Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the county of Hudson, New Jersey : from its earliest settlement to the present time"

See other formats









"Ask now of the days that are past." — Bible. 

'•Forsan et haec olim ineiniaisse jiivabit." — Virgil. 

" 'Gainst the tooth of time 
And razure of oblivion." — Shakespeare. 

NEW YORK: \^^ 

No. 89 Liberty Street. 


-U) , 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, by 

In tlie Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 


;-^^^? \* 



In the summer of 1S69, while the author was investigating 
the title to the land now owned by the National Storage Com- 
pany, near Communipaw, he had occasion to examine some old 
records. These awakened an interest in the past of this vicinity, 
which has increased with the subsequent years of research and 
toil. The following pages are the result. Whatever may be its 
imperfections, the candid reader may safely credit the author 
with considerable " work and labor done and performed," as the 
lawj^ers say, and an honest endeavor truthfully and impartially 
to reproduce the past and perpetuate the present, for the pleasure 
or profit of the future. 

I^ot a statement has been made without authority for its justi- 
fication ; not a fact which could throw light upon or add interest 
to whatever has happened within the County has been omitted, 
so far as the same came to his knowledge. 

The records at Albany, Trenton, ITackensack, Amboy and 
New York, besides many books, papers and private manuscripts, 
have been consulted. These have been depended on in prefer- 
ence to memories approaching the " forgetf ulness of all things." 
The County was no inconsiderable part of New Netherland, and 
its history is contemporary and its government one with New 
Amsterdam. This suggested the starting point for investiga- 
tion. It has been carried from that point until the present tune. 
There cannot be much doubt but many interesting facts have 


escaped discovery ; yet, it is believed, somewhat has been found 
and recorded new and interesting to the reader. 

As, until a few years ago, the residents in the County were 
mostly comprised in a few families, the genealogies of these 
families are here inserted. In their preparation much assistance 
has been obtained from the records of the old churches. These 
in that early day were kept in a manner which should make the 
keepers of modern church records ashamed of their carelessness. 

The sketches of some of the churches would have been more 
complete, had not persons who might be supposed to be inter- 
ested therein been quite so indifferent. 

To those who have by their subscriptions encouraged the au- 
thor to pu])lish this work he is profoundly grateful, and trusts 
they may have no cause to regret their part in its publication. 

C. II, W. 

Jersey City, Fehruary^ 1874. 


CHAPTER I.— 1609-1638. 

Claims of the early discoverers — Arrival of Henry Hudson — The object of his 
expedition — Discovery of Newark Bay — Its several names — Attacked by 
the Indians — Names of Hudson's river — He anchors in Weehawken Cove 
— Description of the country — The Dutch West India Company chartered 
— Plans of the Company to settle the country — Michael Pauw ])urchases 
of the natives, Hoboken, Ahasimus, Aressick and Staten Island — Names 
the colonic Pavonia — First settlement in the County — Arrival of Bout — 
Arrival of Van Voorst — Feast at his house in Ahasimus — Contest be- 
tween Pauw and the directors — He sells Pavonia, - - - 1-25 

CHAPTER II.— 1638-1646. 

Arrival of Kieft — Settlement in the County— Diificulties with the Indians — 
Murder of Smitz — The people assemble — ^The twelve chosen — Van Vorst 
killed by an Indian Chief — The river Indians flee to Manhattan — Thence 
to Pavonia — Description of the settlements in the County — The Indians 
encamp near Communipaw — Kieft orders their destruction — Attacked and 
slain by the Dutch — Communipaw Massacre — Terrible revenge — Pavonia 
a desolation — Treaty of Peace — Savages again on the Warpath — Van 
Vorst taken prisoner — Peace declared, ----- 26-40 

CHAPTER III.— 1646-1658. 

Arrival of Stuyvesant — Murder of Simon Walinges at Paulus Hoeck — Con- 
ference with the Indians — Tracts of land taken up in the County — War 
again breaks out-Pavonia destroyed — All the settlers flee — Indians re- 
turn their prisoners to Paulus Hoeck — Detached settlements forbidden — 
Persecution of the Quakers, 47-61 

CHAPTER IV.— 1658-1664. 

Deed from the Indians for all the land in the County between the Hackensack 
and the Hudson— The Refugees desire to return to Pavonia — Forced to 
concentrate — Petition to found a village on the Hill — The village of 
Bergen begun — Its founders and name — Its manner of settlement and 
defence — Its first charter and court — Names of officers — Lot owners or- 
dered to take out patents — A well ordered to be dug in the village— Com- 
munipaw fortified, - - - - - - - 02-90 


CHAPTER v.— 16(54-1(573. 

New Netlierland captured by the Eng^lish — Sir Edmund Ployden's claim to 
New Jersey — Governor Carteret reorganizes the court at Bergen — Speci- 
mens of suits in this court — Names of officers — People of Bergen take 
the oath of allegiance — First tavern license — Assemblymen elected — 
Carteret's charter to Bergen — Why he granted the land to the Free- 
liolders, - - - -..---.- 91-114 

CHAPTER VI.— 1(57:5-1764. 

The country recaptured by the Dutch — Bergen summoned to surrender — The 
people comply and take tlie oath of allegiance — The military power of 
Bergen organized — Controversy between Bergen and its dependent ham- 
lets, Pembrepogh and Minkakwa — Bergen sends her soldiers to New 
Orange — Tlie country surrendered to the English — Condition of the 
County in 1680 — Its villages and farms — Queen Anne's charter — Pro- 
vision for the care of the common land — Its final partition, -* 115-136 


The Revolutionary War — How it affected Hudson County — Incidents of the 
war in the county — Fort Delancey — Capture of Paulus Hoeck — Block 
House Point — The Cow Chase — Desertion of Sergeant Champe, &c., 
&c., ..--..----- 137-199 


The Duel (xround at Weehawken — Duels between Aarou Burr and John B. 
Church — George I. Eacker and Price — George 1. Eacker and Philip 
Hamilton — John LangstafF and Oliver Waldron — Augustus Smith and 
Archibald M. Cock — De Witt Clinton and John Swartwout — Richard 
Riker and Robert Swartwout — Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton — 
Isaac Gouverneur and William H. Maxwell — Benjamin Price and Major 
Green — Stephen Price and Captain Wilson — Commodore Perry and 
Captain Heath — Willian^ G. Graham and Mr. Barton — Henry Aitken and 
Thomas Sherman, . - - - - - . . 200-231 

CHAPTER IX.— Ferries. 

Communipaw ferry — Weehawken ferry — Jersey City ferry — Bergen Point 
ferry — Hoboken ferry — Brown's ferry — Douw's ferry — Pavonia ferry — 
Budd's ferry — Bull's ferry — De Klyn's ferry — Elizabethtown Point 
ferry, ---.-■-.-.- 233-277 


History of Jersey City — Paulus Hoeck — Paulus Hoeck race course — Early lot- 
teries — British graveyard — Names ot city officials — Consolidation with 
Van Vorst township — ^With Bergen and Hudson City — As a port of entry 


— Water works — Post office — Bull-baiting — Floating theatre — The old 
windniill — History of Bergen — Its officers — History of Harrison — Captain 
William Sandford — ^^Petersborough — History of Ahasinius — West India 
Company's farm — The Duke's farm — History of Iloboken — Its first occu- 
pant — Made into a city — Its officers — History of North Bergen — Secaucus 
— Three Pigeons — The Frenchman's garden — History of Hudson City — 
Its officials — Beacon race course — Horses running and time made, 


Organization of the County — Its officers — Vote for location of court house — 
Laying corner stone — Address of Chief Justice Hornblower — Representa- 
tives in the Legislature — List of Freeholders — List of Judges, 332-356 


Roads, traveling facilities and traffic — Banks — Newspapers — Churches and 
their pastors — Statistics of population, schools, taxes and crime, 357-423 

CHAPTER XIII.— Genealogies. 

Van Vorst Family — Vreeland Family — Van Winkle Family — Van W'agenen 
Family — Van Buskirk Family — Van Ripen Family — Van Horn Family 
— Newkirk^ Fathily — Qarrabrant Family — Sip Family — BrinkeihofI" Fam- 
ily — Schuyler Family — Kingsland Family — Gautier Family — Cadmus 
Family, . . . . 424-561 


Communipaw — Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or Mill Creek Point — Columbia Acad- 
emy — Prior's Mill near Point of Rocks — Fortifications on Paulus Hoeck 
— The Lee Medals — Duel Ground at Weehawken — Tablet in Hamilton's 
Monument — Views of the ferry boat Jersey, &c. — Paulus Hoeck — Corner 
of Newark avenue and Grove street — The Van Vorst Mansion at Ahasi- 
mus — Castle Point and Elysian Fields — Octagonal Church, 1680 — Re- 
formed Church of 1773 — The Van Vorst Mansion, corner of Jersey avenue 
and Wayne street — The Schuyler Coat of Arms — Retirement Hall. 


The Founders of Jersey City— Col. John Stevens and Edwin A. Stevens— Jacob 
M. Merseles — Robert Gilchrist — Benjamin C. Taylor, D. D. — Rev. John 
Kelly — Stephen Vreeland — Jane Vreeland — Hartman Vreeland and wife 
— Colonel Peter Schuyler. 


Bergen and Buyten Tuyn in 1660— Part of New Jersey— Roads to Newark — 
Part of Hudson County— Bergen and the Schuyler Mines. 


CHAPTER I. -1609-1638. 

Claims of the early Discoverers- Arrival of Henry Hudson-Tlie object of liis 
expedition-Discovery of Newark Bay-Its several names-Attacked 
by tlie Indians-Names of Hudson's river-He Anchors in Weeliavvken 
Cove-Description of the country-The Dutch West India Company 
chartered-Plans of the Company to settle the country-Michael 
Pauw purchases of the natives, Hoboken, Ahasimus, Aressick and Staten 
Island— Names the colonie, Pavonia— First settlement in the County- 
Arrival of Bout-Arrival of Van Voorst-Feast at his house in Harsiraus 
-Contest between Pauw and the Directors— He sells Pavonia. 

CoNCERNixxa the discovery of the harbor of New York and tlie 
adjacent country much has been written, and different conclusions 
reached. It may, however, be safely asserted that the honor of 
Its discovery does not belong to the distinguished commander of 
" de Halve Maan." In 1497, Jean and Sebastian Cabot, under 
commission of Henry YII. of England, sailed along the coast of 
North America, and claimed for their master the entire country, 
the shore of which they occasionally saw at a distance.^ 
^ In 1524, Jean de Yerrazzano, a Florentine, in the service of 
Francis I., King of France, is supposed to have visited the bay of 
New York;- Governor Stnyvesant, in his "Manifesto" to the 
Governor of Maryland, says : "Tlie French were, in the vcar of 
our Lord God Almighty 1524, the second followers of the dis- 
covery in these northern parts of this America by Johan de 

' ^'C«^-. ^- ^v ^■-.26. 2 Bancroft. U. 8., i., 17. 

3 Col. Hist. ofN. Y., L, 149. 


In 1525, Estevan Gomez, a Portuguese in the service of the 
Emperor, Charles Y., who had fitted out the expedition for the 
purpose of discovering a shorter passage to the Moluccas,^ visited 
the bay of New York. How thorough his explorations were is 
not known. As late as 1679 there was a tradition among the 
Indians that the Spanish were here before the Dutch, and that 
from them the natives obtained the maize or Spanish wheat.- On 
Kibero's map, which embodies the outlines of the map of Gomez, 
the whole country, from New Jersey to Ehode Island, is called 
the land of Estevan Gomez? 

In 1598, some Dutch in the employ of the Greenland Com- 
pany came into the bay of New York, and, intending to use it 
for winter shelter, erected a " little fort " against the incursions 
of the Indians.* 

By virtue of the discoveries of Yerrazzano, Henry lY. of 
France, in 1603, gave to Des Monts that portion of the country 
lying between the fortieth and forty-sixth degrees of north lati- 
tude. This included the greater part of New Jersey. But the 

1 Biddle's Life of Cabot, 271. 

2 Long Isl. Hist. Soc, L, 273. » Hudson's Sailing Directions, 45. 

< Col. Hist, of N. T., i., 149. In a letter (now in my possession) written by 
Robert Morris of New York to Abraham Ogden of New Jersey, dated Nov. 4, 
1785, occurs tlie following passage : " The only valuable property at Pavonia 
was within a fort which continued necessary for its original purposes, to wit : 
a defence against the Indians," etc. Where Mr. Morris obtained his authority 
for the statement it would be difficult to tell. 

It is proper to bear in mind that the Dutch generally denied all discoveries 
of the Hudson river prior to 1609 ; at least they denied that the natives recol- 
lected, or even had a tradition, that the bay had ever been visited by white men. 
Van Der Donck, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1042 and wrote a descrip- 
tii)n of the country in lGo3, says: " The Indians, many of whom are still living, 
and with whom I have conversed, declare freely that before the arrival of the 
Low Land ship, the Half Moon, in the year 1009, they did not know that there 
were any other people in the world than those who were like themselves, much 
less any people who differed so much in appearance from them as we did." N. 
Y. Hist. Soc, If. 8., 137. The poetical account of the first arrival of Euro- 
peans at York Island which the Rev. John Heckewelder, a Moravian missionary 
in Pennsylvania, received from the Indians, bears out the same belief, that 
Hudson was the first white arrival. Ibid, 71. The weight of evidence, how- 
ever, seems to be against the position. 


grant of the French King was ignored by James I. of England, 
who, in 1606, granted to Edward Maria Wingfield^ and his 
associates, under the name of the So^lth Virginia or London 
Company, the land between the thirty-fourth and forty-first de- 
grees of north latitude, and to the North Virginia Company he 
gave the land lying between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth de- 
grees of north latitude." 

While these bold navigators were facing the dangers of un- 
known seas, and monarchs were elated at the prospect of extend- 
ing their sway over a new and wonderful land, events were trans- 
piring in Europe which were destined to plant an empire on the 
banks of the Hudson. ^Notwithstanding the severe measures 
adopted by Charles Y. and Philip 11. to destroy the freedom and 
enterprise of Holland, that indomitable people not only bafiled 
their foes in the field, but, in the midst of their cruel oppressions 
and the fires of long years of wars, kept alive a keen appetite 
for trade and adventure, and extended their commerce to every 
sea. The Spaniards had attempted to destroy the Dutch trade to 
the Indies, and the Netherland merchants now boldly sought 
a route to that El Dorado by the way of the northwest. 
To accomplish this, Henry Hudson, whom the Dutch writers 
call "the bold Englishman," was induced to enter the service 
of the Dutch East India Company. He was an experienced 
navigator, had already, under the patronage of some London 
merchants, made two attempts (in 1607 and 1608) to discover 
his favorite passage, and still had unshaken faith in final success. 
The Company put him in command of a yacht or " Ylie boat"^ 
called the Half Moon,* of thirty lasts^ burden, and manned by a 

1 Wingfield was one of the Councillors of the Virginia Company of London 
and chosen its first president. He was a grandson of Sir Robert Wino-field of 
Huntingdonshire, and son of Thomas Maria Wingfield, so christened by Queen 
Mary and Cardinal Pole. Camden Soc. Pub., JYo. 43. He invested £88 in the 
venture. Force's Coll., Hi. 

2 It will be observed that the two grants lap between the 38th and 41st de- 
grees. Why this was so, unless to reduce the prior grant, I do not know. 

3 So called from being built to navigate the Vlie, or Texel. The name is now 
corrupted into " Fly Boat." 4 De Halve Maan. 

5 A last 18 nearly two tons— zicaarte van 4,000 j?;w(?. 


crew of twenty, partly Dutch and partly English. By his agree- 
ment with the Company, dated January 8, 1609, he was to sail 
about the first of April in search of a passage by the north side 
of Xova Zembla, and to continue along that parallel until he was 
able to sail south to the latitude of sixty degrees, and then hasten 
back to report to his employers. For this service he was to 
receive eight hundred guilders, and in case he did not come back 
within a year, then' they were to give his wife two hundred 
guilders more. In case he found the passage, then the Company 
were to reward him " for his dangers, trouble and knowledge in 
their discretion." He was ordered " to think of discovering no 
other routes or passages except the route around by the north and 
northeast above Nova Zembla ;" but if this could not be accom- 
plished at that time, " another route would be the subject of con- 
sideration for another voyage."^ Bound by his instructions not 
to go south of the sixtieth degree of north latitude, he sailed 
from the Texel, April 6, 1609. Disregarding his instructions, 
however, in his anxiety to discover his f av^orite object, he coasted 
along from Newfoundland as far south as the Chesapeake, and, 
returning, cast anchor inside of Sandy Hook,- on the third of 
September. Before him rose tlie Highlands of the Navesinck, 
while upon his left lay the shores of Monmouth. He pronounced 
the surrounding country *' a very good land to fall in with, and 
a pleasant land to see."' Here he lay for a few days, cultivating 
an ac(|uaintance with the Indians, who seemed highly pleased 
with the pale face. '' The people of the conntry came aboard of 
us, seeming very glad of our coming, and brought green tobacco, 
and gave us of it for knives and beads. They go in deer-skins 
loose, well dressed. They have yellow coi)per. They desire 
clothes, and are very civil."^ On the morning of the sixth, 
John Colman, witli four men, was sent to sound the river 
opening to the north. Passing through the Narrows, they found 

' Henry Hudson in Holland, by 11. C. Murphy. 

■^ Called by the Indians, Naosh, i. e., a point surpassing all others. 

3 Juet's Journal of Hudson's Voyage. N. F. Hist. Coll., N. S., i., 333. 


^' a very good riding for sliips,"^ and " a narrow river to the west- 
ward between two islands."^ They found the shores on both 
sides " as pleasant with Grasse, and Flowers, and goodly Trees, as 
ever they had seene, and very sweet smells came from them. 
So they went in two leagues and saw an open sea.'" On their 
return they were attacked by twenty-six Indians in two canoes, 
and Colmaa was killed.* His remains Avere interred at Sandy 
Hook, and the spot was named Colman's Point.^ On the eleventh 
Hudson passed through the Narrows and anchored near the mouth 
of the Kill Yan Kull, "and saw that it w^as a very good harbor 
for all winds." The next afternoon he went up the bay six miles 
— about opposite Communipaw. The surrounding country im- 
pressed him with being " as pleasant a land as one need tread 
upon." At seven o'clock the next moruing he hoisted anchor 
for the exploration of the lordly river, which he hoped would 
lead him to the Indies ; but which, instead of bearing his trusty 
ship to the shores of tlie Orient, will, as long as its waters roll on 

' Hudson's Journal. This was the upper bay, or " Great Bay," as Van Der 
Donck calls it, Moulton, i., 214, or quasi per excellentiam, " The Bay." i\7". T. 
Hist. Soc, N. S., L, 140. 

2 This was the Kill van Kull, or Het Kill van het Gall, i. c, the creek of 
the bay. A kill may be either an inlet or an outlet. The name is now applied 
to the outlet of Newark Bay. At one time the same name was applied to Pin- 
home's Creek, which is an inlet. At times it has been called After Skull Biver 
and Kill van Corle. 

This was Newark Bay, afterward called Het Adder Cull, i. e., the back 
bay, to distinguish it from " The Bay," or New York Bay. By the Dutch it 
was also written Aghtcr and Achter Coll, N. Y. Hist. Soc, 2d, S., i., 93 ; and by 
the English After Coll, Col. Hist, of JSf. ¥., ii., 576, and applied to the territory 
bordering on the Kills, between Elizabeth and Amboy, as well as to the bay 
itself. It was afterward corrupted into Arthur Cull and After Kull. 

< This attack was probably made at the mouth of the Kill van Kull. It is 
also probable that the canoes were from Manhattan, for the Indians on the Jer- 
sey shore visited the ship the next day, and seemed to be ignorant of what had 
happened. This, I think, would not have been the case had the attack been 
made by any of their neighbors on the west side of the bay. It must also be 
borne in mind that there was no intercourse between the tribes on the opposite 
sides of the river. They were infessisnmi hostes. Moulton, i., 219. 

5 C/Cal., JSr. N., i., m ■ N. T. Hist. Col , i., 334. 


to the sea, bear his name down to posterity.' He did not return 
until the second of October, wlien, having been attacked by the 
Indians at the head of Manhattan Island, he bore gradually across 
the river, and anchored in Weehawken Cove, just above Castle 
Point.^ On the fourth, with fair weather and a northwest wind, 
he weighed anchor, and, bidding a final adieu to the river he had 
explored, passed through the Kills to Amboy, and thence stood 
out to sea.* 

' The Hudsou River lias bad many names, some of them striking and beau- 
tiful. The Iroquois called it Cohohdtatca, i. e., " the great river having 
mountains beyond the Cohoh." The Mohegans called it the Shatemuc, i. e., 
" the place of the pelicans." The Delawares named it MaJiican-ittuck, i. e., 
" the River of the Mohegans.." By the Spaniards it was named Eio St. Antonio, 
in honor of St. Anthony; Bio de Montaigne, from the mountains through 
which it flows. Dr. Asher thinks they also called it Rio de Gomez, in honor of 
the navigator. Hudson's Sailing Directions, 47. The French called it Reviere 
des Montaignes. The Dutch named it De Groote Rivier, because of its magni- 
tude ; Noordt Rivier, i. e.. North River, to distinguish it from De Zuydt Rivier, 
i. e.. South River, or Delaware ; De Groote Noordt Rivier van Nieuw Neder- 
landt, i. e.. The Great North River of New Netherland ; Mauritius, in honor of 
Prince Maurice (Watson, Historic Tales, 21, and Schoolcraft, Proc. N. Y. Hist 
Soc, 1844, 94, say that this last name was not applied iiutil 1638, hut Broadhead, 
i., 45., says it was already thus known in 1611) ; Riviere van den Vorst Mauri- 
tius. Col. Hist, of N. Y.,i., 13. It was also called The River of Pavonia, Ibid, 
151, and The River of Manahata. The people of New England called it The 
Mohegan River. It was reserved for the English to honor their brave country- 
man by naming it Hudson's River. 

2 Juet's language is this : " Within a while after we got down two leagues 
beyond that place, and anchored in a bay clear from all danger of them on the 
other side of the river, where we saw a very good piece of ground ; and hard 
I: y it there was a cliff that looked of the color of white green, as though it were 
either a copper or silver mine ; and I think it to be one of them by the trees 
that grow upon it ; for they be all burned, and the other places are as green as 
grass." iV. Y. Hist. Col., iV. S., i., 331. The description answers to Hoboken in 
every particular. The only difficulty about it is, he says, " It is on that side of 
the river that is called Manna-hata." One of two things I think is certain, 
either he intended this last remark to apply to the place where the Indians at- 
tacked the vessel, or the translator is in error. 

3 It was during this visit that the whites introduced to the Indians the most 
deadly enemy of their race. They were not slow to learn that wine tastes bet- 
ter than water., and the wild joy of one debauch gave strong invitation to an- 
other. While they were a free people, unaccustomed to servitude, and therefore 


Although Hudson failed in the direct object of his ambition, 
to him must be accorded the honor of making known to Europe 
the tin est harbor of the western world and the great river which 
is an enduring monument to his memory. He had incidentally 
opened to the old world the loveliest and richest part of the 
new, where nature seemed to have scattered her gifts from a full 
hand. The forests abounded in all kinds of useful and orna- 
mental trees, many of them bearing delicious fruit. Yines grew 
everywhere, yielding in abundance. Plants of nearl}^ every 
variety grew in great profusion, useful for food and for medicine. 
Through the forests roamed innumerable buffaloes, panthers, 
bears, deer, elk, foxes, wildcats, wolves, raccoons, beavers, otters, 
musks, hares, rabbits, squirrels and ground-hogs. These invited 
the Indian to the chase, for they supplied him with both food and 
clothing. The fowls of the air were numerous and of great 
variety. In the waters of the bay and river life was not less 
active and varied. At times the bay appeared to be alive with 
water fowl. The swans, similar to those in the jNetherlands and 
" full as large," were so numerous that the water and shores where 
they resorted appeared " as if dressed in white drapery."^ There 
were three kinds of wild geese, so numerous that sixteen were 
killed at a shot ; ducks, widgeons, teal, brant, blue-bills, whistlers, 
coots, eel-shovelers, and pelicans,^ with many strange fowls, some 

had not in their language a word to express " subjection," so, being a temper- 
ate people, unused to " hot and rebellious liquors," they had no word in their 
language to express " drunkenness." It was left to the pale face to name the 
monster they had brought to the red man. 

1 iV. Y. Hist. GoL, N. S., i., 174. The upland which lay in the vicinity of 
the intersection of Gri-and street and Hudson avenue was known by the Dutch 
from the earliest times as Swatie Punt, i. e., Swan's Point. It is probable that 
the place received its name from the fact that it was the resort of the swans in 
the brooding season. 

■2 Watson, in his Hutoric Tales of the Olden Times, and Schoolcraft, Proc. N. 
Y. Hist. Soc, 1844, 94, say it is not known that pelicans ever visited the waters of 
New York. Van Der Donck speaks of them as common. The Mohegans who lived 
on the banks of the Hudson named the river Shatemuc, from Shaita, a pelican, 
and m, denoting locality or place, hence the name showed it to be the place of the 
pelican. From the fact that they imposed their name upon the river which 
they frequented, I conclude that they must have been very numerous. 


of which were nameless. Many of these have long since forsaken 
the neighboring Avaters. The river and bay were rich in many 
kinds of fish, among which were whales.^ Among the shell-tish 
were lobsters, some of them " being from five to six feet in 
length," and oysters, some of which were " fit to be eaten raw," 
others were " proper for roasting and stewing," each of which 
wonld " fill a spoon and make a good bite."^ 

It was natural that such an abundance and variety of food 
should have attracted to the neighboring shores numerous tribes 
of Indians. Many were settled in the vicinity at the time of 
Hudson's visit. Those inhabiting the present State of New Jersey 
and the neighboring parts of New York were of the general stock 
of the Delawares, or Lenni Lennape,^ but were divided into two 
branches, called by the English Mohegans and Mincees, or Mon- 
seys, and by the Dutch Ildnh'd-ans and Sim/iihms^ The Mo- 
hegans dwelt on the east side of the river, and were the heredi- 
tary enemies of the Mincees or Sanhikans, who dwelt on the west 
side.^ These were divided into numerous tribes, and these again 
into clans. On New York Island dwelt the fierce Manhattans.'' 
De Laet says they were " a wicked nation," " a bad race of sav- 

' In 1G47 two whales ascended the Hudson as far as Cohoh, If. Y. Hist. Soc, 
2f. 8., i., 14;3, possibly, like their enterprising predecessor, seeking a northwest 
passage to the Indies ! In the Weekly Post Boy of Dec. 11, 1752, is the follow- 
ing item : " Last Saturday a whale 45 feet long run ashore at Van Buskirk's 
Point, at the entrance of the Kills from our Bay ; where, being discovered by 
people from Staten Island, a number of them went off" and killed him, and may 
now be seen at Mr. John Watsoa'K, at the ferry house on Staten Island." 

2 Van Der Donck's " New Netherlands." JV. Y. Hist. Col, N. S., i., 177. 

3 Original or unmixed race ; manly men. 

^ This word, according to Heckewelder, is derived from " sankhican," which 
."^i^nifies fire icorks, and means the fire iporkers, or fire loork people. 

5 Broddhead, i., 73. The Sanhikans were sometimes also known as the Wa- 
h'lKji, or WappiuQcs. This latter name is derived from the Delaware word Wa- 
piiif/, signifying Oposnim. They inhabited the western shore from the mouth 
of the river to the Catskill. Tliey were divided into tribes, which hereabouts 
weie the Haritans. Ilackingsacks, Pomptons, and Tappaens. 

" Mon-ah-tiin-uk, 2)lace of the dangerous river, i. e., Hell Gate, and applied to 
the inhabitants of the adjoining island. They were the people of the xchirlpool. 


ages," " enemies of the Dutch." On Long Island^ were the savage 
MetouwacJcs, subdivided into numerous tribes. The Indians on 
the west side of the Hudson were a better people than the Man- 
hattans. They carried on considerable traflic with the Dutch, 
exchanging corn, beans and squashes" for trifles. Among the 
Sanhikans some have supposed Hudson landed.^ If he landed 
at all during his stay in the upper bay, of which, however, there 
is no record, it was, beyond a doubt, on the west shore. There 
the natives Avere friendly, while on the opposite shore they were 
positive enemies. Every inducement wdiich could have per- 
suaded him to land existed in fivor of the Jersey shore. The 
nativ^es between Bergen Point and Weehawken had extended to 
him many acts of kindness, and were neighbors and relatives of 
those in the vicinity of Sandy Hook, with whom Hudson held 
intercourse for some days. 

The report of Hudson's voyage, on his return in the summer 
of 1610, awakened among the merchants of Holland a great de- 

' Called by the natives Sewan-hacky, i. e., "the land of shells" — the place 
where the Indians coined their money. 

Astutasquash, i. f ./'vine apple." N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. 8., i., 186. Van Der Donck 
speaking of the pumpkin, says : " It groves here with little or no labor, and 
need not yield to the apple for sweetness, so that the English, who generally 
love whatever tastes siceet, use it in their pies." 

3 Rev. Mr. Abeel, whose MS. is quoted in Moulton, i., 218, says that on tli*^ 
point where New York is now built, Hudson found " a very hostile people. 
But those li^^ng on the western shore from the Kills upward came daily on 
board the vessel while she lay at anchor in the river, bringing with them to 
barter, furs, the largest and finest oysters, Indian corn, beans, pumpkins, 
squashes, grapes, and some apples, all which they exchanged for trifles : Here 
Hudson landed." 

At the time of Hudson's visit there were four islands near the Jersey shore, 
viz.: Ellis Island, or Bucking Island, called by the Indians Kioshk, "Gull 
Island;" Bedlow's or Kennedy's Island (from its owners, Isaac Bedlow and 
Archibald Kennedy, also known as Love Island before its conveyance to Bod- 
low, iV. Y. Hist. Soc. Prac, 1844, 98), named by the Indians Minhisais," The 
Lesser Island" (from which it would appear that at one time it was smaller than 
Ellis Island) ; Oy.ster Island, which lay a short distance southwest, and Kobin's 
Reef, or Robyn's Rift, that is, " seal reef," for in the Dutch robyn signifies a 
seal. In 1G89, by request of Mr. Bedlow, the island now bearing his name was 
made a place of privilege from warrant of arrest. Dunlap's N. Y., ii., crmi. 


sire to engage in and even to secure a monopoly of tlie trade thus 
suddenly opened to their enterprise. A new vessel was fitted 
out and freighted for De Groote Rloler. The venture was suc- 
cessful, but whether any settlement was made is not known. It 
has been said, however, on the authority of Ileckewelder, that the 
Dutch made a settlement on the Jersey shore in that year.^ Of 
this fact there does not exist the slightest proof, and it may well 
be doubted, when we reflect tliat there were but four huts on 
Manhattan Island in 1614. In that year Sir Samuel Argall, of 
Virginia, sailed into the harbor, subjugated the " settlement," and 
placed it under tribute to the Governor of Virginia.^ This sub- 
jection was, however, soon thrown oft", fortifications were pro- 
jected, and the Dutch were supreme for the next half century. 

The merchants who had sent out vessels had been so successful 
that they sought, and in October, IGli, obtained from the States 
General of the United ISTetherlands a monopoly of the trade of 
the country between Xew France and (now for the first time 
called) New Netherland for four voyages within three years from 
January 1, 1615.^ This monopoly was protected by threats of 
confiscation of vessel and cargo, " besides a fine of fifty thousand 
Netherland ducats," upon any intruder. The merchants thus 
secured for three years assumed the name of " The United New 
Netherland Company,"* and made preparations to reap all the 
advantages now placed exclusively in their hands. Ealkins 
established a trading post near Albany ; Block, in the " Restless," 
explored the coast of SoheyiGlihv' and the LennapewihUtuck^ as 
far as the Schuylkill. Treaties were made with the Indians, 
trading posts established at several points,^ and wealth poured 
into the treasury of the Company. 

1 O'Cal, N. N., %., 68, n. « Ibid, 335. 

3 Col. Hist, of JV. Y., I, 10. 

■* Beekman's address, JV". T. Hist. Soc. Proc, 1847, 88 ; Broadhead, L, 137. 

5 The Indian name of what is now New Jersey. 

s Sijrnit'ying the Indian River, now Delaware. 

■^ There is no evidence that at this time a trading post was established with- 
in this county. Such probably was the fact, for two reasons : First, the Indians 
on this side of the river were friendly ; Second, Harsimus was looked upon as 
the natural outlet for the commerce of the interior. The subsequent purchase 


This exclusive charter expired by its own limitation on the first 
of January, 1618. Its renewal was refused, and on the third of 
June, 1621, the " great armed commercial association," the Dutch 
West India Company, w^as chartered.^ The charter gave them 
exclusive jurisdiction over New Netherland for twenty-one j'ears, 
power to make contracts with the native princes, build forts, ad- 
minister justice and appoint Governors. Tlie government of the 
Company was vested in five chambers, and the executive 
powers in a board of nineteen delegates from the five chambers, 
including one to represent the States General. The nineteen 
gave to the Amsterdam chamber the management of the affairs 
of New Netherland, which, in June, 1623, was erected into a 
province.^ Among the members of that chamber was Michael 

In the spring of this year an expedition was fitted out and 
thirty families sent over in the ship " New Netherland," to 
begin a permanent settlement. It was placed in charge of 
Cornelis Jacobsen May (or Mey), who was to be the first direct- 
or of the colony. His administration over this infant colony 
was a very simple aftair, and lasted but one year. He was 
succeeded by William Yerhulst, as the second Director of New 
Netherland, in 1624:, and he by Peter Minuit, in 1626. 

It having been determined to establish the colonial head- 
quarters on Manhattan Island, Minuit purchased it of the 
natives for sixty guilders,^ and staked out a fort.'* While this 
fort was being built a crime was committed, the result of which 
a few years afterward bore heavily on the settlements within 
the territory now comprising Hudson County. A Weckquaes- 
geck^ Indian, with his nephew, then a small boy, and another 

of Pauw was opposed by his associates, on the ground that to this point came 
all the native commerce, which ought not to be controlled by one man. The 
high commercial importance of our shore put upon it thus early has not in the 
least depreciated. 

' A copy of this charter, in cxtenso, may be found in O'CaL, N. iV., L, 899. 

'•2 Broadhead, i., 148. 

3 Ibid, 164. ^ Valentine's Hist, of N. Y., 25. 

5 Now Westchester County in the State of New York. 


relative, came from liis home to sell beaver skins to the Dutch. 
Before he reached the fort he was met by three of Miiinit's 
servants, who robbed liim of his peltries and murdered him. 
The nephew, who witnessed the outrage, swore to revenge his 
uncle's murder, and most terribly did he keep his word.^ 

In 1629 the condition of New Netherland did not meet the 
expectations of the Company. The population around Fort 
Amsterdam was small and dependent ; the trading at Fort 
Orange and on the South River was very insigniticant. No 
land was cultivated, save enough to supply the scanty wants 
of those attached to the Forts, and the only exports were furs 
and peltries. Plans were now devised to improve the condition 
of the Province. The Assembly of the XIX, on the 7th of 
June, 1629, granted "to all such as should plant any colonies in 
New Netherland " certain " freedoms and exemptions," con- 
sisting of thirty-one articles. Concerning tliem Mr. Broadhead 
remarks : " Reserving to themselves the Island of Manhattan, 
which the Company declared it was their intention to people 
first, they designated it as the emporium of their trade, and 
required all fruits and wares ' that arise on the North River and 
lands lying thereabouts,' should be first ])rouglit there. To pri- 
vate persons, disposed to settle themselves in any other part of 
New Netherland, the Company offered the absolute property of 
as much land as the emigrants might be able ' properly to im- 
prove.' To tempt the ambition of capitalists, peculiar privileges 
were offered to them. These privileges, nevertheless, were care- 
fully confined to members of the West India Company.'"' Any 
member who should, within four years, plant a colony of fifty 
adults, in any part of New Netherland, excepting the Island of 
Manhattan, should be acknowledged as a " Patroon," or feudal 
chief of the territory thus colonized. Each colony might have 
lands sixteen miles in length on one side of a navigable river, or, 
if both banks were occupied, eight miles on each side, extending 
as far back into the country " as the situation of the occupiers 
will permit.'' Each patroon was promised a full title, upon eon- 

' aCftl, N. N., i., lOo. • Broadhead, i., 194. . 


ditioii that he should satisfy the Indians for the land taken by 
him. If he established a city, he was to have " power and 
authority to establish officers and magistrates there." The Com- 
pany were to protect and defend the colonists, finish the fort on 
Manhattan, and import " as many blacks as they conveniently 

The members of the Company were not slow to avail them- 
selves of the " privileges." Godyn and Blommaert took a tract 
of land on the " South corner of the Bay of South River," and 
Van Rensselaer seized upon the regions adjacent to Fort Orange, 
called by the Indians, Semmesseck. Michael Pauw, Burgo- 
master of Amsterdam, and Lord of Achtienhoven, near Utrecht, 
finding the region on the west shore, opposite Manhattan Island, 
yet unappropriated, obtained, through the Director and Council- 
lors of New Netherland, on the l^th of July and 22d of No- 
vember, 1630, the following deeds from the Indians for land 
lying within this county. They are the first conveyances, by 
deed, of anv land in East Jersey, and the following deed is the 
first of record in New Netherlaiid : 

"We, ^irectov and (Jllovmcil of |tew ^Xethedamt, residing on the 
if.O'land of Ittauahata,^' and the Fort Amsterdam, under the author- 
ity of their ^ligll IHigUtinc.Oj&'f.O' the Lords States- General of this 
Hluitfd i!lcthcvUmrt,$' and the ifttcovijovated Wt^i i|«tU« OlJomyaua, 
at their Chambers at Amsterdam, do hereby witness and declare 
that on this day, the date hereof underwritten, before us in their 
proper persons appeared and showed themselves, to wit : ^tottt- 
meauu', ©CkU'apiJO, and ^aclavomccU, inhabitants and joint own- 
ers of the land called 'iloUacaw Paclunn^^t h'^^S o^^r against 
(opposite) the aforesaid ifjalaiul |ttanaUata^, who both for them- 
selves and, rato cavern, for the remaining joint owners of the 
same land, declared that for and in consideration of a certain 
quantity of merchandize, which they acknowledged to have 
received into their own hands, power and possession, before the 
passing of these presents in a right, true, and free ownership, 
have sold, transported, ceded, conveyed, and made over, and by 

' Vide Charter of Freedom aud Exemptions at length in O'Cnl., N. iV., /., 112. 


these presents they do transport, cede, and convey to and for tlie 
behoof of |ttv. Pirhiel ^auw, absent, and for whom we, ex- 
officio, accept under suitable stipulations, viz. : tlie aforesaid 
lands by us named iioflijaran |\ackittflh, extending on the South 
side, Ahasimus ; Eastward, the ^liViCr iftatttitittj&', and on the 
West side surrounded by a valley (marsh) and morass, through 
which the boundaries of said land can be seen with sufficient 
clearness, and be distinguished; and that, with all the jurisdic- 
tion, right, and equity, to them, the grantors, in their quality 
aforesaid, belonging : Constituting and putting in their place 
and stead the already mentioned ^t. ^auw, in the real and 
actual possession thereof, and at the same time giving full and 
irrevocable power, authority, and special command to the said 
Mr. Pauw peaceably to enjoy, occupy, cultivate, have and hold 
the aforesaid land tanquam actor et procurator in rem suam 
acpropriam / and also to do with and dispose of the same as he 
misht do with his own lands to which he has a good and lawful 
title ; without their, the grantors, in their quality aforesaid, 
saving or reserving any part, right, action, or authority thereto 
in the least, either of ownership or jurisdiction; but altogether 
to the behoof as aforesaid, henceforth, forever, wholly and 
finally desisting, renouncing, and quit-claiming; promising here- 
by, moreover, not only to keep, maintain, and i'ulfill this, their 
grant, and whatever shall be done by virtue thereof, inviolable 
and irrevocable forever, but also to keep and maintain the same 
land against all persons free from any claim, challenge, or in- 
cumbrance to be made thereon by any person ; as also to cause 
this sale and grant to be approved of and held valid by the re- 
maining joint owners as they are by right obligated to do ; all 
in good faith without fraud or deceit. 

In witness whereof these presents are confirmed with our 
usual signature and with our seal thereto affixed. 

Done at the aforesaid Island of Manahatas, in Fort Am- 
sterdam, this 12th July, 1630."^ 

"WjP, the gitcftat and CJouncil of }\m lletUcvland, residing on 

' Land Papers {Albany), O. G., 1 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 3. This is the 


the |f.$Iaiul of |Hanahatai6', under the jurisdiction of their High 
Mightinesses the Lords, the States-General of the ^tnited |tethet- 
InnA^, and the (^tmxixl M^\tox\)tfvnUtl WCt^i ^mUa ®0ttti)any, do, 
bj these presents, publish and declare, that on this day, the date 
underwritten, before us in their own proper persons, came and ap- 
peared, ^ifeitaauiv and ^iatotur, \Urfltttiatt]5', Inhabitants and joint 
owners of the land named ^ItaiSiimttSi and the peninsula ^tf^'.Siirk, 
as well for themselves as, rato caverende, for ^linom^ '^athhath 
and ©auwittisi, joint proprietors of the same parcels of land, and 
declared in the same quality that for and in consideration of cer- 
tain parcels of goods, which they, the appearers, acknowledged 
before the passing of these presents to their full gratitude and 
satisfaction to have received into their possession, hands, and 
power in their right and free (unincumbered) ownership, and- by 
virtue of the title and article of sale, they have sold, transported, 
ceded, and delivered, and by these presents they do transport, 
cede, and deliver to and for the behoof of the '^ahU "^axA '^Xxtk'xtl 
^auiv (absent), and for whom we, ex-qfficio, accept the same 
with suitable stipulations, namely, the aforesaid land ^ha.^fimuia'^ 

first time the name of Hoboken is met with. It is an Indian word, and is said 
to mean tobacco pipe. The name, as given in tlie above deed, with its suffix, 
" Hackingh," signifying land, gives us the land of the tobacco pipe. Here the 
natives were accustomed to procure a stone, out of which they carved pipes. 
" As tobacco was a natural production of the country, the natives were great 
smokers. Tobacco pouches hung at tlieir backs, and pipes were their insepara- 
ble-companions." Trumbull's Hist. U. 5., t., 24. Judge Benson thought that 
Hoboken was a Dutch name. N. Y. Hist. Soc, 2d Series, ii., 112. The name is 
spelled in various ways, as : Hobocan-Haekijig , Hobocan, Hoboken, Hobocken, 
Hobucken, Hobokina, Hoboquin, Hobuk, Hoebuck, Hobock, Hawbuck, Hoobock, 
Hoobook, Hooboocken. 

• Tliis name is probably Indian. It was applied to that portion of the u])land 
of Jersey City which lies east of the hill, excepting Paulus Hoeck, which 
was separated from Ahasimus by the salt marsh extending from Communi- 
paw Cove to Harsimus Cove, and generally from Warren to neir Grove street. 
The name has received many spellings, viz. : Ahasemiis, Ahasymus, AJutrsi- 
mus, Ahasymes, Ahsymes, Achassemes, Harsimus, Horsemus, Horsiimis, Hor- 
sumus, Hassems, Hasimus, Hassimis, Hassemes, Haassemus, Hossemus, Horressi- 


and ^vesi.s'idl,^ by us named tlie WUoteiSi' ^arttft,^ extending 
along the river l^lauvitiu.O' and the if.olrtud of tlie ^HauaUata^ on 
the east side, and the ^i&'laiul i\0ll0hctt 5jiachittQh on the north 
side, surrounded by swamps, which are sufficiently distinct 
boundaries, and tiiat with all the action, right, and equity to 
them in their quality aforesaid appertaining, constituting and 
substituting the said grantee as the attorney for the said ittt, 
^auiV, in their stead and state, in the real and actual possession 
of the same, and at the same time giving him full and irrevocaljle 
power, authority, and special license, to the said ^Hv. ^auiv ; and 
to his successors, tanquam in rem suam, the aforesaid land and 
its appurtenances peaceably to enter upon, possess, inhabit, farm, 
occupy, use, and to do therewith and thereon, trade and dispose 
as he the cedentee may do with his own lands and domains 
honestly and legally obtained, without their, the (!5vautoi*:Si', in 
their aforesaid quality, having thereto or any part thereof, any 
part, right, action, or jurisdiction in the least, without reserving 
or saving any ownership, connnand, or jurisdiction, but to the 
behoof aforesaid from henceforth and forever, wholly and abso- 
lutely desisting, relinquishing, and renouncing by these ^reiSCnts'. 
Promoting, moreover, not only this their conveyance, and all 
that may be done by virtue thereof, to keep forever firm, invio- 
lable, and irrevocable, but also the said land to deliver and keep 
from all demands, challenge, or incumbrances, any and every 
one that may thereto make any pretense ; and, moreover, this 
purchase and conveyance to cause to be approved and made 
valid by the other joint owners, as in equity they are l^ound to 
do, standing thereto in all good feitli without fraud or deceit. 
WxiXXt^^ our several signatures and contirmed by our seal ap- 
pended thereto. 

' This was the Indian name of Paulus Hoeck, and is said to signify burying 
f/round. It was applied to the circular piece of iipliind lying east of Warren 
street, on which Jersey City had its beginning in 1804. 

- Hoercn Hoeck, so called from a well-known custom of the natives in enter- 
taining strangers, and with which they welcomed the Dutch when they first 
came to this vicinity. N. Y. Hist. Soc, 2d Siiriefi, ii., 281, n. ; Col. Hist, of N. 
v.. Hi., :}43. 


Done at PiUiatiatta.s' in the goxt ^vx^UxtUm this 22cl day of 
N'ov., in the year 1630."^ 

Preceding this last deed, and on August 10th, 1630, Pauw 
obtained a deed from the Indians for Staten Island, "on the 
west shore of Hamel's Hooftden."^ 

The purchase of November 22d, 1630, was one of vast im- 
portance. Then, as now, the shore between Communipaw and 
Weehawken was of great commercial value. The Indians held 
it in high estimation as a place of resort, from which they con- 
veyed their peltries directly across to the fort. Pauw, latinizing 
his name, bestowed it upon the district, and thenceforth it was 
called Pavonia.^ The purchase was unpopular with the Com- 
pany. Pauw's ownership of the tract " occasioned much quarrel- 
ing and jealousy, and prevented the colonies prospering as they 
would have done." Those of the Directors of the Dutch "West 
India Company who had failed to obtain a share of the newly 
acquired spoils looked with a jealous eye upon those who, by 
reason of their large and well selected possessions, had become 
patroons. This strife between the " ins and outs " waxed warm 
and warmer, until finally the fortunate Directors (except the 
patroon of Pavonia), preferring peace to their wild acres in New 
Netherland, divided with their clamorous associates. 

Up to this time there is no evidence that a settlement had 
been made on the west side of the river. Some writers 
have supposed that buildings were erected within this county as 
early as 1618."* It is, however, mere supposition. It will be 
borne in mind that in 1623 there were only a few bark huts 
erected on the lower end of Manhattan Island, and it is not at 
all likely that the very few whites then in the country would 
have weakened their power of defence by separate settlements. 

' Land Papers (Albany), G. G., 8 ; Winfield'a Land Titles, 8. 

2 Land Papers {Albany), G. G., 6. Thus tlie first civilized ownership of 
Staten Island connects it with New Jersey. Carteret once made an unsuccess- 
ful claim for it. 

■i Pauwonia. N. Y. Hist. Soc, iV. S., l, 3G4 ; Broadhead, l, 202. Pauw in 
the Dutch, as pavo in the Latin, signifies a peacock. 

* Broadhead, i , 89 ; Whitehead's East Jersey, 16. 


After the arrival of the immigrants, consisting of thirty families, 
possessed of domestic animals and other conveniences for a per- 
manent settlement, who in this year came out from the father- 
land with Captain May, it is very probable that the inviting 
shore on this side of " De Groote Hivier " would not long escape 
the eye of such practical agriculturists.^ The attention of 
traders being attracted to our shore by its many advantages for 
traffic with the Indians, and the farmer invited hither by the 
fertility of the soil, it may well be, when the number of the 
colonists permitted, that some venturesome pioneer erected his 
cabin within the bounds of this county. But where, when, and 
by whom such first cabin was erected it is now impossible to 
tell. Yet it is certain that before 1633 some sort of settlement 
had been made in Pavonia. How much of a settlement this 
may have been is not known. Pauw made his purchase in the 
summer and fall of 1630. By the third article of the " Freedoms 
and Exemptions " he was obliged, within four years next after 
he gave notice to any Chamber of the Company in Holland, or 
to the Commander or Council here, that he had taken up any 
land, to plant a Colony of fifty souls, upward of fifteen years old, 
within the bounds of his purchase, one fourth part within one 
year, and the balance within the three remaining years.^ If the 
patroon of Pavonia complied with this requirement, there must 
have been within the bounds of this county, in 1633, at least 
thirteen persons above the age of fifteen years. But the patroon 
did not comply with the law respecting the settlement of his 
colonic, and this, as will be shown hereafter, was one of the 
causes of difference between him and the Directors, and finally 
forced him to transfer to the Company all of his interest in 
Pavonia.^ AVhether he failed to comply Muth the conditions 
the first year or afterward is not known. Hence the impossi- 
bility of ascertaining the extent of the settlement. But whatever 
it was, and whetlier established by himself in pursuance of some 
regular plan in compliance with the " Freedoms and Exemp- 

> Broadhead, i., 150. -^ O'Cal.N. N., i., 112. 

3 Winjield's Land Titles, 5. 


tions," or bj individuals attracted hitlier for private gain or 
convenience, Michael Panlusen, an officer of the Company, was 
in charge of the colonie in 1633. On the afternoon of the 
twentieth of May in that year. Captain De Yries visited him, 
and has left this entry in his journal : " Coming to the boat 
on Long Island, night came on and the tide began to turn, 
so that we rowed to Pavonia, We were there received by 
Michiel Poulaz, an officer in the service of the Company.'''''^ 
The latter part of this entry seems to indicate that Paulussen, 
or Pauluszoon, was not in charge at Pavonia as an officer of 
the patroon. Being in the employ of the Company, he prob- 
ably occupied a hut on Paulus Hoeck, and, for his employers, 
purchased peltries from the Indians. In the latter part of 
this year the Company gave orders for the erection of two 
houses in Pavonia.^ This, so far as evidence can be found, was 
the first step taken to erect regular buildings within this county. 
They were shortly afterward built. They were constructed and 
paid for by the Company, although Pauw may have furnished 
the means. One was built at Communipaw, afterward owned 
by Jan Evertse Bout, and the other at Ahasimus, afterward 
occupied by Cornells Van Voorst. 

1 N. Y. Hist. Soc, jV, S., i., 257. It is probable that Poulaz was the first 
Dutch resident in Paulus Hoeck, and left his name to the place. BroadJiead, 
i., 223. Judge Benson intimates that this place received its name I'rom Paulus 
Schrick, who at one time lived in the " Town of Bergen." iV^. Y. Hist. Soc, 2d 
Series, ii., ill. It is true there was such a man, and he may have lived in Ber- 
gen, but what has his residence in one place to do with the name of another? 
It was called " Pouwels Hoeck" before May, 1638. I have not been able to find 
Schrick's name in the records prior to 1G52. The following are the different 
ways of spelling this name, adding in each instance its suffix of Hoeck, or 
Hook, viz. : Paulus, Paules, Poules, Poulus, Poicels, Powlas, Powlass's, 
Powles, Poioless, Poiclis, Poidey's. Dr. O'Callaghan, Nnc Neth. Reg., 118, 
puts Poulusen down as a clergyman of the Reformed Church, residing in 
Pavonia in 1G33. I very much doubt that he was a clergyman. After 
1633 no more is heard of him in Pavonia. He returned to New Amster- 
dam, where he received a grant for a piece of land, Jan. 21, 1G47. Land 
Papers {Albany), O. G., 163. He was admitted to the rights of a small burgher 
April 13, 1657. New Neth. Be(j.,Yll. He made his mark thus: y1/ 

^0'Cal.,N.N.,i.,\m. Broadhead,i.,24A. N.Y. Col. MSS.,i., 81. r' 


Paulusen was succeeded by Jan Evertse Boiit, who arrived in 
New Ketherland June 17, 1634, commissioned by Pauw to be 
his superintendent. lie established his headquarters at Commn- 
nipaw, which thus became the capital of the colonic of Pavonia.^ 
He was succeeded in June, 1636, by Cornells Yan Vorst, who 
came out as Pauw's "head commander," and took up his 
residence at Ahasimus, in one of the two houses erected in 1633.^ 
lie had no sooner become settled in his new " mansion," 

' Bout was a man of considerable importance in the early history of New 
Netherland. He was born in IGOl, Valerdine's Manual, 18(53, 611, came from 
Barneveldt, N. Y. Col. M8S., iii., 58, and arrived here in the ship " Eendracht" 
in 1G34. He was in the employ of the Dutch West India Company in Holland, 
whence he was sent by patroon Pauw to superintend his colonie at Pavonia. 
Valentine's Hist. ofN. T., 94 ; O'Cal., N. N., i., 167. His wife's name was Tryutje 
Simons De Witt. N. T. Col. M8S., Hi., 58. He held the position of superinten- 
dent at Pavonia until the summer of 1636, when he was succeeded by Cornelis 
Van Vorst. Broadhead, i., 268 ; If. T. Hist. Soc, N. S., L, 259. He continued, 
however, to reside at Communipaw. In 1638 his wayward affections brought 
him into more than doubtful relations with a daughter of Ham, in his service. 
This coming to the notice of the authorities in New Amsterdam, Schout Lupolt, 
in his official capacity, visited the jolly Jan to remonstrate with him about the 
cause of the scandalum magnatum. But Bout was in no humor to endure for- 
eign intermeddling with the internal economy of the sovereignty of Pavonia. 
He flew into a passion, told the Schout in plain Dutch that he was een liond, 
een dief, een schohbejak (a dog, a thief, a rascal), snapped his defiant fingers in 
the face of the official, and said, " If you or any one belonging to you come to 
Pavonia, I will shoot you or them." N. T. Col. M8S., i., 41. This blast was 
sufficient; the Schout beat a hasty retreat, and for the first time "State's 
Rights" were vindicated in New Jersey ! Bout was probably the first white 
settler at Communipaw, and was presented with the Bouwerie there after Pauw 
had parted with his iuterest in Pavonia. Col. Hist, of N.Y., i., 432. In 1641 
he was one of the" Twelve," one of the " Eight" in 1643, and one of the " Nine" 
in 1647 and 1650. Shortly after the war of 1643 he became a resident in 
" Breucklen," where he was appointed Schepen in 1646. If. Y. Col. MSS., iv., 
259 ; Ifew Neth. Reg., 73. He soon arrayed himself in opposition to the gov- 
ernment, and signed the " bold memorial to the government of the fatherland." 
Col. Hist, of N. 71, *., 271. In 1654 he was reappointed Schepen. He refused 
to accept, whereupon he was " directed to hold himself in readiness to return 
to Holland by the ship ' King Solomon.' " Alb. Rec. ix., 118. Threats of ban- 
ishment are no longer necessary to induce men to hold office ! He died at Gow- 
anus in 1670. Valentine's Hist, of N. Y.. 95. 

'2 For the history of Van Vorst, cide " Van Vorst Family." 


which was a frame house thatched with cat-tail, than the digni- 
taries of IS^ew Amsterdam, representing hoth church and state, 
resolved to pay him a visit, as well to assure him of their dis- 
tinguished consideration as to " sample " his newly arrived 
Bordeaux. On the 25th of June, 1636, Wouter Yan Twiller, who 
was always " glad to taste good wine,'' but on whose shoulders 
rested the weighty cares of the New Netherland state, and Domi- 
nie Everardus Bogardus, the bold Dutch preacher and husband of 
Anneke Jans, accompanied by Captain De Tries, came over to 
Pavonia. Yan Yorst entertained them with princely hospitality 
from his newly filled wine cellar. As time passed on and the 
sampling of the wine was repeated, the Governor and the Dominie 
grew warm and disputatious, if not angry with their host. The 
modest entry in De Yries' journal, that they " had some words with 
the Patroon's Commissary,'' plainly means that they quarreled with 
him. The subject of the dispute was a murder which had been 
recently committed in Pavonia. Although the discussion ran high 
and bad blood for a while threatened the peace of the occasion, 
yet another bumper or two was like oil on the troubled waters, 
for " they eventually parted good friends." Leaving their host 
and his good Vroiiwtje, they entered their boat and started for 
Fort Amsterdam. Yan Yorst, determined to deepen their im- 
pression how royally the representative of the patroon of 
Pavonia could entertain such distinguished guests, fired a salute 
from a swiveP mounted on a pile"^ in front of his house. How 
the reverberations of that primal salute must have rolled over 
the hills of Ahasimus ! and what a brilliant illumination fol- 
lowed to light the way of his parting guests. "A spark unfor- 
tunately flying on the roof, which was thatched with reeds, set it 
in a blaze, and in half an hour the whole building was burned 
down."^ Thus ended the first recorded entertainment in 

In the mean time the dissatisfaction existini; among: the direc- 

' Steen-stuk, a stone gun. 

2 " Stood on a pillar" is the language of De Vries. 

3 K T. Hist. Soc, iV". S., i., 259. Broadhead, i., 263. 


tors of tlie Company that a few of their associates had seized upon 
the best and most desirable portions of the country was increas- 
ing, and they became divided into two parties. They were at 
variance as to the interpretation to be given to the articles of the 
" Freedoms and Exemptions." The Company, through those di- 
rectors who had not become patroons, claimed a monopoly of the 
fur trade, and would restrict the patroons and their retainers to 
agricultural pursuits. On the other hand, the patroons claimed 
an unrestricted trade along the coast and in the rivers, and exclu- 
sive commerce and jurisdiction within their colonies, within 
which they would not suffer any exercise of authority by the 
officers of the Company. This condition of affairs could not 
long exist without producing trouble. 

On the 17th of December, 1633, the Assembly of the XIX 
resolved that Pauw, with the other patroons, should give to 
that body an account of their purchases. On Monday, the nine- 
teenth of the same month, the patroons appeared according to 
the resolution and defended their rights. It was easy enough to 
satisfy themselves that their position was impregnable, but to 
satisfy those who felt themselves aggrieved by the condition of 
things in New ^Netherland, and especially in Pavonia, was no 
light task. These were not convinced, and therefore appointed a 
committee of five to negotiate with the patroons and to defend 
the claims of the Company ; and in case no agreement concern- 
ing the points in dispute could be arrived at between them, then 
they resolved that the subject should be referred to a " Commit- 
tee of their high Mightinesses, or one of the high courts of 
Justice."^ The committee and patroons failed to agree upon a 
compromise, and the whole matter in dispute was, by resolution 
of the Assembly of the XIX, adopted March 27, 1634,^ referred 
to their High Mightinesses, who appointed a committee of six 
to examine carefully into the cause of the dispute, and at the 
same time issued the following summons to Pauw, and, mutatis 
mutandis^ to the other patroons : 

> Moulton, i.,421. =2 iV. Y. Col. Hist, i., 90. 


" To Mr. Michiel Pauw, Lord of Achtienhoven^ 

Co-Patroon iti New Netherland, the 13th May^ 1634. 
The States. 

" Whereas we have this day deputed some Lords from our 
Assembly, to hear and examine you and the other interested 
patroons, planters in the Colonies in ^ew Netherland, on the one 
part, and the delegated Directors of the West India Company 
and the authorized stockholders on the other part, relative to the 
differences which have arisen, with power afterwards to deter- 
mine the said differences, as by plurality of votes they shall find 
equitable ; and the 22d instant having been fixed and appointed 
by the said Lords, our Deputies, as the day for the business ; we 
have therefore resolved to notify you thereof, commanding you to 
attend here at the Hague, chily provided in all things, as the case 
requires, on the evening of the 21st instant, in order to appear 
on the next day, for the purposes aforesaid, before the above 
mentioned Lords, our Deputies, who will then proceed to busi- 
ness. Wherein fail not ; giving notice hereof to the other 
patroons, planters who are also interested in the aforesaid differ- 
ences. Done 13 May, 1634."^ 

The investigation was postponed until the 14tli of June. On 
the sixteenth the patroons put in their defence. It was in 
writing, of considerable length, and its demands for themselves 
and charges against the Company of an extraordinary charac- 
ter.^ N^either their claims nor their charges could be passed in 
silence by the Company. On the twenty-second of the same 
month they exhibited their replication " to and against the pre- 
tension and claim of Michael Pauw, Kiliaen Van Rensselaar, and 
Samuel Blommaert, Patroons in ]S^ew Netherland, handed in and 
delivered to their High Mightinesses' deputies," in which they 
protested against the joint action of the patroons and claimed 
that as the right of each depended on its own peculiar merits, 

1 Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 70. 

2 Ibid, i., 83. Here also may be found a copy in extenso of their points of 


their defence should be several.^ The patroons fortliwith re- 
joined, asking their High Mightinesses to construe the " Free- 
doms and Exemptions " that it might be known which party was 
in fault, and declared that the continuation or abandonment of 
their colonies depended on their Lordships' judgment.^ On the 
24th of June the deputies resolved to postpone their decision for 
twelve days, in order that the parties might amicably settle 
their differences.^ In August following the Assembly of the 
XIX commissioned some of their directors " to treat and trans- 
act with all the Patroons and colonists in N"ew Netherland" 
for the purchase of their rights.* Shortly afterward (in either 
1634 or 1G35, for the same is without date), a new "project of 
Freedoms and Exemptions " was promulgated by the States 
General.^ The fifth article contained the following language : 
" But every one is notified that the Company reserves nnto itself 
the Island of Manhates, Fort Orange, wnth the lands and islands 
appertaining thereto, SfMen Island, the land of Achassemes, 
Arasick and Hohokinay The domains of Pauw were included 
in this reservation, on condition tluit the Company should make 
the reservation good. The Company continued the negotiations 
with the patroon, and finally succeeded in purchasing the 
colonic. They paid Pauw 26,000 florins'' for his interest in 
Pavonia. Thus he ceased to be a patroon in New Netherland, 
and the annoyance which his colonic had caused no longer ex- 

During these long and bitter contentions between the Com- 

' Col. Hist. ofN. Y., i., 89. 2 ibi(l {., 90. 3 Ibid, i., 91. 

< Broadhead, i., 349. 5 Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 96. 

® Ibid, i., 423. A florin is equivalent to forty cents. 

7 Dr. Koenen says the colony Avas in Pauw's name at the time of his death, 
and that his son, Dr. Isaac Pauw, having removed his residence in 1652, and 
thereby lost the privileges of citizenship in Amsterdam, afterward lost Jiis in- 
terest in the colony of his father. N. Y. Hist. 80c. Proc, 1860, 35. This is a 
great error. 

In accordance with the " Freedoms," etc., Harsimus (in part) was reserved, 
and became known as the West India Company's Farm, but Aressick and Ho- 
boken were disposed of at an early date, without regard to the reservation. 


pany and patroons, Pavonia, in common with the rest of the 
country, was retrograding instead of advancing. Dissensions 
within had been productive of difficulties without. The charac- 
ter of those who had come hither to seek their fortunes was not 
in all cases of the best. Disregarding the exclusive privileges ot 
the Company, many of them, prompted by a desire of gain, had 
unlawfully entered into trade with the Indians, exchanging guns, 
powder and lead for jdcI tries. The savages were not slow to 
learn that these weapons were more deadly than the bow and 
arrow, and a general feeling of uneasiness and alarm began to 
spread among the settlers. 

CHAPTER 11.-1638-1646. 

Arrival of Kieft — Settlement in the County — Difficulties witli tlie Indians — 
Murder of Smitz — The people assemble — The twelve chosen — Van Vorst 
killed by an Indian Chief — The river Indians ilee to Manhattan — Thence 
to Pavonia — Description of the settlements in the County — The Indians 
encamp near Communipaw — Kieft orders their destruction — Attacked 
and slain by the Dutch — Communipa%v Massacre — Terrible revenge — 
Pavonia a desolation — Treaty of Peace — Savages again on the Warpath 
— Van Vorst taken prisoner — Peace declared. 

William Kieft arrived here as Director-General on the 28th 
of March, 1638. xit that time there were in all New Il^ether- 
land only seven bouweries and two or three plantations.^ This 
backward state of the province may be attributed to the unfortunate 
disagreements betweei] the Company and the patroons, and the 
many irregularities which in consequence grew up among the 
settlers. Kieft reformed the government in many resj)ects, and 
put a stop to certain wrongs which some of the Dutch were prac- 
tising toward each other and toward the Indians.^ Under the 
new order of things prosperity seemed to revive. Abraham 
Isaacsen Planck f>urchased Paulus Hoeck on the first of May, 
1638, for two hundred and fifty guilders.^ Jan Evertsen Bout 
took a lease of the " Company's farm in Pavonia,"* and De Tries 
took Staten Island and established a colonic there. Other parts 
of New Netherland were active and thriving. And yet of all 
men who ever ruled over the country Kieft knew the least of 
Indian character, or how to tame the wild natures of the sons of 

' A bouwerie was the home farm on which the farmer resided; & plantation 
was an out-farm, tilled, but not occupied. 

5 O'Cal, N. N., l, 183 ; Broadhead, i., 277. 

3 iV. Y. Col. MSS., i., 13, 14, 22. 

* JV. T. Col. MSS., i., 53 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 48. Afterward known as 
" Gamoenepaen." 


the forest. They beheld the thrift and enterprise of the whites 
with jealousy, looked upon their growing power with dread, and 
hoped for the time when they might glut their re^^enge for the 
wrongs they had endured. This feeling was not without cause. 
For in their social intercourse they had been scorned, in their 
commercial transactions they had been cheated, and without law 
or justice they had been plundered and slain by the hated 
Swannekins.^ Well might they live in fear of the coming time 
when, unless they defended themselves now, while their enemies 
were yet few, they should l^e driven from their homes and the 
graves of their fathers. Regardless of the situation of affairs, 
Kieft put a match to the train and hastened the explosion. On 
the 15th of September, 1639, he resolved to exact a tribute of 
maize, furs, and wampum from the Indians, and in case of their 
unwillingness to pay, he proposed to employ all necessary force 
to remove their reluctance.^ These wild men of the forest, who 
were born freemen and had never been taught in the school of 
subjection, were filled with indignation at such an unjust meas- 
ure. " He must be a mean fellow," said they, for " he has not 
invited us to live here, that he should take away our corn.''^ 
They had extended freely their simple, yet hearty hospitality 
to the strangers who had come from an unknown land, and 
now their guests would impose upon them a degrading tribute. 
They had endured many rebuffs, and suffered many inexcusable 
encroachments from the domineering and grasping disposition 
of the whites, and now they were to be forced to contribute what 
before they had willingly given or sold. 

To meet the impending danger and resist the threatened imposi- 
tion, the Indians were not wholly unprepared. Commercial in- 
tercourse, social familiarity, and domestic service among the set- 
tlers had acquainted them with the habits, dispositions, and 
numbers of the whites. Their skill in the use of the guns they 

' From Sehwonnack, " tlie salt people," because they came across the salt wa- 
ter. Mmlton, i., 255. At first the Indians called the Dutch Woapsid Lennappe, 
that is, " the white people." 

2 N. T. Col. MSS., iv., 49. 3 Valentine's Hist, of If. T., 41. 


had obtained in exchange for peltries made them confident in 
their strength, and their sense of right convinced them of the 
justice of their cause.^ Hence they were not in a mood to sub- 
mit to every indignity and outrage which the impolitic Kieft 
would heap upon them. 

Added to the general sense of wrongs endured, the Weckqua- 
esgeck boy, whose uncle had been robbed and murdered by 
Minuit's servants in 1626, had now (16-il) become a man. The 
great outrage done to his relative had not been forgotten. Dur- 
ing all these long years he had kept the fire alive in his heart. 
The time had come for it to burst forth with the destructive- 
ness of a " consuming fire." " An eye for an eye and a tootli for 
a tooth" was the law of his race. The deep damnation of his 
uncle's taking oft' demanded a just and full atonement. Its ob- 
ligations could not be avoided, neither could it be satisfied with 
a slight retaliation. In the execution of this law he was " right 
resolute to die." 

" What dotli tlie Indian love ? Revenge. 

What doth he fight for ? Revenge. 

What doth he pray for ? Revenge. 

It is sweet as tlie fiesh of a young bear ; 

For this he goes hungry, roaming the desert, 

Living on berries, or chewing the rough bark 

Of the oak, and drinking the slimy pool." 

The perturbed spirit of the slain was not at rest, for his mur- 
der was unavenged. The voice of the dead was heard in the 
moaning of the sea, in the rattling of the thunder, in the roar- 
ing of the storm, in the rustle of the leaves, in the sighing of 
the wind, chiding the tardy soul of the living. Many moons 
had come and gone since the old man was sent to join his 
fathers ; many winters had whitened and springs and summers 
adorned his rude resting place, and yet the heaven that he had 
hoped for was not his, for his nephew's duty was unperformed. 
The one must satisfy vengeance, or the other could never enter 
the hunting grounds which lie in the Hereafter. Urged onward 
by this feeling, the young man sought his victim, indifferent as 

' Broadhead, i., 308. 


to whom it miglit be. It happened to be an inoffensive old man, 
Claes Cornelisz Smits, a " Eaadmaker," hving in the vicinity of 
Canal street. Pretending a desire to barter some beavers for 
duffels/ he watched his opportunity, killed Smits, robbed the 
lionse, and escaped with the booty." Satisfaction and the sur- 
render of the savage were promi)tly demanded. But as he had 
only acted in accordance with the custom of his race, the Sachem 
refused to surrender him. Kieft wished to seize upon this occa- 
sion to punish the natives, but feared the people, whose interest lay 
in maintaining peace with the savages. He called them together 
for consultation. After deliberation they came to the conclusion 
that the murderer should be punished, " but subject to God and 
opportunity," after making all necessary preparations.^ They 
then chose " Twelve Select Men," and " empowered them to re- 
solve on everything with the Director and Council." This was 
the first representative body in New Netherland. In it were 
Maryn Adriaensen, Jacob Stoff'elsen, and Abraham Isaacsen 
Planck, three men who were prominent in the early history of 
Pavonia. The " Twelve " were true to the views of their con- 
stituents, and counseled delay.'* They gave their opinions sepa- 
rately, but were unanimous in advising the Director to consult 
'• time and opportunity" in executing any measure that might be 
resolved upon, and that before any action should be begun the 
Twelve were to be notified. Thus peace was for the present 
maintained, but confidence was not restored. Yet a little longer 
the fires which were soon to burst forth in a consuming confla- 
gration smouldered. 

The year 1642 closed gloomily. Universal uneasiness mani- 
fested itself. AVild stories were circulated and believed. Captain 
De Vries, who had established a new colonic called Vriesendael, 
at Tappaen, in passing through the woods toward "Ackensack,"^ 

' A coarse kind of cloth. ^ Broadhead, l, 316. 

3 iV. T. Hist. Soc, N. S., i., 277. ^ Broadhead, L, 339. 

■> An Indian word and said to %igmfy loio land. Hist. Magazine, Hi., 85. It 
is written in many ways : Ackensack, Ackingsack, Ackinghsuck, Akkingsakke, 
Ackenkeshacky , Ackinkes'iacky , Iligensack, Haghkinmck, Uackensacky, Hack- 


met an Indian who said the whites had " sold to liim brandy 
mixed with water '' and had stolen his beaverskin coat. He said 
he was going home for his bow and arrows, and would shoot one 
of the " roguish Swannekins."^ He kept his word and shot 
Garret Jansen Van Vorst, who was roofing a house in "Acliter 
Col."^ Another account is, that one of the " Hacquinsacq " 
chiefs, a sort of shiftless fellow, being drunk, was taunted by the 
Dutch and asked if he could make good use of his bow and 
arrows when in that condition. He answered the question by 
killing Van Vorst with his arrow, and then asked if he was able 
or not.^ The chiefs were alarmed at what had been done, and 
hastened to their friend De Vries for advice. They offered to 
pay two hundred fathoms of wampum to Van Vorst's widow, in 
order to purchase their peace.* Kieft would accept of nothing 
less than the murderer. Him the chiefs could not, or would not 
surrender. Their excuse was that he had gone two days' journey 
off among the Tankitekes, " and besides, he was the son of a 

The year 1643 opened as the last year had closed — full of 
doubt and gloom. In tlie depths of the winter the fierce Mo- 
hawks came down upon the Weckquaesgecks, Tankitekes and 

ingkeshacky, Hackinkasacky , Hackensack, Hackinsack, Hackquinsack , Hacquin- 
sncq, Hackinsagh, Hachingsack, Ilaghkingsack, Hakkensak. 

1 N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. S., L, 266. 

2 Tlie name here seems to be applied to the country lying between Newark 
Bay and Tappaen. It was the colonic of Myndert Myndertsen van der Horst 
the headquarters of whicli were at Hackensack, " an hour's walk from Vries 
endael." Broadhead, i., 313. 

3 Breden Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y. iv., 102. Vide Van Vorst Family. 

■< O'Cal., N. N., i., 2G4. The Greeks and Indians seem to have entertained 
similar ideas of atonement. 

" A son's or brother's death. 
By payment of a fine, may be atoned; 
The slayer may remain in peace at home, 
The debt discharg'd ; the other will forego, 
The forfeiture receiv'd, his just revenge." 

Derby's Iliad, Book IX., lines 731-5 
5 O'C'al., iV^. N., i., 263. The Tankitekes were the Haverstraw Indians, of whom 
Pacham was chief. 


Tappaens, wlioiu they wished to place under tribute.^ Seventeen 
of them were slain, and many women and children made 
prisoners, " the remainder fled through a deep snow to the 
christians' houses on and around the Island of Manhattan. 
They were humanely received, being half dead of cold and 
hunger, and supported for fourteen days ; even some of the 
Directors' corn was sent to them." Soon another panic seized 
them, and again they fled, ])art of them to Pavonia, where the 
Hackingsacks bivouacked one thousand strong.^ They came 
over to this side of the river on the 23d of February, 1643, and 
encamped on the westerly edge of Jan de Lacher's Iloeck,^ be- 
hind the settlement of Egbert Wouterssen* and adjoining the 
bouwerie of Jan Evertsen Bout.^ Here it may be proper to let 
the poor frightened savages rest for two days, and in the mean 
while take a glance at the condition of Pavonia, and learn what 
was taking place in Kew Amsterdam. 

Up to this time, February, 10-13, no settlement had been made 
north of Hoboken. At this place a farm-house and brew-house 
had been built and a bouwerie cleared and planted. Here Aert 
Teunissen Yan Putten and his family resided.'' 

1 W. Y. Hist. Soc, iV". S., i., 267. 2 O'CuL, JST. iV^., l, 2G5. 

3 The encampment was a few blocks east of the Lafayette Reformed Church, 
and near the corner of Pine and Walnut streets, in Jersey City. 

* Col. Hist, of JV. Y., i., 209 ; Broadhend, i., 351. Wouterssen, from Yselstein, 
was the first occupant of the present Mill Creek Point, or Jan de Lacher's Hoeck. 
He held it under a lease from Bout, June 20, 1G40. N. Y. Col. MSB., i., 201. 
On September 1, 1641, he married Engelfje Jans van Bresteede, widow. 
Valentine's Manual, 1862, 650. On May 10, 1647, he obtained a patent for a 
"tract of land called in the Indian Apopcalyck, extending from Dirck Straat- 
maker's Kil to Gemoenepaen or Jan Evertz Kil, northeast by east and south- 
west by west, behind the kil which runs through betwixt the upland and the 
marsh, extending west northwest to the woods." Land Papers {Albany), G. 
O., 216. This included all the land south of the Abattoir and east of Sycan's 
Creek. Winfield's Land Titles, 56. He was an Adelhorster, or gentleman sol- 
dier, in the army in 1653. He removed from Pavonia and went to New Am- 
sterdam, where he died in 1680. 

5 Bout's farm included all of the upland lying between Communipaw Creek, 
where the Abattoir now stands, on the south, and the meadow where the engine 
house of the Central Railroad now stands, or Maple street, on the north. 

6 Van Putten was the first white resident of Hoboken. He leased the farm 


At Ahasimus was the family of Cornelis Yan Vorst, now de- 
ceased, at the head of which was Jacob Stoifelsen, who had 
married Van Yorst's widow. 

At Paulus Hoeck were Abraham Isaacsen Planck^ and his 
tenants, Gerrit Dircksen Blauw,^ Olaes Jansen Yan Purmerendt 
alias Jan Potagie,^ and Cornelis Arissen.^ 

At Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, or Mill Creek Point, as an under 
tenant of Bout, resided Egbert Wouterssen with his famil}'. 

At Comraunipaw lived Jan Evertsen Bout. After his arrival 
in 1634, he held this land as Pauw's representative until the pa- 
troon sold to the Company. Then, July 20, 1638, he leased the 
bouwerie for a term of six years for one quarter of the crops.^ 
He afterward received, as a gift, a patent for the farm. The 
following is a copy of this grant : 

February 15, 1640, for twelve years from January 1, 1641. N. Y. Col. MSS., i., 
187. Kieft was to erect a small house, and Van Putten was to give as rent 
" the fourth sheaf with which God Almighty shall favor the field." He cleared 
the land, fenced the fields, erected the first brew-house in the county, stocked 
the place with twenty-eight head of large cattle, besides hogs, goats, and 
sheep, and planted a number of fruit trees. Col. Hist, of N. T., i., 338. 
' Ibid, i., 194, 195. 

2 Blauw occupied one morgen of land for a "tobacco plantation," underlease 
dated October 21, 1638, for twelve years from the first of the month, at twenty- 
five carolus guilders annually, "with express condition that Gerrit Dircksen shall 
not keep for himself more than six goats and hogs for slaughter, and one sow 
big with young." JSf. Y. Col. MSS., i., 55. 

3 Jan Potagie, or " Soup Johnny," also occupied one morgen for the raising of 
tobacco. Ibid, 60. Vide Van Vorst Family. 

■* Lease dated April 20, 1643, to run for sis years from May 1, 1644, for the 
whole of Paulus Hoeck, with house and garden of Planck ; " on which Paulus 
Hoeck Abraham Planck shall cause a barn to be built at his expense, which 
barn and house Cornelis Arissen must keep water tight ; said lessee shall pay 
as rent for the first year 100 guilders, for the remaining five years 160 guilders 
annually, if Jan Potagie continues to reside on the Hoeck, but if said Potagie 
shall leave, the lessee shall pay for the aforesaid five years 180 guilders." N, 
Y. Col. MSS., a., 53. 

5 This land must have been very productive. Van Der Donck says that Bout 
laid a wager that he could raise a crop of barley on a field containing seven 
morgens, which would grow so tall in every part of the field that the ears 
could easily be tied together above his head. Van Der Donck went to see the 
field of barley, and found that the straw was from six to seven feet high, and 
very little of it any shorter. iV^. Y. Hist. Soc, JV. S., i., 159. 


" We, Willein Kieft, Governor General, and Council under the 

high and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands, 

Hio'h Mio-htiness of Orano;e and the Honorable Directors of 

the authorized West India Company, residing in New JSTether- 

land, make known and declare that on this day hereunder written, 

we have given and granted to Jan Everse Bout a piece of land 

lying on the North Kiver, westward from Fort Amsterdam, before 

these pastured and tilled by Jan Everse, named Gamoenepaeni 

and Jan de Lacher's Hoeck,^ with the meadows, as the same lay 

within the post and rail fence, containing eighty-four morgans.^ 

" In testimony wdiereof are these presents by us signed, and 

with our seal confirmed, in Fort Amsterdam, in New 

Netherland, the which land Jan Everse took possession 

of in Anno 1638, and began then to plough and sow it. 

WiLLEM Kieft. 
" By order of the Honorable Governor General and 

Council of New Netherland. 
" CoRNELis Van Tienhoven, Sec'y."* 

' This is the first time the names of these two places are met with. It has 
been said that " Gamoenepaen" received its name from being the settlement of 
Pauio. Dunlap's Hist, of W. T., i., 50. Gemeeiite, " community or commons." 
It is a possible origin rendered plausible by the modern orthogrs^hy of the 
word, which is not older than the present century. But Pauw had sold out his 
interest some time previous, and it was the land, not the settlement, that was so 
named. Up to this time the place had been included in the general name of Pa- 
vonia. Now it was applied to the upland east of the hill and soutli of the mead- 
ow between Communipaw avenue and Walnut street. The orthography, and 
especially the final syllable of the word, precludes the idea of its being derived 
from Pauw. It is, I think, beyond doubt an Indian word. It has been written in 
many ways, e. ^r.; GemeenePas (common way ?), Gamoenepaen, Gamoenipan, Ge- 
moenapa, Gamoenepa, Gemoenepa, Gemeenapa, Gemoenepaen, Ghmoenepaen, Ge- 
meenepaen, Gmoenepaen, Commanepa, Commennpa, Communepah, Communipaw. 

■^ That is, John the Laugher's Point. It was a circular piece of upland at the 
mouth of Mill Creek, surrounded on three sides by salt marsh and on the east 
by Communipaw Cove. It is probable that this name immortalizes the jovial 
disposition of Jan Evertsen Bout, who was its first occupant, and, after Pauw 
parted with his interest therein, held it under a lease (dated July 20, 1038) from 
the Company. 

3 For an explanation of this measure, cide Winfidd's Land Titles, 20. 

* The original is now in possession of John C. Van Horn, in good preserva- 


On the bluff immediately in the rear of Cavan Point, and just 
where the Central Railroad crosses the Morris Canal, lived Dirck 
Straatmaker.^ It is possible there might have been a few other 
families than those above named, living along the shore between 
Hoboken and Cavan Point, but if so the fact has not survived. 
There was no building on the Heights, and, as far as known, 
none other in the county. 

As soon as the Indians had fled to the Dutch for protection 
from the wild warriors of the north, Kieft saw the opportunity 
for which he had waited since the murder of the " Raadraaker," 
and intimated the same to De Vries. He had dissolved the 
representative " Twelve," and yet he feared the people, should 
he attack the Indians. Well he might, for besides the retaliation 
which would fall upon the scattered whites and outlying planta- 
tions, the savages were the guests of the Dutch, " strong both 
against the deed." Violent and unscrupulous men, however, 
soon opened a Avay for the slaughter of the savages. Among the 
former " Twelve " were Jan Jansen Dam (or Damen), Maryn 
Adriaensen, and Abraham Isaaesen Planck, " three inconsiderate 
boors."^ Kieft's secretary, Cornelis Yan Tienhoven, was a 
crafty, subtle, intelligent, sharp-witted man. " He was an adept 
in dissembling. Where he laughed heartiest, he bit worst ; 
where he hated most, he pretended the warmest friendship. In 
words and dealings he was loose, false, deceitful and lying ; 
promising every one, but when they came to the point ' he was 
not at home.' " He and Planck were brothers-in-law, and sons-in- 
law of Dam. Planck, Dam and Adriaensen were the cronies 
of Kieft. As Kieft was dining with Dam at Shrovetide, on the 
night of February 24, 1643, and had become mellow with drink- 
ing " mysterious toasts," and so open to the approach of evil 
counsel, the host, with Planck and Adriaensen, assuming to 

tion. It is without date, but Van Tienhoven says the farm was given to Bout 
"long after the hous3 was burnt." Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 432. The house was 
destroyed in 1643. 

> Winfieli's Land Titles, 58. This bluff took the name of Straat maker's 

2 Breeden Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y., in., 102. 


speak for the people, presented to Kieft the following cruel 
petition drawn up by Yan Tienhoven, for the immediate 
slaughter of the unsuspecting Indians •} 

" To the Honorahle William Kieft^ Director General of New 
Netherlands and his Honorable Council. 
" The whole of the freemen respectfully represent, that though 
heretofore much innocent blood was spilled by the savages with- 
out having had any reason or cause therefor, yet your Honors made 
peace on condition that the Chiefs should deliver the murderer into 
your hands (either dead or alive), wherein they have failed, up to 
the present time ; the reputation of which our nation hath in 
other countries, has thus been diminished, even, notwithstanding 
innocent blood calleth aloud to God for vengeance : we therefore 
request your Honors to be j^leased to authorize us to attack the 
Indians as enemies, whilst God hath fully delivered them into 
our hands, for which purpose we ofter our persons. This can be 
effected, at the one place by the freemen, and at the other by 
the soldiers. 

Your Hono''^' subjects, 

Makyn Adriaensen, 
Jan Jansen Dames, 
Abraham Planck. 
By their authority, 

Cornelis van Tienhoven, 


Although the '' Twelve" had been dissolved by Kieft himself, 
and he therefore well knew that no one could speak for them, 
he was weak enough to heed the voice of three men who falsely 
spoke in the name of " the whole of the freemen." In his anx- 
iety to perform what he thought a great and heroic deed, he 
yielded to their counsel, and resolved to " make the savages wipe 
their chops.'" On the following day Yan Tienhoven and Hans 
Stein, at one time a deputy jailor in New Amsterdam, came 

' Col. Hist, of N. r.. z., 345. « lUd, %., 193. 

3 N. Y. Hist. i:oc., N. S., i., 269. 


over to Pavonia to reconnoitre the camp of the Indians.^ Cap- 
tain Dc Yries and Dominie Bogardus, having been informed of 
what was going on, remonstrated against the whole proceeding, 
but in vain. Kieft was ambitious '• to perform a feat worthy of 
the ancient heroes of Kome."^ He immediately issued the fol- 
lowing order : 

" Sergeant Rodolf is commanded and authorized to take under 
his command a troop of soldiers and lead them to Pavonia, and 
drive away and destroy the savages being behind Jan Evertsen's,^ 
but to spare as much as it is possible their wives and children, 
and to take the savages prisoners. He may watch there for the 
proper opportunity to make his assault successful ; for which end 
Hans Stein, who is well acquainted with every spot on which the 
savages are skulking, accompanies him. He, therefore, shall 
consult with the aforesaid Hans Stein and the corporals. The ex- 
ploit ought to be executed at night, Avith the greatest caution and 
prudence. Our God may bless the expedition. 

'' Done 25 February, 1643."-» 

With such revolting blasphemy did the w^eak Director end 
such a cruel order ! A similar order was given to Adriaensen to 
attack the Indians at Corlaer's Hoeck. Most wicked and inop- 
portune were both. The settlers were scattered and entirely 
without notice of the impending blow. Their position and want 
of preparation for defence rendered them an easy prey to the 
savage. Under these circumstances the Dutch authorities were 
entering upon a course the end of which was destruction. 

The light of the 25th of February, 1643, was fading, and the 
shadows of the black winter niirht were drawins; over the beau- 

' i\r. T. Hist. Soc, If. S., L. 345 ; Boc. Hist, of N. T., iv., 103. 

2 JV". r. Hist. Soc, JV. S., i., 269. 

3 De Vries says they encamped at Pavonia, " near the Oyster Bank." Ibid, i., 
268. " On Jan de Lacher's Hoeck, near Jan Evertsen's bouwerie." Col. Hist. 
o/iV. F.,f, 209. " By the bouwerie of Jan Evertzoon." Iiid,i.,\Qo. "Near 
Jan Evertsen Bout's bouwerie." Ibid, i., 199. " Behind the settlement of 
Egbert Woutersseu, and adjoining the bouwerie of Jan Evertsen Bout." O'Cal, 
y. N., L, 267. 

* X. Y. Hist. Soc, X. S., i., 278. 


tiful bay. Huddled and sliivering on the western slope of Jan 
de Lacher's Hoeck, under the protection of the Dutch, the unsus- 
pecting Indians thought themselves safe from the fierce Mo- 
hawks. But while they drew around the camp fires and talked 
or dreamed of their forsaken wigwams, Manhattan was all astir 
with the movement of troops and citizens. The noble-hearted 
De Yries stood beside the Director as the soldiers under Sergeant 
Rodolf passed by the fort on their way to Pavonia. " Let this 
work alone," said he ; " you will go to break the Indians' heads, 
but it is our nation 3'ou arc going to murder." " The order has 
gone forth ; it shall not bo recalled," was Kieft's dogged reply.^ 
The sergeant, with his eiglity soldiers armed for the slaughter, 
marched down to the river, and, embarking in boats prepared for 
the purpose, silently rowed toward the shores of Pavonia. Round- 
ing the southerly point of Paulus Ilneck, under the guidance of 
Hans Stein, they pulled for the high point at the mouth of Mill 
Creek. Here they landed. Climbing tlie bank, they passed 
close to the house of Egbert Wouterssen, and cautiously ap- 
proached their sleeping victims. Suddenly the sound of mus- 
ketry and the wild shrieks of the Indians rang out in the mid- 
night. Even at this distance of time, " the horrors of that 
night cause the flesh to creep as we ponder over them." Captain 
De Yries, who, in contemplating the consequences of the expedi- 
tion, could not sleep, says, " I remained that night at the Govern- 
or's, and took a seat in the kitchen near the fire, and at mid- 
night I heard loud shrieks. I went out to the parapets of the 
fort and looked toward Pavonia. I saw nothing but the flash of 
the guns, and heard nothing more of the yells and clamor of the 
Indians, who were butchered during their sleep."^ Neither age 
nor sex could stay the hand of the unrelenting Dutch. Suck- 
lings were torn from their mothers' breasts, butchered in the pres- 
ence of their parents, and their mangled limbs thrown into the 
fire or water. Others, " while fastened to little boards" — the 
rude cradle of tlic papoose — were cut through, stabbed, and mis- 
erably massacred. Some were thrown alive into tlie river, and 

1 O'Cal, N. N., I, 367. « iV. Y. Hist. Soc, iV. S.> I, 269. 



when their fathers, obeying the promptings of nature, rnshed in 
to save tliem, the soldiers prevented their coming to shore, and 
thus parents and cliildren perished. The babe and the deerepid 
old man shared the same fate. Some succeeded in hiding among 
the bushes from their destroyers, but the next morning, driven 
out by hunger to beg for bread, were cut down in cold blood and 
thrown into the fire or river. De Yries says, " Some came run- 
ning to us from the country having their hands oif, some, who 
had their legs cut off, were supporting their entrails with their 
arms, while others were mangled in other horrid ways, in part 
too shocking to be conceived ; and these miserable wretches did 
not know, as well as some of our people did not know, but 
they had been attacked by the Mohawks." Isaac Abrahamsen, a 
captain of one of the vessels which had brought over the soldiers, 
and was waiting for their return, saved a little boy and hid him 
under the sails ; but toward morning the poor child, overcome 
with cold and hunger, made some noise. Instantly he was 
" heard by the soldiers; eighteen Dutch tigers dragged him from 
under the sails in spite of the endeavors of the skipper, who was 
alone against eighteen, cut in two and thrown overboard."^ 
Eighty Indians were slaughtered at Pavonia during that night, 
and this, says De Yries, was " the feat worthy of the heroes of 
old Rome." 

Great M^as the rejoicing on Manhattan when the soldiers re- 
turned bearing the ghastly heads of some of the victims as the 
trophies of their brilliant exploit. Planck's mother-in-law went 
so far as to kick these heads in her yet unappeased rage ! But, 
closer than they knew, sorrow and mourning were following 
upon the heels of their unhallowed rejoicing. How could it be 
otherwise ? What though the slayers were " Christians " and 
the slain savages ? " Hath not a Jew eyes ? hath not a Jew 
hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions ? fed with 
the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same 
diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the 

1 Breeden Raedt, Doc. Hist, of N. Y., iv., 104. 

2 O'Cal, N. N., i., 209. 


same winter and summer, as a Christian is ? If a Jew wrona: a 
Christian, what is his humility ? revenge ; if a Christian wrong a 
Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example ? why, 
revenge. The villainy you teach 'me I will execute ; and it 
shall go hard hut I will better the instruction.''^ 

How suddenly had briars sprung up in the trail !^ While 
yet the fiendish orgies were being enacted, the work of 
retaliation had begun. Dirck Straatmaker, in company with 
some Englishmen and his wife, who had a baby^ in her arms, 
came at an early hour upon the bloody field for the purpose of 
plunder. The surviving Indians, who now saw the soldiers filing 
off toward their boats, while the others tarried, fired upon Straat- 
maker's party, with what result the following certificate will 
show : 

" We, the undersigned, sergeant, corporal, and soldiers, at the 
request of the Attorney General, attest that on the — February, 
164:3, in the morning, after we had beaten a party of savages at 
Pavonia, behind Egbert Wouterssen's, the wife of Dirck Straat- 
maker, with a few Englishmen, arrived on the spot where the 
slain were lying, with a view to plunder maize or any other arti- 
cle. We declare solemnly we warned said Dirck Straatmaker 
and his wife and told them to go home, to which Dirck replied, 
' There is no danger. If there were a hundred savages, none of 
them would hurt us.' Upon which the undersigned left the 
spot, according to their orders, to go to the house of Egbert. 
When they arrived there they heard a shriek; then the sergeant 
ordered some of his soldiers toward the spot, where they found 

' " There are briars in the trail between us." An Indian proverb, signifying 
that trouble exists between the tribes. 

'^ This child was saved. He was named Jan Dircksen Straatmaker. Shortly 
afterward he was bound by the authorities in New Amsterdam to Claes Teu- 
nissen, with whom he had, on Feb. 28, 1659, been living for sixteen years. He 
was then in his seventeenth year. Minutes of the Orphan's Court, New Amst., 
96. He must, therefore, have been very young at the time of the massacre. 
It is probable that from him came the family of that name which for a long 
time lived in Hoboken. He married Geesje Gerrits, Jan. 14, 1665. Winfield's 
Land Titles, 58. 


Dirck, aforesaid, wounded (who died a while after of his wounds), 
and his wife dead. The soldiers saved the English, wlio had 
only one gun amongst them all. 

" Thomas Willet declared that Dirck aforesaid, being asked, 
' "Why did you not come with us when we warned V answered, 
' I might have well escaped by running, but I did not wish to 
leave my poor wife.' 

" All which the undersigned declare to be true. Done 18th 
May, 1643, in New Netherlands. 

" JuRiAEN RoDOLF, Sergeant, 
" Peter Petersen, Corporal, 
" Thomas''^ 

So unsuspecting were the Indians of the treachery of the 
Dutch, that some of them fled from Pavonia to the fort in New 
Amsterdam for protection, believing for a time that they had been 
attacked by the Mohawks.^ They were soon undeceived, how- 
ever, and forthwith entered upon a relentless war. Eleven 
tribes resolved upon the work of destruction. They murdered 
all the men they could And, dragged the women and children 
into captivity, burnt houses, barns, grain, haystacks, and laid 
waste the farms of the whites. From the Raritan to the Con- 
necticut not a white person was safe from the tomahawk and 
scalping knife, except those who clustered around Fort Amster- 
dam. Says Roger Williams, " Mine eyes saw the flames of their 
towns, the flights and hurries of men, women, and children, and 
the present removal of all that could to Holland."^ 

The people laid the fearful responsibility of their present ca- 
lamities upon Kieft. He tried to shift it u})on the shoulders of the 
three who had urged him to the great wrong. " I Iiave," said 
he to Bout, " wherewith to defend my conscience, namel^y, Maryn 
Adriaensen, Jan Damen, and the man over there, your neigh- 
bor," meaning Planck. " You have done flue work," said Jacob 
Stofielsen. " You must blame tlie freemen," responded Kieft. 
" You have now done flne work, in causing the murder of 

1 Valentine's Manual, 1863, 541. a N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. 8., L, 269. 

3 Rhode Island Hist. Soc, Hi., 159. 


Christian blood,'' said Blauw of Paulus Hoeck, alluding to his 
stepson, who had been killed. " You must put the blame on 
the freemen, of whom your neighbor, Abraham Planck, is one," 
replied the Director.^ Adriaensen became indignaut at the at- 
tempt to place the responsibility of the war upon him and his 
associates. It was more than he chose to bear. Rushing upon 
the Director with cutlass and pistol, he demanded, '' What dev- 
ilish lies are these you have been telling of me ?" He was 
seized, disarmed, and committed to prison. His attack was the 
signal for a general rising, which was, however, readily subdued, 
and Adriaensen was shortly after sent in chains to Holland for 

Kieft, goaded by the stings of conscience and the taunts of 
those who had suffered, attempted to conquer a peace, but was 
unsuccessful. He then turned wnth suppliant voice to the same 
God whom he had mocked in his infamous order to Sergeant 
Rodolf : "Whereas, we continue to suffer much trouble and 
loss from these heathen, and many of the inhabitants find their 
lives and property in jeopardy, which no doubt is the conse- 
quence of our manifold sins ; therefore the Director and Council 
have deemed it proper that next Wednesday, being the fourth of 
March, shall be holden a general fast and prayer, for which every 
individual is solicited to prepare himself, that we may all, with 
true and incessant prayer, seek God's blessed mercy, and not give 
occasion through our iniquities that God's holy name may be 
contemned by the heathen."^ Neither his attempt to lay the 
blame upon others, nor his attempt to force the natives into sub- 
mission, nor his humbling himself before God could screen him 
from the tempest of indignation that burst upon him. To such 
a pitch were the people aroused that the proposition was made 
to depose him from his office and ship him to Holland.^ 

' Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 195. - Valentine's Manual, 1863, 540. 

■'' Hendrick Kip was heard to say : " The Kivit (meaning the director) ought 
to be packed off to Holland in the Peacock, with a letter of recommendation to 
Master Gerrit (the public executioner) and a pound flemish, so that he may give 
him a nobleman's death." N. Y. Col. M8S., ii., 53. 


It was now approaching the latter part of March. The season 
of the ye'ar was near when the Indians must prepare for the 
maintenance of themselves and families by planting. This could 
not be done in the midst of a war. Advances were therefore 
made by Pennawitz, chief of the Canarsees, for the re-establish- 
ment of peace. This resulted in a " talk '' on Long Island, fol- 
lowed by a treaty of "solid peace" on the 25th of March.^ 
Some of the Long Island sachems then went to Ilackensack and 
Tappaen to persuade those tribes to send to the fort and make 
peace with the Dutch. Nearly a month passed before they 
could be induced to put any faith in the Director. At length 
Oritany, sachem of the Hackensacks, invested with full power by 
the neighboring tribes, repaired to Fort Amsterdam, and entered 
into the following compact : 

" This day. the twenty-second of April, 16-1:3, between Wil- 
lem Ivieft, Director-General, and the Council of the ISTew Neth- 
erlands, on the one side, and Oratatin, Sachem of the savages 
residing at Ack-kin-kashacky," who declared that he was dele- 
gated by and for those at Tappaen, Reckgawawanc, Kictawanc, 
and Sintsinck, on the other side, is a Peace concluded in the 
following manner, to wit : 

"All injustices committed by said nations against the Nether- 
landers, or by the Netherlanders against said nations, shall be 
forgiven and forgotten forever ; reciprocally promising, one the 
other, to cause no trouble, the one the other ; but whenever the 
savages understand that any nation, not mentioned in this treaty, 
may be plotting mischief against the Christians, then they will 
give to them a timely warning, and not admit such a nation 
within their own limits."^ 

To impress the savages with the solemnity and honesty of this 
compact, presents were mutually exchanged. But these savages, 
untutored in the elaborate deceptions of diplomacy, did not feel 
that the presents received were commensurate with the great 

' Valentine's Manual, 1863, 540. ^ Hackensack. 

3 Alb. Rec, a., 220 ; O'Cal, N. N., i., 277. 


wrongs they had snifered, and they went away grumbling. 
Hence the peace thus concluded was only apparent and did not 
last long. The river tribes were not at ease. The great injuries 
inflicted upon them by the hated Swannekins were unavenged 
or unatoned, and nothing but blood or a full satisfaction could 
extinguish the fierce hatred which they nursed. Early in Au- 
gust the war whoop was sounded above the Highlands, and thence 
rolled southward. In some instances by stealth, in others by 
open violence, the savages waged a relentless war. Seven differ- 
ent tribes joined the coalition, which spread terror on every side. 
In this hour of peril Kieft called upon the people whom he had 
previously slighted to come to his assistance. They selected 
EIGHT representatives to confer and advise with the Director and 
Council. In this body was Jan Jansen Damen, but, for the 
part he had taken in bringing about the February massacre, he 
was expelled, and Jan Evertsen Bout of Coramunipaw chosen in 
his stead. Tlie Eight resolved on war, and Kieft proceeded to 
arm the people, and stationed them in small companies to pro- 
tect the outlying settlements. But the savages were alert and 
gave the Dutch but little time for preparation. The force 
detailed to defend Lord Nederhorst's colonic were routed on the 
night of September 17th, and the house in which they took ref- 
uge was burned. Jacob Stoffelsen, then living near the present 
corner of Henderson and Third streets in Jersey City, fearing 
his place might be injured, had three or four soldiers detailed for 
its protection. On the 1st of October nine Indians came to 
his house. They were kindly disposed toward him, and did not 
desire to injure his person. Under some pretence they induced him 
to cross over to the fort. They then approached the soldiers as 
friends. These, being thrown off their guard by this show of 
friendship, gave no attention to their muskets, were attacked and 
killed, and the buildings burned. The savages took young Ide 
Van Yorst prisoner and carried him off to Tappaen.^ Aert 
Teunissen of Hoboken, out on a trading excursion, was killed 

1 iV. Y. Hist. Soc, JV. S., l, 373. The next day, at the request of Kielt and 
Stoffelsen, De Vries went to Tappaen and ransomed the " boy." 


near Sandy Hook/ and afterward his farm was laid waste and 
his cattle were destroyed. The fonr boiiweries in Pavonia — 
Bout's at Gamoenepaen, Wonterssen's at Jan de Lachcr's Hoeek, 
Stoffelsen's at Ahasimus, and Teiinissen's at Hoboken — were 
laid waste and the bnildings destroyed, not generally by open 
force, but by creeping through the bush and setting fire to the 
roofs, which were constructed either of reeds or straw.^ Before 
leaving, they burned every house in Pavonia, except the brew 
house in Hoboken,^ and destroyed every bouwerie and planta- 
tion, witli twenty-five lasts* of corn and otiier produce, and killed 
or drove away the cattle.^ Pavonia and adjoining districts suf- 
fered more than any other section. So thoroughly was their de- 
struction accomplished that from Tappaen to the Highlands of 
the N^avesinck the country was once more in possession of its ori- 
ginal masters.^ All was desolation. In tlie language of the 
Eight to the States General : " Every place almost is abandoned. 
We, wretched people, must skulk, with wives and little ones, that 
still are left, in poverty together, by and around the fort on the 
Manhattes, where we are not one hour safe. . . . These 
heathen are strong in might. They have formed an alliance 
with seven other nations ; are well provided with guns, powder, 
and ball, in exchange for beaver by private traders, who have 
had for a long time free course here. The rest they take from 
our brethren whom they murder."^ 

These troubles produced much discontent among the colonists. 
Poverty followed in the wake of the war. The company's treas- 
ury was depleted, and Kieft attempted to replenish it by heavier 
taxation. Tliis, added to tlie war, kept the country in an almost 
disorganized condition until the spring of 1645. Then a number 
of tribes concluded a treaty of peace with the Dutch. In honor 
of this event, a " grand salute of three guns *' was fired by Jacob 
Jacobsen Roy, gunner in Fort Amsterdam. Unfortunately, one 
of the pieces — a brass six-pounder — exploded, and poor Roy was 

1 Valentine's Hist, of If. Y., 47. 2 Ibid, 4G ; Col. Hist, of N. F., i, 185. 

3 Col. Hist, of N. T., l, 329. < Ibid, i., 190. s Broadhead, i., 369. 

6 O'Cal, N. N., i., 889. 7 zi,id, i., 393. 


badlj Avounded in the right arm.^ It was not, however, until the 
thirtietli of Aiignst, that the river Indians consented to lay down 
their arms, and enter into the following treaty : 

" This day, being the 30tli of August, 1645, appeared in the 
Fort Amsterdam, before the Director and Council, in the pres- 
ence of the whole Commonalty, the sachems or chiefs of the sav- 
ages, as well in their own behalf as being authorized by the neigh- 
boring savages, namely: Orataney, Chief oi Achinkes-hacky; 
Sessekenick and William, Chiefs of Tappaen and Reckgaioa- 
wank ; Pacham and Pennewink (who were here yesterday and 
gave their power of attorney to the former, and also took upon 
themselves to answer for those of Onaney and the vicinity of 
Majamoetinneinin^ of Marechowick, of Nyack and its neighbor- 
hood), and Aepjen, who personally appeared, speaking in behalf 
of Wappinx, Wiquaeskecks, Sintsnicks and Kichtawons. 

"First. They agree to conclude with us a solid and durable 
peace, which they promise to keep faithfully, as we also obligate 
ourselves to do on our part. 

" Second. If it happen (which God in his rnerey avert) that 
there arise some difficulty between us and them, no warfare shall 
ensue in consequence, but they shall complain to our Governoi', 
and we shall complain to their sachems. 

" If any person shall be killed or murdered, justice shall be 
directly administered upon the murderer, that we may henceforth 
live in peace and amity. 

" Third. They are not to come on Manhattan Island, nor in the 
neighborhood of Christian dwellings with their arms; neither will 
we approach their villages with our guns, except we are con- 
ducted thither by a savage to give them Avarning. 

" Fourth. And whereas, there is yet among them an English 
girl, whom they promised to conduct to the English at Stamford, 
they still engage, if she is not already conducted there, to bring 
her there in safety, and we promise in return to pay them the 
ransom which has been promised by the English. 

' N. T. Col. MSS., iv., 221. 


" All which is promised to be religiously performed throughout 
the "vvhole of New JSTetherlands. 

" Done in Fort Amsterdam, in the open air, by the Director 
and Council in New Netherland, and the whole commonalty, 
called together for this purpose, in the presence of the Maquas 
ambassadors, who are solicited to assist in this negotiation as 
arbitrators, and Cornelius Anthonissen, their interpreter, and an 
arbitrator with them in this solemn affair. Done as above." 

This treaty was signed by Sisendogo, Claes Norman, Orataney, 
Sessekeniis, "William of Tappaen, Jacob Stoffelsen, Aepjen, 
sachem of the Mohicans, and Cornells Teunissen, all of whom 
affixed their mark ; and by Willem Kieft, La Montague, Jan 
Underhill, Francis Doughty, George Baxter, Richard Smith, 
Gysbert Opdyke, Jan Evertsen Bout, Oloff Stevensen and Cor- 
nells Haykens.^ 

Thus closed the first Indian war. It had been carried on for 
eighteen months with but sli":ht intermission. On the return of 
peace, the owners and tenants of farms on the west side of the 
river came back to and rebuilt their desolated bouweries.^ 

• Valentine's Manual, 1863, 544. 

2 Bout was among tlie number who returned. Before lie had reconstructed 
his dwelling, however, he sold the " farm and a poor, unfinished house, with 
some few cattle, for 8,000 florins," to Michael Jansen. Col. Hist. ofJ!f. Y., i , 432. 
Vide Vreeland Family. It is probable that Jansen purchased this farm in 1646. 
Certainly he was residing there in September, 1647. The farm sold to Jansen 
was only part of the tract given to Bout by the Company. The other part he 
sold to Claes Comptah, alias Claes Pietersen Cos, for 1,444 florins, 3 stivers. 
NeiD Amst. Rec, Hi., 143. Winfield's Land Titles, 48. 

CHAPTER III .—1 6 4 6—1 658. 

'Arrival of Stuyvesaut — Murder of Simon Walinges at Paulas Hoeck — Conler- 
ence -with the Indians — Tracts of land taken up in the County — War 
again breaks out — Pavouia destroyed — All the settlers flee — Indians 
return their prisoners to Paulus Hoeck — Detached settlements forbidden 
— Persecution of the Quakers. 

On the 28tli of July, 1646, Petrus Stuyvesaut was commis- 
sioned Director General, and arrived at Manhattan on the lltli 
of May, 1647. Shortly after his arrival the Indians began to 
complain that the presents promised to them when they entered 
into the treaty of peace had not been received. Being without 
money and without goods, he was unable to satisfy their demands, 
and yet knew that if a war should break out, he would be cen- 
sured by the tickle multitude. In this dilemma the commonalty 
were called upon to select eighteen representatives, from whom 
the Director and Council selected Nine to advise the Govern- 
ment when requested. Manhattan, Breuckelen, x\mersfoort and 
Pavonia made the necessary selections from their best citi- 
zens.^ From Pavonia appeared Michiel Jansen, the farmer, 

1 The merchants, burghers and farmers were represented in this Board. Its 
duties were — First. To promote the honor of God, the welfare of the country, 
and the preservation of the Reformed Religion, according to the discipline of 
the Dutch Church. Second. To give their opinion on matters submitted to them 
by the Director and Council. Third. Three of the nine, viz. : One merchant, 
one burgher, and one farmer, were to attend for a month in rotation on the 
weekly court, as long as civil cases were before it, and to act subsequently as 
referees or arbitrators on cases referred to them. If, in case of sickness or ab- 
sence, either of these three could not attend, his place was to be failed by an- 
other of the Nine of the same class. Six retired from office annually, to be 
replaced by an equal number selected from twelve names sent in by the whole 
board. They held their sessions in David Provoost's school room, and were the 
immediate precursors of the Burgomasters and Schepens, and of a municipal 
form of government in the city of New Amsterdam. New Neth. Reg., 55. 


who held a seat in the same body in the years 1649 and 

Stuyvesant profited by the experience of his predecessor in his 
intercourse with the Indians. His manner toward them was 
conciliatory, and it was nearly two years after his arrival before 
any difficulty arose on this side of the Hudson, and even this was 
seized upon by the Director to prove the mildness of his govern- 
ment toward the natives. The following resolution of the 
Council, passed March 11, 1649, and the subsequent conference 
with the Indians, throw all the light upon this incident which 
can now be obtained : 

" Whereas, on the 9th of March last, at Pavonia, about Paulus 
Hoeck, one Simon Walinges^ was found dead, having been, as is 
supposed from the arrows and wounds in his head, killed by the 
Indians, although it cannot be ascertained to what tribe they 
belonged ; yet thus far it is the general opinion that it was done 
by strangers, either from the Raritan or from the south, lured to 
this crime by their avarice, because they took from the house in 
which the murdered man resided about three hundred guilders 
in strung sewant, four beavers and five otters, with some cloth 
and friezes, which theft, no doubt, drew the man from his house, 
as he was discovered a pistol shot from the door in the path, 
lying dead on the ground, with a small ladder in his hand,^ and 
as the murdered man, without knowledge of the court, and 
against common usage, was carried, by some individuals, away 
from the spot where he was killed, and brought to this side of the 
river on the Manhattans before this city ; so the transaction has 
occasioned much commotion among the inhabitants and Indians 
— more so as some of our people took hold of the Indians and 
denounced them as guilty of the crime, which was then followed 

1 NeiD Neth. Reg., 56. 

2 His surname was Van der Bilt. Broadhead, i., 509. He came to this country 
in 1636, and settled in Rensselaerwyck. 

3 The meaning of this I do not comprehend, unless he lived in a sort of block- 
house, which rendered a ladder necessary for entrance and exit, and which, in 
the excitement of the moment, he carried with him after emerging from the 
house in pursuit of the thieves. 


by a general flight of the Indians fi-om the Manhattans, and 
accounts of the transaction were spread far and wide. 

" WJierefore, to prevent its spreading further, the Director 
General and Council have deemed it advisable — first, to make no 
further stir about this murder, and do our best to appease both 
Christians and Indians, and reconcile them again to one another, 
to bury the corpse, and urge the Christians carefully to abstain 
from betraying any desire of revenge."^ 

The Indians, fearing that the Director would seek revenge 
after the manner of his predecessor, sent some of their leading 
men to 'New Amsterdam to ask forgiveness and renew the cov- 
enant of friendship. On the 19tli of July the Sachems Seyse- 
gekkunes, Oratamus (Orataney?), Willem of Tappaen, and Pen- 
nekek of Achter Col (Elizabethtown), met the Council at the 
fort. Pennekek made a speech to the eifect that the Minquas of 
the south desired to live with the Dutch in friendship, and, to 
signify their wish, he laid down a present for the Director ; that 
one Indian of Meckgackhanic had lately, without the knowledge 
of his people, done some mischief at Paulus Hoeck, and asked 
that it might be excused ; that the Raritans, residing formerly at 
Wickquakeck, had a sachem, and wished him to intercede for 
them ; that Meyternack, Sachem of Nyack, with his tribe, was 
^desirous to be included in the treaty, and would continue and 
remain friends to the Dutch ; that he proclaimed the same for 
the Indians of Remahennonk ; that their heart was upright, and 
they wished to live with the Dutch in friendship, and that all tlie 
past might be forgotten, and said : " Could you see my heart, 
then you would be convinced tliat my words are sincere and 

Governor Stuyvesant replied in a conciliatory speech, and pre- 
sented the Indians with about twenty florins, and some tobacco 
and a gun to Oratamus. The Indians were delighted, reaffirmed 
the treaty of peace, and returned to their homes.^ 

From this time until the year 1655 the settlers on the west 
side of the Hudson pursued the even tenor of their way without 

' N. T. Col. MSS., iv., 428. ^ Valentine's Manual, 1863, 548. 



much disturbance from any source. They joined in the general 
crusade against the hard-headed Peter, very much as the masses 
now do against officials, but beyond this they were occupied in 
improving their farms. The favorable situation of the land had 
attracted notice, and numerous grants had been made by the 
company to individuals since the devastating war of 1643. The 
wounds of that terrible contest were healed, and health and 
prosperity were everywhere visible. Jacob Jacobsen Roy, the 
gunner of Fort Amsterdam, had received a grant for one hun- 
dred and fifteen morgens of land at Constapel's Hoeck.^ Claas 
Carstensen, the Norman, sometimes called Van Sandt, had taken 
up fifty morgens, extending from bay to bay, and including the 
central part of the recent township of Greenville, then called 
Minkakwa.^ Maryn Adriaensen had received a plantation of 

' Land Papers {Albany), G. O., 141. Winfield's Land Titles, 73. The Dutch 
word for gunner is konstapel; hence Konstapel's Hoeck, or Gunner's Point. It 
derived its name from the occupation of its first European owner. It lies east 
of Bergen Point, at the mouth of the Kill van Kull. It is a rolling piece of 
sandy land, separated from the main by salt marsh. Different parts of it are 
known as Bird's Point, Van Buskirk's Point, and Mitchell's Point. On acJcount 
of its distance from populous settlements, it is being extensively devoted to 
those kinds of pursuits which require isolation. Its Indian name was Nip- 
nichsen. Roy received the patent in March, 1646. His wife's name was 
Fokeltje Willems. N. Y. Col. MS8., ii., 29. 

2 Land Papers {Albany), G. G., 197. Winfield's Land Titles, 59. The map 
of the county will show that Cavan Point is about opposite Droyer's Point — 
the former in New York bay, the latter in Newark bay. The two points stretch 
out like wings, .\bove them are meadows, below them is a good shore, and 
only about one-half the distance across. By rowing around either of these points 
the natives had a sliort and easy portage from one bay to the other, and a good 
landing upon either side. Hence they named the place Minkakwa (corrupted 
by the Dutch into Mingackque), " the place of the good crossing" — from mino, 
or min, " good," and kakiwe, " to cross over a point of land on foot." It in- 
cluded that part of the county which lies between the Morris canal, or Fiddler's 
Elbow, on the south, and the bluft" where theCentral Railroad crosses the Morris 
canal on the north. 

Prior to 1644 Carstensen lived on Long Island. He married Hilletje Hen- 
dricks, April 15, 1646 ; was admitted to the rights of a small burgher, April 13, 
1657, JVew Neth. Reg., 173, and appointed interpreter of tlie Algomiuln language 
in 1658. Ibid, 133. 


fifty morgens at Awiehaken.^ Dirck Zieken (or Sycan) had ob- 
tained a patent for a plantation below Gemoenepaen, and back 
of Kewan.^ Sjcan's Creek, winding through the meadows, be- 
tween Cavan Point and the upland, still perpetuates the name of 

Winfield's Land Titles, 36. Adriaensen was born in 1600. N. T. Col. M88., 
i., 249. Came from Vere to tliis country in 1631, and settled in Rensselaerwyck. 
O'Cal., N. N., i., 434. He shortly afterward came to New Amsterdam, was 
chosen one of the " Twelve," August 29, 1641, and bore a prominent part in 
the troubles of 1643. He was a bad man, a noted freebooter ; O'Cal., Jf. N., i., 
434 ; a drunkard, I^. Y. Col. MSS., i., 200, and a slanderer. Ibid, iv., 94. His 
wife's name was Lysbet Tysen. She survived him, and married Geerlief Mich- 
ielsen. May 3, 1654. Neic Amst. Rec, i., 448. 

The name of this place is now corrupted into Weehawken, formerly also writ- 
ten Whehocken, Weehawk and Weehauk, but the true name is as given in the 

It still retains much of its primitive attractiveness. Halleck has sung its 

beauty : 

Weehawken ! In thy mountain scenery yet, 

All we adore of nature, in her wild 

And frolic hour of infancy, is met; 

And never has a summer's morning smiled 

Upon a lovelier scene. * * * 

Tall spire, and glittering roof, and battlement; 

And banners floating in the sunny air. 

And white sails o'er the calm blue waters bend, 

Green isle and circling shore— are blended there. 

In wild reality. Wlien life is old 

And many a scene forgot, the heart will hold 

Its memory of this. 

The word is Indian, and several attempts have been made at its definition. 
Weeh-ruh-ink, the termination in auk, meaning " tree," suspected to apply to 
the rock which in its structure resembles trees. N. Y. Hist. Soc. Proc, 1844. 
106. The modern orthography gives a sound similar to Ye-Jiaic-kans, ^^ignify- 
ing " houses." Macaidy's N. Y., ii., 26?. In a letter received from Hon. J. 
Hammond Trumbull, of Connecticut, he says : " The last syllable of Weehaw- 
ken appears to represent the location affix, ing or ink, I am inclined to believe 
that Wehoak denotes ' the end' (of the Palisades), corresponding to the Massa- 
chusetts Wehque, ' ending at,' or wohk-oew (Eliot), ' at the end of.' This 
definition seems to me to be the most probable." 

2 The upland along the shore, between the Abattoir and Cavan Point, was 
granted to Egbert Wouterssen, May 10, 1647, by the Indian name of Apopca- 
lyck. Winfield's Land Titles, 36. The northerly part is known as Itaccocas, 
formerly Regpokes, Rightpokus, RigJd-pocques and Right-Coakkus. The lower 
part was Kewan, now known as Cavan Point, sometimes as Great Kaywan. 
Kewan is Indian, and signifies a. point of land. On a map in Marshall's Wash- 


this owner of the land on its western bank.^ In 1654 patents 
were issued for land in the southerly part of Jersey City and in 
Bayonne, down to near the present First Keformed Church. The 
tracts were designated by this general description, " between 
Gemoenepaen and the Kil van Kol." Most of them lie within 
the district afterward known as Pembrepogh, but as that name 
is not mentioned in the patents, it would seem fair to infer that 
the same was not then known to the Dutch, or, at least, not ap- 
plied to this portion of the county. The grants were as follows : 
October 23, to Jacob Wallingen, from Hoorn,^ - 25 morgens. 
December 4, to Jan Cornelissen Buys,^ - - - 25 " 
" 5, to Jan Lnbbertsen,* - - - 25 " 

" 5, to Jan Gerritsen Yan Immen,^ - - 25 " 

" 5, to Jan Cornelissen Schoenmaker,^ - 25 " 

" 5, to Gerrit Pietersen,"^ - - - - 25 " 

" 5, to Lnbbert Gysbertsen,« - - 50 " 

ington, Vol. V., dated August 27, 1776, Kewan is named " Gallows Point." In 
the olden time this point extended into New York bay much further than it 
now does. In the last seventy years the water has encroached upon it at least 
two hundred feet. A cherry orchard once stood where fishermen now stake 
their nets. 

' This is the creek through which the water of the Off-fall (which stream 
took its rise in Tuers' pond, near the Bergen Reformed Church) forced its way 
to the bay. From Straatmaker's Point to the bay it is yet in existence ; above 
that point it was destroyed by the construction of the Morris canal. 

■■' Winfield's Land Titles, 71. It is probable he came to this country with 
Captain De Vries in 1635 or 1636. N. T. Col. M8S., i., 64. 

3 Winfield's Land Titles, 64. Buys was admitted to the rights of a small 
burgher, April 14, 1657. He was living inMidwout in 1663. He was known as 
'' Jan, the Soldier." 

4 Ibid, 65. Lubbertsen was appointed clerk of the Company, September 8, 
1654, but on the 19th of March, 1658, the same position was refused him. On 
the 13th of August, 1658, he was licensed to keep school in New Amsterdam, 
" to teach reading and cyphering ;" was admitted to the rights of a small 
burgher, April 14, 1657, and appointed one of the commissioners to fortify 
Bergen in 1663. 

5 Ibid, 66. « Ibid, 66. 

' IHd, 65. Pietersen was admitted to the rights of a small burgher in 1657. 
^ Ibid, 62. Gysbertsen was a wheelwright by trade; came over in 1634, and 
settled in Rensselaerswyck. 


December 5, to Jan Cornelissen Crynnen/ - - 25 morgens. 
" 5, to Gysbert Liibbertsen,- - - 25 " 

" 5, to Hendrick Jansen YanSchalckwyck,^25 " 

Michiel Jansen liad also received a patent for twenty-six and 
a half morgens, and his brother-in-law, Claes Jansen, the baker, 
a patent for forty morgens lying at and near Communipaw. At 
Hoboken, Ahasimns, Paulns Hoeck,* and Communipaw were 
flourishing farms.^ 

Ten years had passed since the treaty with Kieft had secured 
peace to the country. "We have now reached the month of Sep- 
tember, 1655. Stuyvesant, in command of a squadron of seven 
vessels, having on board between six and seven hundred men, 
had departed on the fifth for the South river to expel the Swedes, 
who had made a settlement there.*^ In his absence troubles 
arose which bore disastrously upon the settlements on the west 
side of the river. They grew out of such a trifling fact that one 
almost fails to appreciate the wonderful stupidity which precipi- 
tated them. 

