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Full text of "The history of the county palatine and city of Chester: compiled from original evidences in public offices, the Harleian and Cottonian mss., parochial registers, private muniments, unpublished ms. collections of successive Cheshire antiquaries, and a personal survey of every township in the county; incorporated with a republication of King's Vale royal, and Leycester's Cheshire antiquities. By George Ormerod"

M. 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00673 6596 

1308794 



REYNOLDS ; ilCAL 

GENEALOGY COLLECTlOtl 




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GENEALOGY COLLECTION 






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HISTORY OF CHESHIRE. 



VOL. I. 



CONTAINING THE 



Jntrotjuctiott atiti prolegomena, 

THE COUNTY OF THE CITY OF CHESTER, 



AND 



BUCKLOW HUNDRED. 



3L\)e llitins gatie for ])i^ enljecitance, 
Stie Countie of €l)t'^])\ttt, toitl) tljt apputtinance, 
2Bp bictonc to toinne tije forejSaib ^Barloome, 
5Frce[p to gototrnt it a^ bp conquest ngljt, 
Haoe a ^ute cljactcc to Ijim ana W s^ucceji^ton 
2Bp t?)e ^toorD of aignitie to Ijolb it Voitlj migJjt ; 
and to call a parlament to Iji^ Vnilt ana ^igi)t, 
Co orbct W Subjects; after true justice, 
HiS a prepotent gtincc, ana ^tatute^ to acbiiSe. 

THE HOLY LYFE AND HISTORY OF SAYNT 

WERBURGE, BY HARRY BRADDESHAA, 

OF CHESTHE ABBAY, MONKE. 



Lonilon : Printed by Nichols, Sun, and Bentley, Red Lion Passage, Fleii Street. 



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THE 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



COUNTY PALATINE AND CITY 



OF 



COMPILED FROM 

ORIGINAL EVIDENCES IN PUBLIC OFFICES, 



THE 



HARLEIAN AND COTTONIAN MSS., PAROCHIAL REGISTERS, 

$ri\)ate Jluniments, 

UNPUBLISHED MS. COLLECTIONS OF SUCCESSIVE CHESHIRE ANTIQUARIES, 

AND 

A PERSONAL SURVEY OF EVERY TOWNSHIP IN THE COUNTY; 

INCORPORATEIl WITH A RhrUBLICATION OF 



mms's male a&of^al. 



AND 



Sejtester'0 Cbesfttre antiquitte^. 



BY 



GEORGE ORMEROD, LL.D. F.R.S. & F.S.A. 



" EXIMIA NOBILITATIS ALTRIX; NEC ENIM ALIA EST IN ANGLIA PROVINCIA, QVM, PLURES NOBILES 
IN ACIEM EDUXERIT, ET PLURES EQUESTRES FAMILIAS NUMERARIT." 

CAMDEN. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 



VOL. I. 



HottDon : 

PRINTED FOR LACKINGTON, HUGHES, HARDING, MAVOR, AND JONES. 



1819. 



82 817 8 3 



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1308794 
TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE REGENT, 



'5. 



^5 



;=i THESE VOLUMES, 



's 



CONTAINING THE HISTORY OF THAT ANTIENT PALATINATE, 



*^^ J^ ARE, 



WITH HIS GRACIOUS PERMISSION, 
MOST HUMBLY AND RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS'S VERY FAITHFUL AND DEVOTED SERVANT, 



GEORGE ORMEROD. 



^ut)0ciifiersi to tf)e ?|tstor? of Cf)es{)ire» 



THE NUMBER OF COPIES PRINTED FOR SALE HAS BEEN LIMITED TO SIXTY-FIVE ON LARGE PAPER, 
AND THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY ON SMALL PAPER. 



HIS MAJESTY'S LIBRARY. Large Paper. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE REGENT, EARL OF CHESTER. Large Paper. 

THE ROYAL LIBRARY, BERLIN. 

THE EARL OF STAMFORD AND WARRINGTON, LORD LIEUTENANT OF CHESHIRE. 

THE LORD BISHOP OF CHESTER. Large Paper. 



Adam. Samuel Smith, Esq. Brymbu near Wrex- 
ham. 

Adolphus, John Leycester, Esq. St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

Ainsworth, Nicholas, Esq. Newton near Mid- 
dlewich. 

Ainsworth, Mr. Thomas, Manchester. 

Aldersey, Samuel, Esq. Aldersey-hall, Cheshire. 

All Souls College Library, Oxford. 

Anson, The Right Hon. Lord Viscount. 

Antrobus, Sir Edmund, Bart. F.R. S. F. S. A. 
Hyde Park Corner. Large Paper- 

Antrobus, Philip, Esq.Bollington near Maccles- 
field. 

Arch, Messrs. Booksellers, London. 

Arden, John, Esq. Harden-hall. Large Paper. 

Arderne, Ralph, Esq. Utkinton near Tarporley, 

Arundell, Right Hon. Lord, Wardour-castle, 
Large Paper. 

Ashley, Daniel, Esq. Park-place, Cheshire. 

Ashley, Mr. Altrincham, Cheshire. 

Ashton, Nicholas, Esq. Woolton-hall. 

Aspinall, J. B. Esq. Clayhonger-hall. Large 
and Small Paper. 

Astbury, William, Esq. Portugal-street, Lin- 
coln's Inn. 

Athenaeum Library, Liverpool. 

Bailey, Mr. William, Macclesfield. 

Bankes, Meyrick, Esq. Winstanley-hall, Lan- 
cashire. 

Balme, Rev. Edward, M. A. F. R. S. F. S. A. Rus- 
sell-place, Fitzroy-square. 

Barnston, Col. Roger, Chester. 

Barry, John Smith, Esq. Marbury-hall near 
Northwich. 

Bath, The Most Noble the Marquis of. Large 
Paper. 

Bateman, William, Esq. Manchester. 

Bateman, John, Esq. Knypersley-hall,Staffordsh. 

Baxter, R, Esq. Chester. 

Bedford, William, Esq. F.S.A. Birches Green, 
Warwickshire. Large Paper. 

Beilby and Knotts, Messrs. Birmingham. 

Bell, Mr. Matthew, Richmond, Yorkshire. 

Benn, Thomas, Esq. Rugby. 

Bennet, James, Esq. Chester. 

Benthara, William, Esq. F. A. S. F. L. S. Gower- 
street. 

Bird, William, Esq. Everton near Liverpool. 

Blair, Mr. Wych-street, London. 

Blount, J. Esq. Lea hall near Birmingham. 

Blundell, William, Esq. Great Crosby-hall near 
Liverpool. 

Bold, Peter Patten, Esq. M. P. F. R. S. F. S. A. 
Bold, Lancashire. Large Paper. 

Bolden, John, Esq. Henning near Lancaster. 

Bood6e, Mrs. Leasowe-castle, Cheshire. 

Booth, W. C. Esq. Twemlow-hall. Large Paper. 

Booth, Rev. Samuel, Incumbent of Trinity 
church, Salford, Manchester. 

Booth, Mr. J. London. 

Boughey, Sir John Fenton, Bart. Aqualate hall, 
Staffordshire. 

Boulton, M. R. Esq. Soho, Birmingham. 

Bover, George, Esq. Stockton-lodge. 

Bowen, Hugh Webb, Esq. Camrose near Pem- 
broke. 



Braband, Edward, Esq. Middlewich. 

Braddock, Mr. C. Macclesfield. 

Bradshaw, Rev. James, M.A.WilmsIow,Cheshire. 

Brasenose College Library, Oxford. 

Bray, William, Esq. Treas. S. A. Great Russell- 
street. 

Bridgewater, The Right Hon. the Earl of. Large 
Paper. 

Broadley, John, Esq. F.S.A. Kirkolla near Hull. 
Large Paper. 

Broadley, H. Esq. F. S. A. Ferriby near Hull. 
Large Paper. 

Brockleburst, William, Esq. 

Bromley, Hon. Lady, Hagley, Staffordshire. 

Brooke, Sir Richard, Bart. Norton Priory near 
Warrington. 

Brooke, Peter, Esq. Shrigley, Cheshire. 

Brooke, Thomas Langford, Esq. Mere-hall near 
Knutsford. Large Paper. 

Brooks, Rev. Jonathan, Everton, Liverpool. 

Broster, Mr. John, Chester. Large Paper. 

Broughton, Rev. H. D. Broughton-hall, Staf- 
fordshire. Large Paper. 

Browne, David, Esq. Solicitor, Macclesfield. 

Buckingham, The Most Noble the Marquis of, 
Stowe, Bucks. Large Paper. 

Buckley, R. F. Esq. Chester. 

Budd and Calkin, Messrs. Pall Mall. 

Bulkeley, The Viscount Warren, Poynton-hall. 

Burgess, Henry, Esq. Manchester. 

Burrell, William, F.S.A. Esq. 

Burton, Francis, Esq. Upper Brook-street. 

Buxton, Samuel, M. D. Buxton. Large Paper. 

Caldecott, John, Esq. Holbrook Grange near 
Rugby. 

Cardwell, Richard, Esq. Blackburn. 

Cartwright, T. Esq. Stockport. 

Case, John Ashton, Esq. Liverpool. 

Cawley, Mr. Tyldesley, Lancashire. 

Chambers, Rev. C. C. A.M. Christ Church, Oxon. 

Chaytor, J. C. Esq. Clifton-lodge. 

Cheesborough, Rev. Jacob, Stanney, Cheshire. 

Cheshire, J. W. Esq. Northwich. 

Chester City Library. 

Chester General Public Library. 

Chilton, Charles, Esq. Chester. 

Chinn, Mr. 

Cholmondeley, Thomas, Esq. Vale Royal. 

Cholmondeley, C. Esq. Overlegh, Cheshire. 

Christ Church College Library, Oxford. 

Clarke, Mr. W. Bond-street. Large Paper. 

Clarke, George Hyde, Esq. Hyde-hall, Cheshire. 

Clarke, Joseph, Esq. Solicitor, Manchester. 

Claughton, T. Esq. Haydock lodge near War- 
rington. 

Clayton, Mr. J. Solicitor, Stockport. 

Clayton, William, Esq. Poynton near Stockport. 

Cleaver, Mrs. Great Missenden, Bucks, 

Clifford, Sir Thomas-Hugh, Bart. Tixall, Staf- 
fordshire. 

Clive, Lord Viscount, M. P. Powis-castle. 

Cole, Thomas Butler, Esq. Kirklandhall near 
Garstang. 

College of Arms, London. 

Collett,Richard,Esq.Turnham Green, Middlesex. 

Congreve, Richard, Esq. Burton-hall. 

Congreve, W. Esq. Aldermaston-house, Berks. 



Cooke, Mr. Samuel, Manchester. 

Cooke, William, Esq. Worleston Rookery, 

Cheshire. 
Coxe, Rev. Archdeacon, M.A. F. R. S. F.S.A. 

Salisbury. 
Crewe, Right Hon. Lord, Crewe-hall. 
Crosse, John, Esq. F.S.A. Hull. Large Paper. 
Cunliffe, Sir F. Bart. Acton near Wrexham. 
Currer, Miss, Eshton-hall, Yorkshire. Large 

Paper. 
Currie, William, M. D. Chester. 
Daniell, Thos. Esq. Little Berkhamstead, Herts. 
Darby, Richard, Esq. Colehrook Dale. 
Davenport, Davis, Esq. M. P. Capesthorne-hall. 

Large Paper. 
Davies, Mark, Esq. Turnwood near Blandford. 

Large Paper. 
Davies, David, D.D.Macclesfield. 
Davidson, John, Esq. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Dewburst, Mr. Richard, Macclesfield. 
Dixon, Thomas, Esq. Littleton-hill near Chester. 
Dobson, Richard, Esq. Everton near Liverpool, 
Dod, Col. Thomas Crewe, Edge near Malpas. 
Domville, Sir William, Bart. St. Alban's, Herts, 
Drinkwater, Mr. Shrewsbury. 
Eccles, William, Esq. Manchester. 
Eccles, Mr. Aaron, Solicitor, Marple. 
Edensor, W. J. Esq. Manchester, 
Edwards, Rev. Thomas, M. A. Aldford near Ches- 
ter. Large Paper. 
Edwards, Mr. Thomas, Halifax. One Large and 

Three Small Paper. 
Egerton, Sir J. Grey, Bart. Oulton Park. Large 

Paper. 
Egerton, Wilbraham, Esq. M. P. Tatton Park. 
Egerton, William, Esq. Gresford Cottage. 
Ellis, Mr. John, Manchester. Large Paper. 
Entwisle, J. Esq. Foxholes near Rochdale. 
Eyton, Thomas, Esq. Wellington, Salop. 
Fallows, Mr. Robert, Manchester. 
Fielden, John, Esq. Mollington-hall. 
Finchett, John, Esq. Chester. 
Finney, P. Davenport, esq. Fulshaw-hall. 
Fitton, William Henry, M. D. F.R. S. North- 
ampton. 
Fleming, Mr. Thomas, Manchester, 
Flower, Farnham, Esq. Chilcompton, Somerset. 
Folds, Rev. J. Bolton le Moors. 
Ford, J. Esq. Abbeyfield near Sandbach, 
Fox, William, Esq. Manchester. 
French, Captain, Stockport. 
Gery, Rev. Hugh Wade, M.A. Bushmead Priory, 

Bedfordshire, 
Gleave, Mrs. Rusholme near Manchester. 
Glegg, John, Esq. Old Withinglon-hall near 

Knutsford. 
Gould, Mr. Rowland, Macclesfield. 
Grapel, Mr. Liverpool. 
Green, Joseph, Esq. Poulton, Cheshire. 
Greenaigh, Edward, Esq. Myerscough-hall, 

Lancashire. 
Gregson, Matthew, Esq. Liverpool. Large and 

Small Paper. 
Grenville, The Right Hon. Thomas, F. S. A. 

Large Paper. 
Greswell, Rev. William Parr, Denton, Lanca- 
shire, 



VIII 



ilisit of ^utiscriters* 



Griffiths, John, Esq. Birmingham. 
Grimsditch, Thos. Esq. Solicitor, Macclesfiehl. 
Grosvenor, The Right Hon. Earl, Eaton-hall. 

Large Paper. 
Guriiey, Hudson, Esq. M. P. F. R. S. F S. A. 

Gloucester place. 
Haggard, William Henry, Esq. Park-street, 

Westminster. 
Hamper, William, Esq. Birmingham. 
Hargreavec, Col. John, Ormerod-house. 
Harraan, Edward, Esq. F. S. A. London. Large 

Paper. 
Harrop, Isaac, Esq. Altrincham, Cheshire. 
Harrop, Mr. Solicitor, Stockport. 
Haslehurst, Mr. Macclesfield. 
Hatfield, Thomas James, Esq. Manchester. 
Hawkins, E. Esq. F. L. S. Dylais near Neath. 
Heath, Mr. A. Yardley near Birmingham. 
Heber, Richard, Esq. M. A. Hodnet-hall near 

Shrewsbury. 
Heslop, W. T. Esq. Manchester. 
Hibbert, George. Esq. F. R. S. F. S. A. Clapham 

Common. Large Paper. 
Hibbert, Thomas, Esq. F. S. A. London. 
Hill, Hon. W. Turin. 
Hincks, Thomas Cowper, Esq. Huntingdon, 

Cheshire. 
Hoare, Sir Richard-CoU, Barf. F. R.S. F. S.A. 

F. L. S. ' . Stourhead, Large Paper. 
Hudson, Frodsham, D. D. Principal of Brase- 

nose College, Oxford. 
Holden, Robert, Es(]. Darley Abbey near Derby. 
Holford, Mrs. Chester, 
Holford, Charles, Esq, Hampstead. 
Hollingworth, Robert, Esq. Linton-ptace, Kent. 
HoUinshead, Laurence Brock, Esq. HoUinshed- 

hall, Lancashire. 
Holme, Edward, M. P. Manchester. 
Homfray, Rev. John, B. A.and F. S.A. Yarmouth. 
Home, Mr. Bookseller, Dover. 
Hough, Thomas, Esq. Alpraham, Cheshire. 
Howard, Mr. H. E. Stockport. 
Hughes, H R. Esq. Chester. 
Hull Subscription Library. 
Hulley, Jasper, Esq. One-house, Cheshire. 
Hulrae, Rev. George, M.A. Rector of Areley- 

King's, Worcestershire. 
Humphreys, Salisbury, Esq. Weedon-lodge, 

Bucks. 
Hurst, Mr. J, Bookseller, Wakefield. 
Hurt, C. jun. Esq. Wirksworth, Derbyshire. 
Hutton, John, Esq. Marske-hall, Yorkshire. 
Hutton, Timothy, Esq. Clifton-castle. 
Ikin, Thomas, Esq. Headingley near Leeds. 
Jsherwood, John, Esq. Marple hall. 
Je'.licoe, Joseph, Esq, Russell-square. 
Johnson, Thomas, Esq. Tyldesley, Lancashire. 
Johnson, Rev. R. Popple well. Ash ton upon 

Mersey. 
Jolmson, John, Esq. Mortlake-house, Congleton. 
Keene, Mr. Martin, Dublin. 
Keene, Charles Edmond, Esq. Fellow of All 

Souls College. 
Killer, Mr. John Egerton, Stockport. 
Kirkpatrick, Robert, Esq. Closeburn-hoase. 
Lane, John, Esq. F. S A. King's Bromley-hall 

near Litchfield. Large Paper. 
Latham, Peter Mere, M. D. Gower-street. 
Latham, H. Esq. M.A. Inner Temple. 
Laurence, Henry, Esq. Liverpool. 
Lawton, Charles Bourne, Esq. Lawton-hall. 
Leathley, William, Esq. Upper Bedford-place. 
Lee, Joseph, Esq. Red Brook-house. 
Leeds Library. 
Legh, George-John, Esq. L.L. D. F. S. A. High 

Legh near Knutsford. Large Paper. 
Legh, Thomas, Esq. M. P. LL. D. F. R. S. Lyme- 

hall, Cheshire. 
Legh, Willoughby, Esq. Booths-hall. 
Legh, John, Esq. Bedford- square. 
Leigh, Egerton, Esq, West-hall, High Legh, 

near Knutsford. Large Paper. 
Leigh, Rev. Peter, M. A. Lymm, Cheshire. 
Leigh, Roger Holt, Esq. Leeds. 
Leigh, Mrs. Roby-hall near Liverpool. 
Leman, Riv. Thomas, M.A. F. S. A. Bath. 
Leycester, Ralph, Esq. Tuft-hall near Knutsford. 
Lingard, Rev. John, M.A. Stockport. 
Lisle, Rev. Dr. Berkin Meacbara, St. Pagan's, 

near Cardiff. 
Lister, Thos. Esq. Armitage-park, Staffordshire. 
Littledale, A. Esq. Everton near Liverpool. 

Large Paper. 
Liverpool Library. 
Lloyd, R. W. Esq. Chester. 
Lloyd, William Horton, Esq. Bedford-place. 
Lomax, Mr. Stockport. 
London Institution, I<ibrary of. 
Longman, Hurst, and Co. Messrs. London. 
Lowe, John, Esq. F. S. A.'Ravenhurst near Bir- 
mingham. 
Lowe, Mr. C. Leek, Staffordshire. 
Lowndes, Mr. Charles, Liverpool. 
Lowten, Thomas, Esq. Manley, Cheshire. Large 

Paper. 
Loyd, Edward, Esq. Manchester. 



Lysons, Samuel, Esq. V. P. R.S. and S.A. 

Manchester Portico Library. 

Manchester Library (the New Circulating). 

Manchester Library (Exchange). 

Manchester College Library. 

Mainwaring, Charles, Esq. F. S. A. Sleaford, 
Coleby, Lincolnshire. 

Mainwaring, Rev. J. M. A. Brombrorough. 

Mainwaring, Sir Henry M. Bart. Peover-hall. 

Manwaring, Rev. Roger Manwaring, M. .\. Ker- 
mincbam-Hall. Large Paper. 

Markland, James-H9»»ey\vood, Esq. F. R.S. & 
F. S. A. Temple. Large Paper. 

Markland, Robert, junr. Esq. Manchester. 

Marshall, T. Esq. Hartford, Cheshire. 

Massey, William, Esq. Poole Hall nearNantwich. 

Massey, T. G. Esq. Liverpool. 

Massie, W. W. Esq. Edinburgh. 

Master, Rev. Streynsham, M. A. Croston, Lan- 
cashire. 

Mills, Thomas, Esq. Barlasion Hall, Staffordsh. 

Miles, Samuel, Esq. F. S. A. Leicester. 

MinshuU and Sons, Messr«. Birmingham. 

Mole, Thomas, Esq. Poplars near Birmingham. 
Large and Small Paper. 

Molineux, Rev. W. M.A. Cbester. 

Moore, Thomas, Esq. Rose Hill, Liverpool. 

Moreton, Rev. William Moreton, M. A. F. S. A. 
Moreton, Cheshire. 

Morice, John, Esq. F. S. A. Upper Gower-street. 

Myers, William, Esq. Manchester. 

Nayler, Sir George, F.S.A. York Herald. Large 
Paper. 

Needham, Mr. Samuel, Liverpool. 

Neville, Hon. and Rev. George, D. D. Master of 
Magdalen College, Cambridge. 

Newbold, Francis, Esq. Macclesfield. 

Newling, Rev. John, B. D. Canon Residentiary 
of Lichfield. 

Newton, James Antrobus, Esq. Cheadle Heath 
near Stockport. 

Newton, Geo. Wm. Esq. Taxal Litdge, Cheshire. 

Nichols, John, Esq. F.S.A. Highbury Place, 
Middlesex. Large Paper. 

Nichols, John Bowyer, Esq. F. S. A. and F. L. S. 
Parliament-street. Large Paper. 

Nichols, Messrs. John and Son, Red Lion Pas- 
sage, Fleet-street. 

Nicholson, Mr, P. Warrington. 

Nicol, Mrs. Mary, Pall-Mall. Large Paper. 

North, John, Esq. East Acton, Middlesex. Large 
Paper. 

North, T. D. Esq. Gower-street. 

Ord, J. P. Esq. Langton Hall near Market 
Harborough. 

Orred, Geor^^e, Esq. Liverpool. 

Orred, Mrs. Higher Runcorn. 

Parker, William, Esq. Walton upon Thames. 
Large Paper. 

Parker, Colonel Thomas, Astle near Knutsford. 

Parker, Robert, Esq. Heaton on Mersey near 
Stockport. 

Parker, John, Esq. Davenport Hall, Cheshire. 

Parker, R. Townley, esq. Cuerden. 

Pass, VVilliam, Esq. Altrincham, Cheshire. 

Pearson, George, Esq. Mount Pleasant, Maccles- 
field. 

Peck, William, Esq. Doncaster. 

Peck, Benjamin, Esq. Liverpool. 

Pennant, David, Esq. F. R. S. F. L. S. Downing. 

Pettiward, Roger, Esq. F. R. S. and S. A, Great 
Finborough Hall, Suffolk. 

Percival, Edward Lockwood, Esq. Bishops Hall, 
Aebridge, Essex. 

Phillipps, Thomas, Esq. F. S. A. Broadway, 
Worcestershire. 

Pickford, Thomas, Esq. Ashley-hall near Knuts- 
ford. 

Pitt, Thomas, Esq. F. S A. Wimpole-street. 

Plumbe, J. Esq. Tonghall, Yorkshire. 

Ponsonbv, Hon. William. 

Ponton, Thomas, F. S.A, Esq. Hill street, Berke- 
ley* square. 

Potts, Henry, Esq. Chester. 

Poyser, Thomas, Esq. Malpas, Cheshire. 

Price, Francis Richard, Esq. Bryn y Pys near 
Wrexham. Large Paper. 

Pritt, George Ashley, esq. Liverpool. 

Prothero, Edward, Esq. M.P. Bristol. Large 
Paper. 

Pryce, Rev. Dr. Bradfield vicarage, Essex. Large 
Paper. 

Pulford, Rev. John, Liverpool. 

Quaine, Mr. John Joseph, Nantwich. 

Radnor, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Longford 
castle, Wilts. 

Raincock, Fletcher, Esq. Rodney-st. Liverpool. 

Ray, Robert, Esq. F.S. A. Gower-street. Large 
Paper. 

Reade, Lieut.-Col. Sir Thomas, C. B. St. Helena. 
Reece, Wm. Esq, South Lambeth, Large Paper. 

Rennie, John, Esq. F.R. S. F.S.A. Stamford- 
street. Large Paper. 

Renwick, Thomas, M. D. Liverpool. 

Richardson, Richard, Esq. Capenhurst-hall. 
Ridgway, Joseph, Esq. Large Paper. 



Roberts, Thomas, Esq. Mollington, Cheshire. 
Robinson, C.B. Esq. Hill Ridware, Staffordshire. 
Robinson and Sons, Messrs. W. Liverpool. 
Rodwell and Martin, Messrs. London. Two 

Copies. 
Rohde, M. Esq. London. 
Royal Institution, The Library of 
Roylance, Peter, Esq. Manchester. 
Rushfcrth, R. Esq. Manchester. 
Rutter, John, M. D. Liverpool. 
Ryle, John, Esq. Park house, Macclesfield. 
Sandbach, Mr. John, Liverpool. 
Scott, Sir Joseph, Bart.Great Barr, Staffordshire. 
Shakerley, C. W. J. Esq. Somerford Park near 

Congleton. 
Shaw, Wm. Esq. Preston, Lancashire. 
Smith, John, Esq. M.P. Blinden-hall, Kent. 
Smyth, Rev. J. H. Rose Place, Liverpool. 
Snelson, Mr. Nantwich. 
Sowler, Mr. Thomas, Manchester. 
Spencer, the Right Hon. George John earl, K.G. 

Large Paper. 
Stanley, Sir Thos. S. M. Bart. Hooton-park. 
Stanley, Sir John Thomas, Bart. F.R. S. F.S.A. 

Alderley. 
Stanton, John, Esq. Chorlton-house near Chester. 
Starkie, Legenrire, Esq. Huntroyde-hall, Lane. 
Stephens, Rev. Richard, B.D. Brasenose College, 

Oxford. 
Stone, Mr. S. Solicitor, Macclesfield. 
Swainson, John-Thomas, Esq. F. S.A. and 

F. L. S. Larkfield, Lancashire. 
Sykes, Sir Mark Masterman, Bart. M. P. F. S. A. 

Sledmere, Yorkshire. Large Paper. 
Sykes, E. Esq. Edgeley near Stockport. 
Tarleton, Thos. Esq. Penley, EUesmere. 
Tarleton, Rev. Edw. D. C. L. Bolesworth Castle, 

Cheshire. 
Taylor, Lady. Large Paper. 
Taylor, G. Watson, Esq. M. P. Cavendish-square. 

Large Paper. 
Taylor, Mr, William, Buxton, Derbyshire. 
Taylor, Mr, Peter, Manchester. 
Thomas, Thos. Esq. Oxford-street, London. 

Large Paper. 
Thornycroft, Edw. Esq. Thornycroft-hall. 
Tobin, John, Esq. Bircfafield, Liverpool. 
Tomlinson, John, Esq. Cliffe Ville, Staffordshire. 
Tomlinson, G, Esq. Manchester. 
Topping, James, Esq. Whatcroft-hall. 
Townshend, Edward Venables, Esq. Wincham- 

hall. 
Trafford, Trafford, Esq. Oughtrington-hall. 
Turner, Dawson, Esq. A.M. F.R. A. and L. S. 

Yarmouth. Large Paper. 
Turner, William, junr, Esq. Castle Izod near 

Dublin. 
Twemlow, F. Esq. Betley Court, Staffordshire. 
Twemlow, Thomas, Esq. Peatswood, Staffordsh- 
Twemlow, Mr. Northwich. 

Utterson, Edward-Vernon, Esq. F.S. A. Stan- 
more, Middlesex. 
Vaughan, Mr. Solicitor, Stockport. 
Vawdrey, Daniel, Esq. Tushingham-house. 
Venables, George, Esq. Mount Vernon near 

Liverpool. 
Vicars, Mr. William, Gartside-streetjManchester. 
Voce, Mr. Thomas, Birmingham. 
Walcolt, Mr. William, Worcester. 
Walker, Joshua, Esq. M. P. Hendon-house, 

Middlesex. Large Paper. 
Warburton, Rev. Rowland Egerton, B. A. Arley- 

ball near Knutsford. Large Paper. 
Warrington Library. 
Watson, Holland, Esq. Congleton. 
Watt, Mrs. Fairfield near Warrington. 
Webb, Rev. Wm. D. D. Master of Clare-hall, 

Cambridge. 
Webster, Wm. Esq. Poolton-hall, Cheshire. 
Whitaker, Rev.Thomas-Dunham, LL. D. F. R. S. 

&. F.S.A. Holme, Lancashire, Large Paper. 
White, John, Esq. Sale, Cheshire. 
Whitley, George, Esq. Norley-hali, Cheshire. 
Whitley, John, Esq. Liverpool. 
Wicksted, Charles, Esq. Betley-hall, Stafford- 
shire. Large Paper. 
Wicksted, R. Esq. Chorlton near Chester. 
Wilbraham, Randle, Esq. Rode-hall, Cheshire. 
Wilbraham, Edward Bootle, Esq. M. P. Lathum- 

housp, Lancashire. 
Wilbraham, George, Esq. Delamere-lodge. 
Wilkinson, Thomas, Esq. Manchester. 
Wilson, Mr. Isaac, Hull. 
Wilson, Mr. J. Macclesfield. 
Winstanley, Clement, Esq. Braunston, Leices- 
tershire. 
Winterbottom, J. K. Esq, Solicitor, Stockport. 
Wolferstan, Samuel Pipe, Esq, F, S. A. Statfold, 

Staffordshire. 
Wolley, Adam, Esq. Matlock, Derbyshire. 
Wood, Charles, Esq. Beach, Macclesfield. 
Wood, Rev. Isaac Newton, vicar of Middlewich, 
Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, Bart. M. P. 
Yates, Edmund, Esq, Bury, Lancashire, 
Yorke, Simon, Esq. Erthig, Denbighshire. 



preface. 



After the termination of the labours attendant on the compilation of the following History, one 
duty yet remains to be performed by its author — to lay before the public an account of the various 
sources from which he has derived his information, and to enumerate, not only the evidences on which 
the work has been founded, but the places where those evidences may be resorted to, if it is on any 
occasion required to verify the contents of the work, or to pursue researches beyond its limits. 
This task, which gives the author an opportunity of acknowledging the various acts of personal kind- 
ness and literary assistance that have enabled him to toil through his long and arduous undertaking, 
is one which he enters upon with pleasure, and it may best be introduced by an account of the several 
works, or attempted works, on the subject of Cheshire, which have preceded the History now olFered 
to the public. 

The first printed work exclusively dedicated to Cheshire Antiquities, is the collection published 
by Daniel King in 1656, under the name of " The Vale Royal of England," consisting of three treatises, 
reprinted in the body of this work. The first of these, which is of a general nature, was composed 
by William Smith, Rouge Dragon Poursuivant in the reign of Elizabeth : the second by William 
Webb, which includes a very interesting Itinerary of each Hundred, was written in the latter part of 
1621* ; and the last (Samuel Lee's Chronicon Cestrense) was composed immediately previous to the 
publication of the Vale Royal, and with a view to insertion in it-j-. The authors of these treatises 
have been severally noticed in another part of the work:}:. 

Lee, the last of the writers here mentioned, though a Puritan, speaks with honest indignation of the 
disgraceful state of the ruined Cathedral, and v/as one of the few of his persuasion that was anxious to 
preserve the memory of ancestral worth and honours, by " particular and exact descriptions" of the 
several shires. He enumerates among other works then composed, the Warwickshire of Dugdale, and 
the then unpublished Staffordshire of Erdeswicke ; and at the same time Dodsworth was meditating an 
illustration of the antiquities of Yorkshire, under the patronage of Fairfax ; and Dr. Richard Keurden 
and Christopher Townley were occupied with the most indefatigable zeal on the History of Lanca- 
shire. These collections exist only in MS. but they are known to the world. — It has not, however, 
been hitherto known, that the antiquities of Cheshire were investigated with a view to publication at 
the same time, and with equal zeal and ability, in close concert with the celebrated historian of 
Warwickshire, by William Vernon. 

This antiquary was a descendant from the Vernons of Shipbrook, whose arms he bore§, and was 
probably born about 1.588, if we suppose him to have been about the same age with his wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Philip Oldfield, of Bradwall, and widow of Peter Shakerley, of Shakerley and Hulme, 
esq. in whose right he resided at Shakerley, a hamlet of Tyldeslej' in Lancashire. The antiquarian 
collections of his father-in-law, his own descent from one of the barons of the palatinate, and his 

* See note, vol. III. p. 154, which fixes this date. 

t See Lee's letter to King, vol. I. p. 127, and also his mention of bishop Bridgman (who appears to have died shortly after 
his royal master, viz. in or about 1649) as having deceased about eight years before the composing of his treatise. 

+ See vol. I. p. 92, and the additions to it in the Addenda, vol. III. 

§ As appears by one of the MS. letters above quoted (Aug. 1651), where Dugdale says, " For your crest I should think 
yt considering y^ coate is Or a bend Azure, that the beares head would fittest be prop, and musled Or." These arras were once 
used by the Shipbrook Vernons, but had long been discontinued by all its collateral Cheshire branches. 

c 



X preface* 

connection by marriage with two considerable families therein, doubtless led him to the selection of 
his county ; and from 1647 to 16,52 he was constantly communicating upon the subject with Dugdale. 
From a copy of their correspondence in the author's possession, transcribed from Harl. MSS. 11}67, 
the following particulars are cited as evidence of Vernon's intentions. On Feb. 9, 1647, Dugdale promises 
to procure him access to the Lichfield registers, the keeper of which had retired for safety to Burton on 
Trent. On Feb. 23, same vear, he doubts his ability to make proper returns for Vernon's communica- 
tions, " besides, that publique work for your countie wherein you are labouringe, obliginge further 
then I can yet expresse." On March 1, same year, he mentions the readiness of sir Simon D'ewes 
to communicate, " especially towards soe good a worke as I shall tell liim you are labouringe in." 
On April 5, 1648, he communicates a list of Cheshire justiciaries from the Patent and Fine Rolls, 
mentions the willingness of Mr. Archbold to admit him to the Lichfield Registers when the times will 
permit, addino- " till the tymes are setled I doubt you will not have soe good opportunitie as I could 
wish to you for 3/' purpose. We must be patient and hope the best. I think it were good for you 
to dispatch the records at Chester this sum'er, for if you protract it too longe (in case y' citty be free 
from y^ plague) you will have age grow upon you, and infirmityes vi"'^ are the concomitants thereof." 
In 1650 he notices having sent him the copy of Domesday, afterM'ards printed by sir Peter Leycester, 
and wishes him " good speede in (his) Cheshire endeavours." In 1651 regrets his bad health, advises 
him to make an index to his collections, and visit him at Blyth Hall, to see " how I frame my work," 
(namely the "Warwickshire) and in 1652 again presses him to " lose no time to do what may be for 
Cheshire," expresses strong anxiety that he should be furnished with all documents from public records, 
and adds that if he will visit him at Blyth, and " picke" from his own collections, " I shall be well 
content to take any paynes in transcribing what you may select *." The rest of the correspondence 
relates to the engagements of their friends, and points of antiquities common to both counties. 

There are perhaps few works of patient labour which might not be attainable by the skill, zeal, 
and systematic industry of Vernon, backed by the friendly aid of Dugdale ; but he nevertheless died 
at Shakerley in I667, leaving his work unaccomplished. Numerous MS. volumes of his collections are 
preserved in Mr. Shakerley's library at Somerford-|-, and copies of parts of these and other papers are 
extant in Harl. MSS. 2007, 2008, and 2074, the last of which contains his extracts from the Tower 
records ; copies of his abstract of the Lichfield episcopal registers are also in Harl. MSS. 2077, and in 
the author's library. It is probable that his intentions had been abandoned about 1 Q5^ (when Dugdale's 
correspondence closes) in consequence of advanced age and sickness, and that his later collections 
were made solely with a view of assisting his friend sir Peter Leycester, who had certainly the use 
of his documents, and derived from him, as hereafter proved, his accurate copy of Domesday. 

Seven years after the decease of Vernon, sir Peter Leycester published his well-known " Histo- 
rical Antiquities," the second part of which contained his " particular remarks concerning Cheshire," 
including among the prolegomena, original lists of county officers, and an admirable history of the 
Norman earldom ; and in the latter part the parochial topography of the entire hundred of Bucklow. 
All that could be collected on the subject of sir Peter Leycester and his invaluable work, has been 
given in the account of Tabley, and it only remains to repeat every praise that can be due to the 
natural ability of an historian, united to indefatigable perseverance in searching after truth, and to 
honesty and fearlessness in uttering it. 

Nearly a century elapsed after the death of sir Peter Leycester^, before any probabiHty appeared 

* The reader who will turn to the Mobberley charters or the seals of the earls in this work, will find that this was not the 
last time that the county of Chester has been indebted to the zeal of a IVarwickshire antiquary. 

t A schedule of these was obligingly transmitted to the author, with permission to select such as were of use to him, which 
were communicated through the medium of Holland Watson, esq. to whom the author is indebted for assistance and information 
on many other occasions. 

+ In this interval, however, appeared the Natural History of Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Peak in Derbyshire, with an 
Account of the British, Phoenician, Armenian, Grecian, and Roman Antiquities in those parts. By Charles Leigh, Doctor of 
Physick, Oxford, I70O. Under the author's portrait (after Faithorn) are placed the arms of the East Hall Leghs, but he states 
himself, in Book IL p. 1, to be descended from the Adlington family, and in b. II. p. 14, mentions his grandfather, WiUiam 
Legh, parson of Standish, tutor to prince Henry and chaplain to Henry earl of Derby. See vol. II. p. 174, note. 

An account of Leigh is in Ath. Oxon. and Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; and censures of his history in bishop Nicolson, and Gough's 
Brit. Topog. 

The following account of the barons of Chester, extracted from this work literatim, which (putting accuracy out of the ques- 



^reface^ 



XI 



of the fulfilment of those wishes which he had expressed in the close of his history, that his own 
excellent work might raise up some hand "to undertake the like for the reviving of those decayed 
monuments of antiquities in the other hundreds of this county, which yet lay buried and covered in 
the rust of devouring time." In 1771, however, the attention of the public was turned to the subject 
by " A sketch of the materials for a new History of Cheshire, in a letter to Thomas Falconer, esq. 
("ito. pp. 90) signed by a " Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries," who professed himself willing either 
to undertake the compilation of the History from these materials, or to contribute his best aid to it 
in any other hands, and recommended the plan of a committee to direct the undertaking, similar to 
that which had been constituted (but with very indifferent success) in Northamptonshire. The 
documents which are described by Dr. Gower of Chelmsford (the writer of this tract, who published 
a regular prospectus in the year following) are enumerated in the note below*, and the greater part 
of them will be found mentioned in the list of MSS. from which the present work is compiled. In this 
description, and in notices of these papers interspersed in the body of the work, it has been the duty 
of the author to point out various inaccuracies in Dr. Gower's preceding account of the same MSS. 
but he has no doubt that very many of these originated with the proprietors of MSS. which were to 
have been subsequently lent to him, and that he would himself have detected and corrected such 
errors in his further progress. At the same time the author seizes with pleasure an opportunity of 
ascribing to Dr. Gower the honour which is justly due to him for having first brought to light the 
various MS. documents which constitute together so noble a repository of Cheshire antiquities, 
the greater part of which, without the aid of his pamphlet, might still have remained scattered, 
perishing, and unknown. 

Dr. Gower having died at Bath on May 27, l780-f-, such of the Cheshire MSS. as were not preserved 
in the British Museum, or other public repositories, and had been borrowed by him, were returned 
to their respective proprietors ; but those which were his own property were sold to the late J. Wil- 
kinson, M. D. F. R. S. then of Woodford, but afterwards of Southampton-row, London, who 
re-issued Dr. Gower's prospectus (June 7, 1792) with an announcement of his own intentions of 
publishing them ; but subsequently sold them to William Latham, esq. F. R. S. and S. A. who 
announced a similar intention on March 25, l800. The attempt however was never made — Mr. 
Latham expended the labour of one winter in transcribing the introductory matter which Dr. Gower 
had collected :{:, but his exertions proceeded no further, and the papers were again purchased by 

tiotij will defy all attempts to reduce it to any thing like sense, or even grammatical construction, will probably convince the 
reader of his competence to treat on the subject which he had selected. 

" The first barons we read of were Nigell baron of Haulton, Robert, baron de Mount Hault, seneschal or steward of the 
county of Chester, who dying without issue, it came to Isabell, queen of England, by settlement, and John de Eltham, earl of 
Cornwall, and his heirs ; thence to William de Malbedonge, baron of Malbanc, whose great-granddaughters transferred this 
inheritance by their marriages to the Vernons and Bassets, and for want of an heir-male to Vernon, baron of Sipbroke, it came 
by the sisters to the Wilburhams, Staffords, and Littleburys : Robert Fitz-Hugh baron of Malpas, Hammons de Massey, 
Fittons de Bollin, Gilbert Venables, baron of Kinderton, Warrens of Pointon barons of Stockport, descended from the noble 
family of the earls of Warren and Surrey, succeeded in right of marriage." B. III. pp. 39, 40. 

* The Cheshire Domesday, p. II. The Red Book of St. Werburgh, p. 15. Annales Cestrienses, ibid. Archbp. Parker's 
History of the Earldom, in Bene't Coll. Library, p. 16. Bradshaw's Life of St. Werburgh, p. 17. Aldersey's List of Mayors, 
p. 23. King's Vale Royal, p. 24. Rostock's MSS. p. 29. Erdeswicke's MSS. p. 30. Starkie's MSS. p. 34. Wilcoxon's MSS. 
p. 37. Chaloner's MSS. ibid. Holme MSS. p. 38. Williamson's and Gastrell's MSS. p. 39. Bridgeman's and Stratford's 
MSS. p. 40. Catherall's MSS. p. 41. Vernon's MSS. ibid. Brereton Correspondence, p. 43. John Booth's pedigrees, p. 44. 
Ashmole's drawings, ibid. Leycester's MSS. p. 54. Wilbraham MSS. p. 56. Harrington's (lost) MSS. p. 58. Stones's MSS. 
ibid. Warburton's MSS. ibid. Carrington's MSS. p. 60. Dr. Gower's Medical Papers, p. 61. Cowper's MSS. ibid. Fal- 
coner's MSS. p. 63. Leger Book of Vale Royal, p. GS. In a postscript to this sketch Dr. Gower added to his list. 

The second vol. of Inquisitions hereafter noticed, several MS. accounts of Chester city (Greene's ?) feodary ; a miscellaneous 
volume of MSS. belonging to Mr. Allen of Tarporley ; another miscellaneous volume of MSS. belonging to Mr. Orme ; an 
ordinary of arms ; extracts from the Couchir Books of the dutchy of Lancaster, and the Dugdale MSS. at Peover ; drawings by 
Moses Griffiths ; and copies of arms and seals, &c. from authentic MSS. 

t As the date is given in the Gentleman's Pdagazine of that year. 

+ From an original letter (in the author's possession) written by Mr. Latham in 1805, on the subject of these collections, 
when dean Cholmondeley made enquiries respecting them and himself with reference to his intentions of undertaking the History. 

Mr. William Latham was eighth in descent from Ralph Latliam, of Haslington near Barthomley, co. Cest. (as appears by a 
pedigree drawn by himself, now in possession of the author) and supposed his family to be a collateral branch of the Lathoms of 
Astbury (see vol. III. p. 14). The intermediate generations possessed property in Sandbach, Eradwall, and Wheelock, but 
are not known to have been in any way related to the manerial proprietor of the second of those townships, beyond the supposed 
common descent from Lathom of Astbury. Mr. William Latham before-mentioned was younger brother of John Latham, of 
Rumsey, M. D. and F. S. A. (known to the literary world by an elegant ornithological work), was born Dec. 10, 1742, and 
baptized at Eltham ; and married (Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. III. p 299) Mary Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheiress of 



XII 



33reface» 



Dr. Wilkinson, in whose hands they remained until his recent decease, and in whose executors they 

are now vested. 

Such were the attempts which had been made towards a general history of the entire county, 
when the author first examined Dr. Wilkinson's MSS. in 1S09*, with the intention of resuming the 
investio-ation of a subject which then seemed abandoned for ever — an intention in which he was not 
only influenced by a wish to avert the irksomeness of superabundant leisure, but by a decided pre- 
dilection for researches in which he had long felt no ordinary interest. There were, however, 
numerous collateral sources of information bearing on various points of the subject already before 

the public the Antiquarian Tours of Pennant ; the classical labours of Mr. Whitaker, which embrace 

nearly all the known Roman roads of Cheshire ; the History of the Warrens, and of the original 
Barons of Stockport, by Mr. Watson, and other tracts by the same gentleman, pubKshed in the 
Archaeoloo-ia ; the notices of Cheshire Peers and Baronets in the various works of Collins ; and an ample 
view of the Agricultural State of the County, the early work of a Writer, whose able pen has since 
illustrated some of the most interesting scenes of classical antiquity. 

An account of the Abbey of Stanlaw, and of many new and interesting particulars relating to the 
Barons of Halton, had been given in the admirable " History of Whalley," by Dr. Whitaker. A History 
of Nantwich by Partridge, and Burghall's singular Diary relative to its siege, had been printed at 
Chester. — Various publications, exclusive of the parliamentary acts, were extant on the subject 
of the navigable rivers. — The Mise Book of JoUey, the accounts of the shrine of St. Werburgh, and 
the siege of Chester by Cowper, and the Tracts relating to the Mainwaring controversy, may be 
enumerated among the minor pubHcations ; and Bradshaw's Life of St. Werburgh, the Death of the 
Rood of West Chester, and Chester's Triumph in honour of its Prince, among the rarer ones, and are 
abundantly described by Gough, Ames, and Dibdin. The Palatine privileges had been discussed by sir 
John Doddridge, and in Booth's Law of Real Actions ; and the Archseologia, and Philosophical Trans- 
actions contained many scattered papers of a miscellaneous nature, relating to the county. The Civil 
Wars had produced an immense quantity of tracts bearing on the principal public events ; and some 
idea of the number and nature of those of a more personal description, may be obtained by referring 
to the subsequent notices of sir George Booth and General Massey. A brief survey of the county had 
been given in Aikin's History of the Country round Manchester ; and to the list thus rapidly sketched 
was added, in 1810, the Epitome of Cheshire History contained in the Magna Britannia of Messrs. 
Lysons ; an epitome, as far as the individual county was concerned, but a work of most gigantic 
description, when considered as a portion only of an extended survey of the kingdom-}-. 

But it is time to return from the enumeration of printed works bearing generally on the subject, 
to an account of the original evidences which were to constitute the basis of tlie History. 

From the examination of Dr. Wilkinson's papers, it was instantly obvious that the MSS. described 
in Dr. Gower's prospectus were to be collected anew, and that all the information to be derived from 
public offices was yet to be gathered. An enumeration of the MS materials so collected is the proper 
subject of this Preface; and they may behest divided into, — 

1st. Entire documents, of which the originals were preserved in the several public offices, or of 
which copies or faithful abstracts existed in transcripts ; and, 

Ilndly. the general MS collections of the successive Cheshire Antiquaries. 

Shuckburgli Ashbjr, esq. F. R. S. of Quenby, co. Leic. who had issue by him one son and three daughters, and re-assumed her 
maiden name after his decease. Both brothers have several papers in the Archaeologia, in Vols. 13, 14, and 15. 

* The author of this work had an opportunity of examining these papers at leisure in 1S19, by the kind permission of Dr. 
Wilkinson's executors, and the result was precisely what he expected from the more summary view of them in 1S09. The re- 
mains of the collection consisted of a variety of copper-plates intended for the embellishment of the first volume, the MS. intro- 
ductory matter before mentioned, an ordinary of arms, some MSS. relating to Chester cit}', a part of which appeared to be in 
Woodnoth's handwriting, a portion of the Brereton letters (see vol. III. p.,'-i27), a transcript of the greater part of the monu- 
mental notes in Harl. MSS. 2151, and numerous volumes of blank paper in which the intended history was to have been written. 

The PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEPOSITORIES of the remainder of this collection, constituting the most extensive and valuable portion 
ofT)r. Gower's MSS. as described in his " Sketch of Materials," will be easily found by comparing the list given in the pre- 
ceding page, or Dr. Gower's own publication, with the following alphabetical catalogue of Cheshire Collectors. 

f In thus first adverting to the author's latest precursors in Cheshire Antiquities, it appears proper to state, that all the 
information derived from their work, and resting on their authority, has been most scrupulously acknowledged : but that 
where the author has perceived an inaccuracy, or differed in opinion from them, he has almost uniformly avoided noticing it. 
He conceived such notice to be unnecessary when writing from original evidences, and directing undivided attention to one 
county ; and he was anxious, not only to avoid every appearance of controvers}', but to abstain from any remarks that might 
by possibility be misconstrued into the slightest disrespect for a name to which English antiquities are so highly indebted. 



preface. 



XIII 



I. The earliest topographical document extant relative to the Palatinate is the account of it inserted 
in the General Survey of Domesday, which is of course included in the copy of the whole Work 
recently published by order of Parliament, and had been previously very carefully transcribed by 
Mr. Scipio Squire, under the direction of Dugdale, for Vernon's intended History of Cheshire, 
and appended by sir Peter Leycester to his Cheshire Antiquities*. The accuracy of the Survey is 
abundantly proved, by the manner in which the Inquisitions deduce the tenures of the mesne lords of 
manors from the successors of the Norman grantees ; and where local scenery is described, and is 
composed of permanent objects, the description will be found most surprisingly faithful. Still, 
however, like all other human compositions, it has its errors ; and some of the most important ones 
have been noticed at length in the following pages, in the accounts of Alretune, Shavinton, and Acton. 

At a later period, the peculiar jurisdiction of the Palatinate prevented it from being surveyed in 
the Testa de Nevill, and other records of the highest utility as sources of information ; but it has a 
record of its own (on the nature of which, previous to the author's late discovery of a considerable 
portion thereof, many vague surmises have been indulged), tlie " Rotulus qui vocatur Domesday ;" 
so called, not from any similarity in its nature to that of the celebrated Survey, but from its equal 
importance as decisive and irrefragable evidence. It is described at full in another part of the Work, 
and was simply a roll, or series of rolls, in which grants, fines, quitclaims, compositions, &c. were 
entered at the time when they were made, and the original roll was kept in the custody of the 
•' Clericus Com. Cest." or the secretary of the local earl. The original was lost between 1580 and 
164.7, as mentioned below; but copies of a portion of it remain in the libraries of earl Grosvenor at 
Eaton, and in the College of Arms ; and the author has also a transcript from the first-mentioned MS. 
with additional entries, collected from Vernon's papers and the Chartulary of St. Werburgh, with which 
they had been incorporated f . 

* Sir Peter Leycester does not mention the source from whence he derived his transcript in his title-page (where he says it 
was transcribed by Mr. Squire, from the records in 1649), or in his preface (where he observes, that the publication of the 
Survey will in future save the great charge some Cheshire Gentlemen had been at in taking copies of parts of the record), but 
the following extract from an original letter from Dugdale to Vernon, Harl. MSS. 1965. p. 74, will establish the fact above- 
mentioned, and exhibit a singular coincidence with some remarks which the author had made on similar errors, before this 
letter had occurred to him. See vol. I. p. 391. 

