts, grcylinnets, houfc and hedge-fparrow — maitlns and fwallows in their fea- 
fon — wren, millers-thumb, nightingale, tomtit — goldfinch, bullfinch, hemphns, blacklocks, yellow oafteeds, 
grey oaileeds, water pye, owls, bats, crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, magpies, doves, ftockdoves, corncraik 
or rail, gleds, and Hawks. 

Our plan of noticing not only men of great merit, butalfo men of eccentric characters, and even noto- 
rious malefaftors, requires us to record here a remarkable free booter, or land-pirate, of this place, who 
died about fifteen years ago in Morpeth iail. This man was named Tho?>W! Annjlrong; but, as Is com- 
mon among vagabonds and thieves, he went by the nick-name of &o:h Tojn. We know not whether 
fuch lawlefs men remained longer in thcfe obfcure parts, than In fome others; but, fome of the feats of 
this man, who avowedly followed thieving as a trade, are hardly exceeded by the companions of Gil Bias, 
or by Robin Hood and Little John. Two or three of them we will here fet down. 

Riding to a fair at Newcaftle, he faw an hoife tethered in a field adjoining to the road: it was much 
Jjetter than his own ; and fo he difmounted, and put his faddle on It, leaving his own In Its place. This 
iioife he fold at the fair to a gentleman, whom, with an appearance of great candour, he thus addreffed,— 
Sir this horfe it ticklijh and trouhlefome to drffj : if you ivill give mc leave, I ivill Jhe-M y'Atr fervatit koixi to 
viannoc him. The gentleman accepted his offer; and Tom having thus made liimfelf acquainted with the 
liable', that night again Hole the fame horfe, which he aftually left in the tether where he had firfl; found 

The fellow had much perfonal courage'; as fuch outlaws often have. On the commiffion of fome daring 
crime or other, the condablcs, aided by a party of foldlers from Carlifle, had befet his houfe; In which 
there was but one room ferving him for parlour and kitchen and hall. Here, to the foot of his bed-poft, 
Ms horfe ftood tied: and when the danger became imminent, he mounted this horfe, rulhed out of the 
door and forced his way, in full gallop, through the furrounding crowd, though fired at by ftveral, and 
his horfe wounded by one of them In the thigh. 

At another time, having ftolen a fat hog, he was purfiied by a fearch warrast. The bailiff and his 
poffe found him rocking a cradle; and he received them with the utmoll compofure and courtefy. On 
being Informed of their errand, he coolly obferved, — ^y, you are much in the right to fearch: pray fearch 
well, and examine every coiner: let me requeft you only not to make a nolfe, as the child with which my 
VvLfe has left me in charge, is crofs and peevlfli : I beg you not to awaken It. The pig was In the cradle. 

Many more fuch feats might be related; which prove only his miferable mifappllcation of veiy good 
parts: the confequence of which was, a wretched fife, and an ignominious death. 




We quitted the banks of Black Leven, a name not ill fuited to the river, 
both from its colour, and the gloomy dells and mountains from whence it 


" T^ IR^^-CAMBOCK, Ecc!e/;n ad Couva/la;! paludis. The place where Cambogh 
" 1^ ftands, was named Camb-bogh-glan, by the firft inhabitants, whereupon 
" the Romans formed this name, Camboglana, and now Cambeck and Cammoc 
" corruptly. The nature of the foil and form of the place caufed the firft name, for 
" there is a great bog, or fenny mire in a bottom or low ground, in the glen or dale 
" near unto the town. 

" The firrt pofTcffor I read of, was one Alfred Cammock in King Henry IPs time,- 
" afterwards in King Henry Ill's time, and King Edward I. it belonged to the 
" Terries; one Richard Terry held it of Thomas Multon then lord of GilHand, by 
" the eighth part of a knight's fee; and after him, one Thomas de Leverfdale, and 
*' Thomas his fon. In the 36th King Edward III. William Stapleton and 
" Robert de Leverfdale: and 22d Richard II. Stapleton's part defcendcd to the 
" Mufgraves, with other the Stapleton's lands, by a daughter."* 

The manor is now holden of the Earl of Carliile, as a member of Gilfland. 

This is a fmall parifli, bounded by the pariflies of Stapleton, Lanercoft, and 
BewcafHe. The church when {landing, was redlorial, and the impropriation was 
claimed by the prior and convent ot Carlifle, But when, or by whom it was given 
to that religious houfe, does not appear. In Pope Nicholas's valor, it was rated 
high, but in the future valuations of livings, was not charged, being then wholly 
appropriated to the priory, and the parifli almofl depopulated and dellroyed by the 
Scots : it is prefumed the church has lain in ruins from the time of king Edward 
II. when fuch dreadful devaftations were made in this country; nothing but fcat- 
tered fragments of the outward walls are now remaining. J By the bifliop's regifter 
it appears, indeed, that an incumbent \i as collated in 1386; but whether the church 
was deftroyed in the reigns of Richard II, or Henry IV. or in the preceding reign, 

♦ Denton's M. S. 


Incumbents. — In 1259, Randolph dc Tylliol R. — Symon de Tyrer. — On Tyrer's death, a difpute 
»rofe between the conv. of Carlifle and Richard de Tyrer, touching the right of prefentation, and on an 
inquilition de jure patronatus, it appeared that Henry the father of Richard, prefented the lad turn, and 
by deed under feal had concluded with the convent, an alternate right of prefentation, whereupon Alex, 
de Crokedake was inftituted — next year Symon de Tyrer. — 1386, John de Southwell, Bp, Appleby 
Col. by Lapfe. 


Eccl. de Cambock'8/. Os. od. t ^"l" ^' Cambock, ut fup. penf.o prions / K. Hen. VIII, 

OUmdearua. i Karl, in Ecch de Kambock.-Nul lujs f 

J diebus prop, dcllructiones. J 

VOL. I O we 

^8 ASKERTON CASTLE. [Eskdaie Wari>. 

we have nothing buc conjecflure. The route of the Scots, in their incurfions in the 
two lad: mentioned reigns not being defcribed by hiftorians through this trad:. The 
following defcription, of tiie fmgular lot of the inhabitants of this country, is cu- 
rious, " No curate is appointed to take care of the parochial duties, for the rites of 
" fcpulturc and baptifm, the people commonly repair to the church of Lanercofl:;. 
" and for their inftruil'lion in religion, they go thither, or to Stapleton, or Bcwcaftlc, 
" or whither they think fit. " "And yet the dean and chapter poffej's the re£loyial rights." 
" Why thischurchhath not beencerrified to thcgovernors of Queen Anne's bounty, 
" andthereby put into a way of augmentation, we have had no reafonaffigned." But 
the utterneglect of the care of thisparifh,and the religious offices there, will appear 
ftill more remarkable under the following obfervations: " The rectory is granted 
" by the dean and chapter of Carlifle, by leafe for twenty one years, by the de- 
" fcription ot all that church or chapel of Kirkcambock, with all houfes, glebe 
" lands, oblations, obventions, &c. The leflee covenants to repair the church 
" and houfes ; and alio to find and provide an able and fufficient curate, and to 
" allow fuch fiipend as the ordinary fliall appoint;" and yet not one tittle of thofe 
provilions are obferved.* 


Stands on the banks of the river Cambock, a fmall out-pofl-, faid by Camden, to 
be built by the barons Dacre, where the governor of Gilfland, commonly called 
Land Serjeant, kept a few men at arms for the protecftion of the barony, and 
chiefly to prevent the inroads of the mofs-troopers into that territory.! It appears 


* A cuftomary manor. — Cullomary rcat i/. 2j. 6i/. — On death of lord a twenty-penny fine.— Change 
of tenant arbitrary fine. 

\ An inquifition was taken of the manors, caftlcs, lands, tenements, &c. the podeflions of Leonard 
Dacre, Efq. attainted of high treafon, at the city of Carlifle, in the months of Auguft and September, 
31ft of Queen Elizabeth, before Alexander Kingc, Efq. auditor of the queen's exchequer, John Braddell, 
Richard Lowther, and Wilfrid Lawfon, Efquires, by the verdicl of twenty feven perfons. 

The editors confefs their obligation to Mr J. Graham, attorney at law, of Carlifle, for thq ufe of thi9 
curious and valuable record. 

/raw ;^^ Inqijisitiom, 3i/?«/"QyEEN £lizab£th. 

The lords rents amounted to 26/. 8/. 
The bailiffs fee 26/. %d. 
" MEMORiiND.^There is fituate within the faid manner one caftle, called Aflcerton cattle, which is at 
" this prefent in verie great decaie. If the fame were in good repair it were a howfe of verie good re- 
'< ceite, and of convenient ftrength againlt any commoo or fuddaine aflailinage by the Scotts, and is about 
» ij miles diHant from the calUe of Bewcaftle. 

" Item there is belonging to the faidcaAle, a park called Afkerton Park, and certain demefae lands," 
— (they are not fct forth.) 

«• Item, there is within the faid manner, a great waft of heath and moor grounds, called the North 
«< Moore, containing by eftimation two thoufand acres or more, part thereof adjoineth to the walls of 
" Scotland, and another part thereof adjoineth to the wafts of Tyndcll, in which the teanants of this 
« ipanner and the tennants of divers other manners ia Gillefland have ufed to fcheale, or common their 

« cattle 


that the fevereft blow ftruck againft that banditti was in 1529, by King James V. 
of Scotland, who, perceiving the enormities daily committed by thofe tribes, and 
the unwillingnefs of the Earl of Northumberland, on the part of England, to afilil 
in their fupprefllon, he firfl: of all, caiifed William Cockburn, of Henderland, and 
Adam Scot, of Tufliilaw, known by the name of King of Thieves, being then his 
prifoners, to be beheaded, and their heads placed upon the walls of the public pri- 
fon in Edinburgh : then he made an expedition to the borders, with 8,000 chofen 
troops, by forced marches coming into Eufdalc, before the banditti were apprized 
of their danger, he feized many of their chiefs in their faftnelTes. I'orty-cight of 
whom he caufed inftantly to be hanged on the trees by the fide of the common 
roads : among thefe was John Armftrong, who had made himfelf fo formidable, 
that the inhabitants of the neighbouring marches of England, to the diflance of 
feveral miles, are faid to have paid him tribute. 

" Afkerton and Whithill were firfl: given by *****, lord of Gilfland, to Sir Roger 
*' Vaux, his ****«**, to whom fucceeded his fon William, fon of Roger, but after 
" his death, it was thenceforth always demefne lands, and not freehold. But the ' 
** lord had certain bondmen and villains, which laboured to the lord's ufe, in 
*' Edward I.'s time, and before. But now there is a little ftone peel, where the 
" land-ferjeant of Gilfland doth refide, that commands and leads the inhabitants of 
" the barony in the lord's fervice for the queen againfl: Scotland, and hath the de- 
*• mefne lands there. The refidue is demifed to cuftomary tenants, as in the Lx)rds 
** Dacres time."f 


Was formerly a chapelry of Walton, but now a part of Lanercofl^, and nothing of 
a chapel is now feen there. 

" Triermaine was, at the conquefl:, a fee of Gilfland, one Gilandos was lord 
" thereof; he ftood againft the conqueror, and his fon and heir, Gilamor got his 
" own peace with Ranulph Mcfchincs, Earl of Cumberland, and his brother William 
♦' Mefchines, and quietly enjoyed it in Henry I.'s time, and builded the firll chapel 
" there of wood, by licence of Athelwald, firfl: bifliop of Carlifle ; and by confent 

♦' cattle in the fummer time, viz. from St. Ellenmas unto Lamrrtas, and to pay for the fame the ycarh'e 
" rent of Ixxs. iiijil. which rent was paid by the tennants of the lordfhips following, viz. Afl<erton xxixsi 
" iiijd. the demefiies there 8?. Treddermaine xviis. iiijd. Walton Wood iiijs. Brampton vjs. and Irthing- 
*•■ ton vjs. of which faid rent there hath been anfwered nothinge by divers years palle, but only for the 
" demefnes of Aflterton viijs. The caufe of the dccaye of the faid rent, is, for that the faid tennants 
" dare not ufe the faid common ot fchealinge as in times pad they have been accuftomed, for fear they 
" Ihould be robbed and fpoylcd of their faid cattle and goods by the Scotts. 

" Item, there are within the faid manner, divers other commons, &:c. containing by eftimation ccc. 
** acres, &c. 

" Item, there are within the faid manner two parfonadges, the one called Stapleton, and the other cal- 
" led Kirkcamock, and either of them have glebe land belonging to the fame, and there belongeth to 
«' either of them tythe corn and other tytlis, but they have rent for the fame, and not the tyths in kind, 
" and the patronag:;of both the faid parfondages belongeth to her majelly,andboth'of the faid parfonadges 
*• are, at this prefent, void of any incumbent." 

N. B. The boundaries are omitted in the copy before us. 

■f Denton's MS. 

2"^ " of 

loo PARISFI OF WALTON. TEskdale Ward." 

i) he made hiscoufin 

" of Enoc, then parfon of Walton kirk, fin whofe parifliit was' 
•' Gilamor firft chaplain thereof, after which chaplain, fucceeded one Daniel, and 
" after him Augultine, that lived in the time of Thomas, parfon of Walton, which 
" Thomas became a canon in Lanercofl-, when it was founded, and then the 
" redory was appropriated to Lanercolf. After the death or banifliment of 
" Gilamor, lord of Triermaineand Toreroflbck, Hubert Vaux gave Triermainc and 
" TorerolTock to his fecond Ion Ranulph Vaux, which Ranulph afterwards became 
" heir to his elder brother Robert, founder of Lancrcofi, vvho died without iffuc. 
*' Ranulph, being lord of all Gilfland, gave Gilamor's lands to his own younger 
" fon, named Roland, and let the barony defcend to his eldefi: fon Robert, fon of 
" Ranulph ; Roland had ilFue Alexander, and he Ranulph, after whom fucceeded 
" Robert, and then they were named Rolands fuccellively that were lords thereof, 
" until the reign of Edward IV. That houfegave for arms in a field vert, a bend 
" Dexter chcquy Or and Gules.*t 


THE church of Walton appears to have been anciently vicarial, before it was 
appropriated to the priory of Lanercoft, under the gift of Robert de Vallibus 
Silvefter de Evcrfden, Bifhop of Carlifle, fettled thereon the whole altarage -, on an 

* Denton's MS. 

f From tie iNQuisirroN, 31/? o/" Queen Elizabeth. 
The lord's rents amounted to 13I. 5s. 6d. 
The baib'fF's fee, 13s. 4d. 
Land Lijaunt's fee, 3s. 
" Memorand.] The fcite of the faid manner of Tradermayne, was foraetimes a fair caftle, called 
'• Tradermayne caftle, a houfe of great ftrength and of good teceipt ; it ftood and was built oppofite to 
" the wafts of Scotland and Tyndell, and about vj miles diftant from Lydderefedell, and was a very con- 
" venient place, both for annoying of the enemie and defending the country thereabouts; but now the 
*• faid caftle is utterly decayed." 

" Item, there be diverfe and fundry groves and places of wood within the faid manner, viz» Willparke, 
" Halegarth Wood, Dundell Wood, &c." 

" Item, there are divers commons of heath and moor grounds belonging to the faid manner, viz. 
" Wifey Rigge, Torthoy Dundell, Rigg Graggell, Males Croft, Knorren Moor, and others, containing 
" five hundred acres, wherein the tennants of this manner have common of pafture for their cattle." 

" Item, the bounder of the faid manner beginneth at the foot ot Knorren, and up Knorren to the foot 
" of Cragg Burne, fo up to the head of Cragg Burne, from thence to the Grayftone over againft Grenefe 
" Burne, from thence up the heads of Dundly Rigge to Troulebeck, from thence up King to the Middle 
" Shealdes, from thence to Irdinj^e, from Irdinge down to Brudeflblle, from thence to the Wall Bowers, 
•• from the Wall Bowers to the Ragghill, from thence to the Frier Waine-gate, from thence to the Hare- 
« hirtt, and from thence to the Stone Crofs, and from thence to the foot of Knorren where this bounder 
»• firft began." 

The lord's rents amounted to 4I. 17s. id. 
Bailiff's fee, 1 3s. 4d. 
" Walton Wood demifed to Lancelot Carleton, is a wood inclofed, containing, by eftimation, about 
J* ccl acres ; it is repknillied, for the moft part, with great ftorc of great aod good oakes, and with an 

" iflDumerablfl 


appeal to the fucceeding bifliop, he confirmed the fame, or otherwife dircdled, that 

the incumbent, at his option, Ihould have twelve merks. Robert de Chefter, the 

laft vicar, was prcfented by the prior and convent of Lancrcoft, A. D. 1380. From 

the death of that incumbent, to the time of the difTo- 

lution, the church was ferved with a regular canon from 

the monaltery. It is now a perpetual curacy, in conle- 

quence of its entire appropriation to the priory. In 

IJr. Todd's time, the revenue was not more than the 

wages of a common man-fervant. Irj 1750, it was 

certified at 13I. los. per annum, and in 1767. was 

augmented, and lands were purchafed ; it is now worth 

70I. per annum; William Dacrc, Kfq. of Kirklinton 

late proprietor nf the manor, has the nomination.* 

The arms of this houfe of Vaux were Fert, a Beiid- 
dcxtcr, cbe-^uy Or and Gu/es. 

" innumeiable number of forwarcle fapl.'ng oakcs, and there is good flore of underwood within the fame s 
" and there hath been, of late, great deftruftion made within the faid wood. 

" Alfo there are divers othcrgrovcs of \vood,\vithin the fa!d manncr,at WelUhewe,and other places,5cc." 
" .Aho the faid woods are worth, to be fold, two hundred pounds and more, S:c." 
" Alfo there are divers heath, moor, and barren grounds within this manner, called the Cragghill, 
" Wall-moor, Bankesfold, and other places, which contain, by elUmatlon, about cc acres, wherein the • 
" tennants have their commons for their cattle." 

" Alfo the BouNDF.R of this manner beginneth at the Goofe-holme head, that is to fay, at the foot of 
" the Little Whitley, and it goeth up the wall, till it comtth at the Bankefburn, till it cometh at the 
" fc'viatcs Rigg ; from thence to the brown Knoofe ; and from thence to the Frier-wainegate, and fo over 
" the water, and down to a ditch, till it cometh almofl to the houfes called the Harehirlt, and then down 
" the water of King, fome pait belonging to the faid lordflilp, as well without the faid water, as within 
" until It cometh to a place called Higher-holme-head, from thence down a hedge, till it come to the 
" Green Holie, at the Higher- holme-foot, and fo down a hedge tl!l it come to Whittillthighe, and 
♦' then down another hedge, till it comes at Goofe- holme-head, where it began." 
* Walton parilli contains about fixty families. 


Pope Nlch. 1 E. Edw. H. 

'^'"'-Iton cum Capellis, {- Eccl. de Walton cum Cap( 

50I. J atur quia tota deftruitur. 

Eccl. de Walton cum Capellis, {- Eccl. de Walton cum Capclla non tax- > K. Hen. VTII, 


Soil, produce and agriculturf.] The beil land is near Caftle-Stcads, the property of John Johnfon, 
Efq. lord of the manor. The manor-houfe rebuilt, in a moft elegant manner, commanding an open and 
extennve view, to the E. W, and S. The vale of Irthing, in front, level, fertile, and beautiful. Other 
lands more fandy, gravel, and unlevel. Barley, oats, and peafe, the chief produce ; as turnips are not 
much grown, the barley and potatoe lands confume the manure. The common lands have been cultivated 
and inclofed for fome years ; part* very barren. 

Tenure and TITHES.] The inclofed commons freehold, and pay no tithes ; the old inclofures cut 
tonary, and pay tithes In kind. 

Farms J Small, fome not above 20I. a-ycar, and few exceed 60I. — are compadl The average rent 
per acre, is about ] 7s. or 1 83. 

Families.] Are not increafed In the courfe of fome years. 

Aspect.] To the fouth. 

Wood.] None but hedge rows. 

Rivers.] Irthing bounds on the fouth, Cambeck on the weft, and King on the eaft. 

Situation.] The north part high and cold. 

Sheep.J Very few. Housman'8 Notes. 


ro2 CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdale Ward. 

We now approached 


Which is numbered the thirteenth ftation of the Romans on the wall, in Mr. 
Warburton's furvey, and by him and Mr. Horfley thought to be the Petriana of 
that people.§ It is, by fome, at this day, called Camheck fort. Here Denton 
alTerts, flood the capital manfion-houfe of the Lords of Gilfland ; but from what 
authority, he hath not noticed. His words are, — " Naworth caflle is now the 
" principal feat of the barony of Gililand, and hath fo been from Edward II. 's 
" time. — In the 36th of Edward III. Margaret, daughter and heir of Thomas 
" Multon, (laft of that name lord thereof) died feized thereof. The ancient capi- 
" tal manfion-houfe of Gilfland was at a place in Walton parifh, called the Cajlle~ 
" Steed, where is, as yet, to be feen the ruins of the caflle, where Gill fil. Bueth 
*' dwelt, and which Hubert Vaux had of the gift of Henry II. and it was called 
" the manor of Irth-oon-Town, contradly, Irthington villa ad rivum Irthing. — 
•" The river gave name to the town, manor and caflle. The lords thereof fuffered 
*' it to decay, as a thing of rude edification, and of the ruins thereof built Naworth, 
*' which, in fuccefs of time, was bettered by the owners; and by the like time. 
*' through negligence, more than age, begins now to decline, and lofe that beauty 
" and ftrength which it lately had, as all luch worldly things do, which are fubjed 
"to time."* 

This rtation is now furrounded with fine cultivated lands ; and, in the progrefs 
of improvement, mod probably would have been totally dcftroyed and defaced, had 
not fome former proprietor of the eflate in which it lies, before the Ipirit of culti- 
vation and enlarged hufbandryhad taken place in this country. and the depredations 
committed by the borderers had ceafed, either planted, or, at Icall, fuffered the 
whole flation, with its out-works, to be overrun with a forefl: of oaks. By the 
bottoms or fioves of fome of the trees, which, when we firft vilited the place, 
A. D. 1778, appeared to be then lately cut down, they could not have attained 
the ftrength thc-y Ihewed in lefs than a century. This, has, in a degree, preferved 
the diftincl figure of the ftation, and prevented the workman's tools from turn- 
ing up many Roman remains, lately difcovered, and preferved by the prefent 
intelligent proprietor. It lies about four hundred yards fouth f of the Praeten- 
turae of Hadrian and Severus, but muft be admitted one of the ftations ad 
lineam valli, as it occurs at a very proper diftance to anfwer to the ftation, called 
Petriana in the Notitia, where the Ala Petriana was fettled. The two now com- 
monly accepted names of Cambeck fort and Caflle-Steads, are thus to be accounted 
for; the former from the fituation near the brook of Cambeck, the latter the com- 
mon appellation given to the caflella and Roman ftations of Caftcrs or Chefters. 
The fituation of this camp is excellent, on the ridge of a hill, having a fvvift de- 
fcent to the north and fouth, and commanding an extenfive profpecl northward, 
along the wall, having in view the ftation of Watchcrofs weftward, and Burdof- 

§ Gordon fays, " much about tlie fani€ dimenfions ae Carr-Voran fort. * Denton's MS. 

^ Mo Gough fays a mile— perhaps an error of the prefs, edit. Camd. 201. 


( rfSf/'W/<^>/(K\' M /. 




IlC vi-v^ 

icOH nn 


i PR ff c^ 

!J I 


'G £ NT /V/v| 
|7'£MPL VMc 

P/TAN-- Vfft' 



If' MVMi 

^ C^ PRA 


,fi. KIARTN 

._ tLP-' -VL^C_o_.s - 

fi- ^ - <=■;, — r-1 

Ij IVBLAS-fos- 

[■!^4b- - P 


•iirr/ci/ ^l./l.ivf'.tn- 

^/ii- f'i'/i'rc/ii'li 11/' t^li.Jimiiw (i"ii/tirn nnr! rff .\'r//n'>i;\ 


wald to the eaft : and it was alfo capable of being alarmed by any beacon from 

Camden, from an infcription, and the likenefs of names, was induced to fix the 
name of Petriana on old Perith, featcd on the river Petril.f Mr. Gordon thinks 
the notitia is in confufion here, and that Camden had gained ftrong arguments to 
fupport his opinion, J but, from Anroninc's Itinerary, it fecms incontrovertible, 
that the Itation of Old Perith was called Veroda ;§ and Mr* Warburton juflly ob- 


In Mr. Horjley'i 'work, ive have the fillomMng infcriftions : 

T. Cohcrs Ncna Pofuit. This is of that fort which is ufiiaily found on the fucc of the wnl!, and has 
been erefted by the ninth colioi t of one of the legions. The letters are well cut, and the ihoke which 
is drawn through the middle, may poffibly have been dejigned for a numeral mark, lliough it be continued 
from one fide to the olhcr. It was lound in the wall near a cottage, called Kaudylaniis, more than half 
way from Burdofwald towards Cambeck, and not long bcfoie I came there. It has not been publifhed 

2. E ck'itatd Catuvellaunoruni Titus Oifedio Pofuit.^ This is in the fore wall of a houfe at Howgill, 
a place about half a mile farther weft than Randylands ; and is of the fame fort with thofe that are 
found upon the face of the wall. It was firft publifhed by Dr. Jurin in the Phllofophical Tranfaftions, 
and fiiice by Mr. Gordon, who fays it may be read civitate OtaJenorum ; but this does not appear 
to me, even from bis own copy, though it be pretty much different from the original. The learned 
Dr. Jirin's copy comes much nearer, though it is not altogether exafl ; for it is in the original 
diflin£lly and plainly civitate catvvellavnorvm, only the a in the iirfl line ftands awkwardly 
below the other letters, perhaps by having been omitted at firft. The remark is certainly jufl in 
the Tranfaftions, " That we cannot doubt this to have been the true name of that people, which. 
" Dion Caffius, lib. tx. calls KxriXXxim ; and Ptolemy in his Geography, lib. ii. chap. 3. more 
" falfcly }Lcirviv)(,'Ay.ttii ; the firft A by producing the tranfvcrfe ftroke having been miftaken iox )^. This 
" nation appears by Dion to have been more potent than their neighbours the Dobuni (whom he calls 
" the Boduni) and had, according to Ptolemy, Verolamium for their capital ; which, it is moft probable^ 
" was the Caflivellaunioppidum of Csefar. Sothat it fhould fecm CafGvellaunus, kingof thefe Catuvellauni, 
«= when Csefar, invaded Britain, either gave his name to this people, or took theirs." The diftant fituation 
of thefe people is no difficulty at all in this cafe, any more than to find a cohort of diftant people at a 
flation in Britain, or a Grsecian arch-prieftefs erefting an altar here. For no doubt the pcrfon who ereft« 
ed this monument was in the army, and perhaps a centurion. Nor does his being a Briton create any 
difficulty, for no doubt feveral of the natives of this ifland were in the Roman army. Galgacus, the fa- 
mous Caledonian king, is introduced by Tacitus, as affirming that in his time many of the Britons were 
in the Roman army, and " lent their blood to the fervice of a foreign power." Theie is a fmall piece 
broken oEF the corner of the flone, which probably contained the letter e. It feems by its fliape and fize, 
and by being found upon the face of the wall, to have been of the centurial kind ; and I take it to con- 
tain nothing in it, but the name of the perfon who erefted the monument, and of the ilate or people 
to which he belonged ; his name feems to have been Titus Oifedio, or fomething very near it. It is 
plainly a c in the firil line after the e, though a break in the fuiface of the ftone might lead Mr. Gordon 
into the opinion of its being an o. But there is fcarce any obfcure or doubtful letter in the whole in- 
fcription, excepting the firft in the laft line, 'this Titus Oifedio, || though originally of the CatUTellaunfj 
might however be a Roman citizen, as the legionary foldiers and officers were, and as Titus, his prxno* 
men, fecms to intimate. 

•f- P. 1020 X Sep. p. 81. } Gale's Antiq. p. 39. 

§ Gordon copies it CIVITATE OTA VVFLLAVM RVMOISE ........ DID, the Crft part fccms plainly to read 

Cmilale OlnJirwrum ; what the reft is I cannot explain. Corp. ScfT. Itir. 

d Oifedio was a Briton, with a Rotuan pra^oomcn. . Goucw's £i>it« Cams. p. aoii 

■ Soli 



[EsKDALE Ward. 

ferves, little regard is to be had to a feeming refemblancc of names, when the 
hypothefis is fupported by no other evidence. 

When Mr. Warburton vilited this ftation, he fays it was all grown over with 
wood, though the boundaries were eafily traced out, that it feemed to have been 


1 i VATOl^ 


Soli Invito Sexfu! Severius Salvatar PrirfiSlus 

votuiit Soher.s ithens Merito. The four next are at prefent, 
at Scaleby catlle f but are generally laid to have come from 
this fort. That before us was firll publifhed in the edition 
lfi.# /i§ ^^ 0'f-^^^^S "'^ Camden's Britannia, 1695, and is continued in the kll 

l~ 5* t '"^ W n. *j^^^^^ edition; fince which it has alfo been publifhed by Mr. Gor- 

don, who omits the alf in the fixth line, which are ve)cy 
vifible, and have plainly been a part of the word prxfeftus. 
One would think alfo that the ufual vs mull have preceded 
the LM at leaft. •' The infcription soli invicto is found 
• ' upon the medals of many of the Roman emperors. And 
" Julian informs us, that very magnificent fports were cele- 
•' bratcd at the conclulion of the year oXiw «»(K))7-m to the in- 
" vincible Sun. So that no judgment can be formed of the 
" age of this infcription, or under what emperor it was 
" erc<£led, from thefe woids, though Bandurius feems to 
♦' intimate, as if it appears firll upon the coins of Gallienus." 
DEO SOLI MITRiE. This is another infcription of 
" the fame nature with the preceding, deo soli mitrae. 
" I cannot find that this has been publilhed before, whu h 
" 1 much wonder at, becaufe the title is curious, and I bc- 

{ . . _3^__. ^. " lieve we have not another inilance of it in Britain, though 
W^^8 they are not uncommon elfewhere, as appears from Gruter 
' ^^^^^^^and Reinefius. It is well known in how great veneration 

"~~~~~~-~ — " — ■" — the fun and fire were held by the anci<:nt Perfians. It is 

alfo certain that the Perfians gave the name Mithras both to the fun and fire. From hence wasthe name 
introduced among tlie Romans ; and the Roman inferiptions we meet with, and this in particular, plainly 
prove Mithras and the fun to be the fame, deo soli mitrae, that is, to the deity of the fun, whom the 
Perfians called Mithras. The Trojans and Graecians are thought to have received the worlhip of fire from 
the caftern people, efpecially the Perfians. It is generally fuppofed that Herodotus is millaken, when 
he affirrHS the Perfian Mithras to be the fame with Urania or Venus cslellis. It has alfo been obftrved, 
that ths woribip of Mithras was not a little in vogue in the Roman empire, efpecially in the fecond or 
third century, which favours the conjefture about the time of creeling tliefe altars. I fhall only farther 
obferve concerning this infcription, that vis occurs in number w. of this county, as if it was a name, or 
part of a name, and fo we find it in Gruter ; and cor may poGibly have been gor for Gordiana, as the 
cohcrs ffi'iii' JElia D.tcorutn was called. 

3. Jg-A Optimo MjxitHO, cjhors cjuarla Gallorum cut prxffl Vokafius ffoffes praefeSitis Equitim. Mr. 
Gordon fays, he found this at fome place in Cumberland, not far from the wall. It is at Scaleby callle, 
arid has been there a long time, having a fun-dial upon it; and, as Mr. Gilpin told me. was found at 
Cambeck fort. The altar has been eretted to Jupiter optimus via-s.imus. though the o and m are at pre- 
fent effaced. There is an i in Hofpcs, which feems to be redundant. The t and i in Volcatius do not now 
appear ; but I think this mull be the name, becaule it is not only Roman, but among the confular ones. 
The A and e are alfo loll in prafeTnu, and perhaps one o^for eqitititm. But it is more material to obfeive 
tkat by the title of the commander, praefeStits equitum, this feems to liave been the fame cohort of horfe 
that before was at Rifingham ;J for this appears plainly by the cut of the letters to be the later i:ifcrlp- 

^ The tiicn feat of Mr. Gilpin, and were plkfted by the gentkman of that name, who was RecorJer of Carlide. 
» Northumbirland, No.LXXXVIII. 


EsKDALE Ward.] 



about fix chains fquare. We were more fortunate on our fird vifit, for the fall of 
timber had opened it out, favc the buflics and brurtiwood that were fcattered over 
the ground. 


tion tlic L and r bolli inclining to the Gothic form. Vvlicn the Romans abandoned -Al beyond the waM,. 
this cohort might pofTibly retire hither; and from their continuance at thii lUtion at Cambeck fort acquiic 
the name q{ Pctrijna, and be the nla Petriana, or a part of it, wliich, arcording to the Nolitia, kept 
garrifon here. And then the cokors qtiarta Giillorum, that were in ganllon at Viiido'ana, or Little 
Chclleis, may be of foot; which feems confirmed by the cxprenion in the Notitia, nainely, />7i«««j (not 
praefeeius) cohortis, (sfc. the former being ufually the title of a commander of foot tlte latter of iiorfe. 

Z)« SiinSlo Bi:iatucadro Aului Domitlus Pauliiivts voium fdxiit.—> 
This is the lalt of the four, wliich, as I obfi.rvcd before, are at Scaleby 

i^ callle, and is faid in Camdcji to have been found in the river Irthing, not 
Z^ far from this callle. Mr. Gilpiu rcfei s it to Cambeck fort, as %vcll as the 

V6 ^"^■> 

other; which is favoured by the river Irthing running fo nigh to this 
fort. The letters in this iiifcriplion are rude and meanly cut, and two 
or three of them entirely effaced. But it is plain enough, that it has 
been erefted by one Auhis Domitius or Domitianus Paullinus to the 
local god Belatucader. It is generally known, that ^VO -^''''^ '" the 
Hebiew or Phaenician language fignifies a lord, and exprefles a deity. 
But I cannot recolkiA a Hebrew word that has any affinity with the 
latter part of the name, and that is of a firitable fignification, unlefs it 
be 1)T>^> which fometimes fignifies acles ; and that this was a god 
of war feems very evident, from his being joined to Mats in the Infcrip- 

tj^j tion found at Netherby, dec marti belitucadro. The learned Dr 

Ls'^ Gale, who once thought that the name might be derived from the- 

■" ^""^ — - — — -~ ., i^ '^v^ Britidi word hdaiv, which fignifies a fountain, feems rather to think. 

afterwards, that the latter part of it comes from fome one of the Biitidi words cad pruelkoi:, cader 
caflrum or ciidr firtis. And this derivation appears to me the moil probable; though for tiii:; reafou 

too, I think, the nominative has been BelutucaJer, and not BclatucaJrus, as the dortor has made it 

I (hall add the following conjefture of Mr. Ward. " Selden and Voffius agree in fuppofing Rclat ucadrus 
■" to be the fame as Beleitus, or BeAk, as he is called by Herodian. And tliis deitv both Herodian and 
" Capitolinus fay was Apollo; and that he was worlhipped by the Druids, we learn from Aufoniiis. 
" Whether s in the firfl line of this infcription was defigned for Soli ox faiiilo may be doubtful, becaulc it is 
" ufcd for either of thofe woids. If we read it .SV//, it will agree with N xxix, Mithras being the 
" name by which he was worfliippcd in the eall; and tliis, as I would fuppofc, in thefe wellern parts. 
" But if we read ll fan8o, it will equally agree to Apollo, this being an epithet givai to him not only in 
** infcriptions, btit likewife by the poets. So Pindar: 

T-f,\x^ xMi uyytv 'ATTdXXatfx. 

*' And there is another infciiption of this county, which begins with deo sancto BELATt/CADRO, — I 
" cannot therefore but incline to think this deity was the fame as Apollo, rather than Mars, both from 
" the afDnity of this name, with other names of Apollo, and becaufe 1 do not find the epithet farLJui ever 
" given to Mars. Indeed there is one infcription of this coimty, which if perfedl, would decide this 
" difficulty in favour of the other opinion; for it begins deo marti belatvcadro. But the original 
" of this is loft, and it is plain it muft have been obfcure, or very ill taken, when it was firft cojicd; for 
" there is nothing clfe intelligible in it but thefe three words. And therefore I cannot but think it was 
" originally dec marti et belatvcadro; fince it is no more inconfillent to make thefe two deitica 
" rufc€iwf40(, than Minerva and Hercules." 

4. I'i^^oria /liigujli. This and the two next numbers have been but lately difcoveied, and fo never 
piibliflied before. 'I'lic late Jofeph Dacre Appleby, Efq. in whofe grotmd this fort ftands, had, for fome 
time, employed people in digging there, for which commendable gcnerofity he mull merit the thanks of 
all curious antiquai ies. The two ftones under this number were the fini difcovery, in v\ hlch every thing is 
very plain, and nothing mean or rude. The figures are in relieio. On the one llojic is a fea-goat above, and 

VOL. I. . P a Pegafut 

io6 CASTLE-STEADS, [Eskdale Ward. 

The approaches from the caft, north and fouth, appeared very dinind, the ditch 
of a confidcrable depth, but not ecpally wide with thofe we obferved at ochcr 
ftations. The ruins of the prastorium formed a confiderable mount. The vallum 
was ftruck into by the roots of large oaks, and fhewed very confiderable remains. 


a Pet^afus below; on the other a Viftory winged, and in the ufual drapery, treading vipon a globe with a 
palm branch in her left hand, a mural erown in her right, and under it the infcription vie. viG for 
n^oria Aw^uJ}'!. The infcription is very clear and diftinft, and the letters well cut, though the A has 
no Iranfvetfe. If Caracalla had done much, or been victorious here, during his fingle reign, 1 lh'ouR.1 
think that the cut of the letters and other circumftances of the infcription, together with the iingle G in 
AVG. implying that a fingle emperor leigned at this time, might have agreed to his reign, after the death 
t)f Scverus. But I rather imagine it has been Commodus, for there are inftances of the A wanting a 
tranfverfe as early as this. Sevcrus and Caracalla were fuccefsful in their expedition agaiuft tlie Calsdo- 
nians, but yet I meet with no infcriptions that feem to refer to their vitlories; add Caracalla, as I have 
ihewn elfewhere, left the ifland immediately after the death of his father. This inclines me to the opinion 
that feveral other infcriptions of the fame nature belong to the emperor Commodus. Yet there is an in- 
fcription or two to Caracalla after he had left this itlaiid, though I think of a different nature. But this 
I leave to the judgment of others. Thcfe two Hones, though exaftly of the fame (hape and fize, yut 
feem to have been always dillinft; for they are no way like to broken pieces of the fame ftoxie. plow. 
ever I believe they have been fet clofe together in the fame wall and both refer to the fame thing. The 
leer of Vidorj' Handing upon the globe is naked, fomewhat higher than ufual. ThePegafus and fea-goat 
1 tir.d in other fculptnres, efpecially the fea-goat. The OKie I fuppofe may denote the fvvlftnefs of the- 
Viftory, and the other the maritime fituation of Britian. Thsfe two Hones I faw at the Chff, near 
Kirklintcn, the feat of the late Mr. Appkby. 