Hendrick Van Dyck, the schout-fiscal,had a form in New Am- 
sterdam south of Trinity Church, extending from Broadway to 
the North river. He had with much care planted a peach or- 
chard M'ith trees imported from Holland. This fruit was a rarity 
in those days, and to the Indians it was a novelty. The sight 
of the blushing peach was a sore temptation to the poor savages, 
so irresistible, indeed, that they were not loth to venture their 
lives in the dark nights to sail around in their canoes, and, by a 
stealthy march and scaling of fences, to appropriate the fruit. 
The wrath of Yan Dyck's wife upon discovering these raids upon 

1 WinfieM'8 Land Titles, 68. 2 iMd, 69. 

3 Ibid, 70. The most of these patentees were soldiers. 

i This place was, during this year, called on to furnish its quota of troops to 
exterminate the pirates on Long Island Sound. It furnished one man of the 
forty required for that purpose. 0'Cal.,N. N., ii., 358. 

^ Mr. Whitehead, a scholar of accurate learning, says that the several planta- 
tions on this side of the river were abandoned in 1051. Whitehead's East Jersey, 
20. This is a mistake. They were not abandoned until 1655. 

6 Broadhead, i., 604. 


her orchard knew no bounds, A wateli was set for the thieving 
savage, but in the chase the wild rover was too nimble for the 
heavy-bottomed Dutchmen, As capture was impossible, nothing 
remained but to give the rogues a dose of shot, and Yan Dyck 
was assigned to the duty. At midnight he secreted himself in 
the orchard and waited for the intruder, A dim figure soon 
scaled the fence and began to pluck the forbidden fruit. Van 
Dyck fired ; the victim fell. It was an Indian girl, and she was 
dead. The news of the outrage soon spread, and the Indians de- 
liberately resolved upon signal vengeance. Giving no warning of 
their purpose, on the night of the 15th of September sixty -four 
canoes, carrying five hundred warriors, all armed,^ landed at 'New 
Amsterdam and scattered themselves through the streets. Yan 
Dyck, for whom they were searching, fled to the house of his 
neighbor, Yandiegrist,^ They attacked the house, and in the 
affray Yan Dyck was wounded in the breast by an arrow, and 
Yandiegrist was cut down with a tomahawk. The town was 
quickly aroused ; the guard attacked the savages and drove them 
to their canoes. They then crossed over to the west side of the 
river, and " in the twinkle of an eye" a house at Hoboken^ was 
in flames, and all Pavonia was soon on fire. From one end of 
the settlement to the other the torch and the tomahawk did their 
work. Excepting the family of Michiel Jansen at Communipaw, 
every man who did not seek safety in flight was killed. All the 
cattle were destroyed, and everything burned. From Pavonia 
they passed over to Staten Island, and laid that waste.'* The at- 

1 Fourteen hundred men belonging to the same expedition arrived shortly 
afterward. Valentine'if Manual, 1863, 552. 

^ This Vandiegrist was subsequently one of the owners of Slaugh's Meadow. 
Win field's Land Titles, 128. 

3 Vanderkemp translates this " Harbol." Alb. Rec, xiii., 327. 

* Captain Adrian Post, his wife, five children, one servant and one girl, were 
saved, Alb. Rec, viii., 158, but captured. O'Cal., iV. W., ii., 293. He afterward 
acted for the Dutch Government in redeeming captives taken by the Indians. 
He settled in Bergen, where he became ensign, Sept. 6, 1665 ; representative, 
June 10, 1673 ; the first prison-keeper in East .Jersey, July 19, 1673, and lieu- 
tenant, July 15, 1675. He was a man of considerable influence, and the founder 
of the Post family. He resided in the town on lot 164 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 
81 ; and died Feb. 28, 1677. 


tack raged for three days with all the fury of savage warfare. 
The Dutch lost one hundred in killed, one hundred and fifty 
were carried into captivity, and over three hundred were de- 
prived of their homes. Twenty-eight bouweries and a number 
of plantations were destroyed, besides a large amount of grain 
and a number of cattle.-^ The savages of Ahasimus, Ackinke- 
shacky, Tappaen, and others were present in this conflict, and 
were guilty of shocking cruelties, against their solemn promise, 
confirmed by an oath, which they never took hefore, viz. : " May 
God, who resides above, take vengeance on us if we do not keep 
our engagements and promises."^ 

For the second time Pavonia was a desolation. The settlers 
on this side of the river, in common with those of other places, 
took wing and fled to IS^ew Amsterdam for protection.^ Here 
the most of them remained for the next five years, until better 
days returned. As soon as Stuyvesant, then on the Delaware, 
heard of the attack by the savages, he hastened his return. Im- 
mediately on his arrival he adopted plans for the defence of the 
Province. The Indians, being encumbered with the prisoners 
they had taken, sent in Captain Post with a proposal of ransom. 
On the 13th of October Pieter Kock* conducted Captain Post 
back to Paulus Hoeck, where he met the Indians. They were 
displeased that the captain had not returned at the time speci- 
fied, and gave expression to their feelings by saying, " Ye Dutch- 
men lie so fast that we cannot trust you." They promised, how- 
ever, that all the prisoners should be at Paulus Hoeck within 
two days. " Come and see it.''^ 

Although they had invited negotiation and accused the Dutch 
of falsehood, they prevaricated and delayed to release the cap- 
tives. Stuyvesant soon lost all patience with them, and issued 
the following order : 

1 O'Cal., N. N., a., 291. 2 Alb. Bee, x., 165. 

3 Valentine's Manual, 1860, 616. 

< Pieter was accustomed to come to the sliores of Pavonia under more favor- 
able circumstances. It was here, but a few years before, tliat lie wooed but 
failed to win Annetje Van Vorst. 

5 AVb. Bee, xiii., 65. 


" Captain Post. — Whereas, the savages appear studiously to 
delay the pending negotiations, which were begun with uuitual 
consent, and with a prospect of satisfactory arrangement, and as 
they apjDear, by their repeated excursions, to endeavor to dis- 
courage onr soldiers, by keeping them constantly on the move, 
and being ferried over time and time again, meantime no deci- 
sion is come to respecting the prisoners in their hands ; 

" Therefore, we desire you, or any other person familiar with 
the Indian language, to demand in our name of the Sachems 
Pennekek, Orataney, and others, what is their final intention, 
and whether they have concluded to deliver over our prisoners 
or not, and if so, when. And we also require that they will not 
keep us longer in suspense or tell us lies, 

"Done in Fort Amsterdam, October 16, 1655,"^ 

On the following dav the Sachem of Achter Col brouorht to 
Paulus Iloeck a number of his captives, as appears b}^ the fol- 
lowing action of October 18th : 

" Whereas, Pennekek, a chief of the savages, did yesterday, 
being the ITtli of October, bring in fourteen persons of the Dutch 
nation, males and females, who had been taken captive by his 
nation, and placed them again under the protection of the Dutch 
government, and at the same time, as a further token of his 
good will, brought in Captain Post, he also a prisoner, and there- 
upon solicited the Director to reciprocate his courtesy in present- 
ing him with some powder and balls ; 

" The Director-General and Council judge the request of Pen- 
nekek a matter of considerable importance, and having mature- 
ly considered it, resolved to send him, as a proof of their good 
will, two Indians who were taken captiv^e by our men, as a free 
gift of the Director-General, with a small quantity of powder 
and ball, in the hope that by these means the remaining Chris- 
tians may obtain their liberty."' 

The fact that a body of savages with prisoners were gathered 
at Paulus Hoeck caused quite a commotion in New Amsterdam 

• N. Y. Col. MSS., vl, 153. 2 Valentine's Manual, 180,'}. r^ru. 


The curious rowed over to Pavonia and prowled around the 
camp. Those who were indignant over the captivity of rela- 
tives insulted the Indians if they landed on Manhattan. The 
authorities, fearing the natural result of such conduct, made a 
general order on the 18th of October that no person should pre- 
sume to go over to Paulus Hoeck, by boat, canoe, or other ves- 
sel, nor should any one converse witli the Indians, under penalty 
of correction. No person, whoever he might be, should, on the 
arrival or departure of any boat, or wdien the Indians should ar- 
rive, crowd to the landing, or indulge in clamor or noise, under 
penalty of imprisonment, whether young or old. If any per- 
son crossed the river without showing a token (or permit) from 
the authorities, the Indians were authorized to arrest and hold 
him for ransom.^ On the 19th Post, Claes Jansen de Ruyter, 
and Peter Wolfertsen van Couwenhoven brought over the above 
views of the government, with some presents for the Indians, 
and returned on the 21st with twenty-eight ransomed captives. 
The savages also sent a message that twenty or twenty-four 
others would be sent in on receipt of a proper quantity of friezes, 
guns, wampum, and ammunition. The Director then wished to 
know how much they would take for the " prisoners eji masse, 
or for each." They replied, seventy-eight pounds of powder and 
forty staves of lead for twenty-eight persons.- Tlie oft'er was ac- 
cepted, and additional presents made. This seems to have ended 
the second general Indian war. 

At this time it does not appear that there was one white resi- 
dent remaining within the limits of this county. The savage 
was ao-ain the undisturbed lord of the soil. Even Michiel Jan- 
sen, who escaped the slaughter of September, had fled to New 
Amsterdam with his numerous family. Stuyvesant, being a 
practical man, attempted not only to conciliate the Indians for 
the present, but to provide for the safety of settlers in the fu- 
ture. He had long before this, and on several occasions, made 
known his views as to the impropriety of detached or isolated 
settlements, which exposed the people to destruction. He now 

7^. Y. Col. M8S., vi., 107. 2 O'CaL. N. N., ii., 294. 


put those views into definite and authoritative shape hy the fol- 

" Ordinance 

Of the Director-General and Council of New Netlierland for 
the formation of villages, and prohibiting straw roofs and wooden 
chimnejs. Passed January ISth, 1G56. 

"Whereas, sad experience hath from time to time proved 
that, in consequence of the separate dwellings of the country peo- 
ple located on the Flatland in divers hooks and places, in com- 
plete opposition to the Order and good intention of the Hon^^® 
Company and its government here, many murders of People, 
killing and destruction of Cattle, and burning of Houses, have 
been committed and perpetrated by the Indians, natives of this 
Country, the most of which might have been, with God's help, 
prevented and avoided, if the good Inhabitants of this Province had 
settled themselves together in the form of Towns, Villages, and 
Hamlets, like our neighbors ofJVevj England^ who, because of their 
combination and compact residences, have never been subject to 
such, at least not to so many and such general disasters, which 
have been caused, next to God's righteous chastisement, on ac- 
count of our sins, by tempting the Savage Barbarians thereto 
by the separate residences of the Country people ; the one not 
being able, in time of need, to come to the assistance of the 
other, in consequence of the distance of the places, and the im- 
possibility of the Director- General and Council to provide each 
separate country house with a guard. To this, then, besides the 
Murders, Damages, and destruction of divers People, Bouwer- 
ies, and Plantations already suffered, is owing also the last, to 
the serious loss and hindrance of this country and the people 
thereof, the recurrence of which is to be apprehended and ex- 
pected hereafter no less than now and heretofore, unless the 
good Inhabitants are taught by their losses and those of others 
to be wiser and more prudent, and to allow themselves to be in- 
fluenced by good law, as they are bound to be, to form compact 
dwellings in suitable places in form and manner as will be laid 
down to the Inhabitants by the Director-General and Council, 
or their Commissioners, when the Director-General and Council 


will be able to assist and maintain their subjects, with the power 
intrusted to them by God and the Supreme government. 

" In order that this may be the better executed and obeyed in 
future, the Director-General and Council aforesaid do hereby not 
only warn their good subjects, but likewise charge and command 
them to concentrate themselves, by next Spring, in the form of 
Towns, Villages and Hamlets, so that they may be the more 
effectually protected, maintained and defended against all assaults 
and attacks of the Barbarians, by each other and by the military 
intrusted to the Director-General and Council ; Warning all 
those who will, contrary hereunto, remain hereafter on their 
isolated plantations, that they will do so at their peril, without 
obtaining, in time of need, any assistance from the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council. They shall, moreover, be fined annually in 
the sum of 25 guilders for the behoof of the public.^ 

" Furthermore, the Director-General and Council, in order to 
prevent a too sudden conflagration, do Ordain that from now 
henceforth no Houses shall be covered with Straw or Reed, nor 
any more Chimneys be constructed of Clapboards or "Wood. 

" Thus done, resolved, resumed and enacted in the Assembly of 
the Director-General and Council, holden in Fort Amsterdam 
in New Netlierland. Dated as above."^ 

During the following summer the authorities, on information 

' In the latter part of this year Jacob Stoflfelsen asked for permission to re- 
turn to his farm at Harsimus. In his petition he set forth that he had been 
twice driven away by the Indians, that he was an old man, and was willing to 
build a small house and barn. The authorities insisted upon their placard of 
January 18th. They claimed that imperious necessity required that separated 
settlements should be discouraged. Yet they permitted Stoffelsen to continue 
the cultivation of his farm at his own risk during the following year. This on 
December 21, 1656. N. Y. Col. MSS.,vm., 313. 

2 iV. Y. Col. MSS., m., 236. On the subject of the preceding ordinance, the 
Directors in Amsterdam wrote as follows, December 19, 1656 : 

" We are well pleased with the Edict your Honors have enacted respecting 
the separate habitations of the outside people, provided it apply to the Builders 
of new dwellings, and not to those whose houses are already erected and con- 
structed, for we do not think it fair to constrain the latter thereto." N. Y. Col 
M88., xil, 45. 


that a fewTappaen Indians were contemplating mischief against 
the whites, reatfirmed the above ordinance, and commanded the 
people to concentrate in villages.^ 

This ordinance was perhaps the principal cause which pre- 
vented the repeopling of Pavonia for several years. The people 
could not make up their minds to abandon their separate settle- 
ments and concentrate in villages. Therefore they quietly re- 
mained in exile upon the Island of Manhattan. Neither they nor 
the authorities would abandon their positions ; hence the fields 
of Pavonia remained desolate. 

During the next two years the attention of the authorities and 
people was largely engrossed with religious matters. A persecu- 
tion of " Non- Conformists" began, and Dominies Megapolensis 
and Drisius held the garments of those who stoned the saints. 
Whatever doctrine they preached, they practiced this : " Stand 
by thyself, come not near to me ; for I am holier than thou." 
They demanded that Dominie Goetwater, a Lutheran minister, 
who had presumed to come to New Amsterdam to instruct the 
people in his way of belief, should be sent back in the same ship 
in which he came. The " Friends," who had been expelled from 
Boston, came within the bounds of New Netherland, and pro- 
claimed their simple, comprehensive creed. They were imme- 
diately pursued with pains and penalties. If they demanded to 
be informed what law they had broken, and called for their 
accusers, that they might know their transgression, tortures fol- 
lowed, such as would rival those of the Inquisition. Even those 
who entertained the persecuted, or showed them sympathy, were 
accused of treating with contempt all ecclesiastical and political 
authority. If one whose soul thirsted for the water of life waited 
upon the ministrations of any other than a duly authorized ex- 
pounder of Ileidelburgh, he or she was instantly accused of being 
absent from worship and profaning the Lord's Day. So soon 
and so completely had Netherlanders forgotten the great lesson 
of the Low Land War, in which William the Silent laid his life 
upon the altar, and whole hecatombs of their countrymen had 

' iV. Y. Col.MSS.,vm.,56. 


been sacrificed, that every man might pray to God in his own 
language and worship Him in wliat form he might, personally 
responsible to Him only for the honesty and genuineness of that 
prayer and worship. Alas, for human weakness which natural- 
izes tyranny in every heart ; which makes every man's credo a 
Procrustean bed upon which he would lengthen or shorten every 
other man's credo until it fitted with exactness. 

" Alas for the rarity 
Of Christian charity 
Under the sun." 

It is some satisfaction, however, to know that these persecutions 
were mostly confined to the east side of Hudson's river. It is very 
doubtful if any such crueltres for opinion's sake were indulged 
in within the bounds of this county. On Monday, the 23d of 
September, 1658, three persons — Timas Christen, Tomas Chap- 
man and John Cook — were carried before the Council, suspected 
" to be of the sect called Quakers, which they unquestionably 
proved, entering the room without paying any mark of respect 
their heads covered." They had come from "GemeenePas" 
(Communipaw), and requested permission to pass on to New^ 
England. This was denied. The sheriff conducted them back 
to Communipaw, and they were warned not to come again, under 
the penalty of corporal pimishment/^ 

1 N. Y. Col. MSS., vuL, 991. 

CHAPTER lY.— 1658— 1664. 

Deed from the Indians for all the land in the County, between Hackensack and 
Hudson — The Refugees desire to return to Pavonia — Forced to concen- 
trate — Petition to found a village on the Hill — The village of Bergen 
begun — Its Founders and Name — Its manner of settlement and defence 
— Its first Charter and Court — Names of Officers — Lot owners ordered to 
take out Patents — A Well ordered to be dug in the Village — Communi- ' 
paw fortified. 

We liave now readied a state of peace in theliistory of Hndson 
County which is not again to be broken in upon by an Indian 
war. Witli considerable accuracy Stujvesant comprehended the 
policy to be pursued toward the savages, and skillfully seized 
every occasion to temper their wild dispositions. Feeling that 
possibly their title to the land in Pavonia had not been satisfac- 
torily extinguished, and that tliis might be one cause of complaint 
with them, and urged thereto by tlie great desire of the refugees 
to return, he entered into negotiations for its purchase. On the 
30th of January, 1658, he received from them a deed, of which 
the following is a translation : 

" This day, the date hereunder written, appeared before the 
Honorable Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant, and the gentle- 
men of the Councilof I^ew N^etherlandt, at the Council Chamber, 
in the Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherlandt, Therincques, 
Wawapehack, Saghkins, Kogkhennigh, Bomokan, Memiwokan, 
Sanies, Wewenatokwee, for themselves and in the name of Moi- 
kopes, Pepoghon, Parsoihques, and others, partners of the lands 
hereafter mentioned. Wlio declare to be the right owners of the 
lands lying on the West side of the North Piver, in New Netlier- 
landt, beginning by the great Rock above Wiehacken, and from 
thence across through the lands, till above the Island t Siskakes,^ 

' Slskakes, Sikakes, Secaucus, is an Indian word, and signifies the j)lnce where 
the snake hides. It must have retained its peculiarity down to the times of the 


and from thence along the Channel side till Constable's Hook. 
And from Constable's Hook again, till the aforementioned Rock, 
above Wiehacken, with all the lands, islands, channels, valleys, 
therein comprehended, in such manner as the aforementioned 
parcel of lands are surrounded and encompassed by the I^ortli 
River, the Kill van KoU,^ and the aforesaid direct line from the 
Rock above Wiehacken, till above Siskakes, where it is divided 
by the Channel. Which lands they offer absolutely to sell unto 
the Director-General and Council, upon which the General and 
Council on the one side, and the aforesaid Indians, for themselves 
and them that are absent, have accorded and agreed in the man- 
ner following, in the presence of the hereinafter mentioned Chris- 
tian and Indian witnesses : The aforesaid Indians do acknowledge 
to have sold, resigned, and transported, as they do by these pres- 
ents, all the lands heretofore mentioned, to the aforesaid Director- 
General and Council and their successors, for eighty fathom of 
wampum, twenty fathom of cloth, twelve kettles, six guns, two 
blankets, one double kettle, and one half-barrel of strong beer. 
Which effects they hereby acknowledge to have enjoyed and 
received before the passing and signing of this. 

" Wherefore they do declare, for themselves and them which are 
absent, to resign and transport the lands before mentioned, to the 
abovementioned General and Council, in full, free and perfect 
property, desisting of all actions and claims which they could or 
might pretend to the lands before mentioned — the transporters 
promise now or hereafter, not to make any pretensions thereon ; 
but to keep and hold this transport firm, sure, and inviolable. 
Promising also to the said Director and Council, to free and war- 
rant the said lands against all claims any other Indians might 
pretend to, and if it should happen that in future times any of 

Dutch, for they named it " Slangheubergh," which in English is Snake Ilill. 
It is a high rock rising out of the salt marsh on the east side of the Hackensack 
river. Its name was transferred to all of the upland lying between the river 
and Pinhorne creek. 

' The Kill van Kull included Pinhorne creek as well as the channel between 
Bergen Point and Staten Island. 


the Dutch, by any Indians, should be damaged on pretension 
they were not fully paid for the lands aforesaid, they, the sellers, 
do promise to repair and satisfy the damages. It is also stipula- 
ted and agreed, the aforesaid Indians shall depart and remove by 
the first convenient opportunity, off the lands aforesaid ; and 
that none of tlieir nation shall come and continue to dwell 
upon it, without knowledge and consent of the Director- 
General and Council, Tlius done at the fort Amsterdam, and 
signed with the marks of the Indians, after the cargoes were 
delivered to their hands, on the 30th day of January, Anno 
Domini 1658. 

i the mark of -. j the mark of 

T, -j Therincques -' ' ) Bomokan. 

( made by himself. ^ j the mark of 

\ the mark of ' | Wewenatokwee. 

' I Seghkow. j the mark of 

y, the mark of Sames. ■^' [ Memirvokan. 

( the mark of ( the mark of Sames, 

/, -l Koghkenningh. y, - as witness. 


( Wairimus Couwee. ( otherwise called Job. 

the mark of 


" We, the Subscribers, witnesses hereunto, desired by the Di- 
rector-General and Council, do certifye and declare, by this pre- 
sent, that the above bargain for the lands before mentioned, is so 
made before us, and the lands, by the sellers transported to the 
Director-General and Council ; on the conditions and terms com- 
prehended in the bill of sale, the conditions and substance plain- 
ly told, acquainted and declared to the sellers by the interpreters 
Govert Loocquermans, Peter Wolphertson van Cowenhoven, and 
Claas Carstensen, and also by Wharimes van Couwe, formerly an 
owner of the lands aforesaid ; and whereupon, the sellers have 
consented to the bargain, transported the lands, and received tlie 
mentioned cargoes and wampum, signed the conditions, with the 
above marks. 

" In witness hereof, have we subscribed this, the day and ycnr 


aforesaid, at the fort Amsterdam, in New Netlierland, in the 

Council Chamber. 

" JoH. Megapolensis, Petrus Stijyvesant, 

" Samuel Drisius, Nicasius de Sille, 

" Olofe Herensin, Piter Touneman, 

" GovERT Loocquermans, Pieter Cowenhoven, 

" Machiel Yansen, Jan Evertsen Bout, 

" y, the mark of Claas, 
" Carstensen I^oorman, 
" T' Present, 

" Cornelius Yan Euyven, Secr.^^'^ 

This deed conveyed all that part of Hudson County which 
lies east of the Hackensack river and Newark Pay, and com- 
prised the territory of the old township of Bergen, The farm- 
ers of " Gomoenepa," who had been driven from their homes in 
1655, had, on the 22d of the same January (1658), expressed a 
desire to return to their deserted bouweries. For this purpose 
they petitioned as follows : 

"7() the Director- General and Council in Neio JSTetlierland : 

" Shows with all due reverence the interested farmers, who 
have been driven away by the Savages from their farms in Pa- 
vonia, Gemoenepaen, and other neighboring places, how that 
they, supplicants, should incline to reoccupy their former spots 

' N. Y. Col. M88., via., 707 ; Taylor's Annals, 46. It may be well to note here 
that the Indians, in the conference held at Easton, October 23, 1758, gave to 
Governor Bernard two deeds, by which they released all their right and title to 
the soil of New Jersey, for which they received £1,000. 8m ItJi's Hist, of N. J., 479. 
These deeds were, at the request of Governor Franklin, ratified by the Six Na- 
tions at a conference held at Fort Stanwix (Rome), October 24, 1768. Col. Hist, 
of N. Y., via., 112. Not only the Dutch, but also the English, always dealt with 
the New Jersey Indians with great fairness, and extinguished their titles by ac- 
ceptable compensation. This fair treatment was traditional among them ; and 
to show their appreciation of it, at the latter conference, after a special meeting 
upon the subject, the Six Nations conferred upon the governor, as representa- 
tive of the people, the euphonius name of Sagorighaveyogiista — " The Great 
Arbiter, or Doer of Justice." Ihid, viU., 117. I am quite sure the reader will be 
delighted with such a pet name, and beguile his leisure hours with its frequent 


of residence, to restore tlieir buildings, and cultivate their for- 
mer fields ; but as they have been greatly injured and suffered 
immense losses by the incursions of said savages, by which it 
will be highly difficult for them to renew their former l)usiness 
of farming, so they now, in their present situation, should ear- 
nestly solicit that they might be favored by your Hon. with 
some privileges, to assist them in this arduous task, so as by an 
exemption of tithes and other similar burthens, during a few 
years, as your Hon. in their discretion may deem proper for their 
relief. Expecting your favorable apostil,^ they remain, 
'' Your Hon. humble Servants, 

" MicniEL Jansen,^ 

" Claes Jansen Backer,^ 

" Claes Petersen Yos (Cos),* 

" Jans Captain, 

" DiRCK Seiken,^ 

" DiRCK Claesen,'' 

" Lysbet Tysen."' 

Upon this petition the following order was made on the same 

" The supplicants are permitted, in consideration of the rea- 
sons explained in their petition, the privilege of exemption from 
the payment of tithes and the burthens attached to these during 
six years, provided that they, in conformity to the orders and 
placards of the Director-General and Council, concentrate them- 
selves in the f orin of a village, at least of ten or twelve families to- 
gether, to become in future more secure and easier to receive aid 
for their defence in similar disastrous occurrences; without 
which the Director-General and Council deem the reoccupation 
of the deserted fields too perilous, which, if it might neverthe- 
less happen, contrary to their order and placard, the Director- 

> A note in the margin of a book or writing ; hie, an order. 

■^ Vide Vreeland Family. ^ Winfield's Land Titles, 50. 

* Ibid, AT. Vide Garrabra:nt Family. ^ Ibid, 65. 

" Vide Vreeland Family, note. 

'' She was the widow of Adriaeusen, patentee of Weehawken. 


General and Council consider themselves not only excused, but 
declare that the aforesaid concession or exemption during six 
years shall be null and void."^ 

Tlie petitioners accepted the conditions imposed and returned 
to their farms, for they longed to escape from the city and the 
pursuits they were obliged to follow there/ They were reluct- 
ant, however, to forsake their bouweries or to erect a village for 
the protection it might afford. Nearly two years passed after 
they received permission to return,^ and yet no village was 
formed, no provision made against the attacks of the Indians. 
This delay obliged the authorities to enforce penalties for diso- 
bedience of previous orders upon the subject of detached settle- 
ments. On the 9th of February, 1660, they did ordain, mter 
alias^ as follows : 

" In order to prevent, and in future put a stop, as much as 
possible, to such Massacres, Murders, and Burnings, by cruel 
Barbarians, at the separate dwellings, the Director-General and 
Council of ]}feio Netherland do, therefore, hereby notify and Or- 
der all isolated Farmers in general, and each in particular, 
wherever they may reside, without any distinction of persons, to 
remove their houses, goods, and cattle before the last of March, 
or at latest the middle of April, and convey them to the Yillage 
or settlement, nearest and most convenient to them ; or, with the 
previous knowledge and approval of the Director-General and 
Council, to a favorably situated and defensible spot in a new 
palisaded Yillage to be hereafter formed, where all those who 
apply shall be shown and granted suitable lots, by the Director- 
General and Council or their Agents, so that the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council, in case of any difficulty with the cruel Bar- 
barians, would be better able to assist, maintain, and protect 
their good Subjects with the force intrusted to them by God and 
the Supreme authority. Expressly warning and commanding all 

' Alh. Rec, xiv., 27. 

^ Many of the Pavonians, including Michael Jansen and Casper Steinmets, 
kept tap-rooms in the city during their exile. iVew Amst. Bee, ii., 133. 
^ The exact date of their return is not known. 


and every whom these may concern, to transport their property, 
previous to the time aforesaid, into Villages or Hamlets, on pain 
of confiscation of all such goods as shall be fonnd, after the 
aforesaid time, in separate dwelling and farm-houses."^ 

Following closely upon the promulgation of this enactment, 
and on March 1, 1660, Tielman Van Vleck^ 

"^IsCt^^^ f^(A^\J^ 

and Peter Eudolphus, with the commendable ambition to be the 
founders of a village, sought permission " to settle on the maize 
land behind Gemoenepaen.'"' They were unsuccessful ; why, is 
not now known. Undiscouraged, however, Van Vleck, on April 
12, 1660, sent in another petition, numerously signed, for per- 
mission to settle a village and some bouweries " on the maize 
land behind Gemoenepaen."* This request was also refused.^ 
This second refusal put a stop to all eflbrts to found a village in 
this county until the 16th of August following, when several 
"inhabitants of this province," that is, of New JSTetherland, 
whose names, unfortunately, have not been preserved, petitioned 
for permission to " begin" to cultivate farms and plantations on 
the west side of the river, " behind Communepah," and " to 
make there a village or concentration." On the same day the 
authorities gave the following decision upon the subject : 

" The petition is granted to the supplicants, provided that the 
village shall be formed and placed on a convenient spot, which 
may be defended with ease, which shall be selected b}^ the Di- 
rector-General and Council or their commissioners. 

" Secondly. That all persons who apply and shall share with 

1 If. Y. Col. MS;S., ix., 53. 

'-' Van Vleck may justly be regarded as the founder of Bergen. He came 
originally from Bremen, studied under a notary in Amsterdam, came to this- 
country about 1658, and was admitted to practice the same year. iV". Y. Col. 
MSS., viii., 932. He was made the first Schout and President of the Court at 
Bergen, September 5, 1061. ]}few Neth. Reg., 100. Alter the capture of the 
country by the English he returned to New York and resided there in 1671. 

- N. Y. Col. M8S., ix., 117. ■* Ibid, ix., 143. '• Ibid, ix , 146. 


others by lot, shall be obliged to make a beginning within 
the time of six weeks after the drawing of lots, and to send 
hither at least one person able to bear and handle arms, and to 
keep him there upon a penalty of forfeiting their right, besides 
an amende of 20 florins, in behalf of the village, and to pay be- 
sides others his share in all the village taxes, which, during his 
absence, have been decreed and levied.'' 

The requirements and directions of the above apostille are 
sufliciently plain. Whoever will look at the topography of the 
village, which was shortly afterward begun on the " Hill," will 
come to the conclusion that it must have been laid out in strict 
conformity to these requirements, and it is highly probable that 
it was laid out by Governor Stuyvesant himself. AVhen the vil- 
lage should be located, the lots witliin its bounds were to be dis- 
tributed among settlers by lottery, without charge, and within 
six weeks thereafter the erection of buildings upon the lots was 
to be begun. 

Up to the date of the above petition it is manifest that the 
present " Jersey City Heights" were without a name and without 
a white inhabitant. The place was described as " behind Gemoe- 
nepaen." There was a small clearing about where Montgomery 
street crosses Bergen avenue, but it is probable that it had 
been made by the savages, as it was known as tlie " Indian corn 
field," or " Maize land," and, after the village was established, as 
the " old Maize land." If the reader will keep in mind the date 
of the petition and permission to form a village — August 16, 
1660 — we will get very close to the date of the foundation of the 
village of Bergen. In a survey of a lot for Douwe Harraensen 
in November, 1660 (the day of the month is not given in the 
return of the survey), the land is described as being " omtrent 
het dorp Berghen in't nieuwe maiz Lant" — neai' the milage of 
Bergen in the new Maize land} Tliis particular lot, in the de- 
scription of which the name first occurs, lay " in the rear of 
Christian Pieterse's land, in breadth twenty rods along from the 

1 N. Y. Col. MSS., iii., 142. As late as August 4, 1661, it was called Nieuwe 
dorp op't maislant. 


ereupple bush to the Kill," and is lot numbered seventj-nine on 
the Field Map, and is now, in part at least, owned by the Marion 
Building Company at West End.^ This survey is conclusive 
proof that the village then existed and had a name, and beyond 
all doubt its ])osition was selected, the village surveyed and laid 
out, and a name given to it between the sixteenth of August 
and some time in November, 1660.^ Beautifid for situation, 

' Winfield's Land Titles, 110. 

- Many conjectures have been indulged in and somewhat has been written as 
to when and by whom Bergen was founded, and as to the origin of the name. 
Writers have generally followed Smith in his suppositions. This author 
thought the Danes had assisted the Dutch in its settlement, and that its name 
was in honor of the capital of Norway. SmitJi's N. J., 61. Mr. Whitehead, 
East Jersey, 16, says it was commenced about 1618, and endorses Smith's origin 
of the name. Dr. Taylor, in his Annals, 45, holds the same opinion, except as 
to the derivation of the name. Being more of a Dutchman than a Dane, he 
holds to the probability that the name comes from Bergen op Zoom, a town in 
Holland. In the N. J. Historical Collection, 226, it is said that Bergen is the 
oldest village in New Jersey, " presumed to have been founded about 1616," 
and to have "received its name from Bergen in Norway." Gordon, in his 
-History of JVew Jersey, 7, -pi^esumes that between 1617 and 1620 a settlement 
was made at Bergen, and the name taken from the capital of Norway. Mul- 
ford's History of New Jersey, 41, endorses this view. Sypher and Apgar, 
History of New Jersey, 10, with a bold if not ingenious originality, say that 
Hudson's men (!) made small settlements at Bergen as early as 1617, clearly 
showing that the authors did not know what they were writing about. Yet 
this work is designed for a text-book in our schools ! Now, 

1st. By whom was it settled ? From a careful examination of the names of 
the original settlers, not only of the village of Bergen, but of the Colonie of 
Pavonia, and after an earnest endeavor to ascertain whence they came, I have 
concluded that the settlement was made by Hollanders (or perhaps more prop- 
erly speaking, Netherlanders), Danes, Swedes and Norwegians. Of these there 
were more Netherlanders than of all the others combined. Oldmixon, while 
intimating a probability that the Danes settled it, admits that " the Dutch, 
always industrious in trade, worked them so far out of it that Berghen, the 
northern part of New Jersey, was almost entirely planted by Hollanders." 
British Empire, i., 283. 

It may be i)roper to mention here a statement which I find in Pictures of 
New York, 10 : " It was the custom of the Dutch West India Company to grant 
land to those who had served out the time they had contracted for with the 
Company. Hence Bergen and Communipaw and several other places were 
settled by di.sbanded soldiers ; and it is remarkable that the inhabitants 
of those places retain their ancient manner of living, and the very disposition 


easily defended, and surronnded by good farm lands, the new 
village was soon in a flourishing condition. It was laid out in a 
square, the sides of which were eight hundred feet long, with 
two streets crossing each other at right angles in the centre,^ and 
a street around the whole plot. Along the exterior of this sur- 
rounding street palisades were erected before April, 1061, to se- 
cure the place from the attacks of the Indians. In the centre 
of the plot where the streets intersected was a public plot of 
about one hundred and sixty by two hundred and twenty-five 

of soldiers, especially the old men still living and their descendants, seem most 
of them to follow their footsteps." Carrying the idea of the military settlement 
still further, it is said that among the soldiers of Stuyvesant, who were trans- 
planted to Bergen, were some of the Moorish race, whose peculiar complexion, 
physiognomy and characteristics are, it is alleged, yet to be traced in their de- 
scendants — the swarthy complexion, the sharp, dark eye and curling black 
hair, so opposite to the ruddy color, the light eye and fair hair of the Hollander. 
j^. J. Hist. Soe. Proc, 1845-6, 48. 

2d. As to the name. Bergen in Norway received its name from the hills 
wliich almost surrounded it. Bergen op Zoom, eighteen miles north of Ant- 
werp, stands on a hill surrounded by low marshy ground, which, with its forti- 
fications, afforded great security. Thus it will be seen that the two supposed 
godfathers of our Bergen received their names from local circumstances. Are 
not the same circumstances existing here to give the same name to the new 
village ? On two sides of the hill was marsh, and the only other place for set- 
tlement was along the river. To the eye of the Hollander, accustomed to look 
upon marshes or low land redeemed from the sea, the ridge growing in height 
as it extended north from the Kill van Kull, was no mean affair. To him it 
was Bergen, the Hill, and, like the places of the same name in Europe, it took 
its name from the hill on which it was built. This I believe to be the true 
origin of the name. 

There is another possible derivation, which it is proper to mention, without 
adopting it. Stuyvesant directed the village to be located on some spot easy 
of defence. The motive— in fact, the primary thought— which necessity sug- 
gested in the formation of the village, was safety. The settlers were driven to 
it as to a city of refuge from the savage foe. In the Dutch language, the verb 
bergen means " to save," probably derived from berg, a hill, which in case of 
attack is a place of safety. If the verb be used as a substantive, we would then 
have Bergen, a " place of safety." Very appropriate and very beautiful ! 

3d. When Bergen was settled is sufficiently shown in the text. 

' These streets were originally straight, but owing to encroachments by ad- 
joining property owners, at least the one running north and south is quite 



feet. These streets quartered the town, and each quarter was 
divided into eight building plots.^ On the sides of the town, 
where the cross streets came to the palisades, were gates, called 

X 110. 

X 10S. 

J/'. 70d>, 

J^ 707. 


Jr. 10s. 


















Jf. 96. 






















the northeast gate, northwest gate, etc., througli which were 
roads leading into the woods. 

The beauty and general desirableness of its situation, the feai- 
of the Indians, the stringent orders of the Director-General, and 
the advantages of the new settlement, caused the village to grow 
so rapidly that in May, 1661, not an unoccupied lot remained 

' By some manipulation the southwest quarter is made to contain, in 1764, 
nine lots, and the southeast quarter only seven lots. The map inserted in the 
text is copied from the Field Map made in 1764. I have no doubt that it correct- 
ly shows the town plot, as originally laid out, the shape of the lots and the gen- 
eral features of Buyten Tuyn. 


inside of the fortifications.^ The buildings first erected were of 
logs, and, at least the barns, covered with reeds, in spite of the 
Director's order.^ The land within the village plot was laid out 
in lots by Jacques Cortelyou, the sworn surveyor,^ and num- 
bered. In the same manner the land surrounding the town 
was laid out in larger plots, to be used as ■'[Dlantations by 
those whose house lots were within the village. These lots ad- 
joining the town were called " Buyten Tuyn," Outside Gardens, 
a name which they retain to tliis day. In like manner the salt 
meadow on the Hackensack, when it did not pass with the up- 
land as one lot, was mapped and numbered. But few of these 
numbers have been discovered, yet enough to make one regret 
that the map, the distribution and ownership of the lots in Ber- 
gen and Buyten Tuyn, have not been found. An old historian 
says, " The manner of laying out originally is singular, but 
small lots where their dwellings are, and these contiguous in the 
town of Bergen. Their plantations, which they occupy for a 
livelihood, are at a distance ; the reason of fixing thus is said to 

' N. Y.Col.MSS,ix.,59d. 

'- Powers of Atty. NeiD Amst.y 65. In a lease here recorded, dated April 1, 
1661, from Guert Coerten to Jacob Luby, of a "lot at Gweykonck, otherwise 
called tlie maize land, being No. 16," we learn that the town had already passed 
an ordinance or made an order that the lots should be fenced. The lease pro- 
vided for the construction of a house thirty feet long and a barn fifty feet long, 
to be built along the palisades of the village. The lessee was to cut and 
smooth the timber and haul it, as also the reeds to cover it. In March the 
lessor was to deliver on the land a plow and " a wagon against the harvest fol- 
lowing," for their joint use. He was also to provide the lessee on halves with 
two young cows, and two three-year old oxen on half risk, and in the following 
spring two more young cows and two oxen. The lease was for six years. Rent 
for the first two years, fifteen pounds of butter from each cow ; for the last four 
years, two hundred guilders in coin or good wampum. This was the first lease 
of a lot within the town of Bergen, and it shows the currency then in use. 
Cornelius C. Van Rypen now resides upon this lot. 

•^ Cortelyou was the first surveyor in New Amsterdam, and made the first map 
of that city in 1G5G. I have no doubt that he laid out the town of Bergen 
and surveyed the adjoining plantations. He was the town surveyor after the 
country was in possession of the Englisli. He died in 1693, leaving three sons 
and two daughters. His descendants are quite numerous, some of them living 
in New Jersey. 


be through fear of the numerous Indians in the early times of 
their settlement."^ 

The village grew rapidly. In one year it became of sufficient 
importance to merit a local government. Up to this time the 
court of Burgomasters and Schepens in New Amsterdam had, 
since its organization in 1652, exercised legal jurisdiction on the 
west side of the river. Henceforward matters in controversy 
here were to be decided by a local court, su])ject to the right of 
appeal to the Director-General and Council. On the 4th of 
August, 1661, Tielman Yan Yleck, at his own request, was 
appointed Schout of tlieWieinv dorp opt maidant^ though he was 
not commissioned until the 5th of the followinc: month.^ On 
this latter date was adopted the following 

" Ordinance 

of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland erecting 
a Court of Justice at Bergen : 

" Petrus Stuyvesant, on behalf of the High and Mighty Lords 
States General of the United Netherlands^ the Hon^'*" Directors 

^ Smith's Hist, of N. J., 61. -' N. Y. Col. MSS., ix., 705. 

" Ihid, ix., 7G3. The following is a copy of his commission, as translated by 
Vanderkemp : 

" Whereas, it is requisite to preserve justice in the village of Bergen, situated 
to the west side of the North River, in New Netherland, that a well qualified 
person officiates there as sheriflF, for which office being recommended to us the 
person of Tielman Van Vleck, Notary Publick within this city ; So is it that we, 
having a full confidence in his abilities, virtue and talents, commissioned and 
appointed him, so as we do by this, as sheriff of the aforesaid village, to officiate 
in that capacity in the aforesaid place and its districts, in conformity with the 
instruction which he has already received, or which he may receive in future, 
and in consequence of it to bring to justice every transgressor of any political, 
civil or criminal laws, ordinances and placards, and to have them mulcted, ex- 
ecuted and punished with the penalty comprehended in these, to promote that 
by his directions and denunciations all criminal cases and misconducts may be 
brought to light, decided with speed, and all judgments executed without de- 
lay ; and further, to act in this respect in such manner as a good and faithful 
sheriff is in duty bound to do on the oath which he hath taken. We therefore 
command the Schepens and all the inhabitants within the district of the afore- 
said village to acknowledge the aforesaid Tielman Van Vleck for our officer and 
sheriff, and to procure him in the exercise of his office all possible aid whenever 


of the Incorporated West India Company, Director-General of 
New Netherlands Curacao^ Bonaire^ Ariiba and their dependen- 
cies, together with tlie Council, 

" To all those who shall see these Presents, or hear them read, 
Greeting, make known : 

" That their Honors do not hope or wish for anything else than 
the prosperity and welfare of their good Inhabitants in general, 
and in particular of the People residing in the Village of Bergen, 
situate (^n the "West side of the North Kiver, and in order that 
such may be effected and preserved with greater love, peace and 
unity, and to manifest and to prove in deed to every Inhabitant 
of the above-mentioned Tillage the effect thereof, the Director- 
General and Council aforesaid, considering the increase and pop- 
ulation of said Village, have therefore resolved to favor its 
Inhabitants with an Inferior Court of Justice, and to constitute 
it as much as possible, and as the circumstances of the Country 
permit, according to the laudable custom of the city of Amster- 
dam in Holland^ but so that all judgments shall be subject to 
reversal by and an appeal to the Director- General and Council 
of New Netherlands to be by their Honors finally disposed of. 

" In order that all things there may be performed with proper 
Order and resj)ect, it is necessary to choose, as Judges, honest, 
intelligent persons, owners of real estate, who are lovers of peace 
and well affected subjects of their Lords and Patroons, and of 
their Supreme government established here, promoters and pro- 
fessors of the Reformed Religion, as it is at present taught in the 
Churches of the United Netherlands^ in conformity to the Word 
of God and the Order of the Synod of Dordrecht. Which Court 
of Justice, for the present time, until it shall be herein otherwise 
Ordained by the said Lords Patroons, or their Deputy, shall con- 
sist of one Schout,^ being on the spot, who shall, in the name of 

it is required, as we deem this beneficial to the service of the country and sei- 
viceable to the promotion of justice." Alh. Rec, xix., 221. 

This commission was issued September 5, 1661, the same day that the village 
government and court were organized. 

' Schout or Sheriflf". The word is derived from Schuld. According to Grotius 
the name is an abreviation of " Schuld-reohter," or criminal judge. His fiinc- 


the Director-General and Council, convoke tlie appointed Sche- 
pens^ and preside at the Meeting ; and with him, of three Schepens, 
to which Office are, for the present time and ensuing year, com- 
mencing the 20th of this month, elected by the Director- 
General and Council, Michael Jansen\^ Harman Smeeman'^ and 
Caspar Stynmets? 

tions were somewhat analogous to those of bailiff or county sheriff; combining, 
however, with them the duties of a prosecuting attorney. Broadhead, i., 453. 
The " Schout-Fiscal " instituted all suits before the Council. O'Cal., N.N.,i.,\0\. 

' Magistrates, somewhat like justices or aldermen. 

'-' Smeeman was born in 1G24 at Iserlow, a town in the county of Mark, West- 
phalia. His arrival here was at an early date. In 1645 he married Elizabeth 
Everts, and she dying, he married Barent Dircksen's widow. In 1657 he pur- 
chased of Michael Jansen a farm at " Gemoenepa " for 900 florins, but where 
the same was situated has not been ascertained. In the same year he was ad- 
mitted to the rights of a small burgher. When the settlers were permitted to 
return to Pavonia, he settled on his farm. In 1663 he was one of three commis- 
sioners to fortify " Gemoenepa," and received fifty pounds of powder for its 
defence. When, in 1664, Governor Stuyvesant summoned a " Landtag" to con- 
sider the state of the Provinces, Smeeman and Englebert Steenhuysen were 
selected to represent Bergen. He was reappointed Schepen in December, 1663. 
He seems to have been fond of the sports of the day, and with but little rever- 
ence for Sunday. For on that day, February 8, 1654, he engaged in the sport 
of Pulling the Goose. N. Y. Col. 3ISS., v., 217. Vanderkemp says that this 
was a game among the farmers in Gelderland. and on the borders of the Rhine. 

A goose was fastened by a rope between two poles, the neck and head greased 
with oil or soap. They who entered the lists drove on a full gallop, and 
usually fell when they missed their aim. He who carried off the goose was 
called king for that festival. Alb. Rec, ix., 84. 

■' At what time Steinmets came to this country does not appear. In the spring 
of 1653, having lost his first wife, he married Jannekin Gerrits, of Zutphen, 
probably living at Harsimus at that time. For his third wife he married 
Tryntje, the widow of Jacob Stoffelsen, and former widow of Jacob Walingen 
Van Horn. Wiiifield's Land Titles, 71. He resided at Harsimus, and was 
driven out by the Indians in 1655. He went to New Amsterdam, where, on 
February 22, 1656, he was licensed to tap beer and wine for the " accommodation 
of the Burghery and Strangers." Hew Amst. Rec., ii., 85. He was admitted to 
the rights of a small burgher, April 11, 1657. New Neth. Reg., 175. On the 21st 
of June he was appointed lieutenant of the Bergen militia. N. T. Col. MSS., 
.)'., 149 ; and on the 4th of September, 1673, was made captain. Col. Hist, of i\r. 
}'., ii., 597. In 1674 he was a deputy from Bergen in the Council of New 
Orange, Ibid, 702 ; and a representative from Bergen in the first and second 
General Assembly in New Jersey. Learning & t<picer, 77, 85. After his mar- 
riage with Stoffelsen's widow he took possession of the West India Company's 


" Before whom all matters touching civil affairs, security and 
peace of the Inhabitants of Bergen^ also justice between Man and 
Man, shall be brought, heard and examined, and determined by 
definitive Judgment to the amount of Fifty guilders and under, 
without appeal ; when the sum is larger, the aggrieved party shall 
be at liberty to appeal to the Director-General and Council 
aforesaid, provided that he enters the appeal within the proper 
time, and gives security, according to law, for the principal and 
costs of suit. 

" In case of disparity of votes and opinions on any occurring 
cases, the minority shall coincide with the majority, without any 
contradiction. But those who are of a different advice and 
opinion can cause their advice and opinion to be entered on the 
roll or record ; but in no wise make public their rendered advice 
outside the court, nor make it known to parties, under arbitrary 
correction, at the discretion of the court itself. 

" The Scbout shall, pursuant to the first Article, preside at the 
meeting and collect the Votes ; also act as Secretary until further 
Order and increase of population. But if he have to act for him- 
self as a party, or in behalf of the right of the Lords Patroons, or 
in behalf of justice for the right of the Fiscal, in such case he 
shall rise up and absent himself from the Bench, and then have 
no advisory, much less a casting vote ; but one of the senior 
Schepens shall, in such case, preside in his place. 

'• What is set forth in the preceding Article of the Sellout shall 
also apply to the Schepens, whenever any cases or questions arise 
in the aforesaid Court between themselves as parties, or between 
others related by consanguinity to the appointed Schepens, such 
as brothers, brothers-in-law and cousins in the first or direct line. 

" All Inhabitants of Bergen shall, until further Order, either of 

farm at Harsimus, and, as was always the case with the possessors of that farm, 
became involved in trouble with his neighbors, Van Vorst and others. Col. 
Hist, of N. Y., ii., 704, 716. He died in 1703. His descendants, at one time, 
were quite numerous in this county, but they have long since died out. 


the Lords Patroons or their Supreme government, be amenable 
to and subject to be cited before said Sellout and Commissaries, 
who shall hold their Session and Court meetine: in the Yillage 
aforesaid every 14 days, harvest time excepted, unless necessity 
and circumstances require. 

" In order to provide the good Inhabitants of Bergen with 
cheap and inoppressive justice, the Schout, as president, and 
the Schepens of the Court must, for the convenience of parties, 
appear on the Court day, and at the place appointed, on pain of 
forfeiting Twenty stivers, at the disposition of the Board ; they 
being notified, at least twenty-four hours before the Court day, to 
appear, by the Court messenger to be appointed by the Director- 
General and Council; and double as much for the President, 
unless excused by sickness or absence. If appearing too late, 
and after the appointed hour, the fine to be Six stivers. 

" No extraordinary Court shall be Ordered at the cost and 
charges of parties, except on the application of both parties, un- 
der submission to costs on loss of suit, which costs shall previously 
be deposited by the applicant or appellant, to wit: For each 
Schepen, Fifty stivers ; for the President, Three guilders, be- 
sides the fee for the Clerk and Court messenger to be hereafter 
appointed, and other Ordinary costs according to law. 

" All cases of Crime shall be referred to the Director-General 
and Council oi New Netherlaiid ; saving that those of the Court 
may and are bound to apprehend, arrest, and to detain and hold 
in confinement all Criminal delinquents until they can send them 
under proper guard to the Supreme government, and, in the 
mean time, take good and correct Information touching the crime 
committed, at the cost of the Criminal, or the Treasury, and 
such transmit at the same time with the delinquent. 

" Minor offences, such as Brawls, Slanders, Scolding, Striking 
with the fist. Threats, simple Drawing of a knife or sword with- 
out assault or bloodshed, are left to the adjudication and de- 
cision of the Court aforesaid, in which cases the Schout there 
shall have power to act before the Court as Prosecutor, saving, 
nevertheless, the clause of Appeal, in case the condemned may 
find himself aggrieved by the sentence of the Court. 


" All cases of Major crimes and Delinquents charged with 
Wounding and Bloodshedding, Whoredom, Adultery, public 
and notorious Theft, Roijberies, Smuggling of contraband arti- 
cles, Blasphemy and Profanation of God's Holy name and 
religion, Slandering and Calumniating the Supreme Government 
or its Representatives, shall, after the information, affidavits and 
testimony have been taken, be referred to the Director-General 
and Council of Neio Netlierland. 

"Should the situation of affairs so require that the President 
and Schepens consider it necessary, for the greater security of the 
peace and quiet of the Inhabitants, to enact, in the absence of the 
Director-General and Council, some Ordinances for the greater 
advantage and contentment of the aforesaid Village and Court 
in the above-named District, respecting Surveys, Highways, Out- 
lets, Posts and Fences of lands, laying out of Gardens, Orchards, 
and such like matters, that may most concern the Flat countr}- 
and agriculture ; also in regard to the building of Churches, 
Schools and similar public Works, and the means how and by 
which the same are to be effected, they are to commit to writing 
their opinions thereupon, and deliver them to the Director-Gen- 
eral and Council, with the reasons upon which they are founded 
annexed, in order, if such be deemed necessary and useful, that 
they may be confirmed, approved and ordered by the Director- 
General and Council. 

" Said Sellout and appointed Schepens shall also be particular- 
ly careful, and be bound strictly to observe, and cause to be ob- 
served, the Law of our Fatherland, and the Ordinances and Edicts 
of the Hon^'^ Director-General and Council heretofore Ordained 
and published, or hereafter to be ordained and published, and 
not to suffer anything to be done contrary thereto, but to see 
that the contraveners may be proceeded against according to 

"Said Schout and Court shall not have power to enact, pub- 
lish, much less to post up, any Ordinances, Edicts, or such like 
Acts, except with the previous knowledge and consent of the 
Director-General and Council. 

"The Schout and Schepens shall also be particularly careful. 


and be bound to assist the Hon^'*^ Directors, as Lords and Pa- 
troons of this Province of Xew Netlierland^ under the Sovereign- 
ty of their High Mightinesses, the Lords States General of the 
United Netherlmids^ and them to help to maintain in their Su- 
preme Jurisdiction, Right and Domains, and all other their Pre- 

" Whereas, it is customary in our Fatherland and other well 
regulated Governments that some change be made annually in 
the Magistracy, so that some new come in, and a few continue, in 
order to inform the new, the Schepens now appointed shall pay 
due attention to the Conversation, Demeanor and Fitness of hon- 
est persons, inhabitants of their respective Villages, in order to 
be able, about the time, of changing or election, to furnish the 
Director-General and Council with correct information as to who 
may be found fit, so that some may be then elected by the 
Director-General and Council. 

" Thus done and given at the Meeting of the Llon^^'' Director- 
General and Council, holden in Fort Amsterdam, in New Neth- 
erlands the 5 September, 1661.'" 

The magistrates, before they could enter upon the duties of 
their ofiice, were obliged to take the following oath : " We prom- 
ise and swear, in the presence of xVlmighty God, that we will be 
faithful to the sovereignty of the high and mighty Lords, the 
States General, the Lords Directors of the privileged West 
India Com])any, Department of Amsterdam, as our Lords and 
Patroons, the Director-General. and Council now placed over us 
or hereafter to be appointed, that we will respect and execute 
their commands, that we will exercise good justice to our best 
knowledge, repell all mutiny, troubles and disorders to our best 
abilities, maintain the Reformed Religion, and no other, and sup- 
port the same, and conduct ourselves punctually in conformity to 
the instruction which we already received or may yet receive, 
and further act as good and faithful magistrates are in duty bound 
to do. So help us God Almighty."^ 

• N. Y. Col. MSS., ix., 765. •■' Alb. Ilec. xix., 282. 


Thus was established the first municipal government and the 
first court within the present State of New Jersey, unless " the 
existence of the somewhat apocryphal tribunal of Ilospating, 
near Hackensack, be admitted."^ And it may not be inappro- 
priate to insert here the names of the members of this court 
while under the Dutch rule, so far as the existing records reveal 

SciiouTS, President. 
Names. Date of Appointment. 

Tielman Yan Yleck, - - _ - September 5, 1661. 
Balthazar Bayard,^ . . - . . March 17, 1661. 
Claes Arentse Toers,^ - . - - - August 18, 1673. 

' O'Cal., N. N., a, 428. Hospating, Espatingh, Espatin, "a liill." In 1657, 
Van de Capellen, tlirou<rli his agent Van Dincklagen, concluded with the In- 
dians a treaty " with submission to tlie courts of justice at Hospating, near Hack- 
insack, on Waerkimins-Connie, in New Netherlands." Broadhead,i., 641. Mat- 
tenow was chief at this place. 0'Cal.,N. N.,ii., 575. In 1674 it was decided to 
be without the bounds of the Indian grant to Stuyvesant, Col. Hist, of 17. Y., ii., 
707 ; and therefore not within Hudson County, though it must be close to the 
northern boundary. 

- Bayard's grandfather was a professor of theology in Paris, whence he was 
driven by religious persecution to Holland. Here his son Samuel married Anna, 
a sister of Governor Stuyvesant, by whom he had three children — Balthazar, 
Nicholas and Petues. Balthazar was a brewer ; in 1664 married Maritje, daugh- 
ter of Go vert Loockermans ; was clerk in the Secretary's office from 1654 to 
1660; represented Bergen in the first and second General Assembly in East 
Jersey in 1668. Shortly after this he returned to New York. He was ap- 
pointed schepen in New Orange, August 16, 1673, assistant alderman in 1686-87, 
and alderman in 1691. 

•' WinfielcVs Land Titles, 91. It was at Toers' house in Bergen that Knat- 
sciosan, an Indian, attempted to murder his brother, Jan Arentse Toers, by 
" giving him several dangerous wounds," on the 11th of April, 1678. The 
Governor and Coiincil met at Bergen on the 34th, with the Sakamakers of the 
Hackensacks, viz. : Manoky, Mandenark, Hamahem, Tanteguas and Capete- 
ham. They acknowledged that the offender deserved " corporall punishment," 
but, as Toers was mending, asked for his release, and promised that if he ever 
again attempted the like, they would deliver him up " for justice without mercy 
to be done upon him." The Indians bound themselves to pay one hundred 
fathoms of white wampum, or an equivalent in skins, within twenty days. Book 
3 of Deeds {Trenton) 144. Claes was the second coroner for the county of Ber- 
gen, appointed December 6, 1683. 


histoky of hudson county. 
Town Clerks. 

The Sellout, 
Balthazar Bayard, - 
Claes Arentse Toers, 

Michiel Jaiisen, \ 
Harman Smeeman, V 
Caspar Steinmets, ) 
Caspar Steinmets, i 

Engelbert Steenhuysen,^ >- 


Date of Appointment. 
September 5, 1061. 
March 17, 1GG4. 
August 18, 1673. 

September 5, 1661. 

October 16, 1662. 

Gerrit Gerritsen, 

' Steenhuysen was a tailor by trade, and came from Soest, tlae second city in 

Westplialia ; arrived at New Amsterdam in the ship Mocsman, of which Jacob 
Jansen was skipper, April 25, 1059, paying for his fare and freight 30 florins. Alb. 
Bee, viii., 4:S4:. With Herman Smeeman he represented Bergen in the " Landtag " 
in 1604. Broddliead, i., 739. He has the honor of bein^^ the first schoolmaster in 
Bergen, having been licensed October 6, 1603. New Neth. Reg., 133. The follow- 
ing memorial of the authorities of Bergen, dated December 17, 1663, reveals some 
unpleasantness in that relation : " Shew reverently the sherifl'and commissaries 
of the village of Bergen, which they presume is known to your Honors, that 
before the election of the new commissaries ye were solicited for Michael Jan- 
sen. deceased, to be favored with the appointment of a clerk (v-oorleser) who 
should at the same time keep school, to instruct the youth, the person of En- 
gelbert Steenhuysen, who possessed the required abilities, so is that the sherifl' 
and commissaries, now a year past, proposed it to the community, who then 
approved it, and resolved to engage him not only as clerk (voorleser), but with 
the express stipulation that he, besides this function, was to keep school, which 
the aforesaid Steenhuysen agreed to do, and did so during five quarters of a 
year, for which was allowed him/350 in sea want annually, besides some other 
stipulations besides the school money, so as reason and ecpiity shall demand. 
Now, 80 it is that the aforesaid Engelbert Steenhuysen, whereas he has a lot 
and house and a double farm, situated in the jurisdiction of the village of Ber- 
gen, is, by the complaints of a majority of the community, obliged, with the 
other inhabitants, to provide for the sustenance of a soldier, by which the afore- 
said Engelbert Steenhuysen considers himself highly aggrieved, and so re- 
signed his office, pretending that a schoolmaster and clerk ought to be exempt- 



Baltliazar Bayard, 
Adolph Hardenbrook, , 
Harmaii Smeenian, ) 


Date of Appointment. 

December 17, 1663. 

ed from all taxes and burthens of the village, which he says is the common 
practice through the whole christian world, which by the sheriff and commis- 
saries is understood that only that can take place when such a clerk or school- 
master does not possess anything else but the school-wharf, but by no means 
when a schoolmaster is in possession of a house and lot and double farm, that 
he in such a case should pay nothing from his lot and lands, and the commu- 
nity at large is of the same opinion, as he receives his salary as clerk, and not 
only is obliged to act well in his capacity as clerk (voorleser), but even to look 
out and procure himself a proper and convenient place to keep school, which 
he thus far neglected, and pretends that the community must effect this, so that 
he may keep his school in it. They cannot perceive how Engelbert Steenhuy- 
sen can be permitted to resign his office when he neglected to notify his inten- 
tion a half a year before ; wherefore the supplicants address themselves to your 
Honors, humbly soliciting them to insinuate to the aforesaid Engelbert Steen- 
huysen to continue in his service this second year, and to declare if the afore- 
said Engelbert Steenhuysen is or is not obliged by his possession of a lot and 
farm to provide in the maintenance of a soldier, so well as the other inhabi- 
tants." Alb. llec, .vxi., 439. 




Gerrlt Gerritse, 1 

Thomas Fredericks,' j 
Elias Micbielse,~ \- 

Peter Marcellissen,^ 
Coriielis Abramse, 
Walinck Jacobse,* ] 
Engelbert Steenhiiys, j 
Enoch Michielse, Gemoenepas,^ 
Claes Jansen, Ahasymus^ 


Date of Appointment. 

August 18, 1673. 

August 31, 1674.« 


The parties interested in the above memorial were summoned before the 
Council and heard at length, and Steenhuysen was commanded to serve his time 
according to his contract. 

From this communication it appears that the school house was not yet built. 
One was, however, shortly afterward constructed on the lot where the school 
house now is. It was built of logs. The Columbia Academy was erected on 
the same lot in 1790, and taken down in 1857 to [make room for the present 

^ Thomas Frederick De Cuyper. Winfield's Land Titles, 94. He is said to 
have been a woodsawyer, and was admitted to the rights of a small burgher, 
April 12, 1057. 

- Vide Vreeland Family. 

^ He came from Brest in the ship Beaver; arrived May 9, 1661, with his 
wife, four children and two servants. His children were aged respectively 13, 
6, 4 and 2 years. His servants were male and female. The passage cost him 
as follows : For self, 36 florins ; wife, 36 florins ; children, 90 florins ; servants, 
70 florins. He was the founder of the Merseles family in this county and 

^ Vide Van Winkle Family. ■■ Vide Van Vorst Family. 

^ The appointments for this year were selected by the authorities from the 
following nominations by the people of Bergen, on the loth of August, as ap- 
pears by the following extract from the Court Register in Bergen, which is 
preserved : 

" To the meeting a nomination of Schepens was made to be presented to the 
Director-General and Council, by a majority of the votes, as follows : 

(Adrian Post. 
Walinck Jacobze, 

For the Village of Bergen, - 

For Gemoenepa, 

Engelbert Steenhuys, 
[Douwe Hartmanse. 
\ Enoch Michielse, 
( Ilartman Michielse. 


Names. Date of Appointment. 

Jan Dircksen Seicken, Minckaque and Pemerpoch^ 

August 31, 1674. 

Court Messengers.^ 

Jan Tibout, 1661. 

Claes Arentse Toers, ------ 1663. 

Under the necessity laid upon them, as before observed, the 
people had flocked to the new village and taken lots (for they 
were free) in the general distribution, but had neglected to take 
patents for them. This neglect made confusion and caused the 
enactment of the following ordinance : 

"All Inhabitants of New Netherlands and especially those of 
the Village of Bergen, on the West side of the North River ; also 
all others who have or claim any Lands thereabout, are Ordered 
and commanded that they, within the space of three months after 
the date hereof, at latest, before the first of January next, shall 
have all the cultivated and uncultivated Lands which they claim, 
surveyed by the sworn Surveyor, and set off and designated by 

„ t:, . , ( Ide Cornelisse Van Vorst, 

For Anasymus, ' 

f Claes Jansen. 

" For Minckaque and \ Jan Dirckse Seicken, 

Pemrepock, \ Hessel Weigertsen. 

" From wliich nominations his Hon. shall be pleased to make the election. 
" Agrees with the Register. Quod attestor. 

" Claes Arentse Toers, 

" Secretary." 
Alh, Bee. xxii , 440. 
This was in accordance with the practice in Holland, where the Stadtholder 
appointed the magistrates out of double their number presented to him. 

' This name was applied to that part of the county which lies between the 
Morris canal and the First Reformed Church in Bayonne. The following are 
some of the ways of writing the word : Pembrepogh, Pembrepock, Pemerpogh, 
Pemrepogh, Pemerapogh, Pemmerapugh, Pemmerapock, Pemmarepocq, Pem- 
merpogh, Pemrepogh, Pamrepogh, Pamropogh, Pamrepock, Pamrapaw, Pam- 
arapogh, Pamperpogh, Pimbrepow. 

- The duties of court messenger seem to have been to read in the church on 
Sunday, to sing with the school, to assist in burying the dead, to attend to the 
tolling of the bell, and to summon parties to court. 


proper marks, and on exhibition of the Return of survey thereof, 
apply for and obtain a regular Patent as proof of property, on 
pain of being dej^rived of their right, to the end that the Direc- 
tor-General and Council may dispose, as they may deem proper, 
of the remaining Lands which, after the survey, may happen to 
fall outside the Patents, for the accommodation of others. All 
are hereby warned against loss and after complaints. 

" Thus done in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherlands the 15 
September, 16G1."^ 

As the village had been palisaded for protection from outside 
attack, the people were anxious to get the full benefit of these for- 
tifications. But the cattle must be watered, and since there 
were no means within the defences for that purpose, the gates 
must be opened and the cattle driven to water. "While thus en- 
gaged, both cattle and people were liable to annoyance from the 
Indians. To obviate this danger, the court of Bergen ordained 
as follows : 

" Whereas, the Sellout and Schepens have reflected and duly 
considered that some persons drive their Cattle to water outside 
the Land gate and Fence now provided and erected, they have 
deemed it advisable and highly necessary that a Public Well be 
constructed for the public accommodation, on the Square, to water 
the Cattle, 

" They hereby Ordain, on the ratification of the Hon^^^ Direc- 
tor-General and Council of New Netherlands that every one of 
the Inhabitants of Bergen^ after having been notified by Jan 
Tihout, the messenger, shall be and appear, on the day prefixed, 
personally, or by substitute, on pain of arbitrary correction by the 

" Done at the Court of the Village of Bergen^ and signed by 
the Sellout and Schepens, the 28 January, 1G62. 

" TiELMAN VAN Yleok, president, 
" Herman S^leeman, 
'*' Caspar Steynmets, 
" Michael Jans." 

' N. T. Col. M8S., i.v., 788. Several of the lots were abandoned and passed 

a well dug in the square. 87 


" The Director-General and Council of New Netherland ap- 
prove and ratify the above resolution of the Schout and Commis- 
saries of Bergen ; they, therefore, Order all and every whom it 
may concern, on notification of the messenger, to appear, or to 
send a proper person in their stead, at the appointed time and 
place, on a penalty of 5 guilders for each day, to be forfeited by 
such as absents himself, to be applied for the benefit of the Til- 
lage in general. Dated 9 February, 1662."^ 

Under this law a well was dug in the centre of the square. 
Troughs were placed around it for the cattle, and a long sweep 
used for raising the water. The well continued in use until 
within the present century, when it was covered over and a lib- 
erty pole placed in it. This pole was taken down in the fall 
of 1870, when the square was paved and all traces of the well 

Among other annoyances which arose in the government of 
the village, was the lack of men necessary for its protection. It 
was laid out in the woods and surrounded by unreliable Indians. 
Several of the lots in the town had been taken by people living 
in Kew Amsterdam, who neither came here to reside, nor sent 
men to do their part in the defence of the place, as was required 
by the charter. In all communities where one member shirks a 
duty, the other members are forced to bear unjust burdens. 
Those who resided in the town were obliged to contribute to its 
defence for their own safety, and thus protected the property of 
non-residents while securing their own. They felt this to be un- 
just, and their complaints to the authorities called forth the fol- 
lowing ordinance, passed N^ovember 15, 1603 : 

" On the repeated complaints of the majority of the Inhabit- 
in Carteret's grant to the freeliolders, and became common property. These 
abandoned lots mav be seen on the Field Map, and were allotted as common 
land. " ^ N.Y. Col. MSB., x., 50. 

. - The destruction of this well was almost a sacrilege. Its associations and 
its memories should have pleaded " like angels trumpet-tongued against the 
deep damnation of its " filling up. Perhaps in no other country would such an 
outrage have been attempted. 


ants of the Village of Bergen^ that some continue to neglect to 
occn])y the Lots they obtained in said Village and to keep there- 
on a man fit to bear arms ; also, that some absent themselves 
without providing their Watch, whereby the people of said Vil- 
lage are so much fatigued that they cannot an}^ longer stand at 
their posts, and are unwilling to go any longer on guard, unless 
the others who have vacant Lots keep for the guard one man 
with them for each Lot; the Director-General and Council, in 
order to prevent this confusion, resolve that all those who claim 
any Lots in the aforesaid Village shall, within 24 hours after the 
service hereof, furnish and continually maintain for each Lot, one 
man able to bear arms and to keep watch and ward, on pain of 
having the Lots with the Lands thereunto appertaining, as sur- 
veyed by the Surveyor, immediately given and granted in pro- 
priety to others. Let every one be hereby warned for the last 

Communipaw was exempt from the general order that the peo- 
ple should remove to the new village of Bergen. It was the in- 
tention to establish a village at that place also. On the eighth of 
September, 1660, Jacques Cortelyou was ordered to survey " Ge- 
meenepa" and lay it out into village lots.- The lots thus sur- 
veyed fronted on the bay and had a depth of about 200 feeL__ 
They extended from Communipaw avenue on the north to the 
Bay Shore House on the south. Within this small territory tlie 
village was erected and defences set up against the attack of the 
Indians. But the settlers did not all lend a willing hand to erect 
these defences. Some of them were too willing that the others 
should do all the work and bear all the expense, satisfied that 
their individual interests would be secured in the general protec- 
tion. To this those who were willing to perform their duty 
would not submit, and on the tenth of February, 1661, Tielman 
Van Vleck, for himself and in the name of Michiel Jansen, Cas- 
par Steinmets, and Harman Smeeman, presented a petition "that 
it might please the Director-General and Council to issue their 

' N. Y. Col. MSS., X., Part il, 389. 

■Alb. Eec, xric, 398. Winfield's Land Titles, 54. 


orders with regard to the palisadoing of the new village on Ge- 
moenepa, so that it may be unanimously undertaken ; " and that 
all persons be commanded to make use of the newly laid out 
wagon road, and not of any other. 

On this petition the apostille was : " The persons named in 
this petition are authorized to promote as well the palisadoing of 
the village as that of the land, so, as they considered the situation 
of the place and time, shall deem proper, carefully observing 
that the palisades which are used are of a due length and thick- 
ness, viz. : between six and seven feet above the ground, and to 
communicate this to the inhabitants of the village by affixed bil- 
lets, commanding them, upon an amende of two £ flanders, to be 
paid in behalf of the village by each one who, at the determined 
day, shall be found to have neglected the one or the other part 
of his duty. What regards the waggon road,^ this may be de- 
layed to a more favorable opportunity. On the day as above."^ 

' The road referred to in this proceeding was the way from Communipaw to 
Bergen, running by the " Off'-fall." 

- i\r. Y. Col. MSS.,ix , 521. Such proceedings, looking to a mutual protection, 
seem to have encouraged settlers. On the 9th of May following Egbert San - 
derson and Jan Theunissen, inhabitants of Midwout and Amersfoort, Long 
Island, petitioned for leave to erect a saw-mill on a stream at " Gemoenepae," 
and move their families there, and for a lot of land for each. The request was 
granted. i\r. T. Col. MSS., i.r., 599. I have no doubt that they proceeded to 
erect a mill, probably on the site where Prior's mill subsequently stood, near 
Point of Rocks. In ^the patent to Claes Pietersen Cos, dated June 3, 1671, the 
" Mill of Hossemus '^is mentioned. Wvnfield's Land Titles, 48. It was a land- 
mark at that early date. From this mill the stream took its name of " Mill 
Creek." It was also called " Creek of the Woods " and " Creek of the High- 
woodlands," from the fact that it wound around the foot of the hill then 
crowned with trees. 

Sandersen, in company with one Bartel Lott, on October 30tli, 1661, petitioned 
again for permission to erect a saw-mill in " the newly commenced village of 
Bergen," and, inasmuch as there were no unoccupied lots, they asked for per- 
mission to negotiate with Jan Everse Karseboom for one. They were referred to 
the schepens of Bergen. This points to Showhank brook as the stream on 
which they desired to erect the mill. Karseboom owned the land there. Win- 
field's Land I'itles, 127. 

This stream took its rise in an Indian spring in West Hoboken, and ran south 
till it came to where New York avenue crosses Palisade avenue. There it 
turned down the hill through a wild ravine and emptied into Mill Creek. After 


The good work of palisading the village does not seem to have 
been well done, if it was done at all, for on the 18tli of June, 
1663, Gerrit Gerritsen, Harman Smeeman and Dirck Claessen 
were appointed commissioners to fortify Gemoenepa.^ All this 
precaution was necessary, for the savages yet prowled hereabouts, 
though their depredations were not so frequent as formerly. Yet 
in a journal of the Esopus war (1663), kept by Martin Krygier, 
it is reported that two Dutchmen were killed between " Gemoe- 
napa " and the " Maize Land " (Bergen), but who they were or 
why they were killed is not known. 

this land came into the possession of the Van Vorst family there was a saw-mill 
on this stream at the foot of the hill. It was destroyed hy fire, December 13th, 

' iV^ r. Col. MSS., X., Part'ii., 133. 

CHAPTER Y. — IGG 4-1673. 

New Netlierland captured by the English — Sir Edmund Ployden's claim to 
New Jersey — Governor Carteret reorganizes the court at Bergen — Speci- 
mens of suits in this court — Names of officers — People of Bergen take 
the oath of allegiance — First tavern license — Assemblymen elected — 
Carteret's charter to Bergen — Why he granted the land to the Free- 

We now approacli the downfall of the Dutch power in New 
Netherland. Events pass rapidly, and soon bring abont the 
closing scenes. For more than fifty years the indnstrions Dutch 
had labored to establish a colony which would insure wealth to 
individual enterprise and be a source of strength and glory to 
the Fatherland. Nature, in its untamed wildness, had been to 
a laudable extent subdued ; the savage, reluctant to forsake his 
old hunting-grounds and the graves of his fathers, had yielded to 
purchase, or been mollified by judicious treatment. In the midst 
of the unfavorable circumstances of their brief possession, they 
had succeeded in planting the seeds of what may now be 
considered a grand empire. The city which they founded has 
become the commercial centre of the continent, and after the 
lapse of two centuries since they yielded to another power, bears 
yet upon its face many of the features of the original settlement. 
In this county the language is still used among the old inhabi- 
tants, and in a few cosy nooks and quaint old families the customs 
of the Fatherland are still held in reverence. Kerstijd (Christ- 
mas), with its merrymakings, good dinners and many gifts, still 
makes its annual visit to gladden the hearts of old and young ; 
Nieuw Jar (New Year), with its cakes, wine and punch, yet opens 
the door of almost every house, and all day long visitors come 
and go, smiling and greeting. Pacts (Easter) ever brings abun- 
dance of eggs, which, like Joseph's coat, are " of many colors," 
and wonderfully mysterious to the youngsters. Santa Claas, laden 
with gifts, makes his regular calls upon all devout believers. The 


footprints of his tiny reindeers are still seen in the snow, and the 
chimney shows marks of his descent. He comes, however, only 
to those who sleep in the faith that he will come, and who have 
called upon him in the following devout prayer : 

Sint Nicliolaas, good lieilig man, 

Trekt uw' besten Tabbard an, 

En reist daarmee naar Amsterdam, 

Van Amsterdam naar Spanje, 

Waar appellen van Oranje, 

En appellen van Granaten, 

Rollen door de straten. 

Sint Nicliolaas, myn goden vriend, 

Ik heb u altyd wel gediend, 

Als gy my nu wat wilt geben 

Fal ik u dienen als myn leven.^ 

On the 12th of March, 1664, Charles II. granted to his brother 
James, Duke of York, inter alias, all that part of Xew jSTether- 
land lying east of Delaware bay. On the 25th of May an expe- 
dition sailed from Portsmouth, England, to perfect the Duke's 
parchment title by reducing the country to his possession. Stuy- 
vesant seems to have been informed of the intended expedition.^ 
Seeing the danger approaching, the people of Bergen took meas- 
ures to put their village in a better state of defence. At their 
request, on the 21st of February, 1664, Arent Laurens, Jacob 
Luby, Harraan Edwards, Laurens Andriessen, Paulus Pietersen, 
Jan Swaen and Jan Lubbertsen were appointed commissioners to 
erect block-houses for the protection of the town.^ Whether they 

' Saint Nicholas, good holy man, 
Put your best tabbard on you can. 
And in it go to Amsterdam, 
From Amsterdam to Hispanie, 
Where apples bright of Oranje, 
And likewise those pomegranates named, 
Roll through the streets all unreclaimed. 
Saint Nicholas, my dear good friend, 
To serve you ever was my end ; 
If something you will now me give 
Serve you I will long as I live. 

- Broadhead, it., 21. 

= iV, Y. Col. MSS.. X., Part Hi., 73. I^eio Neth. Beg., 158. 


were ever begim or completed before the capture by the English, 
or where located, is not known. 

The Duke's squadron was yet on the Atlantic, and the country 
yet in possession of the Dutch, when he, by deeds of lease and 
release, dated the 23d and 24th of June, conveyed to John, Lord 
Berkeley, a brother of the Governor of Yirginia, and Sir George 
Carteret,^ the tract "of land lying between the Hudson and Dela- 
ware rivers ; " which said Tract of Land is hereafter to be called 
by the Name or Names of New CcBsarea or New Jersey.'''''^ On 
the 8th of September his forces, nnder command of Colonel 
Richard Nicolls, captured New Amsterdam. This was done 
without a pretence of England and Holland being at war, but 
simply by way of reclaiming his own ! Ignorant of the fact that 
his master had already conveyed and named the territory in- 
cluded in the grant to Berkeley and Carteret, Colonel Nicolls 
gave it the name of Albania, in honor of the Duke.^ 

^Learning and Spicer, 10. Berkley is described as a "bold and insolent 
man, weak, not incorrupt, and very arbitrary." Carteret was " the most passion- 
ate man in the world." Broadhead, il., 81. 

- This is the first time the name was applied to this State. It was given in 
honor of Sir George Carteret, wlio was born in the Island of Jersey in 1599. In 
1626 he was appointed Governor of Jersey, in 1640 comptroller of His Majesty's 
ships, and in 1645 was created a baronet. He stood by the King in the civil 
war, followed the Prince of Wales to France in 1652, was thrown into the Bas- 
tile in 1657, and afterward banished from France. He entered London with 
Charles II., in 1660, was appointed Vice-Chamberlain, member of the Privy 
Council, and Treasurer of the Navy. In 1668 he was appointed one of the 
Board of Trade, and in 1669 expelled the House of Commons on a charge of 
embezzlement. In 1673 he became one of the Lords of the Admiralty, and died 
January 14, 1679. His remains were interred at Hawnes, in the county of Bed- 
ford. Col. Hist. ofN. Y., a.. 410. 

^ Broadhead, i.,7i5. Col. Hist, of If. Y.,iii., 103. It is said that for some 
time the territory was called New Canary. These are not the only names which 
the State has borne. Sir Edmund Ployden, an impecunious dignitary, while 
in prison for debt, applied to Charles I. for a patent to settle the river Delaware. 
Being unsuccessful, he appealed to Staftbrd, Viceroy of Ireland, and obtained 
the patent of June 21, 1634. The extent of the grant was " four hundred and 
four score miles in compass or circuit of the mainland and country of America 
adjoining and lying near Delaware Bay, between Virginia and New England." 
This included New Jersey. The territory was erected into a " free county pala- 


Articles of capitulation were agreed upon between Stuy vesant 
and Nicolls, two of which were as follows : 

" III, All people shall continue free denizens, and shall enjoy 
their lands, houses, goods, wheresoever they are within this coun- 
try, and dispose of them as they please. 

" XI. The Dutch here shall enjoy their own customs concern- 
ing their inheritances."^ 

On the 10th of February, 1664-5, Berkeley and Carteret com- 
missioned Philij) Carteret, a brother of Sir George, to be Gover- 
nor,^ He arrived in the latter part of July, 1665, and early in 
August assumed control of the Province, A ie^v days afterward 
he reorganized the court at Bergen, and issued the following 
commission : 

"By Virtue of the Power and Authority Given to me by the 
Lords Proprietors of New Jersey, I doe hereby dominate and 
appoint you, Cap't IS^icholas Yerlett, to constitute and appoint a 
Court of Judicature for the Inhabitants of Bergen, Gemoene- 
paen, Ahasymes and Hooboocken, to be held and kept as often 
as Occasion shall Require in the aforesaid towne of Bergen, where 
you, the said Capt" Verlett, Is by Vertue of these P^'sents to be 
President of the said court. And there to hear and Determine all 
Causes of Difference between party and party according to Jus- 

tine," named iV^eto J.Z&i(9«, over which Sir Edmund became Earl palatine. For 
the settlement of this province a company was formed of forty-four lords, bar- 
ons, baronets, kuinjhts, "gentlemen and adventurers, in the name of " The Albion 
Knights for the conversion of the twenty-three Kintys " of (Charles River. In 
1643 the Earl came to New Amsterdam and claimed his rights, but soon 
retired, " for he would not (juarrel with the Dutch." He esteemed the province 
a paradise, and when speaking of it in England said : " The spring waters 
there are as good as small beere heere." This Irish patent seems to have been 
given without the royal authority or consent, and was void. By his will, dated 
July 39, 1655, proved July 37, 1659, he gave J^few Albion- to his son Thomas for 
life, and then to his heirs male, with the income of certain lands in England 
for the " planting, fortifying, peopling and stocking " of New Albion. Andrew 
Wall, son-in-law of Thomas, afterward obtained possession of the letters patent 
and refused to surrender them. Thomas willed them to his son Francis, May 
10, 1698, but it is doul)tful if the devisee ever obtained them. 

' Tliese articles may be found in extenso in O'Gal., N. N., ii., 5;j3. 

-' Learning and Spiccr, 36. Whitehead's East Jerse//. 36. 


tice and liiglit. W the advice and Assistance of Herman 
Snieeman, Casper Steynmets of Bergen and Eljas Michiels of 
Gemoenepaen, Whoe are hereby appointed Magistrates to sett in 
the said Court as yo'" Assistants, And you have hereby Likewise 
Power to apoint a Register or Clark of the said Court, Whoe is 
to keepe a Recorde of all Actions and causes that are brought 
before you, And a Serjant or Statesboade to Execute all Such 
Acts and Warrants as shall proceed from you as occasion shall 
Require, Provided that all Writs, Warrants and Sutes are to be 
in his Ma"^^ Name, And what you w*^ the advice of your Assist- 
ants shall act by Yertue of this Power given you, shall be EiFect- 
uall and good in Lawe, And that Xoe Apeale shall be made to 
the Governor and his Councill, Und'" the some of tenn Pounds 
sterling. And this Commission to continue till Wee shall other- 
wise provide for the settlement of those aifaires and no Lono-er. 

•'■ Given und"" my hand and scale of the Province of New Jersev 
aforesaid the thirtieth day of August, 1665, and in the 17th yeare 
of his Ma"'^' Rai^ue."^ 

' Liber 8 Deeds {Trenton) 1. The records of this court which would have 
thrown so much light on the early history of Bergen and the manners and 
customs of the people, unfortunately are lost. After diligent search I have 
found the record of only two suits, both of which were appealed, and, strange 
to say, both were about hogs. [ will here insert them for the curious reader : 

Extract from the Register of the Minutes of the Court of Bergen, dated 11 
November, 1673 : 

The Schout, Claes Arentse Toers, P''t'ff,^ 
Captain John Behuy, Deft. 

" Pl't'ff proceeds against the Deft on a complaint made by Capt. Sandford to 
the lit. Hon*''" the Governor-General in regard to the removal from Major 
Kingsland of some hogs without the knowledge of any otficer. Wliereupon 
the Schout prosecutes for the value thereof. Deft, acknowledges having car- 
ried oif the hogs to his house, but on the Statement of Sandford's negro, Tjick 
* ■••' * Deft, claims that they were his. 

"The Schout, acting on behalf of justice, maintains that no one can be liis 
own judge on the naked saying of a negro. He proceeds therefore on a charge 
of Tlieft. 


Tlie judges of this court under tlie English rule were as fol- 
lows : 

Nicholas Verlet, President. 


Harman Smeeman, 1 

Casper Steinmets, \ ^ . . ^ . ^o-^-i^^k 

EliasMichielse, ^^^^^^^^^^s, - - August 30, 1665. 

Ide Yan Yorst, j 

" The magistrates demand of deft, if he hath anything further to produce as 

liis answer. 

" Deft, answers — Nothing else than that I claim that they are my own hogs. 

" The Sellout demands that deft, be condemned criminally, and demands a 
fine of 500 guilders, and that the hogs be put back in the place from which they 
were taken. 

" The magistrates condemn the deft, in a fine of 250 guilders, one-half for the 
officer, one-third of the other half for the church, and one-third for the poor, 
and one-third for the Court of Bergen, and in case the Deft, cannot furnish fur- 
ther proof that they are his own hogs, he is ordered to deliver up the hogs into 
the hands of the officer of the jurisdiction of Bergen, and pay, moreover, the 
costs incurred herein. 

" Agrees with the aforesaid Register, quod attestor." K. Y. Col. MSS., xiii., 

The appeal from this judgment is unicpie, and throws additional light upon 
several customs of that day : 

" Capt. John Berry humbly informs your Honor that, on the 11th January, 
1670, new style, I departed hence from my plantation (situate a short English 
mile from Captain Sandford), leaving 13 sows, one boar and 2 barrow hogs. I 
returned here again in July, 1070, expecting to have found at least 100 hogs, 
but instead of an increase they were diminished (according to Captain Sand- 
ford's statement) to one sow and six barrows, which were not forthcoming. But 
very early on the subsequent morning my upper servant brought me word that 
some of the hogs had come back from Milfort, whereupon I answered him they 
may carry them back there ; and about an hour after that Capt. Sand ford's 
negro came there. So seeing the aforesaid hogs, he said to me, ' Here is a 
sow belonging to my master, and the old sow.' I asked him, ' What old sow ?' 
He answered, ' One of the sows which you left here when you went to Barba- 
does.' I asked him if she had had no increase, to which he gave me a vague 
reply, only saying that they had last winter 7 shoats. Whereupon I said : 
' There are six young pigs with her about the same age, and for the most part 
of the color of the sow, according to all appearance they are six of the seven.' 


Tviiainent (Tielinaii t) Van Vleck, Town Clerk, ) ^r ,0 iaaa 

VVilliani feandrorcl, i resident, ) 

Samuel Edsall, ) either to act ) ^^ , 

T \ 1 • { v> • ^ t. i - i^ebrnary 15,1674. 

Lourens Andnesen, ) as i resident, \ •' ' 

To which he answered, ' I believe so.' Then I said to him, ' Let us y^o near by 
and see if they do not belong to your master.' Wliich we did, and when we had 
taken a good look at them, he said, ' No, they are not my master's ; they have 
not any holes in their ears' (which was the distinctive mark betweene Capt. 
Sandford and Mr. Kingsland'.^). Then said I to him, ' One of the young pigs has 
a lame foot,' whereupon he answered that one of my sows had a broken knee. 
Then said I again, ' Beyond a doubt these six barrows are the product of my 
sow.' The negro replied, ' I think so.' He earnestly requested me not to let it 
be known that he had disclosed to me, for if his master came to know it, he 
sliould be very angry with him. 'Well,' I said, 'from all appearance they 
justly belong to me ; I shall provisionally convey them to my plantation.' But 
two or three days after I had reached home, I went to the plantation. Shortly 
afterward I had some conversation with Captain Sandford respecting these 
hogs. I said to him, ' They do not belong to you, for you have told myself that 
all your hogs had holes cut in their ears, but to all appearance they belong to 
me.' He answered, ' All do not belong to me ; there is one at the plantation to 
wliich I shall lay claim, as it appears.' For when I returned to my plantation, 
my upper servant told me that Captain Sandford's housekeeper had been there 
to look them up, saying that they belonged to them, inasmuch as the aforesaid 
sow did not belong to me, but that I had given her to Capt. Sandford, as well 
as the Boar, for the wintering of 2 oxen ; which is untrue. (These words are in 
tacit acknowledgment that they were the progeny of the sow.) But that pre- 
tense is now out of doors, for he recovered 120 from me for the wintering of the 
aforesaid oxen, and he has been allowed by the arbitrators between us as much 
as is customary for the wintering of oxen, and the sow and Boar remain mine. 
But I should trust and hope more, had I to do with people who professed the 
fear of the Lord and had an upright heart. 

" When the aforesaid hogs came back to the house I had them caught, and 
went immediately to Capt. Sandford, but he not being at home, the housekeeper 
and I had some sharp talk on this matter. She said to me that she had had the 
greatest trouble to bring them up, and therefore ought to have them^in prefer- 
ence to any other person. I answered they were not hers on that account, but 
to all appearance they were the increase of my sow, and therefore belonged to 
me. She replied that they belonged to her. Then said I, ' How ; if all your 
hogs have holes in their ears'^' ' See well to it,' she said, ' you will find holes 
in the ears of some, and I warn you, sir, that you will not meet with success.' 
' Well,' said I, ' send one of your Negroes with me ; they are now in the Stone 
house, and let him see ; if there are holes in the ears, I shall let them go, unless 
such are of recent date.' But she refused to send any one. Next morning 


John J5erry, President. \ 
Saninel Edsall, / 

Lourens Andriesen, > . '. . . March 13, 1676. 

Elias Michielsen, V 

Engelbert Steeidinjsen, / 

when we examined the liogs by daylight we found that they had holes in the 
ears, but the scab was yet on the holes, and matter under the scab, and they 
had a stinking smell, whence it clearly appears that the holes were recently 
made, but the mark of the plantation was of old, and 1 congratulate her there- 
on, and believe it was done when they were shoats, long before they strayed 
away. Whence it is clearly manifest that such was done to deceive the Honble 
Governor or me. For they do not belong to me. If they are of the plantation 
it is mine. The cause being small, I carried only four away from there, and 
left two to run at large there until my return ; but where they landed I believe 
Capt. Saudford or his housekeeper knows best, for they could not have any 
previous knowledge of my journey. Thereupon Captain Saudford craftily 
made his complaint to the Honble Governor that I had carried ott' from 
there some hogs which belonged to him or some one else ; for he knows that 
they are neither his nor his housekeeper's. 

'• On this complaint the Sellout came to me and asked me if I had taken any 
hogs away from there. I answered him right out, ' Yes.' He inciuired how 
many. I said, ' Four.' ' Why did you do so ';' I answered,' Because they ap- 
parently belonged to me.' Then said he to me I must appear before the next 
court at Bergen to justify such act. I said to him, ' It shall be done, and very 
etiectually.' I repaired thither, as your honor can see by the copy of their judg- 
ment hereunto annexed. 

" 1st. And iu case I am blamed for having done so without the knowledge of 
the Sellout, I answer thereto, had I known, as I did not, that the Dutch law re- 
quired me to do so, I had justly deserved censure; but not knowing that, I 
knew no better than that I might carry these hogs home, as I presumed they 
justly belonged to me, finding them so near my land and the place to which I 
had carried so many, communicating my intention therein to the person who 
set up a claim to them. 

" 2d. Had I let them run about, they would have perhaps fared no better than 
the other two which I left loose, as well as my sow that has not turned up, but 
apparently has gone the same road as the rest of my hogs and their ottspriug 
have gone ; there being some people in the world who consider all as fish that 
comes into their net. 

" Right Honorable, this is the real truth of this matter, whereby I hope your 
honor will clearly see my innocence in this instance. That I carried them 
silently away, without informing any one ; and when the Sellout questioned me 
thereupon, denied the deed, or acted evasively, which I could have done had I 
had a dishonest intention, it might have created some presun)ption, and had I. 


These same persons were reappointed, Febrnary 16, 1677. 

Tlie following were appointed, June 13, 1673, members of the 
Special Com't of Oyer and Terminer, to be held at Bergen, June 
24, 1673, with power to try all causes brought before them : Wil- 
liam Sandford, President ; John Pike, John Bishop, Samuel 
Edsall and Gabriel Minvielle. The General Assembly having 
provided for holding a semi-annual court in each county, the fol- 
lowing persons were appointed, February 16, 1676, to hold 
a court in Bergen on the first Tuesday in the following 

an intention to perpetrate dirty actions, tliere were opportunities enough witli- 
oat any one being knowing of them, before the liogs had been driven away and 
their number known. But, on the contrary, I strictly cliarged my negroes not 
to touch anything, but it is evident that they did not violate my order therein, 
insomuch tliat Capt. Sandford liimself said that he tliought the occurrence took 
place lately. 

" My most earnest desire is that your Honor would please to take these points 
into consideration and to annul the aforesaid judgment, so that such an unde- 
served stain may not remain on me and my posterity. I pray forgiveness for 
having troubled your Honor with this long narrative. The highly prized pledge 
of an honorable name, which I esteem far more than all riches, hath caused me 
to do so. I conclude it with my prayer that the Divine Wisdom may be pleased 
to endue your Honor with intelligence and understanding not to justify the 
guilty and not to condemn the innocent, both of which are an abomination in 
the eyes of a righteous God. 17 Proverbs, v. 15. 

" I would only inform your Honor that, according to the English law, it is 
usual to do as I have done in this case, and by that law I might take these hogs 
away with me, and in case any one lay claim to them, he should summon me be- 
fore the public court of Justice and the Jury of 13 men had to decide thereupon, 
and if the ownership was found in me, then the Plaintiff is condemned to jiay all 
my costs ; and in case they found for the Plaintilf, then I was condemned to 
restore the property and to make good his costs and damage ; that is, what the 
Defendant hath appropriated and converted to his own use. This is called an 
action of Trover and Conversion. But were an accusation of Theft ma4e, a seri- 
ous action would be against the complainant. Had I been aware that the Dutch 
Law demanded otherwise, I would have conformed thereto. The Word of God 
declares that where there is no law there is no Transgression. At least, a mis- 
conception ought not to be viewed through a magnifying glass, as the Schout 
of Bergen tried to do in the avaricious craving for a fine. 

" Your honor will please to reflect that Theft is a deed of darkness and silence 
and shuns the light, and confesses only on compulsion ; whereas my actions in 
this case were in every step the contrary." 

It is proper to state that the penalty in this case was, on appeal, reduced to 


Maroli, viz. : Jolm Berrj', President ; Samuel Edsall, Lourens 
Andriesen, Elias Michielsen and Engelbert Steenliuysen. To 
liold the same court at tlie same place on the first Tuesday in 
March, 1679, the following persons -were appointed Febru- 
aTy 18, 1679, viz. : John Berry, President ; Lourens Andriesen, 
Elias Michielsen, and Epke Jacobs. Ide Cornelisen Van Yorst, 
Gerrit Gerritse (Van AVagenen), Dirck Claes Braecke, and Elias 
Michielse (Vreeland) were chosen July 27, 1680. Lourens An- 

100 guilders, on condition that defendant return the hogs, or prove them to be 
his within six months. Col. Jlist. of N. ¥., ii., 729. 

The following- record may be found in N. Y. Col. MSS., rxix.,2lS : 

" At a Court of Sessions held at Berghen, in New Jersey, Sept. 15, 1680. 

" The Court opened by Harry Newton. 

" A Jury empannelled & sworne. 

" The Triale betweene Mr. William Lawrence, Pltff. 
" Mr. Michael Smith, Deft. 

" The Decl. upon an action of trespasse upon the case about a parcell of Hoggs 
said to be stolen by the defts. negroes from the plttt'. The deft, offers to come 
to agreemt. 

" The Court adjourned. 

" Afternoone. 

" The negroes of Mr. Smith examined. Righto confest that hee and his 2 
comrads had killed 11 hoggs in the woods and brought two home on Saturday 
night, and told his mr. of it in the morning, who was very angry, and told 
them they would bee hanged, &c. The rest were brought home after to the 
num. of 9. 

" Harman Roeloff relates his finding 3 hoggs dead in the woods the Sunday 
morning, & went and acquainted Mr. Smith. 

" The two were wounded, small holes like swan shot. 

" The negroes deny to have had any gun. The negro Jeremy confesses, also 
doth Harman. Mr. Baker's negroe confesses to have killed one hog unmarked, 
about the same time. 

•' Ordered all 4 to bee secured by the court. Their masters engaging they 
should bee forthcoming, were sett at liberty. 

" Afterwards the arbitrators employed to reconcile the matter in difference 
between Mr. Lawrence & Mr. Smith being sent to, returning answer that they 
could not bring in their report conveniently till the morning. Court adjourned 

till morning. 

" Thursday, Sept. IG, 1080. 
" In the morning 

" Mr. William Lawrence 
" Mr. Michael Smith 
"The Arbitrato" , come into Co" & declare their incapacity of ending their. 

na:s[es of members of the court. 101 

driesen, President; Samuel Edsall, Eiiodi Micliielse and Gerrit 
Gerritse, August 31, 1681 : and Lourens Andriesen, President; 
Samuel Edsall, Enoch Micliielse and Gerrit Gerritsen, August 
31, 1082; Claes Arentse Toers, Hans Diedricks and Enoch Mich- 
ielse, December 5, 1683. William Douglas was appointed Clerk, 
March 28, 1683.^ 

arbitration, having not liberty to chuse an Umpire. The co''' allow them 
liberty & gave them three hours time. 

" The court in meane time adjourned. 

" Afternoone. 

■' The Arbitrate" with their umpire bring in their report. 

"' Mr. Lourens Andries, / , , , ,,. 

- named by v pltti. 
" Mr. Claes Arents, the Clarke, ) 

" Mr. John Baker, ) , , „ 

I bv 3"' deft. 
" Mr. William Douglas, \ 

" John Ward, Umpire. 

" The award £32 10s Od Losseof Stock : £2 lOs. Od towards his bill of charges, 
to be p"* in 6 m. One halfe in good winter Wheate & halle in specie of the 
produce of y* country. 

"Judgment according to y<^ award, & upon default at the time. Execution. 

" Two of Mr. Smith's Negroes, vizt., Jeremy and Harman, condemned to be 
whipt 20 Lashes apiece, & Will, Mr. Baker's Negroe, the like. Righto, for his 
engagement for the future to amend, & reveale his knowledge of any thieving 
or &c., done by other Negroes, & to be Executioner to the above three, is 

" Execution was done accordingly in sight of the court. 

" After which the court dissolved." 

Mr. Smith was a son-in-law of Capt. John Berry, and probably the ancestor 
of the Smith family at Secaucus. He was sheriif of Bergen county in 1G83, and 
hence was the first sheriff of the county. 

' The following commission {Book 3 of Deeds, Trenton) was sent to the court 
one week after Sandford's appointment : 

"Whereas, Emanuell, a Negro belonging to the family of Capt. Nicolas Ver- 
le" , deceased, hath Maliciously and by the Instigation of the divill sett on fire 
a barne in the towne of Berggen belonging to the said family, and being proved 
against him by General Circumstances, and more perticularly by his owne Con- 
fession to the Consumation of the said barne and divers cattle that were there- 
in, to y Great loss and Impoverishing of the said family, which Is death accord- 
to the Lawes for any person that shall comit wilfully any such abominable 
Crime, These are therefore to give full power and Authority to the Justice and 
Magistrates of the said towne and corporation of Bergen to bring the said 
Emanuel to a tryall before them, and according to tho Lawes nf E-igland iff he 


In due time, after the surrender, the oath of allegiance to the 
Ih'itish crown was administered to the inhabitants of Bergen. 
The following is a true copy of the oath, to which is added the 
names of those wlio subscribed to it : 

'"' The Oath of A Legeance taken by the Inhabitants Bergen 
alias and in the Jurisdiction thereof, Beginning the 20 Novem- 
ber, 1665 : 

" You doe sware by the holy Evangelists Contayned in this 
book to bare true faith and A Legeance to our Gov'" Lord King 
Charles the Second and his lawfull Successors, and to be true and 
faithful to the Lords Propryeto""* and their Successors and the 
Government of this Province of jS^ew Jarsey as long as you shall 
continue a freeholder and Inhabitant Vnd"" the same AVithout 
any Equivocation or mentall reseruation Whatsoeuer, and so helpe 
you God. 

" Captt. Nicholas Ver Let, Justice, Paulus Pietersen, 
" Herman Smeeman, Magis'^'", Hendrick Tunisen, 

" Gasper Steinmets, ditto Adolph Hardenbrook, 

'' Elyas Michielsen, ditto Geurt Garetsen, 

" Ider Cornellissen, ditto Barthel Lott, 

" Hans Diedrect, Constable,^ Christian Pietersen, 

" Tynemant Van Vlickt, towne Thomas Fredericksen, 

Clarke, Cornelis Abrahams, 

" Captt. Adrian Post, Ensigne, Herman Ed warts, 

be found Guilty by a Jury of tlie fact to passe Sentence of death upon liim, 
wlaicli they are to execute in such forme and manner as they in theire Judg- 
ments and Wisdomes shall think fitt for the terror and Example of others, and 
for their so doing this shall be to them and Every of them a sufficient Authority, 
provided that this Commission shall be of no longer power and force but for 
this ])resent occasion. Given under my hand and seal of the |)rovince the 1.5th 
day of March, 16(39." 

How long Bergen continued to be the seat of the principal courts of the county 
I am unable, with the information at hand, to state. But on the 20th of August, 
1703, the courts for Bergen county were appointed to be held at Bergen. Per- 
haps the facts upon this subject will be more fully known when the records 
now being obtained from the colonial office in England shall have been pub- 

' Diedricks was a representative of Bergen in the General Assembly in 1G8G. 


" Jacob Liiby, Herman Court, 

'' Arent Lawrence, Renier Yan Giesen, 

" Jan Tibout, Jan Euersen Casabon, 

" Engelbert Steenhnis, Joas Yancl® Lyiide, 

" Pieter Jansen, Garret Garretsen, 

'' Laurence Andries, Claes Arentsen, 

" Derrick Tunisen, I^aurence Arentsen, 

" Douwe Harinensen, Tsaak Van Yleek." 

The village of Bergen was now four 3^ears old, and it is alto- 
gether likely contained, within its bounds many drouglity burghers 
to whom a tavern could administer great consolation. There is 
no evidence tliat such an institution existed in the village by 
permission of the Dutch authorities. Hence it is prol)able that 
the following is the first license to keep a hotel in that place: 

" Whereas, the inhabitants of Bergen have thought fitt to have an 
Ordinary or publick Victualing House settled in their towne for 
the accommodation of Strangers and passengers and to Retaile 
all sorts of drink and other Licquers, for the Effecting Whereof 
the Magistrates have pitched upon Christian Pietersen, an inhab- 
itant of the said towne, as the most fittest p'son for that Employ- 
ment, and for Which they have requested my Lycence : These 
are therefore to permitt and Lycence the aforesaid Christian 
Pietersen to sett up and keep the aforesaid Ordinary or Victuall- 
ing hows for Entertainment of all Strangers and passeng'^ and to 
Petaile all sorts of drink and Other Licq'"^ to all p''sons Except- 
ing Indians, provided he keep good Ord'' in his hows and fitt ac- 
commodation for strangers and not to exceed the rates that shall 
be appointed upon all sorts of drink and liipiers^ by the Magis- 
trates of the said towne, hereby prohibiting all other j/sons 
whomsoever to sell any sorts of drink or Licquers by way of re- 
taile in their hovvses upon the penalty of paying to the use of the 
publick fiftie shillings for Every sucli oftence for their contempt, 
Which said Lycence is to continue for one AV^hole yeare from the 

' Until quite a recent date the Judges fixed the rate of charfjes which mifrht 


first day of Jiinnary next Insniiii; tlio date licreof, and so to be 
renewed l)y the Secretary yearly.^ 

be demanded by tavern-keepers. The following were the rates at one time 
established in this county : 

"A LIST of rates to be taken by every Licensed Innkeeper, as settled l)y the 
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, for the County aforesaid, assem- 
bled June Term, 1844 : 

FOR MAN. $ cts. 

For Breakfast, .-...-..- 37 

Dinner in Common, - ..... 37 

Ditto extraordinary, ....--. 50 

Supper, .--.....- 37 

Lodging })er night, - - - ----- 2.5 

Madeira Wine per (|uart, . . - . - 1 50 

Cliiret per ditto, .-.-.... 75 

Lisbon, Fayal and Teneriffe Wine per ditto, - 1 00 

Fresh Lime Punch per quart, - - - . . 75 

Toddy per ditto, ....... 37 

Grog per ditto, ---....- 25 

West India Rum per gill, - - - - 12 

Geneva per ditto, -..-... 12 

Brandy per ditto, - - 12 

Whiskey and Cider Spirits i)er ditto, - - - - 12 

Cider per quart, -------- 8 

Cider Royal or Bottle Cider per (juart, - - - - 25 

Strong Beer per ditto, 8 

Ship Beer per ditto, -.----'-. 4 

Porter ])er bottle, ..--.-. 37 

Metheglin, -.-.-.... 37 

<'hami)aigne Wine per bottle, 2 00 

And so in proportion for a larger or smaller (juantity. 


For Oats ])er quart, 3 

Indian Corn per ditto, ------- 4 

Stabling a Horse per night on English Hay. - ■ 25 

Ditto tor twenty-four hours, . - . . 37 

Stabling a Horse per night on Salt Hay, - - 12 

Ditto for twenty-four liours, - . - - • 18 

Pasture ])er night, - - 12 

Ditto for twenty-four houis, ----- 16 
And so in pro])ortion for a longer or shorter time." 
' Christian and his good wife, Tryntje, continued to pass the pewter mug to 

him that was athirst, until Feb. 13, 1070, when his license was revoked, and 
Hans Diedricks reigned in his stead. Hendrick Cornelisen seems to have re- 
ceived a license March 10, 1GG9. 

cakteket's charter. 105 

'' Given Uii<l'' my linnd arid seal of the i>roviiice, 14- X'"', ICGG, 
and in 18 yeare of his Ma*'"^ Itaio;ne."^ 

( )n the 7th of April, 166S, the people were called upon to 
elect representatives to an assembly to be held at Elizabethtown 
on the 25th of May following. For Bergen, Caspar Steinmets 
and Balthazar Bayard were chosen.^ 

From this time until the recapture of the country by the Dutch, 
the only thing of importance which occurred within the bounds 
of this county, save a few grants of land, was a charter to the 
town.^ This charter was granted by Carteret. The following is 
a copy : 

'^ This Deede Witnesseth of Charter granted to the Towne and 
Freeholders of Bergen, and to the Villages and Plantations there- 
unto belonging, cituated and being in the province of Kew Cesarea 
or Xew Jersey : By Ilonble Capt. Phillip Carteret, Esq'"., Gov- 
ernour of the said Province, and his Counsil, under the Bight 
HoTible John Lord Berkley, Bai-ron of Stratton, and Sr. George 
Carteret, Knt. and Baronet, the absolute Lords Proprietoi's of 
the same, Containing the Limitts and bounds of the Jurisdiction 
of the said Towne, together with the immunities and Priviledges 
thereunto belonging and appertaining, as followeth : Iniprms. 
The Bounds and Limitts of the aforesaid Towne and Corporation 
of Bergen is to begin at the Korth end thereof, from a place 
called Mordavis Meadow, lying upon the west side of Hudson's 
river, from thence to run upon a N. W. lyne by a Three I'ail 
fence that is now standing to a place called Espatin, and from 
thence to a little Creek surrounding N. N. AV., till it comes into 
Hackinsack river, containing in Bredth from the top of the Hill, 
1^ miles or 120 chains, from thence it runs along the said Hack- 
insack river upon S. S. W. lyne till it comes to the ])oint or neck 
of Land that is over against Statten Island and Shooter's Island 
in Arthur Cidl Bay, containing in length about twelvL' miles, 

' Liber 3 of Deeds {Trenton), 10. 

■ Learning and Spicer, "J 7, 85. 

'• For iuformation concerninf)- these «irants see Winjield'.s Land 'lith'S. 


from thence to run Eastward alonoj the River called Kill van Cull 
that parts Statteu Island from the Maine to a point or neck of 
Land called Constable's Point- or Constable's houck, and from 
thence to run up Northward all along; the Bay up into Hudson's 
river till it comes to Mordavis Meadow aforesaid ; So that the 
whole tract of upland and Meadow property belonging to the 
Jurisdiction of the said Town and Corporation of Bergen is 
bounded at the North end by a tract of Land belonging to Captn. 
Nichs. Verlett and Mr. Samuel Edsall. On the East side by 
Hudson's river, on the South end by the Kill van Cull, that parts 
Statteu Island and the Maine, and on the West by Arthur Cull 
Bay and Hackensack river, as it is more plainer demonstrated by 
a draught thereof, made by the Surveyor-General, hereunto an- 
nexed : Tiie whole, both of upland and Meadows and Waist land, 
containing according to the survey 11,520 Acres English measure: 
Which said Limitts and bounds, together with all the Rivers, 
Ponds, Creeks, Islands, Inlets, Bays, Fishing, Hawking, Hunt- 
ing, and all other appurtenances whatsoever thereunto l)elonging 
and appertaining. The half part of Golde and Silver Mynes, 
and the Royaltie of the Lords Proprietors only Excepted, to con- 
tinue and remain within the Jurisdiction, Corporation or Town- 
ship of the said Towne of Bergen, from the day of the date 
hereof and forever: The said Corporation submitting themselves 
to the Authority of the Lords Proprietors and the Government 
of this Province. To Le liolden bv them, the said Corporation 
or Township, their heirs and Successors, as of the manner of East 
Greenwich, in free and common Socage. 

" 2dl_y. That all the Freeholders of the said Corporation or 
Tuwnshij) are hereby jointly and severally obliged to Pay or 
Cause to be paid to the said Lords Proprietors, their heirs and 
Successors, or to their Receivers-General, within the said Prov- 
ince, on every 25th day of March,^ according to the Englisli 
Accompt, the sum of fifteen Pounds Sterling, of good and Law- 

' Tlu; befrinuing of the new year, old .ttjile. In 17.)'2 the new sti/le was a(loi)ted. 
That year began on the first of January, and on the third of September follow- 
ing, the old style ended, the next day being considered the 14tli, new xtyle. 

Carteret's charter. 107 

fal money of Engjland, or the Value thereof, in good and Cur- 
rent pay of the Country, as a Quit rent due to them, tlie whole 
said tract of Land above mentioned, in lieu of the ^d, Pr. acre, 
mentioned in the Concessions, which Payment is to begin on the 
2oth day of March, which shall be in the Year of Lord 1670, 
and so to continue forev^er, without any change to the said Lords 
Proprietors or their Agent ; and that all Pattents for land liere- 
before Granted, or to be Granted within the said Limitts, are to 
be accompted upon the aforesaid Rent of Fifteen Pounds Sterling 
pr. annum. 

" 3dly. That all Freeholders living and Lihabiting within the 
said Jurisdiction, Corporation or Towneship, wether within the 
said Towne of Bergen, Comunipaw, Ahassimus, Minkacque, Pem- 
brepock, or upon any other Plantation within the said Limitts, 
shall be deemed and accompted for Freemen of the said Corpo- 
ration or Township, and having taken the oath of Aleagance to 
the King, and Fidelity to the Lords Proprietors, are to have a 
Free Yoice in Election, and to enjoy All the Rights, Imunities 
and Privileges hereby Granted unto the said Corporation or 

" 4thly. That the Freeholdei-s aforesaid, or the Major Part of 
them, are upon the Governor's Summons to make Choice of two 
Deputies to Join with the General Assembly for the making of 
Laws and Carrying on the Public Affairs of the whole Province. 

".5t]dy. That the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them,liave Power to chuse their own Magistrates to be assistants 
to the President or Judge of tlie Court, and for the ordering of 
all Public Affaires within the said Jurisdiction. Pi'ovided that 
one of the said Magistrates is to be chosen out of the Freeholders 
of Minkacque or Pembrepock. They have Power likewise to 
nominate their Justice or Justices of the Peace and their Military 
Officers, Provided that the Justices of the Peace and the Military 
Officers are to be approved of and commissioned by the Governor. 

" 6thly. That the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them, have Power to chuse their own Minister for the preaching 
of the word of God, and the Administering His Holy Sacra- 
ments, and being so chosen, all persons, as well the Freeholders 


as the Inhal)itants, are tocantril)iite ac'c-ordin_<^ to their estates and 
proi)ortioiis of Land tor his inainteuance, or Lay out such a pro- 
])ortion of Land for tlic Minister, and the keeping of a Free 
School for the Education of Youth, as thej shall think fit, which 
land heing once laid out is not to be alienated, but to Remaine 
and continue forever from one incombant to another, Free from 
Paying of any hye Rent, or any other Kate or Taxes whatsoever, 
notwithstanding it shall and may be lawful for any particular 
person or ])ersones to kee]) and Maintain any other Minister at 
their own Proper Cost and Charges. 

" Ttlily. That in Religious Concerns and the Way of Worship- 
ping of God there is liberty of conscience Granted to all Persons 
in Generall, as well to the freeholders as to others that are or 
shall be admitted Inlial)itants within the said Corporation or 
Towneship, they taking or Subscribing the Oath of Allegiance to 
the King, and lidelity to the Lords Proprietors and their Suc- 
cessors, and that no Person whatsoever shall be Injured, Molested 
or Troubled for his or her difference in opinion in matters of 
Religion. Provided that this Liberty Granted shall not extend 
to Licentiousness or the Disturbance of others and the Pul)lic 

" Stilly. Tliat the Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them, have power to admit of their own Inhal)itants, and to 
divide all Proportions of Land as are within their Bounds and 
Limitts aforesaid, that are not already appropriated and Pattent- 
cd by particular persons before the day of the date hereof, Ac- 
cording to their Allotments and estates, as the Justices and 
Magistrates shall in their Wisdoms and Discretions think tit, 
which Lands being so divided, every man's proi)ortion is to be 
surveyed, bntted and bounded Ijy the Surveyor, and the same to 
1)3 recorded by the Secretarie and Recoi'der-General of the 
Pi'ovincc, or by Eyther of tliem, which Propositions and Allot- 
ments l)eing so Surveyed and Recorded after two years In posses- 
sion, shall not be sul)ject to any resurvey nor Alterations of 
Bounds, but shall remain according to the first survey for ever. 
And for the better avoiding of all Frauds and Sutes at Law, all 
Mortages, Transports, Sales and Leases for 'above the Terme of 

cakteket's charter. 1(19 

One Yeare, and all other concerning Houses and Lands are to be 
recorded by tlie Secretar}- as aforesaid, for the Neglecting thereof 
all such contracts as aforesaid, are to be void, and of no effect in 

'' Othlj. That all Lands and Meadows that are appropriated and 
pattented by particular persons before the day of ye date of these 
presents shall continue and remain unto them without any alter- 
ation, unless the Proprietors thereof will give their Consent to the 

" lOthly. That the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the said 
Corporation shall have a Free Trade allowed them, and that no 
tax of Ciistome, Excise or any Imposition whatever shall be im- 
posed on them but such as shall be levied by the Governor and 
Council and General xVssembly, for the defraying of the Piiljlie 
Charges and the Maintenance of the Government.^ And that all 
Rates and Assessments relating to the said Corporation or Towne- 
ship shall be rated and levied by their Justices and Magistrates 
or whom they shall appoint. 

"llthly. That in case of Invasion or Insurrection by the In- 
dians or others, they are mutually, as well the Freeholders as all 
other Inhabitants, to Join with all other Townes and Plantations 
within the said Province, for the defence an safety of the same, 
but no Warr to be levied without the consent of the Governor, 
Councill and General Assembly. 

"' 12thly. That all Freeholders aforesaid, or the Major part of 
them, have power annually on every first day of January, or at 
any other set tyme as they shall appoint, to chuse one or more 

' This privilege (extended also to East Jersey) was the source of much un- 
easiness on the part of New York, and the cause of many efforts for the annex- 
ation of East Jersey to that province. The following extract will show the 
general argument used by New York : " East Jersey is scituate on Hudson's 
River over against Long Island, Staten Island and New Yorke, and they pre- 
tend by the aforementioned grant to be a free place and to have free ports to 
trade as they please, which if admitted must certainly destroy yo' Maj''"'" in- 
terest and revenue here ; for what merchant will come to New York and trade 
and pay to Yo"" Maj'y 2 and 10 p' cent with the excise and Yoi" Maj''"'* dutys 
settled here, if they can at 2 or 3 miles distance over against the same place go 
and be free from any diity or imposition whatever." (.'uL Hint, of N. Y., Hi., 79S. 


Constables for tlie Public Service, which said Constable or Con- 
stables are to l)e sworne in their ottice by the Justice of the Peace 
Hccordino- to the oath prescribed.. 

" 13thly. That all the Freeholders and others, the Inhabitants 
aforesaid, arc to suljniit themselves to the Laws and Government 
of the Province, and to swear or subscribe to the Oath of Alea- 
gence to the King and Fidelity to the Lords Proprietors. And 
in case they or any of them have a desire to remove or Transport 
themselves to any other place, they have liberty so to do, and to 
dispose of their Lands and Estates to their best Advantages. 

" 14thly. That the said Corporation or Towneship have power 
to Errect and Ordaine a Court of judicature within their own 
Jurisdiction, and for the Limitts thereof for the Tryall of all 
causes Actionable between party and party, from wdience there 
shall be no Appeal under the sum of Five Pounds Sterling, and 
also for the Tryall of all Criminal and causes of Misdemeanor, 
and to inflict such Fines and Punishments as the Meritt of the 
cause shall recpiire, as l)y Imprisonment, Stocking. Piloring, 
Ducking, Branding, Whipping^ not exceeding twenty stripes, and 
the like, Which Court is to consist of a President, who is to be a 
Justice of the Peace, and the Magistrates, or any two of them 
at the least, a Clarke, and such other officers as they shall appoint, 
which said Magistrates and Clarke are to be sworne in their 
offices, and the Clarke to be approved of by the Secretary (.Tcn- 
eral of the Province, who is to keep an Exact Record of all 
actions that shall be brought in and tryed in said Court, and to 
give an account thereof unto him when thereunto recpiired by 
the Governor and his Councill. No Freeholder is to be arrested 
or detained a Prisoner for debt until Judgment be passed and 
Execution granted, unless it can be made to appear that the party 
has an Intent to defraud his Creditors by running out of the 

' In tlie olden time there was a lock-up on the easterly side of the Square, 
near the site of the present school-house. Within the last fifty years the stocks 
were in use on the westerly side of the S(|uare, and but one generation has 
passed since the whipping-post was a wliolesome antidote to petty otfences and 
a terror to evil doers. Many an old person still living has seen the victim 
writhe under the lash, laid on with a skillful flourish by the old constable. 


Country. That all ])ersons, as well Freeholders as other Inhahi- 
taiits, in Case of Appeal, the Appellant shall give in security to 
prosecute his Appeal, or stand to the Judgment of the Court. All 
causes according to the Laws of England shall be tried by a Jury 
of six or twelve men, and whomsoever shall trouble and molest 
his neighbor, being of the same Corporation, by arresting of him 
and going to Law^ in another fFurisdiction, shall be liable to a Fine 
according to the discretion of the Court. The Justice or Justices 
of the Peace being Commissioned and sworne in their office, have 
power to Administer the oath of Aleagance and Fidelitie, and all 
other Oaths that are required by the law, and to issue out in His 
Majestie's name, or in whose name or names It shall or may here- 
after be appointed by the Lawes, their Warrants of ^Summons, 
and arrest within the liinitts and Jurisdiction of the said Corpo- 
ration or Towneship, directing the same to the Constable, Mar- 
shall, or what other Officer or Officers the said Corporation shall 
in their discretion think fit to appoint for that Service, who are to 
put the same in Execution accordingly, and also to Issue out their 
Warrants for the apprehending of all Malefactors and Iiuna^vay^, 
and to prosecute them by way of Hugh and Cry, and to do all 
such thing and things by their authority according toLaw and Jus- 
tice as may conduce to the Peace and well Government of the said 
Province, Corporation and Towneship. Provided that all Fynes 
are to be disposed of for Charitable or public uses. It is to 
be noted that whereas it is said in the Eight articles^ that all 
Mortgages, Transports, Sales and Leases of Land are to be record- 
ed by the Secretary, they are first to be acknowledged before 
the Governor or a Justice of the Peace by the Granter, or Ijy 
two good Sufficient Witnesses, Attested on the backside of the 
aforesaid deed, which is a Warrant for the Secretary to record the 

" In Confirmation of the premises, Wee the said Governor and 
the Councill have hereunto set our hands the 22d day of Septem- 
ber, 1668, and the 2<ith year of the Reign of our Sovn. Lord 
Charles the Second of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 

' The eighth article of this Charter. 


Kiiii;-, Defender of the Faitli, Szc. : and the Seale was placed hy 
consent before signing. 

" Ph. Cakterkt. 

" Robert Yanguellen, Ni. Yarlett, Samuel Edsall, Robert Bond, 
" William Pardon. 
"James Bollen, Secretary and (jf the Conncill.'' 