" I perceive yt you imagine your copye of Domesday not perfect ; but did you know as much as I, you would not impute 
the faulte to Mr. Squyer, for I carefully examined it with him. The truthe is, yt those errors w^l> are, were in ye Norman 
transcribers of y' survey, from ye certificates weh were brought in out of ye severall counties, of W^h I finde many mistakes in 
this county, as a c for a t, a n for an n, an / for an i, &c. ; and spmetimes more grosse, w<^^ puzzles me much. I could instance in 
p'ticulars, were it worth while, but you knowing ye places, and for ye most part ye owners, in succession, may be able to finde 
out where the error was." — Blythe Hall, '-Z2 June, 1650. 

Some particulars relative to this accurate transcriber will be found in Noble's Hist. Coll. Arm. under the head of Devonshire, 
in the list of Visitations. 

The author has a copy of this transcript, which was collated throughout with the original by " John Booth," in August, 1750; 
but the corrections are few and unimportant. 

f The Eaton copy (which the author was permitted to transcribe, by the kindness of earl Grosvenor) was the only one 
known when the account of Eaton was printed ; but, as it is incorporated with extracts from Flower and Glover's Visitation of 
1580, the author referred to the visitation book itself (MSS. Coll. Arm.I. D. 14) and there found Glover's original abstract, which 
agrees with the Eaton copy, excepting that it contains at the end a few more deeds relating to the advowsons of Astbury and 
Neston. As the Cheshire Domesday appears to be unique as a legal document, and its nature has been frequently mistaken, the 
following additional particulars relative to it may be acceptable. The 59 entries in the Eaton MSS. (45 of which are 
there arranged without attention to time) may be classed, after an attentive perusal, under the following chief justices : 
Without date, 17; temp. Phil, de Orreby, 10: William de Vernon, S; Richard de Phitun, 6; Richard de Draycot, 3 ; John le 
Strange, 2 ; Thomas de Orreby, "2 ; James de Audley, 2 ; Thomas de Boulton, 2 ; Reginald de Grey, 4 ; and Guncelin de 
Badlesmere, 3. Some of the peculiarities of dates have been noted ; all reference to the years of the reign of the English Kings 
is religiously avoided ; and sometimes the translation of Thomas k Becket, or an interdict, are resorted to as asras, in addition to 
those already mentioned. 

The original roll appears to have been in the Exchequer of Chester in the time of John Booth (born 15S4, died 1659), and 
was certainly there at the Visitation of 1580, and was lost when sir Peter Leycester was employed on his collections. (See 
p. 322, vol. I.) — The earliest notice of this loss occurs in a MS letter from Dugdale to Vernon, Feb. 23, 1647 (Harl. MSS. 
1965), as follows : — " It is great pittye y' ye roll weh was called Domesday for Cheshire is imbecilled. Is that abstract of it, 
well you mention, only of part of it, or of all of it ; for, had you but a short touch of ye p'ticulars weh were in it, by way of 
abstract, it would give much light." 

Dr. Gower, in his prospectus, says, " this invaluable record [or, at least, a record which ascertains the lineal and uninterrupted 
succession of almost every single acre of Cheshire property for at least five hundred years !J is now in my possession. I should be sorry 
to suppose it the stolen and the precious casket of antient charts which sir Peter tells us was taken away ; but I own my heart 
leaps with a provincial joy, when I reflect that accident has put it in my power to oblige my countrymen with this opus aureum, 
this golden record," &c. Sketch, &c. pp. 13, 14.~This was certainly not the Cheshire Domesday, but was probably William- 
son's Abstract of Fines and Inquisitions, extending from Hen. HI. to Car. I. The late Mr. Lysons supposed a calendar of Clause 
Rolls to have been mistaken by Dr. Gower for it. Mag. Brit. Chesh. p. 467. 

The fragment of this Roll ( Grosvenor MSS. xxi. 5.) is identified as a portion of the true Domesday Itoll, by containing the charters 

d 



XIV preface* 

Next after this, in point of age and of importance, as original documents, are the series of Escheats, 
or iNauisiTioNs fost mortem, as they may be best generally called, without entering into the minor 
distinctions relating to the circumstances of time, &c. under wliich they were taken. Copies of the 
entire Inquisitions arc preserved in the Tower of London and in the Exchequer of Cliester Castle, 
and a very accurate abstract has been recently made from the latter. It was however the good fortune 
of the late Dean of Chester to recover the old official abstract forming two folio volumes, which 
has the advantages of an Index of names and places, and contains the tenures, which are not noticed 
in the modern abstract, and which are of the greatest consequence in the compilation of an account of 
manors. These volumes have for six years been committed to the custody of the author ; and the 
modern abstract, and the original bundle of escheats, have been consulted where it appeared necessary. 

An account of the other documents in the Exchequer, and the Prothonotary's Office, will be found 
under the head of Chester Castle. Among the latter are the records and fines, which, with some 
other evidences (as stated in the official return), are injured, and chiefly illegible, before the time of 
Elizabeth ; but copious abstracts, from Edward I. to Charles I. inclusive, are extant, in Harl. MSS. 
2068, 69. 70 ; and another abstract by Dr. Williamson, transcribed by Mr. William Cowper (from 
23 Hen. III. to I7 Car. I.), was lent to the author, with the rest of the Cowper collections. 

To this list of original documents, of a civil nature, must be added, the muniments in the City 
Archives, with the original charters of the earls, which were used to verify the dates of the grants 

extracted from the original roll, and given by sir Peter Lcyccstcr, as in vol. I. pp.322, 399, 54S; the charter cited from it in 
the Sandbach cause, removed by certiorari into the King's Bench, 3S Hen. III. (see vol. III. p. 55.) ; and the grant of William 
de Lancelyn to Chester Abbey, referred to (as entered in Domesday) in the Abbey Chartulary, Harl. MSS. 1965. See vol. II. 
pp.243, 24G. 

Again, it is proved to be only a fragment, by not containing several entries which were certainly in the original roll ; viz. 
(inter alia) an agreement between the abbots of Stanlaw and St. Werburgh, vol. II. p. 12 ; a release of Prestbury advowson from 
the baron of Montalt to the last-named abbey (Harl. INISS. 1965.) ; and an abstract of a deed relative to Bradwall, given from 
the Kinderton deeds, which is not in the Eaton copy, but which agrees with another extract from the roll in Harl. MSS. 1967. 

Specimens of the entries have been given in various parts of the Work; among others, entire charters will be found in vol.1, p. 322, 
399, 54S ; II. pp. 37, 43, 272, 430; and extracts in vol. II. 25, 35, 3S, 43, 115, 138, 233, 249, 300, 460. Many of the old pro- 
ceedings in the County Court, temp. Hen. III. which are cited from WiUiamson's Vill. Cest. were also probably taken from hence 
by that collector, as one of these notices relating to the tenure of Bostock, vol. III. p.l34, has been traced to it. 

The following extract may be added to these, as a singular document, relative to the staunching an hereditary feud. The 
Meibury, situate on the Welsh border, appears to be intended. 

XXIX. " Memorandum quod Roberlus de Merbury venit in pleno comitatu ao 4° dc tempore com. Johannis coram Ricardo 
Phytun tunc justic. Cestrie et dedit banc cartam Petro filio suo ct Luke filie W'ronow, filii Osberti, quam desponsavit uxorem ad 
ininiicitiam inter se et parentelam suam et parentelam d'c'i Wronow pacificandam." Grosvenor MSS. XXI. 5. 102 b. 

The following extracts are added, as specimens of the style when the earl was present in court in person, or by deputy. The 
first is the ordinary style ; the second is an instance in which a knight fills the place of his local sovereign, and takes precedence 
of the Justiciary and barons, as comes deputatus (an office distinct from the vice comes, or sheriff, who was also present). In the 
third case (the Sandbach cause, vol. III. p. 55, above referred to, J the earl presides in person, though he is a party in the cause at issue. 

Some remarks relative to the great council, or parliament of the earls palatine, founded on this roll, will be found in the 
general Introduction. 

XXV. " Memorandum quod die Martis prox. post festu. s'c'a; Trinitatis anno prima quo d'nus Joh'es de Scoiie cinctiisfuit gladio 
comitalus Cestrie et Cesterscir. comitatu sedente eodera die, p'ntibus d'no Johanne com. Cestr. et Huntindon, Ricardo Phitun tunc 
justic. Cestrie, d'no War. de Vernun, Ham. de Masey, Will'mo de Vernon, Rogero de Mein'lgar, Wakelino de Ard'na, Will'mo 
de Malopassu aliisq. quamplurimis, venit Alanus de Tatton et warrantizavit Hugoni de Meinilgar' cartam suam quam protulit in 
d'co comitatu de medietate de Northsahe sicut d'nicum suuni, iS:c." p. 101 b. 

II. " Anno 1236, He carte hie scripte lecte fuerunt in pleno comitatu Cestrie qui sedit die Martis proxi'a post festu omniu' 
s'c'oru' anno quinto de tempore com. Johannis, per Philipp' Sen' d'ni Henrici de Alditheleg', p'ntibus hiis, Walkelino de Arderve 
loco Com. eo die, d'no Waltero abbate Cestrie, -Will'mo de Venablis, Hamone de Masey, Rogero de Montealto Sen' Cestrie, 
Rogero de Menewar', Will'mo de Malopassu, Ricardo de Wibenbur' tunc vie. Cestriscir' et aliis fidelibus Com. Sciant p'ntes 
et futuri quod ego Henricus de Aldithleg' assensu et voluntate Bertreie uxoris raee dedi Thome filio Ran. de Langeston totam 
medietatem totius terre mee quam habui in Pikemere in Cestriscir', &c." p. 96 b. 

XIII. " Anno quarto translationis B. Thomaj Martiris orta fuit contentio inter d'num Ranu', com. Cestr' et Lincoln', et Ric' 
de Sontbach, sup' advoca'o'e Eccl'ie de Sontbach, ita quod electi erant xvi liberi homines de vis'neto de Sontbach ad faciend 
inde recognic'o'e per juram' suu", et erant hii juratores, Robertus de Pulford, Joseramus de Hellesby, Ric' de Kingsl', Petrus dc 
Suetenham, Rami's de Prairey, Ranu's de Alisache, Guilb' de Somerford, Helias de Suetenham, Guilb' de Tabbelegh, Joh'es 
de Aculveston, Matheus de Hulogreve, Hamo Brito, Simon de Holt, Robertus de Rode, Philippus de Brueria, Ranu's de 
Arclet ; veniens igitur assisa in curia d'ni Ranu' com. Cestr' et Lincoln', p'entibus eodem Com', et Philippo de Orreby, tunc 
justic' Cestr', Rogero de Montealto, Sen' Cestr', Guill'o de Venabulis, Guar' de Vernon, aliisq' baronibus, militibus, ballivis, et 
fidelibus p' d'c'i Com', recognov't per sacramentu' suu advoca'o'm d'c'e eccl'ie de Sontbach ad raemoratu' Ranu' com' p'tinere, et 
quod Ranu' Meschin proavus p'no'i'ati Ran'i com' dedit prefatam eccl'iam de Sontbach Steinulfo presbitero, et postea ipso Stei- 
nulfo decedente Ran'us comes haeres d'ni Ran'i Meschin, et avus d'ni Ran'i, iSrc. pr'd'ci com. Cestr' et Lincoln', dedit eandem 
eccl'iam de Sontbach Ranulfo de Lech. Recognov't etiam per sacramentu' suu' qiiod tempore Ranulfi avi d'ni n'ri Ran' com' 
Cestr' et Lincoln' erat qu'q discordia inter ip'um et d'num de Aldeforde, qui ita erant pacificati quod d'nus de Aldeforde quietam 
clamavit d'no Ran' com' advoca'o'em Eccl'ie de Sontbach, et advoca'o'em Eccl'ie S'c'e Brigide in Cestria. Et ut hoc perpetua; 
tradatur menioria; hie irrotulari decretuni est." p. 98 b. 



preface. xv 



to the City, reprinted from the Vale Royal ; and the records of the Hundred and Forest of Mac- 
clesfield, from which much information was communicated by the keeper, David Browne, esq. 

The ECCLESIASTICAL DOCUMENTS extaut in the Episcopal Registry have been noticed in the body 
of the work, and the author has to return his acknowledgments to William Ward, esq. the deputy 
registrar, for his kindness in facilitating access to them*, and for the communication of an entire list of 
presentations, made as complete as the documents at Chester could render them. These commenced 
with the year 1502, from a Duplicate of the last Lichfield Institution Book relating to Chester Arch- 
deaconry, now deposited in the Registry there. — The earlier Lichfield Registers (as far as relates to 
the said arclideaconry) had been abstracted by Vernon, and a copy of his abstract is in the author's 
possession, as already mentioned. 

To these must be added, as original documents, 

The Annales Cestrienses, or MS. Chronicle of St. Werburgh, described under the head of Chester 
abbey in the Addenda. 

A Chartulary, or rather a general abstract of charters of Chester abbey, described in p. 229. 

A fragment of the Red Book of that Abbey, in Harl. MSS. 2071, 73. 

A copy of the Leger Book of Vale Royal Abbey. Harl. MSS. 2064-. See vol. I. p. 80. 

Charters and titles of Charters of Stanlaw Abbey, ibid. See vol. H. p. 221. 

Combermere evidences, Harl. MSS. 19(37, & alibi, as referred to in p. 210. 

A complete series of the deeds of Mobberley Priory, transcribed and communicated by William 
Hamper, esq. from the originals in his possession, printed vol. I. p. 330 ; and a few deeds of War- 
burton Priory yet remaining in the archives at Arley, communicated, with a valuable series of original 
documents relating to the family of its founder, by the rev. R. E. Warburton. 

And as evidences of a mixed nature, consisting partly of original deeds and copies of deeds, civil 
and ecclesiastical, and partly of the voluminous collections of the four Randle Holmes and other 
Cheshire Antiquaries, the immense series of Cheshire evidences preserved in the British Museum. The 
principal part, consisting of the collections said to have been refused by the corporation of Chester, 
but purchased by the earl of Oxford at the request of bishop Gastrell, consists of 257 MS volumes, 
chiefly of the largest size, extending from Harl. MSS. 1920 to 2177 inclusive ; but numerous other 
volumes on the same subject exist in other parts of the Harleian collections, and among the Cotton, 
Lansdowne, and other MSS. in this invaluable Depository-}-. 

It would be idle to enumerate under this head of entire documents and evidences preserved in 
public repositories, the manner in which those kept in the public offices of the metropolis bear on the 
various points of the subject, but the best thanks are due to John Kipling, esq. F. S. A. for access 
to the records in the Rolls chapel ; to J. H. Clarke, esq. for facilitating his references to the ori- 
ginal Domesday book in the Chapter House of Westminster ; and to John Caley, esq. F. S. A. for 
the communication of valuations of monastic lands and other documents from the records of the Aug- 
mentation Office, and for procuring similar extracts from those of the First Fruits Office ; and lastly 
to the Officers of the College of Arms generally, for the politeness and liberality with which they 
have permitted and assisted all his researches among the archives of their invaluable library, — and indi- 
vidually and without exception to every member of the College to whom he has applied for assistance, 
either in consequence of personal acquaintance, or of their official connection with the documents of 
the families to whom the author's researches related. 

n. Under the next head must be classed the unpublished MSS. of the numerous Cheshire Col- 
lectors, dispersed among private hands or preserved in the British Museum, the compilers of which 
may be briefly noticed as follows. 

* For researches into these archives during the author's absence from Chorlton, and for various other acts of kind assistance, 
he has to express his obligations to the rev. J. Eaton, M. A. F. S. A. minor canon of Chester cathedral. 

■\ The author cannot quit the subject of thr British Museum without expressing his sense of the kind assistance which he has 
received from Henry Ellis, esq. F. R. S. and Sec. S. A. the rev. Henry Baeer, and Taylor Combe, esq. Sec. R. S, 
and F. S. A. in their several departments of manuscripts, printed books, and coins ; and must join with this acknowledgment 
his thanks to the rev. Bulkeley Bandinel for his communications from the stores of the Bodleian Library at Oxford; to 
the rev. Philip Bliss, of St. John's College, for his obliging offers of similar assistance there, if necessary ; and to the rev. J. H. 
Todd, M. A. and F. S. A. for the kindness with which he facilitated his references to the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth. 



XVI 



^preface. 



Simon de Albo Monasterio (or Blanchminster) abbot of St. Werburgh, is entitled to the first 
place on the list in alphabetical order as well as that of time, and to him, either as author or director, 
we are most probably indebted for the Annales Cestrienses, a Latin Chronicle, which is noticed at 
length among the Addenda under the head of his monastery. 

William Aldersey, mayor of Chester in l6l4*, whose labours, as noticed in vol. I. p. 17(3, were 
principally directed towards rectifying the numerous errors in the lists of his predecessors in that 
office. His connection with the chief line of the antient family whose name he bore, is given in 

vol. II. p. 404i. 

Elias Ashmole is placed by Dr. Gower with propriety in the list of Cheshire collectors, with 
reference to the drawings and copies of arms, monumental inscriptions, &c. in this county, made 
when accompanying Dugdale on his Visitation-}-. He had however a nearer connection with Che- 
shire by marrying to his first wife, Eleanor, daughter and coheiress of Peter Mainwaring of Small- 
wood ;{: ; and his friendship for the baron of Kinderton's family, frequently noticed in his singular 
diary, must have brought him into intimacies with the principal gentry of the county. 

Under the direction of sir George Booth, of Dunham Massey, of high celebrity among the 
political and military characters of the seventeenth century, three large closely-written volumes were 
compiled, chiefly containing genealogical documents relating to his own and neighbouring families. 
The most important part of tliese appears to have been extracted by the third Randle Holme, and 
these extracts, which are curious and valuable, are preserved in Harl. MSS. 2131 §. 

John Booth, of Twemlowe, (1584 — 1659) representative of that branch of the Booths of Dun- 
ham Massey, will be found in a pedigree of his family, vol. III. p. 78. His researches appear to have 
been purely genealogical, and his ability and assiduity in this department of antiquities left him 
inferior only in these respects to sir Peter Leycester, who often refers to his " laborious collections." 
These MSS. consist of a series of Cheshire pedigrees, compiled (in the later generations) from the Visi- 
tations of 1568, 80, 1613, and (in the earlier ones) from charters. The original copy of these is still 
preserved at Twemlowe hall, and was obligingly offered by his representative J. C. Booth, esq. 
(through the medium of Mr. Hamper). Another copy, written in the beautiful hand of the late 
Mr. Stafford, was lent by his daughter, Mrs. Johnson, ofAshton on Mersey; as was also a third, 
formerly belonging to the Utkinton library, by archdeacon Churton ; a fourth and fifth occurred in 
the libraries of the Heralds' College, and of Egerton Leigh, esq. ; and three others were entrusted to 
the author by major-gen. Glegg, Edward Townshend, of Wincham, esq. and sir J. F. Leycester, bart. 
which deserve more particular notice. The first had been transcribed by Mr. Glegg, grandfather of 
the present proprietor, and in many instances continued to his time ; the second belonged to the Lees 
of Dernhall, and, being written on a large paper, had been made the vehicle of numerous additional 
pedigrees and continuations, inserted from time to time by many of the several families ; and the last 
(which was also written in a very large volume, and contained similar additions) had been transcribed 
by sir Peter Leycester himself as a basis for his further discoveries, and he had carefully noted what 
occurred on his subsequent examinations of original evidences. 

Lawrence Bostock has been noticed in p. 135, vol. III. as author of a poem of some merit on 
the subject of the Norman earldom, and as a Cheshire collector. A transcript of his MS poem by 
Alexander Mort of Astley, an intelligent Lancashire antiquary of the last century, is in the hands of 
the author, and his general collections are preserved in Harl. MSS. 139- 

For Henry Bradshaw, monk of St. Werburgh's, author of the life of that saint, and of a treatise 
" de Antiquitate et Magnificentia urbis Cestriae," the reader is referred to the Addenda, and to the 
Brit. Topog. of Gough, and Typ. Antiq. of Dibdin. 

The MS correspondence of sir William Brereton (noticed by Dr. Gower) is described in a note 
appended to the memoir of this celebrated parliamentary general, vol. III. p. 327. 

* Dr. Gower, p. 23, says in 1560; but the William Aldersey, then mayor, died in 1577, see his monument, vol. I. p. 167- 
William Aldersey the antiquary died in 1617. See vol. I. p. I7I. 

f Ashmole had previously visited Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, and Salop, with Dugdale. See Noble, Hist. Coll. Arms. 
His series of monuments appended to the Cheshire Visitation is beautifully executed, but this transcriber on several occasions 
gave the inscriptions as theij should have been, not as they were. 

\ See vol. III. p. 310, in Newton pedigree. 

§ The author has nevertheless to return acknowledgments for the obliging permission of the late earl of Stamford to examine 
the originals at Dunham, and for his subsequent attention to his enquiries. 



preface* 



XVII 



Dr. John Bridgeman (who occurs in his place among the bishops of Chester, vol. I. p. 76) com- 
piled a large folio, yet extant in MS. in the episcopal registry of Chester, and considered a document 
of high authority, on the subject of the endowment and revenues of the see. 

Carrington is mentioned by Dr. Gower (p. 60) as having enlarged and continued a 

curious MS. on the subject of Chester antiquities, in his possession, and he adds, " I have written 
as well as living evidence to declare, that though he has studiously concealed the name of his bene- 
factor, yet if Mr. Carrington had not been the guiding index of his enquiries, Horseley's account of 
Roman remains in Chester would have been exceedingly imperfect." 

Ralph Caterall also occurs in Dr. Gower's prospectus (p. 41) as the author of " a folio volume 
with the following title, ' Caterall's book of the Antiquity and Gentry of Cheshire,' " which he does 
not identify, but probably means a transcript of a part of the MS. preserved in Harl. MSS. 1988. 
The subjoined extract from Harl. MSS. 2119, shews where the original MS. existed, and identifies this 
antiquary with Randle, third son of John Catheral of Horton, representative of a younger branch of 
the Catherals of Catheral near Garstang in Lancashire*. 

Thomas, Jacob, and James Chaloner, stated by Dr. Gower to be father, son, and grandson, 
occur next in alphabetical order. The monument of the first (1598) has been given in vol. I. p. 271, 
and by the monument of his widow's husband (ibid. p. 266) he is ascertained to have had the appoint- 
ment of Ulster King at Arms. The business of herald painter and professional compiler of genealo- 
gies, appears to have been carried on by his son and grandson -J- in the manner in which it was con- 
ducted by the Randle Holmes. Many of their pedigrees are extant among the Harl. MSS. and one 
entire volume of them was in the hands of the late dean of Chester. 

William Cowper, M. D. and F. S. A. (I70I — 1767) has been noticed in the account of the 
Cowpers of Overlegh, vol. I. p. 293. 

Sampson Erdswick, incidentally mentioned in vol. III. p. 119, as the descendant of an antient 
Cheshire family, noticed a portion of this county in his printed history of Staffordshire; and four of 
his MS volumes, consisting of pedigrees and copies of grants, are noticed by Dr. Gower. One of his 
MSS. entitled " Mr. Erdeswicke's book of Cheshire," is extant among the Harl. MSS. No. 506, others 
in 1990 and 2113, and an excellent abstract of the deeds of the barons of Kinderton by him is 
preserved in the College of Arms. Another copy was marked as liber H. in sir Peter Leycester's 
collection, and is yet in the library at Tabley. 

Sir Symonds D'ewes is entitled to a place in this catalogue, with reference to his collections on 
the subject of the earls of Chester, which are noticed by Leycester, and of which a copy is preserved 
in the Somerford library among the papers of Vernon, who was introduced to him by Dugdale as the 
future historian of Cheshire. The greater part of his MSS. is extant in the Harleian collection, and 
a memoir of his life will be found in the General Biographical Dictionary. Among these MSS. should 
however be particularized his descent of Basset with proofs. See Harl. MSS. Cat. No. 2I87. This 
was to establish the legitimacy of Geva, daughter of Hugh Lupus, from whom sir Symonds pretended 
that his children by his first lady were descended ; one of whom, who died in her childhood, he caused 
to be baptized by the name of Geva. 

William Falconer, esq. Recorder of Chester, compiled a MS volume, lately deposited (with 
other family papers) in the custody of Messrs. Potts of Chester, where the author had an opportunity 
of examining it, and it is apparently the same with a volume described in Dr. Gower's prospectus, being 
chiefly composed of extracts from the minister's accounts in the exchequer of Chester. In vol. I. 
p. 258, will be found the monumental memorials of this collector and of his son, the learned editor 
of Strabo. 

Francis Gastrell, D. D. bishop of Chester, who has been already noticed as the principal instru- 

* Dr. Gower says of Derbyshire, but he certainly means the Horton family, by alluding to their alliance with the Bulkeleys. 
See ped. in vol. II. p. 38S. The extract referred to occurs in a note on a pedigree, Harl. MSS. 2119, 13, as follows : 

" Copied from Mr. Tho. Venables of Ox. M"" of Arts, to whom Mr. Rand. Cattral left his booke of collections to give to 
his nephew Jo. Cattrall, of Horton, Cheshire, and writt this with his owne hand." 

t The latter of these has been confounded by Dr. Gower and Mr. Gough with James Chaloner of Brasenose college, of the 
Gisborough family, author of the treatise on the Isle of Man, appended to the original edition of the Vale Royal. See Chal- 
mers's Biog. Diet. vol. IX. p. 76. 

e 



XVIII preface, 

ment in preserving the Holme MSS. for the use of the public, compiled from these documents, and 
from the evidences in his episcopal registry (many of which are now lost), from circular queries and 
personal investigations, his MS Notitia Cestriensis, the noblest document extant on the subject of 
the ecclesiastical antiquities of the diocese. It is divided into archdeaconries, under which are given 
the parishes, subdivided into chapelries, where necessary, and the various charities are appended to 
each head. The original MS. is preserved in the episcopal registry, and a copy of the parts relating 

to Chester archdeaconiy, which was transcribed by the rev. Harwood of Nantwich, was lent 

to the author by Mr. Thomas Garnett of that place, through the medium of the late dean of Chester. 

Thomas Greene (most probably of the family of that name settled at Congleton and Poulton 
Lancelyn) wrote " Liber Feodorum Militum C. P. Cest. per Thomam Greene, feodarium ibidem, 
diligehter collect, ex record, in Offic. Cestr. predict, remanent, et alibi," &c. &c. dedicated to sir 
William Cecil, 4 Eliz. A copy of this is in the possession of Mrs. Johnson, of Ashton on Mersey, 
and was obligingly offered for the author's perusal ; and another MS. which appears to be a duplicate 
of it, is in the British Museum. 

The next antiquary to be noticed must be given in the words of Dr. Gower, and was " an ingenious 
collector, of the name of Harrington, whose family, though now no more, had once considerable 
property at Urdeshall. His collections have been consigned to fame by the celebrated Bishop Gibson, 
in his first edition of the Britannia. His Lordship there tells us, ' that the defects of Doddridge and 
others, in tracing the origin of the County Palatine, are in a great measure supplied by what the 
learned Mr. Harrington has left upon the subject ; a gentleman by whose death learning in general, 
and particularly the antiquities of this County, which he had designed to illustrate and improve, have 
suffered greatly ;' and, upon this head, I am sorry to sympathize with this venerable Prelate, in most 
sincerely lamenting, that all my enquiries after Mr. Harrington's Cheshire Illustrations have not been 
able to discover the least vestige where his learned treasures may be concealed." 

The Heraldic Visitations of Cheshire are five : — By W. Fellowe, in 1533 ; Flower, in 1566 ; 
Flower and Glover, in 1580 ; Richard St. George, in 1612-13 ; and Dugdale, in 1663-4. In Harl. 
MSS. 2161-3, are also fragments of a series of Chester (city) pedigrees, taken in 1591 by " Tho. 
Chaloner, for the Office of Anns," and signed by some of the parties ; but no evidence has occurred 
of any commission having issued for this, as a regular visitation. 

The original copy of William Fellowe's Visitation (" performed for Tho. Benoilt, Clarencieux") is 
preserved in Harl. MSS. 2076, and is appended to his Visitation of Lancashire, a separate ordinary of 
arms for both counties being inserted at the end. Copies are also in the libraries of the Heralds' 
College and of the author. The arms of seven Cheshire families only are entered in the body 
of the Visitation, with pedigrees oi Jive, viz. Grosvenor of Eaton, Calveley of Lea, Stanley of 
Storeton, Davenport of Chester, and Dutton of Dutton. No reason is assigned for the omission of 
the pedigree of Starkey of Oulton, whose arms are entered, but after those of Poole follows : " S"" 
W™ Poole liethe at the Abbay of Vale Royall, and he ivolde have not taken." There is however no 
instance of the unfortunate visitant being treated with the studied insolence which he met with at 
the houses of many of the knights and gentry of Lancashire *. 

The original copies of the later Visitation Books are preserved in the College of Arms ; and the 
most valuable of them may doubtless be pronounced to be Glover's original copy of the Visitation of 
1580 (1. D. 14), which is enriched with numerous extracts from the Cheshire Domesday Roll, and a 
profusion of original deeds ; and Dugdale's Visitation Book of 1663-4, containing, at the end. Ash- 
mole's copies of the Cheshire monuments, which have been previously noticed in the alphabetical 
series. In the same library is a collection of Cheshire pedigrees by Vincent (Vincent's MSS. 120), and 
numerous continuations of descents connected with the County will be found in the books appro- 
priated to the benefactors of the College in the seventeenth century, and among the modern entries. 

* This subject is further noticed in the Introduction. But it may be proper here to state, that the Visiting Herald, at this 
early period, did not venture on summoning the gentry to attend, but waited on them to solicit information ; that in general he 
entered the arms claimed without any objections, apparently conceiving the fact of bearing to be proof of right of doing so; and 
that, notwithstanding the rudeness with which he was treated, he only omits to enter arms for two Lancashire families, Newport 
and Tarbock, in both which cases the family were unable to inform him of their bearings, and the latter deficiency is supplied by 
the ordinary at the end. 



preface. xix 



Genealogical Histories of the families of Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley, Delves of Doddington, and 
Mainwaring of Peover, were also compiled by Dugdale, and are now in tiie possession of the repre- 
sentatives of those families. 

The FOUR Randle Holmes, and Sir Peter Leycester, who occur next in the alphabetical series, 
have been already mentioned in this preface, and are severally treated of at length in the accounts of 
Tranmere and Nether Tabley. 

LuciAN, the monk, author of a tract, De Laudabilibus Cestrife, is noticed in Gough's Brit. Topog. 

A collection of evidences, which was probably drawn up by some of the Newton family, and passed, 
with their coheirs, to the Wardes, and which relates chiefly to dependencies of the original fee of 
BoUin, is deposited at Capesthorne. The author is indebted to the Rev. Walter Davenport for 
extracts from these last-named documents, and other family muniments (constituting one of the most 
valuable and interesting communications that was ever made to the compiler of a county history), 
and for an obliging offer of access to the originals, if necessary. 

William Nicholls, F.S.A. Deputy Reg"' of Chester, has been noticed in the account of Chorlton. 
His papers passed, after his decease, into the hands of his widow, who was living at Chester in ISI7. 

Philip Oldfield, of Bradwall and Gray's Inn, is stated on his monument at St. Mary's (I. 169) 
to have deserved well of the county for his labours, " in construendis viis pontibusq.", and " in eru- 
endis antiquissimis familiarum stemmatibus ;" and his antiquarian pursuits are moreover stated, in 

Harl. MSS. 2007, to have led him into his suit with the baron of Kinderton. See vol. HI. p. 66. 

The Oldfield collections, if existing, have escaped observation, but their most valuable parts may be 
presumed to have been incorporated with his own by Vernon, who married his daughter Margaret, 
after the death of her first husband, Peter Shakerley. See pedigree, vol. IH. 6^, 88. 

" A History of the earldom of Chester, collected by Archbishop Parker, and deposited, with 
his other literary treasures, in Bennet College Library," is noticed by Dr. Gower, who proceeds to 
say : " The title is De Successione Comitum Cestrias, a Hugone Lupo, ad Johannem Scoticum ; 
and it is so far faithful to its title, as to contain the history and achievements of our seven Cestrian 
Monarchs." — Sketch of Materials, pp. 16, 17. 

Robert Rogers, B. D. Archdeacon of Chester, is mentioned among the dignitaries of Chester, 
I. p. 89, in the accounts of the monuments at Eccleston, H. 448, and in the list of Rectors of Gaws- 
worth, HI. 294, which fixes his decease in 1595. A copy of his MSS. exists among the papers of 
the late Mr. Nicholls ; but a much more ample one is preserved in Harl. MSS. 1948. from which one 
entire section, relating to the antient customs of Chester, has been printed in vol. I. pp. 296-302. — 
His will is extant in Had. MSS. 2037. 

Ralph Starkey, of Darley, has been noticed at length in vol. II. p. 103 ; and John Stones, rector 
of Coddington, ibid. p. 403. The sepulchral memorial of the latter is given in vol. I. p. 246. 

Nicholas Stratford, Bishop of Chester, is inserted in this list of collectors by Dr. Gower, with 
reference to his " original letters, which demonstrate his Lordship to have been a man of consummate 
business, candour, judgment, and resolution. We are indebted (he proceeds) for their preservation to 
the care of that great antiquary, Bishop Tanner ; and I am happy in having a transcript of them in my 
possession." This transcript probably did not pass, with the relics of Dr. Gower's collections, to 
Dr. Wilkinson ; and, at all events, was not to be found among them in 1819. 

William Vernon's intended History of the County has been mentioned at length in the preceding- 
pages. 

John Warburton, Somerset Herald, guillotined at Lyons in 1793, obtains a place in Dr. Gower's 
tract from his practice of gleaning and binding up every thing which he could collect, either in print 
or manuscript, for every county in the kingdom, and his MS Cheshire collections included some 
documents relative to manerial descents and tenures. A curious memoir of his disreputable life will 
be found in Noble's History of the College of Arms, p. 388. 

John Watson, M. A. F.S.A. has been noticed among the Rectors of Stockport j the Wilbraham 
Collections, in vol. III. p. 232; and Dr. Edward Williamson, author of the MS Villare Cestriense 
in vol. II. p. 410. 

Roger Wilcoxon, " a member of the College of Arms," is mentioned by Dr. Gower as the com- 
piler of two accurate MSS. in folio relative to the Heraldic History of Cheshire, illustrated with a 
variety of Tnqs. p. m., draughts of arms in mansions, and seals appendant to old deeds, with extracts 



XX preface. 



from private evidences. These volumes (one of which was in Dr. Gower's possession) have not 
occurred ; but among the Grosvenor MSS. is a valuable abstract of the entire series of Cheshire Inqui- 
sitions, as far as relates to the heii's returned by the juries, made with the view of facilitating sir R. 
St. George's Visitation in l6l3. This name is not, however, preserved in Noble's Memoirs of the 
regular Members of the College, to which Dr. Gower refers him. 

John Woodnoth, who closes the alphabetical series, married in 1587 Catherine, daughter of Robert 
Cooke, clarencieux, and occurs in vol. III. pp. 254 and 262. His collections were neither voluminous 
nor important, and he was a most inaccurate transcriber. Papers in his hand-writing were preserved 
among the Gower MSS. and have also been included in various MS collections that have occurred 
casually ; but his principal work is a large folio MS. of a very miscellaneous nature, presented by 
the late S. Lysons, esq. to the British Museum, and preserved among the " additional MSS." 

These are the principal Public Evidences and MS Collections which bear on Cheshire history j 
and after having discharged his debt of gratitude to those who have assisted him in obtaining access to 
the one, or accommodated liim with the loan of the other, it is the duty of the author to express the 
nature of his obhgations to those whose names have not been mentioned in the preceding catalogue. 

Highest on the hst, whether considered with reference to the means which he possessed of assisting 
his researches, or to the kindness with which that assistance was given, must be placed the name of his 
departed friend, the late Dean of Chester, to whose merits, in another part of this Work, he has paid 
an imperfect tribute. To him he is indebted for procuring, in the first instance, the Grosvenor, 
Leycester, and Cowper collections, the MS Notitia of Gastrell, and the invaluable volumes containing 
the official abstracts of the Inquisitions, for the loan of Williamson's Fines, and Cowper's MS History 
of Broxton Hundred, and for the communication of numerous original evidences relating to the 
Barony of Malpas and the pedigrees of Cholmondeley of Vale Royal, Domville of Lymme, Frodsham 
of Elton, Massey of Rosthorne, and Werden of Burton. The printing of the history had however 
scarcely commenced, when the decease of Dean Cholmondeley deprived him of the prompt and powerful 
assistance which had been his main encouragement in the first difficulties of the undertaking ; but he 
has a pleasure and pride in recollecting that the Work, as far as it had advanced, was honoured b)' 
his approbation, and that he continued to manifest the liveliest interest in its progress to the last 
period of his earthly existence. 

The name of Archdeacon Churton must follow that of his deceased friend. To his communications 
the author is indebted for an ample account of the Rectors of Malpas, and other interesting- 
particulars relative to that parish, and for a variety of notices extracted from his MS collections, 
compiled from various sources, during the time he was employed on his excellent lives of the Founders 
of Brase-nose. 

To William Hamper, of Deritend, esq. he is indebted for the loan of the original seals of the earls 
of Chester engraved in the Work, for a transcript of the Mobberley Charters, with his own correct 
and beautiful di-awings of the appendant seals, and for the loan of two curious volumes containing 
Charters, and otlier documents, transcribed from the archives of the Shrewsbury family, which have 
thrown very considerable light on the antient possessions of the Troutbecks and their predecessors, in 
Chester City, and in Edisbury and Wirral. To this he must add his thanks for numerous important 
communications made at intervals, which the active calls of business and the most important magisterial 
duties with difficulty allowed. 

From J. H. Markland, esq. F. R. S. and S. A. whose accurate pen has lately rescued the 
" Chester Mysteries" from all aspersions on their well-grounded claim to remote antiquity, he 
has also the pleasure of acknowledging many valuable communications and much friendly assistance. 

To David Browne, of Macclesfield, esq. deputy steward of Macclesfield Hundred and Forest, 
his obligations are particularly extensive. To him he is indebted for the greater part of the docu- 
ments relative to the jurisdiction of the Hundred and Forest of Macclesfield given in the introduction 
to that Hundred, for the revision and correction of the entire series of proof sheets relating to the 
same district, and for the loan of very numerous deeds and abstracts of deeds collected by himself and 
by the late Mr. Wright and Mr. Stafford of Macclesfield. 

For various communications made either directly to himself, or through the medium of their 
common friends, the author is fiirther indebted to William Bray, esq. Treas. S. A. sir Samuel Egerton 



preface* 



XXI 



Brydges, bart. ; Francis Douce, esq. F. S. A. ; Joseph Haslewood, esq. ; sir R. C. Hoare, bait. 
F. R. S. and S. A. ; the rev. Thomas Leman, M. A. and F. S. A. ; the late Samuel Lysons, esq. 
V. P. R. S. and S. A. ; Craven Ord, esq. F. R. S. and S. A. ; the rev. J. H. Todd, M. A. and F. 8. A.; 
and to S. P. Wolferstan, esq. F. S. A. — To Francis Freeling, esq. F. S. A. he is also indebted for 
the kindness with which he has promoted, on various occasions, the objects of his enquiries. 

Lastly, he has to acknowledge his obligations to Henry Potts, F. Thomas, and John Finchett, 
esquires, for their kindness in facilitating his references to the records in the Exchesuer of Chester 
Castle, and the Muniment Room of Chester City; and to Mr. Thomas he is also indebted for a 
laborious transcript of three pleas to Quo Warrantos by the Abbots of Chester and Whalley, and the 
Prior of Birkenhead, and for continuations of the lists of Chamberlains, Judges, and Barons of tiie 
Exchequer. 

Beyond this the author finds a difficulty in specifying his obligations, however gratifying it 
would be to his feelings to record the names of the Nobility, Gentry, and Clergy of the County, or 
their respective agents, who have favoured him either with voluntary communications, or answers to 
his enquiries. He sees in the list of those to whom he is thus indebted, above two hundred names, 
all of which have nearly equal claims to his thanks, and all of which have been inserted in the refer- 
ences to their several communications, and he is unwilling either to undergo the possible charge 
of ostentation, by displaying a catalogue of which he has such reason to be proud, or of giving 
offence to any individual by an unintentional omission in a list of so extended a nature. 

To these acknowledgments of personal kindness and literary assistance, it must, however, be 
added, that the subscribers are indebted severally to John Smith Barry, John Glegg, and Ralph 
Leicester, esqrs. and to the rev. William M. Moreton, for the views of their respective seats, the 
Halls of Marbury, Old Withington, Toft, and Little Moreton ; and to Egerton Leigh, esq. for the 
view of the West Hall Chapel ; all of whicli have been given by tlie publishers as additional 
embellishments. 

For various drawings, specified under their respective heads, the author is indebted to the pencils 
of the Hon. Mrs. Abercromby, Mrs. Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, and Mrs. Isherwood of 
Marple ; and by the kindness of sir R. C. Hoare, bait, he was enabled to procure admission for an 
artist to a faithful copy of the portrait of sir Peter Leycester at Stourhead, when the absence of sir 
J. F Leicester from Tabley rendered access to the original miniature impracticable. 

He has also to acknowledge the donation of a beautiful drawing of the Kingsley Horn by John 
Arden, esq. the hereditary forester of Delamere, and the loan of other drawings of the Storeton 
Horn, and of Hooton, the antient seat of their representatives the Stanleys, by the rev. J. Cheese- 
borough ; and to add similar thanks to the rev. Edward Stanley, for various drawings of Aldford 
and other subjects ; to the rev. W. M. Moreton for ground-plans and elevations of his antient man- 
sion; to Mr. Thomas Harrison, architect, for a drawing of vaults in Chester cathedral, and views 
of the former castle of Chester ; to Mr. Palmer, of Manchester, architect, for geometrical elevations 
of the several fronts of Sandbach Crosses; and to Mr. Matthew Gregson, of Liverpool, for draw- 
ings of the antient seat at Rock Savage, now destroyed. 

After this enumeration of these various sources of information, the public are entitled to an 
account of the manner in which they have been brought to bear upon the present work. It is with 
regret that the author is compelled to speak so long of himself and his labours, but the egotism is 
unavoidable. 

A considerable portion of the district described in the following work has been familiar to the 
author from childhood, and from an early period he has amused himself with collecting documents 
relative to its genealogical antiquities. He had formed an intention of pursuing the subject with a 
view to publication in 1809 (as already mentioned) but this measure was first positively decided upon 
in 1813. From that time to the present his hours have been dedicated to the pursuit with 
little intermission. The county has been examined in the summer and autumn from the central 
points of his own residence at Chorlton, and that of a near relative at Bradwall, and the winter and 
spring have been devoted to researches among the Harl. MSS. and the other literary treasures of the 
public repositories in the metropolis. 

All of the foregoing documents to which he has had access, or which have been lent to him, have 
been made to bear upon the subject, but the principal outline of his arrangement was as follows : 

f 



XXII preface* 

The basis of the manerial history consisted of the extracts from Domesday, and the first grants 
of the earls or of their greater tenants, fi-om which the fines and Inquisitions, with tlie aid of the Vil- 
lare Cestriense, brought down a tolerably clear descent to the time when they connect with existing 
title deeds. Nearly all the manerial proprietors, or their agents, were in their turn requested to 
supply the necessary continuations, and the instances are very few in which the request was not 
complied with, though, as might be obviously expected, with various degrees of precision. 

The immense fund of genealogical evidence already mentioned, the later entries of the Randle 
Holmes in Harl. MSS. 2119, 2153, and 2l6l, and the pedigree rolls of existing families, rendered 
the extensive portion of the work which relates to this subject an undertaking of less labour than 
would be imagined ; where these failed the parochial registers were examined, and in many instances 
were searched through from beginning to end. 

The documents which have elucidated the ecclesiastical department have been already enumerated. 
The antient monuments B.re given from a most valuable MS. (Harl. MSS. 2151) consisting of church 
notes taken at the close of the sLxteenth and the beginning of the following century, and all the ac- 
counts of the present churches, and of existing monuments, were written on the spot, and the printed 
copy set up from the original notes so written. The only exceptions to this consist of the church 
notes of Sale furnished by the rev. I. T. Allen, and those of Malpas and Iscoyd taken by archdeacon 
Churton, whose well-known accuracy rendered a new copy unnecessary. 

The author can also positively state that every township was personally visited by himself, and 
many of them repeatedly ; that every existing object described (unless otherwise mentioned) was seen 
by his own eyes, and that his notes were either taken on the spot in the words in which they appear 
in the printed work, or the descriptions rewritten in a very few days subsequent to his visits, but this 
mode of transcription was very rarely adopted, from a wish to avoid the possibility of multiplying 
clerical errors. 

Such have been the efforts of the author to give as perfect a form as his humble powers enabled 
him to the work which he now submits with difiidence to the censure or approval of the public ; and 
although the incessant labour of six years, devoted to the extension and correction of previous col- 
lections, has been exclusively directed to the attainment of all possible accuracy, he is perfectly 
aware that, on a subject involving such a multiplicity of minute facts and dates, perfect exactness 
never was attained and never will be attainable. Errors, neither inconsiderable in number or import- 
ance, are to be found in the copies and abstracts of original documents which the collectors of former 
days have left, and other mis-statements have crept into the returns of existing families, in some cases 
from unavoidable oversight, in many from inattention, and in a very few. from wilfulness, from an 
anxiety to aggrandize family importance, or to conceal unavoidable blemishes. In reducing these do- 
cuments to connected narratives, compilers have multiplied original mistakes tenfold : many of these 
have doubtless been corrected ; but the author must also fear that he often in his turn may have erred 
in his conceptions of the subjects ; and that further clerical errors must have occasionally occurred in 
committing these conceptions to paper : and he is aware that the press has in many cases added others 
of its own, although he is bound to acknowledge the extreme care and attention with which the 
correction of it was superintended by Mr. Bentley, and his conviction that the immense compli- 
cation of dates and figures put such occasional errors beyond all possible means of prevention. Still, 
however, whilst he makes this candid avowal, he fully trusts that such unavoidable inaccuracies are 
as few as the nature of the work can possibly admit of. No labour or expense has been spared in the 
amassing of materials ; every nerve has been strained to ensure the most fastidious exactness in the 
statements; and though his judgment may and must have sometimes erred, he can conscientiously 
asseverate, that in every case his opinion (humble as it is) has been given as scrupulously to the best 
of his belief and knowledge, as if his verdict had been required in a matter of judicial importance. 

With this statement he takes his leave of the public, and if,— trusting to the importance of his 
subject, and not to any merit of his own in treating of it,— he may presume to hope that his name 
will, for some generations at least, be included in the honourable list of those whose lives have been 
dedicated to illustrating the antiquities of the proverbial mother of " the Chief of MEN"-the 
Cheshire Palatinate, his anxious toils and imperfect services will have had an ample reward. 

Oct. 12, 1819. 



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istorp of CI)e6l)ire» 



(S^eneral ^ntrotiuttton. 



AN the ages immediately preceding the arrival of the 
Romans in Britain, the district which is the subject of 
the present work was included within the territories of 
the Carnabii or Cornavii, and after the arrival of the 
Romans was included by them in Flavia Caesariensis, 
one of the provinces formed out of the great district of 
Britannia Superior. 

Mr. Whitaker supposes the original Carnabii to have 
resided within the peninsula of Wirral, and the contigu- 
ous parts of the county, and to have assumed their name 
from this long peninsula or promontory, which the Bri- 
tons would term Keren-av, or the Horn of the Sea ; as 
the Carnabii of Cornwall and of Caithness were deno- 
minated from regions similarly situated. From this 
point he supposes them to have extended themselves 
over the counties of Salop and Stafford, and parts of 
those of Warwick, Leicester, and Flint, but whilst resid- 
ing in their original limits to have possessed two towns 
Deva and Condate". 

Without entering for a moment on the vague tradi- 
tions which the Chronicles have handed down as to the 
British origin of Chester'', it must be allowed, that there 
are very strong circumstances of general probability in 
favour of its existence before the Roman invasion. The 



situation itself is preciselj' the one chosen for many of 
the cities of remote antiquity, a gentle rocky elevation 
on the bank of a river, surrounded for several miles by 
a fertile champaign country, and fenced in on every side 
by encircling hills, by estuaries, or the main ocean; and 
if convenience and security were likely to be looked to 
by the founders of a British fortress, as well as healthi- 
ness and amenity of situation, the first would be afforded 
by the connection of the Great Northern Watling 
Street, with a branch of the Southern Street at this very 
point, and the second by the difficulty of the passes in 
the circumjacent hills on two sides, and the intervention 
of the Dee and the Mersey between all the neighbour- 
ing districts on the others. Whether, however, the ori- 
ginal foundation of Chester was British or Roman, or 
when the Romans first visited the adjacent district, 
must be left to conjecture; but it is nearly certain that 
it would lie in or near the line of march adopted by Os- 
torius Scapula in his expedition against Caractacus 
(during the reign of Claudius), when he diverged from the 
first route which he had taken through the Cangi 
into the neighbourhood of the Irish sea, and led 
his forces northwards to quell the insurgent Bri- 
gantes ". 



a History of Manchester, 4to. edit. 1. 103. b gee them detailed by Webb, vol. I. p. 153— S. 

= Tacitus Ann. Lib. xii. cap. 32. " Jamque ventum hand procul man, quod Hiberniam insulam aspectat, cum ortae apud BrigantSs discordice re- 
traxere ducem, &c." The Cangi mentioned in the preceding passages must be (in the words of Mr. WbitakerJ " the Cangi who bordered immedi- 
ately upon the country of the Iceni, and who therefore must have inhabited the wild extent of Cannock Forest in Staffordshire," and must be 
distinguished from the Cangi who were " the servants of the Carnabii, and the attendants upon their cattle," and " lived in the northern borders 
of their country, and in the marshy grounds particularly which still extend for many miles, by Norton, Runcorn, and Frodsbam, along the shore of 
the Mersey." Hist. Mancb. I. 159, 4to. edit. It was in this last district that the celebrated pigs of lead were dug up with the inscription mention- 
ing the Ceangi, for which see Camden's Britannia, and Whitaker's Manchester, as before. 

The erection of the Roman wofks at Chester has been referred in a well supported theory in the Antiquitates Bremetonacenses of Rauthmell to the 
second campaign of Agricola (A. D. 79), when advancing northwards from the conquest of Angtesea and the Ordovices. He presumes the campaign 
of this year to have been commenced on the banks of the Deva, that Chester, and the line of Cheshire and Lancashire fortresses were included in the 
sites for camps mentioned in the extracts below, and concludes with great reason that Lancashire, which lay in the line of march, is designated by the 
** estuaria," the number of which constitutes the peculiar and striking character of the county. 

See Rauthmell Antiq. Brera 26 — 47. The passage in Tacitus alluded to is as follows : Vil. Agr. cap. 20. " Sed ubi iEstas advenit, contracto 
exercitu, mititum in agmine laudare roodestiara, disjectos coercere ; ioca ca^tHs ipse capere, cesluaria ac silvas ipse prceientare : et nihil interim apud 
boste£ quietum pati, quo minus subitis excursibus popularelur, atque ubi satis terruerat, parcendo rursus irritamenta pacis ostentare. Quibus rebus 
multcB civitates, qua in illam diem ex aequo egerant, daiis ubsidibus iram posucre, et prasidiis cattetlisg; circumdaliB, tantil ratione curAq; ut nulla ante 
BritanniEB nova pars illacessita transierit.'' 

Mr. Whitaker (Hist. Manch. 4to. edit. i. 30.) observes, that " the word ' aestuaria,' connected with ' ipse' plainly shows the operations of the main 
army to have been directed along the coasts," during Agricola's operations in Lancashire, hut the singular propriety of the word as applied to the 
geographical features of that county escaped him. 