7. Legh Scxla Vicitlx fecit. This is alfo at the Cliff, having been removed thither. It was found in 
the eaft part of the ftation near the gate. The letters are rather more rude than ordinary. I am of 
opinion that thefe legionary infciiptions which we meet with in the ftations, were mofl of them ere6led, 
when Severus's wall was building, at the llations where the body of the legion quartered; and that the 
infcriptions of the particular cohoi-is, tliat were working upon the feveral parts of the wall, were infertcd 
in the face of the wall in thefe feveral places. But this infcription is fo rude, as to give me a fufpicion it 
mi'rht be ereiled much later, when the fort, or fomewhat about it, bees repaired. 

g Omnium Gentium t:»iplutn olim vetiijiaie conlabfum, Gajus Julius Pitanus provincis praefes 

RcRituit. We have here a very curious infcription lately found at this fcrt, and lince removed to the Chff. 
It was dug up near the eaft entry of the ftation, and feemed to be in the fouth jamb of the gate with the 
face downwaids, where feveral pieces of broken pots or urns, with other rehques cf antiquity, were alfo 
fnind. The ftop that follows (he name Julius Pitanus is very remarkable. It has been taken for D or 
BE, but r beg leave to diifer from ibis opinion, and cannnot but think that both the ihape and magnitude 
of it was purely deligned to fill up the fpace, as we find the other Hops, or flourifhes, fuited to the feveral 
places where they ftand. The following p p ir, in the opinion of fome excellent antiquaries, to be read 
either />,••£/■/ w /'c'tv.v.v'.j, ax puhlica pecnnia; but I humbly conceive thefe letters rather contain fome farther 
defcription of Julius Pitanus from the ofHce he bore. If they do not, we have no more than barely his name, 
which is not ufual in fuch an infcription, efpecially if the work was done at his own coft. p p is mani- 
feftly put for protii aetar in another infcription In this county, which I Ihall foon have occafion to mention. 
And yet as this infcription feems to have been late in the empire, ths office oi propi actor might then poffibly 
Lave ceafed in this Ifland, if It did not continue after Conftantlne's time; and then we miift not read It 
propraetor, but praefefius proviru-iae, ox prcjinciae prjefes, cr pmeficlus pmetoria. The infcription Is 
curious and valuable, both as it furnlfties us with an argument to prove that the Romans were late pofleffed 
of this ftation; and alfo as, 1 think, it aftoid^ us the name of a new govtrnor not mentioned in any other 
infcription, nor In Roman hlftorlans; who, I fuppofe, muft have been under fome of the later emperors. 
Tulius Pitanus might be xhcprnefeftus praetorio und.r Caraufius, If fo at all. And perhaps his rebuilding 
or repairing fome forts, or other public edifices upon the wall, may have given rife to an opinion, that he 
built the wall itfclf, though it is certain he did not. When there was an emperor here In perfon, (and 
iuch, It is plain, Carauliuswas owned to be) there was no occafion for a /ro/r<?f/5r, nor was it proper 



Among the buflies and roots of trees, appeared the ruins of buildings all over the 
inclofure, though not fuch as might diftinguifli the lite of a caftle, fuch as Mr. 
Denton places here: — they formed no regular figure or order. The whole ap- 
pearance ot the ftation at that time flicwcd it had been very little fearchcd, and tiic 


that the praefeSm practorio in Gaul (hould intermeddle in the Brlti/li alTalrs, though they afterwards fell 
iir.der his coriduct. It is more probable that an emperor here in perfon would have a pmefidtis piaetor'w 
with him. Afterwards this was a very grand officer, and four of tlicm ruled all countries under the em- 
peror, of which the praefe{}u% prador'w Galliae had the command of Britain. If the iufcrlption be fup- 
pofed to have been ercfted when this was the cafe, we mud then read foi p p pro"iriciae pracfa or praepofttus. 
We have the cohoa quarta practorio at Drawdikes. How far this may favour the opinion that a 
praefeOus fraetorio might, upon fome occafion, be here in Britain, I leave others to judge. I know not 
whether it will be looked upon as a material objedlion againll reading proviiiciae ptacfs, that the wall, 
and this fort upon it, where the Hone was found, is (according to the received opinion) in one of the 
two confular provinces, and not in any of the three, which, according to the Notitia, had each of them 
a praej'cs. The fpaces and imperfeft remains of the letters appear to favour the reading m atribvs in the 
firft line, as well as the confideration of its being a temple that was now rebuilt ; and though we (hould no 
where elfe meet with matribvs omni: m gentivm, yet I cannot think that a conclufivc argument againft 
this reading. But Mr. Ward thinks it has ratlier been victoribvs omnivm gentivm, and obierves, 
that " Bandurius produces three coins of Conllantinus, Conllantius, and Maxentius, with this infcription: 
" VICTOR OMNIVM GENTIUM. This temple therefore, he fuppofes, might be erefted after the many and 
♦' great viftories gained by Diocletian and Maximlan, upon which they entered Rome in fo pompous 3 
*' triumph. If fo, p p moft probably may ftand for propraetor. The title invictissimi fccms to be 
•' given to thcfe emperors in a Cheihire infcription. N. 1 1." 

9. Dco Scin^lo Marti venujiinus Lupus votum folvit lihcns merito. We are much obliged to Mr. 
Gordon for this altar, who firll difcovered and publidied it, and has fince prefented it to the right hon. the 
Earl of Hert'^ord, in whofe poffeffion it now is. When I was at London, in 1729, I could not get n 
convenient opportunity of copying this infcription myfelf : but Mr. Gale was pleafed to charge himfelf 
with the care of it. 1 fhould not therefore need to lay that I have fince feen it myfelf, but that 1 think 
I am obliged to acknowledge this inftance of my Lord Hertford's great and fo well known humanity.— 
The fccond w^ord in this infcription differs from Mr. Gordon a little, but I louud Mr. Gale to be in the 
right. Indeed the letters sang joined to Marti would very naturally lead one to think oi fanguineo, a 
proper epithet for Mars, and an epithet that is afcribed to him by the poets : 

^al'i! apud gcUdi cum flumina concitus Hehri 
Sanguineus Mavors clypco increpat* 

"SixA fanguitieus is an epithet of Mars, which no where occurs in infctipilons, whereas_/Sr«t7?</ is thought 
to be fometimcs attributed to him, as well as to Belatueadcr. Some of our bell antiquaries therefore 
think, that as c and G are often interchanged, fo it happens to be here; and that we are therefore to read 
Deo faiiflo Marti. But Mr. Ward chufes to adhere to fanguinco, rather than think the artift 
■chargeable with a miftake In putting g for c. " The ufual epithets of Mars are taken from fuch thing* 
" as accompany war, and exprcfs terror or dtilruftion; and this particulaily oi fangulneus is given hira 
•" by Ovid : 

V el tu fanguiiiei juvenilia viunera Mart it 
Stifcipe: dcliciae jam till terga dabunt. 

" And llkewife by Virgil in the paflage quoted above; where Servius ev.-p\3.\ni fanguiiieus hy aifcix^^'^, 
" as an epithet or title of Mars among the Greeks. The title o{ ultor fecms to have a near affinity with 
" this, which is not uncommon both upon altars and coins; but that oi fanitus neither appears to fult 
•" his charafter, nor do any othe certain inllances occur where it Is given him." 

There have been lately feveral large and curious ftoncs dug up at this fort, cut with crofs lines, in the 
form of lattices, like that at Harlowhill, in Northumberland. 

* Virg. Aen. xti. v. 330. 

P 2 There 




mere fuperftrudlures of the edifices feemed to have been pulled do\vn» or takea 

I his ftation is diftant from Watchcrofs about three miles, in which fpace there 
arc the vifible remains of three caflella, and the fite of one other caftellum, Mr. 
Warburcon fays, uasdifcerniblc fome few years betorehc vifited the wall, but was. 
then quite defaced. The intervals between the caftella are equal and regular, jult 
feven furlongs each. 

The ftate of the prctenturce of Severus and Hadrian in this tracft is various; the 
land through which they pafs having been, in many parts, cultivated for acourfe 
of vears, they are almoll totally defaced. It is difficult to trace Hadrian's vallunv 
with any degree of certainty — near Cambeck Hill, Severus's wall and the works 
totally fwcpt away — from thence to Irthingron, the wall and ditch aredifcernible 

There are yet two infcriptions, the originals of which I have earnellly wKhed to fee, but in vain. — 
The account Camden gives of them is in thefe words: " At Caftle-Steada, (which is another name for 
*» Cambcclc fort) as aH'o at Trederman haidby, were found thefe inlcriptions, wiilch the right honourable 
«' William Lord Howaid, of Naworth, third fon of his grace Tiiomas Duke of Norfolk, copied out for mc. 
*' with his own hand." This account fecms a little coiifufcd, for Trederman is much nearer Burdofwald, 
than Cambeck fort, and there is nothing Konian at that calUe or about it. I was in great hopes 
however, of finding thefe among the collection at Naworth, but could meet with nothing of them there. 
There is half an altar Handing in a gate at Naworth, but I cannot think it has any relation to Camden's^ 
jiifci iptions. There is alfo a large altar built up in the jamb of a chimney at Whitelield, about a mile 
vcfl fiom this fort, which the old people lay was brought from thence, or a part of the wall vary near it... 
But both the altar and infcription have been defaced by the mafons, fo that at prefent there is not any 
vifible letter upon it. I muft thtrtforegive the infcriptions jud as they are delsribed in Camdtu's Britannia, 
tliough they are very obfcuie and imperfecta The liril is thus: 

1 [. _7^iv 0/>iimo Maximo cohors prima Tungrorum JUc ......... cl Chi praejl Aurdiits Optivitu- 

fraefcliiis f 

The other thus' — hn An C. Upal. 

Icgata Augiijiali pi opraetorc cokors ptiina Tungrorwit 
poj'.iit. The three laft lines in the fiill infcription 
might piobably contain fome farther defcription of 
the prefctl, or the names of the confuls j but they 
are (to me at ha!l) unintelligible. The thiid line 
looks like tlie name of a place, but what this fhould 
be I annot imagine. I find a place called Ilkiik, 
in Cumberland, and Olerica, in Ravennas. The cut 
of the L is remarkable in Camden. It is the fame 
with the fifth inthe table of letters,and it isa pity for 
tliat reafon we cannot fix the date of this infcription. 
However it appears from hence, that this fliape was 
intioduced before cohors prima Tiingrorum fettled 




at Borcovicus or Houfe-StcaJs. 

I believe the i v in the beginning of the latter infcription has rather been im, and that imperatori Casfari 
lias been the firft line, though this is uncertain. I have nothing more to obiervc with relation to thefe 
infcriptions, excepting that the cohors prima Twigrorum, fo clearly mentioned in both, feems after this to 
have removed from hence, and fettled at Houfe-Steads, in Northumberland, the ancient BorcovicuB, 
where the Notitia found them. 

\ Camden fays (as his editor Gibfon has it) " That below Brampton, and at Caftle-StcaJs, as alfo at Trederman, hard 
" by, were found thefe infcriptions, wliich the right honourable Lord William Howard, of Naworth, (1607) third fon of 
" his grace Thomas Duke of Norfolk, copied out for me with his own hands; — a pcrfoa admirably well verftd in the 
'• ftudy of antitjuitics, and a pcculkr favourer of that ftudy." 



but very faint ; and Hadrian's vallum is fcarce to be afcertaincd ; what is like its 
appearance, is about three chains diitant from Severus's works, Mr. Warburton, 
when he viewed them, found them in what he calls the fecond degree, but they are 
much reduced fince that time. At Old Wall, the feveral wcnks may be difcovered, 
the diftance between thofe of Hadrian and Sevcrus, being about ten chain ; buc 
there can be little certainty in all this trad:, for where the ground is not in culti- 
vation, it is, in feveral parts, overgrown with brufhwood. 

Mr. Warburton fays, between Old Wall and Blcatarn, is a place called the 
Houfc-Steads, where, about feven years before his furvey was made, an altar was 
difcovered then at Scaleby, without any viiible infcription. The chief caufe of 
robbing and defacing the ftation, feems to have been the building of Mr. Dacre's 
houfe and offices, at Caflle-Steads, within a quarter of a mile of it : in the walls 
of which arc many Roman remains prefervcd, particularly the pillars of the floor 
of an hipocanft, which are built up in many parts of the barn, with cornices and 
mouldings fcattered here and there. 

In the wall of the ftable is the fculpture, marked No. 5 in the plate annexed: 
the whole ftone is about twenty-feven inches long, and twenty-two wide, and the 
figure, though rude, is well relieved. It hath not been publiflied. 

Over the door of the office in the garden, is the fculpture and infcription, mark- 
ed No. 6 in the plate, not noticed by Mr. Horfley, or Mr. Warburton. 

The firft. No. 5, is one of thofe Gaulifh figures, of which we have many inftan- 
ces, in this county, noticed in the courfe of this work. The fecond is a fepulchrat 
monument, of which an ill-drawn fketch was publiflied in the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine for February 1747, and an explanation of the infcription defired. 

In the fucceeding month, the following addrefs appeared in that repofitory,. 
under the well-known fignature of the Learned Antiquary, the Rev.. Mr. Peggc 

" Relolving the legatures, I would give the letters thus: — 




" All the difficulty in reading it lies in the word Hillario, where the fecond letter, 
*• or note, is a mixture of I and LL ; and the laft but one is alike jumble of R. L. — 
" You will pleafe to obferve, that the ffone-cutter, by miflakc, has fpelt this word 
" with LL, inftead of L. As to the interpretation, you have the name Gemellus 
" in Caffiodorus, and the correfponding feminine Gemella in the Marmor Oxon, 
" No. 62. But for all that I do not take Gemelli to be a proper name here, buc 
" the nominative cafe plural of the adjedlive Gemellus. Again you have both 
*' Hillario and Hillarius, Roman names, fee Fabric. Bibl. Lat. torn. iii. p. 418, 
" 539 ; but I believe Hillario on the ftone to be the dative cafe of the latter. — 
" The infcription I would therefore fill up in this manner. — Dis manif>us Gemelli 
" Cains Aulusy Flario Hillario Jepidchrum hoc fieri curaverunt. The fenfe whereof 
" will be, — The tivin brothers. Cuius Hillarius, Aldus Hillarius, have caufed this ino- 
" nutnent to he erected for hlavius Hillarius. It is prefumed thefe were three bro- 
•' thers of the name and family of Hillarius, in this legion, whereof two that were 
*' hvjns, furvived the other brother, and put this marble over him." 


no CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdale Ward. 

■ Another writer, in the fame rcpofitory, under the fignature of G. Shivy, Oxon, 
17th March, 1746, lays, — "I take it to have been defigned to perpetuate the memory 
** of fome military man, and is to be read as follows : — Diis manibas, Gemelli Cains 
*' AureHns, Flavio Helaro , fcpulchrum hoc faciundum curavcre. I am induced to think 
*' thus, as well from fcveral parallel inftances in Grutcr, particularly a remarkable 
" one, p. 526, No. I. to which I refer the curious, as from feveral others of the like 
•* kind now in my hands, belonging formerly to that learned antiquary, Mr Thomas 
*« H -n, my much honoured friend, and fellow-labourer in thefc ftudies.'** 

After thefe difcuffions, it would be impertinent to add any thing on the fubjecft ; 
only to hint that it is very rare, on fuch monuments, to fee regular crofTes, or a 
double crofs, as it were radiated, or like a blazing ftar. The infcription is tak^n 
accurately, and the plate will corretft the former copies, and obviate the difficulties 
that arofe to Mr. Pcgge. 

We were informed by one of Mr. Dacre's fervants, of a ftonethen lately brought 
from the fort, with an infcription on it; but unfortunately it was broken, and a part 
of it built in the banking of a forced road, lately made to one of the mclofurcs; the 
fervant would not let us depart till he had fearched for it, affluing us his mader 
would be much difpleafed if any traveller went from thence unfatisfied in any mat- 
ter of antiquity which was enquired after in his eftatc. The fragment Mas reco- 
vered, and when the pieces were made clean, the infcription appeared greatly 
defaced ; and, in fome part of the drawing we took, the letters are uncertain. See 
No. 10 in the plate. f We are not able to give a probable reading of this fragment. 

In the garden, with its face lain to the foil, we faw the altar of which the an- 
nexed drawing is accurate. It has already exerciled the pens of learned antiqua- 
ries, though it was not difcovered in Mr. Horfley's time : and from the principles 
with which we fet out in this work, and the view of Northumberland, we fhall 
give a full extrad: of what has been faid on the fubjed:. No. 14 in the plate. 

From the Manuscripts of Roger Gale, Efq. 
Extraf? of a Letter from Mr. Roulb to Mr. Gale, ij^lh 0/ Nov. 1741. 
*' This altar was dug up at Caftle-Steads, nigh Brampton, about (ixty years ago, 
*' and foon after its being difcovercd, was buried again in a wear, with two or three 
" more flones with infcriptions on them, as fome old men related, belonging to 
*' the Earl of Curliflc, where it continued till very lately, when the wear being re- 
" paired, it was fought for, and carried, by Mrs. Appleby's order, who now lives 
*• there, up to Caftle-Steads, and now placed in the court-yard : it is four feet 
" in height, the capital being fourteen inches, body twenty-two, and bafe feven. 
" The irident, or fulmcn, about twenty-two inches long, and the letters fomewhat 
♦' exceeding two inches," 

Objervalions on the preceding Infcripticn, ly Roger Gale, Efq. 
" I fufpeded that the cohort, in the fecond or third line, fliould have been 
" COH. 1. not 11. but getting Mr. Routh to examine it, he alfured me that the 

• Brown Willis communicated this i 747, to the fociety of antiquaries, D. M. Gc?iidli Cams Atircliui 
FJaiiius Hilar io fpulchruvt hoc fieri ctiravit. So read by Mr. Ward. Gemdiius occurs at Binchefter Durh. 
H'llario in Grutcr. — The head fuppofcd Piute Libert being before Hilario in Gruter, this may be Flavii 
JLihcrtus. Mr. Gougn's Auds. to Camd. 

■\ Corn. Blalio. Con, 270 — C. Semp. Blaefus Con, 253, 

" nurperals 


" numerals II were particularly fliir; the reafon of my fufpicion arofe from many 
" inlcriptions found in thcfe parts, particularly at Houfe-Steacis, and this Caftlc- 
" Steads, with COH. I TVNGRORViVI upon them, and not one before this with 
*' II. neither does the Notitia Imperii ever mention the coh. II. Tung, in this 
" ifland, perhaps it had been recalled before that work was compofed. The coh. 
" I. Tungro, in thcfc infcriptions, is never (liled miliiaria cquitata, fo that the II. 
" though inferior in number, feems to have had the preference in dignity, being alfo 
" honoured with the emperor's name, and from him called Gordiana. It muft alfo 
•' have been the firfl: auxiliary cohort of the legion it belonged to ; for Vigetius tells 
" us, that the firft cohort of the legion was called miliiaria that it confilled of 1 105 
" foot foldiers, and 132 horfe; and as the feveral cohorts of alcgion and their auxi- 
" liarics bore the lame proportion to each other, fo the firft auxiliary cohort mull 
" have contained as many in number as the firft legionary cohort : and though ours 
" might have been the fecond of the Tungrii, as perhaps levied later than the firft, 
♦' yet it might be firft of the wing to which it appertained, and dignified with 
*' their honourable titlesj for fomc peculiar merit, now to us unknown ; neither is 
" it improbable, that it might belong to the Ala Augnjla Gordiana ol? viriutem ap^ 
" pellala quartered in this county.* In the fourth line the C. L. muft be numeral,, 
" for though the true number of horfe in a cohort is faid to be no more than 132, 
" yet as that was not always certain, cfpecially in the lower empire, this cohort 
•' of the Tungrii might chance to have a few more in it than ufual, and that might 
" be a very good reafon to exprefs it upon this ftone, it being of fomc confidera- 
" tion to be more numerous than the others, to confift of 150 horfe, inftead of 
" 132; fo that the whole relating here to this cohort, may be read, cohors fecunda 
*■• T uiigroruni (Jordiana miliiaria Equilum Ceiiiiini quinquaginta. In the fifth line the 
" remains C L feem to fignify Claudius Clandiamis ; what is left being the tops 
" of C L, and the fpace defaced in the fixth line, being of a very fit dimenfion to 
" receive the letters ANVS; and we have an infcription in Grutcr, p, 391, 2,. of 
" a Claudius Claudianus, befides the name of the eminent poet, to juftify this con- 
" jedure. In the fixth line you have ijlante for curante, a word uncommon, neither 
" does it occur to me in any other infcription, except the very imperfert remains 
" in one given by Mr. Horiley, Scotland, No. 7. xxix INS. may denote that word. 
" Virgil, ^ncid I. 508. 

'• — Inftans operi regnifque futuris. 

" So Pliny, in Pancgyr, c. 18. ' Inftans opcribus, &c.' 

" In the ninth PRINC. for Principe, the proper name of a man, K,\\\i% 
** Martinus Princcps, not of a dignity. This name Princeps is often met with ia 
•" Gruter. There is no crofs ftroke in the N of Martino, therefore I read it Martino 
«' not Martiano X. Kal. is decimo Kal. Januarii, Junii, or Julii. As for IMP. 
" DNG. AVG III in the penultimate line, I believe it muft read Impcratore 
" Domino Noftro Gordiano Augufto Tertio, and what follows Pompciano Con- 
*' fulibus: and that it is no miftakc of the emperor's being the third time conful 
«• inOead of the fecond: for, in the infcriptionsof Grutcr, he is mentioned as conful 
*• the fecond time with Pompeianus, and as it was in the fourth year of his reign' 

* V. Cam: Brit. & Horllui Brit. Rom. in Cumb. LVI. &c. 

" whew 

112" CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdael Ward. 

•' when he was conful with him, thefe numerals cannot refer to a third confulate, 
" which he never took, but mufl: relate to his being the third emperor of that name. 
" If it is objeifled that it was not ufual for the Roman emperors to ftile themfelves 
" P. 11°. IIP. I anfwcr there were never three of them of the fame name, thus 
*• nearly fuccecding one another, as the three Gordians, if at any time. However, 
«* the infcription in Gruter, p. 1085, muft include a mirtake, where it reprefents 
" this Gordian as RM. TRIB. POT COS III. PP. the III immediately following 
" Cos, and fo cannot be applied to any other word, but it is a palpable miftake of 
" the ftone-cutter. 

The entire reading of this infcription, therefore will come out as follows : 

Jovi Optimo maximo 
Et Numini et Numinibus Augufli Noftri Cohors fecunda Tungrorum Gordiani 
Milliaria Equitum centum et quinquaginta, cui Prasell Claudius Claudianus, Prae- 
fedus inftantc iElio Martino Principe X Kal. I. imperatore Domino Noftro Gor- 

diano Augufla tertio Pompeiano Confulibus. (R. G. aSth Dec. 1741) 

In 1742, G. Smith, Efq. communicated this altar and infcription to the editor 
of the Gentleman's Magazine, p. 30, for 1742. 

Jovi optimo maximo 

et Numinibus noftrae 

Cohortis Secundas Tungrorum 

Gordianorum Mille Equitum* 

cataphraclariorum Legionis 
cui praeefl: Sicilius Claudianus,;|: 
Prcefedus inilante Aelio Martirino 
Principe decimo Kal. I. impcratoris 
Dom. noftri Gordiani III. po- 
mpeiano Confulibus. 

References.] " Probably thefc laft all in the ablative. 
" * Cohorts of horfe were moft necelTary to guard the frontiers, but whether the 
•' Cataphraclarii were ever formed into regular cohorts, Mr. Ward knows better 
" than I. 

X " The C. I. is C. L. for the bottom of the letters is deftroyed and I read it 
*' Sicinus or Sicilius, or Sicilianus Claudianus. I obfcrved fomcthing like an ON 
" before Praee ; but as they were very fmall to the reft, I ftiall not read them Pan- 
" nonia. In the N of Mart, there feemed to be a connection of an RI and O which 
*' induces me to read it Martirino, but I think the name hardly Roman, and fub- 
** mit to Mr, Ward's reading."* Which follows, 

Jovi optimo maximo 
et numini domini 
noftri, cohors fecunda Tun- 
grorum Gordiana millenaria equitum 
centum quinquaginta, cui prae- 
eft Silius Clau- 

* Mr. Ward was proftffor of rhetoric ia Grelbaia college, London.- 



dianus prse- 

fecftus, inftante 

Aelio Martiano 

Principe, decimo kal, T. 

imperatore domino noftro Gordiano 

[Augiifto tertium Po- 
mpeiano confulibus. 

In the fame repofitory, for 1742, p. 135, are feveral remarks, by an anony- 
mous author, communicated by Mr. Smith, which, upon comparifon, will appear 
to be no other than Ihort extradls from the preceding letter of Mr. Gale. 

Mr. Smith alfo communicated to the fame repofitory the following articles, dif- 
covered at this ftation. 


Two pieces of a glafs bowl, prcfcrvcd by Mrs. Appleby, 
[one of which has the name of Adteon in Greek capitals, cut, as 
Ifuppofed, with an adamant, and the other, which is a piece of 
J the fame bowl, has a dog's head fair on it; fo that the fable of 
that prince has been engraved on this vefTel. 

" The glafs bowl is very curious, but the fragments not being at the edge any 
" where, it is impoffible to judge of its capacity. One of the pieces is about one 
*' inch and eight-tenths length-ways, and one-tenth crofs, or, to fpeak mathemati- 
" cally, the chord is about one inch and eight-tenths long, and the fagitta.or vcrfed 
" line, one-tenth, whereof the diameter ought to be eight inches and one- tenth at 
*' that place ; but thefc arc extremely difficult in fuchfmall arches to beaccurately 
*' determined. No doubt but the fable of Adleon was the hiftory on the bowl, and 
<* it is great pity it had not been entire." 

" In the wood, where the fort has been, that lady found, fome time ago, buried 
" in the rubbifli, a regular clay-floor, with feveral pedcftais upon it, and betwixt 
" every two of them a hollow parallelopipedon of burnt clay, of fixteen inches long, 
■" and fix wide, with a hole through the oppofite fides. The ufe of thefe pedeftals is 
" hard to be conjcdurcd, unlcfs to carry off the damp from the floor, which 
*' was laid over it; but as pipes went through thefe holes, it would rather fcem 
♦' like a contrivance to warm a hot-bath. The lady tells me there is not one- 
" fourth of them left that v/cre there when flie firlt difcovcrcd it. 

" The dimenfions of the hypocauflum are five yards by nine within the walls; 
" the ground-floor was of clay, in which the ftonc pedcftais were fixed about four 
" or five inches deep, more or lefs, fo as to bring them to a perfeft level at top, 
" their height, including the depth in the clay, is generally about two feet; fup- 
" ported by thefe pedeftals, was a fccond floor of white ftonc, about one inch thick, 

VOL. I. Q^ , " and 

114 CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdale Warw 

" and curioufly cemented for the bath. The parallelopipedons of burnt clay were 
" placed quincunx form, betwixt every other row of thefe pedeftals, and were 
" five or lix inches iliort of their height, in order to give pafiage for the fmoke to 
" warin the bath ; but, in order to the better underftanding of them, I fhall give 
" you an ichnographical plan of a few of them : — 

A " Here the fquares rcprefent the ichnography of the 

g gi ^ Q < pedeftals, and the n's that of the clay parallelopipedons^. 

n n " which were omitted in every other row, as A B. 

S Ei H S" There were about one hundred pcdcflals in all, two 

n n " pedeflals, and the vacuity took up about twenty-eight 

gym ^" inches, as near as can be judged from the prefent Itate 

n n " of their fituation on the floor. 

S E H H " ^rs. Appleby, who deferves to be gratefully re- 

n n " membered by all lovers of antiquity, took great pains 

^ H B g|" to preferve what flic could of thofe valuable remains of 

B " the ancients, fhe found there the ruins of the bottom 

*• and fides of an iron grate,- which that lady ftill has at Caftle-Steads, and fome 

" pieces of charcoal w ere lying up and down on the floor. 

♦' Adjoining to the fouth wall, where the grate ftood, were two curious rooms, 
" fupported in the fame manner with pedeftals, and conduits betwixt them, ftitl 
" running frefn when that lady found them ; but on admiffion of the air, all have 
*' gone to ruin. The floors of thefe rooms that refted on the pedeftals, were paved 
*' in the fame manner as the bath, with this addition, that a curious cemented com^ 
** polition of lime, brick-duft, and pebbles, at leall four inches thick, was fpread 
*' over the ftone of a wonderful hardnefs. Such care have that warlike people 
" taken to render the climate of thele northern regions agreeable to. their con^ 
" ftitutions. 

" There were many other curious floors found amongft the ruins, and fome 
" coal-afties: but 1 am apt to believe, that the old caftle of the de Vallibus, pro- 
" prietors of Gilfland after the conqueft, hath been built on the ruins of this fort, 
" becaufe feveral curiofities, that intimate a more modern date, have been found 
*' here. It ftands, as moft other Roman forts have done, on a lingula. as near as 
" the defence of the wall would admit, betwixt the rivulets of Irthing and 
*• Cambeck. 

" There was alfo a coLd-bath found near the place, and not far from it fome- 
" thing like a ciftrcn, about five yards by one and a half, compofed of thick flate 
" ftones very large and fet edge-ways, curioufly cemented fo as to refufe paflage to 
" any liquid, on fuppofition that it might be intended for fuch a defign."t 

From the Manuscripts of Roger Gale, Efq. 

E.xtra5l of a Letter from Mr. Rotith,jun. 2%th December, 1741. 

*• Mrs. Appleby, a while ago, difcovered a fmall room nigh the fort at Caftle- 
•» Heads, whofe floor, which was furprifingly dry, was fupported by feveral pedef- 

t Gentleman's Magazine, 174-2. 

•' tali 


" tals exaAly fiiaped like fniall altars, between every two rows of which a row 
" of hollow bricks, about eighteen inches high, open at top and bottom, with aa 
" oppofitc aperture on both fides, was found ftanding perpendicular," as in the 
figure No. 12 in the plate, *' as Mrs. Appleby told me, though by the appearance 
*' of them, and as the pedefials are the fupporters of the floor, one would be apt 
*• rather to think, that they may have laid horizontally, by which means, the heat 
*' or air would be tranfmitted every way. Six or feven of thefe pedeftals arcbuik 
" up in the end of a barn, and fome others, with feveral bricks were left in the 
" pofition as found, for the fatisfaftion of the curious, but are fince entirely broke 
" by fome accident or other. Mrs. Appleby has not been fo happy, as to meet 
" with any fatisfadory conjefture of the ufe of their defign, from any Ihe has fhcwa 
•• them to, and imagines it has been a contrivance for conveying the air, but it is 
" more probable it has been fomething in the nature of a bagnio. 

" Among many forts, which guard the pailge of the wall crofs the river Irthing, 
" there is an exploratory one on the north fide of the river, of a particular form, 
" to correfpond to its fituation, which commands a valT: extent of country," the 
plan of it is in the fliape, figure 13 in the plate, " the ditch has been prodigioufiy 
" deep, but both it and the agger are almoft defaced by the plough, along the 
" whole curve." 

Letter from Mr. Richard Goodman. 

Carlijle, ^th Nov. 1727. 

" The inclofed figures," 4 and 4 in the plate, " are thofe I mentioned to you irt 
" my former. The figure has been found fince, and was, I prefume, removed after 
" it was broke, for no part of it could be found for fome difiance on the ground 
" round where it lay, which was cleared on purpofe. The fort is an oblong fquare, 
'♦ from the foutheaft front, the ground is declining towards the river Irthing, on 
" which ground there are ftill vifiblc, the foundations of walls and ftreets, buc 
" removed for the fake of buildings and tillage ; on the other fide is a fteep bank, 
" under which the Cambeck runs, coming from the wall. The whole fortrefs 
•' fecms to have been a very fumptuous and fine building ; mofl; of the fiones that 
" are dug up, are black, as if the whole place had been burnt ; and what confirms 
" me more in this opinion is, that in feveral places, as yet dug into, there are great 
" numbers of iron nails, pieces of iron and brafs, that arc run into lumps, though 
" now in a mouldering condition. There arc alfo fquare tiles found, of aboutan inch 
" thick, with a Icdgeon an edge, by which they hung on the roofs of houfes. They arc 
" about ten inches by nine, and of a yellow clofe metal ; they find there alfo, many 
" earthen vcffcls of different figures and colours, fome of which were whole, till 
*' broken by carelefs digging : I think the longeft: fides of the fort are about four 
" Gunter's chains, and the Ihortefl: about two and a half. I fliall take a particular 
" draught of it, if you plcafe to have it : I am very apt to believe Mr. Gordon did 
<• not fee it, as being at fo great a difiance from the wall. There arc feveral foun- 
" dations of the houfes yei flandingdiftindly in the fort, pretty high, but hard to be 
"romeat for the brufhvvood growing in them. 1 gave you the imprcffionofafmall 

0^2 " cornelian 

ii6 CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdalb Ward, 

•* cornelian feal found there fome years fince : fome coins have alfo been found, by 
•* the men employed by Mrs. Appleby to dig for ftoncs, but 1 have not yet fcen 
" them."* 

Another Letter from Mr. Richard Goodman. 

Ciirlijle, 2d January, 1727-8. 

" Be pleafed to pardon my long filence to your laft, and believe me it has not 
** been through negligence of your commands, but being told that one Mr. Horflcy 
" had fent for the infcription, and that he had promifed to fend Mrs. Appleby his 
" thoughts thereupon, I had a defirc that you ihould fee them. I have been 
«' leveral times, fince your laft, at the Caftle-Steads, and found, by your diredlions, 
■*' that the three laft letters of the broken line \vere BVS, the upper part of the B 
" being broke, and the S very faint. But Mr. Horfley has no regard to the flops 
" like hearts that I mentioned to you, nor the figure O, ending the lafl line but 
" one; the two OO, which begin the word conlapfum, are very fair circles, and 
♦• have no refemblance of the letter C, notvvithftanding the word could not be fenfe 
" othervvife. Mr. Horfley fancies alfo the propr^tor's name to have been Caius 
«« Julius Pitanus, and has no regard to the flop, which feems to me very arbitrary, 
" or the fculptor much more fo, who made the flop between the letters CO and 
«f IVL, which he calls Julius, fuppofing it to be an L, becaufc it is fomcwhat 
" wider at the bottom than the top. The other he calls S ; if fo, if. is turned the 
*' dirc<ft contrary way. Thofe places in the infcription, which 1 have marked 
«' with pricks, are broken places in the ftone. Mr. Horfley's account is as follows, 
"• viz. " That Caius Julius Pitanus proprietor (lord lieutenant of the p} evince) hadrebuilt 
" a temple, /acred to the goddejfe s , the mothers of all nations, which age and time had long 
" ago ruined." You have inclofed another copy for your obfervation, the letters 
" are as exad: as I could make them; there are razures in the flone, which are the 
** ruling of the lines, they are cut pretty deep, and the lower end of the letters fall 
" into them, but 1 cannot think the I is an L, as he makes it in his fenle of it. — 
" If you think he is right, or what other judgment you make, be pleafed to let me 
" know. This is as I took it from the ftone : — 


* A fraall cornelian feal was found fome years ago. Mr. Goodman had two pieces of cafl brafs, each 
461b. weight, found in a peat mofs two feet deep, adjoining to the Roman road,fuppofed heads of Catapulta 
Sir J. Aylo&fbewcd them to the Society of Antiquaries, 17 36, aad a model was made from them of wood- 

Couch's JBoit. Cams. p. 201. 



JVlr. Gale's Anfwer. 

22d February, 1727-8. 

" I think I can give you the' true reading of fo much as is left of the infcriptioii 
" you fent me, that was lately found at Caflle-Steads, which is as follows : — 

" VtEloribus .-.. Omnium Gentium Templum olim vetujlale conlahfum, G. y/i/ius 

" Petuanius de ■propria pecun. rejliluit. I never met with the Dece Malres omnium 
" Gentium in any infcription, or elfewhere. Therefore believe this refers to two 
" emperors reigning at the fame time, who, from the conquefis they had made, 
" are here flattered with a dedication, Vitloribus o?nnium Gentium, as the emperor 
" Probus was complimented with the ftyle of Victor Gentium barbarum : the top of 
" the flone being loft, it is impofiiblc to fay who thefe emperors were : the GON 
" in the fixth line, can be nothing but CON, though the ftone-cutter has blun- 
" dered the C into an O. In the feventh, I am fatisfied the C, with the heart 
" or leaf after it for a ftop, ftands for Gaius, and IVl,^ for Julius : the laft cha- 
" rader being an abbreviation or contradion for VS. In the eight, PITANVS 
" mull: be read, as is plainly evident from the remains of the letters, Petuanius, 
" which is the name of a Roman family frequently occurring in Gruter's Thefau- 
" rusof infcriptions, and not Pitanns, as Mr. Horfley takes it to be. It is a very 
" great miftake to make him a propraetor here, for the charaders D, P. P. are no 
*' more than de propria pccunia, denoting that this Gaius Julius Petuanius rebuilt 
" this old ruined temple at his own expence ; and thus have the explanation of the 
" charader D, which Mr. Horlley totally difregarded." 

We beg leave to obferve, that it appears, from the conftrudion of the floors, 
before defcribed, that the invention was folely to warm the apartment ; the clay 
tubes had no communication with any fire or ftove below ; they were made to 
hold burning charcoal, and thereby to warm, in a gradual manner, the floor above. 

Two of the infcriptions mentioned in Mr. Horfley's work, require particular 
attention. — It was obferved in the View ot Northumberland, upon the altars in- 
fcribed Deo Mogonto, found in one of the ftations on the river Reed, and in the 
mountainous parts of that county, that the Romans, in order to reconcile the na- 
tives to their religion, adopted the deities worftiipped in the fcveral diftrids, and 
altars were dedicated to feveral of thofe topical divinities. The remains of the 
druidical rites were longeft preferved from extirpation in the defert and mountain- 
ous parts of the country ; and there we find thofe dedications by the Romans, 
v/hich clearly cxprefs an adoption of the deities worftiipped by the inhabitants. 
Thus we fee, that to gratify thofe who ftill held xht fire-rites, and were worfliippers 
of the fun, the Romans dedicated altars to Mithras, and to the fun itfelf : Mithras 
was a Perfian name given to fire and the lun: — 


This, at once, points out to us the policy of the Romans, and the accepted religion 
in this part of the iftand, at the time of their accefs, or, perhaps, iome confidera- 
ble length of time after their fcttlemcnt. 


ii8 CASTLE-STEADS. [Eskdale Ward- 

John Johnfoii, Efq. lately purchafed the large eftate at Caftle-Steads, in which 
this ftation lies, and has ereclcd a handfome manfion for his family refidence, on 
the intermediate ground between the fort and the old houfe. On the clearing the 
tirea of the ftation, and levelling the out-works, feveral curious monuments have 
been difcovered, as reprefented in the annexed plate. 

One of the altars is remarkable for its ornament and dedication to Jupiter, and 
the genius or guardian divinity of the place. — A fmall altar to Belatucader adds 
to the number under that dedication, which feems peculiar to this part of the 
ifland; the name, very judicioully, by fome writers, is derived from the com- 
pounds Baal and Ccidr — the latter a Britifli word, implying valiant or invincible; 
fo that the compound may be read, — the invincible or omnipotent Baal. The 
adoption of the name Baal leads us to obferve, that it is evident, from the feveral 
inftances we have noticed in Northumberland, as well as this county, that the an- 
cient inhabitants of Britain held many of the Hebrew and Egyptian rites and lu- 
perftitions, whether brought by the original fettlers, or from Germany with the 
conftant influx of people who muft have come hither from a fnore fo near to us; 
or introduced by the Phoenician merchants, are fubjei^ls of fpeculation, and would 
require a treatife from the more learned pen of Bryant, or fome of equal erudi- 
tion. A fine fculpture of a head, which appears to have belonged to the figure 
fitting in a ftate chair, and probably was deligned for one of the emperors. Jt is 
to be lamented that the altar with the bold figure of Hercules has no infcription- 
The altar infcribed to Mars, though the charaiilers are faint and fomewhat defaced, 
ihews fufficient to lead us to an apprchenfion, that Belatucader was the fecond 
divinity to which it was dedicated. On the fragment of an altar is a dedication 
to the omnipotent Jupiter. 

The ftation has been ranfacked by Mr. Johnfon, who has made a garden on the 
fpot ; the dimenfions were thereby critically afcertained ; in the diredions of E. 
S. E. and W. S. W. it meafured one hundred and thirty yaids ; and, being of an 
oblong fquare, its width was one hundred yards. The upper foil, within the walls, 
was turned over to the depth of three feet ; under the ftratum was found to be a 
ftitfclay, on which a thick bed of pebbles and gravel lay, which covered the whole 
area The ground was not examined deeper than the clay, except where founda- 
tions of walls were found, at the S. W. and N. E. corners ; tbefe were not perfect 
enough to difcover what the ereAions had been: the ground was very irregular 
on the north fide, and the ruins of walls were wholly confufed. 