What caused the granting of this Charter is not now known. 
The following certificate of (xovernor Stuy vesant may throw some 
light upon it : 

'' AVe, underwritten, the late Director-General and Council (/f 
New Ketherlandt, hereby certify and declare that in the year one 
thousand six hundred and sixty-one, by us underwritten, in quality 
as aforesaid, have given and granted to the inhabitants of the vil- 
lage of Bergen, the lands with the meadows thereunto annexed, 
situate on the AYest side of the North River in Pavonia, in the 
same manner as the same was by us underwritten, purchased of 
the Indians, and as the same was to us delivered, by the said In- 
dians, pursuant to an instrument of sale and delivery thereof, 
l)eing under the date of the 30th of January, A. D. one thousand 
six hundred and fifty-eight ; with this express condition and 
promise, that the aforesaid inhabitants of the before named village 
shall not be prejudiced in their outdrift, by means of any private 
collective dwellings (saving only the right of the then already 
cultivated farms at (Temoenepan). But that all such who have 
any lands within the district of the before named village, and 
espec^.ally at Pemrepogh, and Mingackque, all such owners shall 
be obliged to remove their dwellings and place them in the vil- 
lage or town of Bergen, or by or about the neighborhood of Ge- 
moenepan before named. Conditioned, however, that the afore- 
said owners (in case they should desire the same) should be 
permitted to share and divide with the inhabitants of the before 
luxmed village or town, in the common lands of the said town, 
and in the place and stead of their lands lying at. Pemrepogh and 
Mingackquic before named. (And especially that the meadows 
laving near the village or town of Bergen, where the same begins, 


at the AVest side alonpf Kill van Kol, should be and belong to and 
for the use of the before named inhabitants of Bergen). 

" And further, we the underwritten, certify and declare, that 
Michael Jansen, deceased (before or about the time that the 
aforesaid village or town was laid out), for himself, as also for 
and in behalf of his brother-in-law, Nicholas Jansen Barker,^ did 
in our presence, renounce all the right they had to the pasture 
ground laying behind Gemoenepan, for a common outdrift and 
pasture between the aforesaid village or town, and the neighbor- 
hood of Gemoenepan, before named. 

" And lastly, that no more lands were given or granted to 
Dirck Clausen, than Rightpocques, with the meadows thereunto 
belonging, as by the ground-brief thereof may further appear. 

" In testimony of the truth, we have signed these with our own 
hands, in Xew York, the 2Gth of October, A. D. 

" P. Stuyvesant, 


By what instrument the lands herein referred to were granted 

' Backer. Winfleld's Land Titles, 50. 

- Taylor's Annals, 50. "The year when this certificate was given is not in- 
telligible in the original instrument. But as they certify as former Governor 
and Council, it must have been after August, 1CG4, when the English conquered 
the country. New York, February 20th, 1764. Translated from the Dutch, by 
Abm. Lott, Jun'r." 

The last two paragraphs of the certificate seem to refer to the meadow 
through which the Morris canal now passes, between the Cavan Point road and 
Hudson avenue. There was a fierce controversy between the village of Bergen 
and the people of Communipa\v,Kaccocas and Minkakwa, relating to some land 
and the fences thereon, which was referred to arbitrators, and finally carried 
before the Governor of New Orange in July, 1674. iV. Y. Col MSS., xxiii., 
o64, 5, 9. In their appeal the inhabitants of Bergen show that their deputies 
— Hans Diedricks and Engelbert Steenhuysen — had yielded their claim, by 
which they were " cut oif from the lowermost meadow," and a fence was 
erected by which they were " separated from Gemonepa so that we cannot have 
access to the water side except by a roundabout way." This leaves but little 
doubt as to the land in controversy, and it is the samti referred to by Governor 
Stuyvesant as having been renounced by Michael Jansen. Jansen died in 1663, 
the Dutch surrendered in 1664, Stuyvesant died in 1071 ; hence the above cer- 
tificate must have been dated between 1664 and 1671. It is quite probable that 
it was dated prior to Carteret's charter of Bergen. 


to the inhabitants of Bergen we do not know. Such grant is not 
to be found in the Ordinance of September 5, 1661, and it is 
worthy of notice that many grants from tlie Dutcli Government 
to individuals are to be found bearing a later date; yet the 
Governor must have understood the Ordinance of 1661 to contain 
such a grant, or else the grant to which he refers has been lost. 
Whatever the fact about the grant may be, it is quite probable 
that this certificate went far toward satisfying Governor Carteret 
that the freeholders of Bergen were entitled to all the unpatented 
lands. In this light the Charter of 1668 was only a confirmation 
of the rights which the " Freeholders, Inhabitants of Bergen," 
possessed under the Dutch Government. 

CHAPTER VI.— 1673-1Y64. 

The country recaptured by the Dutch — Bergeu summoned to surrender — The 
people comply and take oath of allegiance — The military power of Ber- 
gen organized — Controversy between Bergen and its dependent hamlets, 
Pembrepogh and Minkakwa — Bergen sends her soldiers to New Orange 
— The country surrendered to the English — Condition of the country in 
1G80 — Its villages and farms — Provision for the care of the common land 
— Its final partition. 

The war wliicli followed the seizure of New Netherland ended 
in the treaty of Breda, July 31, 1667, by which each party was to 
hold Avhat had been captured during the contest. This confirmed 
New Netherland to the English. In March, 1672, war again 
broke out between England and the States. The Dutch des- 
patched a small squadron to cruise on the American coast and 
destroy the English shipping. Cornells Evertsen and Jacob 
Binckes, joining their forces at Martinico, sailed with their five 
vessels for the Chesapeake. Capturing some vessels there and ob- 
taining information as to the state of the defences at New York, 
they sailed for that place. On the 29th of July, 1673, the fleet, 
now consisting of tw^enty-three vessels, carrying sixteen hundred 
men, anchored in the bay. The land forces of the Dutch were 
under Captain Anthony Colve, who took possession of the city 
on the following day.^ Three days afterward (August 12th, N. 
S.) the following summons was sent to Bergen, one of the villages 
in the '' Province of New Yarsey," which had not yet sent dele- 
gates to the Dutch commanders to treat concerning surrender : 

" To the Inhabitants of the Yilkuje of Bergen, and the Hamlets 

and Bouweries thereon depending : 

" You are hereby ordered and instructed to despatch Delegates 

from your Village here to us, to treat with us on next Tuesday, 

respecting the surrender of your town to the obedience of their 

' Broadhead,ii., 307. Valentinc'v Hist, of N. T., 170. 



High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United Neth- 
erlands, his Serene Highness the Prince of Orange, or on refusal 
so to do, we shall be obliged to constrain you thereunto by force 
of arms. 

" Dated at the City Hall of the city of New Orange, the 
12th of August, Anno 16T3. 


" Jacob Benckes, 
" By their order. 

"N. Bayard, Secret^'.''^ 

The good burghers of Bergen did not wait to be " constrained 
thereunto," but, influenced, by a national sympathy, surrendered 
most graciously. On the 18th they sent in a list of the names uf 
some of their most prominent citizens, from which the authori- 
ties in New York, now called New Orange, might make selection 
of magistrates. This being done, as hereinbefore stated, a certifi- 
cate of their election was sent to them, and they were required 
to appear in New Orange to be sworn into office.^ On the 21st 
they appeared, in accordance with the requisition, and took the 
following oath : 

" We, the Sellout, Schepens and Secretary of the Tillage of 
Bergen, qualified by the Hon^^^ Council of AVar, do promise and 
swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that we, each in his 
quality, will, according to the best of our knowledge and without 
passion, administer good law and justice between parties in cases 
brought before us ; that we will promote the welfare of this vil- 
lage and its inhabitants ; in all things defend the upright and 
true Christian Religion agreeably to the Word of God and the 
order of the Synod of Dordrecht taught in the Netherland church ; 
in all circumstances obey, maintain and help to maintain the 
Supreme Government placed, or hereafter yet to be ajipointed 
over us, in the name of their High Mightinesses the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and his Highness of Orange, 

• Col. Hist, of N. Y., a., oTl. -■ Ibid, ii., 571. 


and prevent, as far as in our power lies, everything that may 
conflict with it. So truly help us God."^ 

At the time of taking the oath the magistrates were notified 
that tlie commanders would visit Bergen on the following " Sun- 
day after the sermon, in order to administer the oath of allegi- 
ance to all their people." On the 27t]i the commanders and 
Council of War of IS^ew Orange came over as they had promised. 
They found the number of the burghers of Bergen and sur- 
rounding dependencies to be seventy-eight,^ sixty-nine of whom 
appeared at the tap of the drum and took the oath of allegiance. 
The magistrates were ordered to forward the oaths of those who 
were absent. The oath taken by the Dutch inhabitants was dif- 
ferent from that taken by the English, and was as follows : 
" We do promise and swear, in the presence of the Almighty 
God, to be loyal and faithful to their High Mightinesses the 
Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, and his Serene 
Highness the Prince of Orange, and their governor, already, or 
hereafter to be, appointed here, and to comport ourselves on all 
occasions as loyal and faithful subjects are bound to do. So truly 
help me Almighty God."^ On the 4th of September, the town 
of Bergen liaving sent in names for that purpose, the authorities 
in New Orange selected the following militia officers: 
Caspar Steynmets, Captain. 

Hans Diedericks, Lieutenant} Adriaen Post, Ensign. 

' Col. Hist, of N. Y., a., 574, 578, 580. The Sellout was afterward authorized 
" to fill and execute the office of Auctioneer." This position gave him the power 
to sell property on judgments pronounced by the court. Ordinarily, this right 
belonged, ex-officio, to the Provincial Secretary. I^eio Neth. Reg., 114. This court 
had power not only to hear and determine causes brought before them, but to 
pass ordinances for the government of the people. In October, 1073, this court 
passed an ordinance respecting the observance of Sunday, etc., which was ap- 
proved by the council in New Orange. Col. Hist, of N. Y., ii., 048. N. Y. 
Col. MSS., xxiii., 133. This ordinance is missing. 

- This I presume shows the number of white males above the age of twenty- 
one years. 

•'■ Col. Hist, of N. Y., ii., 589. Mr. Whitehead, East Jersey, 01, says the inhab- 
itants of Bergen were " probably considered too much in their interest to re- 
((uire the binding influence of an oath." 

'* Ibid,ii.,5d7. Diedricks was one of the grantees of " Haquequenunck," 


This provision for military organization was but keeping up 
what ]iad been practised before the English took possession of 
the countrj^, and what they continued when the Dutch rule had 
passed away. In less than two years after the foundation of Ber- 
gen, officers were appointed to marshall the growing powers of 
the ambitious village and its belligerent dependencies. 

For ( Adriaen Vo.^ Ensign, | ^ j^^^^ j^^,^^ 30 i663. 

iiergen. ( ^o\\nh^?ien, f>>erg<;ant. \ 

For \ Harman Smeeman, Ensign, ] ^^ ^ ^^i 

Gemoenepa. ( Gerrit Gerritsen, Sergeant. \ 

As officers of a foot company to be enlisted in Bergen, Gemoene- 
paen, Ahasyraus and Hooboocken, the following appointments 
were made : 

Nicholas Yerlett, Captain, \ 

Caspar Steinmets, Lieutenant, ;■ Appointed September 0, 1665."^ 

Adrian Post, Ensign. ) 

John Berry ,^ Captain, \ 

Adrian Post, Lieutenant, \ Appointed July 15, IGTS.* 

Elias Michielsen, Ensign. ) 

William Laurence, Captain, \ 

Jacob Lubert, LAeiitenant, \ Appointed July 4, 1681."' 

Enoch Michielsen, Ensign. ) 

Gerbrand Claesen, Captain, ] 

Gerrit Gerritsen, Jjieutenant, \ Appointed Nov. 10, 1092. 

Jan Adrianse Sip, Ensign. ) 

March 28, 1679. Whitehead's East Jersey, 49. It is doubtful, however, if he 
ever settled there, for on " Thursday, the 3nd off May, 1689, the Justices off the 
peace off Berj^en County and East Yarsey came and mett the Governor, vizt., 
Coll. Hamilton, Coll. Townly, Capt. Berry, Capt. Bowne, and Magistrates of 
Bercren, all promising that they would be aiding and assisting to reprlas any 
comon enemy, and because there are noe militairy officers in commission in tlie 
County or Corporation off Bergen, Hans Diedrick was appointed Capt., Juriaen 
Thomas Lefcenant, and Claes Teers (Toers) Ensigne of said Corporation, and 
Commissions given accordingly." N. T. Hist. 8oc., 1868, 247. 

' N. T. Col. MSS., .r., Part ii., 168. 2 Liber 3 of Deeds (Trenton), 1. 

'■'■ Berry's house in Bergen was, on the tOth of July, 1673, made the " prison 
for ye province," until a house could be built for that purpose, and .\drian Post, 
constable, was made keeper. Book ?> of Deeds {Trenton), 93. 

^ Ibid, 117. Michael Smith was appointed Lieutenant in this company June 
3,1677. Ibid,lB4. ^ J bid, 189. 


Shortly previous to the re-occupation by the Dutch, a contro- 
versy arose between the authorities of the town of Bergen and 
the people residing in tlie " Yillages of Pemrepogh and Min- 
gagque," then considered as dependent hamlets. It seems to 
have been the rule that all the inhabitants should, without regard 
to creed, contribute to the support of the Precentor^ and School- 
master at Bergen. To this the independent citizens objected. 
Thereupon, on the 18th of December, 1672, the Schout and 
Magistrates of Bergen ordered that all should pay. This being 
disregarded, they called upon the authorities in New Orange to 
compel the inhabitants of all the settlements, of what religious 
persuasion soever they might be, to pay their share toward the 
support of the Precentor and Schoolmaster,^ Upon this appeal, 
it was, upon the 24th of December, 1673, ordered: "That all 
tlie said inhabitants, without exception, shall, pursuant to the 
resolution of the Magistrates of the town of Bergen, dated 18th 
Xber, 1672, and subsequent confirmation, pay their share for the 
support of said Precentor and Schoolmaster." Ov^er this deci- 
sion there was doubtless great rejoicing in Bergen and Buyten 
Tuyn. The Schoolmaster confided to his whip a more artistic 
fiourish, and the Precentor chanted with a clearer voice. But 
his triumphant cadences were soon turned into tlie doleful minor 
by the unregenerate stubbornness of '" Mingagque and Pemre- 
pogh." These " uncircumcised in heart" thought Old Hundred 
and Windham, piping out from under the pulpit, very good 
music for those who were educated up to that standard, and were 
willing to pay for the luxury. The Schoolmaster, " with eyes 
severe," piloting the bewildered urchin through the mazes of the 

' The precentor, or cliorister, was generally the voorleezer or reader of the 
service preceding the sermon. Dr. Taylor says he was also for many years the 
schoolmaster, duly appointed by the consistory of the church. Taylor's An- 
nals, 111. When, therefore, as in the text, precentor and schoolmaster are 
spoken of, it is highly probable that they refer to one and the same person. In 
the case of Steenhuysen, hereinbefore spoken of, he seems to have been ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council, after approval by the people, his name 
having been submitted to the " community" by the town authorities, the con- 
sistory having nothing to do with him. 

■' Col. Hist, of N. 7., ii., 673. 


inultiplication table by the aid of the birch, was very good in his 
wa}^ to those who li\'ed near enough to enjoy the blessing of his 
wisdom. But they resolutely refused to be thus edified or in- 
structed, and declined to contribute to the general expense of 
such benefactions. On the 24tli of May, 1G74, the Schout and 
Schepens again complained that some of the inhabitants of those 
"independent hamlets," in utter contempt of the previous order, 
obstinately refused to pay their quota to the support of the Pre- 
centor and Schoolmaster. This persistent disobedience aroused 
the representatives of their High Mightinesses. They resolved 
to adhere to their previous order, and, to give it force by wielding 
over the heads of the disobedient direful threats of pains and 
penalties, ordered the " Schout to ]UY)ceed to immediate execution 
against all unwilling debtors."^ Thus circumstanced, the "un- 
willing debtors" must either fight or remonstrate against what 
they considered an oppression. They wisely chose the latter 
course. Lourens Andriesen, of Mingag(]ue, and Joost van der 
Linde, of Pemrepogh, were appointed agents to submit the cause 
of the people to the authorities in New Orange. This was faith- 
fully done, but, alas, " after due enquiry," it was formally ad- 
judged, "that the inhabitants of Pemrepogh and Mingaghquy, 
shall promptly pay their share for the support aforesaid, on pain 
of proceeding against them with immediate execution."^ 

This was the end of the controversy. Judgment had been en- 
tered for Bergen in the court of final resort, and nothing remained 
better than submission. But contention upon one subject 
soon produced diiference in views, and controversy upon another. 
The lands in the township that were not covered by grants were 
considered common for the use of all. A certain common fence 
had been constructed to separate the heifers and steers from the 
railcli cows and oxen. A question then arose between the town of 
Bergen and the "dependent hamlets" Gemoenepa, Mingagque and 
Pemrepogh, respecting the making and maintenance of this 
fence. The cause of dispute was an old one, and had been re- 
ferred bv Governor Carteret and Council to tour arbitrators cho- 

' Col. Hist. ofN. F., a., 71G. . 2 Ibid, it., 730. 


sen by both sides. These arbitrators, on the 10th of April, 1672, 
submitted their award, which the people of Bergen were willing 
to obey, but it was rejected by the others. Bergen now appealed 
to the Governor and council of war to compel the other parties 
to perform the award. On the 24th of May, 1674, the inhabi- 
tants of the three '' dependent hamlets" were ordered to regu- 
late themselves according to the decision of the arbitrators, or 
within fourteen days to submit any objection which they could 
produce against the award.' It does not appear that any objec- 
tions were ever filed or that tliej obtained any modification of 
the award. 

From the first of the Dutch reoccnpation it had been the care 
of the authorities in I^ew Orange to prepare for the return of the 
English. The fortifications in the city were enlarged and 
strengthened. The people of the neig]il)oring towns promised to 
repair to the city on the approach of the enemy. On the 22d 
of December, 1673, the people of Bergen were ordered to repair 
to New Orange, according to their plighted duty. A literal com- 
pliance with the order was at first dispensed with, and the same 
was modified so as to permit some men to remain at home. The 
captain, lieutenant and ensign were ordered to appear with 
their company fully armed, on Friday, the 29th of December, 
1673, in front of Fort William Hendrick, leaving six men in the 
town. This being done, one-third of the company was furlouglied 
and permitted to return home, there to remain until they were 
relieved on the third day. The officers and magistrates were 
authorized to give orders respecting the threshing the grain 
and the " foddering the cattle," but above all to keep proper 
guard day and night, so as not to be surprised and cut off" from 
the city.^ Afterward, on the 13th of March, 1674, a positive 
order was issued, commanding " all out people of the Dutch jNa- 

' Col. Hist, of N. T., ii., 714. From tlie above it would seem that Minkakwa 
was the abode of strife and contention at a very early day. If the autiijiiary will 
inform himself as to the present locality of that ancient district, he will be some" 
what impressed with the theory that localities have much to do in the forma- 
tion of certain traits of character. -' Ibid, ii., G73. 


tion " to repair to Kew Orani^e without delay, witli tlieir arms, 
on the first news of the enemy's approach, or on the coming of 
more tlian one ship at the same time. All who fiiiled to obey 
this order were to be declared traitors and perjurers, and were to 
be proceeded against as enemies, or punished with death and 
confiscation. This order was to be made known by the proper 
ofiicers, that none might plead ignorance.^ On March 22d, 1674, 
the Sellout of Bergen was notified to request the people to com- 
mission a militia officer and magistrate, with whom he was to at- 
tend a general conference at Fort William Hendrick on the 26th. 
The Sellout, Claas Arentse Toers and Captain Caspar Steinmets 
appeared in the assembly as deputies from Bergen. They pledged 
themselves for the loyalty of their constituents, and promised 
that on the first notice of danger the people of Bergen would 
" observe their honor and oath " in repairing to l^ew Orange. 
They only asked that some boats be sent over to convey the peo- 
ple thither.^ All these precautions, however, went for nothing, 
for on the 9th of February, 1674, peace was established between 
England and Holland by the treaty of Westminster. By the 
sixth article of that treaty the country was restored to the Eng- 
lish.^ It was not, however, until the lOtli of ISTovember follow- 
ing that the final surrender took place, when the Dutch rule in 
New ]^etherland passed away forever, and the English entered 
into possession, which they held for the next century. 

While the war was in progress, and on March IS, 1673, Lord 
Berkley sold his interest in the Province to John Fenwick, in 
trust for Edward Billinge, for £1,000. Billinge had failed in 
business; Berkley was his particular friend and advised hiin to 
invest in New Jersey lands for the purpose of retrieving his for- 
tune. He was pleased with the proposition, borrowed the money 
from his friends, and purchased the land in the name of John 
Fenwick, who was to have one-tenth of the same. Fenwick 
managed the purchase so well that, it is said, he would soon have 
stripped the other of all, but means were employed to compel him 

1 Col. Hist, of N. Y., il, G96. 2 Jbid, ii., 702. 

■' Whitehead's East Jersey, 62. 


to be satisfied witli his tenth.-' Billinge assigned his interest, less 
Fenwick''s tentli, to William Penn, Gawn Laurie and Nicholas 
Lucas, February 9 and 10, 1074, in trust for his creditors. Fen- 
wick sold his interest to John Eldridge and Edmund Warren, 
who sold to Penn, Laurie and Lucas.'"^ 

To clear up any shadow wliich the recent occupation by the 
Dutch might have cast upon former grants, Charles 11. made a 
second grant to the Duke, June 29, 1674.^ This was followed 
by the Duke, July 29, 1674, with a grant to Sir George Carteret 
of what was afterward known as East Jersey. On July 1, 1676, 
by the " Quintipartite Deed," the State was divided and Sir 
George received the eastern portion in severalty.* Sir George, 
by will dated December 5, 1678, appointed his wife, Elizabeth, 
sole executrix, and Earl Sandwich, Earl Bath, Lord Grenville, 
Sir Thomas Crew, Sir Kobert Atkins and Edward Atkins trus- 
tees, to whom he devised his interest in New Jersey, to be sold 
for the payment of his debts.^ On the 5th and 6th of March, 
1680, East Jersey was conveyed to Thomas Cremer and Thomas 
Pocock, but the transfer does not seem to have been completed. 
On the 6th of the following August, the Duke indulged in a sec- 
ond grant to Penn and his associates of West Jersey, and Gordon 
says he also gave one to the representatives of Carteret on March 
14, 1682. This has not been discovered, but the following war- 
rant therefor exists : 

" These are to direct and require you to prepare for my signa- 
ture a Deed or fitting Instrument (agreeable to yt I have already 
executed unto Edward Billing and others) whereby I may release 
and confirm unto Sir George Carteret, ye heire of Sir George 
Carteret, (lately deceased,) his moyty of New Jersey (called East 
New Jersey) in America. For w''^ y* shal be yo'' Warr*, Provid- 
ed it be entred w* my Auditor Gen" w"'in two months of its date. 
Given und'' my hand at AYindsor ye 6th day of September (SO). 

' Long Isl. Hist. Soc, i., 243. "^ Gordon's Hist, of N. J., 72. » lUd, 41. 

* Learning and Spicer,^!. This division was confirmed by the General As- 
sembly in 1719. For a history of this line see Whitehead's East Jersey, 67. 
Gordon's N. J., 71-5. Smith's N. J., 195, 546-557. 

5 Vide Will, Perth Amhoy, Liber C 3, 17. 


'' To Sir John Clnircliill Kn* my Atturney Gen" or to S"" 
George Jeffreys Kn' my Sollict® Geii".''^ 

These releases were given in consequence of an opinion of Sir 
William Jones, elated July 28, 1680. The Duke's Governor of 
New York had claimed jurisdiction over both of the Jerseys, and 
insisted on his right, in behalf of the Duke, to collect duties upon 
importations therein. These pretensions were resisted with mucli 
spirit, until finally the Duke referred the subject to Sir William 
Jones for an opinion. His decision was that the Duke could not 
legally demand any duty from the inhabitants of the Jerseys. 
The Duke gracefully yielded, and gave his third and final re- 
lease of East Jersey. 

On the 20th of February, 1C81, Earl Sandwich released his in- 
terest in East Jersey to his associate trustees, and they again sought 
to negotiate a sale of the province. Failing to find a purchaser at 
even the sum of five or six thousand pounds, it was sold at public 
sale to William Penn, Robert West, Thomas Rudyard, Samuel 
Broome, Thomas Hart, Richard Mew, Ambrose Riggs, John 
Haywood, Hugh Hartshorne, Clement Plumstead, and Thomas 
Cooper, all Quakers. The lease and release were dated Febru- 
ary 1 and 2, 1682, and the consideration was £3,400. To 
avoid any doubt which might arise by reason of the prior sale to 
C'remer and Pocock, they joined in the conveyance. The asso- 
ciates then (June 1, 1682) executed a declaration that there 
should be no benefit of survivorship among themselves. They 
held the Province for nearly a year, but they were Quakers, and 
therefore unpopular. To quiet opposition on this ground, they 
severally conveyed, in 1683, an undivided moiety of their respec- 
tive interest to twelve others, viz. : Robert Barclay, Edward 
Billinge, Robert Turner, James Braine, Arent Sonmans, William 
Gibson, Gawn Laurie, Thomas Barker, Thomas Warne, James, 
Earl of Perth, Robert Gordon and John Drummond. These as- 
sociates were afterward known as the " Twenty-four Proprie- 
tors."== On the 14th of March, 1683, the Duke confirmed the 

' Col. Hist. ofN. Y., ni.,285. 

- Learning and Spicer, 73. For a sketch of these proprietors, vide White- 
head's East Jersey, 199, &c. 


sale of the Province to tlie twenty-four proprietors.^ Under all 
of these different owners of the soil of the Province, the rio-hts 
and powers of Government had always attached to the ownership. 

Many patents for land in this county, east of the Hackensack, 
had been taken out before the fall of the Dutch power. By the 
third article in the capitulation, " all people were permitted to 
enjoy their lands, houses and goods, and dispose of them at pleas- 
ure." Under this article they felt secure until the treaty of 
Breda, dated July 25, 1667. Then the freeholders in this county 
took out confirmatory grants from the proprietors, subject to a 
(piit-rent of half-penny per acre.~ To this burden much of the 
lands in East Jersey is yet subject, though years have gone by 
since its collection was enforced. Whether it was to avoid the 
granting of particular tracts to individuals, or because the Dutch 
government had already granted to the town and freeholders all 
of the imappropriated lands in the old township, we do not know, 
but it is worthy of notice that the proprietors never gave to an 
individual an original patent for land in the township of Bergen. 

By the second article of Carteret's Charter the quit-rent of 
half-penny per acre, so far as the township of Bergen was con- 
cerned, was compounded for £15 sterling per annum. In the 
course of time the payment of this was neglected, and finally 
refused. Hereupon a controversy arose between the proprietors 
and the freeholders of Bergen. Finally, Cornelius Van Ripen, a 
freeholder in the township, was arrested for the debt. A com- 
promise was then agreed upon, and the freeholders of Bergen 
received a general release upon paying $1,500. This release was 
dated October 5, 1809. 

The condition of this county in 1680 is minutely, though not 
in all respects accurately, described by George Scott^ in a hrc- 

' Learning and Spicer, 88. 

-' The fact tliat all of tiie wattn- front from Weeliawken to the Kill van Kull 
had been granted by the Dutch before the laws of England applied, may be 
interesting to those who grow disputatious over riparian rights. Should not 
tliese rights be construed by Dutch law rather than by English law? 

■' Colonel Nicols says that Captain Scott " was borne to works mischiefe as 
firre as he is credited or his parts serve him." It is also said that he aimed to 


chiire entitled " The Model of the Government of the Province 
of East Jersey in America," published in Edinburgh in 1685, and 
reprinted in East Jersey under the Proprietors. He says : " Near 
unto Snake hill is a brave Plantation, on a piece of Land 
almost an Island, containing 1,000 or 1,200 Acres, belonging 
to Mr. Pinliorne,^ a Merchant at iN'ew York, and one Edward 

get from the Duke the territory which Berkeley and Carteret obtained. Col. 
Hist, of N. T., Hi., 105. Quaere : was he related to Thomas Scott, who m. 
Caroline, dau. of Sir George Carteret ? 

' William Pinhorne left England in the ship Blossom, May 27th, and arrived 
at New York August 7th, 1678. Col. Hist, of H. Y., ii., 741. He was a mer- 
chant, and a man of more than ordinary ability. On the 26th of March, 1679, 
he purchased of Edward Earle, Jr., one-half of the Secaucus tract and " one-half 
of the Stock, christian and negro servants." Liber 1 of Deeds {Trenton), 144. 
Winfield's Land Titles, 130." On the 15th of September, 1683, he was placed on 
a commission " to inquire into any piracies, felonies, &c., committed by Capt. 
Nicholas Clougli." N. Y. Col. MSS., xxxio., 3. He was commissioned Alderman 
of New York by Governor Dongan on the 24th of November, 1683, /6i(Z, 9 ; re- 
ceived a captain's commission on the 16th of September, 1684 ; was chosen 
Speaker of the New York Assembly in October, 1685, Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 
716 ; appointed one of the Council of Governor Sloughter on the 3l8t of Jan- 
uary, 1689. Ibid, 685. He remained in this position under Governors Ingolds 
by and Fletcher. Valentine's Manual, 1864, 541. In the troubles of the period 
he took a prominent part, and finally became one of Leisler's judges. Col. 
Hist. ofN. Y.yiv., 325. In March, 1691, he was at his own request appointed 
Recorder of New York City, Ibid, Hi., 767, which position he held until Sep- 
tember, 1692, Valentine's Manual, 1864, 560, and on the 5th of the following May 
Fourth Justice of the Supreme Court of New York. Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 716. 
On the 10th of September, 1692, having removed to his plantation in New Jer- 
sey, he lost the Recordership and his place in the Council of Governor Fletcher, 
in whose " humble thoughts those who bear no part burthen should eat no 
share of our bread." Ibid, 847. Early in 1693 he returned to New York, was 
restored to the Council and raised to the position of second Justice of the Su- 
preme Court, with a salary of £100 per annum. Ibid, ii\, 25, 37. Governor 
Bellomont afterward charged him with having secured these positions by pre- 
senting Governor Fletcher " with some plate." Ibid, ii\, 321. On the 17th of 
July, 1693, he was appointed on a special commission to determine the propriety 
of establishing a permanent Court of Exchecjuer in New York. J\r. Y. Col. 
MSS., xxxix., 39, 79. The anti-Leisler party coming into power, June 7, 1698, 
he was suspended from his official positions, Col. Hist, of iV. Y., ii\, 321, and 
charged with being a " scandalous character," and with having cheated a wool 
merchant in London out of .£4,000, with a part of which he purchased his farm 
in New Jersey. He now retired to Secaucus. But by direction of the Queen he 

Scott's desckiption of the county in 1680. 127 

Eickbe.^ Its well improved and Stoekt." Mr. Plnhorne 2)ayed 
for his half 500 lib. * * ^ 

" To goe back to the South part of Berglien neck, that is oppo- 

was in 1702 taken into tlie Council of Lord Cornbury. Learning and Spicer, 
619. Then the following commissions came to him in quick succession : 

October 3, 1704, Second Judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. 

May 22, 1705, Judge of the Bergen Common Pleas. 

November 6, 1705, Second Judge and Assistant to the Chief Justice. 

6, 1705, Judge of the Bergen Common Pleas jointly with Edward 

June 8, 1708, Second Judge of the Supreme Court. 

January 23, 1709, Judge of the Bergen Common Pleas. 

" " Judge of the Bergon Oyer and Terminer. Book of Com- 

missions {Trenton), AAA. On the removal of Lieutenant Governor Ingoldsby, 
Judge Pinhorne, who had married Ingoldsby's daughter Mary, as President of 
the Council, became Commander-in-Chief of New Jersey. This position he held 
until Governor Hunter, who arrived May 7, 1711, demanded his removal and 
claimed that without it there could be " noe hopes of peace or quiet." Col. 
Hibtof N. Y., V ,204. He was dismissed from all official position in the early 
part of 1715. Ibid, v., SQL He is described as " a very sensible, honest gen- 
tleman, who is a true member of the Church of England." Ibid, v., 335. He 
died in the latter part of the year 1719. Ibid, Hi., 716. Piuhorne's creek (now 
written by Jersey City officials Pen Horn), on the easterly bounds of his old 
plantation, still perpetuates his name. He left a widow and four children : 
John, who was appointed clerk of Bergen county November 6, 1705, and ad- 
mitted to the bar June 0, 1707 ; Mary, who married Edward Kingsland, of New 
Barbadoes Neck ; Martha, who married Roger Mompesson, /toZ, «., 423, who at 
one time was (.'hief Justice of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, Val- 
entine's Manual, 1864, 597 (after his death she married Richard Warman), and 
Elizabeth, who married Timothy Bagley. Winfield's Land Titles, 131. 

^ This is an error. Edward Earle, Junior, was the name. He came from 
Maryland, and on the loth February, 1688, married Elsje Vreeland, of Gemoene- 
pa. He purchased the island of Secaucus April 24, 1676, and sold to Pinhorne one 
undivided half of it. In 1693 he was appointed tax commissioner for Bergen, 
and in 1694 a commissioner of the highways. Learning and Spicer, 335, 346. 
He was a member of the House of Deputies in 1695. Record of Gov. and Coun- 
cil, East Jersey, i., 176. He was the founder of the Earle family in Hudson and 
Bergen counties, and was yet living in 1716. 

- The following schedule will give some idea how the place was " stockt" : 
" One dwelling house containing two lower rooms and a lean-to below stairs 
and a loft above, five tobacco houses, one hors, one mare and two coults, eight 
oxen, ten cows, one bull, foure yearlings and seven calves ; between thirty and 
forty hoggs, foure negro men, five christian Servants." Liber 1 Deeds {Trenton), 


site Staten Island, where is but a nan-ow passage of water, wliich 
ebbs and flows between the said Island and Bergheii Point, called 
Constable's Hook} There is a considerable Plantation on that 
side of Oonstahle Hook, Extending in Land above a mile over, 
from the Bay on the East side of the neck that leads to New 
York, to that on tlie west that goes to Hackensack and Snake- 
hill ; the neck running up between both from the Soiitli to 
the north of Hudson^s River to the outmost extent of their 
bounds. There belongs to that Plantation about 12 or 15U0 
Acres, and its well stockt and improved : it was settled first by 
Samuel Edsall in Colonel Nieolls' time, and by him sold 3 years 
ago for 600 : lib. 

"' There are other small Plantations along that neck to the 
East between it and a Little village of 20 families called by the 

Indians or Penelipe,"^ then further one to another 

cottage.^ There are more where Laurence the Draper lives, a 
Dutchman ;^ there may be 16 or 18 Families; then one [on X\ to 
George Uvipane \_Gemoeunepan f\ which is over against 3^<jiy 
York, where there is about 40 Families, within which, about the 
middle of the neck, which is here about 3 myles over, stands the 
Town of Berghen, which gives its name to that neck ; then again 
Northward to the w^ater side going up Hudson)s River, there 
lyes out a point of Land, wherein is a Plantation and a loater 
[mill^] belonging to a merchant in JSew York? 

' This place seems to have been a port of piratical enterprises. In the Post 
Boy, Auffust 8, 1757, 1 find the following commercial advertisement : 

At Van Buskirk's, at Kil van KuU, A Parcel of likely Negro Slaves, Men, 
Women, Boys and (rirls, just arrived from Guinea in the Sloop Williams, 
David Griffiths, Commander. Apply to Kick Williams, or the said David 

- The place here referred to, I have no doubt, is Pembrepogh. But as to there 
being twenty families there I have grave doubts. The author must have drawn 
heavily on his imagination, as he did in the population of Commiiuipaw. 

• Probably the present homestead of the Currie family. 

•1 This was Laurens Andriesen, the founder of the Van Buskirk family. Win- 
fuld's Land Titles, GO. He lived on the shore about where Linden avenue 
strikes New York bay, in (late) Greenville. 

'■ This I take to be Weehawken. On the 10th of June, 1678, Nicholas Bay- 


" Southward there is a small village about 5 or 6 Families, 
which is comvionly called the Diihe''s Farmed and hath always 
paid a small annual rent to the Governor of New York, who first 
granted it out for two lives, but is leased out now for some years, 
yet is under the Jurisdiction of New Jersey for Government ; 
further up is a good Plantation in a neck of Land almost an 
Island, called Hohuk. It did belong to a Dutch Merchant, loho 
formerly in the Indian war had his Wife, Children and Servants 
murdered hy the Indians, and his house, cattle and stoch destroyed 
hy them} Its now settled again and a jnill erected there hy one 
dwelling at Kew York." 

As to Bergen he says : " Here is a Town Court held by Select 
Men or Overseers, who used to be 4 or more as they please to 
choose anmially to try small causes, as in all the rest of the 
Towns; and two Courts of Sessions in the year, from which 
if the Cause exceed 20 lih, they may appeal to the Governor and 
Council, and Court of deputies in their Assemhly, ivho meet once 
a year. The Town is compact and hath been fortified against 
the Indians. There are not above 70 Families in it.^ The 
acres taken up by the Town may be about 10,000, and for the 
Out Plantations 50,000, and the number of Inhabitants are 
computed to be 350,^ but many more abroad. The greatest part 
of the Inhabitants which are in this Jurisdiction are Dutch, of 
which some have settled here upwards of 40 years agoe."^ 

ard had obtained tlie Proprietors' consent to use tlie water run at Wieliaken 
for a saw and corn mill. The Corporation of Bergen had given consent before 

' Known also as the West India Company'.s Farm and Harsimus. WinfiekVs 
Land Titles, 132. '■ This was Aert Teunisen. 

'' There were only thirty-two lots in the town, some of which were common 
land and not occupied. It is quite certain that not more than one famil}' was 
upon any one lot. His several estimates are overestimated in about the same 

■* According to these figures and the number of families previously given, he 
makes the number in each family average but a fraction over two ! 

'" It will be noticed that the above extract is a little confused and in some 
places greatly exaggerated. But it is well to remember that Scott was writing 
what we call a puff, for which he received his reward. Whitehead's East 


From the final surrender to the English until the Revolution- 
ary War — a whole century — but few incidents appear in the 
history of this county requiring notice. The people were quiet, 
domestic, nnauibitious, passed along througli life adhering to 
truth, honesty and fair dealing, cultivating their farms and rear- 
ing their families in the fear of God and the doctrines of the old 
church of their fatliers. The most of their troubles grew out of 
their lands, two-thirds of which lay in common. 

As might have been expected, the Government of the Propri- 
etors was a failure. In the year 1700 the inhabitants of the 
Province represented to King William " that there did not re- 
main among them the shadow of law and Government," and 
requested him to take from the Proprietors a power of which they 
were unworthy. The colonic, in fact, became reduced to such a 
deplorable state by factions that it was represented " as being 
without law or gospel, having neither judge nor priest."^ The 
Proprietors surrendered the Government of Xew Jersey to the 
crown on the 15th, and the Queen accepted the same on the ITth 
of April, 1702. The}' were glad to layoff a burden which was 
pecuniarily unprofitable and very productive of discord. 

By this time the people of Bergen began to feel that the Char- 
ter of 1668 was not sufliciently comprehensive for the govern- 
ment of themselves and the protection of their property. They 
soon after this petitioned for a new Charter. On the 14tli of Jan- 
uary, 1714, the Queen granted what has since been known as 

Queen Anne's Charter. 

^'Anne, by y^ Grace of God of Great Britain, France & Ireland, 
Queen Defender of y^ Faith &c. To all to wlionie these presents 
shall come or may in any wise concern, Greeting : Whereas our 
loving Subjects, Andreas Yan Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Butt Van Home, Frederick Culper, Wonder Deder- 
icks and John Dedericks, Freeholders, Inhabitants of y® town of 

Jersey, 236. The work was written from tcMt was told Mm, what he had of his 
owti knowledge, and what he guessed at. Ibid, 277. 
' Chalmers Hist. Am. Colonics, i., 293, 376. 


Bergen in y^ County of Bergen, In our Province of 'New Jersey, 
on behalfe of themselves & y® rest of y® Freeholders of the s*^ town, 
by their Humble Petition to our trusty and well Beloved Robert 
Hunter, Esq'', our Cap*^ Generall and Governourin Chiefe of our 
Province of New Jersey, have sett forth that their Ancestors & 
Predecessors, Freeholders of y"' s*^ town, have possessed, held & 
enjoyed divers lands, tenem** & Hereditam*^ & used & re- 
ceived Divers Privileges & Immunities by virtue of a Grant or 
Pattent sealed with y*^ seal of y® Province of New Jersey & signed 
by Phillip Cartaret, Esq'', Late Governour of this Province, & 
his Council!, under y® Right Honorable John, Lord Berkley, 
Barron of Stratton, & S'' George Carterett, Knight & Baronett, 
then absolute Lords Proprietors of y® s'^ Province, bearing date 
y^ twenty -second day of Sep* Anno Dom. one thousand six hun- 
dred sixty & Eight, w^'' s*^ Lands were butted & bounded as Fol- 
loweth, viz." {Jiere follows the description as in Carterefs i Imr- 
te?'), " & whereas divers of y'" s'^ lands remain in common & un- 
divided for y*^ generall good & Benefitt of y® Freeholders & In- 
habitants of s'^ town, on w*^'' s*^ Lands y*^ neighbouring townes & 
settled Do committ great waste and spoils in Cutting Down & 
carrying away great Quantities of their timber, who cannot be 
relieved In y® premises in y'' ordinary course of Law or Equity 
through some Defects in y® Grant of Incorporation afores'^, w*^'' to 
Prevent for y^ Future they have prayed our Charter or Pattent of 
Incorporation, w'^'' request we being willing to grant, know ye that 
of our Especiall Grace, certain knowledge & mere motion, wo have 
given, granted. Ratified & confirmed, and Do by these presents 
for us, our heirs & successors forev^er. Give, Grant, ratifie & con- 
firme unto Andreas Van Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Rutt Yan Home, Henry Culper, Wender Dedreicks, 
John Dedreicks, in trust to & for themselves & y'^ rest of y® Free- 
holders, Inhabitants of y^ s'^ town and their successors forever 
within y® Limits & bounds afores'^ y^ Free Liberty & Privilidge 
of being a township, ct they & their successors forever hereafter 
are & shall be by virtue Hereof a comunity or township, oi- 
body Corporate, or Politick in deed & in name by y® name of y^ 
Trustees of the Freeholders inhabitants of y"' township of Bergen, 


<k that they & their successors forever hereafter shall & may have 
a perpetuall succession of y® numBer of seven of y*^ principal! free- 
holders & inhabitants of y® s^ township of Bergen, who shall be 
v'' trustees of y® Freeholders inhabitants of y® township of Ber- 
gen, that is to say, that upon y® Death or other avoidance of any 
one or more of y® s'^ trustees, it shall & may be lawful! for y"^ 
Freeholders of y® &^ township for y® time being, being there- 
unto Sumoned or Warned by y® Constable or Constables of y® s"^ 
township for y*^ time being by order of y" surviving trustees of 
y® s*^ township of Bergen, or y® major part of them to assemble 
&; meet together at such time & place within y® s^ township as 
y® s^ surviving trustees for y^ time Being or y® major part of 
them, from time to time as need sliall be, shall think iitt to nom- 
inate & appoint & there by majority of votes of y*^ s'^ Freehold- 
ers to Elect & cliuse so many of y® Principal Freeholders of y® 
s*^ township residing within y^ bounds of y*^ s'^ township as may 
make y® number of y® s'^ trustees to beseaven^ w''** trustees so cho- 
sen & elected as afores'^ together with y® surviving trustees for y'^ 
time being shall be trustees of y'' s*^ township to all intents and 
purposes as much as if they had been particularly nominated & 
expressed in this our s** Grant, & Ave do further Give & Grant un- 
to y® s*^ trustees of y'' Freeholders inhabitants of y® town of Ber- 
o-en & their successors forever that it shall & may be lawfull to 
& for y® s*^ trustees & their Successors forever by y^ name of y° 
trustees of y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y^ Township of Bergen 
in any of our Courts within our s^ province of New Jersey to 
Sue and be Sued, answer & be Answered unto, Implead & be 
Impleaded, Defend & be Defended. And we do further Give 
«fe Grant unto y® s'^ trustees of y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y® 
township of Bergen & their Successors forever Hereafter full 
Power and Lawful! Authority as Often as there shall be occasion 
at their Discretion or y® Discretion of the Major Part of them to 
Sumons ife call together y^ Freeholders of y^ s'* township ife for 
yc g(i Freeholders A: their Successors so sumoned and called to- 

' Vide Pamplili't Lairx, 1804, p. 419. This cliarter was amended so as to make 
the office of trustee annual. 


getlier to Assemble & meet together at such certain Days & at 
such Place as y'' s*^ trustees for y^ time being, or the major part 
of them shall appoint to make &; Enter in a Book for that pur- 
pose to be kept all such prudentiall rules and orders for y® Im- 
provem* preservation & Defence of their s*^ Comons as they or 
y^ Major part of them shall agree upon, as also to appoint a Clerk 
& Eegister for y^ Doing thereof, & to contribute & Beg amongs 
themselves such sum or sums as are absolutely necessary for y*' 
doing thereof from time to time as need shall be &not otherwise, 
ik further. We do for us, ourselves & Successors Give & Grant 
unto y" s"^ trustees of y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y® township 
of Bergen & their Successors forever, that they & their Success- 
ors by y*^ name afores*^ be forever hereafter one body corpo- 
rate & Politickall & Capable in y® Law to Purchase, have, take & 
receive & enjoy to them & their Successors forever y'' use of 
y® Freeholders Inhabitants of y° township of Bergen, Lands, 
Tenem*^, Messuages, Kents, Privilidges & other Hereditam** 
whatsoever, of whatsoever Nature, Kind & Quality they be 
in fee & perpetuity as also to Give, Grant, Bargain, allott, 
Lett, Dispose of any of the Land belonging or appertain- 
ing to y® s*^ Comunity & as yett unappropriated, either for one, 
two or three Lives, for term of years, or in fee, & also that y® 
s^ Corporation shall & may forever hereafter have & Use a 
comon seal for y® Business of them & their Successors w"' full 
power to alter, break tfc nnmake y® same at their Discretion, ik 
we do further Give & Grant to y® s'^ trustees of y® Freeholdei-s 
Inhabitants of y® township of Bergen & their Successors forever, 
that it shall & may be Lawfull for y^ Freeholders Inhabitants of 
y*^ s"^ town Annually & once in Every Year to Assemble & meet 
together on y® first Tuesday in May annually to choose two 
Constables, one Overseer of y^ poor, and two Overseers of y^ 
Highways by y*^ Majority of y° Voters of y® s'^ Freeholders In- 
habitants of y^ town of Bergen, w*'*' Constables & Overseers so 
chosen as afores*^ shall serve in their Respective Offices in y® s*^ 
town untill y*" next Anuall Election If they so Long shall Live 
or pay y® sum of two pounds each Person refusing to serve for 
y® Use of the poor of y^ s'^ Town & That in case of y® Death or 


Ret'usall of aiij of y" .s'' Officers ; As often as y® same shall 
Imppen out of y^ Usuall anniversary Time of Election that it 
shall & may be. Lawfnll for y® Freeholders Inhabitants at any 
other time & place to Assemble & meet together to Chnse others 
in their Room & place & that it shall & may be Lawfnll for 
any Trustees of y® place w*'^in The s*^ Township to administer 
an Oath to y® s^ Officers of y® s^ Town for y® true & Faithful 
Discharge of their Respective Offices to have, hold & enjoy all 
and singular y® s'^ privilidges, Rights, Liberties ct immunities 
afores'^ to y^ s*^ Andreas Van Buskirk, Barnett Christian, Enoch 
Freeland, Rutt Yan Hoover, Hendrick Culper, "Wonder 
Dedericks, John Dedericks, Freeholders Inhabitants of y® town- 
ship of Bergen & their Successors forever, yielding, Rendering 
ik paying unto us, ourselves & Successors, or to our or their 
Collector & Receiver General 1 of our s'^ province for y^ time 
being yearly & every Year Five Shillings in Lieu & stead of all 
other Rents, Services, Dues, Duties & Demands whatsoever for 
y^ same. 

" In Testimony whereof we have Caused tliese our Letters to 
be made Pattent & y® Seal of our Province of Kew Jersey to be 
affixed, iSz y° same to be Entered of Record in our Secretary's 
Office of Our s'^ province. Witness our trusty & well beloved 
Robert Hunter, Esq''., our Cap* Generall & Governor in Chiefe 
in & over our Province of ISTew Jersey, New Yorke &c. This 
Fourteenth Day of January in y® twelfth year of our Reigne &c. 

"Bass, Secretary."^ 

This charter was confirmed by the Council on the 13th of 
March, 1714. 

The principal motive in requesting this Charter was to get 
power to protect and take care of the common lands. These 
comprised about two-thirds of all the lands in the township of 
Bergen, and were used by the freeholders for common pasture. 
To avoid the difficult}^ and confusion which would naturally 
arise from the cattle runnina: tosether in the commons, the Leffis- 

Book of Commissions {Trenton), 154. 


lature, on tlie Yth of November, 1668, provided for the marking 
of cattle/ and directed a description of such marks to be entered 
in a book to be kept for that purpose. Laurens Andriesen was 
made recorder and marker, April Otb, 1670. This practice of 
marking thus instituted outlived the common lands and came 
down even into the present century. The following entries, 
taken from a fragment of the old town book now preserved in 
the county clerk's office, will give a good idea of the way sucli 
entries were made, and of the novelty of some of the marks : 

" Hendrick van Winkel seyn merk Een gaffel uyt het ent van 
hot slinken oor en seyn brant op de slinken bil. H.'' 

" Meyndert ger brantse seyn merk Een gaffel uyt het slinken 
oor En Een slip in het ent van het righter oor en seyn brant op 
de hooren, M. G." 

"Pieter Boskerck syn merk Een half maentie onder uyt het 
slinken oor." 

The law also provided that whenever an estray came upon 
one's premises it was a duty to record a description of the same 
with the Town Clerk, to enable the owner to recover his property,' 
The following are a few specimens of such recorded notices, 
literally copied, and they afford ample proof that the Town 
Clerk and the Schoolmaster were not the same person at that 
day : 

" Strayed on the premises of John Stevens Hoboken a brown 
horse supposed to be three years old no artificial mark with a 
star in the forehead and left hind foot white about twelve hands 

" A stray Muel at the House of Garret van Derhoof Being a 
Dark Brown Couller Marked on the left shoulder with the Letters 
K A." 

" A Red Bull Avith a Wite Streek on the Buttok with no mark 
at the House of Moses van Amen at Bergin Point the Creator 
will Be two years old this Spring.'^ 

With all the precaution the authorities could take, peace and 

^Learning and Spicer, 86. ^Nevill's Laws, i. 357. 


harmony were but uncertain tenants in the township. Some 
encroached upon the common lands, cleared and fenced beyond 
the bounds of their respective patents. Others imposed upon 
them undue burdens, cut and carried away the timber.^ To settle 
all these difficulties the freeholders mutually entered into an 
agreement that they would employ a surveyor to run out the 
bounds of their respective land, and that each one would aban- 
don whatever of the commons might have been appropriated, 
until the same should be properly and fairly partitioned.^ 

It is not now known that this agreement was ever carried out. 
The probabilities are that it was not ; at all events it did not 
prevent the difficulties which it was intended to provide against. 
Matters continued to grow worse until, finally, on the 7th of 
December, 17()3, the Legislature passed the act providing for a 
survey of the patented lands and allotment of the commons 
among the freeholders.^ This act was of vast importance in the 
history of this county.* 

The commissioners named in it appointed George Clinton of 
New York and Jonathan Hampton of Elizabeth surveyors (the 
latter did not act), and entered upon their work on the 6th of 
March, 1764, at the house of Stephen Bourdett at " Wiehaken," 
to which place all land owners were requested to bring their pat 
ents and title papers. Notwithstanding the extent and accuracy 
of their labors, the work was finished on the first day of March, 
1765. Owing to uncertainty in the ownership of Secaucus, the 
commons allotted to that tract was not finally allotted until the 
15th of June, 1785. 

' NevUVs Laws, i., 285. 

- A copy of this agreement may be found, in extenso, in Winjield's Land Titles, 
10. ^Alinson's Laios, 263. 

"* The reader who may be interested in looking at this act and at the survey 
and map made in pursuance thereof, is respectfully referred to Winjield's History 
of the Land Titles in Hudson County, New Jersey. In that work has been in- 
serted many facts which throw light upon the titles to land in the county from 
1009 to 1871. The publication of that work relieves me from tracing out the 
history of the land in this volume. 


The Revolutionary War — How it aifected Hudson County — Incidents of the 
war in this County — Fort Delancey — Capture of Paulus Hoeck — Block House 
Point — Tlie Cow-Chase — Desertion of Sergeant Champe, &c., &c. 

DrKiNG tlie Revolutionary war that portion of Bergen County 
now known as Hudson County was important territory. Early 
in that contest it became manifest that whichever party held the 
city of New York must greatly depend on Bergen as the gate to 
'New Jersey. Hence, each party while in possession was care- 
ful to strengthen it against the assaults of the other. 

As soon as it was understood that the British were preparing 
to leave Boston for New York, Lord Sterling, then in command 
of the American forces in this vicinity, took measures to place 
Bergen in a condition of defence, and to open means of commu- 
nication with the interior of the State. On the 18th of March, 
1776, he proposed, Jirst, to make a good and broad, road from 
Brown's ferry to Paulus Hoeck ferr}^, which he considered of 
great importance to the city of New York ; second, to make a 
good road from Weehawken to the Hackensack ferry.^ He de- 
signed to place the Bergen militia at these works; two hundred 
men on the former, and one hundred men on the latter.^ He 
devised the works on Paulus Hoeck and Bergen Neck ; the for- 
mer to prevent approach from the city of New York, and the 
latter to prevent inroads from Staten Island. For the location and 
design of them, he personally examined the ground on the 23d 
of March, and proposed to have them constructed by the militia 
of Bergen, Essex and Middlesex counties.^ On the arrival of 
Washington orders were given for the immediate construction 
of the works at Paulus Hoeck, as they were considered " of im- 

' This was afterward known as Dow's (or Douw's) ferry. 

■ Am. Archives, Uh Series, p., 402. -^Life of Lord Sterling, 157. 


portaiice/'^ These works were soon completed, and troops sta- 
tioned in them. Of such importance were the works on Paulus 
Hoeck considered, that one of the objects of the great Hickey 
conspiracy was to seize and hold them in the name of the King.^ 

On the 29tli of June the look-out on Staten Island announced 
the approach of forty sail. It proved to be the advance of Ad- 
miral Howe's fleet, bringing a portion of the British forces under 
General Howe. In two days other arrivals swelled the number 
of men-of-war and transports to one hundred and thirty. The 
troops landed on Staten Island, and the fleet cast anchor off the 
mouth of the Kill Yan Kull. The tories in the vicinity now has- 
tened to take sides against the colonies and for the king. The 
people of Staten Island led off and took the oath of allegiance to 
the British crown. On both sides of the Hudson the anti-revolu- 
tionists in great numbers repudiated further resistance to his 
majesty.^ Many who had taken an active part with the patriots, 
now, looking upon the freedom of the colonies as a " lost cause," 
forsook their first love and, with the apostate's zeal, joined their 
former foes. Prominent among such were William Bayard^^the 
owner of Hoboken, and Abraham Yan Buskirk of Saddle River, 
who afterward became lieutenant-colonel in the British service."^ 

At this time General Hugh Mercer, the veteran of Culloden 

' Am. Archives, 4:th Series, «a.,534. -Irving' s Washington, ii., 246. 

. ^ Knight's Hist, of England, i., 371. 

* The following sworn statement, found at Albany among the papers of the 
Committee on Conspiracies, is worthy of insertion here : 

" [Miscel. Pap. 34 1'^SO.] 

" To Coll" William Allison. 

" Whereas it is represented to us that David Baulding of Bergen County in 
New Jersey, but now in the City of New York, can give very useful and im- 
portant intelligence respecting the late discovered Conspiracy against the 
Rights and Ijiberties of America, 

" We do therefore in Pursuance of a Resolve of the Congress of this Colony, 
authorize and request you to bring the said David Baulding forthwith before 
us, That he may be examined touching the said Conspiracy. 

" Given under our Hand this 29 .Tune 1776. 

'• JOHN JAY." 


and Du Quesne, who afterward fell, covered with glorj, at 
Princeton, was in command in New Jersey, with his flying camj) 
at Bergen. He had been sent by AYashington to Paulus Ploeck 
to make arrangements for the Pennsylvania militia as they 
shonld come in. Fearing an attack from Staten Island, General 
Mercer was ordered on the 4th of Jnly to place a guard of five 
hundred men at Bergen Keck. He was also recommended by 
the commander-in-chief to place a guard at the ferries over the 
Hackensack and Passaic rivers, and was promised that on the 
next day an engineer should be sent over from New York to 
erect some works for the security of those places.-^ After making 
an examination of the Neck and the general condition of things 
there, he reported that the cattle had not all been removed, that 
some families on the Point held intercourse with the enemy (at 
that time between eight and nine thousand strong on the Island), 
that Colonel Ford's force there amounted to not more than three 
hundred and fifty men, and that he could not reinforce them t(^ 

" [Miscel. Pap. 34 : 403.J 
" The Information of M"^ David Baldin, Saith he has had Reasons for some 
time past to believe there was a Correspondance kept up by the people of Rampo 
and the men of war as well from the temper of the people as from many 
Words Dropt from time to time he says that about the 17th Inst he told that 
Lawrence Van Bushkirk the Miller at Rampo, abraham Van boskerk and a 
Schoolmaster & Thomas Van Boskirk at Saddle River was going on Board the 
Man of War that something prevented all but the School Master who he 
veryly Beleives did go & that there is one Peter Van Bushkirk Living at or near 
the hook or mouth of the Kills in Bargain County who its frequently said has 
followed trading with the men of war who he has Reason to believe Carrys 
people on Board when Ever Requested, and has a sufficient Craft for that pur- 
pose, and that this Informant Came to New York on purpose to let it be known 
that on his way he stoped at Erlses in Bargain woods where he was Drinking 
toddy in Company with Francis Steephens Late a Resident of this City who took 
him the said baldin to be freindly to the tory side when said Stephens told 
Baldin that there was 50 Sale of Kings Ships near the hook and that there 
would soon be 150 Sail to New York that Erls said that knews Came from on 
board the Man of War this Week that Stephens Charged the Informant not 
to mention it to some certain freind of his in New York. 

" Sworn the 29 June 1770 Before us : 

" Phil Livingston, 
" John Jay." 

' Am. Archives, 4th Series, vL, 13(53. 



five liuiulred after placing proper guards at the ferries. He pro- 
posed, tlierefore, to send the Pennsylvania militia to Bergen Neck 
as they arrived.^ The different '* passes in Bergen Keck" and on 
the Jersey shore opposite Staten Island were to be fortified bv 
the chief engineer of the American forces to prevent the enemv 


coming over.^ To meet the crisis that was approaching, in the 
early part of July General Wadsworth's brigade was sent over 
to Bergen, where it was joined by a battalion of Jersey troops.^ 
General Mercer now feeling that he was in a fair state of prep- 
aration for the enemy, who showed no disposition to enter New 

Mm. Archives, 5th Series, i., 120. This post, afterward known as Fort Delancey , 
was situated on the rising ground, bounded by Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth 
streets and Avenues B and C, in Bayonne, about a quarter of a mile below the 
canal. It was held by the refugees under Captain Tom Ward for some years. 

- Ibid, 5th Series, L, 174. ■[hid, Tdh Series, i., 328. 


Jersey, formed a plan to attack him on Statea Island. His plans 
were all laid for the evening of the IStli of July. Great caution 
was required in his movements, for Bergen was tilled with 
tories.-^ The sixth point in his plan of attack was as follows : 

" Sixth. A party to attempt to surprise the enemy's guard on 
BusMrlc's Polnt'^ which is on the southeast corner of Bergen 
Point \ this party, or guard, does not seem to be large, but it i& 
said they are possessed of two six-pounders. The party that 
makes the attack must not attempt to go over the causeway or 
road over the meadow, the cannon l)eing in all probability ap- 
pointed to command that pass, I)ut should be provided with some 
boards, and j^roceed in two or three columns over the meadoM% 
where they will meet with no other ol)struction than a small 
creek or ditch, which they will easily pass with the help of the 
boards. If this place is carried, a cannonade and bombardment 
should, as soon as possible, commence on the ships, a great num- 
ber of which now lie within reach of the place. A cannonade 
should also commence on Bergen Pointy opposite the church 
and Decker^ s^yAxQVQ. it is said abont six hundred men are posted ; 
this cannonade, with round and grape shot, would confuse the 
troops in forming, and prevent their succoring the guard at 
Elizabethtown Pointy or opposing our party who make their 
descent near Shutter'^s Island. The cannonade should also be 
kept up on such parts of the shore of Staten Island where any 
boats are collected or may asseml)le. The party tor these several 
matters on Bergen Nech should be about seven hundred men, be- 
sides the riflemen.'"^ His plans failed, however, on account of 
the bad weather, which prevented his forces crossing the Kill 
Van Kull. 

Carrying out the instructions lie had received, General Mercer 
stationed at the ferries over the flackensack and Passaic rivers 

' To show how alarmingly disattection had spread among thu people of Ber- 
gen, I have been told by old people that only fourteen whigs (iould be found 
in the whole township. 

-' A part of Cotistapel's Hoeck, on which the enemy had landed sliortly after 
his arrival in the harbor. It was the first landing place of the British forces 
in New Jersey. '•Am. Archives, 5th Series, 1, 443. 


two captains and one hundred and twenty-two rank and file.^ 
About tins time the troops on Bergen Point practiced occasion- 
ally on the fleet of the enemy. The following shows how ill- 
naturedly these little attentions were received : 

" New York, July 25, 1TT6. 
" Our troops stationed on Bergen Point give the Ministerial 
fleet and army some uneasiness, by firing at the tenders, boats, 
&c. It so galls and provokes them, that they return the fire 
with great fury, but have not done the least damage to our peo- 
ple. Last Lord's Day a great many shot were heard in this city 
and at Bergen Point. The occasion was this : A barge from 
the fleet, full of men, landed on the Point, but were opposed and 
driven off with precipitation by our troops ; a smart fire ensued 
from a tender for a; considerable time, without doing any 

• 552 

injury. *= 

While General Mercer had been putting the shore of East 
Jersey in a state of defence, the forces of the enemy had been 
augmented by arrivals, until, in the harbor and on Staten Island, 
they numbered thirty thousand men.^ The harbor was filled 
with their shipping. On the afternoon of the 12th of July — 
eight days after the Declaration of Independence — the Phoenix, 
carrying forty guns, under command of Captain Parker, and the 
Rose, carrying twenty guns, under command of Captain Wal- 
lace, came sweeping up the bay, having the advantage of both 
wind and tide. Then for the first time the thunders of civil- 
ized Avarfare burst from the sand-hills of Paulus Hoeck ; then 
for the first time its batteries were trained upon an enemy. 
They opened on the ships with a spirited fire, which was re- 
turned with broadsides as they passed. The vessels suffered but 
little damage, their decks being protected by ramparts of sand- 
bags.^ On the same evening Lord Howe sailed up the harbor, 
ii'reeted by the booming of cannon and the huzzas of the British. 

On the first of Auo;ust Colonel Bradlev's regiment was at 

^Am. Archides, 5th Series, i., 575. -lUd, 5th Series, i., 578. 

Urving's Washington, ii, 300. *Ibid, ii, 260. 


Bergen, while the enemy still held Constapels Hoeck.^ With 
Bi-adlej's force, General Mercer had in East Jersey a considerable 
body of men. Washington was anxious for reinforcements in 
l^ew York, and made known his wants to General Mercer. 
That officer replied as follows : 

" PowLES Hook, August 15, 1776. 

" Sir : I was at Elizabethtown when your letters of the 13th 
and 14th reached me. The men who had been prepared to join 
the army at JVew Yorh lay at NewarTi. The posts along tlie 
Jersey shore opposite to Staten Island are sufficiently guarded, 
and more troops are daily arriving. If you approve of it, a body 
of four hundred men, well accoutred, from the Delaware coun- 
ties, may be stationed at Powles IIool\ and four hundred of the 
Jersey men for the Flying-Camp at JB erg en- Town, besides what 
we may spare to be ready in case of emergency at NewarTi. 
Eight hundred men will cross to-day to join you. If more are nec- 
essary, please to inform me. I shall be to-night at Newark. 

"I have the honor to be, Sir, your Excellency's most obedient 
servant, H. Mercer."^ 

Again upon this subject he wrote to the President of Congress : 

"Newark, August 28, 1776, 5 o'clock A. 31. 
" Sir : General Washington had wrote me that some rein- 
forcements would be necessary at JVew York and Powles Hooh. 
* * On the way yesterday evening. General Wooster''s Aid-de- 
Camp met me, with a few lines from the General, signifying that 
it was General Washingtoii' s orders that I should march, with 
all our army under my command, immediately to Poivles Hooh. 
The necessary orders were sent to Amhoy, Woodhridge and Eliza- 
heth-Toion, last night, and I hope to have on Bergen, ready to 
pass over to JYew York^ if required, from tliree to four thousand 
men. Our whole force, including the Neio Jersey militia, from 
Powles Hook to Shrewsbury., amounts to eight thousand and 
three hundred. •5«- * * * General Washington, with the greater 
part of the Army, was on Long Island yesterday ; and the ac- 

^Am. ArcJdves, 5th Series, i., 713. 'Uhid, bth Seriei, i, 964. 


tion was continued at two o'clock. * * Considerable firing lias 
been heard this morning, which still continues. What troops 
are here I am pushing on to Bergen, and shall be with them im- 

At the time he wrote this letter, the battle of Long Island 
was raging, and the patriots were being driven before the 
veterans of Europe. General Mercer promised assistance, and 
the following extract of a letter will show how well he kept his 

" In obedience to those orders from General "Washington, be- 
tween three and four thousand of the militia of Pennsylvania and 
New Jei'sey assembled at Bergen, ready to pass on to New York, 
but were countermanded on the retreat of the Army from Long 
Island. We have, however, strengthened the posts at Powles's 
Hook and Bergen Neck to the complement of twenty-five hun- 
dred men."^ 

The post at Paulus Hoeck was shortly afterward treated to 
another little skirmish with the enemy. On the 15th of Septem- 
ber the British captured New York City. In the morning of 
that day three ships-of-war — the Roebuck and Phcenix, each of 
forty guns, and the Tartar, of twenty guns — stood up the Hud- 
son, •' causing a most tremendous firing."^ The raw troops on 
the Jersey shore were little prepared for the peltings of such a 
pitiless storm. In a letter dated September 17, 1776, to Wash- 
ington, General Mercer says : 

"Sir: I received just now the favor of Colonel Grayson^ s 
letter of yesterday, and in consequence shall send off a detach- 
ment of the men inlisted for the Flying Camp to Paulus Hook. 
The militia of Pennsylva,nia and New Jersey, stationed on Ber- 
gen and at Paulus Hook, have behaved in a scandalous manner, 
running off from their posts on the first cannonade from the 
ships of the enemy."* 

It is, however, stated in the Freeman) s Journal of October 5th, 

Mm. Archives, 5t7i. Series, i., 1193. '^Ibid, 5th Series, ii., 158. 

^Jrving's Washington, ii., 353, 367. ^Am. Archives, 5th Series, ii., 367. 


1776, that the vessels " were roughly greeted by the American 
battery at Paulus Hook." This certainly makes an issne of 
veracity between the old soldier and the newspaper. One 
cannot hesitate, however, in coming to a decision on such an 

For a short time after the capture of New York, Paulus 
Hoeck remained in possession of the Americans under command 
of Colonel Durkie.^ During this time Washington would occa- 
sionally leave his camp at Harlaem, cross over to the Jersey 
shore, and, in company with General Greene, who had succeeded 
General Mercer in command on the Jersey shore, reconnoitre, 
sometimes as far down as Paulus Hoeck, to observe what was 
going on in the city and among the shipping.^ It was manifest, 
however, that this position could not be held, New York being 
in possession of the enemy. Preparations were made for its 
evacuation. The following is General Greene's report of this 
event : 

" Camp Fort Constitution,^ Se])teml)er 23, 1776. 
" Dear Sir : The enemy are landed at Powleys Hook ; they 
came up this afternoon and began a cannonade on the batteries, 
and after cannonading for half an hour or a little more, they 
landed a party from the ships. General Mercer had ordered 
off from the HooTc all the troops except a small guard, who had 
orders to evacuate the place from the first approach of the 
enemy. General Mercer mentions no troops but those landed 
from the ships ; but Colonel BuU^ and many others that were 
along the river upon the heights, saw twenty boats go over from 
Yark to Powleifs Hook. This movement must have happened 
since General Mercer wa-ote. I purpose to visit Bergen to-night, 
as General Mercer thinks of going to his ])0st at Amhoy to- 

This fixes the date when the place was captured. Two days 

' Valentines Manual, 18GG, 7G8. -Irmir/s Washington, ii., 3G7. 

■■ Changed to Fort Lee, in honor of General Charles Lee, who arrived in camp 
at Harlaem, October 14, 1776. 
■* Am. Archives, 5th Series, ii., 494. 

146 HISTORY OF lunsoN county. 

afterward in a letter fioni headquarters is a further account of 
the e\'ent : 

" Gen. Greene informs us that General Mercer^ seeing the 
enemy -were determined to possess themselves by a stronger 
force of ships and men than we could o])pose, removed all the 
stores and useful cannon, so that nothing fell into the enemy's 
hands but the guns that had been rendered unfit for further 
service. Our Army is posted at the town of Bergen, and our 
advanced partv has possession of the mill just back of Powle's 

The Americans remained in possession of Bergen until Wash- 
ington found it necessary to collect his forces preparatory to his 
retreat to the Delaware. By an extract from a letter dated 
October 4, 1770, written at headquarters, which was then at 
Bergen, we learn the time when and reason for its evacuation : 
" To-morrow we evacuate Bergen, a measure which will at first 
be condemned, and afterwards be approved of. For my own 
part, I am sorry that the enemy should possess another inch of 
American ground, but prudence requires another sacrifice. The 
reasons of leaving this place I take to be these : Bergen is a 
narrow neck of land, accessible on three sides by water, and ex- 
posed to a variety of attacks in difierent places at one and the 
same time. A large body of the enemy might infallibly take 
possession of the place whenever they pleased, unless we kept a 
stronger force than our numbers will allow. The spot itself is 
not an object of our arms : if they attacked, it would be to cut 
off those who defended it, and secure the grain and military 
stores. These have been removed ; and when we are gone, a 
naked spot is all they will find. I^o other damage will follow, 
except a depression of some people's spirits, who, unacquainted 
with places, circumstances, and the secret reasons of such relin- 
quishments, are apt to despond as if everything was lost. We go 

'^Am. Arcliives, 5ih Series, ii., 523. The mill here spoken of was Jacob Prior's 
mill, near the point of rocks. It was frequently visited by both parties during 
the war, and on one occasion from its window a British picket at Fort Putnam 
(now Putnam street) was shot. 


to Fort Constitution as soon as we have seen the troops marched 
off. We sliall leave a guard of observation behind us : tliis may- 
prevent the enemy's discovering our removal for a day or two."^ 
The design of General Greene was to " keep a good, intelligent 
officer at Bergen, to watch the motions of the ships,"^ As out- 
guards at Bergen, Iloebnck, Bull's Ferry, Hackensack and oppo- 
site Spyt-den-Duiv^el, he had posted one hundred and sixty-eight 
officers and men.^ 

On the 20th of November, Fort Lee was evacuated, the army 
retreated to Hackensack and on through to the Delaware, and 
East Jersey was abandoned to the enemy. While, in 1777, the 
conflict was raging above the Highlands, among the hills of 
Saratoga and on the banks of the Brandywine, Bergen was left 
in the undisputed possession of the British. They stationed a 
considerable body of troops at Paulus Hoeck and strengthened 
the works. In command of this post they placed Lieutenant- 
Colonel Abraham Yan Buskirk of Saddle River, who had de- 
serted the patriot cause and gone over to the enemy. They also 
occupied the works on Bergen ISTeck, which they named Fort 
Delancey, in honor of Oliver Delancey, the great tory of West- 
chester. These two places were garrisoned principally by tories, 
or " refugees," as they called themselves. These partisans were 
active and unscrupulous in the cause of the king. Their zeal, 
however, exhibited itself more in plundering and murdering 
their old neighbors than in honorable warfare. The following 
extracts from newspapers, both whig and tory, will show how 
the people of the county suffered from friend and foe, and what 
generally was going on hereabouts during the greater part of 
the war : 

" A party of 300 or 400 rebels, returning to New England 
from Morristown to Capt. Kennedy's House at Newark, plun- 
dered iV—jVeio York Mercury, Jem. 20, 1777.* 

" The Rebels came down to Secaucus last Wednesday, and 

' Am. Archives, 5th Series, ii., 867. Uhid, 5th Series, Hi., 630. 

^ Ibid, 5th Series, Hi., 663. 

■* This house was on the east bank of the Passaic, at East Newark. 


carried away all the grain, horses, cows and sheep they eonld 
get together, which they were obliged to swim over the Hacken- 
sack River, for want of Boats."^7iwZ, April 7, 1777. 

" On Monday, May 12th, 300 British under command of Lt.- 
Cols. Barton and Dougan marched from Bergen Town via Para- 
nius, to attack some rebels under Gen. Heard at Pompton." 
—Jhid, Mmj 19, 1777. 

" A party of about 40 Rebels came down to Col. Bayard's 
Mills last Friday morning near Hoebuck Ferry and carried off 
some cattle, but being pursued by a few of the 57th Regiment, 
now stationed at Powles Hook, they took to their heels and 
made off."— /J«J, June 30, 1777. 

" The rebels were as low down in Bergen last Friday night as 
Mr. Van Ripen's, the Blacksmith, and carried off from thence 
some horses."— 7J/^, Nov 24, 1777. 

About this time the sufferings of the troops for want of clothing 
were very severe, and created much comment. Among the sug- 
gestions for relief was the following by Governor Livingston, 
which, while it points out a novel store-house of relief for the 
Valley Forge sufferers, also incidentally describes an old time 
custom among the women in this vicinity at that period : 

" I am afraid that while we are employed in furnishing our 
battalions with clothing, we forget the county of Bergen, which 
alone is sufhcient amply to provide them with winter waistcoats 
and breeches, from the redundance and superfluity of certain 
woollen habits, which are at present applied to no kind of use 
whatsoever. It is well known that the rural ladies in that part 
of New Jersey pride themselves in an incredible number of 
petticoats ; which, like house furniture, are displayed by way of 
ostentation for many years before they are decreed to invest the 
fair bodies of the proprietors. Till that period they are never 
worn, but neatly piled up on each side of an immense escritoire, 
the top of which is decorated with a most capacious brass- clasped 
Bible, seldom read. What I would, therefore, humbly propose 
to our superiors, is to make prize of these future female habili- 
ments, and, after proper transformation, immediately apply them 


to screen from the inclemencies of tlie weather those gallant 
males who are now fio-htino; for the liberties of their countrv. 
And to clear this measure from every imputation of injustice, I 
have only to observe that the generality of the women in that 
county, having for above a century wor7i the hreedies^ it is highly 
i-easonable that the men should now, and especially upon so im- 
portant an occasion, make booty of the petticoats." — N. J. 
Gazette, Dec. 21, 1777. 

" On Thursday afternoon Captain John Richards, of New Bar- 
badoes N^eck, on his way to see some member of his family who 
was sick of the small-pox, was captured on the road between 
' Three Pidgeons ' and Bergen by two professed patriots, and 
was shot dead by one (Brouwer) as he was preventing the other 
(Lozier) robbing him of his M^atch."^ — Ilnd, Feh. 2, 1778. 

" On Sunday, the 22d of March, 1778, a party of rebels came as 
near Powles Hook as Prior's Mill, and attempted to carry oft" 
some cattle. They are under command of one Johnson, and act 
on their own hook." — Hid, Marcli 30, 1778. 

" On Sunday night, May 10th, a small party of rebels were as 
far down as Prior's Mills, and carried ofi^ two !Negro men who 
w^ere coming to Market with eggs and butter." — Ihid, May 18, 

The daring patriots went as far as the same place on Friday 
and Saturday nights (May 15th and 16th) and carried off" more 
negroes. A detachment from the Paulus Hoeck garrison gave 
them chase, but they escaped. 

In September, 1777, Sir Henry Clinton, then in command at 
Xew York, planned a raid into New Jerse3^ He divided his 
force into four columns. The general j^oint of rendezvous was 
the New Bridge, above Hackensack. One column, under General 
Campbell, entered New Jersey by the way of Elizabethtown ; one, 
under Captain Drummond, by way of Schuyler's ferry f one, 

' Brouwer was arrested by the British, Feh. 15, 1778, and locked up in New 
York. Lozier was caught at the English Neighborhood, March 27, 1778, at the 
house of one De Groote. Richard's watch was found in his pocket. — N. Y. 
Mercury, March 30, 1778. 

- This was afterward known as Dow's ferry. It was on the Hackensack 


under General Yaiighn, by ■way of Fort Lee, and the otlier, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, by w-ay ot'Tappaen. On the 12th 
the expedition set out, Clinton himself followed, passing up 
Newark bay to Schuyler's landing on the Hackensack (Dow's 
ferry). From this point he marched over the Belleville turnpike to 
Schuyler's House, where he found Captain Drummond with two 
hundred and fifty men. During the night General Campbell 
arrived with his detachment and the cattle he had collected en 
route. The different columns met as designed on the 15th. 
On the following day General Campbell marched his force from 
English Neighborhood to Bergen Point, whence he passed over 
to Staten Island. The result of the raid was the capture of four 
hundred cattle, four hundred sheep and a few horses, taken from 
the people of Essex and Bergen. In exchange, they had eight 
men killed, eighteen wounded, ten missing, and five taken pris- 
oners.-^ As an offset to this raid, we find the following account of 
an expedition by the opposite party over part of the same ground : 

" A party of rebel light Horse came down as far as Bergen 
Point last Tuesday night (July 28th), and returned next morning 
toward Hackensack. They visited Hoebuck on their way and 
carried off a great number of Cattle from the Inhabitants." — N. 
Y. Mercury, Aug. 3, 1778. 

Smythe, in his diary, November 8th, says : " This afternoon a 
party of our horse brought in two rebel privates from Powles 
Hook. One of them is very intelligent and communicative ; but 
the other is the most whimsical tony I ever have seen. Wherever 
he goes he carries with him a large gray cat, which he says came 
into the rebel camp on the night after the battle at Freehold 
Meeting House, and which he first discovered lapping a spot of 
dry blood on his sleeve, as he lay on his arms expecting another 
dash at the British. His affection for the cat is wonderful, as 
hers is for him, for they are inseparable. He sa3's if we don't 
allow him extra rations for his cat he shall be obliged to allow 
them out of his own."^ 

river at the foot of Cherry Lane, a little above the bridge of the New Jersey 
Railroad. ^ Rememhrancer , 1777, v., 420. 

- Carver, it., 81, cited in Moore's Diary, ii., 70. 


In 1777 Lieut.-Colonel Van Buskirk, the tory, had his head- 
quarters at Panhis Hoeck. From the time of his defection in 
1776 until near the close of the war, when lie sailed for Nova 
Scotia, he had used this post as a base for his predatory excur- 
sions. During the days of his patriotic impulses he had been 
intimate with John Fell, of Paramns, the chairman of the Bergen 
Committee of Safety, and by him entrusted with many important 
messages and duties. In the year 1777 Judge Fell was arrested 
at his home and brought to Paulus Hoeck as a prisoner. He was 
recognized by the tory Colonel. 

" Times are altered since we last met," said the Colonel. 

" So I perceive,'' the Judge coolly replied, looking at the Col- 
onel's uniform, 

" "Well, you are a prisoner and going over to l^ew York, where 
you will be presented to General Robertson, with whom I have 
the honor to be acquainted. I will give you a letter of intro- 
duction to him," said the Colonel. 

The Judge thanked him and accepted the letter, which he 
afterward presented to Gen. Robertson. It so happened that the 
Judge and General were friends at Pensacola after the old 
French war in 1763. The purport of Yan Buskirk's letter of in- 
troduction was that Joh7i Fell was a notorious rebel and rascal! 
and advising that due care should be taken of him. General 
Robertson handed the letter to the Judge and said : " My old 
friend, John Fell, you must be a very altered man and a very 
great rascal, indeed, if you equal this Colonel Buskirk."^ 

It is said in the Neio Jersey Gazette of October 28, 1778, 
that the only place then held by the British in the State of New 
Jersey was Paulus Hoeck. It is probable, therefore, that up to 
this time the post at Bergen Neck had not been occupied since 
its abandonment by the Americans. The exact date of the occu- 

^Oiiderdonk's Prison Ships. Notwithstanding this expression of friendship, 
Fell was treated with such severity during his captivity that the Council of 
Safetyin New Jersey, Minutes, p. 161, ou Nov. 17,1777, ordered James Parker 
and Walter Rutherfurd to be confined in the jail at Morristown until Fell and 
Wynant Van Zant should be exchanged or released from confinement in New 


pancy of the latter post by the British is not known, but probably 
during the winter of 1778-9. The post at Paulus Iloeck was 
held by them with great tenacity. It was the only point at 
which they could with safety land their troops for incursions. 
Here, on the night of February 24, 1779, landed portions of the 
Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Regiments of the British, under 
Lieut.-Colonel Sterling, on their way to attempt the capture of 
Governor Livingston at Elizabethtown. They marched across 
the hill to Brown's ferry, whence they were taken in boats sent 
for that purpose from JSTew^ York around by the Kill van Kull.^ 

"' On Sunday morning, March 14tli, 1779, Colonel Van Bus- 
kirk received intelligence that a Captain and Lieutenant, with a 
party of Carolina troops, were at the Three Pigeons in Bergen 
Woods." He despatched Lieutenant Haselop, of the Fourth Bat- 
talion of N. J. Volunteers, and a party of Refugees, in quest of 
them ; but tiie Rebels, being apprized of his approach, took to 
their Heels, when, after pui-suing them twelve miles into the 
country, came up with the party, and firing a few shot, made t%vo 
of them prisoners, one of whom was wounded; the rest, with the 
advantage of sleighs and their wonted precipitancy, escaped." 
— Biv'mgton\'( Gazette^ March 17, 1779. 

" On Friday night, April 2d, 1779, Lieut. Paul, of Colonel 
Shreve's Regiment, with twelve privates, were captured on Ber- 
gen Neck by a detachment of the G-lth Regiment, which lay at 
PowlesHook." — Ihid, AjJi^il 7, 1779.^ 

" On Saturday (April 17th, 1779), two of the Bergen County 
Militia, who with others had been out reconnoitering, suspecting, 
from the conduct of a boy they saw running in great haste to- 
wards a house on the bank of the Hudson River, about a mile 
above Wiehawk, that some of the infamous gang of robbers that 
have for some time infested this and neighboring parts of the 

' Hatfield's History of Elizabeth, 472. 

- Bergen Woods extended from the Fort Lee road on the north to the Hack- 
ensack turnpike at Union Hill on the south. 

^ Israel Shreve at this time commanded the Second New Jersey Regiment. 
He was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, November 8, 1775, and Colonel. Jan- 
uary 1,1777. Liber Co of Commissions {Trenton), IG. 


State of New York, were concealed there, advanced as fast as 
possible to the honse ; one of tliem entered immediately and dis- 
covered five or six in the lioiise, several of whom had arms, and 
with admirable presence of mind calling aloud to his companion 
as if a large party had accompanied him, discharged his musket 
and killed the chief of the gang on the spot. Eetiring to load his 
piece, the rest of the villains took to their heels.'' — New Jersey 
Gazette, .47>/v7 28, 1770. 

" On Sunday night, 28th ult., a party of about thirty men be- 
longing to Lieut.-Col. Yan Buskirk's corps of tories and embodied 
Refugees stationed at Iloebuck, in the County of Bergen, went out 
as far as Closter on a horse stealing and thieving expedition." — 
Same Paper. 

" Last Wednesday (Jan. 13th) a Mr. Allen, ensign in the rebel 
Army, with three Jersey militiamen, were apprehended on Ber- 
gen Point, by a party from Capt. Anstruther's company of the 
26tli Regiment." — Ixivington''s Gazette, January 20, 1779. 

" Last Saturday, four privates of the Rebel Army were brought 
to Hoebuck by a detachment of Col. Buskirk's Regiment. They 
consisted of one of Bayler's Light-Horse, one continental, and 
two militiamen." — Rivhigton^ s Gazette, March 31, 1779. 

" Early yesterday morning a party of the -tth Battalion, N. J. 
volunteers, were ordered out by their Lieut.-Col, Buskirk, under 
Capt. Yan Allen, to intercept a gang of Rebels who paint them- 
selves black and commit murders and thefts in Bergen County. 
Three of them were met a small distance from the Town of Ber- 
gen, carrying off an inhabitant, but being briskly pursued, one 
named David Ritzema Bogert, the other, the noted John Loshier, 
who was concerned in the murder of honest Capt. John Rich- 
ards, and whose repeated instances of villainy had rendered him 
among the Rebels deserving their earliest attention for exchange, 
when lately taken by a party of the same Battalion, who have a 
second time spared his life.'''' — Rivingtotv's Gazette, Jidy 24, 

" A party of Rebels came down last Thursday as far as Prior's 
Mills, within a mile of Powlis Hook, and fired some shot at the 
sentry at that ])Ost, but a few men being ordered out after them, 


they soon took to their heels and made the best of their Way into 
the Bush." — iT. Y. Mercury^ June 21, 1779. 

We now come to a brilliant episode in the history of Pauhis 
Hoeck. Major Henry Lee — Light Horse Harry — an active and 
dashing- orticer, had frequently been employed by Washington in 
scourinii^ the west bank of the Hudson and collectine; informa- 
tion. In the course of his reconnoitering, and from information 
derived from other sources, he had discovered that the British 
post at Paulus Hoeck was negligently guarded. General 
Wayne's recent brilliant exploit at Stony Point had piqued his 
emulation, and he intimated to the commander-in-chief that an 
opportunity offered for an enterprise quite as daring. When 
first proposed, Washington did not favor the project. Writing 
on August 10th, 1779, he says that, considering the position of 
the enemy, he deems the attempt too hazardous, and unwarranted 
by the magnitude of the object. He thought the cause would 
lose more in case of failure than it could gain in case of success. 
He thought it best, therefore, to postpone the attempt.^ Major 
Lee, however, was so sanguine of success that he had a personal 
interview with Washington, and received the desired consent 
and verbal instructions. These enjoined upon him to lose no 
time, in case of success, in attempting to bring off cannon, stores, 
or any other articles, as a few moments' delay might expose the 
party to gi-eat risk from the enemy on York Island ; and if the 
post could not be carried by surprise the attempt was to be 
abandoned.^ The position was a strong one, and it was almost 
rashness to attempt to carry it. Yet its very strength favored 
its capture b}^ rendering its garrison negligent and unwatchful. 
On the north was Harsimus cove, on the east the North Kiver, 
on the south Communipaw cove, and on the west a marsh in 
which was a creek running near the westerly edge of the upland 
from near Montgomery street southwesterly into the southerly 
cove near the foot of Van Yorst street. This creek had been con- 
nected with the Harsimus cove by a ditch about on the line of 
Warren street, made a few years previously by Major David 

' Spark's Washington, vi., 317. -Jbid, li, 3. 



Hunt. Over this ditch, on the line of Newark avenue, was a 
drawbridge with a barred gate. Thirty paces inside of the ditch 
and creek was a row of abattis extending into the river. On the 
Hoeck were strong military works, first constructed by the 
Americans, and afterward strengthened by the British.^ The 
main works were in the line of Sussex street, extending from 
about St. Matthew's church easterly to Greene street. The bar- 
racks were at the intersection of Essex and Warren streets. From 
the main fort a redoubt extended southerly along Washington 
street to a half-moon fort on the southerly side of Essex street. 
There was one fort on the northwest corner of Washington and 
Grand streets. Some block-houses had been constructed north 
of the main works, and one of them north of the road leading to 
the ferry. The burying- ground was on the west of Washington 
street, extending from Sussex street to a short distance south of 

Morris street." The accompanying illus- 
tration from Lossing's Field Book, though 
not entirely accurate, will give a general 
idea of the situation of the works. One 
(A) redoubt was circular in form, and 
mounted six heavy guns. It had a ditch 
and abattis. The other (B), a little south- 
east of it, was of oblong form, and had 
three twelve-pounders and one eighteen- 
pounder ; a a were block-houses ; h hh hh, breastworks front- 
ing the bay ; c, part of the 57th regiment, of five hundred men, 
under Major Sutherland ; f/, pioneers ; e, carpenters ; fff, bar- 
racks ; g, bridge built by the British.^ Lee was stationed near 
the New Bridge, about fourteen miles from the Hoeck. Fear- 
ing the treachery of the inhabitants, he carefully kept his own 
counsel, but gave out that he was about to go with a few troops 

' Col. Hut. ofN. T., mii., 793. 

* When Washington street was graded many bones and a few military relics 
were dug up. Mr. George Dummer placed the bones in a hogshead and buried 
them at the intersection of Morris and Washington streets. 

^ Marshall, in his Life of Washington, iv., 136, says there were one fort, three 
block-houses, and some redoubts. 


on a foraging expedition. This effectually disarmed suspicion, 
for such parties were frequent, and occasionally quite as large 
as his proposed force. lie had taken the precaution to provide 
boats, which for the purpose had been brought from Plucki- 
min, and which were to be at Dow's Ferry at a certain hour in 
the night, under the command of Captain Peyton, for the pur- 
pose of taking his troops over the Ilackensack ; for it was his 
intention after the attack to retreat by this ferry and the Belle- 
ville turnpike across the n)eadows to the high ground on the 
east bank of the Passaic, on his way to the New Bridge. To 
hold the place with the enemy in New York was impossible, 
and did not enter into the plans of "Washington or Lee. The 
object was to swoop doMni upon the post, strike an unexpected 
blow, and retreat, thus giving cdat to the continental arms. 
He had four hundred infantry and a troop of dismounted dra- 
goons for the enterprise. Lord Sterling moved down to the 
New Bridge, to be in a position to cover the retreat if neces- 
sary. Lee moved from his encampment about four o'clock 
in the afternoon of August IS, 1779. He detached patrols of 
horse to watch the communication with the North River, and 
stationed parties of infantry at the different roads leading to 
Paulus Hoeck. He followed what was known as the lower 
road, which came into the present Hackensack road near the 
English Neighborhood church. When reaching the vicinity of 
Union Hill he filed into the woods. Here the guide, through 
timidity or treachery, prolonged the march to three hours ; the 
troops became harassed and discouraged, and in endeavoring to 
regain the proper route some parties in the rear became separated 
from the main body. As singular as it may seem, with all this 
marching and floundering in the woods, with detachments 
stationed at different points and patrols along the river, they 
were not discovered. This is the more wonderful since it is well 
known that at about the time Major Lee started for Paulus Hoeck, 
Colonel Van Buskirk left that place, with a force of one hundred 
and thirty men, on a raid to the English Neighborhood,^ and 

2 Eivington's Gazette, August 31, 1779. 

MAJOR lee's capture OF 1>AULUS HOECK. 157 

yet the two forces missed each other in the darkness. A colli- 
sion between them would have put an end to the enterpise upon 
which Lee had set his heart, and which for its extent ranges 
among the most heroic actions of the war.^ 

Notwithstanding all the delays incident to a night march and 
ignorance or treachery of the guide, Major Lee reached Prior's 
Mill at three o'clock on the morning of the 19th. The day was 
near at hand, and the tide, which would fill the ditch and over- 
flow^ the road between Warren and Grove streets, was rising. 
Not a moment was to be lost. The punctilios of rank and 
honor were disregarded, and the troops ordered to advance in 
the positions they then held. Lieutenant Rudolph, who had 
been sent forward to reconnoitre the passages of the ditch, now 
reported to Major Lee that all was silent within the works, that 
he had fathomed the canal and found the passage possible. This 
intelligence was passed along the lines, and the troops pushed 
forward with resolution, order and coolness. Lieutenants 
M'Callister and Rudolph led the forlorn hope, who marched, 
with trailed arms, in silence. They reached the ditch at the 
intersection of Newark avenue and Warren street at half-past 
three o'clock on Thursday morning. The guards were either 
asleep or took the approaching force to be Colonel Yau Bus- 
kirk's men returning from their raid. They were not undeceived 
until the advance plunged into the ditch. Immediately a firing 
becfan. The blockhouse guards ran out to see what was the 
matter and were seized. The forlorn hope, supported by Major 
Clarke, broke through all opposition, and soon became masters 
of the main work, with the cannon, &c. So rapid were tlie^' in 
their movements that the fort was gained before a piece of artil- 
lery was fired. The troops came pouring through the abattis, 
and in a few moments were victorious. Unfortunately, in cross- 
ing the ditch the ammunition was destroyed, and thus their fire- 
arms were useless. As soon as Major Sutherland, then in com- 
mand of this post, comprehended the situation, he threw himself 
into a small redoubt, with a captain, subaltern and forty Hes- 

' Gordon's Hist. Am. Revolution, Hi., 383. 


siaiis. Major Lee bad no time to dislodge him or remove or 
destroy property. Daylight was at hand, and he had some 
anxiety about the boats at Dow's Ferry. Besides this, the tiring 
'had aroused the British in New York, who could in a few 
minutes throw a large body of troops across the river. He 
therefore ordered an immediate retreat, and sent Caj^tain Forsyth 
to Prior's Mill to collect such men as were most tit for action, 
and take a position on Bergen Heights to cover the retreat. 
Major Clarke was in the advance, with most of the prisoners ; 
Lieutenants Armstrong and Reed formed the rear guard. Lee 
now rode forward to look after the boats at the ferry. To his 
dismay, not a boat was there to receive them. Captain Peyton, 
owing to the lateness of the hour, had removed them to Newark. 
He immediately countermarched his troops to the Bergen road 
en route for the New Bridge, communicated with Lord Sterling, 
and returned to the rear guard at Prior's Mill. His prospects 
were now discouraging. With troops worn down, ammunition 
destroyed, encumbered with prisoners, fourteen miles of retreat 
before him, on a route liable to be intercepted by troops from 
New York, with no way of escape to the left, he could only 
depend on the invincible courage of his men. On reaching the 
heights opposite " Weehock," Captain Handy moved on the 
mountain road to facilitate the retreat. Here Captain Catlett 
came up, with fifty men and good ammunition. One part}^ was 
then detached in the rear of Major Clarke on the Bergen road, and 
one to move along the bank of the river. In this manner a 
sudden attack was prevented. At the Fort Lee road Colonel 
Ball, who had been forwarded to Lee's assistance, met him with 
two hundred fresh men. Shortly afterward a body of the enemy 
appeared upon the right and opened fire on the retreating 
Americans. Lieutenant Reed immediately faced them, and 
Lieutenant Rudolph threw himself into a stone house which com- 
manded the road. This disposition checked the enemy, and 
gave the force time to cross the English Neighborhood creek, 
at the Liberty Pole, now Englewood. Just at that moment, 
Major Sutherland, who had followed Lee, came up, but halted, 
and finally fell back M'itliout venturing an attack. Major Lee 

MAJOR lee's capture OF PAULUS HOECK. 159 

arrived safely at New Bridge about one o'clock in the afternoon. 
He had captured one hundred and fifty-nine of the garrison, in- 
cluding officers, and lost two killed and three wounded. 

In his report of the enterprise, he says : " Among the many 
unfortunate circumstances which crossed our wishes, none was 
more so than the accidental absence of Colonel Buskirk, and 
the greatest part of his regiment. * * A company of vigilant 
Hessians had taken their place in the fort, which rendered the 
secrecy of approach more precarious, and, at the same time, 
diminished the object of the enterprise by a reduction of the 
number of the garrison. Major Sutherland fortunately saved 
himself by a soldier's counterfeiting his person. This imposition 
was not discovered until too late. 

" I intended to have burnt the barracks ; but on finding a 
number of sick soldiers and women with young children in 
them, humanity forbade the execution of my intention. The 
key of the magazine^ could not be found, nor could it be broken 
open in the little time we had to spare, many attempts having 
been made to that j)urpose by the Lieutenants M'Callister and 

' The location of this magazine was in the vicinity of the present almshouse, 
at the foot of Washington street, near the canal. 

- In the Anecdotes of the Ilevolution, ii, 413, may be found a curious story 
concerning this attack. It appears that one Van Skiver, a native of New York, 
and a private in Col. Van Buskirk's regiment, was an unexceptionable example 
of original sin. For some cause, then unknown to the Americans, he deserted 
the tories He then joine.i the Americans, and showed so much zeal and such 
inveterate and deadly animosity against his former friends, and spoke with such 
confidence of the feasibility of injuring them by an attack on their outposts, 
that Major Lee listened to his plans and finally acceded to the proposal to at- 
tempt the capture of Paulus Hoeck. Entire confidence, however, was not 
placed in Van Skiver. Armed with an axe, he was placed at the head of the 
advancing column, a file of men with fixed bayonets following immediately in 
his rear to do speedy execution upon him should he either falter or show the 
slightest symptoms of treachery. He was equal to the emergency, and ready 
to boldly attempt what he had proposed. With steady step and undaunted 
resolution he advanced and actually cut down two barriers in succession, giving 
free admission to the troops into the body of the place. 

It might naturally be supposed that such a display of hostility to the British 
would have caused Van Skiver to be ranked among the most determined of the 


This brilliant affair mider the guns of New York was very 
galling to the British and tories. Sir Henry Clinton, in a letter 
to Lord Gerniaine, dated August 21, 1779, says: " On the 19th 
instant, the garrison at Powle's Hook being reinforced, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Buskirk was detached with part of the troops to cut 
off some small parties who interrupted the supplies of provision ; 
a considerable body of rebels availed themselves of that oppor- 
tunity to attenij^t the jDost. At three in the morning they ad- 
vanced to the gate of the works, and being taken for Buskirk's 
corps returning, entered without opposition. I fear they found 
the garrison so scandalously absorbed, in consequence of their 
security, that they made themselves masters of a block-house 
and two redoubts with scarcely any difficulty." 

The tory newspapers in ]S^ew York say that " early in the 
morning a detachment from the Brigade of the Guards, under 
command of Colonel Gordon, and the Hessians landed at Faulus 
Hoeck, and with the light infantry under Captain Maynard pur- 
sued Lee. The pursuit was continued for fifteen miles, and 
two of the prisoners recaptured. Ensign Barrett of the Seven- 
tieth Eegiment, with a small detachment, captured Captain Meals 
at the Three Pigeons. Upon his person were found the orders 
and dispositions of Lee, relating to the march and attack on 
Paulus Hoeck. Barrett also destroyed at the English Neigh- 
borhood a rebel armory, gunsmith's implements, and a great 
quantity of musket locks, bayonets, ifec."^ 

While the British and tories were galled, the Americans were 
overjoyed at the coup de main. Washington sent his congratu- 
lations to Lord Sterling, and, in a letter to Congress, said : 
" The Major displayed a remarkable degree of prudence, address 

king's enemies. But even at that moment his appearance of zeal was merely 
intended as a lure to gain respect and confidence, for he had scarcely returned 
to camp when it was discovered that he was in treaty, and actually far advanced 
in a plan, to deliver Lee and his Legion into the hands of the enemy. Severe 
was the penalty which he paid. Sentenceil to five hundred lashes, he had the 
greater part of them inflicted, and was tlien drummed out of tlie army. He re- 
turned to New York, and was heard of no more. 
' Itixington's Oazette, August 31, 1771). 


and bravery upon this occasion, which does the hio;hest honor to 
himself and to all the otttcers and men under his command. The 
situation of the post rendered the attempt critical and the suc- 
cess brilliant." 

Under date of September 10, 1779, James Duane, in a letter 
to Alexander Hamilton, speaks of it as " One of the most daring 
and insolent assaults that is to be found in the records of chiv- 
alry ; an achievement so brilliant in itself, so romantic in the 
scale of British admiration, that none but a hero, inspired by the 
fortitude, instructed l>y the M'isdom, and guided by the planet of 
Washington, could, by the exploit at Paulus Hook, have fur- 
nished materials in the page of history to give it a parallel."^ 

On the 24:th of September Congress passed the following reso- 
lutions respecting the ailair : 

^^liesolved, That the thanks of Congress be given to his Excel- 
lency General Washington for ordering, with so much wisdom, 
the late attack on the enemy's fort and works at Powles Hook. 

'■''BesolDed, That the thanks of Congress be given to Major-Gen- 
eral Lord Sterling for the judicious measures taken by him to 
forward the enterprise and to secure the retreat of the party. 

'■^liesolved, That the thanks of Congress be given to Major Lee 
for the remarkable prudence, address and bravery displayed by 
him on the occasion ; and that they approve the humanity shown 
in circumstances prompting to severity as honorable to the 
arms of the United States, and correspondent to the noble prin- 
ciples on which they were assumed. 

'^Resolved, That Congress entertain a high sense of the disci- 
pline, fortitude and spirit manifested by the officers and soldiers 
under the connnand of Major Lee in the march, action and re- 
treat ; and while with singular satisfaction they acknowledge the 
merit of these gallant men, they feel an additional pleasure by con- 
sidering them as part of an army in which very many brave officers 
and soldiers have i)roved, by their cheerful performance of every 
duty under every difficulty, that they ardently wish to give the 
truly glorious exanijdes they now receive. 

Hamilton's Works, L, 86, 87. 



'"'■Resolved^ That Congress justly esteem the military caution 
so happily combined with daring activity by Lieutenants M'Cal- 
lister and E.udol})h, in leading oil the forlorn hope. 

'''•Resolved^ That a medal of gold, emblematical of this affair, 
be struck, under the direction of the Board of Treasury, and pre- 
sented to Major Lee. 

^'■Resolved, That the brevet and the pay and subsistence of 
Captain be given to Lieutenant M'Callister and to Lieutenant 
Rudolph respectively." 

Congress also placed in the hands of Major Lee $15,000 to be 
distributed among the soldiers engaged in the attack.^ 


On one side is a bust of the hero, with the words Henkico Lee, 
Legionis Equit. pr^fecto. Comitia Americana. " The Ameri- 
can Congress to Henry Lee, Colonel of Cavalry." On the re- 

In mem. pugn. ad Paulus Hook, die xix Aug., 1779. "Not- 
withstanding rivers and intrenchments, he with a small band 
conquered the foe by warlike skill and prowess, and firmlj' 
bound by his humanity those who had been conquered by his 
arms. Li memory of the conflict at Paulus Hook, nineteenth of 
August, 1779."2 ' 

' Journal of Congress, v., 368. 

• The joy does not seem, however, to have been universal. There is and al- 


From this time until the opening of the campaign in the spring 
of 1780, but little of a general character transpired in Bergen. In 
December following the attack on Paulus Hoeck, General Wayne 
moved down from the vicinity of Tappaen and encamped at Ber- 
gen. For a short time he kept a vigilant eye on Paulus Hoeck, 
and then moved back to Westiield into winter quarters.^ The 
raids by both parties were kept up on the people of this vicinity. 
Money and valuables were buried and hidden, but now and then 

ways will be an undertow continually working to destroy great reputations. 
Jealousy is all-sufficient in small minds to justify the meanest action. The fol- 
lowing letter indicates an undertow to the popular wave : 

" Camp North of Smith's Clove, ^ 
"August 22, 1779. f 
" Dear Sir : 

" I suppose you have had a variety of accounts of the sacking of Powel's Hook, 
which was taken by surprise about 3 o'clock the morning of the 19th inst., and 
instantly evacuated again by us, after doing no greater damage than taking 7 
officers and about 160 Rank and File prisoners, and killing about 20 in the Gar- 
rison. We have about 7 privates missing. Had not the officer who commanded 
— Major Lee — been in so great a hurry from the Garrison, much more execution 
might have been done, as they did not take time to carry off all the prisoners, 
or even to take a Major and party of men who were then in their power. Not 
the least damage whatever was done to the Garrison. The Magazine was not 
blown up, the Barricks not sett on fire, the Cannon not spiked, no article of 
Stores, Clothing, &c., &c., of which a great plenty were there, was the least 
damaged ; in fact, nothing further was done than rushing into the Garrison in 
confusion and driving out the prisoners, mostly without their clothes. Perhaps 
there will be an inquiry into the reason of the confusion and great haste the 
party made to get out of the fort without destroying so many valuable stores as 
were in their possession. Several officers have been much injured in the Vir- 
ginia line, on account ot giving Major Lee the command of 300 of our men to 
reduce Powel's Hook, and unjust methods taken by him to have the command, 
by telling one of our Majors, who marched with the 300 men, that his commis- 
sion was older than it really is — otherwise he would not have had the command 
over him. I believe Major Lee will be arrested. I marched with a covering 
party, but did not go near the garrison. Lord Sterling, who commands here, 
is very uneasy at our complaints on this affair. Several letters have passed 
between his lordship and the officers of our line concerning his ordering 300 

of our men under Major Lee. * * * 


" Mr. Barnard Gratz, Phila."' 

Ilist. Mag., 180. ' N. Y. Mercury, Jan. 10, 1780. 


the secret places of these treasures would be revealed bj the tory 
neighbors. In tlie house of the. late Captain Howe, near Cavan 
Point, lived George and Garret Yreeland, father and son. One 
night the tories came to the house, locked them in the kitchen 
cellar (the kitchen is yet standing), and robbed the house of a 
large number of silver dollars. The next morning they were set 
free by their faithful old slave. 

In these times, for the accommodation of the British, the people 
of Bergen were permitted to take provisions over the river. On 
these occasions they would take the opportunity to purchase 
what things were needed by their families. This fact was soon 
found out by the tories, who, whenever they could, would rub 
these Bergen merchants of their return cargoes. The strategists 
of Communipaw were equal to the emergency. There was a 
barn just south of Communipaw avenue, the doors of which they 
used for a code of signals. These doors were then made in two 
parts, and if, on the return of the skiffs trora New York, the men 
in them saw the upper part of the door open, then they knew that 
all was right and their freight safe. But if, on the contrary, it 
was closed, then they might know that the tories were about, and 
they must tarry at Ellis Island. The tories finally found out the 
secret, but were uncertain if the door should be open or shut to 
signify a " welcome home " to the voyagers across the river. At 
one time, when they were waiting for the return of the richly 
laden argosies, a contention arose among them whether the door 
should be open or shut to signify that the coast was clear. Be- 
tween the two the door was opened and slnit and shut and opened 
in such rapid succession that the men in the boats, doubting as 
to the condition of things on shore, gave themselves the beneiit 
of the doubt, pulled back to the island, and left the "gude vrouws" 
to light it out with the tories. 

It is said that one day the British sent a Hag from Pauhis 
Hoeck to General AVayne, then on New Barbadoes Neck, which 
'* Hop" Jerolamon, of the latter place, in his mistaken zeal, cap- 
tured, and took the saddle and bridle as lawful prize. Mad 
Anthony, in turn, captured the indiscreet " Hop," put the saddle 
on his back (tradition puts the bridle in his mouth, vide Yroverh^. 


xxvi., 3), and sent liim to Paul us Hoeck to be punished at the 
discretion of the British. " Hop " keenly felt the mortification, 
but a " military necessity " pushed him along over the meadows 
and hill until he came to Prior's Mill. Here he encountered the 
enemy's pickets and wished to lay down his burden, thinking he 
liad carried the joke far enough. Not so thought his captors, and 
he was forced to trudge along to headquarters " accoutred as he 

Jacob Yan Wagenen, living at Bergen, had everything stolen 
from him by the tories and Bi-itish. One day they were driving 
off twelve of his cattle toward their barge, which lay in the 
Hackensack, just above the present bridge of the New Jersey 
Railroad. One of his faithful negroes endeavored to prevent 
them. They seized the courageous fellow, and hung him to a 
tree until he was willing to withdraw all opposition to the de- 
parture of his master's property. 

The w^inter of 1779-80 was of unusual severity.^ The British 
in New York were in great want of fuel. It became so scarce 

' The river between Paulas Hoeck and New York was frozen over. Sis per- 
sons, in attempting to cross over, were carried into the East river, " and provi- 
dentially got on shore by the ice lodging on Blackwell's Island.'" — Riv. Oaz., 
Jan. 15, 1780. Governor Tryon caused the river between Paulus Hoeck and 
New York to be measured, and found it to be 2,000 yards wide. — Valentine's 
Manual, 1853, 464. The river has since been filled in to some extent on both 
sides. Imitating Governor Tryon, two inhabitants of Communipaw measured 
the distance from that place to Ellis Island, and found it to be 83 chains. They 
left the following record of their exploit : 

"January 24th, 1780. 

" De winter heel hart zynde die liivier all over Gevrosen Wy die personen 
Genamt Cornelius Garrabrants en Giliam Outwater had der Gedocht om te 
meeten hoe veer het was van de oost hoeck van Hendrick Blinkerhoff een buys 
tot het Klin Ilant is 82 Kettings." A ketting is one chain. 

It is worthy of notice that during the last 130 years the river has been pass- 
able on the ice only four times, viz., 1740-1, 17G4-5, 1779-80, and 1820-1. In 
January of the latter year an enterprising vender of whiskey opened shop in 
the middle of the river. A " drouty crony," going from Jersey City for a glass, 
broke througli the ice. A wag standing at the door of the saloon said to the 
proprietor : " !Sir, there has a man just slipped down ccllur — you had better look 
after him, or your li(iuors will be in danger." ('entinel of Freedom, Jan. 30, 


that the commandant was obliged to limit the maximum price to 
four pounds sterling per cord! The high price for wood was a 
great temptation to the tories. At that time the hill from Fort 
Lee to Bergen Point, except what had been cleared for the farms, 
was covered with a fine growth of thrifty timber. This they de- 
termined to cut off and sell to the shivering British. To make it 
safe for them to enter upon the business, it was necessary to 
have redoubts, breastworks or block -houses into which they could 
retire at night, and to which they might fly in case of attack by 
day. They therefore constructed the block-house at a place 
since called Block-House Point, near Bull's Ferry. They also 
threw up earthworks on the old Bergen road, just below Wood- 
lawn avenue. They also had earthworks at Bergen, east of the 
town, near Blakeley Wilson's resrdence. Besides these, they had 
the fortifications on Paulus Hoeck, and at Fort Delancey, on Ber- 
gen Neck. At the latter place Captain Tom Ward held com- 
mand.^ His force consisted of negroes and vile characters of his 
own race. They became as notorious as himself. They were a 
band of plunderers, thieving and raiding by night over to Eliza- 
beth town, Newark, New Barbadoes Neck, and along Bergen Hill 
as far up as Closter and New Bridge. He is represented as having 
been a terrible wretch. It is said that he once hired three ne- 
groes to kill a man in Bergen to whom he was indebted. " Little 
Will," owned by Yan Ripen, was one of the three. Tom Cad- 
mus, another tory, was sergeant, and ordered the tire. The ne- 
groes were afterward caught and hung in the swamp north of 
Brown's Ferry road, near the present Glendale House, and the 
bodies left hanging for weeks. 

The block-house near Bull's Ferry was occupied by refugees 

' He is said to have been a native of Newark, and a deserter. Remembrancer, 
xi., 165. The latter part of the assertion may be true ; the former part is not 
only denied, but met by the avowal that Tom Ward of Newark was a well 
known and active patriot. In the iV. Y. Mercury, Avgust 4, 1760, I find a 
paragraph that Thomas Ward, of Bergen County, had lost a son, who became 
mad from the bite of a wild cat. It is very probable that the father of that boy 
is identical with the notorious Captain Tom Ward, of Fort Delancey, and imitat- 
ed Colonel Van Buskirk in deserting the cause of his country. 


and wood-cutters, under command of Colonel Cuyler, It was lo- 
cated on the high point above the ravine which extends back 
from the river, on the north side of Guttenberg. It was pro- 
tected on two sides by perpendicular rocks which rise from the 
shore and the ravine, and surrounded on the other sides by 
abattis and stockades, with a ditch and parapet. The only en- 
trance to the block-house was a covered way large enough to ad- 
mit but a single person.^ Colonel Cuyler being temporarily absent 
from this post, Captain Tom Ward was in command of the 
seventy men stationed there. Washington, then near SnfFerns, 
having been informed that there were a number of cattle on 
Bergen Neck exposed to the enemy, sent General Wayne to 
bring them off, and destroy the block-house at the same time. In 
the afternoon of the 20th of July, 1780, the first and second 
Pennsylvania regiments, with four pieces of Proctor's artillery 
and Moylan's dragoons, in all about one thousand men, started 
from their camp on the expedition. They arrived at New 
Bridge about nine o'clock in the evening. Here they rested 
four or five hours, and then pushed forward for Bull's Ferry. 
Major Lee, the hero of Paul us Hoeck, was sent to Bergen with 
his cavalry to bring oft" the cattle, while the remainder of the 
force marched against the block-house. General Irvine with a 
part of his brigade proceeded along the summit of the ridge, and 
the first brigade, under Colonel Hampton, wath the artillery of 
Moylan's horse, by the direct road. About ten o'clock on the 
morning of the 21st, part of the first brigade reached the post. 
Moylan's horse and part of the infantry remained at the fork of the 
roads leading to Paulus Hoeck and Bergen, prepared to receive 
the enemy should he approach from that quarter. General Irvine 
was posted so as to prevent the enemy landing, should he ap- 
proach by vessel. Near Fort Lee two regiments were concealed, 
prepared for the enemy. One regiment was posted in a hollow 
way on the north side of the block-house, and another on the 
south side, with orders to keep up a constant fire into the port- 
holes to favor the advance of the artillery. When the field- 

Pennsyhania Packet, July 25, 1780. 


pieces arrived they were placed sixty yards distant, and a can- 
nonade commenced, which continued from eleven o'clock until 
noon, without intermission. Up to that time but little im- 
pression had been made on the block-house, and orders were 
i^iven to retire. Just at that moment one ivgiment burst through 
the|]abattis, and advanced to the stockades. They were received 
with such a galling fire from the tories that they were com- 
pelled to withdraw.^ Boats were now beginning to move uj) and 
down the river, but no attempt was made to land. The sloops 
and wood-boats at the landing were destroyed, and three or four 
prisoners taken. The cattle were driven oiF as originally in- 
tended, but the other part of the expedition was a failure. Gen- 
eral Wayne says that he lost fifteen killed and fifteen wounded.' 
The enemy claimed that " the brave Captain Ward pursued the 
rear upwards of four miles, retook twenty cattle, killed one 
rebel and took two prisoners." The refugees admitted the loss 
of four killed and eight wounded.^ Among the latter were 
George and Absalom Bull, residents of the immediate neighbor- 
hood. General Wayne was chagrined at his failure, and on wit- 
nessing the slaughter of his men, shed tears. Washington deeply 
regretted the misfortune, and hastened to explain away the bad 
effect which the failure of the attack upon the Block-House 
might have upon Congress. Among other things he said, 
" Wayne for some time tried the eflfect of his field-pieces upon 
it, but though the fire was kept up for an hour, they were found 
too light to penetrate the logs of which it was constructed. 
The troops during this time being galled hf a constant fire from 
the loop-holes of the house, and seeing no chance of making a 
breach with cannon, those of the first and second regiments — 
notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the oflEicers to restrain 
them — rushed through the abattis to the foot of the stockade, 
with a view of forcing an entrance, which was found impractica- 
l)le. This act of intemperate valor was the cause of the loss we 

* Tradition sajs when the attacking party withdrew the tories had but one 
round of ammunition left. 
2 8par/:s' Wnshiugton,vn., 116. ■^Eivington's Gazette, July 23, 1780. 


sustained, and which amounted in the whole to 3 officers 
wounded, 15 non-commissioned officers and privates killed, and 
46 non-commissioned officers and privates wounded." 

To add a keener pang to the mortification of failure, the 
enemy indulged in great exultation. Sir Henry Clinton com- 
plimented the refugees in the following terms : 

"Sir: The Commander-in-chief, admiring the gallantry of the 
Refugees, who in such small numbers defended their post against 
so very considerable a corps, and withstood both their cannonade 
and assault, desires his very particulai- acknowledgment of their 
merit may be testified to them. 

" His Excellency requests that you will give in a return of the 
numbers present at this spirited defence, that he may give direc- 
tions for uniform, clothing and hats being given them from the 
Inspector General's office. 

" In future your requisition of ammunition will be valid with 
the Ordinance. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" Sir, your most obedient 
" and most humble servant, 

" John Andke, D. A. D."^ 

The following sarcastic suggestion appeared in print : 

" A lady presents her compliments to the Sir Clement of the 
Philadelphia Ball Room, and desires the next country dances 
may commence with a new movement, called, 


woodcutter's triumph ; 

in compliment to a certain General, who (emulating his brother 
Arnold) was lately checked on the North River, by a malheii- 
rense event, and his glories (now on the Wane) threatened with 
an insuperable mortification."- 

' Rimrtgton's Gazette, July 22, 17S0. - Thkl,July 28, 1780. 


Even the King of Great Britain sang the praises of the block- 
house defenders in the following strains : 

" The very extraordinary instance of courage shown by the 
Loyal Kefugees, in the affair of Bull's Ferry, of which you make 
such honorable mention, is a pleasing proof of the spirit and res- 
olution with which men in their circumstances will act against 
their oppressors, and how great advantages the King's troops 
may derive from employing those of approved fidelity. And his 
Majesty, to encourage such exertions, commands me to desire that 
you will acquaint the survivors of the brave Seventy that their 
behavior is approved of by their Sovereign,"^ 

The expedition was very neatly caricatured in a mock heroic 
poem written by Major Andre, on the model of Chevy Chase. 
The whole is in three cantos. The first was published in Riv- 
ington's Gazette^ August 16, 1780 ; the second, August 30, 
and the third, September 23. The last canto was sent to the 
paper the day before Andre left New York to meet Arnold, and 
published the very day he was captured at Tarry town. Its com- 
position may have been suggested by the fact that x\ndre had 
boarded with John Thompson, the Wood-cutting Agent at New 
York. It was written at headquarters, number one Broadway, 
except the first canto, which was written at Elizabeth-Town. Its 
title was " The Cow Chase, in three Cantos ; Published on oc- 
casion of the Rebel General Wayne's attack of the Refugees' 
Block-house on Hudson's River, on Friday, the 21st of July, 
1780." The following is an exact copy of the poem as it ap- 
peared in the Gazette : 

Rimngton's Gazette, Dec. 13, 1780. 

Andre's oow chase. 171 

Elizabetii-Town, Ai((/. 1, 1780. 


Jtfajo?' Andre. 

Canto I. 

To drive the Kine one summer's morn, 

Tlie Tanner^ took his way, 
The Calf shall rue that is unborn 

The jumbling of that day. 

And Wayne descending Steers shall know, 

And tauntingly deride, 
And call to mind in ev'ry Low, 

The tanning of his hide. 

Yet Bergen Cows shall ruminate 

Unconscious in the stall, 
What mighty means were used to get, 

And lose them after all. 

For many Heroes bold and brave 
From ]^ew-Bridge and Tapaan 

And those that drink Passaick's wave, 
And those that eat Soupaan,^ 

' Wayne's occupation. 

'■' An Indian disli of ground corn boiled in water — written sapaen. Irving 
says : "The Van Brummels were the first inventors of suppavvn, or musli and 
milk." It has had many names. 

" Thee the soft natious round the warm Levant 
Polan/a call ; the French, of course, Polan/e. 
E'en in thy native regions how I blush 
To hear the Pennsylvanians call thee MmhT'' 

—Harper's Magaziiu., Jrtly, 185«j, 145. 
Modern fastidiousness dubs it hasty pudding ! 


And Sons of distant Delaware 

And still remoter Shannon/ 
And Major Lee with Horses rare, 

And Proctor with his cannon. 

AH wond'rons proud in arms tliej came 

What hero could refuse ? 
To tread the rugged ])ath to fame 

Who had a pair of shoes. 

At six the Host with sweating buff, 

Arriv'd at Freedom's Pole,'- 
When Wayne who thought he'd time enough 

Thus spechified the whole. 

O ye whom glory doth unite 
Who Freedom's cause espouse 

Whether the wing that's doom'd to %ht 
Or that to drive the cows. 

Ere yet you tempt your further way 

Or into action come, 
Hear soldiers what I have to say 

And take a pint of Rum. 

Intemp'rate valor then will string, 

Each nervous arm the better 
So all the land shall TO sing 

And read the Gen'ral's letter.^ 

' The number of Irish in the Pennsylvania line often caused it to be called 
the line of Ireland. 

'-' Liberty Pole, a small hamlet, now the beautiful village of Englewood, 
where stood a hickory pole. 

•' The letter here referred to is probably the same printed in Almon's liemem- 
brancer,x., 290. It is from Washington to the President of Congress, July 36, 
1780. After narrating the story of the expedition, the failure of the attack on 
tlie block-house by reason of the cannon being " too light to penetrate the logs 
of which it was constructed," and the " intemperate valor" of the men causing 
such great loss to themselves, he concludes : " I have been thus particular lest 
the account of this affair should have reached Philadelphia much exaggerated, 
as is commonly the case upon such occasions." Supra. 



Know tliat some paltry Refugees 

Whom I've a mind to fight, 
Are playing IT — 1 amongst the trees, 

That grow on yonder height,^ 

Their Fort and Block-Houses we'll level, 

And deal a horrid slaughter ; 
We'll drive the Scoundrels to the Devil, 

And ravish wife and daughter. 

I under cover of tli' attack 

Whilst you are all at blows, 
From English jSTeighb'rhood and Tinack 

Will drive away the Cows. 