XXIV 



'Cj)e History of CJ)esj)ire. 



With respect to the distribution of the Roman forces 
in Cheshire, it has been mentioned in the account of 
the city of Chester'' as the opinion of Horseley, that the 
Romans first permanently settled there under Agricola, 
about the year 84. A recent discovery has brought to 
light brass tablets recording a grant of the freedom of 
the city of Rome to certain troops serving in Britain in 
the reign of Trajan A. D. 98 — 117. a portion at least of 
which may be presumed to have been stationed near 
Bickley, where the tablets were found'. I'rom the 
Chester inscriptions Horseley also allows the twentieth 
legion to have been stationed there in the consulship of 
Commodus and Lateranus, A. D. 154, and as late as the 
joint reign of Diocletian and Maximian, A. D. 283 — 304. 
Long time previous to this a coin of the emperor Ge- 
ta (A. D. 210-212.) recognizes the city of Chester as a 
colony of Rome. 

It has been supposed by Mr. Whitaker that the subor- 
dinate stations on the Lancashire side of the county 
were garrisoned by detachments from the Frisian cohort, 
placed at Manchester, and this opinion receives full 
confirmation from the inscription discovered by Mi. 
Watson at Melandra, near Mottram Longdendale^ 

The subjoined lines of roads^ within the present limits 
of Cheshire, appear to have been formed or adopted by 
the Romans during their occupation of the county, and 
are more particularly described in the introductions to 
the several hundreds. 

With these evidences of Roman conquest in Che- 
shire, may best be classed in point of time, the Bri- 
tish military works, as being of doubtful date, and re- 
ferable either to the struggles of the natives with these 
their first invaders, or to subsequent contests with the 
Saxons. The camps are three in number, Bucton 
Castle'' on the edge of Yorkshire, Maiden Castle near 



Barnhill", and Kellsborow in the parish of Delamere'', 
and to these may be added a strong but irregular 
work between the Dee and the Watling Street near 
Eccleston'. 

From the inscriptions beforementioned it appears that 
the Twentieth Legion continued at Chester as late as 
the close of the third century, and Horseley supposes it 
to have been withdrawn long before the final abandon- 
ment of the island in the fifth century. It would be fri- 
volous to suppose that there were reasonable grounds for 
the assertions of the Chroniclers, that Chester was distin- 
guished as a seat of superior knowledge in the subse- 
quent dark period", and to account for it by the long 
mixture of the rude natives with the polished inhabitants 
of Italy ; but it is certainly probable that they had ac- 
quired a military discipline thereby very superior to 
that of the other Britons, which with the strength of the 
Roman works at Chester, and the wild mountains be- 
hind it, enabled them to hold the Saxons at defiance, 
long after the complete reduction of their neighbours. 
Mr. Whitaker supposes Lancashire to have been com- 
pletely reduced as early as 488°, whilst Chester continued 
in possession of the Britons until 607, when it was 
wrested from Brochmail their leader, after a sangui- 
nary battle by Ethelfrid king of Northumbria". 

Previous to this battle the Saxon troops are said to 
have massacred the monks of Bangor, who came to be 
spectators of the contest, and against whom St. Augus- 
tine is stated to have denounced the vengeance of 
Heaven three 3'ears previously, in consequence of their 
refusing to join with him in preaching the Gospel to the 
Saxons, and their variation from the received customs of 
the Catholic Church, in the calculation of Easter, and 
the mode of administering the sacrament of Baptismf. It 
is obvious then, that Christianity was before this period 



d Vol. 1. p. 192. e Vol. II. p. SSI. f Archaeol. vol. III. p. 236. 

B I. The Northern Watling Street, enteriiis the county at Stretforil, and proceedinj; by Northwich to Chester. (Vol. J. 3 14. and II. p. 2.) On this 
they placed the station of Fines Maxinix et Flavise*, on the verge of Lancashire (282 — 304), and diverted the central part (between Hulford and Edis- 
bury Hill) in the direction of Condate or Kinderton. 

II. The communication between the southern and northern Watling streets, tending from Uriconium to Chester, through Broxton hundred, by 
Aldford, leaving Stretton to the right, and the Roman station at Holt on the left. (Vol. I. p. 320.) 

III. The Via Devana, or road irom Colchester to Chester, through the counties of Cambridge, Leicester, and Stafford, entering Nantwich hun- 
dred near Chesterton in the li'.st county, and bearing by Nantwich and Beeston on Chester. (Vol. III. p. 150, and II. p. I.) 

IV. A road across the eastern side of the county, bearing from Buxton, through Rainow, Adlington, and Stockport, on Manchester. (Vol. III. 

p. 277.) 

V. A road supposed to have been formed in the fourth century (between the times of the compilation of the two Itineraries) from Chesterton 
through Condate, along the King street to Veratinum (Warrington), opening a new communication with Carlisle and the stations in the north. 
(Vol. L p. 315.) 

VI. A road issuing from Condate in the direction of Uriconium or Wroxeter. (Vol. HI. p. 149 ) 

VII. Another road, tending between roads V. and VI. in the direction of Mediolanum, according to Mr. Whitaker, but according to the bishop 
of Cloyne (who places Mediolanum at Chesterton), bearing on Worcester, and the stations near the Severn. (Ibid, and vol. HI. p. 2.) 

VIII. A road from Condate, bearing due east through Twemlowe and Birtles, and intersecting with the line from Buxton and Manchester at 
Rainow. (Vol. III. pp. 3 and 278.) 

IX. and last. A similar road, bearing through Hale, according to Mr. Watson, and through Handford, according to Mr. Whitaker, upon Stock- 
port, and then diverging in two lines towards Cambodunum on the edge of Yorkshire, and Melandra in Derbyshire. (Vol. HI. p. 178.) 

Four stations only occur within the present limits of the county. Fines Maximee et Flavije, Condate, and Deva, mentioned in the Itinerary of 
Antonine, and Veratinum f noticed in the work of the anonymous Ravennas. Roman antiquities have been found in all except the first, and the 
site of the Roman works has been traced at Stockport, and in addition to the actual bank of gravel which has been discovered in most of the direc- 
tions above specified, relics of this people have been found in the ford of the Weever between (Condate and Deva, and more particularly along the 
line of communication between the two Watling streets, and near the eastern termination of the road bearing from Condate on RainowJ. 
h Vol. III. p. 279. i Vol. II. p. 320. k Vol. II. p. 2. ' Vol. II. p. 320. "i Vol. 1. p. 156. 

» Hist, of Manchester, vol. II. p. 26, 4to edit. ° Vol. I. p. 192. 

V *' Quia si pacem cum fratribus accipere noUent, helium ab hostibus forent accepluri : et si nationi Anglorum noluissent viam vitae prsedicare, 
per horum manus ultionem essent mortis passuri. Quod ita omnia ut priedixerat divino agente Judicio patratum est." Bede, Eccl. Hist. lib. II. 
cap. 2. The three causes of difference are previously enumerated by Bede, who adds that I2O0 of the monks were killed. The Saxon Chronicle gives 
a more probable number, two hundred, and i>roceeds, " Atque ita impletum est quod Augustinus edidit presagium, *' Si Britanni pacem nobiscum 
haud inierint, Saxonum manibus essent perituri." Sax. Chron. Gibson, p. 25. 

This battle is fixed variously in 602, 3, 7, and 12, and is commemorated by Taliessin, who was patronized by Brocmail, and describes himself 
as an eye-witness of it. See Turner's Anglo-Saxons, vol. I. p. 134, 4to edit. 



* Whitaker'sManch. I. 172-3. 4to. edit. f Brought within Cheshire by a change in the stream of the Mersey. See vol. I. p. 315. 

X The author apprehends that some small station formerly existed near this point, the vestiges of which are either obliterated, or have eluded his 
enquiries, but which appears to be pointed at by the name of Cold Harbour in Titherington adjacent, and that of a neighbouring elevation in Rainow, 
pronounced Kerridge, the first syllable of which is an obvious corruption of Caer, and doubtless alludes to some military work in the neighbourhood. 



(I^eneral fntroDuction* 



XXV 



introduced among the Britons of Cheshire, but the con- 
version of their Mercian neighbours took place nearly half 
a century later than this battle, when their king Peada, 
having married the daughter of Oswy king of Northum- 
bria, in 653 '', received baptism from the hands of Finan 
bishop of Lindisfarne, and returned with missionaries to 
his dominions'^. 

The effects of this sanguinary irruption of Ethelfrid 
were of short duration. He was speedily routed by the 
united forces of Brocmail and three other British 
princes% and the Britons again obtained possession of 
Cheshire, and in 6l3 assembled at Chester, and elected 
Caidwan their king '. How long they maintained them- 
selves therein does not appear. About 689 Ivor and Henyr, 
sons of the daughter of Cadwallader, are said to have 
landed from Ireland, and with the assistance of two 
kings of Wales to have wasted the province of Chester, 
and to have demanded of the Saxon kings the countries 
from which they wrongfully expelled their parents, but 
experienced two sanguinary defeats from the Saxons, 
commanded by Inas king of Wessex. 

After this, adds the Chronicle quoted by Lhuyd, Ina 
" departed himself with Adelard his cousen to queen 
Ethelberga, being then at Manchester, and continued 
there almost three moneths." 

" In the meane while Adelard, minding to travel about 
all Wales, met three spies, of whome (being by him 
taken and examined) he learned that Ivor and Henyr 
were returning again with a huge armie, of such strength 
and force as all the Saxon kings were not able to resist. 
Then went he and shewed Inas what he had heard, 
wherefore Inas forthwith certified the other Saxon kings 
of the same, commanding them without delaie to be 
readie at Chester, with horse and armour to go against 
their enemies, and to defend their countrie from vio- 
lence. Who accordinglie met at Chester, and following 
the king's standard, gave the Brytaines battell, and put 
them to flight. Howbeit the Brytaines eftsoones in- 
vaded England, and made seaven roads in two yeares, 



destroieing townes and villages wheresoever they came, 
and never returning without great and rich booties." 

The undisturbed possession of Offa as far westwards 
as Holywell in 770—77, is manifested by the formation 
of the ditch which yet bear his name, and there termi- 
nates on the bank of the Dee. Long after this, the Bri- 
tons were once more in possession of Chester, and it 
was not finally wrested from them until the year 830, 
when king Egbert marched towards North Wales, after 
completing the conquest of Northumberland. 

These are probably but a few of the changes which 
took place during the long desperate struggle between 
the natives and the Saxon invaders, protracted to the 
length of four centuries. Imagination may paint the 
mutual devastation, and the sanguinary havoc of the in- 
tervening border warfare, but English History passes 
over the detail in silence. 

After this period Cheshire not only enjoyed a short 
security, but shared largely in the splendours of the 
Saxon court. In or about 837, according to Peter 
Langtoft, Athelwolf held his parliament at Chester after 
the death of Egbert, and there received the homage of 
his tributary kings " from Berwick unto Kent"." 

At this time Cheshire was subject to the jurisdiction 
of the last kings of Mercia, who had preserved a kind of 
mesne royalty, by the payment of tribute to Egbert and 
his successors"; but their dominions were every year 
more and more diminished by the Danish invaders. 

In 894, according to Henry Bradshaw^, Harold king 
of the Danes, Mancolin king of the Scots, and another 
confederate prince, encamped on Hoole Heath, near 
Chester, and after a long siege reduced the city, but 
soon afterwards were attacked by Alfred, who pursued 
thither their comrades who had fled from Buttingdune. 
The time and the success of the siege by Alfred are va- 
riously related by the historians, but the result appears 
to be that the Danes left the city in consequence of 
famine^. 

Alfred being subsequently seated in security on the 



1 The date of this important event is however given variously ; see Tho. ChesterfielJ, de Succ. Ep. C. et L. Ang. Sac. I. 423. " Interfecto Penda 
rege paganissiino Merciorum ab Oswio rege Northumbranorum, fraire so. sancti regis Oswaldi ; cum idem rex Oswius Christianus regnura ejus acci- 
peret, et gentem Merciorum finitimarumque provinciarum ad (idem Christ! converteret : primo fundata ecclesia Merciensi et ea facta cathedrali, sc. 
ab incarnatione Domini dclvi." 

r Vol. I. p. 132 and 142. The Annales Cestrienses give the date 655, adding " Penda rex periit, et Mercii facti sunt Christiani." 

s Humphrey Lluyd's Hist, of Wales, edit. 1774, p. xv. The following passage relative to Brocmail, occurs ibid. p. 23, in which the date 617, which 
is in all the editions, is apparently an error for 607. " There was sometime in Powys a noble prince named ISrocwill Yscithroc, consul or earle of 
Chester, who dwelt in a towne then called Pengwerne Powys, and now Salop, whose dwelling house was in the verie same place where the college 
of saint Chad now standeth. This man, with Cadvan kinge of Britayne, Morgan kinge of Demetia, and Blederius king of Cornwall, "-ave an over- 
throw to Edelred king of Northumberland, upon the river Dee, anno gratise 617." 

During the interval between the retiring of the Romans and the final subjugation by the Saxons, the Chrunicli-s give Chester for successive 
governors (in addition to Brocmail above mentioned) the earls Edolfa.ni Curson. (See vol. I. p. 115.) Edolf has recently taken his seat among the 
heroes of Epic poetry, under the name of Samoii, and Curson was no less a personage than one of Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. For him 
the preceding reference to Webb may suffice, but Edolf is mentioned by various grave historians ; " Among the nombre of tbyse Britons," says 
Fabian, speaking of those entrapped by Hengist at Stonehenge, " was an erle called Edolf, or Edolfe, erle of Caerlegion or Cliestre, the which, seyng 
his felowes and frendes thus murdred, as aflirnieth myn auctour, Gaufride and other, he by his mandhode wanne a stake in the hedge or ellys where 
w' y' whiche he knyghtly savyd his owne lyfe, and slewe of the Saxons xvij, and Sedde to the cytie or towne of Ambry, now named Salesbury." 
Quinta pars Vortimeri, cap. Ixxxix. Caerlegion or Chester has, however, by no means an undisjiuted interest in the " Avenger," and Mr. Milman, 
whose poetical powers have made the possession of this worthy a fair object of ambition, has followed Dugdale and others in enriching " the Bright 
City" with him, at the expence of '* the City of Legions." 

Mr. Whitaker has given Cheshire a fourth governor, in the following most extravagant passage relative to Lancelot of the Lake ; 

Lancelot " is an appellative truly British and significative of royalty. Lance being a Celtic name for a spear (Diodorus, p. 353, and Varro, 
Dordrecht, 1609, p. 25, fragmenta), and Leod, Lod, or Lot, importing a people. He was therefore a British sovereign, atid since he is denominated 
Lancelot of the Lake, perhaps he resided at Coccium in the region Linuis, and was the momirch of Lancashire, as the kings of the Creones, living at 
Selma in the forest of Morven, are generally denominated sovereigns of Morven, or more probably was king of Cheshire, and resided at Poolton 
Lancelot in tlie hundred of fVirral" .'.' Wbitaker's Hist, of Manch. 4to. edit. vol. H. 51. 

Never was there a more unfortunate conjecture, or one which a plain tale can more readily set down. Poulton Lancelyn, the " Pontone" of 
Domesday^ received its additional name from no fabulous sir Lancelot, but from the Lancelyns, who are proved by existing deeds to have settled 
here and borne that name shortly after the Conquest, and who continued in possession to the time of Elizabeth. (See vol. H. pp. 246-7.) 

' Holiushed, fo. edit. 156. " Langtoft, 1. p. 19. 

^ For an account at length of these tributary kings and their predecessors by Leycester and Lee, see vol. 1. pp. 3 and 131. 

y Cap. 7, as quoted in Cowper's MSB. I. 14. 

2 See vol. 1. p. 193. See also Turner's Anglo Saxons, i. 279, who gives the following account : 

*' 894. Before the winter came on Hastings had raised a large army from the East Auglians and Northumbrians. Their wives, their shipping, 

g 



XXVI 



Cf)e Htstorp of Cljes!)ire» 



English throne, the Mercian district was governed under 
him by rulers who were denominated Dukes or Earls of 
Mercia, and in some cases are designated by the old 
Chroniclers from Chester and Leicester, both which 
places were within their dominions. The first of these 
governors was Ethelred, son in law of king Alfred, who 
in the year 908, restored the city of Chester, which had 
been ruined by the Danes, and enlarged it in the direc- 
tion of the castle, so as to double the extent of the Ro- 
man town''. After his decease, his countess in 915 
erected the fortress of Edisbury on one of the principal 
roads bearing upon Chester, and in the following year 
added Runcorne on an important ford of the Mersey. 
In 919 the passes of that stream, and its principal feeder 
the Irwell, were further strengthened by king Edward, 
who, after seizing the person and estates of Elfwina, 
daughter and heiress of Ethelfleda '^, established another 
fortress at Thelwall, and a fifth at Manchester, within 
the verge of Northumbria. 

The cause for the disinheriting this young and power- 
ful princess is stated by Lhuyd to have been a secret 
contract of marriage which she had entered into with 
" Raynald king of the Danes," in consequence of which 
Edward was naturally anxious to prevent such an ac- 
cession of strength to his most formidable enemies. 
About this time also, according to the same authority, 
" Leofred a Dane, and Gruffyth-ap-Madock, brother in 
law to the prince of West Wales," landing in Wales 
from Ireland wasted the country as far as Chester, be- 
fore king Edward was informed of their arrival. 
" Whereat he was verie sore offended, and being loath 
to trouble his subjects in that behalfe, made a vowe that 
he and his sonnes with their owne people would be re- 
venged upon Leofred and Gruffyth, and thereupon came 
to Chester, and wan the citie from them ; then he di- 
vided his armie into two battles, whereof he and his son 
Athelstan led the first, and Edmund and Edred the second, 
and so followed them with as much celeritie as he could, 
and overtooke them at the forest of Walewode, now 
Sherwode, where Leofred and Gruftyth set upon him 
fierselie, so that the king in the beginning was in some 
distress, until Athelstane stepped in between his father 
and Leofred, and wounded the Dane in the arme in 
such a sorte, that he being not able to hold his speare 
was soon taken and committed to the custodie of Athel- 
stane. In the mean time Edmund and Edred encount- 
ring with Gruffyth, slew him, and brought his head to 
their father. Then Athelstane caused Leofred to be 
beheaded, and so both their heads were set up together 



on the top of the towre of Chester, and Edward and his 
sonnes returned home with great triumph." 

In 924 a rebellion of the Britons in Cheshire is said to 
have been quelled by Edward on the eve of his de- 
cease''. 

The security of Chester against the Danish invaders 
was ultimately effected by the victories of Edmund in or 
about 942*^, after which it was occasionally honoured by 
the residence of the Saxon sovereigns in its metropolis. 
The mint established by Athelstan was again restored *, 
and there king Edgar received the celebrated homage of 
his vassal kings in 973". About this time also the govern- 
ment of Mercia by earls was renewed in the person of 
Alfere ^. 

This kind of government subsisted to the time of king 
Harold', and was then vested in his brother-in-law, earl 
Edwin, who conveyed his sister, the queen Algitha, after 
the battle of Hastings, to Chester, where Harold is 
said also to have terminated his life as a hermit''. 

It is most probable that Cheshire, like the rest of the 
kingdom, in the first instance sullenly acquiesced in the 
consequences of this battle, but insurrection afterwards 
manifested itself in the north ; and Ordericus Vitalis 
informs us that the Cheshire and Welsh men laid siege 
to Shrewsbury. An army was therefore marched against 
them in IO69, and after great difficulties arrived at 
Chester and fortified it'. From the depositions in the 
Scroop and Grosvenor cause, it appears that a sangui- 
nary battle was fought at this time at Nantwich, which 
is mentioned in Domesday as a place of strength, and 
as part of the estates of earl Edwin ; and from circum- 
stances mentioned in another part of this work, it 
appears probable that the Saxon fortress at Stockport, 
and the earl's manor house of Macclesfield, with the 
churches and dependent towns, perished in the devasta- 
tion consequent on the march of the Normans. The 
general confiscation which may be presumed to have 
followed, and the murder of the earl of Mercia in the 
year following, prepared the way for the establishment 
of the NoEMAN EARLDOM OF Chestee, first granted 
to Gkerbod, a noble Fleming, and then conferred on 
Hugh d'Avranehes, the king's kinsman. To constitute 
an efficient counterpoise to the neighbouring Welsh- 
men, the vast privileges of the antient palatinate were 
annexed to the grant, making the earl a sovereign 
prince within his limits, owing fealty indeed to the 
greater empire of England, but holding the whole (in 
the words of the grant) as freely by the swoed, as the 
king held his realm by the crown, as " a dignity 



and their wealth they confided to the East Anglians, and marching with that vigorous rapidity from which Hastings had so often derived his surest 
advantages, they rested neither night nor day till they had reached and fortified Chester in the Wirral. Alfred was active to pursue, but he did not 
overtake them till they had embosomed themselves in military defences, which the military knowledge of that age respected as impregnable. Alfred 
for two days besieged them, drove away all the cattle in the vicinity, slew every enemy who ventured beyond the encampment, and burnt and 
consumed all the corn of the district. 

" From Chester Hastings led his bands for subsistence into North Wales." 

^ See Leycester, I. 5. Brompton's words are, " restaurata, novis muris circumJata, ac pene ad duplum quam prius ampliata, ita quod castrum 
ibidem ab olim extra muros ad aquam positum, nunc infra muros videatur." Brompton, 833. 

c Sax. Chr. 107. Gib. Anno 620. Hoc item anno fuit filia Aetheredi Merciorum domini omni imperio in Merciis privata, et in occidentalem 
Saxoniam ducta tribus hehdomadis ante natales. Ea dicta est Haelwina. 

<* William of Malmesbury, ed. Savile, p. 27. 

e Simon of Durham. " 942. Hoc anno magnificus rex Anglorum Eadmundus quinque civitates, Lindicolniam, Snothinghaham, Deorbecam, 
Leogare-Cestram, et Stanferdam, manibus Danorum penitus extorsit, totamq. Merciam in sui potestatem redegit." Compare this with the extract 
from the Polychronicon, vol. I. p. 193, the compiler of which gives the date 947, which is certainly incorrect. 

I See Coins, vol. I. p. 189. B Ibid. I, p. 193. '' Ibid. p. 6. 

i For a detailed account of the earls of Mercia by Leycester, see vol. I. p. 5 — 8, and another "by Lee, p. 137. 

n See Hoare's Giraldus Cambrensis, H. 166. Giraldus and the archbishop were at Chester on St. John's day, 1187 (Annal. Cest.) and it appears 
from the Itinerary that they received cheeses of deer's milk from the countess and her mother, and most probably conversed with them on a story 
which differed so widely from general English history. If the countess's mother, Margaret, sister of William king of Scotland, and nearly related 
to the Saxon blood royal, can be supposed to have countenanced the story, the authority for it is by no means contemptible. 

1 Vol. I. p. 193. 



(Jieneral Jntrotiuctiott. xxvn 

inherent in the sword, as purchased by it, and to be kept After this are noticed, II. the monastery of St. Mary ; 

by it also""." 'fl- the church of St John; and IV. the canons secular of 

This grant included the entire lands of the palatinate, St. JVerburgh, who held the undermentioned vills, or parts 

with the exception of those held by the bishop, and of vills, afterwards wrested from them and given to the 

nearly all the Saxon proprietors appear to have been Benedictine monks introduced in their placeP. 

ejected. This deprivation, and the subsequent distri- V. The series of lay proprietors then commences with 

bution of lands to his Norman followers, was finished the list of the lands held in demesne by the Ear/ himselfi. 

before the year 1086, when the Domesday Survey was VI. Next after the earl comes the great name of 

completed, and in this the apportioument of " Cestre- Robert Fitz-Hugh, baron of Malpas, supposed to 

scire" is described as follov s. The earl's estates in have been a natural son of his local sovereign. In his 

other counties are enumerated under another head". descendants, and possibly in him, was vested the office 

The Survey opens with an account of the city of of Serjeant of the Peace for all Cheshire except the 

Chester and its customs, printed at length, vol. I. hundreds of Wirrall and Macclesfield ; and within his 

p. 171. Then follow these paragraphs : domains' are the sites of three castles, near the Welsh 

In Cestresire tenet Episcopus ejusdem Civi- border, Malpas, Oldcastle, and Shocklach. His daugh- 

TATis QUOD AD suuM PERTiNET EpiscopATUM. ters married into the families of Patrick and Belward, 

ToTAM RELiQUAM tebramComitatus tenet Hugo the representation of the first of which passed through 

Comes de kege cum suis hominibus. the Suttons and Dudleys to the Wards, and that of the 

Terram intra Ripe et Mersham tenuit Ro- latter through the Egertons and Breretons to the 

GEEUS Pictavensis, modo TENET Rex. Holtes. From a younger line of these Egertons de- 

I. Then follow the customs attached to the bishop's scended also the present houses of Egerton and Chol- 

jurisdiction, and the enumeration of the several vills mondeley, and various collateral branches which seve- 

which he was partly or wholly possessed of, which are rally assumed a local or other distinguishing name\ 

subjoined in the note annexed". VII. After Robert Fitz-Hugh comes Robert de 

"1 Leycester, vol. I. p. 9. A very anlient sword, which once constituted the symbol of this mesne sovereignty, and was probably the identical 
weapon used either in the investiture of Hugh Kevelioc, or his Norman predecessor Hugh Lupus, to whom tradition refers it, is preserved in the 
British Museum. The length of the blade is 3 feet 4g inches, and at the upper end are the words * Hugo Comes' on one side, and ■ Cestrise' on the 
other ; the blade is 2^ inches broad in this part, and slopes to a point. The hilt is 6| inches in length, 2f inches of which are occupied by a circular 
pommel, which, like the rest of the hilt, is of brass gilt, and ornamented with concentric circles containing rich scrolls and foliage after an antique 
pattern ; in the handle part on each side are four small pannels lilled up with motherof pearl. An etching of this sword very near to perfect accuracy 
will be found in the Magna Britannia of Messrs. Lysons. 

Selden, speaking of this form oi investiture (which is often mentioned with reference to the Chester earls as an aera for fixing dates in the Annates 
Cestrienses), observes that he finds no instance ancienter than that of Hugh de Pudsay, but adds that Matthew Paris speaks of it as a '* custom of that 
age, formerly enough knowne, and not used as a new rite." If the sword above-mentioned is referred to Hugh Kevetiocy it is antecedent by about 
thirty-six years to the time when bishop Pudsay was invested by Richard I. with the sword of the earldom of Northumberland. 

In the exchequer of Chester was formerly another sword, now lost, c.illed earl Raiulle's sword, but improperly so. A rude drawing of it is extant 
in Catherall's book, Harl. MSS. 1988. The b\atie sloped regularlt/ to a poitit, the guard was straight, and the pommel dTlquefoil form. On the two 
sides of the pommel were the cross of St. George and the prince's plume, and on the blade were placed six coats — on one side, 1. England only, with 
a label for the ** primugenitus Angliae." 2. Argent, three lions passant, tails cowed but reflexing over the back Gules ; North Wales antient. 
3. Sable, sem^e of besants, Cornwall. On the other side were, 1. Mortimer cjuartering De Burgh for the earldum of March. 2. Randle Blundeville, 
for Chester ; and 3. Argent, a chief Azure (a coat sometimes given to Richard sun of Gilbert Stronghow, instead of his usual coat. Gules, chev- 
ronny Or), for the earldom of Pembroke. 

This Sword was therefore the sword of state of Edward V. as earl of Chester, he being the only person in whom these titles were ever united, 
and it was probably used when he was brought in state into Chester in 1475. See the correction of the Chester Annalists t>n this subject, 
vol. I. p. 196. Sandford gives him another earldom, that of Salisbury, hut this originated in his confounding him with his cousin Edward, son of 
Richard of Gloucester. 

Jn searching for this sword, among several others in the British Museum, the author discovered, in 1819, another sword of state of this unfortunate 
pj-ince, of whom so little is known, and of whom so few relics are preserved. Its former possessor was till then unknown, but is sufficiently identified 
as his by the arms above specified being introduced on the hilt in enamel, though if Catheral's drawing is to be depended on, it has sufficient differ- 
ences to distinguish it from the one before mentioned. The arms are on the hilt, the pommel is octagonal, the guard wavy, the blade converging 
rapidly at the point, and the prince's coat quarterly of Franee and England, supported by angels, and surmounted with a prince's coronet. The length 
of the blade is 5 feet 3^ inches, of the hilt 15| inches, of the guard 16^ inches, breadth of blade at top 3 inches. On the hilt and guard is inscribed 
in 3 lines a series of religious sentences, commencing with the words Ave Maria. 

Might not these regalia of the antient palatinate be transferred with propriety to the royal palace of the present Eakl, or the county 
HALL IN Chester castle ? Their antient beauty might be restored without the slightest violation of their antique appearance. 

Whilst on the subject of swords, it may not be improper to add that one of the swords of state of England was borne at coronation by the Norman 
earls of Chester. See p. 33, note (c) and p. 42, col. 3. See also sir P. Leycester's quotation of a singular passage in Matthew Paris, p. 9, on which 
Selden observes that it is " the first time that in expresse words 1 find the earl of Chester called comes palatinus." The words of the original are 
*' comite Cestrise gladium S. Edwardi, qui curtein dicitur, ante regem bajulante in signum quod comes est palatii, et regem si oberret habeat de 
jure potestatem cohlbendi ; suo sibi, scilicet Cestrensi, constabulario niinistrante, et virg^ populum, cum se inordinate gereret, subtrahente. 

n Vol.1, p. II. 

o Dudestan hundred, Farndon. Riseton hundred, Tarvin. IVUaveston hundred, Sutton. Exestan hundred, "Extune." ffarmundestrou hun- 
dred, Wibunbury. Riseton hundred. Burton near Tarporley ; and (hundred omitted) Redeclive near Chester. 

P Dudestan hundred, Saighton, Cheveley, Huntintun, Boughton. Riseton hundred, Idenshaw. JVilaveston hundred, Wervin, Croughton, Sut- 
ton, Salghall, Shotwick, Neston, Raby. Roelau hundred, Trafford, Ince. Tenendum hundred, MidAston, Clifton. Exestan hundred, Odeslie- 
Dudestan hundred, Pulford j and Atiscros hundred, Wepre and Lache. 

q Raelau hundred, Weverham including Antrobus (in another viz. Tunendune hundred), Conewardsley, Dunham on the Hill, Elton, Trafford, 
Manley, Hellesby, Frodsham. Bochelau hundred, Owlarton, Nether Alderley. (Riseton hundred, omitted,) Done, Edisbury. Dudestan hundred, 
Eaton, Lea, Coddington, Rushton, Little Budworth, Oulton, Over, ff^ilaveston hundred, Easthani, Trafford, " Edelave." Hamestan hundred, 
Maclesfeld, Adlington, Gawsworth, Marton, Hungrewenitune, Chelford, Henbury, Capesthorn, Henshall, Tintwisle, Hollinworth, Wernith, Romiley, 
" Laitone." Mildestvic hundred, Alsager, Sandbach, Clive, Sutton, Wimbaldsley, Wever, Occleston. ffllavestiin hundred, Upton, Stanney ; 
and in Tunendune hundred, Antrobus : Northwich and Middlewich as hereafter mentioned ; and in Atiscros hundred, Hawarden, " Radintune," 
and half of Roelent, with its dependencies and Berewicks. 

' Dudestan hundred, Bettisfield, " Burwardestone," Worthenbury, Malpas, Tilston, Christleton, Cholraondeley, Edge, Hampton, Larkdon, 
Duckinton, Chowley, Broxton, Overton, Cuddington, Shocklach, Tussingham, Bickley, Bickerton, Burwardsley, Crew near Farndon. Riseton 
hundred, Tilston Farnhall, Beeston, Bunbury, Tiverton, Spurstow, Peckforton. ffilavestnn hundred, Sutton. Hamestan hundred. Butley, 
" Croeneche." 

• See Malpas, &c. pedigrees, H. 333-50. 56. 58. 



XXVIII 



Ci)e ©istot^ of C|)es!)ire» 



RoDELENT, a name of equal terror to the Welsh, who, 
besides the vills under-mentioned^, stretching along 
Wirral, had half of Rhuddlan, with vast dependencies 
in Wales, specified under Atiscros hundred. He held 
" Northwales in farm for xl pounds, besides the lands 
which the king had given him in fee, and the lands of 
the bishopric." He was shortly after murdered by the 
Welsh, and dying without legitimate issue, the bulk 
of this barony reverted to the earldom, but a small part 
continued in the Rodents of Thurstaston, probably ille- 
gitimate descendants, and passed through the Thurs- 
tastons to the Whitmores". 

Vni. Robert the Cook had an allotment of Little 
Neston and Hargreave. 

IX. Richard de Vernon, next mentioned", was of 
the house of Vernon in Normandy, and had a castle at 
Shipbrook on the Wever to command the passes of the 
Wever, and the approach to Chester from the north, by 
the antient line of the Watling-street. The barons of 
Shipbrook, his successors, terminated in coheirs in the 
thirteenth century, but his male issue are still existing 
in Staffordshire, and in one of the Staffordshire branches 
the Cheshire barony of Kinderton is now vested y. With 
his lands are intermixed a notice of, X. Richard Pin- 
CERNA, probably ancestor of the Butlers barons of 
Warrington, and lord of Poulton and Shavington % and 
another notice of, XI. Walter Vernon, who either 
returned to Normandy or died without issue, whereupon 
his lands^ were reunited to the earldom. 

XII. William Mai.bedeng, baron of Nantwich'', was 
also placed near the line of a Roman road, the Via 
Devana bearing on Chester from the south-east. He 
had his castle at Nantwich on the banks of the Wever, 
where the Saxon earl Edwin had a fortress before him, 
and in imitation of his earl converted a large portion of 
his lands along that river to the purposes of a forest or 
chace''. His direct male line terminated in a few gene- 
rations, and the barony was subdivided among nume- 
rous coheirs and purchasers. 

Xni. William Fitz-Nigel, baron of Halton ""j near 



an important pass on the Mersey, and constable of 
Cheshire, next named, in right of his office ranked 
above all subjects of the palatinate, and next to the earl 
himself'. His son died issueless, but his female de- 
scendants continued in possession of his vast estates, 
till the daughter of the celebrated Henry de Lacy 
brought them to Thomas earl of Lancaster, after whose 
attainder they merged in the duchy of Lancaster. With 
the father of this William, Nigel Fitz-Ivon, came " five 
brothers," supposed to be his brothers, from whom 
descend the Buttons, Warburtons, Hattons, and 
other antient Cheshire families ; and from circumstances 
of tenure, united to similarity of arms, it appears pro- 
bable that the Lymmes and Daniells were also of this 
noble stock. 

XIV. The next grantee, Hugh de Mara, or Fitz- 
Norman, was the founder of the barony of Montalt, a 
Welsh outpost of the palatinate, the lords of which were 
the hereditary stewards of the earldom ^ Their represen- 
tation in the female line is vested in the Ardernes, by 
descent from the Orrebies of Alvanley; the direct 
male line failed temp. Edw. III. but the Gerards and 
Domvilles appear to be younger branches, to which 
some add (and not improbably) the Ceewes. 

After Hugh Fitz-Osberne (XV.)s lord of Pulford 
on the Welsh frontier, predecessor of the Pulfoeds and 
Batons, succeeds the nameof Hamo de Masci(XVI.)'' 
represented through coheirs by the noble house of Grey 
or Groby. Numerous collateral lines bearing his name 
spread over the palatinate, and to them may most pro- 
bably be added the families of Tatton, Stokepoet, 
and Bramall, with those of Sale, Bagulegh, and 
Dukenfield, which appear to be branches of the 
latter. On this barony were the chace or forest of 
Ullersford, or Ullerswood ', and the castles of Dunham 
and Ullersford, the first seated on the Watling-street, and 
the second near the line of an antient road (of British 
or Roman origin) from Stockport to Kinderton. From 
this barony also were severed by grant to Robert Fitz- 
Waltheof, the lands, which, added to the castle of 



t miaveston hundred, the two MoUingtons, Leighton, Thometon Mayowe, Gayton, Haselwall, Thurstanston, Caldey, the two Meolses, 

and Wallesey. 

In a later part of the survey of Cestrescire, half of Roelent castle, manor, mint, and mine, and half of Clwyd with its Bsheries, &c. &c. and 33 
berewicks of Englefield : also in atiscros hundred, Brochetune, Ulfimiltone, Lathroe, Bachelie, Colegelt, and " Nort Wales," as above-mentioned. 
He claimed also the hundred of Arvester held by earl Roger, and held Ros and Reweiiioc from the king. 

" See a memoir of him vol. 1. p. 52, and pedigree of Whitmore of Thurstaston. 

X Riselm hundred, Ashton. IVilaveston hundred, Picton and Hooton. Tunendune hundred, Cogshull. Mildestvic hundred, Shipbrook, Shurlach, 
Leftwich, Moulton, Wharton, Davenham, Bostock. ff^armundestrou hundred, Aldelym, Crewe. Hamestan hundred, Bredberie. 

y See'pedigrees of Vernon of Shipbrook, of Haslington, of Marple ; and Venables of Kinderton. ^ See severally these townships. 

" Riseton hundred, Willington. Wilaveston hundred, Nesse, Ledsham, Prenton. 

b Dudestan hundred, Tattenhall, Golborne Belleau. Riseton hundred, " Ulvre." lyilaveston hundred, Wervin, Poole, Salghall, Landican, 
Upton, Thingwall, Knoctorura. Mildestvic hundred, Hassall, the two Minshulls, and Sproston. Warmundestrou hundred, Acton, Willaston, 
Wrenb'ury, Chorlton, Marbury, Norbury, Wirswall, Walgherton, Soond, Buerton, Hatherston, Wisterston, Barkesford, Barterton, Worleston, 
Barthomle'y, " Essetune," Wilksley, Titley, Stapeley, Wisterston, Bromhall, Poole, " Tereth," Chorley, Baddiley, " Stanleu in Weston," Coppen- 
hall Poole, Aston, Cholmondeston ; and in Atiscros hundred, Claitone and Wipre. 

c See Nantwich and Combermere. 

ii Cestre hundred, Newton, Netherlegli, Handbridge. Dudestan hundred. Glutton. Riseton hundred, Barrow. Ifilaveslon hundred, Neston, 
Raby, Capenhurst, Barnston. Bochelau hundred, Warburton, Millington, Knutsford, OverTabley, Nether Peover, Tatton. Tunendune hundred, 
Halto'n, Weston, Aston, Norton, Enley, Dutton, Little Legh, Aston juxta Budworth, Great Budwonh, Whitby. Mildestvic hundred, Goosetrey. 
Hames'tan hundred. Over Alderley. Mildesvic hundred, Lees ; and in a later part of the survey, in MUdesvic hundred, part of Rode ; and in Atiscros 
hundred, Mulestone. 

e See charter, vol. I. p. 499. 

f Cestre hundred, Overlegh, Handbridge, Radeclive. fynaveston hundred, Caldey. Mildestvic hundred, Lawton, Byley, Goosetrey. In a later 
part a portion of Rode in Mildestvic hundred, and in Atiscros hundred, Biscopestreu. 

B In Cestre hundred he had Bruge. Dudestan hundred, Caldecote, Pulford. Riseton hundred, Wardle. Hamestan hundred, Bosley, Marton. 
Mildestvic hundred, Somerford, Carincham. 

Note, these four last tou-nships appear to have been severed from tlie desc-iption of the lands of Hugh de Mara, by some error in arranging the 

original survey. 

In a later part he is described as holding Alentone, Eitune, and Sutone, in Exestan hundred, and part of Gresford in the same ; and in Atisaos 
hundred, Brocheton, Clavintone, and Edritone, and one s;iltwork in Northwich. 

h Warmundestrou. (I. IVilaveston) hundred, Puddington. Bochelau hundred, Dunham, Bowdon, Hale. Hamestan hmidrei, Bramall. Bochelau 
7.MKi/)-erf, Ashley, Owlarton, and, in a later ponion of the survey, parts of Sunderland and Baggiley, in Bochelau hundred : aaii, la Aticros hundred, 
Estone and Cashitone. ■ For an account of this Castle, see vol. III. p. 308. 



(General Jntrotiuctton* 



XXIX 



Stockport, and other grants by the earl and the lords of 
Aldford, laid the foundations of the later barony of 
Stockport. 

XVII. Bigot, next mentioned, was lord of the ex- 
tensive fee which was afterwards held under Aldford 
castle on the Welsh frontier''. He was succeeded 
by his son Hugh, who was followed by the Ald- 
FOitDS and Ardernes, and as their tenure was lii^e his, 
immediately from the earl in capite, there is every reason 
for supposing them his descendants in the female line, 
and his representatives by inheritance. 

After (XVIII.) Baldric, an obscure proprietor, comes 

XIX, GiSLEBEET LE VeNABLES, BaEON OF KlNDER- 

ton', progenitor of numerous lines of the Venables 
family, of the Leghs of Booths with their collateral 
branches, and of the Meres of Mere; to which must 
be added, with probabilit}' only not amounting to posi- 
tive proof, the Leighs of West Hall, and with weal^er, 
but still very strong probability, the Dones, Leghs of 
East Hall, and Breeetons. The site of his castle is 
another proof of the lines of the antient roads continuing 
in his time the accustomed avenues to Chester, and the 
points which the Norman conquerors were anxious to 
secure, the hall of Kinderton being only a few hundred 
yards distant from the station at Condate. 

From the other grantees, whose names and lands 
are specified below", must be selected, as worthy 
of more particular notice, Ranulfus, ancestor of 
the Mainwarings, who settled at Warmincham; 
and Osberne Fitz Tezzon, the ancestor of the Boy- 
DELLs (whose castle may yet be traced by earth- 
works at Dodleston), and probably of their dependants 
the Lancelyns. Among the others are, Gozelin, 
whose lands passed chiefly to the Ceoxtons and Tou- 
CHETs; Ilbert, ancestor of the Pigots of Waverton, 
Chelford, and Butley ; Nigell de Briceio, noticed 
in the account of Greaseby ; and Odard, ancestor of 
the Duttons. Among the rest will be found a few 
Saxon proprietors, whose possession was, in most of the 
instances, probably, as short-lived as their grants were 
unimportant. 

From this Survey, the descent of manerial property 
to its present proprietors is attempted to be traced in 
the following pages ; and the reasons for referring the 



families here named, to the lines of the Norman grantees, 
will be found under the repective heads of the Work. 
To these may be added, as possessors at this early 
period, the Croxtons and Dods, who appear to have 
been restored to portions of the estates of their Saxon 
ancestors; and Gilbert le Grosvenor and Hugh 
de Runchamp, who divided the property of a thane 
slain at the battle of Nantwich. From the Grosve- 
nors, through the coheirs of the direct line, descend 
the families of Shakerley, Stanley of Hooton, 
Warburton, and Leycester, and in a junior male 
line, the present earl Grosvenor — and from the Run- 
champs, the LosTOCKS and Moretons. With these must 
be classed the Davenports, and, at a somewhat later 
period, the Fittons ; the first of whom received their 
high office, and the last the great lordships of the Bolyn, 
by grants from the earldom. 

Surrounded by the descendants of the Norman 
warriors, amongst whom their predecessor had thus parted 
the fair lands of his palatinate, the earls of Chester con- 
tinued to exercise their mediate sovereign!}' for about 
one hundred and sixty years. For this sovereignty, it 
is true, they owed allegiance to the paramount ruler, 
the king of England ; but that monarch does not appear 
to have exercised any part of his royal prerogative 
within the palatinate in temporal matters, beyond the 
retaining a mint at Chester. 

The great officers of state for the palatinate, to whom 
the charters are generally addressed, were, the Baron of 
Halton, constable of the earldom — the Baron of Mon- 
talt, " Dapifer," Seneschal!, or High Steward — the High 
Justiciary, the Sheriff, the six remaining Barons (after 
the creation of the barony of Stockport), and the " Bal- 
livi," viz. the Serjeants of the peace, the Foresters of 
Macclesfield, Delamere, and Wirral", and the Bailiffs 
of Northwich and Macclesfield. Among the other great 
officers, who sign as witnesses, by their official names, 
were the Chamberlain, who presided in the court of 
Exchequer, the Tutor of the Earl's son, who signs as 
such he/ore the chamberlain", and the Clerk or Secretary 
of the earl, in whose custody was deposited the cele- 
brated Cheshire record, the " rotulus qui vocatur 
Domes day P." To these might be added other high, 
but subordinate offices, such as that of Usher of the 



^ Dudestan hundi-ed, Farndon, Lee, Thornton le Moors. Bochelau hundred , Mobberley. Hamestan hundred, Norbury, Nether Alderley, Siddirip-- 
ton, North Rude. Mddestvic hundred, Congleton, Samlbach, Sutton, Wimbaldsley, Wever, and, in a later portion of the survey, part of Northenden, 
in Bochelau hundred. 

1 Dudestan hundred, Eccleston, Alpraham. Riseton hundred, Tarporley, Wettenhall. Roelau hundred, Hartford. Bochelau hundred, Lymme, 
Hijh Legh, VVincham, Mere, Over Peover, Rosthorne. Exeatan hundred, Hope. Mildestuic hundred, Newbold-Astbury, Brereton, Kinderton, 
Davenport, Witton. Ifarmundestrou hundred, Blakeiiball ; and, in a later portion of the survey, parts of Sunderland and Baggiley, in Bochelau 
hundred. 

•" XIX. Lands of Gozelin. Mildestvic hundred, Newton, Croxton. Bochelau hundred. Nether Tabley. 

XX. Lands of Ranulphus. ff^i/aveston hundred, Blaconhall. Roelau hundred, Winnington. Bochelau hundred, Tattnn, Nether Peover, War- 
ford, Over Peover, Cepraundwich, Owlarton, Snelson. Tunendune hundred. Co^shuU. Mildestvic hundred, Wheelock, Tetton, and, in a later 
portion of the Survey, parts of Northenden, Sunderland, and Baa^giiey, in Bochelau hundred. 

Lands of Minor Grantees, xxi. Radulfus Venator. Stapleford, in Dudestan hundred, xxii. Rainald. Erpestoch, in Exestan hundred; and, 
in a later part, portion of Gresford, in the same, xxill. Ilbert. Waverton and Eaton, in Dudestan hundred, and Clotton, in Riseton hundred. 

XXIV. Lands of Osbern Fitz Tezzon. In Dudestan hundred, Hanley and Golborne David. In ff^ilaveston hundred, Poulton Lancelyn. In 
Roelau hundred, Winnington. Bochelau hundred, Lyrame, Warburton. Tunendune hundred, Dutton, Appleton, Gropenhall, and, in a later portion 
of the Survey, part of Gresford, in Exestan hundred, and Dodleston, in Atiscros hundred. 

Lands of the remaining Minor Proprietors, xxv. Nigell. Oulton Lowe, in Riseton hundred. Greaseby, Storeton, in ff^Uaveston hundred, 
XXVI. Jezelin. Somerford, in Jf^ilaveston hundred. xxvii. Odard. Dutton, in Tunendune hundred. xxviii. Mundret, in Barnton, ihid. 
XXIX. Ulviet, late tenant of part of the same. xxx. A servant of the Earl's land, unrated, xxxi. Dunning. Kingsley, in Roelau hundred, 
xxxii. Leuric. Alvanley, ibid, xxxiii. Uluric. Butley and Alretune, in Hamestan hundred, xxxiv. Gamel. Mottram and Chad, ibid, xxxv, 
MoRAN. Lees, in Mildestvic hundred. 

After this fuUow the proprietors who had joint interests in vills, which have been enumerated under each grantee ; the Saltworks, of which 
William Malbedeng had Nantwich, and the Earl, Northwich and Middlewich — lands held in Atiscros hundred, enumerated among the preceding 
grantees, excepting some lands held by Radulphus Venator, Odin, Warmund Venator, Radulfus, William, and King Griffin. The Survey of 
Cestrescire then closes with the lands previously between the Ribble and the Mersey, by Roger of Poitou — the present Lancashire hundreds of West 
Derby, Leyland, Salford, and Blackburn. 

" Namely, the barons of Mai pas, and the representatives of the families of the Davenport, Kingsley, Grosvenor of Budworth, Weever, Merton, 
and Storeton. o See charter in Tiverton, vol. I. p. 148. 

P For an account of a copy of this Roll, or rather of a considerable portion of it, see p. xiii, preceding. 



XXX 



Cj)e History of Ci[)esf)ire. 



earl's palace, which was held hereditarily by the Mer- 
tons of Merton'. Occasionally, the earl nominated a 
Deputatus Comes (an office distinct from the Vice Comes 
or Sheriff), who presided in court in his place, and had 
precedence of all his officers of state. Walkelia de Ar- 
derne occurs in this office in a charter given in p. xiv; 
and during the intrusion of Simon de Montfort into the 
earldom, Stephen de Russeton is mentioned in the 
Annales Cestrienses, as having been nominated to it by 
Henry de Montfort, son of the intrusive earl. 

The jurisdiction, in cases of capital felony, was not 
confined to the earl's court, but was also entrusted to 
the abbot of Combermere ; to the abbot of St. Wer- 
burgh, during the fair of Chester ; and lastly, to the 
courts of the eight barons, at the option of the felon, 
who might remove his trial to the earl's tribunal. The 
internal peace of the county was preserved by the 
perambulations of the serjeants of the peace and the 
foresters in the hundreds and forests at large, and by 
those of similar officers in each barony, all of whom 
could, in certain cases, inflict immediate punishment 
by decapitation \ In another part of the Work, the 
singular customs observed in executions have been fully 
noticed ; and to the anomalies of the civil polity of the 
antient earldom may be added, the Minstrel jurisdic- 
tion'; the protection recognised in the " Magna Carta 
Cestrescirae," " as granted by the barons to criminals ; 
and the three antient sanctuaries of Hoole, Over Marsh, 
and Rudheaih. As late as the reign of Henry Vlll. 
the privilege of sanctuary, in a more modified form, 
was granted to Chester for a short period ; but, during 
the term of the Norman earls, the most infamous rob- 
bers might resort to the fair with impunity, saving the 
abbot's cognizance of crimes there committed". 

With respect to the ecclesiastical arrangements, the 
-subdivisions of the Saxon benefices had been gradually 



progressive; and most of the present parishes will be 
found to have been in existence, either as independent 
parishes, or as chapelries shortly after independent, to- 
wards the time of the close of the original earldom. In 
addition to monastic institutions within the palatinate, 
but beyond the limits of the county, and besides many 
chantries, hermitages, and other minor foundations, 
five considerable Priories, St. Mary's, Birkenhead, Nor- 
ton, Warburton, and Mobberley, had been founded in 
Cheshire ; and three greater Abbeys, St. AVerburgh's, 
Stanlaw, and Combermere. 

The Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield still termed 
himself also of Chester, and had a palace adjacent to 
his ancient cathedral, the collegiate church of St. John; 
and though holding his dignity, as well within the pala- 
tinate as without it, from the Crown, he nevertheless 
waved all claims to the precedence vvhich the early 
churchmen arrogated over temporal peers, and signed 
after the Earl, as the local sovereign". Two instances 
have also been given, in which the native Prince of 
Wales, occurring in a deed with the earl of Chester, 
signs after him in one case, and in the other is named 
after him in the body of the charter^. 