The outward walls of the fort were found to be eight teet in width at their foun- 
dations, faced on each fide with large ftones, and filled with ftones, in an irregular 
order, to the depth of one foot,thenaftrongcement of limeand fand,of the thicknefs 
of four inches, then a filling of ftones, and fo alternately cement and ftones, in like 
order. The altars (except the largeft which was difcovered on this occafion) were 
found within the fort, about eighteen inches below the furface of the upper foil ; 
feveral little troughs were alfo found there, with their bottoms turned up : conduits 
weredifcoVered in all directions, and channel ftones, apparently made for carrying 
oft" day water. On the fouth fide, without the walls of the fort, was a large plar- 
t&rm of ftones, five feet below the furface, covering eleven yards in length, and 
^ight ket in breadth. 


I'- nt>. 

( ffs//('.s/('/r(/y y \."<2) 


On the ground where the bath was formerly difcovereci, nothing was found but' 
the pedeftal of a column. At fomc little diftance from the fort, the foundations 
of a building were found, and about it a quantity of allies and fome wheat, the 
grain entire, but turned black : here the largert altar was recovered ; it is cracked,, 
perhaps, by the effcft of fire. 

The fouth-eaft and weft fides have been moated, the north fide is fecurcd by a.' 
fear, or precipice, at the foot of which runs the river Cambeck. Several Roman 
coins were found, of one of the Conftantines, of Maxentius, and of the lower 
empire ; and one Englifii coin of one of the Henrys. 

It has frequently been obfcrved.that the little buildings, found within the Roman 
ftations, were fcattercd in an irregular manner, and muft have been the work of 
thofe who fucceeded the Roman pofi"efi~ors ; for the form and occonomy of the 
Roman ftation is fo well reported to us, that no apprehenfion has taken place 
with the antiquarian, that the remains we now difcover were the work of that 

The clearing out of this ftation has fhewn us what the firft covering of the area 
was ; — a matter, not before, well afcertained. The platform had certainly led to 
the great fouth entrance. Afhes and burnt wheat have frequently been found; 
and it has been doubted whether thefe were the remains of facrifice, or the ruins- 
occafioned by fome conflagration. In the burning of magazines of corn, by a fuc- 
celsful enemy, one would prefume the quantities of afhes, &c. would be fo confi- 
dcrable, as to leave no doubts in the minds of thofe, who, even in this diftant age, 
difcover the remains : parched corn will lay in the earth a long time, where it is 
excluded from the air ; we know that the facrifice of the Romans was a mere con- 
fccration of the animals, by burning the fat and intrails as an incenfe to the Deity, 
and that the carcafl~es were given to the people for a folemn feftival : where thefe 
remains of afhes, corn, &c. have been found, an altar has attended them ; inftances 
of which we fliall have occafion to fpeak of in the fequel: it is alfo obfervable, that 
the buildings, where fuch remains have been found, were too fmall for magazines ; 
and, without wc conceive that the corn was burnt in the ftra\v% we are at a lofs to 
conjedure how a large magazine could be deftroyed where thofe remains are : all' 
which circumftances lead us to an apprehenfion that thefe are the remains of 


WE now entered Irthington, by fome authors called the chief manor of 
the barony of Gilfiand.f The parifh is divided into four quarters, or 
conftablewicks, viz. Irthington, Leverfdale,* Newby, and Newton, encompaffed 


^ In the inquifition before us, not defcribed as a manor, although Naworth is particularly mentioned. - 

* From t/>e lnQiiistTioti, ^ijl 0/ QvtEn Elizabeth. 
The amount of the lord's rents, \g\. 2od. 
bailiff's fee —>«■>. Land ferjeant's fee, 4s. 

•• MlMORAND^-- 

120 PARISH OF IRTHINGTON. [Eskdaie Ward. 

by the parifhcs of Brampton, Walton, Hayton, Kirklinton, Scaleby and Crofby. — 
The church being vicarial, was given by Robert de Vallibus to the prior and con- 
vent of Lanercoft, and was foon after appropriated thereto. After the diflblution 
it was part of the pofleiTions granted to Sir Thomas Dacre by King Edward VI. 
Bifliop Walter Malclerk, A, D. 1224, taxed the vicarage as follows — the vicar 
to have the whole altarage, with the corn tithe of the vill of Irthington, and all 
the land belonging to the church, the tithe of hay and mills, throughout the whole 
parilb, with all fmall tithes belonging to the altarage: faving to the prior and 
^convent, yearly, three efkeps of oatmeal, and two efkeps of malt, J 


•* Memorand, Cumrinting Wood contains 300 acres and has icoo oke faplings growing therein." 

" The moor where the tennants commoned their cattle is Irthington moor." 

" Item, the Bounder of this manner beginneth at Leverfdale, and from Leverfdale to Brumell, from 
" thence to the wall of Cunirenton, called the White-flat, from the White-flat to Blcttern, and from 
" thence to the Highfield moor, and from thence to Leverfdale, where it beginneth." 

^ Irthington parifh, by accounts, had, near twenty years ago, confided of about an hundred and forty- 
fix families, — now population is greatly increafed. 

Pope N.'s Valor. T K. Edward II. C K. Hen. VIII. 

EccL de Irthington ^13 15 o > Eccl. de Irth. vie. ejufd, non tax- 4 Irthington Vicar, 61, is. jd. 

Vicaria ejufdem - 10 o o J antur quia totaliter funt deftrud. t. 


King's books 61. is. 4d. — Certified val. 30I. — Real val. 40I. as fuppofed. 

RIchardus Walton canonic, regularis vicarius ejufdem habet Manf. et Glebam dee vicarie cuj, T /. ei. 

refloria appropriat. unita et annexa ell prioratui dive Magdale de Lanercoft et valet com- > 20 o 

munibus annis. — — — — — — — — — j 

Idem Ricardus habet Grana decimalia p'venlent. de villa de Irthjiigton ib'm q. val. p. ann. 1 

coibs ann. — — - — — — — — — — J 

Idem Ricardus habet decim. feni lini et canobi infr. didl p'ochia q. valent coibs annis, -r- 200 
Idem Ricardus habet decim, vitulor. que valent coibs annis — — — — 100 

Idem Ricardus habet oblacon. niinut. alterag. et albe decim. cu. p'ficjis libr. pafchalis que val. 7 

p. annu- coibus annis. — — — — — — — — J 

Sm. tot Valoris 61. 5s- od. D. quibus. 

f UCA ^' C ^" Solucoe's p. Senagio refolut Epo Karlij annuatim. — — 3 o 

Et Refolut. procuracon. vifitacion. Epi de tricnnio in trienniu. xxjd. et ficl 
annuatim. — i^ — — — — — — j 

Et rem. 61. lyd. xraa. inde 12s. id. three far. 

Eccl. Surv. 26th K, Hen, VIII, 

Incumrents.— .-1224, William de Molcburn pr. pr. and con. Lanerc. — 133") Lawrence de Caldre 
pi*, pr. and con. Lnnerc. — After the diflblution, John Fairbairne — 1567, Robert Hutton cl. p. mort. 
Falrbaiine — 15S5, Robert Dobfon, cl. pr. bp. Carlide by lapfe p. m'rt. Hutton — 15^9 Leo. Scott p, 
reC Dobfon, pr. Cb, Dacre, Efq. — 1597> Jof. Lowden, A. M. p. mort. Scott, by lapfe bp. Carl,— 
1612, Rich. Lowden pr. Hen. Dacre — Antho. Salkeld — 1642, Rich. Sibfon, A. B. p. cef. Salkeld pr, 
SivTho. Dacre — l66l, John Theakllon, A. B. pr. Sir Tho. Dacre — 1666. Phil. Fielding, A. M. pr. 
Sir Tho. Dacre— 1692, John Gofling pr. Hen. Dacre — 1731, Math, Wilkinfon, p. mort. Gofling, pr. 
Sufanna Maiia Dacre Appleby — 1745, Ja'H'^s Farlfli p. mort. Wilkinfon pr. Jofeph Dacre, Efq.— 
J 763, John Stamper cl. p. cefs, Fariih pr. Jofeph Dacre, Efq. 

Soil and Produce J The north and northwcft paits of this parifh having lately been improved from 
common lands, are open and level. The foil of the ancient inclofures is light and fandy : on the top of 
fome of the lulls, clay is found ; between the town and the river, a mixture of mofs and loam. The lands 



EsKDAtE Warb.] parish of IRTHINGTON. 12t 

Before we quit this parifli, \vc muft take notice of the Roman ftation, now called 
Walchcrnfs, which, as obferved before, is diftant from Caftle-Stcads about three 
miles.* It is fituated on the crown of an eminence, of an eafy afccnt^very way, 
and commands a very extenfive profped. In Mr. Warburton"s furvey it is num- 
bered the 14th llation on the wall, according to the Notitia, was called Abali.aba, 
and held a detachment only, (tiled nuvicrus manforum^ which gives an apprehenlion 
that it was not ronllantiy, but only occafionally garnfoncd, and ferved as a flation 
of obfervation in times of more immediate danger.— It is furrounded with a black 
and dreary vvafte, of a foil thatleems incapable of cultivation — there are many irre- 

3re le»el, laid down in meadows, and arc beautiful in that traS. The new improved lands will, ur.der 
proper culturt, produce moil iorts of grain and roots, the foil being various. Due fallowing, clean plow- 
ing, a pretty large quantity of lime and fon:ie manure, never fail to bring a good crop. The land favpur* 
rye, turnips, and potatoes. 

Rents. 3 The rent of farms, from 8s. to 30s. an acre — i^s. the average. 

Husbandry.] Improved hufbandry advances — lime from Caftle-Carrock is ufed with great advantage. 
Grafs-feeds are now in ufe, and lands are laid down clean and in good condition. A better race of 
horfes ace introduced, and carts, ploughs, &c. of a good conftruftion. The old implements have given 
way to example. 

The Poor.] They are fupported by a rate of 6d. in the pound. 

Roads.] The military road leads through the centre of thispaiifh: the occupation roads are new 
tnodelled, and in good repair. 

Wood.] Little wood, except in fmall ornamental plantations. 

Game.] Game of all forts is abundant— Great flocks of wild gecfe winter here. 

Hou s€s.] The houfes in general are mean and ill conftrufted, moftly made of clay, and ground floors. 

Cattle, ShEe?, and Corn.] The cattle are of Cumberland breed — There are no fheep kept — Corn 
is depended on by the farmer, to make up his rent. The harveft is pretty early. 

Fuel.] The fuel is coal and peats. 

Schools.] No endovi?ed fchool, many fmall ones. 

The generous mind muft lament, that learning and confcious reftitude cannot fecure an author from 
p(ib,lic iiegk-ft, of which this parifli furniflies an indance ; but how much more muft we grieve when wc 
imd difappointment hurrying fuch a man into difTipation, and that greateft wreck of the human mind— 
ebriety : we muft hold a fhade over the name of this unhappy fcholar. Housman's Notes. 

Mr. John Smith, landfcape painter, is a native of this parifli. When a youth, he was taught drawing 
by Capt. Gilpin, who was a great lover of the fine arts, after which, he taught drawing in \\niitchaven 
and St. Bees, and foon after became the pupil of Mr. S. Gilpin, the celebrated horfe painter, fon of the 
nbove gentleman. The progrefs he made under this mafter was confiderably improved by the frequent 
excuriions he made for the purpofe of ftudying Nature in her different afpefts ; he made many obferva- 
tions among the beautiful lakes and mountains of the north, and fpent much time in their vicinity ; Win- 
dermere, Kefwick, and UUfwater, have feverally employed his pleaCng pencil with the noblefl fubjefts. 

About two y^ars ago he painted a fct of highly finiflied views of the lakes for J. C. Curwen of 
Workington-Hall, Efq. from which engravings have been made, and publiflied under the patronage of 
many of the firft charaders of this ijngdom; and will, no doubt, eflablifli his name as an artift. 


roL. 1. 

* Mr. Horjfley's work contains the following Infcriptlons tdonglngto Watch- 
crofs : — 

I.cgiojiis Secuyiia Jluguflx Centttria Jujll Tertullianl pcfuit. At Old Wall, 
whicli is about two miles wefl from Cambeck fort, are two infcriptlons of the 
centurial fort ; this is built up in the eiid of a houfe. As it is the more djf- 
tin£t of the two, fo it is the more curious, becaufe it exprefsly mentions the 

& Centurta 

12-2 WATCHCROSS. [Eskdale Ward. 

gular lines and breaft-works throM-n up on the fouthern fide of the hill, at no great 
diftance from the Nation ; they are confufed, and form no certain figure, to afford 
an idea of the occafion on which they were made. The military way remains 
very diftin^fl. This appears to have been the fmalleft ftation on the wall, being 
four chains and a half fquare: it was the opinion both of Mr. Horfley and Mr. 
Warburton, that this was in the courfe of the flations of the Notitia per lineam 
\alli, as was obfcrved of Little Cheiters, in Northumberland. It is placed a little 
to the {oulh of the prctenturae of Severiis and Hadrian : the vallum and ditches 
are very diftincfl; for, as no purpofe, but merely to rob the wall of its materials, 
could have taken place to deface this camp, it remains very perfeft ; and the place 
of the prjEtorium is fliU confpicuous: the whole ground plot is covered with a low 
growth of heath. Mr. Warburton fays, he was allured by the country people, 
and had it afterwards confirmed, that they often plow up paved ftones here, and 
thinks part of the high way to Brampton, to be the military way pafling near it. 
This muft be fpoken of ground at a confiderable diftance, for the plough fliare has 
left no appearance of its having paffed any way near it. It is diflant from Bleatarn, 
about half a mile. — The military way going by this fort, has extended from Cam- 
beck, or Carr-Voran, to Stanwix, as a liring to a bow, leaving the wall to run cue 
northward, which the road has not attended in this trad, on account of the 
marflies and bogs through which the wall runs. — Thence the fituation of Little 
Chefters, in Northumberland, and this ftation are deemed fimilar. Near Bleatarn* 
the wall paffes through a morafs, for a very confiderable way ; and Mr. Warburtoa 
fays, the foundation here has been made with piles of wood: but there are no re- 
mains to evince this. Hadrian's vallum takes a fweep to avoid this morafs ; and, 
at its greateft diftance, is feparate from the wall ten chains, 

IVatch Crojs and S/tinzv/x, are feparate from each other fomewhat above five 
miles ; the works lie through a fine cultivated country, for the greateft part ot this 
diftance, and confetiuently arc almoft entirely defaced. Two caftella only are to 
be traced in the whole fpace, which do not immediately fucceed each other, but 
appear to be the firft and laft ; the intermediate ground allowing fpace for three 
more, now totally deft roved, which would perfedly agree with the order and dif- 
tance of the other caftella, in the courfe of the wall. 


Centuria cohortis Solii /tuchiii pofuit. This other is an old wall 
belonging to Mr. Thomas Graham, and only contains the name of the 
centurion, and that a little obfcured. I think this may be read, Sit. 
Aucin'ii. There is L. AuciUus in Gruter, and the firll letter in the 
fixond name is pretty much different from the N which follows. In a 
field called the Houfe-Steads, near Watchcrofs, one of thefe altars 
which are at Scaleby caftle, was thiown up by the plough, but it had 
no infcription upon it. Another of the altars at Scaleby caftle, Mr.. 

Gilpin told me, had been neglefted in the neighbourhood time immemorial, till it was ordered into his 

gardens, and taken care of there. This has probably belonged to the fame ftation, 


CIVITAT [■ * We have had this infcription communicated to us, faid to have been difcovcred at the? 
BRICIC. J village of Bleatarn, but cannot be anfwerable for it» corrednefs. 


[ 123 ] 


WE now approached the town of Brampton, in order to proceed in our tour 
through the caftern fide of the county. 
Brampton is fituated in a deep and narrow vale, around which the hills rife 
fwiftiy on every fide. It has the appearance of being, in former years, a place of 
much greater confequence than at prefent. — " Brampton in Gilfland, was, for the 
" mofl: part, demefne lands, and the town was of long time a market town, firffc 

" granted fo to be by King to , Lord of Gillland, and lb con- 

" tinueth to this day. At Brampton the lords do yearly keep the court leet and 
" view of frank pledge for the whole barony of Gildand now ; howbeit the head 
" and chief feat was at Irthington in the Vaux's time and Multon's. The town 
" is now all cuftomary tenancies, or demefnes; for the Dacrcs have wrung out all 
" the freeholders of Irthington and Brampton, fave Corby, and fome few fmall 
" tenancies of meaner fort of people."f* 


t Denton's MS. 

* From the Inquisition, 3 <y? (7/"Qu e e n Elizabeth. 
The amount of the lord's rent, 43I. 133. id. farthing. 
Thereout baihfF's fee, 13s. 46. 

And paid to Elinorc Scroope, widow of Henry Lord Scroope, of Bolton, an annuity of tcl. for life. 

It is ftnted that the lord had fourteen fliops dcmiled in Brampton. 

The tennants paid a money payment in lieu of bond dayes work, to wit Brackenhill, lod. farthing-, 
Boitlieby, 3s. 6d. Efbie Magna, 2 id. Efbie Parva, i4d. Coithill, yd. Holmes, yd. Crockholmes, i4d. 
Woodfidc, lod. farthing. Tarnehoufe, yd. Waye, I4d. Holehowfe, yd. Rowbank, y. and Brampton 
vill 9s. and a farthing. 

The demefnes and fcite of Cumcache, with the mill, are fet forth y2s. rent. 

" Item, there is fituate within this manner a faire callle, called Naworth Caille, it is of good (Irengtli 
" and built four fquare, with a gate-houfe to the fame, one of the fquares thereof hath never been finiflied 
" further then the walls thereof, of two or three ftories high. It is all covered with lead, and the faid 
" caflle is iituate about vij miles from Scotland ; it is now in very great decaye in all parts, and the out- 
" houfcs, viz. the flables, garners, and other howfes of office are utterlie dccaitd." 

" Item, there is within this manner one parkf, called Naworth Parke ; tlie fame containeth, by eftl- 
" mation, cc acres, it is very barren lande, there is in it a greate ftoreof olde oke wood, which is worth, 
*' if the fame were prefently fold, about cc''. There are no deare in the faid parke." 

'• Item, there is within the faid manner one woode grounde, commonly cal'ed the chace of Brigwoode, 
<' containing, by eftimation, cc acres, it is very barren ground ; there is in it verie much good oke wood, 
" which, if it were prefentlie to be foulde, it were worth cc'', but there are no deare in it, for they were 
" all wafted and deftroyed longe fithence." 

" Item, there are within this manner, tliefe commons, heaths, and moor grounds, following, viz. 
" Sweith-fcll, Jufting-iUads, Sprinke-bank, Gelt-wood, Rawbanke-wraye, and Eaftby-raoore, containing 
«' in all, by eftimation, ccc acres, wherein the tennants of this manner have common of pafture for their 
" cattle, which, befides their commons, is worth, by the year, nothing." 

" Item, there is kept, wetklie, every Tewfday, at Brampton, a market, but there lialh been no profit 
•' made of the tolle thereof, and there hath been in time paft one faiie every year upon Magdaline day ; • 
*' but, of late years, there hath no faire been kept. 

" Item, the late Lord Dacres, and his ancefters, have ufcd to allov.', for a fchoolmafter to teache a ■ 
«' grammer fchoie in the towne of Brampton, tlK yearly ftipend of vj''. xil)'. iiij**. the whieh hath ever 
♦' £nce been contioued and allowed, and one Jeffery Milncbouin is now fcholcmajUci." 

it 3 ''.JuOi-;*.,.!*.. . " Itcra, ■ 

124. PARISH OF, BRAMPTON. [Eskdale Waro. 

Camden, fpeakingof this place, fays, — " Brampton, a little market town, where 
" is an hofpital for fix poor men, and as many poor worhen, with a falary for a 
" chaplain ; founded and endowed by the Right Honourable Elizabeth Countefs 
" Dowager of CarliQe. This 1 take to be the Bremeluracum along the wall, for 
" it is fcarce a mile from the wall, where formerly the firft cohort of the Tungri, 
" from Germany, and in the decline of the Roman empire, the Cunais Armaturarum, 
" under the governor of Britain, were in garrifon. Tbofe Armaturar^y were horfd 
" armed cap-a-pe,- but whether they were duplares 6t Jiviplar^s, my author hai 
" not told us. The duplares were fueh as had a double allowance of provifions, 
" the fimplares fuch as had a lingl^ allowance. Nor muft I omit, that at Bramp- 
" ton there is a high hill called the Mote, ditched round at the top ; from whence 
« is a large profpcdl: into all the country round." 

In Mr. Gough's Additions to Camden, p. 203, he fays,—" Horfley places 
" Bremetunicnm or Bremetaeracum at Old Pefirith ; afterwards he changed his 
" opinion for Brampton. 

" In Holland's Edition of Camden, is the following iilfcription, given as lately 
" found on a fiir votive altar, erccled to the goddefs nymph of the Brigantes for 
" the health of the Emprefs Plautilla, wife of M. Aurelius Antoninus Severus, 
" and the whole imperial family by Cocceitts Nigrinus, a trcafurer to the emperor 
" when Laetus was fecond time conful : — 

DEAE NYMPHAE BRIG " Which intricate connedion of 

QVOD VOVEHAT PRO " letters the dodlor rend : — 


^, ,^ ^,^,^^^, Sytcod voverat pro 

IMP. M. AVRELII SEVERl .5^^, PtauiilU conjugts inviB^e 
ANTONII PII PEL. CAES. Dovtini ncjlri imnai 

AVG. TOTIVSQVE DO. Imperatons Marci Aureli Severi 

MVS Dl VIN A E EJVS '^''''f ^'f f"/ ^"^'f' 

"" Amuti tolm que do 

M. COCCEIVS NtGRINVS i/, dk:in2 ^jus 

Q^AVG. N. DEVOTVS M. Cocceius- Nigrinus 

LI B ENS S VSCE PT D M S- %^afior Angujli Numini devotus 
1 AT7TnTT Ubais J'uJ'c€ptum folvit 

«* l«m, therff are within this' manner of cuftomary tennants, fii-mers and <!ottager3, which do fei'vico 
" upon the borders of Scotland there, fome with harfc and furniture, fome with nags, and feme on foot-, 
»< the \xa.Xi\\)^r, four [core and jh, or thereabout." 

" Item, tlie Bounder of this manner of Brampton begineth at Irthington Milne, and to A place called 
"■the Caftle-lVeads Yeat, called the Willc Tree, and fo inat the Caftle-lleads Yeat owie over Lilmbruni, 
" to the Caikn Dyke of the Mundhoin-.c, and aJong the dyke eaftward, without Irthing, unto the Abbie- 
" bridge, and fo up Irthing to the foot of the Caille-bcck, and fo up the Caftle-beck to Denton Milne, 
<• and from thence to a place called the Hurrlende Well, and fo to the Foule Floflie, frorri thenc« weft- 
" ward as the little river runneth into Milton-beck, at Milton, from thenoe fouthwaid up the Caille-bccki 
" to an- olde dyke that parteth Farlam and Brampton, and fo to Red Yeat Foot, at Hanbanke, from 
" thence along the fouth-fide of the Talken Tarne, and fo to Helbecke, as the little river runneth from 
«« Talken Tarne to Helbecke, from thence down to Gelt, and down Gdt to Gelt Ryuuc, in IjthiHgc, 
f^and foup Irthinge, to Itthingtoa Milne-foot.'' 


It is not in the additions to the edition of 1722, nor could Mr. Horfley find it, 
but he was of opinion it flimild be referred to fome part near Cambcck, or 

The ancient ftatc of Brampton, and the fcrvilitics of the ciiftomary and other 
tenures of the barony, will bcft appear by the inquifuion taken in the 31ft ^-ear of 
Queen Elizabeth, fct out in the notes. 

The parilli of Brampton is fevered from Lanercoft by the river Irthing, except 
for a fmall fpace m here Cambcck falls into that river, and then it adjoins upoa 
Walton, Irthington, Hayton, Farlam, and Denton.- — The bounds of pariflics, in 
this didrid:, are, in many parts, much confufed and intermixed, of which Bramp- 
ton fhews a particular indance, by Farlam interfecfling and dividing from the body 
of it the villages or hamlets of Mofs-Row, Silver-Side, Tarnhoufe forefl, &c. a 
wild and hilly tratT: extending to Northumberland, though it is alFcrted by fome, 
that Tarnhoufe foreft is extraparochial. The parilh is divided into ihree quarters, 
Brampton quarter, Naworth quarter, and Eaftby quarter. 

There is a large old building llanding in a Ipacious area in the middle of the 
town, now ufed as a court-houfe for the barony, where court i§ held twice a-yea* 
for the fuit and fervicc of the feveral manors of Brampton, Irthington, Leverfton, 
Newby, All^erton, Walton Wood, Tredermaine, Hayton, Cumwhitton, Carlatton, 
Caftle Carrock, Cumrew, Farlam, Denton, Nether Denton, atid Talking Laner- 
co(T, Brackenthwaiie, and Newbiggin, are members of the fame barony, but 
Lanercoft having been granted to the priory in Frankalmoigne, and Brackenth- 
waite, and Newbiggin, fevered by Joan, the heirefs of Thomas Lord Dacre, who 
married Fynes ; they are deemed feparate, their cuftoms are different, and they 
hold their feveral courts baron. J Adjoining to the chapel is the hofpital, men- 

* With the permiffion of Hayman Rooke, Efq. we extraiEl from his Letter to the Lord Bifliop of 
Carhfle, read at the Society of Antiquaries, 29th of January, 1789, the following notes, with others in* 
terfpcrfcd in this work. 

" The following antiquities (f, g, l>, i, k,) are all of brafs, and the fr/e of the drawings. That mark- 
" ed ( f) feems to liave been part of a lamp, the top and focket of vvhieh is wanting. Figure ( p), 
'• infcribcd ( "Jovis ), has a hltlc rivet at each end, which piobably fixed it to the pedeftal of the little 
" pcnate ( h ), which was found with it ; ( i ) is a face of one of the Lares, ( k ) appears to be a part of 
" a fibula, Thefe were found a Brampton, about 10 niiles from Caillfl«, where Roman antiquities arc 
" frequently picked up. They are now in the polTtirion of the Rev. Mr. Carlyle, to whom I am much 
" indebted for his politenefs on this and other occafions." 

X The filloiulng ixtrafls frovi the Inqmfition of ■^Aji H^teen Elizjheth, ii.':ll Jlxiv rh chief tenor of tin 

ancient cuJ}oii:s : 

" The cuflomary tennants, &c. do claim to hould their tenements as cullomary tennants, for doing 
" their fervicc on the borders, and paying their lines and gred'omes at the change by death, or otherv^ife, 
" either of the lord or tennant ; and their fald fines and grefibmes have bLcn fometlmes two and fome- 
" times three years rent, according to the rate of the rent they pay for their faid tenements. As for 
" fuch tennants as come to the polTenion of their tenements by alienation, or marriage of daughter and 
«' heir, they have been accuftomed to greater fines and grefTomes, fuch as the lord and they could reafon- 
•' ably agree upon. And alfo concerning the certainty of their fald cudoms, to v.hom the tenement ought 
" to defcend after the death of any tennant, whether to the heir male or to the heir general. Is not known; 
" for that, in this cafe, the fame liath beea fome time allowed the one way, and fomc time the other way, 
"•and never any certainty therein,. 

*• Freeholder^ . 

126 PARISH OF BRAMPTON. [Eskdale Ward. 

tioned by Camden, which was diflblved, or has fome years been unfupported and 
difufed. The houfe was originally divided into twelve apartments, and each poor 
perfon had 61. a-year, a gown and fuel. A falary of 12I. was given to a chaplain, 
who alfo officiated as fchoolmaller. — There are but eight rooms now remaining, 
•one of which is ufed as a fchool-room ; the mafter of this fchool has no fixed 
ftipend, but Lord Carlifle, of his bounty, makes a free gift of 5I. a-year, and the 
mafi:er reads prayers at the chapel on Wednefdays and Fridays.* 

What is remarkable, is, that all the furrounding buildings front from the area. 
The dvvelling-houfcs, in general, are mean and irregular; and a traveller, on his 
firfl: entrance into Brampton, is immediately ftruck with refledions on the various 
viciflltudes of human affairs. — In King Edward II. 's time, the parilh fulfered the 
calamities of war, and was defolated and laid wafie. 

Brampton, from its fituation, lying at the diflance of nine miles from Carlifle, 
and upon the great military road, furrounded with common lands, carrying a mul- 

" Freeholders in Gildand liave been accullomed to pay for tlieir reliefs, after the death of their ancef- 
" tors, the rent of one year, if in focage tenure, but if they hold by knight's fervice, and be of full age 
" at the death of their anceilors, fliall pay for their relief after the rate of cj- for a knight's fee ;" (with 
ward, marriage, and efcheat, in cafe of felony or failure of iffiic, as in general.) 

" Item, the freeholders of this baronie, and if they do not inhabit, then their tennants have been ac- 
'• cuftomed, time out of mind, to fervc upon the borders, under the direftion, commandment, and ap- 
'• pointment of the officer of the laid baronie, for the time being, at their own proper cods and charges. 

" Item, all other the tennants inhabiting in the feveral manners and townfhips, within this baronie, 
*' being about the number of 600, ought, in rcfpeft of their farms, tenements, and cottages, to ferve her 
*' majefty on the bordcis, at all times when need (hall require, at their own proper coils and charges, fome 
" with horfes, fome wiih nags, and fome on foote, with fuch furniture as in time pad have been 
" accuftomed. 

" Item, the lord of this baronie hath always been accuftomed, time out of mind, to have and keep, 
" at Brampton, a court ever)' three weeks in the year, faving in the time of harvsft, viz. from Lammas 
*' to Michaelmas, and two courts leets, the one within a month after Michaelmas, and the other within 
«• a month after Eafter. And it hath likewife been accuftomed that there fhould be kept one or two 
" courts barons every year, at every of the manners of Aikerton Caftle, Caftle-Carrock, and Cumrewc, 
" within the faid baionie, and the lord hath alwaj'S been anfwered of all efcheats, fines, amerciaments, 
" cafualties, and profits prefented for any offtnce, at any of the faid courts, &c. &c. 

Land feijeant's fee paid by other lands, than thofe beforementioned. 

Newby \zd. — Croglinc and Newb:;.fgine Sr. 6d. — Ormelby i8<y. — Corkby Parva .\i. J^d. — Cumwhit- 
ton 5/. ^d. — Iidenton 3/. ^. — Cammockhill \zd. 

hm. To'al reddit. prd. maner. ter. et ten. in d'ca beroina de GiUeftand p ann. ccvii'i//. iij/. ij^. ob. 

Feod. diverfor. Ballivor. — — — — — — viij//. yjr. ixd". 

Divf. reddit. refolut. — — — — — — — xxiij/. vj./. 

Feod. auditor, poftcflion. pred. — — — — — — x//. 

Divar. ann. fohit. D'ne Scroope — — — -- — — x//. 

Feod. terr. ferjeant de Gilleiland — — — — — — cr. 

Feod receptor, p'ticular. fenefcal. & feodar. — — — — -xli. iij/. \\\]d. 

Feod. Woodward — — — — — — — — Ixvjj-. viijd. 

Feod. P'ambulator. orient p'tis foreft de Gilterfdale — — — xxxj. \d, 

Feod. cuftodis de Brigwood — — — — — — xxvl/. viijV. 

Feod. cullod Pallac. ibm. • — — — — — — — y.\\]i.V\\\d. 

Regard dat. Ludimagiftio de Brampton — — — — — vj//. xiij/. in]d. 

Et remanet claire p. ann. cxlvilj//. xix/. iji. ou. 

• The mafter has quarter-pence. — Sunday fchools are fet on foot. — There are four ftnall fchook in 
rtie town, and about one hundred and twenty fcholars attend them. 



titudc of fhcep, is placed in a propitious fpot for manufadory and trade; the in- 
habitants are numerous, and in want of employment, particularly the children; 
there is good water, plenty of fuel and provifion, and every rcquifue, but an ex- 
ample and a generous inftitution.f 

Here arc two annual fairs, one on the fcafV of Pentecoft:, and the other on the 
Afiuniption of the BleiTcd Virgin,§ which occafion a great influx of money to the 
adjacent country. Not only all kinds of merchandize are then expofed to (ale, buc 
many flicep and cattle ot the breed of the country are m.arketed at thofe times. — • 
Thomas de Multon, Lord of GilOand, obtained a royal grant for the above fairs^ 
and a weekly market on Tucfdays, in the 32d year of King Henry IlL's reign. 

The eminence, which Camden fpeaks of, called. 


Or more properly after the Saxon tongue CDor, is worth the traveller's attention.— 
It is a natural mount, of a fine conic form, in height, from the town, fomewhac 
about three hundred and fixty perpendicular feet •,% ^^ ""'^^^ o" every fide very 
fwift, and is covered in many parts with fhort heath. Near forty perpendicular 
feet from the crown of this eminence, a ditch is cut quite round the hill, and ic 
appears as if the materials, thrown out from thence, had been carried to the fum- 
mit, to form the brcaft work there, or increafe its height. The ditch, in fuch 
places as appear leafl: difturbed by the fall of gravel from the upper eminence, re- 
mains near eight feet in depth ; or, more properly, the outward breaft-work is of 
that height: it is near twenty feet wide, and the breafl-work forms a circle of three 
hundred paces, fo that a large body of men might lie here intrenched, for the de- 
fence of the interior encampment. The crown of the hill is formed into a plain, 
forty paces diameter, defended by a brea(t-w ork ; on its margin, where, we prefume, 
the chief in command were encamped, and the arms and valuables belonging the 
army were fecured. Whether this was a DaniJJjfort or not, is uncertain j for the 
darknefs of the hiftory of thofe times affords us very little evidence of the particu- 
lar adions of that people in this country. The Saxon word Mote encourages an 
idea that this was ufed as a parley bill or open court for the difpenfing julUce; or 
it might be for the refort of the inhabitants of the town of Brampton, on the in- 
curfion of an enemy. A fketch and dcfcription of a very periciil fortification, 

-|- A manufaftory of checks employs about fixty weavers, and tlie fpinnlng is chiefly done in the 
neighbourhood. — A brewery is lately ertabhflud, (and malt ie made here) producing a duty of 1200I. 

§ The fecond Wednefday after Whitfunday, and the fccond Wedntfday in Scptcmbei, li. is paid for 
each booth or llali, as a duty to the lord of the market. — A toll is taken of corn, by a meafure of three 
pints for the Cumberland buflul — Lord Carlifle lets the market dues for 14I. a-year. — Hiring on Whit- 
fun Tuefday and Martinmas Tuefday. — Men's wages from lol. to 14I. — Women's wages from 4I. to 3.- 
country work. 

* This eminence has, of late years, been planted with toreft trees, fome of which have gi-own to the 
height of twenty- feven feet in fourteen years. 

J Fifty yards high, gently and gradually tapering from the bottom to the fummit. At the top there 
is a, trench or ditch rouiulit. 


^f 2'g PARISH OF BRAMPTON. [Eskdale War». 

fuppofed to be Danifh, on the banks of the Tweed, were given in the View of 
Northumberland, and renders it unnecefTary to fay more of eminences of this 
. nature, wound round with intrenchmcnts, than that the Daniili forts are of this 
form, but generally had three or more arrangements of breaft-works and trenches 
on the fides of the hill. It is not improbable but the mode might be followed by 
the inhabitants on the borders, and fuch ilrong holds made the places of fecurity 
for the valuables, and the rcfort of the fighting men, when they had to oppofe a 
public enemy. The mote is remarkably well adapted to the purpofe — a man 
afcending could ufe few efforts againft an enemy, the fides of the hill are fo fteep, 
and a fmall force, occupying the intrenchment, might defend themfelves againft 
a powerful army, who only attacked with milFilc weapons, or fword in hand. The 
crown of this hill commands a moll extenfive profpeifb, fave only to the fouth, on 
•which fide it is fiiut in, at the diftanceof about fix miles, by lofry eminences. — 
To the weft you view the Frith, and the levels adjoining Carlifie : northward 
you command the mountains above Bewcaftle, and a trad: of Scotch country, not 
yet relieved from the gloom and barrennefs to which it was configned, through the 
continued warfare of former centuries. To the eafl you look over a wide tradf, 
bounded by the Cheviots and high mountains above the river Reed, in Northum- 

Dr. Todd fuppofes that " this regular firufiHre" was at firfl: " rsifcd" by the 
Britons, and ancient idolatrous inliabitants ; and that it was defigned by them for 
.an open, confpicuous, public altar, or place of facrifice. — Eut there is no cairn on 
the top of the mount, or mark of fire having been ufed there j and it is alfo next 
Xo impofTible, that this mount could ever be forced or raifed by hands. The idea 
JxnevvB to mc the poet's extravagant figure — 

«' Go kvd hills and fill up feas." 

The name of Moie, or TOor, leads us to the moll probable conjccffure touching 
"its appropriation : Dii Cange fays of the Mons Placili, that it was a hill where the 
people affembled at a court like our ailizes, which, by the Scotch and Irifh are called 
■parley hills. According to Spelman, — Collis vallo plernvique vinnilus in loco cam- 
■pejlri, ne infnUis exponatur, uhi convenire olim Jolebant ceuluriis aul vicina: incola ad 
lites Inter fefe traffanJas & tcrminaruias. Scolis reorq. ihitb-hail, mons facificati- 
onis ciii a/yli privilegice concedcbantur. 

There are three chalybeate fprings in the neighbourhood of Brampton, one at 
Coatehill, in the vale of Irthington, another at Beckfioncgatc, in the parilh of Nether 
Denton, and the third, much the niofi: powerful, at Nook, in the fame parifh. 

Game abounds in this parifli and its neighbourhood ; there is black game in 
Walton Wood, and upon the moffes large broods of groufe or red game. 

The eminences called Knows, are beautifully difperfcd over the country, many 
of them planted with wood. Lord CarliOe, in the courfe of twenty years, hath 
planted many valuable fprings of oak wood, and other foreft trees, not only for 
ornament in the molt picturefque points of view in the neighbourhood of Bramp- 
ton, but in other places, which are in a very thriving ftate. 



At Irthing, or Rule-Holm bridge,* the high flierift of the county meets the 
judges of alTize, to efcort them to Carlide : the under fheriff attends them from 
the boundary of the county at Temon. 

Tradition fays, that, as the judges and their retinue could not be properly ac- 
commodated with provifions, on their road from Newcaftle to Carlifle, they vAcrc 
under the necefiity of taking capons, &c. with them. On thefe they regaled under 
a large oak tree, yet growing on the eftate of John Hetherington, Efq. by the 
road leading from Brampton to Warwick Bridge. Ic is called Capon Tnr, and has 
apparently withftood the blafts of feveral hundred years. 

The unfortunate adventurer in 1745, deluded with vain hopes and poifonous 
adulation, relied a: Brampton a confiderable time. 

In this parifli was born the late James IVallace, Efq. his Majefty's Attorney 
General. His family (the elder branch of which is now cxtindl) claims confider- 
able antiquity in Scotland, and gave birth to the renowned Sir William Wallace, 
fo much celebrated in the annals of that country. From Cragie Houfe in Ayrlliire, 
the original feat of the family, a younger branch tranfmigrated into Northumber- 
land, and there enjoyed lands of fome extent and value. By the fault or misfor- 
tunes of his anceffors, a very fmall part of thefe defcendcd to Mr. Wallace ; but 
the want of fortune was amply compenfated by his induftry and talents. From a 
common fchool education, which he received at Thornton in Yorkfhire, without 
the aid of wealth, or the fupport of connexion, dependent folely upon his own 
efforts, he attained the office of Attorney General ; of which important iituation 
he died pofTelTed at the age of fifty-three, in the zenith of his reputation, and at the 
moment when the higheft honours his profeflion could offer, or his country beftow, 
were almofl w ithin his grafp. Powerful as were his talents, his induflry was not 
inferior, and the compafs and depth of his learning in the law of his country were 
univerfally allowed to have been equalled by few, and were, we believe, exceeded 
by none of his own time, who made them their ftudy. To this part of his cha- 
rafter he added that which ffamped its value upon the whole, without which 
learning and talents are contemptible and dangerous — unfpotted honour, and in- 
flexible integrity. 