For well you know the latter is 

The serious operation 
And fighting with the Eefugees 

Is only demonstration. 

' More truth than poetry, for to such an extent did the woodcutters play 
" h — 1 anion^ the trees" in this county that, it is said, from Bull's Ferry to Ber- 
gen Point, they did not leave a stick large enough for a whipstock. At one 
time the growth of timber on the ridge was fine and heavy. In the early days 
iS'ew York city depended upon our forests for the defence of the city. When 
C'ornbury feared the approach of the French, he wrote as follows : 

" New York, May the ICth, 1700. 
•' Gentlemen : 

" Having had intelligence lately from the West Indies that a French Squad- 
ron of Men-of-Warr, with Land forces on board them, intend to attack this place, 
I am taking the best methods I can to put the place into a posture of defence, 
for which purpose I shall want a considerable number of Stockades, and being 
informed that there are a great number of trees growing upon bergen point fit 
for that purpose, I send this therefore to desire that you will allow some per- 
sons who shall be sent from hence to cut the Stockades we want, and likewise 
that some of your people may help with their Carts to bring them to the water 
side, for which they shall be paid. 
" I am, 

" Gentlemen, 

" Your assured friend, 


" To the Inhabitants of the Town of Bergen, in the Eastern Division > f New 
Jersey." — Proc. of N. J. Ilist. Soc, L, 124. 

174 nisTOKY or iiudson county. 

His daring words from all the crowd 
Such great applause did gain 

That every man declar'd aloud 
For serious work with Wayne. 

Then from tlie cask of Rum once more 

They took a heady jill. 
When one and all they loudl}' swore 

They'd fight upon the hill. 

But here — the Muse has not a strain 
Befitting such great deeds, 

Huzza they cried, huzza for Wayne 
And shouting — did their Needs. 

Canto II. 

Near his meridian pomp, the Sun 
Had journey'd from the horz'n. 

When tierce the dusky Tribe mov'd on 
Of Heroes drunk as poison. 

The sounds confus'd of boasting Oaths, 

Re-echoed thro' the Wood, 
Some vow'd to sleep in dead Men's Cloaths, 

And some to swim in blood. 

x\t Irvine's Nod, 'twas fine to see, 

The left prepare to fight, 
The while the Drovers, Wayne and Lee, 

Drew off' upon the Right. 

Which Irvine 'twas. Fame don't relate. 

Nor can the Muse assist her. 
Whether 'twas he that cocks a Hat, 

Or he that jxives a Glister. 


For greatly one was signaliz'd, 

That fought at Ohesniit-IIil], 
And Canada immortaliz'd, 

The Tender of the Pill. 

Yet the Attendance upon Proctor, 

They both might have to boagt of; 
For there was Business for the Doctor, 

And hatts to be disposed of.^ 

Let none uncandidly infer, 

That Stirling wanted Spunk, 
The self-made Peer had sure been there. 

But that the Peer was drunk. 

But turn we to the Hudson's Banks, 

Where stood the modest Train, 
With Purpose firm, tho' slender Ranks, 

Nor ear'd a Pin for Wayne. 

For then the unrelenting Hand 

Of rebel Fury drove. 
And tore from ev'ry genial Band, 

Of Friendship and of Love. 

And some within a Dungeon's Gloom, 

By mock Tribunals laid, 
Had waited long a cruel Doom, 

Impending o'er their heads. 

Here one bewails a Brother's Fate, 

There one a Sire demands. 
Cut off alas ! before their Date 

By ignominious Hand. 

x\nd silver'd Grandsires here appear'd. 

In deep Distress serene. 
Of reverend Manners that declared. 

The better days they'd seen. 

One of the Irvines was a liatter, the other a physician. Dr. Wm. Irvine, 


Oh ciirs'd Rebellion these are thine, 
Thine are these Tales of Woe, 

Shall at thy dire insatiate Shrine 
Blood never cease to How i 

And now the Foe began to lead. 
His Forces to th' Attack ; 

Ball whistling unto balls succeed, 
And make the Block-House crack. 

No shot could pass, if you will take 
The Gen'ral's Word for true ; 

But 'tis a d — ble Mistake, 
For every Shot went thro'.^ 

The Hrnier as the Rebels pressed. 
The royal Heroes stand ; 

Virtue had nerv'd each honest Ih-east, 
And Industry each Hand, 

" In Valour's Rhrenzy,"' Hamilton 

" Rode like a Soldier big, 
" And Secretary Harrison, 

"AVith Pen stuck in his Wi^." 

aftor two years' captivity iu Canada, now commanded the Second Pennsylvania 
Regiment. He died August 2, 1804. Brigadier James Irvine, of tlie militia. 
was taken prisoner at Chestnut Hill, near Germantown, in December, 1777. 

' Wayne attributed his failure to the lightness of his guns, which he thought 
made no impression on the walls of the house. In this lit^ was mistalven. 
Sparks' Washington, vii., 117. 

-' Vide Lee's trial. " When General Washington asked me if I would remain 
in front and retain the command, or he should take it, and I had answered that 
I undoubtedly would, and that he would see that I myself should be of the last 
to leave the field ; Colonel Hamilton, flourishing his sword, immediately ex- 
claimed : 'That's right, my dear General, and I will stay, and we will all die 
here in this spot.' * * * I could not but be surprised at his expression, 
but observing him much flustered and in a sort of phremy of valor, I calmly 
requested him," &e., &c. Harrison, mentioned in this verse, had met Andn' at 

Andre's cow chase. 177 

" But lest the Chieftain Washington, 
" Should mourn them in the Mumps/ 

" The Fate of Withrington to shun, 
" They fought behind the Stumps."^ 

But ah, Thadaeus Posset, why 

Should thy Poor Soul elope. 
And why should Titus Hooper^ die. 

Ah die — without a rope. 

Apostate Murphy, thou to whom 

Fair Shela ne'er was cruel, 
In death, shaVt hear her mourn thy Doom, 

Auch wou'd you die, my Jewel ?* 

' A disorder prevalent ia the Americaa lines. 

'-' For Witherington needs must I wayle. 
As one in doleful dumps ; 
For when his leggs were smitten off 
He fought upon his stumps. 

The battle of Chevy Chase, or Otterbourne, on the borders of Scotland, was 
fought August 5, 1388, between the families of Percy and Douglass. The song 
was probably written much after that time, though long before 1588, as Hearne 
supposes. In the old copy of the ballad the lines run thus : 

For Wetharryngton my harte was wo 

That ever he slayne shulde be. 
For when both his leggis weare liewyne in to 

He knyled and fought upon his kne. 

' This name should be written Hopper. His house was at Wagraw, above 
Aquackanonck, on the east side of the Passaic, near Hopper's mill. He was a 
miller, and the tories under John Van de Roder, a neiglibor, one niglit took 
possession of the mill. Hopper's wife, hearing the noise, awoke her husband, 
and told him that some persons were in the mill. He arose, went to the door 
and demanded to know who was there, and was shot through the hand. They 
then rushed into the house, seized him, and compelled his wife to hold a candle 
while they thrust nineteen bayonets into him. At the time of this cruel murder 
Van de Roder exclaimed, " This is for an old grudge." 

■* Vide Irish song, " Smollett's Rehearsal." 


Thee Nathan Pumpkin I lament, 

Of melancholy Fate, 
The Grey Goose stolen as he went, 

In his Heart's Blood was wet.^ 

Now as the Fight was further fought, 

And Balls began to thicken, 
The Fray assum'd, the Gen'ral's thought, 

The Colour of a licking. 

Yet undismay'd the Chiefs Command, 

And, to redeem the Day, 
Cry, Soldiers charge ! they hear, they stand, 

They turn and run away. 

Canto III. 

Not all delights the bloody spear, 

Or horrid din of battle. 
There are, I'm sure, who'd like to hear 

A word about the Cattle. 

The ( 'hief whom we beheld of late, 
Near Schralenberg haranguing, 

At Yan Yan Poop's^ unconscious sat, 
Of Irving's hearty banging. 

Whilst valiant Lee, with courage wild. 

Most bravely did oppose 
The tears of woman and of child. 

Who begg'd he'd leave the Cows. 

'Against Sir Hugh Montgomery 

So right tlie shaft he sett, 
The gray goose wing that was thereon 
In liis lieart's hlood was wett. 
■•' He kept a dram-shop. 

andke's cow chase. 179 

But Wayne, of sympathizing heart, 

Required a relief 
!Not all the blessings could impart 

Of battle or of beef ; 

For now a prey to female charms, 

His soul took more delight in 
A lovely Hamadryad's^ arms. 

Than cow driving or fighting : 

A nymph, the Eetugees had drove 

Far from her native tree, 
Just happen'd to be on the move. 

When up came Wayne and Lee. 

She in mad Anthony's fierce eye 

The hero saw pourtray'd, 
And all in tears she took him by 

The bridle of his Jade. 

Hear, said the nymph, O great Commander! 

No human lamentations ; 
The trees you see them cutting yonder 

Are all my near relations, 

And I, forlorn ! implore thine aid. 

To free the sacred grove ; 
So shall thy prowess be repaid 

With an immortal's love. 

Now some, to prove she was a Goddess, 

Said this enchanting Fair 
Had late retired from the Bodies^ 

In all the pomp of war ; 

' A deity of thu woods. 

2 A cant appellation given among the soldiery to tlic corps that had the honor 
to guard his majesty's person. 


That drums and merry fifes had play'd 

To honour her retreat, 
And Cunningham^ himself convey'd 

The lady thro' the street. 

Great Wayne, by soft compassion sway'd, 

To no inquiry stoops, 
But takes the fair afflicted maid 

Rigid into Yan Yan Poop's. 

So Roman Anthony, they say, 
Disgrac'd th' imperial banner, 

And for a gipsy lost a day. 
Like Anthony the Tanner. 

The Hamadryad had but half 
Received redress from Wayne, 

When drums and Colours cow and calf, 
Came down the road amain. 

All in a cloud of dust were seen 
The sheep, the horse, the goat. 

The gentle heifer, ass obscene ; 
The Yearling and the shoat, 

The pack-horses with fowls came by, 

Befeather'd on each side, 
Like Pegasus, the horse that I 

And other poets ride. 

Sublime upon his stirrups rose 

The mighty Lee behind. 
And drove the terror-smitten cows, 

Like chaff before the wind. 

But sudden see the woods above 

Pour down another corps, 
All belter skelter in a drove, 

Like that I suno; before. 

Cunninghaiu was Provost-Marshal in New York. 

Andre's cow chase. 181 

Irving and terror in the van, 

Came flying all abroad, 
And cannon, colours, horse and man 

Ran tumbling to the road. 

Still as he fled, 'twas Irving's cry, 

And his example too, 
" Run on, my merry men all — For why ? " 

The shot will not go thro'.^ 

As when two kennels in the street, 

Swell'd with a recent rain. 
In gushing streams together meet, 

And seek the neighbouring drain, 

So meet these dung-born tribes^ in one. 

As swift in their career, 
And so to Newbridge they ran on, — 

But all the cows got clear. 

Poor Parson Caldwell,^ all in wonder. 

Saw the returning train. 
And mourn'd to Wayne the lack of plunder. 

For them to steal again. 

' Five Eef ugees ('tis true) were found 
Stiff on the block-house floor. 
But then 'tis thought the shot went round ' 

And in at the back door. 
'-' Under Andre's signature to a MS. copy of "The Cow Chase " are endorsed 

tliese lines : 

" When the epic strain was sung 
The poet by the neck was hung, 
And to his cost he finds too late 
The dung-born tribes decide his fate." 

■ Kev. James Caldwell, of New Jersey. His wife was shot by one of Kuyj)- 
hausen'smen. When Knyphausen made his excursion to Springfield, Mr. C. 
collected the hymn books of his church for wadding. " Put a little Watts into 
them," said he to the soldiers. He was shot by James Morgan, one of the 
twelve months men, at Elizabethtown Point, on the 24th of November, 1781 
He had gone down to the Point to meet a Miss Murray, who had come u]) from 
New York. He had placed her in his carriage, and returned to the boat for a 


For 'twas liis right to seize the spoil, and 

To share with each commander 
As he had done at Staten Island 

With frost-bit Alexander.^ 

In his dismay the frantic priest 

Began to grow prophetic, 
You had swore, to see his lab'ring breast, 

He'd taken an emetic. 

I view a future day, said he, 

Brighter than this day dark is, 
And you shall see what you shall see. 

Ha ! ha ! one pretty Marquis f 

And he shall come to Paulus Hook, 
And great atchievements think on, 

And make a bow and take a look, 
Like Satan over Lincoln. 

And all the land around shall glory 

To see the Frenchman caper, 
And pretty Susan tell the story 

In the next Chatham paper.'^ 

parcel containing tea, pins and mustard, when the shooting occurred. Morgan 
was not on duty at the time, and was supposed to have been bribed to do 
the act. He had previously threatened to " i)op him over." Morgan was ar- 
rested and handed over to the civil authorities. The coroner's jury rendered a 
verdict against him, and he was committed by Mayor Isaac Woodruff, of Eliza- 
bethtown. He was tried at Westfield, in the January term, 1782, John Cleves 
Symmes, presiding Judge, found guilty, and executed by Noah Marsh, sheriflF 
of Essex county, January 39, 1782. The trial was had in the church, and Col- 
onel De Hart, of Morristown, was assigned to defend him. 

' Lord Sterling. He led a foray into Staten Island, in January, 1780. in 
which 500 of his men were frost-bitten. 

' La Fayette. 

^ The NeiD Jersey Gazette was published at that place during the war. Su- 
sannah, the daughter of Gov. Livingston, wrote occasionally for that paper. She 
married John Cleaves Symmes, and became the mother of President Harrison's 


This solemn prophecy, of course, 

Gave all much consolation, 
Except to Wayne, who lost his horse 

Upon the great occasion. 

His horse that carried all his prog, 

His military speeches, 
His corn-stalk whiskey for his grog, 

Blue stockings, and brown breeches. 

And now I've clos'd my epic strain, 

I tremble as I show it. 
Lest this same warrio-drover, Wayne, 

Should ever catch the poet. 

In the following November the Block-house at Bull's Ferry 
was deserted, and its tory inmates went to Fort Delancey on 
Bergen I^eck.^ But the wood cutters did not cease their work. 
A good story is told of Garret Vreeland, who had a fine growth 
of timber where the New York Bay Cemetery now is. In this 
the wood-cutters were fiercely at work. One day he went to 
New York and obtained an order from the proper authorities, 
that no more of his trees should be cut. This order was duly 
presented to a burly knight of the axe, just as he was about 
felling a stately white oak. He leaned upon his helve, looked 
at the order and then at the tree. He was obliged to obey the 
one, yet greatly coveted the other. " Well," said he, " we can't 
cut any more, that's sure, but we can girdle them and get tlirm 
ready for next year ! " And so he did. 

On the 2-ith of August, 1780, the light camp, under command 
of La Fayette, marched from the vicinity of Fort Lee down the 
road toward Bergen. About one o'clock the next morning they 
arrived near the town, where they halted, and threw out pickets 
and patrols. Colonel Stuart, with his regiment, took post within 
musket shot of Paulus Iloeck, In the morning the whole camp 
was on the brow of the hill, east of the town, in full view of the 

' Rivington's Gazette, Nov. 25, 178"). 


enemy .^ The infantry spent tlie whole of that day in foraging, 
as low down as Bei-gen Point. Here they wei-e fired npon by 
the enemy on Staten Island. But they nnconcernedly loaded 
their wagons with grain, and drove off the cattle. The people, 
who w^ere thus deprived of their property, received therefor cer- 
tificates, which might " procure for them, at some future day, 
compensation." Besides this, they were reminded that they had 
" contributed heretofore very little to the support of this war, 
and that what was taken '" * * "' does not amount to the value 
of their taxes, * * " * * which they could have paid in 
no other manner, owing to their particular situation." But the 
party did not confine themselves to foraging for the use of the 
army. They used the occasion to pilfer from the people. For 
this one of the soldiers was hung. This bold appearance, in 
sight of the enemy, was considered by the Americans as an oflfer 
of battle to the enemy, and they taunted him for not accepting 
it. 'MYe have done the same thing, precisely, as a man in 
private life who has been injured, and who twits the fellow^ by 
the nose, or shakes a cudgel over his shoulders, who abused him. 
Clinton has behaved like the fellow who quietly submits to the 

The following jeii (resj^rit, supposed to have been written 
by Susannah Livingston, daughter of the Governor, shortly after- 
ward appeared. It refers to this ex})edition of La Fayette, and 
is a fair ofifeet to Andre's '* Cow Chase" : 

" To THE Printek. 

" As the inclosed letter, which was intercepted coming from 
New York, may possibly entertain some of your readers, it is 
sent to you for publication. The writer will perceive that 
proper care has been taken to conceal her name. I have only to 
ask the lady's pardon for the few comments that are added. 
—August 30, 1780." 

' The exact position was on the hill, immediately over the Jersey City cem- 
etery, and around the " oude boom," or old tree, which stood between Magnolia 
avenue and Henry street. This tree was cut down Dec. 20, 1871. 

- N. J. Gazette, 8ept. G, 1780. 


" New York, August 27, 1780. 

'' We've almost, sweet sister, been frightened to death, 
Nor have we, as yet, quite recovered our l^reath. 
An Army of rebels came down t'other night, 
Expecting no doubt that the British would fight. 
Next morning we saw them parade at the Hook,^ 
And thought, to be sure, this was too much to brook ; 
That soon M'ould the river be crowded with boats. 
With Hessian and English, to cut all their throats : 
So we dress'd in high taste to see them embark, 
Not thinking Sir Harry would go in the dark ; 
To light a retreat, as seen in his letter,'' 
He once used the moon — for want of a better ; 
Much less, ha vino; sworn, that the rel)els he'd maul. 
Could it enter our heads, — lieM not go at all. 
Tho' now I think on't, ere since Greene beat old Kny}),^ 
Not one of his heroes have opened a lip. 
Except to abuse them for lighting so well 
With Greene at their head — to find quarters in h — 11. 
— Ah I Tabitha, these men can swear with such grace, 
One can't be offended, tho' done to one's face. 
All day I was hurried without knowing why. 
Each moment expecting to see them yjass by. 
The officers bowing, the drums in a clatter, 
Their heads rising up, like ducks out of water. 
Then glancing on me with a passionate air. 
Turn round to their men A: most charmingly swear. 
But why should they thus our soft bosoms alarm. 
Should they do like their masters — where is the harm ? 

' Paul us Hoeck. 

■' The battle of Monraoutli, where Sir Harry Clinton says that he took advan- 
tage of the moon. I suppose that is what the lady alludes to. It may be well 
enough, however, to set her right by saying that he did not begin his n^treat 
till the moon had gone down, which, vulgarly speaking, was really to take ad- 
vantage of the moon. 

■' Knyjjhausen, commander of the Hessians at the battle of Springfield, near 
Newark, June 23, 1780. 


But this was all vision, Tabitha, to nie, 

Not an officer came, so mncli as to tea. 

The Major himself, who has always some story 

To lessen the worth of American glory. 

Or ashamed to be seen, or else of tlie day. 

Would not venture to cross me, tho' just in the way ; 

But stopp'd, like one shot at, then whisked up a lane 

I'm sure the poor man felt a great deal of pain. 

At length came the night, overloaded with fears. 

And shew'd us on what we had leaned for five years. 

The men who had wished for occasions for blows, 

Now snifered themselves to be pulled by the nose. 

Sir Harry it seems, was more sullen than ever, 

And Andre complain'd of much bile on the liver. 

The Generals all met, as grave as magicians, 

The magii of law, or the sagest physicians : 

But all that was done, tho' they sat till near night, 

Was to keep at their bottle — and not go to fight. 

Pray tell me, what think you of these men in York, 
Who formerly cross'd like a bit of dry cork. 
When nothing was near but a regiment or troop, 
As easily drove as a boy drives a hoop ; 
But when that the rebels come close to their eyes, 
Pretend not to see them, tho' thicker than flies ; 
Let Washington's army do just what they please. 
While they in their cholic, would seem at their ease. 
For my part, dear sister, I hate all conceit. 
You know I love somethins; that's solid to eat. 

Seest thou, my good sister, where you are, these rogues, 
Who fight us to death, without stockings or brogues, 
They say a French Marquis commands, my dear girl. 
Is it not the same, would have cudgeled an Earl ?' 

' Lord Carlisle. 


But stop with this clatter, what, what do I say ? 
Here's news tliat the rebels have all gone away ; 
At least they have march'd to a place called Fort Lee, 
Twelve miles from the Major, and twelve miles from me.^ 

From the time that Major Andre was captured (Sept. 23) un- 
til he was executed (Oct, 1), Washington was anxious to spare 
his life. This could not be done, however, without some suita- 
ble substitute. The people were clamorous ; but he thought if 
he could secure Arnold, and offer liim as a sacrifice, the people 
would be satisfied. He devised a plan to sound the British Gen- 
eral as to his willingness to exchange Arnold for Andre. 

After the conviction of Andre, Washington sent to Sir Henry 
Clinton a letter, stating the finding of the court, together with a 
letter from the prisoner. Captain Aaron Ogden,^ a worthy ofii- 
cer of the New Jersey line, was selected to bear these dispatches 
to the enemy's post at Paulus Hoeck. He was requested to call 
on the Marquis de La Fayette before his departure. The Mar- 
quis instructed him to sound the commanding officer at that 

post (who was Ayres) whether Sir Henry Clinton might 

not be willing to deliver up Arnold in exchange for Andre. 
Ogden arrived at Paulus Hoeck on the same evening, September 
30, and made the suggestion as if accidentally, in the course of 
conversation with the officer. He was immediately asked if 
he had any authority from Washington for such an intimation. 
'' I have no such assurance from General Washington," he re- 
plied, " but I am prepared to say that if such a proposition were 
made, I believe it would be accepted, and Major Andre set at 
liberty." Full of hope, the officer crossed the river during the 
night and communicated the matter to Clinton ; but the proposi- 

' N. J. Gazette, Sept. 6, 1780. 

■^ Subsequently Governor of New Jersey. He was the father of the late; Judge 
E. B. D. Ogden, who for a number of years presided at the Circuit Court in this 
county, and the grandfather of Frederick B. Ogden, now of Hoboken. 


tion was instantly rejected as incompatible with honor and mili- 
tary principle.^ 

After Andre's execution Washington matured a plan to seize 
the person of Arnold and bring him to the Jersey shore. The 
object was twofold ; firnt^ to bring the traitor to punishment, 
and second, to clear up suspicions of treachery wliich rested on 
one of his generals.^ 

To get a man to carry out the delicate and dangerous enter- 
prise, Major Lee suggested the name of John Champe, of Lou- 
don County, Virginia, a sergeant-major in his command, full 
of bone and muscle, with a saturnine countenance, grave and 
thoughtful, full of courage and perseverance. AYashington was 
pleased with the qualifications of the man, and intimated that he 
should be amply rewarded. The Major pictured to Champe the 
consequences of success ; that he would be hailed as the avenger 
of the people, and would bring to light new guilt, or relieve the 
innocent, (^hampe's objections being finally overcome by the 
arguments of Major Lee, he entered into the enterprise, on condi- 
tion that he should be protected if unfortunate in the attempt. 

The first difficulty which lay before him was a successful de- 
sertion. The patrols in the vicinity were numerous, and occa- 
sionally extended southward beyond the Liberty Pole. Besides 
these there were many irregulars, who sometimes scouted after 
booty as far south as Paul us Hoeck. To make his desertion aj)- 
parently genuine, he could not receive any noticeable assistance. 
The only thing which Major Lee could })romise was, in case his 
departure- should be discovered before morning, to delay pursuit 
as long as practicable. 

It was now nearly eleven o'clock in the evening of October 
2(», 1780. His course would be devious, in order to avoid the pa- 
trols, and, comparing his watch with Major Lee's, he begged him 
to delay pursuit, which he was convinced would take place. The 
Sergeant returned to camp from his interview with Major Lee, 
took his cloak, valise and orderly book, drew his horse from the 
picket, and mounting him, pushed out into the darkness, trusthig 

^Irving's Washington, iv., 148. " St. Clair. 

jouN ciiampe's desertion. 189 

to fortune. Within half an hour Captain Carnes informed 
Major Lee that one of his patrol had fallen in with a dragoon, 
who, being challenged, put spurs to his liorse and escaped. Lee 
pretended not to understand what had been said, and the cap- 
tain was obliged to repeat it. " Who can the fellow be ? " said 
the Major ; " a countryman probably." " No," replied the cap- 
tain, " a dragoon sure; probably one from the army, if not one 
of our own." Lee ridiculed the idea as quite impossible; for 
during the whole war but one dragoon had deserted from the 
legion. The captain withdrew and assembled his squadron. 
He soon returned. The scoundrel was known, and he was none 
other than the sergeant-major, who had left with his horse, bag- 
gage, arms and orderly book. The captain ordered a party to 
prepare for pursuit, and then requested the Major's written 
orders. Lee made numerous inquiries and suggestions during the 
captain's remarks. Presently the pursuing party was ready. 
Major Lee directed a change in the commanding officer. He 
would have particular business for the lieutenant in the morn- 
ing. Cornet Middleton must command the party. This caused 
further delay. When the cornet appeared the Major gave him 
instructions : " Pursue so far as you can with safety Sergeant 
Champe, who is suspected of deserting to the enemy, and has 
taken the road leading to Paulus Hoeck. Bring him alive, that 
he may suffer in the presence of the army ; but kill him if he re- 
sists, or escapes after being taken." Detaining the cornet yet a 
few minutes, advising him what course to pursue, enjoining him 
to look for the enemy, he dismissed him and wished him success. 
It was now a few minutes after twelve o'clock, and Champe 
was over an liourin advance. The pursuing party was occasion- 
ally delayed by examining the roads to find the tracks of Champe's 
horse. This was rendered the more easy, as a shower had fallen 
soon after Champe's departure. When the day broke Middleton 
pressed on rapidly. Keaching the summit of the hill north of 
the " Three Pigeons," he saw the fugitive not more than half a 
mile in front. At the same time Champe saw his pursuers. This 
gave new wings to his flight, and a race ensued, like the ride of 
Tarn o' Shanter. From where Union Hill now is there was a. 


sliort route through the woods to the bridge over Mill Creek. 
Here Middleton divided his force, some taking the near cut, 
while the others followed the track of Cliampe. The fugitive 
was not forgetful of the short cut, but avoided it, fearing he might 
meet scouts returning from their nightly expeditions near the 
enemy. Satisfied that Middleton would attempt to intercept his 
flight to Paulus Hoeck, he resolved to flee to the British galleys 
lying in Newark bay, near Brown's ferry. These were there as pa- 
trol boats to protect Bergen Neck. Entering the village of Bergen, 
Charape followed the beaten streets, and took the road leading 
to Brown's ferry. Here Middleton lost track of him, but has- 
tened on to the bridge over Mill Creek at Prior's mill. Reaching 
the bridge, he found that the fugitive had slipped through his 
fingers. Without delay he returned to Bergen, and inquired of 
the villagers if they had seen a dragoon that morning. They had 
seen him, but could not tell with certainty whither he went. 
Middleton then spread his party through the village to find the 
tracks of Champe's horse. They soon found it, and with renewed 
vigor started in pursuit. They descried Champe in the distance, 
and he, with a Parthian look, beheld his pursuers. As he dashed 
on he prepared himself for the final act. He lashed his valise to 
his shoulders and threw away unnecessary iinpediinenta. His 
pursuers were gaining upon him, and by the time he got abreast 
of the galleys were within two or three hundred yards of him. 
Then quickly dismounting, he ran across the meadow, plunged 
into the bay and swam for the boats, calling for help. This was 
readily given. The British fired upon Middleton, and sent a 
boat to meet Champe. Thus he was safely within the enemy's 
lines, and they were fully satisfied of the genuineness of his de- 

Champe enlisted in Arnold's American Legion. He soon dis- 
covered that the suspicions of other ofiicers being connected with 
Arnold's treason were groundless. After much delay and prep- 
aration he sent word to Major Lee to meet him with a party of 
dragoons at Hoboken on a certain night, when he would deliver 
up Arnold. The day named arrived. Lee, with three dragoons 
and three led horses, was at the place appointed. The long. 


anxious hours after midnight came and went, but brought no 
Champe, no Arnold. The plans had miscarried. On the pre- 
ceding day Arnold had moved his headquarters to another part of 
the city. Poor Champe endured many hardships before he could 
return to his old comrades. He finally escaped while serving 
under Lord Cornwallis at Petersburg, Virginia.^ 

In connection with Arnold, it is said that one day Mrs. Tuers, 
of Bergen, while attending market in New York, went into 
" Black Sam's " hotel. Sam, under pledges of secrecy as to the 
source of her information, told her that a conspiracy existed some- 
where in the American camp, for he had overheard the British 
officers talking about it. She told her brother, Cornelius Yan 
Ripen (grandfather of the present Cornelius C.) He went to 
Hackensack and told General Wayne, who sent the information 
to Washington. The General offered to reward Yan Ripen, but 
he said, " l^o, I do not serve my country for money ; but I would 
like, if I am captured, that General Washington would protect 
me." But a few days afterward the treason of Arnold was dis- 

" On Saturday morning last the Refugee Post at Bergen Point, 
under command of Captain Thomas Ward, was attacked by a 
party of rebel infantry and horse, consisting of about 200 men. 
After receiving a smart fire from the artillery and musketry of 
the Refugees, assisted by a cannonade from the gallics, they were 
forced to retreat. 

" On the preceding night, as Captain Frederick Hauser, in the 
Refugee gun-boat, was rowing guard, he met, near Brown's ferry, 
with a detachment of the rebels in five boats, which it seems were 
intended for the purpose of making good a retreat for the above 
mentioned party, in case they should happen to be prevented 
from retreating by the way of Bergen. Upon being hailed and 
refusing to give an account of themselves, Captain Hauser im- 
mediately fired upon them, when two of the boats struck, in 
which were made prisoners four of the Continental light infantry ; 
the others on board had jumped ashore and made their escape. 

^Lee's Memoirs, ii., 159! 


One other boat was sunk, having, it is said, one killed and two 
wounded left on board by the crew who deserted it. 

" Mr. Charles Ilomf ray, with two others and a boy belonging 
to the Refugee party, who had landed some time before the rebels 
were discovered, were taken by some rebel horse ; they were im- 
mediately pinioned, and otherwise cruelly treated, according to 
the usual custom of the rebels, when American Loyalists are so 
unfortunate as to fall in their hands, in which cruelties they 
are likely to persevere until a full and spirited retaliation shall 
take place. 

" An inhabitant of Bergen, named Van Waggener, Mas taken 
by the Refugees on his return from the rebels. He had gone, 
after reconnoitering the Refugee Post, to give intelligence of the 
situation. It is also said that the rebels have carried off Mr. John 
Phillips, a quiet inhabitant, on a suspicion of his having been 
friendly to our people." — J\\ Y. Gazette and Weekly Messenger^ 
Oct. 16, 1780. 

"■ The rebels on Saturday burnt Colonel William Bayard's 
New House and Barn at Castile, on the North end of Hoebuck, 
and destroyed all the forage and timber to be found there to a 
very large amount." — X, Y. Mercury^ -^^^(/- 28, 1780. 

" Generals Washington, La Fayette, Greene and Wayne, with 
many other officers and large bodies of Rebels, have been in the 
vicinity of Bergen for some days past. They have taken all the 
forage from the Inhabitants of that place. Their officers were 
down to Prior's Mill last Friday, but did not seem inclined to 
make any attack." — Same Paper} 

' In one of these visits to Bergen, Washington and La Fayette dined under 
an apple tree in the orchard back of Hartman Van Wageuen's house, close by 
the Bergen Square. This was blown down by the great gale of Sept. 3, 1821. 
A pleasing reference was made to this incident when the Maniuis visited this 
country in 1834. On Thursday, the 23d of September in that year, he landed 
in Jersey City. At Lyon's Hotel he was introduced to Governor Williamson 
and others. Accompanied by a large retinue, he moved on toward Newark. At 
the Five Corners the Bergen people had gathered in large numbers to do him 
honor. He was i)resented with a superb cane, made of the apple tree under 
which he and his chief had dined, elegantly mounted with gold, with this in- 
scription : " Shaded the hero and his friend Washington in 1779 ; presented 


" Four Refugees that went over to Secacus last Saturday took 
three Rebel officers, and brought them to town yesterday morn- 
mg.-'— ;V^. Y.MereAiry, Septic, 1780. 

" All 
" Loyal Refugees 
That are in want of employment, and can bring proper certifi- 
cates of their loyalty, and are willing to enter themselves under 
Captain Thomas Ward, now commanding the important post at 
Bergen Point, will meet with the greatest encouragement, by 
applying to Captain Homfkay at the sign of the Ship, corner of 
Fair Street, Broadway." — Rivingtori's GazeMe^ Dec. 23, 1T80. 

On the 25th of January, 1781, six or seven tories, under com- 
mand of Cornelius Hatfield, and known as Hatfield's party., 
perpetrated a great outrage in the execution of^Stephen Ball, of 
Railway. The unfortunate man had been deluded by a declara- 
tion of Sir Henry Clinton, then on Staten Island, that all per- 
sons who would bring provisions to the Island should have 
liberty to sell the same and return unmolested. Ball carried 
over several quarters of beef, expecting to return undiscovered 
by his neighbors. Soon after landing on the Island, he was 
captured by Hatfield, plundered of his beef, and taken before 
General Patterson. This officer refused to call a court-martial 

by the Corporation of Bergen in 1834." It was accompanied by the following 
address from Dominie Cornelison : 

" General : In behalf of my fellow citizens, I bid you a hearty and cordial 
welcome to the town of Bergen, a place through which you traveled during our 
revolutionary struggles for liberty and independence. Associated with our 
illustrious Washington, your example inspired courage and patriotism in the 
heart of ever}- true American. 

" You, sir, left your abode of ease, affluence and happiness, to endure the 
hardships and privations of the camp. To enumerate your martiaFdeeds is at 
this time unnecessary ; yet they awaken and call forth our warmest gratitude. 
As a tribute of esteem and veneration, permit me, sir, to ask the favor of your 
acceptance of this small token of respect, taken from an apple tree under 
which you once dined, and which once aflforded you a shelter from the piercing 
rays of noonday ; and, although it possesses no healing virtue, may it still be a 
support. And may you, sir, after ending a life of usefulness and piety, be ad- 
mitted into the regions of everlasting joy and felicity." — Sentinel of Freedom, 
Sept. 28, 1824. 



to try him, on the i^round that he had not eomniitted ott'ence. 
He was then taken before General Skinner, who also refused to 
try a man who had brought them relief. Then Hattield held a 
mock trial over him, under the pretence that he had injured one 
of his part3\ The accounts of his treatment previous to execu- 
tion greatly differ. The following account of the whole affair is 
supposed to have been written by the Rev. James Caldwell, " the 
rousing gospel preacher" : 

"Then Iletfield and his party rcbbed Ball of what prop- 
erty he had with him, took him to Bergen Point, and without 
the form even of a trial, immediately told him he had but ten 
minutes to live. Ball urged that he on\y went over with pro- 
visions under the declaration ; and when he found they were 
determined to take his life, he begged for a few minutes longer, 
but his request was refused ; but if he had a desire that any 
person should pray with him, one of their party should officiate. 
When he was near expiring, James Hetfield, one of the banditti, 
put a knife in his hand, and swore that he should not go into 
the other world unarmed. His executioners were, Cornelius 
Hetfield, John Smith Hetfield, Job Hetfield, James Hetfield, 
sen., James Hetfield, jr., Elias Mann and Samuel Mann, all of 
Elizabethtown, (and Job Smith of Secaucus. 

" Ball's father obtained a flag to get the corpse of his son, but 
was not suffered to land. "^ 

The refugees claimed the following to be a true statement of 
the'case, and which, without doubt, should be taken ciwi grano 
sails : 

" He was taken to Bird's Point, and indulged with a fair 
hearing and regular trial before a court-martial, consisting of 
Eleven members appointed for the ])urpose. Without hesitation 
he confessed himself to be a spy, and that he came ovX of the 
rebel lines under Col. Dayton's pass. It also appeared that Ball 
had acted a principal part in the late tragedy of Thomas Long's 
sufferings and death, and that he stripped Long of his boots and 

'N. Y. Packet, March 1, 1781. 


stockings, when he was wounded. Ball took paper steeped in 
spirits, and dressed tlie w^onnds and then set the paper on fire. 
Long was then driven a long distance (his toes having been 
crushed with the butt end of a musket), put into a hog pen and 
fed on corn. He was then put to death by Ball and others, as a 
spy. Upon this state of facts lie was condemned and executed 
as a spy.''^ 

He is said to have been hung on a small persimmon tree near 
the tide mill on Constapel's Hoeck. After his deatli the rope 
was cut and he fell into his grave. His remains were afterward 
removed to Newark. 

At the close of the war, Cornelius Hatfield tied to Nova 
Scotia. In 1807, he returned, and was arrested for the crime. 
He was brought before Judge Pennington on Habeas Corpus^ 
and discharged on the 13th of October, 1807, on the ground that, 
by virtue of the sixth article of the treaty of 1783, he was not 

" A party of rebels came to, and plundered Bergen last 
Friday."— iv^. Y. Mercury, Ajyril 2, 1781. 

" Last Friday night a party went from Newark and captured 
two sloops lying near the Refugee Post on Bergen shore, out of 
which they took 8 prisoners, who were sent to Morristown." — 
iV. Y. Packet, Aug. 30, 1781. 

" On the 21st of August, 1780, Captain William Harding with 
about 40 men of the Refugee post on Bergen Neck, went out as 
far as Newark, and took four prisoners and about 30 cattle, 
which he brought to Fort De Lancey." — Rlvington-s Gazette, 
No. 511. 

" Last Wednesday night a party of Ward's plunderers from 
Bergen Neck, came to the Neighborhood of Hackensack, where 
they collected a number of cattle, which the inhabitants retook, 

' N. Y. Mercury, March 5, 1781. The probability is strong that there is not 
a word of truth in this attempted justification. Long was a New Jersey tory, 
who was put to death in 1779. 

° Centinel of Freedom, Oct. 27, 1807. Counsel for the prisoner, Col. Ogden, 
Mr. Chetwood and I. H. Williamson ; for the prosecution, Messrs. McWhorter, 
Van Arsdale and Halsev. 


and killed and wounded several of the miscreants." — 3\ J. 
Journal^ Sept. 5, 1781. 

" On Wednesday evening last a party of eleven men under 
Captain William Harding went from Fort De Lancey on Bergen 
Neck to Closter, and captured a Rebel Guard of six men, and 
fifteen cattle, and took them safely to the Fort." — N. Y. Mer- 
cury, Sept. 17, 1781. 

In September, 1781, Prince William Henry, the third son of 
George III., afterward William lY., then a midshipman under 
Admiral Digby, arrived in New York. Among the British and 
tories he was the lion of the day. The Refugees on Bergen 
Neck, on the first of October, laid at his feet the following sub- 
missive address : 

" To His Roy AL Highness Prince AVilliam Henry. 

" We, his Majesty's dutiful and Loyal Subjects, the Refugees 
stationed on Bergen Neck, beg leave to address your Royal 
Highness (through thie channel of our commanding officer) on 
your safe arrival in America. It is impossible for us to express 
the satisfaction, that is visible in the face of every individual, 
belonging to our small party, at so distinguished an honor, paid 
to the loyal inhabitants of this continent, by the arrival of so 
amiable and distinguished a character as the son of our Royal 

" The measures pursued by a designing, base set of men, early 
in this unnatural contest, obliged us to leave our habitations, and 
fly for safety to his Majesty's troops ; since which we have let 
our persecutors (who meant our destruction) feel the effects of 
our resentment ; and convinced them that we contended for 
that, which every man at the risk of his life ought to defend. 

" Therefore we flatter ourselves that your Royal Highness is 
convinced of our sincerity, of our attachment to their Majesties, 
and the Royal Progeny ; (which we are always ready to give 
fresh proofs of,) praying for that day when rebellion may be 
crushed, and peace established throughout this continent, and 
his Majesty's Standard displayed triumphant by land and sea. 
May Heaven protect your Royal Plighness in time of danger. 


and permit you to return crowned with the laurels of victory to 

your Royal Parents. 

" Fort De Lanceij on Bergen Necli^ \st Octoher, 1Y81." 

This address was presented to the Prince by Major Tom Ward 
and his officers. Through Admiral Digby, the Prince replied : 

" Commandant's House, 

" JS\-w Tori; Oct. 3, 1Y81. 
" The humble address of his Majesty's dutiful and loyal Sub- 
jects, the Refugees stationed on Bergen I^eck, has been received 
by his Royal Highness. 

" His Royal Highness has seen with pleasure the loyal Senti- 
ments contained in the address, and Rear Admiral Digby will 
take care to make them known to his Majesty. 

" Robert Digby. 
" To the Coinmandlng Officer of the Loyal 
Refugees stationed on Bergen Neckr^ 

" Last Thursday sennight Captain Baker Hendricks with a 
party of men in whale-boats went down Newark Bay near the 
Kills, where he boarded and stripped two wood-boats and took 
one prisoner ; and on Thursday night last, he landed a small 
party of men on Bergen Neck, near the Refugee Post, where he 
took two prisoners ; and on his return took three noted villains.'" 
—N. J. Journal, Dec. 13, 1781. 

" Last Thursday morning a detachment of the Jersey Brigade, 
under Captain Bowmay, who were joined by a party of Militia, 
went across the sound on the ice to the Refugee Post on Bergen 
Neck, where they captured three of the miscreants, one of whom 
was of a sable hue ; they bayonetted the negro, who refused to 
surrender.^ No artifice could induce them to sally out ; therefore 
no other trophies were obtained than those above mentioned." 
—X J. Journal, Feh. 13, 1782. 

The following is a tory account of the same affair : 

' Riviiigton's Gazette, Oct. 6, 1781 . 

- Jasper Zabriskie saw this negro three days afterward going over the river to 
New York, apparently all right. 


" On Thursday morning Lefore sunrise, two hundred Rebels 
from a New Jersey Brigade, attacked Fort De Lancey, com- 
manded by Major Ward. They liad meditated tlio attack for 
some time and \iiy for two nights upon their arms. The ad- 
vanced sentinel, a negro, was bayonetted. They were driven 
off. They then formed in three columns on the ice, were again 
attacked and fled."— X i^ Mercury, Fel. 11, 1782. 

" Fort De Lancey, March 31, 1782. 

" The night of the 29th instant, a party of rebels came down 
from Newark and landed at Bei'gen Neck, took seven prisoners 
who lodged in houses along the shore. The commanding officer 
sent a party to intercept them, and coming to the whale-boat 
almost simultaneously, the party hailed the rebels and were 
iired upon, and at that time not knowing that they had any of 
our men along with them, returned the fire, killed two of our 
own men that were prisoners and wounded two others. One 
rebel was killed and two mortally wounded." — Rivingtonh 
Gazette, No. 573. 

" April 20, 1782. 

"We are informed that it was Lieut. John Buskirk of Lieut. - 
Col. Buskirk's Battalion of the New Jersey volunteers, who went 
from Staten Island to Second River, and at Schuyler's House, 
captured Sir James Jay."^ — Ihid, No. 580. 

About the first of September, 1782, Fort Delancey on Bergen 
Neck was evacuated and burned f and on Saturday, October 5, 
Major Ward with his despised and motley crew of Refugees 
embarked for Nova Scotia, carrying with them implements of 
husbandry, one year's provisions, and the undying hatred of all 
Americans.^ From this time until the close of the war, Paulus 

' A brother of John Jay, and a member of the State Senate of New York. 
•^ N. J. Journal, Sept. 11, 1782. 

^ Ibid, Oct. 9, 1783. The patriots who had suftered at the hands of their tory 
neighbors rejoiced at their exile, and in song sneered at their future home : 

" Nova Scotia, that cold, barren land. 
Where they live upon shell-fish and dig in the sand." 


Hoeck was tlie only foothold which the British had in New 
Jersey. From this point they continued to forage over the 
county and raid into adjacent parts. 

The enemy evacuated Paulns Hoeck on the 22d day of No- 
vember, 1783.^ On the 25tli they evacuated New York, and a 
few days afterward Washington passed through the Hoeck on 
his way to his home at Mount Vernon. Peace once more 
smiled upon an afflicted land. 

^ Irving' s WasJiingto7\ , ii\, 438. 


The Duel (rround at Weeliawken — Duels between Aaron Burr and John B. 
Church — Goerge I. Backer and Price — George I. Eacker and Philip 
Hamilton- — John Langstaff and Oliver Waldron — Augustus Smith and 
Archibald M. Cock — De Witt Clinton and John Swartwout — Richard 
Riker and Robert Swartwout — Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton — 
Isaac Gouverneur and William H. Maxwell — Benjamin Price and 
Major Green — Stephen Price and Captain Wilson — Commodore Perry 
and Captain Heath — William G. Graham and Mr. Barton — Henry Aitken 
and Thomas Sherman. 

Perhaps tlie most interesting spot in the Connty of Hudson, 
around which, in spite of its horrors, fancy loves to linger, is the 
Duel Ground at Weeliawken. Before the iconoclastic hand of 
enterprise had touched it, the whole region round about was 
charming beyond description. Just south of the bloody ground 
was the wild ravine adown which leaped and laughed the Awie- 
haken.^ Immediately above was King's Point, or " Highwood," 
boldly looking down upon the Hudson. From this height still 
opens as fair, as varied, as beautiful a scene as mortal could wish 
to behold. The haze-crowned city, the bright, broad, tranquil 
river ; the long reach of waters down to the IS^arrows and beyond ; 
the vessels at anchor, or flitting around the harbor ; misty, blue 
Staten Island — the Hamels Ilooftden of the Dutch — swelling up 
from the lower bay ; the opposite shore lined with a forest of 
masts, while over and beyond the restless city, sparkles and 
widens the East River. This beautiful but fatal spot, in the 
early part of the century, strangers coming to New York were 
sure to visit. It is now partly destroyed by the construction of 
the Fort Lee Railroad. Its location was two and a half miles 
above Hoboken. The rocks here rise almost perpendicularly 

' This creek took its rise in the swampy ground near Guttenbergh, flowed 
southwardly to Union Hill, thence down to the Hudson. At an early day 
Nicholas Bayard had a mill on this stream. Winfield's Land Titles, 37. 


to one hundred and fifty feet above the river. Under these 
heights, about twenty feet above the water, on a grassy shelf 
about six feet wide, and eleven paces long, reached by an almost 
inaccessible flight of steps, w^as the dark and bloody ground. 
The old cedar which sheltered the plateau when Hamilton fought 
was there until about four years ago. The sandstone boulder 
against which he fell was about the same time removed to the 
top of the hill, where it. now lies. The ground was singularly 
secluded from inquisitive neighbors and meddlesome officials. 
AVith no path leading to it along the river or from the heights, 
its only approach was by boat. About one-third of a mile below 
stood a little tavern, where occasionally the combatants would 
breakfast on their Avay to the ground. In the early part of this 
century CaptajiL^eas owned the property, and resided on the 
hill immediately over the fatal spot. He was a peace man. 
Whenever he scented a duel, he would hurry to the ground, 
rush in between the parties, and by his suaviter in modo or for- 
titer in re^ heal their wounded honor and establish peace. 

An account of some of these duels in their order will be inter- 
esting to the general reader, who, it cannot be doubted, will re- 
gret that the challenged party had not the courage to say of the 
challenger, what Caesar said of Anthony : 

" Let the old ruffian know 
I have many other ways to die." 

Aaron Burr and John B. Church. 

Colonel Burr fought his first duel on the 2d of September, 
1799. There was a bit of scandal afloat throughout the State of 
New York that, for legislative services rendered, the Holland 
Company had canceled a bond held against Burr for $20,000. 
Mr. Church,^ who was a brother-in-law of General Hamilton, 
and sympathized with that eminent man in his dislike of Burr, 
spoke at a private table in Xew York, with much freedom of the 

' Churcli lived in Robinson street, N. Y. The funeral of Hamilton was from 
his house. 


existing rumor, and ayjparent belief in the truth of the charge. 
This was reported to the victim of the slander. 

Condemn the practice of dueling as we may, there are offences 
against personal reputation for which society has not furnished 
a remedy. The good name, dearly earned and prized above 
rubies, may be lost without deserving by the foul breath of the 
l)ackbiter and slanderer ; and where is the remedy ? It is not 
necessary that he render himself open to an action at law ; a 
shrus: of the shoulder is sufficient to start on its career the lie 
that shall bowl down a dozen reputations. Contradict it, do you 
say ? Why, the strongest proof of the total depravity of the 
human race is found in the fact that nine-tenths — is it put too 
high ? — of the communit}^ would believe a lie rather than the 
truth. Let the slander go, say you; it cannot hurt a solid reputa- 
tion. Why, the brighest steel may be tarnished with a breath. 
Upon this subject, one can readily believe that an intelligent 
man might soon argue himself into a belief that dueling, under 
certain circumstances, would not be such a bad thing after all. 
Certainly one effectual method of silencing slanderous tongues 
would be to subject the head in which it rudely wags to the dam - 
aging effects of a well-aimed minie. 

For this slander Burr sought about the only redress which 
such a vile crime affords — he challenged the slanderer. The 
challenge was accepted ; Mr. Hammond acting as the second of 
Mr. Church, and Judge Burke of South Carolina as the second 
of Colonel Burr. The parties, attended by their seconds and a 
surgeon, met on the duel ground at Weehawken on Monday 
evening about sunset. Mr. Parton says that connected with 
this duel was an incident which furnished the town-gossip with 
a joke and a by-word for many a day. Before leaving houje 
Colonel Burr had been particular to explain to his second that 
the balls were cast too small for his pistols, and that chamois 
leather, cut to the proper size, must be greased and put 
around them to make them fit. Leather and grease were put 
in the case with the pistols. After the principals had been 
placed at ten paces apart. Burr noticed his second vainly endeav- 
oring to drive in the ramrod with a stone, and at once suspected 


that tlie grease had been forgotten. A moment after, the pistol 
was handed to liim. With that singular coolness which he was 
wont to exliibit at critical moments, he drew the ramrod, felt 
the hall, and told the judge it was not home. 

" I know it," replied the second, wiping the perspiration from 
his face. " I forgot to grease the leather ; but you see, your 
man is ready; don't keep him waiting. Just take a crack as it 
13, and I'll grease the next." 

At the word, shots were exchanged, \vitliout any other effect 
than that the ball from Mr. Church's pistol passed through 
Burr's coat. The pistols were about being reloaded for a second 
shot, when Mr. Church made an apology which was acceptable 
to Burr's second, whereupon the principals shook hands, and 
returned to the city.^ 

Eaoker and Price — Eacker and Hamilton. 

George I. Eacker was born at Palatine, in the State of New 
York. At the time of the following event he was twenty-seven 
years of age, a promising member of the New York Bar, and in 
politics a sympathizer with Colonel Burr. Price, a friend of 
Mr. Hamilton, is supposed to have been a son of Stephen Price, 
lessee of the Park Theatre. Philip Hamilton was the eldest 
son of Alexander Hamilton, and in the twentieth year of his age. 
On the 4th of July, 1801, Eacker had pronounced an oration in 
the city of New York, which was commended by nearly every- 
body, and would have been by all, only for the party spirit, 
which at that time w^as very bitter, and blinded one to every 
virtue in an opponent. On Friday evening, November 20, 
1801, Mr. Eacker, in company with Miss Livingston and others, 
occupied a box in the Park Theatre. In an adjoining box were 
young Price and Hamilton. They made some ironical remarks 
about Eacker's Fourth of July oration, which seemed to be in- 
tended for the ear of tiie young lady. Eacker looked around, 

^P,v)ton'8 Life of Burr, 240. Centinel of Freedom, Sept. 10, I7t*9. 


nnd saw Price and Hamilton ]au(>;hing. The following account 
of what happened between this time and the meeting at Wee- 
hawken was written by Mr. Lawrence, a young gentleman who 
went to the theatre with Mr, Eacker, and accompanied him 
through every stage of the controversy : 

" lie took no further notice of their conduct, but joined im- 
mediately in conversation with his party, and made use of every 
means to prevent its being observed by them that he was the 
subject of ridicule to the gentlemen behind. Immediately pre- 
i-eding the pantomime, the box being full, Messrs. Hamilton and 
Price, leaving the opposite side of the house, again intruded into 
the box occupied by Mr. Eacker and his party. x\t the moment 
of entrance, they commenced a loud conversation, replete with 
the most sarcastic remarks upon Mr. Eacker. Their manner 
was more indecent, if possible, than their conversation. Mr. 
Eacker himself, thus pointedly the object of contempt and ridi- 
eule, and his name being mentioned aloud, could no longer sus- 
tain the painful sensation resulting from his situation. He 
determined to leave the box, and remonstrate with Mr. Hamilton 
})rivately, in the lobby. As he step])ed into the lobby with his 
back toward Messrs. Hamilton and Price, covered with agitation 
and shame to be thus treated, he exclaimed, ' It is too abomina- 
ble to be publicly insulted by a set of rascals ! ' ' Who do you 
call damned rascals ? ' was the immediate inquiry, repeated again 
and ao-ain. Mr. Eacker felt anxious to avoid a brawl in a theatre, 
and observed to the gentleman that he lived at No. 50 Wall 
street, where he was always to be found. ' Your place of residence 
has nothing to do with it,' was the reply. Upon this, some per- 
sons observing an intention, as they supposed, to assault Mr. 
Eacker, and desirous to prevent a disturbance in the theatre, 
stepped before the gentlemen, and with difficulty prevented 
their approaching Mr. Eacker. Mr. Eacker then requested them 
to make less noise, and proposed retiring to some private place. 
On the way to the tavern, Messrs. Price and Hamilton peremp- 
torily insisted upon Mr. Eacker's particularizing the person to 
whom he had applied the appellation of 7'aseal. Mr. Eacker 


demanded of them, ' whether they came Into the hox on purpose 
to insult him.'' ''That is nothing to the purpose^ was the reply. 
' We insist upon your particular izing the person you meant to 
distinguish hy the appellation of rascal.' ^Did you mean to 
insult me f again repeated Mr. Backer. ' We insist upon a 
direct answer,' was reiterated. ' Well then, yon are both rascals.' 
Upon leaving the house, Messrs. Price and Hamilton conducted 
themselves in such a manner as would inevitably, if continued, 
have drawn the attention of persons in the street. Mr. Eaeker 
said, ' Gentlemen, you had better make less noise ; I shall ex- 
pect to hear from you.' ' That you shall,' was the immediate 
reply. Mr. Eaeker returned to the theatre, and had not been 
there long before he received a message from Mr. Price, request- 
ing him, in very laconic terms, to appoint his time and place of 
meeting." — A77i. Citisen dt Adv. No. 529, vol. ii. ■ 

Mr. Hamilton, on the same Friday night, called on Mr. David S. 
Jones, who consulted John B. Church, the uncle of young Ham- 
ilton. They framed a message to Mr, Eaeker, requiring an ex- 
planation of the offensive expressions he had used to Hamilton. 
This was delivered to Eaeker about half-past eleven o'clock on 
Friday night, in the presence of Mr. Lawrence. No explana- 
tion was given, but Mr. Eaeker said that after the affair with 
Price was over, he would receive any communication from 

On Sunday, November 22, 1801, at twelve o'clock, noon, 
Eaeker and Price, accompanied by their seconds, Mr, Lawrence 
and James Lvnch, met at Weehawken. Tliev exchanged three 
shots, without eifect, when the seconds interposed. The parties, 
however, wished another shot, and agreed that after that they 
would shake hands. The fourth shot was had without eifect, 
and a reconciliation ensued. Price remarking that Eaeker was 
such a damned lath of a fellow that he might shoot all day to 
no p\(,rpose ! 

y^s soon as young Hamilton ascertained that the affair with 
Price was over, between one and two o'clock on Sunday after- 
noon, he renewed his communication to Mr, Eaeker. On Mon- 
day, November 23, 1801, about three o'clock in the afternoon, 


the parties, accompanied by their seconds, Mr. Cooper, the actor, 
in behalf of Eacker, and David S. Jones in behalf of Hamilton, 
met at Weehawken. After the word had been given, a pause 
of a minute, perhaps more, ensued, before Mr, Eacker dis- 
charged his pistol. He had determmed to wait for Hamilton's 
fire, and Hamilton, it is said, reserved his fire, in obedience to the 
C(jmmands of his father. Eacker then leveled his pistol with 
more accuracy, and at the same instant Hamilton did the same. 
Eacker fired first, but almost simultaneously with Hamilton. 
The latter's fire, it is said, was unintentional, and in the air. 
The ball from Eacker's pistol entered Hamilton's right side, just 
above the hip, passed through his body, and lodged in his left 
arm. He was immediately taken over to the city, where he 
died the next morning at five o'clock. 

Eacker died of consumption in 1804, and w'as buried in St. 
Paul's churchyard, near Yesey street. 

Langstaff and Waldron. — SMrrn and Cock. 

These duels were fought on the 25th of December, ISOl, at 
"Weehawken, though the papers of that day speak of Powles 
Hook. This place and Hoboken were spoken of indiscriminately 
in the Eacker and Hamilton duel, when we know that it was 
fought at the regular dueling ground. From the Daily Adver- 
tiser of Monday, Dec. 28, 1801, the following is taken : 

" In consequence of a difference arising between Mr. John 
Langstaff and Mr, Olivier Waldron, Jun., of this city, they met 
on Friday afternoon at Powles Hook, accompanied by their 
seconds, wdien, after exchanging two shots, the matter was ami- 
cably settled ; but the seconds, Mr. Augustus Smith and Mr. 
Archibald M. Cock, having some dispute on account of the 
ground, they exchanged shots, when the latter received a slight 
wound in the face," These parties were mere striplings, not 
over twenty years of age. 

On the same day the following leading questions were put to 
the young duelists in the Spectator : 


'' 1st. What was the cause that gave rise to so serious a mode 
of settling a difference? Is this tlie new and fashionable^way of 
honor; or wli}' conld it not have been settled without exchanging 

" 2d. What was the difference between the seconds respecting 
the ground ; and did the eager and fighting appetites of the 
principals insist on fighting without having the gronnd settled? 

" 3d, Did you not fight at 7 o'clock in the evening— and M^as 
not the night so dark you could not see each other at ten yards' 
distance? A. W." 

From the above it will be noticed that the information respect- 
ing the immediate facts and circumstances of the duels were 
meagre even at the time. It is the same, to a greater or less 
extent, with all the duels of which an account will be given 
The reason is that they were in violation of a positive law, al- 
tliough sanctioned and demanded by society. Though under 
this demand the law was dead, yet it had sufficient terrors to 
induce the covering up of facts connected with this mode of heal- 
ins: wounded honor. 

Clinton and Swartwout. 

John Swartwout was a political friend of Colonel Burr, and 
De Witt Clinton of General Hamilton. Around these last two 
names seemed to cluster all the political likes and dislikes of that 
day. In a nioment of forgetfulness Mr. Clinton had used certain 
language concernino; Mr. Swartwout, which called forth the fol- 
lowing letter : 

" New York, 25M Jidf/, 1802. 

"Sir: I am informed that you have lately, in a conversation 
held at Mr. Ezekiel Itobins's, taken very unwarrantable liberties 
with iny character, permitting yourself to use expressions rela- 
tive to me too gross to be repeated. From your character and 
standing in society, I presume you will not hesitate to recognize 
or disavow these charges, and if true, to make me a prompt and 
suitable reparation. 


" I have made my friend Col. Smith acquainted with my feel- 
ings and expectations on this subject ; at my particular request he 
does me the lionor to present this. He will receive your answer, 
and act accordingly. 

" I have the honor to be, Sir, yours, &c., 

" John Swartwout. 
" The Hon. De Witt Clinton, Esq." 

Colonel Smith delivered this letter on the morning of the 26th. 
Mr. Clinton asked what the expressions were to which objection 
was taken. Colonel Smith replied, Ziar, Scoundrel and Villain. 
Mr. Clinton said he recollected having applied the first two to 
Mr. Swartwout, explained how he came to use them, but refused 
any apology. The following is his letter : 

" New York, July 26, 1802. 

" Sir : Having understood that you have, on various occasions 
and in relation to the controversy respecting Mr. Burr, represent- 
ed me as being governed by unworthy motives, I have, without 
hesitation, affixed to such suggestions such epithets as I thought 
they merited. 

" With regard to the conversation that took place at Mr. 
Robins's, it was predicated upon a full conviction that this sys- 
tem of conduct had been adopted by you. As you have not 
thought proper to detail, in your letter, the expressions attributed 
to me, but have referred me to Col. Smith for them, he will in 
the same way inform you of those which my recollection recog- 

" I have only to add that any further arrangements you may 

think proper to make will be attended to by me, with all the 

promptitude which a regard to the circumstances of the case may 


" I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 

'' De Witt Clinton. 
" John Swartwout, Esq." 

On the same (Monday) night Mr. Clinton sent for Richard 
Riker, who called the next morning and consented to act as Mr. 
Clinton's friend. Mr. Rikcr called upon Colonel Smith on Wed- 


nesday morning at ten o'clock. They agreed that the "business 
might be amicably adjusted/^ Mr. Riker wrote out the follow- 
ing 7^ /vy't^i^ : 

" If Mr. Swartwout will declare that he has not represented 
Mr. Clinton, in relation to the controversy respecting Mr. Burr, 
as being governed by unworthy motives, Mr, Clinton will declare 
that he used the epithets with respect to Mr. Swartwout, only in 
consequence of this supposed imputation, which being disavowed 
by Mr. Swartwout, he (Mr. Clinton) readily withdraws the epi- 
thets complained of, and as a gentlen^an apologizes for the use of 
them. These mutual declarations to be made in the presence of 
Col. Smith and Mr. Riker, and a written statement, signed by 
Col. Smith and Mr. Riker, to be exchanged." 

This proposition was submitted to Mr. Swartwout, and by him 
rejected, and the following was declared to be the only apology 
acceptable. It was sent to Mr. Clinton for his signature : 

" Having, in the course of a conversation, made use of expres- 
sions reflecting on John Swartw^out, Esq., I do fnlly and freely 
withdraw those expressions as intemperate and unfounded, and 
request Mr. Swartwout to accept this apology from me for having 
used them." 

Mr. Clinton peremptorily refused to sign anything of this kind, 
and nothing remained but to settle preliminaries for a meeting of 
the parties. At one o'clock on Wednesday, July 28, 1802, Col- 
onel Smith and Mr. Riker met at Mr. Little's, on the 29th select- 
ed the place of meeting, and on the 30th agreed upon the follow- 

" Arrangement. 

" 1. To leave this Island from different points in two boats 
precisely at 5 o'clock on Saturday P. M., and to proceed to the 
])lace proposed. The party first arriving will wait the landing 
of the other : each boat shall be rowed by four confidential per- 
sons onlf/, who shall remain in their respective boats until called 
for. These persons are not to be armed in any numner whatever. 
There will be but seven persons in each boat, viz., the Principal, 


his Second, one Surgeon, and four Oarsmen. The Surgeons may 
attend in silence on the ground. 

'' 2d. The distance between tlie parties to be ten yards, measured 
by tlie seconds, and the positions shall be distinctly marked. 

" ;^d. The seconds shall determine by lot the choice of position. 

" 4th. The pistols are not to exceed eleven inches in the barrel. 
They are to be smooth bores, and to be loaded by the seconds in 
each other's presence, showing a smooth ball. 

" 5th. The gentlemen will stand with their backs to each other 
at their respective stations, and in this position shall each receive 
a pistol, and the seconds having determined by lot who gives the 
woi-d, he to whom the lot falls shall take his position in the centre, 
retired from the line of lire, and shall distinctly say: ' Attention, 
gentlemen — To the rigid faee^ — upon which the}' shall face to the 
right and fire with promptitude; if one Hres before the other, the 
opposite second shall say, ' One, two, three, fire,' and he shall fire. 

" 6th. The left hand shall not be brought in support of the right 
arm, nor be placed on the right breast or side. 

" 7th. If either should be wounded before he has fired, and 
means to fire, he shall, if he can stand vnsupported, be entitled 
to his shot, and not otherwise. If either has fired, is M'ounded 
and means to proceed, he shall receive no assistance ; his second 
will only exchange the pistol. If he falls forward the second 
will repost him. 

'' 8th. At the exchange of pistols correct positions are to be 
resumed, and the words given as in Article 5. 

" 9th. A snap or flash to be considered a fire. The pistol must 
not be recovered. 

" 10th. Neither party to quit his station without the order or 
consent of the two seconds. 

"R. RlKEK, 

" W. S. Smith. 
" New York, July 30, 1802." 

With such positive and strict rules and regulations did the 
parties solemnly pi'oeeed in their innocent way of adjudicating 
the difference " 'Twixt tweedledum and tweedledee." 


At the time agreed upon the parties, accompanied b}' 1 )octoi's 
John H. Douglass and Isaac Ledyard, left for the Jersey shore. 
There the seconds tossed up for position and who should give the 
word. Both were won by Colonel Smith. There is some diifer- 
ence between the seconds as to what occurred after this, and 
therefore both of their statements are given. Mr. Kiker says : 

" The parties having their positions, Col. Smith gave the 
words distinctly, as he did preceding each succeeding fire. They 
tired without eflfect. Mr. Clinton then requested me to ask Mr. 
Swartwout — which I did through Col. Smith — whether he was 
satislied, declaring at the same time that he bore him no resent- 
ment, and would be willing to meet him on terms of their orig- 
inal friendship. Mr. Swartwout declared he was not satisfied. 
The pistols were again loaded and delivered to the gentlemen. 
They turned at the word and fired, as before, without efiect. The 
same declarations were made by Mr. Clinton, and the same ques- 
tion put, the answer being as before. The pistols were a third 
time loaded, and upon the words, ''Attention, gentlemen,'' being 
pronounced by Col. Smith, I observed Mr. Swartwout turning, 
and he was nearly round before Col. Smith had pronounced the 
words, ' to the right face^ upon which I said, ' stoiJ.'' He paused 
a moment, and fired a little before Mr. Clinton. I remonstrated 
against it immediately after, and requested Col. Smith to inform 
Mr. Swartwout that it mnst not he repeated. I observed that 
'Mr. Clinton had been shot through the coat, and then said to 
Mr. Swartwout through Col. Smith, and by request of Mr. Clin- 
ton as before, ' Mr. Clinton has no enmity to Mr. Swartwout ; he 
is sorry that this disagreement has happened, and is willing to 
bury all in oblivion ; that he was shooting at a man whom he did 
not wish to injure.' On asking whether he was satisfied, the an- 
swer was no, nor would he be until the apolog}'' was made which 
had been demanded A certificate was then presented to Mr. C. 
by Col. S. Mr. C. read it, handed it back, saying he would 
sooner fire all night than ask his pardon. The parties again took 
their stations, with noticeable coolness. The word was given, the 
gentlemen fired with more deliberation than usual, Mr. C. rather 
after Mr. S. His ball took effect, upon which Mr. S. immediately 


called for another pistol. While the pistols were being reloaded 
the blood Howed profusely from the wound in Mr. S.'s leg, and 
he looked pale. His snrgeon, Dr. Douglass, went to him, and it 
is said quietly extracted the ball from the other side of his leg. 
This was contrary to the 7th article of the code adopted by them, 
and unbeknown to Mr. Hiker. When the parties were again ready, 
Mr. S.'s looks prompted one of the surgeons to remark, ' Mr. 
Swartwout requires a surgeon,' whereupon Mr. Hiker begged 
Col. S. to repeat to Mr. S., ' Sir, are you satisfied 'i Mr. Clinton 
bears you no resentment. He is sorry for what has passed, and 
will meet you on the score of original friendship.' Mr. S., 
standing in his place, replied, ' I am not ; it is useless to repeat 
the question.' Then said Mr. C, ' I beg you all to bear witness, 
I have no enmity to Mr. Swartwout, and I am compelled to shoot 
at a man whom I do not wish to hurt ; but I will sign no paper 
— I will not dishonor myself.' The word was then again given, 
the parties tired, and Mr. C.'s ball again took effect. Mr. S. 
coolly said he was ready to take another shot. Preparations were 
being made to load the pistols, when Dr. Ledyard, calling from 
the bank, said: ^M?\ Clinton, don'' t fire again ; Mr. Sv)arhvout 
wants our assistance.'^ Whereupon Mr. C. stepped toward the 
bank and asked, ' Will it be right to fire again V Dr. L. said, 
' No, by no means.' Mr. C. then asked Mr. Riker what he ought 
to do. His second, reflecting a moment, said to Col. S. : ' Mr. 
Clinton shall not tire again.' Mr. S. was then assisted into the 
boat, Mr. Hiker supporting him on the right side and Dr. Ledyard 
on the left." 

Colonel Smith's statement is as follows : 

" The ground being correctly measured and intermediate ques- 
tions adjusted, the gentlemen took their stations, were each pre- 
sented with a pistol, and, by order, faced to the right and fired, 
ineffectually. At the request of Mr. Hiker I asked Mr. Swart- 
wout : ' Are you satisfied, sir V He answered, ' I am not.' The 
pistols then being exchanged, and their positions resumed by 
order, the gentlemen faced to the right, and fired a second shot 
without effect. At the request of Mr. Hiker, I again addressed 


Mr. Swartwoiit: ' Are you satisfied, sir?' He answered strongly 
in the negative. We proceeded, and a tliird shot was exchanged 
without injury. At the request of Mr. Hiker, I again asked Mr. 
Swartwoiit : ' Are you satisfied, sir V He answered : ' I am not ; 
neither shall I be until that apology is made which I have de- 
manded. Until then \ve must proceed.' I then presented a paper 
to Mr. Riker containing the apology demanded for Mr. Clinton's 
signature, observing that we could not spend our time in conver- 
sation ; that this paper must be signed or proceed. Mr. Clinton 
declared he would not sign any paper on that subject ; that he 
had no animosity against Mr. Swartwoiit ; would willingl}^ shake 
hands, and agree to meet on the score of former friendship. 

"Mr, Swartwout insisting on his signature to the apology, and 
Mr. Clinton declining, they stood at their posts, and fired a 
fourth shot. Mr. Clinton's ball struck Mr. Swart wont's left leg 
about five inches below the knee ; he stood ready and collected. 
At the request of Mr. Riker, I again addressed Mr. Swartwout : 
' Ai'e you satisfied, sir 'i ' He answered, ' It is useless to repeat 
the question ; my determination is fixed, and I beg we may 
proceed.' Mr. Clinton repeated that he had no animosity 
against Mr. Swartwout ; was sorry for what had passed ; pro- 
posed to advance, shake hands, and bury the circumstance in 
oblivion. During this conversation, Mr. Swartwout's surgeon, 
kneeling by his side, extracted a ball from the opposite side of 
his leg.^ Mr. Swartwout standing erect on his post, and posi- 
tively declining anything short of an ample apology, they fii-ed 
the fifth shot, and Mr. Swartwout received the ball in the left leg, 
about five inches above the ankle ; still, however, standing 
steadily on his post, perfectly composed. At the request of Mr. 
Riker, I again addressed Mr. Swartwout: 'Are you satisfied, 
sir?' He forcibly answered, 'I am not, sir; proceed.' Mr, 
Clinton then quit his station, declined the combat, and declared 
he would fire no more. Mr. Swartwout expressed himself sur- 

' While Dr. Douglass was performing this operation, the seconds were at the 
pistol cases. Colonel Smith turned around and said, " Doctor Douglass, what 
do you do there, sir '! go away, or you will be shot." 


prised tliat Mr. Clinton would neither apologize nor give liim 
tlie satisfaction required ; and addressing me, said, ' Wliat shall 
I do, my friend ? ' I answered, ' Mr. Clinton declines making 
the apology required, refuses taking his position, and posi- 
tively declares he will fight no more ; and his second appearing 
to acquiesce in the disposition of his principal, there is nothing 
farther left for you now but to have your wounds dressed.' The 
surgeons attended, dressed Mr. Swartwout's wounds, and the 
gentlemen, in their respective barges, returned to the city." 

It was said that after the last shot, and while Mr. Swartwout 
was sitting on a stone bleeding, Mr. Clinton approached him, 
offered him his hand, and said, " I am sorry I have hurt you so 
much." Then turning to Colonel Smith, he said, " I don't want 
to hurt him, but I wish I had the jprlncipal here. I will meet 
him when he pleases." He had reference to Aaron Burr. 

Hiker and Swartwout, 

Richard Riker, at the time Deputy Attorney-General of the 

State of New York, afterward Recorder of the city, and known 

as Dickey Riker, and Robert Swartwout, a brother of Samuel, 

Collector of the Port under General Jackson, fought a duel at 

Weehawken, on Monday, November 21, 1803. The cause lay 

in a political quarrel — Riker being a firm adherent of De Witt 

Clinton, and Swartwout a strong personal and political friend of 

Colonel Burr, Riker fell at the first fire, from a severe wound 

in the right leg. The wits who subsequently edited " The 

Croakers " refer to this combat in the following irreverent 

lines : 

" The Riker, like Bob Acres, stood 
Edge-ways upon a field of blood, 
The where and wherefore Swartwout knows, 
Pulled trigger, as a brave man should. 
And shot, God bless them — his own toes." 

These two parties were indicted in New York for dueling, 
November, 1804. 




At last the two political chieftains of jSTew York are about to 
meet in mortal combat. Their followers, at intervals for the 
past five years, had met and fought to settle political and per- 
sonal differences. Now Weehawken is to witness the last meet- 
ing of the rival leaders, and on her rocky shore they part — one 


to his grave, the other to be a fugitive on the earth. The duel 
was fought on the morning of July 11, 1804:. It arose, or rather 
a pretext for it was found, in what may be called the tattling of 
one Dr. Charles D. Cooper. For political purposes, he had re- 
ported that he "could detail a still more despicaUc opinion 
which General Hamilton had expressed of Mr. Burr." What- 


ever tliis silly remark may have meant, it was the cause of the 
controversy which followed, and which ended in the untimely 
death of a truly great man. 

As soon as this expression of Cooper was hronght to Burr's 
attention, he, ripe for a quarrel with his great rival, called upon 
General Hamilton for "a prompt and un(|ualiiiod acknowledg- 
ment or denial of the use of any expression which would wai'- 
rant the assertion of Dr. Cooper," and selected William P. Van 
Ness as his friend, to deliver his letter. Hamilton replied on the 
20th of June, but it is manifest that he could not be held 
responsible for Dr. Cooper's inferences. On the 21st, Bui-r 
rejoined as follows : 

" SiK : Your letter of the 20th instant has been this day 
received. Having considered it attentively, I regret to find in 
it nothing of that sincerity and delicacy which you profess to 

" Political opposition can never absolve gentlemen from the 
necessity of a rigid adherence to the laws of honor and the rules 
of decorum. I neither claim such privilege nor indulge it in 

"The common sense of mankind affixes to the e})itliet adopted 
by Dr. Cooper the idea of dishonor. It has been publicly applied 
to me under the sanction of your name. The question is not 
whether lie has understood the meaning of the word, or has used 
it according to syntax, and with grammatical accuracy ; but 
whether you have authorized this application, either directly or 
by uttering expressions or opinions derogatory to my honor. The 
time 'when' is in your own knowledge, but no way material to 
me, as the calumny has now first been disclosed, so as to become 
the subject of my notice, and as the effect is present and 

" Your letter has furnished me with new reasons for rec^uiring 
a definite reply." 

Mr. Yan Ness delivered this letter. Hamilton told him that 
he considered it inide and qfhisive, and unless it were recalled, 
the only answer which it was possible for him to make was that 



Mr. Burr must take stick st€2)s as lie mhjlit fhrnl' ^_>r6»/>(??'. 
Nevertheless, he replied in writing as follows: 

" Sir : Your first letter, in a style peremptory, made a de- 
mand, in my opinion, unprecedented and unwarrantable. My 
answer, pointing out the embarrassment, gave you an oppor- 
tunity to take a less exceptionable course. You have not chosen 
to do it ; but by your last letter received this day, containing 
expressions indecorous and improper, you have increased the 
difficulties to explanation intrinsically incident to the nature of 
your application. 

" If by a ' definite reply ' you mean the direct avowal or dis- 
avowal required in your first letter, I have no other answer to 
give than that which has already been given. If you mean any- 
thing different, admitting of greater latitude, it is requisite you 
should explain." 

This letter was delivered to his friend, Judge Nathaniel Pen- 
dleton, who had been Aid-de-Camp of General Greene, on the 22d 
of June, but by reason of certain conversations between him and 
Mr. Van Ness it was not delivered until the 25th. Before the de- 
livery of this letter Mr. Van Ness had addressed a note to General 
Hamilton asking him " when and where it would be most con- 
venient to receive a communication." It will be seen, therefore, 
that Colonel Burr had resolved on extreme measures before Gen- 
eral Hamilton's second note was delivered to him. 

Pending the negotiations previous to the delivery of the letter 
of the 22d, Judge Pendleton submitted to Mr, Van Ness the fol- 
lowing paper, which shows how far General Hamilton was willing 
to concede : 

" General Hamilton says he cannot imagine to what Dr. Cooper 
may have alluded, unless it were to a conversation at Mr. Taylor's, 
in Albany, last winter (at which lie and General Hamilton were 
present). General Hamilton cannot recollect distinctly the par- 
ticulars of that conversation, so as to undertake to repeat them, 
without running the risk of varying or omitting what might be 
deemed important circumstances. The expressions are entirely 
forgotten, and the specific ideas imperfectly remembered ; but to 


the best of his recollection it consisted of comments on the politi- 
cal principles and views of Colonel Burr, and the results that 
might be expected from them in the event of his election as Gov- 
ernor, without reference to any particular instance of past con<luct 
or to private character." 

After the delivery of Plamilton's second letter, Judge Pendle- 
ton submitted another paper, dictated by the same kindly spirit : 

" In answer to a letter properly adapted to obtain from General 
Hamilton a declaration whether he had charged Colonel Burr 
with any particular instance of dishonorable conduct, or had 
impeached his private character, either in the conversation alluded 
to by Dr. Cooper, or in any other particular instance to be specified, 
he would be able to answer consistently with his honor and the 
truth in substance, that the conversation to which Dr. Cooper 
alluded turned wholly on political topics, and did not attribute 
to Colonel Burr any instance of dishonorable conduct, nor relate 
to his private character ; and in relation to any other language 
or conversation of General Hamilton which Colonel Burr will 
specify, a prompt and frank avowal or denial will be given." 

These propositions being unacceptable to Colonel Burr, a cor- 
respondence between the seconds followed. Finally the formal 
challenge was given by Burr and accepted by Hamilton. The 
parties prepared for the meeting, which was to be on the 11th of 
July. Hamilton executed his will, and signed cogent reasons why 
he should not light a duel. His own good judgment, his keen 
sense of moral right, his obligations to his family, his duty to his 
country and to the requirements of the law, all united to convince 
him that he had no right to jeopard his life to the demands of a 
false sentiment. But louder than all these the public voice called 
upon him to meet his foe in mortal combat, and he, who had 
faced death on the battle field, had not the courage to refuse. 
Burr, on the night of the 10th, wrote several letters — one to his 
Theodosia, the pride of his heart — and then lay down and slept 
till morning. Better for him had that sleep been his last — better 
for him had that morning never dawned. At daybreak a few of 
his friends gathered around him. Shortly afterward they pro- 


ceeded from Burr's house, No. 30 Partition, now Fulton street, to 
the shore, where Burr, Van Ness, Mattliew L. Davis and another 
(probably Swartwout) embarked, and were rowed over to Wee- 
hawken.^ They arrived on the ground about half-past six o'clock, 
for it had been previously agreed that he should arrive first. 
Burr and Yan Ness, with coats off, were leisurely removing the 
underbrush from the ground, " so as to make a fair opening," 
when Hamilton and his second, accompanied by Dr. Hosack, 
who had been mutually agreed upon as the surgeon, arrived a few 
minutes before seven o'clock. The principals and their seconds 
exchanged salutations, and the seconds proceeded with the usual 
preparations. They measured the distance, ten full paces, then 
cast lots for the choice of position and to decide who should give 
the word. The lot in both cases fell to General Hamilton's 
second, who chose the upper end of the. ledge for his principal. 
The pistols were then loaded in each other's presence and the 
principals placed, Hamilton looking over the river toward the 
city, and Burr toward the heights under which they stood. Judge 
Pendleton gave Hamilton his pistol, and asked : 

" Will you have the hair-spring set ?" 

'•'•Not this time^'' was the quiet reply. 

Judge Pendleton then explained to the parties the rules which 
were to o^overn them in firing, which were as follows : 

" The parties being placed at their stations, the second who 
gives the word shall ask them whether they are ready; being- 
answered in the aftirmative, he shall say Present ; after this the 
parties shall present and fire when they please. If one fires before 
the other, the opposite second shall say, ' One, two, three, fire,' 
and he shall then fire or lose his fire." 

He then asked if they were prepared. l>eing answered in the 
affirmative, he gave the word Present^ as had been agreed on, 
and both parties presented and fired in succession. The inter- 
vening time is not expressed, as the seconds do not precisely 
agree on that point. The fire of Colonel Burr took effect, and 

' Wilson was one of the rowers. 


General Hamilton almost instantl_y fell, his pistol going off invol- 
untarily. Colonel Burr then advanced toward Hamilton with 
a manner and gesture which to Judge Pendleton seemed to be 
expressive of regret/ but, without speaking, turned about and 
witlidrew, being urged from the field by his friend, shielded, as 
it is stated, by an umbrella, with a view to prevent his being 
recognized by the surgeon and bargemen, who were then ap- 
proaching. Colonel Burr entered his barge and returned to the 
city to hreakfast ! 

When Hamilton fell his second immediately sprang forward 
and lifted him to a sitting posture. Tlie ball had struck the 
second or third false rib, and fractured it about in the middle ; 
it then passed through the liver and diaphragm and lodged in 
the first or second lumbar vertebra. Dr. Hosack says : " His 
C(nintenanceof death I shall never forget. He had at that instant 
just strength to say, ' This is a mortal wound, doctor,' when he 
sank away and became to all appearance lifeless. His pulses 
were not to be felt, his respiration was entirely suspended, and 
upon laying my hand upon his heart and perceiving no motion 
there, I considered him as irrevocably gone. I, however, observed 
to Mr. Pendleton that the only chance for his reviving was imme- 
diately to get him upon the water. We therefore lifted him up 
and carried him out of the wood to the margin of the bank, 
where the bargemen aided us in conveying him into the boat, 
which immediately put off." Before they reached the opposite 
shore he revived. He survived until the next day about two 

' Burr was considered a good shot, and he is said to have remarked on the 

afternoon of the same day, by way of apology for firing a little below the 
breast, that had it not been for smoke or a rising momentary mist, or something 
of that nature, which intercepted his vision, he should have lodged the ball 
exactly in the centre of Hamilton's heart. N. Y. Spectator, July 28, 1834. 

When in England, in 1808, he gave Jeremy Bentham an account of the duel, 
and said he was sure of being able to kill Mm ; and " So," records Bentham, "/ 
thought it little better than a murder." Sabine on Dueling, 212. Such was the 
view held by the grand jury of Bergen county. That body indicted him in 
■November, 1804, for murder. On November 20, 1807, this indictment was 
quashed by the Supreme Court, on motion of Colonel Ogden. Centinel of Free- 
dom, Nov. 24, 1807. 


o'clock in the afternoon, when he died, in the forty-eighth year of 
his age. 

Immediately after the duel a question arose as to Hamilton's 
iiring — whether it was intentional or not. Tlie next day Judge 
Pendleton and a friend went over to the ground to see if they 
could discover some traces of the course of the ball from Hamil- 
ton's pistol. They ascertained that the ball passed through the 
limb of a cedar tree^ at an elevation of about twelve and a half 
feet from the ground, between thirteen and fourteen feet from 
where Hamilton stood, and about four feet wide of the direct 
line between him and Colonel Burr on the right side. 

A few months after the duel the St. Andrew's Society, of 
wdiich Hamilton was president, erected a monument to his mem- 
ory on the ground where he fell. It was surrounded with an 
iron railing, and while it stood was visited by thousands etery 

It was intentionally destroyed about the year 1820. The 
monument seemed to arouse in the people of New York a spirit 
of emulation. A writer in The Coliunhkm, on July 13, 1815, 
who signed himself " Hoboken," wrote of the existence of Hamil- 
ton's monument, and said, "It is a subject of complaint to the 
citizens in the vicinity, and a standing absurdity and outrage 
on the morals, manners and feelings of society. By the perni- 
cious effect of a conspicuous example, the young and chivalrous 
are invited to combat and feel a degree of vain glory in measur- 
ing ground on the spot where that great man fell from all his 
glory and usefulness, and furnished a bloody beacon to posterity, 
which should be at least shrouded from the light of day. Now- 
adays the boats arrive from your island in broad daylight, 
the combatants take their stand on each side of the ominous 
monument, and before the inhabitants can reach the spot the 
mischief is done, and the unfortunate survivors hurried ofi", too 
soon to be arrested by the gathering neighborhood. Such is the 
sensation, I understand, excited by the use of this modern 

' This tree was destroyed when the New York and Fort Lee Railroad was con- 



Aceldama^ that it is not to be expected tlie pillar will long retain 
its station, it beino; considered as a baleful nuisance, not a ves- 
tige of which should be suffered to remain on the earth. But 
for the eminent cause of its origin, I should be almost as willing 
to have a gallow^s near my house." 

With such a feeling growing in the community, it could not be 
expected that the monument M^ould long survive. Stansbury, 
who visited the place August 20, 1821,^ says, " The monument 

FELL, _ 

July \vy IS 04: 
Alexajstder HAMiLTo:^r. 

\ ' of their affecti6nate Regard 'liil''')''! I tfjiihu 

\ 111, -to his Memorx^,, ^ ' '/''^" 

I aiid of tbeir cleep" .regret" , Ji' ' ' 

'iliili _3'Wi|iii ^ for hi^ LofS,^,^^fn!ilj|P^ , -. -^i 

"' vhave erected. ,1 


that was erected here to the memory of General Hamilton is 
now taken to pieces by the proprietor of the soil and conveyed 
to his house, under pretence of its having been too much resorted 
to for purposes of dueling." From this language it is inferable 
that the removal was then comparatively recent. Captain James 
Deas was the owner of the property at the time, and was the 
person who removed the monument. By some means the slab 

^Pedestrian Tour, 14. 


which bore the iiiscri])tion was taken from Captain Deas's pus- 
session. About the year 1833 Mr. Hugh Maxwell, President of 
the St. Andrew's Society, learned that it had been seen in a junk 
shop in New York. lie traced it up, redeemed it from its igno- 
ble position and presented it to the late James G. King, who 
about that time had become the owner of the property on wdiich 
the monument had been erected. The tablet still remains in 
possession of his family at High wood. It is thirty-four inches in 
length by twenty-six and a half inches in width and two and a 
half inches in thickness. 

Ctouverneur and Maxwell. 

On Monday, July 10, 1815, the New York papers announced 
the death, " after a short illness," of Isaac Gouverneur, the second 
son of Nicholas Gouverneur. This death, following a " short ill- 
ness," was caused by a duel between him and William IT. Max- 
well on Saturday, the 8th of July, about seven o'clock in the 
evening. It was fought with pistols, '" near the monument of 
Hamilton, a beacon which should dissuade and deter, like the 
pillar of salt, from folly and madness, rather than allure, like an 
ignis fatuus, to rashness, error and destruction." George 
Watts and Doctor Wortliington were the seconds in the duel. 

Price and Green. 

Benjamin Price was a grocer at Khinebeck, a brother ot Wil- 
liam M. Price, who lived in Hackensack, and of Stephen Price, 
of the Park Theatre. Green was a major in the British army, 
serving in Canada. Price was at the theatre one evening with a 
beautiful woman, when Green, in an adjoining box, took the 
liberty of turning around and staring her full in the face. She 
complained to Price, and, on a repetition of the offence, he turned 
and seized the nose of the gallant officer full between his finger 
and thumb and wruns; it most effectually. The officer left the 

224 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

tlieatre, and soon after a knock was lieard at the door of Price's 
box. lie opened it, and there stood the officer, who, with a 
refreshing simplicity, asked Price what he meant by such beha- 
viour, at the same time remarking that he had not meant to insult 
the lady by what he had done. " Oh, very well," replied Price, 
" neither did I mean to insult you by what I did." IJ^pon this 
they shook hands as sworn brothers. Some time after this 
Green went to Canada to join his regiment. The facts of the 
affair, however, had reached Canada before him, and were soon 
the subject of discussion among his comrades. The officei's of 
his regiment brought it to the notice of his brother officers, one 
of whom, a Captain Wilson, insisted that Green should be sent 
to Coventry unless he returned to New York and challenged 
Price. Green, thus goaded, set to work and practiced fi)r five 
hours a day until he could hit a dollar at ten paces nine times 
out of ten. He then came to New York and challenged Price. 
They fought at Weehawken on Sunday, May 12, 1816. Price 
was killed at the first fire. The ball crashed into his head and 
the blood streamed from the wound as he fell. Numerous boats 
lined the shore, a number of spectators viewed the transaction 
from the neighboring rocks, and a more hoi'rible sight could not 
have been imagined. The seconds ran oii', and Green took a 
small boat, crossed the river and boarded a vessel in the bay just 
about to sail for p]ngland. The body of Price was found at 
Weehawken, with a piece of paper attached to his bi-east, on 
which were inscribed the following words: " This is Benjamin 
Price, boarding in Vesey street. New York ; take care of him." 
The body was taken to the city quietly and buried. 

As a sequel to the foregoing duel, Millingen, in his History of 
DueU7i(j, relates the following : 

" Some years afterwards. Captain Wilson of the British army, 
whom we have mentioned above, arrived in this city, from 
England, on his way to Canada, and put up at the Washington 
Hotel. One da}', at dinner, the conversation turned on the 
death of Benjamin Price, and the manner thereof. Captain 
Wilson remarked tliat he had been mainly instrumental in 


bringing abont the duel, and detailed the circumstances con- 
nected therewith. This statement was carried immediately to 
Stephen Price, who was lying ill of the gont, at home : his 
friends say that he henceforth implicitly obeyed the instructions 
of the physician, obtained thereby a short cessation of the gout, 
and was enabled to hobble out of doors, his lower extremities 
swaddled in flannel. His first course was to seek the Washing- 
ton Hotel, and his first inquiry was, * Is Captain Wilson within 'i ' 
' He is,' said the waiter. ' Show me to his room,' said Stephen. 
and he was shown accordingly. He hobbled up stairs with great 
difficulty, cursing at intervals the gout and the captain with 
equal vehemence. He at last entered the captain's room, his 
feet cased in moccassins, and his hand grasping a stick. Captain 
Wilson rose to receive him, when he said, 'Are you Captain 
Wilson 'i ' * That is my name,' replied the gallant captain. 
' Then, sir, my name is Stephen Price. You see, sir, I can 
scarcely put one foot before the other ; I am afflicted with the 
gout. My object in coming here is to insult you. Shall I have 
to knock you down, or will you consider what I have said a 
sufficient insult, and act accordingly ? ' ' No, sir,' replied the 
captain, smiling, ' I shall consider what you have said quite 
sufficient, and shall act accordingly. You shall hear from me.' 

" In due time, there came a message from the Captain to 
Stephen Price ; time, place and weapons were appointed, and 
early one morning a barge left New York, in which were seated, 
face to face, Stephen Price and Captain Wilson, and two friends ; 
they all landed at Bedlow's Island, the principals took their posi- 
tions, and Captain Wilson fell dead at the first shot. The cap- 
tain was buried in the vault there, and Price and the two seconds 
returned to New York ; but his friends (Wilson's) thought that 
he had gone suddenly to Canada, and always thought that he 
had died suddenly, or had been killed on his way to England to 
join his regiment." 

Perry and Heath. 

Oliver H, Periw, the hero of Lake Erie, was post-captain in 


tlie navy of the United States, and John Heath was captain of 
marines. AVhile on duty in the Meditterranean, in 18lk, a qnar 
rel arose between them. In the nujment of excitement Perry 
struck Heath. A coni-t-martial followed the difficulty, and botli 
were privately reprimanded by Commodore Chaunccy, who 
commanded the American squadron in that sea. After their 
return to the United States, Heath sent a challenge to Perry. 
The communication was received in Rhode Island, where the 
civil authorities would not permit the duello. (,'Ommodore Perry, 
as early as January, had secured the services of Commodore 
Decatur as his friend, in anticipation of the challenge. On the 
lOtli of October he went to Washington, to give Captain Heath 
the satisfaction he demanded. The absence of Commodore 
Decatur rendered it necessarj' that he should have another 
friend for a time, that Captain Heath might be informed of his 
arrival, and for what purpose he had come. This M-as done, and 
the following preliminary arrangements agreed nj)on between 
Major Hamilton, on the part of Commodore Perry, and Lieu- 
tenant Desha on the part of Captain Heath : 

" 1st. It is understood that Commodore Perry is to proceed to 
Philadelphia, or its vicinity, by the route of Baltimore, where 
he is to remain until the arrival of Captain Heath's friend. 

" 2d. That Captain Heath is to proceed by the way of Freder- 
ick and York to Philadelphia, and to remain in the suburbs 
until the arrangements are made for a meeting between himself 
and Commodore Perry — his name not to be on the stage bills. 

" 3d. Lieutenant Desha and Major Hamilton are to meet at 
Renshaw's, on Wednesday, after the arrival of the Newcastle 

" 4th. The meeting between Commodore Perry and Captain 
Heath is to take place on Saturday morning, or as soon after as 

" Was/i{n(/t07i my, Oct. 12, 1818." 

Endorsed on this preliminary arrangement was the following 

'■ Captain Perry desires it expressly to be understood, that in 



according to Captain Heath the personal satisfaction he has de- 
manded, he has been influenced entirely by a sense of what he 
considers due from him as an atonement to the violated rules of 
the service, and not by any consideration- of the claims which 
Captain Heath may have for mailing such a demand, which he 
totally denies, as such claims have been forfeited by the measures 
of a public character which Captain Heath has adopted towards 
him. If, therefore, the civil authority should produce an impos- 
sibility of a meeting at the time and place designated, of which 
he will take every precaution to prevent, he will consider him- 
self absolutely exonerated from any responsibility to Captain 
Heath, touching their present cause of difference. 

" J. Hamilton, Jun. 

" {For Captain Perry), 
" Approved — 

R. M. Desha." 

In consequence of the foregoing, the parties assembled at 
Philadelphia, and Major Hamilton then transferred the above 
memorandum to Commodore Decatur, introducing to him at the 
same time Lieutenant Desha as the friend of Captain Heath, 
when the following arrangements were made : 

" 1st. It is understood that Captain Perry and his friend are to 
proceed to New York, or its vicinity, where he is to remain until 
the arrival of Captain Heath, or until the period which is named 
in this paper for their meeting. 

" 2d. That Captain Heath, with his friend, are to follow and 
remain at some convenient point on the Jersey shore, near the 
city of New York, and to give information after their arrival to 
Captain Perry's friend, where such arrangements will be made as 
may be deemed necessary. 

" 3d, The parties to be on the point specified, and the notifica- 
tion required by the 2d article given, prior to the approaching 
Monday, the 19th. 

" The parties accordingly met at Weehawken on Monday, Octo- 
ber 19, 1818, at 12 o'clock. Captain Perry received the fire of 
Captain Heath without returning it, when Commodore Decatur 

228 HISTORY OF HUDSON county. 

immediately stepped forward and declared that Commodore 
Perry had come to the ground with a determination not to return 
the fire of Captain Heath, in proof of which he read a letter from 
Commodore Perry to him, which he had written (and which is 
herewith subjoined), soliciting him to become his friend, and, 
therefore, he presumed the party aggrieved was satisfied. Cap- 
tain Heath having expressed his acquiescence in this opinion, 
and that the injury he had received from Captain Perry was 
atoned for, the parties returned to the city. 

" We do hereby certify the foregoing is a correct statement. 

" Stephen Decatur, 
" K. M. Desha." 

letter of commodore perry, 

" Washington, January 18, 1818. 
" My Dear Commodore : You are already ac(}uainted with the 
unfortunate aftair which has' taken place between Capt. Heath 
and myself. Although I consider, from the course he has thought 
proper to pursue, that I am absolved from all accountability to 
him, yet, as I did, in a moment of irritation produced by strong 
provocation, raise my hand against a person honored with a com- 
mission, I have determined, upon mature reflection, to give him 
a meeting should he call on me ; declaring, at the same time, that 
I cannot consent to return his fire, as the meeting, on my part, 
will be entirely as an atonement for the violated rules of the ser- 
vice. I request, therefore, my dear sir, that you will act as luy 
friend on this occasion. 

" Yery truly your friend, 

" O. H. Perry. 
" Com. Stephen Decatur." 

Thus fortunately terminated this unfortunate quarrel between 
these two worthy ofiicers. 

Gbaham and Barton. 
William G. Graham was associate editor of the New York 


Courier and hiquirer, and a native of Catskill. Mr. Barton was 
a son of the celebrated Dr. Barton, of Philadelphia. The duel 
was fonght at Weehawken on Wednesday, November 28, 1827. 
It is said that a dispute arose between them while at the card 
table at a friend's house, in the course of which Graham struck 
Barton. A challenge was the consequence, Lewis Asbury and 
W. McLeod actino; as seconds, and Doctor R. Pennell as surgeon. 
The nio;ht before the meetino- Mr. Graham wrote the followino- 
letter to his associate, Major l^oah : 

" 11 o'clock. 

" Deak Sir : What may be the result of the unhappy rencontre 
which is to take place in the morning between Mr. Barton and 
myself cannot, of course, be predicted by me. In the supposition 
that it will he fatal, I bid yow farewell, in the only language that 
is now left to me. I am perfectly indift'erent as to myself, but I 
trust most earnestly that Mr. Barton (toward whom I have not 
the faintest enmity oi a7iy Jci7id) may escape. I admit that I ann 
in the.wrong — that, by giving him a hJow, I have forced him into 
the condition of a challenge ; and by not doing what he has he 
would have blasted his character as a gentleman forever. In com- 
mon justice I am bound thus to absolve him from all suspicions 
of unbecoming conduct respecting the challenge. The provoca- 
tion, though slight, was still a provocation which I could not over- 
look. It is out of the question for me to explain, retract or ai)ol- 
ogize. I will not hear of any settlement short of some abject and 
craven submission from him.^ 

" Mr. Barton is a talking man, who dwells very complacently 
on his own skill as a marksman, on his experience as a duelist, 
and on his accuracy as a person of ton. I pretend to none of 
these, and therefore must oppose the most inflexible obstinacy. 
After he \% 2^<^'ff^ctly satisfied, I may, perhaps, apologize — that is, 
in case I am fatally wounded. It is needless for me to say I 
heartily despise and detest this absurd mode of settling disputes 

' It is probable that Mr. Oraliam intended to say, "He will not hear of any 
Bettlenieut short of some abject and craven submission from me." 


and salving the wounds of honor. But what can a poor devil do 

except bow to the supremacy of custom ? 

* * * -;{• -;r * -;<- 

" God bless you. 

"W. G. Graham." 

Here we see a man of tine genius and noble impulses, who, 
like the talented Hamilton and the gallant Perry, could coolly 
stand before the cannon's mouth, yet yielded like a child to the 
omnipotence of public sentiment. How perverted must be that 
society which, while it condemns dueling, yet shuns and spurns 
the man who refuses to accept or se7id a challenge when he is in- 
sulted. And how weak and ineffectual are laws for the preven- 
tion of crime, when those crimes are approved by public senti- 

On the fatal day Graham arose at four o'clock in the morning, 
and both parties were on the ground at twenty minutes before six 
o'clock. The principals took their positions, and at the word 
exchanged shots without effect. Mr. Graham's second proposed 
that the parties each advance one step. At the second fire Gra- 
ham said, " I am shot — I am a dead man — Barton, I forgive you," 
and fell. He was immediately conveyed to the boat in waiting. 
When laid down, the only words he uttered were, " I am in great 
pain," and died a few minutes afterward. The ball had entered 
the right side, about two inches from the umhilious, and passed 
obliquely through the body, injuring in its passage several im- 
portant organs, and coming out on the left side about four inches 
from the spine. 

The certificate of the cause of death, which Dr. Pennell gave 
the next day, is quite unique : " I hereb}' certify that William 
Graham, aged 34 years, died on the 28th inst. of vulnus." 


On Monday, the 19th of October, 1835, Henry Aitken and 
Thomas Sherman met on tlie ground at Weehawken. On the Sun- 
day evening previous they had a difficulty in New York resjiecting 


a female, which resulted in a challenge on the part of Sherman. 
This was accepted by Aitken, and ten o'clock on the following 
morning was fixed upon as the hour to decide the matter in dif- 
ference. Mutual friends- endeavored to reconcile the difficult}', 
but in vain. On Monday morning they crossed the Iloboken 
ferry and went to the ground. Before the preliminaries were 
settled, Andrew Boyd, a constable, arrived and arrested them. 
They were brought before Squire Paradise, in Jersey City, who 
committed them to the Hackensack jail to await the action of the 
grand jury. 

On Tuesday P. M., May 16, 1837, a duel was fought at this 
place between a Spaniard from Guatemala and a Frenchman 
living in New York, in which the former was slightly wounded. 
Some pecuniary transaction was the subject of dispute. 

Without being able to discover the particulars, I have met the 
general fact that a duel was here fought at quite a late period, 
and that one of the parties, named Bird, was shot through the 
heart, sprang up nearly ten feet, and fell dead. 

So far as I can learn, the last duel fought on this ground was 
on Sept. 28, 1845. Without the knowledge of the principals, the 
seconds loaded the pistols with cork. The performance was 
solemnly gone through with as if in mockery of the many trage- 
dies which had there been enacted. The heroes of this affaire 
cVhonneur are not known, but with their farce the curtain drops 
upon the stage at Weehawken. But as we read its sad history 
may we not quote from Dr. Nott's funeral oration over Hamil- 
ton : " Ah ! ye tragic shores of Hoboken, crimsoned with the 
richest blood, I tremble at the crimes you record against us, the 
annual register of murders which you keep and send up to God ! 
Place of inhuman cruelty ! beyond the limits of reason, of duty, 
and of relision, where man assumes a more barbarous nature and 
ceases to be man. What poignant, lingering sorrows do thy law- 
less combats occasion to surviving relatives." 

CHAPTER IX. — Fekriks. 

Communipaw ferry — Weeliawken ferry— Jersey City ferry — Bergen Point 
ferry — Hoboken ferry — Brown's ferry — Douw's ferry — Pavonia ferry — 
Budd'sferrA- — Bull's ferry — De Klynn's ferry — Elizabetlitown Point ferry. 

The Common Council of New York liave always claimed and 
occasionally exercised the right of establishing the rates of fer- 
riage. New Jersey has always claimed and frequently exercised 
the same right. It is not to be supposed, however, that either 
jurisdiction ever claimed greater authority than to regulate the 
fare to be demanded on its own side of the river. On the 6th of 
February, 1799, the State of New Jersey transferred this right to 
the Board of Chosen Freeholders in the several counties in which 
the ferries were.^ The Chosen Freeholders of Bergen, so far as as- 
certained, never attempted to exercise the power so given to them.. 
But the Chosen Freeholders of Hudson took hold of the subject 
with more zeal than discretion. The proprietors of the ferries 
denied their power under the law to establish the rates of fare on 
ferries not wholly within the county. The contest waxed warmer, 
until finally an appeal was made to the courts, and then the feri-y 
companies went to the Legislature for relief. That body again 
took the subject into their own liands, and on the 10th of March, 
1853, established the rates of ferriage as they now are.^ 

The Communipaw Ferry. 

The first ferry legally established on the North River, connect- 
ing our shore with Manhattan Island, was the Communipaw ferry. 

' Pateison'ft Laws, 351. 

- Throughout this chapter, when the lease of a ferry is spoken of, it generally 
refers to the lease of the slip and ferry privileges on the New York side, by the 
Common Council of that city. 


It was erected in 1001, about the time that the new village of 
Bergen received its first charter, at the foot of Conuniinipaw ave- 
nue. AVilliani Jansen was licensed to take charge of it, and so 
became the first legalized ferryman on the North river.^ He held 
the position for about eight years, bnt it does not seem to have 
been a peaceable one. On the 22d of December, 1001, at his 
request, the Governor-General and Council fixed the rates of 
ferriage, which, it may be taken for granted, eTansen was not slow 
in demanding.^ Whetther these rates were exorbitant whether 
he was too exact in enforcing payment, whether he failed to pro- 
vide proper accommodations, or whether through the pennrious- 
ness of the burghers of Bergen, trouble soon l)egan to thicken 
around him, and the people sought to get to and from New Am- 
sterdam by some other route. Jansen, under his license, claimed 
the exclusive right to transport people over the river, and even 
insisted that the inhabitants coidd not lawfully ferry themselves 
over, but must patronize his ferry — the first monopoly in the State 
of New Jersey. This claim the people resisted, and were clam- 
orous for the right of each one to keep his boat. The authorities 
took the popular side in the controversy. Tielman Yan Yleck, 
sheriff, and Engelbert Steenhuysen, commissary of Bergen, ad- 
vised the people that each one had the right to keep his " scliuyt," 
and ferry over whom he pleased. Thus the issue was fairly made. 
Jansen appeared before the authorities in New Amsterdam and 
entered his complaint against Tielman Yan Yleck and Engelbert 
Steenhuysen. Upon this complaint they were, on the 28th of 
December, 1602, commanded to appear before the Governor- 
General and Council and put in their defence.^ This they did, 
and, carrying the war into Africa, they charged that Jansen had 
not done his duty, and had refused to ferry over certain parties. 
Jansen replied that he had never refused to ferry over those who 
would pay.'' Upon this state of the case judgment seems to 

' Wew Neth. Reg., 117. - N. T. Col. MSS., ix., 921. 

""Ibid, X., Part i., 800. 

* This original Charon of Communipaw must have learned his rights from the 
robust son of Erebus and Nox, who would not ferry the shades of the dead over 
Acheron without the customary obulus. 


have been giv^en against both parties, for it was, on the 4th of 
January, 1663, decided that the sheriff' must assist the ferryman 
"in getting his pay," and that he must dp his duty or be dis- 

AVhether Jansen departed this life previous to June, 1669, or 
whether he was dismissed, is not known, but certain it is that 
another was chosen in In's place, as appears by the following : 

" By the Hon''^^ Phillip Carteret, Esq-", Gouernor of the Pro- 
vince of Nova Cesarea, or New Jersey, under the Right Hon^'* 
John Lord Berkeley, &c., &c. 

'' Whereas the Inhabitants of Bergen and Communipaw have 
made choice of Pieter Hetfelsen to be their ferryman betweene 
Communipaw and New Yorke for the constant transporting to 
and againe their persons, goods and Cattle, for which they have 
Requested my Lycense, These are therefore to Ly cense and 
appoint the said Pieter Hetfelsen to be the only and constant 
ferryman between the saide Communipaw and the Citty of New 
Yorke, for and during the time of three yeares from the day of 
the date hereof, and to be continued for a longer time, unless y^ In- 
habitants of the townes aforesaid have any just Exceptions against 
him. Which said Ferry the said Pieter Hetfelsen is to have and 
to hold to his own proper use and Benefit, Upon the conditions 
hereafter mentioned hereby prohibiting all persons whatsoever 
to transport or Carry over any person, goods, corne or cattle 
without ye consent or license of the said ferryman upon the pen- 
alty of paying to the use of the ferryman aforesaid the sum of 
tenn shillings sterling for every such default, l)eing first convinced 
thereof by the Justices or Magistrates of the place, and shall 
notwithstanding pay to the ferryman the fraight for such per- 
sons, corn or cattle as shall be so Illegally transported to the 
prejudice of the said ferryman. Notwithstanding it shall and 
may be lawful for any person to keep a canoe or boate of his 
owne for the transporting and carrying over of such goods, corne 
and cattle as properly belong unto himselfe and the persons of 
his own family and no other upon the penalty aforesaid. 

liV. T. Col. MSS, Part ii , 4. 


" Conditions, The ferryman aforesaid is to maintain one good 
sufficient boat or more for the convenient transporting of all 
passengers to and again from Coramunipaw to New York, to- 
gether with their goods, corne and Cattle at all tymes and on all 
occasions, bnt more particularly he is hereby obliged to attend 
upon the said Inhabitants of Bergen and Communipaw three 
dayes in the week unless some other Extraordinary Occasions 
does hinder him, viz. : Mondayes, Wednesdayes and Fridayes, or 
upon such other dayes as they shall unanimously agree upon, on 
which dayes the said Inhabitants are to attend with their goods 
and cattle at the houer and tyme appointed, and punctually to 
pay and satisfie the said ferryman for his fraight according to 
these following rates, Whoe is to Eecover the same. For case of 
Delay or Kefusall, by ord'' of Justice without any charge or 
forme of process ; Always provided that the Gouerno'' and his 
family are to be freed from paying of anything for their persons 
transj)orting as aforesaid. 

There shall be paid to the ferryman six stuivers a head 

Wampum for every passenger, - - - - 6 st. 

For his fraight Extraordinary at all other tymes iff but 
one man 4 Guilders in Wampum, but iff by night 
and unseasonable weather as the parties eann agree, 4 gl. 

For every Scheppell of corne 2 stiv. in Wampum, - - 2 stiv. 

For ^ a barrell or |- a fatt of beere 10 stiv. in Wampum, 
for a whole barrell 20 Stivers for all other goods & 
Lieg'"* in cash proportionable, - - - - -20 stiv. 

For a horse or Mare 4 Gl. in Wampum, - - - - 4 gl. 

For a cow 3 guilders, for an ox 4 guilders in Wampum. 

For a hogg or sow 15 Stivers in Wampum, - - - 15 stiv. 

For sheep 15 Stivers a head in Wampum, - - - 15 stiv. 

" Secondly the ferryman is hereby obliged on all occasions to 
ferry over any person for the sum of four guilders in wampum 
excepting what is before excepted. 

" Thirdly, the said ferryman is at all tymes and on all occa- 
sions for the publicq service when thereunto Required by the 
Governor or those Authorized by him to carry over any person, 

236 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

letter, packett or message gratis, but if it be upon any business 
that concernes any particular man's interest, although com- 
manded by the Governor, he is to be satisfied and paid according 
to the rates above mentioned. 

" Given under the seal of the Province the day and year above 

" June 25, 1009."^ 

Hetfelsen continued to manage the ferry until the 18th of 
January, 1672, M^hen John Tymensen was commissioned to take 
charge of it, upon the same conditions, and with power to receive 
the same fare. 

From this latter date no mention is made of this ferry for more 
than a century. It is probable, however, that it continued in 
operation until swallowed by its more successful and pretentious 
rival at Paulus Hoeck. Attention is attracted to it again iti 
1783. After the war was over and peace declared, but while the 
Bi'itish were yet in possession of New York and Paulus Hoeck, 
an advertisement appeared by which Aaron Longstreet & Co. 
made it knowm that " constant attendance was given by the 
boats at the Ferry Stairs, near the Exchange, at 3 P. M., to 
bring Passengers to Communipaw, where the Newark Stage " 
would be ready to conve}^ them to Newark, and thence by " The 
Excellent New York and Pliiladelphia Running Machines," in 
one day to Philadelphia.^ 

When the enemy evacuated Paulus Hoeck, the line of travel 
turned again in that direction, and the Communipaw Ferry again 
slept for nearly another century. When it awoke the old sail 
boats and periaugers^ were no more, and it was honored with the 
finest ferry boats on the Hudson. When the extension of the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey from Elizabethport to Jersey 
City was completed, the ferry was revived and now rnns from 

' E. J. Rec. Lib., Hi., 37. '^Eivington's Gazette, August 30, 1783. 

•' A periaugcr was the old Spanish pirogue, which had found its way into 
Dutch waters. It was pointed at both ends, had two masts, but no bowsprit. 
When horses and carriages were to be transported they were detached and 
lifted into the boat. 


tlie Central Railroad depot in Jersey City to the foot of Liberty 
street in New York. 

Names of hoats, and lohen jylaced upon the ferry. 

Central, - August 1, 1864. 

Communipaw, --.... 1865. 

Elizabeth, June 25, 1867. 

Plainiield, - - June 3, 1869. 

Names of Supe7'intendents. 

George W. Howe, . . . . April, 1863, to 1866. 
James J. Winant, - - October 17, 1866, to October 1, 1872. 
Jacob Winant, ------ October 1, 1872. 

Weehawken Ferry. 

The exact date of the commencement of this ferry is not 
known. The first record concerning it is an act passed in the 
third year of the reign of George the First (Jan. 26, 171f), by 
which the rates of ferriage were established as follows : 

Man and horse to or from New Yorh, - Eighteen Pence. 

Single Person, . - _ . . One Shilling. 

If above three Persons, per piece, - - Three Pence. 

Everything per Bushel, - - - - One Penny. 

Hogs, Sheep, &c., per head, - . . Tioo Pence. 

Beef per Quarter, - - - - - Three Pence. 

Barrels, ------- Four Pence. 

Hogsheads, One Shilling. 

Pipes, ------- Eighteen Pence} 

The ferry was erected, however, before the year 1700, as 
appears by the petition of Samuel Bayard, which seems to have 
been prompted by a desire to destroy an opposition ferry. There 
is no date to the petition, but Governor Hunter, to whom it is 
addressed, was not Governor of New York after 1719, and as 

^Nevill's Laws, i., 60. 


the petition alleges that the ferry then had been in operation for 
upward of twenty years, it is clear that it must have been in 
operation prior to the date above mentioned.^ Bayard was then 
owner of Weehawken.^ His petition was as follows : 

" To His Excellency Robert Hunter, Esq., Cap' Generall & 
Govern"' in Chief of the Province of New York, &c., & Yize- 
Admiral of the same : 

" The Humble Petition of Samuel Bayard humbly showeth : 
That your petitioner having a small parcel! of land called 
Wiehake in Bergen County in the Eastern Division of the Prov- 
ince of Nova Cesarea, most convenient for a ferry of any between 
New Yorke Island and the southermost clifts of Tappaen and 
Ahasimes, w*^"^ place hath been the accustomed ferry for trans- 
portation of passengers, cattle, horses and country produce in 
these limmits for upward of twenty yearcs, and as such hath 
been assessed & taxed by the Assembly of the said Province, 
as by the printed acts to w*^'' your petitioner refers may appear. 
Notwithstanding seaverall persons and places bounding upon the 
River within said limmits not assessed or taxed by the Assembly, 
nor permitted by the Crowncs grantes have for some time made it 
theire Buysenesse to transport passengers, cattle, horses 6z coun- 
try produce to and fi'om New Yorke Island at the same rates as 
the ferry at Wiehake, and do keep and suffer other people have- 
ing no propertys npon the Riverside to keep Boats and Canowes 
for transportation to and from New Yorke Island to the greats 
prejudice of the ferry at Wiehake. 

"Wherefore your petitioner humbly prayes that y"" Exee'^ 
would be pleased to faevour your petitioner with her maj'^* 
grant under the seal of the Province whereby the ferry between 
the southeriuost clifts of Tappaen and Ahasimus might be lim- 
mited to be keep at said place called Wiehaken, only upon the 
usuall and accostomed ferridge, and that no person or persons in 
said limmits haveing a property upon the River might be per- 
mitted to transport to or from New Yorke Island any passen- 

' This petition is bound up between two papers, dated respectively, Sept. 29, 
and Oct. 19, 1710. ■Winfield's Land Titles, 38. 


2;ers, horses, cattle or country produce but what properly belongs 
to themselves, nor suffer any other person whatsoever that have 
not any property upon the River to keep any vessels for trans- 
portation to the prejudice of said ferry at Wiehake. And as in 
duty bound shall ever pray, &c. 

" Samuel Bayard."^ 

Nothing further is heard of the ferry until October 22, 1742, 
when Francis Covenhoven and Samuel Bayard join in a petition 
to the Governor and Council of New York for a ferry to " We- 
hawk."~ The petition was granted. TTntil the Hoboken ferry 
was erected, this was the popular, and, in fact, only regular ferry 
to New York for the farmers in the upper part of Bergen 
County, and even for half a century after its powei'ful rival 
started upon its career, it continued to be patronized. Its land- 
ing place on the Jersey side was at or near the mouth of the 
Weehawken Creek, just below King's Point. 

On the 9th of July, 1788, the privilege of landing on the 
New York side for the " Weehaack " ferry was granted by the 
common council to Joseph Smith for three years for £20 per 
annum,^ John Stevens being, at that time, owner of the Hobo- 
ken ferry, made an effort to secure the control (»f this ferry, 
but failed.'' 

On the 5th of August, 1802, Charles and Philip Earle be- 
came the lessees for £50 per annum.^ Shortly after this a 
" new Weehauk ferry " was put in operation. On the 15th of 
April, 1805, the " old ferry " was leased to Garret Neefie, and 
the "new ferry" to Charles Earle, each at £50 per annum.^ 
Neefie soon gave up his lease, and Lewis Coneklin took charge 
of the " old ferry ."^ From this time nothing is heard of it until 
June, 1819, when Charles Watts, of New York, became its 
lessee. It is then pronounced a " very ancient ferry," grown 
into disuse by the improvements in Powles Hook and Hoboken 

'iY. F. Col. MSS. {Land Papers), v., 69. -lY. T. Records, v., 51. 

■'•1 bid, ix., 101. ^IMd, ix., 197. 

■Ibid, xiii., 383. ''It>id, xc, 176. 
'rbid, XV., 518. 

240 HISTORY OF HUDSON county. 

ferries. Watts took a lease of it for fifteen years from the 1st 
of May, 1819, on the following terms : For the first live years, 
rent free ; for the second five years, $50, and for the third five 
years, !j>200. The landing place on the Xew York side was to 
be between the north bounds of the Hoboken ferry lease and 
Christopher street. On the Jersey side it was to be within one 
quarter of a mile on each side of " Wehawk." By the terms of 
the lease, he was bound to keep a " team boat."^ He found the 
expense too heavy for the income, and at the expiration of five 
months abandoned the " team boat." For this the Common 
Council of New York annulled his lease, and let the ferry to 
Philip Howe, on condition that he should, on or before the first 
of May, 1821, put on the ferry two good sail boats, and one 
horse boat.^ But the days of sail boats and horse boats had 
passed. A mightier agent had come and supplanted them. And 
already, even in so short a time, the " Wehawk " ferry is 
almost forgotten. It was, however, spoken of as a "present 
ferry " in the charter of the Paterson and Hudson River Rail- 
road, approved Jan. 21, 1831. 

The present Weehawhen Ferry Company was incorporated 
March 25, 1852, and the ferry revived on the 1st of January, 1859. 
Its present landing place on the Jersey side is at Slaugh's 
Meadow, and on the Kew York side at Forty-second street. This 
Company bought of the Union Ferry Company two steamboats, 
the " Lydia " and " Abbie," used on the East River. The name of 
the '.' Lydia'' was changed to " Weehawken," and the "Abbie" 
to " Ilackensack." Owing to the navigation laws, however, the 
old names were soon restored. The " Abbie " was afterward 
sold and taken to Albany, where it is yet in use as a ferry boat, 
under the double name of " Abbie" and " Eli Perry," and plies 
between that city and Greenbush. The " Roslyn " was placed 
on the ferry in the summer of 1870, and the "Midland " on the 
1st of August, 1872. 

It is proper in this connection to produce the grant of George 

^N. T. Records, xxxviii., 367. ^Ibid, xll, 249. 


the Second to Steplieii Bayard in 1752. It covers the gronud 
now used by the ferry. It is as follows : 

" George the Second, by the grace of God of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. : Whereas 
our loving subject, Stephen Bayard, by his humble petition pre- 
sented unto Jonathan Belcher, Escf ., Captain-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of our Province of New Jersey, hath set forth 
that a ferry over the North River, from the government of New 
Jersey to the opposite shore, within the Bounds hereafter de- 
scribed, would be of great advantage to his Majesty's subjects 
who have occasion to go to New York, especially in the winter 
Season when the Ice renders the Passage from the usual Ferrys 
very dangerous, and therefore Praying our letters Patent to him, 
his Heirs and assigns for keeping the said Ferry under such con- 
ditions as are usual in like C'ases. Know Ye that the taking the 
Premises into our Iloyal Consideration, and being desirous to 
facilitate the Passages of all our loving Subjects over the said 
North River, and also to encourage the said Stephen Bayard to 
the Expenses & Trouble he has and may be at for the Public 
benefit, Havp:, of our special Grace, certain knowledge and meer 
motion for us and for our Successors, given, granted, ratified and 
confirmed, and by these Presents Do give. Grant, Ratify and 
Confirm unto the said Stephen Bayard, his Heirs and assigns the 
Sole keeping of the said Ferry over the North River, Beginning 
at Bergen North line and so along the Shore half a mile below or 
to the Southward of a Place called the Great Slaugh,^ Hereby 
giving and granting exclusive of all others, unto the said Stephen 
Bayard, his heirs and assigns, our Royal License and Authority 
to Trans[)ort Passengers, Horses, Cattle and Goods over the said 
North Iviver within the Bounds aforesaid, for so long a time as 
lie, the said Stephen Bayard, his heirs and assigns shall sufiiciently 
attend and keep, or cause to be attended and kept, one or more 
ferries within tlie Bounds afores'^ for the Transporting of Passen- 
gers, Dorses, Cattle and Goods over the said North River within 
the Bounds aforesaid. And We by these Presents Do Give, 

' Once the property of Jacob Slaugli, from whom it received its name. 