The palatinate constituted, however, but a very small 
portion of the possessions of these mighty earls, con- 
sidered even without reference to their estates in Nor- 
mandy. The power of Randle II. had been fatally felt 
by king Stephen at the battle of Lincoln; and, subse- 
quent to this, the gratitude of Henry II. added to his 
estates the vast domains in' the counties of Stafford, 
Derby, Leicester, Nottingham, and Warwick, men- 
tioned in the charter of that prince, when duke of Nor- 
mandy". In the time of Randle III. these hereditary 
possessions were augmented by the lands between the 
Ribble and Mersey; and he held, at different times, the 
custody of the honour of Lancaster, the honour of Rich- 



^ Vol. II. p. 95. With respect to the Cheshire barons, their number and privileges, the reader is reft^rred to what sir Peter Leycester has stated, 
■vol.1, p. 48, 59. to the several heads of the baronies pointed out by the Index, and the account of their jurisdiction, given under the titles of 
Kinderton, Dunham Massy, and Stockport. Dugdale has said little on the subject in his Baronage ; and, in bis MS correspondence with Vernon, 
has stated some very erroneous opinions on the subject, which it is unnecessary to quote for the mere purpose of confutation ; but, at the same time, 
he suggests a new and judicious conjecture, that though some held their land per baroniam, doing military service for it, and being thereby of the 
earl's grand council, *' yet might they have others, ob prudentiam singulam, called to advise" — " that some were called at one time that were not at 
another, or their posteritye, for the earl was free to call to his councell those of whom he thouglit best, as we see in our antient summons to parlia- 
ment of our old nobilitie, where he that is once or twice called, perhaps is afterwards lett alone, and sometimes his posteritye omitted ; for though the 
father be wise, it is not consequent that the Sonne must needs besoetoo." 

This theory, though inapplicable to solving the difficulty of the hereditary barony of Stockport, for which purpose it is introduced, makes a new 
distinction of barons by tenure and by vvrit in the Cheshire palatinate, and may be the intended purport of the words barones mei, in the charter of 
Hugh Lupus to Chester abbey, where it is applied to persons whose descendants hail no baronial privileges ; and the reason why Roger de Main- 
waring, Richard Phytun, and Walkelyn de Arderne, who were not hereditary barons, occasionally sign before the baron of Malpas, in deeds enrolled 
in the Cheshire Domesday. 

From the Supplication exhibited by the people of Cheshire to king Henry VI. it appears that the Norman earls, as well as those of the blood 
royal, had "their high courts of parliament," held at will, with their courts of chancery and exchequer, and a justice to hold pleas, as well of the 
crown* as of common pleas ; that they never returned knights or burgesses to any parliament held out of the county, or were bound by their proceed- 
ings. The Supplication is, however, altogether silent as to the mode in which the parliament of the palatinate was constituted. 

There can, however, be little doubt that it was simply the great council of the earl, composed of the barons as before mentioned, and probablj of 
the more dignified ecclesiastics f, and over this council the baron of Halton presided by hereditary right J. Similar councils or parliaments continued 
to be held after the earldom had passed into the hands of the crown ; as, for instance, in 44 Hen. III. when prince Edward, as earl of the county 
palatine, held a grand council at the castle of Shotwick, to consult upon the affairs of his territories. — " B.-irones et milites Cestrenses, et quam 
plures alii ad summon, domini Edw. coram ipso domino Edw. apud Shotteswick, super statum terr. illius domini Edw. consul, et propon. qu^ hab. 
proponenda§." 

By this style a less limited assembly is implied than the council previously described ; and it is by no means improbable, that many of the knights 
and greater tenants of the earldom, who occur as witnesses in the transactions of the antient county court, were also occasionally admitted into the 
great council of the palatinate. 

• Respecting this singular jurisdiction, see Stanley's claim, in the introduction to VVirral hundred, the accounts of Delamere Forest, Malpas 
barony, and Davenport, and the pleas of the barons of Halton, Kinderton, Dunham, and Stockport. 

t See Dutton, in Bucklow hundred. u Vol. I. p. 50. "' See the charter of earl Randle to Chester abbey. 

» See the Foundation Charter of Combermere, vol. HI. y Vol. I. p. 43. and vol. II. p. 466. ^ See vol. I. p. 24. 



* So in the Supplication ; but these pleas were uniformly called, in the Earl's charters, " placita ad giadium meum pertinentia." See earl Randle's 
charter to his barons, vol. I. p. 50, and the reason of the same, mentioned in the Supplication itself. I. p. dd- 

\ These were not, however, without representatives in the great council of the nation ; viz. the bishop of the diocese, and the abbot of St. Wer- 
burgh's, who was occasionally summoned. See Selden's Titles of Honour. 

J Randle II. constituted him hereditarie — supreraum consiliarium po^t me super omnes optimates et barones totiiis terrie meae. See vol.1, p. 49. 

§ The style of the assembly is taken from Cowper's MSS. quoting Rot. Pat. 44 Hen. 111. M. 1. dor. 



(J^eneral gnttotiuctton* 



XXXI 



niond, and tbe earldoms of Lincoln and Leicester, during 
which period his influence must, have extended over 
nearly one third of the kingdom. It had been fortunate 
for the hereditar}' claimants of the Crown, that this 
great earl, whose energy and military skill were equal 
to his influence, and under whose banners the Christian 
army had served at Damietta, was intent on healing the 
discords of the realm, and preserving king John and 
his successor on the throne of their ancestors^. Such a 
union of prudence and power was not however to be 
always expected ; and after the death of the seventh earl, 
John Scot, in 1237, king Henry IIL by a violent but 
wise resumption, wrested the earldom from his coheirs, 
and united it to the crown. 

After this seizure, the king's commissioners possessed 
themselves of Chester Castle and the other strong holds 
of the Palatinate'', and the earldom was afterwards 
given by Henry HI. to his eldest son prince Edward, 
probably in 1245, on the occasion of his marriage with 
the princess Eleanor of Spain, when Wales, Gascony, 
Ireland, and other territories were settled upon him"^. 
Two years after this the new earl received the homage 
of his military tenants at Chester''. 

Between the seizure of the earldom and this period, 
Matthew Paris mentions an expedition of Henry III. 
against North Wales in 1245, during which he destroyed 
the pits at the Cheshire Wiches, to distress the Welsh, 
and caused a dreadful famine by depopulating the bor- 
der of Cheshire with a similar object : and he adds, that 
Prince David was supposed to have been abetted by 
Richard the king's brother, his uncle, from resentment 
felt by Richard at the earldom of Chester with its de- 
pendencies having been refused to him on his petition, 
through the interest of the Queen*. 

The same historian mentions, that in 1256 the Welsh 
(" oppressed in many forms, and repeatedly sold to 
those who would bid a greater price for them") broke 
out afresh " in defence of their country and their laws," 
in consequence of the dreadful tyranny of sir Geoffry 
Langley, the king's exactor there, and entering Eng- 
land, forced their way to Chester, plundering and deso- 
lating in a manner more destructive than the irruption of 
Lewis in the reign preceding'. ]n 1257, another insurrec- 
tion took place from the same cause ; the Welsh divided 
themselves into two bodies of thirty thousand armed 
men each, including five hundred horsemen, and the 
new earl of Chester was compelled to retire before them. 
The king in the first place slighted his remonstrances", 
but subsequently advanced through Cheshire with a 
large army, wasting the harvest as he proceeded, and 
after having rejected Llewellyn's submission, and vowed 
the extermination of the Welsh, partly in consequence 
of famine, and partly from disappointments, and the 
approach of winter, retreated towards London''. A 
murderous warfare was however kept up between the 
Welsh and the lord James de Audley, who was possessed 
of a large portion of the barony of Nantwich, and on 
his return from Germany found his lands, goods, and 
castles burnt or desolated. A savage system of retalia- 
tion was instantly commenced, and Matthew Paris tells 



us, that the whole border was reduced into an unin- 
habitable desert, the inhabitants were cut off by the 
sword, the castles and houses burnt, the woods felled, 
and the cattle destroyed by famine'. 

The further proceedings do not appear to have been 
connected with Cheshire beyond the occasional presence 
of the sovereign and the march of his followers through 
the county. Henry was at Chester in person in Aug. 
1260, and dated thence three instructions respecting the 
currency of a new gold coinage. In the same year prince 
Edward summoned the barons and knights of Cheshire 
to a meeting at Shotwick Castle, and on Sept. 8, also 
in 1260, the forces of lord Henry Percy, agreeably to 
the king's summons, were stationed at Chester''. 

In 1264 preparations were made to render Chester 
city tenable against the barons, but became unne- 
cessary by the cession of the earldom to Simon de 
Montfort, who concluded a treaty with the Welsh', and 
in whose name the earl of Ferrers took possession of 
Chester"". Shortly afterwards (on the octaves of the 
Innocents), according to the MS Annales Cestrienses, 
Henry de Montfort, eldest son of the new earl, received 
at Chester homage and assurance of fealty from the 
citizens, and the nobles and free tenants of the earldom; 
and on the eve of the Epiphany met Llewellyn, son of 
Grifin, and Grifin, son of Madoc, at Hawarden, and 
put a short stop to the war which had raged eight years 
and nine months between Cheshire and Wales, exchans- 
ing mutually the kiss of peace. He then appointed 
Lucas de Taney justiciary, and Stephen de Russeton 
deputy for the earl, and confirmed his adherent, Simon 
de Blanchminster, in the abbacy of St. Werburgh's. 

The power of the intrusive earl was however soon over- 
thrown by the escape of prince Edward, and the battle of 
Evesham ; and on the Sunday following this battle, the 
lord James de Audley, and Urian de St. Pierre seized the 
castle of Beeston, and laid siege to Chester, which, after 
an excellent defence of ten weeks, was surrendered by 
Lucas de Taney to prince Edward, who an-ived in 
person". 

The war with Wales was now for a short time re- 
newed. Llewellyn having declined doing homage to 
king Edward I. at Chester in 1275, that sovereign built 
the castle of Flint, and strengthened that of Rhuddlan, 
and gathered an army for his Hnal subjugation. In 1277, 
the royal forces were actively employed in the Princi- 
pality, and in the following year the king passed 
through Shotwick in person. The differences were for a 
short time appeased, but were again renewed, and the 
brave Llewellyn, last of the native princes having fallen 
in a skirmish in 1281, a stop was put to the warfare, 
which, with the exception of a few short intervals, had 
desolated the border, from the time that the Britons first 
retired before the Saxons to their hills and fastnesses. 

King Edward and his queen were now at the castie 
of Rhuddlan, and on their return through Chester, the 
king heard mass on the day of St. Augustine, 1283, in 
the abbey church of St. Werburgh, and there made 
offerings, the subjugation of Wales being considered 
complete". 



".See vol. I. p. 35. b Vol. 1. p. 194. 

"Vol. I. p. 44. d Vol. I. p. 194. • Matt. Par. p. 684-5. f Matt. Par. p. 937. 

E Matt. Par. p. 944. The king is stated to have replied to the prince's complaints, " Quid ad rae .' Terra tua est, ex done meo, Exere vires pri- 
mitivas, famam excita juvenilem, ut te de cetero timeant inimici. Me autenvalia negotia detinent occupatum." At this period the loss of the 
Norman earls was doubtless severely felt in Cheshire. ■■ Malt. Par. p. 954. 

' Matt. Par. p. 958. k Cowper quoting Claus. Rot. 44 Hen. 111. Rot. Pal. 44 Hen. 111. and Rymer, 1. 706-7. 

' See vol. I. p. 194. m Holinshed. n Vol. I. p. 194. 

o MS. Chron. S. WerburgiE. A curious account of the king's expences during his visit to Rhuddlan in 1281-2, is printed in the Archsologia, 
XVI. 33, having been communicated by S. Lysons, esq. The venison was on one occasion brought by sea to Rhuddlan from Chester, and was most 



XXXII 



%f)t History of CJ)efij)tre» 



Some events of little general importance connected 
with the county about this time, will be found under the 
local History of Chester. The old legitimate theatre 
for Cheshire valour was closed by the conquest of 
^^'ales, but the ambition of the English sovereigns 
opened another for them on the Continent, and among 
many other i^nights and gentlemen of this county, who 
engaged in the warfare of their great earl, the Black 
Prince, the names of sir Hugh Calveley, sir Thomas 
Daniers, and the four esquires p of the lord Audley, be- 
came pre-eminently and permanently distinguished. 

The unfortunate son of this great warrior, Richard II. 
manifested a particular partiality' for this county, and 
having erected it into a principality, assumed therefrom 
the title of Prince of Chester'', and surrounded his 
person with a chosen cohort of Lancashire and Cheshire 
men, whose unpunished robberies and excesses consti- 
tuted one of the articles of complaint laid before Par- 
liament'. This guard was strengthened by a fresh levy 
on theeve of his departure to Ireland % and in this (as 
Holinshed informs us) he placed his principal trust 
after the disastrous change in affairs on his return. The 
sequel is well known ; but previous to the seizure of the 
king's person at first, the duke of Lancaster was waited 
on at Shrewsbury, with oflers of submission from the 
county and city, by sir Robert Leigh and sir John 
Leigh, and many others'. Their kinsman, John Leigh 
of Booths, occurs immediately before as one of the seven 
Cheshire esquires, who commanded the royal guard, 
and attended the king on his landing" ; and his near re- 
lative, sir Piers Legh of Lyme, whose loyalty was un- 
changeable, was executed by the duke of Lancaster at 
Chester. 

In the subsequent long series of civil wars, the men 
of Cheshire appear to have suffered most severely in the 
sanguinary battles of Shrewsbury and Bloreheath. 
A large proportion of the county would naturally enlist 
under the banners of Percy from their attachment to 
the late monarch, and others are said to have been en- 
trapped by a proclamation that Richard was living and 
ready to exhibit himself to his followers at Sandiway, 
and to have been marched unwillingly to the battle'. 



Among those slain on the king's part in this battle, 
were sir John Calveley, and sir John Massey of Pud- 
dington"; and on the lord Percy's " the most part of the 
knights and esquires of the county of Chester, among 
whom appears to have been included sir John Massey of 
Tatton". On the .Monday after the battle the earl of 
Worcester was beheaded, with the Cheshire barons of 
Kinderton and Shipbrook, the latter of whom is intro- 
duced by Shakspeare (but on what authority does not 
appear), as a participator with Worcester in the falsifi- 
cation of the king's offers of pardon. 

At the battle of Bloreheath, anno 38 Hen. VL 
" were slain four and twentie hundred persons, but the 
greatest loss fell upon the Cheshire men, because one 
halfe of the shire was on the one part, and the other 
halfe on the other, of which number were sir Thomas 
Button, sir John Doune and sir Hugh Venables, sir 
Richard Molineux, sir William Trowtbecke, sir John 
Legh of the Both, and sir John Egerton, knights ; John 
Done, and John Dutton, esquires," Holinshed iii. 251. 
To these names must be added that of sir Robert Booth 
of Dunham, on the authority of his monumental brass, 
which fixes his decease on this day^. The cheftains of 
the Cheshire and Shropshire troops are said to have 
been "distinguished by silver swans, the badges of their 
3'oung prince^." 

The part taken by the county in the battle of Bos- 
worth, was probably not less active, though less disas- 
trous. The troops of the Stanley's must have chiefly 
consisted of their Cheshire and Lancashire retainers, 
and a subsequent grant from Hen. VH. to their kinsman 
sir John Savage of Clifton mentions the crowds of 
brethren, kinsmen, servants, and friends, whom he had 
brought at his great charge and burthen to the battle*. 
■ The connection between Cheshire and the Stanlejs 
probably added to the numbers which the county would 
otherwise have sent to the field ofpLODDON. A large 
portion of the Cheshire and Lancashire men fought in 
the right wing under sir Edward Howard, and Holin- 
shed mentions by name two Cheshire officers, Ralph 
Brereton, and Richard Done, and the residue of the 
men of the two palatinates constituted the entire left 



probatjly the produce of Delamere forest ; anotlier item mentions ** Rirharrl de Daneport," who had 2/. 35. for his wages and those of sixty archers, 
employed in conducting David de Rothelan to Chester. Many of the other entries relate to the purchase of various articles at Chester, and to the car- 
rying the king's goods to Macclt-sfi.ld, which be prohably visited after his removal from Rhuddlan. A part of the queen's baggage was sent round by 
sea u» Brumliurgh, and thence cohvevcd to Macclesfield in one cart with five liorses, and another with two, the drivers of which wertjife days on the 
road, and had }0$. for their pay. Other carts took the queen's wardrobe from Rhuddlan, through Chester and Northwich, to Macclesfield by land ; 
and many other similar items relate to the carrying in the same direction the goods of the kiiig, and of the princesses Joan and Elizabeth and their 
attendants. *' The queen's William" ha-l Gd. for bis expenses for going to Chester *' to seek prunes for the qoeen's use," tm the day of the queen's 
cliurcliing, and a buy sent to Macclesfield for archers had Sd. ; but " William the messenger, who carried the king's letter for the court of Rome as 
far as London, had only one shilling. Many payments were also made to John de Luda, probably a brother of W. de Luda, through whose hands 
the king's money appears to have passed for the disbursements at the new abbey of Vale Royal. One entry (p. 47.) ^^ euiditm Istrioni de liono \u 
den." is remarkable from the near coincidence of this gift in point of time with the period assigned by the Chester Ani:alists for the first performance 
of the Whitson plays in that city. 

V See vol. 111. p. 266. note f, for tile names of these Esquires. Sir Robert Knollhs, the fellow soldier and friend of Sir Hugh Calveley, and of 
almost equal celebrity, was also a Cheshire man, but said to be of mean parentage, and his place of nativity is unknown. Ample notices of him will 
be found in Fuller's Worthies, and Lysons's Mag. Brit. Chesh. 543. See also the Index to Jobnes's Froissart, 5. 199. for numerous references. Sir 
John Erowlev, a Cheshire warrior, in the time of Henry V. when nearly all the county appears to have been engaged in the wars in France, is noticed 
ill vol. HI. p. 194. 

1 Vol. I. p. 45. ' Holinshed, vol. II, p. 859. 

" The warrants for levying it, now in the exchequer at Chester, are severally directed to Richard Venables of Kinderton, sir John Mascy of Tat" 
ton, sir John Pulle, sir Richard Wynyngton, sir John Hawkeston, William Venables of Bolyn, and Hugh Browe. 

t Holinshed, vol. 11. p. 855. The first of these was certainly of Adlington, and the second of the East Hall, unless we suppose John Legh of 
Booths to have joined the insurgents, but in either case Holinshed was mistaken as to the knighthood. 

*i Vol. H. p. 136, where all their names are mentioned. 

' Cowper, quoting Bostock's MSS. Holinshed mentions a story somewhat similar, that Percy's party published "abroad throughout the counties 
on each side, that king Richard was alive, whom if they wished to see, they willed them to repair in armour unto the castle of Chester." 

^ Holinshed, vol. 111. p. 26. Sir John Calveley was a younger brother of the Lea family. 

X See Tattoo, vol. I. p. 344. The names of the Cheshire men exempted in the king's act of pardon, 1 Hen. IV. are given in Lysons's Magna 
Brit. Chesh. p. 834. 

y The inscription says that he died on St. Tecla's day, which was the day of this battle in 1459, or A. D. M° CCCC°LX<>, according to the monument 
which uses the numbers. 

» Pennant's Chester to London, p. 45, 4to edit. Queen Margaret is said to have distributed white embroidered swans, to be worn as a token of 
love to the king, in Kennett's Hist, of England, vol. I. p. 418. ^ Vol. L p. 527. 



<!^eneral gntrotiuction. 



XXXI II 



wing under sir Edward Stanley. The excellence of 
the Lancashire archers very materially contributed to 
the fortune of the day, but the Cheshire men were 
also most actively engaged, and the greatest part of the 
Macclesfield contingent, with their mayor, sir Edward 
Savage, are said to have been left dead on the field. In 
the old ballad of Floddea Field, the writer dwells on the 
strength, ferocity, and unwieldy weapons of the Lan- 
cashire troops, whom he describes pretty nearly as a 
levy in mass, and then, turning to the " children chosen 
from Cheshire," speaks only of their " armour gay," and 
the numbers of gentry and esquires who were " prest" 
under " Stanley's streamer''." The Lancashire forces, as 
will be seen by referring to Holinshed were nevertheless 
arranged under leaders of the highest rank, with refer- 
ence either to possessions or descent. 

On one other occasion in the same reign the Cheshire 
men appear either to have borne an unusual proportion 
to the rest of the royal army in numbers, or otherwise to 
have more particularly distinguished themselves, as after 
the burning of Edinburgh by the earl of Hertford in 1.544, 
fifty-eight officers were knighted at Leith, and of these 
nineteen were Cheshire men. Their names, as given by 
Holinshed, are subjoined in the note below '^. 

The effect of the public events of the reign to which 
the Narrative is now brought down was most im- 
portant to Cheshire. Two of the abbies, Vale Royal 
and Norton, openly opposed the king's demands on the 
subject of surrender : the abbot of the former was 
charged in a capital indictment with being an abettor 
of the great Northern insurrection, and the abbot of 
Norton proceeded to overt acts of rebellion. The pro- 
gress of the dissolution of Cheshire monasteries appears 
to have been almost wholly confided to sir Piers Button, 
a profligate minion of the Court, and to subordi- 
nate agents nearly as unprincipled, and the most unjus- 
tifiable intrigue was resorted to in procuring the sur- 
renders of the abbey lands, and the most wasteful pro- 



fusion in the regranting of them. In this thoughtless 
expenditure, nevertheless, an ample endowment was ori- 
ginally reserved for the establishment of the New See 
of Chester, though it was subsequently nearly as much 
curtailed by the transactions between the king and the 
first bishop, as that of the Chapter was by the infamous 
extortions of sir Richard Cotton. 

The revenues, by this latter arrangement, were made 
most incompetent to the weight of the duties to be dis- 
charged, but the salutary effect of severing so important 
and populous a district from the overgrown diocese of 
Lichfield was most sensibly felt, and the series of prelates 
to whom the new see has been successively consigned, 
includes many names which are to be ranked among the 
highest of those distinguished for piety and learning. 

By this establishment the metropolis of the palatinate 
was once more put on a footing with the cities of the 
kingdom at large in an ecclesiastical point, having pre- 
viously in each successive reign lost more and more of 
its connection with the great see in which it was in- 
cluded, and of which in the time of the Conqueror it 
had been made the head. The attention of Henry was 
also directed to the remodelling of the anomalous civil 
establishments of the palatinate and city : the public 
stews were suppressed in the latter, and the privilege of 
sanctuary removed from Chester to Staff'ord, the assizes 
were established on a plan resembling those of other 
counties'*, and the interests of Cheshire and of the other 
parts of the kingdom were identified, by extending to 
the county and city the right of returning members to 
the English parliament'. 

During the government of Mary, Cheshire had only 
to witness the death of one martyr, George Marsh, and 
if the spirited resistance of one of the city sheriff's had 
been effectual, would have been spared even this. In 
the reign of her successor the laws against recusants ap- 
pear to have been put in execution throughout the dio- 
cese with singular severity ', probably in consequence 



1> This is not the only document which would induce a belief that the Mersey rolled its waters at this period between races of men, differing 
most materially in their manners and habits, although allied by intermarriages near the borders ; that the Ciieshire gentry had gradually assimi- 
lated themselves to the more courtly families of the south, whilst their Lancashire neighbours yet retained strongly the wild character of their 
Northumbrian predecessors. One of the documents alluded to is the Visitation of Cheshire and Lancashire, by William Feliowe, Lancaster Herald, 
1533, in which only one Cheshire family declined making an entry, whilst many of the Lancashire ones rufused to he even spoken with, and others 
who condescended to grant an audience, dismissed the unfortunate visitant with the most undisguised rudeness. The reader may take his interview 
with the representatives of two knightly families for an example, which are related with singular simplicity. 

" Sir Richard Hoghton, kt. bath putt away his ladye and wief, and kepeth a coneobyne in his bowse, by whom he hath divers children, and by 
the lady he hath Ley Hall, w'ch armes he bereth quartred with his in the first quarter. He says that JMr. Garter licensed him so to doe, and he gave 
Mr. Garter an angell noble, but be gave me nothing, nor made me good cheer, but gave me proude wordes " Harl. MSS. 2076, fo. 12, b. 

" Sir John Towidey, kt. had to his first wief one who was doughter to sir Charles Apillysdon, &c. I wot not what her name is, nor I made no 

greate inquisition, for he would have no note taken of him, saying there was no more gentlemen in Lancashire but my lords of Derby and Montegle. 
I sought hym all the day ryding in the wyld country, and his reward was ijs. w'ch the guyde hadd the raoste p'te, as 1 hadd as evill a jorney as 
ever 1 hadd." 

A worse picture however of the prevalent dissipation in the northern counties at this time could not easily be given than will be found in sir Thomas 
Leigh's report respecting the Cheshire gentry, given under Vale Royal, vol. II. p. 72. He was however an infamous character (see Surtees's Durham, 
vol. I. p. 140), and was interested in making the gentry as bad as he could, since he referred their coiiduct to the faults of monastic example 
and discipline. 

« Thomas Holcroft (of Vale Royal), Hugh Cholmleie, Thomas Leigh alias doctor Leigh, Richard Leigh, Peter Leigh, John Leigh of Booth, Lau- 
rence Smith, William Davenport, Rafe Leicester, John Massie, Richard Egerton, Urian Brt-reton, William Brereton, Roger Brereton, Edward War- 
ren, Hugh Calverleie, Thomas Venables, Philip Egerton, and Edmund Savage. Hoi. III. 837- At the same time these Cheshire gentlemen were 
created esquires, Ralph Leeche, Hugh Dutton, Adam Troutbeck, Thomas Cowper, Roger Boydell, Richard Birkenhead, and William Sneyd. 
Cowper's MSS. 

<* By Stat. 43 Hen. VIIL cap. 43. it was enacted that the lord chancellor of England, or the lord keeper of the great seal for the time being, shall 
have authority from time to time to appoint justieers of peace, justicers of quorum, and justicers of gaol delivery, within the countie palatine of 
Chester, and other shires and partes of Wales by commission under the king's great seal, with power and responsibility, &c. as in other counties. 

And that whereas also it was used in the said county palantine of Chester, that the justicer of the same for the time being kept the shires or 
county days in this manner, " one yere viii shyres or countye dayes, and another yere ix shyres or countye dayes," on which day the freeholders and 
suitors of the county were bound to appear ; and whereas by the new statute the said freeholders, &c. contiiiuing bound to this appearance, were also 
bound to attend four quarter sessions and some privy sessions, by means whereof their appearances came so thick together, " that at many tymes 
they cannot depart from the one court and attend their busynesse scarcely one daye, or sometyme lesse, but they must agayne ryde to serve the 
other court, whyche is too peynfull, chargeable, intollerable, and importune for any man to susteyne and abyde," it was hereby enacted, that the 
administration of justice should be had twice only in the year, at the great sessions after Michaelmas and Easter, according to the forms used in the 
county of Lancaster. < gee ^^i, j. p, gy, 

' See a long correspondence on this subject between many distinguished personages of the time of Elizabeth in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. 

i 



XXXIV 



%\)t History of C!)esii)tte* 



of the disproportionate number of those resident therein 
to the general number in the kingdom s. The puppets 
which had disgraced the cathedral in the time of Mary 
were with propriety destroyed, under the royal edicts, 
but unfortunately the rage against superstitious images 
proceeded much further, and the sepulchral memorials 
and representations of pictured saints that ornamented 
the gorgeous windows of churches and oratories, fell in 
one common destruction with the sculptured crosses, 
and other monuments of antient taste and piety, a sacri- 
fice to well-meaning though mistaken zeal ; but the loyal 
and religious servants of Elizabeth had probably little 
idea that the general pursuit of this work of destruction 
indicated the first ebullitions of that spirit to which every 
thing venerable in church or state was so soon to be 
sacrificed''. This period of anarchy is next to be con- 
sidered — the details of the several struggles have been 
given under their proper heads, and the general events 
which preceded them are familiar to all readers of Eng- 
lish History. 

In 1642, as the prelude to the ensuing civil war, it 
was ordered by the parliament, that the magazines of 
the several counties should be put into the hands of 
their lords-lieutenants ; and shortly afterwards, the King 
issued his commissions of array. The attempts of the 
commissioners to obey the injunction were of course 
opposed by those who had espoused the cause of the 
parliament ; and the efforts of the lord Strange, in the 
adjacent county of Lancaster, were impeded by the exer- 
tions of sir Thomas Stanley, Mr. Holland of Heaton, 
Mr. Egerton of Shawe, Mr. Booth, Mr. Ashton, and 
Mr. Moor, the two last of whom were members of the 
house of commons '. 

On July 15, 1642, the lord Strange came to Man- 
chester, with about 400 men ; and whilst he was at 
dinner there, capt. Holcroft and capt. Birch entered the 
town with their forces, and beating to arms, a skirmish 



ensued, in which one Richard Parcevall, of Kirkman's 
hulme, a linen-webster, was slain by the royalists ; 
which is said to have been the first blood shed in these 
wars, for which the lord Strange was afterwards im- 
peached of high treason ''. 

On Aug. 12, sir William Brereton, and the deputy 
lieutenants for the county of Chester, the commissioners 
authorized by parliament for settling the militia, came 
to Nantwich with a considerable body of men. The 
king's commissioners of array, hearing of the in- 
tended meeting, came also with a large body of men to 
Ravensmore, within a mile of the town, having pre- 
viously issued their orders to several townships in Nant- 
wich and Broxton hundreds, to supply a certain quan- 
tity of Qien, arms, and ammunition. Both parties met 
on Beam heath, and disputes arose which were likely to 
end in bloodshed, but were compromised by the inter- 
position of Mr. Wilbraham of Darfold, and Mr. Werdon 
of Chester'. 

Four days previous to this, sir William Brereton had 
been interrupted by the local magistracy in beating up 
for the parliament in Chester. Shortly afterwards the 
king and council having resolved to raise the royal 
standard at Warrington, the lord Strange proceeded 
successfully with his musters, had 20,000 men in rea- 
diness in Lancashire, and proposed to have done the 
same in Cheshire and North Wales ; but, in the mean 
time, the place for setting up the standard was fixed to 
be at Nottingham, to the great disappointment of the 
earl, and of the numbers which he had engaged in the 
royal cause, many of whom resolved to be neutral, and 
others openly avowed rebellion, and seized on the town 
of Manchester™. 

From Nottingham the king proceeded through Derby 
to Shrewsbury, and on the 23d Sept. paid a visit to 
Chester, the particulars of which have been given in 
its local history ; and, on Oct. 7, again privately met a 



g Cunsiderably more than one fourth of the entire numher. See vol. I. p. 75, note ". 

•» The names of the Cheshire contributors to the armaments raised at this time in defence of the kingdom against the intended invasion by 
the Spanish Armada, will be best subjoined here, though not immediately connected with the text. It contains (much to their honour) the names of 
several catholics, among which may particularly be noted sir Rowland Stanley ol Hooton, and the persecuted lady Egerton of Ridley. But these patri- 
otic feelings did not in every instance prevail over religious ones. One brave and high-born Cheshire soldier had been induced to betray his country 
at Deventer, and his conduct had been held up for imitation in a book published by a Lancashire Catholic, William Allen (shortly afterwards made 
a cardinal), on the ground of its being unlawful to obey an excommunicated queen. See Camden's Elizabeth. Kennet, vol. II. p. 540. 

£. 



Peter Warburton, armlger, 18 Februarii 

Thomas Leigh, of High Leigh, armiger, 24 Februarij 

John Leigh, of Boothe, armiger, 31 Februarij 

Thomas Tutchett, armiger, 34 Februarij 

Thomas Leigh, of Adlington, arm. 21 Februarij 

Henrie Berkenhead, armiger, 14 Februarii 

Richard Gravnor, armiger, 25 Februarii 

Sir William Brereton, miles, eodem - - - 

Phillip Oldefield, 27 Februarii . . - . 

The ladie Egerton, 20 Februarii . _ - _ 

Thomas Wilbram, armiger, 15 die Februarii 

George Booth, armiger, U Marcii - - - 

Randall Manwering, of Peever, armiger, 9 Marcii 

John Dutton, armiger, secundo die Marcii 

Thomas Aston, armiger, quarto die Marcii 

William Marbury, of Meare, armiger, primo die Marcij 

Adam Leicester, armiger, 1 1 Marcii . . - 

Sir Peter Leigh, miles, 16 Marcii 

William Brereton, of Handford, armiger, 16 Marcii 

William Davenport, of Bromhall, armiger, 19 Marcii 

Thomas Standley, of Alderley, armiger, quarto die Marcii 

Randall Davenport, of Henbry, armiger, 14 Marcii 

William Duckenfield, armiger, 17 Marcii 

Raphe Harden, armiger, eodem 

Robert Hid, of Norbry, armiger, 13 Marcii 

Sir Randall Brereton, miles, 6 Marcii 

i Cowper, quoting Tho. May's Hist. p. 109. 

' Malbon's MS. quoted by Cowper, and Burghall's Diary. 



21 Hugh Calverley, of Ley, armiger, 27 Marcii - - 50 

50 Rowland Dutton, armiger, 17 Marcii - - - 25 

£5 Raph Calveley, armiger, 1 1 Marcii - - - 25 

25 The ladie Boothe, tercio die Marcii - - - 25 

25 The ladie Warburton, eodem - - - - 25 

25 Henrie Manwering, armiger, quarto die Marcii - - 25 

25 Gefifrey Shakerley, armiger, 9 die Marcii - - 25 

100 Sir Rowland Standeley, miles, 7 Marcii - - - lOO 

25 George Massey, sexto die Marcii - - - - 25 

50 John Poole, armiger, 9 die Marcii - - - 25 

25 Thomas Bunburie, armiger, primo die Marcii - - 35 

25 William VVhitmore, armiger, tercio die Marcii - - 25 

25 John Egerton, armiger, 29 Marcii - - - 25 

25 John Browne, of Stapleford, quarto die Marcii - - 25 

25 Henrie Delves, armiger, 24 Marcii - - - 25 

25 Richard Cotton, armiger, 17 Marcii - - - 25 

25 Thomas Vernon, armiger, 13 Marcii - - 25 

100 Jo. Griffith, armiger, 25 Marcii - - - - 25 

25 Roger Manwering, 17 Marcii - - - - 25 

25 Richard Wilbram, eodem die - - - - 25 

25 Richard Church, eodem ----- 25 

25 Geffrie MinshuU, eodem ----- 25 

25 Thomas Brooke, armiger, 9 die Aprilis - - - 25 

25 Thomas Venables, armiger, 1 1 die Aprilis - - 25 

25 Tho. Smithe, armiger, 25 die Maii _ _ - 25 
50 
^ Rushw. IV. G59, and Impeachment of lord Strange, printed Sept. 17* 1642. 
I" Dugdale, Bar. vol.11. 251. 



<!^eneral J^it^^^^tiuction* 



XXXV 



commission from that city at Wrexham, and returning 
the same day to Shrewsbur}', where his army then lay, 
prepared to march southwards". 

On the 23d of the same month was fouffht the me- 



morable battle of Edgehill. 



A short time before this, lord Grandison had entered 
Cheshire with a considerable body of horse ; and being 
joined by lord Cholmondeley and sir Hugh Calveley, 
came to Nantwich on Michaelmas day. The place was 
barricadoed and supplied with arms, on behalf of the 
parliament ; but a fear of the royal army at Shrewsbury 
induced the inhabitants to make a conditional surrender; 
and the king's party entering the place on Michaelmas 
day, disarmed the townsmen, and carrying away also 
the horses, arms, and accoutrements, from Wood hey, 
Doddington, Haslington, Baddiley, and other neigh- 
bouring seats, proceeded in a few days to the king's 
camp at Shrewsbury". 

On the Lancashire side, the earl of Derb}', notwith- 
standing his disappointments, and his deprivation of the 
lieutenancies of Cheshire, and North Wales, exerted 
himself to the utmost; and after sustaining a doubtful 
conflict with the parliamentarian commissioners on 
Houghton common, near Chowbent, marched through 
Leigh to Warrington (Dec. 2), and being then joined 
by lord Cholmondeley, advanced into Cheshire to sur- 
prise the militia under Mr. Mainwaring of Kermincham p. 

This attempt was frustrated ; the earl retired into 
Lancashire, and a part of lord Cholmondeley's troops 
were taken and disarmed at Northwich. 

On the 8th of December another attempt was made 
by the royalists under col. Leigh of Adlington, to seize 
Macclesfield for the king ; but the party were defeated 
by Mr. Mainwaring, who raised the county, and at- 



tacked tliem therein with great fury. Two soldiers were 
slain, and their colonel fled in the disguise of a drum- 
mer. Mr. Manwaring, whose numbers were swelled by 
a detachment from Manchester to a thousand horse 
and foot, plundered Adlington, and sir Rowland Eger- 
ton's seat at Wrinehill ; and v.hilst the Cheshire loyal- 
ists were flying from their residences to Chester, Shrews- 
bury, and other places, marched into Nantwich (Dec. 10), 
and was there joined by more troops from Manchester, 
with three pieces of cannon "i. 

Chester, being occupied at the same time for the 
king by earl Rivers, his brother (Mr. Thomas Savage), 
lord Kilmorey, lord Cholmondeley, and the other com- 
missioners of array, with their tenants and dependents 
in Cheshire and Shropshire, and some levies commanded 
by col. Hastings, son of the earl of Huntington, the 
adverse parties, in the words of Mr. Cowper, " began 
to be a good deal afraid of each other," and after 
several meetings the articles of pacification subjoined 
were agreed upon'. 

The parliament, alleging that these articles were 
concluded upon without due authority, declared them 
null and void, as they had done others of the like nature 
in the county of York % and signifying to their Che- 
shire officers that hostilities should be renewed, sent 
down, as their commandej in chief for Cheshire and 
parts adjacent, the celebrated sir William Brereton, of 
Handford, then knight of the shire for this county, 
whose abilities greatly conduced to that issue of the 
struggle in these districts, on which the general failure 
of the royal cause is allowed by Clarendon to have 
mainly hinged '. 

On the 28th of Jan. 1642-3, sir William Brereton, 
having entered Cheshire with one troop of horse and 



■> His host, sirRichard Lloyd, is said to have urged the length of the day's journey (44 computed miles), and the unseasonableness of the weather, 
and to have pressed his royal guest to stay till the next day at Wrexham, and the King to have dismissed him and the other gentlemen with these 
pathetic and simple words : — "Gentlemen, go you and take your rests, for you have homes and houses to go to, and beds of your own to lodge in, and 
God grant that you may long enjoy them — I am deprived of these comforts. I must intend my present affairs, and return this night to the place 
whence I came." — Cowper, quoting Dr. Barwick's Life, from Symonds's Parallel, p. 242 

" Cowper's MSS. P Ibid. q Cowper, quoting Malbon's MSS. 

r Tricesimo Decembris, IS42. — An agreement made the day above, at Bunhury, in the county of Chester, for a pacification and settling the peace 
of that county, by us whose names are subscribed, authorized hereunto by the Lords and Gentlemen nominated Commissioners of Array, and 
Deputy Lieutenants of the said County. 

1. It is agreed that there be an absolute cessation of arms from henceforth within this county, and no arms to be taken up to offend one another, 
but by the consent of the King and both Houses of Parliament, unless it be to resist forces brought into the county. 

2. That all but two hundred of either side shall be disbanded to-morrow, being Saturday, and on Monday all the rest, on both sides, both horse 
and foot, shall be disbanded. 

3. That all prisoners on both sides he enlarged. As for Mr. Norton, who is now prisoner at Manchester, the gentlemen appointed deputy lieu- 
tenants do declare, that he was taken without their knowledge or encouragement, by some Manchester troops, upon a private quarrel, for taking 
powder, and other goods, belonging to a person at Manchester ; yet they will use their utmost endeavours to procure his enlargement, and do desire 
the like endeavours to be used by the lords and others, commissioners of array, for enlarging Mr. Daniel, of Daresbury. 

4. That the fortifications of Chester, Namplwicb, Stockport, Knutsford, or any town in Cheshire, lately made by either part, be presently 
demolished. 

5. That all goods and arras taken on both sides, now remaining in the county in specie, be forthwith restored ; and for all others that are taken 
out of the county, it is promised on both parts, that since the benefit of this Pacification redounds to the whole county, they will use their utmost 
endeavours for a joint contribution of the county towards a satisfaction to the owners. 

6. That the Lords and Gentlemen, Commissioners of Array, before the 8th day of January next, procure from his Majesty a letter, thereby 
declaring, that in regard that a peace is made in the county, he will send no forces into this county ; and if any other person shall, contrary to such 
declaration, bring forces into the county (passage fur forces without doing any hostile act only excepted), the said Lords and Gentlemen will join to 
resist them. And if any forces, without the consent of the King and both Houses of Parliament, shall come into this county (the passages for forces 
without doing any hostile act only excepted), the said Gentlemen, nominated deputy lieutenants, will join to resist them, and will use their utmost 
endeavours therein. 

7. In regard, by the blessing of God, there is like to he a peace within the county, if this agreement be, it is agreed that the Commissioners of 
Array shall not any further put the Commission of Array in execution, nor the Gentlemen nominated deputy lieutenants, the ordinance of the militia, 
or execute their commission. 

8. Lastly — All the said parties do agree and promise to each other, on the word of a gentleman, as they desire to prosper, that, as well them- 
selves, as also all their friends, tenants, servants, and also all others in whom they have any interest, shall, as much as in them lies, perform 
the agreement ; and it is further desired, that all the parties join in a petition to his Majesty and both Houses of Parliament, for putting an end to 
the great distractions and miseries fallen upon this kingdom, by making a speedy peace. And it is agreed, that sir George Booth, and all others 
within this county, who have appeared as commissioners of array, or as deputy lieutenants, by reason of the ordinance of Parliament, shall, with all 
convenient speed, subscribe this agreement. 

Robert Kilmurrey. William Marbury. 

Orlando Bridgeman. Henrv Manwaring. 



• Rusbwortb, V. 101. 



t See the account of sir William Brereton, under Handford, 



XXXVI C!)e gistor^ of CSesf)ire» 

a regiment of dragoons, attacked sir Thomas Aston in and those of the royalists in Chester, under the command 
Nantwich about four in the evening, and, after a severe of the governor, sir Nicholas Byron, 
conflict, threw the royalists into confusion by the unex- Sir WilliaQi Brereton next attempting a general mus- 
pected explosion and flash of a small piece of a cannon, ter of all persons from sixteen to sixty, at Tarporley 
of which he had several with him, but had not pre- and Frodsham, experienced checks from the royalists at 
viously made use". His subsequent occupation of the Tilston heath and Tiverton ''j but plundered the north- 
place, and the particulars of the defence of Nantwich ern side of the county, seized on Beeston and Halton 
against all the efforts of the royalists, to the close of castles, and fortified Norton priory and Northwich^. An 
the war, are given from a contemporary diary, under attempt was then made by sir Thomas Aston to occupy 
the account of that town. The head quarters of the Middlewich for the king, which ended in his total 
Cheshire parliamentarians were then fixed at Nantwich, defeat by sir William Brereton^. 

« Cowper's MSS. " Vol. II. pp. 149, l.'>0. y Vol. III. p. 92, and extract from Ricraft's Survey in Addenda. 

z See sir Thomas Acton's letter, vol. III. p. 97. The operations, from sir William Brereton's entry to the battle of Middlewich, are described 
as follows, in a rare pamphlet, entitled '* Cheshire's Successe, London, March 25, 1642." 

CHAP. i. 

The Battell at Namptwich. 
The well affected in the county of Chester having a longtime expected sir William Brereton, barronet, for their relief (who were miserably 
infected by the commission of array), on Saturday Jan. 28 he advanced from Congleton, in the same county, to Namptwich ; but hearing" sir Thomas 
A&ton with his forces intended to take that towne before him, he sent a partie before to secure the towne for himselfe, who were but few in number, 
but came seasonably; sir William advanced after with his carriages, which he durst not leave without himselfe to guard them. Sir Thomas under- 
standing that a partie of ours had possest themselves of the towne, he came against it about three uf the clock, was five times valiantly repelled ; in 
which assaults we lost but one man, slaine by a poysoned bullet, though the towne lay open on all sides without any trench or banke : when he saw 
his hopes for that towne frustrate, he retreated, and fell upon sir William, who was not abnve 150 strong, but sirThomas had neere 400. Besides 
that he had all other advantages, for he had first survey'd and chosen his ground in a lane neere the towne, had made his van strong, flank'd them 
on either side, and there stood in battalia till sir William came, who had no notice of his enemies but by a boy who told him of their approach, 
which caused them to order themselves for an assault, in chance that newes were true ; but they were gotten into the jawes of death before they 
were aware ; for it being darke, neere six of the clock, they discern'd them more by the enemies whispering than by their one eye : but God, to 
whom the light is all one as the day, was a pillar of fire unto them, and gave them so much light as serv'd to the obtaining of a glorious victory. 
SirThomas let flye, but without saccesse ; sir William discharged his drakes, which wrought more terror than execution, for the ground was very 
rough ; but the enemy cry'd. Let us fly, for they have great ordnance. Captaine Goldegay dismounted his dragoneers, and turn'd his horses upon 
them, which brought them into confusion, and charg'd upon them very sore ; all the rest fell to it with their pistols, dragoones, and carbines, but 
that service was but short, for there was neither time nor place to wheele about or renew the charge ; then they fell to it by dint of sword and 
weight of their battle-axes, with which they belaboured the enemy, that the prisoners confesse that they never felt the like blowes in any other 
service: in a short time so many were unhorst, and beaten downe with violence, that all the worke that remain'd was the taking of prisoners, 
horses, and armes. Sir William, who first had carried it with brave resolution, was the first that tooke prisoners, seconded by many more, who 
apprehended more than they could secure. Sir Thomas seeing how things went, fled (as we heare) on foot three miles, and then got an horse on 
which he fled to Whitchurch. Sir Vincent Corbet crawled away on all foure lest he should be discern'd, and then ran on foot bare-headed to Ower, 
6 miles ; many were disperst abroad in the fields, and divers found that next day : one man with a stick iii his hand disarm'd three men and tooke 
them prisoners, and two others that he met with also, but two of them slipt away which he durst not pursue lest he should loose the other three : 
what number of men we slew is uncertaine, but some were scene dead in the lane, some afterwards were found dead in the fields, and some graves 
were discovered ; we tooke 1 10 of their horse, and neere 120 prisoners, amongst those, captaine Bridgeman and captaine Cholmeley, with other com- 
manders and officers ; three of ours (as I take it) were slaine, and two or three were prisoners, whom they brought into Chester with triumph, having 
made them sixe in number by men they had taken up by the high-wayes. Sir Thomas after some dayes returned to Chester with about 60 or 60 
horse, but for his honour they sent many of their horses privately out to meet him, and so returned as a man well reinforc'd. It's very probable they 
lost more horses than we got, by which stroake they were foulely shaken, and their friends discomfited. We for our part had a soUemne day of 
thanksgiving, and fell to the managing of the weighty affairs of the county. 

CHAP. II. 

The Battell at Torperley, Febru. 21. 

After this, on Tuesday Feb. 21, we had a pitcht battell at Torperley, the mid-way betwixt (^Ihester and Namptwich, which was thus occasioned : 
we sent forth our warrants to require all betwixt 60 and 16 yeares old to meet us at Turperley, to find out the strength of the county, and who were 
for us in case we had need of them ; the enemy took notice of it, and gave it out they would meet us there ; we were not sure of it, because we are 
not sure of any thing they say or sweare, yet we went out about 1500 strong, as 1 take it, to guard the countrey : they came also from Chester, and 
were on the ground before us ; when we survey'd their posture, we thought they lay in ambuscado a little from the towne, where 4 wayes meet : we 
judgeing that place impassible, advanced no further, but wheel'd to the right hand to plant on a good ground, neare a place called the Swannes Nest : 
but whitest we were on our march they got the ground before us, where they stood in battalia. They bad all advantages that could be, the wind 
cleare and strong, a firme even soyle, well mounted, a hole towards us where they planted divers musketiers, layd an ambuscado in an hedge, and 
planted their ordinance amongst their horse. We marshald ours on a field over against them towards Tilston hall, a valley with a strait passage being 
betwixt us ; we had no ordnance, nor could we reach them with our muskets. They had as faire a marke as they could desire, for our infantrie were 
at the bottome of the hill, under the command of their muskets, and our cavelrie were on the high ground, the but for their canon. We saluted one 
another with fire and lead j they play'd on us for about the space of an houre with canon and musket, yet we lost not a man, only 3 were shot, scarce 
wounded, and an horse hoofe hit with a musket-ball out of a canon, which was a miraculous providence of God in the judgement of all men j besides 
our forces there we had about 200 in Beston castle, which we sent for to joyne with us, reserving 30 to keepe the castle ; which they finding out by 
their scouts, sent two troops to intercept them, having by treachery gotten their word, they saluted them as friends, gave them the word, shook hands, 
and the more deluded them by captaine Greene, who was very like a lievtenant of ours, and whom they had drest in an habit most like him, but 
being within them they bid them throw downe their armes, and let the round-head rogues cry for quarter; whereupon ours retreated a little, and 
then gave fire, which so amaz'd them that both troopes fled : sir Thomas pistol'd one, that for that day bare the colours, and our partie report they 
saw divers of theirs fall upon their fienng 

The issue of that dayes work was this, we retreated to the heath to find out a better ground, considering we might suffer much but could make 
no execution on them where we were rallied ; new ground was not^to be found there, it being a conegrew ; part of the army making it a retreate, the 
rest followed, not out of feare, for our enemy durst not meet us on even termes, but to get home before wee were nighted ; the enemy by their 
scouts discovered about 700 of our club-men comming neere them from the forrest, and in a good posture, suspected that we wheeled to the left, 
while the other were ready to charge on the other hand, which struck them with such feare that they fled to Chester. The commission of array staid 
at the crosse in Torperley, not daring to come to the battel], whereby they had the precedency in the fight ; thereby Torperley scap'd plundering, 
and the parsonage the ruine threatned, for they stay'd not to drinke a draught of beere, but bad them solemnize another day of thanksgiving, scoffing 
at the ordnance, and triumphed in Chester they had got sir William's hat and feather, a great trophee, though upon examination it was found to be 
one of their owne souldiers. 

CHAP. III. 
An account how the time was spent since sir William's first advanceing into the county till the battle at Middlewich. 

For as much as many are charging us of sloaih and neglect of the country, silh little hath beene done of late in a long time, we shall truly relate 
what things in sixe or seven weeks space have been done, and let others judge. 