Having married the daughter and fole heirefs of Thomas Simpfon, Efq. of 
Carleton-Hall, he there fixed his refidcnce. At his death he left one fon, and 
one daughter, the latter of whom died at Briftol in the month of May, 1792. 

The church of Brampton f was dedicated to St. Michael, and is vicarial. At 
the foundation of the priory of Lanercofl, it was given by Robert de Vallibus to 


• Of four arches. 


Priory Lanercojl propr. — Lord Carlijle patron. — DcJic. St. Michael. 

Pope Nich.. •) K. Edw. II. ■^ K. Hen. VIII. 

EccL de Brampton j^i8 o o / Eccl. de B— — - ;^ J o o ( Eccl. de B— — vicaria v. p. ann. 

VJcaria ejufd 8 o o fVic. ejufd. non taxatur quia T £l ^5 A 

J tot. deftrud. J 

iroL. I. S Incumbents. 

ijo PARISH OF BRAMPTON. [Eskdale Waret. 

that houfc, and Coon after appropriated. About the year 1220, Hugh, Bifhop of 
Carlifle, endowed it with the whole altarage, with its tithes, oblations and obven- 
tions, and the lands, with their tithes, which appertained to the church. After the 
diflblution of the monaltery, this church, with the advowfon, were granted to Sir 
Thomas Dacre, and are now the property of Lord Carlille. 

The old church (as is frequently the cafe in this county) is fituated at the ex- 
tremity of the parifh, on a fine bold knoll, on the banks of the river Irthing, It 


Incumbents.— I3;?4, Richard de Caldecotes.— 1346, John Engge, p. m. Caldecotes, pr. pr. & con. 
Lanercoft. — 1361, John de Hayton, p. m. Engge, pr. pr. & con. Lan. — 1372, William de Kirkby, p. 
ref. Hayton pr. pr. Sc con. Lan. — Chailes Davis. — 156^, John Rudd, p. m. Davis, pr. Taleyntire pur- 
chafed of Lord Dacre. — 1579, Robert Beck, cl. p. m. Rudd, pr. bifhop by lapfe. — 1600, Hen. Hiidfon^ 

S. T. B. p. m. Beck, pr. Hen. Dacre, Efq 1644, William Warwick. — 1 670, Phil. Fielding. — 1692, 

John Cockburn, pr. Charles Earl of Carlifle. — 1702, Richard Culcheth, A. M. pr. Charles Earl of Car- 
lille. — 1714' Theoph. Garencicres, A. B. pr. fame. — 1721, John Thomas, A. B pr. fame. — •747» 

William Plallcet, cl. p. m. Thomas, pr. Henry Earl of Catlifle 1 750, Robert Wardale, A. B. pr., 

fame. — 1773, Chailes Stoddait, A. M. (pr. Frederick Earl of Carl.) ob. 1790. — Rich. Hair, clerk.—. 
William Richardfon, clerk, 1792, p. ref. Hair, pr. Fiederick Earl of Carlifle. 

The arms of the Earl of Carline, are Gules, on a bend between fix crofs crofslets fitche, Urgent, an 
efcucheon Or, charged with a demy lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a 
double treflurccounterflory Gules, with a mullet for difference The creft on a chapeau Gulet, turned up 
ermine, a lion guardant, his tail extended. Or, gorged with a ducal coronet. Argent. Supporters on the 
dexter fide, a lion argeut, differenced by a mullet j on the finifter fide a bull, gules, armed, icgraled, du- 
cally chained Or. 

Vicarius Ecclie P'rcchial (fe Brainpton. 

Robertas Weft canonic, regular, vicari. de Brampton cujus redoiia appriat. eft prioratui de Lanercoft 
que val. p. ann. coib's. annis. didi. vicar. 81. de quib's. 

Solucoe fad. 1 In folucoes dico ep'o Karlij p. Senagiis anouatlm folvend 4s.. In foluc. fa£t. dift.. 
pro. cur. ordin. j dno e'po Karlij p. vifitaco ede triennio in triennium ijs. et nunc in equis parcoibs divit'r-, 
unde annuatim 8d. 

Et rem. 7I. 158. 4d. xmo inde 15s. 6d. halfpenny. 
Firft-fruits none— Tenths, 163.— Synod. 4s. proc. 6s, — Real value, 14I. 

State of Population — Families 458; inhabitants 195 T, — Prefijyterian families 74, Quaker famiKe^ 

5, Roman Catholic families i.^In the town of Brampton folely 316 families, and 1228 inhabitants. 

Comparing twenty years in die lall century, with the lad twenty years, we find 

Chriftenings 278 Buiials 240"} 

Chriitenings 702 Burials 514/ ^ n -n i-i . . ... ,, 

{ Correa r.-gifters did not begin till 1653. 

Increafe 504 2 74 J 

Since 1754, there have been 456 marriages, — by licenfe 133 — Men who wrote their ovim names 363, 
— wamen 185. 

What a happy procf do we deduce here of the elTefts of union ; in the increafe of population, the 
advance of literature, and the bleffings of foci'ety. 

In the parirti of Brampton there are 23 ale-houfes, in the town 18, 3 furgeons and apothecaries, I 
■clergyman of the church of Fngland, i diifentiiig minifter, and only one attorney, 153 day-labourers, 40 
farmers, 3 ikiuners, 3. taiuicis, 2 curriers, 19 taylors, 7 tockfmiths, ) officer of excife, i fait oflicer, 5 

millinersj , 


commands a mod: beautiful pidlurcfque view up the rich vale of Irthing, and 
Saint Mary Holm. The ftriking objedts are Walton houfe, with its appe.idagcs 
— Walton Wood — the venerable old abbey, embofomed and encircled in wood — 
feveral diftant knolls, crowned with clumps of fir and other woods of Lord Car- 
lifle — banks fringed with the glory of the forcfl: — and the river gently ferpentining 
through the vale, which is beautifully ftudded with white farm-houies. 

No part of the old church remains, except the chancel, where the burial ferviceis 
ufually performed, feveral families continuing to be interred there, with their 
anccflors. The materials of the old church were ufed in rebuilding the chapel 
adjoining to the hofpital, where parochial duty is now performed : u was confe- 
cratcd in 1789, by Bifliop Douglas. 

The old glebe lands lay adjoining to the church: in 1777, when Brampton 
common was inclofed, lands were allotted to the vicar, in lieu of all tithes, except 
"Jjd. from each houfe, paid in lieu of hens, hemp, flax, and fmoke ; the vicar has 
mortuaries and furplice fees ; and tithe hay of the townfliip of Talkin. 

John Thomas, D. D. the prefent Biihop of Rochcfler, whofc father was Vicar 
of Brampton from 1721 to 1747, gave to this vicarage, about four years ago, 
a dwelling houfe and out-houfes, with a garden and clofe of land adjoining, worth 
61. I OS. a-year. 

There are in this parilh a Prefbyterian meeting-houfe, and a Methodifl: 

milliners, 2 nailors, 2 glovers and breeches-makers, 4 mercers, 3 coopers, 10 butchers, 21 fhoe-makeri, 
9 mafons. Haters, and flone-cutters, i dyer, 1 chemift and druggift, i fiddle maker, i difh-turner, z 
muficians, 2 flax-dreffers, 2 glaziers, 3 watch-makers, 2 iron-mongers, 3 barbers, 2 maltfters, 2 hatters, 
3 faddlers, 67 weavers, 2 doggers, 3 millers, 9 carpenters and joiners, I fuller.^— Labourers wages r4d. 
or IS. per day without maintenance, is. or 8d. per day with maintenance. — Carpenters, mafons, and 
joiners 2s. — taylors is. and maintenance. — Weavers earn from los. to 21s. per week. 

Provisions. J The market is plentifully fupplied with butchers meat ; on an average, beef 3d. half- 
penny per pound, — veal and mutton 3d. halfpenny, — lamb and pork 4d, — butter 6d. to 8d. — cheefe 
2d. to ^d. — pigs 4s. — ftubble geefe 2s. — ducks 6d. — chickens 4d. — eggs, in winter, two a penny, in 
fummer 4 — falmon 3d. to 4d. per pound. — Eflc trout 3d. — Irthing trout 2d. — -Garden-ftuff abundant 
from Carlide. 

Fish. J In the Irthing, plenty of fmall trout, chub or chevin, (here called flvclly) falmon-fry, eels, 
and pike. — In Gelt, trout and eels. — In Talkin Tarn, (a fheet of water about two miles in ciicum- 
fercnce, the margin of which is covered wit thriving plantations of Lord Carlidt) abounds with perch, 
(here called bajs, and in the inquifition of 3 1 ft Elizabeth, barces and barcels) and pike. 

Air. 3 Dry and healthy: many remarkable inftancts of longevity. 

Soil. J Light and fandy, — chief crops oats and barley. — Turnip hufbandi-y fucceeds well. — Potatoes 
excellent. — Some peat. — Coal plenty from Tindell-fell. — Lime 6d, a bufhel. — Afhes 3. — Dung is. 6d. 
per cart. — Not a breeding country. 

Land.] From 10s. to 15s, an acre, old inclofures.— New inclofures fiom 63. to 8s. — Agriculture, in 
a progreffive ftate of improvement. 

Poor Rates.] 2s. 3d. a pound, amounting to 300I. a-ycar. — No work-houfe. — Out-penfions js. 
per week, or 2S. 3d. boarding out the pauper. 

We muft acknowledge^the great obligations we are under to the Rev. William Richardfon, Vicar of 
'Brampton, for his accurate and valuable information, touching the whole of this parifli. 

The Editors. 

S 2 Here 

132 PARISH OF BRAMPTON. [Eskdale Ward. 

Here are not Icfs than nine locieties of that laudable inftitution, called 
FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, who fubfcribe to the maintenance of their own lick 
and difabled members, fix for men, and three for women, confifting of about nine 
hundred perfons in the whole: — an inltitution worthy the patronage of the lord of 
the feigniory, and others the firfl: benevolent characflers in the kingdom, which ex- 
tends comfort to the wretched from the hand of Indiijlry ; and inftead of conforting 
■with that fiend Diffipation, (as is too much the cafe in moft opulent manutacluring 
towns) fupports with its hand that is hardened with toil, and infolds in its labori- 
ous arms, divine Benevolence ; drying up the tears of misfortune and age with the 
tendernefs of brotherly love. It is to be lamented there is yet little employment 
here for youth ; and education, that civilizer of the human mind, nurfe of arts 
and fcicnces, and fource of infinite temporal profits, as well to the ftate at large, 
33 to individuals, doth not fufficiently prevail. 


The general cuftoms of Gildand, where lands were not enfranchifed, are for the 
tenants to pay fines arbitrary upon defcents and alienations; but a twenty-penny fine 
only on the death of the lord. The lands pafs by deed only, with the lord's allowance 
thereon. — Widows, during their viduity, have a third of the lands of which their 
hufbands died feized. No heriots are paid in any of the manors, except Nether 
Denton, and if there are no live goods, 40s. is paid in lieu of the heriot. An acl of 
parliament palTed in the 1 2th year of the prefent reign, to impower the infranchife- 
ment of the feveral manors within this barony. J This is a benevolent act towards 


X Intitled an aft to impower certain perfons to enfranchifc feveral cuftomary lands and hereditaments, 
parcel of the feveral manors of Brampton. Farlam, Upper Denton. Nether Denton, Talkin, Irthington, 
Leverfdale, Newby, Allierton Walton Wood, Trcdermain, Hayton, Cumwhitton, Garlatton, Caftle- 
Carrock, Cumiew, Breckenthwaite, and Newbiggin, within the barony or reputed barony of GUflandj 
in the county of Cumberland, late the eftate of Henry Earl of Carlifle, deceafed ; and fettled to certain 
ufes by the will of the faid Henry Earl of Carlide, and for other purpofes- therein mentioned. 

It is to be obferved, that on the late inclofures of commons, Lord Carhfle, who had the reftorial tithes, 
aecepted lands in lieu thereof ; which will prove a lading comfort to the hufbandman, and improvement 
to the country : an excellent example to thofe who poflefs the remnants of a corrupt police, — the tithes : 
A thing grown into excefs by an abufe of cuftom ; for the original donors meant not to intail npon in- 
duftry Co great a curfe. The admeafnrement of this once pious gift (hould never have extended beyond 
the original quantum; but, like a fee farm, been fixed upon the land in uniform payment, and not have 
grown to its prefent enormities, under the labours of the broad hand of induftry, and the anxiety and 
fweat of the pcafant's brow. Tithes in lay hands are contradiftory and abfurd — the inconfiftency cannot 
be reconciled — Whenever they paifed to the crown the gieat fountain of tenures, they became diflblved, 
and as it were, emctfed and extintt in the greater eflates of the royal chai after. Whenever lands and tithes 
came into the poiTcfiion of the church, tithes thenceforth became extinft — muth more fo were they ca- 
pable of extinftion in the crown. — It was the device of a corrupt age, and of a debauched and debafed 
fegiflature, that gave them the new exiflence to pafs to the lay fubjeft. — In the old law it was impofiible, 
and in ancient times never once waj conceived, by the mifchief of human invention. 



the people, a valuable example, and will prove a great public good. Can it be 
prefumed that men will attempt to advance one degree into improved hufbandry, 
or extend cultivation beyond the ancient mode, when they hold their lands in 
almofl: as bafe a tenure as the ancient villianage? Relatively, thofe cuftomary 
tenures are a national grievance. From this tenure is chiefly to be attributed the 
vafl and dreary waftes which are found in Cumberland. It is not want of climate, 
or want of intercourfe with the reft of mankind, binds the inhabitants to thedefo- 
late path of their anceftors, but it is the bitter drcgof thefeoadal tenures which re- 
main. The benign tenure of the flatute of King Charles, by pading through an 
unpropicious channel, has not Iprcad its influence over a great part of this county. 
The fame fun gilds the valleys of this, as well as thofe of the adjacent counties of 
Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkfhire. Cumberland, by its fituation on the 
weftern fide of its chain of mountains, fufFers nothing from the chilling vapours of 
the Eaftern Ocean : a more generous and liberal tenure of eftatcs is all that is. 
We vilited 


The baronial houfc of the lords of Gilfland. The whole arrangement of buildings 
forms a fquare. We have no certain date to this eredion. What Camden fays erf 
it is to this purport: — " The Gelt empties itfelf into the river Irthing which runs 
with a violent, rapid ftream by Naworth Caftle, belonging to Lord William 
Howard, but lately to the barons of Dacre; the laft of whom dying young fome 
years ago, and Leonard his uncle choofing rather to try for the eliatc with his 
prince in war, than with his neices at law, leized upon this caftle, and got together 
a company of feditious rebels. But the lord Hunfden, with the garrifon of 

In this parifli, early in the laft century, was born Dr. Guy Ccirleton, who after a life of great trouble, 
became at length Dean of Carlifle, and afterwards Bifliop of Brillol, and finally Bifhop of Chichefter, 
where he died in 1685. 

He was educated in the free fchool at Carlifle, under Mr. Thomas Robfon; from whence he went to 
Queen's College, Oxford, on the foundation, and under the tuition of Mr. Charles Robfon, the fon of 
his fchoolmaftcri 

On the breaking out of the rebellion, he faithfully adhered to the king, and did him confiderable fer- 
vice. This occafioned him to be ejefted, firft out of a rich living in the north, and afterwards out of 
the vicarage of Bucklclbury, in Berkshire, whither he had fled: and finally to be imprifoned in Lambeth 
houfe. — His contrivance to efcape from this imprifonment was curious. A cord was conveyed to him by 
his wife: with this he was to let himfelf down out of a window looking tovifards the Thames, where a boat 
was to wait for him. Unfortunately this cord was two (hort; but, notwithftanding, he refolved to ufe it, 
rather than remain where he was; and fo, having a great way to fall, he diflocaled a bone. In this con- 
dition the boat carried him off, and he lay concealed till he was cured; to pay for which his wife fold 
the bed on which they lay. After his cure, he again made his efcape, and went overfeas to Charles the 
Second; his wife and family maintaining tlicmfdvet, during his abftnce, partly by labour, and partly by 
charity. On the rclloration, he obtained fundry confiderable preferments. There is an excellent portrait 
of him in the colledtion of George Allan, Efq. of Grange, in the county of Durham. 


§ The late Lord Carlifle had once formed a projeft for fettling a colony of Moravians on tiic river Gelt, 
in thisparifh, at the time that great numbers of them arrived in England, from the continent; — whak. 
diverted the fcheme u not known. 



Berwick, foon defeated them, putting a great many to tfre fword, and the reft, 
among whom was Leonard himfelf, to flight." 

The approach is ftriking; the front is ftrengthened by a curtain wall and a 
gateway embrasured, and the corners of the chief ftruflure on this fide, by lofty 
fquare towers. Though this was the baronial houfe in later ages, yet it doth not 
appear that it arofe nearly with the time of the Normans; for it is not mentioned 
in any of the inftrumcnts of foundation, or endowment, of Lanercoft: and the firfl: 
"notice that we have of it in record is, that Ralph Dacre, who married the heirefs 
of Multon obtained a licence, in the 9th year of King Edward IIL to make a 
caftle of his manfion here. It is again mentioned in the time of King Richard IL f 
It is the opinion of fome, that the old baronial fortrefs was at Caflle-Steads : and 
the original manfion here mod probably was ercfted lome confidcrable time after 
the abbey. The arms over the entrance are Howard's and Dacre's quarterly, fup- 
■ported by grifiins, crefted with a bull collared, and this motto, fort in loialtie, 
Mr. Grofc, from Mr, Pennant's notes, fays, — " On the fouth fide are the arms 
of the Dacres, over the door thofe of the Llowards. The north fide of the caftle 
ftands on the brink of lofty cliffs impending over a rivulet, the defcents cloathed 
•with wood." We entered the court by the great gateway, and from thence palled, 
by a narrow entrance, into an area of equal fides, about forty paces each. Mr. 
■Grofe's defcription is, — " That the whole houfe is a fpecimen of ancient incon- 
venience, of magnificence and littlenefs; the rooms numerous, acceflible by fixtcen 
ftaircafes, with moft frequent and fundry afcents and defcents into the bargain:" 

The entrance into the hall ftrikes the traveller with all the folemn magnificence 
of antiquity. This apartment is feventy-eight feet in length, very lofty, and of a 
proportionable width. The ceiling is formed of wood pannels, in large fquares. 
and the upper end of the hall is wainlcolted in the fame manner. The pannels are 
in number one hundred and twenty-nine, on which are painted portraits of the 
, Saxon kings, and the fovereigns of England, down to the union of the houfes of 
York and Lancafter, with many noble perfonages : but the pidures have little to 
recommend them but their antiquity. Mr. Grofe, from the account of a corre- 
fpondentwho vifited thecaftlein 1732, fays, — " Thefe pidlureswere brought from 
Kirkofwald Caftle, when that was demolifhed." The joints of the frame-work are 
ornamented with ihields, blazoned with the arms of the ancient owners, and of 
thofe families with whom they were in alliance. At the bottom of the hall is a 
gallery of modern work, which it is prefumed, fills the place of one of greater an- 
tiquity. In fuch galleries, it was the faftiion of ancient times, on days' of feftival, 
to entertain the guefts with mufic, ftiovvs, and mafques : it is now adorned with 
four valt crcfts, carved in wood, a griffin and dolphin, with the fcallops, an unicorn, 
■and a bull with a coronet round his neck. In front is a wooden figure of a man in 
armour: two others, perhaps vaffals, in fhort jackets and caps, a pouch pendant 
behind, and the remains of a mutilated priapus to each; one has wooden ihoes. 
Thefe were the Ludil/rinm Atdx of thofe grofs days. The chimney here is five 
yards and a half broad. Adjoining to the hall is another apartment, hung with 

. f. When the Edwards were on their Scotch expeditioos, they took up their reGdence at the monaftery. 
We may draw this inference that Naworth CalUe was not then erefted. 



old tapeftry; a head of Ann Cleves, and feveral family portraits, remain there. — 
The whole caftle bears the flrongeft memorials of ancient cuftoms, and the incon- 
venient modes of domeftic life which our anceftors experienced. The old windows 
are narrow and grated, and the doors almoft wholly cafed with iron, moving on. 
ponderous hinges, and with mafiive bolts, which make a harfh and horrid clang 
that echoes in the winding palfages. The mouldings of feveral of the apartments 
are gilt, or painted — the ceilings figured — the mantle pieces fculptured with coat 
armour, and the chambers hung with gloomy furniture, the approaches to which 
are without regularity, and up or down feveral fteps. 

We entered the chapel, which is below, ftairs, and formed in a very antique flire, 
with a pulpit and ftalls of oak : at the end, oppofite the altar, are clofers for the 
fuperiors of the family attending divine fervice. The ceiling and altar end is 
wainfcottcd in pannels like the hail, painted with portraits of the j^vitriarchs, feve- 
ral of the kings of Ifrael and Judah, and others; in all 58. A long elevated flail 
faces the pulpit, which perhaps was the place of the chief domeftics ; above it are 
blazoned all the arms of the Howards, with the families with whom they had made 
alliances, or from whom they were defcended : under the fhiclds of arms the name 
of each perfonage is placed. This pedigree differs very much from that fee out in 
the books of peerage, t 


f Upper line. 

1 Fiilcho a quo fiimilia Howardorum io Com Notff, in hunc ufque diem ao. 1623. 

2 Galfridus filius Fulconis. 

3 Alanus filius Galfridi. 

4 Wilklmus de Wigganhall Co. Norff. filius Alan!. 

5 Johannes Howard filius Willmi de Wigganhall tempore R. Johannis Lucia Germund uxor ejus. 

6 Willmus Howard jufticiarius de coi Banco tempore R. Edw. primi Alicia filia et heres Wilmi FittQA 

militis uxor ejus. 

7 Johannes Howard Miles tempore R. Edw. II. Johana foror Richardi de Cornubia uxor ejus. 

8 Johannes Howard Miles Admirallus Anglix tempore R. Edw. Ill Alicia foror et heres Robeiti de 

Bofco militis uxor ejus. 

9 Robcitus Howard Miles, Margarcta filia et unahsredum dni de Scales uxor ejus. 

10 Johannes Howard Miles uxor ejus filia et hseres Willmi Tendring niilitis. 

1 1 Robertus Howard Miles uxor ejus Elizabetha filia et coheres Thomas Mowbray ducis Norff. 

12 Johannes Howard Dux NorfF. uxor ejus Catherina filia dni melius. 

13 Thomas Howard Dux Norff. uxor ejus Elizabetha filia et hxres Frederici Tilney mil. 

14 Thomas Howard Dux Norff. uxor ejus Elizabetha filia Edwardi Stafford Ducis Buckingham!. 

(In a circle, Thomas Howard vice comes Bindon 2 filius.) 

15 Henricus Howard Comes Surrey uxor ejus Francifca ver. filia Comltis Oxonias. 

j6. Thomas Howard Dux Norff. uxor i, Maria filia et cohjeres Henrici Fitzallen, Comitis Arundell; 
et uxor 2, Margareta filia et haeres Thoms Audley dc Waldcn. 
(In circles, Htnricus Comes Northampton 2 filius. 

Thomas Howard Comes Suff. 2 filius Thomx Ducis Norff. 2 uxoris 1624. 

Dna Margareta filia Tliomae Ducis Norff. 2 uxore nupta Roberti Sackville poftea comitis Dorfet.) 

17 Philippus Howard Comes Arundell filius Thomx Ducis Norff. uxore fua i uxor ejus Anna foror et 

coheres Gcorgii Dni Dacre. 
In a circle, Dna Elizabetha Howard obiit ao. dni 1625.) 

1 8 Thomas Howard Comes Arundell et Surrey uxor ejus Alithea filia et una hircdura GUbertl comitis 

Salopie 1623. 
(In a circle, Willmus Howard.) 

19 Henricu»> 

J36 NA WORTH CASTLE. [Eskdaie Ward. 

Under a fprawling figure of an old man, with a branch rifing from him (on the 
ceiling) is written Magifter Lucas Egliment Picftor MDXIL On the great win- 
dow are reprefented a knight and a lady kneeling ; on their mantles painted thefc 
arms, three efcallops and chequers.* 

We were flievvn the apartments of Lord William Howard, whofe portrait we 
fliall have occafion to mention in our dcfcription of Corby. He was the terror of 

19 Henricus Howard Dominus Maltravers, 1623. 
(In a circle, Jacobus Dns Maltravers obiit 1623.) 
Philippus Howard Miles obiit ao. 1616, uxor ejus Maria filia Johannis Carill Miliu's. (In circles, 

Thomas Howard 1596, Robertus Howard 1597, Georgius Howard IJ98, Johannis Howard 

"599' Johannis Howard 1600.) 
Willmus Howard miles 1623 uxor ejus Maria filia Wilmi Dni Evre Baronis de Witon. 
Wilmus Howard filius Wilhiil Dns de Gilfland obiit infra aetatem 1644. 
Carolus Howard frater et haeres Willmi Dns de Gilfland uxor ejus Anna filia Dni Edvardi Howard 

de Eflcrick. 

At the eaft end, 
Carolus Howard filius Willelmi Howard milit. Dns de Gilfland uxor ejus Anna filia Dni Edvardi 

Howard Baronis de Efkrick. 

: The lower line 
I Hubertus de Vallibus co NorfF. cui Rex Henricus 2 dedit Baroniam de Gilfland Corkbie etCaterlen; 

Gretia uxor ejus. 
3 Robertus de Vallibus filius Hubert! Dns de Gilfland fundator prioratus de Lanercoft ao. dni in6 

Ada Engaine uxor ejus fine prole. 

3 Ranulphus de Vallibus frater et heres RobertI Dns de Gilfland Johanna uxor ejus. 

4 Robertus de Vallibus filius Ranulphi Dnsde Gilfland uxor ejus *•»•*** 

5 Hubertus de Vallibus filius Robert! Dns de Gilfland uxor ejue ****•»* 

6 Thomas de Multon jure uxoris Dns dc Gilfland Matilda; fola filia et hteres Hubert!. 

7 Thomas de Multon filius Thomae Dns dc Gilfland, uxor ejus Ifabella. 

8 Thomas dc Multon filius Thomae Dns de Gilfland, uxor ejus »»***♦ 

9 Ranulphus de Dacre jure uxotis D41S de Gilfland Margareta fola filia et hastes Thomae. 
10 Ranulphus deDacre Prefljyter Dns. dc Gilfland, fine prole. 

I < Hugo de Dacre frater et hreres Ranulphi Dns de Gilfland, uxor ejus EUzabetha filia Dni Maxwell, 
in Scotia. 

12 Williclmus dc Dacre Dnsde Gilfland, uxor ejus Johanna filia Dni Douglas, in Scotia. 

13 Thomas de Dacre Dns de Gilfland, uxor ejus Philippa filia Dni Neville de R<iby. 

14 Humfredus dc Dacre Dns de Gilfland uxor ejus Mabilla filia Dni Parr. 

15 Thomas de I)acrc Dns de Gilfland ux.or ejus Elizabetha filia et haeres Robert! de Grayftock. 

16 Willmus Dns Dacre Dns de Gilfland uxor ejus Elizabetha Talbot filia Comitis Salopias. 
Tj Thomas Dns Dacre Dns de Gilfland, uxor ejus Elizabetha filia Jacob! Aiborni milftis. 
18 Georgius Dns Dacre Dns de Gilfland obiit infra aetatem an. Dni 1569. 

[^Here the tree of genealogical branches is cui Jljort, hut rcnc-jied as Jolloivs ly the intermrrriage of 

Hoivard and Dacre : preceding this period they had run in paraJlcl lines."] 
Willmus Howard jure uxoris Dns de Gilfland. 3 filius Tho. Ducis Norfl". uxore fua 2, uxor ejus 

Elizabetha foror et cohacres Georgij Dni Dacre 1623. 
(In circles, Maria Howard 1604 — Anna Howard 1595 — Margaret Howard 1593 — Gather. How- 
ard 1585 — Elizabetha Howard 1587 — Francis Howard 1588 — Carolus Howard 1583 — Carolus 
Howard 1590 — Georgius Howard 1591- Willmus Howard 1589.) 

Rev. W. Richardson's Notes. 
There are feveral hauberks, helniets, coats of mail, pikes, &c. kept in the houfir. — On improving fome 
pcat-mofs, about a mile S. E. of the caftle, found a road, (Roman maiden-way) about twelve feet broad^ 

hid with large Hones, nearly five feet under die furface; the dircftion nearly N. and S Ibid. 

* Grofe. 



the mofs-troopers ; and though he ruled the country with fevere, or rather military 
modes, yet he wrought many happy cifeds in the civilization of a race of inhabi- 
tants, as barbarous and uncultivated as ever pofl'cfled a fettlcment in this ifland. 
He kept here conflantly 140 men in arms as his guard. The approach to his 
apartments was fecured by plated doors, feveial in lucceflion, faftcncd by immenfc 
locks and bolts of iron, defending a narrow winding ffaircafe, where only one 
perfon could pafs at a time. The ceiling is figured, and the mantlc-picce has the 
arms and motto of the Howards. We paffed along a narrow gallery, 140 fecc in 
length, which led to fundry apartments, and were fhewn the library, ftored with 
a great number of ancient books ; it is in a very fecrct place near the top of one of 
the towers : Mr. Pennant was mifinformed, for he alTertcd, that " not a book 
" had been added fince the time of Lord William How ard, in the reign of Queen 
*' Elizabeth. "t Mr. Grofe faid, " There are not above one or two manufcripts 
" remaining here. "J In this library is a vaft cafe, three feet high, which opens 
into three leaves, having fix great pages paifed on it, being an account of St. Jofeph 
of Aramathea, II and his twelve difciplcs, who founded Glaflonbury ; and, at the 
end, a long hiftory of faints, with the number of years, or days, for which each 
couid grant indulgences. The roof is coarfely carved ; the windows are high, and 
arc to be afcended by three Itone fteps : fuch was the caution of the times. It is 
faid. Lord William was very ftudious, and wrote much : that once when he was 
thus employed, a fervant came to tell him a prifoner was juft brought in, and defircd 
to know what Ihould be done with him .'' Lord William, vexed at being diflurbed, 
anfwered peeviihly, hang him! When he had finifhed his fludy, he called and 
ordered the man to be brought before him for examination, but found that his order 
had been inftantly obeyed : he was a very fevere, but mod ufeful man at that time, 
in this la wlcfs place. His dungeon inftils horror; it conlifls of four dark apartments, 
three below, and one above, up a long ftaircafe, all well fecured ; in the uppermoff, 
one ring remains, to which criminals were chained, and the marks where many 
more were. Near the library is the oratory, or private chapel, well fecured, where 
Lord William enjoyed his religion in privacy. The ceiling and walls are richly 
ornamented with coats of arms and carvings in wood, painted and gilt. On one 
fide is a good painting on wood, in the (lilc of Lucas Van Leyden, reprefenting the 
flagellation of our Saviour, his crucifixion and refurredion. Here we found a fine 
piece of fculpture in alto-relievo, in maible, of the crucifixion ; fome tolerable 
pieces of the like work, reprefenting our Saviour faluted by Judas, the defcent of the 
Holy Spirit ; an abbels with a fword in her hand, attending a crow ned peribnage 
falling on his fword ; a monk with a crowned head in his hand, and feveral others 

■[ Grofe and Pennant. t Grofe, A. D. 1772. 

|] <• Incipt traftatus de fanfto Jofeph. de Avimathca, extraftiis de Libro qui invenit Theodofius im- 
" perator in Jcrufalcm." &c. &c. 

Several bilhops of England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and fome on the continent, arc named as ob- 
taining indulgences. 

Hcicis the rcgillerof the Abbey of Lanercoft, and fome treatifes on religious fubjeds, one on nobility 
MS. — Some old chronicles, as Thomas a Wallingham, and an iiu/J c onicle printed by Caxton, vacancies 
left for the infertion of the capital letters, with a pen or colours. In a book of Martin Luther's, againil 

the Romilh church, is written, " William Howard volo fed non valeo, non polTum quod delidero," in 

Lord William's hand writing — an eafy inference may be deduced. 

VOL. I. T of 

f3S NAWORTH CASTLE. [Eskdale Ward. 

ofconfiderable value: nxany of them probably faved from the monaftery at thedif- 
folution. Some of the apartments are fpacious; the chapel and a few other rooms 
have floors of plafier of Fails: the ceiling of one confifts of fmall fquare pannels 
of wood, black and Mhite interchangeably ; the white is carved, the black plain. 

Mr. Grofe, who is very accurate in his authorities, fpeaks of this caftle thus : — 
" Tradition fays, this caftle was built by the Dacres; but by which of them is not 
" afcertained. One of them, (Robert de Dacre) from a quotation in Madox's 
" Hiftory of the Exchequer, feems to have been Sheriff of Cumberland, 39th of 
" King Henry III. and another (Ranulph dc Dacre) 14th of King Edward I. 
" Conftable of the tower. 

" The firft mention of this caflle is in the reign of King Richard II. when, in 
" the 1 8th year, it appears from Madox's Baronia, that William de Dacre, fon and 
" heir of Hugh de Dacre, who was brother and heir of Ranulph de Dacre, held 
" it wiih the manor of Irthington, to which it belonged ; alfo the manor of Burgh, 
" near Sands, Lafingby, and Farlam, and other lands, by the fcrvice of one entire 
" barony, and of domg homage and fealty to the king, and of yielding to him for 
" cornagc, at his exchequer at Carlifle, yearly, at the leaft of the AfTumption of St. 
" Mary, 51s. Sd. By what feoffment, whether old or new, fays Madox, does not 
" appear; neither in what king's reign Ranulph de Dacre, anceflor of William, 
" here named, was feoffed ; but it is plain fome anceftor, under whom Ranulph 
" claimed, was enfeoffed to hold by barony. 

♦• It continued in the family of Dacres till the year 1569, when, on the 17th 
" May, according to Stowe, George Lord Dacre, of Gray fioke ^ Jon and heir ofThojnas 
" Lord Dacre, being a child in years, and then ward lo Thomas Lord Howard, Duke 
" of Norfolk, was, by a great mijchance,jlayne at The t ford, in the houfe of Sir Richard 
" Fulmerjlone, Knight, by meane of a vaulting horfe of woode ftanding within the fame 
" houfe ; upon izbich horfe, as he meant to have vaulted, and the pins at the feet being 
" not made Jure, the horfe fell upon him, and bniifed the brains out of bis head. 

" In 1607, when Camden vifited it, it was under repair; and Bifhop Gibfon 
" fays, it was again repaired and made fit for the reception of a family, by the 
" Right Honourable Charles Howard, great grandfon to the Lord William 
" Howard." 

Nicolibn and Burn* fay, " it was enlarged and improved out of the ruins of 
*' the caflles of Irthmgton and Kirkofwald" — it is an alfertion that carries with it 
little probability. If any things were brought hither from thofe places, it is not 
likely more than furniture or ornament, and perhaps the paintings, which latter, 
thefc authors, from the authority of Dr. Todd, alfert were brought from Kirkof- 
wald ; and perhaps Biihop Gibfon ufed the fame authority. The feveral infcrip- 
tions, formerly placed in the garden, have been removed, and will be particularly 
noticed in the courfe of this work, 


We took our route from Naworth, to view the Roman infcription on the rocks 
of the river Gelt, about two miles from Brampton. The face of the rock on which 

f P-49'' 


.*-«^ ^*^*^*^^^& 






i>u. c.a«-;.s \- 


^^'ki'I'tk.v Kocic on (^k j.t. 


the infcription is cut, is of an angular form ; and being inacccfllble, it is only to 
be read by the affiftance of a ladder, or glafs, and that not very correcflly, as the 
rays of the fun fall fo, that whilft they afTifl: you on one fide, they render the other 
more obfcure, by the glare of light on one part, and the increafcd fliade on the 
other. The point of the rock being moft expofed to the weather, in that part the 
infcription has fuffered much. In the annexed drawing, wc have made the cha- 
racters more diftind. than they are found on the ftone. 

. In Camden this monument is thus defcribed, " Near Brampton runs the little 
" river Gelc; on the bank, of which, in a rock called Hellbeck, is this graven in- 
*' fcription, fet up by an enfign of the fecond legion, called Augufta, (poflibly 
" Opcio) under Agricola the propraetor; with fome others, of which time has 
" deprived us." The infcription is thus fet out in a plate. 





" In the fame rock alfo we read, in a more modern charadter" 


Mr. Horfley's drawing of the rock is as rude and contrary to the face of the 
natural ftone, as is poffible, and not much fuperior to that in Bifhop Gibfon's 
edition of Camden : he places the infcription in the following order: — 





No. 44, '■ Fexillatio Legionis fecunda: Augufta:, ob virtutem appcllata, fuh Agricola 
" Oplionc Apro et Maximo Conjulibus ex officina DAercati Mcrcatiusfilius Fermii. Next 
*' to the infcriptions, which are diredly upon the wall, I think it proper to (ubjoin 
'• the following. Mr. Camden publifhed it long ago, but not with his ufual ex- 
" actnefs. It has been lately printed again, in the appendix to Mr, Gordon's 
" Itinerarium Septentrionale, in a letter that plainly befpeaks its ingenious author. 
" That copy differed in nothing material from mine, which I took from the origi- 
*' nal, except in the name of one of the confuls; which error in the copy has, I 
" think, led this learned gentleman into another miftake, with refpcc'l: to the date 
" of the infcription, which I Hiall endeavour to fet right, with all the regard that 
" is due to his charafter. The rock is on the fide of the river next Brampton, and 
" about half a mile above the Gelt bridge. The firft words of the infcription arc 
" manifeftly intended for vcxillatio Legionis fccundas Auguda;, though in Lieg, 

T 2 " for 

I40 WRITTEN ROCKS ON GELT. [Eskdale Ward." 

" for Legionis, the I is fuperfluous, of which we have other like inftances.* The 1 is 
" omitted in both the other copies ; no doubt, becaufe the gentleman who took the 
" copies thought it a manifeft error; but I have rather chofen to reprefent every 
" thing as. I found it. For A. P. P. which follow at the end of the fame line, both 
" Camden and the other gentleman have A. P. R. and fo at the firfl view I took it 
•' myfelf, but the fecond time I read it as in the copy ; and prefently thought of ob 
" virtutem appellata, and remembered the confufion of the fame words in another 
" infcription, if that other be genuine. f But there indeed it was the Ala, and not 
'• the Legio, which was fo careful to inform us, that they were called Augufta, upon 
•' account of their valor: yet 1 cannot but fufpect, that OB. VIRT. APP. for ob 
" virtutem appellara, was here intended, however, virt, or perhaps the v, only came 
" to be omitted. Though it is as eafy to fuppofe an unfkilful hand might here 
*' omit one letter, as infert another juft before, that is fuperfluous. The next words 
" fub Agricola, are very vifible and diftinrt ; but what Agricola this was, may be 
" a difficult queftion. The ingenious author of the letter above-mentioned, takes 
*' it for Calpurnius Agricola, who was lieutenant under Marcus Aurelius ; but I 
" cannot come into this fentiment. Theomiffion of the titles Leg. Aug. Propast. 
*' makes mc very doubtful that Calpurnius Agricola cannot be the perfon intended; 
" becaufe the omifllon of thefe titles, that are almofl conllantly added, would have 
" been a greater negled: of the Legate, than the inferting his bare name in iuch an 
" infcription could have been a compliment to him. Befides, if I am not miflaken, 
" the cut of the letter L in this infcription, was not fo ancient as the time of this 
" Legate ; for though there is a good deal of variety in the letters, upon the in-- 
" Icriptions of even Antoninus Pius's reign, yet I think this fliape of an Ldoes no 
" where appear fo high, as in thofe of his fucceffor, Marcus Aurelius; but that it 
" was in ufe in the later times, is plain from other infcriptions. 1 am therefore 
" much inclined to think, that Agricola was the name of the Optio, who had the 
" command of thefe foldiers, who were ordered to work the ftones at this quarry. 
" An Optio was a fort of deputy to a Centurion or other officer, who aded for him 
*• in his abfence, Reinefius reckons up feveral forts, and difterent degrees of them. 
" Camden, in his copy, has R. E. at the end of this word, which made me take it for 
" granted it had been Optione upon the (lone; but 1 could not difcern any vellige 
" of thefe letters, when I iirft viewed the original, though, upon a fecond infpec- 
" tion, I obferved a ftaw, or imprellion in the ilone, where I fuppofe thefe letters 
" may have been. This account very well agrees with the obfervation of my fellow 
" traveller, who took r.otice of the refeniblance there feemed to be, both as to the 
" nature and colour, between the flone of this quarry, and that which the Roman 
" wall, in a great part of Cumberland, appears to have been built, from whence 
" he concluded the ftones muft have been fetched from this place; which remark 
" I have fince taken notice of in Camden, though at that time I did not remember 
" it; and this looks the more probable from the fcarcity of ftones and quarries 
" thereabout, lo that the people often exprefled their wonder, from whence the 
« Remans got the ftonqs with which they built the wall in that part; to this may 

* See No. 58. f See Itin. the obfervations under No. 39. 