Grant, ratify and Confirm unto the said Stephen Bayard, his 
heirs and assigns, Power and Authority to ask, Demand & re- 
ceive from all and every the Passengers for Transpoi'ting or 
Ferrying over of them, their Horses, Carriages, Cattle and Goods, 
all liewards, benefits and advantages whatsoever, as are already 
Legally established, or hereafter may be within our Province of 
"New Jersey, for performing the Services aforesaid. To Have 
and TO Hold the keeping of the said Ferry or Ferries over the 
North River within the Bounds aforesaid, with all the benefits, 
perquisites and advantages whatsoever, unto him, the said Ste- 
phen Bayard, his heirs and assigns, to the Sole use, benefit and 
behoof of the said Stephen Bayard, his heirs and assigns, for so 
long time as he and they shall w^ell and sufliciently attend and 
keep, or cause to be attended and kept, the Ferry aforesaid, 
Yielding and paying therefor yearly and every year during the 
Term aforesaid unto us, our Heirs and Successors, at the City 
Hall of Amboy, on every twenty-fifth day of March, the sum of 
Two Shillings lawful money of America, if the same be lawfully 
Demanded. In Testimony whereof we have caused the Great 
Seal of our said Province to be hereunto afiixed, and these our 
Letters to be made Patent. Witness our Trusty and Well be- 
loved Jonathan Belcher, Esq""., our Captain-General and Com- 
mander-in-Chief in and over our Province of Nova Csesaria or 
New Jersey in America, Chancellor and Vice Admiral in the 
same, at the Borough of Elizabeth, in our said Province, the 
Seventh day of February, in the Twenty-Sixth year of our 

The Jersey City' Ferry 

was established June 18, 1764.^ In the JVeiv York Mercury of 
July 2, 1704, we find 

" Good News for the Public. 

" The long wished for Ferry is now established and kept across 
the North River, from the Place called Powless's Hook to the 

^Dunlap's History of N. T., it., cxci. 


City of New York ; and boats properly constructed, as well for 
the Conveiiiency of Passengers as for the carrying over of Horses 
and carriages, do now constantly ply from one shore to the other. 
The landins: on the New York Side is fixed at the Dock com- 
monly called Mesier's Dock, and at Powless's Hook is situate 
nearly opposite to the said Dock, the distance between the two 
Places being about three Quarters of a Mile, and as the boats 
may pass and repass, at all Times of the Tide, Math almost equal 
Despatch, it is thought by far the most convenient Place for a 
Ferry of any yet established, or that can be established, from the 
Province of New Jersey to the City of New York ; and what 
will give it tlie Preference by far of all the other ferries in the 
Winter Season, is that rarely a Day happens but that Boats may 
pass at this Ferry without being obstructed or endangered by Ice. 
Constant attendance is given at Powless's Hook by Michael Cor- 
nelisse, where the best of Stabling and Pasture is provided for 

It was started as an important part of the new route to Phila- 
delphia via Bergen Point and Staten Island. Abraham Mesier 
and Michael Cornelissen were its founders. They made arrange- 
ments with Cornelius Van Yorst for a landing place at Paulus 
Hook. Cornelissen then built the house afterward known as 
Major Hunt's tavern. The landing place on the New York side 
was fixed at Mesier's Dock, at the foot of Cortlandt street. The 
two periaugers first on the ferry were the " Liberty " and " Prop- 
erty." The projectors of the ferry did not consult the authorities 
in New York as to the propriety or necessity of the same. 
Thereupon the Aldermen, on the 10th of September, 1764, ap- 
pointed a committee to take the opinion of counsel whether the 
people of " that part of Jersey called Powles Hook have any 
right of ferriage to and from this city."^ What the opinion of 
the counsel was, or that he gave any, or that anything further was 
done, does not appear. At that time Yan Yorst was owner of all 
the land between the road leading to Bergen on tlie north, the 
Hudson River on the east, Communipaw Cove and the Creek of 

'iV. Y. Records, vi., 243. 


the Woods on the south and west. The route to Philadelphia l)y 
boat to Amboy was about to be superseded by a more certain 
means of conveyance. Transportation was to be by stage. This 
must be reached by means of a ferry, and there was no point so 
convenient for that purpose as Paulus Hoeck. And, what was 
more to the purpose, Van Vorst saw that it was an enterprise 
which in the end would pay. The millions who annually pour 
across that ferry, and the thriving city built on his old flirm, more 
than realize his utmost expectations. 

Others were not slow to see what a harvest would be realized 
from this ferry, and could not forego an attempt to reap it for 
themselves. Van Vorst's hereditary enemy of the Duke's Farm 
— Captain Archibald Kennedy — anticipating trouble between 
Van Vorst and the Common Council of New York, joined one 
William McAdams in a petition to that body on the third of 
May, 1765, for an exclusive right of ferry between New York 
and the Jersey shore. This, if granted, would take the ferry 
from Paulus Hoeck to Ahasimus, where the Pavonia Ferry now 
is. Van Vorst was not slow to head off this movement by a 
counter petition on the 14th of October in the same year. He 
set forth that he had been to a very considerable expense in erect- 
ing his ferry " at a place called Powles Hook, lying in the county 
of Bergen," and that he was obliged to maintain a causeway half 
a mile long and a lane nearly twice as long ; he therefore desired 
the board to establish and regulate the ferry on such reasonable 
terms as would be for the public good. In consideration of the 
expense he had been put to, he requested the privilege of receiv- 
ing for some time the benefits of both sides of the ferry .^ On 
the 31st of January, 1766, these petitions for an " exclusive 
grant of the right of ferriage " across to "" their respective lands 
on the Jersey shore" were taken into consideration by the Com- 
mon Council of New York. That body saw the necessity and 
advantage to their city of a ferry to the Jersey shore, and 
appointed a committee to make the best arrangements they could 
get.^ To that committee Van Vorst proposed that he would give 

•iV. T. Records, vi., 386. Ubid, vi., 306. 


to tlie City of New York £40 a year for seven years, and the 
corporation shonld have the power to fix the rates of ferriage ; 
that after said term he would give the corporation a free hxnding 
on liis side for the purposes of a iervj^p'^ovided he should have 
the same privilege of landing in New York. He stated that he 
had three lai-ge and two small boats for the ferry, which he in- 
tended to keep in repair and ready for use. He consented that 
the corporation might decide upon the landing place on the New 
York side, though he recommended tliat it should be at the 
place then used for that purpose. These propositions were 
accepted, and the landing place fixed at the " ground or pier of 
Nicholas Roosevelt, Esqr., at the lower end of Thomas street."^ 
It seems, however, that these arrangements were never com- 
pleted, for on the 23d of March, 1767, the ferry was let at public 
ontcrj^ to Jacob Van Yoorhis, a mercliant in New York, foi- 
£310 per annum for four years from the first of May, 1767.^ 
Abraham Mesier, Abraham Russing and Peter Mesier, jr., were 
at the time, or shortly afterward became associated with Van 
Voorhis. They soon found that there were other expenses 
than those of the ferry properly connected with the enterprise. 
The causeway between Paulus Hoeck and the upland of Ahasi- 
mus was occasionally overflowed by the tides. This inconven- 
ienced travelers and diminished the lessee's revenue. He there- 
upon sought and obtained an abatement of half a year's rent, for 
the purpose of repairing the causeway.^ Long before the expii-a- 
tion of his lease he found that his expenses and heavy rent ren- 
dered the business unprofitable. He therefore abandoned the 
lease, and on the first of March, 1771, the ferry was let to Abra- 
ham Mesier for three years for the sum of £120 per annum. 
Thus was saved to the "firm " £180 a year for the balance of 
the term.* The unpaid rent of Van Voorhis was acquitted for 
the reason that from May 1, 1767, to May 1, 1771, his disburse- 
ments and rent paid equaled his receipts. He had lost his labor, 
'and it was thought unjust that he should pay the balance of rent 

'iV. F. Records, vi., 311. -Ibid, vi., 871. 

Hbid, vi., 381, 4G6. *IUd, vii, 99. 


and thus lose money along with his labor.^ On the first of 
March, 1774, Abraliam Mesier obtained a new lease of the ferry 
for three years from the first of May following at a rent of £*'210 
per annnm.^ Shortly afterward Mesier died, and the Hoboken 
Ferry coming into existence, his executors obtained an abate- 
ment of £50 on the last year's rent. The probability is that 
Mesier's widow remained in charge of the ferry during the war, 
subject to military control. Soon after the war her name is 
again connected with the ferry, and in 1786 she petitioned for 
repairs to the ferry stairs on the New York side.^ The ferry 
was now but poorly appreciated. The Legislature of this State 
had imposed upon it a tax of £50, which had not been paid. 
The rent had fallen off from £310 a year in 1767 until on the 
15th of April, 1789, John Holdron obtained a three years' lease 
for £50 per annum.* But under his management the ferry be- 
came so prosperous that at the end of his term in 1792 he was 
obliged to give £380 a year for a three years' lease, and in addi- 
tion provide ferry stairs and all other conveniences.^ Whether 
this sum was drawn out of him by auction puffers or not is im- 
possible to tell. One thing is certain, he soon found the load too 
heavy to carry, and called for an abatement of rent. It was 
agreed on the 5th of May, 1794, that upon his paying £250 the 
balance of the rent should be remitted. At this rent he held it 
up to the first of May, 1796." On this date he took a new lease 
for three years at £300 a year. He agreed (and this is the first 
regulation looking to the accommodation of the public) to pro- 
vide two large boats for horses, cattle, carriages, etc., and two row 
boats for passengers. He also agreed to run the boats from sun- 
rise till 9 o'clock P. M. from May 1st to Oct. 1st, reserving the 
])rivilege of charging double ferriage after sunset.'' 

On the 11th of March, 1799, the Common Council of New 
York City established the following rates of ferriage for this 
ferry, viz. : 

'i\r. T. Rec , mi., 244. -Ibid, xii., 297. ^lUd, viii., 480. 

■Tbid, ir., 186, 199, 206. -'Ibid, x., 200. Ubid, tL, 120. 222. 




A Passenger, ..... 

A Coach, Chariot, Coachee, or covered Wagon, 
A Phaeton, . . . . . 

A Chaise or top cliair, . . . - 

A Chair, . . . . _ 

A Sleigh, - . . - . - 

Horses and Cattle, . . . . 

A Sheep, Calf or Hog, . - . . 

A large trunk or chest, ... 

A small do do - - - - 

A Pipe or Hogshead of Wine, Spirits or Molasses, 
A Barrel of do - - - 

A Barrel of Beef, Pork, Flour or Fish, 
Plank of every kind, each, . _ . 

Boards do . - . 

A side of sole Leather, . - - . 

do upper do - 
A Raw Hide, . . . . . 

Iron, Steel, Lead, &c., per cwt., 

A Desk, ------ 

A large table, ----- 

A small do . - , - . 

A mahogany Chair, - - 

A common do - 

Basket or Bag of Fruit of 2 Bushels, 

Bag of Grain do - 

Bag of Flour or Meal, - - - - 

A Crate of Earthen Ware, - - . 

A Tierce of Earthen Ware, - - - 

A Feather Bed, - - - 

A Clock Case, ----- 

A chest of Tea, . . - - . 

Dye Wood, per cwt., - - - . 

Indigo and Copperas, per cwt., 
Gunpowder, per cwt., - - - . 

A large Bale of Cotton, - - . - 

An empty Hogshead or Pipe, - - . 













































248 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

All empty Barrel, - - - - - £0 3 

Sliad, per hundred, - - - - 2 

Cabbages, ])er hundred, - - - - 1 6 
And all other articles and things in like proportion.-' 

These rates, in the light of the present day, i-eem somewhat 
exorbitant. They ap})eared the same to the people on this side 
of the river at that time. How could they exist and pay ferriage 
on their cabbages at the exorbitant rate of one shilling and sia"- 
■pence per hundred. Rates must come down, or the Knicker- 
bockers must go unfed of cabbage, and pine in want for their 
Itolil slaugh ! But cabbages beget sixpences, and sooner than such 
a shining progeny should be untimely cut off, and their ghosts 
left to haunt the unplanted gardens, the people would make 
known their grievances. This they did. They held a public meet- 
ing, and, in true modern style, passed sundry "Whereases" and 
" Besolves" upon the subject. Over this meeting Isaac Nichols 
presided with a dignity becoming the occasion. After the solemn 
deliberations were ended, good old " Isaac " was chosen to pro- 
ceed to New York, and there make known their grievances, to- 
gether with their views expressed " in public meeting assem- 
bled." This he did in a becoming manner. It is sad to relate, 
however, that the whole effort was wasted. Mr. Nichols and the 
resolutions were duly received, the former bowed out, the latter 
laid upon the table, and no attention paid to either. 

At this time, colored Abraham — Brom for short — the most 
skillful master of a sail boat in his day, was the man of this 

On the 5tli of August, 1802, Holdron took another three years' 
lease at $2,125 per annum. As usual, in 1803 he sought an 
abatement of rent, and alleged as a reason that a new ferry had 
been erected for ten months past, which had injured his business. 
It is probable that this was Budd's ferry at Ahasimus. If so, 
Budd had erected his ferry and put it in operation before he 
asked for permission to land on the New York side, as may be 
seen by reference to the remarks on that ferry. But his request 

^N. Y. Records, xii., 458. 


was refused. IN'evertlieless, by renewals of the lease, he held on 
to the ferry. On the 22d of February, 1808. he took a new- 
lease for two years and nine months.-^ 

From the commencement of the ferry up to 1804, Cornelius 
Van Y(irst was its owner, as he was of the adjoining land. On 
the 2d of February, 1804, he contracted with Anthou)' Dey to 
sell Powles Hook and the ferry, subject to a lease wdiich Major 
David Hunt liekl, to expire in 1805. Dey received a deed for 
the same on the 26th of March, 1804. On the 16th of April, 
1804, Dey agreed to lease to Hunt the right of ferriage for two 
years after the 1st of May, 1805. The Major continued in 
charge of the ferry for a number of years. In 1804 " The 
Associates of the Jersey Company " were incorporated, when 
the land and ferry were conveyed to them. After Major Hunt 
came Joseph Lyon, of Elizabethtown, as ferrymaster. He occu- 
pied the old tavern. His stables were in the rear, and to accom- 
modate him the ferry landing was moved from the foot of Grand 
street (a little west of Hudson), to opposite the gate of his yard 
between Grand and York streets, so that people coming from 
New York could signal the hostler to have their carriages 

Up to this time the accommodations for the ferry had been a 
few row boats, each with two oarsmen, with a few spare oars, 
which the passengers were expected to use if they wished to cross 
in good time ; and a couple of open boats with sails, used when 
the wind suited, or wdien it was required to take a horse and 
carriage over. When the wind was favorable the passage could 
be made in half an hour, but sometimes three hours were con- 
sumed in crossing. 

About this time the success of steamboats on the Hudson 
attracted the attention of Mr. Durand, Elisha Boudinot, General 
Cummings and others of Newark to the possibility of steam 
ferry boats. In the autumn of 1809, they subscribed $50,000 
to carry the plan into effect. Robert Fulton was requested to 
construct such a boat as, in his judgment, would answer the pur- 

'i\r. Y. Records, xviii., 181. 


poses of a ferry. Application was then made for a lease of the 
Jersey City ferry. Immediately a competitor in the person of 
Daniel French arose. He had obtained a patent for an improve- 
ment in the nse of steam in propelling boats. Elisha Monell 
and Levi Kendall claimed that thej had an invention which was 
superior to all others.^ All of these rival interests strove to get 
control of this ferry. The Jerseymen incorporated February 7, 
1818, in the name of the Yorh and Jersey Steam Boat Ferry 
Company were successful.^ In March, 1811, they obtained a 
lease of the ferry, and of the right of landing on the j^ew York 

In December, 1810, the Neiv Yorh Evening Post announced 
that arrangements had been made with Fulton for the construc- 
tion of steamboats for this ferry. In May, 1811, two boats were 
being built by Charles Brown, and were 80 feet in length and 
30 feet in width. " One peculiarity is, they never put about." 
On July 2, 1812, one of them, the '' Jersey," was finished, and 
put in operation, but owing to some needed alteration was taken 
off for a few days. On Friday, July 17, 1812, it began its 
regular trips. A writer, on the following day, says : " I crossed 
the l^orth River yesterday in the Steam Boat with my family 
in my carriage, without alighting therefrom, in fourteen minutes, 
with an immense eroM^d of passengers. I cannot express to you 
how much the public mind appeared to be gratified at finding 
so large and so safe a machine going so well. On both shores 
were thousands of people viewing this pleasing object."^ 

On this occasion a grand entertainment was given at Joseph 
Lyon's tavern in Jersey City to the Mayor and Common Council 
of New York and others. The following illustration will give a 
correct idea of this boat, if the reader will imagine two cigar- 
shaped rioats fastened ten feet apart, with the paddle-wheel work- 
ing between them. 

Fulton's description will explain it fully : 

" She is bnilt of two boats, each ten feet beam, eighty feet long 

W. F. Records, xxi , 1. '^Ibid, xxviii., 159. 

^Oentinel of Freedom, July 21, 1813. 



and five feet deep in the liold ; which boats are distant from each 
other ten feet, confined by strong transverse beam knees and diag- 
onal traces, forming a deck thirty feet wide and eighty feet long 

The propelling water-wheel is placed between the boats to prevent 
it from injury from ice and shocks on entering or approaching 
the dock. The whole of the machinery being placed between 


the two boats, leaves ten feet on the deck of each boat for car- 
riages, horses and cattle, &c., the other, having neat benches and 
covered with an awning, is for passengers, and there is also a 
passage and stairway to a neat cabin, wliich is fifty feet long and 
five feet clear from the floor to the beams, furnished with benches 
and provided with a stove in winter. Although the two boats 
and space between them give thirty feet beam, yet they present 
sharp bows to the water, and have only the resistance in the 
w^ater of one boat of twenty feet beam. Both ends being alike, 
and each having a rudder, she never puts about. 

" Of the dock, he says it ' is one hundred and eighty feet long, 
seventy M'ide ; the bridge is fastened to the middle of the bulk- 
head. The boat, being only thirty feet wide and the dock sev- 
enty, leaves twenty feet vacant on each of her sides ; in each of 
these twenty feet spans and in the water are floating stages, made 
of pine logs, which lie favorable to the boat for thirty feet, and 
these run diagonally to the extreme end of the wharves, so that 
the boat, wdien coming in, hits within the seventy feet, and the 
stages guide her direct to the bridge.' " 

She was in service for many years, and ended her career as 
material for the construction of a stable in Greene street built 
for the elder Isaac Edge. 

In 1813 the "York," built on the model of the "Jersey," was 
completed and placed on the ferry. It is said that these boats 
were " slow coaches" — that they would ordinarily take an hour 
and a half to make a trip — that when they met in the river pas- 
sengers could hold quite a conversation before they got beyond 
talking distance ; in fact they were 

" Like fat green turtles fast asleep, 
On the still surface of the deep." 

They started on their daily duties every morning at sunrise 
from each side of the river, and ran all day every half hour by 
" St. Paul's Church clock."i 

But the experience of the ferry company was similar to that of 

Centinel of Freedom, June 20, 1815. 


prior lessees. Up to the 27tli of May, 1816, they had made but 
one dividend of five per cent. For this reason they requested 
that the Common Council of New York would either purchase 
the ferry, reduce the rent or increase the rates of ferriage. The 
only relief obtained was an increase of personal toll to 12^ cents. ^ 
In those days the fare was collected on the boat during the pas- 
sage over. On the 1st of May, 1823, the company took a lease 
of the right of ferry from New York to so much of the Jersey 
shore as lies between a point " immediately south of Hoboken and 
a point due west from the Battery Castle." But their experience 
was not a success. They sank all of their capital, one of their boats 
blew up in the slip, and the year 1824 found them unable to con- 
tinue. In September, 1825, they assigned their lease to Francis 
B. Ogden, Cadwallader D. Colden and Samuel Swartwout. The 
Common Council of New York consented to the assignment, and 
gave the assignees a new lease for fifteen years and six months 
from the first of November, 1825. The lessees were to provide 
two good steamboats, but in the place of one of these were after- 
ward permitted to use a team boat. They were also to provide 
the ferry with row boats. They l)ought and placed on the ferry 
the " Washington." In October, 1826, Ogden and Swartwout 
transferred their interest in the lease to Mr. Colden. He failed 
to make the ferry remunerative, and surrendered it to the owners^ 
" The Associates of the Jersey Company." On the first of Jan- 
uary, 1831, the " Associates " leased it to the New Jersey Rail- 
road and Transportation Company for 12^ years. By renewals 
the latter company continued to hold until 1853, when the lessees 
bought up the stock of the " Associates," and thus became the 
owners of the ferry. It continues to be nominally operated 
under the old lease of the " Associates," and the latter company, 
which has become a nominal body, nominally receive an annual 
rent of $18,000 from nominal lessees. 

The line to the foot of Desbrosses street was started in 1862. 
These ferries w^ere transferred to the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company in 1871. 

'^. Y. Records, xxxi., 483. 

254 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

In 1849 the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson County 
fixed and attempted to force upon the ferry the following : 

" Rates of Ferriage to be taken by the Jersey City Ferry, 
AS fixed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hud- 
son County. 

Every person on foot, above ten years old, - - 3c 

Under ten years and above five years old, - - 2 

Man and horse or horse only, - - - - 9 

Ordinary fourwheeled trucks, loaded, two horses and one 

person, _.-.-. 37^ 

Ordinary fourwheeled trucks, light, two horses and one 

person, - - - - - - - 25 

Ordinary wagons, or market wagons, including loads of 

green clover or grass, two horses and one person, - 25 

For ever}' additional person, - - ... 3 

Ordinary wagons or market wagons, including loads of 

green clover or grass, one horse and one person, - 12^ 

For every additional person, - - - - 3 

A coach, coachee, chariot, barouche, phaeton, pleasure 

wagon or sleigh with more tlian one seat, two horses, 

one person, ------ 30 

For every additional person, - . - . 3 

A light pleasure carriage, barouche or pleasure wagon, 

two horses, one person, - - - - 25 

For every additional person, . . . . 3 

A light pleasure carriage, barouche or pleasure wagon, one 

horse, one person, ----- 1S| 

For every additional person, - - , - - 3 

A cart with driver, one horse, loaded or empty, - 12^ 

A wagon load of hay or straw, with two horses and one 

person, - - - - - - - 50 

Wagon or cart load of hay or straw, with one horse and one 

person, ------ 37-1 

Any kind of carriage or sleigh, without horse, half price. 

A wheelbarrow and one person, loaded or empty, - 6 

A hand cart and one person, loaded or empty, - 8 


Cattle, single or in droves — each, - - - - 15c 

Calves and hogs, dead or alive, . . . 3 

Sheep, lambs and shoats, dead or alive, - - - 3 

Sucking pigs, do, . _ . 2 
Raw hides, ..-_-- 3 

Skins, ------- 0^ 

Dry hides, - - - - . - 1 

Bundles of sole and upper leather, per side, - - 1 

Bundles of hay, - - - - - - 9 

Paper, per ream, in bundles, - - - - 0| 

Wheat, corn and other grain, per bushel, - - - Oi 

Oats, green peas and beans, ])er bushel, - - 1 

Potatoes, per bushel, - - - - - 1^ 

Barrels containing apples and vegetables — each, - 6^ 

B(»xes of oranges and lemons — each, - - - 5 

Baskets containing fruits or vegetables, - - 3 

Oysters, per bushel, - - - - - 3 

Horse feed, do, - - - - - 1 

Meal, flour or coffee, in bags — each, - - - 3 

Large boxes containing live fowls for market — each, 12^ 

Small boxes and large baskets, containing live fowls, in 


Salt in bags, per bushel, - . . - 2 
Sugar, per cwt., ------ 5 

Pipe, hogshead of spirits or wine, each, - - 50 
When empty, ------ 8 

Tierces of spirits or wine, - - . - S7-k 

When empty — each, - - - - - ^i 

Barrels of spirits or wine — each, - - - 18f 

When empty — each, - - - - • - 3 

Hogsheads of molasses or sugar, - - - 37^ 
When empty, ------ 6^ 

Tierces of molasses or sugar — each, - - - 25 

When empty, do, - - - 5 

Barrels of molasses, sugar, beer, beef, pork and oil, - 10 

Barrels of flour and lime, - - - - - 5 

When empty, two cents each, except flour barrels, - 1 



Baskets of wine, - - - - - - 6^ 

Crate, hogshead, tierce, etc., containing earthenware or 

glass — each, - - - - - - 12i 

And when empty, tierce or crate — each, - 4 

Large size firkins, do, - - 5 

Second do do, - - -.3 

Pails of bntter, do, - - 1 

Cheese, ham, codtish, &c., per cwt., - - - 5 

Chests of tea — each, - - - - - 4 

Half chests of tea, do, - - - - - 2 

Tobacco in kegs, do, ----- 4 

Churns containing milk, - - - - . Qi. 

Iron, steel, lead-paints and other metals, per cwt., - 5 

Boxes of window-glass — each, - - - - 2 

Boxes of soap and candles — each, - - - 3 

Kegs of nails, do, - - - - 5 

Specie in large kegs or boxes — each, - - - 25 

For less size, and for every ^1,000, - . - - . 12|- 

For fancy chairs — each, - - - - 2 

For common do do, - - - - - 1 

Sofas and pianos — each, - - - - 25 

Bureaus, - - - - - - -12^ 

Bedsteads, beds, tables, writing desks and small bureaus — each, 6^ 
Tool chests, ploughs and corn machines — each, - - 6|- 

Stoves and grates, large size, - - - - 12^ 

Small size in proportion. 

Joists and boards — each, ----- 1 

Lumber and timber, per thousand feet, - - $1 00 

" And all animals and things not herein enumerated shall be 
charged- proportion ably to the foregoing rates. A true copy from 
the minutes of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson 
County, in the State of New Jersey. August 7, 1849. 

" H. Van Wagenen, Clerk 
" Of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of Hudson County. 

" 1^^ The above Rates are to take effect on and after the 1st 
day of Sept., 1849." 


They were never enforced. The landing place on the New 
York side is at the foot of Cortlandt street. On the New Jersey 
side it was at first at the foot of Grand street, about one hundred 
feet west of Hudson street. It was afterward placed between 
Grand and York streets, with the slip opening diagonally up the 
river.^ Thence it was removed to the foot of York street. On 
the first of April, 1839, it was changed to the corner of Mont- 
gomery and Hudson streets. In 1S56 the block east of Hudson 
street was lilled in, and the landing place changed to its present 
location. On May 5, 1851, the Common Council of New York 
gave their permission for the Desbrosses street ferry. 

The boats on this ferry, since the introduction of steam, have 

Jersey, ----- 1812. 

York,2 --------- 18 1;3. 

New Jersey,^ -------- 

Richard Varick,* ----- November, 1826. 

George Washington,-' ----- April, 1826, 

' Between tlie landing and the hotel was a semi-circular plot, around which 
the stages would run to unload their passengers. In the centre of this plot 
was a willow tree, which was sometimes used as a whipping post. Here, as 
late as 1814, a white-headed old man received thirty-two lashes. 

-' Colden's Life of Falton, 274. 

■ The boiler of this boat exploded while lying in the slip, shortly after her 
completion, killing a Miss Nelson, who was making her home with the Van 
Vorst family, while she attended school in New York. Billy West, her pilot, 
also received injuries from which he afterward died ; and a colored man, 
named Enoch Dorson, was badly scalded, but recovered. The fourth boat, being 
a failure, was always known as " Tom Vermilye's folly." She was small, with 
a diminutive engine and boiler, and it is said that in crossing the river she 
would have to stop to get up steam. She was the cause of much amusement to 
tlie river men ; and her flues being very small, the story goes that, in order to 
clean them, they would put a live cat in at the bottom and then build a fire, 
when the cat would travel through in a lively manner and most effectually 
clean the flues. 

^ Tliis boat was built for an eight horse boat, but was changed into a steam- 
er with two engines. It was first designed to name her " General Jackson." 

• This boat was built for the Catharine street ferry, East river, but purchased 
for the Jersey City ferry in April, 1820, during the lease of Swartwout & Co. It 
became the first night boat in June, 1K:55. 




Essex, ------ 

I>eroen,^ -.--.. 
New Jersey,"^ ----- 

Mouse of the Mountain,^ 

Aresseoli, - - . . . 

Hudson, ------ 

Golden, ------ 

Philadelphia,^ ----- 

D. S. Gregory, . - - _ 

fTolm S. Darcy, ----- 

John P. Jackson,° - - - - 

Jersey City. - - - - _ 

New York, - -- - 

Newark, ------ 

New Brunswick, - - - - 

Hudson City, ----- 

The ferry masters or agents have been 
Michael Cornelisse, from 
Yerdine Elsworth, from 
Major David Hunt, until 
Joseph Lyon, - 

C. Rhina, in - - - - - 
Benjamin Greaves, - - - - 
Jonathan B. Jenkins, 
William Woolsey, 

(launched) September 6, 1833. 

- March 31, 1835. 

- May 25, 1836. 

- 1841. 
November 12, 1849. 

October — , 1851. 

- June 16, 1853. 

- 1860. 

- 1863. 

- 1866. 

1764 to 1769. 
1769 to 1776. 

- 1805. 

- 1822. 

John Clews, 
Darwin F. Rockwell, 
Charles A. Woolsey, 


1833 to 1835. 
1835 to 1845. 
1845 to . 

' I have- not ascertained when this boat was put upon the ferry. In 1838 it 
was repaired at a cost of $10,000, and put on as a night boat. It was sold and 
taken to the Albany and Greenbush ferry March 15, 1847. 

'^ The New Jersey, Washington, Sussex, and Essex were sold to the New Jer- 
sey Railroad Company January 1, 1830, for $70,000. and the ferry improvements 
for $18,22-4.99. 

' This was a toy steamer, and ran occasionally for passengers only. 

■* Sold to the United States in 18GI, and turned into a transport 

■• Sold to the United States in 18G1, and turned into a gunboat. 

the bergen point ferry. 259 

The Bergen Point Ferry, 

On the 15tb of September, 1750, Jacob Corseii petitioned the 
Government of New York for letters patent to erect his ferrj, 
between Staten Island and Bergen Point, into a public ferry, 
and also for a grant of the soil between high and low water 
mark within a mile and a half on each side of his land. In an- 
swer to his petition he received the King's grant in accordance 
with his petition, except that he received the right to the shore 
in front of his own land only.^ From this petition it is manifest 
that Corsen had been operating his ferry prior to 1750. ISTearly 
fourteen years afterward it received, in connection with the 
Paulus Hoeck ferry, the following notice : 

" A Ferry is established and kept across the Kill van Kull, 
and that Boats constantly attend for that Purpose, at a Place 
belonging to John Beck, and commonly called Mooddses, situate 
near the Dutch Church on Staten Island, from whence Passen- 
gers are transported directly across to Bergen Point, from which 
place there is a line Road leading directly to the said Powless's 
Hook ; so that a short, safe, easy and convenient Way is fixed 
by Means of these two Ferries, for all Travellers passing to the 
City of New York, from any of the Southern Governments."^ 

From this notice it would seem that this fei'iw was then for the 
first time used as a part of the new stage route to Philadelphia 
and the South. On the 19th of July, 1764, Anthony White sent 
his petition to Lieutenant-Governor Colden of New York for a 
ferry or ferries across the " Kill van Corle," from the north side 
of Staten Island to Bergen Point.^ In this petition he sets 
forth that in the twentieth year of the rei<>:n of George 11. 
(1747) he had obtained letters patent under the seal of New Jer- 
sey granting liim the sole right of keeping a ferry across the 
" Kill van Corle" from Bergen Point to Staten Island. He 
then ])etitioned Governor Clinton of JSTew York for a like exclu- 
sive right, which he failed to get. His present petition looked 

'N. Y. Col. MSS., xxi., 393. -N. T. Mercury, Jvly 2, 1764. 

W. 7. Col. MSS.,.vcii, 121 ; Winfield's Land Titles, 136, 141, 144. 

260 uisTORY or HUDSON CtmNTY. 

toward a inonopolj. Whether he was then the owner of Cur- 
seu's ferry or whether he w^as raising an opposition does not 
appear. He was then the owner of the land where tlie La Tou- 
rette House now stands, and near which the ferry landing then 
was. Michael Van Tuyl was the proprietor of the ferry in 1705. 

As we have seen, the stages on their way to and from Phila- 
delphia passed over this ferry, A serious accident occurred here 
in 1767. The scow was taking over one of the stages, in which 
some of the passengei's retained their seats. On approaching the 
shore the stage by some mishap was overturned into the river. 
By this accident Mrs. Morris and her maid were drowned. She 
was an actress,^ and at the time her husband was performing the 
part of King Henry in Richard III. in the Old Play House in 
John street, New York. 

After the travel to the South was turned to the route which 
was made over the meadows on or near the present line of the 
Newark Plank Road, this ferry gradually declined. It was in 
operation yet in 1786, and in November of that year was as- 
sessed by the Legislature of this State the sum of £5. This the 
owner was unable or not inclined to pay. To persuade him 
thereto, on the 7th of June, 1787, a supplement was passed which 
declared that if the proprietor should persevere to keep up the 
ferry after the first of the following August w^ithout taking out 
a license, for which such assessment was made, he should forfeit 
and pay £10. 

When it suspended operations is not known. Several attempts 
to resuscitate it have been made, but without success. A horse 
boat was plying on it between 1810 and 1850, but only for a 
short time. In 1S6- a slip was built at the foot of Avenue C 
on the Kills, and a boat put upon the ferry. It continued in 
operation for a few months, and was then destroyed by lire. In 
March, 1868, " The Bergen Point and Staten Island Ferry Com- 
pany " was incorporated, but never gave any signs of life. On 
the 15th of June, 1869, Walter H. Frazee attempted to revive 
it. He placed thereon a small steam yacht called " Jennie." 

i^V Y. Mercury, Deamber 14, 17G7. 


After twelve days' experience he was convinced of the unprofita- 
bleness of the enterprise and abandoned it. The location is so 
out of the line of travel that its revival is doubtful. 

The Hoboken Ferry. 

Early in the year 1774 this ferry was established to connect 
the corporation dock at the Bear Market in New York with Ho- 
l^oken. It was leased to H. Tallman for two years at £50 a 
year.^ It does not seem to have been put into active operation, 
however, until May of the following year, as appears from the 
following notice : 

" Cornelius IIaring 

Begs leave to present his most respectful compliments to the 
Public, and to inform them that he intends, on Monday, the first 
of May next, to open the New Established Ferry, from the 
remarkable pleasant and convenient situate place of William 
Bayard, Esq., at the King's Arms Inn ; from which place all 
gentlemen Travellers and others who have occasion to cross that 
ferry will be accommodated with the best of boats, of every 
kind, suitable to the winds, weather and tides, to convey them 
from thence to the New Market near the new Corporation Pier 
at the North River, opposite Vesey Street, in New York, at 
which place a suitable house will be kept for the reception of 
travellers passing to and from his house, and will have his boats 
in good order. 

" Said HarinCt takes this public method to inform all gentle- 
men travellers and others that he has a most elegant and conven- 
ient house, suitable for the purpose, where they will be provided 
with lodging, eatables and liquors of the best kind ; and particu- 
lar attention will be given to the clean feeding and doing strict 
justice to all travellers' horses. The elegance of the situation, 
as well as its affording many amusements, such as fishing and 
fowling, added to these, its being stocked with the greatest vari- 
ety of the best English fruits, will make it an agreeable place 

'i\r. Y. Records, vii. 

262 HISTORY OF hudson county. 

for the entertainment of large coiepanies ; having besides a 
number of convenient rooms, one of fifty feet in length, by 
which means (as he will have the best cooks, particularly for the 
dressing of Turtle and every other dish fit to set before either 
Gentlemen or Ladies), he hopes to be honored with their com- 
pany ; assuring them there shall be nothing wanting on his part 
to make it convenient and agreeable, as well to entitle him to 
the honor of their countenance as custom. And as his boats 
will always be ready to attend travellers and those Gentlemen 
and Ladies from the City of New York as well as those of the 
Province he lives in, at a minute's warning, flatters himself he 
will make it so convenient that during the summer season such 
as do not choose to come over to dine may always be provided 
with tea, &.G., &c., pass the afternoon, have the best of fruit the 
difterent seasons afford, and return to town again before night, 
or honor him with their custom longer, as he will be strict with 
having good beds for the accommodation of Gentlemen and La- 
dies that are going to any part of the Jersies, Philadelphia or the 
northern country, and choose to have their horses and carriages 
brought over that night, and set out early the next morning ; or 
such as are coming from Philadelphia or elsewhere, that choose 
to stay at his Inn that night, and the next morning go over to 
the City of New York. He has one of the best wharfs for land- 
ing horses and carriages at all times of the tide ; and he may say 
the conipletest causeway in this country, between the island he 
lives on and the main ocean. 

" 1^^ The boats are to be distinguished by the name The 
rioobook Ferry, painted on the stern. "^ 

During the war which shortly followed, this ferry, like its 
neighbor at Panlus Hoeck, was subject to the control of the 
army occupying New York. On the 7th of August, 1776, orders 
were issued from headquarters, in the city, that a subaltern and 
twenty men should be placed at the Hoebuck ferry to examine 
the passengers crossing there.^ This was done to prevent dis- 
affected persons passing into New Jersey, as also to prevent the 

^Rimngton's Gazette, April 37, 1775. ^Am. Archives, 5th Series, ^., 912. 


desertion of the continental troops, which at that time was of 
frequent occurrence.^ No mention is made of the ferry from 
this time until 1784, when John Allen, on the 8th of October, 
secured a lease of it for three years at a rent of £67 a year.^ 
He soon grumbled about the terms, and at his own request was, 
on the 20th of August, 1785, released from his contract,^ and 
Sylvanus Lawrence took the lease for three years at a rent of 
£37 a year/ In June, 1787, he sold out his interest in the ferry 
to Charles A. Wiessenfels,^ who, on the 9th of July, 1788, ob- 
tained a lease from the city for three years from the 31st of 
August, 1788, at a rent of £5 a year.^ This arrangement soon fell 
through, and the Common Council asked for proposals for this 
ferry lease. On Wednesday, the 15th of April, 1789, the bids 
were opened. John Stevens, the owner of Hoboken,'' ofl^ered 
£10 a year, and was the highest bidder.^ This is the first time 
the name of that gentleman appears in connection with this ferry, 
though there can be no doubt that he was at this time its owner. 
He held the lease until the 12th of December, 1791, when Joseph 
Smith obtained it for three years at the rent of £91 a year. This 
was probably in the interest of Mr. Stevens. By various renew- 
als. Smith held the lease until the 26th of March, 1799, when the 
same was obtained by Zadock Hedden.^ In the mean time the 
ferry had improved, and the rent increased. At this time Elias 
Haynes was in charge of the ferry on the jSTew York side, and 
John Town on the Jersey side. Town announced that he spared 
" no expense to render Hobuckin House and Ferry commodious," 
and that " he had the best boats on the river."^° 

On the 11th of March, 1799, the Common Council of New 
York established the following rates of ferriage for " Hobooc- 
ken : " 

A Passenger, - - £0 9 

^Am. Archives, 5th Series, i., 886. ^N. T. Records, viii., 184. 

^Ibid, viii., 309. *lbid, viii., 322. 

Ubid, viii., 566. Ubid, ix., 101. 

•> Winfield's Land Titles, 40. ^N. T. Records, ix., 199. 

^Ibid, xii., 470. ^"Centinel of Freedom, April 18, 1798. 


A Coach, Chariot, Coachee or covered Wagon, - £0 8 6 

A Phaeton, .--..-. 056 

A Chaise or top Chair, - - - - - - 3 6 

A Chair, -------- 026 

A Sleigh, - . - - - - - - - 8 6 

Horees and Cattle, ------ 019 

A Sheep, Calf or Hog, - - - - - - 6 

A large Trunk or Chest, - - - - - (i 1 3 

A small do -.---009 

A Bushel of Salt, ------ 2^ 

A Pipe or Hogshead of Wine, Spirits or Molasses,' 8 

A Barrel of do - - - 1 

A Barrel of Beef, Pork, Flour or Fish, - - 13 

Plank of every kind, _ - - - - - - 2 

Boards do - - . . . (> 1 

A Side of Sole Leather, - - - - - - 2 

Do of Upper do ----- - 001 

A Raw Hide, -------- 3 

Iron, Steel, Lead, &c., per ewt,, - - - - 6 

A Desk, - - - - - - - - - 3 

A large Table, ------- 010 

A small do ------- 6 

A Mahogany Chair, ------ 002 

A common do ------ 1 

A Basket or Bag of Fruit of 2 Bushels - - 4 

A Bag of Grain of do ... o 3 

A Crate of Earthenware, - - - - - 2 

A Tierce of do .-..-023 

A Feather Bed, - - 6 

A Clock Case, ------- 1 

A Chest of Tea, ------- 020 

Dye Wood, per cwt., - - - - - - 6 

Gunpowder, per cwt., - - - - - - 10 

A large Bale of Cotton, - - - - - - 2 

An empty Hogshead or Pipe, - - - - 10 

Do ' do Barrel, - - - - 3 

Cabbages, per hundred, ----- 016 


Sliad, per hundred, - - - - - - £0 2 

And all other articles and things in like proportion.^ 

Holden held the lease only for a few months. Experience 
had taught the Conniion Council that a promise to pay and the 
payment of rent for ferry leases were two very different things. 
To make sure of the rent, they demanded security from Holden, 
He waxed wroth at the doubt of his honesty which the demand 
seemed to imply, threw up the lease, and refused to have any- 
thing more to do with the ferry.^ From this time until it was 
leased to Garret Covenhoven, the ferry was badly managed, and 
caused much complaint from the people.^ Covenhoven took it 
in Angust, 1802, for three years, at a rent of $250 a year. At 
the termination of his lease, Peter Yoorhis took the lease, at a 
rent of $350 a year. His management was no more ai)preciated 
than that of Covenhoven.^ Then David Godwin desired to have 
the ferry, thinking he could meet the demands of the people. 
Being encouraged by the Bergen Turnpike Companj^,^ he suc- 
ceeded on the 4th of January, 1808, in securing a lease for three 
years at a rent of $350 a year.*" During all these years, since 
the 26tli day of July, 1784, John Stevens had been the owner of 
Hoboken, but remained quiet, with only an occasional remon- 
strance against the management of the ferry. J^ow, Decem- 
ber 11, 1809, he came forward as the discoverer of a new 
power in navigation. He claimed to be the tirst man in the 
country who had successfully applied steam as a propelling 
power. At the same time, he claimed to be the proprietor of 
this ferry, and earnestly remonstrated against the proposition to 
y-ive to Elisha Boudinot and his associates the exclusive rio-ht to 
ferry by steam between New York and New Jersey. In Sep- 
tember, 1810, he asked for a lease of the Hoboken ferry, and 
promised to place a steamboat thereon.''^ On the 13th of 
April, 1811, he obtained the lease for the landing on the New 
York side,** and immediately set to work to complete his steam 

'N. Y. Records, xii., 458. Ubid, xii., 554. -'Ibid, xiii., 60. 

■*/6iVZ, 'XV., 435. '-"Ibid, xciL, 422. "Ibid, xviii., 7. 

UUd, xxil, 2G3. «y/>«rf, XXXV., 331. 


ferry-boat. Tliis was completed about the middle of September, 
1811, and shortly afterward was made the trial trip of the first 
steam ferry-boat in the world. At this time a Mr. Godwin, of 
Hoboken, had charge of the ferry, and he employed the steam- 
boat. It was immediately put into use, and on the 23d of Sep- 
tember, 1811, made sixteen trips, with an average of one hundred 
passengers each trip.^ At this time, the landing place on the 
New York side was at the foot of Vesey street. On the 21:th 
of May, 1813, Colonel Stevens secured the lease of the Spring 
street ferry .^ On the Vesey (now Barclay) street ferry, he soon 
abandoned the use of steam, and returned to horse boats as more 
]>rofitable, and he claimed that this movement " promised to be 
highly valuable in facilitating the intercourse between New 
York and the Jersey shore. "^ He continued to operate both the 
Yesey street and Spring street ferries until January, 1817, when 
he sold to John, Robert and Samuel Swartwout the exclusive 
right of ferriage from Hoboken to New York. The Swartwouts 
proposed to have on the two ferries, by the first of the following 
May, " two horse boats and other craft for the accommodation 
of the public."* On the Ttli of April, 1817, the Common Coun- 
cil consented to the transfer of the ferry leases and an extension 
thereof for ten years, on condition that the Swartwouts would 
give to the city $516.25 a year for the Yesey street ferry, and 
within six months from the first of the following May place 
thereon " two good horse boats of not less than eight horses to a 
boat ; " and for the Spring street ferry to give $25 a year, and 
place thereon " as many sail or ferry boats as the corporation 
may deem proper."^ About this time the landing on the New 
York side was changed to Murray street. But that location was 
found to be too " remote from the market to accommodate the 
country people," and as Yesey street was " too much covered 
with carts, &c.," Barclay street was selected as the landing place 
on the 8th of June, 1818. At this place it has remained ever 

^Centinel of Freedom, October 1, 1811. Mr. Valentine fixes the date of the trial 
trip, October 11, 1811. Valentine's Mamial, 1859, 604. 
'^N. Y. Records, xxxvii.,1. '■^Ibid, xxxviii., 221. 

*Ibid, xxxiL, 109. "Ibid, xxxil, 321. 


since. The Swartwouts held thege ferries but little over one 
year. They assigned them to Philip Hone, of New York. The 
Common Council consented to the transfer. They gave him a 
lease for twelve years, and permitted him to " substitute a good 
substantial team boat in the place of a steamboat."^ About the 
1st of March, 1821, an ejectment suit was begun against Plone to 
take from him the ferry .^ Before this suit came to trial the 
parties compromised, and the two ferries reverted to the Stevens 
family. In May, 1821, John C. and Kobert L. Stevens purchased 
the interest which Hone had in them.^ They now proposed to 
place on the Barclay street ferry " a superior steamboat, from 
ninety to a hundred feet on deck, and forty-two feet beam, built 
of the best cedar and oak," and promised to put on more than 
one if necessary. For the Spring street ferry they proposed an 
eight-horse team boat. The Common Council consented that John 
C. Stevens should have the lease of the Barclay street ferry for nine 
years from May 1, 1821, at a rent of $595 a year, and that he 
and his brother Robert L. should have the Spring street ferry 
for fourteen years, paying therefor, for the first four years one 
cent a year ; for the next five years $50 a year, and for the next 
five years, $200 a year. It was further agreed that the Barclay 
street lease should be extended for five years at a rent of $800 
a year.* The Hoboken Steamhoat Ferry Company was incorpo- 
rated November 3, 1821. 

On the 22d of April, 1822, the Messrs. Stevens made a trial 
trip of the first steamboat placed on the ferry since 1811.^ This 
was the "Hoboken." Thereafter it made trips " every hour by 
St. Paul's Church clock." On the 21st of July, 1823, they re- 
ceived permission to start the Canal street ferry and use steam- 
boats thereon.^ On the first Friday in September, 1823, the 
" Pioneer " made its trial trip.'' In these boats the ladies' cabin 
was below deck, carpeted and warmed by open fire-places. From 
1821 until the present time these ferries have been under the 

^N. 7. Records, xxxv.,^'i\. Ubid, xlil, 249. ^Ihid,xlm.,l. 

*Ibid,xliu.,3Z6. '-Jbid, xlv.,2\\. ^Ibid, xlviu.,Sl(i. 

''Ibid, xlviii., 446. 


control of the Stevens family or of the Hoboken Land and Im- 
provement Company. The Christopher street ferry was started 
in July, 1836. 

List of boats on the Hohohen Ferry. 

Hoboken, -----._ April 22, 1822. 

Pioneer, --..... September, 1823. 

Fairy Qneen,i -----__ April, 1828. 

Xewark, ---....- April, 1828, 

Passaic,^ ------___ 1844. 

John Fitch, - - - - - - . _ 1846. 

James Kumsey,^ -----_._ 1846. 

Phoenix, ---.--.__ 1851. 

James Watt,'* - ■ - - - - - _ - 1851. 

Chancellor Livingston/ ..--__ 1853. 

Paterson, -----.__. 1854. 

Hoboken,'" --------- 1861. 

Hoboken, ----..__. 1863. 

Morristown, ---_.-__ 1864. 

James Rnmsey, - - - - - - - - 1867. 

Wiehawken, -----._. 1868. 

Secauciis, ---..-_ March 10, 1873. 

The Pavonia Ferry. 

Standing out boldly on the first page of this ferry's history is 
an exclusive right of ferriage, the King's Patent for which is as 
follows : 

' This boat was rebuilt in 1851, and then named the Phoenix. It was the night 
boat in the summer of 1856. 

- This boat was taken from the line to Newark. 

'•'' Destroyed by fire in 1853 while lying in the Barclay street slip. Her ma- 
chinery was afterward put in the Paterson. 

■< Destroyed by fire August 3, 1870. 

■' Chartered l)y the United States Government in 1861 for a transport. It was 
in the service about one year. 

" Chartered by the United States drovernment in 1861 for a transport. It was 
lost in the Burnside expedition to North Carolina in 1862. 


" George the Second, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireknd, King, Defender of tlie Faith, &c. 

" To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting. AVhereas, 
the convenient, speedy and safe carridge, transportation and 
conveyance of passengers, horses, goods, wares and merchan- 
dizes from one place or one province to another is the life of 
trade and commerce ; and whereas it has been humbly repre- 
sented nnto us by our loving subject Archibald Kennedy, Es- 
quire, one of our Council of the neighboring province of New 
York, that the County of Bergen is a growing county and yearly 
increases in its number of inhabitants and productions of all 
sorts of necessaries, and that it lies the most contiguous to our 
city of IS^ew York, in our said province of New York ; and 
whereas there hath not hitherto been any regular feny or pas- 
sage boats, except from our said Jersey shore to our said City of 
New York, so as to transport or set over any passengers, goods 
or merchandizes, with any safety or certainty, to the great incon- 
veniency and detriment of all our loving subjects, the inhabi- 
tants of both our said provinces, And whereas the said Archi- 
bald Kennedy hath proposed and undertaken, though at very 
great expense and trouble and without any probability of any 
present advantage, to build a boat or boats, scow or scows, erect 
a wharf or wharves, and do everything necessary and commodi- 
ous for the keeping up and employing a regular ferry or ferries, 
for the transporting of passengers and horses, goods, wares and 
merchandizes as aforesaid, providing he might obtain our letters 
patent, granting to him, his heirs and assigns, the sole liberty 
and privilege of keeping and employing a ferry or ferries, at 
such place or places, and in such manner and under such pro- 
visoes as hereafter mentioned. And we, having always at heart 
the benefit, ease and safety of all our loving subjects, and being 
ready and willing to give proper encouragement to all those who 
shall undertake to contribute to the same, we have thought fit to 
give and grant, and we do hereby, of our s])e('ial grace and mere 
motion, give and grant unto the said Archibald Kennedy, his 
heirs and assigns, the sole liberty and privilege of keeping, using 
and employing a ferry or ferries, at a place called Pavonia, alias 


Ahasimus, situate on Hudson's, or the North river, in our said 
province of New Jersey, and at a certain distance on each side 
of the said place along the shore, that is to say, from the said 
place called Pavonia or Ahasimus, to the most southerly part of 
a place called Commumpaw, down the said river, and uj) the said 
river from the said place, Pavonia or Ahasimus, a q^uarter of a 
mile beyond for above Weehawk, for transporting and carrying 
of passengers, goods, wares and merchandizes, with the liberty 
of taking and receiving such sum and sums of money, ferriages 
and hire for the same, as hath been usually taken and received 
in such cases, or now is, or at any time hereafter shall be legally 
established or appointed for that purpose. To have and to hold 
the sole liberty and privilege, ferriages and hire aforesaid, to the 
said Archibald Kennedy, his heirs and assigns, to the sole 
and only proper use, benefit and behoof of the said Archibald 
Kennedy, his heirs and assigns forever. And we do strictly for- 
bid all our loving subjects to carry any passengers, horses, goods, 
wares or merchandizes, contrary to the liberty and privilege afore- 
said, under the pain of our displeasure and the highest penalties 
the law can inflict, provided always, and these presents are upon 
this condition and limitation, that the said Archibald Kennedy, 
with all convenient speed, shall provide a suflicient boat or boats, 
scow or scows, and sufficient persons or hands for the transport- 
ing, carrying and ferrying of passengers, horses, goods, wares and 
merchandizes as aforesaid, and the same being so provided shall 
from time to time and at all times hereafter, continue to keep, or 
cause to be kept such boat or boats, scow or scows, in good and 
sufficient repair, with good and sufficient persons or hands to 
give due attendance for the transporting, carrying and ferrying 
of passengers, horses, goods, wares and merchandizes as afore- 
said, according to the true intent and meaning hereof, otherwise 
this present grant, and every matter and thing contained herein, 
shall cease, determine and be utterly void to all intents and pur- 
poses whatsoever. 

" In testimony whereof we have caused these our letters to be 
made patent and the seal of our province of Nova Cesarea, or 
New Jersey, to be affixed. Witness our trusty and well-beloved 


William Cosby, Esc|., Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in 
and over our provinces of New Jersey and New York, and ter- 
ritories depending thereon in America, Yice-Admiral of the 
same, and Colonel in our army, &g. At Fort George, in the 
city of New York, this Seventh day of January, in the seventh 
year of our reign, and in the year of our Lord One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Thirty-three."^ 

It is quite certain that Captain Kennedy did not fulfill the 
conditions of the above patent, and so forfeited all the rights in- 
tended to be granted thereby. The next notice of this feny is a 
petition to the Common Council of New Y''ork for a ferry from 
the " west end of Pearl street " to Harsimus, on the 23d of 
March, 1753.'- Nothing came of this movement. On May 3, 
1765, Archibald Kennedy and William McAdam made an at- 
tempt to secure for themselves the exclusive right of ferriage 
from New Y^ork to the Jersey shore.^ This was a blow at the 
Panlus Hoeck ferry, but it fell short. Excepting Budd's ferry, 
the next that is heard of a ferry from Harsimus is on the 13th of 
April, 1818, when a number of persons petitioned for a ferry 
from the foot of Chambers street to Harsimus."* Nothing more is 
heard of this ferry until on the completion of the Bergen Tunnel 
by the Long Dock Company in 1861. The Erie Kailway Com- 
pany, lessees of the Long Dock Company, revived the Pavonia 
Ferry .^ It began business May 1, 1861, with three old boats — 
Niagara, Onalaska and Onala — from the Brooklyn ferries. 
The Erie Railway Company have since put upon the ferry the 
Pavonia, built in - - - - - - 1861. 

Susquehanna, built in - _ _ _ 1864. 

Delaware, built in _ _ _ - . 1865. 

The Twenty-third street feny was established in May, 1868. 


Jay Gould, built in - - - - - 1869. 

James Fisk, Jr., built in - - - - 1869. 

Erie, built in ----- - 1873. 

'Liber C 3 of Deeds [Trenton), 234. ^N. Y. Records, v.. 329. 

"Ibid, m., 269. ■'Ibid, xxxv., 149. 

•'• The Pavonid Ferry Company was incorporated February 28, 1849. 

272 history of hudson county. 

Brown's Ferry. 

The Coniinissioners who were appointed on the 20tli of Jmie, 
1765, tu hiy out a road from J^ewark to intersect the road leading 
from Bergen Point to Paulus Hoeck, were authorized to erect 
ferries over the Passaic and Ilackensack rivers, together with all 
necessary ferry buildings.^ By the same act the owners of the 
land where the ferries were to be erected were permitted to oper- 
ate the same for their own benefit, on condition that they would 
equip the ferries and keep in repair the causeway over theii- 
land. Thomas Brown, of Bergen, was one of the commissioners, 
and owner of the land on the east bank of the Ilackensack where 
the ferry was erected.'^ From a supplement to said act, passed 
June 28, 1766,^ it would seem that the ferry was erected before 
the latter date. Then arose a dispute between Captain Brown 
and Garret Newkirk concerning the title to the hinds on the east 
side of the Hackensack, and the right to the ferry. It was decided 
in favor (tf the former, and from that time until the Revolution 
the ferry was known as " J^)rown's Ferry." For nearly thirty 
years this was the only thoroughfare between Paulus Hoeck and 
Newark and the extensive countr}^ beyond. It may well be sup- 
posed that it did a thriving business with its row boats and scows. 
A horn lianging to a tree served the traveler to summon the fer- 
ryman to his duty and reward.^ The safety of the ferries over 
the Passaic and Ilackensack rivers was an early care of the 
Americans in the Revolution. On August 7, 1776, Richard 
Stockton, a delegate in Congress from New Jersey, sent to the 
New Jersey State Convention, then in session at Burlington, cer- 
tain resolutions of Congress requesting the Convention to make 
such provision for keeping open these ferries as woukl be etfoct- 
ual. They were accompanied by a Congressional promise to 
reimburse such expenses to the State. So i)rompt was the Con- 
vention in carrying out the wishes of Congress that on August 
9 they passed an ordinance for keeping open the communica- 
tion between New Jersey and New York by way of these ferries. 

'^AUinso/i's Laws, 376. -' See the genealojjy of the Gautier family. 

^AUinson's Laws, 289. ^ Booth's Hist, of j^. ¥., 399. 

DOUW'S FERRY. 27'^> 

The preamble of the ordinance declares the ferries poorly 
equipped and the proprietors negligent. The act took them out 
of the proprietor's hands and put them in the hands of William 
Camp and Joseph Hedden until the first of December following. 
They were to provide four scows to each ferry, supply a sufficient 
number of hands, and stretch ropes across the rivers. Soldiers 
were to be ferried over for one-third of the regular rates.^ After 
the capture of New York the ferry was suspended. When the 
war closed the ferries were repaired, and continued in use 
until the bridges were built on the turnpike. They then fell 
into disuse until 1805, when they were again repaired. They 
remained in use until supplanted by the bridges built after the 
old road across the meadows was made into a plank road. 

Douw's Ferry. 

This ferry was located at the westerly end of Cherry lane, about 
175 feet north of the present bridge of the New Jersey Railroad 
over the Hackensack river. It was probably set up about the 
time that Colonel John Schuyler constructed the Belleville turn- 
pike during the French war, and remained in operation until 
superseded by the bridge erected in 1791:. It received its name 
from John Douw, a friend of Colonel Schuyler. He had for- 
merly operated the ferry over the Passaic at Belleville. The ferrv 
house was on the west side of the Hackensack. Douw used it 
also as a public house, where he entertained travelers and guests. 
Bangs says that here, June 27, 1776, by him and Schuyler, " many 
Decanters of Wine suffered shipwreck, and many Bowles of 
Grog were poured down. - * Nor was Egg Pop forgot among 
our Dainties."^ It was at this ferry that boats had been provided 
on the night of Lee's attack on Paulus Iloeck to carry over the 
troops on their retreat. Their delay induced those in charge to 
believe that the forces had retreated along the hill, and there- 

Mm. Archives, ith Series, vi., 1659. ''Proc. N. J. Hist. Soc, viii., 132. 



fore the bouts were taken away. Lee's advance, passinii" down 
Clierry Lane, reached the ferry only to find it deserted. 

Budd's Fkkrv. 

In the year 1802, Nathaniel Ihidd, withont any license, hnilt 
or extended a dock in the Harsinins Cove, afterward known as 
Budd's Dock, and erected a ferry to New York. The westeni 
end of this dock was in Eightli street, about the middle of the 
block east of Provost street, and thence extended southeasterly 
between one hundred and two hundred feet. The exact date 
when this ferry was erected is not known ; though, from a peti- 
tion of John Holdron, dated in May, lSo;3,^ that the Jersey City 
Ferry had been injured by a " new ferry '' which had been in 
existence for ten months, the proximate date is ascertained. On 
the 22d of November, 1802, the Legislature appointed connnis- 
sioners with power to lay out a road from the '' Great Eoad 
leading from Newark to Paulus Hook '' to Budd's Dock. The 
act also authorized Budd to erect a ferry from said dock to the 
city of New York. It would seem from the preamble to the 
act that he had been operating the ferry for some time, for therein 
it is said the ferry " hath ac(piired a great share of public patron- 
age." He had landed on the New York side without the per- 
mission or even knowledge of the authorities there ; for, in their 
report on Holdron's petition, on the KUh of May, 1803, the 
committee expressly say " the corporation was not aware of " any 
ferry as complained of Ijy Holdron, and they recommended that 
unauthorized ferries be restrained. Just previous to this report, 
and innnediately after the }»etition of Holdron, on the IHli of May, 
1803, Budd petitioned the Common Council of New York '* foi- 
liberty to establish a new ferry from the iJarclay street wharf across 
the Nortli River.'''~ There seems to be a conflict between this 
petition and the act of 1802, explained ])robably by the fact that 
hitherto he had run it without authority. The recpiest of the 
j)etition was refused on the lOtli of the same month, for the rea- 

' Proc. N. J. Ilixt. Sor., .riii., 712. "find, riii , 694. 

BUDd's ferry bill's KERRY. 275 

si,)ii that the ferries existinor on the N^ortli River were then under 
lease for three years, and it would be inipro])er for the corpora- 
tion to lease other ferries durin^; that time, and, in the opinion of 
the committee, "the public interest would not be promoted by 
erecting another ferrv on the North River."^ 
Notwithstanding this, he advertises as follows : 

" Bi'dd's I'^EKRY. 

" The subscriber informs his friends and the ])ublic that he 
has erected a Ferry between Powles Hook and Hobooken Fer- 
ries, has also provided good Roats and careful Ferrymen for 
carrying Passengers, Horses, Cattle, Carriages, (roods, Wares and 
Merchandize to and from the City of New York, as he liatli 
obtained liberty from the Corporation of New^ York to land and 
take olf from the same Dock and Ferry Stairs as the Powles 
Hook Boats do at the foot of CJourtland Street, in the City of 
New York — and also entertainment for them and Horses, and 
hath erected convenient Stal)les adjacent to the said Ferry for 
those who would Avisli to bring witii them their own forage for 
teams or without. 

" Oct. 24, 1803." —Centinel of Freedom, Oct. 25, 1803. 

There is no record in the minutes of the Common Council of 
New York, up to 1824, that Budd ever received permission to 
land his ferry boats on that side of the river ; yet, from Hol- 
dron's petition, there can be no doubt that his boats were running 
in 18(>2, and from the evidence in Gough vs. Bell^^ tlmt "for- 
some years after " 1804, he had a ferry and kept a ferry house. 

Bull's Ferry\ 

When and by whom tliis ferry was erected has not been 
discovered. The name was well known at the time of the 
RevolutiuiL At that time there lived a family by the name of 

Proctor's N. J. Hist. Soc, xiii., 711. 1 Zab. iiep., 104. 


Bull, at the place now known as Bull's Ferry, and the probability 
is that it took its name from that family, who then owned the 
land on the Jersey shore and erected the ferry. Nothing par- 
ticular concerning it is to be found in the JVew York Records. 
The following named persons have been lessees, and probably 
managed the ferry, or had an interest in it : 

Cornelius Huyler, ------ 1788 to 1792. 

Theodorus Brower, - - - - - 1792 " 1805. 

Garret Neefie, --.-_. _ _ 180.5. 

Lewis Concklin, _-.-___ 1806. 

Abraham Huyler, -------- 1808. 

De Klyn's Ferry. 

On the 14th of October, 1799, John Towne and Barent De 
Klyn erected a ferry from the new wharf '' south and north " of 
the State Prison to Hoboken.^ In March, 1806, the location of 
it was referred to a committee of the New York Common Coun- 
cil,^ but nothing more has been learned concerning it. 

The following attempts were made to erect other ferries across 
the North River. There is no evidence, however, that either of 
them were successful. 

On the 19th of May, 1805, Anthony Lispenard and others 
petitioned the Common Council of New York for " a new Ferry 
across Hudson River, between De Klyn's Ferry and the Market."^ 

On the 2d of September, 1805, Joseph Watkins and others 
petitioned for a " new ferry from the Market in Greenwich 
street," and Gabriel V. Ludlow and others petitioned for a 
" ferry from the foot of Duane street."'* 

The Elizabetiitown Point Fekry. 

This ferry is only incidentally connected with Jersey City. 
About the year 1808, it was purchased by Colonel Aaron Ogden, 

iJV^. Y. Records, xii., 548. ^Ibid, xv., 518. 

^Ibid, XV., 328. *Tbid, xv., 349. . 


and bj liim leased to John R. and Robert J. Livingston, wlio 
owned a monojwlj of navigating New York waters by steam. 
They placed on this ferry the Raritan^ the first steamer between 
Xew York and Elizabethtown Point. It was not long, however, 
before Colonel Ogden had bnilt, by Cornelius Joralemon, of 
Belleville, a boat, fourteen feet beam and seventy-five feet keel, 
in which Daniel Dod, of Mendham, put a twelve-horse engine. 
It was called the Sea-Horse. This boat the Colonel placed on 
this ferry, bnt, to avoid seizure nnder the New York navigation 
laws, ran her to Jersey City. On the IStli of May, 1813, she 
was advertised as " an elegant steamboat provided to run between 
Elizabethtown Point and Panlus Hook ; fare four shillings." She 
made two trips a day. The fare was afterward reduced to 
three shillings and sixpence. On the 21st of June, 1814, she 
was advertised to meet the team boat Substitution^ at Paulus 
Hook, which would carry the passengers to New York. 

" The Bellona, owned by Gibbons, ran from Elizabethtown to 
Jersey City, fare 12|^ cents. In the advertisement was flung to 
the breeze a banner inscribed with the motto, ' New Jersey must 
be free.'" — Sentinel of Freedom, July Zl.^ 1821. 

PowLES Hook and Brooklyn. 

During the Races at the Union Course on Long Island, in 
October, 1822, a Brooklyn ferry boat made four trips a day 
between that city and Jersey City, 


History of Jersey City — Paulus Hoeck — Paulus Hoeck race course — Early lot- 
teries — British graveyard — Names of city officials — Consolidation •with 
Van Vorst township — With Bergen and Hudson City — As a i)ort of entry 
— Water works — Post-office — Bull-baiting — Floating theatre — The old 
wind mill — History of Bergen — Its officers — History of Harrison — Captain 
William Sandford — Petersborough — History of Harsimus — West India 
Company's farm — The Duke's farm — History of Hoboken — Its first occu- 
pant — Made into a city — Its officers — History of North Bergen — Secaucus 
— Three Pigeons — The Frenchman's garden — History of Hudson City — 
Its officials — Beacon race course — Horses running and time made. 

As WILL be seen hereafter, the territory coiiii)rised within the 
county of Hudson inchides all the land within the limits of the 
old township of Bergen, and that part of New Barbadoes Neck 
now within the bounds of the townships of Harrison and Kear- 
ney. This territory has, since the erection of the county, been 
cut up into several municipalities, a brief sketch of some of 
which we now" propose to give. 

Jersey City was incorporated January 28, 1820, l)ut remained 
a part of the township of Bergen. It was then bounded on the 
west by a creek and ditch between the lands of the "Associate? 
of the Jersey Company " and Cornelius Van Yorst (Warren 
street nearly) ; east by the middle of Hudson's river; north by 
Harsimus Cove (First street), and south by Coumiunipaw Cove 
(South street). This territory was the old Panlus Hoeck of the 
Dutch and Aressick of the Indians. It was sold by the West 
India Company to Abraham Isaacson Planck, May 1, 1038, for 
the sum of four hundred and fifty guilders, calculated at twenty 
stivers to the guilder.^ It remained in the Planck family until 
August 2, 1099, when it was sold to Cornelius Yan Yorst for 
£300, "current money of New York."^ From this time until 

'iV^. Y. Col. M8S., i., 14. ^ Winfield'a Land Titles, 45. 



1764 it was used as farm land, as most of it continued to be until 
1804. In 1764 the ferry was established, and Michael Cornelison 
built, just north of Grand street, near the water, a low trame 
house about forty feet in lenf^th, with a piazza in front and an 
extensive Dutch roof which projected over the piazza. In 1800 
this house, used as a tavern and ferry house, and several spacious 
barns and stables and a store house were the only buildings on 
the Hoeck. Here, when passengers arrived by stage and no 
boat was at hand to take them to N"ew York, they could get 
both food and drink. In addition to this, the host would resale 
them with an inexhaustible fund of anecdote, for he was well ac- 
quainted with the world ; had seen much of it ; had taken part 
in the War of the Revolution, and was a shrewd observer. Such 
was the straight, stout, jolly Major David Hunt. 

Late in 1800, or early in 1801, a small shanty was put up along 
the turnpike, a little way from the ferry house, and occupied, as 
is now supposed, by John Murphy. The portentous sign, 
Oyoh-stors for sale hear, put on the side of the establishment, 
indicated to the hungry traveler good cheer within and incipient 
opposition to the sirloins of the Major.^ 

The old tavern, at least as much of it as could be moved, was 
iinally taken to a lot of Colonel Dod, so well known as the vet- 
eran post-office man, who for so many years buffeted the storm 
and ploughed his w^ay through fields of ice in performance of 
the laudable duty of transporting the United States mail over 
the river in a row boat ! 

The Hoeck was made up of a number of sand hills, some of 
them of considerable height. Around these, and generally along 
the edge of the upland, Cornelius Van Vorst, in the summer of 
1769, made a track for horse racing. It was one mile in length. 
Here the lovers of fast horses and good sport gathered from the 

' I find the following in a paper of that date : " The Steer fattened by Major 
Hunt and killed by Aaron Munn & Co. weighed 

The Quarters, - 1266 

Hide and fat, 260 

Total, --...- 1526." 


neighboring city and surrounding eonntr}', until tlie Revolution 
bi-oke out and war put a stop t(» fun. The first notice met with 
reiatino; to this course is as follows: 

" PowLES Hook Races. 

" On Monday, the 9th day of October next, will l)e run for 
over the New Course at Powles Hook, a Purse of Fifty 
Pounds, 'New York Currency, by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, 
not more than three Quarters Blood ; and those less than three 
Quarters Blood to be allowed 5 lb. The best of three 3 Mile 
Heats ; three Years old carrying seven Stone ; four Years old 
seven Stone, eight pounds ; five Years old eight Stone, two 
Pounds ; six years old eight stone, eleven Pounds ; and aged 
Horses 9 Stone, seven Pounds, Saddle and Bridle included; Fil- 
lies to be allowed three Pounds. Any Horse, &c., running two 
Heats shall not be obliged to start a third to save his Distance. 
To run according to the King's Plate Articles. 

" Tuesday, the 10th, the beaten Horses to run the best of three 
Heats for the Stakes. 

"Wednesday, the lltli, there will be a Fox Hunt in Bergen 
Woods,^ and on Tuesday, the 12th, there will be a Purse of 

' This sport was continued until quite recently. Some are yet living who 
took part in the chase through Bergen Woods. The followinpr receipt for din- 
ners shows that some of our best citizens belonged to the hunt, and that when 
the fierce delight of the chase was oyer they knew how to quiet their over- 
strained nerves : 

"Jersey City, February 18, 1831. 

"Gentlemen Fox Chasers, 

To Freeman Anderson, Dr. 

Colonel Ogden, to 1 Dinner, |1 00 

Doctor Gotier, " " 1 00 

" Cornelison, " " 1 00 

Henderson, « <• 1 00 

HughMcCutcheon,2 " 3 00 

Gilchrist, 1 " I 00 

Mr. Miller, - 1 00 

Mr. James, « .. ....... i 00 

Mr. Freeland, " " - - - - ■- - - - 1 00 


Twenty Pounds, free for any Horse, Mare or Geldini!:; not more 
tlian Quarter Blood, Weight for age as above. The Horses, 
etc., to be shown and entered at the Starting Post, the Saturday 
before running, between tlie Hours of 3 and 5 in the afternoon, 
in presence of the Judges, who will be present, paying 50s. 
Entrance for each Horse, &c., that starts for the Plate of 501., 
and 20s. for every Horse, &c, that starts for the 201. Plate. 
Any Dispute that may arise to l)e determined by a Majority of 
the Subscribers pi'esent. 

" No Quarter Blood that ever won the value of 40s. can start 
for the Purse of 201. 

" Good Crafts w^ill be ready at each Ferry to convey over all 
Persons who may incline to see the Paces ; good Stables, with 
excellent Hay and oats, will be provided for the Horses, and 
good Accommodations for the Grooms. To start at 2 o'Clock 
.precisely each Day ; Certificates of the Ages of the Horses, &c., 
to be produced at Entrance, from under the hands of the Breed- 

The race came off at the time named. Four horses started for 
the £50 purse. It was won by Anthony Rutger's horse Luggs. 
Mr. Morris' horse Partner had the misfortune to run over a 
dog. The cur threw the horse and the horse threw the rider, 
who was very much hurt. Up to the time of this mishap the 

7 Bottles of Champaigne, - - - - 14 00 

3 " Port, 3 00 

1 " Madeira, 2 00 

9 \ 29 CO 

3 22i 
" April 26, 1831. 
" Received by the hands of J. D. Miller three Dollars 22-100 from Doctor Gau- 
tier, Dr. Cornelison, David Henderson, Robert Gilchrist and J. D. Miller, respect- 
ively, being their quota of amount on the above bill, and acct. in full for the 
same. Freeman Andebson." 

" Received, Jersey City, December 4th, 1830, of Henry Lyon, Twenty Dollars, 
in full, for the Use of the Hounds and myself attending the Club of the Jersey 
Hunt, which is full satisfaction to me. 

" $20.00. John BANciiiER." 

'iV. Y. Mercury, August 14, 1700. 


race " in doubtful balance liiing," as Lug<j>< had won the first 
heat and Partner the second.^ 

The proprietor of the course was anxious to keep the races in 
good repute. One of the rules was : " No persons to be con- 
cerned in a confederacy in running their Horses together or in 
dividing the Plate."^ Thus it would appear that it was whole- 
some for horsemen to be subjected to a little watching even in 
those days of honesty. 

On the 27th of August, 1771, a purse of £100, and on the 
following day a purse of £50, was run for. For the first purse, 
(Japtain De Lancey's chestnut colt iSidtan^ Mr. Perkins' black 
horse Steady, Mi-. Dick's gray horse Vitriol and Israel Waters' 
bay mare Xettle started. Settle won without difiiculty. For 
the second purse. Whitehead Corneirs horse Booby, Armstrong's 
horse Hero, Elsworth's gray colt Quichsilver, Butler's bay horse 
Bastard, Timothy Cornell's black horse Richmond, Dick's gray 
horse Vitriol, Perkins' black horse Steady and Van Home's 
gray mare Dove started. The race was won by Boohy in three 
straight heats, hard running.^ 

On the 31st of May, 1773, a fine race was run with the fol- 
lowing result : 

Elsworth's bay horse, Cyrus, . . . - 
Jackson's gray horse, Quiclcsil'ver , 
Tallman's gray mare, Dove, . - - _ 

Wickoffs black horse, Richmond, 
Patterson's black horse, Gimcrack, - 
Waters' horse, Valiant (5 years old). 

On the following day the four-year-olds ran for a purse «»f 
£50, with the following result : 

Anthony Rutger's bay colt, Macaroni^ - - - 1 1 <> 
















^N. Y. Mercury, October 16, 1771. '-Ihid, April 15, 1771. 

■^lUd, Septeynbcr 2, 1771. 

^ This was a beautiful horse. His dam was out of Ariel, by Old Spark. His 
sire was Wildnir, he out of Old Cade, and he out of Lord Godolphin's Arabinn. 
Wildaifs dam was Roxana, daughter of Jiald Oalloioay, and granddaughter of 
Old Spark. 


Patterson's bay mare, V'n'gin , - - - - - 3 2 
Waters' brown horse, Xantkv.s, - - - - 2 3 

Cornell's bay horse, Bashaw^ - - . - - 1 4 0^ 

On the 23d of May, 17Y4, a race was run for a £50 purse, as 
follows : 

Cornell's black horse, Steady, - - - -14 3 1 

Rutgers' bay horse, Macaro7ii, - - - - 2 12 3 

Waters' bay horse, Auctioneer, - - - - 5 2 1 2 

Elsworth's bay horse, Cyrus, - - - - 3 3 dr 

Jackson's gray horse, QuicTcsilver, - - - 4 5 dr 

At this race the spectators were numerous, the weather fine, 
the sport excellent, but the most confident in the betting branch 
were grievously disappointed.^ 

Immediately after the race Elsworth (" Dine " Elsworth, of the 
Paulus Hoeek Ferry) bought the horse Macaroni, and entered 
him for the race on June 7, at Centre Course, near Philadel- 
phia.^ Sometimes the programme was changed from a race of 
blooded horses to a scrub race of Dutch horses, in which the 
steeds of Bergen and Communipaw had an opportunity to show 
the metal of their pasture.'* 

These are the particulars of a few of the races run on this 
course. It was not used during the war, but revived afterward, 
and continued until the Associates graded down the sand hills 
and began anew city. A track was then laid out at Harsimus, 
al)out where Henderson street crosses the Erie Pailway tracks. 
This was in successful operation in 1808 and 1809. 

About a century ago lotteries were much in vogue and very 
])opular. Churches, colleges, schools, roads and prisons were 
built, and many charitable institutions sustained by them. Paulus 
Hoeck was a favorite place for this enterprise. The first lottery 
drawn here was in the summer of 1773. It was noticed as fol- 
lows : 

^Rinagtoiis Gazette, June 3, 1778. 'IMd, Mai/ 2(), 1774. 

■'Ilid, June 2, 1774. ■'iV". Y. Mercury, May 9, 1774. 















500 Pr 


1,000 Blanks. 


" PowLES Hook Cash Lottery. 

" Subject to a deduction of 15 per cent, on the Prizes to be 
given for Purses to be run for at Powles Hook. 

1 Prize of 400 Doll, is - - - - 400 

- 200 
------ 200 

- 300 
----- 300 

'' ----- 310 

'----- 345 

. - - 945 

1, 500 Tickets at 2 Dollars each, . - . _ 3,000 

" The Lottery has two blanks to a prize ; will be drawn as 
soon as full. After the drawing, printed handbills with the for- 
tunate numbers will be distributed among the adventurers, and 
the prizes regularly paid at Powles Hook,"^ 

During the first quarter of this century Yates and Mclntyre 
conducted the lottery business in Jersey City, and in March, 1824, 
advertised a " Queen's College Literature Lottery." 

During the Bi-itish occupancy of the Hoeck there was a bury- 
ing ground south of Sussex street and west of Washington street. 
In this ground many of the enemy were buried, among whom 
was Major John Smith. Connected with his grave is an interest- 
ing fact. The equestrian statue of George III., which was set 
up in 1770, in the centre of Bowling Green, New York, was torn 
down on the 9tli of July, 1776. It is said to have contained four 
thousand pounds of lead, covered with gold leaf.- The slab upon 
which the statue was placed now lies in the sidewalk in front of 
Cornelius Van Yorst's residence, on the south side of Wayne 
street, near Jersey avenue. It is a coarse marble, and is said to 

^Rivington's Gazette, June 3, 1773. ^Proe. N. J. Hist. Soc, viii. 125. 


have been brought from England. The holes in which three 
of the hoofs of the leaden charger were fastened are yet to be 
seen. During the w^ar it w'as brought to Panlus Iloeck — when, 
by whom or for what purpose (unless for the purpose to which it 
was afterward put) is not known. On Friday evening, July 25, 
1783, Major John Smith, stationed at Paulus Hoeck, died, and 
was buried on the following Sunday w^ith military honors.-' This 
slab was placed over his grave, with the following inscription 

engraved upon it : 

In Memory of 

Major John Smith, 

of the 

XLIInd or Royal Highland Reg't, 

Who died 25 July, 1783, 

In the 48th Year of his Age, 

This Stone is erected 

By the Officeks of that Reg't. 


Bravery, Generosity & Humanity 

During an honorable service 

of 29 Years 

Endeared him to the Soldiers, 

To his Acquaintance & Friends. 

• When this part of Jersey City was graded, Mr. Van Vorst 
(" Faddy ") took the slab to his house in Harsimus, where, from 
supporting the charger of a king, it became the stepping-stone of 
a republican. That building was torn down in 1818, when the 
stone was taken to the residence of his grandson, on the north- 
east corner of Wayne street and Jersey avenue. It there became 
a step at the kitchen door. When this building was torn down, 
in (about) 1854, the slab was placed where it now is. In 1828 
an English gentleman offered Mr. Yan Yorst five hundred dol- 
lars for it. 

The Hoeck remained in possession of the Yan Yorst family 
until the 26th of March, 1804, w4ien, with the ferry rights, it was 

^Rmngton'a Gazette, July 30, 1783. 


conveyed to Anthony Dey, of New York, for an annuitj' of six 
thousand Spanish milled dollars. On the 18th of April, 1804, 
Dey conveyed it to Abraham \"arick, who, on the 20th of the 
same month, conveyed it to Richard Varick, Jacob Radcliff and 
Anthony T>ej.^ These three men were the founders of Jersey 

' The founders of Jersey City were three eminent and successful lawyers. 
HiCHAKD Varick was born in 1752; licensed to practice law, Oct. 22,1774; 
iipj)ointed Military Secretary-General in .June, 1775, witli the rank of Captain ; 
in February, 1770, appointed by Congress Deputy Commissary-General of Mus- 
ters for the northern army, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He was pres- 
ent at the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga. After Burgoyne's surrender. 
Colonel Varick was stationed at West Point until after the treason of Arnold, 
to whose family he was for some time attached as aide-de-camp. Shortly after- 
ward he became a member of Washington's military family, and was by him 
appointed his Recording Secretary. After the evacuation of the city of New 
York by the British in 1783, Varick was appointed Recorder of the city, which 
office he held until 1788. In 1780 he held the otfice of Attorney-General of the 
State of New York, and in the same year was appointed Mayor of the city, 
which otfice he held for twelve years. He was President of the Cincinnati for 
nearly thirty years. He died in Jersey City, July 30, 1881. 

Jacob Hadcliff was the eldest son of William RadclifF, a Captain and 
Brigadier-General of Militia in the Revolution. By profession he was a lawyer ; 
began practice in Poughkeepsie, and was soon raised to the bench of the Su- 
preme Court. He then removed to the city of New York, and in a short time 
resigned his judicial office and resumed the practice of his ])rofession. He was 
Mayor of that city in 1810, '15, '16, '17. 

AxTiiONY Dey was born at Preakness, Bergen County, N. J., in the month of 
February, 1776. His father. General Richard Dey, and his grandfather. Colonel 
Tunis Dey, were both of them officers in the Revolutionary army. He was a 
lineal descendant (the oldest son of the oldest son) of one Derrick Dey, who 
came to New York city from Holland in 1640, and established a mill and ferry 
at the foot of Dey street in that city. He resided on Broadway, at the head of 
that street. The mother of Richard Varick was a Miss Dey, and sister of An- 
thony Deys grandfather. At the age of sixteen years Anthony came to the city 
and studied law in the office of his cousin, Colonel Richard Varick, to whose 
influence and connection he probably owed his early success in the practice of 
his profession, for he became a very successful and wealthy lawyer. He was 
also a very energetic, industrious and ])ersevering man. He made it a rule 
through life to ignore political preferment, and never held any office, but was, 
nevertheless, foremost in everything that could be called a public improvement, 
esjjecially in Bergen County, or that part of it now called Hudson County. He 
was the owner of large tracts of meadow land lying between the Hackensack 
and Passaic rivers, and during a long life made their improvement his particular 
interest and hobby. He was a Director for many years of the New Jersey Rail- 




City. They divided tlieir purchase into one thousand sluires, 
and associated other pej'sons with tlieniselves.^ The whole i)l(»t 
was mapped by Joseph F, Mangin, and the map, dated April 15, 
1804, entitled, "A Map of that part of the Town of Jersey com- 
monly called Powles Hook." Anticipating the completion of 
this map, the owners, on the 12th of April, advertised a sale of 
lots for the 16th, afterward postponed until the 15th of May. It 
is probable that this sale was precipitated by the advertisement 
of John Stevens for a sale of lots in Iloboken. The })arties in- 
terested now agreed upon a name for their future coi-jjoration, 
and gave notice of an application for an act of incorporation. 
The required act was passed by the Legislature on the 10th of 
November, 1804, and the "Associates of the Jersey Company" 
became not only a body, l)ut a power in the State. For fifteen 
years, like an Impcrinm 'in imjjerio, it possessed the government 
and shaped the destiny of the infant city.^ To this corporate body 
Varick, Radcliff and Dey conveyed Paulus Hoeck, Feb. 1, 1805. 
The title of the act of incorporation of 1820 reads, "An Act to 
incorporate the city of Jersey, in the county of Bergen," while 
the body of the act reads " Jersey City."^ By this act the " tax- 
able inhabitants" were authorized to elect annually five free- 
holders to conduct the affairs of the city, and to be known as 
'' The Board of Selectmen of Jersey City." The act named 
Doctor John Condit, Samuel Cassedy, Joseph Lyon, John Iv. 
Goodman and John Seaman as the first board. 

road, the owner, at one time, of the entire tract of land now known as East 
Newark, and for many years expended larj;;e sums of money in the introduction 
and improvement of blooded stock, both horses and cattle. He died in 1859, 
at his residence, in what is now a part of Jersey City, at a ^ooiX old atje. 

' In noticing this new enterprise, a paper of that date says : " Who knows 
but tliat a very few years will make it the emporium of trade and commerce of 
the State of New Jersey V" Centinel of Freedom, March 13, 1804. 

■' By this act of incorporation the Clerk of Bergen County was required to 
appoint a Deputy Clerk for Powles Hook, to keep the records and record the 
deeds, &c., in that place. Samuel Cassedy was appointed. 

■ It is said that the Board of Selectmen, who prepared this bill, were desirous 
to have the place named " The City of Jersey," but it was altered as in the text 
Ijy tlie representative of Bergen county. 


On the 23d of January, 1829, the corporate name was changed 
to " Tlie Board of Selectmen and Inhabitants of Jersey City," 
although the old name " City of Jersey " was still retained in 
the title. 

On the 22d of February, 1838, the name was changed to the 
" Mayor and Common Council of Jersey City." Up to this 
time the place had remained a part of the township of Bergen. 
It now became a separate municipality. 

On tlie 8th of March, 1839, its boundaries were extended 
westerly along the northerly side of First street to the centre of 
Grove street, thence southerly into Communipaw bay to the line 
of South street extended. 

On the 18th of March, 1851, the city received a new charter, 
which extended its boundaries so as to include the township of 
A^an Vorst. The act was not to take effect until a majority of the 
electors in each municipality voted in favor of annexation. The 
vote was taken on the 27th of March, with the following result : 

Vote In Jersey City. 

Vote in Van Vorst. 

Whole number of votes, 495 

Whole number of votes, 


"Charter," - - 489 

" Charter," 


"No Charter," - - 3 

" No Charter," 


Kejected, - - - 3 

Rejected, - 


By this charter the city was divided into four wards, each 
entitled to four aldermen. 

On the 28th of February, 1861, the lifth and sixth wards were 
erected; on the 21st of March, 1867, the seventh ward, and on 
the 17th of March, 1870, the eighth ward. 

From 1820 to 1838, the officers of the " Board of Selectmen " 
were as follows : 


Josepli Lyon,^ 1820-3. 
William Lyon, 1824. 
Joseph Kissam, 1825. 
George Dummer, 1826-30. 


Josepli Kissam, 1820. 
Philip R. Earle, 1821-4. 
A. Ogden Dayton, 1825. 
Robert Gilchrist, 1826-8 

Died at Lyon's Farms, March 31, 1839, aged 65. 




David C. Golden, 1831-2. 
William Glaze, 1883. 
John F. Ellis, 1834. 
Robert Gilchrist, 1835. 
William Glaze, 183f)-r. 

Since 1838, the officers have been 


Peter McMartin, 1829-32. 
Peter Bentley, 1833. 
Edrnnnd D. Barry, jr., 1 834. 
William W. Monro, 1835. 
Henry D. Holt, 1830-7. 

Dudley S. Gregory, 1 83S 

'41, '^58, '59. 
Peter McMartin, 1840. 
Thomas A. Alexander, 1842. 
Peter Bentley, 1843. 
Phineas C. Dnmmer, 1844-7. 
Henry J. Taylor, 1848-9. 
Robert Gilchrist, 1850-1. 


39, ' David S. Manners, 1852-6. 

Samuel Wescott, 1857. 
Cornelius Van Yorst, 1860-1. 
John B. Romar, 1862-3. 
Orestes Cleveland, 1864-6. 
James Gopsill, 1867. 
Charles H. ( )'Neil, 1868, '70-4.' 
William Clarke, 1869."^ 

< 'lerks. 

Henry D. Holt, 1838, '40-4. 
Thomas ^Y. James, 1839. 
Edgar B. Wakeman, 1845-7. 
John H. Yoorhis, 1848-50. 

George W. Cassedy, 1850-64. 
John E. Scott, 1864 until the 
present time. 

On the 2d of April, 1869, an act was approved providing for 
a vote by the electors of the several cities and townships in the 
county, east of the Hackensack river, to decide upon consolidat- 
ing the several municipalities into one, under the name of -Fersev 
City. The election was held on the 5th of October, with the 
f olio win o; result : 

' In 1868 an act was passed by the Legislature extending the Mayor's term 
of otfice to two years. Mr. O'Neii, who had been elected a few days before its 
passage, refused to hold the otfice beyond the time for whicli he had l)e('n 

• Appointed by the Common Council. 




No Chartei 






















Jersey City, 

Hudson Citj, 




Greenville, - - - 


Town of l^nion, 

West Ploboken, 

North Berg-en, 

ITnion Townshij), - 

Thus Jersey City, Bergen and Hudson City became one. On 
the 17th of March, 1870, the Legislature made provision for the 
o-overnment of the consolidated city. The territory was divided 
into sixteen wards, the eight wards of Jersey City numbering 
from one to eight inclusive ; the wards of Ifudson City, begin- 
nino- with the first, numbering from nine to twelve inclusive, 
and the wards of Bergen, beginning with the first, numbering 
from thirteen to sixteen inclusive. In 1871 the local govern- 
ment was reorganized, the wards abolished and six aldermanic 
districts erected in their stead, each district l>eing entitled to 
two aldermen. In 1873, the township of Greenville was an- 
nexed to the city by legislative act, and became part of the sixth 

Captains of the WnU-h} 

Charles el. Farlev, 1854. 

Benj-imin F. Champney. 

John R. Benedict, 1852-3. 

Thomas B. Kissam, 1854-5. 

Chiefs of Day Police. 
Hiram H. Fenu, 1854. | Charles J. Farley, 1855. 

' September 19, 1845, the city watclimea were directed at each hour, from 
the " setting of the watch until the hour of calling off arrive," to call the 


( 'hiefs of Police. 

Thomas B. Kissain, 1850-7. l Joseph McManus, 1865-8. 

Benjamin Haines, jr., 185T-8. ' Nathan R. Fowler, 1868-71. 

Jacob Z. Marinus, 1859-61. | Edward McWilliams, 1871-2. 

Edward D. Riley, 1862-4. ; Benjamin F. Chanipney, 1873. 

Patrick Jordan, 1864. | 

Columbia College Soholarship. 

On the 13th of July, 1846, the Trustees of Columbia College 
gave "to the Corporation of Jersey City'' the privilege of havino- 
one student educated in the college free of charges for tuition. 
The gift was accepted on the 17th. On the 26th of March, 1847, 
the Common Council passed " an ordinance concerning the ap- 
pointment of a student to the scholarship in Columbia College." 
The following have had the benefit of this scholarship : 

William T. Van Riper, appointed August 3, 1852. 
William R. Ilillyer, " December 2, 1856. 

Charles V. Hillyer, " October 4, 1864. 

William Holdane, " 1868. 

S. T. S. Henry, " June 24, 1872. 

Jersey City as a Port of Entry. — By Act of Congress. 
March 2, 1799, Hudson County was placed within the district 
of Perth Amboy. This district included all of East Jersey, 
except such parts as were within the district of Little Egg 

March 8, 1806, " The town or landing place of Jersey, in the 
State of New Jersey,"" was made a port of delivery, within the 
district of Perth Amboy. 

March 2, 1811, tiie whole county was annexed to the district 
of New York. 

June 30, 1834, the westerly part of the county was annexed 
to the district of Newark. 

From 1811, Colonel Aaron Ogden was Assistant Collector, 
residing in Jersey ( 'ity. In 1845 the office was abolished. 

Feb. 21, 1863, the whole county was annexed to the district of 


New York, This act provided for an Assistant Collector to 
reside in Jersey City, with power to enter and clear vessels, hut 
suhject to such rules and regulations as the Collector of New 
York might establish. Phineas C. Dunmier was appointed. 

Feb. 25, 1865, the Assistant Collector was empowered to enroll 
and license vessels engaged in the coasting trade and Usheries, 
owned in whole or in part by residents of the Counties of 
Hudson and Bergen. 

Water Works. — The territory east of Bergen Hill, lying but 
little above tide water, and the most of it salt-meadow, was 
jKjorly suppl-ied with water. The yield of the wells was, as a 
general thing, of an inferior (juality. To supply this deficiency 
quite a business was, at one time, can-ied on in carting water 
from the hill, and selling it by the pail from door to door. As 
the city grew, the necessity for good water became more urgent. 
As early as March 1,1839, the "Jersey City and Harsimiis 
Aqueduct Company" was incorporated, with an authorized 
capital of $40,000, and authority to " search and bore for water " 
in Jersey (Mty and Bergen, make reservoirs for the collection of 
water and lay pipes for its distribution through the city. Nothing, 
liowever, came from this company. 

On the 1st of November, 1847, Clerk & Bacot, City Surveyors, 
recommended the taking of water from a small reservoir near 
the New Jersey Railroad, on the west side of the hill. But the 
supply to be had from that place was too insignificant to merit 
serious attention. 

On the 18th of March, 1851, Edwin A. Stevens, Edward Coles, 
Dudley S. Gregory, Abraham J. Van Jioskerck and John D. 
Ward were constituted a Board of Water (Commissioners to sup- 
ply the townships of Hoboken and Van Vorst and Jersey City 
with pure and wholesome water. This Board selected AVilliam 
S. AVhitwell, then late of the Boston Water Works, as engineer. 
lie began his labors near Belleville, August 20, 1851. 

Besides the plans already referred to several others were 
suiTO'ested to the Commissioners. One was, to dam the llacken- 
sack River near the Newark turnpike bridge and thus keep out 

.IKKSKV t;l'l'V 


tlie salt water, and pump from above the dam ; another, to bring 
the water from Rockland Lake ; and another was to use the west- 
ern slope of Bergen hill for a gathering ground, and, by a system 
of underdraining, collect the water at the foot of the slope and 
then pump it up. Another plan was to bring it from the Passaic 
river above the falls ; another to take it from the Passaic above 
the Dundee dam ; another to take it from the Morris canal on 
the level between Little Falls and Bloomfield. All these plans 
were, however, laid aside for the one now in operation. The 
( V»mmissioners pronounced this the best plan. They had also 
received a report from Professor Ilorsford of New Haven, dated 
Xovember 26, 1851, as to the quality of the water taken from 
the Passaic at Belleville. The following table exhibited its 
relative quality when compared with the water supply of other 
cities : 

In one hundred thousand parts in 

1 Passaic. 



Croton. ^"<^;"t- 
I uate. 




Solid residue! 12.7500 
Inorganic . . 7.8500 
Organic . . . .| 4.9000 


18.7100 5.3400 

11.3265 2.9000 

7.3735 3.4400 






The engineer submitted his }dan on the 9th of Deceml)er 
1851. On the 25th of the following March legislative authority 
was given to construct the works. The enterprise was so far 
completed on the 30th of June, 1854, that water was let into the 
pipes from Belleville, and on the 15th of August distributed 
through the city. The cost of the works up to that time was 
s652,995.73. A grand water celebration was had Oct. 3, 1854. 

C^oniiecte<l with the ^vatel• works a general plan of sewerage 
was adopted. It was based on the plan of a tidal canal, extend- 
ing from CommunipawCove to Harsimus Cove, generally on the 
line of Mill Creek and Hoboken Creek, which, when filled by the 
tide, was to be emptied through the sewers at low water. The 
canal is yet unbuilt, and every year adds to the difficulty and 
cost of its construction. Besides the benefit to sewerage which 
it would give to the city, proper locks would open it for naviga- 


tion, and on its banks would grow up lumber, coal and stone 
yards, besides foundries and factories. The dullest eye can seo 
tlie benefits of such an enterprise. 

Post Office. — Previous to the establish incut of a post office 
in Jersey City, the residents here received their letters through 
the post office of New York or Newark. The post office in .Jer- 
sey City was set up in 1831. The post-masters have been 

William Lyon, - - 1831-35 Samuel Bridgart, - lS46-4i» 

William R. Taylor, 1835-37 ' David Smith, - - - 1849-53 

Samuel Bridgart, - - 1837-41 ; Samuel M. Chambers, 1853-^,1 

David Smith, - - 1841-45 , Henry A. Green, - - 1801- 
John Ogden(resigned),1845-4f) 

Bull-Baiting.— About the year 1825, there was constructed 
on the south side of Sussex street, between Hudson and Greene 
streets, a large amphitheatre, capable of seating three thousand 
people. Here, for about two months, on every Friday, large 
numbers, mostly from New York, would gather to see the sport 
afforded by bulls, bears, buffaloes and dogs fighting. The price 
of admission was fifty cents. 

Floating Theatke. — About the year 1842 an attemjtt was 
made to introduce upon the Hudson and Connecticut rivers what 
had proved a profitable enterprise upon the Mississippi — a float- 
ing theatre. It was constructed on the hull of a large barge, 
and Would hold an audience of one thousand people. This thea- 
tre, in the summer of 1842, had been up the Hudson, and in 
February, 1843, was brought to Jersey City and moored in tlie 
Morris canal basin, in the rear of Judge Lynch's Thatched C(»t- 
tage Garden, which was on the south side of Essex street, 
between Washington and Greene streets.^ The actors, during 
this " season," wei'e mostly amateurs of Jersey City, well knoAvn 
for wit and humor. The audience, composed of the /'lite of the 
town, crowded the theatre from " pit to dome." The pieces 

' Samuel S. Lynch, then late of Castle Garden. 


performed were, " The Rent Day," " Three Brothers "' and 
" Bonibastes Furioso/' The easts in the several plays were as 
follows : 

Rent Day. 

Luke AVarrington, - - - Mr. William A, Townseud. 

Cornelius Crimp, a lawyer, - - - Mr. William Penny. 
Old Grasp, ------ Mr. John C. Morgan. 

Frank, - Mr. Charles A. Heekman.^ 

Bolt, a roue,- . - - . . Mr. Joseph G. Edge. 
Harry Markham, his friend, - - Mr. William Sanderson. 
Arnold Headlj, ------ Mr. David Scott." 

Maiy Warrington, ------ Mrs. Scoville. 

Susan, --------- Mrs. Sliarpe. 

Three Brothers.. 

Philip, ----- jVTr. William A. Townsend. 

Reginald, ------ Mr. John Bruce. 

Steward of the Castle, eighty years old, - Mr. William Penny. 
Giles, a servant, ----- Mr. David Scott. 

Fanny, --------- Mrs. Sharpe. 

Bohthdstes Farioso. 

King Artaxomiues, ----- Mr. David Scott. 

General Bombastes, ----- Mr. William Penny. 

Fresbos, ------- Mr. John Bruce. 

Distaiina, -------- Mrs. Sharpe. 

It is said the parts '* were rendered in a manner that actors 
of a lifetime might have envied.'" Between the play and farce 
a song was given by General Edwin R. V. Wi-ight, James S. 
(iamble and William Penny. Mr. Penny, in order to render 
the song more effective, borrowed the black tights of the trage- 
dian Townsend. After the song, he found the '' heavy man "' 
sitting in the cold, with bare lind)s, waiting for his tights. '• Ah, 
my boy," said Penny, " do you hear the applause i how did my 

' Now General Heckman. -^ Died Oct. 14. 1870. 


song go?'' " Oh, curse juur song,'* said tlie irate tragedian ; 
"give me nij tights, I am ahnost frozen." 

The entertainment was repeated in 1845 by the same company, 
many of wliom are \yell known ; some of them liave gone behind 
tlie scenes, while tlie others are yet before the foot-lights. The 
stage manager on the occasion was Gabriel Harrison, afterward 
manager of the Park Theatre, Brooklyn. The orchestra was 
composed of residents of Jersey City, the leader being William 
Robertson, the hardware merchant of Newark avenue, popularly 
known as " Pop '' Robertson. The ])erformance was nominally 
for the benefit of the poor, but, though the " house " was full at 
fifty cents a ticket, not a cent found its legitimate destination. 
It is yet a question among the old patrons of the " Floating 
Theatre " what became of the funds. Plato might mention the 
proverb, " One may see a great deal of money carried into Lace- 
div^mon, but one never sees any of it brought out again." On 
this last occasion the ]>roprietor was subjected to a fine of fifty 
dollars for exhibiting without license from the city. He 
attempted to defend under a coasting license from the United 
States. The hull of the theatre afterward found its Avay to 
(^oney Island, where, in the summer season, it was used for the 
more substantial pur|)oses of a restaurant. 

AViND Mill. — This old landmark was built in 1815 by Isaac 
Edge, who for along time was miller and baker for and distribu- 
tor of bread to the ])eople of Jersey City. Burmley and Oakes 
were the contractoi's and millwrights who built it. It was con- 
structed in all ]>articulars like the mill of Mr. Edge's father 
in Derbyshire, England. Its location was about seventy-five 
feet north of Montgomery street and fifty feet east of Greene 
street. It was a prominent feature on the Jersey shore. At 
first the fans on the wings were of canvas, but the severe 
storm of Se})tember />, 1S2I, tore them to pieces and broke 
one of the fans. Then Mr. Edge i)Ut in iron fans. AVhen the 
track of the New Jersey Railroad was changed from the south 
side of Montgomery street to its present location, in 1839, the 
mill was taken down, its material put on vessels and conve^'ed to 



Town Harbor, Lon^- Island, whence it was taken to Mill Hill, in 
the town of Southold. Hei-e its walls were reared again, and it 
started anew upon its old career of usefulness. It was there 
known as The Great Western Flouring Mill. At one time a 
steam engine was put in. but it was soon removed and the old 
machinery restored. It was in use until between one and two 
o'clock on Saturday morning, June 25, 187<>, when it, with §230 
worth of grain, M'as consumed by fire. R. Yilleferr was then 

In 18 


there were 





- 213; 



an Vorst, 



1 carriages, 






- 145 ; 


( 'attle. 


- 14; 




- 5T; 


In 1841, in Jersey City, they were 
S6 houses.^ 

9 coaches and stages. 
53 chaises and wagons. 
If) cattle. 

Of scholars there were in the 







Girls, - 




In 1842 there were 
450 dwellings. 
1 lyceum. 
1 classical school.' 

•St, - 










71 dogs. 

943 vacant 


206 single 


20 merchants. 

829 polls. 

• Department 





1 bank. 

5 taverns. 

2 foundries.^ 

' I have no doubt that this is an error. It should probably be ;386. But thus 
I find it in a newspaper of the day. 

■■' The old academy adjoining St. Matthew's Church was tiie first schoolhouse 
on Paulus Hoeck. It was in modern times used for a city prison. About fifty 
feet west of it was an Indian spring- in the olden time. 

■ One of these was Fulton's foundry, located on the corner of Morgan and 
Ureene streets. It was erected in 1812, and managed l)y Fulton until his death, 
on the '24th of February, 1815. Here he also erected a dry dock. 


40 stores. 1 candle factory. 

1 glass house.^ 1 tirework factory. 

1 pottery.^ 

The first cartman in Jersey City was Fortunatus Stone, in 

Street lamps were first used in 1843. 

Streets were lighted with gas for the first time on the 4th of 
December, 1852 ; one hundred and seventy -four lamps being the 
number then required. Gas was first used to light houses in 
Jersey City, Dee. 1, 1852. 

The first vessel built expressly for the Jersey City trade was 
tlie Dudley S. Oregory, launched at Burlington, on the Dela- 
ware; made her trial trip on the Hudson, July 11, 1845. She 
was of 180 tons burden, and cost $8,000. 


The bounds of the township of Bergen were fixed by the grant 
of Governor Stuyvesant in KHU, confirmed by Governor Carteret 
in 1668, and reconfirmed by the Charter of Queen Anne in 1714. 
It then conformed to the lines of the present county east of the 
Hackensack. By the erection of cities and other townships its 
territory had been greatly reduced, until on the 24th of March, 
1855, its boundaries were the New Jersey Railroad on the north, 
Mill Creek and the bay on the east, the Morris Canal on the south, 
and Newark bay and Hackensack river on the west. It was 
then erected into '' the Town of Bergen,'' with slight powers 
vested in a board of five councilmen. On tlie llth of March, 
1S62, its charter was amended, its territory divided into three 
wards (Columhi(i)i, Franldin and ('o7ii7nt/nij>(iia), and further 

' Tliis was established in 1824 by George Dummer and other?. Its location 
is now occui)ied by the New .Jersey Sugar Refining Company. 

- The original name of this establishment was T/ie Jcrsei/ Porcelnin and 
Earthenicare Compani/. It was started by George Dummer and others in 1825, 
for the manufacture of Staffordshire earthenware. Its location was Ijetween 
Morris, Essex and Warren streets. 

BERGEN. 299 

powers vested in a board of seven coiincilinen. On the 29tli of 
March, 1866, tlie charter was still further amended. " The City 
of Bergen" was incorporated on the 11th of March, 1868, divid- 
ed into four wards, and the powers of municipal government vest- 
ed in a Mayor and Council. It was consolidated with Jersey 
City in ISTO. 

Henry Fitch, 1866. 
John U. Cornel ison, 1867. 
John Hilton, 1868. 
Stephen D. Harrison, 1869. 

Henry H. Newkirk, 1866-T. 
Samuel McBurney, 1868-9. 

When this was the only municipality between the Hudson 
and Hackensack rivers its aflairs were managed by trustees 
chosen at first for life, afterward annually by a plurality of voices. 
At this annual town meeting the freeholders were accustomed to 
gather and decide questions of general interest which were con- 
sidered too weighty for the trustees. This meeting was presided 
over by a moderator chosen for the purpose. The town clerk 
was clerk of this meetino-. 

The townshij) was divided into road districts for the better 
regulation of the highways, and an overseer ap])ointed for eacli. 
They were known by the names of Bergen, Gemonepa, Pem- 
erahpogh, Sekakes, Wehauk, Maisland (now New Durham), 
Bergen Woods, Bull's Ferry and Bergen Point. 

For the accommodation of the people at elections, the polls 
would be opened in one part of the township for one day and 
then in another part for one day; e. </., in 1803 the polls were 
opened at Widow Van Horn's, Bergen Woods, and closed at 
Peter Stuyvesant's. The latter place was a tavern, on the south- 
west corner of Bergen and Glenwood avenues. In 1804 the polls 
opened at the Three Pigeons, and closed at Peter Stuyvesant's ; 
ditto in 1805 and 1806. 

Township was, by the act creating the county of Hudson, set 


oif from the townsliip of Lodi. It embraced all of the county 
Iving west of tlie Hackensack river ; also the township of Union, 
in Bergen county. In 1867 the township of Kearney was set off' 
from tlie northerly part of it. 

The neck of land lying between the Passaic^ and Hackensack 
rivers, and extending from their junction to the Boiling 
Spring (now Rutherfurd Park), was known among the Indians 
by the name of MUjhgecticocli'. It was estimated to contain 
5,308 acres of u})land and 10,000 acres of meadow."' Captain 
William Sandford* bought it of the Proprietors. July 4, 1668, for 
.-£20 sterling yearl}', in lieu of the halfpenny per acre quit rent, 
and on condition that he should settle on the tract six or eight fam- 
ilies within three years. On the 2i>th of the same month, with 
the consent of the Lords Proprietors, he bought of Tantaqua,* 

• Passaic, Paclisajeck, Pachsaick, Pecliiesse, Pishawack, is an Indian word, 
and signifies "valley;" also called the northwest Kill, to distinguish it from 
the Hackensack or north Kill. Lmig M. Hist. Sac, L, 156, 266. 

■ WinfiekVs Land Titles, 824. 

■' Captain William Sandford came from the West Indies : resided in Newark 
in 1675 ; was member of the Council in the years 1681, '83, '84. In his domestic 
relations he seems to have loved " not wisely." In a deed to Mrs. Sarah 
Whartman, dated April 24, 1677, he acknowledges that four of his children 
were naturally born of her. and yet in his will, dated Jan. 2, 1690, he acknowl- 
edges lier to be his lawful wife, " formerly Sarah Whartman, while some con- 
siderable reasons engaged us to consaile our marriage," and annexes thereto 
a certificate, which sets forth that the two were married " on board the Pink 
Susannah, in the river Surinam, March 27, 1667." He requested to be buried on 
his own plantation, and implored some of his friends '" to assist and favour the 
concerns of a poor Ignorant Widdow and five Innocent Children with their best 
advice, help and Councill, to preserve them from those Vultures and harpies w'' 
])rays on the Carkasses of Widdows and fatten with the Blood of Orphans." 
He died in 1692. His children were Nedimah, married Richard Berry (Consta- 
ble of A(|uackanonck and New Barbadoes in 1695) ; Catharine, married Dr.Van 
Imburgh ; Peregrine, married Fytje, daughter of Enoch Michielse Vreeland : 
Willidiii. fririee, and Elizidieth married Captain James Davis. 

^ Tantaqua, known also as Jasper, lived at Hackensack, and was a great 
friend of the wliites. Once, in a time of scarcity of food, he fished for and re- 
lieved tlu' necessities of the Dutch. When asked why he was so kind to the 
whites, he replied : " I have always been inclined from my youth up to do 
good. I took the fish to them because Manito said to me, ' You must take fisli 
to these people,' whispering ever in my ear, ' You must take fish to them." I had 
to do it, or Manito would liave killed me." Lonr/ M. Hist. Soc, /., 149. 


Tainak, Anareii, llaiiyaham, II. Gosque and AVs. Keiiareiiawack^ 
representatives of the Indians claiming an interest in tlie same 
tract, all their right and title. In this deed the tract is descrihed 
as lying between the " liackensack and Pasawack " rivers, lie- 
ginning at the mouth of the said two rivers, then " to goe up 
J^^orthward into the countrey about seaven Miles till it comes to 
a certain Brook or Spring now called Sanford's Spring." For 
their interest he paid to the Indians " 170 fathoms of Black 
wampum, 200 fathoms White wampum, 19 black Coates, 16 
Guns, 60 double hands of powder, 10 paire of Breetches, 60 
knives, 67 Barrs of Lead, one Anker of Brandy, three half Fats 
of Beer, Eleven Blankets, 30 xYxes, 20 Howes, and two cookes 
of dozens."^ 

From this time until the division of the province into coun- 
ties Kew Barbadoes Xeck was under the jurisdiction of New- 
ark.'"^ From the latter date until the 21st of January, 1710, it 
was Avithin the county of Essex.'^ Shortly after this Arent 
Schuyler purchased a plantation o])posite Belleville, and in 17U>, 
through a negro slave, discovered the copper mine. This mine 
was not worked much in the days of Arent Schuyler, but hi& 
son. Colonel John, worked it profitably. The ore was sent to 
England. In 1753 the first steam engine brought to this coun- 
try was set up at this mine, at a cost of £3,000 sterling. It was 
capable of throwing about eighty hogslieads of water per min- 

' Probably "coats of duffels." Proc.N.J. Hist. Soc, vi., 6. Duffels was a 
coarse cloth. 

'■' Whitehead's East Jersey, 93. 

■' In 1682 East Jersey was divided into four counties for the " better govern- 
ing and settling courts in the same." Bergen County contained " all the Set 
tleraents between ILidsoti's River and Harkensack River, beginning at Coiisto- 
hies Hook, and so to extend to the uppermost bound of the Province Northward 
between the said Rivers." LemnirKj and Spicer, 32U. The territory between 
the Hackensack and Passaic rivers was included in the county of Essex. 

In 1603 the counties were divided into townships. The township of Hacken- 
sack included all the land in the county of Bergen north of the bounds of the 
corporation of Bergen. Barbadoes Neck was included in the township of 
Acjuickanick and New Barbadoes in the county of Essex. Learning and Spire)', 
32!). The bounds of Bergen county were extended on the 21st of January, 1710, 
so as to include New Barbadoes Neck. 


ate.^ It was destroyed by fire about 1772, and lay in ruins dur- 
ing the Revolution. 

Tlie farm opposite Xewark owned by Colonel Teter Schuyler 
was known as Petersborough. It was afterward owned by 
Arcliibald Kennedy, who had married (Jolonel Schuyler's only 
child. In 1768 he had it in a nourishing condition. It contained 
y06 acres, 26') of which were covered with timber, 393 under 
cultivation ; the rest was salt meadow. On it was a two-story 
brick dwelling house, a green house seventy feet long, coach 
house, stables, barn, overseer's house, cider house, ice and root 
house, an excellent garden, an orchard capable of yielding two 
hundred barrels of cider, a large quantity of cedar timber and a 
shad lishery.' 

This farm was also graced with a deer park. In 1800 the 
orchard produced three hundred barrels of cider. There were 
on the place two dwelling houses, a green house containing a 
large number of orange, lemon, lime and other West India fruit 
trees. In the early part of 1802 the land was laid out into 
ninety building lots of at least one acre each, and advertised as 
a New Toicn. 

At the close of the celebration of the Fourth of July, 1815, 
the people of the place resolved that they " would henceforth 
distinguish the small district of country formerly known as Ken- 
nedy's Farm, and to the extent of one mile north of the north- 
erly bounds thereof, by the name of ' The Village of Lodi.' " 

In the early part of 1776 a comi)any of continental troops 
was formed on New Barbadoes Neck ; Jacobus Jerolanion, Cap- 
tain ; Peter Sanford, First Lieutenant ; Elijah Sanford, Second 
Lieutenant ; John Jerolamon, Ensign. 

TuE Township of Van Vorst 
Was set off from the township of Bergen March 11, 1841. Its 

' Whitehead's East Jersey, x., 27. Joseph C. Hornblower, father of the late 
Chief Justice, came with it as engineer. 

• Wood's Neicark Gazette, Dereniber 28, 1796. 



territory included nearly the whole of what was at one time 
known as Ahasimus. Its name was in honor of the family, 
which had been so closely identified with its history since 1686. 
The West India Company's Farm, Van Yorst's patent and a few 
small ]>atents comprised the whole district. The farm, after tak- 


ing out the i)rivate grants, included three hundred and eighty- 
tiiree acres. As this farm has a peculiarly interesting history, 
some particularity of detail will be pardoned. 

In 1636 Cornells Van Vorst lived here near the water, between 
Fourth and Fifth streets, in a frame house thatched with reeds. 


This liouso was burned ou the 25th of June in that year. After 
the Company liad purchased the interest of Pauw in Pavonia, 
Ahasinius was reserved for their own use. Van Vorst remained 
in possession of it until his death, before which event he had put 
up another house. On the 31st of March, 1(539, his widow took 
a lease of the " Company's Ijouwerie at Ahasimus " for twenty 
years, agreeing to l)uild a new frame house and keep those 
already built in repair.^ She married Jacob Stoftelsen shortly 
afterward, and, dying in 1641, left him in possession. He held 
it as tenant of the Company until February 19, 1647, when he 
took a lease of it until the 1st of May, 1661. During the war 
of 1643 he was driven from his home, his buihlings burned and 
the farm laid waste. Shortly before the expiration of his lease 
he appeared before the. Director and Council and said "that he 
two times had been expelled from there by tiie savages, all his 
property burned,"' and asked for an extension of his lease. This 
was granted for five years, at a i-ent of one quarter of the pro- 
duce ; house and buildings at the expiration of his lease to 
belong to the Company."^ 

In 1655 the buildings were again burned by the Indians and 
the bouwerie laid waste. In consideration of this fact the farm 
was granted to him on the 21st of December, 1656, without rent 
for one year.^ In the latter part of 1658 a new house Avas built 
on the place.^ In 1661 he obtained a lease for a year,^ which 
was renewed in February, 1662." Next door to him lived his 
step-son, Ide Yan Vorst. in a house built shortly after the wai- of 
1655. Van Vorst returned to his home sooner than most of his 
neighljors, and probably without the sanction of the Govern- 
ment, which now did all in their power to discourage isolated 
settlements. His position placed him in great risk from the 
savages, who i)rowled about watching for an opportunity to 
strike a blow.^ 

Jacol) StoUelsen, who had married Tryntje, the widow of 

'iVr Y. Col. MSS., i., 92. -Albany Records, .vLr.. IK), 

^N. Y. Col. MS8., vUL, 31:3. *Ibi(l, mi, 1044. 

^lUd, Lv., 572. "Ibid, x., part I., 40. 
''Ne'fi Amst. Rec, it., 68. 


Jacob Waliiigen Van Hoorn, on the ITtli of August, 1657, was? 
ill possession of the bouwcrie when the country was surrendered 
to the English in 1604. He remained in possession as the tenant 
of the West India (Joiupany, whose property the farm remained 
by virtue of the iirst of the " Articles of Capitulation : " '' We 
consent that the States-Citeneral, or West India Company, shall 
freely injoy all farms and houses (except such as are in the 
forts), cfec.""^ Stoffelsen, being in possession, moved to improve 
the farm. This being in derogation of the rights of the Lords 
Proprietors, they served him with the following notice: 

" Whereas I am informed that Jacob Stoffelsen Is about the 
fencing and taking In a Certaine parcell of Land In and about 
hassemus to the great prejudice of the other Inhabitants there 
and w4iout any order or Authority from me, these are therefore 
t<j Require the said Stoffelsen to forbare the fencing and Manur- 
ing of the said Land till farther Order. Given und*" my hand 
the 5th March, 1665. Pn. Caktekett." 

This notice was not served. It was burned at the house of 
Samuel Edsall, and renewed July 18, 1672. 

War between England and Holland liaving been declared, 
(Governor Nicolls, by proclamation in l^ew York on the 15th of 
June, 1665, '* at the ringing of the bell," declared the real and 
personal propert}^ of the Company confiscated to the King.'^ 
From this time the Duke's governors in New York claimed the 
same for their master, and leased it in his name. By the treaty 
of Breda, July 1, 1667, each power was to keep the territory 
then held. This confirmed Xew Netherlands to the English. 
At the time of the surrender only the Van Vorst family, viz., 
Stoffelsen and wife, Ide Van Vorst and his brother-in-law, 
Claes Jansen Van Purmerendt, were living at xihasimus. On 
the 1st of March, 1667, "• in consideration of the Great Paines 
tS: Changes in building as well as clearing and manuring a Good 
part of the land belonging to the said ffarme," Stoffelsen and 
wife received from Governor Nicolls a lease of " the bouwerie oi- 
ffarme aforesaid w**^ the Dwelling House, Barnes, Stables, Stalls," 

' O'Cal, iV^. iV., U., 532. -Mio Amst. Rec. 


306 HISTORY or Hudson county. 

etc., from the first day of January, 1667, " during all the terme or 
termes of y® Naturall life or lives of the said Jacob Stoffel 
and Trintje his wife or the longest liver of them, Yielding & 
Paying therefore Yearly and every Yeare duering the said 
Terme the Sume of two hundred & fifty Guilders sewant, or 
one & forty Schepels of winter AYheate or tlie Valine in other 
Goods Pay to the Governo'' of this his Royall Highness his Col- 
ony or his Order."^ Stoffelsen died before the expiration of the 
year, leaving his wife in possession. She married Michael Tades 
June 17, 1668. Tades died shortly afterward, leaving his widow 
still in possession. She then married Caspar Steinmets, and with 
him retained possession of the farm. Acting upon the terms of 
Governor Nicolls' lease to Stoffelsen and wife, and claiming that 
it included all the " I^ind w*^** he, the said Jacob Stoftells, hath 
cleared, or which he and Trientje his wife or either of them shall 
cause to be cleared," Steinmets enclosed some of the land adjoin- 
ing. In 1671 Governor Carteret ordered him to take down his fence 
and abandon these lands. With this order he complied. AVhen 
the Dutch re-established their authority in the country, Ide Yan 
-Yorst and his brother-in-law, Claes Jansen Yan Purmerendt, 
protested against Steinmets having any greater privileges than 
he had under (4(ivernor Stuyvesant.^ Steimnets then asked for 
a confirmation of the lease of the bouwerie granted to his wife 
and her former husband by the English government. This was 
grantfd, and hv obtained a lease on the 12th of April, 1674.^ 
This stirred uj) Yan \'orst and Yan Purmerendt. They laid 
their grievances before the authorities in New Orange, charging 
that the lessee of " the public I»ouwerie situate at Ahasymns " 
was appropriating too large a share of the " valleys and pasture 
lands." Steinmets was, however, permitted " to fence in all 
the ungranted valley appertaining to Ahasymns," and Yan A'orst 
and Yan Purmerendt to fence in "all the tillage and valley 
lands belonging to them in lawful pi'operty.'"' It will be observed 
that all the ungranted land at Ahasymns was held to belong to 
the public bouwerie or West India Company's farm. 

'Book of Patents (Albany), ii., 177. 'Col. Hist, of JS'. Y., ii., 598. 

■I hid ii., 704. ■ 'Ibid, ii., 716. 