(general Jtitrotsuction* xxxvn 



This action was fought on March 13, 1642-3 ; and up Burleydam chapel in April ; before Nantwich, under lord 
to November following the several forces in Chester Capel, in May ; and made another ineffectual attempt 
and Nantwich appear to have engaged merely in fruit- on the same town in October ; and Garden Hall was 
less attempts on those two places, or in skirmishes with takenby the parliamentarians in June. The last-mentioned 
the soldiers in the small dependent garrisons scattered party was repelled in an attack on Chester in the follow- 
over the county. The king's troops were discomfited at ing month; and in November was worsted in a skirmish 

After sir William had possessed himself of Namptwitch, his care was to order, enlar2;e and maiiitaiiie bis forces, how to bring in the g;entrie to him, 
who had conjoyn'd in the late accommodation with the Commissioners of Array, and how to secure the towne, which was extieamely malignant and 
lay very open ; businesse came in on a throng, but the country came not in to help forward that worke, but by special warrant. Jt hath been found a 
worke of no small difficuttie to perfect that worke begun, what ever others tbinke tliat make their reckning without their liost. AH were forward for 
the taking of Chester, which in all probabillitie had been feasible, had we suddainly called in the countrie, and gone about it before they had time to 
reinforce themselves, and before their trenches were made ; but we knew we could doe little without assistance, so by degrees wee drew in the gentrie 
and many fit to beare armes, and of so small a beginning are enlarged to about 2000, well appointed, many of these being horse and dragoneers ; 
then we set the proposition for mony on foot in a very strict way, which has brought us in many liundreds, much provision of cheese, bacon, hay, 
corne, &c. and not a few horse ; wee have also all sorts of officers amongst us, fitting for a campe, and have brought in maligiiants goods from all 
parts about us. We have taken in Beston castle, where we keep a garrisone which awes all the country about, at whicli our enemies grinde their 
teeth; and the walls being in many places leveld to the ground, we have made up all those breaches with mud walls, so as we doubt not but to keepe 
out 20,000 men with that small garrison ; we have intrencbt all this towne of Namptwich with good workes and walls, so as through God's helpe we feare 
not, though many thousands of our enemies encampe against us. We have fortified Nurthwich with trenches, sconces, &c. for the securitie of all those 
parts, which have beene much infected by the Commission of Array and the Ea. of Darbies forces at Warrington ; and wee have often sallied out for 
the clearing of those parts which were most in danger. One place above others hath been extreamely assaulted, Mr. Brookes of Norton, a neere neigh- 
bour to the Ea. Rivers, against which they brought their canon, with many horse and foote, and fell to batter it on a Sabboth day. Mr. Brooke had 
Somen in the bouse ; we were earefull he should lack no powder, with all other things master Brooke furnisht them fully. A man upon his tower, 
with a flag in his hand, cryde them ayme while they discharged their canon, saying ** wide, my lord, on the right hand ; now wide two yardes on the 
left ; two yardes over, my lord, &c." He made them swell for anger, when they could endamage the house, for they only wounded one man, lost 46 
of their owne, and their canonier ; then in divelish revenge they burnt a barne, and corne worth (as is valued) a thousand pound, set fire to another, 
but more execution was made on the man that attempted it, than the barne, for he was blinded in fireing the barne, and so found wandering in the 
fields, and confest bee bad five pound given him for his service. After this they plundered Mr. Brookes tenants, and returned home with shame and 
hatred of all the country. To this worthy man's rescue we could not goe, because the march was long and full of hazard, and wee thought their 
ayme was to tire us out upon that service, upon which they might put us almost every day, by reason of Halton castle, in their possession, and but 
halfe a mile from Norton. More we might instance in to take off our reproach, but another armie greater than ours, lying under the same censure, 
will vindicate us, unlesse ungratefully we condemne them. 

CHAP. IV. 
The Battle at Middlewich, betwixt Collonell Brereton and Sir Tho, Aston, March 13. 

Sir Thomas Aston and' his partie in Chester, recovering strength after their late overthrow, exercised the same in mischiefe, and all wicked out- 
rages; for, besides their plundering and wasting of all the countrie neere Chester, they laid such intollerable taxes both on the citie and countrie 
thereabout, that their own partie was embittered against them, yea, before we secured Northwich, whiles some of our forces were in that country; 
they plundered Weverham and the country about ; they carried old men out of their houses, bound them together, tyed them to a cart, drave them 
through mire and water above the knees, and so brought them to that Dungeon, where they lie without fire or light, and now through extremities 
are so diseased, that they are readie to yield up the ghost. 

On the Sabboth, March 12, having a little before advanced to Middlewich, they plundered all that day, as a most proper season for it, commanded 
the carts in all the countrie about to carrie away the goods, kept a faire that day neere Torperley, to sell those goods. In Over, when they had plun- 
dered they left ratbane in the house, wrapt in papers, for the children, which by God's providence was taken from them before they could eate it, 
after their parents durst returne to them ; and being a considerable body, they sent for more strength, and by their warrants to the churches about, 
commanded all the countrie to come in with such insolent and imperious expressions, that they were hateful! to some malignants, and concluded to 
give no quarter to any round-heads, and were confident quickly to carry all downe before them. 

Sir William at that time was at Northwitch with a considerable party ; many gentlemen of his partie were at Namptwich, with about seven or 
eight hundred armed meft ; their generous spirits were inrag'd to see such outrages committed ; it wrought alike in all sir William's forces to provoke 
us for to fall upon the enemy, though wee could not easily communicate our purposes one to another. At Namptwich we agreed to assault them the 
next morning, signified the same to sir Will. He was as forward as we. Our gent, desired a minister to come to their chambers, upon the 
alarum to be given at twelve a clock, that commending them to God in prayer, they might speed the better. Some ministers and others fell to the 
worke that day by prayer and fasting, though not as Moses, Aron, and Hur, in prospect of the armies, yet wrestling as Jacob did, and putting their 
mouthes in the dust, if so bee there might he hope, of which they had a gracious returne by three o'clocke. The businesse of that day was carryed 
thus : — Sir William, being foure miles from the enemy, assaulted that side of the towne by eight a clock, March the 13tb, and continued the fif-ht 
for about three or foure houres before we came to his help ; in which time this accident fell out, that his powder was all spilt, excepting about seven 
pound; they tooke counceli upon it, and it was concluded they must retreit, because their partie from Namptwich was not come in to their 
assistance ; but sir William was resolute not to retreit, but to send to Northwich for more powder, and to keep them in play as well as they could till 
the powder came, which accordingly they did ; betwixt eleven and twelve a clock, we came to their assistance, which they knew not of till they heard 
us in hot service, on the other side the town ; when we began, their powder came. The enemy had chief advantages, their ordinance planted ; we had 
none; they layd about 150 musquetiers in an hole conveniirit for them. They layd their ambuskadoes in the hedges, rausquetiers in the church 
and steeple, and had every way so strengthned themselves, that they seemed impregnable ; but God lead on our men with incredible courage. 
Captaine George Booth fac'd the towne with his troope whiles they plaid on with their ordinance, which once graz'd before them, and then mounted 
cleare over them ; in another, that it dasht the water and mire in his and two other captaines faces, but there it dies. This was no discouragement 
to our men ; they marched upon all their ambuscadoes, drave them all out of them into the towne, entered the towne upon the mouth of the canon 
and storme of the muskets, our Major (a right Scottish blade) brought them up in two files, with which he lined the walls, and kept that street 
open, went up to their ordinance, which he tooke; then the enemy fled into the church ; sir Thomas Aston would have gon after them, but they 
durst not let him in, lest we should enter with him; then he mounted his horse, and fled with all speed by Kinderton, and divers others with him, 
for that way only was open, all the rest we had surrounded ; we slew divers upon the top of the steeple, and some, they say, within the church. Our 
Major, with captain Hide, fired the church doore, and thrust at them with swords as they lookt out of the windowes, then presently they cride for 
quarter, which was granted them. We tooke sir Edward Mosley, baronet, one colonell, one sergeant-major, eleven captaines, three of them 
Cheshire men (capt. John Hurleston, capt. Massie of Cottington, and capt. Starkie). We tooke three colours from their troops, sir Thomas Aston's 
being one, and about 500 more, many of them commanders, and it's probable neere as many are Bed to their houses, never to returne to that partie 
againe. We have taken their ordinance and much powder. The souldiers tooke much spoyle from the prisoners, abundance of money, for they had 
converted their plundered ware into coyne, a multitude of muskets, buffe coates, scarfes, swords, satin doublets, &o. We lost six men, and about 
ten are wounded ; wee slew of theirs about 30, that we know off, besides many wounded. Our gunpowder, by accident, was blowne up so soone as 
we entered the towne, but God supplied us more than treble out of our enemies store. Sir Thomas is fled that countrie; the array are in great 
perplexitie. The tiding of this comming to Nampwitch, we turn'd our prayers into prayses, sent the belman to warne the towne to the church, to 
returne God thankes for such an unparalel'd mercy, which they did with great alacritie, and joyfull acclamations, in a full congregation. Upon 
Wednesday after, the colonell, with all the gentlemen, souldiers, and the whole towne, presented God with solemne thanksgiving, who hath hitherto 
crowned this countie with such glorious victories. 

'Not unto us, Lord, not unto us, but to thy name bee all the glory; for by thy power we have beaten downe such as have risen up against us." 

k 



XXXVIII 



%\}t Hisitor^ of C!)e2i|)tre. 



between the Chester garrison and some troops stationed 
at Tarvin, in an action at Stamtord Bridge". 

After this period the royalists obtained a decided 
advantage for a few months, being strengthened by a 
reinforcement of troops from Ireland, under lord Byron. 
Beeston castle was taken by stratagem ; sir William 
Brereton was defeated with considerable loss at Mid- 
dlewich ; which town, as well as Northwich, fell into 
the hands of lord Byron ; and the royalists, driving all 
the disaffected into Nantwicb, seized successively on 
their strong holds round it, the churches of Barthomley 
and Acton, and the halls of Doddington, Dorfold, and 
Crewe ''. Nantwich, which was held by sir George 
Booth % in the absence of sir William Brereton, was 
now the only garrison left for this party in Cheshire, but 
the obstinacy of the defence mocked all the efforts of 
the royalists. 

On the 25th of January 1G43-4, sir Thomas Fairfax 
and sir William Brereton relieved Nantwich, and de- 
feated lord Byron, the greater part of whose army 
escaped to Chester, other portions surrendering in 
Acton church and Dorfold hall. The mansions of 
Crewe, Doddington, Withenshaw, Adlington, and Bir- 
kenhead, which had been garrisoned by the royalists, 
were successively taken by the parliament. The royal- 
ists had some advantages near Chester, but had two 



severe defeats at Old Castle Heath and Malpas, and 
were subsequently besieged bj' sir William Brereton in 
Beeston castle and Chester. Beeston was relieved in 
March by the princes Rupert and Maurice, and Ches- 
ter by the report of the king's advance on May 4, l645 ; 
but both sieges were subsequently resumed; and the 
actual arrival of the king and his troops at Chester, in 
Sept. 1645, only paved the way for a disastrous defeat 
of his army on Rowton heath, near the city, and a final 
abandonment of Chester to its fate. The parliamentarians 
were now completely in military possession of the sur- 
rounding country ; and the brave garrisons in these 
places, which had long held out without any hope of 
succour, surrendered by successive capitulations, Bees- 
ton being yielded up in November 1645, and Chester 
in February following ''; the blockade having been 
finally completed by the arrival of the Lancashire troops 
(from the siege of Lathom) at Dodleston, under the com- 
mand of colonel John Booth'. 

With this capitulation, the first act of the revolu- 
tionary tragedy, as far as respected Cheshire, may be 
said to have closed ' ; and the only forces in the field for 
the king were defeated by sir William Brereton and 
others, on the 22d of March following, near Stow, in 
Gloucestershire, where their commander, the lord Ast- 
ley, was himself taken prisoner ; and the next opera- 



^ See the Account of the Siege of Nantwich, for particulars of these ; vol. III. p. 224 ; Siege of Chester, I. 204 ; and Tarvin, II. 167. 

I* The details of these minor operations will be found under the several heads here mentioned. c See vol. III. 227. 

■1 An excellent narrative of all the operations connected with the siege of Chester, by Dr. Cowper of Overlegh, will be found in the account of that 
city, vol. 1. pp. 203 — 209. ^ Of Mottram, and nephew of sir George liooth. See ped. vol. 111. p. 32.S. 

f The following list of the Cheshire Knights and Gentlemen who compounded with the parliament for their estates, is merely a transcript (with a 
few corrections) from the printed general catalogue of sufferers, but is inserted with the view of identifying a large portion of the families distinguished 
for their adherence to the royal cause in this unfortunate war. 



Allen, Richard, sen. of GreenhiU ^.110 

Burges, William, of Macclesfield 50 

Brereton, Richard, of Ashley 600 

Berrington, Thomas, of Chester, gent 20 

Boville, Stephen, of Brumley 35 

Belief, John, sen. and John, his son, of Morton, esq 1005 5 

Bailow, Henry, of Chester 120 

Berrington, Thomas, of Chester, esq 20 

Bennet, Thomas, of Barnston, esq 95 

Booth, Lawrence, of Tovin Low, gent 191 7 

Burrough, Stanley, of Bickley, esq 298 3 

Bunbury, Henry, ofStaniiey, esq. with ^.25 per ann. settled 868 

Bavand, Daniel, of Chester, gent 90 

Bridgman, Orlando, of Chester, esq 865 5 

Barnston, William, of Cburton, esq 567 

Brown, Richard, of Upton 24 15 

Brereton, lord William 1738 18 

Brereton, John, of Brereton, esq. 150 

Brerewood, sir Robert, of Chester 387 10 

Broster, Richard, of Chester, alderman 170 

Bridge, Thomas, of Malpas, cler 26 

Barrow, William, of Chorion 60 

Bickerton, George, Horsehall, Chester 55 10 

Cotton, George, Combermeer 666 1 3 

Carter, Robert, Middlewich 47 

Clcaford, John, of Over, yeoman 18 

Cholmondeley, lord 7742 

Cholmondeley, Thomas, Vale Royal, estj 450 

Cooper, Robert, of Runcorn 80 

Cheshire, Thomas, of Halton, gent 100 

Caldecot, John, of Bickley, gent 9 

Cholraley, Thomas, of Bickley 2 10 

Dorrel, Thomas, of Edge 1 50 

Delves, sir Thomas, Doddington 1484 10 

Dod, Edward, of Edge, esq 93 6 

Davenport, William, Bramhall, esq 745 

Elcock, Robert, of Acton 18 

Edge, William, of Harlton 75 

Etonhead, Richard, the elder, of Sutton 92 2 

Fletcher, John, of Marley, gent, and Richard, his son 318 

Frogg, John, of Whitby 58 8 

Forest, Humphrey, of Over Tabley ! 6 16 

Foord, George, of Congleton, merchant 12 9 

Gamull, William, of Chester, gent 225 



Griffin, Richard, of Bartherton £.50 

Grosvenor, sir Rich, of Eaton, bart. with .£.130 per an. settled 1250 

Horton, Ralph, of Cool, gent 128 

Heath, Richard, of Weston, gent 138 

Hurleston, John, of Pickton, esq 890 

Holford, John, of Davenham, gent 110 17 

Heath, Richard, of Eyerton, gent 237 

Hinton, William, Burton, gent 90 

Heys, Richard, of Brereton 10 

Horton, Robert, of Cool, gent 10 

Hollingshead, Francis, Boseley 2 6 8 

Hope, George, Dodleston, esq .503 10 

Jerman, Richard, and Richard his son, of Newton 90 

9 Jeiining, Ralph Manley, Chester, gent 75 

Jones, John, of Nantwich, gent 25 

Irish, William, of Newhall, Chester 58 

King, John, of Cholmly, gent 50 

Kilmory, lord vise, with £.120 perann. settled on the ministry 2306 

Kelsall, John, Strafford, gent 236 

Kinsey, John, Wimbaldsley, gent 80 

Knight, William, Congleton 12 

Ann, the widow of Thomas Leigh, of Adlington, esq 603 7 8 

Lawton, John, of Snape 54 

4 Leonard, Robert, of Tarvin 70 

Leigh, Thomas, of Adlington, with £.56 per ann. settled .,1040 

Leigh, Edward, of Baguley, gent 300 

Leversage, William, sen. of Wheelock, com. Chester, esq.. .. 260 

Lawton, of Lawton, gent 680 

Leigh, Henry, of High Leigh, esq 710 

Larden, Johii,of Cholmley 63 

Littler, Richard, Mouldsworth 53 

Leigh, John, of Adhngton 60 

Leigh, Charles, of the same 50 

Leicester, Peter, jun. of Nether Tabley, esq 778 18 4 

8 Massy, James, of Sale, gent 52 

Morgell, Edward, of Chester, gent 60 

Manwaring, Elisha, Marton 150 

Maisterson, Thomas, of Woodford, gent 630 

Moreton, William, Moreton, esq 641 

Manwaring, Peter, jun. of Smallwood, gent 100 

Mallory, Richard, Mobberley, gent 193 16 

8 Manwaring, Thom.ls, Bostock, gent 142 

Massy, sirWm. of Puddington, knt. with £.34perann.settled 1210 

Manwaring, sir Thomas, knight 16 8 



General f nttotiucttott* 



XXXIX 



tions worthy of notice were consequent on the report of 
the intended advance of Duke Hamilton and sir Mar- 
maduke Langdale, in 1648. 

At a meeting of lieutenancy held at Bowdon, May 23 
in this year, it was resolved to raise, within the county, 
three regiments of 600 men each, to be severally com- 
manded by col. Croxton, col. Massie, and col. James 
Louthiane. The inhabitants, however, generally refused 
to enlist as late as July 19, before which time the loyal- 
ists on the Yorkshire and Derbyshire sides had made 
incursions into Cheshire, near Whaley Bridge, and 
had carried off to Pontefract all the horses found in 
the closes at the chamber of Macclesfield Forest^, of 
which sir William Brereton was then steward. In the next 
month Hamilton and Langdale were successively routed 
by Cromwell in person, near Preston, in Lancashire, 
and the unfortunate duke was pursued by him to War- 
rington Bridge. He then passed through Nantwich, 
with 3000 men, to Uttoxeter, where he was taken pri- 
soner, and in his route across Cheshire the gentlemen of 
the county took 500 of his troops, and many of his 



soldiers were killed by the countrymen «. About the 
same time a design was discovered to seize Chester cas- 
tle for the king, and two officers connected with it were 
shot in the city corn-market''. 

The 30th of January following was marked by the 
murder of the Sovereign ; and in the following year king 
Charles II. being in arms in Scotland, it was agreed at 
Middlewich, Aug. 20, 1650, that four regiments should 
be raised, consisting of 700 men each, to be commanded 
by three field-officers and five captains in each regiment. 
Col. Dukenfield had Wirral and Broxton hundreds ; col. 
Croxton Nantwich, and part of Northwich ; col. Brooke 
Edisbury, and parts of Bucklow and Northwich; and 
col. Henry Bradshaw had Macclesfield, and part of 
Bucklow, viz. the parishes of Bowdon, Mobberley, and 
part of Rosthorne '. 

The royal army marched through Cheshire towards 
Worcester, colonel Massie (who had changed his party), 
moving one day's march in advance, and were met at 
Warrington Bridge by Lambert, who retired before them'" ; 
and here an important error was committed, in sepa- 



Niveton, William, of Parkhouse j^.24 

Nichols, William, Cheadle, D. D 143 

Nasb, Philip, of Crew, gent 39 

Oldfield, Leftwich, of Leftwicb, esq 154 14 

Piggot, Thomas, of Butley 30 

Pritchard, Philip, Bostock 80 

Pickford, Thomas, Adlington 16 15 

Penket, Thomas, of Sutton 66 

Pershall, Thomas, and Edward 300 

Parkington, William, Worral 5 

Peirson, Thomas, Over Tabley, gent 7 

Renshaw, James, of Butley 13 

Russel, Edward, of Chester, gent 310 

Rode, Randle, of Rode, esq. and Thomas his son 138 

Rivers, Elizabeth, countess dowager 100 

Rivers, earl John 1110 

Renshaw, Robert, of Stopford, gent 3 

Smethwicke, Thomas, Smethwick, gent , ] 57 

Shirt, Dorothy, of Adlington 30 

Sidway, Thomas, of Alsagher 50 

Smith, Thomas, of Nibly 40 

Snell, George, of Gilding Sutton, D.D 330 

Stockton, Thomas, of Kidington, gent 223 

Smith, sirThos. of Chester, knt. with ^.110 per ann. settled 2150 

Spurstow, George, Spurstow, gent 56 

Shackerley, Jelfery, of Holme, esq 784 

Shipton, Samuel, Alderley, clerk 350 

Savage, Thomas, of Beeston, esq 557 

Swaine, John, of Brereton 25 

Sparke, William, of Chester, alderman 59 















4 


2 


14 

















15 





5 





















































10 







































































16 












Starky, Henry, of Darley, esq ^.617 

Savage, Thomas, of Barrow, gent 70 

SoIIito, Randolph, Church Lawton 8 

Smith, William, Withenshaw i 

Taylor, John, of Brimstage 74 

Thorp, Thomas, of Chester, gent 177 

Tatton, Robert, of Withenshaw, esq 707 13 

Vernon, Henry, of Haslington, gent 500 

Venables, Peter, of Kinderton, esq. and Thomas his son.. ,.6150 
Warren, Edward, and Edmund and Humphrey his uncles, of 

Pointon, gents I 650 

Walker, John, of Congleton 56 

Watts, George, of Adlington 440 

Wood, Humphrey, of Pointon 10 

Weston, Thomas, sen. of Chester igo 

Warden, John, and Robert his son, of Chester, gents 600 

Wilbraham, sir Thomas, Woodhay 2500 

Walley, Charles, of Chester, gent 268 

Whitmore, Valentine, Thurstaston, Chester 250 

Wicksted, Richard, Nantwich, gent ,,. 210 

Widdens, William, of Morley 25 

Walthai, Alexander, Burley-heyes , 164 

Webster, Robert, of Barrow 65 

Wilbraham, Hugh, Drakelow, gent 362 

Wilson, John, of Chester, gent 143 10 

Wicksted, Thomas, of Hampton, yeoman 56 

Wilson, Richard, of Chester, gent 22 

Woodnoth, Jonathan, of Shavington, gent 400 

Yates, William, of Middlewich 17 



3 











10 























13 


4 











u 












































10 









































10 






























The leaders of the parliamentarian party may be collected from the following list of the commission of the peace for Cheshire, A. D. 1 650. 



William Lentball, Speaker. 
Oliver Cromwell, lieut.-gen, 
Thomas lord Fairfax. 
John Bradshaw, lord president. 
Bulstrode Whitlocke "^ lords commissioners 
Richard Keble > of the 

John Lisle J Great Seal. 

Henry Rolle, chief justice of the Upper Bench 
Thomas Fell, one of the justices of Chester. 
John Bradshaw, attorney-gen, of Chester. 
Humfrey Mackworth. 
^ See Correspondence of Henry Bradshaw, in Marple. 



Edmund Prideaux. 
George Booth, knt. and hart. 
William Brereton, hart. 
Henry Delves, hart. 
Henry Brooke. 
Thomas Stanley. 
Robert Dukenfield. 
Thomas Manvvaring. 
Thomas Marbury. 
Thomas Brereton. 



Edward Hyde. 
Thomas Croxton. 
Jonathan Bruen. 
Peter Dutton. 
Henry Birkenhead. 
Henry Bradshaw. 

Of the Quorum. 
Gilbert Gerard. 
Henry Green. 
Richard Wright. 



'1 See p. 209. 



g Heath's Chronicle, p. 332. 
' Officers in the four regiments returned to London to the council of state : — 
Colonel H. Brooke's. John Brooke, lieut. col.; John Bromhall, major; Ralph Pownall, John Lownes, Edward Stailefox, Tho. Latham, and 
Cheney Bostock, captains. 

Colonel R. DuckenBeld's. Henry Birkenhead, lieut. col,; Simon Finch, major; John Stopford, Tho. Partington, John Corbett, Henry Green, 
Gen. Jonathan Ridge, captains. 

Colonel Croxton's. Gilbert Gerard, lieut. col.j Geo. Malborne, major; John Delves, Hugh Whitney, Tho. Malborne, Tho. Walley, John 
Holford, captains. 

Colonel Bradshaw's. Lawrence Downes, lieut. col.; Alexander Newton, major; William Fitton, William Fallowes, William Watson, Edward 
Alcocke, Richard Grantham, captains. 

AU Bradshaw's regiment (except the chaplain) was in the battle at the city of Worcester, and consisted of 607 men, besides officers, according to 
a return signed by the colonel and other officers, of whom seven common men were killed, and one ensign and 12 common men wounded. Another 
return, in Bradshaw's hand-writing, makes the total, exclusive of officers, 967,— Marple papers, 
^ Clarendon, HI, 400, 406. edit. 1717. 



XL 



Cfje History of C|)es{)ite* 



rating lord Derby and his cavalry from the army, for the 
purpose of recruiting in Lancashire. All the regiments 
above mentioned were then probably with Cromwell, 
and Bradshaw's regiment was engaged with him at the 
battle of Worcester. After that defeat, Lesley's division 
and other squadi-ons of royalists attempted to force 
their way through the county, and were mostly cut to 
pieces or taken, in Cheshire or on its confines'. 

Instructions were subsequently offered to the sheriff of 
Cheshire, in conjunction with Peter Warburton, one 
of the justices of the Common Pleas; sir George Booth, 
knt. and bart. ; sir William Brereton, bart. ; Humphrey 
Mackworth, vice chamberlain of Chester; sir H. Delves, 
bart. ; col. Robert Duckenfield ; col. Henry Bradshaw, 
and others (in pursuance of au act of parliament, 1 July 
1651) ; directing them to meet 10th July, and on Tues- 
day in every week, or oftener, to enquire into conspi- 
racies and secret meetings, to disarm papists or disaf- 
fected persons that had appeared to be such by their 
words or actions, or corresponded with Charles Stuart, 
son of the late king, and to observe strangers resorting 
to the county of Chester". 

By this tribunal ten officers were condemned, and 
five were executed at Chester, to which were soon after- 
wards added sir Timothy Featherstonehaugh, and col. 
Benbow, who were severally executed at Chester and 
Shrewsbury — and the gallant earl of Derby (whose loy- 
alty had been as firmly proof against the unkind dis- 
trusts of his sovereign, as the valour of himself and his 
heroic countess had been against the arms of their ene- 
mies) was sent to exhibit a last lesson of dying virtue 
and patriotism in the midst of his countrymen and te- 
nants in Lancashire. 

Shortly afterwards sir George Booth made his cele- 
brated attempt to overthrow the protectorate, in concert 
with other enemies of the usurping power in various 
parts of the kingdom. He was one of the latest of the 
Presbyterians that conceived a disgust for the conduct 
of Cromwell, but the most energetic in efforts to over- 
throw the cause which he had previously so manfully 
and vigorously abetted. The annexed note gives an 
account of the first meeting of the royalists on Rowton 
Heath"; and an ample narrative of his insurrection 
will be found under Chester and Dunham Massey". 
It may be here therefore sufficient to state that he 
secured the city, but failed in wresting the castle 
from col. Croxton, and being recalled to the city from a 
northern excursion by the approach of Lambert, sallied 
out to meet him on the forest of Delamere. The further 
particulars of their rencontre may be given as follows 
from " the lord Lambert's letter to the right honourable 
the Speaker of the Parliament p." 

Nineteen troops were collected at Drayton in Shrop- 
shire, by the union of the horse under col. Swallow and 
major Creed, with the two regiments marched from 
London, but a portion of these were detached to garri- 



son Stafford, and protect Derbyshire, and with the re- 
mainder Lambert marched to Nantwich ; there he halted 
two days, until four companies of col. Briscoe's regi- 
ment, one troop of his own, and three of col. Lilburne's 
regiment had reached Uttoxeter. He then proceeded 
towards Chester, but after five miles' march turned to- 
wards Northwich, being informed that the royalists, 
with four or five thousand horse and foot, were retiring 
before him. 

The two little armies were in sight of each other at 
dusk, and the royalists quartered at Northwich, and 
Lambert's troops at Weverham, and came into action 
in the morning amongst the inclosures near Hartford, 
the horse being unable to act, and the royalists retiring 
uninjured from hedge to hedge, and passing the bridge, 
" without any other loss than that of reputation." 
" Their next endeavour," adds Lambert, " was to secure 
the bridge, which they had good reasons to hope for, in 
regard the river was unfordable, the bridge narrow, 
flanker'd with a strong ditch on the far end, and a high 
hill, up which no horse could pass, otherwise than along 
the side in a narrow path." This position was abandoned 
by sir George Booth, after three good volleys, and Lam- 
bert's horse passing the bridge, together with the foot, 
charged the horse of the royalists, which advanced to 
cover the retreat. Sir George Booth's infantry retired 
in good order, as Lambert states that they followed their 
colours up the hill, protected by the gallantry of the 
cavalry to which he gives due praise, honouring " Eng- 
lish" valour in his adversaries. Within a quarter of a 
mile the royalists again halted to give battle, but were 
routed a second time. The foot escaped by means of 
the enclosures, and their horse divided towards Chester 
and Warrington, both divisions being pursued as far as 
Frodsham and Warrington, at the latter of which the 
royalists were stopped by a garrison consisting of four 
companies of foot and a troop of horse. After the 
battle a part of the army which had remained in North- 
wich was dislodged by Lambert's troops, and pursued to 
Manchester, where col. Dukenfield was detached in 
pursuit of them, with part of the regiments of col. Ash- 
field and Hewson, and Lilburn was ordered to be in 
readiness to unite with them at Wakefield. 

The letter further mentions that the Irish troops 
landed at Beaumaris had been ordered to advance to 
Shrewsbury with a view to the reduction of Chester citi/, 
where col. Croxton, the governor of the castle, had 
stated, by one of his soldiers who swam the river, that he 
could hold out no longer for want of victuals, and where 
four companies of foot and a troop of horse had been 
left by sir George Booth, besides what had fled from 
the battle, and " what that disaffected city" could afford 
in townsmen. 

This information is observable as a proof how nearly 
the insurrection had reached its object. The observa- 
tion of Clarendon, with respect to the fortune that would 



* See extracts from the newspapers of the time, under Sandbach, vol. III. pp. 60, 61. 

^ Extracts from Marple papers by the rev. J. Watson, communicated by Holland Watson, esq. 

" " But tliat which look'd indeed formidable (Heath, Chron. p. 424) was the rising of sir George Booth in Cheshire, who was a secluded member 
of the parliament ; with him appeared the lord Kilmoiry, Mr. Needham brother of the said lord, Mr. Henry and Mr. Peter Brook, a member like- 
wise, sir William Niel, Mr. Randal Egerton, an eminent constant royalist who brought bis former valour upon this stage, and col. Robert VVerden, 
of the same party (which two last were put into that proclamation wherein sir George Booth and sir Thomas Middleton, with their adherents, were 
proclaimed traytors), the same sir Thomas Middleton and his sons who garrisoned Chirk and Harding castles ; there joyned also with him the earl of 
Derby (whose family interest in that county with the same magnanimous loyalty, this young nobleman essayed to resuscitate, and gave great demon- 
stration of his personal worth and gallantry in the ensuing engagement) ; col. Gilbert Ireland who seized Liverpole, Mr. Warburton, and Mr. Leigh, 
the lord Cholmondeley, Mr. Marbury, Mr. (since sir) Jeoffrey Shakerlcy, and others. These rendezvoused at Rowton heath, and appeared to the 
number of 3000 and upwards, where a declaration was read and published, shewing that they took up arms fur a free parliament, and to unyoak the 
nation from the slavery of those men at Westminster." ° Vol. I. 210 and 404. 

P Read in parliament Aug. 22, and printed by Thomas Newcomb, 1659, communicated by the rev. H. J.Todd, M. A. F. S. A. 



d^eneral f ntrotiuction* 



XLI 



have awaited Lambert's ill provisioned army, if sir 
George Booth had not salHed out with supposed impro- 
vidence, has been mentioned in the account of Chester; 
and if the dismantled state of the walls, of which that 
noble historian appears to have been ignorant, had not 
prevented the royalists from defending themselves 
therein, and pressing the reduction of the exhausted 
castle even after the battle, and after their disappoint- 
ment with reference to an expected junction with gene- 
ral Massey and his Gloucestershire troops, Chester 
might have been again a rallying point for the friends 



of king Charles, and with better success than in the 
first period of its noble struggles. No defence was how- 
ever attempted against Lambert, and sir George Booth 
was taken in his retreat to London ''. 

It is not an easy task to reconcile the previous 
address of the county to Richard Cromwell on his ac- 
cession to the protectorate, with the general feeling dis- 
played in this insurrection. The language of this docu- 
ment is highly adulatory, but is probably couched in 
such language to disguise suspected loyalty, and it 
was certainly delayed five months after Oliver's death '^. 



q A day was set apart by the parliament for public thanksgiving, and they in the following month determined that the corporation of Chester should 
be dissolved and discorjiorated, the charter was declared nuU and void, and it was decreed that the city and county of the city should have in future no 
district jurisdiction, but be laid to the county at large. An act passed also for sequestering the estates of Randolph Egerton, Robert VVerden, sir 
George Booth, sir Thomas Middleton, and their adherents, and all who aided or abetted them ; and rewards were given to Lambert's troops, to 
col. Croxton, and to the man who swam the Dee with an account of the exhausted state of the garrison. The details will be found in the Mercurius 
Politicus. 

Ludlow in his Memoirs, II. 693, says that sir George Booth's cavalry fled before Lambert's came up, leaving their foot to be cut to pieces, except 
twenty or thirty commanded by captain Morgan, who was killed. It is observable that this statement is positively contradicted both by Lambert's 
letter, and by an abstract of it in Merc. Aulic. Aug. 26, 1659 (quoted in L 404), in both of which the gallantry of the royalists is expatiated upon, and 
it is also to be noted that Ludlow was so ill informed respecting this battle that he places the scene of it at Warrington. 

The following list of prisoners will show how extensively sir George Booth was supported, both by those who were originally royalists and by the 
presbyterians of Cheshire and Lancashire who had changed sides previous to this insurrection. 

In the Mercurius PuUlicus, numb. 585, p. 715. Whitehall, Sept. 7. " This week an exact account was brought from Chester of such persons of 
quality as are there detained prisoners, which take as followeth : 



Lord Kilmory. 

Sir Thomas Powel. 

Major-gen. Egerton. 

Major-gen, Broughton, 

Col. Irelandf . 

Col. Henry Brooks. 

Col. William Massey. 

Sir William Neal. 

Col, John Daniel. 

Col. Leigh of Bruch, 

Col. William Stanley of Hul(t)ton. 

Lieut.-col. Edward Done. 

Mr. Thomas Needham, brother to the lord 

Kilmory. 
Major Harrison. 
Major William Shipley. 
Major John Trevers. 

Capt. Thomas Cholmondeley ef Vale Royal. 
Mr. Francis Cholmondeley. 
Capt. Philip Egerton of Oulton. 
Capt. Markland. 
Major Smith. 
Capt. Thomas Egerton. 

Davies. 

John Bridges, 

John Coul. 

John Trevers. 

Latham. 

Edmund Pesall. 

Stukeley. 

Dulton. 

Shenton. 

Hewitt. 



Capt. Robert Cotton of Comberraere, and 
Mr. Charles Cotton his brother. 

Leech of Garden. 

Lawrence Wright. 

Thomas Green. 

Richard Minshull. 

Thomas Dickenson. 

Richard Acton. 
Mr. Edward Minshull of Stoke*. 

Thomas Minshull of Erdswick. 

William Tatton of Withenshaw. 

John Wibunbury of Hankelow. 

Robert Wibunbury his brother. 

Cotton of Cotton. 

Aldersey of Spurstow, the younger. 

Knevet of London. 

Roger Manwaring of Carlncham, 

Bromley. 

Thomas Grosvenor, son of sir Richard 
Grosvenor. 

Broughton. 

Elisha Mainwaring. 

Spurstow of Spurstow. 

John Beverley. 
Lieut. John Key. 

John Booth. 

John Cumberbage. 

Acton. 
Ensign Henry Hall. 

Longshaw. 

John Leigh, 
Mr. Henry Trevers. 



Mr. William Hinde. 

Edward Foard. 

Christopher Sidney. 

John Johnson. 

Thomas Powel. 

Broc^;.e. 

Thomas Parrey. 

Thomas Annion. 

Frederick Conway. 

Charles Hues. 

John Edwards. 

Peter Rogers. 

Elcocke of Poole, 

John Beaverley. 

John Crew, 

John Traford. 

Robert Evans. 

William Carter. 

Davies of Gousana, the elder. 
Corporal William Walker. 
Col, Nath. Booth, brother to sir Geo. Booth. 

City Officers. 
Capt. William Wright. 
Capt. Richard Wright. 
Capt. Witter. 
Lieut. John Lingley. 
Lieut. Richard Bridge. 
Lieut. Fearnought. 
Ensign Thomas Lea. 
Ensign Thomas Strat. 
Ensign Burroughes. 

Mr. Cooke, minister of St. Bridgets in Chester. 
Mr. Finmore, minister of Runckorne. 



Cornet Gill. 

To this long note may be added the following curious account of the capture of sir George Booth, as communicated to the House by Mr. Gibbs, 
a minister of Newport Pagiiell. 

Mercurius Politicus, 583. Whitehall, Aug. 24. " The account given this day ti» the house about the taking of sir George Booth was as followeth* 
He came last night with four servantes to an inne in Newport Pagnel in Bedfordshire, in hope to have escaped to London, and had four persons with 
him in the habit of servants. Behind one of those persons sir George rode in the habit of a gentlewoman, but alighting in the inne, he acted the 
woman's part not so well but that he was soone suspected, and the matter being examined, he at length acknowledged himself, and being secured, 
was, about four o'clock this morning, conducted from that town towards London, the other persons who personated his servants being detained at 
Newport till further orders. He was met on the road, beyond Highgate, by some of our horse, and by them carried to the Tower, whither sir Arthur 
Hesilrigg and sir Henry Vane repaired this evening to take liis examination." 

r To his serene highness Richard, lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions and territories 
thereunto belonging : 

The humble address of the High SheriflF, Justices of the Peace, Grand Jury, Gentlemen, Freeholders, and Soldiers of the county of Chester, at 
the general sessions of the peace holden in the castle of Chester, January 25, 1658-9, 

In a faithful discharge of that debt we owe to our own and the common concernments of these united nations, we do cordially (though in the 
rear of England's mourners) joyn in a real and deep resentment of our incomparable loss in the decf^iise of bis late highness, your illustrious father, 
on whose shoulders the hands of a good providence had laid the government of these nations, and whose person the supream ordaintr of all powers 
had accomplished with all heroick endowments for so high and weighty an administration. Our fears of spliting in the fall of his said highness who 
sate at the stern, had risen to an higher tide, but that your serene highness succeeded in his stead as a skilful pilot to guide that vessel wherein the chief 
of our concernments are embarked into the desired haven : so that having really condoled the pubiick loss in the father, we cordially congratulate the 



* Apparently brother-in-law of Milton, see note. Vol. HI. p. 191. 

f Called Col. Holland in many of the Gazettes, and in the narrative from which the account given under Winnington was taken, 

1 



xLii Cj)e f^tsitor^ of Cfjesfjite/ 

The Restoration, as is well known, took place in the Molineux's regiment (chiefly consisting of Lancashire 

spring following, and in the next September the bishop catholics) at Chester. All these have been mentioned in 

of Chester was welcomed to his city, amongst the detail, under the local history of that city '. 

mingled acclamations of the gentry and clergy, the After this period no military movements affected the 

local military, and the populace. Followed by the dig- internal tranquillity of Cheshire until the expedition of 

nitaries of his cathedral, he instantly proceeded toper- Charles-Edward in 1745. The daring band of insur- 

form his devotions in the venerable pile which was thus gents which followed their unfortunate leader from the 

once more restored to the free exercise of pure religion, north, arrived on the confines of Cheshire on the 29th 

and the rites of the established church. of November, and fixed their head-quarters in Man- 

The next public events which affected the county Chester'. There they were joined by between two and 

were, the disturbances consequent on the duke of Mon- three hundred of the lower orders, which were formed into 

mouth's passing through it in 1683; the visit of James "the Manchester Regiment," commanded by colonel 

II. in 1687, to persuade the city and county to approve Francis Townley "." All the horses that could be col- 

of the repeal of the penal laws and test act ; and a lected by threats, or could be seized, were appropriated ", 

groundless alarm excited in 1688, by the arrival of lord and a sum of three thousand pounds was levied on the 



providential improvement of so sad a dispensation in the happy succession of yourself his son in the government, which we with all chearfulness 
acknowledge, and with all fidelity submit to ; our delay of congratulating your highness hath most happily increased our debt of joy and thankfulness 
by your gratious calling a parliament, with address unto God in prayer and humiliation for his blessings thereupon, whereby our hopes are increased 
of perfecting that full reformation our souls do long for, with the preservation and settlement of our just rights and liberties ; that as we have cause 
to bless God for the commencement of your government, so we may still have cause to praise him for the continuance thereof, as reaping thereby 
that which hath been ploughed for in so much sweat and blood, the harvest of peace and truth, which is the option of us. 

Your highness' 
(Mercur. Polit. No. 554.) humble servants. 

' Vol. I. p. 210-11. The following presentment at the assizes subsequent to Monmouth's tour through the county, is a document of considerable 
interest, as exhibiting the political sentiments of the great families of the county at this period, if the jury can be supposed to have been selected by 
Jefferies from a known predilection for the principles of the court. At a later period their chairman was, however, rendered honourably conspicuous 
by his opposition to the unconstitutional measures of James 11. 

At the assizes for the county of Chester, Sept. 17, 35 Car.Il. (1683) the grand jury, consisting of the persons undermentioned, having beard an 
account of" the treasonable conspiracy against his (majesty's) sacred person and government, lately discovered, openly read to them in sessions," — 
in order to manifest their separation from the persons or principles of the abettors of the same, and the supporters of " that dreadful climax, the bill 
of exclusion, treasonous association, ignoramus juryes, and seducing perambulations, by which the accomplices advanced towards their intended 
assassination and massacre," in which they doubtless relied on the co-operation of numerous confederates, the said jury presented that they had 
strong apprehensions of danger from a dissatisfied party in the county, which not only shewed their defection openly by an address to Henry Booth, 
esq. and sir Robert Cotton, kt. and bart. at the last election of knights of the shire (tending to alter the succession to the crown, and promising to 
aid them in that design), but also, by cabals and meetings, and the great store of arms they were provided with, and by their mixing with schismatics 
and disaffected in the public reception of James duke of Monmouth, who has appeared a prime confederate in the late treasonable conspiracy, and 
with " the concourse of armed persons then attending him, especially in and neere several populous townes in this county, where they invited and 
instigated rabble, in a broad mixture of various sectarys, which superfluous joy and popular noise tumulted on that occasion, has had an evil influence 
on this yet unsettled county, and brought a terror upon his majesties good and peaceable subjects :" 

In remedy hereof the jury declared it expedient that security of the peace should be demanded from all concerned in promoting the aforesaid 
seditious address, or in aiding the riotous reception of the duke of Monmouth and his confederates, and all frequenters of conventicles, or harbourers 
and countenancers of any nonconformist minister or preacher, and particularly from 

Charles earl of Macclesfield. Sir John Crewe, kt. Roger Mainwaring, of Kermincham, Mr. Roger Whitby. 

Richard lord Colchester. Nathaniel Booth, esq. esq. Mr. Rob. Venables, of Winchombe. 

Charles lord Brandon. Col. Thomas Leigh, jun. Tilston Bruen, of Stapleford, esq. William Minshull, of Namptwich . 

Henry Booth, esq. John Mainwaring, of Baddeley, Sir Robert Dukenfield, bart. John Hurleston, of Newton, esq. 

Sir Robert Cotton, knt. and bart. esq. Thomas Lea, of Dernhall, esq. Charles Hurleston, his son, and 

Sir Willoughby Aston, bart. John Leigh, of Booths, esq. Mr. Robert Hyde, of Cattenhall. William Whitmore, of Thurstaston, 

Sir Thomas Mainwaring, hart. Col. Roger Whitley, of Peel. Edward Glegge, of Grange, esq. esq. 

Sir Thomas Bellot, bart. Mr. Thomas Whitley, his son. Richard Leigh, of High Leigh, esq. 

The said jury presented also that all persons not frequenting the church according to law are recusants, " it being impossible to know the hearts 
of men for what cause they refuse to come," and ended with congratulation on his majesties deliverance, and assurance of their support of his sacred 
person and government, his heirs, and lawful successors. 

The grand jury were as follows : 
*T. Grosvenor. Ant. Eyre. 'J. Slarkey. John Hockenhall. 

*W. Cotton. Hen. Davies. Hen. Meoles. Francis Leeche. 

*Edw. Legh. Jo. Dod. *Rob. Alport. *Thomas Barnston. 

*Peter Sbakerley. John Daniel. Ran. Dod. *John Davies. 

Tho. Warburton. Tho. Minshull. Edw. Bromley. 

*' Wee the second inquest doe concurre with the grand jury in this presentment, and doe joyne with them in their addresse. 
William Welde. Roger Wilbraham. Henry Hough. John Hunt. 

Ric. Cartwright. John Ely. John Francis. Nathaniel Leene, 

John Smith. Rich. Nangreave. Thomas Hallwood, Robert Cudworth. 

Ri. Lowndes. . Thomas Barber. John Wright, George Cowper. 

Charles Mainwaring. 

In the succeeding year Charles earl of Macclesfield brought an action for libel against sir Thomas Grosvenor, and the others of the grand jury to 
whose name a star is affixed, at the Berkshire assizes, having laid the venue at Wantage in that county. To which the jurors replied, that the said 
earl could not maintain his charge, as they were jurors impannelled and returned on the great inquest of the county before sir Geo. Jeffreyes, kt. and 
hart, justice of Chester, and John Warren, esq. the other justice, and sworn to enquire into certain articles delivered to them by the said justices ; 
and hereupon threw themselves on the judgement of the court, &c. 

This document was extracted from papers communicated by William Bray, esq. Treas. S. A. among which also was a proclamation, dated Windsor, 
Sept. 7, 1685, 1 Jac. II. charging to apprehend the beforementioned Charles earl of Macclesfield, who having been directed to be apprehended for 
high treason, has fled from justice ; and prohibiting all persons to receive or harbour the said earl on pain of being proceeded against for high treason. 
According to Kennet, 111.442, (who calls him lord Brandon) the earl was brought to his trial for high treason at the king's bench bar, under a 
charge of conspiring to raise rebellion and depose the late king, and was found guilty and sentenced to die, but afterwards pardoned. He subse- 
quently fled to Holland whilst Monmouth was preparing for his expedition, and thence to Germany, from whence he returned to the Hague in 1688, 
to take part in the preparations of the prince of Orange. Ibid. IH. 488. 

' Home's History of the Rebellion. » Ibid. ^ Gazette Extraord. Dec. 2. 



<!^eneral Jnttotiuction* 



XLIII 



the town''. Much useless plunder was also collected, 
and much wilful waste made by the Highlanders^, but 
the general conduct of the officers was kind and con- 
ciliatory ''. 

The bridges on the Mersey had been previously de- 
stroyed, and on the 30th of November several of them 
were temporarily restored by the formation of a kind of 
fixed raft, formed with felled poplars : all the coun- 
try people that could be found being compelled to give 
assistance. On the same day 200 of the rebels appeared 
at Warrington, and a few that crossed the ford were 
secured by the Liverpool regiment, and sent to Chester. 
A similar body established a bridge at Cross Street, and 
passed over to Altrincham, and about fifty crossed the 
Mersey at Gatley Ford to Cheadle, but returned by 
Cheadle Ford to Manchester, where the main bod^' re- 
mained stationary, with sixteen pieces of cannon, great 
numbers of covered waggons, and about 100 laden horses. 
In the course of the day a few soldiers were sent to 
Stockport, to announce their intended march there in 
the evening, and to enlarge on the success of their en- 
listing at Manchester. 

All the little army advanced into Cheshire in the 
night or in the following morning. The artillery and 
the horse were taken over the Mersey at Cheadle, and 
Charles-Edward himself marched on foot at the head of 
the two divisions, called his regiments, and waded across 
the river at Stockport, which rose up to his middle. 
A consternation totally disproportionate to their effective 
force preceded them, but some persons ventured to gaze 
on the line from behind the hedges, and one spectator 
describes their appearance as they marched bj' Butley 
near Macclesfield, at three o'clock on the afternoon of 
Dec. 1. The prince's regiment seemed to be picked, 
and made a tolerable appearance, but the bulk of his 
followers were very ordinary, and their horses were ill- 
made, small, and ill conditioned. The prince himself 
marched in a light plaid, belted with a blue sash, and 
had a blue bonnet on his head, displaying the white 
rose, but his countenance was extremely dejected*^. 

Macclesfield had been taken possession of by 
100 horse at two o'clock, and five thousand men with 
the prince and the artillery quartered there that night''. 
An advanced guard of two hundred men were placed at 
Broken Cross, and were ordered to march southwards 
at eleven in the night". Here also a council is said to 
have been held in which it was determined to make 
some forced marches to get between the duke of Cum- 
berland's army and London ^ 

In the morning the army advanced by two divisions, 
after having been joined by the detachment from Altrin- 
cham. One body proceeded with the prince towards Leek 
direct. The other, two thousand strong, marched through 
Gawsworth to Congleton, and then followed the line of 
the first division. A part of the duke of Cumberland's 



army which lay at Newcastle, conceiving from this 
movement that the rebels intended to penetrate into 
North Wales, fell back upon Stone, and proceeded to 
concentrate in the expectation of a general engagement. 

The succeeding movements are well known — both 
columns joined at Derby ; there the idea of a further 
advance was abandoned, and the prince and his army 
returned in equal discontent through Ashbourn and 
Leek to Macclesfield. On the 8th of December the 
main body occupied that town, the vanguard having 
proceeded to Manchester, where some show of opposi- 
tion was made by the inhabitants. The main body 
quickly followed, and another levy of .£5000. was im- 
posed on the town, and ,£2500. was actually collected 
from an excitement of the personal fears of the more 
respectable inhabitants, and a threat of an abandonment 
of the place to the ravages of the soldiery. The infan- 
try then moved northwards, towards Leigh, Wigan, and 
Preston, on the 10th, and the rearguard of cavalry, in 
consequence of a sudden panic excited by the rumoured 
advance of general Wade, followed them in the same 
evening. 

After them in rapid succession came the duke's army 
which had been cantoned at Lichfield, Coventry, Staf- 
ford, and Newcastle under Lyme. As soon as he was 
certainly informed that the rebels had begun their re- 
treat, he pursued them on the 8th of December, with 
all his cavalry, and with infantry mounted on horses 
which the country furnished. The gazettes insinuate 
that the Catholic gentlemen were active in dispatching 
mounted servants in the night to warn the prince of his 
route, and thousands would doubtless have joined his 
standard, if any success had rendered him independent 
of their tardy aid. The general feeling, however, as 
far as it was demonstrated, was unquestionably for the 
royal army. The townsmen rewarded the first appear- 
ing red coats with gratuities, the farmers dug up the 
barrels of ale which they had concealed from the Scots- 
men, and the country gentlemen were active in remount- 
ing the jaded cavalry. Sir Lister Holte alone is said to 
have supplied two hundred and fifty horses. In a few 
days the fugitives and the pursuers were far removed 
from the confines of Cheshire. 

From this period the county has had to lament few 
open violations of its internal peace, to the time 
when recent disturbances commenced, in the dis- 
tricts connected with the manufacturing parts of 
Lancashire. About the close of the year 1811, the 
emissaries of treason were actively employed in the ad- 
ministration of unlavpful oaths ; seditious assemblies 
were held in the night, private houses were entered and 
plundered of arms, the manufactories were assaulted 
and the machinery destroyed, and one manufacturer's 
dwelling was burnt by the rioters. These disorders were 
temporarily checked by the Special Assizes at Lancaster, 



y Gent. Mag. 1746, ji. 335, &c. 

2 The author could mention some ludicrous traditional stories, but the stoty of " the pier glass in Waverley" may serve as a general specimen. 

^ The following may be given as a proof. The prince was lodged in Manchester, at Mr. Dickenson's, at the house in Market-street-lane, now 
called the Palace Inn. His aide-de-camp, with a number of other men, was quartered at Mr. Johnson's (the author's maternal grandfather's), whose 
horses had been seized when in the act of being removed, and with them a letter describing the approaching party as rebels. He was in consequence 
made a prisoner in his own house and severely treated, but admitted to a large party of the officers which caroused there. Kinff James was of course 
the first toast, and the host being asked next for his, had the temerity to give ms majesty king George. Some of the officers rose and touched 
their swords, but one of the seniors instantly exclaimed. He has drank our prince, why should not we drink his ? Here's to the elector of 
Hanover. c Original letter, Gent. Mag. Dec. 1645. 

il The prince slept at sir Peter Davenport's (the house now appropriated to the master of the free-school), the duke of Cumberland at Mr. Stafford's. 
Sir Peter Davenport was a violent Whig, and the other as remarkable for his predilection for the contrary party. 