" be 


" be further added, that the inhabitants near the place, continue to call this the 
" old quarry ; and it is hard to conceive, what elfe fliould have brought a vexilla- 
" tion of a Roman Legion hither, or occafioned the cutting of an infcription upon 
" a rock in fuch a place. 

<' The numerals IX and X, which are cut upon the rock higher up, as in the 
" figure, and which are very diftind: and vifible, though they have not been taken 
" notice of before, are fo like thofe infcribed upon feveral ftones in the face of the 
" wall, that I cannot but think they exprefs here, as well as in other places, the 
" ninth and tenth cohorts of the Legio lecunda Augufl^a, who were employed in 
" this quarry, and about the wall in thefe parts ; and thefe two cohorts might, 
" perhaps, be employed by themfelves before or after the whole vexillation was 
" engaged in the work. As to the remaining part of the infcription, I make no 
" doubt but we may read, Apro ct Maximo cojifulibiis, which brings us to the reign 
*' of Severus, and the year 207. It is probable that the uppermofl horizontal 
«' flroke in the E, was at firft drawn back beyond the perpendicular ftroke, for a 
" contracflion of ET, and we find it in fome other infcriptions, there being a fmall 
" break of the flone at the top of the letter.* 

" As for the word officina, which follows. Dr. Mufgrave has fo largely treated 
*' of thefe officinas or fabricje of the Romans, that I (hall take leave to refer the 
" reader to his comments upon the infcription of Julius Fitalis. I take Mercatius^ 
" or Nuniercatius, as others read it (though I could not difcern the two firfl: letters, 
" nor do I believe they ever have been there) to be the name of the P rcefefl us fabric <e 
" and Fermius to be either his father's name, or another name of his own. 

«* Camden takes notice of fome other words on the fame rock, in a more modern 
" charafter, namely Offiicium Romanorum. I thought I faw fome vefliges of letters, 
" or confufed ffrokes, which probably have been thefe words; but I could make 
" nothing of them, they were fo defaced : they were near the other infcription, and 
" to the right of it ; but whatever occafioned their being put there, they mud 
" doubtlefs, as Camden himfelf fuppofes, have been the work of a later hand. 

" I enquired about the infcriptions, faid to have been upon Lenge Cragg, near 
" Naworth, but was tcld that they were now entirely defaced." 

We will trouble the reader with few obfervations, after Mr. Horfley's copious 
difTcrtation. In the courfe of fifty years fince Mr. Horflcy viewed this written rock, 
very little change has taken place; and from the addition of fifty to fifteen hundred 
years, the infcription cannot be thought to have fuffered much. The form of the 
infcription is reprcfentcd in the drawing ; and it is not placed in irregular lines, 
as defcribcd both by the editor of Camden and Horflcy. The firll word, VEXL. 
by lengthening the ftcm of the L, though an unufual mode of abbreviating the 
word Vcxillatio, takes away the imputation of incorredtncfs in the fculptor; and, 
upon a dole exaiiiination with a glafs, we were convinced of its being fo in this 
infcription. 'I'he end of this line, approaching the point of the angle, renders it 
difficult to be made out, being there moft decayed ; the ob is plain, but what Mr. 
Horfley makes APP, is very obfcure : and, as we took it, there is a line which falls in 

* Brit. Rom. f. 268. 


142 PARISH OF FARLAM, [Eskdale Ward. 

this form W . If this is fo, then thev, for virtuie, is to be found there; but the whole 
is fo faint, that we mufl: not infifl: upon it. The next line,/«^ Agricola Oplio, is very 
diftinCt. Apro et maxima are tolerably legible. Confulibus is generally dark and 
defaced, but officina mercati is diltind:. The word IVL, as reprefentcd in the 
drawing, is cut in a very fine letter, and indeed feems modern : perhaps placed 
there by fomc ftone-cutter of late date. The word Romanor is very plain ; and 
we are much furprifed Mr. Horfley lliould defcribe it as being defaced and 

Mr. Smith publifhed the following infcription in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
1744, p. 340, and fays, " it was found in a wall of George Wright's houfe, at 
♦' Naworth, where it mufl: have laid two hundred years at lead, the houfe being fo 
" decayed with age, that it was necellary to rebuild it. 

LEG^ Vl^ \'\Q.\L€gio fcxta vi£irix 

PIA^ FID^ ¥£;J Piajidelisfecit. 


LIES in the extreme parts of Gilfland towards the eafl^.f The church of Far- 
lam X was vicarial, and given by Robert de Vallibus to Lanercolt ; at the 
dilTolution it was granted to Sir Thomas Dacre, from whom the late impropriator, 
Mr. Smith, derived his title, who fold it to Lord Carlifle. The following remark 
we think pertinent: " Wherever any of thefe religious houfes, became eftabliflied, 
*' they fwallowed up the revenues of almofl: all the churches about them ; which 
" revenues, at the dilTolution, were not relforeci to the churches, but given away 
" to the king's favourites, or fold to fupply his neccfllties." There was another 
appropriation of thofc revenues, perhaps as prejudicial to religion and the people, 
Iheir being granted to deans and chapters ; fo that they came to be leafed out, as we 
have already had occalion to remark. 

" Farelam hath anciently been a fee of Gilfland ; it was granted by Hubert de 
Vallibus, firft Lord of Gilfland, to one Weftfalan, and afterwards it was granted 
by , Lord of Gilfland, to one Walter de Windfore, in King Henry Il's 

+ The parifli of Farlam was eftlinatcd, fome few years ago, to contain about fixty families. Population 
js incrcafcd lately by Lord Carlifle's employing fevcraj people in the coal works. The families are now 
about eighty ; three of which arc Preftyterians. — Number of inhabitants 300. 


Prior. Lanercofl Prop.—Dcd. St. T/x>waj T/je Ear! of CarlSp Pat. 

P.N.Val.;^7 o 

1 K. Edw. IJ. To.- J u T J T Auarmcnt. /fzoo bvT rr . , . 

I XT . .. • . . ( iitipend bvLord ( , ? ^ -^ , •' / Total income, 
o > Non. taxat. quia tot. > A ■, r r tady (jower, and 2 > v < r /. 

5 ea deftrua. 5 ^^'^- ^+ ' ^ o j ,„^^ ^f ^^^_ ^^^^^^ j «.tb fees, ^22 

Incumbfnts. — Sir Simon de Walton, — 1316, William de Richardby, p. m. Walton, pr. pri. & con- 
Lanercoft. — Thomas de Derby. — 1361, Thomas Roke, p. m. Derby, pr. ibid. — 1373, Robert de Hay- 
ton, p. rcf. Roke, pr. iliid. 



time, brother to Alexander de Windfore, being fo called becaufe he dwelt at 

Windfor; but they were both brethren to one William de Kerfmier, the 

of Willifred, fon of Haldan, fometimc Lord of Caterleing, which King Henry II. 
gave to Hubert Vaax, after he had fcized it, (becaufe Willifred took part with 
King Stephen) as forfeited. And therefore in King John's time, the faid William 
de Kerfmier brought a writ of mort d'anceftor againft William Vaux, fon of 
Hubert, and Robert, fon of the faid William, then Lords of Caterleing, but could 
not recover the land. The faid Walter de Windfore had ilFue another Walter ; 
and his fon, called Adam de Farleham, held the land in 23d Edward I. and in 
Edward Ill's time, John de Farleham held it, who gave it unto Ranulph Dacre, 
and Margaret Multon his wife, then Lords of Gilfland, and to thcir heirs, after 
John de Farleham's death, and one Andrew Latton. Thenceforth it hath con- 
tinued demefne to the Lords of Gilfland. The faid Walter windfore gave for 
arms, a faltier iable in a field d 'argent. There are fome of this firname left at 
this day, which arc defccnded from one John de Windfore, brother to the fecond 
Walter Windfore (to whom he gave Farleham parva.) John had iflue, Rayner 
and Solomon, and Riiyner had Bernard, the father of Richard, which Solomon and 
Richard endowed the houfes of Wederhall and Lanercoll^ with lands in little 
Farleham." j| 

II Denton's MS. 

Frotn the Inq.uisition, ^iji "f Queen Elizabeth. 

The amount of the lord's rents, 81. 14s. lod. 
Bailiff's fee, 13s. 4d 

Land fearjeant, Eaft Farlam, 2S. — Weft Farlam, 2od. 
" Memorand. — The demefne lands, belonging to the fcite, or capital mefluage of the manner aforefatd, 
" containeth feveral parcels of land, &c." as therein mentioned. 

" Item, there is, w ithin the faid manner, one colemyne, for which Stephen Hodgfon was wont to 
" pay the yearly rent of x''. but now the fame is decaied, &c." 

" Item, there is, within the faid manner, one common heath, or moor ground, commonly called Farlam, 
" Fell, wheiin the tennants have common of pafture, and the fame containeth, by eftimation, about cc 
" acies." 

Soil and Produce. J About Miltori the foil is light and gravelly, producing flight crops of barley, 
oats, and peas — where loamy, about Kirkhoufe, Farlam Hall, &c. fome wheat — The upper lands cold 
and unproductive ; corn very late in ripening. — The meadows and pafturcs there art meagre. — The com- 
mons were lately divided, fo no fheep are kept. — Turnips do not fuccced. 

Situation.] High, the furface hilly. — The afped bare and unpleafant to the eye. 

Wood.] Of wood it is almoft deftitiite — fome late plantations of firs, in Lord Carlifle's eftate are an 

Fuel.] Coal from Tindell Fell, about three miles didant. 

Tenements.] Small, except in Lord Carlifle's property — average, 13s. per acre. 

Schools.] None ellabliflicd. 

Poor.] A houfe of reception at Milton.—^Poor rate about is. per pound rent. 

Agriculture.] Not attended to with any affiduity, but by fome of Lord Carlifle's farmers. 

Lime.] Burnt here in large quantities by the Earl of Carlifle, which fupplies the chief part of the 
barony of Gilfland, and even to Csrlifle, 

Housman's Notes. 


[ H4 1 


LIES in the utmoft north-eaft limits of Giiiland, and is now divided into 
Nether Denton and Over Denton. In firidncfs they- arc two pariflies. 
Nether Denton is fituatcd in the depth of the vale, and over Denton on the rifing 
grounds. Hubert de Vallibus, Lord of Gilfland, granted Denton to one Wefkop, 
who alienated the fame to Gilles Bueth, whofe fon Robert left ifTue two daughters, 
one married to Addock, Lord of Bewcaftle, and the other to Euftachius de Vallibus, 
Lord of Hayton. In partition, one took Over Denton, the other Nether Denton. 
In the reign of King Edward I. Over Denton was in the poffefTion of one Stonland, 
who granted the fame to one of the Witherington family, in whofe defcendants it 
continued feveral ages; after them it became the eftate of one Tweedale, and 
pafled to the Earl of Carlifle.f 

Over Denton appears to have been anciently a member of the diocefe of 
Durham ; for when Robert de Vallibus, and Robert, fon of All^etcl, gave this 
church to the priory of Lanercoft, its appropriation was the acfl of Hugh Pudfey, 
J3ifliop of Durham, j 

The Earl of Carliile is impropriator, and receives all kinds of tithe.5, allowing 
the curate 20s. yearly; which, with lands purchafed by Queen Anne's bounty, 
and other dues, brings about 72!. a-year. 

Nether Denton was the pofleffion of De Vallibus, Lord of Hayton. It was 
afterwards the eflate of the Dentons, and John Denton exchanged thofe poirefTions 
with Lord Dacre for Warnell. Since this exchange, it has attended the other 
poffefTions of the Dacres in this barony. In Denton's MS. we have the following 

Lord Carlijle patron. — Curate's falary 20s. ytarly. 

There are now only about 15 families in this parifh, it hath been fo totally ruinated. It is a cuftomary 
manor. A twenty-penny fine on the change of Lord. — An arbitraiy fine on the change of tenant. — An 
lieiiot on the tenant's death, or 40s. if the tenant had no live cattle. — In lieu of fcrvlces is. 

P. N. Val. 

tcclclia f ■ ' 4 > j:,cci. Qe Jjenton non taxatur< ijenton rectoria valet per}-/ 4. c c 

non excedit 6 mar. nee reftor ( ;„ ,^t;n„^ I ,nn f JA. "f J J 

habet aliud beneficium. 

t Hugo Dei gratia Dunelmenfis Fpifcopus, omnibus Clericis totius Epifcopatus fiii, falutem. Sciati* 
nos dedifie concelTine ct confirmafTe priori et Canonicis de Lanercoft, ad pi:efcntaliontm Robeiti de Val- 
libus et Koberti filii Afl<etilli, ecclefiam de Veteri D-nton tenendam. Ita quod ipfi Canonici prsfentabunt 
nobis et fucccflbribus noftiis, quoties ipfa ccclefia vacaverit, perpctuum Vicarium qui prjedidlx Ecclefix 
deferviat, et nobis ct fucceflbribus noftris epifcopalcs confuetudincs rcddat : qui ctiam vidlum percipiat, 
a prxdiftis Canonicis annuam penfionem dimidium tantum marca^ perfolvat, nifi eis nos vel fuccedores noilri, 
ex noftra auftoritate, juxta ipfius ecclefix augmentum et facultatem in poftcrum phis percipere concefli- 

jjjyj Quare volumus, etpra;difti Canonici mcmoratam ecclefiam teaeant libere et quiete, ficut 

cam tenendam conceflimus. Salvia in omnibus epifcopalibus confuetudinibus noftris. His Teftibns, 
Wiilielmo fummo Camerario, Magillro Richardo de Coldingham Willielmo filio Archiepifcopi et aliis. 

Regist. Lanercost. 
particulars ; 

7 K. Edw. IL f K. Hen. VIIL , 
>Ecel. de Denton non taxatur< Denton reCtoria valet per > £^ 
\ in antiquo. / ann J 


particulars: — " "Dtnton villa in pro/undo. The place in Gilfland where Denton 
Hands is a great deep valley, the Irifli call deep, in their language, Dren. Upon 
that Irifli word, the place was called, by the Saxons, Daein ; and, upon the firft 
habitation, their Dasin town. There are two Dentons there. Over Denton, which 
is in Northumberland, now the Withringtons lands, and Hands beyond the great 
bottom; and Nether Denton, in Cumberland, late the Dacres lands. Both of 
them arc parcel of the barony of Gilfland. — The ftrft pofTelFor I read of, was one 
Wefcop, to whom Hubert dc Vallibus, Lord of Gillland, gave Denton, in or about 
King Henry II. 's time, Wefcop gave it to one Gilles Bucth, or Bcweth's bairn,-\ 
(otherwifc that GiUes Bucth and Bewcth's bairn was but one perfon.) He had 
ilTue Robert, fon of Bucth, who died without ilfue. His lifters were married to 
Addock, Lord of Bothcaflre, and to Euftace Vaux, Lord of Hayton, in Gilfland ; 
the one had Over Denton, and the other had Nether Demon, which was the two 
moieties then by partition. Haytons part was given to John, fon of Robert, fon 
of Aukelin, or Alketill de Denton. And Robert, brother to the faid John, mar- 
ried the heir to the other part. The faid Robert fil. Bucth was their mother's 
brother. He gave the church to the houfe of Wcderhall; and, after his death, 
David, fon of Jerry, and Robert, fon of Aflcetili, gave it to the houfe of Lanercofl ; 
whereupon grew great fuit, till the controverfy was ended by the mediation of the 
pope's legate, who divided the profits between them, and gave the prefcntation of 
the vicarage to the bifliop.* 

" Over Denton, 7th of King Edward I. was given, by Richard Stowland, and 
Helena his wife, to John Withrington, with whofe iflue male it remains at this 
day. And Nether Denton defcended from the faid John, fon of Robert, fon of 
Aukelin, to John and to Richard Denton, Knight, his fon's fon, whofe daughter 
Margaret, wife to Adam Copley, of Bately, in Craven, had it in marriage, 17th 
of King Edward II. John, fon of Adam, had iffue Richard Copley, whofe daugh- 
ter Ifabel, wife to Adam Denton, fon to Thomas del Hall, had Denton from her 
father, in marriage in King Henry IV. 's time. Thomas Denton, Efq. now of 
Warnellj the fon of Thomas, fon of John, holds Warnell in exchange for Denton, 
which exchange w^s made in the 23d of King Henry VII. by the faid John and 
Thomas with the Lord Dacre, Mhich John Denton was fon to Richard^ fon of 
Thomas, fon of Adam, fon of Thomas dell Hall aforefaid." 

The church of Nether Denton is rcdtorial, and dedicated to St. Cuthbert.J 


f Bairn fignifies cliild. • Each two mcrks and a h.ilf. In 1266, Wctlicral rdeafed a moiety 

to the bifliop and his fucceflbrs. 

Bed. St. Cuthbert. — Priory of IVethtral Prop — BiJInp of Carl. Patron. 

Priory of Wetheral Prop. — Bp. Carl. Patron. 
K. Books! Ctrtif. val. 1 Augmented, 1761, 400I. 7 pi 1 ) Real val. 60I. os. cd. 

81. 5s. 5d. j 1 61. IS. 6d. J Counters D. Gowcr, 200I. J ^"^'^^' ^° ^'^"'"j As ftated by N. and B. 


Willmus Robinfon Clericus Reftor ejiifdem Rcftor habet Mans, ct Glcbam, q. val. A't'ira o 6 S 

Idem, Will'mus h'et Grana Dec, cjufdem Reflor. p'tin. que valent coibs annis — — . 320 

VOL. I. U Idem 

446 PARISH OF DENtON. [Eskdale WAUt?, 

We now purfuc our route from Brampton up the river Eden, to its junftion 
"W'ith the Eamont. No part of Britain can furnifh a greater variety of picfturefque 


. . ... ^£- '■ d. 

Idem Willmus het in dec. vltul. cu. Lafticin. Oblacoibs minut. cu. p'ficuis libri pafchalj , 

q. coib s annis in tempore pac. — — — — — — — _J ^ 

Sm total valoiis 4I. 8s. id. de quib'i 

Keiolut enag. I j^ foluc. p. fenagio refolut. Epo Karlij annuatim — — — 020 

Et folut. p'curaclone vifitacon. Epi de tribus in tres annos 2s. et fic annuatim — o o & 

Sm deduft. 2s. 8d. 
Et Rem. 4I, 5s. jd. x'raa inde 8s. 6d. halfpenny. 

EccL. Survey, 26th K. Henrv VIII. 

Incumbents. — 1304, Rob. Oriel. Col. Bp. Halton. Saving to^he Bp. 33s. 4d. and the like to Laner- 
coft. — 1306, Adam de Kale, like refervation. — 1309, John de Ciilgath. — 13171 John de Aberington.^ 
1385, Sir Richard de Brockton.— Edw. Bell.— 1567, Ch. Lowther, CI. p. m. Bell. Col. Bp. Beft.— 
1576, Miles Matmagh, p. ref. Lowthcr, Col. Bp. Barnes. — 15S6, Wil^am Thompfon, Clk. — 1597> 
Roland Baxter. — Ra. Snowden. — 1633, Nich. Dean, A. B. p. m. Snowden. — 1692, W. Culeheath. 
—Richard Culeheath, p. ref. Culeheath. — 1703> Thomas Pearfon, A. B. p. ref. Culeheath, Col. Bp. 
Nicolfon. — 1718, Nich. Reay, p. m. Pearfon, Col. Bp. Bradford. — 1736, William Hefket, p. m. Reay, 
Col. Bp. Fleming. — 1786, ^Iich. Holme, Clk. p. m. Hcflcet, Col. Bp. Law. — 1789, Jof. Harrifon, 
Ok. p. m. Holme, Col. Bp. Douglas.— 1792, Geo. Gilbanks, Clk. p. m. Harrifon, Col. Bp. Vernolu. 

From the Inquisitior, taken 31/? ^Queen Elizabeth. 


The amount of the lord's rents, 13I. 19s. jd. 

Baihff's fee, 13 s. 4d. 

Land feijeant's fees. Over Denton, 2s. 6d.— Nether Denton, js. 

ThirU'waye in Cam. North'land p'cell Maner, de Denton predid. 

" Memorand. — There are belonging to this manner, divers parcels of heath, moor and waft groirads, 
<' called Denton Pafture, to the number of c acres, wherein the tennants of this manner have common 
" for their cattle." 

Item, there are good Ilore of yonge oke timber trees within this manner, fit for building, which arc 
•' difperfed abroad in feveral places within this manner. 

•• Item, there is, and fo time out of mind hath been ufed, a cuilom vn'thin this manner, that after the 
♦' death of every tennant, there ihall be paid his beft quick beaft or cattle, in the name of a heriot. 

" Item, there is within this faid manner, a parfonage and a glebe land, and tythes thereunto belong- 
" ing; and the fame is in the gift of the dean and chapter of CarUde. 

Item, the Bounder of this manner beginneth at the caftle of Naworth, and turneth eaftwards up the 
*• Park Wall to the Home Houfe-burn ; and it runneth in Irdinge, and then up to Capple-burn, and fo 
" eaftward to Tomlinge Clughe-head, from thence to the Weft Clughe-head, from thence up a burne, 
" called the Tennant's Burnt, to a place called the Eadeley Stone, and then it turneth fouthward to the 
" Lowhill, and down to the Stole Layers, to the Lawe-burne, and then it turneth weftward up the fame 
*' burne to the Green-way-fyke, and fo to the Green Tarne, and from thence to the Craihill Mofs, and fo 
«' to Carmitley-dyke-head, and to a gray ftane which ftood at one Battle Hodges door, and fo ftill weft- 
*• ward downe Danes-in-ferle-dykc to the Rotten well, and fo to the Rotten fyke down to Denton-burny 
*' and then to the faide caftle, where the fame beganne." 


Soil and Produce.]] Near Irthing a mixture of fand and clay, tolerably fertile, the reft cold, mooriHi, 
and barren ; com backward, the farmer's chief obJcA Is grafs land — Average 15s. an acre. 
Common, Sheep.] A vaft tract, but few ftiecp ; fubjeft to the rot from the cUmate and wetnefs of foil 



fcenes, within the fame limits; they are not extenfive or aftonifhing, like the ftu- 
pendous fcenes on Derwent or Ulfwater, but they abound in thofe milder beauties 


Roads, Waterings, Game.] The military road pafles through it.— Well watered bythe river Irthing, 
and feveral brooks. — Game abundant. 

Population.] Decreafcd — only eleven tenements, fome very fmall. 

Fuel. J Coal and turf. 

LiMF.] Is burnt here in large quantities. 

Vicarage.] The walls ftanding in the church-yard. — The lower floor, a keep for cattle, the upper 
ftory for the inhabitant. — The walls five feet th.ick — fuch as are feea on the borders of Northumberland. 

Situation and Air.] Highlands, and not healthy from its vicinity to moralTcs. 


Soil and Produce.] Soil near the river Irthing mollly a black clay, fertile in the produftion of wheat 
and other grain. — The fouth parts cold, wet, and barren. — Average lents about 15s. per acre. 

Commons.] Vaft tra&s, to the S. E. wet, craggy, and barren. — The other parts, though rugged and 
wet, afford good pafturage for the fmall breed of horfes and black cattle. Sheep are few and feldom healthy. 

Fuel.] Coal and turf. 

Fish, &c,] The river Irthing, bounding this parifli to the north, abounds in ftreara fifii.— Game 

Roads ] The mihtary road leads through it. 

Woods and Surface.] A few timber trees and fome brufliwood on the banks of Irthing. — The face 
of the country uneven, and inchning greatly to the north ; is expofed to cold blafts, from the mountainous 
and wide waftes. Housman's Notes. 

Nether Denton is aUb a cuftomary manor of like fervices as Over Denton.* — We cannot forbear re- 
peating our fenfe of the injury done to the country, by keeping up the fervile tenures of thofe cuftomary 
manors, injurious to both lord and tenants. The Editors. 

The prefcnt Earl of Carlide has repeatedly offered to infranchife (on liberal terms) all the tenants in 
his refpedlivc manors, in the barony of Gilfland ; where there are common lauds, to inclofe them, and 
take a certain equitable fhare ; where there are no commons, on the confent of the tenants in general. 
Several individuals have lately infranchifed, and others will (we truft) alfo foon perceive the advantage 
ariling from it.— W. R. 

Population, &c.] Nether Denton confifls of the following fmall villages, viz. Chapel-Burn Dixon 
Clugh-head, Birkhuril, Baggra, and Denton Mill, the reft fmgle houfes. — There are 55 houfes ; and, 
at 5 to a houfe, make 275 Inhabitants. — There are 3 freeholders, and about 30 cuftomai7 tenants. — The 
legiftcr begins 1703 : during the firft 20 years there were 160 baptized, 129 biuied, 48 mair. During 
the laft 20 years there were 155 baptized, 126 buried, 42 married. 

Poor's Rate.] They coft the parifh about 51I. per annum ; joined with the parifh of Farlam in > 

Schools.] No endowed fchool, theparilh has built a fchool-houfe ; the mafter has 2s. per quarter for 
teaching Englifh, 38. 6d. for writing and accompts, and 4s. for Latin; he commonly has about 40 fcholars, 
and gets his victuals a certain time in each fchoiar's lioufe, gratis, which Is called a whittle-gate. 

Petrifactions, &c.] Near the Mains, In Over Denton, on the fouth fide of the Irthing, is a fpring 
which petrifies raofs. Along the banks of the Irthing, in Nether Denton, vail quantities of petrified 
marine fliells are found, In a band of limeftone, under frecRone. 

Juniper.] A juniper tiee grows in a garden at Highnook, four yards high, and fcventeen inches in 
circumference in the bole.-^We mentioned before that there were none growing in the county, except 
in Laiiercoft parifh, which ad'ioins this parifli. 

Denton-Hall.] This hall was formerly the feat of the Dentons, mentioned in this work, which they 
exchanged for WarnnU-Hall. The old tower is reinajnijig, and converted into a farm-houfe, the walls of 
which arc eight feet thick. 

We (Acknowledge our obligations to the Rev. John Sibfon, for much information touching this parifh. 

* Ovir and Ifetber, Saxon terms ; Over Saxony ftill being the appellation ufed In that country. 

U 2 In 

14^ PARISH OF DENTON. [Esdale Ward. 

which conflitute the ferene, the placid, and paftofal: here and there they break 
out into the rocky and fylvan, but chiefly conlift of the tamer nature. 

In this parifli was born the Rev. JVUl'uim Reiiy, A. M. the fecond fon of the Rev. Nicholas Reay» 
who was reclorof it from 1718, to 1736; then not worth more than 20I, per annum, hut now worth 60I. 
The father educated him as long as he lived ; but, on his demife, he was fcnt to the free fchool at Carliflci 
from thence he was removed to Queen's College, Oxford ; where, in 1751, he took his matter's degree. 
At this place he was fupported by a fingularly benevolent and liberal-minded man, his father's brother, 
Mr. John Reay, who had been the confidential feivant of Dr. Gibfon, Bifliop of London. This John 
Reay letired in old age to Carliile, where he lived in comfort and credit ; and at laft died whilft on a vifit 
to the Rev. Mr. Waite, then curate of Bromfield ; from which parilli, it is believed, the Reays originally 
migrated. In 1 755, WiUiam Reay publillied a volume of fermons, under the patronage of Dr. Church, 
to whom he had been curate at Batterfea, till 1 745 ; when he was invited to the curacy and leiflurefliip of 
Wandfworth, under Mr. Altifon ; in which fituation he continued till his death, which took place in 1 756. 

Dr. church wrote a preface to Mr. Reay's Sermons; in which he recites the occafion of their being 
publifhed ; which was indeed a melancholy one. Mr. Reay, he fays, had frequently laboured under fevere 
dlfovders ; but had lately been afflicted by one more alarming than all tliat had preceded it, — a violent 
ciTufion of blood from a rupture of the vciTels in the lungs. This rendered liira incapable of appearing 
either in the dcik or pulpit ; and fuggelled the proprIe'yt>f an application to the opulent, the pious, and 
ihe liberal, through this channel. He wanted but little, nor that little long ; for he died in the follow- 
ing year. The fubfcriptions, Iioisevei, are faid to have beeikliberal ; and' conferred in the moll haudfome 
manner. d -ir.-AA 'i^.-i-iiyn ■ . 

At any rate, and however foftened, there is fomething' humiKating in being prefented to tile public, ia 
forjna pauperis. Dr. Church, whofe happier lot it was to be, in general, at eafe-ln his poffeijlonsy fpeaks 
indeed of his quondam curate's heavy calamity with great propriety; but he fpeaks as one, who had not 
hiffdelf been tutored in that bell of all fchools for foftening the human heart, Advetfity ; he fpeaks not as 
one who had himfelf known and felt what it was K:v:r iy ka-jc kad any boicficCy nor any fortune ; and in 
fuch circumflances to be bowed down by an Irremediable difeafe, and rendered unable to earn his own 
bread. There is alfo fomcthing fo cold and cautious In Dr. Church's manner of recommending the fer- 
mons, as, we own, chills us. The author, he fays, defires they may be confidered as plain, fenous, well- 
intended, edifying fermons : and the editor is. well contented to difmlfs them with that charafter. The 
fenr.ons, howe\-er, have long been regarded, as among the bell in our language; of which the high price 
they have borne, and do llill bear, is fome proof. If we were to give a critique on them, we would bor^ 
row that, which his countryman and cotemporary, Seed, gave of Dr. Waterland's fermons : " They 
" were compofed (as fermons ought to be ) with plainnefs and Cmpliclty ; adapted to the level of common 
" capacliits, yet inftrudlive to the higheil. Free from that obfcurc diligence, which fometimes embaraffes 
•' the writings of great fcholars. He llates each point of duty judiciouily and atcurately, explains it 
" happily, and always goes to the bottom of his fubjedl." 

Perfons yet living, who remember Mr. Reay, fpeak of him as an excellent man, and a fJeafing and even 
admired preacher ; though, in point of delivery, inferior to many. We have taken the liberty to mention 
this lail otherwife uninteielling paiticular, becaufe we have fome notion, it is a trait in the charafter of 
at leaft a majority of the cleigy of the north. Whether it be owing to the provincialllm of our dialect^ 
of which we never can wholly g'et the better ; to the total negledl of this kind of learning in our caily. 
education ; or to fome conflitutional dtfefts, we pretend not to fay ; but the faft is not to be difputed, 
tliat our merit, if we have any, appears, as Dr. Byrom fays, not from the pulpit, but the prefs. 

In point of fermons, 'tis confefs'd, 

We preach the worft, but make the beft. 

All foreigners allow, that the fermons of the clergy of the church of England far excel thofe of the 
divines of all other parts of the vvorld. We go ftill farther, and are bold to aOeit, that the printed fer- 
mons of Enghfli divines contain fuch a body of theology, found criticifm, ufeful morality, and even fine 
^vritlng, as is not to be equalled by any other clafs of writers. He who wifhes his mind to be ilrongly 
imbued, at once with good principles, and a good tafte foi compofition, let him give his nights and days 
to the reading of Englilh fermons. Among the foremoll of thefe we place thofe of Benfon, Fothergill, 
Seed, and Reay ; all of whom, however, it ja but fair to own, are faid to liave been wretched preachers. 



C 149 J 


CONSISTS of the two manors of Hayton and Talkin, ancient dependents 
on the barony of Gilfland, the property of the Earl of Carlille,t and Little 
Corby, a manor held under Henry Howard, Efq. of Corby Caftle. The church 
was given by Robert de Vallibus to the prior and convent of Carlifle, and was foon 
afterwards appropriated. The dean and chapter are patrons, and leafe out the 
redorial tithes of Hayton, Fenton, and Faugh quarters, to Edward Hafell, Efq. 


f Hayton manot confifts of about 96 tenants, whofe eftatcs in general are compofed of both freehold 
and ciiftomary lands. — The cuftomary rent, 18I. 12s. 3d. — In lieu of fervices from each tenement, il. — 
Free-rent for common divided, A. D. 1 704, 23I. — Fines on death and alienation according to the cuftoni 
of Gilfland. 

Talkin is a cuftomary manor, confifting of between twenty and thirty tenements. — Cuftomary rent 61, 
9s. — For greenhue, being liberty of cutting green wood or bnifliwood, in the foreft, for fences, hurdles, 
or flakes, 2s. each. — Rent in lieu of fervices, is. — Fines as in Hayton. 

Little Corby confifts of twelre cuftomary tenants.— See Corby cuftoms. 

//jw /Zy' Inquisition, 31/? a/" Queen Elizabeth. 

The •■-■'lount of the lord's rents, 19I. 9s. 6d. 
Baili'gn fee, 13s. 4d. 
I.andifcrjeant's fee, 5s. ^d. with Fenton. 
" Tenentcs de Warwicke bridges infra Maneriu. de Corby redunt ann. d'no Manerij de Hayton pr« 
" quadam via ducen. ad fepol fs Paftur. fup. terr. hujus Manerij p. ann. 22d. 

" Tenentcs Manerij pred. reddunt ann. pro eor. op'ib's voc. Bounde dayes work viz pro Lxxiij dieb'i 
" ad iijd. ob pquolib. die, S:c. 2is. 3d. farthing. 

• ' McMORAND. — There is, v/ithin the faid manner of Hayton, a great common of heath and moorey 
" ground, called Hayton Moore, containing^ by eftimation, M acres, wherein the tennants have commoa 
" for their cattle." 

" Item, the Bounder of the faid manor of Hayton, with its member8^ beginneth at the foot of Gelt, 
" fo up Gelt to Grenewell, and fo up Grenewell to Stephenftones, and then to the Colerike Donne to 
" Dabdaines to a ftanding ftone over to Leyfon caftle, and downe Kerne to AUenwood, from thence 
" to Drute beck, over the moor to Kirfke gill, until Irdcn, fo downe Irden to Arnehomo fike, fo up 
" Arnehome fike to Irden, from thence to Cavbricks forde, fo up Carbricks forde to Nifhbufe, then up 
" Irden to Soote gill, where this bounder beganne.'' 

Amount of the lord's rents, 65s. 3d. 
Land ferjeant's fee, I2d. 

Fio7n the fame iNfiyisiTiON, 

Amount of lord's rents, i il. os. 8d. 
Bailiff's fee, 13s. 4d. 
«« Memorand. — There is within the faid manner, a great common of heath and pafture ground, callcdT 
" Talkcn Fell, containing, by eftimation, icoo acres, or more, in which the tennants of the faid manner, 
" have common for their cattle." 

" Item, there is within the faid manner a great tarne, or fifh-pond, called Talken Tame,* wherein are 
" good ftore of pike, barcee, trowtes, and eyles." 

J About one mile in circumference; 

{' Itero^ 

i^o PARISH OF HAYTON. [Eskdale Ward. 

of Dalemain, for which the proprietors pay proportionably annually to the leifec 
a modus, viz. feventcen cfkeps of fweet haver, or oatmeal; and the leffee gives to 
the tenants, or inhabitants, twenty-four quarts of ale, which is drunk in th? 
church-yard on Eafler Sunday afternoon annually: this is conlidered as a receipt 
for the vicarial dues, or white book, paid to the lefTees. 


" Item, the Bounder of the faid manner of Talklu, beginneth at the Seggeholme, where the for?ft 
*' walle and the Gelt meet, fo down Gelt unto a place where Gelt and Hellbecke meet, fo up Hellbeckc 
*' unto a place called Roughthwaite giibeck, fo up the head of the fame Roughthwaite gilbeck, from 
" thence to a place callee Fcllmyre, from Fellmyre to a place called Wide-open dykes of Kow-honney- 
•' fell, from thence to the burn Kledcet, fo down ICle&ec unto Klefl<et Run, in the foreftof Brierthwaite, 
•' fo up the foreft wall unto a place called Brownfyde, where Geltefdale and Brierthwaite meet, from the 
*' faid foreft wall of Geltefdale, unto a place called the Force, in the head of the Howgill of Talkin, un- 
'< to a place called the Seggeholme, where this faid bounder firft beganne." 

From the fame Inquisition. 

Lord's rents x''. xv^ 

•* Lancellet Carleton tenet p-indentur. Willmi dni Howarde et dne Elize. uxor ejus &c. totum ilium 
*' parcel teir. voc&c. Foreft. de Breirthwalte una cum Dom. voc le Tarnehoufe et Tynndell tame, 
•' jacen infra dnia de Brampton et Denton, 5;c. j„. 

" The faid foreft of Breirthwaite heth adjoyning to the foreft of Geltefda- 1.' and is bounded from the 
«• faid foreft as followeth, viz. Beginning at a ftanding thorne in the brow fy fi;, and fo the height of the 
" fell, and fo holding the height of the fell, as heaven water delieth, to Calddell fyke, and fo to a place 
^ called the head of the Keldc fyke, and down the faid fyke, and fo to a place called the FawgiU, and 
" from thence, as heaven water dales, to Byers Pike, and fo down Byers Pyke wall to Blackburn, and 
•' down Blackburn to the foreft foot, and fo following the faid wall to tlie fayd thorne, in the brow fyde, 
" where it beganne," 

" Item, there are, within the faid foreft, certain boundes, or dales, of haye ground, &c. do amount 
*' unto 874 acres; and there are alfo in other waft, heath, and barren ground, within ihe faid foreft, 
*' above a thoufande acres." 

«' Item, there are, in the faid tar ne called Tynndell tarae, good ftore of pike, barces, trouts, aud other 
«« filh," &c. 