When the English returned, Steinmets was yet in possession. 
Shortly after Governor Carteret had reorganized the government, 
he ordered the prosecution of Steinmets, before the court at 
Bergen, for the rent which he claimed to be due to the Proprie- 
tors. This bo<ly laid claim to the farm, on the ground that the 
tract did not pass to the Freeholders of Bergen by the charter of 
1608. The people of Bergen insisted that it did so pass, and 
hence belonged to them, while the Governor of New York 
claimed it for the Duke on the ground that, b}" the terms of the 
surrender to the English, this farm remained the property of the 
West India Company, and as the same was not confiscated until 
after the grant to Berkley and Carteret, it could not have passed 
by that grant. Under this claim for the Duke, Governor 
Andross, on the 6th of March, 1675, sent George Cook to Bergen 
to defend the suit which Governor Carteret had instituted against 
Steinmets.^ What became of this suit is not known. On the 
17th of August, 1678, Governor Andross, " in regard of the long 
])Ossession of the s*^ Bowery or tfarme by the s^ Jacob Stoftells " 
and wife, " together with the good deportment of Casper Stv- 
metts the Survivo''," leased to Steinmets the " Certaine Bowery 
or ffarme at Hassems iiear Communipon," except what had been 
granted out of the same by the " Authority of the s'^ Com])any 
unto Ide Cornelissen, Claes Jansen, etc.," " for and During the 
Terme and Time of his Naturall Life and one Entire Yeare 
after," ^'■Yielding and paying therefore yearly and every Yeare 
the sume of ffbure hundred Guild'"* Sewant "" to the Governor of 
New York.^ This lease was repudiated by the authorities in 
New Jersey, and Steinmets was, on the 25th of (3ctober, 1678, 
again summoned to a})pear before the court in Bergen, at its next 
sitting, and show his authority for occupying the farm, and was 
commanded to pay no nujre rent in the mean time. He did not 
obey the summons until the 23d of November, when he gave as 
an excuse for not appearing sooner, that he could not read the 
summons, and did not know what it was until the constalJe told 
him. On the same day he was directed by Governor Andross 

^General Entries {Albany), iv., 177. "Book of Patents (Albany)) iv., 144 


to continue in possession.^ It is not known that Governor Car- 
teret exercised himself any furtlier about the farm, hut in I680 
Samuel Groom, one of the East Jersey Proprietors, demanded 
rent from Steinmets. Governor Dongan of New York sent him 
a threatening letter, which effectually silenced this new enemy of 
the Duke's lessee. 

While the Proprietors were thus seeking an acknowledgment 
of their claim, the peoj^le of Bergen were a continuing source of 
trouble to the Governor of New York, by annoying his tenant 
and preventing the collection of rent. To avoid further trouble 
with the " farm at East Jersey belonging to his Majesty,'' Don- 
gan gave to Judge John Palmer~ a lease of the reversion for 
ninety-nine years, " from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
next ensuing after the- determination of the estate " of Stein- 
mets. This lease was dated August 13, 1(585, and was upon 
condition that Judge Palmer should pay " as a line the summ of 
Sixty pounds to the King, in case liee should not think fit to for- 
give it, and the rent of twenty shillings p'' annum and to defend 
the title."^ 

Steinmets was now getting old, and his two sons, John and 
Garret, managed the farm. On the 5th of February, 1686, they 
bought of Judge Palmer his lease for £50. After the death of 
their father, in 1702, they divided the farm between them, John 
taking the southerly half and Garret the northerly half. On the 
2-lth of February, 1708, John Steinmets conveyed all of his 
property to his wife for life, and, after her death, to the children 
of his sister Hannah Prior, his nephew, Jacob Prior, to have his 
interest in the farm. After the death of John Steinmets, his 
widow married Peter Van Wooglem. These two, with Jacob 
Prior and Lea, his wife, assigned to David Union, alias T>s,me\- 
son, the remainder of the term under the Palmer lease for £675. 
Danielson entered into possession of the southerly half of the 
farm about 1715, and remained there during the nine years fol- 

' General Entries {Albany), xxxlL, 78. 

'•' Palmer was a member of the Council in East Jersey for several years. 
Whitehead's East Jersey, 96. He was a man of influence. 
■' Book of Entries {Albany), tii, 170 ; Col. Hist, of N. Y., Hi., 411, 494. 

THE duke's farm. 309 

lowiiii(. At this time the only building-s in Harsinius were the 
house, barn and brewlionse of Danielson ; the house, barn and 
cow-lionse of Hendrick Claes Kuyper ; the house and barn of 
Ide Van Yorst, and the house, barn and an old house (built in 
1658), of Garret Steinmets. All these were quite close together 
along tlie shore, now the line of Henderson street, between Sec- 
ond and Fifth streets. 

In the early part of the year 1724, Archibald Kenned}^, the 
Kiiig''s Receiver-General in New York, fixed his eye on the 
Duke's farm. The title came to him as follows : Robert West, 
on the 1st and 2d of April, 1684, conveyed his interest in East 
.Jersey to Thomas Cox. Cox conveyed to Sir Eugenius Cameron 
of Lochiel ^f of his interest of 2^4 on the 2d and 3d of April, 
1685. Sir Eugenius convej'ed to Donald Cameron, July 30, 
1716, who conveyed to Evan Drummond^ on the 17th of Novem- 
ber, 1721. Drumraond conveyed one-half of the unappropriated 
land of said ^f to James Alexander on the 17th and IStli of July, 
1722, and the remaining half on the 5th and 6tli of April, 1723. 
Alexander reconveyed to Drummond 383 acres of unappropriated 
lands on the 22d and 23d of February, 1725. On the 26th of 
the same month this amount of land was surveyed to Drummond 
hy the Surveyor-General, " upon a tract of land formerly called 
the West India Company's Farm." This survey was endorsed 
with the a])proval of 4y^ of the Proprietors. The money for the 
})urchase of the land and the cost of the location was furnished 
l>y Kennedy. On the 13th of February, 1724, Drummond exe- 
cuted a declaration of trust^ that he held the land for the benefit 
and use of Kennedy. In 1725 Drummond filed a bill in Chan- 
cery against Danielson for the possession of that part of the farm 
occupied by hira. Governor Burnet made a decree, according 
to the prayer in the bill, August 17, 1727. On the 18th of 
the following month Danielson accepted from Kennedy a lease 
of the southerly half of the farm until the 1st of the following 
May.^ On the 10th of October, 1727, Garret Steinmets, who 

' Drummond was appointed High Sheriff of Middlesex County in September, 

- Liher F2 (Amboy), 500. ^Liber 112 {Amboi/i 7G. 


lield the northerly half of the farm muler the Palmer lease, sur- 
rendered to Kennedy and accepted a lease for life at the rent of 
one ear of Indian 6'(?r?? when demanded, and a proper propor- 
tion of the Quit Rents reserved to the Proprietors.^ His interest 
in this lease he assigned to Mattys Do Mott, February 20, 1T29. 

On the expiration of Danielson's lease, Kennedy took possession 
of the southerly half of the farm and began to improve and 
stock it. In a letter of James Alexander to Governor Hunter, 
dated May 20, 1Y31, is the following notice of this farm : 
" Though there be no place near Inians Ferry,* fit for a settle- 
ment, to be purchased, yet I beg leave to mention one much 
better situated and that is the place called Horsamus, over 
against New York, where you used to meet the Jersey (buncil.^ 
It contains about 400 acres, but out of this there's two small 
pieces, one of 20 acres and another of 6 acres, belonging to other 
persons. It has on it a pretty good country house and barn, 
about 500 apple trees ; there's of stock, 27 black cattle, 72 sheep, 
some horses, hogs and other country stock, all belonging to Mr. 
Kennedy, Avhicli lands, stock and all together he would sell now 
for £3,000, which is a moderate ])rice when it is considered that 
the lands thereabouts sell very commonl}' for £20 per acre." 

(xarrct Steinmets died in 1733. This gave Kennedy posses- 
sion of the northerly half of the farm. Drummond's will was 
dated December 13, 1736.^ Andrew Johnson, his surviving 
executor, transferred the title to Kennedy, April 24, 1747.^ Thus 
his possession was complete, and his title as perfect as the pro- 
prietors could make it.*^ 

The residents at Flarsimus feeling that the farm belonged to 
the freeholders of the township in common, and that they were 
kept out of their rights by power rather than justice, gave them- 
selves up to the annoyance of its ]>os5essor. Mattys De Mott 
Avas esi)ecially active. When he was obliged to give up ])0sses- 

' Liber 111 {Amboy), 77. -' Now New Brunswick. 

'■'• The Council met here April 17, 1714. It had been arranjred to hold tliis 
meeting at Communipaw, but was changed to " Horsimus " by tlie <Tovernor. 
-• Book Cof Wilh (Amboi/), 140. ''Libn- F2 ( Jw/w//), r,22. 

" Winf eld's Land Titles, 1:32. 



sioii in 1733, according to the terms of the lease under which he 
lield, he pulled up seventy-one young apple trees. On another 
occasion, six of Kennedy's best apple trees were girdled ; a fine 
bull, worth £10, was pushed into his well ; a stallion, worth £40, 
pushed into a salt hole and killed, and a steer had a pitchfork 
stuck into him. De Mott used to threaten to knock out the 
brains of Kennedy's servants, and Van Yorst would beat his 
negroes, and on one occasion knocked over Black Peter with a 
stone, for driving Yan A^'orst's cows out of Kennedy's cabbage 

garden. In 1733 Yan Yorst committed a trespass upon the farm, 
that he might be prosecuted, and so have the question of title 
settled. Kennedy did bring suit, but did not press it to trial. 
In 1744 the trespass was repeated for a like object, but no suit 
followed. In 1753 he repeated the experiment. Self res])ect 
now forced Kennedy to sue him for trespass. The case was 
tried at the bar of the Supreme Court at Amboy, in August, 
1753. Van Vorst set up his right to enter as a freeholder of 



tlie corporation of J>ergeM. A verdict was rendered in his 
favor. Things ik.w looked sei-ioiis for Kennedy. On the 12th 
of Deeenihei- following, he filed a hill in chancery to restrain 
Van Yorst from further proceedings, and threatened to ap])eal to 
England in case of faihire. This threat had more restraining 
influence on Van Vorst than the injunction. The plain people of 
I)ei'gen could not think of contending with a crown officer in 
English courts, and they remained quiet until a successful rebel- 
lion destroyed an a])]ieal to the courts of the mother country. 
Then they renewed the controversy. 

In 17Y6, by permission of the Earl of Casselis (son of Archi- 
bald Kennedy, who died June 14, 1763), Thomas McDonald 
built a small cottage on the farm, and occupied it, with a quarter 
of an acre of ground adjoining, until his death in 1779. Jacob 
I>ril], as tenant, lived on the fai-m in 1770. AVhen the conti- 
nental forces gathered at Paulus Hoeck, they destroyed certain 
])roperty, for M-hich a claim was rendered as follows: 

Ten acres of corn, and three bushels sowing of 

J3uckwdieat, ---.... £30 

Six empty hogsheads and one empty pipe, - 1 

Sixteen hogs, large and small, - - - - 10 

During the Kevolution, the Britisb destroyed all the fences and 
buildings except McDonald's cottage. In 17T9 Kennedy^ re- 


' Archibald Kennedy (^d) became a captain in the Royal Navy, A]>ril 4, 175;5. 
In 17(i() he was in conunand of the FlamhoroiKjh at Lisbon, wliere he attacked 
and defeated a French fiijrate. For this orallant behavior he was put in com- 
mand of a fricj-ate of thirty-six ffuns. N. Y. M,rcury, October ^20, ITGO. He was 
afterward in command of the Blonde. When the Revolution broke out he was 
in command of the (Jocentry, lying in New York harbor. To save his extensive 
istiites which he had received by his first wife, he took up a re.sidence on his 
farm at Petersboroutrh , at present East Newark. But his friendliness to the 
colonies was suspected. He was arrested and brought before the Council of 
Safety, January 13, 177S. He was permitted to return home, to appear again 
in fourteen days. At that time the Council concluded tliat his residence at 
East Newark was dangerous to the State, and Ordered, " That he remove within 
eight days from the date liercof, into the county of Sussex, and there remain 
within one mile of the Court House at Newton till the further orders of the 
Board respecting him." On Msiy 7. 1778, the Council released him on his parole 

TiiK duke's farm. 313 

moved from New Jersey, leaving John and Jacob Byre, his 
tenants, in possession, under the care of Robert Watts, his 
attorney and brotlier-in-law. Shortly afterward, AVilliam Gray 
became tenant, and iield until 1YS3. Then came Philip Dowers 
as tenant for one year, and lie was succeeded by one Reid. On 
the 1st of April, 17S4, the Trustees of the corporation of Bergen, 
desiring to get possession of the farm, induced the widow of 
McDonald, who was then a tenant u})on charity, to remove from 
the cottage built by her husband. No sooner had she done this 
than the trustees put Barnt Everson into the cottage as their 
tenant. This act was followed by a notice published in the iVetv 
York Gazetteer and Country Journal, warning all persons not 
to purchase or hire any portion of the farm. Watts being in- 
formed of these facts, on the 15th of May, 1784, got together 
materials to luiild a house on the farm, and was putting up the 
frame, when the trustees, at the head of a multitude, swooped 
down upon liim, demolished the frame, and carried oif the ma- 
terials in triumph. They then procured about thirty teams, 
ploughed up a part of the farm and sowed it with buckwheat. 
For tlie part he bore in this coup (Vetat, Daniel Yan Ripen was 
indicted for forcible entry and detainer. He was tried at Hack- 
ensack, Chief Justice Brearly presiding, in the October term, 
1784, and convicted. The case was taken into the Supreme 
(■ourt, the verdict set aside, and the indictment quashed in Sep- 
tember, 1785. Kennedy also sued Van Ripen and John Dey for 
the frame and building materials carried off. They justified in 
the name of the cor^joration of Bergen. The trustees now 
opened a cross fire by instituting suits in ejectment against 
Kennedy's tenants. Kennedy replied by bill for injunction and 

for Lis ojood Ijt'liavior, and permitted liiiii to return to his I'arni on New Barba- 
does Neck. He succeeded his great crrandfatlier as eleventh Earl of Casselis, 
in the Scots Peerao-e. His first wife was the only child of Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, of New Barbadoes Neck. His second wife was Anne, daughter of 
.John Watts, of New York, whom he married April 27, 1769. He died Decem- 
i)er 29, 1794, l(!avinp: two sons, -lohn and Robert, who, by his will, dated January 
19, 1794, inherited all his property in .America. In ISO:! they made Robert 
Watts their attornev to sell their land.s. 


quiet possession, filed on the 8tli of September, 1786. After n 
loHi^ contest, Cliancellor Patterson dismissed this bill on the Oth 
of March, 1793. On the 10th of July following, a petition was 
tiled before Governor Howell to open the decree of dismissal, 
and for a rehearing. This was granted, and the cause reargued 
on the llth of February, 1794. ( )n the 20th of the same month, 
the Chancellor ordered that the trustees should giv^e up possession 
to Kennedy and then bring an ejectment suit in the Supreme 
Conrt, to be tried before a special jury from the county of 
Somerset, at the bar in Trenton, the verdict to be certified to the 
Chancellor. Kennedy dying in 1794, Eobert Watts was put 
upon the record in his place on the 26th of April, 1796. The 
trial began on Thursday, the 25th of February, 1800, and con- 
cluded on Saturday evening. On Monday morning a \erdict 
was rendered in favor of tlie plaintiffs.^ 

Notwithstanding this defeat, Watts held on to the farm. Then 
the trustees filed a bill asking the Court of Chancery to give 
effect to the verdict, but before the court decided what sliould 
be done, a compromise between the parties was effected, and the 
trustees were virtually the losers. Both parties disposed of their 
interest in the farm to John B. Coles,^ of Xew York, on the 4th 
of February, 1804. Kennedy received for his interest s20,000, 
and Bergen received $14,285.75, out of which were to be ])aid 
the expenses of law suits, &c., amounting to .^3,057.50.^ Thus 
was the magnificent farm of the West India Compan)-, M'hich 

' Aaron Ogden and Mr. McWhorter were the counsel for the plaintiffs, and 
Richard Stockton and Mr. Lake for the defendant. — Sentinel of Freedom , March 

-' John B. Coles was born on Long Island, December ;31, 1700. lie married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin Underhill, September 23, 1781. and died 
January 2, 1827. He resided in the city of New York from 1780 until hisdeatli. 
He was Alderman of the First Ward and State Senator. 

'■' The items of this bill were as follows : 

A. McWhorter's lawyer's bill, - $400 i;J 

C. Van Vorst for money advanced, . . . . . 134 27 

Sundry bills in connection with suit, - . . . 2,523 10 

$3,057 50 


bad been tbe pride of tbe Indians and tbe Duteli, frittered 


" There onst was two cats in Kilkennj-, 

And aicli thought there was one cat too many ; 
So they (luarrelled and fit. 
And tliey gouged and they bit. 
Till, excepting their nales 
And the tip of their tails. 
Instead of two cats there wasn't any." 

Tbe people in Ilarsimns, prior to tbe introduction of tbe Pas- 
saic water, depended on wells. Many of tbese w-ere sunk and 
kept in repair by assessment on property benefited. Tbose wbicb 
bad been sunk by individuals prior to 1841 were surrendered to 
tbe township. 

Tbe first street lamp put up by public autbority was on tbe 
corner of Grove street and Railroad avenue. Tbis was on tbe 
3d of December, 1845. Lamps were put up only wdiere a ma- 
jority of tbe owners of lots ligbted petitioned for tliem. 

Tbe following is taken from tbe WeeMy Post Boy, January 27, 

" We are credibly informed tbat some days ago a tisb was 
found dead, asliore, near Horsimus, in ]^ew Jersey, opposite tbe 
back of tbis city, baving a bead nearly resembling tbat of a num. 
with bair on it." In a few days tbe crows carried off tbe body, 
except tbe bones, " wliicb, 'tis said, about tbe breast and ribs, 
very mucli reseml:)led tbe human anatomy, but as it draws toward 
the tail, entirely in fish. This strange j)henoin('no}} has occa- 
sioned no small speculation all over tbat part of the country, as 
well as in some parts of tbis city. However, we are told it has 
since been discovered, or at least thought to be, only a porpoise 
with his snout cut off!" 


The first white occu])ant of lloboken was Hendrick ('ornelissen 
Van Yorst, eldest son of Pauw's Commissary at Ahasimus. When 
he first occupied this bouwerie is not known, l)ut on the 12th of 


Mareli. 1089, he took a lease of it for t\venty years from the 1st 
of Jamiarv, ICAO. In the lease tlie place is said to liave been 
"heretofore occupied by him," Pie agreed to give as rent " the 
■^ part of the crops which God may vouchsafe to the soil, either 
in sheaves on the field or as shall be considered best, and twelve 
cajtons every year," and to deliver back the land unsown.^ In 
the sunnner of 1630 he returned to Holland, and there died. On 
the 15th of Fel)ruary, 10-10, Governor Kieft leased the place to 
Aert Teunissen Van Putten for twelve years from the 1st of Jan- 
nary, 1041. Kieft agreed to erect a small house on the place, 
and Teunissen agreed to yield as rent '' the fourth sheaf with 
which God Almighty shall favor the Held."- There is no doubt 
that the house which Kieft built for Teunissen was the first build- 
ing in Hoboken. Van Vorst, the former occupant, was unmar- 
ried, and most likely lived at his father's in Harsimus. 

Teunissen forthwith began to improve his leasehold. He 
fenced the lands, cleared the fields and erected a brew-house. 
Thus he became the first brewer within the county, if not within 
the State. lie stocked his bouwerie with twenty-eight head of 
large cattle, besides various small stock, such as swine, goats, 
sheep, etc., together with many fruit trees. With a true Dutch 
farmer's pride, Teunissen continued to improve the ])lace until 
the war of 1643 broke out, when he, having gone out on a trading 
expedition, was killed near Sandy Hook.'" His cattle and other 
stock were destroyed, his dwelling house, barns and stacks of 
grain burnt, the brew-house alone remaining.^ On tlie 12th of 
March, 1645, his widow, Susanna Jans, married Sybout Claesen, 
H house carpenter in New Amsterdam. He shortly afterward 
claimed a right to the possession of the bouwerie in the name of 
his wife ; but Kieft leased it to Dirck Claesen, from Bremen.'"' 
Tliis lessee soon abandoned the place, after which it remained 
unoccupied for some time. 

At what time Nicholas \'erlet (Yarlet. Varleth) came into pos- 

'N. Y. Col. MSS., L, 70. ^Ibid, i.. 187, 

•' Vak'ntine's Hist, of If. Y., 47. *CoL Ilixt. X. Y., i., 'S2S. 

'■Wlnfield's Land Titles, o(3. 


session of the bouwerie is not known, but in March, 1056, he 
sold tlie frame of a house at Hoboken to ]\[ichiel Jansen, and on 
the 28th of that month requested of the i^overnment six or eight 
soldiers to aid him in getting it away. But the Indians claim- 
ing the frame (except the nails), his request was refused, on the 
ground that the Indians might commence a light, which it was 
feared might become general.^ 

On tlie return of the planters to their farms in Pavonia, there 
is no doubt but Yerlet came with them. But it was not until the 
5th of February, 1668, that he obtained from Stuyvesant a patent 
for the land. This was confirmed by Governor Carteret on the 
12th of May, 1668. Nicholas Bayard (whose widow Yerlet had 
married) was his partner in the Secaucus tract, but it is not 
known that he was ever interested in Hoboken. On the 19th of 
June, 1711, however, it came by purchase to the Bayard family ,~ 
who used it for a summer residence. The farm was worked 
by tenants, and greatly improved through the liberality of its 
owners. In 1760 there was on it a garden of five acres filled with 
a choice collection of English fruit, such as peaches, pears, plumt^. 
cherries, nectarines and apricots ; a large dwelling house, which 
Bayard occupied as his summer residence, and another adjoining 
under the same roof used as a farm-house, with convenient cellars 
and an " extraordinarj' kitchen ;" out houses, a new smoke house, 
fowl house, a large stable, with stalls for ten horses on one side,, 
over which was a granary and hay loft, which would hold twenty 
loads of hay. Upon the farm were thirty milch cows and thirty 
young cattle, twenty fat hogs, six fat cattle and a pair of oxen. 
Besides an old orchard capable of producing eighty barrels of 
cider a year, there were about one thousand young trees, all 
grafted with the best of fruit. It was considered that scarcelv 
anything in America could equal its convenience for marketing, 
as in good weather one might "cross, take one time with another^ 
in half an hour."^ 

'N. Y. Col. MSS., vi., 347. 

"Winfield's Land Titles, 39, where also see a sketch of Verlet. Although tht 
owner of HobokeD, he lived in Bergen. Ibid, 108. 
'■'N. Y. Mercury, December 8,1760. 



The Bavard inaiision was on Castle Point, or " Castile,"^ and 
was burned by the patriots on Saturday, the 24tli of August, 1780, 
and the farm Laid waste. The owner at this time was William 
Bayard."^' This gentleman being a loyalist, his property was con- 
fiscated, and, on the IBtli of March, 1784, sold to John Stevens. 
In 1S04 the place was laid out upon a map, which was entitled, 

^ ^^^y^^i^y^ t^^^^^^^'-'-'L^ 

■JSl. Y. Mrirnrii, Auguxt 3S, 17S(). 

■ William Bayard was associated witii Jay, Lewis, etc , the Committee of 
Fifty Wliitr syinpatlii/ers at the be<finningof the war. In 177o Mr. Quincy, of 
Massachusetts, in passinj^on his way from the South, recorded in his journal : 
" Dined with Col. William Bayard, at his seat on tlie North Riv-er." In 1775 
the Massachusetts delegates to the Continental Congress were his jruests at the 
same ])lace. The capture of New York by the British in 1776 induced him to 
believe that they would succeed in the contest. Hence he forsook the pa- 
triot cause and became a loyalist, active and zealous as new converts generally 
are. The tories in this vicinity were indebted to him for the watch-boats fur- 
nished to the Jersey volunteers. N. Y. Mercury, February ~, 1778. At the 
close of the war he went to England, where he lived to be a very old man. He 
died in 1804, at his seat, Greenwich House, Southara[)tou. 


"A Map of the new City Iloboken." On the 20th of March, 1804, 
Colonel Stevens advertised a four days- sale of eight liundred 
lots at Iloboken. This sale was to he at public auction, on Mon- 
day, April 9, at the Tontine Coffee House, New Tork; on Tues- 
day at Hoboken, on Wednesday' at the Tontine Coffee House, 
and on Thursday at Hoboken. Ten per cent, of the purchase 
price was to be paid within ten days, the balance in four annual 
])ayinents, the deed to be given on making the first annual pay- 
ment. David Dixon was the auctioneer. The purchasers were 
requested to meet at the Tontine on Saturday, the 14th of April, 
to give names to the streets, each person to have as many votes 
as he had lots on the streets to be named. 

The Hoboken Land and Improvement Company was incorpo- 
rated February 21, 1838, and the heirs of John Stevens^ conveyed 
to it the unsold property. May 0, 1839. 

The township of Hoboken was set off from the township of 
North Bergen on the 1st of March, 1849 ; organized April K), 
1849. It was incorporated as a city on the 28th of March, 1855, 
in the name of " the Mayor and Council of the City of Hoboken," 
The acceptance of the charter was left to the people. The vote 
thereon was taken on the 29th of March, and stood : " Charter," 
337; "No Charter," 185. 


Cornelius V. Cliekener, 1855-7 
Franklin B, Carpenter, 
1857-8, 1859-01. 

Frederick B. Ogden, 1805-7. 
Frederick W. Bohnstedt, 


George A\^ Morton, 1858-9. • Hazen Kimball, 1809-71. 

John It. Johnston, 1801-3. 
Lorenzo W. Elder, 1803-4. 
Charles T. Perry, 1864-5. 

Frederick L. Schmersahl, 

Peter McGavisk, 1873. 

' Colonel John Stevens was the i'ouiider of Hobuken. He was born in New 
York in 1749, and died in 1838. His grandfather, John, was a native of Eng- 
land, and came to New York as one of the law officers of the crown. His father, 
John, became a resident of New Jersey, and married Elizabeth Alexander. He 
was at one time Vice-President of the Council. Colonel John married Rachel, 
daughter of Jolin Cox, of Bloomsburg, N.J. He was for several years 'I'reasurer 
of the State. His sister married Robert li. Livingston, Chancellor of the State 
of New York. 


Samuel W. Carey, 1855-7. j John Kennedy, 18(51-70. 

Henry M. Brandis, 1857-8. ' I Fredei-ick E. Rowald, 1870-2. 

Augustus O. Evans, 1858-9. John R. McCulloeh, 1872- 
William U. Harrison, 18.".9-t)l. 

On the 15th of April, 1814, Samuel Swurtwout and his brother 
Robert purchased a large tract of land at Hoboken. They im- 
mediately commenced to reclaim the land by erecting permanent 
dikes and opening ditches. Part of the land drained came under 
successful cultivation. About one hundred cows were, in 1819, 
fed upon these reclaimed marshes, and their milk sent to Xew 
York market. Grain of various kinds, and vegetables in abun- 
dance, were also raised. In 1819 their funds gave out. They 
applied t(,» the Corporation of New York for aid. They wert- 
not successful, and the project was abandoned.^ 

Water was introduced in October, 1858. 

NoKTu Bergen. 

On the 10th of February, 184;}, all that portion of the county 
lying north of the Xew Jersey Railroad and the Mill Creek was 
set oft" from the township of Bergen, and named the township of 
North Bergen. It has been, from time to time, despoiled of ter- 
ritory for cities and townships, until at present it is confined to 
Secaucus and that part of the county lying north of the Paterson 
plank road and west of Dallytown road. Secaucus is an island, 
lying between Pinhorne creek and the Hackensack river. It is 
mentioned in the deed of the Indians to Stuyvesant by the name 
of Sickakes.'- On the southerly end of the island is a bold bluft" 
rising out of the salt marsh, known as " Slangen Bergh ''" and 
" Snake Hill." It is now owned by the county, and the Alms 

^ N. Y. Emriing Post, July 34, 1819. 

■■' For a minute history of this island, cldc Wiiijield's Land Titles, 130. 
■* Long. M. Hist. Soc, i., lo6. " And is so named on account of the numerous 
snakes which infest it." 



House, Lunatic Asylum and Penitentiary are there. Just north 
of Snake Hill is an elevated piece of upland, once known as 
" Mount Pinhorne." This latter place, in all probability, was 
the residence of Judge Pinhorne. In 1729 the jilantation was 
said to contain "600 acres of timber, 200 cleared land, l,00o 
meadow, new house and barn, two orchards of about 1,200 bear- 
ing apple trees."'^ Three hundred acres of this plantation now 
constitute the " Poor House Farm." The purchase of this farm 
for county purposes was tirst agitated in November, 1845, It 
was not, however, until December, 1855, that the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders resolved to buy it. Several townships and 
cities had been set off from Bergen, without reserving their right 
to the farm, so that at this time it was owned by Bergen, Xortli 
Bergen, Hoboken, and Hudson City. On March 7, 1861, the 
Legislature named Commissioners from these four municipalities, 
with power to convey the same to the county. The purchase was 
completed, and in February, 1862, the title passed to the county 
at a cost of $12,000. Preparations were immediately made foi- 
the erection of tlie Alms House."- .lames McLoughlin contracted 
for the carpenter's work at $14,600, and William C. White for 
the mason work at $12,500. The building was completed in 
1863, and the first person received as an inmate was Andrew Don- 
ohoe, August 25, 1863. The building now (1873) has accommo- 
dation for five hundred inmates. There are in the institution 
427 persons, and the cost of maintaining it is $1.71^ per inmate, 
weekly. Up to November 19, 1873, 2,840 persons had been in- 
mates of the Alms House, whose average age and nationality are 
as follows : 



Nativity. i 

No. of 

Ireland, i England 1 Germany. 





yrs. m. 
30 6 

1,154 ; 104 ! :U0 

1 1 

1,242 1,700 

• 1 


' N. Y. Gazette, July 7, 1739, and May 18, 1730. 

■ In the olden time the poor v*rere cared for by selling them to the lowest 
bidder. The following extract will give a clear idea upon thi.s subject : " At 



The contract for the Penitentiary was awarded to Peter Doyle 
and David Ewling, August 9, 1866, for $83,456. It was com- 
pleted in 1870, Patrick Warren appointed its first keeper, and 
Michael Kinney, convicted of breaking and entering and larceny, 
admitted its first inmate, September 19, 1870. The buildinw has 
accommodation for 180 persons. On November 19, 1873, ninety- 
four males and nineteen females were prisoners therein. The 
following table shows the number of commitments : 


November 20, 1873. 


1 Com- 





! 13 









1 Educa- 
i tion. 







1 258 












a o 

K p. 





j; ° 




^ o 



03 S 
O > 




o ■" 



S . 

O <u 

o g 


1 M 

i £33 






by what 

C a> CO 

.2 " »- 
1 §1 


25 — 

75 258 
77 180 
78j 320 

2551 758 
















; 25 


t 257 






The Lunatic Asylum was completed in 1873. The first 
l)atients were received March 8, 1873. The building has accom- 
modation for one hundred and forty patients. Since its comple- 
tion, up to November 19, 1873, one hundred and two patients 
have been received therein, of whom fifteen have been discharged 

New Durham, which up to 1803 was known as the Maisland, 
lies within this township. In this village is the tavern named 
" Three Pigeons," a name well known prior to the Revolution. 

Here also, near where Macpelah cemetery now is, was the once 

Bergen town meetinfr, December 15th, 1784, at a public Outcry is sold Enocli 
Earle to the Lowest Bidder for the sum of seven pounds, ten shillings ; the 
conditions are as follows, the Byer is to find the said Enoch Earle a Good Bed, 
Washing, Lodging and Victuals and Mending his Close : the Overseers of the 
Poor are to find all the New Close and tlien the said Enoch Earle is to work for 
the Byer as much as he is able to do until the years End." Until the comple- 
tion of the present Alms House, the old red buildiug north of the Boonton 
Branch Railroad was used for that purpose. 

THE fkenchman's garden. 823 

celebrated " Frenchman's Garden."^ Concerning this garden I 
have met with the following poetic and somewhat sonorous ac- 
counts : 

" In a wild and romantic situation on Bergen Creek, nearly oj)- 
posite the City of New York, thirty acres of land were purchased 
for a garden and fruiterj by the unfortunate Louis XYI., who as 
proprietor became a naturalized citizen by act of the Legislature. "- 
This statement of Warden seems to have been based on a notice 
relating to this garden in the New Jev'sey Journal^ June 27, 1787, 
in which it is said, " Part of this space is at present enclosing 
with a stone wall, and a universal collection of exotic, as well as 
domestic plants, trees and flowers, are already begun to be intro- 
duced to this elegant spot, which in time must rival, if not excel 
the most celebrated gardens of Europe. The situation is natu- 
rally wild and romantic, between two considerable rivers, in view 
of the main ocean, the city of New York, the heights of Staten 
Island and a vast extent of distant mountains on the western 
side of the landscape." As " tall oaks from little acorns grow," 
so these exaggerated statements had their origin in the following 
simple fact. On March 3, 1786, Andre Michaux, in his petition 
to the Legislature of this State, set forth that the King of France 
had commissioned him as his botanist to travel througli the 
United States, that he had power to import from France any 
tree, plant or vegetable that might be wanting in this country, 
that he wished to establish near Bergen a botanical garden of 
about thirty acres, to experiment in agriculture and gardening, 
and which he intended to stock with French and American 
plants, as also with plants from all over the w^orld. The Legis- 
lature granted his petition, and permitted him as an alien to 
hold not exceeding two hundred acres of land in this State. 

He came to this country fortified with a flattering letter of in- 
tro(hiction, dated at Vienna, September 3, 1785, from the Mar- 
<iuis de La Fayette to Washington.^ He was attached to the 

' Winfield s Land Titles. 803 

'^ Warden's History of the United States, it., 53. 

^Correspondence of the American Revolution, it., 116. 


Jardin des Plants in Pai-is. He brought with him the gardener, 
Paul Saunier, who took the title to the ground bought for the 
garden. The place was stocked with many ])lants and trees, among 
which was the Lombard poplar. From this garden this once 
celebrated tree was spread abroad through the country and pro- 
nounced an exotic of priceless value. ^ 

Hudson City. 

On the 4th of March, 1852, the territory within this city was 
taken from the township of North Bergen and incorporated as 
" The Town of Hudson in the County of Hudson." Certain 
powers vv^ere invested in five supervisors, but for all general pur- 
poses the place remained a part of the township of Xorth Ber- 
gen. On the 11th of April, 1855, it was incorporated " The 
('ity of Hudson," with powers of government vested in a Mayor 
and Common Council. The charter was left to the acceptance or 
rejection of the people. At an election held on the 12th of April, 
1855, a majority of 120 votes was cast for the charter. The 
Mayor and Common Council were sworn into office b}' Judge 
riaines at the court house on the 7th of May. It consolidated 
with Jersey City in 1870. 

Mayors. l Clerks. 

Edwin R. V. Wright, 1855. | Alexander Watson, May, 1855 

Garret D. Yan Ilipen, 1856, ; -Sept., 1855. 

'61-8. Thomas Harrison, Sept., 1855 

Edmund T. Carpenter, 1857-8, l -May, 1856. 

'60-1.2 I Charles J. Roe, May, 1856- 

Abraham Collerd, 1859. I May, 1S7(>. 

Benjamin F. Sawyer, 1869. I 

Within the bounds of this city, and partly on the southerly 
end of the new reservoir, and extending easterly, was the Beacon 

' Old New Yovk,m. 

• Died in office in 18G1, and was succeeded by Garret D. Van Ripen. 


Race Course. It was owned by Cyrus S. Browning, who was 
here killed by being thrown from his Canadian horse " Hops," 
November 5, 1845, in a hurdle race. The following list of 
races over this once popular track will be interesting to " whom 
it may concern " : 

Beacon Race Course. 

Ajax, Rattler, May 20, 1844; 3 miles; dis., 8:02. 
Americus, Ripton, to wagon, Sept. 26, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:17, 5:20. 
Dutchman, Ripton, Sept. 21, 1843; 3 miles; 8:04, 
8:11, 8:26, 9:40. 
" Lady Suffolk, Columbus, June 27, 1844; 3 miles; 

^ 7:52^, 8:01. 
Amina, Columbus, Doctor (3 dr.). May 9, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:37i, 

2:38, 2:37. 
Awful, Lady Suffolk, Oct. 8, 1838; 2 miles ; 5:28, 5:2H. 

" Dutchman, to wagon, Oct. 28, 1839 ; 1 mile ; 2:41^, 2:40, 
Beppo, Independence, June 25, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:32^, 2:31^, 2:33, 

2:38, 2:35, 
Billy, Seneca Chief, pacers, July 14, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:32. 
Brandywnnc, Vernon Maid, Mingo Princess, June 15, 1841 ; 2 

miles; 5:24, 5:24. 
Brooklyn Maid, Mingo, Rattler, June 7, 1841 ; 3 miles ; 8:27, 
" Snaffle, Don Juan, May 5, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:22. 

Cayuga Chief, Aaron Burr, June 12, 1*841; 1 mile; 2:38, 2:38, 
2:46, 2:37. 
" "Washington, Americus, June 19, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 

2:35i, 2:35i, 2:40, 2:42, 2:45. 
Celeste, Henry, Americus, Oct. 4, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:22, 5:32i, 

Columbus, Ajax, Oct. 21, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:24i, 5:32, 5:36. 
Confidence, Washington, June 10, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:24, 5:28. 
" " June 28, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:37, 2:36. 

" Ripton, Awful, Oct. 4, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:13, 5:17. 

Don Juan, Washington, July 12, 1841 ; 2 miles; 5:21, 5:39, 5:22^. 


Duchess, Cayuga Chief, Pleasure Boy, Sept. 19, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 
5:l*5i, 5:25, 5:35. 
" Hector, May 20, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:28, 5:22. 
" Snaffle, Hector, June 15, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:26^, 5:20. 
Lady Suffolk, Oct. 8, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:37, 2:35^, 2:35^, 
Dutchman, Kattler, Oct. 8, 1838; 3 miles; 7:45^, 7:5<t, S:02, 
" Rattler (dis.), Oct. 15, 1838; 3 miles; 8.01^. 

" Lady Suffolk, April 27, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:10, 5:19. 

" Awful (dis.), July 4, 1839 ; 3 miles ; 7:41. 

" July 11, 1839 ; 3 miles ; 8:18, 7:59. 
" " July 18, 1839 ; 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:32, 2:35. 

" against time, Ang. 1, 1839 ; 3 miles; 7:32^.' 

" Awful, Oct. 4, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:11, 5:lf). 

' This remarkable speed and endurance made Dutchman king of the turf, 
which position he held for thirty-three years. The following is an account of 
the race as told by Hiram Woodruff himself, who rode Dutchman, in his valua- 
ble work on the trotting horse in America : 

" The 1st of August came. The course was firm, a large concourse of people 
were in attendance, and the odds were two to one on Dutchman when we 
brought him out and stripped him. At six o'clock in the evening he was sad- 
dled, and I mounted, feeling fully confident that the feat set would be done with 
much ease. We wei-e allowed a running horse to keep company, and I had a 
nice blood-like mare, she being under my brother Isaac. We went oft' at a 
moderate jog, gradually increasing the pace, but conversing part of the way at 
our ease. The mile was accomplished in 2:-]i^, and Dutchman never was really 
extended. Now occurred a circumstance whicii must be related, because it was 
curious in itself and had its effect on time. Mr. Harrison, the backer of Dutch- 
man, had sent his watch to a friend and was not keeping time of the horses 
himself as they went round. As we came by the stand some bystander, who 
had a mistake in timing, told him that the time of the mile was 2:38, which 
was a losing average. He therefore called out to me as I passed him to go 
along, and go along I did. Dutchman struck a great pace on the back stretch, 
and established such a fine stroke that the running mare was no longer able to 
live with liim. My brother Isaac got alarmed and sung out to me that I was 
going too fast. I replied that I had been told to go along. It was not my con- 
viction that the horse was going too fast even then, for if ever there was one 
that I could feel of and that felt all over strong and cajiable of maintaining the 
rate, Dutchman did then. Nevertheless I took a pull for Isaac, and allowed 
him to come up and keep company for the balance of the mile. It was per- 



Dutchman, Washington, Sept. 29, 1840; 2 miles; .5:17^,5:17, 
" Lady Suffolk, Americus, Oct. 5, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:19, 

5:20, 5:22, 5:29. 
Fairy Queen, Cayuga Chief, May 6, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:39, 2:39. 

' '« Calhoun, July 8, 1844; 1 mile; 2:34, 2:31. 

Greenwich Maid, Dutchman, June 21, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:20, 5:22. 
Hector, Kate Horn, May 14, 1842 ; 1 mile ; 2:41, 2:41, 2:42, 2:36. 
" Snaffle, Pleasure Boy, Sept. 21, 1842; 2 miles; 5:18^, 
John C. Calhoun, Fairy Queen, Oct. 31, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:32, 2:30. 
Lady Clinton, Chancellor, Brooklyn Maid, Brandywine, Buck- 
skin, Hector (1 dis.), Septi 29, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:41, 2:40, 
2:4U, 2:41. 
Lady Suffolk, Lady Victory, Black Hawk (1 dis.), Cato (1 dis.), 
Sarah Paff (1 dis.), June 22, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:15, 5:17. 
" Apollo (1 dis.), April 26, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:21. 

Cato (1 dis.), July 3, 1839 ; 2 miles ; 5:39. 
Henry, Celeste, Cato (3 dis.), Oct. 3, 1 839 ; 2 miles ; 
5:28, 5:28,' 5:26. 

formed in 2:28 very liandily. The third mile we kept the same relative posi- 
tions, Dutchman beinor under o-ood pull all the way, and able to have left the 
running mare had he been called upon so to do. The rate was now very even, 
and it was maintained until we were within about two hundred yards of the 
stand, when I was notified to check up and come home at a more moderate gait- 
1 therefore crossed the score at a jog-trot, and Dutchman was at a walk within 
fifteen yards of it. The last mile was 2:30, the whole being 7:32^. Great as 
this performance was thought at the time, long as it has stood unequaled, and 
great and deserved as has been and is the fame of those who have endeavored 
to surpass it, I declare that it is not by any means all that Dutchman could have 
done that day. I am positive that if I had been called upon to do so, he could 
have trotted the three miles in 7:27 or better. Tliis is no light ()j)iuion of mine, 
taken up years afterward on inadequate grounds, and when those who might be 
o;)po8ed to it have gone from among us. It was the judgment of those who 
saw him in the feat, observed him all through and noticed how he finished. It 
has always been my conviction, and will remain so to my dying day, that, Dutch- 
man could have done the last mile in 2:26, and I even hold to the opinion that 
he could have done it in 2:25. The people who witnessed the race thought eo 

Dutchman's time was beaten l)y Huntress at Prospect Park Sept. 21, 1872. 


Lady Suffolk, Don Jiian, Oct. 23, 1839; 2 miles: 5:16, 5:24. 
'" Aaron Burr, Sept. 21, 1840; 2 rniles; 5:22, 5:21, 

" Eipton, July 6, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:35, 2:37^. 

" Awful, July 22, 1841 ; 2 miles; 5:26^, 5:23, 5:24. 

" Oneida Chief (1 dis.), July 27, 1841 : 2 miles ; 5:05. 

" Beppo, Independence, July 4, 1843 : 1 mile ; 2:28^, 

2:28, 2:28, 2:29, 2:32. 
" Beppo, Oneida Chief, July 12, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:26^, 

2:27, 2:27. 

" Beppo, July 25, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:30^, 2:42*, 2:28. 

" Confidence,*^ Sept. 14, 1843 ; 1 mile ; 2:38, 2:39, 2:41. 

■ " Americus, Ripton, May 21 ; 1844; 2 miles ; 5:17, 

5:19, 5:18. 

" Duchess,Washington, Sept. 9, 1844; 1 mile; 2,38, 

2:33i, 2:34, 2:37. 
" John C. Calhoun, Fairy Queen (4 dis.), Oct. 7, 

1844; 1 mile; 2:39, 2:31, 2:28, 2:29, 2:30. 
Moscow, Oct. 13, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:34, 2:29^, 2:31, 
2:34, 2:36. 
Lady Tompkins, Amina, Oct. 17, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:37, 2:36, 2:39, 

Moscow, Reality, Oct. 6, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:39^, 2:44. 

" Lady Suffolk, Oct. 16, 1845 ; 1 mile ; 2:33^, 2:3U, 2:40, 
( )neida Chief, Miss Saratoga, June 19, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:14, 5:09^. 
" Awful, June 17, 1840; 3 miles ; 8:17, 8:20^. 

" Lady Suffolk, Nov. 1, 1841 ; 3 miles ; 7:50, 8:04. 

" " Aug. 14, 1843 ; 3 miles ; 7:44, 7:52. 

Rattler, " (3 dis.), July 4, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 5:29, 

5:17, 5:40. 
" Dutchman, Lady Suffolk (1 dis.), Oct. 1, 1838; 2 miles; 
5:17, 5:134. 
Kipton, Brandywine, Don Juan, June 22, 1841; 2 miles; 5:21, 
" " Post Boy, Sept. 21, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:32, 5:24. 

" Quaker, Duchess, Nov. 1, 1841 ; 2 miles ; 5:13, 5,20. 


Kiptoii, Lady Suftolk. Confidence, Aug. 1, 1842; H miles; 8:00, 

Aniericns, Oct. 26, 1842; 3 miles; 8:08, 8:01, 8:04. 
Lady Suffolk, Confidence, May 7, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:10^, 
Americns, May If), 1843; 3 miles ; 7:53, 8:03. 

May 22, 1843 ; 2 miles ; 5:12, 5:12, 5:17. 
" Confidence, Jiine 15, 1844 ; 1 mile ; 2:40, 2:41, 2:38, 2:42^,, 
Sir William. Ajax, Jersey Blue (3 dis.), Oct. 8, 1844; 3 miles; 
8:04^, "8:09, 8:06V 
^' Hector, Oct. 31, 1844 ; 2 miles; 5:26, 5:27. 

Snafile, Brooklyn Maid, Hector, Oct. 1 7, 1842 ; 2 miles ; 5:26, 5:27. 
•' Rifle, Tom Benton, Soi-rel Billy (2 dis.). May 16, 1844 ; 
2 miles; 5:23^, 5:20. 
Soldier Bob, Spangle, Cayuga Chief, Awful, Oct. 18,1843; 1 

mile ; 2:35|, 2:38, 2^39^, 2:41, 2:46, 2:47. 
Unknown, Fairy Queen (1 dis.), Aug. 2, 1844; 1 mile; 2:23. 
Volcano, Stranger, Waterman (1 dis.), June 28,1841; 1 mile; 

2:39, 2:3U, 2:34^, 2:38^. 
Yolcano, Drover, Waterman (1 dis.), Seneca Chief (1 dis.), July 

5, 1841 ; 1 mile ; 2:32, 2:35, 2:38. 
Washington. Greenwich Maid, Dutchman, Rattler, June 22, 
" 1838; 2 miles; 5:19, 5:17. 
'* Dutchman, Greenwich Maid, July 4, 1838 ; 2 miles ; 

5:22, 5:17. 
" Cayuga ( 1iief (2 dis.), Nov. 2, 1840 ; 2 miles ; 5:37, 


Duchess, Rifle, May 23, 1844 ; 2 miles ; 5:17^, 5:20. 

The ]»e(»ple in the vicinity grew weary of the races and the 
character of the visitors. It was presented by the grand jury as 
a " nuisance to the public" in 1845. It was shortly afterward 

in 186- the Hudson C'ounty Agricultural Society, for the [)Ui-- 
pose of developing a superior species of pumpkin, constructed a 
race course on Secaueus. It was kept up for some time with 


great spirit, but after the lapse of two or three years the racing 
was abandoned. The land belonging to the company was sold 
to Bishop Bayley, Dec. 14, 1870. It is not yet turned to relig- 
ious uses. It has in part relapsed to its former condition ; per- 
haps it would be proper to say its last state is worse than the first, 
for it is now devoted to " scrub " racing, Indian exhibitions and 
otlier amusements of an equally inferior character. 

Township of Weehawhen was set off from the city of Hoboken 
March 15, 1859. 

Township of Union was set ofi" from the township (^f North 
Bergen Feb. 28, 1861. 

TownshijJ of West Hohohen was set off from the township of 
North Bergen Feb. 28, 1861. 

Township of Bayonne was set off from the town of Bergen 
March 15, 1861, and incorporated as a city March 10, 1869. 

Township of Greenville was set off from the town of Bergen 
March 18, 1863, and consolidated with Jersey City in 1873. 

Town of Union was set oiF from the township of Union 
March 29,' 1864. 

Township of Kearneij was set oif f rom tlie township of Harri- 
son March 14, 1867. 

Considering the rapid absorption of adjacent territory by Jer- 
sey City, it is perhaps proper that the names and location of vil- 
lages and hamlets, as they have existed and do now exist, should 
be given for preservation. Beginning at Bei'gen Point, we go 

Centreville is a small village about two miles nortli of Bergen 

Bayonne is a small village about three-quarters of a mile north 
of Centreville. 

Pamrepo is a village in the northerly part of the city of Bay- 
onne, formerly known as Salterville. All of these places are 
within the city of Bayonne, and the New Jersey Central Rail- 
road Company has a statioji at each jJace. 

Greenville was a small, poorly constructed village about three 
miles from the Jersey City ferry, on the old road leading to Ber- 


gen Point, settled mostly by Germans. It finally gave its name 
to a township, which was annexed to Jersey ( 'ity in 1873. 

Claremont was a name given more to a tract of land that was 
mapped out for sale than to a village. It lies on the heights, 
north and south of the Newark and New York Railroad. 

Lafayette was the name given by the owners of the land to 
that portion of Jersey City which liet^ south of the Morris canal, 
in the vicinity of Pacific and C^ommunipaw avenues. 

Centre Hill, like Claremont and Lafayette, was a name which 
grew out of a land speculation. It is now quite thickly settled. 
It lies in the upper part of Jersey City, a little south of the Pat- 
erson plank road. 

West Hobohen is a thriving village, which has given its name 
to a township. It lies upon the heights, adjoining the north 
boundary of Jersey City. 

Union Hill is quite a large town on the heights, east of the 
Hackensack plank road, and about two miles north of Iloboken. 
It was settled and built up almost exclusively 1iv (lermans. 

JVew Durliani is a small hamlet lying at the northerly foot of 
Weehawken hill, on the Hackensack plank road. 

Guttenherg is a small village on the heights, a little south of 
Bull's Ferry, settled and built up by Germans. The name 
was applied to a tract of land mapped for sale. Incorporated 
March 9, 1859. 

West Nexc York lies on the westerly brow^ of the hill back of 


Organization of tlu' county — Its officers — Vote for location of Court House — 
Layinjf corner stone — Address of Cliief Justice Hornblower — Represent- 
atives in the Legislature — List of Freeholders — List of Judges. 

Thk act t(» set off tlie county of Hudson from Bergen county 
passed the Legislature Febrnary 22, 1840, by a vote of twenty - 
seven to twenty-three in the Assembly, and nine to seven in the 
Council. This large negative vote was the result of political 
considerations. The county then comprised the town of Jersey 
and townships of Bergen and Harrison. East (jf the Hacken- 
sack its boundaries were identical with the old township of 
Bergen. West of the Ilackensack it included not only the 
present townships of Harrison and Kearney, but the township 
of Union in the county of Bergen. This last named township 
was then included within the township of Harrison, and was set 
off into Bergen county February 19, 1852. 

At a joint meeting of the Legislature, February 27, 1840, the 
following appointments of county officers were made : 

Kobert (Hlchrist, Cleric. 

Ednmnd W. Kingsland, Surrogate. 

Lewis D. Hardenberg, Prosec\itor of the Pleas. 

Stephen Garretson, Cornelius Y. V. Kingsland, Judges. 

The first term of the County Court began April 14, 1840, at 
Lyceum Hall, in Grand street, Jersey City. 

Joseph C. Hornblower, Chief Justice., presiding. 

Cornelius A'an Winkle, Henry Southmayd, Stephen Garretson, 
George ( '. De Kay, Judges. 

George H. Brinkerhoff, Sherif. 

Archer G. Welsh.^ Abraham' \' an Winkle, Oliver H. P. Kil- 
burne, Thonuis Marinns, (.'on stables. 

Nathaniel Ellis. Marshal. 

' Crier of the Court from this time until Oct()l)cr Term, 1870; died November 



Grand Jury. 

John Lovett, Garret G. Newkirk, John I. Speer, Isaac Q. 
Underhill, Michael Fisher, Benjamin Mills, John l>unce, Lorenzo 
Jacquins, Cornelins Van Vorst, Charles F. Durant, Ivodnian M. 
Price, JohnF. Ellis, John Griffith, James Drake, James Devoe, 
-Tohn C Morgan, Merselis Parks, John Brinkerhoftj Joshua ,1, 
Benson, Jacob Vreeland, Jacob D, Van Winkle, John G. Speer,' 
Richard Ontwater,^ William Seeley.^ 

Petit Jurors. 

Morris Smith, Jacob M. Vreeland, Henry Van Horn, -loim 
Garretson, Nathaniel H. Carpenter, (^alvin Tompkins, George 
De Mott, ( 'liarles Gardner, Henry Osborn, James W. Higginw, 
Daniel Crane, Henry Drayton, John P. Hill, Mindert A'reeland. 
Albert M. Zabriskie, B. VanSchaick, Garret Ackerman, William 
C. Xingsland, John G. McLoughlin, Walter Woods, Charles I>. 
C. Bacot, Joseph Danielson, George W. Edge, Joseph Stone, 
Abraham V. Van Boskerck, Jacob Van Horn, John Gill)ert, 
James Lott, Smith Benedict, Peter Van Horn, -lames Malone, 
Joshua Heustis, James Talnian, Garret Van Vorst, Dudley S. 
Gregory, John P. Morgan, Henry Van Embergh, Paul Salter,. 
Garret Newkirk, Arent H. Schuyler. 

The courts continued to be held in the Lyceum Hall from that 
time until September 19, 1843, when the Board of Chosen Free- 
holders having accepted the '' Newkirk House," at the Five 
(/orners, as a Court House, the courts were opened there Sep- 
tember 20, 1843. Here the courts were held until March 11, 
1845, when the present Court House was completed. 

The location of the ( 'ourt House was a subject of considerable 
interest to the people. Each district was offered as the desiral)le 
spot. The following places were put in nomination : 

1. Washington s(piare in Jersey City. 

7, 1870. He was succeeded by his nephew, John Wesley Welsh, who yet " cries- 

' Did not appear. 


2. The Public Groniuls in Harsimus. 

3. Bergen square. 

4. Public Grounds in Hoboken. 

5. West Hoboken. 

6. East Newark. 

7. The Five Corners. 

8. Near Depot, Paterson Kailroad (West End). 

9. I>erii;eii Ridge, from road to ( ^omnninipaw to West 

10. (^onnnunipaw. 

11. Secaueus. 

12. Bergen Point. 

13. New Durham. 

14. Weehawken. 

1^^ Oentre of the count^', i^oudrette Company, on Hacken- 
sack ri ver ! 

As an inducement to have the (-ourt House located in Jerse}'^ 
City, that municipality offered to donate to the county land worth 
$10,0(»(i and $8,000 in money. 

The vote upon the question was taken June 2, 1840, with tlie 

following result : 

Vote in Bet'gen. 

For Bergen, - - 506 

Rejected, ---------- 2 

Whole number of votes, ..---- 508 

Vote in Jersey City. 

For Bergen, - - -. - - - - - - 20 

" Jersey City, -------- 281 

" Harrison, --------- 2 

Rejected, 2 

Wliole No. of votes, ------- 304 

Vote in Harrison. 

For Bergen, - - - - 54 

" Jersey ^ 'ity, _--.---- 2 

Whole No. of votes, 50 


After the above vote there was much delay in deciding' on the 
locality for the building, and it was not until December 5, 1843, 
that the contract for the building of the Court House was given, 
to Thomas Thomas, Cai'penter, and William Brown, Mason^ for 
S14,00(t, which was the lowest bid. Ground was broken for the 
building May 1, 1844, and the corner stone laid October 17, 
1844, with great ceremony. A procession was formed at Dray- 
ton's Hotel, at the Five Corners, in the following order: 

1. Architect, Superintendent and Builder. 

2. Mechanics and laborers employed on the building, about 
100 in number. 

3. A noble band of music from the U. S. Ship North 

4. Committee of Arrangements. 

5. Board of Chosen Freeholders. 

6. Clergy. 

7. Chief Justice of the State of New Jersey. 

8. Members of the Bar. 

9. Judges and Justices of the county. 

10. Clerk and Surrogate. 

11. Sheriff and Constables. 

12. Mayor and Common Council of Jersey City. 

13. Trustees of the Freeholders Inhabitants of the Township 
of Bergen. 

14. Strangers. 

15. Citizens on foot. 

16. Citizens on horseback and in carriages. 

Prayer by Rev. B. C. Taylor, D.D. ; corner stone laid by 
John Tonele, jr.. Director of the Board of Chosen Freeholders. 

In the stone were deposited the newsj)apers of the day, pub- 
lished in New York, Jersey City, Newark, Trenton, i^^c, Tleports 
on Education, School Fund and Finances of the State and county, 
several coins, a parchment roll containing a list of all the county 
officers, the Governor, State officers, the President of the United 
States, and other officers of the General Government. 


Cliief Justice lloriibluwer made an address, and Rev. Mr. 
Ballard pronounced the Benediction. 

The following- is a copy of a paper on lile in tlie clerk V othce, 
which shows tlie situation of tlu; Coui-t House : 

''Latitude and Longitude of Hudson County Court House, 
North Bergen, New Jersey : 

"Latitude, - - - 40° 48' 50" N. 
" Longitude in time, - - 4*^ of)"' 14**'= 7^ 


14 48 44 I 

74 (»3 4(1 f) 
"West from Greenwich. 
" Variation of compass in 1841, 5° 52'. 

'' W. C. Wetmore, 

" U. S. Navy. 
"July 7, 184().' 

The first session in the new Couil House was opened March 
11, 1845, with Prayer by Rev. B. C. Taylor, D.D., and the fol- 
lowing address by the Chief Justice : 

" Gentleinen, Memhers of the Board of Chosen Freeliolders^ 
of the Grand Jury^ and my Fellov) Gifizem^ at lar(je of the 
County of Hudson : 

" Assembled, as we are, for the tirst time witliin this beautiful 
building, which has been erected by your patriotism and liber- 
ality, whose corner stone was laid in prayer, and in prayer 
fervent, ap])i'opriate and elo(pient, has just been dedicated to tlu^ 
administration of justice, I feel it my pleasure, my privilege, to 
address you in words of congratulation as well as in the languagt? 
of official advice and judicial instruction. Since the frailty, not 
to say the depravity of our nature, renders it necessary to estab- 


lish ;iii(l maintain courts of justico, to settle the rig-ht.s of indi- 
viduals, to punish the guilty and protect the innocent, it is 
desirable and becomini;- that the public should provide convenient 
and suitable buildiui>s in which to discharge that high and 
responsible duty. You, my fellow citizens, have met that 
demand with a noble and generous spirit. In the erection of 
this edifice you have nuinifestcd your attachment to the institu- 
tions of your country, and youi' readiness to sustain the adminis- 
trators of public justice in the execution and discharge of their 
duty. Accept, therefore, I pray you, fi-om me, in behalf of 
myself and of e\'ery meml)er of the coui't. and of f hose who may 
■soo/t succeed me and my associates in tiie seats we now occupy, 
unfeigned thanks for the convenient and elegant apartments you 
have provided for the acconnnodation of courts and their officers. 
When you tirst conceived the plan of being erected into a sepa- 
]-ate county, it met M'ith my apju-obation and secured my support, 
from no sinister motive. I remembered the old town of Bergen, 
when it had very few inhabitants except old-fashioned, honest 
Dutchmen, and very few houses ex'cept those not built for show, 
but for domestic comfort and convenience ; long, low and unpre- 
tending in appearance, but durable in materials, and opening 
upon the streets some two or three hospitable doors, into which 
the friend and stranger might enter and iind a welcome, and 
from which they might retire and leave a blessing behind them. 
Hoboken then consisted of little else besides a well-kept public 
house, and a beautiful retreat from the noise and bustle of the 
neighboi-ing metropolis. jS'o Jersey City then adorned your 
shores — nothing but a large, long ferry house, occupied succes- 
sively by an Ellsworth, a Smith, and a Hunt, with here and there 
a boatman's or a fisherman's cabin, stood upon the heap of sand 
called Powles' Hook : your settlements were sparse, your occu- 
pations agricultural and industrial, and your population small, 
but liealthy, peaceful and honest : you needed, for many years 
within my recollection, but one ]>hysician to administer to your 
physical necessities, but one man of God to supply your spiritual 
want, and not even one lawyer to satisfy your litigious propensi- 
ties, for you had none to be satisfied. Peace reigned throughout 


3'Oiir borders — simplicity of life and manners and honesty of pur- 
pose were the i)revailing characteristics of the good old Dutch, 
who almost exclusively occupied the soil of yoiu* county in the 
days of my boyhood. A court at Hackensack and a few Dutch 
justices at home M-ere all you wanted to punisih the few offenders 
and settle the few lawsuits that troubled you in those days. But, 
alas ! we fear those good old days have gone by, never to return ! 
The rapidly increasing population of our country, the vast im- 
provements in science and the arts, and the enterprising spirit of 
the age in which we live, have wrought a mighty change within 
the period even of my memory. The facilities of steamboats and 
i-ailroad cars, and the increasing spirit of trade and commerce 
and manufactures and the arts, have brought the good old town 
of Bergen into contact with the world, cut up her territory into 
small localities, studded her shores with splendid buildings, 
turned her farms into pleasure seats, her cabbage ground into 
]»leasure gardens, and her dwelling places into workshops and 
manufactories. Such, in fact, has been the change in aj>pearance 
and ])opulation of that part of the old county of Bergen which 
now constitutes the county of Hudson, that I can scarcely retrace 
the footsteps of my boyhood when, in my visits to friends here 
or in the city of New York, I used to traverse these hills. 
When, therefore, you first contemplated the formation of a new 
county, I favored the object, because I was satisfied that, if not 
then absolutely necessary, the time was rapidly approaching 
when the increased number of inhabitants, the diversified charac- 
ter of your population, the rapidly extending trade and commerce 
with the city of New York and other places, the consequent in- 
crease of bargains and contracts, of litigation and of crime, would 
call for a stronger police, for increased vigilance on the part of 
magistrates and peace officers, and for a seat of justice nearer 
your own doors, I rejoiced, therefore, in the consummation of 
your wislies, and was the more gratified from the reflection that 
your courts would be held within my judicial district, and thus 
give me an opportunity of meeting more frequently than I other- 
wise should with my respected friends and fellow citizens of the 
county of Hudson. T have long since marked it down in the 


chronicle of those events, the memory of which I cherish, and 
which I desire to be transmitted to and remembered bj my cliil- 
dren, tliat I liad the lionor of presiding at the first court ever 
held in Hudson County. To that I have since been permitted to 
add the interesting fact that I was privileged to act a conspicuous 
part in the solemn and im^josing ceremony of laying the founda- 
tion stone of this edifice, and now shall have the pleasure of 
adding to this history the gratifying circumstance that I have 
been spared by a kind Providence to preside at the first court 
and address the first (Irand Jury that ever assembled within 
these Myalls. For this privilege I feel thankful, and I invite you 
all to unite with me in rendering thanksgiving and praise to 
Him who is Judge over all, and in whose hands our lives are, that 
through His kind and protecting care this edifice has been reared 
from its foundation to its superstructure without any fatal acci- 
dent or the slightest injury to any of the worthy and industrious 
mechanics and laborers who have been employed in its erection. 
" May the same all-wise and merciful Providence ever preside 
over the councils and the deliberations of judges and jurors 
within these walls: may the ermine of justice, by whomsoever it 
may be worn after we shall have gone to our final account, ever 
be kept pure and unspotted here, and this sanctuary of justice 
never be desecrated by bribery or corruption — never be an arena 
for the indulgence of prejudice, partiality or unhallowed passions 
<»f any sort ; but may the unadulterated stream of public and 
])rivate justice ever fiow from this sacred hall, and from the 
pure fountain of eternal truth and righteousness." 

The Chief Justice then addressed the Grand Jurors upon their 

The following Justices of the Supreme Court have presided over 
the courts in Hudson County, being regularly assigned to thiscircuit: 
Chief Justice Josiah Hornblower. 

" " Henry W. Green. 

Associate Justice Elias B. D. Ogden.' 
" " Joseph D. Bedle. 

' Died Feb. 24, 1865. 



(xeorge H. Bnnkerliotf, 184n, appointed l)v Joint Meeting; 
Jlenry Newkirk, 1840-2; John Garretson, 1843; Abralmin 
Van Winkle, 1844-6; Lorenzo Jaqnins, 1847-9 ; Jacob M. Mer- 

.lACOr. M. MKIJMOI.l'.S. 

selcs,' lSr)()-2 ; .lasper Garretson, 1853-5: Henry B. Beaty. 
1856-8; .lohn M. Francis,- 185!)-()1 ; Bernard McAnally, 1862 
-4; Jacob M. Merseles, 1865-0; Jolin II. Midmer,^ 18(J7-8 ; 
Andrew Mount, 1869-70; John Reinhardt, 1871-4. 

Died Jau. 1, I860. 

•2 Died June 10, 1873. 

" Died Sept. 17, 1872. 


County Clerks. 

Robert Gilchrist, 



George W. Cassedy, - 1865-70 | John Kennedy, - - 1870-75 


Edmund W. Kingsland, 1840-55 ; James 0'Neil,i 1855-70 ; 
Robert McCague, Feb., 1870, present incumbent. 

Prosecutors of the Pleas. 

Lewis D. Hardenbergli, 1840-5 ; Isaac W. Scudder, 1845-50 ; 
Edwin R. V. Wright, 1850-5 ; J. Dunn Littell,^ 1855-60 ; Isaac 
W. Scudder, 1860-5 ; Richard D. McClelland,^ 1865-8 ; J. Har- 
vey Lyon, 1868-9 ; Abram Q. Garretson, 1869-74. 

Members of the LE(nsLATURE (under tlie old Constitution). 


Abraham Van Santvoord, 1840; John S. Condit, 1841-3; 
Edwin R. V. Wright,^ 1843. 

' Died in office. 

Died Jan. 20, 1871. 



John S. Condit, 1840; Abraham L. Van Boskerck, 1841-2 ; 
Benjamin F. Welsh, 1843. 

Members of the Legislature (under the new Constitution). 


Kichard Outwater, 1845-8; John Tonelc/ 1848-5(1; Jolin 
Cassedy, 1850-1; Abraham O. Zabriskie,^ 1851-4; Moses B. 
Bramhall, 1854-7; Cornelius V. Clickener, 1857-60; Samuel 
Wescott,M 860-2; Theodore F. Randolph, 1862-6 : Charles H. 
Winfield, 1866-9 ; Noah D. Taylor, 18<59-72 ; John R. McPher- 
son, 1872-5. 


Hartman Van Wagenen, 1845-7 ; Benjamin F. Welsh, 1848 ; 
Oliver S. Strong, 1849 ; James J. Van Boskerck, 1850 ; Edmund 
T. Carpenter, 1851 ; John Yan Yorst, 1852. 

1853 — John Yan Yorst, Edmund T. Carpenter, Joseph W. 

1854 — John Dunn Littell, James S. Davenport, Jacob M. 

1855 — Albert Augustus Hardenbergh, Clement M. Hancox, 
Jacob M. Merseles. 

1856— John M. Board, Dudley S. Gregory, jr., Jacob M. Mer- 

1857 — Robert C. Bacot, Robert Gilchrist, jr., George Y. De 

1858 — Robert C. Bacot, William Yoorhis, (4arret Yan 

1859 — William II. Hemenover, Samuel A. French, Garret 
Yan Horn. 

1860— Garret Yan Horn, Nathaniel C. Slaight, William H. 

1861— Franklin B. Carpenter, Theodore F. Randolph, Michael 
J. Yreeland. 

' Resigned ; died Nov. 2(), 18") 2. ■' Died June 27, 1873. ^ Resigned. 


1802— Edward D. Riley, George McLonglilin, Joliii B. Perry, 
Joshua J. Benson, Josiah Conley, Michael J. Yreeland. 

1863 — James Lynch, George McLoughlin, John B. Perry, 
Joshua J. Benson, Josiah Conley, Garret D. Van Ripen. 

1864: — James Lynch, John P). Drayton, John Yan Vorst, 
Joshua J. Benson, Abram W. Duryea, Garret D. Van Ripen. 

1865— DelosE. Culver, William L. Broking, John Van Vorst, 
Leon Abbett, Abram W. Duryea, Iliram Van Buskirk. 

1866— ]^oah D. Taylor, John Ramsey, Obadiah D. Falkcn- 
bury, Leon Abbett, Charles F. Ruh, DeWitt C. Morris. 

1867— Noah D. Taylor, Hosea F. Clark, Obadiah D. Falken- 
bury, Augustus O. Evans, John Dwyer, DeWitt C. Morris. 

1868— Noah D. Taylor, Ilosea F. Clark, John Van Vorst, 
Augustus O. Evans, John Dwyer, Henry (^ay Smith. 

1869 — Leon Abbett, Sidney B. Pevans. James B. Doremus, 
Elbridge V. S. Besson, Michael Coogan, Henry Clay Smith. 

1870 — Leon Abbett, Sidney B. Bevans, James B. Doremus, 
Plerman D. Busch, Abel I. Smith, William l>rinkerhoft". 

1871 — James F. Fielder, John Anness, Herman I). Busch, 
Michael Coogan, Josiah Hornblower. 

1872 — George II. Farrier, Dennis Reardon, George S. Plym})- 
ton, Henry Gaede, Jasi)er Wandle, James Stevens, John A. 
O'Neil, Anthony H. Ryder. 

1873 — George H. Farrier, Dennis Reardon, George S. Plynip- 
tun, Henry Gaede, Jasper Wandle, Richard C. Washburn, John 
Lee, Antliony H. Ryder. 

1874— Alexander T. McGill, Patrick Sheeran, John 1). Cars- 
callen, Alexander McDonnell, Henry Combs, Richard C. Wash- 
burn, Rudolph F. Rabe, James K. Selleck. 

Board of Chosen Freeholders. 

The first meeting of this Board was held May 13, 1840, in 
Drayton's Hotel, at the Five Corners. The following is a list of 
the members since the erection of the county. This list also in- 
cidentally shows when municipalities were formed or divided into 

344 ' iiisToin- OF HUDSON county. 


I>EKGKX— Garret Sip. Abel I, Smith. Jersey Chy — John 
Griffith, Abraham Yan Santvoord. ITaerison — Joseph Biidd, 
William C. Kingsland. 


Jersey City — John Dows, Jonathan Jenkins. A^an A'orst — 
Henry M. Traphagen, David Jones. Bergen — Garret Si}*, Abel 
r. Smith. Harrison — Joseph Budd, William (". Kingsland. 


Jersey (-ity — John Dows, Phineas C. Dummer. Bergen — 
Cyorneliiis Yan Winkle, Edwin R. Y. Wright. Yan Yorst — 
David Jones, Henry M. Traphagen. Harrison — Joseph Budd, 
William (\ Kingsland. 


Jersey City — John Dows,^ Phineas C. Dummer. Bergen — 
William C. Yreeland, Garret G. Newkirk, Yan Yoest— Cor- 
nelius Yan Yorst, Selah Hill. Harrison — George Kingsland, 
Peter W. Kipy). North Bergen — Edwin R. Y. Wright. John 
Tonele, Jr. 


Jersey City — Henry Southmayd, Job Male. Bergen — Wil- 
liam C. Yreeland, Garret G. Newkirk. Yan Yorst — Cornelius 
Yan A'orst, Selah Hill. Harrison — George Ivingsland, Peter 
AV. Ki])p. North Bergen — John Tonele, John A'an Boskerck. 


Jersey City — Phineas C. Dummer, Joseph W. Morgan. 
Bkrgen — Jacob D. Yan Winkle, Jacob A^reeland. A^an A^okst — 
Cornelius A'^an A'^orst, Selah Hill. Harrison — John S. Condit, 
George Kingsland. North Bergkn — John A"an Boskerck, Dan- 
iel \iir\ Ripen. 

' llcsigncd in ViC, 1843. Henry Sontlunayd appointed. 



Jek^ey ('Ity — PhineasC. Dummer, Conielins Kaiionse. Bek- 
<rEN — Abnihaiu Uecker, Jacob D. Van Winkle. Yan Yorst — 
Cornelius Van \"orst, Henry M. Traphagen. Harrison — John 
S. Condit, Cornelius C. Jerolemon. North Bergen — John 
Tonele. Michael Fisher. 


.Jersey ('ity — David B. Wakeman, Peter McMartin. Bkrgkn 
— Abraham Becker, George Thoma?. Yan Yorst — Erastus 
Randall. Benjamin Mills. Harrison — John S. Condit, Cornelius 
C. Jerolemon. North Bergen — John Tonele, Michael Fisher. 


Jersey City — David B. Wakeman, Peter McMartin. Bergen 
— Garret Sip, Jacob M. Yreeland. Yan Yorst — Benjamin 
Mills, Henry M. Traphagen. Harrison — George Kingsland, 
Arent H. Schuyler. North Bergen — John J. Newkirk, John 



Jersey City — David B. Wakeman, James Fleming. Bergen 
— John BrinkerhoiF, Jacob M. Yreeland. Yan Yorst — Mat- 
thias B.Ward, Henry M. Traphagan. Harrison — George Kings- 
land, Arent H. Schnyler. North Bergen — James Harrison, 
John J. Newkirk. Hoboken — Garret Benson, William Hersee. 


Jersey City — David B, Wakeman, John M. Cornelison. Ber- 
gen — John BrinkerhofF, Garret Waters. Yan Yorst— Matthias 
B. Ward, Jolm Yan Yorst. Harrison — George Kingsland, 
Arent H. Schuyler. North Bergen — Jolm Shields, John 
Hague. lIoHoKKN — J. Dunn Littell, Charles T. Perry. 


Jersey Cvvy—Firxt Ward, (ioorgc Dummer, R. W, A. Dur- 
fee ; Second H «?v7, George W. Fdge, Robert B. Earle ; Third 
Ward, Robert McLoughlin. TFc nry E. Tusley ; Fourth Ward, 


John Van A'orst, John Boyce. Bergen — John Brinkerhoit, 
Jcis{)er Garretson. PIarrlson— Stephen Kingsland, Thomas 
Watkins. North Bergen — Edmund T. C^arpenter, Abram 
W. Duryea. Hoboken — Gilliam Van Ilouten, Denniston B. 


Jersey City — First ir^^/v/, George JJummer, Benton I!. Grin- 
nell ; Second Ward, Jacob J. Banta, William Gumming ; Third 
Ward^ Robert McLoughlin, Henry E. Insley ; Fourth Ward^ 
John Van Vorst, William Dugan. Bergen — Mindert Van 
Horn, Ilartman Vreeland. Harrison — Arent H. Schuyler, 
Jabez B, Pennington. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, 
Al)ram W. Duryea. Hoboken — Charles Chamberlain. Peter 


Jersey City — First Ward, Minot C. Morgan, David Smith ; 
Second Ward, Jacob J. Van Buskirk, Jacob J. Banta ; Third 
Ward, Nehemiah Knapp, John S. March ; Fourth War<l, Clem- 
ent Haneox, Hervey M. Soule. Bkrgen — Hartman A'roeland, 
Mindert Van Horn. Harrison — Tlionuis Lang, Cornelius 
Shepherd. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, Abram W. 
Duryea. Hoboken — Charles Chamberlain, Peter Powless. 


Jersey Ci'\:y— First Ward, Minot C. Moi'gan, David Smith ; 
Second Ward, Jacob J. Banta, Samuel A. French; Third 
F'F<Z7'6?,Nehemiah Knapp, James Gopsilh Fourth TFa/'^Z, Her- 
vey M. Soule, Jacob B. Schenck. Bergen — -Mindert Van Horn, 
(xeorge Vreeland. Harrison — Corneliufj Shepherd, William S. 
Ogden. North Bergen — Edmund T. Carpenter, Abram W. 
Duryea. HoBOKE>r — Benjamin S. Taylor. William C. Arthur. 


Jersey City — First Ward, David Henderson, Berryan K. 
Wakeman ; Second Ward, Francis Jenkins, Hugh McComb ; 
Third Ward, Nehemiah Knapp, Charles M. llohnQ^', . Fourth 


Ward^ Hervey M. Sonle, Jacob B. Sclienck. Bergen — Mindert 
Van Horn, Jacob A. Yaii Horn. Harrison — Cornelius Slie])- 
herd, William S. Ogden. North Bergen — John Stnrges, Abrani 
W. Duryea. Hoboken — First AVard^ John AV. Harny, Louis 
Huseman ; Second Ward^ Theodore V^an Tassel, Ebenezer Mon- 
tague; ThirdWard^ James H. Dewey, Charles W. Fisher. Hud- 
son City — John H. Piatt, Gilliam Van Houten. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Minot C. Morgan, Jeremiah 
Mulford ; Second Ward, Francis Jenkins, Henry French ; 
Third Ward, Charles M. Holmes, George McLoughlin ; Foni'th 
Ward, Hervey M. Soule, Erastus Randall. Bergen — Mindert 
Van Horn, Jacob A. Van Horn. Harrison — William S. Og- 
den, Jabez B. Pennington. North Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. 
John Sturges. Hoboken — First Ward, John W. Harnj', John 
Walker ; Second' Ward, David Pollock, Julius G. Garvelle ; 
Third Ward, James H. Dewey, William Hersee. Hudson 
Crry— John H. Piatt, Baily B. Brown. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, Henry 
French ; Third Ward, George McLoughlin ; Fourth Ward, John 
Doyle (in January, 1858, Ephraim Pray). Hudson City — Jacob 
J. Newkirk. Bergen — Mindert Van Horn. Harrison^ — Hiram 
Gilbert. North Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. Hoboken — 
Fij'st Ward, John Mather ; Second Ward, Peter J. Powless (in 
January, 1858, John Dempsey) ; Third Ward, William Hersee. 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, Alexander 
Wilson ; Third Ward, George McLoughlin ; Fourth Ward, 
Ephraim Pray. North Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. Hudson 
City — Jacob J. Newkirk. Hoboken — First Ward, John M. 
Francis ; Second Ward, William P. Harrison ; Third Ward, 
William Hashing. Bergen — George Vreeland. Harrison — 
Hiram W. Davis. 

->rtS iirsTOHY OF HUDSON corxTV. 


•Ieusev City — First Ward, Ai Kitch ; Second Ward, Alexander 
Wilson ; Third Ward, James F. Fiekler ; Fourth Ward, Hervey 
M. Soule. Harrison — Hiram W. Davis. Hudson City — Jacob 
J. Newkirk. Hoboken — First Ward, James Stevenson : Second 
Ward, Lonis Kaufman ; Third Wa7rl, William Hartuiig. Bkr- 
oen — (reorge Vreeland. North 1>ergen — Abrani W. Dnryea. 
Wekhawken — Denning Duer. 


Jersey City — First Wrrrd, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, James 
Lynch; Third Ward, James F. Fielder: Fourth Wai'd, Elliston 
Duncan. Bergen — George Vreeland. Harrison — Hiram W. 
Davis. Hol50IvEN^.Z^^V.s^ Ward, James Stevenson ; Second 
Ward, William Hartung; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
Hudson City — Charles Luxton. North Bergen — Abram W. 
Dnryea. Wkeiiawken — Denning Duer. 


Jersey Cvity^ — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Ward, James 
Lynch ; Third Ward, John Pringle ; Foitrth Ward, Charles H» 
O'Neill; Fifth Tra/*^^, Patrick Keiley ; Sixth War d, So\\iiW\?,e- 
man. Bergen — Hartman Van Wagenen. Bayonne — Albert 
M, Zabriskie. Hoboken — First Ward, James Stevenson ; 
^Second Ward, Hoyt Sandford ; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
North Bergen — Abram W. Duryea. Harrison — Hiram W, 
Davis. Hudson City — Charles Luxton. Weeiiawken — Den- 
ning Duer. Union — Jacob Sweitzer. West Hoboken — Daniel 


Jersey City — First Ward, Ai Fitch ; Second Wa?\l, James 
Lynch; T'lird Ward, Patrick IL Nugent; Fourth Ward, 
Oiiarles H. O'Neill ; Fifth Ward, Patrick Beiley ; Sixth Ward, 
Patrick DuiF. Hoboken — Fir.^t Ward. James Stevenson ; 
Second Ward, Hoyt Sandford : Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
BKR(ii:N — Jacob J. Newkirk. Harrison — Hiram W. Davis. 


North Beroen— Abrani AV. Dnr.yea. IIueson City— lames E. 

Dey. Bayonne— Joseph B. Close. Unk^n— Jacob Sweitzer (in 

December Jolm Gardner took his phice). West Hobokkn— 

Daniel Lake. Weehawken— Denning Duer. 


Jersey City— First ]Vi(rd, Francis Stoveken ; /Sccvm/ Ward, 

James Lynch; Third Ward, Stephen Qnaife ; Fourth Ward, 

Charles H. O'Neill; Fifth 11 7m7, Henry Finck ; Sixth Ward, 

John McGnigan. Houoki-n— First Ward, James Stevenson : 

&ro7id n7^/v7,HoytSancltord; Third ir.<;v/, James II. Dewey. 

Hudson City— George ^^ DeMott. North Bergen— xVbrani 

W.Duryea. Harrison— Hiram W.Davis. Ber(;en— Abraham 

Speer. ' B>ayonne— Peter A^reeland. Union— Cornelins Van 

Vorst. AVest HonoKEN— John Ilagne. Weeh a wren— Denning 

Duer. Greenville— Henry D. A^an Nostrand. 

Jersey Cuy— First Ward, Francis Stoveken ; Second Ward, 
James Lvnch ; Third Ward, Thomas Gross ; Fourth Ward, 
Charles IT. O'Neill (resigned in October, Christopher Mills ap- 
pointed); Fifth Ward, John Lowrey ; Sixth ]]\ird, John 
McGnigan. \loBOKEN~Fird Ha/v/, James Stevens(m ; Second 
Ward, James T. Hatiield ; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. 
WEEHAWKEN-Denning Duer. IJayonne— Peter A^reeland. 
Hudson City— /V/vs-^ IT^y/v/, Herman AV^. Moller; Second M ard, 
Georcre V. DeMott; Third Ward, John M. AVilson; Tourth 
Ward, George Glaubrecht. Beroen— Cornelius Vreeland (^in 
October Mindert Yan Horn took his place). Harrison— J osiah 
Conley. >Jorth Bergen- Abram A\r. Duryea. Union— John 
Dwyer. A¥est IIoboken— John Hague. Greenville— Henry 
D. Van Nostrand. Town of Union— John Gardner. 


Jersey City— First Ward, Peter Curley ; Second Ward, 

James Lynch; 2hird Ward, ^Fhomas Gross; Fourth Ward, 

John H.' Smyth; Fifth Ward, John Lowrey; Sixth ]] ard. 


John McGiiigan. Hoboken — First Ward, Lafayette Tomp- 
kins ; Second Ward, James T. Hatfield ; Third Ward, James 
H. Dewey. Union — Francis Pollock. Town of Union — John 
Gai'dner. North Bkkgen — John Sturges. Bergen — Columbia 
Ward, Jacob J. Newkirk ; Comiauni^Kito Ward, Mindert Van 
Horn ; FranMin Ward, Garret Vreeland. Hudson City — 
First W<(rd, ,]6\\\\ H. Piatt ; Second Ward, Michael C. Brown ; 
Third Ward. John M. Wilson ; Fourt/i Ward, George Glan- 
brecht. JIakrisox — Josiali Conley. Bayonne — De Witt C. 
Morris, (treenville — Heniy D. Van Nostrand. West Hobo- 
ken — John Hagne. Weehawken — Denning Duer. 


J KRSEY CrrY — First Ward, Peter Cnrley ; Second Ward, 
James Lynch ; Thirds Ward, N. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
JohnH. Smyth ; FifthWard, John Lowrey ; Sixth Ward, John 
McGuigan. Hudson City — First Ward, John H. Piatt ; Second 

Ward, Michael C. Brown ; TJiird Ward, John M. Wilson ; 
Fourth Ward, George Glaubreeht. Hoboken — First Ward, 
Solomon Middleton ; Second Ward, John E. McAVhorter; Third 

Ward, .lames H. Dewey. Bergen — First Ward, Jacob J. 
Newkirk ; Second Ward, Edgar B. Wakeman ; Third Ward, 
Mindert Van BLorn ; Fourth lUaW/, Garret Vreeland. Bayoxxe 
— De AVitt C. Morris. Greenville — Henry D. Van Nostrand. 
North Bergen — John Sturges. Harrison — Charles L. Gilbert. 
West Hoboken — John Hague. Union — HugliMooney. Town 
OF Union — Frederick Etzold. Weehawken — Joshua J. Benson. 


Jersey City— First Ward, Peter Curley ; Second Ward, 
James Lynch ; Third Ward, N. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
Adol])h Kirsten ; Fifth Tr«/'6?, Moses K. Kellum ; Sixth Ward, 
John Lennon ; Seventh Ward, John Fleming. Hudson City* — 
First Wa7'd, John H. Piatt ; Second Ward, John W. Smith ; 
Third Ward, John W. Wilson ; Fourth Ward, George Glau- 
breeht. Hob(jken — First Ward, S. S. Middleton ; Second Ward, 
John E. McAVhorter; Third Ward, James H. Dewey. Bergen 


— I'^h'at ir^//Y/, Jacob J. Newkirk ; Second ir(/;v/, John Brinker- 
hoff; Third ir(^yY/, Miiiclert Van Horn; Fourth Tr«/'<'Z, Samuel 
A. Besson. Harrison — Hiram W. Davis. Bayonne — Henry 
C Smitli. (treenvii.le — Henry D. Yan Nostrand. West Ho- 
P.01CEN — John Hague. North Bergen — John Sturges. Union 
— F. W. Hermann. Town of Union — Frederick Etzold, Wek- 
HAWKEN — Joshua J. BeusoH. Kearney — William E. Skinner 
(resigned in October ; N. Norris Halstead took his place). 


Jersey City — First Ward, Peter Curley ; Second Ward, 
James Lynch ; Third Ward, N. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
(xeorge Warrin ; Fifth Ward, Patrick Reiley ; Sixth Ward, John 
Lennon ; Seventh Ward, John Fleming. Hudson City' — First 
Ward, John H. Piatt; Second Wcu^d, Clinton W. Conger; 
Third Ward, William E. Benjamin ; Fourth Ward, James li. 
Tate, HoBOKEN — First Ward, Herman D. Busch ; Second Ward, 
John E. McWhorter ; Third Mard, Timothy Foley. Bergen 
— First Ward, Cornelius C. Van Ripen ; Second Ward, John 
BrinkerhofF; Tliird Ward, Jeremiah B. Cleveland; Fourth 
Ward, Garret Vreeland. Harrison — Hiram W. Davis. West 
HoBOKEN — Charles Galbraith (in January, 1869, resigned, and 
William H. Alcorn appointed). North Bergen — John Sturges. 
Bayonne — Henry C. Smith. Greenville — Henry D. Van Nos- 
trand. Union — Henry Meyer. Town of Union — Frederick 
Etzold. Weehawken — Joshua J. Benson. Kearney — N. Norris 


Jersey City — First Ward, Francis Stoveken ; Second Ward^ 
John Barry ; Third Ward, N. H. Coykendall ; Fourth Ward, 
George Warrin ; Fi^fth Ward, C/harles D. Throckmorton ; Sixth 
Ward, John Lennon ; Seventh Ward, Edward Murphy. HuDSt)N 
City — First Ward, John H. Piatt ; Secojid Ward, John F. Rode- 
felt; Third Ward, John M. Wilson ; Fourth Ward, James Mont- 
gomery. West Hoboken — William H. Alcorn. Union — 
Frederick W. Hermann. Weehawken — John Frost. Ho- 


I'.oKEN — ]'li;st \\'(f/u/, irei'inaii 1). IjuscIi ; Serorul Ward,, 
John E. McAVhorter ; Third WanI, John A. O'Neill ; 
Fourth \V((r<l^ ]\rifliael Iloaly. Bi;kokn — Firsf M'ard. Jacob 
,r. Newkirk ; Second Ward^ John Urinkcrhott': 'I'Jiird Ward^ 
J ereniiali J>. Cleveland ; Fourth irr/rt/. Gariet \reelan(L IIak- 
KisoN — Abraham Phelps. Noimii Bkkgen — Jolni Stnrges. 
Bayonxe — James W. Trask. (iuKKNviF.LE — Ileni-y J). Van 
Nostrand. Town ok I niox — Henry Bridges (i-esigned in.Iulv: 
John Morgan appointed). Keaunky — X. Xorris TIalstead. 


Jeksey City — /'7/\s/ Wurd^ Michael Doyle; Second Wdrd, 
John Barry ; Third Hrz/v/, Patrick H. Xugent ; Fovrth Ward, 
George S. Plym])tou ; FiftJt Ward^ Charles D. Throckmorton ; 
S'ixth Ward^ John Lennon ; Seventh ]Vard^ Daniel llartigan : 
Ei<ihth H7^/y/, Andrew J. Ditmar ; Xinth Ward, i\o\m IT. Piatt; 
Tenth Ward, John F. Rodefelt ; Klecenth Ward, John M. Wil- 
son ; Twelfth W((rd, James (^oyle : Thirteenth W<ird^ Jacob 
J. Xewkirk ; Foiirte<i)tJi 1('^//y/. John Brinkerhott"; Fifteenth 

Wa?'d, Jeremiah !>. Cleveland; Si.rtecnth Ward, (irarret Yree- 
land. Hoi50KEN — First Ward, Frederick Agatz ; Second Ward. 
Richard Burbaidv ; Third Ward. John A. O'Neill; lumrth 

Ward, James Kildiitt". Xoirrii 1)KK(.i;x — -lohn Sturges. Hak- 
KisoN — Abraham Phelps. Bavonm-: — William C. Hamilton. 
Union — F. W. Hermann. Town of Union — John Bernliard. 
West Hoboken — William PI. Alcorn. Weehawken — John 
Frost, (tkeenvili.e — Henry D, Van Xostrand. Kearney — 
N. Norris Halstead. 


Jersky City — First Ward, Matthew Doyle ; Second Ward, 
John Barry; Third Ward, Patrick H. Xugent; .Fourth Ward, 
G. Y. Plympton ; Fifth Ward, (\ D. Throckmorton ; Si.rth 
Ward, '\o\\i\ Lennon; Seventh Ward, Daniel Hartigan ; F/xjldh 
Hrt/'rf, Adam J. Ditmar; Ninth Ha^v/, John H. Piatt; Tenth 
Ward, John F. Rodefelt ; Eleventh Ward, John ^\. Wilson ; 
Twelfth Ward, James Coyle ; Thirteenth Ward, JTacob J. Xew- 
kirk ; Fourteenth Ward, John Brinkerhoff; Fifteenth Ward, 

TlIK CIIOSKX KKKi:noj DKKS. o5'^) 

J.B.Cleveland; Sixteenth IT cz/v/, Garret Yreelaud. IIouoken 
— Fli'nt Ward^ Fred, Ai;-atz ; Second Ward, AYilliam Stulir: 
Third Waj'd, John A. O'Neill; Fourth ir«;v/, James Kikhiff. 
I^ORTir Bergen — John Sturges. Harrison — Abraliani Phelps. 
BayoxVjsk — William C. Hamilton. Unfon — Woltze Kamena, 
Town ok Union — John Bernhard. West Hoboken — Alex. N. 
Sharpe. WE::nAWKKN — Albert I). Dodd. Greenville — IT. D. 
A"an Nostrand. Tvkaknev — .lohn I^oyd, jr. 

By the act to reorganize the local government of Jersey City, 
a})proved April 4, IS"!, the ward;^ in Jersey City were abol- 
ished and aldermanic districts erected in their stead, each district 
being entitled to three chosen freeholders. Candidates were 
chosen nnder the old as well as the new law. Those elected un- 
dei' the old law were admitted into the Board ; those elected 
nnder the new law were excluded. The latter then instituted 
proceedings in the Supreme Court to compel the Board to admit 
them to their seats. In this they were successful at the Is^ovem- 
ber term, (t Vrooiiix Iiejwrts, 260, and took their seats Dec. 1, 
1871, as representatives in the Board from Jersey City : 

First Dlstrh-t^ Wm. B. liankin, James L. Love, J. R. Par- 
sons ; Second District, Daniel Hartigan, John Barry, John Len- 
iion ; Third District, John E. Cronham, H. M. Soule, Wm. E. 
Clayton ; Fourth District, Andrew Leicht, Martin Ilanley, 
Charles Kost ; FiftJi District, Jacob J. Newkirk, John Brinker- 
hoff, Geo. A. Toffey ; Sixth District, James H. Startup, Garret 
Vreeland, J. B. Cleveland. 


Jj:rsey City — First District, William X. Lewis, Jabez B. 
Parsons, John H. Garretsoii ; Second District, James Harper, 
Thomas Harmon,- Daniel Hartigan ; Third District, Hervey M. 
Soule, flohn E. Cronham, J. C. De La Vergne ; Fourth District, 
James Coyle, Martin Ilanley, Emil Stiger; Fifth District, Jacob 
J. Newkirk, George Toffey, .John Brinkerhoff; Sixth District, 
James H. Startup, Henry I). X-aw .Vostrand, John V. R. Yree- 
land. HoBoivE.v — First ir^^ovY, William Winges; Second Ward, 



William Stulir ; TMrdWanl, John R. Wiggins; FourihWay'd, 
Jolm GafFney. Bayonne — AVilliam C. Hamilton. Harrison — 
.Tolin Kolian. North Bergen — AVilliam J. Danielson. West 
HoBOKEN — Daniel Lake. Weehawken — John Frost. Town of 
Union — Jacob Hofmeister. Union — M. Klein. Kearney — N. 
Norris IJalstead. \9,1Z 

Jersey City — First District^ William A. Lewis, Jabez Iv. 
Parsons, John H. Garretson ; Second District^ David C. Jones, 
John O'Rourke, Michael O'Grady ; Third District, Hervej M. 
Soule, John E. Cronham, Paul 8chober ; Fotirtli District, Jacob 
Newkirk, Henry Meinken, Emil Stiger; Fifth Distinct, Jacob 
J. Newkirk, AVillard E. Dudley, William Frost ; Siocth Disti-ict, 
James H. Startup, H^enry D. Van I^ostrand, John V. R. A^ree- 
land. HoBOKEN — First TTan/, William Winges ; SecondWard, 
William Stuhr ; ThirdWard, John R. Wiggins; Fourth Ward, 
John (Taftney. Bayonne, William C. Plamilton. Harrison — 
John Rohan. North Bergen — William J. Danielson. West 
Hoboken — William Roseman. Weehawken — John Frost. 
Town of Union — Jacob Hofmeister. Union — F. W. Hermann. 
Kearney — Alexander Jacobus. 

Directors of the Board. 

Abraham Van Santvoord, 

John Dows, 1841-3. 
John Tonele, 1843-4. 
John S. Condit, 1845-7. 
(iarret Sij), 1848. 
David B. AVakeman, 1849-50 
Robert McLoughlin, 1851-2. 
Edmund T. Carpenter, 1853. 
William (". Arthur, 1854. 
Gilliam Van Houten, 1855.^ 
Abram W. Dnryea, 185(5-02. 
Charles H. O^Neill, 1863-4. 

Directors of the Board. 
James Lynch, 1864-8.^ 
John Brinkerhoff, 1869, '70, '72. 
John A. O'Neil, 1871. 
James H. Startup, 1873. 
Clerks of the Board. 
Hartman Van Wagenen, 

Garret I. Van Horn, 1855-64. 
Charles J. Roe, 1864- 

County Collectors. 
Jacob D. Van Winkle, 1840-2. 
Edmund W. Kingsland, 1843 

until the ]u-esent time. 

' Killed at the battle of Cbancellorsvillc 

- Died June 31, \\ 


Judges of the Common Pleas. 

February 27, 1840— John J. Yan Buskirk, Cornelius V. V. 
Kingsland,^ Stephen Garretson/ Peter H. 
Kipp/ Joseph Clark.^ 
^November 13, 1840 —Richard Outwater.^ 
November 3, 1841 — Gilbert Merritt,^ Richard Outwater. 
November 10, 1841 — Stephen H. Lutkins.^ 
October 27, 1843— Cornelius Van Winkle,^ John G. Speer,^ 
Michael Saunier,"^ James Striker, James J. 
November 10, 1843— John Griffith, ^ George C. De Kay,^ Jabez 

March 3, 1847— Stephen Garretson. 
March 2, 1848 — Thomas A. Alexander. 
February 28, 1849 — Cornelius Yan Winkle. 

" John Griffith, vice Alexander, 

March 6, 1850 — George Thomas. 
February 21, 1851— Edmund T. Carpenter.'^ 
February 6, 1852— Samuel M. Cliambers.- 

'" Samuel Browning, 'y*c<3Carpenter. 

March 4, 1853— John Griffith. 

" Richard Kidney, Jr., vice Yan Winkle, dec'd. 

March 8, 1854 — Edmund T. Carpenter. 

" Selah Hill, vice Chambers (resigned Sept. 20, 

February 8, 1856 — Samuel Browning. 
February 18, 1856— Edmund Charles. 

" Charles Fink, vice Browning, dec'd. 

March 17, 1859— Jacob M. Merseles. 
March 15, 1860 — James Pope, vice Charles, dec'd. 
April 9, 1861 — Wm. C. Morris (commissioned by the Governor). 
March 5, 1862 — Samuel M. Chambers. 
March 11, 1863— John Sturges. 
April 1, 1863 — William C. Morris, vice Merseles. 
March 2, 1864— Frederick W. Bohnstedt. 

Judge and Justice. * Resigned. 


February 27, 1867— Stephen Quaife (resigned April 1 , 1870). 

March 11, 1868— John Sturge^. 

April 9, 1868 — Bennington V. Randolph, Law Judge. 

March 25, 1869— Frederick W. Bohnstedt. 

March 16, 1870 — John Brinkerhuff, viee Quaife. 

1872— James M. Newkirk. 

1873— William T. Hoft'man, Law Judge. 

1873 — James Wiggins. 
By the apportionment under the census of 187o Hudson Coun- 
ty became a Congressional District, and Isaac W. Scudder was 
chosen its first representative in 1872. 

Hudson County may be credited with the following : 

November 8, 1853 — Rodman M. Price, elected Governor. 
May 1, 1866 — Abraham O. Zabriskie, commissioned Chancellor. 
June 29, 1869 — Robert Gilchrist, appointed Attorney-General. 
Jan. 19, 1870 — Robert Gilchrist, appointed Attorney-General. 


Roadg, traveling facilities and traffic — Banks — Newspapers — Cliurclies and their 
Pastors — Statistics of population, taxes and crime. 

Previous to the settlement of Philadelphia, in 1682, com- 
munication between Manhattan Island and the South river was 
by water. Occasionally messages were sent overland by means 
of Indian runners bearing them from tribe to tribe. The first 
post route seems to have been established about the year 1693. 
It was yet a long while after this, however, before any road was 
laid out for through travel . 

The first road in the county of Hudson was the one leading 
from Oommunipaw to the village of Bergen. This was over the 
present Communipaw avenue to Palisade avenue, thence north- 
erly along Palisade avenue to Academy street, thence westerly 
to the village. It was probably laid out in the latter part of the 
year 1660, by authority. In 1679 it M^as described as " a fine, 
broad wagon road."^ 

It was not until September 18, 1765, that Communipaw avenue 
was extended from the Bergen Point plank road to Bergen ave- 
nue, although there was an old private road on nearly the same 
line, connecting the king's highway with Communipaw avenue. 

In 1682, by act of the General Assembly, John Berry, Law- 
rence Andries (Van Boskerck), Enoch Michielsen (Vreeland), 
Hans Diedricks, Michael Smith, Ilendrick Van Ostrum and 
Claes Jansen Van Purmerendt were appointed commissioners of 
highways for Bergen County, with full power to lay out, con- 

' Long Isl. Hist. Soc, i, 155. The old people were accustomed to speak of 
this road as the " off-fall road." This name was derived from a stream of water 
which, taking its rise in Tuers' pond, near the intersection of Montgomerj 
street and Palisade avenue, jjassed southerly, tumbled over a ledge of rock at 
the intersection of Grand street and Communipaw avenue, and emptied into 
."^ji'an's Creek, near the canal bridge. 

358 HISTORY or hudson county. 

struct and repair roads at the expense of the county. This was 
the first " street commission " in the State of New Jersey ! In 
1694 Gerbrand Claesen was appointed in the place of Van Pur- 

On September 9, 1704, the General Assembly " Kesolved, 
That y® Grand Jury of each & every Respective County shall 
yearly in y® Febrnary and March Court, w"' y^ Approba'on of 
y^ Bench, appoint two persons in Each County, precinct, district 
or Township to lay out all other necessary cross Roads & by 
Roads w*^'' are to Consist of y* Width of four Rods, & also settle 
what is proper to be allow'd to those who shall be appointed, for 
their Service in Laying out y*^ said Roads." 

On the 3d of June, 1718, a road M-as laid from '' Crom-kill to 
Whehocken " ferry. . What place was then known as Crom-kill 
is not certain, but probably it was the English ISTeighborhood. 
The road then laid must be in part the present Hackensack 

At an early day the dwellers at Harsimus hxid out a road by 
the way of Prior's mill to Bergen. The following return, with- 
out date, when compared with the Field Map, will give a general 
idea of its course, as well as show that some of the residents pre- 
ferred the war path to a highway : " By y® Surveyors of y^ 
Highways for y® County of Bergen. Application having been 
made to us by Archibald Jvennedy, Esq'"., of some hardships & 
trespasses he meets with from his Neighbor Mattys De Mot for 
want of particular fences, and We having heard the Allegations 
of both parties, & having Viewed the Premises, doe order that 
])artition fences be forthwith put up round y® six acres belonging 
to Mattys De Mot, as it is now marked out by us, y® North 
Easterly one half to be fenced & Kept up by y® said Archi- 
bald Kennedy, and y'^ South Westerly other half to be fenced 
and Kept by y^ said Mattys De Mot. 

" As also that y'' Rhoad for y'^ Use of y" plantations at Pavonia 
or Ahasimus to y*^ Mill A: Church shall he for y° future to begin 
at y® North East Corner of y*^ barn belonging to y*^ said Archi- 
bald Kennedy, and to nm through y"^ said Six Acres one Rodd 
and a half wide, to be supported and fenced of by said Archibald 


Keiinedj, where, if he pleases, they may liave Swinging Gates, 
allowing to y® said de Mot So much out of his land as is taken 
out of y'^ Six Acres of y*^ Rhoad, all which we have Determined 
and Staked out, of which you are to take Notice as you will 
Answer y® contrary. We have, according to the best of our 
Judgments, allowed y" said de Mot an Equivalent for y*^ TUioad 
upon y® South Side of his Six Acres out of land belonging to y'' 
said Archibald Kennedy." 

On January 12, 1753, the above road was widened to four rod^. 
It came to the shore just south of Kennedy's orchard, at about 
the corner of Second and Henderson streets, thence passed up by 
Van Vorst's to a place on Kennedy's land called " Sand Point.'" 

At what time the road from Bergen to Bergen Point was laid 
it is now dithcult to tell. On the 2d of November, 1743, James 
Alexander, of the Council, reported a bill " for continuing the 
King's Highway, which leads from Bergen Point to Bergen 
Town, to some convenient place on Hudson's River, for crossing 
that River to New York.'' The bill " passed in the negative.'" 
On October 10, 1764, a King's Highway was laid out from Hen- 
drick Sickles' barn to a point opposite the Dutch Church on 
Staten Island, and the old road was vacated. The reasons for 
this vacation were that in ]>art it was through a swamp, and if 
laid along the bay it would be over sandy soil. This road then 
became a part of the great stage route between New York and 
Philadelphia. It is probable that this road was nut then con- 
structed in such manner as to meet the recpiirements of travel. 
On June 28, 1766, an act passed the Legislature providing for a 
road four rods wide from " the most convenient and suitable 
Place from the Southwest Point of Bergen aforesaid along up 
Newark Baij,''''^ and from thence over to Paul us Hoeck. This 
road was laid September 12, 1766. The causeway between Har- 
simus and Paul us Hoeck, at present Newark avenue, was to be 
" cleared and maintained " bv the owner of the ferrv. 

' Allison's Ldwx, 288. Oricrinally the road at Ber<ren Point was on the west 
side of the " Ferry Lot." It was changed February 17, 1801, to unite this lot 
with land belonffinc: to the same owner on the west side. 


The rond from the iiitei'section of Waverlj avenue and the 
New Bergen road to Berg-en Point, and recently known as the 
l>ergen Point plank road, from Cnrrie's Woods southwardly, 
was laid June 29, 1796. 

On June 20, 1765, on petition of the people of Morris and 
Essex counties, an act was passed by the Legislature providing 
for the construction of a road from " the lower end of the Great 
Xeck belonging to Newark '' to the public road leading from 
Bergen Point to Paulus Hoeck. Nine men were named as The 
J'nistfces of the road and Ferries from Newai'k to the Road 
Uadhiij from Bergen Point to Paidus HoecJi. It was sooti 
afterward constructed on the ground now occupied by the New- 
ark plank road,^ except east of the Hackensack, where it lay 
further to the south. This part of it was known as Brovm^'a 
Ferry Road. It was vacated April 29, 1799, and the road laid 
in its present position. 

On the 24th of November, 179U, the Legislature ])rovided for 
locating and building bridges over the Hackensack and Passaic 
rivers and laying out a road four rods M'ide from the court house 
in Newark to Paulus Hoeck. On the meadows the width was 
aftei'ward changed to six rods. By the act five commissioners 
were appointed and authorized to raise by lottery £4,000, after- 
ward increased to £27,000, part of which was to aid in complet- 
ing the road, part in building a bridge over the Paritan and 
part in providing suitable buildings for the Legislature. 

Surveys were then made to ascertain the most practicable 
route. The map of these surveys, a reduced copy of which is here 
inserted, is taken from the New YorTi Magazine^ vol. ii.^ 367 
(July, 1791), as also the explanations : 

'' The courses described in the map are the several routes pro- 
posed to lead to ditt'erent stations on the rivers, at one of which 
it may l»e judged most advantageous to erect the bridges. The 
distance from Newark court house to Powles Hook, by the se\ - 
ei-al routes, is as follows: 

' This Company was incorporated as The ^fetcark Plank Hood and Ferry 
Compiiny, February 24, 1849. 



Miles. Ckain-t. Links. 
No. 1 Camp's Dock 

Route,- - II 18 76 
N... 2 Hedden's 

Dock Route, - 7 65 86 
No. 8 Beef- Point 

Route, - - 8 18 41 

No. 4 Present Road, 8 59 7 
No. 5 •' " 

>hortene<l, - 7 5 '2 6 

M'^. '^M 

•• The length of causeway re- 
quired over the meadows is as 
follows : 

Miles. Chains. Links. 
No. 1 Camp's Dock 

Route, - - 4 1 62 
No'. 2 Hedden's 

Dock Route, - 8 55 40 
No. 3 Beef-Point 

Route, - 8 5 42 
No. 4 Present Road, 2 26 75 i^l ; 3' 
No. 5 " " 

shortened, 2 44 77 

■' The breadth and depth of the 
rivers is as follows : 

Hackensac-k River. 

1 At the place where the jiresent 
ferry is established. 

Feet. Inches. 
Breadth,- - 1,448 
Depth at eastern shore, 8 8 
" western " 8 11 

Greatest Depth in the 

channel, - - 25 4 




Feet. Inches. 
2 At the place more northerly, called Douw's Ferry, 

Breadth, ------- S-tfi 

Depth at eastern shore, - - - - - lt> 10 

" western " - . - . 12 

Greatest depth in channel, . - . - 35 s 

Passaic River. 

1 At the place where the present terry is established, 

Breadth, ------- 

Depth at eastern shore, ----- 

'' western " 
Greatest depth in channel, - _ - - 

2 At a place more northerly, called Beef-Point, 

Breadth, ------- 

Depth at eastern shore, - _ . - 

" western " 
Greatest depth in channel, - - _ - 

3 At a place more northerly, called Hedden's Dock, 

in the town of IN^ewark, 

Breadth, ------- 526 

Depth at eastern shore, - - - _ 4 5 

" western '' - . . . 10 8 

Greatest depth in channel, - - . _ 15 11" 

On February 19, 1793, the commissioners contracted with 
Samuel Ogden and thirty-six others to build the bridges, and 
gave them a lease thereof for ninety-seven years from Nov. 24, 
1792, On March 7, 1797, the stockholders under the lease were 
incorporated The Proprietors of the Bri(Jge!< over the Rivers 
Passaic and Hachensack. The l)ridges were completed in the 
summer of 1795, The company thenceforth claimed a monopoly 
of the right to erect bridges over these rivers. Their claim was 
adjudicated in The Bridge Co. vs. The Ilohoken Land and Im- 
provement Co., 13 N. J. Chancery Reports, 81, 503, 

" The Newark Turnpike Company " was incorporated Decem- 
ber 1, 1804. The State took two hundred and fifty shares of 














the capital stock. The company ^vas authorized to construct a 
road from the "westerly line of the Jerse}' Associates' land (now 
Warren street, Jersey City) to the cast side of the TIackensack 
river. It was constructed in ISOr). Through Ilarsimus the 
company was required to make their road conform to the line of 
the streets laid down on Coles' Map. This requirement was dis- 
regarded, the road laid diagonally across the blocks, and IS^ewark 
avenue became a permanent nuisance. 

The road from the Five Corners to lioboken Ferry was author- 
ized February IT and laid April 9, 1794. On the 10th of June 
following the commissioners were authorized to construct an em- 
bankment along the road over the Hoboken meadow, and lay 
the road six rods wide at the same place. From Central avenue 
to the brow of the hill the road bore to the east more than now, or 
took a straight line from the Corners to the hill on the line of 
the present Hoboken avenue, west of Central avenue. From 
Central avenue eastward the road was changed to its present 
position March 30, 1848. 

The Bergen Turnpike Company was incorporated November 
30, 1802, for the purpose of constructing a road '' from the town 
of Hackensack to Hoboken." It was constructed in 1804, and 
is known as the Hackensack turnpike. 

During the last French war, Colonel John Schuyler con- 
structed the causeway from the upland near Belleville to the 
Hackensack river at Douw's Ferry, " at a very great expense.'" 
It was at first a corduroy road. In April, 1774, an act Avas ap- 
proved to enable certain persons to erect and draw a lottery for 
raising £1,050 to cover this causeway with gravel. The cause- 
way is said to have been made by sailors, whose vessels were 
blockaded in the harbor of New York. In 1784 Arent J. 
Schuyler com])lained that too much of the repair of this cause- 
way fell upon him. Thereupon the Legislature enacted that he 
should keep in repair the causeway thirty-three chains and thirty- 
eight links east from the Passaic river, and also the ferry stairs, 
and that Archibald Kennedy should keep in repair the l)alance 
of the causeway to tiie Hackensack i-iver and the ferry stairs 


Prior to ls4s all travel from Bergen and the lower part of the 
<-ounty to Panlns Hoeck was around bv the Five Corners and 
Newark avenue, or bv the Mill road via Prior's mill. Even the 
residents at Communipaw were obliged to take this roundabout 
way. But in 1S48 Grand street was extended from Jersey City 
across the meadows. 

The foregoing list includes the principal roads in the county 
of ancient date. There were others, as the Middle road, which 
was a])proached through the northwest gate of the village of 
Bergen, and the Bergen Woods road, which opened into the 
woods through the northeast gate. There are also the Daily- 
town and Bull's Ferry roads. But the dates of their laying out 
or construction have not been ascertained. For convenience in 
keeping the roads in repair the township was divided into dis- 
tricts, which bore the following names, viz. : Bergen Town, 
Gomunipa, Pamerpugh, Bergen Point, Wehawk, Maisland, 
Bull's Ferry, Sekakes, and Bergen Woods. 

Traveling Facilities. 

In 17f)4 stages were first "set up" to start from Paulus 
Hoeck for Philadelphia, via Bergen Point and Blazing Star 
ferries. The vehicle used was a covered Jersey wagon without 
springs. Three days were consumed in dragging it to Phila- 
<lelphia. It was modestly called a " Flying Machine I " 

In the fall of the same year Sovereign Sybrant gave notice 
that he had fitted up and completed in the neatest manner a new 
and genteel stage wagon, which was to set out from Philadelphia 
on Monday, and get to Trenton that day ; the next da}- to Sy- 
brant's house, " known by the sign of the Roebuck," two miles 
and a half from Elizabethtown, where, with a good assortment 
of wines and liquors, and by "Assiduity, Care and Despatch," 
he hoped for the " Favour and Esteem of the Public." On 
Wednesday the stage reached " Powless's Hook," by the new post 
road over Bergen and return to the i'oebuck. Thence it would 
start on Thursday, and reach its destination on Friday. 


In 1772 John Mersereaii appeared with his " Machines." He 
left Paulus Jloeck three times a week, and went through to 
Philadelphia in a day and a half. In 1773 he established a line 
of stage coaches which left Paulus Hoeck on Tuesday and 
Friday, " at or before sunrise," and went as far as " Prince-town *' 
the same night. Here they exchanged passengers with the coach 
from Philadel})hia, and returned the next day. Inside passen- 
gers paid thirty shillings fare ; outside passengers twenty shil- 
lings. Each passenger was allowed fourteen pounds of baggage ; 
beyond that weight the charge was two-})ence a pound. 

In 17<)i» a new route from Paulus Hoeck to Philadelphia was 
selected by Joseph C^-ane and Josiah F. Davenport, r/c< jSTewark, 
Elizabeth, Boundbrook and the nortli branch of the Paritau, to 
Corriell's ferry on the Delaware. They proposed to leave the 
Hoeck every Tuesday morning l)y sunrise. Passengers were re- 
(piested to cross over from New York the night before. The 
stages met at the South Branch, exchanged passengers and re- 

In 1771 Abraham Skillman started his " Flying Machine" to 
Philadelphia, via Newark, Elizabeth, Woodbridge, New Bruns- 
wick, Princeton, Trenton and Bristol. Time, one day and a 
half ; fare, twenty shillings proclamation money ; " a good wagon, 
sober drivers arki able Horses.'' 

In 1767 Matthias Ward informed the public that he had for 
some time kept a stage wagon from Newark to " Powlas Hook." 
Having met with some encouragement, he proposed to make the 
round trip each day, leaving Newark at sunrise and Paulus 
Hoeck " sun 2 hours high." All persons might expect the 
" best Usage at Is. 6 each for coming and going, or 3 Shillings 
for both." 

In 1768 Andrew Van Buskirk gave notice that he would 
erect a '' Stage Wagon " in Ilackensack at the New Bridge, to 
set out for Paulus Hoeck on September 17, to go twice a week ; 
fare, 2s. 6^7. In 177.") he changed the terminus from Paulus 
Hoeck to Hoboken, and named his vehicle a " Flying Machine." 

In the same year and year following, some proprietors adopted 
tiie system of having their stages on each side of the Ilacken- 


sack river, where they would exchan<i;e passengers, '' which en- 
tirely takes off the Inconveniency of detaining- Passengers by 
ferrying of the Wagon over said River/' 

For some years prior to 1774, Peter Stuyvesant ran a stage 
from the Hoeck to BroAvn's ferry, where he met Josiah Crane 
with a stage from Newark, and exchanged passengers. 

In 1770 a stage was run from Morristown to the Hoeck by 
Daniel and Silas r>urnet,and from Hanover in 177.") by Constant 

In 1775 Abraham Goodwin ran a stage from the (xreat Falls 
(Paterson) to the Hoeck twice a week. In May of the same 
year Thomas Douglas erected his stage to run from Hacketstown 
once a week, via Flanders; Black River, Mendham and Morris- 
town, consuming two days en, route. 

In the same year Verdine Elsworth brought out his "" new 
caravan" betwee-i the Hoeck and New Bridge. He informed 
the public that his horses were " very quiet, and the caravan 
new and in excellent order." 

In 1783 Adam Boyd " established a stage waggon to run be- 
tween Hackinsack and Hoebuck ferry." He boasted that the 
roads were very good, his wagon and horses in prime order, and 
hoped that such a useful institution would be encouraged. 

From almost every direction in the interior part of the State 
stage lines were organized, and all sorts of vehicles started to- 
ward Paulus Hoeck to accommodate the public. To such an 
extent did this system of travel increase, that before the construc- 
tion of the New Jersey Railroad, as many as twenty regular 
stages would daily leave the ferry for different parts. 

The Morris Canal. — The Morris Canal and Banking 
(company was incorporated December 81, 1824. Banking 
privileges were not in the charter. It was authorized to con- 
struct a canal from the Delaware to the Passaic. The canal was 
(completed in 18?)1. On January 28, 1828, authority was given 
to extend the (ianal to Hudson's River at or near Jersey City, 
This extension was completed in 1836. The canal audits appur- 
tenances, with the chartered rights of the company, were sold 
under a decree of the Court of Chancery, October 21, 18-14. By 



an act of the Legislature, February 9, 1849, the banking privi- 
leges were taken from the company. The following table 
exhibits the extent of the traffic on tliis canal since the organiza- 
tion of the new company : 





Year. ! 





553,204 i 




109 ,.505 


563,413 ! 






536,362 i 












638,019 1 












619,369 , 

















The Paterson and Hudson River Railroad Company was 
incorporated January 21, 1831. The road went into operation 
between Paterson and Aquackanonck (now Passaic) June 22, 
1832. The rolling stock at that time consisted of " three splen- 
did and commodious cars, each capable of accommodating thirty 
passengers," which were drawn by " fleet and gentle horses." 
It was thought to be a " rapid and delightful mode of traveling." 
The trial trip over that part of the road was June 7, 1S32. It 
connected with the New Jersey Pailroa<l at West End. The 
road was leased to the Union Railroad Company September 9, 
1852. This lease was assigned to and the road now forms part of 
the main line of the Erie Railway. Both the lease and assignment 
were confirmed by the Legislature Mai-cli 14, 1853. 

The New Jemey Railroad aiul Transportation (Jo7npa7iy was 
incorporated March 7, 1832. The first excursion over the road 
was on September 1, 1.S34, in the " passenger car Washington," 
" a s])lendid and beautiful specimen of workmanship, containing 
three apartments, besides seats on top." Regular trips l)egan 
September 1 5, 1 834. Eight tri]>s a day were made. The cars were 
drawn by horses, sto])ped at the hotels to receive passengers, and 
ran from Newark to Jersey City in one hour and a half. At that 
time, a)id up to January I, 1838, when the Bergen cut was com- 



pleted, the cars were drawn over the hill. The first engine 

passed over the I'oad from Jersey City to jS^ewark December '2, 

1885. " Newark " was the name of this j)ioneer locomotive. 

This road consolidated with the Camden and Amboy Railroad, 

under authority given by the Legislature, February 27, ISGT, 

and the consolidation was leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad 

Company in 1870. 

The following table will show the growth of business upon 

this road. It is to be regretted that more complete statistics 

could not be obtained : 


Freight — {tons). 



































The M(ypris and Essex Raih'oad Company was incorporated 
January 29, 1835. At first this was connected with the New 
Jersey Railroad at Newark. It was extended to Holx)ken 
November 19, iSOii, by the completion of the N'rinarl- and IFoho- 
ken Railroad; leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad Company December 10, 1868. 

' 464,087 tons of fri'iglit were moved /wm New York in 1872. It is estimated 
that 30 per cent, of tliis was taken via Amboy. 



The following table shows the number of passengers carried 
over this road from 1853 until it was leased: 












590 773 





















The Erie Railway Company was first recognized by the laws 
of New Jersey March 14, 1853, as the New York and Erie Rail- 
road Company^ then as the Erie Railway Comyany. After 
leasing the Paterson and Hudson River Railroad and the 
Paterson and Ramapo Railroad^ which two roads formed a 
direct line from Jersey City to Suiferns, Piermont was aban- 
doned as a terminus, and the cars were run to the depot of 
the New Jersey Railroad Company in Jersey City, until May, 
1801. "The Long Dock Company," incorporated February 26, 
1856, in the interest of the Erie Railway, completed the Bergen 
tunnel January 28, 1861. The first passenger train passed 
through it May 1, 1861. Then the Erie traffic was transferred 
to its present terminus at the Long Dock. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey for many years 
terminated at Elizabethport. In 1860 an act was passe*! 
authorizing the company to bridge Newark Bay and extend the 
road to Jersey City. This extension was completed and opened 
for travel August 1, 1864. Since its termination in this county, 
its traffic has been as follows : 







392,650 tons. 

. 1,004,506 tons. 



537,010 " 

1.289,249 " 



566,480 " 

1,369,045 " 



659,471 " 

1,618,845 " 



705,611 " 

1,556,052 •' 



702,529 " 

2,052,184 " 



990,591 " 

1,877.064 " 



1,490,689 " 

2,228,217 " 




Table showing the live Btock brought to and slaughtered at the Abattoir, 
























470 717 








Besides the foregoing, this company are bringing over their 
road to the National Storage Oil Yards about 1 ,500,000 barrels 
of petroleum annually. 

The Northern jRailroad Company of New Jersey was incor- 
porated February 9, 1854 ; completed October 1, 1859. It was 
leased to the Erie Railway Company in 1869. The following 
table shows the amount of business done from 1861 to 1869 : 


No. of Passen- 

Tons ! 
of freight. 


No. of Passen- 

of freight. 







10,425 i 









Besides the foregoing, the following named railroads are in 
active o])eration, many of them doing a thriving business, viz. : 

' The Abattoir vfas opened for business October 17, 1866. Nearly all of 
the stock brought to this place was carried over the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey. 

-' The above figures for the year 1873 include receipts up to December 17. 