« Gazettes, Dec. 1645. 

f Mr. Hays' account in Appendix to Home, p. 337. They appear to have intended to have visited Knutsford, but to have been deterred by a 
report that 2000 king's troops were there ; small parties were however detached to Bucklow-hiU and to Astbury. Gazette. 



XLIV 



%^t flistor^ of €f)tsUn. 



York, and Chester; at the last-mentioned of which, held 
May 25, 1812, about sixteen persons were capitally con- 
victed, though the mercy of the judge only gave over 
two for execution. But the same spirit subsequently 
manifested itself at intervals, and on one occasion a 
considerable tumult was excited by a large body of 
misguided wretches from the neighbouring districts 
of Lancashire, with knapsacks of blankets at their 
backs, (from which they derived the appellation of 
blanketeers,) who attempted to cross the county for the 
alledged purpose of petitioning the Regent, exhibiting a 
striking parallel to the wild expedition of the natives of 
Dernhall in the fourteenth century, which lias been 
mentioned in the account of Vale RoyaF. 

At a later period, and whilst these sheets were going 
through the press (in the summer of 1819), the spirit of 
insubordination has again broken out, with a more ma- 
lignant aspect, with avowed hostility to every thing ve- 
nerable in church and state, and the declared object of 
seizing and dividing the estates and property of the 
higher orders in society. Stockport and its neighbour- 
hood have been visited by itinerant seditious orators; 
a constable, returning from the execution of his duty, 
has been shot and desperately wounded in its streets ; 
and its population has furnished its quota to the assem- 
blage of seditious myriads, which met at Manchester on 
the l6th of August, under the pretence of devising 
means of constitutional reform, and were dispersed by 
the military acting under the civil power. During the 
absence of the yeomanry on this alarming occasion 
the towns of Stockport and Macclesfield were disgraced 
by the violent excesses of a furious mob, and the persons 
and property of the most respectable inhabitants were 
subjected to their outrages. 

Such have been the efforts, and hitherto the unsuccess- 



ful ones of the new School of Reform ; but the feeling 
of the settled inhabitants of a county is not in any in- 
stance to be inferred from the conduct of a manufac- 
turing population which has been crowded into it from 
various quarters, in masses disproportionate to ordinary 
calls of employment, or the natural means of support 
which the land can supply"; and it is not to be wondered 
that among such masses, riotous either when revelling 
in prosperity, or when reduced to sudden want by tem- 
porary embarrassments of trade, the reforming orators 
should have found a willing audience. 

Never however, can the new-fangled doctrines of Deism 
and Sedition be expected to spread themselves in dis- 
tricts constituted like the greater part of Cheshire, 
amongst the representatives or the collaterals of families 
that can count each successive generation which has 
for centuries experienced the blessings of our govern- 
ment in church and state, or amongst tenantry and 
dependants which have been accustomed to look to 
such families for examples of antient faith and loyalty. 
In its most disordered districts the scene of the late ex- 
cesses has been more limited, and their operation less 
violent than in the neighbouring counties. On the 
excitement or apprehension of each successive dis- 
turbance the Lieutenant and the Magistrates have 
been nobly firm in their respective duties — the Gentry 
assembled on the great inquest of the county have 
hastened to sink all differences of political feeling in 
one united avowal of attachment to our church and 
state — and lastly, in every instance the exertions of 
the Cheshire Yeomanry have not only been sufficient to 
quell insubordination within their peculiar limits, but to 
preserve the peace and ensure the confidence of the 
loyal inhabitants in districts adjacent. 



Extent and Boundaries of the County. 

The general outline of this county is extremely irre- 
gular, but would be more easily included within an in- 
verted triangle than any other figure, the upper line 
being rounded inwards towards the centre, and giving 
to the east and west angles the appearance of two horns 
issuing in those directions. The adjacent counties are 
Lancashire and Yorkshire on the northern side, Stafford 
and Derby to the south-east, and Flint, Denbigh, and 
Salop, to the south-west. The general boundaries 
chiefly consist of the Mersey with its tributary streams 
to the north side, the Dee on the south-west, and on 
the east and south-east the great line of hills, called 
the English Apennines, which range from north to south 
through the centre of the upper part of England. 

Within these boundaries is included a district mea- 
suring in circumference about 200 miles, and containing 
1040 square miles, or 665,600 acres, to which 10,000 
more may be added as the extent of the sands of the 
Dee. The greatest breadth from north to south is about 
30 miles, and the length from east to west 40, but mea- 



suring from horn to horn it is about 58 miles^. Seven 
Hundreds and the County of the City are contained in 
these limits, which form the present Chestershire, or 
Cheshire, as the name has now for some centuries 
been popularly abbreviated. At the time of the Domes- 
day survey four hundreds of Lancashire, and the coun- 
ties of Flint and Denbigh, were included under the head 
of Cestrescire, and in one entry relating to Robert de 
Rodelent the surveyors affect to consider " Nord Wales" 
itself among the wastes dependent upon it. These dis- 
tricts however which are surveyed under the heads of 
Exestan and Atiscros, and the land between the Mersey 
and the Ribble, have been long severed from Cheshire, 
with some trifling exceptions particularized below'\ 

The SURFACE of the district, to the eye of a general 
observer, varies little from uniform flatness, the more 
elevated tracts consisting chiefly of table land as mono- 
tonous in surface as that of the vallies. There are, how- 
ever, some strongly marked inequalities to be traced on 
careful examination, which demand particularizing. 
From the great vale which lies west of the line of Staf- 



f Vol. II. p. 71. g Calculation in Holland's .Agricultural Survey, p. 2. 

•^ Viz. with respect to the townships or districts on the Welsh side of the Dee which remained to Cheshire after the severing of Atiscros hundred 
from it, being in the whole thirteen, Handbridge, Overlegb, Netherlegh, Eccleston, Eaton, Pulford, Poulton, Dodleston, Kinnerton, Claverton, 
Marleston, Lache, and Hawarden. Six of these, though across the Dee, were not in Atiscros, the three first being in Cestre hundred, and the three 
next in Dudestan : Poulton, the seventli, is probably Pontone, placed by mistake in Warmundestrou or Nantwich hundred by the survey, and may 
be supposed to have been in Atiscros, in which the remaining six are placed, except Kinnerton, omitted by name, being then probably included in 
Dodleston. Hawarden, of which a part remained to Cheshire after the first severing of Atiscros hundred, was separated from it by stat. 23 Hen. VIII, 
cap. 13, which regulates the boundaries of Flintshire and Denbighshire. 



(J^eneral fntrotiuction* 



XLV 



fordshire hills and the detached mass of Alderley Edge, the 
country swells into three considerably elevated natural 
terraces, if they may be so termed, the direction of each 
tending towards the north-west, and the course of that 
part of the Mersey which is a continuation of the stream 
of the Irwell. The first of these rises between the vales 
of the original Mersey and the BoUin, the next between 
the Bollin and the Wever, and the last between the 
Waver and the Gowy. The first range subsides gra- 
dually near Dunham ; the next terminates in Hill Cliff, 
Halton, and Weston Point ; and the last in Overton, 
Hellesby Torr, and the Manley hills ; all of which front 
the vale of the united streams of the Irwell and Mersey 
before-mentioned s, the elevation and abruptness of the 
terminating precipices becoming bolder as they approach 
the sea. 

Parallel with these terraces is the vale of the Dee, 
across the upper end of which the insulated mass of 
Beeston, and the range of the Peckforton hills (also 
detached from the general arrangement of surface) 
sweep in an irregular semicircle, but between this vale 
and the Gowy is a fourth terrace tending in the same 
direction, but inferior in elevation, and shooting out 
into the great peninsula of Wirral, which preserves the 
same bearing, and at the present day turns off the waters 
of the Mersey to the north-west. 

It is a generally acknowledged fact, that at some dis- 
tant period the tides have risen considerably higher on 
the western coast than at present, and this is borne out 
by the appearance of the banks of all the Lancashire as 
well as the Cheshire rivers, even without acceding to 
the common opinion that the Ribble was once accessible 
for ships as high as the Roman station of Ribchester. 
With reference to this, several channels have been 
pointed out in the account of Wirral, by which the 
waters of the Mersey and the Dee would have been made 
to communicate between that hundred and Broxton, 
through a valley yet marked with shells and sea-sand, 
by a tide only a few feet higher than usual ; and the 
same stream would also be led through other vallies 
between West Kirkby and Wallesey and the rest of 
Wirral. Beyond this theory, which goes sufficiently far 
to reconcile considerable difficulties in the ancient geo- 
graphy of Britain '', the author dares not venture on his 
own opinion, but he sees no possible objection to some 
theories of much greater boldness connected with the 
subject'. 

The Soils are mingled in so very unusual a manner 
throughout Cheshire as to render nice discrimination 
impossible. Clay preponderates in Wirral, Broxton, 
Edisbury, and Nantwich hundreds, and in the southern 
part of Bucklow, and the southern and eastern edges 
of Northwich. Clay occupies also the greater part of 
Macclesfield, but a large proportion of the great parish 
of Prestbury inclines to sand, as well as the parts excepted 
in the other Hundreds ; the hills in the hundreds of Brox- 



ton, Macclesfield, and Northwich, as well as those of 
Delamere forest, consist of rock covered with peat bog. 

In minerals, with the exception of coal and salt, the 
county is excessively barren. Copper, lead, and cobalt 
have been found at and near Alderley Edge, and the 
two former among the Peckforton hills ; iron also has 
been found at Alderley and Duckenfield. 

The general rock of Cheshire is a red friable sand- 
stone, but there are a few quarries of excellent free-stone, 
among which may be mentioned those of Manley, Kel- 
sal, Storeton, and Runcorn. A hard granite used for the 
paving of roads is got at Mole Cop, and the stone from 
the same place is in great repute for mill-stones. It is 
not met with in any other part of Cheshire, but the marl 
pits generally through the county contain numerous 
fragments of this stone, rounded and polished by the 
action of water at some distant period, which are 
usually picked out by the farmers and sold to the paviors. 

Limestone is found at Newbold Astbury in the same 
neighbourhood, and there only in Cheshire. 

Marl, a substance used as manure more generally in this 
than in any other county of England, is mentioned in 
leases as early as the commencement of the fourteenth 
centurj'. It consistsof clay, sand, and lime,closely mixed, 
but in unequal proportions, and is known as clay, slate, 
and stone-marl. The former is by far the most com- 
mon, and in most parts of the county the fields are dis- 
figured bj' small square pits, Irom which this material 
has been cut for spreading over the fields. It is gene- 
rally found in clayey soils, but frequently under sand, 
though at a greater depth, and sometimes between strata 
of sandstone ; and the pits always contain round balls 
of granite and other stone as above mentioned, and 
sometimes sea-shells and other animal exuvisB. The 
peculiar customs connected with marling are hereafter 
noticed. 

Coal is found only on the eastern and western edges 
of the county in the hundreds of Macclesfield and 
Wirral. The first mentioned hundred abounds in veins 
of this useful substance, and supplies an unbroken series 
of links between the mines of Staffordshire and Lan- 
cashire. Coal mines are worked only in Wirral -hundred 
in the township of Little Neston, where the works extend 
a considerable distance under the channel of the Dee, 
being obviously a continuation of the mines on the 
opposite bank of that river in Flintshire, which have 
been noticed in deeds of the reign of Henry VI.'' 

There is, however, a singular phenomenon connected 
with the account of this mineral, that though no veins 
of it are found in the interior, the sand-pits in the centre 
of the county will often exhibit coals and cinders depo- 
sited in lines resembling the arrangement of natural 
strata, which must necessarily have been removed there 
by the action of the waters at the distant period when 
the sand was deposited'. 

Salt has been at all times the great native commodity 



E The course of the united streams, before the bend at Stanlaw, is from north-east to south-west, beinf accordant with the previous course of the 
Irwell, to which the Mersey accommodates itself, having before this flowed from south-east to north west. '' See vol. U. p. 188. 

' See a note by sir J. T. Stanley, in Holland's Agricultural Survey, p. 77, respecting the Cheshire valleys having been originally much lower than 
the sea, and been raised to their present height by successive alluvies from a great depth, and also as to the possibility of the peculiarity in the de- 
positions and strata of the county having been occasioned by obstructions of the channel of the Weever in the narrow part near Anderton, which 
would soon convert the centre of the county into an inland lake. A similar effect on a larger scale would be occasioned by the stoppage of the pre- 
sent mouth of the Mersey (alluded to in a quotation from a bold theorist in vol II. p. 188.) for though the channel between Wirral and Broxton, with 
tVit at Birkenhead, might take off the ordinary waters, there can be no doubt that a great land- flood would have backed far up into all the vales 
abovementioned. Whilst on the subject of the connection of these rivers, it is impossible to omit notice of a very ingenious deduction of the name of 
Liverpool, from the IrSe pol, or gentle lake on which it is situated, in Gent. IVIag. vol. LXXXVII. II. p. 508. The name of la Lythe, and the Lide, was 
antiently given to Overlegh and Netherlegh on the banks of the sister estuary (see vol. I. p. 427, col. 1.), and it is by no means improbable that it was 
the common designation of both the connected and lake-like expanses of water. This would explain a passage in Brompton, in which, speaking of 
the celebrated exhibition of Offa on the Dee, he calls it flumen de liee. See vol. I. p. 193. 

k See Gerard Deeds in Crowton, vol. II. p. 60. I See a note on this subject by sir i. T. Stanley in Holland's Agric. Survey of Cheshire. 

m 



XLVI 



%\\t History of Cj)esjtre» 



of Cheshire, and may with most propriety be noticed 
under this head, although the discovery of rock salt is 
cf modern date compared with the use of the brine 
springs, which are nevertheless unquestionably impreg- 
nated by it. These springs, as appears by the Domesday 
survey, were a considerable source of revenue to the 
crown as well as the local government in the Saxon 
period, and they were then subject to peculiar laws. 
Three places only' are noticed as the sites of actual 
works, Wich in Warmundestrou hundred, or Nantwich ; 
" aliud Wich" in Mildestvich hundred (Middiewich); and 
" Norwich," (Northwich), in the same hundred ; the ori- 
ginal description of each is given under its proper head, 
and a recapitulation of the whole is subjoined"". 

These three assemblages of salt-works appear for 
some centuries to have been exclusively denominated 
the WiCHES, a name which cannot be supposed to have 
originally any meaning beyond wic or vicus, but which 
is nevertheless generally appended to the names of 
places through the kingdom where salt has been made 
from brine or from evaporation of the sea-water. In 
1245, in order to distress the Welsh, the king, as 
Matthew Paris informs us, " puteos fecerat salinarum 
de wiTZ obturari et everti;" and in the expenses of king 
Edward at Rhuddlan, a corruption somewhat similar 
occurs with respect to Northwich, in an entry of the 
expenses of carrying the princess Elizabeth's wardrobe 
to " le Flynt, Cestr', Wiz, et Maclesfeld." 

The three original Wiches were all on the bank of the 
Weever and its tributary stream the Wheelock, and on 
this river or its feeders the salt springs have generally 
been found. Near the lines of the highest of these tri- 
butary brooks, subsidences have been noticed in the 
accounts of Bickley and Combermere, which have been 
doubtless occasioned by the melting of the rock-salt in 
cavities below ; and from thence to Weverham, brine- 
springs are known to exist along the whole course of the 
banks, but are more particularly worked (in addition to 
the great wiches) in the neighbourhood of Winsford and 
Anderton. The works at Weverham, as before-men- 
tioned, are erroneously supposed to be noticed in 
Domesday, but there are numerous inequalities between 
the church and the river, presumed to be occasioned by 
preparing the salt there at an early period. 



The Wheelock, of all the feeders of the Weever, ap- 
proaches nearest to that stream in the number of brine- 
springs on its banks, from which salt is actually manu- 
factured. In this list must be placed those of Middie- 
wich itself, and further up those of Wheelock, Rough- 
wood, and Lawton. 

Drayton was not unmindful of the peculiar connec- 
tion of the Weever with the fountains springing from 
the hidden beds of salt, and accordingly, in allusion to 
the supposed virtues of his stream, he assigns in his 
Polyolbion to this Cheshire river-god the powers of me- 
dicine and prophecy". 

Springs have also been worked at Dunham Massey, 
near the course of the Bollin, and in Broxton Hundred 
at Dirtwich and Aldersey, on a brook which falls into 
the Dee ; and Leland mentions works on the Dee 
itself below Shotwick. At Dirtwich or Foulvi'ich, salt 
is still prepared ; a brine-spring at Aldersey is strong 
enough to encrust the banks, but is not worked on ac- 
count of the distance from coal. The spring at Shot- 
wick is entirely unknown, and possibly the salt was 
prepared by evaporation from the waters of the estuary. 

The rock-salt itself was accidentally found in 167O in 
sinking a coal-pit at Marbury near Northwich, and it 
was again found in 1779 in Church Lawton. It has 
also been found at Whitley on the right bank of the 
Weever, about five miles north of Northwich, but the 
principal mines are at and near Witton, between North- 
wich and Marbury. The pits are excavated by blasting, 
and are sometimes worked into aisles, and in other cases 
left supported by massy pillars, which, when illuminated 
for the inspection of visitors, present a brilliant and 
magnificent spectacle. After the pits are closed and 
exhausted, the pillars are sometimes melted by the ad- 
mission of water, and then those subsidences ensue 
which have been mentioned in the account of North- 
wich. 

The prepared salt is carried down the Weever to 
Liverpool in single-masted vessels called flats, which 
return laden with coal for the use of the works. The 
details of the manufacture, and of its results to the 
county' as a principal branch of commerce, would lead 
far from the scope of the work ; and the author must 
refer those readers who are interested in the subject to 



^ It is stated in the Agricultural Survey of Chesliire, p. 21, that there were works at Weverham at the Conquest, but there is no authority for 
this in Domesday, which only says that there were vii salt-works in TViche appendant to this manor. 

>" In Nantwich the king and the earl Edwin divided the profits of eight salt-works into three parts, of which the king had two. The earl had 
also another salt-work, free all the year, for the use of his manor-house of Acton, but if any surplus salt was sold it was regulated like the other. 
From other entries, under Frodsham and Weverham, it appears that there were similar reserves in favour of those manor-houses also. 

Many inhabitants of the county had also works free for the use of their own houses, from Ascension day to Martlemas, but paid toll on sale 
either at the wich or elsewhere, in the proportions abovementioned to the king and the earl, and also on moving salt, either of their own or such 
as was purchased after Martlemas. 

The survey then notices some peculiarities in the boiling days, in the defence of the works by the Weever and a fosse, and the penalties on the 
evasion of toll, and mentions a former limitation of the punishment of all offences within the salt-works to lis. fine, or XXX boilings of salt, excepting 
homicide or robbery, for which the offender was punishable with death, as elsewhere in the county. 

In the time of the Confessor this wich, with the pleas of the hundred court, was farmed at xxil. per ann. When Hugh Lupus took possession 
it was totally wasted excepting one saltwork, and was afterwards granted out by him to William Malbedeng baron of Nantwich, and produced a rent 
of xl. and the hundred was valued at XL shillings. 

MlDDLEwICH was arranged as to laws and customs in a similar manner (excepting that there were no saliiifE dominiCEB, saltworks appropriated to 
the demesnes of particular raanerial proprietors), and the produce of the wich (vill 1. per ann. farm- rent) and the hundred court (XL shillings) were 
divided in the same proportion between the king and the earl. The regulations of toll in both Nantwich and Middiewich are also specified; they were 
doubled, or more than doubled, when applying to purchasers from other hundreds, and any person overloading his cart so as to break the axle, or his 
horse so as to break the animal's back, within one mile of the pit, paid two shillings fine if overtaken within that distance. 

This assemblage of saltworks had also been wasted, and was retained as parcel of the demesne of the earldom ; the hundred court retained its 
value, but the wich was farmed at xxvs. rent and ii caretedEe of salt. 

The third saltwork, Northu'ICH, was also in Mildesvic hundred, and therein certain thanes had saltworks appropriated to them as in Nantwich, one 
of which follows the description of Claverton in the survey of the lands of Hugh Fitz Osbern in Atiscros hundred. The regulations were the same as 
in the other wiches, and proportioned differently to the inhabitants of Cheshire and of other counties j but the Cheshire people resorting to the wich 
were fined XLs. if the third night passed without their return homewards. From some other particulars it appears that people travelled the county 
with carts and horses laden with salt, hawking it for sale. This wich was also retained in demesne by tbe earl, and was valued at xxxv shillings. In 
the time of Edward the (!lonfessor it had been farmed at viii 1. 

" See extract from Drayton, p, xlviii. 



(ieneral f nttotiuction* 



XLVII 



the early performance of a native writer, which has one moiety of which was supposed to he sufficient for 

been already referred to in the Introduction to this maintaining the navigation. By a further act 34 Geo. 

History". III. the proprietors were made a body corporate, under 

The Courses of the Cheshire Rivers have been the name of the Company of Proprietors of the Mersey 

given in Smith's treatise, reprinted from the Vale and Irwell Navigation. 

Royal. (See p. 104. of this volume.) Many improvements have been made in the naviga- 

Three of these, the Mersey, the Dee, and the M^eever, tion of the river of late years, by cuts across various 

are placed under the direction of respective companies necks of land, and the value of the shares has progres- 

by various Acts of Parliament. The Mersey can sively increased. In 1818 one of the shares was sold 

scarcely be termed a Cheshire river, as its whole course, for £loO. 

from the point near Stockport, where the united Tame, The Dee has somewhat better reasons than the pre- 
Goyt, and Etherow, first assume the name of Mersey, to ceding river for being counted among the Cheshire 
the sea, lies entirely betzoeenxhe counties of Chester and streams, as it flows through the county, and has Che- 
Lancaster p. shire land on each bank for a few of the latter miles of 

In 1720 (7 Geo. I. stat. 1. cap. xv.) an act was pro- its course. This stream, like the Weever, has been ho- 
cured for making the rivers Mer«/ and Irwell, in the noured with much notice by the poets, and is celebrated 
counties palatine of Lancaster and Chester, navigable by Drayton, Browne, Spenser, and Milton, as the hol^', 
from Liverpool to " Hunt's bank in Manchestre," by the divine, and the wizard Dee. A note on this subject 
Oswald Mosley of " Ancotes," and George Kenyon of by Warton, will be found in Milton's Lycidas, v. 25, ed. 
Peele, esquires, and thirty-three gentlemen of Manches- Todd, who observes accurately, that much superstition 
ter, and three of Liverpool, who were invested with the was founded on the circumstance of its being the antient 
usual powers for erecting weirs, and making cuts through boundary between England and Wales i. 
contiguous lands; but were restrained from erecting The navigation of this river was impeded by sands as 
warehouses within a mile of Bank Key at Warrington, early as the reign of Henry VI. and a quay was then 
or from demanding toll between Liverpool and Bank formed in the neighbourhood of Shotwick castle, about 
Key, the river being already navigable to that point, six miles below Chester, from which place troops were 
In June 1779, the original proprietors transferred their usually embarked for Ireland. In the reign of Eliza- 
shares (500 in number) to a new set of purchasers for beth a new haven or quay was built lower down, and 
cfSOOO. by which new purchasers an advance of ^£20. was the origin of the town of Parkgate"'; but by the 
per share was covenanted to be paid, to raise i!" 10,000. measures mentioned by Pennant in the preceding note, 

" General View of the Agriculture of Cheshire, with observations drawn up for the consideration of the Board of Agriculture and Internal improve- 
ment, by Henry Holland, Member of the Royal Medical Sociely of Edinburgh, 8vo. 1808. 

P Sir Peter Leycester conjectures with great probability that the Mersey derives its name from its being the northern -march or boundary of 
Mercia ; it only assumes the name above Stockport where it begins to be the boundary, and it gives the name to the Irwell when their streams con- 
Join and continue a limitary course ; otherwise the Lancashire river ought to have preserved its name to the sea, as being the slream to whose course 
the other accommodates itself, and. though the Mersey may possibly bring down a greater body of water, its appearance is in every point inferior 
to that of Irwell, which seems to the eje as noble a river near Manchester, as the conjoined streams appear for a few miles alter their junction. 

Some interesting circumstances relative to the antient course of this river near the sea, are noticed in the introduction to Wirral hundred, vol. II. 
p. 183, and in this vol. p. xlv. Drayton well describes Wirral trembling at the approach of the Mersey, where it makes its last violent bend to the 
north ; in another part, where he mentions the junction of \\'eever and its tributary streams with *' the mighty waste of Mersey," he proceeds ; 

** Where when the rivers meet with all their stately train, 
Proud Mersey is so great in entering of the main, 
As he would make a show for empery to stand, 

And wrest the three-forkt mace from out grim Neptune's hand." — Polyolb. Song xi. 
•3 Milton (Warton continues) ai)pears to have taken a particular pleasure in mentioning this venerable river. In the beginning of his first elegy 
he almost goes out of his way to specify his Iriend's residence on the bank of the Dee, which he describes with the picturesque and real circumstance 
of its tumhling headlong over rocks and precipices into the Irish sea ! 
The lines alluded to are in the epistle to Diodati : 

Pertulit, occidui Devae Cestrensis ah ora 
Vergivium prontt qua petit amne salum. 
Nothing beyond a rapid current appears intended by Milton, and the rocks and precipices never existed except in Mr. Warion's ima<ririation. He 
is singularly unfortunate in Cheshire descriptions either in verse or prose, and in one elegy on the subject of Vale Royal, places it " on the Irroad 
mountain's brow." 

' " A quay, called the new quay, was erected near this ]tlace in the beginning of the last century, for the conveniency of loading and unloading 
the vessels trading with Chester, and the goods were carried to and from the city by land. The misfortunes of the port of Chester at length gave 
rise to the prosperity of Liverpool, about this time a very inconsiderable place. It now began to discover its own advantages of situation, and quickly 
emerged from its des])icable state to its present flourishing condition." 

" In 1674 some friend to the former prevailed on Mr. Andrew Yarranton, a gentleman extremely conversant irt the commercial advantages of this 
island, to make a survey of the river Dee and its estuary. He drew a plan, furmed the project of a new channel, a scheme for recovering from 
the sea a large tract of land, and restoring the antient navigation even to the preseifct quays, and this he got to he presented to the duke of York, the 
patron at that time of all useful undertakings. He also suggested the idea of a canal from the collieries at Aston near Hawarden, which was to drop 
into this new channel, and facilitate the carriage of coal up to the city *. Future times had the advantage of his inventive genius. Both plans were 
brought into execution without any great deviation from Mr. Yarranton's project. His new cut was to end opposite to Flint, the present opens oppo- 
site to Wepra on this side of Flint. Sir John Glynne's little canal apj>ruaches the Dee about two miles below the city ; Mr. Yarranton's coal canal 
was to fall into the Dee near to Flint. 

" An act of parliament was obtained for the recovering and preserving the navigation of the river, for settling the duties on ships, and for the 
establishing two ferries for the conveniency of travellers into the county of Flint. Other acts were passed in the years 1732, 1740, 1743, 1763, and 
the works were begun with vigour. The project was carried on by subscription, and the adventurers were to be rewarded by the lands they were 
empowered to gain on both sides, " from the white sands or the sea from Chester, and between the county of Cheshire on the north side, and the 
county of Flint on the south side; being sands, soil, and ground not bearing grass." Party contests at first filled the subscriptions ; zeal for the 
bouse of Hanover was at that time mixed in this city (Chester) with zeal for its commercial interest; but in a little time it was discovered to be the 
madness of many but the gain of few. The expenses proved enormous, multitudes were obliged to sell out at above ninety per cent, loss, and their 
shares being bought by persons of more wealth and foresight, at length the plan was brought to a considerable degree of utility, and a fine canal 
formed, guarded by vast banks, in which the river is confined for the space of ten miles, along which ships of three hundred and fifty tons burthen 
may safely be brought up to the quays. Much land has been gained from the sea, and good farms now appear in places not long since possessed by 
the unruly element." Pennant's Tour in Wales, I. 199. 410 edit. 1784. 



* Mr. Andrew Yarranton's England's Improvements by Sea .and Land, &c. 4to, Loud. 1677. His plan for that of the Dee is ,al p. 19?. 



XLVIII 



Ci)e #i£itot^ o! €i)ts^ixu 



the navigation of the river up to Chester was restored in 
1754 by anew artificial channel. The embankments 
of the sands have been completed nearly as low down 
as Shotwick, and upwards of two thousand four hundred 
acres have been rescued from the sea. 

Weever is the last of the navigable rivers of Che- 
shire. It is unnecessary to add any thing to what has 
been said of its course in the reprint of Smith, and in 
the introductions to the hundreds through which it flows, 
but the subjoined quaint extract from Drayton relating 
to itj will be read with interest'. 

The first act for rendering the Weever navigable from 
Frodsham bridge to Winsford passed in 1720, and in 
this the principal nobility and gentry of Cheshire were 
made commissioners for settling differences between the 
first undertakers and the proprietors of lands that were 
to be used for effecting the said navigation. These ori- 
ginal undertakers, who subscribed in the whole ofQOOO, 
were to have £5 per cent, interest, and £l per cent, for 
risque, with power of borrowing more, and a reasonable 
allowance for their trouble; and it was further enacted 
that after the work should be finished, and all charges 
paid off, the clear produce of the rates and duties ac- 
cruing from the navigation, should " from time to time 
be employed for and towards amending and repairing 
the public bridges within the said county of Chester, 
and such other public charges upon the said county, 
and in such manner as the justices of the peace, at the 
quarter sessions to be held next week after the feast of 
St. Michael, in and for the said county of Chester, shall 
yearly order." 

Another act was passed to amend the same in 1739, 
and a third passed in 1807 to amend the two preceding 
ones, and to authorize the trustees to open a more conve- 
nient communication between the river near Frodsham 
Bridge, and the river Mersey near Weston Point. 

The communication is now completed, and various 
other cuts and improvements have from time to time 
been made in the higher part of the river, from the 
receipts of the trust, which amounts in gross average 
income to about <£ 16,000. per annum. The residue is 
laid out under the direction of the magistrates in aid of 
the county rate, and a large proportion of the ex- 
pences of the new Castle of Chester, and the Knutsford 
Gaol and Sessions House have been defrayed by it'. 

An act for rendering the Weever navigable from 
Winsford to Nantwich has been obtained by the Nant- 
wich and Chester Canal Company, but has not yet been 
acted upon. 

Next after the Navigable Rivers may be mentioned the 
artificial Canals, the lines of which will be more clearly 
understood by reference to the Map than by verbal de- 
scription. The greatest of these is the Duke of Bridge- 



water's Canal, executed at his sole expence, under the 
direction of Mr. James Brindley, between 176] and 
1776. At one extremity it communicates by two 
branches with the late duke's collieries at Worsley in 
Lancashire, and with the town of Manchester, where 
the Rochdale canal falls into it, and connects it with 
the German Ocean. At the other end it joins with the 
Grand Trunk Canal, at Preston Brook, and a branch 
proceeds from thence to Runcorn on the Mersey, into 
which river it descends by a series of locks. The rest 
of the line of canal is carried on an uninterrupted level 
across the Irwell, Mersey, and the Bollin, and other 
streams and inequalities by aqueducts and embankments. 
The connection of the Grand Trunk, or Trent and 
Mersey Canal, with the preceding one, has been already 
mentioned. This canal was commenced about 1766, 
when the first act passed relating to it. It leaves the 
county near Church Lawton, and affords an inland 
communication by water with the metropolis. 

An act for making the Chester and Nantwich Canal 
passed in 1772. That part of it which proceeds to Nant- 
wich was completed in or about 1778, but a branch, in- 
tended to communicate with the Grand Trunk Canal 
near Middlewich, has never been cut, nor is ever ex- 
pected to be so". 

A part of the intended line of the Ellesmere Canal, 
which was finished about 1806, communicated with 
the last mentioned one in Hurleston, near Nantwich, 
and proceeds to Whitchurch, leaving the county at 
Wirswall : another detached branch of this canal 
cuts oflF Wirral from the rest of the county, pur- 
suing that vale between Wirral and Broxton which ter- 
minates at the two extremities of the Dee and Mer- 
sey, and is supposed to have been formerly filled with 
their waters. It maintains an unvaried level, but falls 
into the two rivers at the several extremities by a chain 
of locks. 

The Peak Forest Canal, which severs the other great 
horn of Cheshire from the rest of the county, enters it 
at Duckenfield, and leaves it at Whaley Bridge. The 
first act relating to it passed in 1794. In the township 
of Marple, this canal is carried over the Goyt by an 
aqueduct, a hundred feet in height, built on three 
arches, sixty feet in span and seventy-eight feet high. 
This is the noblest architectural work of the kind in 
Cheshire, and a distinguished ornament of the romantic 
scenery in the neighbourhood. 

Mineral Spuings have been noticed in the accounts 
of Utkinton, Beeston, and Spurstow, and since those ac- 
counts have been printed, others have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood of the Peckforton Hills. In the 
Magna Britannia, a spring is mentioned in Buglawton, 
containing Sulphur, Epsom Salts, and Calcareous 



• But back awhile, my muse : to Weever let us go, 
Which (with himself comparM) each British flood doth scorn. 
His fountain and his fall, both Chester's rightly born. 
The country in his course, that clean through doth divide, 
Cut into equal shares upon his either side : 
And what the famous flood far more than that enriches, 
The bracky fountains are those two renowned Wyches, 
The Nantwich and the North, whose either briny well. 
For store and sorts of salts made Weever to excell, 
Besides their general use not had by him in vain. 
But in himself thereby doth holiness retain 
Above his fellow-floods : whose healthful virtues taught, 



Hath of the sea-gods oft caus'd Weever to he sought 
For physic in their need, and Thetis oft hath seen, 
When by their wanton sports her Nereids have been 
So sick that Glaucus' self hath failed in their cure, 
Yet Weever by his salts recovery durst assure. 
And Amphitrite oft this wizard river led 
Into her secret walks (the depths profound and dread) 
Of him supposed so wise the hid events to know, 
Of things that were to come as things done long ago. 
In which he bad been prov*d most exquisite to be. 
And hare his fame so far that oft 'twixt him and Dee 
Much strife there hath arose in their prophetic skill. 



« The original undertakers were, *the hon. Laiigham Booth, *sir George Warburton, hart. *John Egerton, esq. Henry Legh, esq. Randle 
Dodd, esq. John Amson, esq. Philip Egerton, D. D. Herjry Mainwaring, esq. Thomas Vernon, esq. *Richard Vernon, gent. Israel Atherton, gent. 
John Williams, esq. Peter Warburton, esq. James Mainwaring, esq. Those marked * subscribed 10(I0(. the others iOl. The annual inspection of 
the river by the trustees, who consist of tlie principal nobility, gentry, and clergy of the county, occupies two days ; on the first they proceed in their 
barge from Winsford to Northwich, and on the next from Northwich to Weston Point, and return to Acton bridge, dining on board. 

u This branch would establish an inland water communication between Chester and London, but the acts procured by the Grand Trunk Canal 
Company throw difficulties in the way of its execution. 



<2leneral fntrotiuttion* 



XL IX 



Earth, and a Chalybeate Spring near Stockport, is men- 
tioned by Dr. Leigh, in a general enumeration of those 
within the subject of his Natural History of Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and Derbyshire. 

With respect to the Natural Produce, it may be 
observed, that Camden characterized the county as 
being " tritici et farris jejuna," and that, until the late 
years of scarcity caused an unusual high price for corn 
(since which period the tenants have grown as much as 
their land and leases will allow), it was considered that the 
Cheshire farmers raised only what was sufficient for their 
own consumption, and paid their rent by cheese. For 
this latter purpose the fine pastures of Cheshire (which 
enjoy an unusual quantity of moisture, attracted by the 
surrounding hills) are peculiarly appropriate, and the 
powers of the subterraneous salt springs are also sup- 
posed to operate favourably on the dairy farms, the cheese 
being most esteemed which is made in their neighbour- 
hood, and particularly in the vicinity of Nantwich and 
Middlewicb. The cheeses are principally contracted 
for by factors in entire dairies, and are sent by the ca- 
nals to Manchester or London, or shipped on the Dee 
and Weever, at Chester or Frodsham Bridge. For the 
details of cheese making, and indeed for all subjects of 
similar import, the reader is referred to Dr. Holland's 
Agricultural Survey of the County. 

Potatoes are probably cultivated in this county to a 
greater extent than in any other English shire (Lanca- 
shire excepted), as the principal food of the lower orders, 
and in all the parts of the county which lie conveni- 
ently for the markets of Warrington, Liverpool, or Man- 
chester, early Potatoes, Cucumbers, Onions, &c. super- 
sede, as far as their nature allows, the ordinary objects 
of field husbandry. 

The AETiFiciAL PRODUCE, exclusive of the manufac- 
tured Salt, is chiefly confined to the manufacture of Cot- 
ton, Silk, Muslin, and Calico, in Macclesfield Hundred 
and at Congleton, and of Cotton at Nantwich. There is 
also a considerable manufacture of Hats at Stockport, 
and of Shoes at Sandbach and Nantwich, and of Gloves 
at the latter place. The trade of Chester has been dis- 
tinctly noticed. Gunpowder is made in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thelwall, and there are various other manu- 
factures, tan yards, &c. scattered over the county, which 
do not require specification. 

A further prosecution of this subject is foreign to 
a work chiefly dedicated to genealogy and antiquities. 
The manufactures here mentioned are a distinct subject 
relating generally to the kingdom and not to a peculiar 
district, and the enquirers, to whom a discussion of such 
topics might be interesting, would be unlikely to look 
for it in the History of Cheshire. 

With respect to the Antient and Modern Civil 
Jurisdiction of the Palatinate, nothing remains 
to be added to the account of the Earls and their 
Barons, given by sir Peter Leycester, the view of the 
original palatinate in the preceding introduction with 
its references, the account of the powers connected with 
the respective oflnces preserved in William Smith's 
tract, and the lists of the successive officers given in the 
General Prolegomena. 

The Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction or the Dio- 
cese, will also be found treated of under its own head, 
with an account of the endowment of the new See, and 
the connection of the former See with Chester, and a 
Catalogue of the Bishops, Archdeacons, Chancellors, 



and Registrars. All the regular and secular Clergy, 
whose names can be recovered, will also be found under 
their respective foundations, from the Abbots of Monas- 
teries, and the Deans of Chester Cathedral and St. John's 
College, down to the Incumbents of endowed Vicarages 
inclusive. 

The representation of the palatinate in the English 
parliament, as more than once mentioned, is of modern 
date, and confined to the four members returned for the 
county and city. There are consequently no boroughs 
in the ordinary sense within its limits, but there were 
nevertheless numerous antient free burghs within the 
palatinate, which bore the same analogy to this little 
sovereignty that the cities of the kingdom bore to the 
empire at large. The privileges of Chester city, the me- 
tropolis, were anterior to the Conquest, as appears by 
Domesday. Macclesfield and Frodsham were free 
burghs by charter of the earl, Altrincham by charter of 
the baron of Dunham, Congleton by that of the baron 
of Halton, Stockport by that of its own baron, and 
Nether Knutsford by that of William de Tabley. All 
these had mayors, with various privileges, as Tarporley 
also had, and Over still has, by prescription. Middle- 
wicb, which was also a free burgh, either by charter or 
prescription, had various peculiar privileges, and was 
antiently governed by a chamberlain and two bailiff's, 
and Nantwich was under the prescriptive government 
of a brotherhood or guild ; Northwich had a bailifi", but 
does not appear to have had other regulations beyond 
those noticed in Domesday, with reference to the salt- 
works ; nor have any occurred relating to the two re- 
maining towns, Neston and Sandbach. 

The Earl had originally Five Forests. One of these 
is noticed in the Domesday Survey of Atiscros Hun- 
dred, and contained within its limits Haordine, Radin- 
tune, Brochetune, Ulfemiltone, Lalhroc, Bachelie, Cole- 
selt, Claitone, Wepre, Merlestone, Brochetone, Claven- 
tone, Edritone, Dodestune, Estane, Castretone, Broche- 
tune, and Sutone. These townships stretched from 
Bretton and Dodleston along the left bank of the Dee 
towards Hawarden. The vills were rated at xx hides, 
and all the woodlands in them were afllbrested by the 
earl, by which the manors were much injured. This 
forest was ten miles long by three broad, and contained 
four aeries of hawks, but is not noticed in any subse- 
quent document. Its position on the Welsh frontiers 
might probably render it an unsafe scene for the sylvan 
sports of the earls of Chester. 

The other forests were Wirral, Mara and Mondrem, 
and Macclesfield. The first was disaff'orested temp. 
Edw.III.; Delamere (the remains of the second and third), 
and Macclesfield forests, were such in the popular sense 
of the word, as late as the time of the great rebellion, 
and then abounded in vert and venison. 

The barons of Nantwich had also a forest called 
CoHUL, on the banks of the Weever, probably near 
Coole Pilot, which was existing at the time of their 
foundation of Combermere'; and the Chace of Ulres- 
wooD within the barony of Dunham, is noticed in the 
account of the adjacent manor of Bollin". 

In most parts of Cheshire the profusion of hedge-row 
timber, and the extensive plantations which adorn the 
principal seats, amply atone for the loss of these forests. 
Among the latter may be particularly mentioned the 
noble oak woods at Dunham Massey, and a similar 
scene will be exhibited in the course of this century by 



^ See vol. III. p. 202, anil charters, p, 215. 



" See vol. III. p. 308, the name Ulreswood or Ullersford is variously corrupted. 



Cl)e History of C|)esj)ire. 



the plantations at Vale Royal, and other seats near De- The castles of the Norman lords oi Aldford, Ptdford, 

lamere Forest, and those made there under the recent and Dodleston, near the Welsh frontier, may also be 

enclosure act on the royal allotment. In many parts of traced by strong earthworks. 

the county, land abandoned to itself would be spontane- The finest specimens of Domestic ArcJiitecture are the 

ously covered with oak and alder. antient peel tower of Brunstath, a single remaining 

Smith, writing in the reign of Elizabeth, mentions tower of Doddington Castle, and the ruins of the abbot 

the " great store of Parks, for every gentleman almost of Chester's Granges at Saighton and Ince. 

hath his own park." The same might yet be said of The Halls of Bramhall and Morcton, as specimens of 

park-like enclosure, but the number of those imparked antient timber building, are unrivalled ; and to these may 

by license, in which the vert, venison, and inclosure have be added, those of Poole and Harden, as fine remains of 

been uninterruptedly maintained, is extremely limited. stone-built mansions; and the Great Hall oi Bagulegh, 

The Roman Antiquities and Camps are noticed as a noble specimen of an apartment which occurs only 

in pp. XXIV and 294. in a mutilated state in other Cheshire mansions. The 

With respect to the Norman Castles of the Earls gradual introduction of Italian architecture, and its early 
and their followers, Chester exists as a modernized gaol, grotesque decorations, may be traced satisfactorily in the 
and Beeston as a venerable ruin. — Shotmck may yet be Halls of Brereton, Lyme, Tablet/, Dorfold, and Crewe. 
traced in its earth-works, but nearly every vestige of The Ecclesiastical Architecture of the county appears 
Frodsham and Macclesfield"" is destroyed. That of the to the greatest advantage in the collegiate church of 
baron oi Halton still exists in ruins, and those of Malpas St. John's, which was the Norman cathedral of the dio- 
barony, Malpas, Shocklach, and Oldcastle may be traced cese of Chester and Lichfield, the present cathedra), 
by works, as those of Dunham, and its dependant fort the and the churches of Nantwich, Bunbury, and Astbury. 
Castle Hill in Ullersjord, may, or lately might have been. Generally speaking, the parish churches are good speci- 
The last vestiges of Shipbrook, Nantzeich, and Stockport mens of the manner of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
Castle have been destroyed within memory. Kinderton turies ; and in a few instances the semicircular arch yet 
yet retains its fosse, and the remains of the mound of a occurs, with the ornaments of the style popularly termed 
round tower, and the sites of two castles of the baron of Saxon, but in most cases more properly Norman \ 
Montalt, Mold and Hazoarden, are also identified, the The Dialect of the lower orders would afl^ord an in- 
first by earthworks, and the latter by considerable ruins. teresting and extensive field for discussion, if the varia- 

"^ The earl's castle situated near the Park lanes, and not the castellated mansion of the Staffords, is here intended. 

^ This will appear hy tracing the origin of the several churches of the county, and identifying the dates of those which yet exhihit remains of the 
circular arches, and the investigation will give also all the information that can be collected on the subject oi ths formation of the Cheshire parishes. 

In Ccstre hundred, a small district adjacent to Chester, no churches are mentioned, nor have any been subsequently founded ; but in the city, 
besides the monastery of St. Mary , and the house of the secular canons of St. JVerburgh, to whose foundation an antient church was attached, which 
formed the basis of the parish of St. Oswald (I. p. 251), mention is made of two churches yet remaining, St. Johti's (I. 252) and St. Peter's (I. 25,9, n.). 
There is also mention of St. Chad's (I. 279), by wliich it is possible the Chester ecclesiastical foundation of that name may be intended. No docu- 
ments have occurred as to the formation of the later city parishes, but the churches have been proved in the several accounts of each to have been in 
existence at the following periods : St. Otave's in 1119, St. Michael's in 1 187, St. Mary on the Hill in 1 153, Triidiy in 1 188, St. Bridget's in 1224, 
and St. Martin's in 1250. 

In Bochelau hundred, Bowdon had a church and a priest, hytnme had a church, divided as at present into moieties, and one priest, and " Lege," 
High Legh had a priest (I. 339) ; the last of these appears to be the same foundation with the present Rostherne. The later churches are Mobherley 
(erected on a part of Aldford fee, temp. Johan.), which belonged to the same Saxon proprietor with a part of *' Lege," and was probably taken out 
of that parish ; Jshton, in the fee of the barons of Dunham Massey (and apparently therefore taken out of their parish of Bowdon), existing temp. 
Edw. I. ; fVarhurton, which originated in the chapel of the Praemonstratensians there, about the time of king John, or a little before ; and Knutsford, 
made a parish church by a modern act of parliament. 

In Tunendune hundred no church is mentioned, but Budivorth had a priest; Runcorn is altogether passed over, but its church was in existence 
in the reign of the Conqueror (I. ■497). There is no document to shew when Gropptnlutll church was built on the fee of the Boydells, or from which 
of these parishes it was severed. It existed temp. Hen. HI. 

In Riseton hundred a priest is mentioned at Bunbury. No notice is taken of an ecclesiastical establishment at Tarporley or Tarvin. The latter 
place appears to have been much injured, and the church was probably destroyed. It is noticed in 122G; and Barrow was antiently a 
chapel of it. 

In Roelau hundred, Frodsham had a church, and H'everham a church and a priest. Ince (for the reasons hereafter mentioned under Stoke) was 
probably considered a chapel of the antient church, which merged in the establishment of the Chester canons. This church was appropriated before 
1223. Delaniere has been made a parish by a recent act of parliament. 

In Dudestan hundred Farndon had a church and two priests, one of whom doubtless related to the moiety of that manor which subsequently 
constituted the vill of Aldford. The possession of earl Edwin may account for the omission of a church at Malpas^ but there can be little doubt of 
its having then existed, and of its having been the mother church of Shocklach, Tilston, and Harthill (the two latter of which were in being temp. 
Edw. I. and Hen. III. and were in the same fee and had the same patron with Malpas), as well as of Otristleton, also in the same fee, and originally 
the same patronage, but granted to Chester abbey as the chapel a{ Christleton by the first baron. 

Westward of Malpas lie Coddington, TVaverton, Tatlenhall, and Handlcy, none of which are noticed in Domesday, but the churches of the three 
first were granted to Chester abbey before 1093, in the confirmation charter of which year the gifts are recited. Handley was given to the same 
abbey temp. Ric. I. Cuilden Sutton and Plemondstall parishes were probably dependant on St. John's church at the Conquest, and had churches 
built by the dean and chapter of that collegiate establishment as population advanced. Plemondstall existed in 1297. 

To the north of these parishes, within the present Edisbury hundred, Thornton le Moors, in Dudestan, had a church and priest ; and Over, from 
which Little Budworth and ff^hitegate were taken out, was probably part of the great Saxon parish of Budworth, which still has some townships in 
Edisbury adjacent to it. It occurs in a charter of Randle II. 

The new churches across the Dee were Eccleston (ante 1299), in the fee of the barons of Kinderton, and Pidford (ante 1304), erected close to the 
works of the Norman castle built there by the Pulfords. 

In Atiscros hundred (as far as the present Cheshire is connected with it) no church is noticed in Domesday, but Dodleston was erected hy the 
Boydells on land contiguous to the remaining earthworks of their Norman fortress, and occurs temp. Ric. I. 

In Wilaveston hundred, /^orfc/iiij-cA (Landchene), Bebingtan, Neston, and Brombrorough (Esth^m), had each severally a priest: and on the 
subdivision of the last vill, we have evidence of the nnv church, founded in that part of the manor which retained the name of the Saxon vill, being 
long called capella de E^tham. The other new churches were as follow : 

Haselwall and Thurstanston, probably severed from Neston, both existing before 1300. 

Burton, inthe bishop's manor of that name, before 1238, and Upton, probably severed from Woodrhurch, being included in the same barony. 

Bidston, Lees Kirk in fVallesiy, and Back/'ord, within the fee of the barons of Dunham ; the last parish appears to have been chiefly formed out 
of lands severed from Upton in St. Mary's parish, with which parish it yet divides the tithes of one vill, and to which it has lost another. A church 
existed here in 1305. Birkenhead, also within this fee, clearly originated in the chapel of that priory, founded about 1150. 



General f ntrotjuctton. 



Ll 



tions were conceived to be purely Cheshire, but this is toms of Cheshire. Drayton has observed of the inha- 

by no means the case. It closely resembles that of the bitants, " that they of all England most to antient cus- 

southern Hundreds of Lancashire, excepting that it is toms cleave;" and if archdeacon Rogers had paid that 

marked towards the centre of Cheshire, by a broader attention to the Customs of the County which he has done 

and heavier drawl, and has certainly fewer of original to those of the City, we should probably have had ample 

words of clear northern etymology than the dialect pro- proof of the truth of the assertion. 

vincially used in the county above mentioned. The same The City Customs have been given under a distinct 

dialect is spoken, with little variation, in the Stafl'ord- head, and in various parts of the work other remarkable 

shire confines, but the tone is much sharper in the neigh- ones may be referred to by the index, such as the Min- 

bourhood of Chester and Wales. On the whole there strelJurisdiction — the ceremonies consequent on opening 

can be little doubt of its proceeding from a common the Salt Pit at Nantwich — the various peculiarities at- 

source with that of the " Terra infra Ripam et Mer- tendant on the execution of Criminals by the earl's 

sam," and its reputed vulgarisms may be as safely as- officers, the abbot of Chester, the barons, and the ser- 

serted to be archaisms. This subject has lately received jeants and foresters — the perambulations of these officers, 

an able illustration from the pen of a native antiquary'', and their perquisites, and the forest tenures, 

in the 19th volume of the Archeeologia, and those who Plays still occasionally are acted in the farm-houses, 

wish to investigate the subject further will do well to re- and the kitchens of the country mansions, by a set of 

fer to the second volume of Mr. Whitaker's Manchester, performers dressed in character, consisting chiefly of 

4to edit, the singular work of Collier, and the intro- cottagers and husbandmen, who are paid with money, 

duction to the third edition of Dr. Whitaker's Whalley, drink, or apples. An entire play was communicated to 

and his Glossary to Piers Plowman. the author, which was taken down verbatim by a resi- 

Last among the heads which require these brief in- dent in the county'' from a performer's recitation in 1817 

troductory notices, may be mentioned the antient Cus- without the variation of a single word, and was in the 

Stoke is proved to have been a dependency of the antient parish cliurch merged in the house of the secular canons at Chester, by an acknowledg- 
ment of the rights of the mother church with respect to burials, &c. by a composition printed in the account of that township ; and Shotwick, which 
belonged to that house, was probably similarly circumstanced. 