P0PVLATION.3 There are z Ji families ; all of the church of England, except 3 Roman Catholics 2 
Preftjyterians, and i Q_uaker. Population is much increafed within the laft 30 years, owing to the agri- 
culture being much improved ; although there are no manufactories carried on, for want of water for mills. 
—The inhabitants are, in general, veiy induftrious ; a great number of them are employed in Lord 
Carhfle's coUeries, and in carrying the coals to Cailifle market ; they are lately become much improved in 
their manners, mode of living, and drefs. — The eftates are, upon an average, abo\it 30I. per annum, though 
there are fome from locl. to 300I. pa;-ticularly Mr. Graham's of lidmond Caftle, fituated on the banks 
of the Irthing. Nature has been kind to it in iituation, and art has much improved it ; the prefent propri- 
etor having planted a variety of foreft trees, in proper fituations, and made walks through the woods, with 
iifli-ponds of confiderable extent, well ftocked with carp, tench, and trout ; all which dilplay the good taftc 
of the proptietor. About a quarter of a mile diftant from Edmond Caftle, is fituated the village of Hayton, 
in which is a little hill called Caftle Hill, raikd about twelve feet above the adjacent ground; it is exaftly 
round, and, at the top, is one hundred feet in diameter, and hollow in the middle: it is on a rifing ground 
from the caftle, and probably has been a bulwark of defence to it; but no remains of buildings appear, 
nor has any antic[uitiesbcen found, to ftrengthen the conjedlure; fuch as are frequent on the borders of Nor- 
thumberland. Heads-Nook, the property of Mifs Dobinfon, of Cailifle, is a pleaiant feat, with gardens well 
ftocked with fruit trees, funounded with plantations of foreft trees, in full growth, and a fine loamy foil 
through the eftate, which 13 worth about 300I. per year. li. Warwick, £fq. of Warwick.hall, pur- 

EsKDALE Wa&d.] parish of HAYTON. 151 

Talkin and Little Corby quarters pay tithe in kind to Meflrs. Tennifvvood and 
Clarke, leflees of the other tithes of the dean and chapter. Hay ton, Fenton, and 
Faugh pay a modus to the faid leflces in lieu of tithe hay, and twopence per acre 
in lieu of tithe corn of the innproved commons, v hich was infranchifed in th^ 
year 170+, for the annual payment of 23I. as free-rent, to the lord of the manor. 
Thefe lelTees repair the chancel, and pay 5I: to the minift:er, as falary. The church 
has received two augmentations of Queen Anne's bounty, which has been laid out 
in. land at Hayton, intermixed with the ancient glebe, and, together, make forty 


chafed an eftate here, about fix years ago, then worth not more than 4s. per acre; and by good manage- 
ment, is now worth i6s. per acre. The lands let, upon an average, about 12s, or 14s. per acre ; th« 
belt 3CS. the woift 7s. mollly in veiy fmall farms, and diuded into fmall inclofures, with thorn hedges. 

Aspect.] To the north: is dry and healthy. 

Sheep.J They are of a fmall fize, kept by the inhabitants of Talkin on a large extent of common be- 
longing to that quarter. 

Black Cattle and Horses.] In general of the tniddle fize ; they do not keep many, as grain is 
their ftaple article. 

Game.] Plentiful, viz. hares, partridges, and quails; and it is a fine open countiy for fporting. 

Rivers.] Irthir.g, Gelt, and Cam, contain trouts, chubs, eels, pikes, &c. 

The prelent incumbent, the Rev. Edmund Wills, was appointed by the patrons, in 1766. — We owe 
our moft grateful acknowledgments to him for much valuable information refpefting this parifh. 

By Netherton, in the parifti of Hayton, near to Vhe ground where the battle was fought by Lord 
Hunfden, about four or five years ago, were found xhxne Jl}ekels (as the countiy people called them, 
from their fimilarity in form to the ring fixed to the plough beam) of gold : they had been removed 
from a fand bank along with the gravel for repairing the roads, and being picked up accidently at different 
times lying on the road, were all fold to a filver fmith at Carlifie. They were defcribed as of the 

following form,f^ j plain and fmooth, except the two knobs at tire opening ; there was no 

appearance of a tongue* They meafured three or four inches In diameter, and about an inch and a half 
in thicknefs. One of them was fold for 7I. and a larger, it is faid, brought 20I.. — Such is the imperfedl 
account our correfpondent received of thefe pieces of antiquity, which, we conceive, were ufed as fibulae 
for gathering up a cloak or robe. 

Not far from Hellbeck, a few years ago, in cutting down a hollow oak tree, the llieleton of a man was 
found therein : he had probably fled for Ihelter, at the time of the before-mentioned battle, and being 
entangled there, he could not relieve himfelf. Some inftrument of iron was found with him. 

W. R. 

Soil and Produce.] Vary greatly. In the manor of Talkin it is dry and gravelly, the furface bare, 
hilly, and in a cold fitualion. In the manor of Hayton, the land is in many parts very fertile, yielding 
excellent crops of wheat and all other kinds of grain ; the foil a deep blackifli loam, efpecially about 
Heads-Nook, Fenton, in the vicinity of Hayton, and Little Corby ; in the latter it is luxuriant, and 
produces early crops. The foil about Faugh and How, fome parts of the village of Hayton, and feveral 
tenements to the eaft, is light and fandy ; and, in a dry fummer, the crops fcarce clear the original ex- 
pences. Turnip hufbandry in drills is introduced with good effeft, the crops worth 35s. or 40s. an acre, 
and are eat off by fiietp, wheat follows, and barley fuccceds ; the lighter lands, are fown with rye or 
barley, and then oats or peas fucceed. Red clover is alfo fown with fuccefs. The eail part of Haj'ton 
manor, lately moor land, is hilly and bare, the fences grown with furze inflead of thorns. 

Fuel.] Coala from Talkin or Tindale Fell. 

Roads.] No pubhc roads, but thofe leading to Brampton, to the lime-works, at Caftle-Carrock, and 
the coal-pits. 

Qu AKRIES.3 Of ilate and frecftone on the river Celt. 


ip PARISH OF WARWICK. [Cumb. Ward, 

acres, divided into compacl inclofures, and planted with thorn hedges by the prc- 
fent incumbent. The miniller's revenue now amounts to about 40I. per annum. 
The church was built in 1780, at the expence of the parilhioners, and is a neat 
ftruvflure, with a fmall tower, will contain five hundred people commodioufly ; 
and, being upon an elevated ftation, and roughcaft with lime, it appears a beauti- 
ful objcd; all round the country, to a great diftance. 

" Ha\'ton, vtlla in coUe, was freehold in Hubert Vaux's time, who gave it to 
Euftace V'aux, his coufm, and fo it continued four defcents. The lord thereof 
had a daughter and heir married to John, fon of Robert, fon of Aukclin de Den- 

Hayton is fituated about feven miles from Carlifle, and two from Brampton ; 
bounded on the fouth by Carlatton, and a flow called Long Mofs, in which was 
dug up, about two years ago, two human (kcletons, one a male, the other a female : 
they appeared each to have been wrapped in blanket, but no coffin. Nothing has 
as yet appeared to lead to any dilcovery concerning them. At the fouth end of 
the faid mofs is a beautiful hill, called Lazon or Glazon Caftle, of a conic form, 
now planted with forcft trees : it is bounded by Cumwhitton on the fouth-weff, 
Wetheral and Warwick on the weft, Farlam on the north-eafl:, and Caftle-Carrock 
on the eafl. — The parilli is divided into five divillons, viz. Hayton, Fenton, 
Faugh, Talkin, and Little Corby. 


THE etymology of this place is not undefcrving notice ; as being partly Britifn 
and partly Roman. It was, as its name clearly imports, and its fituation 
confirms, the place of a Roman flation, or garrifon; fuch an one as, in their own 
language, they would have called Pnefidium : and was fometimes written Giiartwick, 
Guanvick or IVarwick: being derived from Quart, a guard or garrifon, and Wick, 
Vick, or Vic us, z. place of habitation, a town, village, or vill. The Saxons called 
it JVan-ing-wick .■ which has the fame meaning. 

Camden and his editor proceed in thefe words: — " Eden runs by Warwick, 
which I take to be the old !'iro/idi:m,\ where the fixth cohort of the Nervii formerly 
kept garrifon along the wall againft the Pidls and Scots. In the laft age (fo faid 
in 1697) there was built here a very ftrong ftone bridge, at the expence of the 
Salkelds and Richmonds." 

Camden's opinion of Warwick being the Virofidium of the Romans is not at 
all fupported ; but, on the contrary, other antiquaries havmg, with due judgment 

Poor.] A poor-houfe, well conduced, and three friendly focieties, which are a great relief to the poor 
i-ate. — The poor rate about i od. per pound rent. 

Woods-) Several plots of woodland, chiefly firs and oaks: and confiderable hedgerows. 

Schools.] None endowed. Housman's Notes. 

• Denton's MS. 

.j- Vircfidtum (as the place is called by Antoninus) is Celtic, or Britilh, with a Latinized termination. 
Vir implies a bend or curve ; os, a ftream j and it (which when compounded, becomes id[) a conflux 
or juodion. 



The church of Warwick was recftorial, and dedicated to St. Leonard,! now a 
chapclry.ij; It was given by Ranulph lie Mefchincs to St. Mary's, in York; and 
was granted by King Henry VIII. to the dean and chapter of Carlifle. 

Francis, who married Mifs Jane Howard, of Corby CaKIe, in Nov. 176S, made his will, whereby after the death of 
his firtcr, Ann Warwick, gave, devifcd &c. all hi^ manors, meffuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, as well free- 
hold as copyhold, (which copyhold he had furrendercd to fuch ufes as he fhould declare by will) in the fcverai counties of 
Cumberland and Wtilmorland, unto Henry Curwen, of Workington-Hall, Efq. and William Milbournc, of Armathwaitc 
Gallic, Efq. and their heirs, to the following ufes, viz. after the death of his faid fiflcr, to the ufe of his ccufm, the ^ iyRev, 
Thomas Maddifon, of Gatefhead, and his afligns, during his life; but not to commit walle. Then to the ufe of fVyRobert 
Maddifon and his aflTigns, during his life, without impeachment of wade. And then to the ufe of faid Curwen and 
Milbourne, and their heirs, during the life of faid Robert, in truft to preferve contingent ufes, &c : yet to fuft'er the faid 
Robert and his airigns to receive the rents, &c. And after the deceale of faid Robert, to the ufe of the firft fon of the 
body of the faid Robert, &c. and the heirs male of the body of fuch firft fon, lawfully iffuing; and for default of fuch 
UTue, to the ufe of the id, 3d, 4th, 5th, and all and every other fon and fons of faid Robert, fcverally, fucccHively, and in 
remainder one after another, as they fhould be in priority of birth; and the feveral and refpe(5tive lieir? male uf all and 
every fuch fon and fons, lawfully ifluing, every elder of fuch fon and fons, and his heirs male being always preferred, &c. 
And in default of fuch iffue. 

To the ufe of fJJRzifh Maddifon and his affignsjduring his life, &c. (with the like limitations as to Robert Maddifon.) 
And in default of fuch iffue, 

To the ufe of ^V^John Maddifon and his afligns, during his life, &c. (under the like limitations.) And in default of 
fuch iflue, 


Francis Warwick died at Warwick-Hall, in 177a, having enjoyed the fame for upwards of fifty years; upon whofe. 
death his fifter, Ann Warwick, entered into poiTefllon, and continued until her death, December 1774; when Ralph 
Maddifon became entitled thereto, and continued in pofleflion until June 1 778, when he departed this life without iffue; 
upon whofe death John Maddifon entered into poffeffion, and continued until Oiftober 1784, when he died without iffue 
upon which the prefent Robert Warwick, Efq. entered into poffeffion, as heir at law to the faid Francis Warwick. 

f/j By this marriage there was only one daughter, Eleanor, who married Mr: Matthew Swinburn, of Caphaeton, anj 
died in December 1777, without Iffue. 

fgj By this marriage there was ao iffue. 

f A religious man of France, who lived in the fifth century; his comraeiiioration day 6th November. 

J Warwick church, remarkable for its tribune or rounded eaft end with thirteen narrow niches, tea 
feet eight inches high, and feventecn inches broad, reaching almoft to the ground, and the top of each 
arched ; in two or three is a fmall window. The whole church is built with good cut ftone, the length is 
70 feet, but it once extended above 2 1 feet further weft, their being ftill at that end a good, rounded arch, 
now filled up. The church is of great antiquity, but the date of the foundation unknown. 

Pennant's Tour. 

Inhabitants.] Thisparifh confifts of 282 inhabitants, I Roman Catholic, and 1 Quaker. 

Extent.] About two miles from E. to W. and ftom N. to S. about a mile and a half- 

SoiL AND PRODuct.] The foil light and fandy, near the river more loamy, where wheat is grown to 
good peifeiftlon. The other parts produce good crops of turnips, potatoes, rye, barley, oats, and clover, 
with other grafs feeds — All fertile and enjoys an early harveft. 

AsPFCT.] Part inclines to the north, hcs high but level; the fields are well inclofed with quickfets. 

Commons, Sheep, and Cattle.] A fmall plot of common near the middle of the parifti — produce* 
good herbage, but being wet, few flieep are kept — Cattle are of a middle fize, not numerous, this being 
chiefly a corn countrj'. 

Roads.] Leading to the eaftern parifhes, kept in good repair. — Diftance from CarKfle, four miles. 

River.] Eden bounds this paridi on the north. 

Woods.] Near Warwick-Hall, containing oaks, afh, firs, and underwood, Robert Warwick, Efq. is 
lord of the manor, and principal proprietor of lands. 

Buildings and Rent.] Stone houfes, convenient and comfortable. — Eftates are about 2 cl. a year 
in the hands of inferior proprietors, and aveiage rents 19s. or 20s. per acre. 

Housman's Notes. 

X 2 THE 

[ 156 3 


THE PRIORY of WETHERAL,* for monks of the Benedicfline order, is 
feared on the vveftern hanks of the river Eden. What was left of this edifice 
by the zealots of Henry VIII. 's days, was demolifhed, except the gateway, or 
lodge, with a fine eliptic arch, (which is now converted intoa hayloft) by the dean 
and chapter of Carlifle, who built a prebendal houfe, Sec. in Carlifle with the 
materials. When this was in agitation, Mr. Howard, the late bcautifier of Corby, 
offered a fufficient compenfation if they would fuffer the building to ftand, but 
his propofition was rejefted. — The fituation is excellent, on a fine elevation above 
the river, to which the lands gradually incline: the adjacent country is fertile and 
well cultivated. To the eafl and fouth, the hanging woods and romantic fcenes of 
Corby, on the other fides a variegated and beautiful country: the river's banks 
afford many folemn retreats, impending cliffs, embowering fhades, ftill vales, and 
calmrecelfesfortherefort of the meditative and religious. The gateway is of plain 
architedure, and doth not merit a particular dcfcripticn; it furnifhes the traveller 
indeed with an idea, that the monaftery itfelf was without much ornament. 

Wetheral was an inferior houfe, a cell to the abbey of St. Mary's, in York. — 
When the greater houfes became fupcrabundant in wealth, with the increafe of 
riches they added to the numbers in their focieties, and lent forth colonics to new 
and diffant foundations, the lower clalTes of which continued fubordinate. 

•)■ Boundaries, from an old inanufcript cMatsd by Dr. Todd. 

H:e funt mctae et bundae circumfcribentes territorium et villam de Wederhal. Prima meta cjufdem 
territorii incipit ad mediam partem aquas de Edene fubttis pontem vulgariter vocatum Wern^-kbrigge, 
ficut eadem prasdifta aqua de Edenc ab inde decurrit rerfus occidentem, et ab inde afce^dit ufque ad 
umim torrentem vocatum Sawbeke, ufque ad quandam crucem quz vocatur Wedcihal-gnrth crofTe veifus 
occidentem, et ftantem fuper prxdiftum torrentem pnus tiominatum, et ab liinc percuirit ad Holmfmyr 
verfus Carfyke, ficut Girth-crofs de Wederhall extendit, et ab hinc afcciiditulquc ad i'cotby Beke, et ab 
eadem fofia ufq, ad Cumwhynting beke, et ab inde afcendit ufq. ad marifcum qui vocatur Wragmirc, et ab 
eodeni peicurrit ufque ad Mercfike, ct hoc ex parte AuHrali; et ab inde ufq. ab Sandwak, et ab eodcm 
ufq. ad Taykingate, et ab inde pertranfit per ftratam regiam quse vocatui High-flreef ,qux ducit de Carliolo 
ufque ad Appllby way, et ab inde, ufque ad Drybeke, et a Drybeke, defcendit ufque ad mediam aqux 
de Edene, et hoc ex parte orientali; et Cc defcendit per mediam aqux de Edene, ufq. ad praediftum pon- 
tem vocatum Werwiekbrigg verfus boream. 

* " The cell of Wederhall was full founded at the inftance of Stephen, firft abbot of St. Mary's, at 
" Yotk, in the firft year of William Rufus, A. D. io86, by the Earl Randolph Mefchines, who gave 
" his manor of Wederhall to the fuid Stephen, with other lands thereunto belonging, pure alms to the 
" abbey of York; Stephen dedicated the fame to God, to St. Mary, and to St. Conftantine, and gave 
" fuch things as the faid abbey held in Weftmoreland and Cumberland to the faid cell or priory of Weder- 
" hall, as the filhing in Eden, and the mill there, the two churches of St. Lawrence and St. Michael, ia 
" Appleby; all of the gift of the Earl Randolph Mefchine?, with the church of Wederhall and chapel of 
" Warwick, and the chamber of St. Conjiantine, and two oxgangs of land in Chorkby, of the gift of Adam, 
" the fon of Swene, a great Baron, the hermitage of St. Andrew, on the eaft fide of Eden, of the gift 
" of Uchtred, the fon of Lyolf, the third part of Croglin lands, ia Eafton and Cumbquintin, the tithe of 
" Sowerby, by demefne, and Scotby mill, of the gift of Emfant, fon of Walter, a carucate of land in 
♦' Coleby, the church of Morland, and three carucates of land there, which Ketel, the fon of Eldred, gave 
" them. The church of Bromticld, the manor of Salkeld, and the tithes of that demefne, which Waldeof, 
« the fon of Gofpatiitk, gave with hia body to be buried." Denton's MS. 


Cum. Ward.] WETHERAL PRIORY. 157 

Wetheral was of that rank, and continued a cell to her fupcrior houfe. This 
priory was founded by Ranulph de Mefchines.f in the year 1088, for a prior and 
eight Bcnediifline monks; and was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Mary, and 
St. Conftantine : it was given, together with the church, mill, fiflicry, wood, and 
the chapel of Warwick, with two bovates of land in Corby, to the abbey of St. 
Mary's. Mefchincs alfo granted to the convent the fifhing pool on the eaftcrn 
fide of Eden. King William Rufus confirmed to the abbey of St. Mary's what 
Mefchines had granted ; and alfo gave thereto the whole pafture between Eden 
and the king's highway, which leads from Carlifle to Appleby, and from Wetheral 
to Drybeck.§ 

King Henry I. confirmed all former grants, and gave to the priory pannage for 
fwine in his forefl, without paying the ufual foreft: dues for the fame.|| 

Tanner, in his notes to page 75, fays, — " There fcems to be great confufion in 
•' the memorandums and charters, printed in the Monaflicon, out of the regifter 
" of this priory, concerning the time of its foundation : ifi, there is a charter by 
" King William the Conqueror, confirming this cell to St. Mary's, and its abbot 
" Richard : whereas St. Mary's was not founded under William the Conqueror, 
*' nor was Richard abbot till 12th King Henry I. and among the witneffes Lucia 
" his wife, and Henry his brother, being named, fhew plainly that this could not 
" be a grant of the conqueror's. 2d, this priory is faid to have been founded temp. 
" Willmi Rufi, and we are referred to the charter of Ranulph for proof; which 
" charter, with the fame witneffes, and infcribcd charta prima de iVetberal being 
" printed in the other column, mentions cxprcfsly the giving of this manor of 
*' Wetheral to St. Mary's. Pro amma domiiii vicl regis Henrici." 

This religious houfe,* foon after its foundation, was richly endowed ; having 
inr.ny benefadors. 

William, fon of Odard, Lord of Corby, and Richard de Salkeld, a fucceeding 
lord, quitted claim to and confirmed the filhery in Eden, granting powers of 
maintaining the dam, &c. 

f Viae Denton, who fays, Ranulpli, 1086. 

y This and aU other charters here refencd to, are to be found in the original rqjifter of the faid priory 
in the po{r< ffion of the dean and chapter of Carlifle. 

II Hcnricus Rex Anglis. Archiepifcopo Eboraci, et jnfticiariiset vice-comitibus et omii'Ibus baronibiis 
ft fidclibus futs Francis ct Anglis Eboracifcire et Karliolo Sahitem. f-'ciatis me conceffifre et confirmafTe 
33to et tcc'.cfii Saiiflae Marix Lboraci tt Abbati Ganfrido et Monacliis ibidem Deo fervientibus CcUum 
i^anfii Conltantini, cum maiierio de Wederhale, et cum cappeUa de Werthewic, et cum exclufagio et ftagno 
de pifc'aria, et de Molendino de Wederhale, quod eft fcitum et firmatum in Terra de Corkeby, iicut 
habuerunt quando Ranulphus comes Ceftria habuit Karliohim: Et confirmo eis ex dono meo totam paf. 
turam inter Edene et regiam viam quae ducit de Karliolo ad Appclby ct a Wederhale ufque ad Drybec. 
Et concedo els fortftam meam ad porcos fuos de Wederhale fine Pannagio. Et toncedo eis et confirmo 
rcclcfias, res, pofTeffiones, terras, et omnia quie eis data funt, et confirmata, per chartas memorum pro- 
borum virorum; et prohibeo ne aliquis eis inde contumeham facit. Et prxcipio ut ita habeant confuetu- 
dines fuas, et terras fuas, et res, quietas ab auxiliis et tallagiis, ct ab omnibus rebus, i:cut habet ecclefia 
Sanfti Petri in Eboraco, vel ecclefia Sanfli Joliannis m Beverlaco, et omnes eafdem libertates habeant 
quas habent iftx dua Ecclefis. TelHbus Roberto de Sigillo, et Pagano filio Johannis et Euflachio fratre 
ejus, et Pagano Peverele. Apud Windcftiores. 

• Cella monafter. S. Marise Ebor. Wcderhal, ubi ccel. S. Conftantini Richardus de Reme I. inter pri- 
ores ibi numeratus. 

«' King 

ijS WETHERAL PRIORY. [Cumb. Ward. 

King Richard I. granted thereto many privileges and immunities, inter alia, that 
the poffeflions of this houle fliould be exempt from pleas and plaints, murder, 
robbery, fcutagegelds, dancgelds, hidage, aflizes, works of cafbles, bridges, and 
parks, ferdwite, and hengcwite, and flcminfrcmith, avcrpeni, bloodwite, llitivvite, 
and hundrcdpeni, and tethingpeni, legerwite, toll, pafiage, pontage, laftage, and 
llallage, gridelbreke and hamfoken. Alfo grants to them fridftail, and foke and 
fack and theam, infanthicf and unfanthief. Many other perfons were great bene- 
fadtors to this houfe, as is briefly ftated in the notes. f 


f Lawrence de Aglionby, lands at Ajiflionby. — Adam, fon of Suane, the hermitage of St. Andrew, 
cuiifirmed by David K. of Scots. — Ranulph de Meichines, the cliurches of St. Michael and St. Lawience, 
of his caftle of Appleby. — Walter, fon of Robert, lands at Appleby. — Michael de Aniftapelit, lands at 
Ainllable. — John Muflie the like. — Henry de Terriby the like — Robert,fon of Bucth.lands at Cewcaftle, 
with pafture for 300 ftieep — Mable, daughter of Adam, fon of Richard of Buthcaftre, lands there. — 
Richard, fon of Richard, fon of Trute, lands without Botchardgate. — Walter de Botchardby, Ewrick 
Flat. — Adam, brother of Walter, lands in Botchardby. — Waldeve, fon of Goipatric, the church of Brum- 
field and the crops of the manor there. — Walter Bavin lands at Hathwaite, Burdofwald. — Ranulph Engaine 
and Willam his fon, two faltpits at Burgh, confirmed by Joan de Morvd, Richard de Lucy, Thomas 
de Multon, and others. — King Heniy L wood in his forefl of Carlifle, for the houfes and fuel. — Enfient, 
fon of Walter, lands at Coleby. — Ofbcrt, fon of Odard, tithes of the mill of Coiby, and hogs depaftured 

there. — Robert, fon of William, fon of Odard, lands there William, fon of Roger, and Ofanna his 

vife, wood Handing and dry in the wood of Corby; green oaks deficient in cropping, and others Alice 

and Mabel, fiftcrs of R. de Beauchamp, lands at Cryngledyke. He ordered his body to be buried ia 
Wetheral church. — Ibria d' Elltrivers, lands in Croglin; confirmed by Symon de Morvil. — William de 
Croglin, lands theie, and alfo his bondmen, Ralph, and his fon, and Alan, and his wife Alice, with their 
families and effefts; confirmed by Robeit de Vallibus. — Alexander de Creuquer, Kirkandrews wood, half 
the mill and pafturage in the fields and wood of Culgaith. — Alexander, fon of Swaine, the other half of 
the mill; confirmed by David King of Scotland. — Uchtred, fon of Liolf, lands at Cumquitton; confirmed 
by William de Heris. — Udo de Karliel,dead weod there ; confinned by Robert de Leverfdale. — Adam, fon 
of Roger de Karliel, rent of 8s. out of lands there, and alfo the heath where lu's fheels flood under 6d. rent. 
Udo, his grandfon, changed the rent to a rofe on midfummer day. — John, fon of Gamel, lands there. — 
Adam de Cumrue, lands at Cumrue, paflure for 60 fheep, 8 cows, and 4 oxen, and alfo Roger, fon of 
Hughtred, with all his goods and chatties. — Robert de Buet, the church of Denton, with its glebe and 
other lands. This was jointly to the priories of Lanercoft and Wetheral. — Utchtred, fon of Liolf, two 
bovates of land in Eallon. — Solomon de Farlam, and Richard, fon of Bernard de Earlam, lands at Farlam. 
— Robert de V'aux confirmed all gifts of lands in Gilfland — Gervas de Laicells lands at Hedresford, and 
pafture for 300 wtthers, 300 ewes, 9 oxen, 4 horfes, and the ufe of his mill at Levington, muldlure, free. 
— John de Herminc, and Heniy de Ulveflhwaite, lands at Kaber and Croglin. — Ralph de Hofl' lands in 
Kirkofwald parifli. — William, fon of Gilbert, lands at Kirbythore. — Maurice de Man, a fait pan on Man 
Ifland. — Ranulph de Mtfchines, tithes at Meaburn. — John, fon of Walter de Ravenfby, lands to build 
upon in Kings Meaburn — Gervafe de Melmerby, and Adam de Mora, lands at Melmerby. — Ketel, fon 
of Eldred, the church of Morland, and lands there. — Henry de Legat, an'd Peter de Legat, lands at 
Morland. — Walter Porter, of the priory, and Anfelm de Newby, lands at Newby. — Adam, fon of Allan, 
Adam, fon of Robert, and Eude de Karliel, lands at Ormfby. — Robert de Robertby, lands at Oufby. — 
Ranulph de Mefchines two parts of tithes of the deraefnes of Salkeld. — Waldeve, fon of Gofpatric, all 
tithes there. — David, King of Scotland, a merk of filver yearly out of the mill of Scotteby, and tithes of 
Scotteby. — Uchtred, fon of Liolf, the mill of Scotteby. — David, Earl of Dunbar, the town and church 
of Karkarevil, Scotland. — Gilbert de Sleygill, a meffuage in Slegill. — Uchtred, fon of Liolf, tithes of 
Sourby demefnes. — Alice and Mable, fillers of R. de Beauchamp, right of common in Stafiole. — Walter 
de Strickland, Knight, lands in Strickland fields; confirmed by Sir William de Strickland. — John, 
fon of William de Thrymby, lands at Thrymby. — Wilham, fon of Odard, John, fon of faid William, 
Alan de Langwayt, Henry Biikenheved, and Beatrice liis wife, lands at Warwick, tithes of a mil], 



In the compromifc of a difpute between the bilTiop of the diocefe, and the abbot 
of St. Mary's, it was determined that the abbot (hoiild prefent the prior, and the 
bifliop fliouid infticute, and the abbot fliould have the guardianfhip of the houfe, 
upon a vacancy. 

One of the cuftoms of the manor appears to have been, that each of the tenants 
of Wctheral fliould carry the abbot's corn one day in autumn, find one reaper, and 
plough one day for the abbot yearly, carry wood for the fifhgarth and mill, repair 
the wear and mill, and grinding corn there, pay a thirteenth portion for multfture. 

In the year J 539, Ralph Hartley, then prior, furrendered this religious houfe. 
It was rated, 26th King Henry VIII. at 117I. i is. lod. ob. q. p. ann. Dugd. 128I. 
5s. 3d. ob. Speed, and was granted in the 33d. year of that reign, to the dean and 
chapter of Carlifle.J The poifedions were ample, and the places many where they 
lay.* By another charter of the fame king, the advowfons ot the churches of 
Wetheral and Warwick, and the chapels of St. Anthony and St. Severin thereto 
annexed, were granted to the dean and chapter. 


and fireboot in the woods of Langwayt — Robert, fon of William, fon of Udard, remitted the StK fi(h 

out of the monks coup at Wederal John Spendlowe, and Margaret his wife, houfe and land at Wederal. 

— Kctel, fon of Eldrcd, the church of Workington. — John de Veteripont, fire wood out of the foreft of 
Wynfield. — All thefe grants were duly confirmed by the popes, kings, and bilhops. 

J Vide in Mon. Angl. torn. I. p. 389, Notulam donatlonis hujus maner. S. Mariae Ebor. p. 379. 
etc. Cartam (ut dicitur) Will. Conq. fed quere Notulam de Fiindatore et tempore fundationis: Quatuor 
Chartas Ranulfi de Mefcliines: Cartam Davidis Regis Scotix: Cartam A. Epifc. Carliol. Duas Cartas 
Alexandii dc Crevaquer ct cartas aliorum. 

In Appendice ad Stevenfii vol. II. p. ^o^, confirmationcs regum Hen. I. et II. p. 306. duas Cartas 
R. Henrici de Molendo de Wederhale et Ecclefiis de Horncby et Appelby p. 308, Confirmationcs 
Ecclefiarum et polTeffionum prioratusde Wederhale per Epifcopos Catliolenfis; per P. Honorium: P. 310, 
per priorem et conventum Carliol: P. 309,Bullam P. Gregon'i pro impropriatione ecclefiae S. Michaclls de 
Appelby: Ordinationem vicariac in difta ecclefia perThomam Epifcopum Carliol: A. D. 1255. P. 320, 
divifionem terrarum inter ptioratum et vicarium de Appelby. P. 310, Quietem Clamationem Epifc. 
Carliol. de jure. Cuftodix prioratus in fingulis vacationibus. P. 3 1 2, Compofitionem de Marifco dc 
Wederhale. P. 314, finalem Concordium ig. H. III. de duabus Bovatis terra: in Wederhale. P. 311. 
3 1 3. et a P. 3 1 5. ad 322. contenta quam plurimarum allarum cartarum ex tranfcripto regiftri dc Wetheral 
penes, rev. Hug. Todd, S. T. P. 

Regiilrum Prioratus de Wethral. penes Will. Dom. Howard de Naworth, 1638 nunc inbibl. Cath. 

Apographa Cartarum plurimarum ad hoc Coenobiolum fpeftantiii. in Bibl. Harleyana 94. B. VII. 

CoUectanea cl. Dodfworth in bibl bodl. vol. X. f. 17). vol. 159. f. 1 88. Pat. 2. Ed. 2. p. 2. m. 25. 
Glaus. 17. Ed. 2. m. 38. 

Cat. 5. Ed. 3. n. 66. Pro omnibus libertatibus quas Ecclefiae S. Petri. Ebor. vel S. Joannis Beverlac 
habcnt pro rnortuo Bofco in Forefta de Carliol, paftura inter Eden et regiam viam a Carliol ad Appelby 
elc. Pat. 29. Ed. 3. p. 2. m. 18. Pat. 31. Ed. 3. p. 3. m. 8. Pat. 40. Ed. 4. p. 2. m. 34. a Claus. 
43. Ed. 3. m. 33. 

Pat. 16. Rich. 2. p. 2. m. 20. Tamnkr's Notitia. 

• All the fite of the priory or cell of Wetheral, with the church fteeple, church-yard, and all other lands 
and poffeflions in and about the fame; and alfo the manor of Wctheral, and fundry parcels of land there: 
St. Anthony's chapel, with two inclofurcs: the watermill and the fifhery at the bay of Wetheral; and alfo 
all thofe manors, melfuages, lands and tenements, in the fevcral parifhes or hamlets of Corby , Cumwhinton, 
Botcherby, Morehoufe, Holmehoufe, Trodcl crooke, Penreithcoltys, Bridgend, Cryngledyke, Anftable, 


l6o WETHERAL CELLS. [Cumb. Ward. 

In the year 1650, the manor of VVetheral, and all the pofTelTions of the dean and 
chapter there, were fold, by the commiflioners of Oliver Cromwell, to Richard 
Banks, of Cockermouth, for 1044I. 5s. id. on King Charles's reftoration, refti- 
tution was made to the dean and chapter. 

At a little diflance from the monaftery, further up the vale, in a cliff which 
overhangs the river, are the remarkable cells, called 


Or Wetheral cells. A particular defcription was communicated to the Antiqua- 
rian Society, by a letter from William Milbournc, Efq. of Armathwaite caftlc, 
dated 17th April, 1755. Mr. Camden, fpeaking of Wetheral, fays, — Here you 
"fee a fort of hoiijes dug out of a rock, that fcem to have been dejignedfor an ahfonding 
^' place," to which his learned annotator adds, '* If not for fome hermit to lodge in, 
" temg near the nwnajiery ; thefe caves are in a rock oj difficult accefs, and are tzvo 
" looms, onezvithin another, each about five or fix yards fquare." 

" In this edition there are fome miftakes, which that great author could not 
" have been guilty of, but through mifmfoimation : and, as thcfe houfcs or caves 
" are in themfelves curious enough, and you defired a more particular account of 
*' them than has yet been given, in compliance with that requeft, I will give you 
*' the beft hiftory of them I can colled, both from my own view, and the infor- 
" mation of others. 

" Thefe caves are generally called St. Conjlantine's Cell ; and, by the country 
*' people, Wetheral Safeguard. How they received the former name is pretty eafy 
*• to account for, as the priory of Wetheral was dedicated to St. Conftantine, it is 
" moft likely whatever newbuilding was made contiguous to the priory, either as 
" a place of religion or fafety, would be honoured with the name of the tutelar 
" faint of that place. And as for the latter appellation, it ftems to prove the 
" conjecflure of Mr. Camden, that they were deligned for an abfccnding place; 
" for the ftory of their being intended for that purpofe, having been delivered 
" down to the country people by tradition, would naturally lead them to that name 
" of Safeguard, 

" However, both Mr. Camden and the bifhop of London maybe right in their 
*' feveral conjedures ; for thefe places might, upon different occafions, both ferve 
•• for an abfconding place, and as a lodging for an hermit. Upon an invafion of 
" the Scots, which were frequent in thefe parrs, the prior, or the moft confider- 
" able of the monks, might retire here, with the money, plate, and valuable clfedls 
" of the priory, until the danger was over: and, in time of peace, fome one of the 
" more devout of thofe days might take it into his head to fequefter himfelf in thefe 

Armatlnvaite, Brodwall in Gilfland, Newby, Farlame, Kaybridge, Gallowfield, Ruke, Skallmelock, 
St. Marys, and St. Cuthberts, Carb'fle: alfo the reftories and advowfons of the churches of Moiland, St. 
Michaels, and St. Laurence, ii Appleby : alfo the tithes of corn and liay in the viUs of Bolton, My- 
kelftry, Reland, Thrimby, Thrimby Grainge, Movland, Sleagill, Newby in the ftones, Kings Weaburo, 
Little .Strickland, Skytergate, Langton, Crackenthrope, Hilton. Bondgate, Moreton, Drybeck, Fallow- 
field, Barwis, Rutter, and Coleby: a penfion of ijs. out of the redlory of Great Salkeld. 

" folitary 

fifes'- -^•'•^-V'- 


CuMB. Ward.] 



" folitary caves, more clofely from converfation and the world, than he could do 
" in his apartments in the convent. 

" The bifliop is extremely right in obferving that they are in a rock of difficult 
" acccfs; for the only way to come at them, is by a Iteep dcfcent of fevcral yards, 
*' along a narrow and difficult path, without any appearance of the road having 
" ever been better: but then he has been mifmformcd, where they are faid to be 
" two rooms one within the other, (which is underflood to be where one room 
" makes a paffage into another) but three rooms, as I mny fay, abreafl, with a 
*• gallery in front, which makes a communication to each room, fuch as the im- 
" perfect Ikctch may ferve to explain. 

I 2 

















4, Doot into gallery. 

5, Gallery, long 26 o 

broad 7 o 

high 8 3 

6, 6, 6, Windows. 
7, Chimney. 

•« Thefe cells are dug out of a rock, at the height of about forty feet from the 
fummer level of the river Eden, which waflies the bottom of it, and are of the 
fcveral dimenfions as fct down in the table of references. A ledge of the rock, 
about eight feet below the floor of the cells, ferves as a foundation for the wall 
which is built before the cells, and which makes the gallery: which wall is of 
good ailiier work, and reaches in height a little way above the top of the cells, 
to which it was formerly joined by a roof covered with lead or (late: when this 
roof was in repair, the cells mufl: have been a warm, dry, and comfortable 
dwelling. The door in the gallery is at one end, and about fcven feet above 
the path leading to the cells; there are no remains of any fteps up to it, fo that 
the entrance muft have been made by means of a ladder, which the inhabitant 
of the cells might draw up, for his greater fecurity. In the middle of the wall 
is a chimney, and there are three windows in it, one oppofite to every cell, to 
give light to them. 

" There are no infcriptions to be found in the cells, or on the walls ; but upon 
the fame rock, out of which the cells are hewn, a little higher up the river, and 
about ten or twelve feet above the fummer level of the water, you meet with 
this infcription: — 

i62 WETHERAL CELLS. {Cunib. Ward. 


" What may be the meaning of this infcriptlon, you will be the befl: judge; as for 
" myfelf, 1 pretend to very little knowledge in this kind of decyphcring. The 
" LE. XX. V. V. COND. might perhaps be read Legio Vicejhna Valens Vi£lrix 
" Condidit, and may be fuppofed Roman; but what the latter part of the infcrip- 
" lion, and the aukward figure of the buck or flag, may mean, I am at a lofs to 
*' find out. Whatever may be the Maximus Script, feems to be modern; and it 
" muft be obferved, that it is a yard diftant from the other part of theinfcription." 
The infcription has for feme time been hid by mofs and roots of trees, but may 
now be feen : it is on the lower rock, to the left of the cells. " I am not of opinion 
" that Maximus ScripjU is modern ; it has, 1 know, been deemed fo, becaufe it is not 
•' a cladical infcription. But an infcription made by a Roman foldier, or fifherman, 
" may poffibly not Hand the tefl of claffical criticifm, better than ihofe fo indulfri- 
" oufly carved by our modern loungers." — H. H. 

The remarks which Mr. Pennant makes are, — That there are marks of bolts, 
" bars, and other fecurities, in the windows and door; and veftiges which fhcw 
" that there had been doors to the cells." 

The rocks in which the cells are hewn arife perpendicularly from the river: 
and from a precipice upwards of an hundred feet high, over which the hill ftill 
afcends to a great height, covered with wood: — 

— — in convexo nemorum, fub riipe cavata, 
Arboribus tlaufum circum, atque horreiitibus umbrls. 

ViRG. &n. Li*b. I. I. J14. 

We arc far from contefting the opinions of our predeccfTors, that thefe remarkable 
cells were originally intended as places of fecurity and retirement. They might 
ferve as fafeguards to the neighbouring monks againft the Scots: and they might 
alfo fervc as hermitages to fuch of them as either voluntarily chofe to live like an- 
chorites, or were fentenced by their order to do fo, as a penance for the violation of 
fomc of their rules. But we beg leave to add, from that paragon of antiquarian 
learning, as well as of lliocking depravity, Eugene Aram, that they might alfo lerve 
in ibme particular cafes, as places of fepulture. Hermitages were not only places 
of religious retirement, but of burial. " Here fat folitary fanclity ; and here the 
" hermit, or the anchorite, hoped that repofe for their bones, when dead, which 
" thcmfelves had here enjoyed, when living."t 

The legendary hidory of them is, that a younger fon of a King of Scotland, of 
the name of Conftantine, made thofe excavations, and died there a hermit. That 
he was afterwards canonized, and the hermitage has preferved his name. 

It is probable that, fince thefe cells were made, part of the rock has fallen, 
•Vkhere it is conftantly waflied by the river j that the whole was originally concealed 

■\ Our curious readers are referred to the maftirly defence, which /Irani made on his trial j which, in 
point of compof.tion, is not inferior to any thing of the kind in our language, 


CuMB. Ward.] CORBY. 163 

by trees, much wood yet growing in every chink of the precipice,- and that it was 
lately opened out, in order to be viewed from the walks of Corby. 