TliG Nevmrh and New Yorh Railroad^ incorporated March 1, 
1S66; went into active operation August 2, 1860; under the 
control of the Central Railroad. Its terminus is at the depot 
of the last named company. The New Jersey Midland ^«//- 
^6v/y, incorporated March 18, 1867, and The New York and Os- 
w<go Midland Railway, projected in 1865 ; incorjjorated Janu- 
ary 1, 1866; construction begun June 29, 1868 ; first train run 
over the western end of the road November 5, 1869 ; first through 
train, August 18, 1873. The Jersey City and Albany Railroad, 
opened to Tap])aen July 30,. 1873. Tlie present terminus of 
tliese three roads is the Pennsylvania Railroad depot in Jersey 
City. The Hackensack and Neio York Railroad, incorporated 
March 14, 1856, completed December 24, 1861, and IhePat- 
erson, Newark and New York Railroad terminate at the depot 
of the Erie Railway Company in Jersey City. The Boonton 
Branch of The Morris and Essex Railroad connects with the 
main line at the west approach of the Bergen tunnel. The New 
York and Fort Lee Railroad, incorporated March 3, 1862, is 
completed as far north as Guttenberg ; is under lease to the Erie 
Railway Company, and used exclusively for oil, coal, and live 

Ocean Steameks. 

The Canard Line was the first to terminate in Hudson Coun- 
ty. On the 14th of October, 1846, Samuel Cunard communi- 
cated to the Common Council of Jersey City the fact that he had 
made arrangements to Ijring the ships of that line to Jersey City. 
He desired their approval, which was given December 20, 1846. 
The Eihernia, Captain Ryrie, arrived in December, 1847, as 
pioneer of the line. At first the trips were monthly. They 
have increased until now two ships leave weekly. For some 
time this line had ships plying between Jersey City and Ber- 
muda and St. Thomas. Besides the Cunard Line there are now 
the Ilarrdjurgh Line, the Brernen Line, the White Star Lhie and 
the Cardiff Line. The business on these lines has grown to 
immense proportions. On the Cunard Line alone it amounted 


in the year 1872 to 94,535 tons of in freight ; 143,620 tons of out 
freight ; 32, (U 7 in passengers, and 10,550 out passengers. 


On November 13, 1804, The Newark Banking and Insurance 
Company were authorized to establish a branch at Paulus Hoeck, 
with tlie consent of the Associates. The State reserved the right 
to subscribe $50,000 to the stock of this branch bank. This 
j)rivi]ege was afterward sold to Colonel Aaron Ogden for §4,000. 
The branch was established under the name of The Jersey Bank, 
and books opened for subscription January 24, 1805 ; directors 
elected April 2, 1805.. The bank building, on the southwest 
corner of Greene and Grand streets, was erected in the summer 
of 1805. The LegislatTire laid a tax of one-half of one per cent, 
on the capital of the Jersey Bank, November 2, 1810. The 
directors attempted to evade the payment of this tax, and sold 
their bank building. The sheriff, however, levied upon and sold 
it at public auction, the State being the purchaser, February 23, 
1811. In March, 1811, the directors procured a charter in New 
York in the name of the Union Bank ; removed to that city, and 
began business at No. 17 Wall street, April 11, 1811. 

TJie Jersey Bank (No. 2) was incorporated February 6, 1818, 
under the name of The President, Directors and Company of the 
Jersey Bank ; capital $100,000. The condition of the charter 
Avas that the company should purchase of the State the banking 
house formerly owned by the old Jersey Bank, for $5,000. It 
failed on Thursday, July 6, 1826. This caused a " run " on the 
Weehaivk and FranMin Banks. On the 24th of November 
following three commissioners were appointed by the Legislature 
to inquire into its affairs. 

John, Robert and Samuel Swartwout having become the 
owners of the meadows lying between Iloboken and the 
hill, and on the Hackensack, and desiring to improve the 
same, obtained a charter for The New Jersey Salt Harsh 
Company, January 28, 1820, witli a capital of $300,000. It 

BANKS. 373 

received power to " drain, ditch, djke, embank, cultivate and 
improve" the marshes. On November 15, 1823, this company 
were autliorized to erect a bankino; house in Hoboken, and 
use one-half of tlieir banking capital for banking purposes 
for fifteen years, in the name of The Ilobol'en Banhlng and 
Grazing Company. They forthwith erected the building on the 
southwest corner of Washington and Second streets. On No- 
vember 24-, 1826, a commission was appointed to examine into its 
affairs, to inquire if the capital had been subscribed and paid, 
and whether one-half of the stock had been employed as directed 
In the act incorporating the Salt Marsh Company. 

The New Jersey Manufacturing and Banking Company was 
incorporated December 9, 1823 ; capital !^150,000. It went into 
operation in March, 1824. On February 4, 1828, the Legislature 
required it to make a full report of its affairs. It suspended 
payment in March, 1820, and tlien the Chancellor enjoined it. 

The Franklin Bank of New Jersey was incorporated Decem- 
ber 28, 1824 ; capital §300,000 ; bonus to the State, $25,000. Its 
whole capital was subscribed March 22, 1825 ; directors elected 
April 8, L825. It did not live through its appointed time, but 
suspended in 1826. On the 24th of November in that year com- 
missioners were appointed to examine into its affairs. Proceed- 
ings in court were also instituted against it. These were discon- 
tinued, and it resumed payment April 2, 1827. It again sus- 
pended July 14, 1827. It resumed once more, and was enjoined 
May 29, 1828. Its charter was repealed February 22, 1843, and 
so its spasmodic existence ended. 

The Weehaiok Banking Company was incorporated December 
28, 1824; capital, $125,000; bonus to the State, $5,000. On 
November 30, 1825, the company received authority to change 
the name to The Washington Banking Co7)ipany,iind locate the 
bank at Hackensack. Its charter was repealed February 22, 

The President and Directors of the New Jersey Protection 
and Lomhard Bank wei'e incorporated December 29, 1824 ; cap- 
ital, $400,000 ; charter limited to twenty-one years ; bonus to the 
State, $25,000. A "run" was made upon the bank November 



17, 1825, and on the next day it failed. Its charter was re- 
pealed November 23, 1825, and trustees appointed to take charge 
of its property. Its bills fell to 37i cents on the dollar. 

The more recent l)anks, some of which endure, while the 
others had a brief and profitless existence, are as follows : 

Hudson County Bank, - - - - 
Mechanics' and Traders' Bank (First Nat.), 
Jersey City Bank (Second Nat.), - 

Iloboken City Bank, 
Marine Bank, 
Hudson Iliver Bank, 
]5ank of America, 
City Bank of Jersey City, - 
United States Stock Bank, 
Highland Bank, 
North River Bank, 
Union Bank, 

Incorporated . 

July 7, 1851. 


- June 25, 185G. 

March 18, 1857. 

September 21, 1857. 

March 24, 1862. 

July 4, 1862. 

September 9, 1862. 

- October 17, 1862. 

December 4, 1S62. 

December 10, 1862. 

January 2, 1870. 


The Bergen County Gazette and Jersey City Advertiser, 
weekly, was established in 1830 by E. B. Spooner, son of the 
editor of the Long Island Star. It was printed in Hackensack. 
He soon abandoned the enterprise, and his brother George, after- 
ward of the Saratoga Whig, took it in charge. It existed but a 
few months. 

The Bergen County Courier, weekly, was first issued Feb. 1, 
1832. It was printed in Jersey City by John Post and Joseph 
E. Handley. They not only furnished the matter, but printed 
and distributed the paper. Enterprise and economy were not, 
however, equal to the occasion, and the paper died Nov. 14, 
1832, with the forty-second number. Part of its material went 
to the outfit of the Philadelphia Ledger. 

The Jersey City Gazette and Bergen County Courier, semi- 
weekly, was first issued Feb. 11, 1835, by Robert W. Lang, son 


of the editor of the New York Gazette. Tlie paper was printed 
at No. 2 Hanover square, New York City, and was burnt out in 
the great lire of December, 1835. 

The Jersey Blue and Bergen County Democrat, weekly, was 
established in July, 1835 ; burnt out Aug. 8, 1838. It was pub- 
lished in Hoboken by Childs & Devoe. 

The Jersey City Advertiser and Bergen liepublican, semi- 
weeklj', was first issued Dec. 2, 1837 ; Henry D. Holt, editor. 
It became a weekly Dec. 14, 1838. When Hudson County 
was set off from Bergen, its name was changed to the Jersey 
City and Hudson Bepublican. It united with t\\Q Sentinel in 1848. 

The Jersey City Democrat, weekly, was first issued May 14, 
1842 ; M. Cully, editor. It suspended Jan. 15, 1848. 

The Morning Sentinel, daily, was first issued Aug. 23, 1845 ; 
Mr. Reynolds and Luther A. Pratt, editors. It united with the 
Jersey City Advertiser and Hudson Repuhlican in 1848, and 
was thence known as the Sentinel and Advertiser. 

The Daily Evening Sentinel was established in December, 
1844 ; Luther A. and William W. Pratt, Publishers. 

The Jersey City Telegraph, semi-weekly, was first issued 
March 15, 1847 : John H. Yoorhis, editor. It became a daily ; 
suspended June 25, 1859 ; John A. Ryerson, editor. Its ma- 
terials went to the outfit of the American Standard. 

The Hudson County Union, weekly, was first issued Aug. 12, 
1852; A. R. Speer, editor ; became a daily Jan. 24, 1854; S. 
P. Hull and William T. Rodgers, jr., editors ; suspended in June, 
1854. Its materials went to the outfit of the Hudson County 

The Hobohen Gazette, weekly, was first issued Sept. 12, 1853; 
Thomas W. Whitley, editor. Became a semi-weekly in Feb.. 
1855 ; a daily in Aug., 1855, and suspended in Oct., 1855. 

The Hudson County Democrat, weekly, was established in 
September, 1854 ; Augustus O. Evans, editor ; published in 
Hoboken ; became a daily in 1869. 

The Jersey City Courier, weekly, was first issued Aug. 1. 
1855; William B. Dunning and H. F. Milligan, editors. In a 
short time it became a daily ; merged with the Sentinel and 


A(l certiser in Jan., ISHG ; thence known as tlie ( 'ouner and Ad- 
vert Isi'V : siis})ended in May, 1S61. In connection witli tliis 
paper Av as a weekly, the Hudmn i^niniy Courier and Adviv- 
ther ; suspended in 1S«»1. 

Tlw Ciiij Gazette and Hudson County Citron i el e and Culti- 
vator, Thomas AV. Whitley, editor, was issued for a short time 
after the suspension of the TTohohen Gazette. When this pa]ier 
suspended, the same editor, havino- been elected a justice of tiie 
peace, brought out a few numbers of the Clreuit Judge. 

The Tlohohen (■ity Standard, weekly, was first issued Oct. 9, 
1S56 ; P. M. Reynolds, editor. 

The American AY«?if7f^r^7, daily, arose from the ashes of the 
Daily Telegraph , Viwd. was first issued Aug. 8, 1859, by Met;^ 
tfe Brother. John H. Lyon became proprietor Oct. 14, 1859. Tt 
is ])ublislK'd in Jersey City. 

The PeopW's Advocate, daily, was established by John C. 
Clarke <k Co. It was published in Jersey City, and merged in 
the Jersey City Times. 

The Jersey City News, weekly, was established in 1854 by 
Daniel K. Gavitt. It existed about one year. 

The Jersey City Hercdd,\\(i^^\^', was tirst issued July I'.', 1864, 
by Hugh McDermott. It merged with the Hudson City Ga- 

Jersey City Times, daily, was first issued Sept. 14, 1S(;4; Z. 
K. Pangborn, editor; changed to a weekly Nov. 8, 1873. 

The V/cening Journal, daily, was tirst issued May 2, 1867. It 
is published in Jersey City by Z. K. -Pangborn, A¥ra. B. Dun- 
ning and Joseph A. Dear. 

The ITudson (^ity Gazette was established in March, 1867; 
William D. McGregor, editor. It merged -with the Jersey City 

Jersey City Chronicle, semi-weekly, was iirst issued Feb. 14, 
1S63, by Davidson & Colston; discontinued Aug. 24, 1864, and 
merged in the Jersey City Times. 

The Hudson County Volkshlatt, weekl}'^, Avas established in 
1868; published in Hudson City by Dietz <Sc Timm. 

The Bayonne Herald and Greenville Ilegister, weekly,' was 


lirst ii^sued Dee. 2;"), ISBO ; Roswell Graves, editor. It is pub- 
liiilied at Bergen Point. 

The Hudwn Vountij Journal, weekly (German), was tirst 
issued Dec. 11>, 18G8 ; published in Iloboken by Rabe & 
T-ijiver, now by Bayer and Kaufmann. 

Jersey ( 'ity Herald and Gazette^ weekly, was establislied in 
1S70 by McDerniott & McGregor. It was the result of the 
merging of the Jersey City Herald and Hudson City Gazette. 

Hudson County Register, weekly, was first issued July 33, 
1870, at West Hoboken, by Peter Y. Everett, editor. 

Palisade News, ^\QQk\J^^\?^s, first issued Aug. 6, 1870, at West 
Hoboken, by Alfred E. Gregory, editor. 

Hudson (^onnty Times., weekly, was established in August, 
1870 ; published at Bergen Point by the Times Printing Com- 
pany of Jersey City, now by Edward Gardner. 

Die Wacht am Hudson., weekly, was established in 1871 ; 
published in Jersey City by the Hudson County German Pub- 
lishing Association. 

Highland Sentinel, weekly, was first issued March 29, 1873, 
at West Hoboken; Joseph Paul Bugie, editor. 

Hudson County Independent, weekly, was first issued May 3, 
1873, at Hoboken, by Augustus O. Evans, editor. It had but a 
brief existence. 

Dispatch, weekly, was established in 1873; published at East 
Newark by Trelease, Simmonds & Co. 

The Evening Palisades, daily, was first issued June 30, 1873, 
at West Iloboken, by the Palisades Publishing Society. 


history of hudson 03unty. 
Sketches of the Churches in the County, 




















































1850.. . 
















1870. . . . 

















1 1,000 









6 3,500 


1870. . . . 





15 9.000 





1850. . . . 

1860. . . . 



$3,000 ' 







1870. . . . 





tal value 

of property 

for 1870.... 



1860. . . . 






The foregoing table is made from the United States Census 
for the years named. 

The Reformed (Dutch) Churches. 

The Bergen Reformed Church is the oldest church in the 
county, and probably the oldest in the State. It was organized 
about the time, or at least very soon after, the village of Bergen 
was settled. In December, 1662, the sellout and schepens of the 
village petitioned the Governor-General and Council of New 
Netherland for a minister, as follows : 

" Shew with all reverence the schepens of the village of Ber- 
gen, how that they supplicants, having observed and weighed 
your Honor's fatherly care and direction, the building of churches 
and schools, they deem it expedient and highly desirable to pos- 



sess a pious man as minister, who may instruct, edify and learn 
tliem to fear God. This would be a desirable object for the 
community of Bergen and its district ; on which the schepens 
have deemed it proper and highly desirable to propose a similar 
plan to each individual to inform themselves what sum each of the 
inhabitants should be willing to contribute, annually, moved by 
the impulse of a good heart, by pure affection and an ardent love 
for God's holy and blessed name with the view to obtain a good 
minister till that time when the Noble Directors of the Privi- 
leged West Indian Company, after the custom of this country 
shall receive the tythes. 

" When this was proposed by the schepens, the following per- 
sons, goodly minded, declared to be willing to pay annually, 
which sum of similar voluntary promissors, amounted, as it was 
calculated nearly to 417 gl. in seawant, however, there are yet 
among them a few who give to understand that, if the Lord our 
God did bless them, and their property increased, that then 
they would perform, in proportion to their abilities, what might 
be in their power. The second class, by whose names no sums 
are annexed, contains yet some who are willing, but many very 
stupid, but as the number of those willing to contribute is the 
greatest majority, and declare that when a minister should be 
called, that in such case they would join others to the utmost of 
their abilities, and whereas the supplicants are not informed if 
those of Staer Simens^ are included in it, it is not in the suppli- 
cants' power to give a correct account of it, neither can ascertain 
what they would be willing to contribute. The schepens deem 
it advisable and highly necessary that the village should be pro- 
vided with a gospel minister, and therefore they submit it, with- 
out hesitation, to your Honor's mature consideration and decision. 
which then mio-ht be conmiunicated to the Lords Patrons witli 
the vessels now ready to sail. Your Honors know with what 
courage the settling and concentration of the village Bergen 

' I am unable to give any clue to the whereabouts of this place. Wearkimins- 
(^nnie was somewhere in this vicinity, but I have not been able to locate it. 
Tlie two names may refc^r to the same place. 



was undertaken by its inhabitants without any burthen to the 
Lords Directors. The community, therefore, is of opinion, that 
this by the patrons sliall be taken in consideration to support in 
their discretion the village of Bergen, and to provide them with 
a minister during one or two years at their own expense, about 
which time the country, uo doubt, under God's blessing shall 
have arrived at a higher prosperity, to which then might be 
added what this liberal minded community would contribute for 
its assistance. 

" Specification of the well intentioned Promissors with the 
quantity of the promise of each individual." 

The following is a copy of the subscription referred to in the 
body of the petition : 

Tielman Van Yleck, - fl. 60 

Michiel Jan sen, - - 25 

Ilarman Smeeman, - 25 

Casper Steynmets, - - 25 

Jan Schulten, - - 25 

Michiel Tunisen, _ _ 6 

Dirck Gerritson, - - 20 

Jan Lubbertsen, - _ 6 

Jacob Laenderse, - - 25 

Jan d'Engelsman, - - 6 

Paulus Pietersen, - - 25 

William Jansen, - - 10 

Adriance Post, - - 20 

Douwe Harmanse, - - 6 

Jacob Sergeant, - 
Arent Laurense, 
Jan Cornells, 
Cornells Abrahams, - 
Claes Pietersen, of Gemen- 

epa, - - - - 
Geurt Coerten, 
Dirck Claeszen, 
Jan Losercht, - 
Gerrit Gerritsen, - 
Claes Arentsen, 
Joost Van Linden, 

fl. 8 








At this time, and until 1680, the people used the log school- 

' N. Y. Col. MS8., X., pt. i., 277, 279, 281. A singular error concerning this 
gubscription has been made by Dr. Taylor in his Annals of the Classis of Bergen, 
no. Not having seen the origfinal manuscript, but depending on information 
received from the late J. Romeyn Broadhead, he says : " As early as 1G63 * * 
four hundred and seventeen guilders * * were raised by tax, in the town- 
ship of Bergen, towards the erection of a church." It was raised, not by ta,r, 
but by subscrip'ion ; not for the erection of a, churcli, but for the support of a 
minuter. I am happy to bo able to make this correction. 




liouse for a place of worship. This was on the site of the present 
school-house fronting the square.' In the spring of the year 
1680, the first church build- 
ing in Bergen was begun. '^ 
Willem Day was the build- 
er. Its form was octagonal, 
with the w^indows quite 
high from the ground, 
probably as much for a 
protection against the In- 
dians as to prevent the 
youngsters looking out 
during the services. The 
accompanying illustration, 
enlarged, is taken from the 
Field Map. It was local ed 
in the old graveyard west 
of Bergen avenue, and 
south of Yroom street, and 
was yet standing in IT'H. 

In 17Y3 a new building was placed on the site of the old 
Octagonal. Over the front door was a stone, with this inscrip- 
tion : 

" Kerk Gebouwt in Het Yaer 

1680. Her Bouwt in Het 

Yaer 1773." 

The bricks in the windows and arch over the door were brought 
from Holland. The corner stone of the present building was 
laid August 2C>, 1841. The building was dedicated July 14, 

Previous to the arrival of Rev. Henricus Selyns, Dominie 
van Nieuwenhuysen did most of the preaching at Bergen — 
statedly from 1672 to 1680. He preached and administered the 
Lord's Supper three times a year, for which he received " thirty 
bushels or fifteen bags of wheat."'' He preached in Bergen on 


Winf eld's La /id J'tUen, U).-). 

-/.. /. Jllst. Sor., L, 157. 

■Ibid, L, 158. 



week days. He is represented as a thick, corpulent person, 
with a red and bh)ated face. There can be no doubt, however, 
that previous to tlie services of Van Nieuwenhuysen, Dominies 
Johannis and Samuel Megapolenses preached in Bergen. The 
village in its corporate capacity seems to have been responsible 
for the pay of these clergymen. 


Their salaries were not fully paid, and on May 21, 1674, the 
authorities were informed that there was yet due from the town 
of Bergen to each of them ii. 100, " for earned salary," which 
the magistrates were recommended to pay forthwith.^ On Mr. 
Selyns' arrival, in 1682, he found at Bergen a new church, and 
134: members. He continued the previous arrangement of 
preaching at Bergen three times a year. He died on Saturday, 
V M., July 19, 1701.- In 169J>, Uev. Gualtherius Du Bois be- 
came associated with Mr. Selyns, and served the church in 

'Vol. Hist. ofN. Y., a., 732. 

■If. T. Hist. Soc, i., 390. 


Bergen until September, 1751. He was born in 1671, at Street 
Kerf, Holland, wliere his father, Petrus du Bois, was the Dutch 
pastor. He was educated at the University of Leyden, licensed 
in 1697, preached until September, 29, 1751, and died on Wed- 
nesday, October 9, 1751, in the eighty-first year of his age.^ The 
following eloquent tribute to his memory is from the WeeJdy 
Post Boy, October 14, 1751 : 

A Gentleman of a spotless Character 

and undissembled Goodness ; 

Amiable in his Temper, and in all Points exemplary : 

Of a benevolent Disposition, a diiFusive Charity, 

and for his engaging Manners, 

and for the sanctity of his Morals, 

Beloved by all but the Foes of Virtue. 

Great was his Knowledge in sacred Literature ; 

Nor was he ordinarily skill'd in the liberal Sciences : 

But for human Prudence, and the Knowledge of Men, 

To most superior 

and surpassed by none. 

Of a catholic Disposition, and a christian Charity, 

He never usurped the Province of God, 

Nor thundered his Anathemas against those of difierent Sects, 

whose lives were irreprehensible. 

On controversial Points, and polemic Theology, 

often destructive to vital Piety, 

He scorn'd to employ his precious Moments : 

Yet stripping an Argument of its specious Glare, 

He had an admirable Talent to expose 

its Disguise and Sophistry. 

The awful Majesty, and the Eigour of Religion, 

He soften'd by the winning Mildness of his Converse ; 

And those Virtues which appear stern and forbidding in others, 

Shone in him with attractive Beauty, 

and ineffable Lustre. 

Doc. Hist. ofN. Y., Hi.. 5537. 


llis Deportment was grave, venerable and solemn. 

yet oj^en, nnatfected and familiar. 

His Discourses remarkable for a pleasing Variety, 

of the Natural and Sublime, 

Yet intelligible to the most illiterate : 

His style was nervous and emphatic, 

Yet neither destitute of Mowing Periods, 

JS^or the Flowers of Ilhetoric. 

To ecclesiastical Dominion, and spiritual Jiondage, 

To blind Superstition, and tVantic Enthusiasm ; 

with every species 

of ghostly Tyranny and Priest-craft, 

He was a resolute an<l irreconcileable Foe : 

But for primitive. Christianity, and the Gospel of Christ 

(unadulterate with human Inventions 

or the lioguery of Priests), 

Together with a Freedom of Enquiry and the Liberty of ^Vfau, 

A Trium]>hant Defender. 

Unandjitious of Power, AfHuence, or Honors, 

lie consecrated his literary Acquirements, 

to inculcate lieligion 

in its Evangelical Purity : 

And looking on the glittering Toys of mortal Life 

with a wise Indifference, 

He laid up Treasures in the Regions above, 

Where he now partakes, as the Reward of his Toils, 

Pleasures immortal 

aiul everlasting Pepose. 

By his Doctrine, his Prayers, and his Life, 

He liv'd the Blessing and Ormiment of his People, 

for above the Space of h'ifty-two years ; 

a\nd longing for Heaven, and for Heaven mature, 

He departed this Life with Serenity and Joy, 

or rather Acclamation and Triunq)h ; 

Bequeathing to his Church Lamentation and Woe, 

And to his Followers a bright and shining Example. 


His remains were interr'd in the Old Dutc-li^^ChurcL, 

where they sleep in Expectation 

of a glorious licsurrection. 

May his Congregation pass from the Weakness of regretting him, 

To the Contemplation of his Virtues ; 

And rather adorn his Memorj^ with deathless Praises 

By imitating his Pattern, 

and adopting his Excellencies. 

In 1750 Petrus De Wint was chosen Pastor, but turninp; out 
to be a rogue, though carrying a shepherd's crook, was not 

C)n June 22, 1753, William Jackson was selected. He then 
went to Holland, finished his studies, returned, and was installed 
September 10, 1757. On account of mental infirmities, he was 
relieved from duty in December, 1789. He died July 25, 1813, 
and was buried in Bergen. 


Memory of 

the Rev. William Jackson 

who departed this life 

July 25^, 1813 

Aged 81 years 

He faithfully fulfilled the pastoral 

charge of the united Congregations 

of Bergen and Staten Island, for 

32 years, until bowed down 

under grievous afiiictions. 

He was esteemed for his piety. 

" Be ye followers of them who 

through faith and patience inherit 

the promises." Heb. 6, 12. 

He was an uncompromising whig among the uncertain patriots 

of Bergen during the tr^'ing times of the Revolution, Tradition 

says that he preached for the Refugees once at Fort Delancey. 

His text was : W/iai wi/l yc give me^ and 1 will deliver him 



unto you ? .And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of 
silver. Matt. 2b', 15. His sermon was a caustic application of 
the text to his tory hearers — some of them of his own congrega- 
tion. For this he was arrested and taken before the commanding 
General in New York. He was asked why he preached against 
his Majesty. He confessed the fact and justified it as the per- 
formance of his duty. He was forgiven and permitted to return 
home, where he continued to thunder against the enemies of his 
country. One day old Helmagh Yan Houten found fault with 
the political complexion of his sermon. The dominie replied, 
" Lord Howe has forgiven me ; can't you ? " 

Rev. John Cornelison became pastor of this church May 2rt, 
1793. Up to this time the preaching had been in Dutch. He 
died March 20, 1828, and was buried in Bergen. 


of the 

Rev. John Cornelison, A. M., 

who died 

March 20, A. D. 1828, 

In the 59th year of his age, 

and 35th of his ministry 
as Pastor of this church. 

In life 

Active, amiable, judicious and pious, 

He was useful, respected and beloved. 

In death 

He triumphed, through faith in Jesus, 

As the Eternal God. 

" Remember them who have spoken unto you the 
WORD OF God." Heb. 13, 7. 

Rev. Benjamin C. Taylor was installed July 24, 182S. De- 
clared by the Classis Emeritus Pastor September 22, 1870. 

James L. Ammerman was installed May 7, 1871, and is the 
present pastor. 







, W 


A' - ^tf^!^' 

^e-*i^t^^*w^ C Jiscy^cn. 


The First Reforrried Church at Bayonne was organized Jan- 
uary 11, 1829, as the Eeformed Dutch Chiirch of Bergen Neck. 
First building was erected in 1828 ; dedicated January 10, 1829 ; 
abandoned February 10, 1867. The second building, the corner 
stone of which was laid September 4, 1866, was dedicated March 
31, 1867. It is on the north corner of Avenue C and Bayonne 


Rev. Ira C. Boyce, from Sept. 15, 1829, to Jan. 22, 1844. 
'• James Romeyn, from May 28, 1844, to May 15, 1850. 
'^ Jacob C. Dutcher, from Oct. 8, 1850, to May 25, 1854. 
" Aaron L. Stillwell, Oct. 4, 1854; (died) June 24, 1864. 
'' Theodore W. Wells, from June 22, 1865 to Sept. 4, 1873. 

The First Reformed Church of Jersey City was organized 
December 15, 1825, as The First Presbyterian CKiirch of Jer- 
sey City. February 16, 1830, the congregation resolved them- 
selves into a Dutch Church. First building was on the site of 
the present one ; the corner stone was laid by Colonel Varick. 
May 18, 1826. It was moved across the street in 1853, where it 
l)ecame "Park Hall," and was destroyed by lire December 12, 
1864. The second building, the corner stone of which was laid 
September 22, 1853, was dedicated April 5, 1857. It is on the 
south side of Grand, between Washington and Warren streets. 

Rev. Stephen H. Meeker, from May 9, 1830, to Oct. 20, 1830. 
•' James R. Talmadge, from Feb. 8, 1831, to Jan. 30, 1833. 
" Matthias Lusk, from Nov. 19, 1833, to Oct. 26, 1848. 
'' John Austin Yates (called), July 31,1849; (died) Aug. 

26, 1849. 
'• Daniel Lord, from June 16, 1850, to May 5, 1851. 
•' Alexander W. McClure, from May 19, 1852, to April 18, 

'" David H. Riddle, from April 19, 1857, to Dec. 22, 1862. 
" Henry M. Scudder, from Dec. 5, 1864, to May 23, 1865. 
" George H. Peeke, from Aug. 1, 1865, to Dec. 6, 1869. 
" William W. llalloway, jr., June 11, 1871. 


The lieforiaed Church at Neio Durham. Avas or<^aiiized April 
12, 1843. Tlie building known as " The Grove Clnirch " is lo- 
cated on the west side of the old Dallytown road at Union Hill, 
"overlooking the region it was appointed to guard." Dedicate<l 
September 27, 1847. Enlarged to double its capacity in 1862, at 
a cost of §12,000. A parsonage is attached. 


Rev. Philip Duryee, of English Neighborhood, acting until 
" Wilham J. R. Taylor, from Oct. 0, 1844, to Sept. 8, 1846. 
" William V. V. Mabon, from Oct. 4, 1846. 

iSecond Reformed Church of Jersey City was organized March 
15, 1846, as the First Beformed Dutch Church in the Township 
of Van Vorst. The building is on the south side of "Wayne, 
between Grove and Barrow streets. The corner stone was laid 
August 24, 1847 ; building dedicated May 28, 1848. 


Rev. William J. R. Taylor, from Sept. 27, 1846, to Oct. 4,1849. 
" Paul D. A'an Cleef, from Dec. 30, 1849. 

The First Reformed Church of Jlohoken was organized Octo- 
ber 27, 1850. The building is on the west side of Hudson, be- 
tween Fifth and Sixth streets; corner stone laid' July 12, 1852 ; 
dedicated August 27, 1855. 


Rev. Charles Parker, from April 1, 1855, to Jan. 18, 1858. 
" Alexander M. Mann, from March 23, 1858, to March 25, 

" Matthew B. Riddle, from April 15, 1862, to Feb. 26, 1865. 
'• W. H. Vroom, from June — , 1865, to April — , 1867. 
" J. K. Allen, from June 18, 1868, to April 19, 1870. 
" Charles D. Buck, from Dec. 21, 1870. 

The Third Reformed Church of Jersey City was organized 

May 7, 1852. The first building— the "Tabernacle." on the. 


southeast corner of Erie and Sixth streets — was dedicated April 
16, 1S54. The second building is on the corner of Eighth street, 
and fronting on Hamilton s(|uare ; corner stone laid September 
20, 1859 ; dedicated May 6, 1860. 


Rev. William J. R. Taylor, from Aug. 19, 1852, toKov. U, 1854. 
" J. Paschal Strong, from Jan. 21, 1855, to Nov. 25, 1856. 
" Calvin Selden, from May 10, 1857, to Oct. 5, 1857. 
" Cornelius L. Wells, from June 13, 1858, to March 5, 1863. 
" J. Romeyn Berry, from Nov. 25, 1863, to Nov. 1, 1868. 
" J. Howard Suvdam, from Jan. 31, 1869. 

The German Evangelical Church of North Bergen was or- 
ganized October 4, 1853. The building stands on Columbia 
street ; was dedicated March 28, 1854 ; enlarged and rebuilt in 



Rev. Leopold Mohn, from August 5, 1855, to April 21, 1857. 
" Charles Becker, from Dec. — , 1857, to Sept. 12, 1860. 
" John Justin, June 25, 1865. 

The Reformed Church of Hudson City was organized Decem- 
ber 14, 1853. The congregation worshiped in a room connected 
with Miss Graves' female seminary. Rev. Aaron Lloyd was 
missionary from September 15, 1854, to July 19, 1855, and Rev. 
Frederick L. King from October 16, 1855, to October, 1857. The 
church was afterward disbanded. 

The Reformed Church of Bergen Point was organized May 
16, 1854. The building is on the west side of Avenue T, be- 
tween Second and Third streets; dedicated August 21, 1853. 


Rev. Jacob C. Dutcher, from June 11, 1854, to June 30, 1857. 
" Charles Parker, from Feb. 8, 1858, to Dec. 13, 1859. 
" Henry W. F. Jones, from August 7, 1860, to — — . 


The German Evangelical Churcli of Jersey City was organ- 
ized August 17, 1856 ; occupied Franklin Hall, on the southeast 
corner of Montgomery and Warren streets ; disbanded in Mav, 


Tiev. C. Doeppenschmidt, from Aug. 17, 1856, to April 14, 1865. 
" Charles Meyer, from April — , 1865, to May, 1866. 

The Reformed Churcli of Lafayette was organized May H, 
1863 ; incorporated June 1, 1863. The building is located on 
the northwest corner of Communipaw avenue and Pine street ; 
was dedicated November 25, 1866. 

Pastor — Rev. William Rankin Duryee, from July 31, 1^64, 
to . 

The Second Reformed Church of Hudson City (German) was 
organized November 6, 1859 ; served by Rev. C. Doeppen- 
schmidt, as missionary in connection with Jersey City ; united 
with a mission at Washington Village, April 12, 1863, under the 
care of Rev. Leopold Mohn. The churcli building is located on 
Central avenue, near Franklin street. The Pastor of the United 
Church, Rev. C. Doeppenschmidt, was installed December 11, 
1864. Hammond installed July 23, 1871. 

Reformed Church of West End was organized November 7, 
1869. The chapel stands on the corner of Academy street and 
Broadway ; dedicated November 8, 1868. 

Rev'. Alexander Shaw was appointed missionary in 1868. 
Rev. William H. Yan Doren, pastor, installed July 23, 1871. 

Reformed Church of Greenville was organized February 19, 
1871, and supplied by neighboring ministers until January 19, 
1873, when Rev. Alexander H. Young was installed ])astor. 

Free Reformed Church, Jersey City. The Morgan street 
(afterward called the Bethel) Sunday School, from which this 
churcli sprang, was begun March 1, 1S61, under the care of the 


three Reformed Churches of Jersey City. The first chapel stood 
on Morgan street. The present one is on the south side of First 
street, east of Grove, and was dedicated October 2, 1870. 

Rev. Alexander Shaw was missionary until October, 1872. 

Rev. Andrew J. Park, pastor, installed January 12, 1873. 

German JEvangelical Church, Ilobohen, was organized Sep- 
tember 16, 1856. The church building stands on the corner of 
(xarden and Sixth streets. 

Pastor — Rev. Leopold Mohn, from April 21, 1857, to . 

Reform'id Church of Guttenherg was organized Kovember, 
1868. The chapel is located on Hudson avenue, and was dedi- 
cated in January, 1868. This congregation grew out of a Sun- 
day school established in 1864 by Rev. W. Y. Y. Mabon, D.D., 
who, assisted by others, kept up regulai- preaching until August, 
1872, when Rev. Peter B. Crolius was installed pastor. 

Central Avenue Reformed Church was organized July 10, 
1872. The chapel is on Central avenue, corner of Bowers street ; 
dedicated December 31, 1871. The church was supplied with 
preaching by neighboring ministers until September, 1872, when 
Rev. G. II. Pool was installed. He continued until April 21, 

The Third Reformed Church of Bayonne 6%y (German) was 
organized May 3 and 26, 1872. The church building is located 
on the corner of Avenue T and Fourth street ; corner stone 
laid October 12, 1873. 

Planh Road Chapel. — A. Sabbath school was organized in 
this locality by Rev. W. Y. Y. Mabon in 1858. In 1866, by the 
liberality of Mr. James Brown, a chapel was erected. This 
chapel is connected with the Grove Church, and the services are 
maintaitied by the pastor, Rev, W. Y. Y. Mabon. 

Episcopal Churches. 
St. Matthew's, Jernej City, was organized August 21, 1808. 


The trustees were elected December 8 in the same year. At 
first the services were held in the " Jersey Academy," built by 
the town authorities, and comj^leted in February, 1807. The 
building is located on the north side of Sussex, between "Wash- 
ington and Warren streets ; corner stone was laid October 
22, 1831; building was consecrated. November 26, 1835; de- 
stroyed by fire December 4, 1869 ; rebuilt and opened for service 
October 15. 1870. 


Rev. Timothy Clowes, from organization until May 1, 1809. 
" Edmund D. Barry, from May 5, 1809, to 1816. 
" Cave Jones, from 1816 to 1824. 
" Edmund D. Barry, from 1824 ; became rector May 13, 

1831 ; died April 20, 1852. 
" A. C. Patterson, assistant pastor from June, 1844, to May 

12, 1847. 
" Charles Aldis, assistant pastor from July, 1847, to March, 

" James J. Bowden, assistant pastor from June, 1849, to May 

4, 1852. 
'•' James J. Bowden, rector from May 4, 1852, to June, 1859. 
" J. Brinton Smith,^ from Nov., 1859, to Dec. 31, 1865. 

" William A. Matson, from Sept. 1, 1866, to . 

" Eichard Abercrombie, from Jan. 7, 1872, to . 

' Raleigh, N. C, November 12, 1872. — Tlie coroner's jury rendered a verdict 
to-day in the case of Rev. Dr. J. Brinton Smith, supposed to have been poisoned 
l)y members of his family on the 1st of October : That the deceased, J. Brinton 
Smith, came to his death on the morninor of the 1st day of October, 1872, from 
the effects of strychnine mixed in a dose of seidlitz powders, administered by 
Francis L. Mann, and that Mary E. Smitli was the custodian of the key of a 
closet in which was found a vial of said ])oisonous drug. 

Mrs. Mann is the daughter and Mrs. Smith, the wife of deceased. Dr. Smith 
was an Episcopal clergyman, and President of the Augustine College of this 
city. The affair has caused great excitement, as all parties held high social 
position. Mrs. Smith and Mann were committed to the county jail this morn- 
ing. Applications will be made by counsel for their release on a writ of habeas 
corpus. The sentiments of the community are divided as to the guilt of the 
parties. The stomach and brains of deceased were examined by Dr. Genth, of 
Pliiladelphia, upon whose professional opinion the jury rendered a verdict. 




In 1832 Episcopal services were for the first time held in 
Hoboken, Eev. "William Try on officiating. For about a year 
tlie district schoolhoiise was used. Then John and Abraham L. 
Van Boskerck bnilt a schoolhouse, in which services were held 
for two or tliree years. 

Sf. Paurs, Hoboh'n, was organized March 2, 1835 ; incorpo- 
rated March 16, 1835. The first bnilding was on the northwest 
corner of Hudson and Third streets ; corner stone laid May 27, 
1836; bnilding consecrated November 1, 1836; enlarged in 
1851 ; sold in 1869. The present building is on the east side of 
Hudson, between Eighth and Ninth streets. The chapel was 
opened for service June 12, 1870, and the church September 4, 


Rev. John M. Ward, from April 4, 1835, to October, 1839. 
" C. F. Cruise, to 1844. 
" Richard H. Burnham, to July, 1851. 
" Van de Wort Bruce, from 1853 to 1866. 
" N. Sayre Harris, from 1866. 
" — Hartung, from 1873. 

Grace, Jersey City, was organized April 26, 1847, under the 
care of Rev. A. L. Patterson, missionary for the whole county. 
The first building was on the west side of Grove street, a little 
to the north of Newark avenue. This building is now in 
Morgan street, occupied as an African church. The present 
building is on the northwest corner of Erie and Second streets ; 
corner stone laid December 6, 1850 ; building consecrated May 

18, 1853. 


Revs. A. L. Patterson, from May 5, 1847, to Sept. 20, 1848; 

Milo Mahan, from Nov. 26, 1848, to ; David H. Macurdy; 

Charles Arey ; Spencer M. Rice. 

Holy Trinity, late Hudson City, was oi-ganized September 
10, 1851. The building is on the north side of St. Paul's avenue, 



a little to the west of Central avenue. Tlie corner stone was 
laid December 10, 1851; the bnildina; was consecrated May 19, 


Kev. AVilliain R. Gries, from 1851 to 1855. 

" Norman W. Camp, from May IT, 1855, to 1858. 
" Louis L. Noble, from Nov., 1858, to 1872. 
" James Chrystal, from July, 1S72, to . 

Trinity^ Ilobohen, was organized September 16, 1853. At 
first the services were held in an engine house near the Napoleon 
Hotel, then called the Town hall. On May 1, 1851, the place of 
meeting was transferred to Odd Fellows' Hall. The building is 
on the northeast corner of Washington and Seventh streets. 
The corner stone was laid December IS, 1855 ; building com- 
pleted in November, 1856, Grace chapel, on Seventh street, 
adjoining the church, was erected and presented to the parish by 
William P. Wright, as a memorial of his daughter, Grace. It 
was consecrated November 9, 1 856. 

Rev. Norman W. Camp, from Sept. 16, 1853, to Aug. 29, 1855. 
" John W. Clark, from Oct. 7, 1855, to May, 1856. 
" N. Say re Harris, from 1856, to Sept., 1865. 
" Frederick Fitzgerald, from Sept., 1865, to Aug. 31, 1867. 
" Reuben W. Howes, jr., from Dec. 2, 1867, to . 

Trinity Free^ Jersey City, was organized in September, 1854. 
The first building was on the north side of York, between Grove 
and Barrow streets ; was opened for service June 10, 1855. It 
is now occupied as a livery stable. It was abandoned by the 
parish in 1862, and the Unitarian church building, on thesouth- 
eastcornerof Grove and Montgomery streets, secured until 18(i8, 
when the church collapsed, and St. Marh's entered upon the 


Rev. Stephen Douglas, from June, 1851; died Jan. 21, 1857. 
" Charles H. Canfield, from 1857 to April, 1859. 


Rev. Eobert F. Travis, jr., from May, 1859 ; died Oct. 26, 1866. 
" Thomas Coleman, to An.^. 1, 1868. 

Christ Church, Bei'gen, was organized in 1858 ; incorporated 
May 21, 1859. Thebnilding is on the northeast corner of Clare- 
niont avenne and Clerk street, and was consecrated in Augnst, 


Revs. Orlando Harriman, Charles Ritter, Stephen H. Battin. 

Trinity, Be?'gen Point, was organized in Angnst, 1859. The 
hnilding is on the southwest corner of Avenne E and Fifth 
street ; consecrated Sept, 4, 1862. 


Rev. Franklin S. Rising, from Aug., 1860, to Jan. 20, 1862. 
" Thomas A. Jaggar, from May 1, 1862, to Sept. 26, 1864. 
" George Zabriskie Gray, from' Feb. 12, 1865, to . 

St. PauUs, Bergen, was organized August 1, 1860. The 
chapel, on the north side of Duncan, between Bergen and Grand 
avenues, was built in the spring of 1861, and opened for service 
May 20,' 1861. 

Pastor — Rev. Fernando C. Putnam, from October, 1860, to 
the present time. 

Grace (late Greenville) was oi'ganized January 14, 1864. The 
first building, on the west side of the old Bergen road, between 
Danforth and Linden avenues, and formerly a whalebone fac- 
tory, was opened for service June 12, 1864. The present build- 
ing, on the corner of Ocean and Pearsall avenues, was opened 
for service December 25, 1872. 


Rev. William G. Hughes, from Oct. 22, 1864, to Nov. 1, 1867. 
" John R. Matthews, from April 20, 1868, to Oct. 20, 1869. 
" Frederick M. Gray, , to June 29, 1878. 

396 HISTORY OF Hudson county. 

Cali'arij^ Bayoniie, was organized March 22, 1867. Occasional 
services had been held in the neighborhood from August 24, 
1859, by Rev. Robert F. Travis, jr., of Jersey City, and Rev. Wil- 
liam G. Hughes, of Greenville. In May, 1865, Trinity Parish 
of Bergen Point assumed charge of the enterprise. It then be- 
came known as St. Bartholomew Mission. From this time until 
iSTovember 19, 1865, Rev. William G. Hughes had charge of it, 
and was then succeeded by Rev. Frederick M. Gray. The build- 
ing is on the southwest side of street, between Avenues C 
and D ; corner-stone laid November 3, 1866 ; building opened 
for service June 29, 1867. 


Rev. Frederick M. Gray, from July 30, 1867, to Sept. 6, 1868. 
" Samuel G. Appleton, from March 28, 1869, to . 

St. Paul's^ Jersey City, was organized February 14, 1868. 
The first service M^as held February 5, 1868, in Luxton's Hall. 
The building is on the northeast corner of New York avenue 
and South street ; corner stone laid February 19, 1871 ; building 
ripened for service May 28, 1871. 


Rev. Thomas M. Thorpe, from Feb. 24, 1868, to July 1, 1868. 

" William Wardlaw, from Oct. 1, 1868, to Sept. 9, 1872. 

" David G. Gunn, from Oct. 10, 1872, to Aug. — , 1873. 

St. Marie's, Jersey City, was incorporated December 8, 1868. 
The building occupied is on the southeast corner of Grove and 
Montgomery streets, built by the Unitarians in 1856. 

Rev. David H.Macurdy, from March 4, 1869, to April 30, 1871. 
'' John F. Butterworth, from June, 1871, to . 

St. Jolui's Free., Jersey City, was organized Marcli 4, 1869, as 
Zlon Free Church. The building is on the east side of Palisade 
avenue, opposite Gardner avenue ; ground broken for the foun-- 
dation November 30, 1870 ; corner stone laid May 7, 1871 ; base- 


ment opened for service November 25, ls7l ; building ditto, 
February 2, 1872. 

Pastok — -N. S. Rulisoii, from 1869 to the present time. 

/St. Johu^s, West Hoboken, was incorporated June 19, ISiO. 
The church building is on the northeast corner of Warren street 
and Clinton avenue; completed in October, 1S1:!». 

Kevs. Orlando Harriman ; T. M. Thorpe ; Wm. T. Jarvis ; ~ 
Maturen; C. P. Jones; W. C. Cooley, 1870-3; Oeorge Cham- 
bers, from Nov., 1873, to ■ . 

£'ast Newai'Tx, P. E. Church was organized about 1843. The 
church building is on the corner of Third and Warren streets. 
The following are a few of the 

Pastors : 
Eev. Messrs. Myer, Hooper, Webb, Orr, Webb. 

iSt. Johii's^ Bayonne, was organized in 1872 ; incorporated 
March 12, 1872. This church was organized as a mission of Trin- 
ity, of Bergen Point. 

Pastor — Rev. Washington liodman, from 1872 to the present 

iSt. Luke 8, Jersey City, was organized in August, 1873. The 
place of worship is on the corner of South street and Central 

Pastor — llev. David O. Gunn. 

Church of the Atoueiiient, Hoboken, was incoj-i)orated May 19,. 

Baptist CnuRcuEs. 

The Particular Baptist Church of Jersey City and Harsi- 
irius was organized March 11, ls39. The building occupied is 


jet standing on the west side of Barrow street, between Newark 
and Railroad avenues. 


Rev. Joseph Houo-hwoiit, from 1838 to 1841. 
" John O. Edmunds, from 1841 to 1842. 
" Arus Haynes, from 1S42 to 1844. 
" William Smith, from 1844 to 1847. 

The Jersey City Baptist Church was organized March 11, 


Rev. William Rollinson, from May to Nov., 1843. 

" Silas C. James, from March to Sept., 1844. 

" Joseph M. Morris, from April 1, 1845, to Feb. 26, 1846. 

" William Gooding, from Aug. 11, 1846, to Feb. 15, 1847. 

The Grand Street Baptist Church,SeY&Qy City, was organized 
in 1844. 

Pastor — Rev. Arus Haynes, from 1844 to 1847. 

The Union Baptist Church, which, by legislative act in 1868, 

was changed to The First Baptist Church of Jersey City, was 

organized March 1, 1848, out of the material composing the 

other Baptist churches. The building is ou the east side of 

Grove, between Wayne and Mercer streets. The basement was 

opened for service April 11, 1852 ; the building was dedicated 

July 17, 1853. 


Rev. O. C. Wheeler, from April 6, 1848, to Nov. 21, 1848. 
" William Verrinder, from Dec. 1, 1849, to April 1, 1854. 
" Wheelock H, Parmly, from Sept. 1, 1854, to . 

The First Bapdist Clmrch of New Durha))i was organized in 
1837. The first building was on the Secaucus road, at the foot 
of Weehawken hill. The present building is on the east side of 
the Hackensack turnpike ; erected in 1854. 

Pastors — Rev. George F. Hendrickson, Joseph Perry, George 


P. Martin, John Gibbs, Wm. Dornian Wright, James A. Metz, 
John E. Perrine, and Thomas F. Clancy (present pastor). 

The First Baptist Church, Hudson City, was organized in 1857. 
The building is on the west side of Bergen avenue, near the Five 



Rev. Marvin Eastwood, from 1858 to 1860. 

'' Kev. Halsey J. Knapp, from 1860 to 1864. 

'' J. W. Custis, from 1865 to 1867. 

'' Charles E. Cordo, from 1867 to . 

" T. R. Howlett, from 1869 to 1872. 

" W. B. Harris, from Feb. 6, 1872, to . 

The Bethesda Baptist Church, Jersey City, was recognized 
July 11, 1858. The building was located on the north side of 
Fifth street, between Erie street and Jersey avenue. The church 
was disbanded in 1863. 


Rev. Mr. Raymond, at the time of recognition. 

" Matthew C. Kempsey, from Sept. 30, 1858, to 1860. 
" George A. Post, from 1861 to 1863. 

The First Baptist Church, Hoboken, was organized in 1845. 
The first building, on the northeast corner of Washington and 
Third streets, was sold to the First Presbyterian Church in 1851. 
The present building is on the northwest corner of Bloomfield 
and Third streets ; dedicated November 4, 1852. 


Revs. Aaron S. Patton ; Josiah Hatt, from 1846 to 1855 ; A. 
Harris, from 1860 to 1870 ; — Maull, 1873. 

The West Hoboken Baptist Church was organized in 1854. 
The first buildinjj, on the northeast corner of De Mott street and 
Clinton avenue, was built by John Syms in about 1856. The 
]>resent building is on the corner of Clinton avenue and Serrell 
street; begun in 1866; to be dedicated January 15, 1874. 

400 ilistoky of hudson county. 


Eev. C. A. Bnckbee, James, Robert McGoiiio-le, 

Devan, William Gilkes, 1870, present pastor. 

Tlie First BcqHist Chu7'ch, Bei'geii, -was oriiHinized Feb. 7, 
1859 ; recognized Jnne 17, 1860. The building is on the north- 
west corner of Clinton place and Madison avenue. The chapel 
was dedicated in September, 1860. The corner stone of the 
building was laid May 8, 1871; the building dedicated March 
31, 1872. 


Eev. W. B. Shrope, from Sept., 1859, to Aug., 1860. 
" G. W. Pendleton, from Nov., 1860, to Sept., 1862. 
" J. S. Ladd, from Oct., 1::62, to March, 1864. 
" AVilliam Rollinson, from Oct., 1865. 
" Walter W. Hammond, present pastor. 

The North Baptist CJiureh, Jersey City, was organized Sept. 
28, 1865. The building is on the east side of Jersey avenue, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets ; dedicated in April, 1867. 

Pastor — Eev. Henry A. Cordo, from Oct. 1, 1866, to Nov. 
26, 1871, when lie resigned. In 1872 lie was recalled, there 
liaving been no intermediate pastor. 

27ie First Baptist Church of the Toion of Union was or- 
ganized in 1864; incorporated Jan. 19, 1865. The building, 
erected in 1866, is on the northeast corner of Bergen Line avenue 
and Franklin street. 

Pastors — Eev. Washington Wicks, James Metz, Edwin Shaf- 
fer, George F. Hendrickson, who resigned in August, 1873. 

The Gerviun Pilgrim Baptist Church, Hudson City, was in- 
corporated June 1, 1866. 

21ie First German Regular Baptist Church, AVest Hoboken, 
was organized in November, 1868 ; incorporated February 15, 
1869. The building at present occupied is in Hoboken avenue, 


near Clinton avenue. The building of the First Baptist Church 
will be occupied Avhen that body occupies their new building. 


Revs. C. Frederick Bluinenberg, Austerniehl, George 

Knablach, Michael Hiiflin. 

The Hmnilton Park Baptist Churcli was recognized May 29, 

Pastok — Rev. Aaron S. Patton. 

The Presbyterian Churches. 
In 1809 a society was organized in Jersey City under the care 
of Rev, Dr. Miller, In April, 1813, this society obtained the 
privilege of holding service in the " Jersey Academy," alternat- 
ing the Sundays with St. Matthew's P. E. Church. A Presby- 
terian Church was organized December 15, 1825. A frame 
building was erected on the site of the present First Reformed 
Church in Grand street. The corner stone was laid by Colonel 
Richard Varick, May 18, 1826. Rev, James S. Olcott was pas- 
tor until 1829. On February 16, 1830, the church, by action of 
the congregation, dissolved its connection with the Presbyterians, 
and became the First Reformed Church. 

The First Presbyterian Church, Jersey City, was organized 
April 22, 1844, the services being held in the First Reformed 
Church, Tiie building is on the northeast corner of Washington 
and Sussex streets ; corner stone laid October 4, 1844 ; dedicated 
May 25, 1845. This building was brought from New York city, 
where it stood on the north side of Wall street. It was known 
as the " stone-steepled Meeting House ; " built in 1718 ; enlarged 
in 1768 ; rebuilt in 1810 ; destroyed by fire in the fall of 1834, 
and immediately rebuilt. It was the only church in the city in 
which Whitfield could obtain a hearing. He preached in it 
many times. Its size and "shaj)e are now what they were prior 
to its removal to Jersey City, only the basement has been added 
and the pews and pulpit have been reconstructed. 

Rev. John Johnston, from May 20, 1844, to May 27, 1850. 


Rev. Lewis H. Lee, Associate, from Nov. 15, 1848, to Jan., 1850. 
'' David King,i from June 12, 1850, to Oct. 12, 1851. 
" Charles K. Imbrie, from Feb. 11, 1852, to present time. 

The Second Presbyterian Churchy Jersey City, was organized 
September 9, 1851. The building is on the north side of Third 
street, between Erie street and Jersey avenue ; dedicated Janu- 
ary 17, 1858, and, after enlargement, March 21, 1869. 

Rev. Charles Hoover, from June 30, 1852, to 1859. 

" George C. Lucas, from May 31, 1860, to 1863. 

" James M. Stevenson,^ from Oct. 15, 1864, to 18T1. 

" Hiram Eddy, from May 30, 1871, to present time. 

The Scotch Presbyterian Churchy now known as The ThiriJ 

Presbyterian Churchy Jersey City, was organized May 29, 1856. 

At first the old building in Barrow street, between Newark and 

Railroad avenues, was occupied ; then a building in Grove street. 

In October, 1862, the congregation secured the " Tabernacle," a 

frame building on the southeast corner of Erie and Fifth streets. 

A building, nearly completed, is now being erected in Mercer 

near Yarick street. 


Rev. James Petrie, from Nov. 5, 1856, to 1858. 

" William Cochrane, from June 7, 1859, to March 28, 1862. 

" James Harkness, from Oct. 21, 1862, to present time. 

The Third Presbyterian Church, Jersey City, was organized 
May 13, 1859; Rev. James Cubby, i^astor. Union Hall, on the 
southwest corner of Grove and Fourth streets, was, for a while, 
occupied as a place of worship. Though a *' feeble folk," the 
organization was very zealous in committing hari-hiri. It was 
altogether too militant. Its existence was turbulent, happily 
brief, and its nunc dimittis applauded by all who believe that a 
church should lift its members above the level of the hero of 
Donnybrook Fair. 

The Presbyterian Church, Hoboken, was organized June 9, 

1 Died May 15, 1853. - Died October 18. 1871. 


1852. A movement for siicli an organization was made as early 
as October, 1851, and in ISTovember of that year the building of 
the Baptist Church, on the southwest corner of Washington and 
Third streets, was purchased. The present building is on the 
southeast corner of Sixth and Hudson streets ; dedicated Feb- 
ruary 23, 1865. ^ 


Rev. Isaac P. Stryker, from June 11, 1854. 
" William H. Babbitt, from 1859 to 1864. 
'' E. P. Gardner, from 1865 to 1870. 
'' James Marshall, present pastor. 

The First Presbyterian Church, Bergen, was organized Oc- 
tober 24, 1855. The building is on the north side of Emory 
street, between Bergen and Monticello avenues ; was dedicated 
October 28, 1858. 

liev. Edward W. French the only pastor. 

Prospect Avenue J*r(shyterian ChurcJi, Jersey City, was or- 
ganized June 13, 1871, although regular services had been main- 
tained in a hall on Newark avenue from December 11, 1870. 

Pastor — Rev. John Glendenning, from Oct. 26, 1871, to pres- 
ent time. 

The First Presbyterian Church, West Hoboken, was organ- 
ized June 12, 1850. The building is on Clinton avenue ; corner 
stone laid September 4, 1850 ; dedicated June 25, 1851. 

Rev. James C. Egbert, from June 13, 1855, is the first and 
only pastor. 

The Claremont Presbyterian Church, Jersey City, was oi-gan- 
ized in February, 1868. The building is on the south side of 
Claremont avenue, between (Jcean avenue and Clerk street ; cor- 
ner stone laid August 3, 1869 ; opened for service December 30, 

1869. ^ 


Rev. Samuel W. Duffield, from May 8, 1870. 
" J. McNulty, from 1872 to August, 1873. 

The WeehawTcen Presbyterian Church was organized in Octo- 


ber, 1868. The church building is located at Weehawken, on the 
west side of Park avenue extended, and north of Nineteenth 
street; begun in August, 1870; dedicated in May, 1871. 

Kevs. Robert Pror.dtit ; George P. Noble, from Feb., 1870, to 
April 1, 1871 ; Robert II. Townsend, from Aug. 1, 1871, to the 
present time. 

The J^irst United Presbyterian Churchy Hoboken, was organ- 
ized November 29, 1854, as The First Associate Presbyterian 
Church ; took its present name in 1858, when the union between 
the Associate and the Associate Reformed churches was consum- 
mated. The church building is on the southeast corner of Bloom- 
Held and Seventh streets; erected 1856; opened for service on 
the last Sunday in November, 1856. 

Rev. Wm. G. McElhany, from May 10, 1855, to May 20, 1860.^ 

" Samuel C. Marshall, from July 16, 1861, to April 1, 1863. 

" Henry Allen, from April 3, 1867, to Dec. 26, 1867.' 

" Robert Armstrong, from Dec. 2, 1868. 

The First United Presbyterian Churchy Jersey City, was or- 
ganized October 15, 1862; incorporated August 1, 1863. The 
society occupies the old church building in Barrow street, between 
Newark and Railroad avenues. 

Rev. Robert A. Hill, from Nov. — , 1864, to Nov. — , 1870. 

" Thomas W. Pollock, from May 17, 1871, to present time. 

The Second United Presbyterian Churchy Jersey City, was or- 
ganized in April, 1871. The building is on Hancock avenue, 
south of Bowers street. 

Rev. Robert Armstrong, first and only pastor. 

Methodist Episcopal Churches. 
As early as 1811 an effort was uiade to establish an M. E. church 

' Died in charjre. 


in this county. The appointments were made to " Bergen," 
which may mean the County of Bergen. They were as follows : 

Eevs. John Robertson, 1811-12; Daniel Fidler, 1812-13; 
Joseph Totten, 1813-14 ; Stephen Martindale, 1814-15 ; David 
Best, 1815-16 ; John Finley, 1816-17 ; Peter Yan Ness, 1817-18 ; 
Jos. Sybrand, 1818-19 ; John Potts, 1819-20 ; George Banghart, 
1820-2; Manning Force, 1822-3; Benjamin Collins, 1823-4; 
Bartholomew Weed, 1824-26 ; David Bartine, 1826-27. 

At this date the appointments seem to have broken off. 

January 20, 1826, Anthony Cathlin, Archer G. Welsh, Hiram 
L. Meeker, James J. Seaman and Josiah Hornblower certified to 
their election as trustees of '"''The First Methodist Society of the 
Town and Coynty of Bergen.''^ It is probable that this referred 
to the " Bergen Mission," which afterward revived and became 
the Simpson Church. 

The next effort was at Bergen Neck, where a mission was 
started, to which appointments were made as follows : 

Revs. Thomas G. Stewart, 1831-2; John H. McFarland, 
1832-3; John N. Crane, 1833-4; John Nicholson, 1834-5. 

This mission terminated in the Bergen Neck (now Mattison) 

Trinity M. E. Churchy Jersey City, was organized in 1835. 
The first building was a frame structure, and stood on " legs " — 
Methodism was more itinerant then than now. The present 
building is on the south side of York street, between Washing- 
ton and Warren streets ; corner stone laid May 5, 1843; dedi- 
cated December 25, 1843. 


Revs. John McClintock, 1835-6; Wesley C. Hudson, 1836-7; 
Benjamin Day, 1838-9 ; Charles H.Whitecar, 1839-41 ; James M. 
Tuttle, 1841-2 ; Yincent Shepherd, 1842-4; William Roberts, 
1844-6 ; Francis A. Morrell, 1846-8 ; Joseph B. Wakely, 1848- 
50; James M. Tuttle, 1850-51 ; Israel S. Corbit, 1851-3; James 
Ayars, 1853-5 ; Charles H. Whitecar, 1855-7 ; Isaac W. Wiley ,^ 

' Mr. Wiley left in August, 1858, and was succeeded by Mr. Monroe for the 
remainder of the year. 


1857-9; Jonatlian T. Crane, 1859-60; James Ayars, 1860-1; 
William P. Corbit, 1861-2; Robert L. Dasliiel, 1862-4; Isaac W. 
Wiley, 1864-5; Samuel Y. Monroe, 1865-6; Hiram Mattison, 
1866-8 ; George H. Whitney,^ 1868-70 ; David W. Bartine, 1870 
-3 ; John Atkinson, 1873- 

The Simpson M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized in 
1841, the first service being held in a sclioolhouse near the Five 
Corners. Previous to 1844 it was known as the " Bergen Mis- 
sion." The first building was the present police station in Oak- 
land, between Newark and Ilobokeu avenues. The present build- 
ing is on the west side of Central avenue, near St. Paul's avenue ; 
basement dedicated in 1857 ; building dedicated in 1858. 


Revs. Benj. K Reed, 1839-40; Lewis T. Maps, 1840-41: 
Wra. M. Burroughs, 1841-2 ; Abraham T. Palmer, 1842-3 ; Wm. 
E. Perry, 1843-4; Aaron E. Ballard, 1844-5; David Graves, 
1845-6; John W. Barrett, 1846-7; Garner R.Snyder, 1847-8; 
Wm. M. Burroughs, 1848-9 ; F. Bobbins, 1849-5o'; F. S. Hoyt, 
1850-1 ; John Dean, 1851-2; Edwin A. Day, 1852-4; Edward 

A. Adams, 1854-6; Alex. H. Mead, 1856-8; A. L. Price, 
1858-60 ; John O. Winner, 18(50-2 ; Thomas H. Smith, 1862-4 ; 
Michael E.Ellison, 1864-7; Ralph S. Arnt, 1867-70; Robert 

B. Lockwood, 1870-3; Wm. Tunison, 1873- 

The Matt 18071 M. E. Church, Bayonne, was incorporated June 
22, 1844, as 2^he Bergen Neck Church. The name was changed 
by Legislative act, February 26, 1868. The building was erected 
on the east side of Avenue D, near Twenty-ninth street; corner 
stone laid in 1854 ; dedicated in 1855. In 1868 or '69 it was 
moved to the southwest corner of Oakland avenue and Avenue 1 ). 


Revs. Waters Burrows, 1857-8; James H. Dandy, 1861-3; 

' Mr. Whitney was elected President of the Seminary at Hacketstown in Au- 
gust, 18()9. 

'^ The Pastors of tlie Greenville Church were in charge of this church until 
1865, except the years 1857-8 and 1861-:J. During these three years it at- 
tempted to stand alone, but was too feeble. 


Stephen K. Kussell, ISOC-S ; Enocli V. Kincr, 1868-9; A. Craig, 
1869-70; J. Emory, 1870-1 ; Abin. J. Palmer, 1871-2; W. L. 
Hoagland, 1872-4. 

St. PauVs M. E. Churchy Jersey City, was organized in July, 
1848, as the M. E. Church at Pavonia. The building is on the 
north side of Third, between Grove and Erie streets ; corner 
stone laid December 25, 1849 ; basement opened for service June 
30, 1850; dedicated November 27, 1850. 

Eevs. Dayton F. Eeed, 1849-50; John Parker, 1850-1 ; Eob- 
ert Given, 1851-2 ; George Hughes, 1852-4 ; Michael E. Ellison, 
1854-6; Eichard Yan Horn, 1856-8 ; Wm. Tunison, 1858-60; 
Lewis E. Dunn, 1860-2; Eichard Yan Horn, 1862-4; Wm. 
Tunison, 1864-7 ; Lewis E. Dunn, 1867-70 ; Charles Larew, 
1870-3 ; Daniel E. Ldwrie, 1873- 

The Greenville M. E. Church was incorporated July 20, 1845. 
The building is on the south side of Linden avenue, between 
Ocean avenue and Bergen road; dedicated January 6, 1846. 
This society was connected with Bergen until 1851. 


Eevs. Waters Burrows, 1851-3 ; David Waters, 1853-4; Ben- 
jamin F. Woolston,^ 1854-5 ; Edwin A. Day, 1855-6 ; William 
C. Nelson, 1&56-7; Waters Burrows, 1857-8; Isaac W. Haff, 
1858-60 ; Thomas E. Gordon, 1860-1 ; S. L. Baldwin, 1861-2 : 
Eichard Johns, 1862-3 ; William G. Hughes, 1863-4 ; Bront 
Slaight, 1864-5 ; Ambrose S. Compton, 1865-7 ; Fletcher Lum- 
mis, 1867-70 ; Egbert Clement, 1870-3 ; Charles E. Barnes,'1873. 

The Ilohoken M. E. Church was incorporated June 24, 1846. 
The first building was on the corner of Fourth and Garden 
streets ; corner stone laid October 1, 1846 ; dedicated April 12, 
1848. This was upon property belonging to the city. A new 
building was erected on the east side of Wasliington, between 
Seventh and Eighth streets ; corner stone laid October 15, 1869; 
dedicated February 25, 1872. 

' Mr. Woolston left in September, 1834, iuid Mr. Day took his place. 

408 history of hudson county. 

Eevs. David Graves, 1846-8 ; G. E. Snyder, 1848-9 ; William 
W. Christine, 1849-50; Michael E. Ellison, 1850-2; Joseph B. 
Dobbins, 1852-4; Charles S. Coit, 1854-5; Jonathan K. Burr, 
1855-7 ; Joseph K. Knowles, 1857-9 ; J. O. Rogers, 1859-60 ; 
Alexander L. Brice, 1860-2; John O. Winner, 1862-4; Jona- 
than K. Burr, 1864-7; Michael E. Ellison, 1867-70 ; William 
Tnnison, 1870-3 ; Jonathan K. Burr, 1873. 

The Ileddlng M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized 
March 20, 1855; incorporated May 10, 1855. The building is 
on the north side of Montgomery, between Grove and Barrow 
streets ; corner stone laid August 15, 1855 ; lecture room dedi- 
cated January 20, 18.56; building dedicated April 11, 1858. 


Revs.Waters Burrows, to April, 1855 ; Robert B. Yard, 1855-7 ; 
William Day, 1857-9; Charles Larew, 1859-61; James R. 
Bryan, 1861-3; William Day, 1863-6; John Hanlon, 1866-9; 
James M. Freeman, 1869-72 '; Robert B. Yard, 1872-4. 

The Coiv/inunipaw M. E. Church was incorporated April 14, 
1853. The building is on the south side of Conmiunipaw avenue, 
near New York bay ; corner stone laid June 8, 1854 ; dedicated 
October 15, 1854. At the time of this dedication, Rev. T. C. 
Carman was pastor. He is the only pastor the society ever had 
exclusively. Since then it has been connected with Greenville, 
Trinity or Emory. 

The Einory M. E. Church., Jersey City, was incorporated 
July 8, 1862. The first building was on the corner of Mill road 
and Colden place. It is now occupied by the First Ilniversalist 
Church. The second building is on the north side of Belmont, 
between Bergen and Westside avenues ; corner stone laid June 
IS, 1871; dedicated in 1872. 


Revs. Charles E. Winans, 1863-4; John J. Morrow, 1864-7 ; 
Daniel R. Lowrie, 1867-70 ; John Atkinson, 1870-3; S. Van 
Benschoten, 1873- 


The l*alha(le M. E. Churchy Jersetj City, was incorporated 
May 26, 1S58. The biiilding is on the west side of Palisade 
avenue, a little south of the Paterson Plank road. 


Revs. Thomas E. Gordon, 1861-2 ; Henry M. Simpson, 
1862-:^ : .Tames J. Boswell, 1863-4 ; James N. Fitzgerald, 
1864-7; Benjamin O. Parvin, 1867-70; John S. Porter, 1870-3; 
(ireorge Winson, 1873- 

Thr- (Jenteiuiry 2f. E. Churchy Jersey City, was organized 
April 17, 1867, incorporated September 27, 1867. The building 
is on the north side of Pavonia avenue, between Cole and Mon- 
mouth streets ; corner stone laid September 26, 1870 ; basement 
dedicated April 30, 1871. Prior to this latter date, services 
were held in Union Hall, on the southwest corner of Grove and 

Fourth streets. _ 


Revs. David Graves, 1867-8 ; Hamilton C. McBride, 1868-9 ; 
James B. Fanlks, 1869-72; Edson W. Burr, 1872-4. 

The West End M. E. Church, Jersey City, was organized 
September 1, 1868. The")building is on the east side of Tonele 
avenue, between St. Paul's and Tuers avenues. 


Revs. Henry M. Simpson, 1869-71 ; Charles R.Barnes, 1871-3 ; 
Thomas H. Jacobus, 1873. 

The Lafayette M. E. Church, Jersey City, was incorporated 
April 21, 1873, The building is on the west side of Pine street, 
between Communipaw avenue and Lafayette street. 


Revs. W. L. Hoagland, 1869-72 ; A. H. Tuttle, 1872-3. 

The Waverly M. E. Church (Rock Ridge Chapel), Jersey 
City, was incorporated December 20, 1870. The building is on 
tlie corner of Palisade and New York avenues ; begun in De- 
cember, 1870; dedicated November 19, 1871. 


Revs. Henry Baker, 1870^3 ; Abraham J. Palmer, 1873. 


The Janes M, E. Church was incorporated March 10, 1870. 

Revs. Thomas Hall, 1870-3; J. F. Dodd, 1873. 

The Porter M. E. Churchy Bonnville, in West Hoboken town- 
ship, was incorporated November 14, 1870. It was a mission, and 
had no pastor until 1873, when Rev, John Campbell was ap- 
pointed. The building is on the east side of Bergen Line avenue, 
and a little south of the Hackensack turnpike ; dedicated Sep- 
tember 19, 1870. 

The Arlington M. E. Churchy Kearney. The corner stone 
of the building was laid (as per newspaper) November 23, 1873. 
Pastor — Rev. Mr. Blaine, 

The East Newarh Wesley M. E. Church was organized some 
years ago. A second building is now being erected ; corner 
stone laid July 2, 1873 ; dedicated January 4, 1874, 

Pastor — Rev, J. L. Hayes, 

St. Johanne's M. E. ( 'hureh y building in Central, near New 
York avenue. 
Pastor — Rev, C. Brockmeyer, 

Tliere are several colored churches in the county of the M, E. 

Roman Catholic Churches. 

The Roman Catholics of New Jersey were under the jurisdic- 
tion of the diocese of New York until October 30, 1853, when 
the diocese of New Jersey was created, and James Rosevelt 
Bayley consecrated bishop. 

St. Peter''s R. C. Church., Jersey City. The lirst building 
erected for this congregation was on the north side of Grand, be- 
tween Washington and Warren streets ; begun in 1831 ; opened 
for service in 1837 ; consecrated in 1830, by Bishop Hughes, 
assisted by Bishop Fenwick, of Boston. The present building 
is on the northeast corner of Grand and Van Vorst streets ; 



corner stone laid in August, 1865 ; opened for service December 
16, 1865. The Jesuit Fathers took possession of this parish 
April 13, 1871. ^ 


Rev. Fathers Burns, Mohan, Quarter, Rogers, Benney, Reiley, 
John Kelly, from November 12, 1844, to 1866 ; Patrick Corri- 
gan, from 1866 to 1871 ; Victor Baudevin, from 1871. 

St. ManfsR. C. Church, Jersey City, dates from April, 1859. 
The building is on the northeast corner of Erie and Third streets ; 
cornerstone laid in June, 1861 ; consecrated in May, 1863. 

Pastor — Rev. Dominick Senez, from April 1, 1859. 

St. Mary^s JR. C. VhurGh,We&t Hoboken. The building is on 
the northeast corner of High street and Clinton avenue ; erected 
in 1851 : consecrated iSTovember 23, 1851. In this church is a 
copy of an oil painting of " Our Lady of Mercy," presented by 
Cardinal Brignole, of Rome, who received it from Paci Typoliti, 
of Rimini, as an ei'~voto for his preservation from death. 

Pastor — Rev. Anthony Cauvin, from July, 1851, to April 21^ 
1861. On this latter date the church was placed in charge of 
the Passionist Fathers of the Monastery. 

St. Mary's K. C. Church, Iloboken. Services were first held 
in Hoboken in June, 1841, by Father Mohan, of St. Peter's, Jer- 
sey City. On December 6, 1844, Rev. John Rogers read mass 
in Phcenix Hotel, and continued in charge of the enterprise until 
April 1, 1845. In July, 1851, Rev. Anthony Cauvin took 
charge of that part of the county which lies north of the Five 
Corners. The church building is on the corner of Willow and 
Fifth streets; corner stone laid September 3, 1854; consecrated 
June 24, 1855. The large painting in this church is a copy of 
the Madonna of Foligno, by Raphael, executed by order of 
Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, by him bequeathed to the Duke 
of Genoa, brother of the King of Italy, and by him presented to 
Father Cauvin in 1854. It was crowned by Bishop Bayley June 
20, 1858. The crown was presented by the Duchess of Genoa. 
In a side altar repose the " Relics of St. Quietus, Martyr," de- 
posited June 1, 1856 ; found in the Catacombs January 29, 1849 ; 


presented by Pope Pius IX. The clialice and sanctuary lamp 
were presented by tlie Emperor Napoleon III. ; the silver osten- 
sorium by Victor Emmanuel, and the painting of the Crucifixion 
1»Y Henry Hoguet, of New York. 

Pastor — Rev. Anthony Caiivin, from July 1851, to Aug., 1873. 

St. Jose]>h''s R. C. C/iurch, Jersey City, was organized as Sf. 
B/'irlgefs in June, 1856. The first church building was a frame 
structure on Hopkins avenue, erected in 1856. The second 
<?hurch building was on the southeast corner of Baldwin and 
Pavonia avenues; corner stone laid iii August, 1857; opened 
for service December 25, 1857 ; consecrated October 17, 1858, 
The third church building is on the site of the second ; corner 
stone laid July 19, 1869 ; basement opened for service June 8, 
1871 ; building consecrated September 14, 1873. 

Pastors — Rev. James Coyle, 1856-7 ; Aloysius Yanuta, 1857. 

St. Mar if s Star of the Sea li. C. Churchy Bergen Point. The 
church building was consecrated March 18, 1860. 

Pastors — Fathers Callan, Yincent, Timothy, Xeilass and 

St. Patrick'' s R. C. Chvreh, Jersey City, organized May 1, 
1870. The church building is on the northeast corner of Ocean 
find Brarahall avenues ; corner stone laid November 13, 1870 ; 
chapel opened for service November 10, 1872. 

St. MlohaeTs R. C. f^ivrch, Jersey City, was established as 
St. Mary's. The first building was on the southwest corner of 
Erie and Tenth streets ; erected in 1855 ; opened for service Oct. 
21, 1855. The present church building is on the north side of 
Hamilton square ; corner stone laid Septembers, 1872; dedicat- 
ed August 17, 1873. 

Pastor — Father Da Coneilio. 

St. Boniface R. C. Church., Jersey City, was organized in 1862. 
The church building is on the north side of First street, between 
Erie street and Jersey avenue ; corner stone laid in June, 1864 ; 
basement opened for service in November, 1864. 

Pastor — Rev. Dominick Kraus. 


Our Lady of Grace R. C. Church, Jersey City, was incorpo- 
rated September 20, 1S64. 

St. PauVs R. (\ Church, Greenville, was incorporated Octo- 
ber 12, 1864. 

Churcli of the Holy Faiii'dy, Union Hill, was incorporated 
February 23, 1869. The church building is on the north side of 
Jefferson street, between Bergen Wood and Bergen Line avenues. 

Pastor — Rev. Vincent I^agler. 

St. PauVs of the Cross R. C. Church, Jersey City, was incor- 
porated September 15, 1867. The church building is on Han- 
cock avenue, near Bowers avenue ; corner stone laid in 1870 ; 
opened for service in 1871. 

Fastok — Rev. F. I3andinelli. 

St. Bridget'' s R. C. (7<w/v/A, Jersey City. The church building 
is in Mercer street; consecrated June 5, 1870. A new building-^ 
is nearly completed. 

St. Plus R. C. Church, FIoboken,was incorporated June 9, 1861. 
Fastok^-Rcv. James J. McGahan. 

St. I*aul's R. C. Church, Jersey City. The church is on the 
corner of Manners and Bergen avenues ; corner stone laid in 
May, 1869 ; basement opened for service January 1, 1870. 

^S'^. PauVs German R, C. Church, Hoboken, was organized 
iu October, 1871. 

Pastor — Rev. Angelus Kempeu. 

St. JosepKs R. C. Church, Guttenberg, was incorporated 
March 19, 1866. 

Pastor — Rev. Timothy Pacitti. 

R. C. Church, East ISTewark, corner stone laid August 13, 1871.^ 

R. C. Church on Washington avenue, near Van Vorst avenue; 
corner stone laid in 1869; consecrated October 16, 1870.^ 

Of these two churdu'S I have no reliable information. 


St. MichaeVs Monastery, West Hoboken, founded in 1863 ; 
corner stone laid July 18, 1864. 

Congregational Churches. 

The First Congregational Church, Jersey City, was incor- 
porated September 10, 1841. It did nut thrive. 

The Tahernaole Church, Jersey Cit}', was organized April 14, 
1858; incorporated April 13, 1859. The building is on the 
southeast corner of Henderson and York streets ; dedicated in 
May, 1862. In 1858 services were held in Franklin Hall ; in 
1861 in the Lyceum in Grand street ; from 1861 to 1862 in the 
Unitarian church on the corner of Montgomery and Grove 


Rev. William C. Bartlett in 1858 ; Rev. John Milton Holmes,^ 
from May 23, 1861, to May, 1869; Rev. Giles B. Wilcox, from 
December 8, 18()9, to the present time. 

The Second Congregational lliurch, Jersey City, was organized 
June 9, 1869 ; recognized October 13, 1869. The building is on 
the southwest corner of Summit and St. Paul's avenues ; dedi- 
cated May 8, 1870. 


Rev. Leavitt Bartlett, from June, 1869, to July, 1871 ; Rev. 
George Lewis, from August, 1871. 

Gp:rman Churches. 

T'he German Evangelical Lutheran St. PaiiVs Church, in 
Harsimus, was incorporated October 24, 1850 ; Rev. A. Geissen- 
heimer, pastor. Its existence was brief. 

Tlw German Evangelical Lutheran St. Matthias Church, 
Jersey City, was organized in 1860. The society purchased the 
Bethesda Baptist Church building in 1862. 

> Died September 20, 1871. 

lino (;i;kmAi\ chukciiks. 415 

Revs. Carl M. Wassidlo, from November, 1860, to February, 
1862; Julius Augustus Bangeroth, from February, 1862, to May 
28, 1866 ; George Evfli, from June IT, 1866, to the present time. 

The German Evangelical Lutheran St. Matthias (Jhurch, 
Hoboken, M-as organized November 23, 1856. The churcli buihl- 
ing is on the southwest corner of Washington and Third streets, 
purchased of the First Presbyterian Church, April 10, 1864. 

Pastor — Pev. Carl M. Wassidlo, from the organization to the 
}>resent time. 

InimajiueVs ChurcJi of the ErarujeJlcal Association^ Tjinon 
Hill, was organized in 1865 ; incorporated June 27, 1865. The 
building is on the west side of New York avenue, between 
LTnion and Lewis streets; erected in 1865. 

Revs. Christian Meyer, 1865-7; Adam Gatchel, 1867-9; 
Guttav Sharp, 1869-70; Nicholas Gable, 1870-3; T. A. Plat- 
tenberg, 1873. 

Zicn Church of the Evangelical Association, Greenville, was 
organized May 30, 1866. The building is on the south side of 
Waverly avenue, near Bergen avenue ; begun in 1866 ; com- 
pleted in 1867. The name was afterward changed to Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran Zion Church. 


Revs. Ryaha, Kuhn, Shuner. 

Salem (Jhurch of the Evangelical Association, Greenville, was 
incorporated June 3, 1869. The building is on the west side of 
Bergen avenue, between Pearsall avenue and Factory lane ; 
erected in lb 70. 


Revs. Nicholas Goebel ; Emanuel Glazer. 

The German Independent Congregation, Hoboken, was incor- 
porated April 3, 1867. 



The Unltaridii ^A^i^yv//, Jersey City, was organized in ls53. 
The building (now St. Mark's) is on the southeast corner of 
Grove and Montgomery streets ; dedicated September 19, 1855. 

Pastor — Rev. O. B. Frothingham, until 1S5S. The oru-?iniza- 
tion shortly afterward disbanded. 


As early as 1852 an attempt was made to organize a church of 
this faith. Services were held in a schoolhouse near the Five 
Corners. The effort did not succeed. The attempt was renewed 
December 10, 1871. This resulted in an organization in Janu- 
ary, 1872, which was incorporated as The F'rr.^t Universalist 
Church of Jersey City, March 18, 1872. It purchased the old 
Emory M. E. Church building on the northeast corner of Mill 
road and Colden place ; opening services October 20, 1872. 

PoPcn.A.TiON of Bergren County, including Hudson County 


1729 3,218 

1737.... 4,095 

1745 3,006 

1790 12,601 

1800 15,956 

1810 16,603 

1830 18,178 

1830 23,412 

In 1802 Paulus Hoeck had a population of 13, made up ol 
Major David Hunt and family, John Murphy and wife and 
Joseph Bryant. 


.S g 



:; i !;:!::;;; iS 









::::::::::.. -g 







3, .578 







•naSjag : :S : : : : : :sjl§ : 


■diqsuMox :isi :i :g :s : : : : 
■}8J0A nBA ■ '-<''^" of 'co ■■«<'"■ • ■ ■ 


o 31 CO o oc ao o» 05 31 -.o in m -Pi in 

& S o t- « rr ao 00 CO 00 i- Sl CO iS 



3 g 

O <0 

■2 o 






•£i8l 1 


i-ir-50 -O 


; :'" 



•stsi 1 

eo.- -T-i 

•CO ,,0,^.^0= 

; :'' 

• CO 

ocinso • 





1 'ZtSl 1 : 

•«A8l 1 : 

1 *ll.8l ! : 

1 '1481 [^ 


J:-^ -.25 :g5 

Oli-i ■©» 

■ CO 

■S=*^^ :g5 



OJ ■<)• th i-c ,-< OJ O 




; ;05 ; 

5 : :2 .-g 





: '.'^ : 

n^ :2 :S 









1 '0481 1 : 

: ."^ : 

gS-"^« •§ 

'^ : 



•OiSl 1 : 

• -INS* 

lO c* a: .00 



"--"-< :" 



6981 1 : 


• c*^ :g 





•6981 1 : 

: ; ;" 

^S'^iS :" 




IN ■ 



+•8981 1 : 

QJOJ'-<r-i -r^ 

'- : 

; ; :"* 


•8981 1 : 

: :" : 

^ --C ■* -.O ■ M •* r-i 


•1-H-l t- 


1 '£981 1 : 

. .(N ■ 

fe=°«' :S 





CO 1-1 


i '9981 1 : 

g^cct^ .» 

00 • 


T- -J3 



•S981 1 : 


o; M 


0» ■ 




•*98l 1 : 

• -eo • 

8 : 

so .lO 




1 •8981 1 : 
•2;98I 1 : 
•1981 1 : 

g : 

Tl< -00 





8J • 


: :"* : 

. ..^ 



i-nnr-li-l • 



■rttt^ -00 




1-15* »-■ <N i-ii-i 

•0981 1 : 

: :" : 

CO y-t • 





" :" 

•6581 1 : 

eg --a" _ .«> 


: ■.'^ 


i •8S8I 1 : 

: I" : 

^^,,CO ..1. 

• »-i 



■^ : 



•AS8I 1 : 

: : -.-^ 


■ m 




•9981 1 : 

: .~ :-g :- 







•9S81 1 : 

•t98T 1 : 

S :'''^ : : 



•RS8I 1 : 


: -.-^ 




•Z981 1 : 


: :°* 

• a* 


•1981 1 : 
! •0981 1 : 

: :" : 

S : 

IH -Ol 


■*7-ll-| . 

: : :"* 

t-«iHlO • • 





j '6^81 1 : 

S : : : .- 


•8*81 1 : 

■* ;i-l ; ; • 


•A*8I 1 : 

33 • 

rt .(N 


•9t8l 1 : 




•9*81 1 : 

O ; 


•f-fSl 1 : 





•8*81 1 : 
'ZfSl 1 : 

^ : 

; ;'' 

t- • 


•1*81 i : 

00 l^t 


•0*81 i : 



Abortion... _. . . 


A rsoii 

i ' 

o c 


5 r 



: -1 

■ a 

I -1 

3 ■ a 

■ - 
; : M 

■ > 
. e 

. ( 

: s 





: 6 








o c 

^. £ 






o c 












w • 

TO • 


OTi-. « 



T-l J» 

1-t If^ 


TftC -T-l 




. — -(< 

• 5i 


3: • • 

5C T-i 



TO • 


•1-1 -t . ■ 




:= . 

IJCC ■» 

-H r^ ■* 


■ p 7* 




»! in 




"" K 

■-1 ??(?»<-• 



: = 

If -N 

■ JC ■ 




■ ■ iC • • 
• TO • CC i~ 

•TOCCm • 

i-iSC - 


■*in • 





•1! " 

(N — 

• -roi-i • 
■ -;» T- 71 • 







•^ • W 






i-i-*(Ne« X 

■ ■- 






i-l '^ • •>! 

" irjx 

■ r> 

• 1! 


1-. ■* . 

ec CO ^ 


• cc • 

• -^ 





:"" I"-- 





^ : ; :--"- 

■ -f 

• {- 

• »j 

• IN in • • CI- 

— in-ti- 





■ K 





: — 





; ; ; ;ef 


:'^ - 



: :;! 

• or 



• ■« 





" : : : : 

: '.'^ 




.«^ : : : 

: -.-^ 



«« . 

: : : :" 



(NtI - 

" ; 

I" ; : 

• -TO 




• ■ ij* 

TO ■ ■ • 

: :|! 





. .to 


! 1 
; c 

; : 


" S £ - 

j a sj 




'. C 

• : 

; c 






• p_ ^ 


5 ' 
; : 

• ■ 

: :^ 

f) ! -' 

;■ Co ? 

• s 

■ U 

: : 9 

'. '. V 

■|« ■/ 

: S 2 - 


; A /. ■/ 



' a 


f = 


"S t 








" ■£ "S 

■t si to 

' -" ft 

"2 « £ 

c p •1 

* * .S 

a) 1-1 (»i 

c fl a> 

a on ■" 

•S t^ r- 




■ . . i- -x " -5 i- a: 5C o: -- 5> « ^ ■r» « -P i- X -^ « O -1 o: — 5 


i-i ^ ■-. ^ ^ r- .-^ T- 5J 1! « T» 5J « " 5* -* ■* in :C IT. 


• ■T-im;ot--£i--Tt-x«iA — ■^x;=X'--i:='NSOMX^'2-t.-i 

• •oso5Ti<-i<r^«xi-'-'C-. mc. -;>«-t'-.i.';xxc:oc-. 2jiN:j3i-3 

05 »j c c: CO "-I 3 ?! ■« c: ^ i- ?? T> -r :c -c 3; -T 


r^ OJ ■* I- X OT « ^ -* I- t O lO u- := ;£ » O i- 

;£ » o i- 1- X =: 0-. 

• • Q 3 X X l- 



in -r — C-. o 1- r: -^ is i- ^ -t » 
IS c: ;C I' :3 -i cc -t s c: i- i « 

IS a: 3 i ■?» — '-• -i M 1* 3: in ; 
:= X X ^ -♦ IS IS IS s i- «- aS : 

. m :c 3-. c: X OT « s> 1 

CS X « — >S X 

■ rHi-7( c: X =■. i-i--r X IS — IS c; X S) ~ _ - i- 

■ lO o: t ^ ■ 

•^ X t- i - ?^ — X cc ■?! : 

OT IN ^ O -^ 3: -^ '- S» " X S! -1- « S< -f C S» -. X - 

^ sj e 3-. IS o 

_; p — i_; 
7» S) S! is CO ^ 

: c i- e pco 

" \-:-::'S 

■ '- p cc cs X p X ; 

IS CO — • 
-f X X • 


• SJ r-. X (N P 3: SJ r- C SM- S i- « IS C P i- IS 3: -* i- i- i- 

• — i- P CCi- X P .3 S» ■?» 3: P P :l -^ 5> X W t- IS T- so i.- i- • 

• — ^S!CO-rCS3: X--^3: rfXSJPXlSjc»Xpi;;P5i-'C 

^ X CO -T CO *> X t -P is ^» X 3; -^ CO c: o 1" S CO a 
■ X P r- .-^_CO__lS ■^_^>-.x_^^_^is -fl-P ^_^t-co_^x_ p 

.-Tr-.'^'— 'r-'r-'— '^'^'r-T^'r-'^'si sf^'^N O! " 

8 m » e IS IS <>» -1" '^^ p IS CO .3 '^ p 3: CO X I- c: X cc IS 3 CO o: IS J- go CO o 

O O i- ^ o: 3: I- i- i- P .3 i- ~ p IS 0» -f -* i- X c: X P c: C: SJ 5J p t- X 

PPp • •■ -X CO!-l-X i-i-3: I- IS 3-. i- p P P O?i-C0 ;-lS IS PCOXr^ S> IS X 

:o 3 -.3 t; t: ■^ CO -r -p -p ^ O! i- s S *r — ^ t; '- •- CO P 3: sj CO *» 3-. 3-. 1 c sj s» -^ 

>-< ^^ T— — — ^ *— I— < ^- ^^ , ; ». ». J, ^ ^ -T 1-- ^ 1-- — . « ^- -T — ' ^ r- i- i ^ i,, ^ 

: -T-p X coi-1 

■;= S 9£ ;: i;; 7 2 
: : . i+ 55 CO -■ - - ■ 

^ ^ CO p. P s? :3 o( — oj X ;- ^ sj IS o» IS p 

It -p P IS X -i r- p 3; 1 1- 0( iS Si s is co — 

S i - 3-. 3-^0> X X — X P i- P P X — IS -^ P 
S' is' IS is'—' P' i- X' i-' x'3: — "^-H '— 'p'-p'-f — 

J 1-1 o> CO -t IS --3 (- X 3; P — O! CO 1 is i i"- X 3-. P — s> CO ^ i's -h i~ y: :r: — ^ o» ?t 







« i 

05 .£ 

:::::::::: :SJ2g:{22|g 




1-- 1'? -r* -t »'*: »i^ »c 

1 se 


. ?5SS§gS3Sg 

:::::::: :SSS?§SSi;|| 

::::::::: :SSg2r:S2^ 



::::::: ■i^?i3Sf2?53?lg 


O (N C. c: X I- Q '-' O Tfi 






la -^ a f^ i~ T^ a-, cc t i>i ^ 

:::■:: :;iSS;lSgSSig^ 




. . . ^~ i'> j^ ; - ^ — 'V^ r^ -Y^ .-- r^ ® 

:..::: ■^biV^if'S'^SwSS " 

• ■ • • • • ■ K m ^ -* -t tr. := -^i- a-. 

S £ ■ ■ • • >- T-. CC CC CO 7! -t -f 1-: I- « c o 


- : : : : :iiS5SS5£Si;«:Tfin;3 
g. : : : : :'^5nx3cxx^.55».S, | 


■Si 1 S?{3BSggS?sSi^g 

.i « i ■' • '■ • — 1 c X t- =: « -^ — 1- I- i-: — — 
?^ -1* cc if^ t- ^ I- c; -^ t* -^ cc to '^ 

re ^T-t-JiTl-W^JCCCCCOC^ — ^-t 


WW liiiigiisiilll 



c. i- =-. o 95 TO ifi 1(5 s: i- S -I- -r e s: • • • 

£ T-rr4"r4'«'«'5}'lN'TOTO-*-r'" " ' ' 



«»***»**»»** +- 


lit a 

X S 

8 ^ 

^ Q 

O £ 

I ^ 

.2 fl 
a m 


CI* *S 


-2 1 

si S 
X o 

> i: 

1 « S 

a g s 

a o 

5 a 

s & 

a 2 

n H 

^ i-i » 

422 HISTORY OF iiudson county. 

Table showing assessed valuation of property within the county : 

1S60 $:W,191,925 

ISOl 32,319,413 

1H62 40,698,056 

1863 4t),218,884 

IHM 49,a37,:34<.> 

1865 :J:M,()05,r55 

1866 63,S:M,!)13 

1867 r2,3t) 

18()8 r8,>U9,212 

1869 85,i:«,2r2 

1870 $88,670,950 

1871 101,049,284 

1872 97,478,477 

1873 95.fl<>4,590 

Table showing the bonded indebtedness of the county : 




. 181,500 00 
. 145,421 87 
. 140,421 87 
.1,182,921 87 

1866 $1,308,121 87 

1867 1,287,121 87 

18()8 1,2H0,221 87 

1869 1,298,421 S7 

1870 $1,138,421 87 

1871 1,133,421 87 

1872 1.128,0<» OO 

1873 1,123,0<» 00 

Table showing the county and city taxes : 



Jersey City. 


Hudson City. 




$100 00 




100 00 


100 00 


:300 00 


:300 00 


300 00 



300 00 


:300 00 


:300 00 


:300 00 



:300 00 


.300 00 


2„500 00 


3,165 28 


$3,000 00 

:3,186 24 


3,000 00 

3,000 00 


3.000 (» 

3,200 00 


2,000 00 

4,500 00 

$1,200 (XI 


4,000 (M) 

5.:395 13 

,S.5(I (Kl 


4,(MK) (K) 

6,000 00 

S-iO (XI 


4.000 <HI 

s.:3(xi 00 

1,15(1 (XI 


5.1 HK) (10 

12.(HI(I (X) 

1,275 (XI 


5,(HKI (Kl 

1:^,5(1(1 (XI 

1,().50 (X) 


li,(XI(l IHI 

l."),(XK) 00 

1,490 (X) 

$i.()25 00 


(>,(U) (H) 

15,000 00 

3,160 (XJ 

2,725 00 


lll,IH)0 (K) 

:i5.000 00 

2.(i.50 IX) 

2,075 00 


10,0(K) (K) 

■3S,(100 00 

2,7(X) 00 

2.a50 00 


20,0(X) 00 

.55.800 00 

3,7(X) (X) 

3.100 TO 


15,000 00 

(i0,800 00 

4,(XX) (HI 

3,505 (X) 


20,(KK) m 

79,.5O0 00 

4,250 (XI 

$7.(Xi2 fXI 

11,8(X) TO 


2(I,(XK) Oil 

81,9.50 00 

4.7'(XI (XI 

8,925 (Kl 

14,7.")0 (X) 


20,IKHI 00 

S7.250 00 

.5.500 (XI 

1.5,18S (XI 

15,7(K1 (XI 


20,(MKI (Kl 

88,200 00 

(i..5(X) (XI 

13.923 25 

l(i,:375 TO 


20,(KMI 00 

87,:310 00 

7,9(XI (XI 

ir.isi (XI 

2(i..S05 00 


25,(XX) 00 

105,788 28 

7.925 (Kl 

IS. 575 (Kl 

22,012 20 


:30,0<X) (HI 

94,188 17 

6.(XXI (Kl 

16 (KX) (XI 

23,495 (X) 


:30,()00 (XI 

107.794 28 

li,(»XI (XI 

1S,.3(I(1 (XI 

23,495 (X) 


.50,(XX) (X) 

124,7.52 :30 

22,(XHI (1(1 

21.2li(l (XI 

24,495 00 


60,{KX) (X) 

194.253 78 

26.271 25 

K).2llll (XI 

:3:3,(i95 (X) 


160.(XXI (XI 

2(i7,(Xl0 00 

70,371 08 

41.125 (XI 

55,795 00 


20(J,(KX) (XI 

310.220 40 

75.9(12 (XI 

44,.'>()(1 (HI 

7(l.51() (X) 


27(1,(XXI (X) 

404,270 64 

SI, 405 (XI 

.")S,4(KI (H) 

lll3.:3(i(i (XI 


:3.50,(X)0 (X) 

I8(i,579 4:3 

l(Xi,.525 (X) 

S(i,8(X) (HI 

108.(1:31 00 


:3.")0.(KX) (XI 

444,997 75 

1.54,141 67 

11(i.4.-0 (Kl 

142,54:3 .50 

$31,620 00 


425,IXXI (XI 

1,11:3,111 49 

160,0:35 .50 

58.906 a) 


4:3:3,(X)0 (X) 

1,103,4.56 65 


ited with 

146,1.55 .50 

65,TO3 (X) 


485,(XXI (X) 

1,445.882 hi 



131,:329 (X) 

1)9.975 (X) 


500,000 00 

1,2:31.111 20 

1.51,1:35 00 

74,1( 3 62 

Table showing Hudson County's quota of State tax :* 


ima $410 00 

1R41 615 00 

1843 820 00 

184:3 830 00 

1844 820 00 

1845 820 00 

1846 820 00 

1847 $410 00 

1861 11,788 08 

1862 f);i,S52 46 

1863 35,724 00 

1864 29,240 00 

1865 ;i8,260 00 

1866 51,914 00 

1867 $49,351 19 

1868 53,235 58 

1869 54.903 88 

1870 8^x135 27 

1871 88,670 95 

1873 101,049 28 

1873 146,217 71 

* From 1818 to 1860 inclusive, no State tax was levied. 

State school tax paid by the county under the present law — 
1S71, $177,341.90; 1872, $202,008.56 ; 1873, $194,956.95. 

Amount received by the county from the State under the 
present law— 1872, 16,052.88 ; 1873, $172,034.26 ; 1874, 

CHAPTER XIII. — Genealogies. 

Van Vorst Family — Vreeland Family — Van Winkle Family — Van Wagenen 
Family — Van Buskirk Family — Van Ripen Family — Van Horn Family — 
Newkirk Family — Qarrabrant Family — Sip Family — Brinkerlioff Family 
— Schuyler Family — Kingsland Family — Qautier Family — Cadmus 

MrcH labor has been expended in writing np the following 
brief genealogies, and yet the resnlt is confessedly imperfect. 
All that can be said in its favor is, the author has done the best 
he could in the face of difficulties and discouragements which 
need not be described. One who has not undertaken a similar 
task is not prepared to comprehend how difficult it is to trace 
out the genealogies of the old Dutch families. There was not 
among those who originally settled within the limits of this 
county, more than one family which had a name. That single 
one was Va7i Voorst, now Van Vorst; and even this sat so 
loosely, by reason of its novelty, that Ide, of the second genera- 
tion, was as often called Ide Cornelissen, i. e., Jde, the son of 
Cornelh, as Ide Van Vorst. JS^early all of the early settlers 
here were of the peasantry, who came out as farm servants or 
soldiers in the service of the Dutch AVest India Company. This 
class of settlers had no surname, for they had not earned one. 
They were known from each other of the same name by using 

Note. — The figures in parentheses (56) point forward to that number in the 
family name. The figures in brackets [o] point backward to that number in 
the family name. The figures in parentheses (35) following the second name 
of parties married refer to the number of that person in his or her respective 
family name. The figures 1,2, 3, etc, indicate position in the family genealogy, 
while the numerals XII. denote the number of the child in the particular fam- 
ily. For illustration : 
'Enoch [3] had ch. : 
21. XII. Joris (56), b. Sept. 25, 1710 ; m. 2d, Annetje Van Wagenen (35). 

This reads as follows : Enoch, who stands third in the Vreeland genealogy, 
had children, the twelfth of whom stands the twenty-first in the same genealo- 
gy ; that this son, Joris, had for his second wife Annetje Van \A'agenen, who 
stands thirty-fifth in the genealogy of that family ; and that the first child of 
.loris stands fifty-sixth in the Vreeland genealogy. 

Abbrt'viiitions. — b., born ; m.. married ; d., died ; s., son ; dau., daughter ; 
unm., unmarried; ch., child or children; s. p., without issue; bap., baptized; 
inf , infancy ; mos., months ; yrs., years ; wid., widow : a-t.. age. 


the father's christian name as a sui-nanie for themselves. For 
example, Jan had a son named Michael. He would be known 
as Michael Jansen., i. e., Michael., the son of Jan. If Michael 
had a son named Pietei\ he would be known as l^ieter Michael- 
.S7)w., i. e., Pietei\ son of Michael. But if the fathers bore the 
same Christian name, of course the sons would bear the same 
surname ; and thus difficulties and uncertainties were multiplied. 
In some cases it Nvas not until the second generation that famil^y 
names were chosen. These were generally (especially those hav- 
ing the jDrefix " Yan ") derived from tlie business, occupation, 
]tlace of emigration, or some peculiar trait of the founder of the 

The Schuyler and Gautier families were not among the ear- 
liest settlers. The other families herein mentioned were. As a 
rule, the bounds of the county and the names of the families 
limit the extent of the genealogies. Only in a few instances has 
thei'e been a trespass be^'ond. 

Yan Yoc^rst — Yan Yorst. 

This name is su})posed to be derived from a small place in 
Gelderland, near the river Yssel, called Yoorsf. There was an- 
other place in Belgium, in the province of Antwerp, called 

How many of this name came to this country prior to tlie mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century is not known. In 1638 a suit 
was pending before the council in New Amsterdam against Cor- 
nells and flan A"an Yorst.^ It is quite certain that the second 
defendant in that suit named was not the son of Cornells, for he 
was yet a minor in 1641.^ In 1639 the West India Company's 
bouwerie No. 6, on Manhattan, was leased to a Jan Yan Yoorst, 
who is probably the one named in the above suit. It is also 
prol)able that he was a brother of Cornelis. That he could not 
liave been the son is strengthened bj the fact that in 1642 one 
(xai'ivt, son of Jan A^an Yorst, was of sufficient age to be em- 
ployed in tlie construction of buildings,^ and to have a family. 
Jan (jreritsen \-a\\ Yorst is presumed to have been his son, and 
quite young when his father was killed. He m. Sara Waldron, 

' N. Y.Col MSS., /i-., 11. 

-' Ibid, ic, 89. It is well to bear in mind, however, that under the Dutch law 
children did not attain their majority until they reached the age of twenty-five 

^ JJroddhead, i., 847. He was shot by an Indian while thatching a roof near 


Jnlj 9. 1062; had ch. Joliannis, bap. June 29. 1663. This ?on 
lived in New York; m. Anneke Hercks, Aug. 26, 16S5 ; had eh. 
r. Sara, bap. May 24, 16S6; II. Ilerek, bap. Jan. 1, 1688; III. 
AVyntje, bap. Jan.' 19, 169(>; IV. Sibout, l)ap. Aug. 12, 1692; Y. 
Anne'tje, bap. Sept. 19, 1694. 

Cornelis Yan Yoorst came to this country at an early date. 
While the Lord of Achtienhoven was yet Patroon of Pavonia, 
and Walter the Doubter was Director-(Teneral of New Nether- 
land, Yan Yoorst settled at Ahasinius as superintendent of the 
colonie. The date of his arrival has been set down as 1036. 
This is probably an error. In A". Y. Col. 3ISS., i., 127, is a certi- 
fied copy of a note, dated Sept. 8, 1634, made by Yan Yoorst in 
favor of Peter Cock, for the price of two-thirds of a slonp. 
From this it is inferable that he was in this country at that time. 
If this be so, it is probable that he returned to Holland in 1635. 
was appointed by Pauw to superintend his colonie. returned and 
settled in Pavonia prior to June 25, 1636.^ His second wife was 
Yrouwtje Ides. He died in the summer of 1638 ; she died in 
March or April, 1641.^ She was an energetic woman, not easily 
overcome l)y difficulties. After the death of her husband she 
leased the farm at Ahasimus for a term of twenty years, agree- 
ing to pay therefor one quarter of the produce, to build a new 
frame house, and keep those already built in repair — the Director 
agreeing to furnish the necessary brick for the chimney.^' She 
also hired from the Director-General three ewes and two rams, 
yielding therefor one-half of the milk and of the increase.^ In 
the latter part of the year 1639 she married Jacob Stoffelsen.^ 

' JV. Y. Hist. Sor. N. S., L, 259. -X. Y. Col. MSS., I., 238, 241. 

■' Ibid, i., 92. Bricks were brought from Holland at that time. 

^ Ibid, i; U^ . 

'■ StoflFelsen was born in KJOl, Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 194 ; came from Zirickzee, 
the chief city of the island of Schowen, and the oldest city of Zeeland, to this 
country at an early date. Powers of Atti/. Nrw Amst., 39. In ir>8o he was 
" Commissary of Stores," New Xeth. Reg., 30, and overseer of the Company's ne- 
groes, N. Y. Cul. MSii., i., 84; chosen one of the " Twelve " in 1641, Col. 
Hist, of N. Y., i., 415 ; one of the " Eight " in 1(U5 ; in the same year one of 
the Directors' Council, pro luir vice, to consult on Indian atlairs, JTiw yctJi. JRi'ff., 
15. In 1 050 he hired the Company's Bouwerie at Ahasimus, where he contin- 
ued to reside until his death in KJTT. In 16o9 he married the widow of Cornelis 
Van Voorst, and in 1G57, being a widower, married Tryntje, the widow of Jacob 
Walingen Van Hoorn, Valentine's Manual, 1861, 648, by whom he had two chil- 
dren, viz., Stoftel and Jacobus. Ibid, 1863, 813. In the same year he was ad- 
mitted to the rights of a small burgher. JVe?o Xetlt. Reg., 183. He was an un- 
educated man. but greatly respected, and of considerable influence witli the In- 
dians. That he was a man of integrity appears from the fact that on the ex- 
piration of his term of service he was re-hired at increased wages, the direc- 
tor saying, " No more industrious and faithful workman as overseer could be 
employed in the Company's service." Alb. Ree., ii., 14. 


Immediately after her death dominie Bogardus and Tymen Jan- 
sen, as guardians of her children, came forward and claimed her 
property. An inventory was made April 15, 1641, a copy of 
which is here inserted for the purpose of shoMang the personal 
effects of a well-to-do family in those days : 

" Inventory of goods belonging to dame Ides and Jacob Stof- 
felsen, which, in presence of Everardus Bogardus and Tymen 
Jansen, guardians of Anna and Ide Van Yorst, surviving chil- 
dren of dame Ides, were found in Pavonia at her house '} 

'-> Jacobuses a 12 florins each, - - - - fl. 36 
131 Holland shillings, ------ 38 

13 Rix dollars a 50 stivers, 32 10 

Jn double and single stivers, ----- 15 

2 pieces a lOw stivers, ------- 1 1 

In English gold, ------- 2 

1 gold hoop ring; 1 silver medal and chain; 1 ditto undergirdle 
with ring to hang keys ; 3 silver spoons ; 2 small silver brandy 
cups ; 1 silver goblet ; 2 ells black wampum ; 2 two-year-old 
oxen ; 3 yearling heifers ; 4 old ewes ; 2 ewe lambs and 3 rams 
of this year; 5 cows ; 2 mares ; 1 yearling stallion ; 1 bull and 1 
heifer of this .year; 4 yearling hogs; 1 boat with its apparel ; 1 
old yawl ; 1 old-fashioned clock ; 2 pairs of old stockings ; 1 
damask furred jacket, half worn ; 1 new blue kersey petticoat, 
unmade ; 1 new red bodice; 3 ells of red camlet; 1 white waist- 
coat ; 2 table cloths, colored, of English manufacture ; 1 pair of 
new and one pair of old pattens ; 1 black camlet jacket, lined ; 
1 borst of woolen yarn ; 1 pair of damask sleeves, half worn ; 1 
black coarse camlet jacket ; 1 woman's steel gray lined petticoat ; 
1 black coarse camlet petticoat, lined, half worn; 1 reddish 
morning gown, not lined; 1 white waistcoat of Harlem stuff; 1 
pair of spectacles with case ; 1 pair of Spanish leather pattens ; 
1 new purple apron ; 19 cambric caps ; 4 linen ditto ; 1 half 
worn red petticoat ; 2 old black skirts ; 1 old iron gray doublet ; 
1 new black kersey doublet ; 1 fur cap trimmed up with beaver ; 
1 little black vest with two sleeves ; 4 pair of sheets, good and 
bad ; 4 new blue cotton aprons ; 9 linen handkerchiefs with lace ; 
1 do without lace; 2 pillow slips ; 3 shifts, half worn ; 1 old table 
cloth ; 4 napkins ; 5 bear skins ; 40 ells of duffels ; 2 beds ; 4 
blankets, old and new ; 6 pieces of mink ; 10 pewter platters, 
large and small ; 1 pewter basin ; 1 tankard and two cups of 
pewter ; 4 tin funnels ; 1 little goblet ; 2 English salt cellars ; 1 

'Alb. Rec, L, 238, 241. 


pewter niui;- ; 1 wooden mortar and pestle ; 1^ pewter mutsje ;^ 3 
little pewter cups ; 1 pewter mustard pot ; 1 small tin can with 
screwed cover; 1. brass warming; pan; 2 brass candlesticks ; 2 
bniss snuffers ; 2 little brass scales and one balance ; 9 pewter 
plates ; 1 iron tongs ; 1 iron gridiron ; 1 old wagon ; 1 good foot 
plow with 1 coulter ; J old wheel plow ; 2 harrows, 1 with iron 
and 1 with woc»den teeth ; 2 pine boxes : 7 copper stove kettles, 
one partially old among them ; 4 milk pails ; 1 churn ; 6 scythes; 
2 new spades ; 4 old geese ; 2 ganders ; 1 iron pan ; 2 snaj)- 
haunce f 1 broken ditto ; 4 pistols ; 2 silver spoons ; 1 English 
shilling; 4 old goats; 2 young ditto; 1 yearling sow. 
In shillings, double and single stivers & English money, li. 19 

1 Jacobus a - - - 12 

17 Kix dollars a 50 stivers, ----- 42 10 

1 single dollar a 30 stivers, - - - - - - 1 11 

"All the preceding is thus found at the house of Jacob Stof- 
felsen, at Ahasimus, who on his manly troth declares that he has 
not and does not know of any more chattels than are hereinbe- 
fore mentioned belonging to the aforesaid estate. 

"Done in Pavonia the" 15th April, A" 1(!41, New Netherland. 

" This is the — I , mark of 

" Jacob Stoffelsen." 

Second Generation. 
Cornelius had ch. : 

2. I. Hendrick, b. in Holland. So far as appears he was 

the first white person who cultivated the bouwerie 
at Hoboken. He went to Holland in the summer 
of 1639, and d. unm. shortly after his arrival there, 

3. II. Jan, b. in Holland about 1616. On arriving at his 

majority in 1641, he took possession of his inherit- 
ance,^ but so far as appears did not reside in this 

4. III. Annetje, m. Claes Janscn Van Purmerendt, Nov. 11, 

1656. In the marriage record she is named "An- 
neken Cornelissen of Voorst." Her husband was 
a tobacco planter on Paulus Hoeck. In 1650 she 
was engaged to be married to Pieter Kock, her 
father's former j^artner in the sloop. He was a 
man of some note, a sergeant in the war of 1643, 

'A gill measure. - Snapkaans, a firelock, fusee. '^Alb. Etc., i., 270. • 


and enrolled as a small burgher in 1<)54. During these happy 
days many presents were made to her by Pieter. When she was 
wooed and won by the tobacco planter, Pieter brought suit "in 
the matter of matrimony " before the 13urgomasters and Schepens 
in New Amsterdam to recover the presents. The suit was pend- 
ing for more than a year, the record in the mean while liaving 
been sent up to their '' High and Mighty Lordships, the Director- 
General and Councillors, to obtain thereon a verdict."^ The judg- 
ment was : " Whereas a certain process has been moved before the 
court of the city of New Amsterdam by Pieter Kock, single man, 
a burgher and inhabitant of the said city, as plaintiff at and against 
Anna Van Yorst, single woman, living at Ahasimus, defendant, 
respecting a marriage contract or a verbal promise of marriage 
between the said Pieter Kock and Anna Yan Yorst, mutually 
entered into, and in coniirmation thereof certain gifts and pres- 
ents were made by the plaintiff to the aforesaid defendant, how- 
ever, it appears by certain documents exhibited by tlie parties 
to the defendant and bride of the plaintiff in consequence of cei-- 
tain misgivings is in no way disposed to be married to the said 
Pieter Kock, and it is also proved by two witnesses on the 24th 
of December, 1653, testifying that Pieter Kock had given her up 
with a promise of a written acquittal, therefore the Burgomasters 
and Schepens of the city having perused the documents exhibit- 
ed by the ])arties, and having examined, do by these pi-esents de- 
cide that, as the promise of marriage has been made before the 
Omniscient God, it shall remain in force, so that neither the plain- 
tiff nor the defendant, without the knowledge and appi-obation of 
their Lordships, the Magistrates, and the other one of the regis- 
tered parties shall be permitted to enter matrimony with any 
other person, whether single man or single woman, provided, how- 
ever, that all the presents made in confirmation of the marriage 
contract shall remain in the possession of the defendant,^ while 

'Alb. Rec, v., 2o0. 

■ This was no misfortune to Pieter, for what of bis worldly goods the gentle 
Annetje had not received, a thieving fellow named Marten Van Waert, son-in- 
law of Abraham Isaacsen Planck, in part appropriated. For this he was sen- 
tenced to " be severely scourged with rods in a closed chamber, banished ten 
years out of this jurisdiction, and further in the costs and mises of justice." His 
father-in law secured his pardon. Valentine's Mdaual, 1849, 409. On the oc- 
casion of his marriage with Susanna Planck, December 4, 1600, Marten at- 
tempted to cheat the government out of the excise on a half barrel of beer. 
Occasionally he " committed great insolence, noise and uproar by night, and at 
unseasonable hours, as well at Obe's house as in the street ; yes, so much 
that many sprung out of bed, opened doors and windows, not knowing what 
was going on." He finally came to grief, for " Pieter, the negro," executed 
sentence upon him. Ibid, 18G1, 541. A likely heir to Paulus Hoeck I 


the parties remain together in good will and con- 
tentment with each other, or lawful marriage or 
until the consent of one another, they shall be ex- 
empted from the contract. Furthermore, both the 
plaintiff and the defendant are condemned equal- 
ly in the costs of this suit." 

This sentence was pronounced May 18, 1654.^ 
From it Annetje appealed, but it was confirmed. 
She united with the church in Bergen, Feb. 19, 
1672 ; d. Jan. 12, 1725 ; her husband d. Nov. 30, 
1688. Their ch. were known by the name of 
5. IV. Ide (6) is said to have been the first white male child 
born and married in New Netherland.^ In the 
war of 1643 the " little boy " Avas captured by the 
Indians and taken to Tappaen. Captain de Vries 
and a couple of friendly natives, a few days after- 
ward, went up and ransomed him. Hem. Hilletje 
Jans, of Oldenburgh,^ Oct. 18, 1652. That he had 
a good time at his wedding is learned incidentally 
from the record of a law suit between him and his 
stepfather about two years afterward. It appears 
that Stoiielsen had some time previous given a 
dinner to Captain Geurt Tysen and his friends, 
and in return the captain had presented Stoffelsen 
with a negro. Two sheep were re(|uired for the 
entertainment, and these being taken from the 
common fiock, Ide claimed to own one-half of 
them, and therefore one-half of the negro. Stof- 
felsen replied that Ide had two sheej? at his wed- 
ding^ and these having also come out of the com- 
mon fiock balanced accounts, leaving the negro to 

He continued to reside at Ahasimus as a farmer, 
accumulating wealth which was to enable him to 
become the owner of not an inconsiderable part of 
the domains of Pauw.^ He braved the dangers of 
border life, and exposed his property and family to 

' New Amst. Bee, i., 4()3. * Winfield's Land Titles. 42. 

'■'■ Valentine's Manual, 1863, 708. 

•*01denbargh was a place of considerable iiui)ortance in Holstein, on the river 
Brockaw. It was at one time the capital of the Wagri and Venedi, two warlike 

■Ibid, 1849, 383. New Amst. Tiec. « Winfield's Land Titles, 40, 44, 131. 


the attack of tlie stealtliy savage rather than aban- 
don his home. During tlie war of 1655 he took 
refuge in IS^ew Amsterdam, but returned to liis 
farm when })eace was established. Yet he was in 
danger, and occasionally obliged to fly for his life. 
One day in October, 1659, the Indians came dowli 
upon him as he was engaged in dressing some 
meat near his house. Seizing the meat, he Hed to 
his boat, and pulled across the river to Xew Am- 
sterdam. The Solons Avho administered justice in 
that great city could not wink at such a gross 
breach of the law, and they solemidy fined him 
twenty guilders and costs, '' for bringing meat 
to the city without taking out excise license."^ 

In illustration of the strictness with which the 
laws were enforced in his day, the following is in- 
serted : " Cornells Aersen, Ide Van Yorst and their 
servants, complained of, for that their servants 
raced on Sunday evening after sermon, M'itli horses 
and wagons, and much noise and singing, from 
which j^reat damage and disaster mio;ht have 
arisen." Each master was ilned three guilders, 
and they were ordered to watch themselves, so 
that all dangers and irregularities might be pre- 

His name, Ide, was probably the name of liis 
mother's father, as her name was Ides. His wife 
survived him, and d. July IS, 1705. 

Third (rcne ration. 
Ide [5] liad ch, : 

6. I. Yrouwtje, bap. Aug. 24, 1653 ; m, Andries Meyer, of 

New York, Nov. 5, 1671. 

7. II. Annetje, b. in 1(155; m. John Meyer, of New York, 

Jiine 13, 1677. 
S. III. Cornelius, bap. Aug. 26, 1657; d. in inf. 
9. IV. Pietertje, bap. Nov. 9, 1659; m. Merselis Pieterse in 

16S0; (1. Sept. 3, 1744. 
l<t. V. Cornelius (12), hap. July 3(i, 1(;62 ; m. Fitje (^erritse 

A'an AVagenen (4), of Connnunijiaw, A])ril 6, lti85 ; ' 
d. July — , 1753. 

W«M) Amnt. Her., it., OS. 


11. VI. Joanna, bap. April Kl, ICOO; iii. Jan Adriansc Sip (3), 

April 22, I<;84. 

Foiirt/i (rene ration. 
Cornelius [ 10| had eh. : 

12. I. Ide, bap. July 1(», KJST; d. Dec. 7, ir,8!i. 

13. II. Januetje, b. June 5, l('-88 ; d. unra. 

U. III. (rerrit (23), bap. May 1, KISO; m. Sarah Van Winkle 
(19), May 22, 1714; he removed to New Barba- 
does Neck, near Aquackanonck ; his will, dated 
June 13, 17<)1:, was proved June 15, 1785. Some 
of his descendants returned, and settled near West 
Hoboken and Union Hill. 

15. IV. Ilillegond, b. March 2, 1082; d. Jan. 31, 1710. 

16. V. Annetje, bap. Jan. 28, IfUM; m. Martin Winne, Dec. 

9, "1713.. 

17. VI. Ide, b. Dec. 4, l()t>5 ; d. unm. : A^II. Johannis, b. Mav 

7, 16!»7. 

18. VIII. Hendrick, b. Jan. 29, 10i>!»; d. unm. 

1!). IX. Cornelius (31), b. March 8, 17(»0 ; m. Claesje, dau. of 
Mattys De Mott, Nov. 20, 1726 ; d. Dec. 5. 1760. 
lie represented Bergen in the 18th Provincial As- 
sembly, in 1751. 

20. X. Jacob, b. July 7, 1702. His name does not appear in 

his father's will, hence it is inferred that he war- 
then dead, s. p. 

21. XI. Januetje, b. March 7, 1704; m. Walter Hey er, Aug, 

8, 1723. 

22. XII. Maritje, b. May 22, 1706 ; m. Isaac Hennion, in 1726. 

Fiftli (ieneraf'xni. 
Gerrit [14J had ch. : 

23. I. Fitje, ra. Gerrebrand Jurrianse Van Ripen (^32), Jan. 

(•>, 1742. 

24. II. Annetje, m. Frederick Van Ripen (34), Dec. 2, 1742. 

25. III. Jeuneke, m. Johannis Vreeland. . i^-j^ 

26. IV. Cornelius (34), m. 1st, Annetje Toers, Dec. — , 1752 : 

2d, Annatje Cutwater, wid. of Abraham Berrv, 
July 2, 1778. 

27. v. Waling, b. April 5, 1729 ; d. in inf. 

28. VI. AValing (37), b. March 30, 1731 ; m. Catrina Van Eyd- 

estyn, Sept. — , 1755. 