Kirltby is omitted in Domesday, but immediately after that survey Robert de Rodelent grants it, with its two churches (the other of which was 
most probably Hilbree), to the abbey of Utica. There is however a possibility that this other might be Wallesey, the remaining church, unless, as is 
very probable, this last-mentioned church was built by the monks of Chester abbey, who enjoyed one half of the rectory. 

In Mildestvic hundred, were 

Davenliarrit which had a church and priest, and probably included If^rmincham, where a church was built by the Mainwarings. 

NewtoUj afterwards removed to the contiguous vill of Middlewich, supplied with a church and priest. 

Sandbach, also having a church and priest, and 

Astbury, which had a priest. We have evidence of Brereton being severed from this, and Church Lawton and Swettenham were also probably 
taken out of it and paid pensions to it. 

In Warmundestrou hundred, Acton had two priests, Barthomley one, and If^yhunbiiry a church and priest. MinshuU and Nantwich have cer- 
tainly been taken out of the first, and Coppenhall out of the last, as have also, most probably, been taken out of the same, fp^stastoHj which owes a 
pension, and Baddeley. There is no clue towards pointing out the origin of Audlem and Marbury, the latter of which, though now considered gene- 
rally a parochial chapel of Whitchurch, is valued as a cliurch in the Taxation of pope Nicholas. 

In Hamestan hundred, Stockport and Prestbury appear to have been heads of great Saxon parishes, but to have been destroyed by the Norman 
invaders. Gawsworth and Taxal were certainly severed from the latter, as was most probably Alderley, where a church was built by the lords of 
Aldford. Oieadle and Wilimlow were erected on lands separated from the demesne of earl Edwin in this hundred, and Mollram Longdendale among 
the wastes and forests on the eastern verge of the county. 

It remains to deduce from the dates which have been thus established, or made as probable as circumstances will permit, whether the existing 
specimens of the style in which the circular arch appears in Cheshire are referable to the Saxon or the Norman period. In other counties much light 
has been thrown on the subject by a similar investigation. The churches of Saxon parishes are generally found to shew no vestiges of it, having 
generally fallen to ruin and been rebuilt in the intermediate centuries, and the later ones of Norman foundation frequently retain such portions of 
it in some parts of their fabrics, that many excellent antiquaries have inclined to a belief that a« specimens of this mode of building existin" in 
England were of the Norman a;ra. 

In Cheshire this style occurs in the remains of St. John's church at Chester, and in parts of the abbey founded on the site of the house of the 
secular canons, and in the churches of Barthomley, Bebington, Bronibrorough, and Frodsham, noticed in Domesday. 

It occurs also in the churches of Shocklach, Stoke, Shotwick, Lawton, and the ruins of the ancient church of Prestbury, all of which are omitted 
in Domesday, and which were probably therefore either destroyed at the time of that survey, or founded subsequent to it : and it is found also in the 
ruins of Birkenhead priory and Norton abbey, which are confessedly of later date, and in the chapel of Bruera. 

This later division must therefore be abandoned (although it is possible that ornamental work from a Saxon building might be worked into such of 
them as were only restored after the Norman conquest), and with them also must be abandoned, from similarity of style, Barthomley and Bebington 
in the earlier division, and certainly the great churches of St. John's and Chester abbey. The first of these is in the lofty ornamented style introduced 
after the Conquest, with stories piled upon stories. Some of the oldest arches of the circular form in the latter, mark the places of interment of the 
Norman abbots, and the rest coincide with the places and dimensions of parts of the conventual buildings which are known to h.tve been rebuilt sub- 
sequent to the Conquest, 

Brombrorough has in parts an air of superior antiquity, as well in style as in proportion, though not sufficiently marked to insist strongly upon ; 
but in Frodsham the cylindrical columns with square capitals, and a rude imitation of the Ionic volute, are widely distinguished from the style of any 
other fabric in Cheshire that can have any pretensions to being the work of a Saxon architect. 

This may therefore be admitted as an exception, but, with this exception, from the survey of the entire ecclesiastical architecture of Cheshire, 
the specimens, when collated with dates, undoubtedly lead to referring the existing specimens of the circular arch to the taste of the Norman 
architects. 

y Roger VVilbraham, esq. F. R. S. and S. A. The whimsical work of Collier on the Lancashire dialect is well known, and would apply equally to that 
of Cheshire, excepting that it is not so rich in peculiar words, as mentioned above. In the last edition of the Hist, of Whalley, p. 36, Dr. Whitaker 
observes that the change in dialect takes place after crossing the Ribble, and consequently north of the Mersey, and argues from this circumstance 
among others that the land between the rivers was included in the territories of Mercia, and that the Ribble and not the Mersey was the boundary of 
that kingdom and Nnrthumbria. See edit. 1818, pp. 36, 37. 

i Mr. John Edwards, of Booth Lane near Sandbach, to whom the author is also indebted for the Souler's song. 

Mr. Douce, to whose inspection this dramatic morsel was submitted, observes, that it " corresponds very closely with one that I copied many 
years ago from a MS. lent me by the late capt. Grose, and which he told me had been then lately acted in Cheshire, somewhere on the borders of 
Wales. This has never been printed, but 1 have a similar ' Mock Play,' as it is called, printed at Newcastle so late as 1788, and entitled 
' Alexander and the king of Egypt.' 

** The latter has many lines in common with the two others, but neither of them can be older than the time of queen Elizabeth, when the story 
of St. George and the king of Egypt's daughter Sabra, originated from the prolific pen of R. Johnson, the author of the Seven Champions of Chris- 



LI I 



%f}z History of C|)e0!)ire» 



first instance set up for printing in the accompanying 
notes, but appeared on revision so extremely barbarous, 
that it seemed desirable to substitute the following 
abstract. 

The Mock Play, entitled " St. George and Slasher," 
commences with a prologue dehvered by the " first and 
second captains," who announce that they are come to 
" act the Champion," and call on St. George to enter, 
who accordingly appears and addresses the audience as 
follows : 

I am Saint George, the noble Champion bold, 

And with my glittering sword I've won three crowns 
of gold. 

It's I who fought the fiery dragon, 

And brought him to the slaughter. 

And by that means I won fair Sabra, 

The king of Egypt's daughter. 

Seven have I won, yet married none. 

But since they've begun the thing 

Call'd Matrimony, in this land 
- Which our king George doth rule. 

With sword in hand. 

And who is he who dare against me stand ? 

I '11 swear I '11 cut him down 

With my victorious brand. 

The challenge is accepted by " bold Slasher," who 
appears to be intended for " the baron of Chester" in 
Johnson's romance undermentioned. St. George replies, 
and the parties sing a duet, shake hands, and fight, and 
Slasher is slain. Hereupon the king (who is made to 
be Slasher's father) enters, and summons to his assist- 
ance sir Guy, " one of the chiefest men in the world's 
wonder," who contents himself with calling a doctor. 
The physician vaunts of his travels and science in a long 
strain of mock heroic, and then pours his medicine into 
Slasher's mouth, who instantly comes to life and pro- 
nounces a short eulogy on his medical skill. Then the 
Fool introduces himself with a speech commencing 
I am not the prince of Beelzebub, 
But upon my shoulder I carry a club, 
And under my arm a dripping-pan, &c. 

He then presents his ladle, and the mock-play closes 
with the usual appeal to the liberality of the audience. 

The " SouLERs" sing also a song on All Souls eve at 
every door in their neighbourhood, whether the play is 
performed or not. Shakspeare in the Two Gentlemen 
of Verona, Act II. Scene I. speaks of " Puling like a 
beggar at Hallowmass," in a note on which Mr. Toi- 
let mentions the custom of poor people going from 
parish to parish souling, or begging and puling for 
Soul-cakes, which is prevalent also in Staifordshire ; 
adding, that it seems a remnant of the Popish supersti- 
tion of praying for departed friends, and that the StaiTord- 
shire Soulers song differs from that mentioned by Peck, 
and is by no means worthy of publication. In Mr. 



Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. I. p. 310, 4to edit, it 
is observed, that Mr. Toilet might as well not have men- 
tioned the custom, as have kept back the song ; and to 
avoid a similar reproof, it is here subjoined, from the 
autograph of a " Souler," but it certainly possesses nei- 
ther beauty or curiosity. 

You gentlemen of England, 1 would have you to draw near 
To these few lines which we have wrote, and you soon shall hear 
Sweet melody of music all on this ev*ning clear, 
For we are come a souling for apples and strong beer. 

Step down into your cellar and see what you can find. 
If your barrels are not empty, 1 hope you will prove kind; 
I hope you will prove kind with your apples and strong beer. 
We'll come no more a souling until another year. 

Cold winter it is coming on, dark, dirty, wet, and cold. 
To try your good-nature this night we do make bold ; 
This night we do make bold with your apples and strong beer. 
We will come no more a souling until another year. 

All the houses that we've been at we have had both meat and drink. 
So now we're dry with travelling 1 hope you'll on us think ; 
I hope you'll on us think with your apples and strong beer, 
For we'll come no more a souling until another year. 

God bless the master of this house and the mistress also. 
And all the little children that round the table go, 
Likewise your men and maidens, your cattle and your store, 
And all that lies within your gates, I wish you ten times more ; 
I wish you ten times more with your apples and strong beer, 
For we'll come no more a souling until another year. 

Old Hob, or the custom of carrying a dead horse's 
head, covered with a sheet, to frighten people, is some- 
times a frolic between All Souls day and Christmas. 

A custom of begging Corn begins three weeks before 
Christmas, and ends on Christmas eve. The farmers in 
the centre of the county are all waited upon by the 
poor, especially those of their own township, and give 
generally about a quart for each member of their family ; 
sometimes meal and flour are given in lieu of corn. In 
the neighbourhood of Chester at the same period, the 
lanes are filled with female beggars, chiefly Welsh, who 
ask for money from house to house, many of whom would 
consider themselves disgraced by begging at another time. 

At Easter the children go round in the same man- 
ner, begging eggs for their Easter dinner, and sing a 
short song addressed to the Farmer's dame, asking an 
egg, bacon, cheese, or an apple, " or any good thing 
that will make us merry," and ending with this burthen 
And I pray you good dame an Easter egg^. 

The May Game is still kept up in some villages, and 
the May Pole, arranged in the manner described in the 
account of \\'everham. On Whit-Monday also, gar- 
lands of flowers are suspended on poles, arid the lads and 
lasses dance round them. 

Among some customs common to this county and 
Lancashire, and most probably to others, is that of lift- 
ing on Easter Monday and Tuesday, — -an antient usage, 
supposed to have a profane allusion to the resurrection. 
On the first day the men go about the streets or country 
and lift the women, or demand a forfeit in money, 
or a kiss, and the women have their revenge the day 



tendom, and many other similar works. This story he imitated from a much older legend of St. George delivering the anonymous daughter of some 
supposed king of Lybia, and the legend itself was coined in all probability by some monk from the fable of Perseus and Andromeda. 

'* It is likelv that this standard drama has undergone many variations and modifications at different times and places. From the mention of king 
George Mr. Ormerod's seems to be the latest of the three before us. 

"The title-page of the Newcastle play states that it was acted " by the mummers every Christmas," and there is no doubt that many similar 
performances, taken from the more popular legends and romances, were performed at that and other seasons of festivity by the country folk, as 
well as at the fairs in booths. 

** I once met with a sturdy hind in Craven, who had been a blacksmith, and on that account had been very properly selected by his comrades to 
" enact" C'olbrand the Dane, 1 regret that 1 was then too young and too incurious to have taken down from his mouth the part at least that he had 
played, but 1 have no doubt that many such people are still to be found, that might highly gratify the curiosity of the lovers of our early drama." 

=1 The superstitions connected with this custom are fully noticed in Brand's Popular Antiquities, and it is mentioned that in the north the egg is 
played with and thrown about by the children, and for that purpose is boiled very hard, stained with colours, and gilt. Mr. Clarke mentions a 
similar custom in Russia at the festival of Easter, a[id on that day the distribution of coloured eggs to the servants who .ittend with the carriages is 
observed at the Greek church in London. 



(General Jwtrcitiucttott. 



LIII 



following. The custom is at present confined to the 
lower orders, but within memory it was the practice in 
many considerable Cheshire mansions for the servants 
of each sex, on the respective days, to place a chair in 
the breakfast room for their master and mistress, who sat 
down for an instant, and after submitting to be elevated 
slightly from the ground, gave money to the domestics. 

In the Magna Britannia a custom is mentioned of the 
young men placing birchen boughs on May-day over 
the doors of their mistresses, and marking the residence 
of a scold by an alder bough. There is an old rhyme 
which mentions peculiar boughs for various tempers, an 
owler (alder) for a scolder, a nut for a slut, &c. but the 
practice is presumed to be disused. 

The same work mentions a custom at Knutsford of 
strewing the streets with brown sand, over which various 
devices are figured with white sand, before the doors of 
the inhabitants, on occasions of weddings and other 
joyful events, for persons in all ranks of life. Another 
account states it to have been the custom to strew over 
the whole the choicest flowers of the season. 

To this may be added as a singular practice at wed- 
dings, a voluntary contribution from all the tenants of 
a family, and the neighbouring farmers, and friends of 
the family, paid to ringers, (near the Staffordshire 
border) according to a custom which it would be thought 
improper to resist. The ringing is in some cases ex- 
tended by this means to more than a week. 

The Lyke Wake is noticed in the customs of Dern- 
hall manor, vol. I. p. 99, in a prohibition of selling the 
goods of the deceased natives for defraying its expences, 
without leave of the bailiff of Vale Royal abbey ; it has 
been long disused, but large numbers of guests are still 
collected at funerals in farm-houses, and treated with a 
rude but profuse hospitality, which generally ends in 



drunkenness. On the Staffordshire border a funeral 
peal is rung as the corpse approaches the church, 
and the body is frequently brought through a particular 
gate of the church yard, which is denominated the 
Lytch Gate. 

The Football, which is the favourite game of the 
lower orders in the north, is little used in Cheshire. In the 
hilly parts of Lancashire, township plays against town- 
ship, with irons fixed in the front of their heavy clogs, 
and the consequences of the kicks and bruises are often 
felt late in life, and are sometimes fatal. In Cheshire 
prison-barrs are sometimes played between rival districts, 
but with less asperity. The football, however, appears to 
have been an antient game in Cheshire, and one instance 
occurs in which it was played with no ordinary barbarity 
— when the subject of the play was the bleeding head of 
a monk of Vale Royal. See vol. II. p. S2. 

The ceremonies of the Maklees are probably peculiar 
to Cheshire. In the Western Hundreds they elect a lord 
of the pit, demand money from the neighbouring land 
owners whom they see passing near the pit, and pro- 
claim their acquisitions daily, and at the end of the 
week ; previous to which proclamation, and subsequent 
to it, they form a ring, joining their hands, and inclin- 
ing their heads to the centre, shouting repeatedly, and 
finishing with a lengthened cadence. The words vary 
between the shouts, but are generally to this effect, 

" Oyez, Oyez, Oyez ! Mr. of has been with 

us to-day, and given my lord and his men part of a 
hundred pounds ;" but if the donation is more than six- 
pence, it is part of a thousand pounds. The same cere- 
mony is repeated at the village ale-house, where they 
spend their acquisitions on Saturday'', and the sound of 
the last prolonged shout, as it dies gradually away, may 
be heard for miles in a still summer's evenine. 



•> This is the custom in the western hundreds ; an account relating to the neighbourhood of Alderley, differing in a few particulars, will be found 
in the Magna Britannia, Chcsh. p. 463. 



LIV 



Cf)e flistorp of Cf)es!f)tre. 



The Annual Wake is the most lively and picturesque, 
and the best known of these village customs. It was 
antiently celebrated on the eve of the patron saint of the 
parish church; but by an act of convocation in 1336 
the dedication feast of every church was ordered to be 
kept on one and the same day every where, viz. on the 
first Sunday in October'. This is universally disre- 
garded ; in many cases the original day is adhered to, 
in others an immemorial custom is followed, but usually 
the wake is shortly after the hay or corn harvest. 

At this period the open space of the village or some 
adjoining green is covered with booths for the sale of 
eatables or wares, and occasionally with raree-shows. All 
kinds of country amusements go forwards, bear and bull 
baits, donkey and smock-races, cudgel play, grinning 
through horse-collars, climbing soaped poles, and pull- 
ing at the soaped neck of a goose on a horse at speed. 
These vary, however, according to the funds, numbers, 
and inclinations of the rustics who resort to the wake, 
and are common both to it and to the fair. The ale- 
houses are filled with dancers, and the farm-houses with 
friends who all partake oi furmetry, a composition of 
new corn, milk, sugar, and spice. 

The great and peculiar feature of the festival is how- 
ever the RusHBEARiNG, which is still in use in many 
parts of the county. This ceremony ^ consists of carry- 



ing to church the rushes intended to be strewed on the 
clay floor under the benches, which are piled neatly up in 
a cart, and a person constantly attends to pare the edges 
with a hay knife, if disordered in progress. The cart 
and the horses are carefully selected from the various 
village teams, and decorated with flowers and rib- 
bands, and on the rushes sit persons holding garlands 
intended to ornament the church for the year ensuing. 
These are composed of hoops slung round a pole con- 
nected by cross strings, which are concealed by artificial 
flowers, cut paper, and tinsel. One is placed in the 
rector's, or principal chancel, and the others in the 
subordinate ones belonging to the several manor-houses 
of the parish, and they are frequently ornamented by the 
young ladies at the respective mansions. The cart thus 
loaded goes round to the neighbouring seats, preceded 
by male and female Morris Dancers, wlio perform a pe- 
culiar dance at each house, and are attended by a man 
in female attire (something between the fool and the 
Maid Maryan), who jingles a bell to the tune, and 
holds a large wooden ladle for money. As night ap- 
proaches, the cart with its attendants returns to the 
town where the church is situated, and there the garlands 
are fixed, whilst a peal is rung on the bells, and the 
concourse of village revellers is attracted to view the 
spectacle. 



« Brand, Popular Aiitiq. I. 425. 



'' Ab in use at hymvaz, 1817. 




r/. 



^^r Mter-J^^^ceJ-te^, J^ai.^ 



?|t6tor? of Cliegl^ire, 



ile^cester'5 prolegomena** 



PART I. CHAP. I. INTRODUCTORY. 




UR island of Great Bret- 

taine was altogether un- 
known both to the an- 
cient Grecians and Ro- 
mans, until the days of 
CaiusJuliusCaesar,(Bede 
de Historia GentisAnglo- 
rum, lib. 1. cap. 2. Learn- 
ed Cambden, in his Bri- 
tannia,printed l607,pag. 
24, 25. Also Sheringham 
de Gentis Anglorum Ori- 
gine, p. 99); for the name of Brettaine is not to be found 
in any author, Greek or Latine, before that time, as 
far forth as I have ever seen or heard of, Diodorus 
Siculus being the first among the Greek authors, and 
Lucretius among the Latines, who made mention 
thereof; and both these lived about the same age with 
Caesar, or a little sooner. 

Wherefore we have no certain history of this island 
but from Coesar downwards. The antient Brettans were 
a barbarous people, and left no writing or history of their 
country to posterity. Gildas, called Sapiens, is the 
first among the Brettans who hath left us any mention 
in writing hereof, and those ver}' short and imperfect. 
Now Gildas writ about the year of Christ 540, and 
what he writ (as he confesseth in his prologue) was by 
relation from beyond sea, more than out of ancient re- 
cords and writings of his own countrey : for those (if 
any such were at all) were either burned by the enemy's 



rage, or carried away by the banished natives ; so that 
in his time there was no such extant. 

IL Now Julius Caesar upon his second expedition 
into Brettaine, Anno ant^ Christum natum 54, or there- 
about, subdued part of Brettain, and many cities sub- 
mitted, and yielded up themselves to the Romans ; 
Caesar de Bello Gallico, lib. 5, in ipso initio. And the 
rule of the Romans in Brettaine ceased upon the decli- 
nation of the Roman empire, after that Alaric, king of 
the Gothes, had taken Rome, which hapned in the 
year of Christ 410, according to our vulgar computa- 
tion. So Helvicus in his chronology ; also Bede de Hist. 
Ang. lib. 1. cap. 11. So that the rule or sovereignty of 
the Romans over Brettaine continued almost 470 years, 
as Bede coniputeth in the same chapter. But Cambden 
in his Britannia, pag. 60, computing to Valentinian the 
Third, saith 476 years. 

in. But now the poor Brettans, upon the Romans 
withdrawing of their forces out of Brettaine, to defend 
themselves, were miserably devoured by the Scots and 
Picts : and therefore they called in, and invited the 
Saxons to aid them ; who came first into Brettaine anno 
Christi 449, saith Bede and Malmesbury. But the Bret- 
tans (to use Gildas's own words) perceiving the Saxons, 
Quasi pro patria pugnaturos, sed earn certius impugna- 
turos, defended themselves as well as they could. But 
the Saxons, after they had expelled the Scots and Picts, 
did also by degrees root out the Brettans also ; and the 
Saxons at last solely possessed themselves of all the South 
part of Brettaine, which we now call England; but disagree- 



» Sir Peter Levcesteb's Historical Antiquities are divided into two books, of which the first treats of Great Britain and Ireland generally, 
the second is entitled asfolltyws : 

"Some Antiquities touching Cheshire, faithfully collected out of authentique Histories, old Deeds, Records, and Evidences. 
By Sir Peter Leycester, Baronet, a Member of the same County. London . printed Anno Domini h.dc.lxxii." 

Sir Peter Leycester divides this portion of his woric into four parts, of which, to use his own words : " The first treateth of the Governors 
and Earls of Mercia, from the time of king Alfred to the time of the Norman Conquest." This part, relating to points not exclusively con- 
nected with Cheshire, and opening a wider field for discussion than the nature of this work admits of, is given unaltered. 

" The second part comprehendeth the history of the Earls of Chester from the Norman Conquest, till that earldom was invested in the Crown 
of England, under King Henry the Third ; with a short catalogue of all such Princes of England as have been created Princes of Wales and Earls of 

Chester, ever since to this day." This part has such matter incorporated with it in the form of notes, as appeared necessary for corrections or 

additions. 

" The third part treateth of the antient Barons to the Earls of Chester, with several catalogues of all the Bishops, Deans, Chamberlains, 

Judges, Sheriffs, and Escheatours of Cheshire, and also of the Recorders of the city of Chester." The lists given in this part are continued 

to the present period. Those of the Bishops, Deans, and Recorders removed to their proper places, and others substituted containing the suc- 
cession in county offices omitted by sir P. L. viz. the Lord Lieutenants, the Representatives in Parliament, the Barons of the Exchequer, and the 
Prothonotaries of the Palatinate. 

" The fourth and last part comprehendeth The Antiquities of Bucklow Hundred in Cheshire." This part, with additions and continu- 
ations, is placed after the History of the County of the City of Chester, in the latter part of the volume. 

fB 



2 



Ci^e flistorp of Ct)esi)ire. 



ing among themselves, and contending for superiority, 
each party would set up themselves (as it commonly 
falls out in such cases), aad so had a Heptarchy, or 
seven distinct kingdoms in England, till at last they 
were all swallowed up into one by that of the West 
Saxons, the poor Brettans being driven into Wales and 
Cornwall. 

IV. Egbert king of the West Saxons, being now sole 
monarch of all England (for so Hoveden calls him, 
pag. 414), and having routed Wilaf king of Mercia, and 
made him tributary (which kingdom of Mercia was the 
largest in compass of all the seven, and the last of the 
six unsubdued), ordained, That this part of Brettaine, 
whereof he had now the soveraignty, should be called 
England ; since which time it hath gained the name of 
England. Verstegan's Saxon Antiquities, p. 123. And 
this edict, saith Trevisa, in his translation of Polychro- 
nicon, was when Egbert was crowned king of all Eng- 
land at Winchester, after the battel of Ellindon. fol. 275. 
Now the battel of Ellindon is placed in anno Christi 
823, by Florentius Wigorniensis and Stowe. 

This Egbert is also said to have new modelled Eng- 
land into shires ; the word share we use at this day for 
a part or division. Huntington, lib. l.Hist. pag. 298. 
Postquam Reges West Sexe cffiteris praevaluerunt, & 
monarchiam obtinuerunt, terras in 35 Provincias divide- 
bant. This might be Ethelwolfe, son of Egbert : yet 
Egbert was the first monarch. Ingulphus saith, Alfred 
(the fourth son of Ethelwolfe) divided England into 
counties, hundreds, and tythings ; pag. 870: But Selden 
supposeth Ingulphus is herein mistaken, otherwise 
Malmesbury would have attributed the division of shires 
unto Alfred, as well as hundreds and tythings, which he 
omitteth altogether; pag. 44. Therefore shires were dis- 
tinguished somewhat sooner, to wit, by Egbert ; hun- 
dreds and tythings by Alfred. This Alfred also ordained 
judges and sheriffs, making two officers for the govern- 
ing of a shire, whereof before was but one officer, called 
vice-dominus. 

This was but a new model by Egbert and Alfred ; for 
without doubt the ancient Brettans had their divisions 
of counties, cities, and towns, as Cook upon Littleton 
well observes, sect. 248. 

V. As to this new division of shires, Huntington in 
the place cited, reckons up 35, where he reckons Corn- 
wall, Northumberland, and Cumberland, to make up 
the account. But Malmesbury De Gestis Regum, lib. 
2, cap. 10, pag. 63, saith, that under king Ethelred, 
anno Domini 1016, there were but 32 shires in Eng- 
land : and the record of the two Dooms-day books hath 
onely 33 shires under William the Conqueror, anno 
Christi 1086, unless we take the East-Ryding, North- 
Ryding, and West-Ryding there mentioned, for shires. 
See Spelman's Glossary on the word Dooms-day ; 
which three do now make up but one shire, called York- 
shire, as it now stands divided. 

Nor do we find in Dooms-day book any mention at 
all of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, 
Durham, or Lancashire ; howbeit part of Lancashire, 
as it now stands distinguished, is put under the title of 
Cesterscire in that book, to wit, all that part between 
the two rivers of Ribbell and Mersey ; and the rest of 
it I conceive was put under Euruic-Scire : so that Lan- 
cashire seems to have got and gained a distinct name 
of a county or shire since the Norman Conquest; but 
of later time it was made a county palatine by the king's 
charter to his son John of Gaunt, dated 28 die Febru- 
arii, 51 Edw. HI. 1376, with all priviledges sicut comes 
Cestria; infra comitatum Cestria; dignoscitur habere : 



confirmed by parliament, 13 Ric. II. 1389. Durham 
also hath not his title in Dooms-day book, but may 
seem there to be comprehended under Euric-Scire, or 
Yorkshire. So likewise Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and Westmorland, are either there omitted, or compre- 
hended under Yorkshire. But soon after these were all 
accounted for distinct counties or shires : which six (as 
they now stand divided) Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, 
were by the Romans, during their rule in Brettaine, 
stiled Brigantes, that is, robbers. In the first age of the 
Saxons rule in Brettaine, these all made up the king- 
dom of Deira, as it was then called ,• which afterwards 
the Saxons called the kingdom of the Northumbrians, 
so called, because they possessed all the north of Eng- 
land, from the river Humber in Yorkshire, to Scot- 
land. So Cambden's Britannia, in the preface to York- 
shire. 

Polychronicon, lib. 1. cap. 49, saith thus : that if Nor- 
thumberland be counted for one shire, which reached 
sometime from the river Humber to the river Twede, 
then are in England but 32 shires, over and above 
Cornwall : but if it be parted into six shires, that is to 
say, Evoric-shire, or Yorkshire, Durham-shire, Northum- 
berland, Carlisle-shire, or Cumberland, Appleby-shire, 
or Westmorland, and Lancashire, then are there 36 
shires besides Cornwall. 

In the Conqueror's time, who described all the pro- 
vinces of England, were found 36 shires, and half a 
shire, 52,080 towns, 45,002 parish churches, 75,000 
knight's fees, whereof houses of religion had 28,015. 
But now are more towns and villages inclosed and in- 
habited then were at that time ; and whereas before it 
was written, that Cornwall was not set in the shires of 
England, it may stand among them well enough ; for it 
is not in Wales, nor in Scotland, but it is in England ; 
and so reckoning Cornwall, be 37 shires in England : 
thus the Monk of Chester in his Polychronicon, who 
writ under Edward the Third. 

But the monk erreth in his account ; for there are 33 
shires named in Dooms-day book, with Cornwall ; and 
if Yorkshire in Dooms-day book have five other shires 
taken out of it, and be added to the rest, then there must 
be in all 38 shires, and not 37, as the monk counteth. 

And if we add Rutlandshire (which was formerly part 
of Northamptonshire, but since Edward Plantagenet, 
son and heir to Edmund of Langley duke of York, was 
made earl of Rutland under king Richard the Second, 
it hath been reckoned for a county) and also Richmond- 
shire, which is part of Yorkshire, being now also put 
into the number of our counties, then we have just 40 
counties in England at this present. 

VI. Wales was newly divided into shires and hun- 
dreds anno Domini 1283, 11 Edw. HI. saith Stow in 
his Annals, in which year Wales was totall}' subdued 
by Edward the First, who then built two strong castles 
there, one at Conway, the other at Caernarvon. 

Cambden saith there were only six shires in Wales in 
the reign of Edward the First constituted ; and the rest 
were ordained by Parliamentary authority under Henry 
the Eighth; in his Britannia, printed l607, pag. 115. 
But the statute of 34 and 35 Hen. VIII. cap. 26, tells 
us, that eight shires were of ancient and long time, to 
wit, the shires of Glamorgan, Caermarthen, Pembroke, 
Cardigan, Fhnt, Caernarvon, Anglesea, and Merioneth; 
but other four were made and appointed by the statute 
of 27 Hen. VIII. cap. 26, besides Monmouthshire, to 
wit, Radnor, Brecknock, Montgomery, and Denbigh ; 
and divers dominions and lordships in the Marches of 



iLeptester'si ^rolej^omena. 



Wales, were then also united and annexed to Shrop- 
shire, Herefordshire, and Gloucestershire ; so that there 
were five shires newly made under Henry the Eighth, 
and eight shires under Edward the First ; but some now 
account Monmouth among the shires of England, as 
Cambden and Speed, and so make 41 counties in Eng- 
land, because in that statute of 27 Hen. VHI. cap. 26, 
it is made subject to the chancery of England, and to 
the king's judges of Westminster, as all other the king's 
subjects be within every shire of the realm of England. 



By the same reason we may now account all the 13 
shires of Wales for counties of England, because by the 
same statute of 27 Hen. VHI. the dominion of Wales is 
from thenceforth incorporated, united, and annexed to 
the realm of England. 

Yet it seems to me more proper, that Monmouth be 
placed among the shires of Wales, in regard it was for- 
merly part of Wales, to preserve the memory thereof; 
and so we have at this day 13 shires in Wales. 



CHAP. H. 



OF THE KINGDOM OF MERCIA. 



I. Foe my better method and clearer passage to the 
Earls of Chester, it will not be amiss briefly to set down 
the kings of Mercia, during the Heptarchy of the Sax- 
ons in England, under which our county of Cheshire is 
comprised. 

This kingdom of Mercia began anno Domini 626, 
under Penda, surnamed the Strong, son of Wibba : 
howbeit Huntington brings it somewhat higher, even to 
begin under Crida, who died anno Domini 596, lib. 2, 
pag. 315. whose descent he also sets down out of the 
ancient Saxons Chronicle to Woden, pag. 31 6, and the 
descent of Woden, Malmesbury reckons up (lib. 2, de 
Gestis Regum, cap. 2, ad initium), out of the English 
Chronicles, to Noah ^ Also Hoved. Annal. pars prior, 
p. 414, brings it up to Adam : which descent, although 
we may conceive it true, as far as it is set down, yet it 
carries great improbabilities along with it, in respect of 
the long tract of time it contains : for Woden is but the 
tenth ancestor from Crida inclusively, and Noah but 
the sixteenth from Woden, according to Malmesbury : 
so all the generations from Noah to Crida are but 26, 
which in all probability cannot contain much above 600 
years ; and so Crida living after Christ 550 years, as 
Huntington clearly expresseth, the generation where 
Noah is placed cannot exceed 100 years before Christ, 
or thereabouts. Now Noah lived above 2000 years be- 
fore Christ, as is evident by the Scripture : and the ge- 
nerations from Noah to Christ are reckoned up 68, 
Luke, cap. 3; and according to Matthew, from Noah to 
Christ are reckoned up 52 generations, which far exceed 
the proportion and number here set down by Malmes- 
bury: besides this, that Bedwegius should be the son of 
Sem (as Hoveden hath it) is much to be suspected ; or 
(as Malmesbury sets it down) that he should be the son 
of Stresaeus, and Stresseus reported to be the son of 
Noah, seem likewise incredible, forasmuch as no such 
son is recorded in the text. Genesis, cap. 10, either to 
Noah or Sem. But to return. 

II. The kingdom of Mercia was otherwise called 
Midle-Engle, or Mediterranea Anglia (Huntington, 
lib. 2, Histor. pag. 317), and was distinguished into the 
Northern and Southern Mercians. The South-Mercians 
were 5000 families, and were severed by the river Trent 
from the North-Mercians, who contained 7000 families: 
and this distinction was in the time of Peda, son of 
Penda. Huntington, lib. 3, pag. 332. 

It was called Mercia, not from the river Mersey, run- 
ning from the corner of Wirral in Cheshire, because 
that river was the utmost limit thereof westward ; but I 

* Also Mattb. Paris de H. 2. and AsBer Menevensis de Alfredo, p. 1. 



rather believe that river took denomination from this 
kingdom, which it bounded on that side, and was called 
Mercia, because it abutted or bordered upon part of all 
or most of the other kingdoms of the Heptarchy ; for 
Marche in the Saxon tongue signifieth a border or 
limit : hence we call the parts of Wales next bordering 
upon England, the Marches of Wales ; and at this day 
we call the utmost border of a piece of land, a land- 
march, now pronounced land-mark, which is as much as 
a mere or boundary. 

III. I shall now briefly run over the kings of Mercia 
since the Saxons first set up their rule here, with the 
years of their several reigns. 

1. Crida died about the year of Christ 596. He be- 
gan his reign anno Domini 586, and reigned ten years. 

2. Wibba, son of Crida. He began his reign anno 
596, and reigned twenty years. 

3. Ceorlus, son of Wibba. He began his reign anno 
616, and reigned ten years. 

4. Penda, sirnamed the Strong, son of Wibba, slew 
Edwin and Oswald, kings of Northumberland, in several 
battles. Oswald was slain the fifth day of August, anno 
Domini 642''. Oswald was a holy man, and many 
churches and chappels were consecrated and founded in 
honour of him. This Penda was slain by Oswy, bro- 
ther of Oswald, in the year 656, in battel. He began 
his reign anno 626, and reigned thirty years. 

5. Peda, or Weda, son of Penda, married Alflede, 
daughter of Oswy king of Northumberland, and was the 
first king of Mercia that received the Christian faith. 
He received half of Mercia by the gift of Oswy his fa- 
ther-in-law, to-wit, South-Mercia. This Oswy founded 
Lichfield church, and made Dwina a Scotchman bishop 
thereof, anno Domini 656. He was the first bishop of 
Mercia; Stow, page 67. This Peda began his reign 
anno 656, and reigned three years. 

6. Wulfere, son of Penda, after the death of his bro- 
ther Peda, succeeded king of Mercia : for the nobility 
of Mercia, Jumin, Eaba, and Eadbert, did rebell against 
Oswy, and set up AVulfere, who married Ermenhild, 
daughter of Erconbert king of Kent, and had issue by 
her Kenred a son, and Werburge a daughter, that holy 
virgin, who died at Chester, and there buried. Will, de 
Malmesbury, lib. 1. de Gestis Regum, caj). 4. This Wul- 
fere was the first of the English kings who committed 
simony, and sold the bishopric of London to one Wina. 
He killed two of his own sons, Ulfade and Rufin, because 
they went to be instructed in the Christian faith by St. 
Chad bishop of Lichfield, whose bodies Ermenhild the 

'' Bede de Hist. Angl. lib. 3, cap. 9. 



%f}t gistor^ of Cibtst)ire» 



queen buried in a sepulchre of stone, where after she 
founded a priory, called the Priory of Stones, in Staf- 
fordshire ; Stow, pag. 69. He began his reign anno 659, 
and reigned seventeen years. 

7. Ethelred, brother to Wulfere, erected a bishoprick 
at Worcester. He began his reign anno 675, and reigned 
twenty-nine years. 

8. Kenred, son of Wulfere, in the fifth year of his 
reign went to Rome, and became a monk in St. Peter's 
church in Rome, where he continued all his life. He 
began his reign anno 704, and reigned five years. 

9. Ceolred, son of Ethelred, fought stoutly against 
Ina, king of the West-Saxons. Ceolred was buried at 
Lichfield. He began his reign anno 708, and reigned 
eight years. 

10. Ethelbald the Proud, whom Malmesbury stiles 
Pronepos Pendffi ex Alwio fratre, reigned peaceably one 
and forty years. This Ethelbald, and almost all the 
nobiUty of Mercia, were much addicted to adultery, re- 
jecting their wives, as appears by the letter of Boniface, 
archbishop of iMentz and German legate, to Ethelbald, 
about anno 747. He founded the abbey of Crowland, 
and was slain by his own subjects, by the procurement 
of Berared, at the battel of Segiswold, within three 
miles of Tamworth, as he was fighting against Cuthred 
king of the West-Saxons, anno 757 ; Stow. And his 
body was interred at Ripedon, or Ripon. He was son 
of Alwy, son of Eoppa, son of Wibba ; Matth. Westm. 
pag. 264. He began his reign anno 7l6, and reigned 
one and forty years. 

11. Berared, an usurper, was slain by Ofta, and had 
an end meet for a traytor. He began his reign anno 
757, and reigned one year. 

12. Offa was cosin to Ethelbald, scilicet son of Ding- 
ferth, son of Eanulf, son of Osmod, son of Eoppa, son of 
Wibba; Florentius Wigorniensis, pag. 274. He over- 
came in battel Kinulf king of the West-Saxons. He built 
the famous monastery of black monks at St. Albans, anno 
793, in the three and thirtieth year of his reign, and en- 
dowed it with lands, witnessed by himself, Egfrid his son, 
nine kings, fifteen bishops, ten dukes, &c. He translated 
the archbishop's see from Canterbury to Lichfield, and 
founded the abbey of Bathe. He made a great dike or 
ditch between Wales and the kingdom of Mercia, which 
is called Offa's Dike, and whereof part is yet to be seen ; 
Stow, pag. 71. He gave to the pope a yearly rent out 
of every house in his kingdom, stiled the Charter of 
Peter Pence; Polychron. lib. 5, cap. 25. His wife's 
name was Quendrida ; whose daughter she was, I find 
not : by whom he had issue, Egfrid, a son ; Ethelburge, 
a daughter, married Brictric king of the West-Saxons 
anno 787, whom Florentius calleth Eadburge, pag. 
280. Elfled, another daughter, was second wife to 
Ethelred, king of Northumberland ; Speed's Hist. pag. 
362: and Elfrid, another daughter, betook herself to the 
monastery of Croyland. He died at Ofley, saith Stovi' 
(quaere ? if not mistaken for Ocley), the twenty-ninth 
day of July, and was buried at a chappel without the 
town of Bedford. He began his reign anno 758, and 
reigned 39 years. 

13. Egfrid, son of Offa, died young. He reigned but 
141 days, saith Florentius, pag. 281, and was buried at 
St. Albans. He began to reign anno 796. 

14. Kenulfe, an heroic and noble prince, succeeded 
king of Mercia. He was son of Cuthbert, and Trinepos 
Wibbae, that is, the sixth in descent from Wibba, 



saith Matthew of Westminster, pag. 291. He took Ead- 
bert (or Egbert as others call him) sirnamed Pren, king 
of Kent, whom he carried away prisoner triumphantly, 
anno 798 ; and not long after, when he had built Win- 
chelcombe church, on the day of the dedication thereof, 
he set his prisoner free at the altar of that church, and 
made Cuthred king of Kent in his stead ; so Westmin- 
ster and others. He also founded the church of St. 
Ethelbert in Hereford, the bishop's see; and by Elfride 
his wife had issue Kenelm a son, and two daughters, 
Quendrede and Burgenhild. He died anno Christi 8 19, 
saith Florentius; anno 821, saith Westminster, and bu- 
ried at Winchelcome abbey. He began his reign anno 
796, and reigned twenty-four years. 

15. Kenelm, son of Kenulfe, a boy of seven years old, 
was murthered within few months after his father's 
death, by one Ascebert his governor, who taking him 
into a wood, cut off his head, and buried him under a 
thorn tree. This was done by the procurement of Quen- 
drede his sister; whereby Kenelm obtained the name of 
a martyr. His body being found, was buried at Win- 
chelcombe. He began to reign anno 819. 

16. Ceolwulfe, brother of Kenulfe, succeeded king. 
He was deposed by Bernulfe, and driven out of the king- 
dom, and had a daughter called Cenedrith ; Spelman's 
Councels, pag. 333. He began to reign anno 820, 
and reigned one year. 

17. Beornulfe, elected king anno 821, who in the 
third year of his reign was overcome in battel at Ellan- 
don, by Egbert king of the West-Saxons, anno 823, 
but as Westminster puts it, anno 825, and was slain in 
battel against the East-Angles, anno 824. He began 
his reign anno 821, and reigned three years. 

18. Ludecan, cousin to Bernulfe, waging war with the 
East- Angles, in revenge of Bernulfe, was himself killed, 
with five captains of his army, 826. He began to reign 
anno 824, and reigned two years. 

19. Wilafe, or Wiglafe, succeeded king ; but was 
subdued by Egbert king of the West-Saxons, anno 827, 
under whom he enjoyed his kingdom, paying tribute. 
Wimund, son of Wilafe, married Elflede, daughter of 
Ceolwulfe king of Mercia, and had a son called Wils- 
tan (Ingulphus, pag. 858) slain by Berfert. This Wi- 
lafe began his reign anno 826, and reigned thirteen years. 

20. Berthulfe, brother to Wilafe, was also tributary to 
the king of the West-Saxons, till at last he was chased 
beyond the seas, by the sea-rovers of Denmark. He 
had a son called Berfert, who killed his cousin Wilstan, 
June 1, Vigilia Pentecostes, anno 850 ; Florentius, pag. 
295. He began his reign anno 839, and reigned thir- 
teen years. 

21. Burdred, or Burhred, paying tribute, enjoyed it 
twenty years, and then being driven out of his countrey, 
fled to Rome. The Danes deliver his kingdom to Ceol- 
wulfe, sometime servant to Burhred, on condition that 
he should resign it whensoever the Danes should de- 
mand it, anno 874, but not long after king Alfred got 
it. This Burdred began his reign anno 852, and reigned 
twenty j'ears. 

So that king Alfred prevailing over the Danes, united 
the kingdom of Mercia unto that of the West-Saxons, 
inseparably from this time, and was absolute monarch 
of all England ; and so the kingdom of Mercia failed 
anno Domini 875, which, if we reckon from king Penda, 
had stood about 250 years ; but if we reckon from Crida, 
about 290 years. 



^Leicester's ^^t^olegomena* 



CHAP. IK. 

OF THE GOVERNORS OF MERCIA, SUBSTITUTED BY 
KING ALFRED AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 



To pass by those former earls of Chester, namely Edol, 
or Edolfe, who lived in the time of king Vortiger the 
Briton, about the year of Christ 471, stiled earl of Caer- 
legion, or Chester, by Fabian in his Chronicle, Part 5, 
cap. 89, — and also Cursale, or, as by some he is written, 
Sursalem earl of Chester, in the time of king Arthur, 
anno Domini 61 6, as Geffrey Monmouth affirms, one 
of Arthur's knights of the Round Table ; — I shall now 
speak of those earls, who are more certainly recorded in 
our histories of credit, but not yet earls of particular 
places. 

I find in Florentius, sub anno Domini 800, that Ethel- 
mundus dux Merciorum, coming out of Mercia, and 
passing Kimeresford with an army, was met with by 
Weolhstan dux Wiltoniensium, and had a cruel battel, 
amboque duces " occisi ; but the victory fell to the Wilt- 
shiremen : by which words, I conceive, the author 
means no more than a general, expressed by the word 
Dux. The two generals of the armies met and fought, 
and were both slain. 

I. I now proceed to the chief governors of Mercia 
from the time of king Alfred. The first I meet with 
(who under Alfred governed Mercia) is stiled Ethered, 
or Ethelred, who married Elflede, daughter to king Alfred. 
His title I find variously delivered : by Higden, the monk 
of Chester, he is stiled Ethelredus dux et subregulus Mer- 
ciorum : so likewise by Matthew of Westminster ; also 
by Hoveden and Huntington, sometimes dux, sometimes 
subregulus, sometimes dominus Merciorum. Malmes- 
bury, De Gestis Regum, lib. 2, cap. 4, calls him Comes 
Merciorum. The most usual title in all those ancient 
authors is dux ; which in those times seems to be all 
one with an earl, or comes. By all it is apparent, that 
he was then the chief governor of Mercia under the 
king ; and he lived in the reigns of king Alfred and Ed- 
ward the Elder. I desire I may have liberty to render 
these titles by the name of earl. 

The acts of Earl Ethelred, and of Elflede his Countess. 

Anno Ch. 90S. Ethelred and his countess restored Caer- 
leon, that is, Legecesfia, now called Chester, after it was 
destroyed by the Danes, and enclosed it with new walls, 
and made it nigh such two as it was before; so that the 
Castle that was sometime by the water without the walls, 
is now in the town within the walls. So Trevisa in his 
translation of Polychronicon- lib. 6, cap. 4, whereunto 
agreeth Florentius and Matthew of Westminster. But 
Hoveden placeth it in anno 905. Which town of Ches- 
ter remained in possession of the Britons or Welshmen, 
till it was taken by Egbert, the Saxon monarch of Eng- 
land, about the year 824; Trevisa, lib. 5, cap. 28. 

910. Also he and his countess translated the bones of 
St. Oswald, king and martyr, from Bardeny to Glocester, 
where they built an abbey in honour of St. Peter. Poly- 
chronicon. 

911. The Danes breaking their truce with king Ed- 
ward and this Ethelred, wasted Mercia, and were beaten 
by the English at Totenhale, in Staffordshire ; and 
afterwards at Wodenesfield, within a mile of Wolver- 



hampton, in Staffordshire, was a great battel fought on 
the fifth day of August in the same year, wherein the 
Danes were routed, and three of their kings slain, Healf- 
dene, Eywysle^, and Igwar. Stow, Ethelwerd in Chronico 
suo, lib. 4, cap. 4, and Trevisa, fol. 287. 

912. Ethelred eximiae vir probitatis, dux &. patricius, 
dominus & subregulus Merciorum, decessit anno 912; 
so Florentius ; whose death is placed by Hoveden sub 
anno 908. He had onely one daughter, called Elfwine 
or Algiva ; at whose birth Elflede her mother was so 
much astonished with the pain, that ever after she re- 
frained the embraces of her husband for almost 40 years, 
saith Matt. Westminster, pag. 339, protesting often, 
that it was not fit for a king's daughter to be given to 
a pleasure that brought so much pain along with it ; 
and thereupon grew an heroic virago, like the ancient 
Amazons, as if she had changed her sex as well as her 
mind; Ingulphus, pag. 871 ; Malmesbury, pag. 46. 

913. This lady Elflede is variously written by our an- 
cient historians, as Edelfled, Ethelfled, Egelfled, and 
Elflede ; and from the time of her husband's death she 
governed all Mercia excellently, except London and Ox- 
ford, which king Edward her brother retained to himself. 

She built a fort at Sceargete, and another at Bridge 
upon Severn, which I conceive is now called Bridge- 
north. 

914. She repaired Tamworth nigh Lichfield, and built 
a fort at Stafford. 

915. She built the town of Eadsbury in the forrest of 
Cheshire, whereof now nothing remains but that we 
now call the Chamber of the Forrest : and the same 
year she built Warwick. 

916. She built also Ciricbyrig, now called Monkes- 
Kirkby in Warwickshire, saith Dugdale in his War- 
wickshire, pag. 50, a. And another called Weadbirig ; 
and a third called Runcovan, but now called Runcorne, 
in Cheshire. This was long since demolished. Poly- 
chronicon ; Florentius. 

917. She took Brecannemere, or Brecknock, and car- 
ried away the queen of Wales, and 33 of her men, pri- 
soners into Mercia. 

9 18. She took the town of Darby from the Danes, and 
the whole province thereof. In storming of which town 
she lost four of her chiefest officers, ante calendas Au- 
gusti. 

919. Elfled died at Tamworth the twelfth day of .June, 
anno 919, and was buried in St. Peter's church at Glo- 
cester ; Florentius, Westminster, Polychronicon, and 
Huntington ; but Hoveden placeth her death sub anno 
915; and so Ethelwerd, lib. 4, cap. 4. So much do 
writers vary for the time. 

In the same year wherein she died, king Edward built 
a fort or town at Thelwall in Cheshire, and garrisoned 
it; and also made another garrison at Manchester, 
which was then in the outmost border of the kingdom 
of Northumberland this way ; and took Mercia from his 
neece Elfwin into his own hands ; Florentius ; Poly- 
chronicon. 



* Trevisa, the Translator of Polychronicon, calls them Dukes, fol. 276. 

tc 



Cf)e ?|istor? of C|)e0f)ire» 



I cannot here pass by Henry Huntington's contra- 
diction of himself, lib. quinto Histor. pag. 353, where he 
tells us, that Edred dux Merciae died anno 8 Edwardi 
regis Angliaj, which falls anno Christi 908. And in the 
same page a little after he says, that Ethered dux Mer- 
cise, father of Edelfled, died in the eighteenth year of 
king Edward's reign ; which must needs be a mistake, 
unless there were two Ethereds governors of Mercia suc- 
cessively, and two Elfledes, mother and daughter; of 
which I find no mention in other authors. 

The countess Elflede was a prudent woman, and of a 
manly spirit. She much assisted king Edward her bro- 
ther, as well by councel as by her actions. She was be- 
loved of her friends, and feared by her enemies. Of 
whom Huntington hath these verses, lib. 5. Hist. p. 354. 
O Elfleda potens, O terror virgo virorum, 

Victrix nature, nomine digna viri ! 
Tu quo splendidior fieres, natura puellam, 

Te probitas fecit nomen habere viri : 
Te mutare decet sed solum nomina sexus : 

Tu regina potens, rexque tropbaa parans. 
Jam nee Caesarei tantum meruere triumph! : 
Csesare splendidior Virgo, Virago, Vale. 

II. Alfere is the next governor of Mercia : he is also 
stiled Dux Mercias. He is witness to a charter of king 
Edgar's, made to the Abbey of Croyland, anno 966. In- 
gulphus, pag. 882, and 888. 