Its moft obvious etymology is, as Bullet has exprefsly flared in his valuable Celtic 
Dictionary, from CWR, which is pronounced COWR, or COR, a brink, edge, or 
bank, and BA\', which, when compounded, is fpelled BEY, a river, or Ihcam. 
So that the etymology of Corby is a literal and exart defer! [,tion of it ; viz. a place 
by the fide of a river, or a precipice over a river. The lituation of little Corby 
is the fame, and confirms this derivation. 

It was one of the dependent manors of the barony of Gilfland. It became the 
poireffion of Hubert dc Vail ibus, by the grant of King Henry II. "The manor of 
Chorkby,;}! in Gillland hath been, from the conqueft of England, a gentleman's 
feat. It was given by Hubert, firll: baron of Gilfland, to one Odard, to whom 
alio the Earl Randolph gave the manor of Warwick, on the weft fide of the river 
Eden. Odard had ilfue Olbert and William. Olbert fucceeded in the inheritance, 
and granted to the houfe of Wederhall the chamber of St. Conftantine, and divers 
liberties in Chorkby, and lands in Warthvvick. Olbert died without iflue, there- 
fore the manor fell to his brother William, who had ilFuc John and Robert, by his 
wife Ofuina. John was eldcft; yet he fcated himfelf at Warwick, and let his 
brother Robert poiTefs Chorkby. William, fon of Odard, had ilTue another fon, 
named Allan, who was Lord of Langthwaite. His brother Robert gave him 
lands in Warthwick, and another fon called Ranulf. 

" After Robert, Son of William, fon of Odard, I find one Adam de Chorkby, 
a Knight, and William fon of Roger, and Ofuina his wife, lords thereof. In the 
23d year of Edward I. one Walter de Routbury was lord thercof,t and, in Edward 
Il's rime, Andrew de Harcla, Earl of Carliell, forfeited the fame; and in Edward . 
Ill's time, Richard Salkeld was lord thereof. "§ 

On the earl's attainder, Corby having come to the crown. King Edward II. in 
the 9th year oi his reign, granted it to Richard de Salkeld, Kt. whofe defcendants 

* Corby is a mixed manor, partly cuftomr.ry tenure, partly freehold; and a court leet, court baron, and 
ciiflomary court, arc regularly held. The cullomary fines are arbitrary, the rule for aireffing them being 
after the rate of two years improved value. The cuftomary tenant cannut alien or demife without 
licence of the lord; and, on difobedience to the cullom, by dcmifing without licence, the occupier is com- 
pellable to expend the whole produce of the tenement within the fame. — There ate fevcral boon fervices by 
cuftom, viz. one day's reaping, one day's ploughing, and one cart load of coals carried to the manor-houfe, 
or two carts loaded with peat or turf. — The tenants pay a heriot, and grind their corn at the lord's mill, 
and render a hen at Martinmas. 

Tlie tenants are fubjeft to pains ftipulated in tlie fcheduleof cuftoms, or by-laws, for taking in inmates 
and underfcttlers — for keeping goats — for keeping a brood fow in Corby — for Iwine going unbowed 
in the time of harveft — for cutting brackens, or fern, in any part of the demefne, or cutt ng wood. 

And no by law made by the tenants, without being confirmed by the lord of the manor, or his fteward, 
fhall be deemed obligatory. 

\ We do not find it written C/orkby in any deed. H. H. 

\ In the 16th of King Edward II. Roland de Riehraimd, not Routhhury, conveyed tlu's manor to Sir 
Andrew de Harcla. See the abftraft of the deed. J Denton's M. S. 

Y 2 continued 

l64 CORBY. [CuMB. Ward. 

continued here for many generations. Sir Richard's fon Hugh married the heirefs 
of Rofgyll, in Weftmorland and refided there; which county he reprefented in 
parliament during the Reign of King Richard II. and part of the reign of King 
Henry IV. John, the brother of Hugh, poflelTed Corby, and had iflue Richard 
Sallceld,* who died in the 17th year of King Henry VII. He left iffue five 
daughters his cohcireffes, the two eldeft Catharine and Margaret had Corby in 
partition, Catharine married Thomas Salkeid, Efq. of Whitehall, a younger 
branch of the family, and Margaret married Thomas Bienkinfop, of Hclbeck, Efq. 
Each of thefe families enjoyed their feveral moieties for five generations. Henry 
Bienkinfop, in the year 1606, fold his moiety to Lord William Howard, and in 
1624, his lordlhip purchafed the other moiety of Thomas Salkeld. The Salkeid 's 
arms were Vert a Frette Argent. 

Corby is now the pofleffion of Henry Howard, Efquire, by gift of Philip 
Howard, Efq. his father, a lineal defcendant of Lord William Howard, by Sir 
Francis his fecond fon.f 

* In the church of Wetheral, between the north aile and the channel, are the effigies of a man and 
woman in alplafter, which, we apprehend, reprefent this Richerd and his wife, with this legend in oli 
diarafters, almcll obliterated: — 

J5cre lies %it JEltcta);!! ©alielB, tSat tatjj^t, 
SLtio in lie lanU iuajs inicltle of migit ; 
CSe captain ana ieepejr of Carlisle toaa it,., 
ans alfo tSe Horn of €Bxitb^t, 
, Sim noto le lite tmticr tjjs ftane, j 

J^e anB Jts laBj Bamt Slatte,. 
tEJe cis^tcenrS Baj; of jTrijrucre, 
■C^ig gentle Snigljt toass burieB Sere. . 
31 pra^ Eou an tiat tHe Bo fee 
JPraj for tjcir foul? for tjaiitie, 
JTor as tjeg are noto — fo muft toe aH 6e. 

-j- Mr. Sandford, who left a manufcript account of Cumberland, fays, — " The laft Thomas Salkeld ' 
«' fold Corby to the Lord William Howard, third fon of Thomas the great Duke of Norfolk, great 
" grandfather to the now Earl of Carlifle, and grandfather of the now brave Monlieur Francis Howard, 
" a great hoiifekeeper and horfe-courfcr, and in all jovial gallantries expert, and beloved of all men, and 
" Lord of Cotby Caftle his manfion houfe, and has many towns adjacent, and eflate of j^200o per annum, 
«' and his mother fifter to the late Lord Widdrington, and his wife daughter to one of the famous fa- 
" milies of Gerard, in Lancaftiire," — In the north aile of Wetheral church: 

" Here lies Francis Howard, Efq. eldeft fon of Sir Francis Howard, who was the fecond fon of the 
♦« Lord William Howard of Nawortli. On his right hand lies his father; on his left hand lies his fifter 
" Anne; at his feet, his four children, viz. a fon by Anne Gerard his firft wife, and a fon and two 
*' daughters by Mary-Annc-Dorothy Townley his fecond wife, who furvived him. He died Dec, lythj 
•' 1702, much lamented by all that knew him, but moft of all by his widow and reliit. 


Eternal reft give unto them, Lord! 
Amen! Amcn!'^ 


CuMB. Ward.] 



Lord William Howard, buried at Grayftoke, mar. Elizabeth, one of the fillers and coheirefles of George 

Lord Dacre. 

Mar. to his firft wife, Anne, 
d. of John Prefton, of the 
manor of Furneffe. 

Mar. to his 2d wife, Mary d. of 

Sir Henry Widrington, of 
Widrington, Northumberland. 


.^ , 

-., ^ ^ ^ ^ ^. ^^ ^ 

Thos. a col. of borfe T Elizabeth m. T Francis ill m."! Henry. 1 Thos. 1 Wm. Margaret, T Alathe. 

for K. Charles, flain 5- Edward i- Anne, d. of > 
1 643 , at y^//f r/c/z-z/^aar J Standifh,Efq. J SirW. Gerard J 

I I 

ra. Sir T. \ Cathar. 
Haggerfton. j Anne^ 

ine married 

r \^ Y 

A fon d. 1 Mary mar. J. 1 Frances d. 7 Anne 

an infant. J Warwick, Efq. J unmar. 3 — i- 

To his fecond wife he married Mary-Anne-Dorothy Townley, Lancaihire 
- had by her iffue a fon and two daughters. All died fans iffiie. He 
dcvifed his eftate to lu's third brother, William, and died 1702, and was 
buried at Wetheral. 

He married Jane, d. of John Dalfton, Efq. of Acornbank, died 1 708, and was buried at Wetheral, 


Francis d. 1 Thomas d. 1 740, 1 Wm. 1 John. 1 Dorothy. T Eliz. m. Wm 
unmar. J bur. at Wetheral. J J J d. unmar. >■ Sandeifon, of 

I J Armathwaite. 




all nuns. 


ifl mar. Barbara d. of John 
Vifcount Lonfdale. 


V ; — 

2d mar. Barbara, fifter to Sir Charles 
Mufgrave, Bart, of Eden-hall 


3d mar. Mary, d. of Francis 
earthing, of Wofton, Efq. 
had no iflue. 


7, fons, all 
d. infants. 

j Mary d.7 
J an inf. j 


Jane m. Fran. T Charles d 
Warwick, of > years old, 
Warwick-hall. J at Wetheral 


sral. J 



Anne d. » Catharine 

Wytham, of J both nuns 

Cliffe, Efq. and by her hath iffue. 

d. of Henry an. inf. }- & Mary, 

Henry b. 1757, m. Nov. 
26th, 1788, Maria, the 3d d. and one 
of the coheircflts of Andrew, Lord 
Archer, of Amberdadc, Warwickfhire, 
who with her infant d. died Nov. gth, 
1 789, and was buried at Wetheral. 

— V 

Philip b. I 766, d. at 
Porto, in Piedmont, 
1786, unmar. 

Catharine b. 1755, m. 
to John Gartfide, of 
Crunipfall, in the co. 
of Lancailer. 

Maria b. 1762, 
m. to Geo. 2d 
fon of Robert 
Edward Lord 
Petrc, has iflue 
3 fons, & I d. 

Arms, — Gules. — In the middle of a bend between fix crofs crofslets, argent, a ftiield, or, therein a 
demy lion rampant, pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double trcflurc counterfloi-y. 



i66 WETHERAL. [Cumb. Ward. 

The church of Wetheral is in the patronage of the dean and chapter of Carlifle, 
unto which, jointly with VV'arwick, they prefcnt a perpetual curate, w ith a falary, 
of 52I. a year, together with a houfe and frnall piece of ground. f The parifh is 
bounded by Hayton and Cumwhitton to the eaft, by St. Cuthbert's, Carhfle, on 
the weft, on the north by Warwick, and on the fouth by Hefket in the Foreft. 
It is divided into four quarters, Wetheral, Corby, Scotby, Cumwhinton, and 
Coathill, and contains nine villages. The lands in Wetheral quarter are either 
Icafehold, or cuftomary, under the dean and chapter of Carlifle ; the remainder 
cuftomary, with arbitrary fines on death of landlord or tenant, or alienation, with 
heriois, boon days, &c. — Corby quarter is moftly freehold, Henry Howard, Efq. 
lord of the manor, — Scotby quarter is copyhold, under the Duke of Devonfnire, — 
Cumwhinton or Coathill quarter is divided, fome part is leafehold under the Duke 
of Devonfliire, other parts are cuftomary under Mifs Julia Aghonby, of Crosfield, 
William Milbourne, Efq. of Armathwaite caftle, and the dean and chapter of 
Carlifle: there is one freehold, called Wragmirebank, the property of Mr. Rooke. 
The church is a handfome edifice, built of excellent ftone, in the Gothic ftile; it 
confifts of three ailes, fupported on three maflive pillars on each fide, and a fine 
Gothic arch divides the nave from the chancel. The fouth fide of the chancel 
appears to be of greater age than the reft of the edifice; two infcriptions, in the 
Gothic letter, remain there, one over the door, the other over the window, viz. 

iSPiate p aninta GicTjaicDi iffilrtilicc^an 
Ojatc p a'i'a caillfmt ^Tjojnton atibatjB 

In 1774, the roof was covered with blue flate ; in 1789, and 1790, the whole 
was flagged, ftalled, plaiftered, and ceiled, and the tower was built, finilhed with 


+ In Wetheral quarter there are 6; families, ?i 2 Inhabitants. "^^ , t' •!• _ • i u-. . 
' c I. . yTotal, — Famihcs^oi, — inhabitants 

bcotby quarter ------- ri 242 f n rL , • r> 

Coathill quarter 83 30^ C '■^' ^'~? Pre(bytcuans,-_.4 Ro- 

^ , ^ ^ -> l \ man Catholics, — 1 1 Quakers. 

Cotby quarter ---- . I03 496 1 ^ 

P. N. Valor. 7 K. Ed. 11. 1 K. Hen. VIII. 
Ecclefia de Wedeihal!,32l. OS. od. j Eccl. de Wederhall, il. os. od. J 

Portio PriorlfTe de Marring, in eadeni, ) Portio Priorifie de Marring in eadem 
3!. OS. 6d. J non taxatur quia totaliter deilruAur. 


Dedic. the holy Trinity — --Ibbey St. Maiy's, York, pro. — D. and C. Carlifle, patr Perpet. curacy. 

Salaiy 52I. pd. by the D. and C. 

In the divifion of Cumwhinton and Coathill, in this parifti, is a cuftomary manor belonging to William 
Milboiune, Efq. of Armathwaite, viz. 

In Coathill is feven cnftomary tenants, — cuftomary rent, iSs. 6d. — Eight boon-daj's (hearing, and feven 
heriots, but no other fer vices. 

In Cumwhinton is eleven cuftomary tenants, — cuftomar)' rent rl. t rs. 4d. — Twelve boon-days and one 
third of a day, and fifteen heriots; fome of the half-land tenants, as they are called, pay forefter oats to 
Mils Aglionby. 

In Coathill, a manor belonging to Mifs Juha Aglionby, of Crosfield, — about 34 cuftoSaiy tenements, 
— cuftomary rent, 7I. 3s. gd". — Arbitrary fines and heriots. 

The tenants make boon-day ftrvice in fliearing and leading coals, and pay foreftcr oats. Thefe manors 
are within the foreft of Inglevvood, and thcfc oats were a duty paid to the fortfter. 


CuMB. Ward.] WETHERAL. 167 

four fpircs, and a new bell hung therein ; in 1791, the chapel, over the burying 
vault belonging to Corby caflle, was rebuilt by Henry Howard, Efq. to the me- 
mory of his ancertors and of his lady. — Warwick hath always been united with 

" The manner of Combquinton was, at the conqucfl:, the lands of Hildred, a 
Knight, to whom the Earl Randolph gave the fame, and William Rufus and 
Henry Beauclerk, a great ieignory, and alfo large pofTefTions on the eaft fide of the 
river Eden. Hedwelt at Carlifle, and was afterwards called Hildredus dc Carliel!; 
he left that firname to the ancient family of Carliells, who were Knights fuccef- 
fively until Edward I's time, when their chief feared himfelf in Scotland, at King- 
mount, when King Edward I. invaded Scotland ; at which time he fold mofl: of 
his lands here in England. His name was William Carlicll ; of him the barons 
Carliell, in Scotland, are lineally defcended, whofe heir male of the eldefl ifluc- 
ended of late in my time, and his living is fallen to a daughter; but there are yet- 
great numbers of that firnamc both in England and Scotland. 

" Hildred had ilTue a fon named Odard, who died in his father's life time; there- 
fore Combquinton defcended to his nephews and grandchildren, Richard Carliell 
andRobert, between whom their grandfather divided his lands. And this manor, 
to make the divifion equal, was divided into tv,o moieties, which, till this prefent 
time, is not yet united, for the Skeltons enjoy one part, the Aglionbys another 
part, and the dean and chapter of Carlifle a piece, with the cell of Wcderhall, 
purchafcd in Edward Ill's time, of Robert Parving, who bought it of Edmund 


t Denton's MS. 

Incumbents, &c. — Rev. T. Nichols, fucceeded by Rev. J. Bird — Rev. E. Tbng— Rev. G. Gilbanks 
— Rev E. Stangcr the prefent incumbent. The regilicr begins 1 674 — for the firft 20 years, chriftenin^s 
21, buried iS, married five — for twenty years lad part — chriftenings 36, buried 18, married 10. 

Tlie vicarage lioufe and near three aeres of ground were pnrch:ifcd by the Rev. J. Bird — The dwelhng 
houfc was built by Rev. Edward Tong in the year 1714, to which the dean and chapter contributed 2 cl. 
only. — The annual rental of lands and houfes in the whole parifh is about 5000I. 

Poor, &c.] The poor rates are coUcfted by the pound rent, amounting yearly 10 about 140I. There is 
not much common land in the parifh fave in the divifion of Wetheral, whicli is remarkably good. The 
owners of Corby have been fo indulgent to the country people, as to permit them yearly on Eafter Sunday 
to viiit the walks there, which has occalioned the rame of Corby fair.|| 

Aspect.]] The appearance of the country is beautiful, rather flat, with clumps of wood interfperfed here 
and there. The tenements are fmall, which occafions a greater population, the inclufures are alfo fmall. 

Implements of Husbandry.] Are greatly improved; almoft every faimer is poflefled of the moft 
modern implements. 

Fuel.] Chiefly coal, It about 3s. to 4s. a cart load — peat and turf in the divifion of Coathill. 

Wages.] Labourers from is. 2d. to is. 4d. — Mechanics 2s. to 2s. 6d.per day without maintenance. 

Meetinghouses.] One at Scotby for the Quakers, and one Roman Catholic chapel at Warwick- 
bridge, in Corby quarter. 

Rivers, Fish, and Roads.] The river Eden abounds in falmon, trout and eels, — feveral fraall 
brooks have trouts. — No turnpike road. 

Schools.] One at Great Corby, endoweed with lands of 61. or 7I. a year rent — thcfcholars pay 2S. per. 
quarter. — One at Scotby, endowed with land of 7I. or 81. per year. — One at Wetheral unendowed. 

Buildings.] Are good in general, — ^jjlenty of freeilone. 

)| Two young men were drowned upon Eafter Sunday 1792, in pafTing the river Eden to Corby, by the boat having 
been overfct, vvhicb, it is hoped, will put an end for the future to fuch inipious recreations. 



[CuNrB. Ward. 

Mr. Townlcy, of Townley, in the county of Lancafter, holds the tithes by leafc, 
under the dean and chapter of Cariifle, of the value of 400I. par annum or there- 
about, exclufive of lands dcmifcd hy them. Corby demefne pays a modus of eight 
ihillint^s in lieu of all tithes, and fevcral other tenements are tithcfrec.* 

_ .^ »i» r? -S . =^ 

0^^ -s^W^Mi 

View of Wetheral Priory and the back of Corby, from the Wejl. 


The fituation of which agrees with the etymology of its name. It is fituatcd on 
the brink of a ftupendous cliff, impending over the river Eden : from the back 
•windows you look over the wood, which hangs upon the declivities and rocks be- 
neath, and Immediately view the river. The hills on every hand arc lofty, and 
defcend precipitately, clothed with flatcly trees. Eden is here adorned with a 
thoufand beauties ; every turn and avenue aflbrds a rich fylvan fccnc, where, 
amidft the hanging fhades and groves of oak, bold rocks are feen, pufliing 
forth their rugged fronts, and lifting up their eminent brows with inconceivable 
dignity. A fine lawn opens to the front of the houfe, with ornamental buildings 


GvPSUM J There is a quarry of g^-pfum, or alplafler, about nine feet from the futface, in Coathill 
quarter, vvheie it mio-ht be won in great abundance; but this fource of riches to the farmer is yet unex- 
plored. Housman's Notes. 

* We acknowledge great obligation to the Rev. A. Lawfon, for much information touching Wetheral 
and Warwick. The Editors. 

Soil and Produce.] Along the call fide of Eden for near a mile in breadth, inclining to the weft, fand 
and loam, not deep, level, well divided with quickfets ; lets from 20s. to 30s. per acre ; produces good crops 
of every kind of giain. — Turnips, potatoes, clover, &c. very early. — To the cailward, llronger in clay, and 
grows good wheat; lets from about 15s. to 20s. per acre. — In the extremity of the pariHi, about a mile in 
breadth, land improved from the common — part of it grows good wheat, barley, &c. leti from about 
es. to I OS. per acre. Part of it cold, wet, black foil; lets at about 2s. 6d. to 5s. per acre. Improve- 
ment much better than it was fome years ago, though Ihort of what it might be. Too many white crops 
cif corn, after fallowing are taken, which impoverilh the land too much; and iflaid down without fowing 
grafs feeds, it affords neither hay nor pallure. The very worft land in the parilh might be made to grow 


CuMB. Ward.] CORBY CASTLE. 169 

placed and difpofed with good tafte. But even the richcft and beft works of art 
appear infignificant, in a fcene where Narure has extended her powers; and 
mingled, in fo noble and romantic a manner, woods, ftrcams, hills, and rocks. 
The walk on the brink of the river is well devifed, and retains as much of its 
origimlity, as could be preferved in (uch a work. The whole plcafure grounds 
are formed upon the line of nature, and all the primitive beauties are preferved: — 

" For paradifc's feat no more 

" Let trav'Uers Icarch on Perlia's iliove : 

" Its groves (till ffourilhing appear, 

" Upon the eafl of Eden licre." Relpii's Poems. 

In a defcription of Corby, it would be doing a piece of injuftice to it, as well as 
to an ingenious manof tafte, who, like Shenftone, fcattered around it fundry apt 
poetical quotations and infcriptions, not to notice them. 

To the northweft of the houfc, a terrace is Wretched along the fummit of the 


good crops of hay — In Cor.thiU quarter, a good flrong loamy foil, fit fur any kind of grain. A'lout 
Cumwhinton the land is more fandy, and h'es ivarmer — the foil produces wheat, bailey, oats, peas, pota- 
toes, and foine turnips. — Kcre is a traft of wild common which carries a few fliccp. — In Wcthcral asd 
Scotby is a mixture of loam and fand, and fit for any kind of grain. — Turnips are much cultivated In 
this parifh. The drill hufbandrj- Is praclifed — horfe and hand howing are ufed — they fell from 2I. to 3I. 
103. per acre the highcft price; eat off by fheep. Good crops of barley fuccced turnips. — The fame foil 
produces wheat and rye after clover, then follow turnips. One thoufand (heep are frequently fed in thia 
parifh, on turnips only. The inhabitants in general are laborious, and fpare no induftry in the culture of 
their turnips, which they find a great improvement In agriculture, and a great reward for their labour. 

Improvements OF Huseandrv.] In Wetheral pari ih the llrong loll, if properly managed, would 
produce after fallow, barley, clover, wheat, peas, bailey, then fallow; wheat, peas, barley, hay, oats, then 
fallow; barley, grafs feeds, and white clover for paflme. The light foil, turnips barley, hay, oats, fal- 
low; wheat, peas, barley, hay, oats, then fallow; turnips, barley, grafs feeds, with white clover for paf- 
turc ; or turnips, barley, clover, wheat, peas ; barley, fallow, wheat, peas ; barley, hay, oats, fallovv ; 
turnips, b;irley, grafs feeds, with white clover for paftuie — After fallow, crops fhould always be reverfed. 
The chief property of this method Is, that two white corn crops are never found together, which in good 
hufbandry fliould always be tlie cafe; by a due mixture of crops, the foil is piefervcd in good heart, and 
always produces good crops : neither hay nor pafture get time to degenerate. Every farmer, who 
pofTtfTcs 150 acres and upwards, fliould always breed his own (lock of (heep and cattle, and feed upon the 
lame farm what he fo breeds: fuch method of bvecding- and feeding never fails of bringing in the greated 

Sheep.] The wool fliouIJ be clufe at top, and equally broad as at bottom; of an equal furface, that 
doth not fliadc nor hang downward, even when wet with rain. The body fliould be round, the back 
broad, the fhoulders full, and the fore quarters as heavy as the hind, the thighs plump, and the legs fhort. 

Cattle."] A cow to breed from fhould have a fmall liead, at the muz/.le particularly, fine clear fniall 
horns; the neck deep before, round body, and broad rib; wide over the knuckle bone, and wide behind ; 
fiiort legs, and wide between t!ie fore-legs. Sheep and cattle bred from thofc of fuch defcriptions, never 
fail of being good feeders. 

Manufactory.] At Great Corby, for weaving corduroy; 42 pair of looms, employ 61 hands; men, 
women, and children, upon an average, work about yjo yards a week of corduroy fluff — 48,360 yards 
a year. The weavers employed are molUy apprentices; earn about 5s. 7d. per week. JourneymtUi 
good hands, will earn from 163 to a guinea jier week. A cotton mill, built on Mr. Howard's ellate, 
at Langthwalte, contains 443 fpindles, fpins about Soolb.of cotton every week, 4i,6oolb. a year, and 
employs 100 hands, men women, and children. Increafc of Inhabitants In Great Corby quarter, fince 
theft manufadtories begun, about 120. 

Corby manor confifts of 10 cuflomary tenants, — il. 4s. 4d. rent, — 13 and three-four: lis boon days, — . 
5 load of coals, 20 cart load of peats, and 10 hens. 55 fuehold tLiiant-i, 9I. ys. ii^d. liaifp. rent — 8 leafe- 

voL. I. Z hold 



[CuMB. Ward. 

ciit^, overlooking the thick groves, which clathe the declivities and the brink of 
the river, and commanding a fine profpcdt of the courfc of the ftream. On the 
oppolite eminence is feen the gateway of the ancient priory of Wetheral, " with its 
Tine eliptic arch," which iVIr. Pennant dcfcribes as fo tempting, " that he could 

" not 

hold tenants, 2I. rent — I freehold houfe in Carlifle, ys. rent,f — 2 freehold tenements In Botcherby, 2s. 6<1. 
rcnt,f — r freehold tenement in the manor of Ncwby, is. rent,f — 2 frtchold tenements in the manor of 
Wethcnil, 2s. 46. rent,f — I freehold tenement in the manor of Warwick, 6d. rentf — 5 freehold tene- 
ments in the manor of Hayton, 15s. 6d. rent,-f- now in one — 3 cuilomary tenements in the manor of 
Hayton, 8s. 6d. rent, 3 boon days, 3 hens, fines — 8 cuilomary tenements in the manor of Camwhinton, 
jl. 14s. rcntif 10 boon days, fines — 1 freehold tenement in the m.anor of Aglionby, 8s. rent.f 

Manor of Little Corby, in the parllh of Hayton, Henry Howard, Efq. lord of the manor. — 5 freehold 
tenants, i8s. 4d. rent, — 9 cuHomary tenants, il. 2s. 6d. rent, 9 and a half boon days, 4 load of coals, 

3 cuftoniary tenants in the manor of Great Corby, hold of the lords of the manor of Wetheia], 

rent, and pay a fourpenny fine certain (four times the lord's rent) on the change of tenant only 2 

cuftomary tenants, hold of the Earl of Carlifle, rent, and pay arbitrary fines on the change of 

loi d or tenant. — 3 cuilomary tenants, hold of the lord of the manor of Warwick, rent, and pay 

a tenpenny fine certain on the change of lord or tenant. — i freehold tenant held of ditto, •— — rent. 

In the raanoi of Great Corby, — Ancient inclofures i n S acres, 3 roods, and 3 1 perches — Commoft 
jnclofed about the year 17CO, 1173 ^cres, z roods, and 30 perches — Common in plantations 67 acres, 
T rood and 8 perches. — Ancient woods and pleafure grounds, 1 15 acres, i rood, and 19 perches — Leafe- 
liold lands, I02 acres, i rood, and 24 perches — Fifii ponds 20 acres, 3 roods, and 1 6 perches — Total in 
Great Corby, 2598 acres, 2 roods, and 8 perches — In the manor of Little Corby, parilh of Hayton, 231 
acres, and 28 peiches — Total 2829 acres, 2 roods, and 36 perches, 

Wc acknowledge great obligatiou to Mr. Luke Blacklock, for the above valuable infotmation. 

The Editors. 

From ths Coiiqufft to the time cf\a0^x> William Howard, of Natvorth, from a MS. in tJie hand rx'riting 
_■' of Lord H^illianiy communicated hy Henry Howard, Efq.* 

Nomina Dominorum Caftri et Maneri] de Corkby in Gilfland in Com. Cumbrix a Conqueftu Anglise 
la hunc ufque diem 19" Decembris Ao. Dni 1625. 

1. Raniilphusde Mefchines dns de Corkby temp. W'lni Conqnclloris ex dono ejufdcm Regis. 

Rex Wil'mns cogno-ninc baftardus Dux Norman. Conqueftor Anglise dedit totain terram de Comitatu 
CumbrisE Ranulpho de Mefchiues &c. EsChronlcis Cumbriae In Reg'io prioratus de Wederall irrotulat. 
fo. 161. 

Ego Ranulphus Mefchines concelTi monachls de Wederall exclufagium et Stagnum de Pifcaria et Mo- 
'endino de Wederall quod fa^lum et firmatum eft in teira de Corkby et prohibeo ut nee Dns de Corkby 
sec aliquis alius violet feu difturbct ipfum ftagnum firmarl in terra de Corkby &c. Tefte Wefcubricht 
(inter alios) Kx Regiftro de Wederall. fo. 27. 

2. Wefcubricht fifius W'mi StifTan. 

Rex Heniicus conceflit Kubcrto de Valhbus totam terram quam Gilb't filius Boet tenuit et de incre- 
iiiento Corkby cum Pifcaria quam Wefcubricht filius W'mi Stiffan tenuit &c. Ex chaita extmplificata 
lub magno figiHo Anglix. — N. B. This record is at Naworth. 

3. Hubertus de Vallibus ex dono Regis Hen. II. 

4. Robertus Val'2 filius Huberti. 

j Ego Robertus de Vals conceffi Alexandro de Winlefores Fentun quam Pater meus ifll dedit et de 
ihcreraento Korkby cum molendino et Pifcaria tenendum de heredibua meis pro fervitium quartse parti» 
uHius mllitis &c. Ex ipfacharla fub figillo diifli Roberti. 

5. Alexander de Winlefores ex dono difti Roberti temp. Rich. I'mi. 

Thofe marked thus f are held of the lord of the manor of Corby, and perform fuit and £:rvice at court, 
• 'Ite origiaal deeds referred to, marked thus §, are prcferved at Corby. 

6. Will'ra\» 

CuMB. Ward.] CORBY CASTLE. 171 

" not refift eroding the river, to pay a vifit to thofe curious remains." — On a well- 
chofen part of the terrace, a feat is placed, infcribed with the following lines, 
defcriptive of the varied beauties of the landfcape. 

" Here thine eye may catch new pleafurcs, 

•' Whilfl- the landfcape round it meafurcs ; 

" RufTet lawns and fallows grey, 

" Where the nibling flocks do ftray ; 

" Mountains, on whofe barren bread 

" Labouring clouds do often reft ; 

" Meadows trim with dafies pied, 

" Shallow brooks and rivers wide; 

" Towers and battlements it fees, 

" Bofom'd high in tufted trees." 

L'allecro of Milton. 

We defcended to the banks of the river, and approached the grotto; the woods to 
the left towering from clift' to cliff, furmounted the vafl; fteep. Eden, after rufhing 


6. Willm'us fiiius Odardi |r! Ofanna uxor ejus filia et Hares. Alex'ri de Winlcfores. 

§ Forte ifta Ofnnna filia et hsres erat Alexandvi de Wink-fores in cujus jure idem Will'm's tenuit 
manerium dc Corkby, quia afTcnfu Ofanna uxoris ejus idem W'm's dedit monachis de Wederall 2 Bovat. 
Terr* in Corkby ut in charta didti W'm'i patet. 

Johan. I. fillus W'm'i. 

Ego Will'm's fiiius Odardi concilio et afTenfu uxoris mei Ofannce conceffi monachis de Wederall 2. 
Bovat. tcrrae ibm Tefte Rogero Archlepifcopo Ebor. Ex Reg'ro de Wederhall fo. 27. Clemens abbas 
libor. conccffit W'm'o filio Odardi quod bis in hebdomada miffa celebratur in Capella quod conftruxit 
infra Callrum fuum de Corkby &c. Ex Reg'ro de Wedrall fol. 31. 

7. Robcrtus fiiius W'm'i. • 
Ego Robertus fiiius W'm'i filij Odardi de Corkby &c, compofitione quam pater meus fecit cum 

Abbate Ebor. et monachis de Wederall fup. cantaria Capella de Corkby &c. Ex reg'ro de WederaU 
fo. 32. n. 54. 

8. Ifabella filia et hasres Roberti fillj W'm'i Ano 37. Hen. III. et i 2'mo Ed. I. et 19, Edw. I. 
Compofitio inter Roaldum fil. Alani et Ifabella nxore ejus ex una parte et Priorem et Conventum de 

Lanercoft ex altera parte pro Cert. Terr, in Torrofock. et Cumquint. Ex Regr'o de Lanercolt fo. 105. 
cap. 22 — Nota Rob'tus fiiius W'm'i predecelTor erat dicla: Ifabellce Ao. 37. Hen. III. 

§ Ego Ifabella reliifla Alani de Lafcelles Dna de Corkby conceflii Johanni fil. Roberti confanguineo 
meo totam terram cum pertinentiis quam habui in dominio in villa Wathare et Eilover in bofco meo de 
Corkby &c. Ex ipfa charta Ano rz'mo Ed. I. 

Thomas de Richmund fiiius Roaldi ct Ifabella Ao I3. Ed. I. 

9. Thomas de Richmund miles auratus 29. Ed. I. — 6. Ed'vard II. — 9. Ed. II. 

Roaldnsde Richmund fihus et hseres dno' Tho. 

Affifa inter Walterum de Roxbury et Ifabellara uxorem ejus in cujus jure dom. de Corn's Corkby quair. 
Et Matilda de Miilton dna de Gilfland et als Def. Tangem. improvament. fad. in Corn's Corkby prae- 
dift quer. et devaftat prcdift. defend. &c. Ao. 19. Ed. I. prout per exemplificationem recordi fub figillo 
fcaccarij in Cuftodia Cameri. dni regis ibidem reman. 

§ Ego Thomas de Richmund rclaxavi Job! dc Waithwick confanguineo meo totnm jus quod habeo in 
illis Tcrris et teuemcntis quas et qux prediftus Johannes habet ex dono Domins Ifabells; quondam domina: 
de Corkby avix mcc2 in villa de Warthvvick. Ex ipfa charta Ao. 29. Ed. I. 

a Ego Thomas de Richmund miles Dns de Corkljy conceffi decern lil)ratas Tevrx in Corkby Thome 
I.alon pro tcrmino vits fux. Ex ipfa charta \o. Uni 1315- Ao. 9 Ed. II. 

Thomas fiiius Roaldi de Richmund. Vide Inquif. vocat. Kirkby quell, c.iptam dc f^odis militum in 
Com. Ebor. Ao. 13. Ed. I. in fcaccario dni Regis reman. 

Z 2 # Ego 

CORBY 'CASTLE. JComb. Ward; 

over a fucceffion of cafcades, at length forms a long canal, fevered by a woody 
jiland of conlidcrahlc length, and terminated by a ftupendous amphitheatre of 
rocks, cro\\ncd and fcattercd over with wood. To the right, the ealy rifing flopes 
are covered with meads, ftretching up to Wethrual Priory, The entrance into 
the grotto is femicircular, on the edge of a cliff which hangs over the river, above 
which a precipice, not Icfs than one hundred feet in height, lifts up its venerable 
and rugged brow, crowned with oaks of great ftaturc. You enter into a fquare 
apartment, eighteen feet long, fifteen wide, and of a proportionable height, hol- 
lowed out of the folid rock, lighted by an aperture which commands a view of 
the beautiful canal and amphitheatre before dcfcribed ; from thence you pafs into 
an inner chamber, alfo formed in the rock, eighteen feet in length, and twelve in 
width ; the top of which is beautifuUly corniced by red and yellow veins which run 
in the ilone. This apartment is lighted by another aperture, commanding a view 
of VVetheral, with the adjacent meadows. On the right hand of the entrance into 
the grotto this tablet is placed: — 

" There Eden's lofty banks, 
" Now nearer crown with their inclofures green, 
" As with a rural mound, the champain head 
" Of a Iteep wildernefs; whofe hoary tides 
•' With thickets overgrown, grotefque, and wild, 
" Accefs deny; and overhead up grow 

" Infupcrable 

§ Ego Richaulus Je Richmund relaxavi duo TIiom?e de Richmund militi totiim jus quod habeo irt 
aiaiicrio de Coikby in Gilfland in Comit Cumb. &c. E:l ipla chaita Ao. 6. E6. II. 

§ Ego Roaldus de Richmund tilius et liaercs dni Thomse de Richmund Relaxavi Dno Andrea dc Harcla 
totutvjus meum quod habeo in inaner. de Corkby. Ex ipfa charta Ao. 15. Ed. II. 

Ego Richardus de Richnunul relaxavi dno Andrea de Harcla comiti Carlioli totum jus meum quod 
habti) in manciio de Corkby. Ex ipfa charta Ao. 1322. 16 Ed. 11. 

10. Andieus de Harcla Scotus Comes Carliol. Ao. 15, Edvi^. II. cui Thorn, de Richmund mil. alic- 
rjavit iiianerium de Corkby. 

1 I. Dominus Rex Edvvardus II. rationc attinftuta Andre de Harcla predifta de alta prodicione, Sic% 

IZ. Dominus Edwavdus III. RcxAnglix. 

13. Richardus Salkeld ex dono dni Regis Edwardi III. ao. 9. regni fui. 

§ Petentcs 14° Odob. ao. 9, Ed. III. 
■ Rex omnibus nd quos, &c. Sciatis quod cum dns Edwardus nuper. Rex Anglix paternofter pro bona 
lervitio quod Richardi'S de Salkeld eidem patri mei impenderat concefiit ei maner. de Corkby in 
Comit. Cnmbr. quod fuit Andva; de Harcla et per cjufdem fonsfaflura ad manus dni patris mci tanquam 
ifcatta fua devenit Habend. eidcm Richardo et hasred. fuis quofque idem pater noiter providerct eidem 
Richardo et hacred. fuis viginti libiates tcrrx in aliquo compctenti loco, S;c. Nos volcntes gratiam 
liberiorem facere eidem Richardo concedimus eiethared. fiiisdidum manerium de Coibycum peitinentiis 
pro viginti librates tcrrae in ; crpttuum. Tefte Rcge apud Ecrwickum ftip. Tvvedam. 

Ab ifto Richardo Salkeld :.d Richardum filium fuum. et fic a fillo ad filium predict, maner. cuidam. 
Richardo Salkeld militi jam hercdilaris difcendebat, qui fine heredo mafculo de corpore fuo excunte ob. 
a'o. 16; Hen. VII. relinquens fex filias ct heredcs. Inter quas partitltio fafta fuit p. indent, dat. apud 
Penrith 12 martij ao. 20 Hen. VII. do tola ha:reditate difti Rich. Salkeld militis, per quas diftum 
maner. de Corkby alFignatum fuit ad Dnam Katherinam Duckett priniogenitam fiham adtunc uxoreni 
Thomae Salkeld de Rofgill, et ad Margaretam fccundogenitam fdiam fuam relift. Thomx Blenkinfop dc 
Hellbeck armig. habend. tibi et haredibus fuis pro totis purpaitibus fuis totius hxreditatis patris fui 


CuMB. Ward.] CORBY CASTLE. t^2 

" Infuperable height of lottiefl: fhade, 

" Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branching oak; 

" Shade above fliadc, a woody theatre 

" Of ftatelic-n: view," . 

Paradise Lost, b. IV. 1. 132. 

On the left hand, the following; — 

" Another fide, umbrageous grots and caves 
'■ Of cool recefs; vvhillt murmuring waters fall, 
" Down the flopc hills, difperfed, or in a lake, 
" That to the fringed bank, with flowerets crowned, 
" Her chryflal mirror holds, unite the ftreams." 

ibid, 1. 257. 