29. VII. Maritje; IX. Hilletje. 


30. YIII. Catrina had ch. : I. Catrina, b. Dec. 23, 1754; vader 


Cnieliiis [10] had ch. : 

31. I. Cornelius (42), b. Nov. 25, 1728; m. Aniietje Van 

Horn (8), April 21, 1753 ; d. Sept. 30, 1818. He 
was popularly known as " Faddy ;" was one of the 
wealthiest men in tlie county, full of fun and 
practical jokes. lie was fond of fast horses, and 
drove the best team in the vicinity. He estab- 
lished the race course on Paulus Hoeck in 1753, 
and was the lion of that "Derby." But while he 
loved the genial side of life, he did not forget its 
weightier duties. He established the Jersey City 
ferry in 1704. When the Revolution broke out 
he took decided ground on the side of his country. 
At a meeting of the inhabitants of Bergen county, 
held at Plackensack, June 25, 1774, he was ap- 
pointed one of a " committee for corresponding 
with the committees of the other counties in this 
})rovince, and particularly to meet with the other 
county committees at New Brunswick, * '- * 
in order to elect delegates to attend a general 
Congress of Delegates of the American Colonles.^^^ 
On June 29, 1770, the Provincial Congress ap- 
pointed him lieutenant-colonel of the battalion of 
foot militia in the county of Bergen.- It is doubt- 
ful, however, if he ever was in actual service. 
Shortly after the capture of New York by the 
British, and the fall of Paulus Hoeck, his house 
at Harsinius was occupied by the otRcers of a de- 
tachment of cavalry. He and his family were 
crowded into the kitchen.^ The fact that he con- 
tinued to reside on his place while in possession of 
the enemy aroused suspicion that he had become a 
tory. On Nov. 10, 1776, he was charged before 
the court with having joined the British. After 
a thorough investigation he was honorably ac- 

During this occupanc}' of his house by the enemy 
the officers were in tlie practice, for their own 

Am. ArcJiives, Wi Series, i., 450. 'Ibid, vi., 1633. 

' Part of this kitchen is yet standing. 


ainnscinent, of discharsjing muskets up the cliinine}'. C)iie day, 
liis motlier being sick, he requested them to desist. This they 
haughtily refused to do. Being a powerful man, he proceeded 
to vindicate his rights by administering a drubbing to the insolent 
soldiers. Incarceration in the old sugar house was the conse- 
(juence of attempting to administer justice inter arma. Sir Henry 
Clinton, then in command at New York, was an old school coni- 
])anion of Van Yorst,^ and released him M'ith the admonition not 
to let such a thing happen again. But being impetuous as well 
as powerful, he was soon in another ditKculty — by taking up the 
cause of a cobbler. An officer refused to pay for the repair of 
his boots, whereupon Yan Yorst satislied the shoemaker by thrash- 
ing the officer. For this he was again locked up in New York, 
and again discharged with a like admonition. 

The presence of the enemy, always offensive to the sturdy 
patriot, finally became unendurable. They. not only lived in his 
house, but seized his horses and confiscated his cattle. Deter- 
mined to separate from their company, which he loathed, he 
took his family to Pompton and there resided with Philip 
Schuyler. On his return he went to Paulus Hoeck, and lived in 
the ferry house until the close of the war. 

Like his opulent neighbors, "Faddy " was a practical believer 
in the patriarchal institution, and kept his spacious kitchen well 
stocked witli slaves. Among the number was a character known 
as " Half Indian Jack,"" who died at Harsimus February 2, 1831, 
at the age of 102 years, and was buried on what is now the rear 
of lot No. 153 Wayne street. Jack ran away from Yan A'orst 
during the Pevolutionary war, and became a spy for the British. 
He was generally in the company of a white spy, named Meyers. 
Both did their work for pay — Jack for whiskey, Meyers for 
gold. Meyers deposited his money in a box, which he kept 
buried. Whenever he was in a condition to add to the deposit, 
he and Jack would imearth the treasure. When uncovered, 
Jack would be dismissed, and Meyers buried the money in a 
different place. The story, as told by Jacjk, was that, as often 
as he had helped Meyers dig up tlie box, he had never seen 
it buried, nor was it ever buried twice in the same place. At 
last the patriots entrapped and shot Meyers, but Jack was too 
wary and escaped. After Meyers' death great efi'orts M'ere made 
to discover his treasure. His widow, ever looking for the end of 
the rainbow where rests the pot of gold, every spring when the 

' Clinton liad probably met Van Vorst at srhool in the city while liis father, 
Admiral Clinton, was (Jovernor of New York. 


gTound was soft, would «^o over what was recently 
the Fourth and Fifth wards of Jersey City, pros- 
pecting with an iron rod, which she pushed into 
the ground, hoping to strike the box. She never suc- 
ceeded, though she M-orked and hoped while she 
lived. It is possible that the old spy's box of Brit- 
ish gold yet lies buried in that part of the city, 
awaiting its resurrection by the spade of some lucky 

Jack pretended among the slaves to be an Indian 
doctor. He induced them to believe that he was a 
particular favorite of the devil, and gave them to 
understand that, unless they helped him to a few 
pennies, old " clootie " would come for them some 
day. In time this mode of raising the wind failed 
Jack, and he was left to suffer from his chronic 
drought. But, fortunately for him, one day a man 
came to Jersey City with a horse nineteen hands 
high. He could be mounted only l)y means of a 
ladder, and his foot was like a peck measure. He 
was put up at Holmes' stable, near the corner of 
Washington and Montgomery streets. Jack saw 
the " huge, earth-shaking beast " pass down the 
avenue. Hastening to the slaves, he reminded them 
of his frecpient warnings that the devil would come 
for them and how they had disbelieved him ; but 
now he Avas at hand and had put his horse in 
Holmes' stable. The poor creatures wondered, yet 
doubted, and resolved to see for themselves. But 
when they came to ]^ewark avenue and saw the 
prints of the Jiorse's feet, they fled in wild dismay. 
From that day till he died the devil would come at 
Jack's bidding, coppers were not wanting for his 
whiskey, and he was prophet and king in Faddy's 

32. n. John, is said to have l)een m. and had a family. 

33. III. Helena, m. Henry Kingsland. IV. Eleanor. 

Sixth Generation. 

Cornelius [26] had ch. : 

34. I. Arie, b. April 26,1756; m. Lena Berry, Jan. 5, 1777; 

removed to the west. 


35. II. Gen-it (40), b. Xov. 21, 1758 ; ni. Mary Van Eyde- 

styn, Aug. 5, 1786 ; d. April 2, 1834'.' 

36. III. Aiinatje, b. Aug. 25, 1764; d. in inf. 

Waling [28 1 had eh. : 

37. I. Gerrit, b. April 30, 1756; d. in inf. 

38. II. Sarah, b. April 14, 1761 ; ni. Casparus Yan Evdestyn, 

Feb. 1, 1784. 

39. III. Gerrit (51), b. June 22, 1764; m. Elizabeth Bilju, of 

Staten Island, Aug. 19, 1786. 

40. IV. Casparus (54), b. Sept. 3, 1769 ; m. Margrietje Van 

Buskirk, June 9, 1799. 

41. V. Hendrick (55), m. Annatje Pickston, Dec. 7, 1800. 

Cornelius [31 1 had ch. : 

42. I. Johannis (56), b. March 3, 1761 ; ni. Sarah, dau. of 

Jean Francois Vasher,^ June 20, 1816 ; d. Jan. 13, 
1832 ; she' d. Feb. 23, 1851, set. 64 yrs., 1 mo.. 
20 days. 

43. II. Cornelius (60), b. Sept. 6, 1763 ; m. Hannah Gilbert. 

44. III. Claesje, b. Aug. 31, 1765 ; d. Oct. 9, 1773. 

45. IV. Xeeltje, b. Sept. 16, 1768 ; ni. Henrv Traphagen, 

Jan. 25, 1803 ; d. March 4, 1824. 

Seventh Generation. 
Gerrit [35] had ch. : 

46. I. Ann, b. Feb. 24, 1787; m. Daniel Smith. 

47. II. Catharine, b. Oct. 17, 1789 ; m. John K. Holmes. 

48. III. Annatje, b. Nov. 28, 1793 ; m. Benjamin McCollum. 

49. IV. Cornelius (63), b. Dec. 14, 1799; m. Letitia, dau. of 

James Warner, Jan. 1, 1826. 

Gerrit [39] had ch. : 

50. I. Waling, m. Maria Kip ; had ch. : I. Hendrick and 

II. Garret, twins, b. Jan. 21,1814; III. Joanna, 
b. Dec. 6, 1816; IV. Catharine, b. Sept. 1, 1819; 
V. Jacob, b. Aug. 28, 1821 ; VI. John, b. July 25, 
1825; VII. Christian, b. Oct. 11, 1828; VIII. 
William Oscar, b. Nov. 13, 1831. 

' Vasher was a Frencliman. He came to this country during the Revolution- 
ary war ; was a surgeon in the fourth New York regiment ; an intimate friend 
of Washington and a member of tlie Cincinnati. He m. Miss Potter of Madison. 
N. J. His ch. were, I., Sarah, m. John Van Vorst ; \l., Eliza ; III., Frances, m. 
Robert Gilchrist, Oct. 1, 1813 ; her son Robert is now Attorney-Ueneral of N. J. ; 
IV., Frank, d. in inf. 

3 5>i 

a 2 


51. II. Jacob (67), b. July 17, 1788; m. Christina Eversoii, 

Jan: 31, 1809 ; d. July 4, 1857. 

52. III. Gerrit (70), b. June 26, 1790 ; m. Cynthia Hennion, 

Dee. 25, 1810; d. March 25, 1852; she b. Dec. 
24, 1789; d. Aug. 14, 1852. 

53. IV. John, b. Nov. 18, 1795. 

Casparus [40] liad ch. : 

54. I. Catharina, b. April 12, 1800; II. Thomas, b. Sept. 

11, 1802. 

Hendrick [41] had ch. : 
55.' I. Catharina, b. Sept. 17, 1801 ; II. Isaac, b. Aug. 23, 
1803; III. Waling, b. Oct. 16, 1805, d. in inf.; 
lY. Waling, b. Sept. 22, 1806; Y. Antje, b. 
March 7, 1809; YI. Saartje, b. Feb. 12, 1813; 
YII. Garret, b. March 5, 1821 ; YIII. Eliza Jane, 
b. April 7, 1823. 

Johannis [42] had ch. : 

56. I. Ann Eliza, b. June 2, 1817; m. J. Dickinson Miller, 

Feb. 19, 1835. He was a prominent lawyer in 
Jersey City, and, for several years, Alderman. 

57. 11. Cornelia, b. Nov. 15, 1819 ; ra. Henry Augustus Boo- 


58. III. Sarah Frances, b. Sept. 12, 1820; m., 1st, Charles B. 

C. Bacot; 2d, Michael Lienau, March 17, 1859. 
5^J. lY. John (73), b. Sept. 25, 1823 ; m. Emily H., dau. of 
Peter Bacot, of Charleston S. C, Jan. 10, 1850. 
He was Alderman of Jersey City and a member 
of the General Assembly of N. J. for several years 

Cornelius [43] had ch. : 

60. I. Cornelius (74), b. xVug. 6, 1794 ; m. 1st, Sarah S., dau. 

of William Brower, Dec. — , 1816; she d. Aug. 

12, 1835 ; 2d, Antoinette, dau. of Cornelius Roose- 
velt, Oct. 19, 1836 ; d. Jan. 23, 1852 ; she d. Sept. 
14, 1849. 

61. II. Susanna, b. March 15, 1798; d. March 26, 1815. 

62. III. Anna, b. March 26, 1803; m. Joseph Cooper, March 

11, 1830; d. Jan. 1, 1865. 

EUjh th Gen eration . 
Cornelius [49] had ch. : 


03. I. Garret, b. Oct. 30, 1826 ; m. Abigail Hazard; had cli., 
I. Garret ; II. Lena. 

64. II. Letitia, b: June 26, 182S; m. Cliarles W. Ward. 

65. III. Cornelius (8a), b. May 25, 1830; m. Phebe Jane, dan. 

of Tlionias Gardner. 

66. lY. Jane Ann, b. Sept. 18, 1832 ; m. AVilliani II. Tise ; d. 

Dec. 6, 187<». 

Jacob [51] had eh. : 

67. I. Elizabeth, b. Aug. 4, 1809 ; m. Henry Spier, Dee. 19, 


68. IT. John, b. in 1820 ; d. in 1824. 

69. III. Sarah, b. Feb. 22, 1822 ; m. Isaac Halenbeck, Jnly 8. 


Gerrit [52] had ch. : 

TO. I. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 6, 1812; ra. Abraham Shotwell. 

71. II. David (86), b. Feb. 20, 1823; m. Fanny, dau. of 

Charles Heritage, June 1, 1851. 

72. III. Garret (87), b. June 21, 1826 ; m., 1st, Sarah, dau. of 

John Everson ; 2d, Marv, dau. of John Spier, Jan. 
10, 1861. 

John [59] had ch. : 

73. I. John, b. Oct. 18, 1850; II. Dickinson M., b. Mav 15, 

1854 ; III. Eugene C, b. March 2, 1856 ; lY. Emily 
H., b. Dec. 1, 1857; Y. Sarah, b. Oct. 24, I860: 
YI. Henry 11., b. Dec. 3, 1865 ; d. July 14, 1866 ; 
YII. Harriet R, b. Feb. 10, 1870 ; d. July 15, 1870 ; 
YIII. Mary S., b. Sept. 11, 1872. 

Cornelius [60] had ch. : 

74. I. Elizabeth B., b. Nov. 3, 1817; II. Susan, b. Aug- 

22, 1819 ; d. in inf. 

75. III. Cornelius (88), b. March 7, 1822; m. Sophia A., 

dau. of Edward Phillips of Providence, P. I., June 
16, 1846. He was Alderman and Mayor of Jersey- 
City for several years. 

76. lY. Mary' B., b. Feb.'l, 1824; m. AVilliam P. Powers, 

Aug. 14, 1851. 

77. Y. Susan, b. April 17, 1825 ; d. in inf. 

78. YI. Sarah, b. Feb. 25, 1831 ; m. Eobert Sewell, April 

24, 1860. 


79. yil. Anna (i., b. .Ipril 25, 1832; VIIT. Juliet, b. Aug. 

5, 1834. 

80. IX. Julia, b. Oct. 27, 1837. 

81. X. Susan, b. March, 30, 1S39 ; ni. Louis Dez Arniauld, 

Nov. 17, 1803. 

82. XL Antoinette, b. Nov. 2-1, 1841 ; d. in inf. 

83. XIL William B., b. Dec. 0, 18-12 ; ni. Katie, dau. of S. 

E. Swain, May 31, 1871 ; she d. Au^. 31, 1872. 

84. XIIL Antoinette, 1). Jan. 27, 184r) ; m. Hugh Toler Boo- 

raeui, May 14, 1867. 

uV^inth Gen e rat ion . 

Cornelius [65J had ch. : 

85. I. Cornelius ; 11. Charles ; IIL Garret Thomas ; IV. Har- 

rison ; V. Howard ; VI. William ; A^IL AVilliam ; 
VIII. Erwin ; IX. Letitia. 

David [71] had ch. : 

86. I. Maria Frances, b. Oct. 7, 1852 ; II. Garret F., b. Nov. 

16, 1S54; IIL Ella Louisa, b. May 17, 1864. 

Garret [72 J had ch. : 

87. I. Sarah Ann, b. Sept. 18, 1851 ; II. Cynthia, b. May 19, 

1854 ; IIL Garret, b. July 23, 1863 ; IV. George, 
b. May 10, 1867. 

Cornelius [75] had ch. : 

88. I. Mai-v II. ; 11. Cornelius P., b. March 29, 1849 ; III. 

■' Edward P., b. Jan. 19, 1852; d. in inf.; IV. Eliza 
B., b. Jan. 20, 1853. * 


There was in Holland a })lace named Vreelandt, but whether a 
hamlet, parish or manor has not been ascertained.* The family in 
this county now bearing the name is descended from Michiel 
Jans<;n, wlio came fron'i Broeckhuysen (^North Brabant).^ He 
left Holland October 1, 1636, in the ship Kensselaerwyck,=^ with 
his wife and two children. He settled at what is now Green- 

1 Col. mat. ofN. Y., u., 183. '^ Valentine's Hist, of N. T., 138. 



busli, opposite Albany, as a hoerehiecJd^ or farm servant."^ It 
was not lono; befoi-e he grew weary of airricultural pursuits and 
the narrow road thereby o]>ened to wealth, and engaged in the 
fur trade, in whieli " he made his fortune in two years." Such 
jjrivate speculation being prohibited by law, soon brought him into 
difficulty with the authorities. He thereui)on abandoned his farm, 
and came to Manhattan. The date of this change is not known, 
but he was a resident in !Xew Amsterdam November 4, 1(»44, on 
which date he empowered A rent Yan Curler to settle with Pa- 
troon Van Rensselaer all accounts and differences. In 1G40 he 
came over to Communipaw, and settled on the bouwerie owned 
by Jan Evertsen Bout. In the years 1047, '49 and '.50, he repre- 
sented Pavonia in the Council of "Nine,"- and joined his asso- 
ciates in their crusade against Governor Stuyvesant.^ It was at 
his house that the journal of Yan der Donck was seized, and it 
was sus])ected upon information furnished l)y himself.* He was 
a signer of the application for the first municipal government in 
New Netherland, July 26, 1 649.^ 

The following record of June 15, 1654, shows that he had not 
yet overcome his reluctance to farming: 

" Michiel Jansen, residing at Pavonia, belonging to the juris- 
diction of New Amsterdam, appeared before the Court of Bur- 
gomasters and Schepens of this city aforesaid, and stated that he 
intended, for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the place, 
to brew some beer, and, as it was very inconvenient to give in the 
same every time, and to procure the excise certificate, wished 
therefore to make an agreement with the Burgomasters and 
Schepens about the excise ; which being granted to him, the 
Burgomasters and Schepens have made an agreement with 
Michiel Jansen for one year, that for all the beer he shall brew 
and sell at the aforesaid place, he shall pay 50 guilders, each half 
year the half, and it is hereby allowed to him to sell beer by the 
small measure also, to persons coming over to that place."" Thus 
he has the honor of being the first licensed tapster in the State of 
New Jersey.' 

During the troubles of 1655, the Indians drove him from his 
home, when, on September 15, they made a raid on Pavonia and 
killed every man there, except the family of Jansen.** From the 

1 Gol. Hist, of N. T., i., 431. -New Neth. Reg., 55. 

••' Col. Hist. ofN. r., i., 275. *Ihid, i., 344. 

''^ y'aleniine's Manual, 1851, 407. ''New Amst. Bee, j'.,492. 

'' Aert Teunisseii, of Hoboken, who was killed in 1643, was tlie first brewer in 
New Jersey. Contra Valentine's Manual, 1860, 612. 
*■ Albany Records, xiii., 327. 


dangers and uncertainties of border life at " Gamoenepa," lie 
took refuge on Manhattan, where, because he was an "old man 
M'ith a heavy family/' and had lost his all, he Avas, ISTovember 22, 
1655, permitted to keep a tap room.^ Like many modern tap- 
sters, he soon learned how to keep the letter of the law while he 
violated its s])irit. An ordinance i)rohibited tapping after bell- 
ring, and on (3ctober 23, ]65(), the schout prosecuted Jansen for 
its violation. The defendant confessed that two soldiers were 
playing at back-gammon and three sailors waiting for their ski])- 
per; denied that he had tap])ed after bell-ring; admitted that his 
guests " had their cans by them and got chatting," but shrewdly 
omitted to state that he had tilled their cans against the time 
when he could not lawfully tap.'~ 

For the same reason that he was permitted to tap he received 
(/ratis, in February, 1656, a lot of ground in the city.'" On Feb- 
ruary 21, 1657, he was ap])ointed one of the Measurers of Lime 
and Graln.^ On April 13, 1657, his name was placed on the 
roll of small burghers.'"' Much to his credit, he soon grew weary 
of tap room life, and longed to return to his M-heat-producing 
bouwerie. During the war he had not parted with the title to 
all the land which he had previously bought of Bout" for 8,000 
florins.'^ In 1658 he sold part of it to Harman Smeeman.^ On 
January 22, 1658, he asked for permission to return to Pavonia, 
and to be relieved from certain tithes.'* In September, 1661, he 
had become a man of "competence,"^" living on his bouwerie at 
Gemoenej^a. He was one of the first magistrates of the new 
court at iBergen.'^ In December, 1662, he joined his neighbors 
in asking the Governor for a minister of the gospel, and for 
whose support he subscribed twenty-five florins.^'- He died in 

His wife was Fitje Ilartmans. In 1679 she was living at 
" Ghmoenepaen," and had " many grandchildren, all of whom 
were not unjust." The farm owned by her is marked on the 

' New Amst. Rec, u., 375. - find, ii., 603. 

' N. Y. Col. MSB., vi., 269. ■■ JVetn Neth. Jteg., 116. 

* Ibid, 176. '■' Powers of Attorney, Neir Amst., 1.V2. 

' Col. Hint, of N. Y., L, 4:32. ••* New Amst. Rec, Hi., 2!). 

"> N. Y. Col. MSS., riii., 649. "^ Valentines 3r<inu<a, 18(i:5, .■)69. 

" New Neth. Reg., 100. '-' N. Y. Col. MSS., j-., rart i., 277, 279. 



field Hiap as lots nunibered 14 and 15.^ The LaLadists, in Octo- 
ber, 1G79, dined with her. An old lady in Brooklyn told them 
that Fitje came from Cologne. They liave left this qnaint 
record concerning her: " We found her a little pious, after tlie 
manner of the country, and you could discover that there was 
something of the Lord in her, but very much covered up and 
defiled. "' This is no light testimony to the old ladj^'s religious 
attainments, considering that it is given by two men who seem 
to have looked npon all mankind, except that small portion 
which accepted their own peculiar views, as destined fuel for the 
everlasting bonfire. She was a member of the Bergen church 
in 1664; d. September 21, 1697. 

Second Generation. 

Michiel Jansen had ch. : 
1. I. Claas came to this country with his father ; m. Annetje 

Maria Gerbrants, of Norden, April 14, 1657. 
2 II. Ellas (9), was a carpenter by trade ; m. Grietje Jacobs 


Yan Winckel, of '' Hazymus," Aug. 30, 1665 ; 
took the oath of allegiance to the king Nov. 
22, K565 ; was connuissioned Associate Judge of the 
Court of Bergen in 1673, '74, '77 and 1680 ; en- 
sign in Captain John Berry's company at Bergen, 
July 15, 1675 ; was representative in the General 
Assembly in 1683, '93, '95, '99 and 17o8. During 
the year 1683 he was commissioned one of the 
Judges of the County of Essex. In March, 1684, 
he united with his brothers Hartman, .lohannis and 
Cornelis (and others) in the })urehase from the Pro- 
prietors of " Ilaquequenunck."'' They had pre- 

' Winfield's Land Titles, 51. -Loiuj hi. Hist. Soc, i., 155. 

^Ta.i/lo)''s Annals, 09. 


viouslv ]»urcliased the Indian title, and he was an 
actual resident there in 1683. In 1()1K3 he was ap- 
])ointed to raise revenne for the war between Eng- 
land and France.^ 

3. III. Enoch (10), bap. Oct. 26, 1649 ; m. 1st, Dircksje Meyers, 

of Amsterdam, June 20, 167<> ; she d. Oct. 5, 1688 ; 
yj 2d, Grietje Wessels, wid. of Jan Janse Lanc;edyck, 
Oct. 23, 1693 ; she d. Nov. 20, 1697 ; 3d,^\aVtie 
Van Ilooren, Jan. 13, 1T04 ; d. Aug. 17, 1714. ^He 
was a member of the General Assembly of the 
Province in 1675-'88, 1707, '08 and 'OO.'-^' In the 
last year he was not prompt in his attendance, and 
the sergeant-at-arms was directed to bring him 
forthwith before the House. He was commissioned 
ensign of the militia of Bergen, July 4, 1681 ; As- 
sociate Judge of the Court at Bergen in 1673, '74, 
'81, '82, and '83 ; Commissioner of Highways for 
the County in 1682 and '92 ; and Assistant Judge 
of the Bergen Common Pleas, May 22, 170,5. He 
lived on the bluff where the Central Pailroad 
crosses the Morris Canal, near Cavan Point. 

4. IV. Ilartman (22), bap. Oct. 1, 16.51 ; m. Metje, dan. of 

Dirck Claase Braecke, in 1(>72.^ He was a wheel- 
wright by trade ; lived at Rechpokus on part of his 
wife's inheritance ; purchased of Sachem Ca]ita- 
hem and Christopher Hoagland (who was the first 
purchaser, July 15, 1678), 270 acres of land, in- 
cluding " Stoffel's Point " (so named from Hoag- 
land), and an island in the Passaic river near 
Aquackanonck, named by the Indians Meneheit- 
icke, by the English " Ilartman's Island." In 1693 

' Learning and Rpicer, 335. -I hid, 346. 

^ Braecke, or, as he was frenerally known, Dirck (laesen, Avas patentee of 
Cavan Point and Stony Point, haviofr purchased the former place from Egbert 
Woutersen. He held a lease of Iloboken for a short time about the year 1G4(), 
Col. Hist, of N. Y., i., 32!l ; was skipper of the sloo]) V/iio/i , from which he was 
dismissed, April, 20, l(i5S, for disobedience of orders, Ibid, riii , Sol ; and was 
one of the commissioners to fortify Communipaw in 1663, iVVw Neth. Reg., 159. 
He d. March 26, 1(>!)3 ; his wife, Neesje Jacobs, d. Dec. 23, 1668. His three 
daughters m. three broth(;rs, and amony them his ])roi)erty was divided. 


he was Receiver of Taxes in Bergen ;^ d. Jan. 18, 
5. Y, Johannis (35 ), bap. Oct. 1 , 1650 : ui. Claesje, dau. of Dirck 

Claase Braecke, May U, 1082; d. June 20, 1713. 
VI. Cornelins(44),b. June 3,1000; ni. 1st, Metje, dau. of Dirck 




Claase Braecke, May 11, 1091 ; 2d, Lysbet Jacobs, 
wid., April 17, 1092. On March 17, 1090, he pur- 
chased of William Douglas"^ land at Pembrepogli 
(no^y Pamrapo, in Baj'onne), on which he afterward 
lived; d. May—, 1727; she d. Aug. 17, 1724. 

7. YII. Jannetje, m. Dirck Teunissen Yan Yechten, wdiose 

father succeeded Michiel Jansen as occupant of 
the farm at Greenbush, in 1640. He settled on 
the Raritan, not far from Somerville, and some of 
his descendants still live thei'eabonts. 

8. YIII. Pryntje, m. Andries Claesen, March 25, 1688; d. April 

21, 1711 ; he d. Aug. 7, 1710, leaving three sons, 
who became the progenitors of the Andersons in 
this county. This generation was known indiffer- 
ently as Yreeland and Michielse. They wrote the 
name Michielse, as Enoch MlcJdeUe, &c. 

Th i)'d Gen eraiion . 
Elias [2] had ch. : 

9. I. Michael, bap. April 7, 1600 ; II. Jacobus, bap. April 8, 

1688; III. Fitje, bap. Dec. 25, 1669; m. John 
Thomas, of Elizabethtown ; lY. Trintje, bap. 
March — , 1072; m. Lourens Yan Galen, June 15, 

' Learning and Spicer, 337. 

- William Douglas (Doeckles, Douckles) lived at Pembrepoffb, and was elect- 
ed to represent Bergen in the General Assembly of N. J., in 1080, but was ruled 
out of that body been use ?ie was a Rotnau Catholic, Alb. Jiec, xxix, 110. This 
is the first, and I believe is the only instance, of such, persecution for religious 
opinions in the State of New Jersey. 


1700 (she had five ch. bap. in the Bergen Church); 
V. Rao-el, b. March 8, 1070 ; YI. Jacob, b. Aug. 9, 
1678 ;^m. Antje Lourense Toers, Sept. — , 1703. 

Enoch [3] had ch. : ^ , . , -n i ,/ 

10. I. Elsje, bap. Kov. 12, 1071 ; ni. Edward Earle, jr., ieb. ^ 

13,1088. ^ ^„ ^ , 

11 II. Cathai'ina, bap. May 15, 1073 ; m. Aert Albertse, ot 

N. y., June 20, 1092. 
12. III. Michael, bap._ Jan. 27, 10.75 ; d. unm. He was non com- 

nos mentis. ^ ^ • -n 

13 lY. Johannis (52), bap. April 7, 1077; m. Maria Berger, 

June 8, 1701. . 

14. Y. Abraham (53), b. June 22, 1078 ; m Margnetje Yan 

Winkle (5), Oct. 28, 1099 ; his will, dated Dec. 10, 
1734, was proved Jan. 8, 1748. He was a member 
of the church at Aquackanonck in 1725. 

15. YI. Fitje, bap. Feb. 28, 1080 ; m. Peregrine Saniord, o± 

New Barbadoes. ^ 

16. YII. Isaac, b. July 4, 1683 ; m. Tryntje Kewkirk (25) 

March 23, 1700 ; was a member ot the cliurcli at 
Aquackanonck in 1725. ^^ • o t 

17 YIII. Enoch (55), bap. Aug. 4, 1087; m. Maria St. Leger, 
( )ct. 22 1709 ; was commissioned captain in uoi- 
onei Parker's regiment in 1724. 
18. IX. Benjamin, b. Marci; 0, 1705 ; d. Oct. 17, 1725 ^ 
19 X Elias, resided at " Pemmerepogh ;" d. xVpril 2, 174 ( , s. p. 
20' XL Jacob, bap. Oct. 18, 17(»8 ; d. March 0, 1 (32, unm 
21. XII. Joris (56), b. Sept. 25, 1710; m. 1st, Annetje A an 
Winkle; 2d, Annetje Yan Wagenen (35), ot 
Aquackanonck; d. June 21, 1795. He owned and 
resided in the house now owned by the iieirs ot 
Captain William Howe, west of Cavan Point. W ith 
Rynier A^an Giesen, he represented Bergen m the 
19th Provincial Assembly of N. J. in 1754. 

Hartman [4] had ch. : 

' Earle came from Maryland. On April 24, 1676, he purchased the Secaucus 
jLarie came irmii i ^ j^^^^^^ ^ Commissioner ot Revenue in Ber- 

LtSurinit Ent^Sh S Trench war, L..ain, nM Spicer, 335 constable 
^ iroi_'Q'^ «ml Assistant Jud^-e of the Bergen Common Pleas inliOo. On 
l2T^ll^TL^^^lilh^.. Indians a Tract of land on Rechawack nver 
fo West Jeriy, Proc of N. J. Hist^oc, L, 198 He was the io-d- o^^^ 
Farle family in B.'r<ren and Hudson Counties ; d. Dec. 1-J. l^ll. In 17U1 £.arie 
Ju4e pSnhorne and William Sandford were considered "Persons of y« Best 
Estates in East Jersie." 








22. I. Claas, b. April (>, 1<)75; m. 1st, Annetje, dan. of 

Hans Harmanse, then of New Utrecht, Long Island, 
afterward of Constaples Iloeck, May 24, 1097 ; she 
(1. Nov. 26, 1698, leaving one ch., Hartman, b. 
March — , 1698, who by his grandfather's will re- 
ceived one-half of the Iloeck ; 2d, Elsje Pieters, 
Aug. 19, 1099. He was a member of the church 
at Aquackanonck in J 725. 

Aeltje, bap. Oct. 8, 1077. 

Micl'iael, b. Dec. 31, 1078; d. Jan. 14, 1092. 

Dirck(OO), b. April 3, 1(581 ; m. Margrietje Diedricks 
Banta, of Ilackensack, Oct. 20, 1 702 ; resided at 
Aquackanonck. His will, dated Nov. 8, 1709, was 
proved Dec. 9, 1773. 
20. Y. Fitje, b. Feb. 21, 1083 ; m. Dirck Paulusen of Gemoe- 

nepa, Aug. 19, 1099 ; resided at Aquackanonck. 

Styntje, b." Feb. 21, 1083. 

Aagtje, b. Oct. 28, 1084 ; m. Cornelis Blinkerhoff {S), 
then of Midwout, L. I., May 24, 1708; d. Feb. 20, 

Dedricksje, b. Nov. 27, 10>85. 

Marietje,' b. Nov. 23, 10^7 ; m. Thomas Fredericks, 
aliifs De Cuyper, April 27, 1711. 
X. Jannetje, b. July 22, 1091 ; m. Gerrit Yan Ripen (11), 
June 19, 1718. 

Michael (07), b. Dec. 20, 1094; m. Elysabet Van 
Ripen (21), May 30, 1719; d. April 0,'l700. 

Arriantje, b. July 19, 1()98 ; m. Zacliarias Sickles, 
Nov. 7, 1719; d.Dec. 2, 1731. 

34. XIII. Enoch, m. Jannetje Yan Blerkuni ; had ch. : I. 

Michael, b. May 23, 1730. 

Johannis |5| had ch. : 

35. I. Michael, b. Sept. 14, 1684; d. Jan. 27, 1710. 

36. II. Dirck, bap. Oct. 11, 1080 ; m. Fitje Dirckse Banta, 

May — , 1710; was a member of the church at 
Aquackanonck in 1725. 

37. III. Fitje, bap. Oct. 28, 1()88; d. Jan. 27, 1710, unm. 

38. I v. Enoch, bap. Oct. 28, 108,S; m. Mercy — — ; among 

his ch. was Abraham, who lived in Elizabeth, and 
whose will, dated March 22, 176s, was proved 
April 6, 1771. In it his ch. are named: Enoch, 
James, Abraham, x\aron, Hannah, Elizabeth, 
Rachel, Sarah and Merc v. 














31). Y 

Aagtje, bap. April 22, ir>t>0 ; m. Cornells Ilelmigsen 
Vail Houten, April ID, 171 1. 

40. YI. Helena, m. Joliannis Ilelmigsen A"an Hoiiten, June 

17, 1711»; (1. March 15, 1774. 

41. \'II. Jannetje, m. Martin Winne, Dec. 21, 1716. 

42. YIII. Elias, in. Maritje Yan llooren (5), May 11, 1723; 

d. April 2, 1748; had eh.: Joliannis, b. Aug. 
:)0, 1730; resided at Aquackanonck. 

43. IX. Joliannis, b. July 1, 1705 ; m. Antje Diedricks in 

172(; ; d. Feb. 1 1, 1783 ; she d. Sept. 10, 1780 ; had 
eh. : Johannis, b. July 30, 1731 ; d. Jan. 25, 1753. 
There were several more eh. than those here named ; 
the 13th eh. and <)th dau. was b. July 19, 1008. 

Cornelius [0] had eh. : 

44. I. Aagtje, b. April 18, 1082 ; m. Koelof Helmigse Yan 

liouten, April 21, 1701 ; d. Aug. 14, 1708! 

45. II. Fitje, bap. July 22, 1083 ; m. Laurence Yan Bus- 

kirk (8), Sept. 18, 1700; d. Oct. l!>, 1756. 
40. III. Michael, bap. Aug. 2, 1()85 ; d. in inf. 
47. lY. Michael, bap. Feb. 23, 1087 ; d. in inf. 
48 Y. Jannetje, bap. Nov. 28, 1688 ; m. Daniel Yan Winkle 

(0), Sept. 3, 1700; d. April 12,1760. 
40. YI. Neeltje, bap. July 23, 1600. 

50. YII. Michael (71), b. Sept. 18, 1604; m. Jenneke, dau. 

of Helmus Yan Houten, Oct. 23, 1713. 

51. YIII. Metje, b. Oct. 3, 1698. 

Fourth Gcneratio'^i. 
Johannis 113] had cli. : 

52. I. Maria, bap. Nov. 29, 1702 ; II. Catharina, bap. Nov. 

19, 1704; III. P:noch, bap. Jan. 22, 1707; lY. 
Martinus, bap. April 3, 170!t. These were all bap. 
in N. Y. 

Abraham [14] had ch. : 

53. I. Enoch, b. March 14, 1700; his will, dated May 14, 

1777, proved June 24, 1777, names his wife Rachel 
and son Daniel, who had a son John. 

54. II. Jacob; III. Johannis; lY. Simeon; Y. Isaac, d. in 

1756; YI. Abraham; YII. Ilendrick;' YIII. 
Derrick ; IX. Lea ; X. Anna. One of these dau. 

111. liobert Bagley. Simeon m. Rachel , 

and removed to l>ergen County. His will, dated 


May 29, 1701, was proved Fcl). !». 1705. At its 
(late his wife was enceinte. 
Enoch (171 liad ch. : 

55. I. Enoch, bap. Oct. 4, 171<»; II. Helena, bap. Jan. 14. 
1713; III. Elias, bap. March 4, 1V15; lY. Ben- 
jamin, bap. Dec. 11, 1717, d. Aug. 2(5, 1730. These 
were all bap. in N. Y. 
Joris [21] had ch. : 

50. I. Aagtje, b. Sept. IS, 1733 ; ni. Ilelniig Yan Ilonten ; 

marriage bond dated May 4, 1753. 

57. II. Enoch, b^ Sept. 22, 1737 ; d. in inf. III. Garret, b. 

Mav 17, 1731>; d. Jan. 26, 1751. 

58. lY. Enoch, b. Feb. IS, 1741; m. Cornelia Kip in 1764; 

removed to New Barbadoes. 
5W. \ . Jacob, m. Jenneke Cadmus (13) ; removed to Staten 

Island. - 
60. YI. Johannis, b. Sept. 21, 1749; m. Helena Garra- 

brant (33), June 21, 1778; d. Oct. 27, 1S24, 

s. p. ; his only ch., Joris, b. Jan. 10, 1779 ; d. in inf. 

01. YII. Garret (80), b. Nov. 1, 1751; m. Jannetje Cadmns 

(9) ; d. Feb. 13, 1825. 

02. YIII. Etiie, m. 1st, Jacob Yan Wagenen (34) ; 2d, John Yree- 


03. IX. Lena, b. May 20, 1750 ; m. Garret Yan Bipen (53); 

d. March 7, 1840. 

64. X. Jenneke, b. Dec. 1, 1758 ; m. 1st, Ilenrv Xewkirk (17); 

2d, Joseph Yan Winkle (46), May 26, 1798 ; d. June 

65. XL Annatje, m. Michael Yreeland (^78) ; d. Feb. 23, 1803. 

Dirck 1251 had eh.; 
60. I. Ilartman, b. Jan. 24, 1704; II. Baehel, b. July 10, 

1707 ; III. Marritje, b. April 7, 1709 ; lY. Hester, 
b. Feb. 25, 1712 ; Y. Dirck, b. Nov. 10, 1710; YI. 
Johannis, b. Oct. 12, 1719; YII. Antje, b. July 
4, 1722. Besides these, his will mentions Olaesje, 
3fic/iael and Ma}'(jriet}e. 

Michael 1 32] had ch. : 
67. I. Ilartman, m. Marritje Garrabrant ( 15), Nov. 20, 1739 ; 

removed to Wesel, near Aquackanonek ; his Avill, 
dated Nov. 4, 1770, proved April 14, 1785, names 
his ch. : I. Michael, II. Cornelius, III. Jennie, lY. 
Elizabeth, A^. Beelitje, b. Jan. 5, 1757. 


08 II. Garret, lived at Communipaw; d. Feb. 8, 1784, iinm. 

09 III Claas(86\bap. March 30, 1724; m. 1st, Catlyntje bip 

(18) May 13, 1757 ; 2d, Antje, dan. of Stephen Las- 
set, Dec. 13, 1760 ; d. Feb. 9, 1802 ; she b. March 
29, 1736 ; d. March 1, 1819. The following is a 
copy of his bond in this second marriage : 

" Know all men by these presents. That We, 
Nicholas Vreelandt, of the County of Bergen and 
Province of New Jersey, & Michael Vreelandt, of 
Essex County & Province af^ are holden and do 
stand justly indebted unto his Excellency Thomas 
Boone, Esq"", Governor-in-Chief of New Jersey af , 
in the sum of Five Hundred Pounds, of current 
lawful Monev of JVeiv Jersey ; to be paid to his 
said Excellency, Thomas Boone, Esq"", liis Succes- 
sors or Assigns ; For which Payment well and 
truly, to be made and done. We do bind ourselves, 
our' Heirs, Executors and Administrators, and 
every of them, jointly & severally, firmly by these 
presents. Sealed with our Seals ; dated this Sec- 
ond Day of December, Annoque Domini One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty. 

" The condition of this Obligation is such. That 
whereas the above bounden Nicholas Vreelandt 
hath obtained License of Marriage for himself of 
the one Party, and for Nancy Bassett, of Essex 
County af^ of the other Party ; Now, if it shall 
not liereafter appear that they, the said Nicholas 
Vreelandt & Nancy Bassett, have any lawful Let 
or Impediment, of" Pre-Contract, Affinity or Con- 
sanguinity, to hinder their being joined in the Holy 
Bands of Matriinonv, and afterwards their living 
too-ether as Man and Wife ; then this Obligation 
to^'be void, or else to stand and remain in full 
Force and Virtue. 


"Nicholas X Vkeelandt 

" Michael Vreelandt. 

" Sealed and Delivered ) 
in the Presence of ) 

" Lewis Ogden." 


70. ly. Beelitje. b. March 19, 1733 ; m. Cornelius Sip (16) 

July 4, 1761 ; d. Oct. 26, 1789 ; V. Maritje. 

Michael [50] had ch. : 

71. I. Metje, b. Dec. 28, 1720 ; m. Abraham Van Tuyl, 

riec. 8, 1738. 

72. II. Jannetje, b. Nov. — , 1722 ; m. Joris Cadmus ((')) ; d. 

Nov. 12, 1766. 

73. III. Cornelius (93), b. Jan. — , 1726 ; m. Cartrintje Cad- 

mus (5) ; removed to English Neighborhood. 

74. IV. Helmagh (94), b. Feb. 2(), i72S: m.lst, Neeltje Van 

Horn (7) ; marriage bond dated April 1, 1752 ; 2d, 
Jannetje ISip (20) ; removed to Staten Island ; his 
ch. returned and settled at Centreville, near Bergen 

75. V. Aagtje, b. Feb. 14, 1732; YI. Abraham, b. Aug. 

16, 1734. 

76. YII. Dirck (97), b. March 11, 1737 ; m. and removed to 

English Neighborhood. Dnrino; the Tlevolutionary 
war he was accused of disaftection, and Major 
Haj^es ordered to arrest him, July 11, 1777 ; he 
was confined in the jail at Morristown ; John Mead 
became his bail, and he was released Aug. 20, 1778. 

77. VIII. Jacob, b. March 11, 1737 ; removed to Fort Lee. 

78. IX. Michael (98), b. June 24, 1739 ; m. Annatje Vree- 

land (64) ; d. Dec. 5^ 1804. 

79. X. Johannis (102), b. March 2, 1742; m. Keetje Hoog- 

landt, April 29, 1767 ; d. July 30, 1823 ; she b. 
Nov. 13, 1747; d. Sept. 24, 1819. 

Fifth Generation. 

Garret [61] had ch. : 

80. I. Joris, d. Nov. 7, 1786, in inf. 

81. II. Jacob (106), b. June 25, 1781 ; m. Catlyntje Brinker- 

hoff (37), Jan. 21, 1801 ; d. in 1866." Previous to 
his death he removed to Rocky Hill, N. J. 

82. III. Annatje, b. Feb. 15, 1784 ; d. Nov. 14, 1786. 

83. IV. George (112), b. July 12, 1787; m. 1st, Catharine 

Newkirk (31), June 17, 1809 ; 2d, Maria, dau. of 
Moses Schoonraaker and wid. of Abrahana Collerd, 
Dec. — , 1857 ; 3d, Josephine Griffith, Dec. 8, 1872. 

84. V. Jannetje, b. March 14, 1790 ; m. George De Mott, Oct. 

1, 1808; d. July 14, 1826. 



85. VI. Richard (122), b. July 24, 1792; m. Margaret, dau. of 

Michael De Mott", Dec. 9, 1815. 

Claas [69] had ch. : 

86. I. Michael (183), b. July 31, 1758; m. Geertje, dau. of 

Daniel Sickles, Sept. 16, 1781 ; d. March 10, 1825 ; 
she d. July 2, 1815. By his uncle Garret's will, 
dated June 10, 1766, proved March 23, 1784, he 
received land at Aquackanonck. 

87. II. Antje, b. Feb. 28, 1762 ; ni. Jurrie Yan Ripen, of Slot- 

terdam ; marriage bond dated June 20, 1787. 

88. III. Elisabet, b. May 3(», 1764; m. Cornelius Yan Ripen 

(73) ; marriage bond dated Jan. 20, 1787 ; d. April 
8, 1788. 

89. lY. Sarah, b. Oct. 7, 1766 ; d. in inf. 

90. Y. Sally, b. Sept. 14, 1769 ; m. Jacobus Yan Buskirk 

(38), Dec. 16, 1787; d. Aug. 12, 1832. 

91. YI. Beelitje, b. April 17, 1774; m. John Westervelt, of 

Teaneck. -*p>*k. 

92. YII. Stephen (142), ^" ^ 
b. May 31, 1778 ; m. 
1st, Jenneke Yree- 
land (104), Dec. 16, 
1797; 2d, Elizabeth 
Yan Ripen (^93), Oct. 
14, 1817; 3d, Altje 
Yan Winkle (83), 
wid. of John Mande- 
ville, Nov. 29, 1828; 
4th, Ellen Schoon- 
maker, of Flatbush, 
L. I.; she d. Feb. 
14, 1849 ; 5tli, Ra- 
chel Yan Winkle, 
wid. of Thomas Yan 
Ripen (86) ; she d. 
Jan. 29~, 1851 ; 6th, 
Hannah W. Gross, widow ; d. Aug. 31, 1865. 

Cornelius [73] had ch. : 

93. 1. Michael, b. Nov. 24, 1757; If. Dirck, b. May 25, 1760 ; 

III. Cornelius, b. Sept. 20, 1762, m. Oct. 5, 1788. 

Ilelmagh [74] had ch. : 

94. I. Michael, b. Jan. 14, 1759. 

"f^r^ Jy-r>€tcoi 'Zj 




II. William (153), m. 1st, Kachel Van Buskirk (37); 2d, 
Catharine Sickles, wid. of Leonard Johnson, Oct. 
12, 1822 ; d. May 2, 1854, [et. 84 yrs. ; she d. June 
28, 1847, 5Pt. 58"yrs. 
96. III. Cornelius (159), b. in 1769 ; m. Elizabeth Van Bus- 
kirk (36); d. Sept. 2, 1824. 

Dirck [76] had ch. : 
97. I. Fitje, b. Aug. 16, 1751 ; IT. Metje, b. Oct. 31, 1754; 
III. Leya, b. Sept. 17, 175S." 

Michael [78] had ch. : 



4/ M/vf^ -r/i./^ /.4m* ^- 

I. George (167), 
b. Jan. 31, 1762; 
m. Jane Brinker- 
hoff (30), Oct. 21, 
1780; d. July 19, 

99. II. Annatje, b. 
July 19, 1764; m. 
Jasper Zabriskie, 
Au^. 17, 1781. 

100. III. Jenneke, b. 
in 1775 ; m. Dirck 
Van Ripen (74), 
Oct. 1792 ; d. July 
1, 1848. 

10 J. IV. John,b. May 
1, 17S0; m. Aegi'e 
Cadmus ( 15), March 
17, 1804; d. April 1, 1832, s. p. 

Johannis [79] had ch. : 

102. I. Michael (178), b. April 18, 1768; m. Annatje Garra- 

brant (39), Nov. 5, 1789; d. Nov. 29, 1827. 

103. II. Jannetje, b. Oct. 22,1772; m. Aaron Newkirk (25), 

Nov. — , 1791 ; d. June 4, 1830. 

104. III. Jenneke, b. Jan. 23, 1774 ; m. Stephen Vreeland (92), 

Dec. 16, 1797 ; d. Aug. 16, 1816. 

105. IV. Cornelia, b. in 1782 ; m. Garret Van Winkle (96), 

Oct. 3,1801; d. July 26, 1826. 

lyiMt ^rc^^^ 

Sixth Generation. 

Jacob [81] had ch 


106. I. Garret (184), b. Nov. 20, 1801 ; ni. Jcaiie Vreeland 

(168), Dee. 19, 1822 ; removed to Kocky Hill. 

107. II. Henry (185), b. March 23, 1804; m. Margaret Yree- 

land (164), Dec 24, 1825 ; removed to Delaware. 

108. III. George (186), b. Aii^. 3, 1807; m. Ann Vreeland 

(259), Dec. 31, 1831; removed to Lisbon, 111.; 
d. 1873. 

109. IV. John (187), b. Jan. 4, 1810 ; m. Eliza, dau. of Corne- 

lias Van Ripen, Ang. 18, 1836 ; removed to 

110. V. Cornelius (188), b. Aug. 26, 1812; m. 1st, Catharine, 

dau. of Henry Van Horn, Dec. 25, 1834 ; she d. 
March 12, 1842; 2d, Maria, dau. of Henry Vree- 
land, of Aquackanonck, April 13, 1843 ; d. Aug. 4, 

111. VI. Jacob, b. Sept. 29, 1817; m. Gitty Vreeland (227), 

Dec. 20, 1838 ; removed to Eocky Hill, N. J. 

George [83] had ch. : 

112. I. Garret (194), b. Oct. 30, 1809; m. Catharine, dau. 

of Merselis J. Merselis, Feb. 23, 1834. 

113. II. Jane, b. April 7, 1812; m. 1st, Andrew Cadmus 

(30), May 29, 1830 ; 2d, Oliver P. Smith, Kov. 26, 

114. III. Maria, b. Jan. 28, 1814 ; m. William Smith, Dec. 

14, 1833. 

115. IV. George (195), b. Oct. 8, 1816 ; m. Cathalina New- 

kirk (64), Feb. 23, 1837. 

116. V. Margaret, b. July 28, 1818 ; m. Merselis M. Parks, 

NoV. 26, 1835 ;'d. May 25, 1861. 

117. VI. Hannah, b. Jan. 10, 1820; m. John Meyers, Feb. 

22, 1837. 

118. VII. Henry (202). b. Dec. 28, 1821 ; m. Julia Ann Pharo, 

June 28, 1846 ; d. May 15, 1865. 

119. VIII. Helen, b. Dec. 22, 1823; m. Jasper Cadmus (49), 

Dec. 26, 1844. 

120. IX. Jacob, b. July 17. 1826; m. 1st, Ellen M., dau. of 

Moses Schoonmaker, of Ilochester, N. Y,, Nov. 5, 
1857; 2(1, Anne, dau. of Henry liosencamp, July 
11, 1867. 

121. X. Catharine, b. March 15, 1829; d. Sept. 16, 1832. 

Richard [85] had ch. : 

122. I. Garret (203), b. Sept. 20, 1816; m. 1st, Elizabeth 


dau. of Stephen Terhune, Sept. 27, 1S38; shed. 
July 7, 1858; 2d, Phebe Ellen, dau. of Andrew 
Kapp, Aug. 23, 1862; she d. Feb. 2, 1868; 3d, 
Mary Anna Van Eipen (155), March 5, 1869. 

128. IT. Michael D. M. (205), b. Nov. 21, 1818; ra. 1st, 

Ann, dan. of Henry Van Horn, Noy. 22, 1838 ; she 
d. April 20, 1852; 2d, Ann Elizabeth, dau. of 
Archer G. Welsh, April 1, 1854. 

124. III. Kichard C. (208), b. Dec. 14, 1820 ; m. Margaret 

Ann, dau. of Dayid Demarest, May 27, 1846 ; re- 
moved to Lodi, Bergen Co. 

125. IV. Henrv (210), b. Oct. 19, 1822; m. Elizabeth Jane, 

dau."' of Charles Musk, Feb. 25, 1852. 

126. V. Catherine C, b. May 17, 1825 ; m. Watts Burrows, 

M. D. 

127. VI. George (212), b. Noy. 3, 1827 ; m. Susan M. Vree- 

land (194). 
I'JS. VII. John, b. March 23, 1830; in. Jane, dau. of Albert 
Ackerman, Oct. 12, 1859; had ch. : I.Albert, b. 
April 19, 1866. 

129. VIII. Jane, b. July 11, 1832; d. Dec. 5, 1837. 

130. IX. Mary Anna,' b. Nov. 11, 1834; d. , 1861, unm. 

1 31. X. Jacob B. (213), b. May 11, 1837 ; m. Kate Ann, dau. 

of Archer G. Welsli', Dec. 15, 1863. 

132. XI. Peter, b. Nov. 24, 1839 ; d. May 18, 1844. 

Michael [86] had ch. : 

133. I. Catlyntje, b. Aug. 28, 1782 ; d. in inf. 

134. II, Catlyntje. b. Jan. 9, 1785 ; m. Henry Van Horn, 

Dec. 17, 1809; d. March 24, 1848. 

135. III. Antje, b. Dec. 14, 1786 ; ni. Jacob D. Van Winkle 

(84), Dec. 31, 1812; d. Feb. 19, 1866. 

136. I^. Nicholas (214), b. Feb. 20, 1789; m. 1st, Annatje, 

dau. of Edo AViinie, March 15, 1814; she b. Nov. 
3, 1794, d. July 5, 1832; 2d, Elizabeth, dau. of 
John Van Eipen, of Wesel, Sept. 21, 1834 ; d. Dec. 
23, 1873. 

137. V. Daniel (218), b. Feb. 27, 1791; m. Cornelia New- 

kirk (46), Jan. 23, 1813 ; d. Aug. 22, 1867. 
13S. VI. Garret (,225), b. Jan. 31, 1793; ni. Jannetje, dau. of 

Edo Winne, July 21, 1814; d. Oct. 1, 1858; she 

b. June 8, 1797, d. Sept. 27, 1858. 
139. Vn. Abraham (231), b. June 27, 1795 ; m. Annatje Van 

Ripen (101), Nov. 30, 1816; d. July 23, 1868. 


140. VIII. Cornelius M. (241), b. in 1798 ; m. Catharine New- 

kirk (48), Nov. 28. 1822 ; removed to Lisbon, 111. 

141. IX. Geertruy, b. Feb. 23, 1805, d. Oct. — , 1806; X. 

Guilliain, d. March 30, 1807. 

Stephen [92] had ch. : 

142. I. Antie, b. Feb. 4, 1799 ; m. Peter Y. B. Vreeland 

(160), March 16, 1816; d. June 15, 1850. 

143. II. Cornelia, b. Nov. 16, 1801 ; d. May 23, 1802. 

144. III. Elizabeth, b. March 28, 1803 ; d. Feb. 21, 1816. 

145. IV. Cornelia, b. July 2, 1806; m. Garret Wauters, Jan. 

29, 1825. 

146- V. Maria, b. Dec. 10, 1809 ; m. Peter Van Eipen, of 

Aquackanonck, Dec. 13, 1828. 

147. VI. Isabella, b. Jan 26, 1813; m. Leonard Johnson, 

Dec. 15, 1832 ; d. July 21, 1836. She had ch. : L 
Gertrude, who m. Theodore F. Morris, M. D., of 
Jersev City. 

148. Vn. Eliza, 'b. Feb. 18, 1816; m. Cornelius Cadmus of 


149. VIII. Nicholas S. (247), b. Nov. 21, 1818 ; m. Ellen Jane, 

dau. of Stephen Van Pipen, Oct. 1, 1840. 

150. IX. Fanny G., b. Feb. 27, 1821 ; X. Janet, b. Sept. 2, 

1823, d. Sept. 18, 1823. 

151. XI. Stephen B. (248), b. Dec. 21, 1824; m. Mary, dau. 

of Merselis J. Merselis, Dec. 25, 1845. 

152. XIL Helen, b. Aug. 18, 1826 ; d. Sept. — , 1826. 

WilUam [95] had ch. : 

153. I. Elizabeth, b. Dec. 16, 1794; m. John Cadmus (22), 

Dec 3, 1814. 

154. II. Margaret, m. Jasper Cadmus, Dec. 17, 1817. 

155. III. William (249), b. Dec. 2, 1801 ; m. Maria Jane, dau. 

of Cornelius Van Horn, April 25, 1822. 

156. IV. Peter V. B. (255), b. Aug. 30, 1811 ; m. Jane Van 

Horn (44), Feb. 27, 1840. 

157. V. Cornelius, m. Caroline, dau. of James Simonson, June 2, 

1838 ; d. Feb. 13, 1840, jEt. 25 yrs., 2 mos., 22 days. 

158. VI. Jane Maria, b. Sept. 23,1823 ; ni. Samuel Meyers of 

Orange county, N. Y., May 31, 1843 ; VII. Eachel 
V. B:, b. Oct! 30, 1826. 

Cornelius [96] had ch. : 

159. I. AVilliain C. (259), m. Cornelia Vreeland (180), Nov. 

30, 1814: removed to Middlebush, N. J. 



160. II. Peter V. B. (262), b. Aug. 27, 1795 ; m. Antje 

Vreeland (142), March 16, 1816 ; d. Dec. 12, 1867. 

III. Eliza, b. June 18, 1798; m. Stephen Terhune, 
June 1, 1815 ; d. March 24, 1848.^ 

IV. Cornelius C. (270), b. Nov. 26, 1800; m. Catharine, 
dau. of John Cutwater, Dec. 23, 1824; d. Dec. 17, 

V. Jane, m. Garret Vreeland (106), Dec. 19, 1822. 
VI. Margaret, m. Henry Vreeland (107), Dec. 24, 1825. 
VII. Eachel, m. Henrv J. Mandeville, Dec. 19, 1881. 

166. VIII. Ann, m. Michaef M. Vreeland (183), May 1, 183<), 

George [98] had ch. : 

167. I. Michael (274), b. Oct. 31, 1781 ; m. Aeltje, dau. of 

Guilliam Cutwater, Nov. 30, 1801 ; d. April 10, 
1828 ; she b. Dec. 11, 1781, d. in 1846. 

168. II. Hartman (282), b. March 15, 1784 ; ra. Eliza B., 






dau. of Andrew Gautier, Dec. 17, 1808; d. Feb. 
6, 1868, s. p., but had adopted his wife's nephew, 

As to Terliune, vide Genealogy of the Bergen Famili/, lOG. 


Hartman, son of Garret Van Horn (41), whose 
name "vvas chano;ed to Yreeland. 

169. III. Annetje, b. March 80, 1780 ; m. Thomas McDonald. 

170. IV. Cornelius, b. Feb. 25, 1789 : d. Jan. 16, 1813, nnm. 

171. V. John G. (283), b. Jan. 3, 1792; m. Catharine, dan. 

of Ilehnigh Van Houten, Feb. 1, 1817; d. July 
17, 1832 ; she d. Oct. 10, 1849. 

172. VI. Claesje, b. Dec. 26, 1794; m. George Van Eipen 

(71),' of Slotterdani, July 23, 1814. 

173. VII. Jacob, b. Oct. 11, 1797 ;' d. Dec. 9, 1797. 

174. VIII. Henry (287), b. Oct. 11, 1797 ; ra. Lucinda, dau. of 

Cornelius Jerolamon, May 28, 1820. 

175. IX. Jacob, b. July 5, 1800 ; d'. in inf. 

176. X. Garret (296), b. June 26, 1803 ; m. Mary, dau. of 

Baker Smith, May 15, 1824 ; d. Feb. 10, 1852. 

177. XI. Jacob, b. March 9' 1809; d. Feb. 1, 1811. 

Michael [102) had ch. : 

178. I. Lybertje, b. Aug. 14, 1790; ra. George Cadmus (21), 

Nov. 14, 1812. 

179. II. John M. (301), b. Sept. 30, 1792; m. 1st, Kachel, 

dau. of Nicholas Mandeville, Nov. 19, 1818; she 
d. Aug. 23, 1853, a^t. 53 yrs., 9 mos., 6 days; 2d, 
Ellen Schwab; d. July 18. 1864. 
18(1. III. Cornelia, b. Dec. 24, 1794 ; m. William C. Vreeland 
(159), Nov. 30, 1814. 

181. IV. Annatje, b. March 4,1797; m. Nicholas C. Prior, 

Dec. 30, 1818; d. Feb. 6, 1866. 

182. V. Myndert (305), b. July 1,1800; m. 1st, Catharine, 

'dau. of Jasper Cadmus (29), Jan. 18, 1823 ; 2d, 
Annatje Van Ripen (110), Nov. 24, 1836 ; removed 
to Rocky Hill. 

183. VI. Michael (311), b. Dec. 3, 1807; m. Ann Vreeland 

(166), May 1, 1830 ; removed to Rocky Hill. 

Seventh Generation. 

Garret [106] had ch. : 

184. I. Jacob, b. Dec. 25, 1828; II. Elizabeth Catharine, b. 

Nov. 7, 1831 ; III. Jacob Henry, b. Oct. 11, 1834, 
d. March 8, 1855; IV. Margaret Amelia, b. Jan. 
19, 1836. 

Henry [107"1 had eh. : 


185. I. William Henry, b. Nov. 19, 1830; II. Catharine Jane, 

b. Feb. 3,' 1839. 

George [108] had eh. : 

186. I. Jacob, b. Dee. 11, 1832; II. Cornelia Elizabeth, b. 

July 23, 1835 ; III. William Henry, b. Feb. 15, 
1838 ; IV. Catharina, b. Au^?. 29, 1842 ; V. Anna, b. 
Feb. 10, 1845, m. Jacob M. Van Winkle (163), 
Feb. 26, 1862 ; YI. Cornelius, b. Aug. 12, 1849 ; 
VII. Martin L., b. Nov. 18, 1852. 

John [109] had ch.: 

187. I. John Ilenrv, b. Aug. 7, 1839 ; II. Hannah V. B., b. 

Nov. 29, 1841 ; III. Cornelius V. R., b. Dec. 20, 

Cornelius [110] had ch. : 

188. I. Jacol), b. Nov. 7, 1836 ; m. Mary Jane Voorhis, Dec. 

29, 1858; removed to Princeton. 

189. II. Cathalina, b. March 8, 1838; m. Eobert B. String- 


190. III. Henry V. H., b. Jan. 1, 1840; removed to Brooklyn. 

191. IV. Cornelius, b. May 16, 1844 ; d. July 25, 1845. 

192. V. Amelia Ann, b. Jan. 16, 1846 ; d. March 15, 1867. 

193. VI. Eliza Jane, b. May 13, 1848; m. Theodore R. Cad- 

mus (86), Dec. 31, 1865. 

Garret [112] had ch. : 

194. I. Susan M., b. Jan. 25, 1840; m. George E. Vreeland 


George [115] had ch. : 

195. I. Sophia Jane, b. Dec. 7, 1837; m. Andrew Cadmus 

(71), Oct. 28, 1859. 

196. II. Cathalina, b. Aug. 26, 1839; m. Peter S. Van Winkle 

(157), Dec. 26, 1861. 

197. III. George W., b. June 3, 1842; m. Helen G., dau. 

of Oliver P. Smith, Jan. 15, 1868; had ch. : I. 
Jennie, d. in inf; II. Catharine. 

198. IV. Eacliel Emma, b. July 13, 1844. 

199. V. Mary Frances, b. Sept. 4^ 1847; m. Peter C. Vree- 

land (353), June 28, 1870. 

200. VI. Francis N., b. Sept. 17, 1849 ; d. in inf. 

201. VII. Jefferson, b. Sept. 12, 1851; VIII. Oliver P., b.. 


Oct. 10, 1853; IX. Ferdinand, b. March 14, 


Henry [118] had cli. : 

202. I. Mary C, b. Oct. 21, 1851 ; IT. Julia A., b. Feb. 19, 

1854; III. Annie W., b. Aug. 18, 1856; lY. 
George H., b. Dec. 15, 1859 ; Y. Helen J., b. Dec. 
24, 1861 ; YI. Henry G., b. June 23, 1865. 

Garret K. [122] had ch. : 

203. I. Eliza Jane, b. Dec. 28, 1839; m. John D. Eomaine, 

Dec. 18, 1860. 

204. II. Stephen T., d. in inf. 

Michael D. M. [123] had ch. : 

205. I. Catharine Jane, b. Nov. 22, 1843 ; m. John H. Car- 

ragan, Sept. — , 1869. 

206. II. Peter, b. April 11, 1845 ; ra. Hannah, dau. of 

Archer G. Welsh, Dec. 14, 1869; had ch. : I. 
Reuben C b. May 11, 1872. 

207. III. Abraham B., b. Jan."21. 1848; lY. Margaret Louisa, 

b. Nov. 22, 1851 ; Y. Lycenia D. M., b. Nov. 11, 
1855; YI. Joseph W.,'b. Nov. 16, 1858; YII. 
Henry B., b. Dec. 25, 1860, d. Au^. 17,1867; 
YIIL William P., b. Au^. 11, 1862; tX. Wallace, 
b. March 20, 1865; X. Ella, b. March 31. 1867; 
XL Matthew, b. April 20, 1870. 

Richard C. [124] had ch. : 

208. I. James C, b. May 7, 1847; m. Mary Elizabeth, 

dau. of Henry Norman, of Englewood, Sept. 28, 

209. II. Henry R.. b. June 1, 1850; III. David D., b. Oct. 

21', 1853; lY. Margaret R., b. June 8. 1856; 

Y. George W., b. Au^. 21, 1858; YL Lavinia, 

b. Jan. 1, 1861; YII. William P., b. July 9, 

Henry [125] had ch. : 

210. I. Mary Marcrretta, b. May 26, 1853; m. Garret Van 

Horn (63), April 22,1873. 

211. II. Kate C., b. July 2, 1855, d. Nov. 3, 1857; IIL 

Emma Elizabeth, b. April 8, 1857; lA^. Hamilton, 
b. March 23, 1859 ; Y. AnnaB., b. Feb. 27, 1861 ; 
YI. Richard, b. Sept. 21, 1864, d. Oct. 18, 1S65; 


VII. Charles M., b. Jan. 1(1, 1867 ; VIII. Henry, 
b. March 18, 1870. 

George [127] had ch. : 

212. I. Catharine Anna, b. Ang. 5, 18(52 ; II. George B., b. 
Oct. 10, 1870, d. May 21, 1871. 

Jacob B. [181] had ch.: 

218. Edgar, b. Jan. 4, 1865 ; II. Lena, b. Dec. 22, 1868; III. 
Cliarles Winfield, b. Jan. 26, 1870. 

Nicholas [186] had ch. : 

214. I. Nicholas, b. Aug. 7, 1816; d. Aug. 14, 1817. 

215. II. Nicholas, b. April 8, 1886; d. March 13, 1887. 

216. III. John V. R. (820), b. Dec. 8, J 887; m. Anna Maria 

Newldrk (107), Oct. 16, 1861. 

217. IV. Gitty Ann, b. March 14, 1841 ; m. Samuel D. Tomp- 

kins, Jan. 2, 1868. 

Daniel [137] had ch. : 

218. I. Jane, b. Nov. 15, 1813 ; m. Cornelius Brinkerhoff (41), 

Dec. 16, 1830. 

219. II. Michael D. (321), b. Jan. 31, 1817; ra. Rachel, dan. 

of John Sturge, Dec. 3, 1885. 

220. III. Aaron N. (326), b. Dec. 4, 1819; m. Eliza, dau. of 

Isaac Pow, Dec. 12, 1844. 

221. IV. Gitty S., b. April 17, 1822 ; m. John B. Welsh, June 

29, 1843. 

222. V. Cornelius V. R. (380), b. July 24, 1825 ; m. Susannah 

Jane, dau. of Henry Smith, Dec. 31, 1849. 

223. VI. Nicholas D. t831), b.'Feb. 2(), 1828 ; m. Catharine, 

dau. of John Zabriskie, Sept. 20, 1848. 

224. VII. Daniel S., b. Nov. 1, 1881 ; ni. Sarah Catharine, dau. 

of Thomas Anderson. 

Garret [138] had ch. : 

225. I. Garret (332), b. Nov. 26, 1814 ; m. Catharine Van 

Buskirk (61), Oct. 22, 1834. 

226. II. Jane, b. July 9, 1818 ; d. Sept. 6, 1818. 

227. III. Gitty, b. Jan. 7, 1820; m. Jacob J. Vreeland (111), 

Dec. 20, 1838. 

228. IV. Anna Jane, b. Jan. 27, 1822 ; m. Michael J. Vreeland 

(80n, Dec. 17, 1840. 


229. V. Nicholas, b. Feb. 1, 1826 ; d. Sept. IG, 1847, iinm. 

230. VI. Abraham, h. June 21, 1835 ; d. July 29, 1835. 

Abraham [139] had ch. : 

231. I. Kichard, b. Jan. 16, 1818; d. Sept 3, 1818. 

232. II. Michael (340), b. April 3, 1819; ni. Rachel Cadmus 

(48), Jan. 31, 1839; d. March 19, 1849. 

233. III. Richard, b. July 29, 1820; m. Eleanor P., dan. of 

John S. Winner, Dec. 20, 1841 ; she d. May 17, 
1843 ; had ch. : I. Eleanor P. W., b. April 30, 
1843; d. in inf. 

234. IV. Abraham (346), b. Jan. 13, 1822; m. Rachel, dau. 

of John Yreeland (285), Oct. 18, 1845. 

235. V. Nicholas, b. Aug. 26, 1825 ; d. Feb. 13, 1847, 


236. VI. Cornelius (347), b. Feb. 16, 1828 ; m. Mary, dau. of 

Garret Newkirk (80), Sept. 19, 1849 ; removed to 
Wyekotf, Bergen Co. 

237. VII. Eliza Jane, b. Oct. 21, 1829; m. Henry N. Van 

Wagenen (49), May 12, 1849; d. Oct. 22, 1866. 

238. VIII. Garret, b Dec. 22, 1831. 

239. IX. Gitty, b. May 21, 1833 ; m. George Newkirk (54), 

Dec. 3, 1854. 

240. X. Hannah, b. May 20, 1839 ; m. Garret Vreeland 

(333), Nov. 3, 1859. 

Cornelius M. [140] had ch. : 

241. I. Jane N., b. Oct. 28, 1824 ; m. John Van Pelt. 

242. II. (4itty Ann, b. June 9, 1827 ; m. Abraham Van Ripen, 

oi'N. Y., Oct. 1, 1851. 

243. III. Caroline, b. Sept. 13, 1829 ; m. Isaac Van Ripen, of 

N. Y. 

244. IV. Hannah W., b. June 1, 1832; m. Richard C. Van 

Buskirk (76), Dec. 31, 1849. 

245. V. Cornelius, b. July 4, 1834; m. Rebecca Brown. 

246. VI. Garret; VII. Cornelia; VIII. Sarah Catharine. 

Nicholas S. [1491 l>ad ch. : 

247. I. Sophia Elizabeth, b. Nov. 23, J 843; II. Stephen, b. 

March 17, 1846, d. Oct. 31, 1851 ; HI. Ann 
Maria, b. Jan. 29, 1848, d. April 26, 1851; IV. 
Benjamin F., b. Nov. 14, 1850, d. April 29, 1854; 
V. Stephen B., b. Jan. 22, 1853; VI. Ann Hel- 
ena, b. May 9, 1855; VII. Allie Teresa, b. Dec. 


24, 1S57; VIII. Jennie, b. Au<;. .5, 1803, d. Aug. 
15, 1808. 

Stephen B, 1 151J liad eh. : 

248. I. Elizabeth C, b. Feb. 16, 1847, d. Dcr. 28, 1860 ; II. 

Susanna, b. May 6, 1851 ; III. Stephen S., b. Nov. 
22, 1854; IV. Fanny G., b. Oct. 17, 1856. 

William [155] liad ch. : 

249. I. William (349), b. Jan. 5, 1823; m. Euphemia B. 

Vreeland (298), Nov. 26, 1846. 

250. II. Cornelius V. H. (350), b. Oct. 27, 1824 ; m. Rachel 

Jane, dan. of Nicholas x\ckerman, Jan. 27, 1853. 

251. III. Sarah, b. Dec. 7, 1826 ; m. Anthony Dougherty, June 

4, 184(); d. Aug. 23, 1855. 

252. IV. Ira C. B., b. Nov. 22, 1829 ; d. Dee. 21, 1S5S, unm. 

He and-his brother Jacob were drowned in New- 
ark Bay. 

253. V. Bachel Catharine, b. April 22, 1832 ; m. Richard C. 

Van Ripen (150), May 27, 1852. 

254. VI. Jacob C. D., b. Aug. 6, 1835, d. Dec. 21, 1858, unm. 

Feter V. B. [156] had ch. : 

255. I. Ann R., b. March 11, 1841 ; d. July 16, 1850. 

256. 11. Rachel Jane, b. Oct. 13, 1842. 

257. III. Cornelius, b. Aug, 21, 1844; ni. Alice L., dau, of 

Alonzo Nutt, Nov. 18, 1868 ; had ch. : I. Jennie 
Louise, b. Nov. 2, 1872. 

258. IX. Agnes V. II., b. Sept. 6, 1848; V. Anna, b. Dec. 12, 

ls51; VI. AYashington, b. Aug. 13, 1856. 

William C. [159] had eh. : 

259. I. Ann, b. April 21, 1815; m. George Vreeland (108), 

Dec. 31, 1831. 

260. II. Michael (351); m. Jane D., dau. of Walter Woods, 

March 7, 1839 ; removed to Middlebush, N. J. 

261. III. Cornelius, b. July 22, 1816; d. July 1, 1828. 

Feter V. B. [160] had ch.: 

262. I. Cornelius (352), b. June 28. 1821 ; m. Ann Eliza- 

beth Van F>uskirk (04), Dec. 3, 1841. 

263. II. Jennet, b. July 31, 1823; m. 1st, Freeman Atkins, 

Dec. 11, 184(»; 2d, Anderson. 

264. III. Elizabeth, b. June 10, 1825; m. Nicholas Van Bus- 

kirk (56), March 16, 1843. 


265. ly. Margaret Ann, b. Aug. 21, 1827 ; m. Henry C. Post, 

Nov. 4, 1847. 

266. V. Cornelia H., b. Oct. 25, 1829 ; YI. Mary Jane, b. 

Feb. 23, 1832. 

267. VII. Rachel Aletta, b. March 27, 1834; m. William 

Elsworth, Jan. 20, 1864 ; d. March 18, 1869. 

268. VIII. Gitty Catharine, b. May 28, 1836 ; d. Nov. 20, 1839. 

269. IX. William P., b. Oct. 15, 1840 ; d. Sept. 12, 1849. 

Cornelius [162] had cli. : 

270. I. Cornelius, b. Dec. 6, 1825 ; d. Jan. 23, 1826. 

271. II. Ellen, b. Nov. 26, 1828; d. Aug. 11, 1849, unm. 

272. III. EHzabeth V. B., b. Oct. 29, 1834 ; m. Amos Harrison, 

March 6, 1852. 

273. lY. John O., b. Sept. 27, 1845 ; m. Maria E., dau. of Geo. 

Cozine, May 2, 1868 ; had ch. : I. Ellen, b. Sept. 
24, 1869. 

Michael [167] had ch. : 

274. I. George, b. Jan. 25, 1802 ; m. Hannah Tise. 

275. II. Anna, b. Feb. 17, 1805 ; m. Tennis Yan Pelt, Sept. 

21 1826 

276. III. Gilliam, b. Feb. 19, 1807; d. in inf. 

277. lY. Jacob M. (355), b. June 8, 1808 ; m. Jane, dau. of 

John Yan Clief, May 8, 1830 ; she b. Oct. 8, 1808. 

278. Y. Jane, b. Aug. 22, 1810; m. John Housman, Dec. 


279. YI. Matilda, b. Jan. 6, 1813 ; m. Andrew P. Simonson, 

June 11, 1831. 

280. YII. Cornelius, b. June 25, 1816 ; m. Susan, dau. of 

Paul Salter, Sept. 7, 1839 ; removed to Young 
America, 111. 

281. Yin. Hartman (364), b. Nov. 8, 1823; m. Seny, dau. of 

Clayton Cranmer, of Egg Harbor, Jan. 20, 1844. 

Hartman [168] had ch. (by adoption) : 

282. I. Hartman (368), b. Dec. 7, 1826; m. Margaret Cadmus 

(65), June 1, 1853. Vide Yan Horn family (41). 

John G. [171] had ch. : 

283. I. Jane B., b, June 14, 1818; m. Michael Terhune, 

March 19, 1835. 

284. II. Catharine, b. May 14, 1824; m. Jasper Cubberly, 

June 3, 1840; d. April 2, 1841. 


"liSo. III. Rachel, b. March 18,1827; m. Abraham Vreeland 

(234), Oct. 18, 1845. 
280. lY. Eliza Ann, b. Oct. 19, 1829 ; m. Michael Vreeland 

(300), Feb. 2, 1848 ; d. March 24, 1801. ' 

Henry [174] had ch. : 

287. I. Jane, b. Oct. 17, 1821 ; m. John Salter, Oct. 19, 


288. II. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 28, 1824; m. Cornelius La Tou- 

rette. May 29, 1841. 

289. III. Cornelius, b. Dec. 24, 1827 ; m. Catharine Ann, dau. 

of Israel Decker, June 10, 1857. 

290. IV. Joim, b. May 12, 1830; m. Jane B., dau. of 

Thomas McDonald, March 27. 1850 ; had ch. : I. 
Thomas McD., b. March 1, 1857 ; d. March 1, 1860. 

291. V. George, b. Aug. 17, 1832 ; m. Eleanor Ann, dau. 

of John Corsen, of Staten Island, June 27, 1855; 
had ch. : I. Irwin, b. Dec. 22, 1861. 

292. VI. Mary Ann, b. Sept. 6, 1834 ; d. Feb. 21, 1861, unm. 

293. VII. Garret (369), b. Oct. 21, 1836 ; m. 1st, Isabella Dar- 

ling, March 2, 1858 ; 2d, Rebecca Jane, dau. of 
Stewart H. McFarlane, March 9, 1861. 

294. VI 11. Hartman, b. Jan. 27, 1839 ; d. July 22, 1842. 

295. IX. Sarah Catharine, b. May 2, 1841 ; m. Addis Rino, 

Aug. 12, 1860; d. March 27, 1869. 

Garret [170] had ch. : 

296. I. Elizabeth, b. April 7, 1825, m. John Post, May — , 


297. II. John, b. July 22, 1820 ; d. July 28, 1820. 

298. III. Euphemia B., b. Aug. 12, 1827 ; m. William W. Vree- 

land (249), Nov. 20, 1840. 

299. IV. Phebe Ann, b. Sept. 15, 1829; m. David Pollock, 

Nov. 11, 1869. 

300. V. George (370), b. Sept. 6, 1831 ; m. 1st, Cornelia Vree- 

land (323), March 24, 1858; 2d, Rachel, dau. of 
Amos Salter, and wid. of George Malcolm, March 
26, 1868. 

John M. [179] had ch. : 

301. I. Michael J., b. Sept. 3, 1819 ; m. Anna Jane Vreeland 

(228), Dec. 17, 1840; removed to Rocky Hill ; was 
a member of the Assembly of N. J., from Hudson 


302. II. Elizabeth, b. May 14, 1822 ; m. Winfield Stringliam, 

March 4, 184Y. 

303. III. Hannah, b. Oct. 19, 1824 ; m. Garret Bush, Dec. 3, 


304. lY. Nicholas (371), b. April 8,1827; m. Martha Cad- 

mus (47), Nov. 8, 1848 ; d. April 20, 1857. 

Mindert [182] had ch. : 

305. I. Catharine, b. June 12, 1824 ; d. Oct. 12, 1840. 

306. II. Michael, b. Nov. 19, 1826; ra. Eliza Ann Yreeland 

(286), Feb. 2, 1848. 

307. III. Hannah, b. Jan. 13, 1829; m. Andrew Van Horn, 

Feb. 3, 1848. 
3(i8. IV. Jasper, b. Aug;. 1, 1832 ; m. Ann Maria, dau. of 
Tennis Van Pelt, April 5, 1854. 

309. V. John, b. Jan. 13, 1834; m. Sophia Van Cleef ; re- 

moved to Millstone, N. J. 

310. VI. Jacob, b. Aug. 2, 1839 ; m. Louisa, dau. of Jeremiah 

W. Updyke ; removed to Kocky Hill. 

Michael [183] had ch. : 

311. I. Michael (373), b. Sept. 28, 1831; m. Catherine 

Sarah, dau. of Jeremiah Skillman, Nov. 18, 1863. 

312. II. Elizabeth, b. Oct. 24, 1833 ; m. Henry H. Brinker- 

hoff (53), June 6, 1855. 

313. III. Cornelius, b. Sept. 8, 1835 ; d. in inf. 

314. IV. William, b. March 19, 1837 ; d. in inf. 

315. V. Cornelius, b. June 1, 1838; ni. Emma N., dau. of 

Wesley Morris, Oct. 8, 1862 ; had ch. : I. Emma 
M., b." July 14, 1866. 

316. VI. John Henrv, b. Oct. 31, 1840; d. Aug. 26, 1841. 

317. VII. Mindert, b." Nov. 11, 1842; m. Elizabeth, dau. of 

Garret Mandeville, Nov. 18, 1866 ; had ch. : I. 
Gitty Ann, b. June 24, 1870. 

318. VIII. Stephen T., b. July 15, 1846; d. July 6, 1865. 

319. IX. Annetta, b. Feb. 26, 1854. 

Eighth Generation. 

John V. R. [216] had ch. : 

320. I. Anna Louisa, b. Aug. 6, 1862 ; II. John Edwin, b. 

Sept. 14, 1864 ; IIL Frank, b. Aug. 5, 1870. 

Michael D. [219 ] had ch. : 

321. I. Jane P., b. Aug. 21, 1836 ; d. in inf. 



322. II. Abigail P., b. Nov. 13, 1837 ; m. John G. Wauters, 

Dec. 13, 1854 ; previous to her marriage her name 
was changed to Post, by act of the Legislature. 

323. III. Cornelia, b. Oct. 11, 1840 ; m. George Vreeland (300), 

March 24, 1858 ; d. March 26, 1863. 

324. IV. Rachel Ann S., b. March 3, 1843 ; m. George Y. N. 

Van Duyn, Oct. 11, 1871. 

325. V. Jane, b. Oct. 26, 1844, d. in inf. ; VI. Eunice, b. 

Oct. 19, 1846, d. Nov. 16, 1863 ; VII. Daniel, b. 
Dec. 2, 1848, d. in inf. ; VIII. Susan Jane, b. July 
1, 1854. 

Aaron N. [220] had ch. : 

326. I. Sarah Jane, b. July 26, 1845 ; m. Augustus Jackson. 

327. II. Cornelia Ann, b. Jan. 13, 1847; m. Frederick V. L. 

Voorhis, Feb. 1,1865. 

328. III. Gitty Catharine, b. Jan. 4, 1849 ; ra. Nicholas P. 

Allen, Aug. 10, 1869. 

329. IV. Daniel A., d. Dec. 3, 1870, set. 18 years 2 mos. ; V. 

Rachel G. ; VI. Susan. 

Cornelius V. R. [222] had ch. : 

330. I. Cornelia Ann; II. Matilda; III. Garret; IV. Corne- 

lius ; V. Cornelia. 

Nicholas D. [223] had ch. : 

331. I. MaryLavinia, b. Aug. 22, 1850; 11. Jane; III. Cath- 

arine ; IV. John. 

Garret [225] hadch.: 

332. I. Catharine Jane, b, Oct. 8, 1835 ; m. Andrew A. 

Rapp, April 6, 1853. 

333. II. Garret (374), b. Dec. 19, 1837; m. Hannah Vree- 

land (240), Nov. 3, 1859. 

334. III. Sarah Arabella, b. Dec. 10, 1840 ; d. June 16, 1843. 

335. IV. Anna Elizabeth, b. July 28, 1843. 

336. V. John V. B. (375), b. Sept. 6, 1845 ; m. 1st, Lilla 

H.,dau. of Ira H. Taylor, April 16, 1868; she d. 
June 5, 1870; 2d, Mary, sister of his first wife,' 
Jan. 16, 1872. 

337. VI. Lawrence M., b. June 21, 1849 ; d. July 29, 1850. 

338. VII. Nicholas G., b. June 21, 1849; m. Catharine Van 

Wagenen (54), April 12, 1871 ; had ch. : I. Henrv 
Garret, b. Oct. 4, 1873, d. Dec. 25, 1873. 

339. VIII. Edward W., b. Feb. 22, 1855. 


Michael [232] had ch. : 

340. I. Ann, b. Oct. 29, 1840. 

341. II. Abraham, m. Eleanor F., dau. of Abraham Rapp, 

April 3, 1865. 

342. III. Jasper C, b. May 15, 1843 ; m. 1st, Ellen E., dau. of 

Henry Mandeville, Nov. 19,1865 ; she d. July 16, 
1867 ; 2d, Mary E. Lewis, July 19, 1871 ; d. Nov. 

3, 1873, s. p. 

343. IV. Jane, d. Dec. 10, 1845, set. 10 mos., 18 days. 

344. V. Margaret, b. Oct. 5, 1845 ; m. George Carragan, Aug. 

15, 1866. 

345. VI. Rachel, b. May 31, 1848. 

Abraham [234] had ch. : 

346. I. Hartman, b. Dec. 1, 1848 ; m. Letty J., dau. of John 

V. H. Clendenny, April 8, 1872; had ch. : I. , 

b. Oct. 20, 1870'. 

Cornelius [236] had eh. : 

347. I. Rachel, b. March 5, 1851 ; m. John D. Board, Sept. 

4, 1872. 

348. II. Marv Catharine, b. Jan. 21, 1853 ; III. Lewis, b. 

March 19, 1856; IV. Edgar, b. Feb. 11, 1860. 

William [249] had ch. : 

349. . I. Cornelius V. H., b. Sept. 6, 1847 ; II. Mary Elizabeth, 

b. March 12, 1849, d. Oct. 25, 1851 ; III. Garret 
G., b. April 7, 1850 ; IV. George, b. March 5, 
1853 ; V. Ira C. B., b. April 28, 1856 ; VI. Jacob 
C. D., b. Aug. 29, 1859 ; VII. William, b. Feb. 2, 
1862; VIII. Phebe Ann, b. Dec. 31, 1864; IX. 
Hartman, b. Oct. 24, 1867. 

Cornelius V. H. [250] had ch. : 

350. I. William Henry, b. July 14, 1858 ; II. John Jacob, b. 

Oct. 14, 1862 ; III. Bertha Celesta, b. Nov. 11, 1868. 

Michael [260] had ch. : 

351. L William, b. Feb. 25, 1840 ; IL Sarah Ann, b. April 10, 

1841 ; III. Eliza Jane, b. May 23, 1842 ; IV. 
Sarah, b. May 1, 1844; V. Eleanor Ann, b. July 
20, 1846 ; VL Cornelia, b. Dec. 23, 1848 ; VII. 
Mary Frances, b. Oct. 15, 1850; VIII. Ruth Al- 
mira, b. Feb. 9, 1853 ; d. Oct. 10, 1854. 


Cornelius [262] had ch. : 

352. I. John Henry (377), b. Sept. 14, 1844 ; m. Anne E., 

dau. of David L. Tan Horn, Dec. 24, 1863. 

353. II. Peter C.,b. March 16, 1847 ; m. Mary Frances Yree- 

land (199), June 28, 1870; had'ch. : I. George 
Francis, h. Oct. 30, 1872. 

354. III. William P., b. Jan. 1, 1850; lY. Sarah Arabella, b. 

Dec. 2, 1853. 

Jacob M. [277] had ch. : 

355. I. Gertrude Ann, b. Dec. 8, 1830; m. 1st, Jasper 

Garretson, Nov. 6, 1850 ; 2d, Horace H. Driggs ; 
he d. Feb. 3, 1865. 

356. II. Eliza Jane, b. Nov. 8, 1832 ; m. Henry Iv. Yan 

Horn, Dec. 25, 1850. 

357. III. Michael G., b. May 23, 1835 ; m. Joanna, dau. of 

John N. Yan Buskirk (98), March 25, 1869. 

358. lY. Mary, b. Nov. 30, 1837 ; m. John Huddleston. 

359. Y. John, b. Nov. 25, 1839 ; ni. Anna, dau. of Abraham 

Simmons, Nov. 11, 1863. 

360. YI. Sarah, b. Sept. 29, 1842; m. William Hageman. 

361. YII. Jacob M., b. Aug. 11, 1844 ; m. Fanny Eichards. 

362. YIII. Cornelius, b. March 28, 1847; d. July — , 1850. 

363. IX. William Henry, b. March 18, 1850. 

Hartman [281] had ch. : 

364. I. Ezra C, b. July 23, 1845; d. Sept. 14, 1846. 

365. II. Ann Matilda, b. Jan. 20, 1847; m. AVilliam Sand- 

ford, Oct. 10, 1867. 

366. III. Garadata A., b. March 29, 1849 ; lY. Edwin P., b. 

Nov. 4, 1851, d. in inf. 

367. Y. Jane K., b. Aug. 23, 1855 ; YI. Hartman M., b. Nov. 

23, 1858. 

Hartman [282] had ch. : 

368. I. Crossfield G., b. Oct. 20, 1855 ; II. Philip E., b. Sept. 

27, 1857; III. Kichard E., b. Nov. — , 1859. 

Garret [293] had ch. : 

369. I. Thomas G., b. Feb. 23, 1862 ; II. Charles S., b. Jan. 

14, 1864; III. Madeline, b. June 8, 1866. 

George [300] had ch. : 

370. I. Pvachel Ann, b. March 30, 1859, d. Feb. 25, 1861 ; II. 

Garret, b. Oct. 24, 1860. 


Nicholas [304] liad ch. : 

371. I. Eachel Elizabeth, b. Nov. 26, 1850; m. George Henry 

Cadmus (100), Oct. 20, 1870. 

372. II. Catharine Ann,'b. June 2, 1853; III. Nicholas, b. 

April 5, 1857. 

Michael [311] had ch. : 

373. I. Mary Annetta, b. Feb. 22, 1865 ; II. Cornelius, b. May 

'31, 1870. 

Ninth Oeneration. 

Garret [333] had ch. : 

374. I. Anna Jane, b. Nov, 16, 1861 ; d. Aug. 4, 1862 ; II. 

Edwin, b. Aug. 10, 1864; d. July 26, 1865; III. 
Garret, b. JulV 21, 1868 ; d. Nov. 9, 1871 ; lY. 
John H., b. Jan. 16, 1870; Y. Charles Henrj, b. 
Sept. 2, 1873 ; d. Dec. 31, 1873. 

John Y. B. [336] had ch. : 

375. I. John P., b. May 19, 1870; d. July 11, 1870. 

John Henry [352] had ch. : 

376. I. Anna, b. June 6, 1865; II. Cornelius Peter, b. March 

4, 1868; III. Arabella, b. Feb. 10, 1870; lY. 
David L., b. Sept. 30, 1872. 

Yan "Winckel — Yan Winkel — Yan Winkle. 

This name is derived from winhel, a corner, square, shop. 
Winkelier was a shopkeeper. The ancestor was a shop or store- 
keeper. Its present orthography is comparatively modern. The 
family settled in Ilarsimus shortly after their arrival in this 
country. They came from Middleburgh, the capital of Zealand, 
one of the United Provinces. The city was on the island Wal- 
cheren, about forty miles S.W. of Rotterdam, well built and 
populous, with a line harbor and a proHtable trade. 

I have not ascertained the names of the parents of the three 
boys and two girls who seem to have made up this family. Their 
names were Jacob, Waling, Symon, Annetje and Grietje : their 
patronymic being Jacobse — children of Jacob. Jacob was the 
founder of the family in the county of Hudson. Waling and 
Symon were of the company from Bergen wlio, in 167J>, pur- 


chased and afterward settled " Ilaquequenuiick," Aquackanonck, 
now Passaic. They were the founders of the family at that 
place. The name was formerly written Van Winckel. 

1. Jacob (4), m. 1st, Aeltje Daniels, wid., Dec. 15, 1675 ; she 

d. June 2, 1692; 2d, Grietje Hendricks Hollinge, 
March 26, 1695; d. Nov. 20, 1724; shed. Sept. 
20, 1732. 

2. Waling (14), m. Catharina Michielse, March 15, 1671. His 

wife was yet living at the date of his will, Nov. 1, 

3. Symon (21), m. Annetie Sip (4), Dec. 15, 1675. His will, 

dated June 1*9, 1722, was proved Feb. 24, 1732. 

His wife Avas living at the date of the will. 
Annetje, m. Johannis Steynmets, Dec. 1, 1676. 
Grietje, m. Elias Michielse Vreeland (2), of " Gemoenepa,'' 

Aug. 30, 1665. 

Second Generation. 

Jacob Jacobse [1] had ch. : 

4. I. Jacob, b. Sept. 19, 1676; m. Fitje Poulis, March 6, 

Margrietje, b. Oct. 22, 1678 ; m. Abraham Yreeland 

(14), Oct. 28, 1699. 
Daniel (33), b. Julv 28, 1681 ; m. 1st, Rachel Straat- 

maker, May 11, 1707 ; she d. March 12, 1708 ; 2d, 

Jannetje Yreeland (48), Sept. 3, 1709; d. Jan. 10, 

lY. Johannis (38), b. June 25, 1686 ; m. Fitje Hendrickse 

Banta, April 19, 1713 ; moved to Belleville. 
Simeon, b. Jan. 22, 1689 ; m. Jannetje Alger, of 

Hackensack, May 27, 1710. 
(Son), b. April 10,' 1692 ; d. in inf. 
Hendrick (41), b. Jan. 20, 1696; m. Catrintje AVal- 

dron. May 26, 1726 ; d. May 28, 1767. 
Trintje, b. Jan. 14, 1697 ; m. Myndert Gerbrantse 

(lo), May 7, 1715 ; d. July 21, 1753. 
Tennis, b.'Dec. 21, 1698; d. in inf. 
Samuel, b. Jan. 5, 1705 ; d. May 2, 1754. 

Waling Jacobse [2] had ch, : 
14. I. Annetje, m. Hermanns G. Yan Wagenen (5), Oct. 6, 

















15. 11. Jacob, m. Geertruyt Brickers, of Albany, Oct. 30, 

1697 ; had ch. : I. Wyntje. 

16. III. Michael, bap. April 27, 1677 ; d. unm. ; his will was 

dated May 21, 1748. 

17. IV. Trintje, bap. March 25, 1680 ; m. Egbert Sanderse, of 

Staten Island, Sept. 16, 1709. 

18. V. Johannis (47), m. Hillecront Sip (7), Sept. 30, 1710. 

19. VI. Sarah, ra. Garret Van Vorst (14), May 22, 1714. 

20. VII. Abraham, bap. April 22, 1690; his name is not men- 

tioned in his father's will of Nov. 1, 1717. 

Symon Jacobse [3] had ch. : 

21. I. Margrietje, bap. 1676 ; m. Martin Winne, Oct. 30, 

1697. He was b. in Albany in 1685 ; d. at Ber- 
gen, July 8, 1737. He was the son of Levinus 
Winne, and founder of the Winner family in Hud- 
son County. 

22. II. Jacob, bap. Aug. 9, 1678 ; a member of the church 

at Aquackanonck in 1725 ; m. Jacomyntje Mat- 
tlieuse Van Nieuwkerck (4), April 21, 1701. 

23. III. Johannis (50), b. Aug. 18, 1682; m. Magdalena 

Spier. His will was dated at Elizabethtown, June 
13, 1759. 

24. IV. Simon, bap. Aug. 6, 1686; m. 1st, Pryntje Van 

Giesen ; 2d, Antje Pieterse, wid., March 3, 1734 ; 
had ch. : I. Jenneke, b. Oct. 9, 1728 ; II. Helena, 
b. Feb. 24, 1730. 

25. V. Trintje, b. April 2, 1688 ; m. Isaac E. Vreeland (16), 

March 23, 1706. 

26. VI. Kachel, bap. Oct. — , 1690 ; m. Johannis Koeiman, 

of Albany, March 13, 1708. 

27. VII. Arie, b. at Constable's Hoeck ; m. Annetje, dau. of 

Tades Michielse, Oct. 27, 1705 ; had ch.: I. Tades, 
m. Catharina Bord. Dec! 17, 1736 ; II. Antje, m. 
Joris Bord, Jan. lO', 1730. 

28. VIII. Aeltje, m. Jurian Tomasse Van Ripen (12), June 12, 


29. IX. Gideon, m. Jannetje Koeiman. In his will, dated 

Nov. 8, 1764, he names his ch., viz. : I. Annatje, 
m. Casparus Van Winkle ; II. Maritje ; III. 
Ariantje; IV. Lydia, m. Samuel Stivers, and V. 
Rachel, b. 1727, m. Jedediah Dean. 

30. X. Abraham, m. Maritje Van Dyke, of Second River, 

Jan. — , 1733. in his will, dated April 11, 1743, 


he names his ch., viz. : I. Simeon : II. Fmnsois 
(who m. 1st, Susanna, dau. of John Forester, Oct. 
.3, 1777 ; 2d, Elizabeth Don we, wid., Feb. 5, 1785 : 
had ell. : I. Abraham, b. Dec. 2G, 1779; II. Jolm 
F., b. Nov. 6, 1781); III. Fitje ; lY. Autje ; his 
wife being then enceinte. 

31. XL Leah. 

32. XII. Marinus, m. Geesje Van Waojenen (7), Sept. 2, 1721 ; 

had ch. : I. Annatje, b. Feb. 20, 1730 ; m. Hen- 
drick G. Van AYaeenen (28) ; II. Marejrietje, b. 
Feb. 7, 1735, m. Michael Yreeland ; lit. Eachel, 
m. Jacob YanWagenen ; lY. Jannetje, m. Michael 
E. Yreeland, Dec. 28, 1755 ; Y. Catrintje, m. 
Abraham Yan Ripen, Nov. 16, 1763. His will, 
dated May 10, 1762, was proved Sept. 28, 1767. 

Third Generation. 

Daniel [6] had ch. : 

33. L Metje, b. Dec. 31, 1710. 

34. II. Aeltje, b. April 13, 1712 ; m. Cornelius Yan Ripen 

(27), June 29, 1728 ; d. July 19, 1776. 

35. III. Jannetje, m. Jacob Diedricks, Nov. 26, 1738. 

36. lY. Margaret, m. Johannis Yan Ripen (28), Sept. 5, 1742 ; 

d. Sept. 18, 1754. 

37. Y. Fitje ; YI. Rachel, wife of Sickles, and YII. Antje. 

He also had a son, bap. Dec. 12, 1714 ; d. in inf. 

Johannis [7] had ch. : 

38. I. Hendrick, b. March 20, 1714 ; m. Maritje Jurianse, Aug. 

22, 1739 ; had ch. : I. Jurian, b. April 22, 174(». 

39. II. Jacob, b. March — , 1716 ; III. Johannis, b. July 3, 1719. 

40. lY. Agnietje, b. Dec. 16, 1723 ; Y. Daniel, b. Dec. 16, 

1723 ; YI. Aeltje, b. Nov. 25, 1726. 

Hendrick [10] had ch. : 

41. I. Jacob (59), m. Rachel Commgear, April 8, 1753 ; d. 

Dec. 17, 1778 ; she d. Sept.''l8, 1772. 

42. II. Joseph, d. in inf., Nov. 22, 1738. 

43. III. Daniel (64), b. Jan. 1, 1735; m. Aeltje Yan Ripen 

(54); d. Dec. 19, 1823. 

44. lY. Hendrick (67), b. Jan. 23, 1736; m. 1st, Jannetje 

Brower, May 18, 1759; 2d, Sarah Speer ; d. Dec. 
19, 1827. 


45. Y. Johannis, b. May 9, 1739; d. before liis father, s. p. 

46. VI. Josepli, b. June 4, 1740 ; m. Jenneke Yreeland (03), 

wid. of Henry Newkirk (17), May 26, 1798 ; d. 
Aug. 4, 1809,' s. p. 

Johannis [18] had ch. : 

47. I. Catrina, m. 1st, Pieter II. Pieterse, Oct 31, 1733 ; 2d, 

Johannis G. Post, Oct. 20, 1759. 

48. II. Annatje, m. Johannis Sip, Dec. 12, 1744. 

49. III. Waling (71), m. Jannetje Van Houten, June 8, 1743. 

His will, dated May 29, 1774, was proved March 
23, 1784. 

Johannis [23] had ch. : 

50. I. Simeon, m. Annatje Bosch, Oct. 19, 1738, and had 

ch, : 1. Johannis, b. Nov. 7, 1749 ; II. Benjamin, 
b. Dec. 1, 1750. 

51. II. Alexander, m. Antje Van Winkle, and had ch. : I. 

Wyntje, b. Sept. 11, 1741; II. Jacob, b. May 1, 

52. III. Jacob, m. Annatje Van Noostrand ; d. Aug. 5, 1834, 

set. 86 yrs., 4 mos., 24 days; she d. Feb. 18, 1829, 
set. 75 yrs., 2 mos. 

53. IV. Abraham (80), m. Jacomyntje l^ewkirk, June 9, 

1739 ; d. Jan. 23, 1796, in his 85th year. 

54. V. Marinus (81), in. Maria Evertson, Jan. 15, 1742 ; d. 

April 28, 1802, set. 86 yrs. ; she d. June 29, 1820, 
apt. 102 yrs. He was a private in Major McDon- 
ald's company in the French war of 1761, 

John, who died before his father, leaving issue. 

Catharine, who m. Marsh. 

Hannah; IX. Mary; X. Leah; XI. Eachel, 

Sarah, b. July 14, 1 735 ; m. Daly, 

Fourth Generation. 
Jacob [41] had ch. : 

59. I. Daniel (82), b. Julv 21. 1758 ; m, Antje, dau. of Jo- 

hannis Winiie," Oct. 26, 1802 ; d. June 13, 1830; 
she d. Aug. 25, 1843. 

60. II. Abrahan. (88), m. Antje Clendenny, Sept. 6, 1780; d. 

Nov. 24, 1823. 

61. Ill, Catrintje, b. June 1, 1703 ; d. Sept. 8, 1793, unm. 
"" IV. Joseph," 1). May 18, 1708 ; d. Jan. 27, 1775. 

V. Leah, b. Xov."'7, 1770 ; d. Sept. 18, 1772. 











Daniel [43] liad ch. : 

64. I. Jurriaen (96), b. Feb. 22, 1761 ; in. Antje Sip (23) ; d. 

May 3, 1837. 

65. II. Catrintje, b. Jan. 30, 1765 ; ni. Jacob Merselis. 

Q6. III. Hendrick (98), b. Nov. 27, 1774 ; m. Catlyntje Van 
Wagenen (51), Jan. 10, 1801 ; d. Dec. 13, 1848. 

Hendrick [44] had ch. : 

67. I. Catrina, b. Jan. 26, 1772 ; II. Eaegel, b. March 29, 

1775, d. in inf. 

68. III. Eaegel, b. Feb. 13, 1777 ; m. Martin Winne, April 1, 


69. IV. Johannis (101), b. Nov. 7, 1778 ; m. Gertrude, dau. of 

John Diedricks. 

70. V. Jacob H. (107), b. Feb. 20, 1789 ; m. Mary Smith. 

Waling [49] had ch.- : 

71. I. John (110), m. Eva Kip, Oct. 25, 1747. 

72. II. Hillegont, b. Feb. 25, 1749 ; m. Hendrick Van Wag- 

enen ; had ch. : I. Jannetje, b. Dec. 19, 1774 ; II. 
Johannis, b. March 2, 1784. 

73. III. Jacob, m. Elsie, dau. of Henry Kip ; had ch. : I. "Wal- 

ing, who m. 1st, Trintje, dau. of Dirck Pauluseu ; 
2d, Anne Herring, and had ch. : I. Elsie, m. Henry 
Vreeland ; I]. Eliza, m. — Hichards ; III. Jane; 
IV. Jacob. 

74. IV. Cornelius, m. ; removed to Paterson ; had ch. : I. Chris- 

tina, m. Adrian Van Honten ; 11. Jane, m. — Baker. 

75. V. Waling (111), b. Sept. 22, 1753; m. Pietertje, dau. of 

Derrick \^an Ptipen, Feb. 23, 1783; d. Jan. 17, 
1832; she, b. Nov. 16, 1758 ; d. Jan. 4, 1846. 

76. VI. Maritje, b. Sept. 11,1757; m. 1st, Isaac Housman ; 

2d, Christian Zabriskie. 

77. VII. Helmich (115), b. Juno 22, 1761 ; m. Maritje, dau. of 

Adrian Post, Jan. 24, 1784; d. May 5, 1822; she 
d. April 13, 1821, aet. 61 yrs., 8 mos., 1 day. 

Jacob [52] had ch, : 

78. . I. Johannis, b. Sept. 1, 1772 ; II. Jacob, b. Oct. 17, 1774. 

79. lTT77annetje, b. March 6, 1782 ; IV. Isaac, April 30, 1786. 

Abraham [53] had ch. : 

80. I. Geertruy, b. Feb. 15, 1747 ; II. Jacob, b. June 9, 1751 ; 

HI. Simeon, b. Dec. 22, 1756; IV. Helena, b. 
Feb. 28, 1758. 


Marinus [54] had cli. : 

81. I. Arie (122), ra. Margaret Van Wagenen ; d. Dec. 3, 1828, 

i^t. 84 yrs. 

Fifth Generation. 

Daniel [5'J] had ch. : 

82. I. Cornelius (127), b. Aus^. 6, 1783; m. Margrietje Yan 

Ripen (79), Aug. 16, 1807 ; d. Aug. 4, 1852. 

83. II. Aeltie, b. April 11, 1786; ra. 1st, John Mandeville, 

March 29, 1807 ; he d. March 28, 1815 ; 2d, Ste- 
phen Vreeland (92), Nov. 29, 1828 ; d. March 4, 

84. III. Jacob D. (135), b. Oct. 8, 1788 ; m. Antje Vreeland 

(135), Dec. 31, 1812 ; d. Dec. 6, 1864. 

85. lY. Rachel, b. Jan. 25, 1791 ; d. Oct. 20, 1821, iinm. 
^^. Y. John, b. Jan. 10, 1795 ; d. Aug, 1, 1801. 

87. YI. Daniel, b. May 18, 1798 ; d. April 23, 1818. 

Abraham [60] had ch. : 

88. I. Joseph, m. Ann Cubberlj, Nov. 23, 1805 ; d. Nov. 

28, 1827, s. p., ait. 46 yrs., 3 mos., 21 days. 

89. ir. Jacob (141), m. Sarah, dau. of Jasper Cadmus (20), 

Feb. 7, 1808 ; d. Sept. 7, 1869, ajt. 86 yrs. 
00. III. Walter, b. March 26, 1787 ; m. Pliebe Tuers, May 21, 
1807; d. Feb. 7, 1868; had ch. : I. Cornelius, b. 
March 19, 1809. 

91. lY. Abraham (142), b. Feb. 18, 1789 ; m. Mary Gordon. 

92. Y. Eleanor, b. Feb. 6, 1791 ; m. 1st, Abraham Tuers, 

Jan. 29, 1809 ; 2d, Benjamin F. Welsh ; d. Feb. 
17, 1859. 

93. YI. Rachel, b. July 22, 1793; m. Peter Prine, Feb. 11, 


94. YII. Nancy, b. July 16, 1795 ; m. 1st, Peter Garrabrant 

(37), Feb. 15, 1814; 2d, John Metzger. 

95. VIII. Catharine, b. Jan. 11, 1798; m. Daniel Welsh, Feb. 

13, 1815. 

Jurriaen [64] had ch. : 

96. I. Garret (143), b. Dec. 16, 1783; m. Cornelia Vreeland 

(1<»5), Oct. 3, 1801 ; d. Aug. 30. 1814. 

97. II. Daniel, b. May 13, 1787 ; d. July 3, 1798. 


Hendrick D. [66] had cli. : 
1)8. I. Aeltje, b. March 21, 1805; in. John M. Cornelis'on, 

M'.D., May 22, 1826 ; d. Dec. 16, 1869. 
!>0. II. Jacob, b. Sept. 27, 1806 ; d. Aucr. 15, 1819. 

100. III. Effie, b. Sept. 11, 1818 ; m. William Thomas. 

Johannis [69] had ch. : 

101. 1. Antje, b. March 2, 1801. 

102. II. Hendrick, b. Feb. 26, 1802; removed to Morris 


103. III. Sally, b. April 27, 1805 ; d. Dec. 6, 1827, unm. 

104. IV. Geertje, b. March 29. 1807 ; V. John D., b. March 

7, 1810. 

105. VI. Jacob, b. Feb. 26, 1815 ; VII. Abraham, b. April 6, 


106. VIII. Eachel, b. July 30, 1820. 

Jacob H. [70] had eh. : 

107. I. Sarali Ann,b. Feb. 3, 1816 ; m. Jasper Wandle, May 

23, 1833. He was a member of the N. J. General 
Assembly in 1872-'3. 

108. II. Fanny, b. Aug. 5, 1817. 

109. III. Gloriana, b. Feb. 20, 1824; m. Charles W. Romain, 

May 6, 1843. 

John [71] had ch. : 

110. I. Isaac, bap. Dec. 25, 1753, d. in inf. ; II. Catrina, b. 

May 16, 1759 ; III. Antje, b. Sept. 15, 1761, d. 
in i'nf . ; IV. Antje, b. Feb. 6, 1765 ; V. Isaac, b. 
Dec. 7, 1767 ; m. Helena Schoonmaker, Aug. 21, 
1796 ; had ch. : I. Johannis W., b. March 4, 1797 ; 
n. Eva, b. Oct. 11, 1772; VI. Waling, b. July 2, 
1784; m. Sally Garrabrant ; had ch. : I. John; 
II. Peggy, m. John Jerolamon ; III. Jennie, m. 
Garret Jnrianse. 

Waling [75] had ch. : 

111. I. A^aling (148), b. Dec. 3<>, 1783 ; m. 1st, Catharina 

Van'Voorhees ; she d. April 28, 1826 ; 2d, Eunice 
Lingford ; d. Sept. 29, 1832. 

112. II. Claasje, b. Nov. 25, 1785 ; m. John M. Eyerse, March 

2, 1806. 

113. III. Jannetje, b. Oct. 5, 1790; m. John Kip, Dec. 22, 1811. 

114. IV. Fitje, b. Jan. 26, 1793 ; d. Dec. 17, 1793. 


llelmicli [77] had ch. : 

115. I. Waling, b. July 2, 17S4 ; m. Maviijrietje Ackerinan, 

Sept. G. 1805; had ch. : I. Helmigh, b. Feb. 6, 

116. 11. Geertje, b. Sept. 30, 1786; m. John Sip; d. April 

19, 1808. 

117. III. Jannetje, b. Marcli 19, 1789; m. Samuel H. Berry. 

118. IV. Elizabeth, b. April 7, 1792; d. Aug. 27, 1818. ' ' 

119. V. Adrian, b. Oct. 4, 1794 ; d. Oct. 20, 1818, unm. 

120. VI. John, b. Aug. 17, 1797; ni. Rachel Ann, dan. 

of Rev. Peter D. Froeligli. 

121. VII. Michael (149), b. Oct. 13,^1800; m. Agnes, dau. of 

Henry I. Kipp, June 20, 18.22. 

Arie [81 J had ch. : 

122. I. Marinus, b. Feb. 1, ; ni. Grietje, dau. of Jurie 

Jurianse ; had ch. : I. Jurie, d. unin ; II. Mary 
Ann, m. 1st, John Snyder; 2d, Richard Riker. 

123. II. Jacobus (153), b. Feb. 7,' 1776; m. 1st, Jannetje Van 

Winkle, Bee. 25, 1799; 2d, Maria Demarest, 
March 20, 1834. 

124. III. John, b. April 29, 1780, d. in inf. ; IV. Helena, b. 

Jan. 23, 1782. 

125. X John, b. April 30, 1784; ni. ; had ch. : I. Jacob; II. 

Benjamin ; III. Hannah. 

126. VI. Maria,' b. Oct. 17,1793; m. Edo Merselis, Au<>-. 5, 


Si.rth Generation. 
Cornelius [82] had ch. : 

127. I. Garret V. R. (154), b. Dec. 30, 1807; m. Ann 

AVestervelt; d. Jan. 18, 1857. 
128 II. Ann, b. Dec. 24, 1809; m. John G. Van Winkle 

(144), April 6, 1826. 

129. III. John (15.5), b. July 3, 1812; m. Sarah, dau. of 

George Tise, Nov. 27, 1834. 

130. IV. Daniel, 1). April 19, 1817; d. Aug. 31, 1868. 

131. V. Cornelius, b. Dec. 25, 1819 ; d. Oct. 7, 1821. 

132. VI. Catharine V. R., b. Jan. 22, 1823 ; m. Chand- 


133. VII. Rachel, b. Jan. 12, 1826 ; m. Lewis Chandler, Aug. 

22, 1848. 


134. VIII. Margaret V. R., b. Feb. 12, 1832; ui. William 

Geiuinel, Dec. 25, 1850. 

Jacob D. [84] had ch.: 

135. I. Rachel, b. Dec. 1, 1813; d. Jan. 12, 1815. 

136. II. Jacob (156), b. Oct. 6, 1815 ; m. Maria Sip (30), Nov. 

6, 1S34. 

137. III. Michael (163), b. March 27, 1817 ; rn. Ann Robinson, 

Oct. — , 1838. 

138. IV. Ann W., b. March 7, 1820; m. Peter Sip (31), April 

25, 1839. 

139. V. Daniel (169), b. June 27, 1822; m. Effie Newkirk 

(69), June 22, 1847. 

140. VI. Gitty, b. Oct. 15, 1823. 

Jacob A. [89] had ch. : 

141. I. Abraham, b. June 11, 1808 ; m. Harriet, dau. of 

Joseph Budd ; d. April 2, 1870 ; had ch. : I. Asa 
T., b. Oct. 22, 1830 ; d. Nov. 7, 1834. He was 
the fourth Sheriff of Hudson County. 
II. Catharine, b. Feb. 22, 1810 ; m. James Holmes, Oct. 
6, 1827. 

III. Jasper, b. May 24, 1812. 

IV. Rachel Ann, b. Feb. 2, 1814; m. 1st, Henry Doremus, 

Dec. 25, 1832 ; 2d, Dyer Williams, June 18,1837. 

Abraham [90] had ch. : 

142. I. Joseph, b. July 9, 1810 ; II. Hannah, b. July 29, 1811 

III. William G., b. Jan. 27, 1815. 

Garret [96] had ch. : 

143. I. Daniel G. (170), b. Feb. 14, 1802; m. Rachel, dau. 

of Jacob P. Roome, April 26, 1824; resides in 
Plainfield, N. J. 

144. II. John G. (180), b. Nov. 25, 1804 ; m. Ann Van Win- 

kle (128), April 6, 1826 ; d. Jan. 7, 1846. 

145. III. Garret G. (184), b. June 4, 1807 ; m. Sarah, dau. of 

Abraham Van Ripen, of Aquackanonck, Dec. 13, 

146. IV. Michael, b. Jan. 16, 1810 ; d. July 1, 1828. 

147. V. Stephen, b. June 15, 1813 ; d. Sept. 17, 1813. 

Waling [111] had ch. : 

148. I. Dirck, b. March 28, 1805, d. April 10, 1815; II. Jan- 

netje, b. Sept. 11, 1807, d. May 5, 1824; III. 


Sophia, b. Feb. 6, ISIO ; lY. Nicholas, b. Nov. IT, 
1812; V. Richard, b. Oct. 16, 1816; VI. Petrina, 
b. Nov. 6, 1817; YII. Rachel Ann, b. June 26, 
1819 ; VIII. Clarissa, b. Jan. 14, 1821, d. in inf. ; 
IX. Clarissa, b. June 14, 1823 ; X. Catharine 
Jane, b. April 1, 1826; XL John, b. July 12, 

Michael [121] had ch. : 

149. I. Maria, b. Dec. 21, 1822; m. Henry Cutwater, May 

4, 1843. 

150. II. Marinus, b. Dec. 21, 1823 ; d. in inf. 

151. III. Clarissa, b. Nov. 27, 1824; m. Henry H. Jurianse. 

152. IV. Wilhelmus, b. Aug. 24, 1828. 

Jacobus [123] had ch. : 

153. I. Jacob (186), b. May 6, 1802 ; ra. Ann Van Blarcom, 

June 4, 1823. 

Seventh Generation. 

Garret V. R. [127] had ch. : 

154. I. Maria, b. March 27, 1834; II. Cornelius, b. Dec. 6, 


John [129] had ch. : 

155. I. Sarah Jane, b. Aug. 6, 1836; m. Robert P. Percy, Dec. 

7, 1858. 

Jacob [136] had ch. : 

156. I. Elizabeth Ann, b. Oct. 4, 1833; m. Lewis A. Brig- 

ham, Nov. 6, 1855. 

157. 11. Peter S., b. March 16, 1837 ; m. Cathalina, dau. of 

George Vreeland (196), Dec. 26, 1861 ; had cIl : I. 
George V., b. Sept. 19, 1864. 

158. III. Daniel (187), b. Oct. 3, 1839 ; ni. Emma, dau. of 

William J. B. Smith, Dec. 12, 1861. 

159. IV. Garret S., b. Oct. 14, 1841 ; d. April 6, 1843. 

160. V. Margaret Jane, b. March 24, 1844 ; d. Nov. 28, 1870 


161. VI. Edward, b. Feb. 2, 1846; m. Mary Jane, dau. of 

Jasper Wandle, Sept. 24, 1868. 

162. VIL William C, b. Sept. 13, 1855 ; d. June 7, 1873. 


Michael [137] had ch. : 

163. I. Jacob M. (188), b. July 19, 181:0 ; m. Anna Yreeland 

(186), Feb. 26, 1862'. 

164. II. Anna Maria, b. Oct. 19, 1841. 

165. III. Eliza, b. April 27, 1843 ; d. May 10, 1843. 

166. lY. Edwin, b. Sept. 27, 1844 ; d. Dec. 16, 1844. 

167. Y. Gertrude, b. Nov. 16, 1846 ; m. Henry Fitch. 

168. YI. Harriet Eliza, b. June 20, 1848 ; ra. Thomas P. King, 

June 4, 1873. 

Daniel [139] had ch. : 

169. I. Alfred, b. June 28, 1848 ; II. Franklin, b. Sept. 19, 

1849, d. Dec. 2, 1866 ; III. Theodore K, b. Sept. 
15, 1851 ; lY. John Edwin, b. May 10, 1853 ; Y. 
Clara, b. Jan. 3, 1855, d. Jan. 18, 1856; YI. 
Howard, -b. March 18, 1857, d. July 25, 1857; 
YII. Anna Gertrude, b. June 10, 1858; YIII. 
Joseph, b. April 29, i860, d. March 3, 1861 ; IX. 
Adeline Sophia, b. Aug. 9, 1865. 

Daniel G. [143] had. ch. : 

170. I. Jeremiah (189), b. March 7, 1825 ; m. 1st, Isa- 

bella, dau. of Elisha Runyon, Oct. 23, 1850 ; 2d, 
Yiolet, sister of his first wife, May 11, 1857. 

171. II. Susan R., b. Jan. 4, 1827. 

172. III. Jacob R. (190), b. Dec. 22, 1828 ; m. Edith, dau. 

of Aaron Dunn, Dec. 31, 1863. 

173. lY. Peter S., b. Aug. 30, 1831; d. June 1, 1832. 

174. Y. Cornelia Ann, b. June 26, 1833 ; m. William C. 

Conover, May 19, 1859. 

175. YI. Nellie, b. Feb. 20, 1836; d. Nov. 12, 1836. 

176. YII. Garret, b. Oct. 7, 1837 ; m. Jennie Jukes, Dec. 12, 

1859 ; had ch. : [. Elizabeth ; II. Jennie. 

177. YIII. William H., b. Feb. 8, 1840 ; m. Mary Ann, dau. 

of Aaron Dunn, Nov. 23, 1864 ; had ch. : I. Wil- 
liam, b. Sept. 9, 1868. 

178. IX. John Henry, b. Dec. 4, 1842 ; m. Adelia S., dau. 

of Jerome B. Pack, Nov. 13, 1867. 

179. X. Daniel, b. Sept. 13, 1845. 

John G. [144] had ch. : 

180. I. Jeremiah, b. Sept. 5, 1831 ; d. Sept. 15, 1832. 

THE \ AN WAtiK.NKX lAMII.V. 481 

181. II. Ami S., 1). June 27, 1833; in. Jolni A. Van Horn, 

Jan. 1, 1852. 

182. III. Cornelius, b. Feb. 8, 183G; d. Jan. 28, 1837. 

183. IV. Garret S., b. Nov. 21, 1837. 

Garret G. [145 J had ch. : 

184. I. Garret, b. July 11, 1831 ; d. unm. 

185. II. Jane S., b. Aug. 28, 1833 ; m. Henry Duncan. 

Jacob [153] had ch. : 
180. I. Catliarine, b. Julv 3, 1825 ; ni. Henry Marselus, Xov. 
9, 1845. 

Jiif/h th Generation . 

Daniel [158J had ch. : 

187. I. Florence, b. Sept. 28, 1862; II. Grace, b. April 10, 

1804, d. Auo-. 11, 1864; III. Jessie, b. May 4, 
1865; IV. Clara S., b. Jan. 15, 1867, d. Aug. 8, 
1867; V. Mary, b. Jan. 7, 1871, d. June 28, 1871 ; 
VI. Nellie, b.' Dec. 30, 1871. 

Jacob M. [163 1 had ch. : 

188. I. Annie Gertrude, b. Dec. 12, 1863 ; II. Frank, b. Feb. 

24, 1865; III. Clara, b. Aug. 14, 1869. 

Jeremiah [170] had ch. : 

189. I. William, b. Nov. 4, 185-, d. Aug. 6, 1859 ; II. Charles, 

b. Oct. 2, 1860 ; III. Jeremiah, b. Nov. 20, 1862 ; 
IV. Francis, b. Julv 2, 1865 ; V. Nelson, b. Auo-. 
9, 1868 ; VI. Isabella, b. Aug. 1 1, 1869. 

Jacob R. [172] had ch. : 

190. I. Edward T., b. Jan. 21, 1S(;5 ; II. Susan E., b. Jan. 1>, 


Van WAGENiN(iEN — A"an "Wa