The effevfl of mufic in this grotto is admirable, the apartments afford a fine echo, 
which is repeated from the oppofite rocks and woods. At a little difiance from 
this place, there is an open area, with a bafon in the centre. Behind the bafon, 
other cells are excavated in the rock: the ftranger, whofe curiofity leads him to 
enter them, is aftonilhed to find his return impeded by a torrent of water, which 
falls immediately before the pafTage. A large refervoir is difcharged occafionally, 
and the ftream {^o condudled as to form a very fine cafcade, falling from the brow 
of a precipice, and rulhing through the arch of a bridge, it pours headlong down 
the rock, before the entrance into the caves. 

From this fccne, a walk ftretches, by the margin of the river, nearfcven hundred 
yards in length, and of a proportionable width, terminated by a pleafure houfe. In 
this walk a tablet is fixed, infcribed as follows : — 

" The birds their choirs apply ; airs, vernal airs, 
" Breathing the fmell of field and grove, attune 
" The trembling leaves: whilft univerfal Pan, 
" Knit with the graces and the hours in dance, 
" Leads on the joyous fpring." 

Againfl a tree the following appofitc lines : — 

" ^uo pinus i)igens, alhaqiie populus 
" Lmbram bofpitaUm confociare cinmiU 
" Rcimis, et cbliquo laborat, 
" Lympba fugax Irepidare rivoJ" 

HoR. Lib. II. Ode III. I. 9. 

Ex ifta Margareta Blenkinfop cxivi't Tliomns, Jc quo Thomas 2. de quo Thomas 3- di' quo Henricus 
I'lt-nkinfop armig. qui 22 Novembr. A. D. iGoj.totam mcdittatcm fuum didi mancr. do Coiby alienavit 
i>no Will'ino Howard, ut per cartam luam de date Inpiadift. parct. 

Et de praedidta Katheiina exivit Tho. Salktld dc quo Ricli. de quo Barbara fola fih'a et hxres ejus 
fitipta Georgia Salktld filio Rich. Salkcld dc Tlirimby fratris predifti Thomas avi picdiftK Barbara; de 
quibus Thomas Salkcld armiger qui 10 Februarlj Ao. Dni 1624, totam medietatem fuam predifti manerij 
dc Corkby alienavit eidem Dno Will'mo Howard q\ii modo tenet intcgrc totuin luaBaium dc Corkby 
prcdift. rationc fcperalium perquifitionum fupiamcutionat Ao. Dni 1O25. 




[CuMB. Ward, 

Beneath a rock, which puflies its front from out the trees, on the long walk, and 
forms a cool and folemn recefs, is placed the Roman altar,t defcribcd in the notes 
to page 69, at the top of which, on a tablet, is infcribed the folemn mementos of 
Shakefpear : — 

" The cloud capt towers," &c. 

The frontof Corby houfe is of confiderable length, and conliftsof a fuite of genteel 
apartments; and although it is probable, that this caftle has been the refidence of 
the owners of the manor, ever fince the conqueft ; it bears, at prefent, no appearance 
of antiquity, excepting what is feenfrom an inward court. Large windows have 
been made in the tower, part of the old building raifed, and confiderable additions 
made to the principal front, which give it the ftile of a houfe built in the begin- 
ning of this century. — It is now a commodious nmnfion, comfortably furnifned. 
In the drawing-room, there is a pidure of Charles V. and his Emprefs, by Titian: 
he is reprefented, informing his lady of his intention to retire to a monaftery, which 
communication does not appear to meet with her approbration. There arc alfo 
feveral other pictures of confiderable merit, viz. an original full length portrait of 
Lord William Howard, in armour; a philofopher reading by the light of a torch; 
a mufician, the work of a Spanifli painter, &c. 

The woods adjoining this beautiful place are graced with oaks of a great fizc. 
The country is rich and well cultivated, the modern modes of hufbandry having 
been introduced, with great advantage, 

•f The altar, infcriptions, &c. have been much damaged by mifchievous people, fince the above waj 


[ ^75 ] 


ADruidical temple lies on an eminence, in the middle of a dark and dreary 
wafte, commonly called King Harry : why it has that denomination, we 
are not informed, otberwife than by a tradition, that one of the Henries encamped 
here; but on what occafion, or which ot our fovereigns of that name was here, 
there arc no relative traces in the tradition or in hiftory to refolve us. This monu- 
ment goes by the name of the Grey Yauds,§ from the colour of the ftones, which 
are placed in a circle, and are to be diflinguifhed at a great dillance, from the 
black mofs earth and heath that furround them. The number of ftones which 
form this monument, is eighty-eight ; they are but (mall, compared with thofe 
druidical remains we fliall, in the fequel, have occafion to defcnbe: the largefl: here 
does not exceed four feet in height, from the ground; they are granites of the na- 
tural form, as found on the furface of the earth; the circle is about fifty-twa 
yards in diameter, and to the north welt point, the largefl flone is placed about five 
yards from the circle. We mufl lufpend many of our obfervations on monu- 
ments ot this kind, till we come in courfe to that at Little Salkeld, the mod 
fpacious one in this part of Britain. What is moft obfervablc here, this being oner 
of the places for druidical convention, is the barrennefs of the ground: even con- 
ceiving that it was once furrounded by a forefl, it feems ill placed for convening 
the (fates w hich were amenable to this jurilHidtion. The ground is every where 
rent with torrents, and the deep worn channels are filled with (tones, whild the 
intermingled plots, where any vegetation appears, are juft covered with a fcantjr 
growth of heath; we fcarce know a more defolate fpot. Camden's dcfcription of 
this part of the country is, — " To the eaft, a lean, hungry, and defolate country." 
In getting peats on this waflc, fome years ago, an iron bullet was found, about a 
pound weight; mort probably brought hither by accident. 

The lands irom hence rife gradually, and form ftupendous mountains, which 
till the ealkrn boundary of this county: from King Harry, feveral narrow meagre 
vales are in view; the eaftern fide of ihefe hills we defcribed in the View of 
Northumberland, as wc pafTed above Fcatherftone Callle. 

The pariih of Cumwhitton|| is bounded by the river Eden on the weft, by Corby 
fields, in the parith of Wethcral, to Headfnook, on the north, by the rivulet 
called Carn, and by Carlatton and Cumrcw on the eali, and by Croglin water on 
the fouth. This was a dependent manor of the barony of Gilfland. J The church 


§ Horfes in this cotintty are frequently called yauds. Tbis monument flands on the weft of the moor. 

II The parifh of Cumwhitton contains 80 families, of which 2 are Papiih, 2 Preft)yterians, and 2 

J It is a cuflomary manor, confifting of about eighty tenants. — Cuftomary rent 13I. 9s. ^d. — A twenty- 
penny fine at change of lord. — An arbitrary fine on change of tenant. — In lieu of fervices is Relief 

from one half of the multure duty to the lord's mill il. ds. id. half-penny The lord claims all the vvood. 

Two parcels, within this manor, pay il. 14s. yearly cuftomary rent to the lord of Corby, and an arbitrary 
fine. — Seven parcels pay about 3I. a year cuttomary rent to John Aikinfon of Catlifle, Efq. with a twenty- 
penny fine. 


176 PARISH OF CUiMWHITTON. [Eskdale Ward. 

of Cumwhitton was re6lorial, and given to the priory and convent of Carlifle, but 
by ■whom is not known ; foon afterwards it became an appropriate.! The dean 
and chaptcrnominate an officiating minifter, who is licenced by the bifliop accord- 
ingly : he has a hoiife and a garden, with a falary often pounds a year, paid by the 
leflee of the church rights. There is a fpecial ufage in this pariih, of paying certain 
quantities of havermeal (oatmeal) in lieu of tithe of grain in kind. The curacy was 
augmented by lot, and the money laid out in purchafe of lands in Nichol Forefi', 
which now yield about 9I. rent per annum: by the bounty of the Countefs Dowa- 
ger Gower, who gave 200I. an additional augmentation was had, by which lands 
"were bought in the parifli of Addingham, yielding now near I5l.ayear; thewhole 
making a comfortable ftipend.* The dean and chapter demife all the redlory of 


From l/:e iKQyisirwfi, 31/? 5/"Qjjeen Elizabeth. 

The lord's rent amounted to 1 7I. 8s. 9d. 
The bailiff's fee 13s. 4d. 

The foreller's fee of the foreft of Geltfdale 6s. gd. and viijbr. haver. (S meauirea of haver.) 
For bound days work for 27 days at 4d. a day. 
For tlie cuftom called multure corn, filver 33s. 4d. 
Land feijeant's fee 5s. 4d. 
'• Memorand — There is within this manner of Cumwhitton one wood called Skeabancke, which is 
•' of verie good okes, and is worth, to be prefentlie fould, xx''. 

" Item, there are within the faid manner divers great and large commons of waft, heath, and nioie 
•♦ ground, known by divers names, viz. King Heniy, Cum Whitton More, Norllceughe, Ormfby More, 
" and otlicrs ; containing, by eftimation, 2000 acres, wherein the tennants do common their beads 
*' and cattle." 

" Item, in the time of the late Lord W. Dacres, there was ufed to be kept by one Cuthbcrt Gvaye, 
•' of King Henry fell end, a flock of weathers, and their pallure was of a fcveral place of the wa'U, of 
" more, called King Henry, and the bounds of the fame more where the flock (hoiild go and dtpalUire, 
*' albeit the fame lay open, and not enclofcd, was verie well knowen, and none of tlie tennants, who had 
" common for their cattle in the faid more, might put their cattle to common within the fame, and now 
" it remaineth unitorcd." 

" Item, the Bounder of this manner beginneth at the foote of Millbeck, where it runneth into Euen, 
" and fo afccndijig up the Millbeck to the foot of the Horfmanbeck, fo up Horfmanbeck to the three 
" gray Hones lying in a fporre rigge, from thence to the head of Hudefyke, to the thiee red rakes of 
'• Raife, from thence to the head ot Karne, and fo to the Croglinge to the font of the manner Syke, fo 
" up manner Slke to the head of Nortligyll, fo down Northgj'll to the head of Northflvewyke Beck, from 
♦' thence down unto Eden at Patwatli, and fo down Eden unto the place where bounder begunne." 

•)- A *** yeres ago, not far fro' the chapel of the moore, the which is in Com Whitton paroch, and 
ftondeth a vi myks eil from Carh'.el, was fownd a grave and theryn bonys inufttatx magnlttidinis. 

Lel. Iten. vol. vii. p. 48. 

* The increafe of the mortmain by thcfe augmentations is really alarming, and gentlemen of fortune 
ihould endeavour to proicribe their taking place in mercantile counties. 

P. N. Valor. T C K. Edw. II. 

Ecclefia de Coquidington (Kirkby) Cum- >• ^8 14 o < Ecdefia dc Cuniquintington. Non tax. quia 
quitington j (^ npn fuff. pro. incumb. 

Situation and Soil.] The lands lie high, mod part of it common ; irregular, but not mountainous 
—foil light and fandy. 

Produce.] Rye, barley, and oats, tolerably good — where there 15 black mould and clay, wheat comes 
lo pretty good peifeClion. 



Cumwhitton, except the curate's houfe and garden; viz. all the glebe lands and 
meadows called Kirkcrofts, tithes, oblations, obventions, &c. under the yearly 
rent of fifteen elkcps of haver-nneal,and 10s. in money, bcfides the curate's ftipend 
often pounds. 

HosEANDRY.] Is Improving, fo that the valire of land !s greatly incieafed — average 1 8s. per acre. 

Air.] Remarkably falubrioiis, and the inhabitants are healthy and live long. 

Bousd/lRY asd Population.] Carn rivulet on the eaft, river Eden weft — 9 milts S. E. of Carlifle , 
6 S. W. of Brampton — contains feven fmall villages, and about eighteen (Ingle houfes, I Cumwhitton, 
Jl Cambridge, 3 Morewaite, 4 Scarrowhill, 5 Hornfby, 6 High Noithfceugli, 7 Low Northfceugh — 
85 inhabited houfes, 340 inhabitants. 

Tenements, Farms.] Not better than hovels, and covered with ftraw — farms vei-y fmall, not exceed- 
ing 50I. or 60I. and fome as low as 5I. a-year — the generality not more than 20I. laid out compadl, and 
with out-gates to the common Cumwhitton is of a triangular form with a beautiful town green. 

Inhabitants.] Few fanners ; moft of the people occupy their own eftates; all of curtomary tenure, 
of the barony of Gilfland, except one fmall parcel — Thefe eftates have palTed, for fome centuries, in a re- 
gular line of defcent in the fame families, whence there is great fimilarity of charaftcr and famenefs of dif- 
pofition in the people. — No manufadlor)* — nor any public road, but for colliers — Tlie market town 
affords them, now and then, inteicourfe with the reft of mankind. — Politics and foreign occurrences never 
difturb their thoughts; and not till this year, 1792, has a newfpaper entered the parifh, and now one 
folitary Cumberland Pacquet has been introduced. — No tafte for fcience or polite literature ; books arc 
regarded as puerile amufements. — They are ftriftly honeft, credulous and fuperftitious ; delight in athletic 
exercifes, and are tenacious of old cuftoms. Tea, though a luxuiy ftealing in upon them, is held in fuch 
deteftation with fome, that they would rather cherifh a ferpent, than admit a tea-kettle. The people, in 
general, exhibit a ftriking refemblance of the moft ancient inhabitants, in their blunt honelly, fierce ho- 
nour, and rufticity of manners. 

Poor.] There is no workhoufe, and few poor fupported at the parifli charge. Charity does much 
with a private hand : — the patrician virtues will not let the old and infirm neighbour want a friend. — The 
annual fum for maintenance of the public poor feldom exceeds 24I. 

Fuel.] Peat and turf. — The mofles are full of wood, oak, afh, and hazel ; nuts are fi-equcntly dug 
up. — From one of the moffes iffues a ftrong chalybeate water : — this is not fingular ; the ftrongeft water 
of Harrowgate, Yorklhire, iffues from a morafs. The wood buried in the mofslies a confiderable deptlu 

Springs.] There are in many parts fine fprings of water. 

ANTiciyiTiES.] No caftle or ftrong building, but feveral fquare intrenchments on the commons, from 
20 to 100 yards, on the fquare. On the green, two artificial mounts, formerly ufed as butts for exercifing 
archers ; they are called High Willy Waftel, and Low Willy Waftel, probably from the great archer, 
recorded in the old fong. 

Wages.] Labourers 8d. per day — carpenters is. — mafons is. 2d. and maintenance. 

Customs.] They hold the wake, on the eve of St. John, with lighting fires, dancing, Sec. the old 

The family of the name of Drj'den are faid to have been fettled here for feveral generations ; they are 
people of property, and have always been greatly efteemed for their induftry, honefly, and fimplicity of 
manners. From an old writing remaining in the family, made in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it ap- 
pears that Erafmus Diyden, of Canons-Afhby, in Northamptonfliire, Efq. who was an anceftor of the poet 
Dryden, had then fome eftates in Cumwhitton parifh, and the prefent pofTeffors are of the fame family. 

Housman's Notes. 

VOL. 1. A a THE 

C ^7S } 

View of JVetheral Church, from Corby Walks. See page i66. 


DERIVES its name, probably, from Caftle Crag: fome have conceived it to 
have been the caflle of one Cradock, or Carrock. This parilh comprehends 
the northern point of that ridge of mountains which extends north from Crofs- 
Fell, of which we fliall fpeak at large, under the title of the parifh of Kirkland. 

Near the village of Caftle-Carrock are the apparent remains of two ancient 
tbrtifications. One in a wet meadow field, thirty or forty yards from the eaft end 
of the church, furrounded by a mote which has been of conliderable depth, (but 
is now grown over with a black moffy foil) of an oblong form ; it is about one 
hundred yards in length, and forty-eight in breadth. In the mote, on the eaft end, 
is a little pool of water of the lame quality as Gilfland Spa, the weeds, &:c. at the 
bottom are perfedly encruftcd, as it were with fulphurcous particles. The foil 
■within the mote is fon:iething higher than the marfh around it, is of a black 
graveliy nature, and has been in tillage beyond the memory of man. The tradition 
about this place is, " That it was formerly an old caftle, from the ruins of which 
«' the church was built ;" and what makes it probable is. there are feveral broken 
pieces of carved ftojies in the walls of the church. The other lies about a furlong 
towards the fouth, in a wet meadow ; is about three times as large as the former,, 
of a circular form, and rifes above the level of the furrounding meadow, nearly 
fcven or eight yards almoft perpendicular on all fides, except on the eaft, where 
the ground is higheft. The top is quite level, and the foil of a ftrong clayey nature, 
much unlike whatfurrounds it. It has alfo been long in tillage; and, at different 
times, fome fcabbled or rough ftoncs have been uncovered by the plough, but no 
iloncs appear on the furfacc of either of them, A fmall rivulet runs clofe by the 



weft fide of each, and might eafily be made to fill the mote of the former quite 
round; but the ground the latter ftands upon has a little defccnt to ihe ■weft. 

This was a dependent manor of the barony of Gilfland.* — " The firft freeholder 
that I read of, of Caftle-Carrock, was one Euftace de Vallibus, to whom Hubert 


* 12 cuftomary tenants — Cuflomary rent, 2I. 12s. 6d. to Arraatluvaite Caftle. — Arbitraiy fines. — The 
parifh of Caille-Carrock contains about 42 families, of whom 4 are Prefoytciians, and the number of in- 
habitants 232. 

Priory and Convent, Carl. Propr. Demi and Chapter Carl. Patron. t:> 'whom it pays a yearly penfion of 

ttuo JliiUings. 
King's books 5I. 123, lod. — Cert. val. 42I. — Real val, Sol. 

Incumbents. — 1312, Robert de Helpefton, pr. pr. and con. Carl. — 1346, John de Beghokirk, ibid. 
—1356, Adam — he was cited to (hew caufe why he flioiild not have a coadjutor afligned him, he btinar 
iffli&ed with the leprofy, and his parifhioncrs dared not attend divine fervice. — 1380, Thomas de Carleton. 
—John Colt. — John Richardfon, fen.— 157 1, John Richardfon, p. m. Richardfon, pr. vale nomine D. 

and C. Carl. — 1586, John Stoddart, p. D. andC. Carl 1589, Leo. Milburne, — 1635, d^- Gibfon. 

1672, Henry Skarrow. — 1679, Charles Rickerby.— ^1722, Jofeph Pattinfon. — 1739. Jqlin Pearfon, 
Clk. p. m. Pattinfon, pr. D. and C. Carl. — 1777» Richard Dickenfon, A. M. p. m. Pearlon. 


K. Edw. II. K. Hen. VIIL 

P. N. val. f, s. d. 2 non tax. quia nonl r. a /-■ t n. ■ 1 . 

Ecclefia de Caftlekayrok 6.0 o \ (uK. pro incumb. \ ^^^' ^^^'"'^^ ''^^""^ 5^- 12S. lod. 

Ricardus Slee Clericus Reftor eiufdem habet Manfion. cu. Gleba di£t. Redtorlas p'tin q. val. 7 
coibus annis — — — — — — — — — J 

Idem Ricardus habet decim. Garbeor. tocius p'rochie que val. coibus annis — — 068 
Idem Ricardus habet in fen. dec. que val. coibus annis — — — — 080 

Idem Ricardus habet dec. Agnor et Lane, infra diiS. p'ochia q. val. coibs a'is — o 20 O 

Idem Ricardus habet in aliis decis et oblacoibus minut — — — — oi6s 

Sm To'Iis valoris, 5I. 17s. lod. de quibs 

c if ^" folucoes p. Senagio Epo Karlij annuatim — — — 020 

Et in foluc. procuracoibs vifltacon ejufdem Epo in quolibs triennio folvend 3s. — et fie p. ann. o 012 
£t foluc. in penfion. priori Karlij. p. compoficoes a'im .^ __ — — O 2 O 

Sm deduft 5s. 

Et rem. 5I. I2S. lod. xma inde lis. 3d. halfpenny. 

EccL. Survey, 26th K. Henry VIII. 

iv-57» Z/;? Inq,uisition 3i/?o/"Queen Elizabeth. 


The amount of lord's rents, 9I. 5s. 7d. farthing. 

Jieddit. refolut. vie. Com. Curabr. voc. Tumcfilver p. ann. 2S. 2J. fartlu'ng. 
Bailiff's fee, 13s. 4d. 
" Mbmorand.— There are belonging to the faid manner, two great commons of heath anj macre 
" ground, containing, by eftimation, about MM acres, the one called the Lawmire, and the other called 
" Caftle-Carrock fell, in which the tennants of this manner have common for their cattle." 

" Item, There is a parfonage at Caftle-Canock, with a manfion houfe and glebe lande ; and there it 
" belonging to the fame the tithe corne in kind, and other dewes ; and one John Stoddert is now incum- 
"i)ent there ; it is in the gif} of the dean and chapter of CarliQe. 

" Item, the Bounder of the faid manner beginneth at the Cole Lyngs, from thence to the Bentie 
" Riggi from thence to the Sunderigghcad, from Sunderigghcad right over the fell to the Marbell-well, 

A a 2 frpm 


lie Vallibus, firfl: Lord of Gilfland, gave it in Henry II. 's time, together vnth 
Havton alfo. This Euil^ace gave a carucate of land in Hayton, and another in 
Caftle-Carrock, to the houfeof Lanercort; it is called Caftle-Carrockquaficaftrum 
de rupe; and was alfo, in Henry II. 's time, the inheritance of one Robert de Caftle- 
Carrock; after him it defcended fuccedively to Robert his fon, and to Richard his 
grandchild, whofc fon Robert was the lalt of that name inheritor thereof. He 
died in Edward I.'s time, and left three daughters and heirs, which he begot on 
the body of Chriftian Crookdake, aunt, and one of the two coheirs of John, fon 
of John, fon of Adam Crookdake, viz. Johan, wife of Thomas Newbiggin, 

" from tbence down the ridge dyke of Brackenthwaite to the Ocke-well, and fo to the Weatholme, right 
" up the Weatholme to Brackenthwaite peat mofs, and fo down the ridge dyke of Caftle-Carrock to an 
'* old dyke, and fo from that old dyke to a double dyke next to Carlatton, from thence to a place called 
** the Great Pitts, from the Gieat Pitts to the midett of Huckelle mofle, from thence to the Gray-flone 
« of Langerigge, from thence to the Seatehowe, from the Seatehowe to the Great-well, from the Great- 
" well to Gelte, qnd fo up Gtlle to the Cole Lynges aforefaid, where the fa d bounder firft began." 

Soil 4Nr>- Appearance.] The arable land is light, and fo full of blue ftones, that when harrowed, it 
appears to be nothing but a bed of Hones ; yet, by their attraftion of moilture, the bell crops are produced 
— The high fell or common is rugged and barren ; but the lower moor being dry, and covered with a fine 
herbage, affords good pafturage. The (heep are computed at 2000, of black cattle 300 head, and about 
1-40 horfes. — Much of the cultivated land lies in town fields, doled out in ridges ; a great impediment to 

Produce."] Befides the grafs grounds, chiefly barley, rye, and oats; fome wheat near the bafe of the 
mountain, where the foil inclines to clay. .—Here are fome patches- of wood, and hedges. 

Lime.] Burnt here in great quantities. 

Game.] Groufe on the moors, and ort the tarns wild-ducks. 

Inhabitants.] From their intercourfe with colliers, lime-bmTiers, and carters, have ftiaken off that 
fimplieity of manners v hidi marks the Kufbandmen, and they have contrafted a familiar_ roughnefs and 
auftcrity, together with a low fubtlety, which too often borders on fraud and deceit ; elleeraed arv 

School.] Not able to maintain the teacher — he has a fmaU property of his own,. 

Rents.] On an average 1 8s. per acre — increafed beyond its intrinfic value, by the number of workmen. 

Tenures.] There are two freeholds, the reft cuftomary tenements. 

Tithes.] Paid in kind. The tithe wool laft feafon fold for 8s. 6d. per ftone of l61b. — I took the 
height (vf the mountain, and find, by the falling of the barometer, that it will be about 300 yards per.- 
iiendicular above the level of the village of Caille-Carrock. 

Cattle and Sheep.] Sheep are bred on the commons, to a confiderable number yearly, and fome are 

'ed there to a good ftate of fatnefs. The cattle are of the Cumberland breed. — Horfes are fmall, of 

the Scotch kind. 

Antiquities.] Two calms, one of great magnitude, called Hefpeck-raife, on the fummitof the fell; 
About the year I775» ^ farmer removing a large cairn of ftones, near Gelt bridgCj in this parilh, founda 
human ikeleton in a fort of coflin made of ftones; — and, from fome myfterious expi>eflion of the farmer, 
and a fudden and vifible alteration for the better in his appearance and circumftances, it is generally be- 
lieved that he found there fomething of confiderable value. Infcription on the bell, " Praife thou the 
" Lord, O Caftle-Carrock !" 

Prospects.] Admirable from the fumrait of Caftle-Carrock fell, commanding all the moft fertile part 
»f Cumberland, bounded by remote hills in Scotland to the north, the Irifti fea to the northweft, the 
mountains of Skiddow, Saddleback, &c. to the weft, Gcltfdale fell to the fouth, and the Northumberland" 
Kountains towards the north.eaft — Solway Frith fpreads out a (hining lake, indented by many promoa^ 
idries, and the city of CarUfk lifts up its auguft head to crown the vale.— ^ Housman's Notes. 



Chrillian, wife of Michael Apulby, and Margery, wife of William Eaglesfield, 
Newbiggia's part defcendcd to three daughters and heirs, viz. Helen, wife of 
Richard Hall, Margaret, wife of Thomas Hall, and Alice, wife of John Hall, all 
of Kirkby-Thore. Alice's part came to the Lowthers of Crookdake, and from 
them to the Mufgraves of Crookdake, now owners thereof. Margaret's part, by a 
daughter, named Alice, wife of CoUinfon, fell to two daughters, Johan, wife of 
Gilbert Carlton, and Margaret, wife of John Bethom, of Thrimby; and, in the 
fourth defcent, Elizabeth Bethom, their heir, wife of Robert Salkeld, had ilTue 
Roger, who fold it to Loughc. I find no iflue of the eldeft fiftcr Helen, but one 
William Kitchen, who ibid the ninth part of Cartle-Carrock to Ranulph Dacre, 
that married Mukon's heir. 

" The purparty of Cafile-Carrock fell, by her daughter, named Chriflian, to 
William Ritfon, and by their daughter Mariot to Thomas Alanby, and by their 
daughter to John de Weft Levington, and by his daughter Elizabeth to Alexander 
Higtimore, whofc heir, in the third or fourth defcent, fold it to Dacre.. The third 
coheir's part, Margery^ wife of Eaglcsfield.";}: 


IS bounded by the pariflies of Croglin, Cumwhitton, Carlatton, Caftle-Carrockj 
and Gcltftone forcft. f 

The manor belongs to the Earl of Carlifle.* The church ? being appropriated 
to the dean and chapter of Carlifle, they appoint a curate, who has a leafe, pro 

X Denton's MS. 

•f- Tliis pari(h contains 34 families, and 146 iiiliabifants, one of whom is a Prefbyterlan. 
• This is a mixed manor. Coiififts of 26 tenants — Free-rents il, 6s. 8d. — Indenture rents 2I. 3s. 
I id. — Cuftomar)' rent 61. los. 7d. halfpenny — Service money is — A twenty-penny fine on death Qjf* 
lord — Arbitrary fine on change of tenant. 


Dean and Chapter of Carlifle Patrons. 

119 buflielsof meal in lieu") Piefcript for hayl Certified value! Augmentation landfr .... £•] o 
of tithe of corn. j" il. js, 2d. J 13I. 12s. lod. J In Ainftabte 8 10 a. 

Prefent value about 40I. _— _^_ 

P. NJch.Val. I K. Edw. II. 1 K. Hen. VIII. 

Ecclefia de Cumrue 4I. 108. j Eccl.<SeCumrew nontax, quia non fuf. p. ineumb.J — »— .« 

Soil.] Light and ftony — A third part of the land lying in ridges in common fields, prevents the com« 
mon improvements in hufbandry. — The weft front of the mountain, wliich is common, affords good p»f« 
tiirage for flieep and cattle ■ — Some fences of quickfets, and others of Aone, 

Climate.] Cold, but healthy. 

Agriculture.] The ridges in the fields, are in width 20, 30, or 40 feet, and fome looo in length 
— no poffibihty of advancing to the bcft modes the climate would admit — forced to herd the grazing cattle; 
yet they do frequent injuries to tke corps.— The land produces barley, oats, peas, fome wheat and turnips, 
good potatoes; and, when properly laid down, produces good grafs and hay. 


iH PARISH OF CUMREW. [Cu mb. Ward. 

tempore, of all the church rights, under the yearly rent of ten efkeps of haver-meal, 
and one pound Iterling in money, clear of out-goings. 

To the fouth-eafl of the church, in the inclofed lands near the fell, lie the ruins 
of a large edifice, fituate on a rifmg ground ; % but fo confufed and deflroyed, as 
not to Ihew its original form, or any marks to difcover its ftrength, or the £era when 
it was credled. Jn Dugdale's Baronage, vol. II. p. 22, a caftle of the Dacres, 
called DuMWALLOGHT, is mentioned to be fituate on the borders : but it is merely 
conjefture that this is the place. Camden doth not notice it, fo we prefume it 
was ruined in his time, or fo inconfiderable and obfcure, as not to be worthy his 
remark. In the map of Cumberland, publifiied in the beginning of the laft cen- 
tury, no fuch place is noticed. The Dacres poffeffed two little eftares here, which 
were fold to Sir Chriftopher Mufgrave. 

Wood. J Oak, afti, and birch, difperfed. 

Shbep and Cattle.] Great flocks of (heep aie kept on the common in fummer, and brought into 
tTie low grounds in winter. The wool fold laft feafon at 8s. 6d. per ftone. — No great attention is paid 
to cattle and horfes. They are of the Cumberland kind, without any improvement. 

Fuel.] Some coals from Talkin fcU, turf from King Hany, and peats from the heights brought down 
by fledges, where wheel carriages cannot go. 

No manufadlories, great roads, rivers or lakes. 

Tithes.] Oatmeal in lieu of hay and corn. — Sheep, &c. tithe In kind. 

Tenure of Lands.] Except fix freeholds, the reft cuftomary, held of the barony of Gllfland. 

Rents.] The average 14s. per acre. 

Game.] Of all forts common in the county. Mr. Gill is the only qualified man in the parifh. 

Stock.] About looo fhcep — 100 horfes — and 260 head of black cattle. 

Poor.] Only one perfon who receives a fmall relief. 

School,] None. 

Antiquities.] Upon the fummit of the mountain a cairn called Cardunheth, or Catkirk, of pro- 
digious fize. — To the weft of the church 300 yards, there is another. 

In the common fidd-s, weft from Cumrew, was lately difcovered a human flceleton, inclofed in a fort of 
cofEn of rough ftones ; a fmall cairn, or heap of ftones; covered the fepulchre. — A cairn was lately open- 
ed in the eftate of John Gili, Efq. of Cumrew, and an urn was found therein, inclofed with broad ftones, 
and lecure d with one laid over the top. The urn was broken, and parts of it carried away by the neigh- 
bours, Mr. Gill having fecured only the bottom of it ; the urn was of pottery, curioufiy carved on the 
outfide ; and he apprehends there was an infcription round the top. It contained a black mould. 

A circular inclofure of ftones, witli a large cover, was lately opened herf , the contents only a few de- 
cayed bones, without any urn. 

In making a ditch in Mr. Gill's eftate, a number of filver pieces were found; but the impreffions were 
rot undcrftood by any pcifon wlto faw them. Housman's Notes. 

% The mote and rampnit are verydiftinft, and alfo the entrance on the weft ; but as the place has a 
great defcent on all Cdes, it does not appear that any water could be brought to it ; the ground being alfo 
very dry and fandy. 

\Ve acknowledge great obligation to the Rev. Mr. Parker, curate of this pariih, formuch-information. 

The Editors. 


C ^83 ] 


IS fiirrounded by the fevcral pariflies of Caftle-Carrock, Cumrew, Cumwhitton, 
and Hay ton. It is faid to contain 1600 acres of arable land ; but has few inha- 
bitants. It is very remarkable, that it hath had no parifh church for feveral ages, 
and it is only known by tradition where the church flood. 

The manor belongs to the Earl of Carlifle, as lelTee of the crown; with which 
the Earl holds GeltfloneForcft; it has pafled through various changes of pofTefTors. 
" Karlatton flands in Gilfland, but is no part thereof. In Henry II, 's time one 
Gofpatrick fil. Mac-benock held it of the king, and paid fifty marks, Mac-ben-og 
(i. e. filius juuioris iixoris) was an Irifliman, and took part with King Stephen, 
iherefore his fon Gofpatrick compounded with King Henry for his father's living. 
After him, King John gave it to Robert Rofs, of Wark in Tindal, together vvitli 
Sowerby and Hubbertby, until the faid Robert Rofs recovered his lands in Nor- 
mandy, which he loft in the king's fervice. Henry III. took them from him, and 
gave them to Alexander, King of Scots, and his fucceflbrs, who held the fame 
until King Edward I. feiy.ed them, for the revolt of John Baliol, King of Scots; 
lince which time it was rc'gitim Domintciiw, until King Richard II's time, who 
granted the fame to Randulf Nevil, Earl of Weftmoreland, and Johan his wife. 
After him it defcended to Richard his fon. Earl of Salifbury ; and after him to 
Richard Earl of Warwick, his fon, who was flain at Barnet. After whofe death. 
King Edward IV. gave it to his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucefter, being af- 
terwards King. And lince that time it continued in the pofTelTion of the crown. 
I read of one Ughtred de Carlatton in Henry III. and Edward I.'s time; but 
whether they held any freehold there, it appears not." * 

The church of Carlatton t was given by Robert de Vallibus to the priory of 
Lanercoft, and by Bifliop Halton, with the confent of King Edward I. it was ap- 

* Denton's MS. 

f Incumbents Robert de Lo>idon, pr. Beck, Bidiop of Durham. — 1320, Henry de Newton, pr. 

pr. and conv. Lanercoft. — 1344, William dc Stockdale, ihitt. — 1380, Richard Hogge, ibid, — Here the 
biihop's regifler ends. 

p „. , „ , T K. Edw. II. K, Hen. VIIT. 

^ ,-,_,, * "^/'i- ^T/i /•! J >Eccl. de Carlatton non taxatur quia non fiifficit pro fti- 

Ecckfiade Carlatton (ohm deftr. 61. 139. 4d.j pendio capellani. 

Soil and Aspect.] The foil is light, and verj- full of ftones. — The face of the country uneven and 
open, the old iiiclofures fenced with ftone walls, late ones with quickfcta. 

Produce.] Barley, rye, and oats — light crops ; in fome late hufbandr)-, tolerable crops of wheat 
reared, — The grafs land is meagre, from being exhauftcd in tillage, badly laid down, and the fowing of 
grafs feeds ncgledled. — It is wonderful that common obfervation doth not bring convidion of the injury- 
derived from thofe errors, as well to the public as to the individual. 

Farm s.] This parirti is divided into feven large farms, of which the average rent is about 8s. per acre. 

Sheep.] No flicep have been bftd upon the fell for many years, but a few are generally bought in and 
fatted yearly. 


j84 GELTSTONE forest. [Cumb. Ward. 

propriated to that houfe, in confideration that the Scots had moftly deftroyed the 
monaftery, and that the king's army had been fubfifted by the tenants, through 
\vhich they were much impoveriflied. King Edward I. having reaffumed this 
church, granted the advowfon to the priory. Since the diflToIution, the tithes have 
continued in the crown, or the leffee of the king. 


IS a confiJerable trad: of mountainous heathy paflurc, and is bounded on the 
S. by the parifh of Croglin, on the W. by Cumrew and Caflle-Carrock, 
on the N. by Hayton, and on the E. by Knarfdale, in the county of Northum- 

The Earl of Carlifle holds it by leafe under the crown. — There is no dwclling- 
fioufe upon it, but the farmer relides on an adjoing farm, in the parilh of Caftlc- 
Carrock, and pays taxes there. Here is a larger breed of flieep than on the 
adjoining commons, and the wool is finer, which was laft year fold for 9s. 6d. per 
ftone of 16 lb. The river Gelt takes its rife here, and continues its courfe through 
the midft of birch and Alder woods, which are in confiderable quantities in the 
lower parts of the forefV. 

This and the adjoining foreft of Breirthwaite f were given to the priory of 
Hexham ; and, at the diflblution of that houfe, were granted to the barons of 
Gilfland. This may be the reafon of their being confidered as extraparochial — 
Breirthwaite Forefl, olherwife Tarnhoufe Forefl, is now confidered as part of the 
parifh of Brampton ; it is alfo called Tindale Fell, or Tindale Forcft, probably 
from Adam de Tindale, who granted much property to the priory of Hexham. • 

Climate.] Dry, cold, and healthful. 

Road.] The road between Penrith and Brampton lies through it. 

River and Fish.] In Cam rivulet, on the weflern border of this parifh, are trouts of the mofl 
delicious flavour. 

School and Poor.] None: 

Anti(;uiti£s.] The ruins of the church to be difcovered. — A cairn on Saugh-tree-gate farm. 

About ten years ago, in ploughing a field in Lord Carlifle's eftate, at Low-Hall, a number of coins 
ivere turned up, fuppoied to be Roman ; but not falling into the hands of any perfons fliilful in their 
value, they were thrown afide, and loft by the children. This eilate was commonly called Hall's eftate, 
and was in the family of the Halls for feveral generations, but was purchafed by the Earl of Carlifle, 
about twenty years ago. Their deeds (but from whom we cannot karn) were for every third foot of 
Carlatton, with grafs for twenty ewes and their followers. But Lord Carlifle letting Carlatton In feparate 
farms to plough, the farmers began to difturb and diive away Hall's cattle, upon which Hall made com- 
plaint to Lord Carlifle, then at N'avvorth Caftle, who ordered Mr. Knowles, his fteward, to hedge off as 
much land as would fatisfy Hall for his right on Cailatton, which the family enjoyed till the earl pur- 
chafed it. 

Plantations.] Within the laft twenty years feveral plantations of fiis have been made, which thrive 
Tcry well ; and are both an ornament to the place, and afford ftielter to the cattle, &c. from the helm- 
winds, which frequently blow here with great violence.— —»!—Hovsman's ^oTiS. 

t See the Inquilitioh, p. i co. 


[ 185 ] 


HERETOFORE fpelled ylynjlapelith, Eynjlable, (fo pronounced by the prefcnt 
inhabitants) or Ainftable, is we apprehend, of modern, or at moft of Saxon 
derivation, implying either a place of fale or fair, as Staple ; or a place for horfes, 
as Stable, /Una, Ains, or Eynrn is one ; itnicus, qiiidam. 

This parifli is bounded by the pariflies of Cumwhitton, Hefket, and Kirkofwald. 
Denton fays, " Ainftaplighe is a manor and towndiip on the fouth fide of Gilfland, 
divided from that barony by Northfkcugh Beck, and reached from the river Eden, 
on the weit, up caflward into the mountains, and bordereth upon Stalfol lordfliip 
toward the fouth. It containeth Ainlfaplighe, Rucroft, and the Nunnery, which 
Nunnery was founded by William Rufus. This fcignory and other lands in 
Cumberland, King Henry I. gave to Adam, fon of Swene aforefaid, from whence 
it defcended in King Henry II. 's time to William de Nevill, whofc lands in Cum- 
berland, in the reign of King John, were in the holding of Roger Montbegon, 
Simon, fon of Walter, and Alexander de Nevill. In King Henry lll.'s time, Ain- 
ftaplighe lordfliip became the inheritance of John MulFey, Henry Terrily, Michael 
de Vaux, fon of David, and others. About the year of our Lord God, 1239, and 
in the latter end of that king's time, William Boyvill, of Thurllay, Knight, was 
lord thereof, and held the fame of Richard Nevill. When he died, it fell to his 
Ion, John Boyvill, whole brother Edmund fold Ainftaplighc fo Andrew de Harcla, 
who forfeited it to the king, who gave it to others ; and from them to John Den- 
ton, of Cardew, fon to Sir Richard Denton, whofe pofterity, William,