Anno 975. He destroyed many abbeys, turning out 
the abbots with their monks, and bringing in clergymen 
with their wives ; Hoveden, pag. 427 ; Florentius, pag. 
361. 

Anno 983. Alfere dux Merciorum, and cosin to king 
Edgar, died ; and Alfric his son succeeded in that 
government ; Florentius, pag. 363. And if we may be- 
lieve Malmesbury, pag. 6l, he was eaten to death with 
lice. 

III. Anno 983. Alfric, son of Alfere, succeeded his 
father, and was dux Merciae by succession, anno 983. 
Huntington calls him consul Alfricus, earl Alfric, lib. 5, 
Hist. pag. 357. For dux and consul in these ages were 
synonima. 

He was banished England, anno 986; Florentius: and 
not long after was received again into favor, contrary to 
the rule of state policy ; for " Quem semel graviter laj- 
seris, non facilfe tibi fidelem credideris :" Never think 
that man will be faithful to you, whom you have before 
greatly injured and distasted. 

Wherefore, anno 992, this Alfric being made chief 
governor of the forces which king Ethelred had collected, 
and preparing a great navy against the Danes, gave 
private intelligence to the enemy ; and the night before 
the navy was to engage, he privily conveyed himself to 
the Danish fleet, and fled away with the enemy. But 
the English ships pursuing, slew many of the Danes, 
and took the ship wherein Alfric was, he himself by flight 
scarcely escaping. Florentius, pag. 365, 366, 

Anno 993. King Ethelred commanded that the eyes 
of Algar, son of Alfric, should be put out ; which was 
effected ; Florentius. Howbeit, Huntington saith, pag. 
358, that Algar's eyes were caused to be pluck'd out by 
one Edwyn; which may stand with the other, as em- 
ployed by the king to see it done. 

Anno 1003. This traytor Alfric feigned himself sick, 
when he should have fought with the Danes. 

Anno 1016. Alfricus dux was slain in battel against 
the Danes, with many other noblemen of England ; Flo- 
rentius, pag. 388. 



IV. 1007. Edric, sirnamed Streon, a most perfidious 
man, was made duke or governor of Mercia by king 
Ethelred, anno 1007, in which year the king of England 
agreed to pay thirty-six thousand pounds tribute-money to 
the Danes, so as they would desist from their rapines ; 
Florentius, p. 373, with whom also agrees Huntington, 
Hoveden, and Polychronicon. Onely Westminster 
saith, he was made duke of Mercia, anno 1003. 

He was the son of Egelricus, of low kindred, and to 
whom nevertheless his eloquent tongue and crafty wit 
procured great riches and honor ; and for envy, fals- 
hood, pride, and cruelly, exceeded all men at that time''. 

He had to his brothers, Brihtric, Alfric, Goda, Agel- 
win, Agelward, and Agelmer, father of Wulnoth, father 
of Godwin earl of the ^^^est Saxons'^. 

He married Edgitha**, daughter of king Ethelred; 
Haveden, pag. 430 ; and had issue AVulfege, and We- 
gete, two sons. 

His unworthy acts Historians record thus. 

Anno 1006. He murtliered duke Alfhelme (whom 
Westminster calls Ethelstane) by a wile, for having in- 
vited him to a banquet at Shrewsbury, about the third 
or fourth day of his entertainment, he took him along 
with him on hunting, and led him into a wood, where 
he had laid in ambush a butcher of .Shrewsbury, called 
Godwin Porthund, whom he had hired to kill Alfhelme. 
This Godwin, spying his opportunity, when all the rest 
of the company were busied in hunting, fell upon 
Alfhelme, and murthered him : And shortly after, king 
Ethelred caused the eyes of Edric's two sons, Wulfeage 
and Wegate, to be put out at Cocham, or Cosham, 
where the king then lived. Florentius, pag. 372. 

Anno 1015. He guilefully got Sigeferth and Morcar, 
sons of Earngrime, into his chamber, where he caused 
them to be killed secretly ; and also endeavored secretly 
to have slain Edmund prince of England : And not long 
after, having gotten forty ships well manned with Danish 
soldiers, he revolted to Canutus king of the Danes. 
Florentius, pag. 382 ; Hoveden, pag. 433. 

Sigeferth and Morcar are stiled earls of Northumber- 
land by Westminster, whose lands the king seised, as 
forfeited by their treason. 

To omit many other of his treacheries, anno 1016, 
Edric most perfidiously caused king Edmund, surnamed 
Ironside, to be murthered : for he caused his son to 
thrust a sharp knife into the king's fundament, as he 
was at the house of oflice exonerating himself: and 
this was done when the king lodged at Oxford, on the 
last day of November; Matt. Westminster, pag. 401. 
But Malmesbury, pag. 72, saith, Edric corrupted two of 
the king's bed-chamber to thrust an iron hook into his 
fundament, as he was exonerating himself; so was the 
common fame, saith he. Howbeit, Florentius and Hove- 
den both tell us, that king Edmund died at London, 
about the feast of St. Andrew the apostle. 

At last this Edric had a just reward for all his vil- 
lanies, for anno 1017, Cnut, the Danish king, caused 
him to be beheaded, after he had told him what he had 
done to king Edmund, and set his head upon the Tower 
of London ; for he said he would make him higher than 
all the noblemen of England. Others say, that for fear 
of tumult, he was privately strangled, and his body 
thrown into Thames ; so Westminster, pag. 402 ; vide 
Ingulphum, pag. 892. 

By Edric's counsel, Cnut banished Edwine, brother to 
Edmund Ironside ; and also Edward and Edmund, sons 
to king Edmund Ironside. 



<> Florentius, pag, 373. 



^ See Hoveden, pag. 450. 



"* Stow calls her Edina, pag 90. b. 



i.ejcesiter'!5 ^prolegomena. 



r 



V. 1018. Leofric is the next governor of Mercia I 
meet with. He is the first that I find stiled earl of Ches- 
ter in express words; Henry Huntington, lib. 6, pag.366. 
Leofricus consul nobilissimus Cestriae. He is also stiled 
earl of Leycester by Ingulphus, pag. 891. Howbeit 
in truth he was now earl of all Mercia, whereof those 
counties were members or branches ; and was one of the 
primest counsellors among all the nobles of England, 
and very gracious with his prince. He lived in the se- 
veral reigns of king Cnut, Harald sirnamed Harefoot, 
Hardy-Cnut, and Edward sirnamed the Confessor. 

But give me leave here, by way of digression, to ex- 
plain the title of Earl, which we give unto them ; for 
hitherto, before this Leofric, they have most usually by 
ancient authors been stiled duces Mercise : but from 
Leofric downwards, they are usually stiled comites 
Merciaj. 

Wherefore it is to be observed, that under the Saxons, 
the subordinate titles of temporal honour were those of 
Ethelinge, Ealdorman, and Thane, or Theigne. The 
Thanes were answerable to our barons : the Ealdormen, 
usually stiled aldermanni in the old Latin translations 
of the Saxon laws, were such as had provinces or coun- 
ties under their government, and signifies as much as 
senior, or senator, in Latin ; expressed sometimes by 
subregulus, regulus, patricius, princeps, dux ; and in 
Saxon, by heretoga ; sometimes by comes, and consul ; 
Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 605. Ethelinge was a title at- 
tributed to those of the blood-royal, sons and brothers 
to the king ; and signifies as much as nobly born : which 
in the times of the Saxons, was in Latin expressed Clyto, 
from the Greek word K?i«Tof, which signifies famous, 
noble, or eminent. 

About king Ethelstan's reign, the word earl was re- 
ceived in England as a synonima to Etheling ; and so 
denoted the sons or brothers of the king, and not an 
earl, as at this day it is used for a special dignity; Selden, 
Tit. Hon. pag. 604. The word carl coming into Eng- 
land with the Danes, in whose language Erlig at this 
day signifies as much as noble, or honourable. And 
after the Danish power encreased in England under king 
Cnut, the name of earl was fixed on those who before 
were by the Saxons called ealdormen ; and the Saxon 
title Ethelinge, no more expressed by the word earl. 
The title of ealdorman continued until about the year 
1020, expressed by these words in Latin, duces, prin- 
cipes, comites, &c. ; Selden, Tit. Hon. pag. 609. But 
from, the Norman Conquest, earl and comes, most 
usually have translated each other : and therefore be- 
cause these governors of Mercia, first stiled duces, were 
also afterwards stiled comites, and consules, 1 give them 
the title of earls. 

Howbeit, in truth, the titles of dux and comes, used 
by the ancient historians of our nation, and also fre- 
quently found in old Latin charters under our Saxon 
kings about 800 years after Christ, did then signifie 
with us no other than chief governors of provinces and 
counties under the king, and promiscuously used in 
that age for the same title. So were also consul, and 
subregulus. 

But though dux and comes were promiscuously used 
by Florentius, Huntington, Hoveden, and other old 
authors ; yet I find in Latin chartes of those ages, many 
stiled duces, and others comites, in the same charters ; 
as we find in Ingulphus : Nay, you may observe in the 
subscriptions of those ages, this order ; first bishops, 
then abbots, then duces, then comites, then minister. 



which in those chartes denotes a thane or lord baron, 
&c. And this, as it were, by a constant course and 
order : so that by duces, somewhat more than by co- 
mites seems to be understood. Comes sine dubio de 
provinciarum comitibus dicitur, qui populum et judi- 
ciaria potestate gubernabant, et armata manu tueban- 
tur, saith Spelman on the word comes, which properly 
and commonly was of old time used for a governor; 
and such provinces as were under the jurisdiction of 
such comes, were called comitatus, or counties. The 
comes had also his vice-comes, or sheriflF, sometimes also 
called vice-dominus, which was substituted under the 
comes, for the rule of his county, in those elder ages. 

Qua aut^m differebat munus ducis et comitis, qua 
territorium, non habeo quod asseram, saith Spelman in 
his Glossary, on the word Dux, pag. 233, a. For the 
opinion (as there he addeth) of those men who conceive 
the title dux to be given fo such as governed many 
shires or counties, and that of comes to be attributed to 
such as governed but one county, is not clearly proved, 
nor allowed of; neither of those who make dux to be 
meant only of such who were chief commanders over 
such provinces in military affairs, and comes onely of 
the chief magistrate in the civil and judiciary govern- 
ment, according to the laws within his county. 

Certain it is, these titles were officiary in those ages, 
and were sometimes feudal, and sometimes conferred at 
the pleasure of the prince; Selden, Tit. Hon. pag. 6I0. 
But the title dux, or duke, became not a peculiar title 
of place and dignity with us in England, as it is now 
used, before U Edw. HL 1337, when the Black Prince 
was created duke of Cornwal. And now to return to 
Leofric. 

Concerning the descent of this earl Leofric, Cambden 
in his Britannia, at the end of Leycestershire, reckons it 
up in this order. Leofric earl of Leycester in the time 
of Ethelbald king of Mercia, anno salutis 716, to whom 
succeeded in a direct line, Algar the First, Algar the 
Second, Leofric the Second, Leofstan or Leofwine, Leo- 
fric the Third (earl of Mercia) of whom I now speak: 
which descent Cambden there professeth to have re- 
ceived from a great antiquary, Thomas Talbot, who had 
collected the same out of the king's records. See this 
descent also in Monasticon, 1 Part, pag. 304, and in 
Burton's Description of Leycestershire, pag. 167. The 
same followed by Dugdale in his Warwickshire, pag. 87. 
So easily doth error spread, being once broached. 

I will now shew where that descent is defective. 

Leucitus, mis writ for Leuricus, or Leofric, comes Leyces- 
triae, anno Domini 7l6, tempore Etlielbaldi regis Merci- 
orum. This appears by the charter of the said Ethelbald 
made to the abbey of Croyland, as you may find it at 
large in the History of Ingulphus, p. 852. But for this 
Leofric's wife, issue, or successor, no history or record 
(which I have hitherto met withal) makes up the wide 
breach of descents to the time of Algar the First above- 
mentioned, containing the revolution of 120 years, or 
thereabouts : so that this Leofric cannot be the father 
of Algar the First there mentioned. 

^Algar the First, stiled Algarus comes Leycestriae 
senior, sub regno Wiglafi regis Merciorum; Ingulphus, 
pag. 860, about the year 836. He was a great bene- 
factor to the abbey of Croyland. 

Algar the Second, stiled Algarus comes Leycestriae 
junior, filius Algari comitis, lived in the time of Beorred 
king of Mercia, anno Domini 86O; Ingulphus, pag. 863. 
He was slain by the Danes in battel at Kesteven in Lin- 



' Vide Ingulpbum, pag. 857. 



8 



C^e #istor^ of C|)es!)ire» 



colnshire, anno Domini 870 ; Ingulphus, pag. 865, 866. 
Nor doth Ingulphus call them earls of Leycester, though 
I suppose them so ; but onely Algarus comes senior and 
junior : of what family he mentions not. 

Here likewise is s^nother great intenuption, from 
anno 870 to anno 1000, when Leofwine lived, contain- 
ing about 120 years more, which the descent above fills 
up very improbably, onely one descent of Leofric the 
Second to fill up 120 years. 

The Descetits from Algar the Second, to Leofwine here, are 
much desired to he filled up and proved by good authority. 

Leofwine earl of Leycester flourished under king 
Ethelred, about the year of Christ 1000. He was the 
son of and married and had 

issue Leofric earl of Mercia, ancf Normannus, one of the 
prime nobles to Edric Streon duels Mercise, which Nor- 
man became protector of Croyland abbey by covenant 
during his life; for which he had the mannor of Bad by 
given him for 100 years, anno 1017 ; Ingulphus, pag. 
891, and 898 ; Hoveden, pag. 437, and 442. Also Ed- 
wine, another son, slain by Griffith king of Wales, anno 
Domini 1039; Monasticon, 1 Pars, pag. 134. And God- 
win, another son; Monasticon, 1 Pars, pag. 130. 

Leofric, son of earl Leofwin, was the fifth earl or go- 
vernor of Mercia : he is sometimes stiled earl of Leyces- 
ter, and sometimes earl of Chester, as I have before 
shewed. He was witness to a charter made by king 
Cnut to the abbey of Croj'land, anno Domini 1032, 
when Cnut also gave to that abbey a golden cup, sub- 
scribed in these words, — ^ Ego Leofricus comes con- 
cessi. >J< Ego Algarus filius Leofrici comitis astiti, &c. 
Ingulphus, pag. 893. Hoveden tells us, pag. 437, that 
in anno Christi 1018, when the tray tor Edric Streon was 
put to death by king Cnut, then also were put to death 
with him dux Normannus filius Leofwini ducis, frater 
scilicet Leofrici comitis, et Ethelwaudus filius Agelmari 
ducis, et Brictricus filius Alfegi Damnoniensis*^ satrapse : 
Leofricum pro Normanno germane suo rex constituit 
ducem, et eum postmodum valde charum habuit. I 
know not what he means here by constituit ducem, un- 
less he means general or governor over all Mercia, or 
else, that he now had the earldom of his brother Nor- 
man added, whom Ingulphus, pag. 912, stiles vice-comes 
Edrici, id est, substitute of Mercia. 

This Leofric is said to have a sister called Ermenhild, 
mother to Hugh Lupus earl of Chester : so the record 
cited in Monasticon, 1 Pars, pag. 305, b. sed quaere : 
for that record is most grosly mistaken in many places 
of it. 

This Leofric married Godiva, sister of Thorold de 
Bukenhale sheriff of Lincolnshire; Ingulphus, pag. 913, 
914. Possibly he was descended from that Thorold 
whom Ingulphus stiles vice-dominus Lincolniensis, sub 
anno 851, pag. 86 1. 

He and his countess Godiva built or enriched these 
monasteries, viz. Coventry, Leon, Wenloke, Worcester, 
Evesham, and two monasteries of St. John Baptist, 
and St. Werburge in Chester, and the church of St. 
Mary-Stow, which Eadnothus bishop of Lincoln built. 
Florentius, pag. 419, Hoveden, pag. 444. 

The same Godiva, or, as Florentius writes her, God- 
giva, freed the town of Coventry from all toll, except 



the toll of horses, by riding naked through the town, 
without any thing to cover her but her hair ; which 
condition performed, earl Leofric granted the townsmen 
a freedom by charter ; Polychronicon, lib. 6, cap. 26, 
Westminster, pag. 424; which charter Mr. Dugdale (in 
his Warwickshire, pag. 86) couceives rather a freedom 
from servile tenure, than onely toll. 

This illustrious Leofric died at his own town of Brom- 
ley, the last day of August, anno Domini 1057; so Flo- 
rentius, and Hoveden, pag. 444, and also Matt. West- 
minster ; and was buried at Coventry, in the monastery 
which he had built there, the richest monastery then in 
England. 

VI. Algar, son of earl Leofric, succeeded his father 
in the earldom of Mercia, anno Domini 1057; Hoveden, 
pag. 444; and is stiled earl of Chester by Huntington, 
pag. 366, and also earl of Leycester by Ingulphus, 
pag. 898. 

Anno Domini 1053. the earldom of the East-Saxons 
(which before Harold son of earl Godwin held) was 
given to this Algar. And in the year 1056, he was ba- 
nished by Edward the Confessor ; but by the aid of 
Griffith king of Wales, after the slaughter of many, he 
was reconciled to his prince, and received his earldom. 

In the year 1058, being the year after his father's 
death, he was again banished for treason ; but by the 
help of king Griffith and the Norwey navy, he recovered 
his earldom by force. 

He had to wife the sister of William Mallet, as Bur- 
ton in his Antiquities of Leycestershire affirmeth, pag. 
l68, and had two sons, Edwine earl of Mercia, and Mor- 
car earl of Nortluimberland ; and two daughters, Al- 
dith, first married to Griffith king of Wales, and after to 
Harold king of England ; and Lucia, who had three 
husbands, Ivo Talbois earl of Angeau, the first husband 
of Lucy; Roger de Romara, son of Gerold, the second 
husband of Luc3f, by whom she had issue William de 
Romara earl of Lincoln. Randle de Mescliines viscount 
Baieux in Normandy, lord of Cumberland in England, 
and afterwards earl of Chester, was the third husband of 
Lucy, by whom she had also issue : but she survived all 
her husbands; Ingulphus, pag. 898, Hoveden, pag. 443, 
444, Ingul. pag. 902, 903, Orderieus Vitalis, pag. 511, 
and 871, Cambden's Britannia in Leycestershire. 

Anno Domini 1059. Algar died, and was buried at 
Coventry; Ingulphus, pag. 898. 

VII. Edwine, son of Algar, succeeded earl of Mercia, 
anno Domini 1059- He and his brother Morcar stoutly 
opposed William the Conqueror, anno 1066. But the 
Conqueror prevailing, he lost his earldom. 

He lived to the fourth year of the Conqueror's reign, 
anno 1070. When fearing to be imprisoned, he con- 
veyed himself secretly from the court of William the 
Conqueror, and rebelled against him ; and unable to 
withstand, he intended to have gone to Malcolm then 
king of Scotland ; but being betrayed by his own men, 
was slain by the way ; Orderieus, pag. 521; Florentius, 
pag. 437, 438. Some say Morcar was taken by the 
Conqueror, and died in prison : howbeit Ingulphus, pag. 
901, saith Comites Edwinus et Morcarius ambo a suis 
per insidias trucidati. 

I find no mention of any issue, either of Edwine or 
Morcar. 



' Damnonia, id est, Cornwal and Devonsfaire, Alfegus was earl of Devonshire and Cornwal. 



iCe^cester's prolegomena* 



0i tilt Carls of Cj)ester stnee tje Jlorman Conquest* 



PART II. CHAP. I. 



I. After that William, duke of Normandy, had 
vanquished king Harold, in battel, and obtained the 
crown of England, which hapned anno Christi 1066, 
as all our histories unanimously declare, he by degrees 
conferred many great patrimonies and large possessions 
upon his more noble barons, as just rewards for their 
service, by whose assistance he had got a new kingdom. 
So Ordericus Vitalis (a writer who lived near to those 
times) lib. 4, Eccles. Hist. pag. 521, 522, as it is set out 
with other histories by Andrew du Chesne, and printed 
at Paris anno Domini I6l9, tells us in these words, 
Rex Guillielmus dejectis Merciorum maximis consuli- 
bus, Edwino scilicet interfecto, et Morcaro in vinculis 
constricto, adjutoribus suis inclytas Angliae regiones 
distribuit : et ex infimis Normannoruni clientibus, tri- 
bunes et centuriones ditissimos erexit. Amongst those 
of the meaner sort newly raised, the principal were 
Geffrey dc Clinton, Rafe Basset, with some others, 
which Ordericus expresseth more at large, pag. 805. 

II. But concerning the distribution of his counties 
in England to his greater sort of nobles and barons who 
accompanied him in this service, see Ordericus, pag. 
522. Among others, anno 1070, the king gave to Wil- 
liam Fitz-Osberne, Dapifero Normanniae, that is High 
Steward of Normandy, the Isle of Wight and the 
county of Hereford. Which William, with Walter 
Lacy and other tried champions, the king set as a curb 
to the Welsh, whose boldness first invaded Brachavia- 
nos, or Brecknockshire, and slew Risen, and Caducan, 
and Mariadoth, three Welsh kings, with many others. 
Chester and the county thereof the king had but lately 
given to one Gherbod, a nobleman of Flanders, who 
had gallantly behaved himself as well against the 
English as M'elsh, and afterwards being sent for by his 
friends, whom he had left in Flanders, and to whom he 
had committed his hereditary honour there, he obtained 
liberty of king William the Conqueror to go thither 
and to return very quickly again ; but by misfortune he 
fell into the hands of his enemies when he came into 
Flanders, and there endured a long and tedious impri- 
sonment. In the mean time, that is to say, sub anno 
Domini 1070, king William gave the earldom of Chester 
to Hugh de Auranges, son of Richard sirnamed Goz. 
This Hugh, witli Robert of Rothelent and Robert of 
Malpas, and other cruel potentates, spilt much of the 
Welshmen's blood. And the castle of Stutesbury, now 
called Tutbury, in Staffordshire, which Hugh de 
Auranges held before, was given to Henry, son of 
Walceline de Ferrars. And divers other lands were 
conferred on other persons, as you may see more at 
large in Ordericus." 

IV. The title of Earl of Chester since the coming in 
of the Normans is more properly and peculiarly applied 
than before : for although in the time of the Saxons, 
Leofric, Algar, and Edwine, who was earl when the 
Conqueror invaded England, had all of them succes- 



sively that appellation or title, yet they were not onely 
earls of Chester, but were sometimes denominated from 
other places also, as Leofric and Algar, both many times 
stiled earls of Leicester : And indeed they were not so 
much earls of either of those two counties as of all Mer- 
cia, whereof those were but small branches or members. 

But now more particularly, the Conqueror gives to 
Hugh, sirnamed Lupus, the whole county and earldom 
of Chester, to hold of him, tam libere ad gladium, 
sicut ipse Rex tenebat Angliam ad coronam, as the very 
words of the charter do run, saith Cambden. Which 
words some expound to be the tenure of being sword- 
bearer of England at the coronations of the kings of 
England ; whence we read in Matthew Paris, that when 
king Henry the Third married queen Elinour, anno 
Domini 1236, the marriage was pompously solemnized, 
and all the great men of the kingdom used those offices 
and places which had of ancient right belonged to their 
ancestors at the coronation of the kings. The earl of 
Chester then carried the sword of St. Edward, which is 
called Curtein, before the king, in token that he was an 
earl palatine, and had power by right to restrain the 
king if he should do amiss, his constable of Cheshire 
attending on him, and beating back the people with a 
rod or staff when they pressed disorderly upon him. 
This Paris voucheth, an author who lived in that very 
age, pag. 421. 

But although this office might have of ancient right 
belonged to the earls cf Chester ever since the time of 
Hugh Lupus, yet I believe there is something more 
magnificent couched in those words of the first charter 
or donation ; namely, a dignity inherent in the sword, as 
purchased by it, and to be kept by it also : for as in the 
crown of England there is an inherent right of regality 
annexed, so here is given an inherent right of dignity 
in the sword. This is to hold as freely by the sword as 
the king holds by the crown, onely inferiour to his king. 
Hence was it, that whatsoever we say concerning the 
pleas of the crov.n, or to be done against the king's 
crown and dignity, the same is also said (but in a more 
limited course) concerning the pleas of the sword of 
Chester, or to be done against the sword and dignity of 
the earl of Chester, as is most evident out of the records 
and endictments of those times. 

V. I come now to Hugh sirnamed Lupus, howbeit in 
truth he was not the first earl of Chester after the Nor- 
man Conquest, for I have before shewed that Gherbod, 
a nobleman of Flanders, had it first given to him by the 
Conqueror, who enjoying it but a httle while is com- 
monl}' omitted without any notice at all. But this 
Hugh was the first earl of Chester of the Norman race 
since the Conquest. 

The description of Earl Hugh out of Ordericus ; 
lib. 4, Eccles. Histor. pag. 522. 

Hie non dapsihs, sed prodigus, &c. He was not 
abundantly liberall, but profusely prodigal, and carried 



^ The account of Robert de Rothelent, which Sir P. Lej'cester inserts here, is removed to its proper place, and inserted among the Barons of 
the Norman Earldom. O. 

t D 



10 



Cf)e History of Cl)e5j)ite» 



not so much a family as an army still along with him : 
he took no account either of his receipts or disburse- 
ments ; he daily wasted his estate, and delighted more 
in falconers and huntsmen, than in the tillers of his 
land, or Heaven's orators the ministers ; he was given 
much to his belly, whereby in time he grew so fat that 
he could scarce crawle. He had many bastard sons 
and bastard daughters, but they were almost all swept 
away by sundry misfortunes. 

Again Ordericus, lib. 6, pag. 598. 

Ex his Hugo Abrincatensis, Richard! cognomento 
Goz filius, inter caeteros magnates effulsit : cui, post- 
quam Gherbodus Flandrensis ad suos recessit, rex comi- 



tatum Cestrensem consilio prudentum concessit : hie 
nimiriim amator saeculi saeculariumque pomparum fuit ; 
quas maximam beatitudinum putabat esse portionem 
humanarum : erat enim in militiii promptus, in dando 
nimis prodigus, gaudens ludis et luxibus, mimis, equis, 
et canibus, aliisque hujusmodi vanitatibus : huic maxima 
semper adhaerebat familia, in quibus nobilium igno- 
biliumque puerorum numerosa perstrepebat copia : 
ciim eodem consule commorabantur viri honorabiles, 
clerici et milites, quos tam laborum quam divitiarum 
gratulabatur esse suarum participes : in capella ejus 
serviebat Abrincatensis clericus, nomine Geroldus, reli- 
gione et honestate peritiaque literarum praeditus. 



Azure, a Wolf's Head erased. Argent. 



Hugh, sirnamed Lupus, was created earl of Chester 
An. Dom. 1070, in the fourth year of the reign of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror over England ; Ordericus, pag. 522. 
The Welshmen or Britons called him Hugh Vras, that 
is Hugh the Fat. Ordericus, pag. 769, calls him Hugh 
Dirgane, that signifies in the Welsh language Hugh 
the Gross ; for he was very gross and corpulent. 

He had land in twenty counties in England, for in 
the catalogue of the counties wherein certain great men 
held lands in the twentieth year of William the Con- 
queror, as it is put in the appendix to the ancient Nor- 
man writers, set out by Andrew du Chesne, and printed 
at Paris Ann. Dom. 16I9, we read thus : 

Comes Hugo, Hampshire, Berkshire, Dorset, Somer- 
set, Devonshire, Buckingham, Oxford, Glocester, Hun- 
tington, Northampton, Warwick, Shropshire, Derby- 
shire, Cheshire, Nottingham, Rutland, Yorkshire, Lin- 
coln, Norfolk, and Suffolk \ 

Concerning certain lands in Oxfordshire, which he 
gave to the monastery of Abbington, I find in an old 
Lieo-er Book of that monastery remaining in Cotton's 
Library (noted Claudius C. 9-) fol. 137 of the whole 
book, but Hb. 2, fol. 35, of that particular part of the 
' history of the church of Abbington, as followeth : 

Viculus est burgo Abendonensi contiguus, Scipena 
dictus : hunc de abbatia tempore Edwardi regis quidam 
ipsius constabulus nomine Eadnotus, tenebat : cujus 
viri terrarum metas postea Hugo Cestrensis Comes 
adeptus, cvlm didicisset praedictum viculum hujus ab- 
batise juri pertinere, commonitu Rainoldi abbatis et 
baronum suorum consultu, tertio regni Willielmi junio- 
ris regis anno, et pridie calendarum Aprilium, ipse 
comes in sanctuario ecclesiae istius consistens toto con- 
ventu fratrum ibi praesidente, quicquid in illo loco posse 
videbatur habere, Deo et Genetrici ejus id obtulit, manu 
cullellum altari supponendo : et ut in perpetui^m ratum 
constet, verbis illud prosequendo : affuere illo cum 
comite Engenulphus et Willielmus, uterque nepos 
ipsius, Godardus etiam de Boiavilla ciim Engerardo, et 
alii plures. 

Charta de Scipena. 
De hac, ut dictum est, re determinata cim primo 
apud eundem comitem oriretur sermo, literas abbati 
indfe direxit. Quarum hujusmodi extitit textus. 



Hugo Cestrensis comes, Rainoldo venerando abbati 
et charissimo amico suo, salutem. Mando tibi, qu5d 
de terra, quam erga me petiisti, locutus sum ciim uxore 
mea et cum meis baronibus ; et inveni in meo consilio 
quod concedam eam Deo et sanctae ecclesiae, de qua 
pastoralis cura super te imposita est : tali pacto, quod 
dones mihi xxx libras denariorum de tua pecunia; et 
vit frater vester sim, et uxor mea, et pater meus, et mater 
mea, in orationibus vestris ; et ita ut simus scripti omnes 
in libro commemorationum, et ut sit factum tale obse- 
quium pro nobis (quale debet fieri pro uno fratre de 
ecclesia) ubicunque moriamur : quicquid itaque pro ilia 
terra exactum est, nil fieri relictum : nam et pecunia 
data et caetera quaesita omnino impensa. 

What lands this earl Hugh held in demaine in Che- 
shire appears in the record of Dooms-day book, title 
Cestre-scire ; where, in the beginning of the same, after 
the laws of Chester, it is said — The bishop of Chester 
holds of the king the lands in Cheshire which belong to 
his bishoprick [and those lands are immediately reck- 
oned up and set down :] all the rest of the lands of the 
county earl Hugh held of the king cum suis homi- 
nibus ; where cum suis hominibus, I conceive, is not 
there meant that the earl and his tenants held their 
lands of the king, but that the earl held all Cheshire of 
the king, with his tenants also ; that is, and the tenure 
and services of all his tenants in Cheshire he holdeth of 
the king also ; for every person in Cheshire, except the 
bishop, held what lands he was possessed of immediately 
from the earl, and the earl held all from the king. 

The names of such towns in Cheshire as Earl 
Hugh held in demaine at that time, anno 
Christi 1086^ 



Weverham. 
Kennardsly. 
Doneham on the 

Hill. 
Elton. 
Trafford. 
Manly. 
Hellesbye. 
Frodshum. 
Alreton. 



Alderly Inferior. 
Done. 
Edesbery, nigh 

theChamber in 

the Forest. 
Eaton, in Brox- 

ton Hundred. 
Lay, in Broxton 

Hundred. 
Cotinton. 



Lay. 

Rushton. 
Upton, juxta 

Rushton. 
Little Bud worth. 
Olton. 
Over. 
Estham. 
Traiford. 
Edlave. 



^ The enumeration of Earl Hugh's manors, extracted from Domesday, is given in the next page. O. 

^ Earl Hugh only held in demesne portions of some of these vills, as for instance of Eaton and Lea : others comprehended adjacent townships 
which have since been formed out of them. The orthography of the list is neither that of Domesday, nor of Sir P. Leycester's own time, as it 
varies considerably from the modern names of these towns given by him in the margin of his Domesday. O. 



ile^cesitet's! prolegomena. 



11 



Macclesfield. 

Adlington. 

Gowesworth. 

Merton. 

Chelford. 

Hungerweniton . 

Henbury, 

Capesthorne. 

Henshall. , 



Tingtweezle. 

HollinwoTth. 

Wernith. 

Ramiley. 

Laiton. 

Alsacher. 

Sanbach. 

Clive. 

Sutton,nighMiddlewich 

In all forty-eight.' 



Wimboldsly. 
Weever. 
Occleston. 
Upton in Wirrall. 
Stanney. 

Anterbus in Over- 
whitley. 



The Descent of Eakl Hugh. 



Ansfrid, or Amfrid, a Dane.- 



J 



Umfrid de Telliolo, governor 
of Hastings in England, 1068; 
Ordericus, pag. 512. Son of 
Amfrid the Dane; Ordericus, 
pag. 669. Married Adeliza, 
sister of Hugh de Grentemais- 
nill, governor of Leicester, and 
had issue Robert, of Rothelent 
castle in Wales, also Ernald 
and Roger, both monks of 
Utica ill Normandy ; and Wil- 
liam Abhas Sanctse Euphemix; 
Ordericus, pag. 671. =t= 

r -■ 

Robert OF Rothelent, son of 
Umfrid, whoniOrdericus,pag 
670, calls coiisobrinum Hu- 
gonis comitis Cestrias, cosin 
to Earl Hugh. He was slain 
anno 1088. 



TURSTINE, sirnamed Goz, son of 
Amfrid, sometime governor of 
Oxima, kept the castle of Faloss 
in Normandy, against duke Wil- 
liam, being yet a child : but Ro- 
dulfusWaceiensis,vvho command- 
ed the forces for the young duke, 
besif ged him therein. Turstine, 
not able to bold out long, surren- 
ders it ou condition that he may 
depart quietly ; andso be was ba- 
nished from his count rey; Wiiliel- 
musGemeticensis,lib,7,cap.6.=p 
I 



Richard, sirnamed Goz, son of Tur- 
stine, was vice-comes de Abrincis, 
that is, Auranches in Normandy. 
He reconciled his father to the duke 
of Normandy by his good carriage, 
and got far more than his father lost. 
Gemeticensis, ibid. lib. 7, cap. 6. 



This Richard had issue, Hugh earl of Chester ; Or- 
dericus, pag. 522 ; also Judith a daughter, married to 
Richard de Aquila, son of Engenulfe ; Ordericus, lib. 8, 
pag. 703, and 649, of whom he begot Gilbert de Aquila, 
and Engenulfe, and Maude, and many other sons and 
daughters. This Richard de Aquil^ was killed with 
an arrow shot into his eye by a boy hid in a bush, 14 
calendas Decembris, anno Christi 1085. Ordericus, pag. 
64y. Another sister of Hugh earl of Chester married 
William earl of Ewe in Normandy, who being openly 
convicted of treason, had his eyes put out, and his stones 
cut off, by the command of William Rufus, anno 1093. 
This was done by the instigation of Hugh earl of Ches- 
ter, whose sister he had married, but had broken his 
faith with her; for he had three bastards by a common 
strumpet ; Ordericus, pag. 704. Maude, another sister 
to earl Hugh, was mother of Randle de Bricasard in 
Normandy, afterwards earl of Chester, and wife of Rafe 
de Micsenis, or Meschines ; Ordericus, pag. 871. Milles 
and Brooks, two late writers and heralds, have foisted 
in the name of Margaret for this Maude, vouching no 
authority. 

The Acts of Earl Hugh. 

He made Robert (one of his bastard sons) a monk of 
Utica in Normandy, anno 1081 ; Ordericus, lib. G, 
pag. 602''. 



*^ The following account of manors held by this Earl in other counties of England, is abstracted from Domesday. 



44. b. 2. Hants. 
60. 2. Berks. 

68. b. 2. Wilts. 



Fordingbridge Hund, 
Sudtune Hund. 
Wifold Hund. 



30. 



Dorsetsh. 



Will's tenet de Comite. 



9\. b. Somersetsh. 



104. b. Devonshire. 



305. 


b. 


Hunts. 




Opetune. 
Copemanfordi'. 


324. 


b, 2. North'tonsh. 


Corbei Hund. 


Bifelde, de Rege. 










Botendone. 










Kapeforde. 








Edbaldeston Hund. 


Mereston. 
Rodeston. 








Sutone Hund. 


Mideltone. 








Foxhela Hund. 


Blaculverlea. 








Gisleburg Hund. 


Givertost. 








Foxhela Hund. 


Slapton. 


337. 




Leicestersh. 


Gutlacistan Hund. 


Barbov, with appendages 
held by Harold in 12vi|U. 
Luctebrune, several sub- 
tenants. 
Burtone. 
Tedingesworde. 
Cogeworde. 
Avederne in Deicieia. 
Bortone. 


239 


3. 


Warwicksh. 


Kemelav Hund. 


Pilardetune. 


374. 


b. 


Derbysh. 


Salle Hund. 


Marehetone, and other 
lands. 



Bichetone, de Rege. 

Draitune. 

Boroardscote. 

Retmore. 

Wjflesford. 

Heortha'. 

Bredecu'be. 

Cadeha*. 

Fiskarton. 
'Fifhide. 

Elsangton. 

Tincladene. 

Maine. 

Maino. 
" Clistone. 

Warmemoile. 

Tingeham. 

Pedret, 

Catsclive. 
^Burevvenestock. 

Tedintone. 

San ford. 

Aire. 

Hengesterich. 

Anestinge. 

Anestige. 

Staford. 

Landesberg. 

Mentemore. 

Senelai. Hugo ten. de C 

Brichella.Wiirsten. deC 

Westone, de Rege. 

Peritone, Will's de Co, 

Tachelie, Rob'tus de Co. 

Cercelle, Walt, de Co. 

Ardulveslie, Rob. de Co. 

Biselege. 

Troham. 

Ca'pedene. 

11 man. 
d In the same year he was witness to the Conqueror's grant of confirmation to the monks of St. Edmundsbury in Suffolk (Prid. kal. Jun 
signs next after Roger earl of Shrewsbury. Men. Ang. vol. I. 289, b. n. 30. 

In 1087, when Odo earl of Kent, Eustace earl of Boleyn, Robert de Belesme, and many more, adhering to Robert Curthose, eldest son of William I. 
would have raised him to the crown, and to that end came into England, manned many castles, and incited the people to join them, earl Hugh adhered 
to the king, whereupon he had the castle of St. James committed to his trust, built by duke William on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, 
whereof his father Richard de Abrincis had been governor. Dugd. Baron, quoting Ordericus and Will. Gemetir.en«i5. O. 



282. b. Notts. 



293. b. 



305. 



Rutlandsb. 

Yorkshire. 



146. b. 2. Bucks. 



157. b. Oxon. 



Coteslal Hund. 
Sigelai Hund. 
Moisselai Hund. 



349. 



Lincolnsh. 



166. b. Gloucestersh. Biseleie Hund. 

Witelaie Hund. 
Langetreuv Hund. 



Lands in Sudtone, Bone- 
tone, and Chinestan. 

Exwelle, lands held by 
Gozeline under the Earl. 

Witeby and Sneton, with 

soc in 12 towns. 
Loetushum, with soc in 

12 towns. 
Aclum and Englebl, with 

soc in 8 towns. 
Flaneburg. 
Cattun. 
Gran-ba. 
Haltone. 
Bernodebi. 
Fugelestov. 
and lands in 50 towns. O. 



and 



12 



Ci)e History of €f}t&Utt* 



He founded the monastery of St. Werburge in Ches- 
ter : In urbe (Cestria; scilicet) fuit ex antique sancti- 
monialium monasterium, nunc per Hugonem Cestren- 
sem comitem monachis repletum ; Will. Malmesbury, 
lib. 4, de Gestis Pontificum, pag. 288. And learned 
Cambden thus— Ecclesiam, quani Leofricus comes in 
honorem Werburgse virginis posuerat, Hugo e Norman- 
nico genere comes Cestriae restauravit, et authore An- 
selmo monachis concessit: in Britannia sua, Title 
Cheshire. 

Anno Domini 1093, Anselm abbot of Becci in Nor- 
mandy, came into. England at the entreaty of Hugh 
earl of Chester, then sick; by whose help the earl 
founded a monastery at Chester, and wherein Anselm 
placed Richard his chaplain the first abbot, and turned 
the secular canons into regular monks. Trevisa in his 
Translation of Polychronicon, lib. 7, cap. 7, fol. 335, b. 

And indeed this agrees in time with the original char- 
ter of the foundation, which I transcribed out about 
1644, as followeth, then remaining among the evidences 
of that church, which were then kept in a certain room 
within St. Werburge church in Chester. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus prsesens transcriptum vi- 
suris vel audituris, Guncelinus de Badelesmere justici- 
arius Cestriae salut.em iu Domino. Noveritis me die 
Sabbati proxime post festum Assumptionis Beataa 
Mariffi, anno Edwardi Primi octavo, inspexisse, vidisse, 
et propriis manibus tractasse chartas abbatis et conven- 
tus Sanctae Werburgffi Cestriae super fundatione mo- 
nasterii sui, ac juribus et libertatibus ipsius, et suo mo- 
nasterio a comitibus Cestriae, et aliis, concessas, in 
plena curia comitatus Cestriae exhibitas, non cancella- 
tas, non vitiatas, non in aliqua sua parte abolitas aut 
deletas, in haec verba. 

Chaeta Domini Hugonis Comitis, fundatoris 

MONASTERII SaNCT^ WeRBURGK ViRGINIS. 

Sanctorum prisca authoritatc patrum, qui in nomine 
Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, in sancta ecclesia re- 
giminis gubernacula hacteniis tenuerunt, qulque suos 
adjutores sanctaeque fundatores ecclesiae sua nobis in- 
dustria suorumque scriptorum longa traditione cognitos 
reddiderunt, admoneri videmur, ut ea quae a tempora- 
neis nostris in sanctffi ecclesiai matris exaltatione facta 
sunt, praesentibus per nos manifestentur, poster! sque di- 
noscenda nobis scribentibus reserventur : Nos igitur 
majorum imitantes exempla, jam quaedam pietatis opera 
referamus quae in Anglica terra gesta sunt a Hugone 
Cestrensi comite, anno ab incarnatione Domini 1093. 
regnante potentissimo rege Willielmo, atque in archi- 
episcopatu Cuntuariensi pontificante Anselmo, atque in 
Eboracensi pontificante Thoma, volumus vero ut reli- 
giosi atque fideles Christiani cognoscant quia idcirco 
nobis ista describere placuit, ut qui ea relegerent vel 
audirent, Deum supplicabiliori aifectu pro sanctae ec- 
clesiae fundatoris salute implorent, et ut praesentes ad 
regna coelestia tendentes, etiam inter aetatis hujus pri- 
mates qui sequantur, inveniant. Igitur ad honorem et 
gloriam sanctae et individuae Trinitatis, atque incom- 
prehensibilis Divinitatis, jam proferemus quae nos di- 
cere spospondimus. Hugo comes Cestrensis, atque Er- 
mentrude comitissa, devotioni religiosae picl mente sub- 
diti, piissimaque Dei visitatione inspirati, in quadam 
ecclesia quae constructa est in honorem Sanctae Wer- 
burgae Virginis in civitate Cestriae monachos religios^ 
viventes posuerunt, concedente rege Willielmo, qui do- 
minuui assidue exorarent tam pro utilitate animae regis 
Willielmi, et Willielmi patris ejus nobilissimi regis, et 



matris ejus Matildis reginae, fratrumque et sororum 
ejus, atque regis Edwardi, quam pro animarum suarum 
salute, et pro animabus patrum, et matrum, et anteces- 
sorum, haeredilmque, et parentum, et baronum suorura, 
omniumque Christianorum tam vivorum quam defunc- 
torum. Huic ver6 ecclesiae Sanctae Werburgae, Hugo 
supradictus comes, et Ermentrude comitissa, posses- 
siones priores liberas in perpetuum et quietas concesse- 
runt, et de suis augmentaverunt: habitation^mque 
monachorum habilem reddiderunt : eamque abbatiam 
nulli omnin6 abbatiae subditam fecerunt : Postea in 
ea monachos et abbatem, Deo donante et supradicto 
rege Willielmo concedente, constituerunt : banc etian^, 
et quicquid ad earn pertinet, abbati et monachis dede- 
runt ; videlicet, Ince, Salhtonam, Suttonam, Cheve- 
leiam, Huntintonam, Boghtonam, Wervenaiii, Crogh- 
tonam, Trofford, Cliftonam, Estonam, Wisdeleth, Hode- 
sleiam, Wepram, et dimidium Rabie, et tertiam partem 
de Neston, et tertiam partem de Salghale, et tertiam 
partem de Stanney, et dimidiam partem de Leech, et 
unam carucam terrte ad Pulford, et tertiam partem de 
Berdwardsley, et Edenchale, et Shotowicam. Insup^r 
etiam dederunt huic ecclesiae in ipsa civitate de suo do- 
minico, vicum a porta de North usque ad ecclesiam ; 
et locum unius molendini ad pontem civitatis, et duo 
maneria in Anglesey; unum aut^m in Ros; et unum 
in Wirhalle, Erbeiam ; et in Lindesei terram decern 
boum ; et post obitum comitis vel comitissae, Westo- 
nam ciim appenditiis in Derbyshira ; et ad priEsens de- 
cimam ipsius manerii ; et ecclesiam de Estona. et ter- 
ram duarum carucarum; et rectam decimam non solum 
de annonS. veriam etiam de pullis et vitulis, de porcis et 
agnis, de butyro etcaseo, et de omnibus rebus de quibus 
decima debeat dari in his meis inaneriis, scilicet, Eltona, 
Frodsham, Weverham, Lech, Roecestra, Haiirdina, 
Coleshull, Bishopstreet, Uptuna, Campedena, Estham ; 
et rectam decimam piscatoriam de Frodesham, de Rode- 
lent, et de Angleseia, non solum de dominico suo, sed 
etiam de navibus ibi, et in omnibus aquis suis piscan- 
tibus ; et decimam de piscatoria, Etone, et de omni 
pisce qui accipitur in Dee, et unum batellum ab omni 
re liberum. Adhuc vero dederunt ecclesiam, et terram 
ecclesiae, et decimam de molendinis, et de omnibus re- 
bus quae decimari debent in Denefordia. Quinetiam 
baronibus suis principalibus concesserunt, quod unus- 
quisque daret praefatae abbatiae centum solidatas terrae ; 
alii autem secundum posse et velle. Insuper conces- 
serunt, ut singuli barones et milites darent Deo et 
Sanctae Werburgae, post obitum suum, sua corpora et 
tertiam partem totius substantiae suae : et non soWm 
haec constituerunt de baronibus et militibus, sed etiam 
de burgensibus, et aliis hominibus liberis suis. Teste 
Anselmo archiepiscopo, Herveio episcopo, Baldwino 
monacho, Heldebaldo monacho, Eustachio monacho, 
Roberto filio Hugonis, Willielmo constabulario, Willi- 
elmo Malbedeng, Ranulfo Dapifero, Mugone Normanni 
filio, Radulfo Dapifero, Hugone filio Osberni, Hamone 
de JSlascy, Gilberto de Venables, Ricardo de Vernon, 
Ricardo de Rullos, Bigot de Loges, Ricardo filio Ni- 
gelli, Roberto filio Serh, Ranulpho Venatore, Erneiso 
Venatore, aliisque quamplurimis. 

Willielmus Malbedeng dedit huic abbatiae Sancta; 
Werburgae, Witebiam, et tertiam de \A epre, et eccle- 
siam et decimam de Tattenhale, et unam salinam in 
Wich, et terram de duobus bobus, et decimam de Sal- 
chale, et de Claitona, et de Yraduc. Teste Comitissa, 
Ricardo Banaster, Hugone Osberni filio, Bigod de 
Loges, Ricardo Pincema, et Suardo. 

Robertus filius Hugonis dedit capellam de Christie- 



ilepcestet'si ^tolejjomena. 



13 



ton, et terrain capellse, et terrain cujusdam rustici et Gaufridus de Sartes dedit decimam suam in Withtri- 
ipsum rusticum, et quoddam molendinum terramque cheston. Teste Willielmo filio Gud, et ipso domino 
ipsius molendini, et chotam Ordrici, ipsumque Ordri- suo Willielmo Malbeng. 



cum, et quendam campum junctum huic chotae et 
Cryn ; et quandam Salinam in Fulewich, et duas man- 
siiras in civitate, et paululum terras juxta Boteche- 
tunestan : hoc donum concessit Hugo comes. Teste Wil- 
lielmo Nigelli filio, et fratre ejus Ricardo, Ranulfo Da- 
pifero, Bigot, Hamone de Massy, Hugone Osberni filio, 
Hugone Normanni filio, Fulcone de Baiunvilla, Unfrido 
de Castentyn, Willielmo de Berneres, Acardo, multis- 
que aliis. 

Hugo filius Normanni, et Radulfus frater ejus, dede- 
runt partem suam de Lostocke, et ecclesiam de Contin- 
tuna, et terram ecclesise, et decimam illius villas, et de 
Lay similiter. Teste Willielmo Malbedeng, multisque 
aliis. 

Ricardus de Vernon dedit decimam de Eston et 
Picheton. 

Ricardus de Rullos dedit ecclesiam et decimam de 
Waverton, et "Hotone, et Clotton, et molendini Clotona;. 

Item Billehekl, uxor Baldrici, dedit Pecfortunam. 
Teste Normanno de Arretio, multisque aliis. 

Radulfus Venator dedit terram trium carucarum in 
Brochetuna. 

Hugo de Mara dedit Redeclivam, concedente comite. 
Teste Comitissa, Willielmo Nigelli filio, Ranulfo Dapi- 
fero, Gilberto Venables, multisque aliis. 

Item Hugo comes, dum habuit in dominico suo Cal- 
ders, dedit iadh decimam de omnibus quae decimari de- 
bent, sicut antea dederat, quod etiam concessit et con- 
firmavit Robertus filius Serlonis, quando villa data 
•est ei. 

Item comes Hugo, quando habuit in suo dominico 



Ricardus de Mesnilvvaren dedit decimam de Blache- 
not de annona, de piscaria, et de omnibus de quibus 
decima dari debet. Teste Rogero fratre suo, et Ra- 
nulfo Bruello, et Ranulfo de Walbruno. 

Robertus Pultrel dedit terram unius carucae apud 
Masclesfeld. Teste Waleranno de Baro, et Nigello de 
Repentone, et multis aliis. 

Walterus de Vernon dedit decimam equarum suarum. 

Comes dedit navem unam cum decern retibus ad pis- 
candum in Anglesei in perpetuiim liberam et quietam. 
Teste Comitissa, Willielmo Pincerna, Hugone Ca- 
merario. 

Item ad festum Sanctae Werburgae in sstate dedit 
comes Hugo, Theoloneum omnesque redditus et exitus 
nundinarum trium dierum, praecipiens ut si aliquis foris- 
fecerit in nundinis, omnia placita pertractentur in 
curia Sanctae Werburgaj ad opus monachorum. Con- 
cessit etiam ad honorem Virginis, ut siv^ latro, siv^ ali- 
quis malefactor venerit ad solennitatem, habeat firmam 
pacem dilm fuerit in nundinis, nisi forte in illis aliquid 
forisfecerit Hac sunt itaque dona data abbatiae Sanctee 
Werburga;, qua omnia ego comes Hugo, et Ricardus 
filius meus, et Ermcntrudis comitissa, et mei barones 
et mei homines, dedimus abbatiae Sanctse Werburo-a; • 
et concessimus ut haec omnia praedicta, et abbatia, et 
omnia ad eam pertinentia, essent libera, et pacata, et 
quieta ab omni consuetudine, et ab omni re, nihil reti- 
nentes in his omnibus nisi orationes et beneficia mona- 
chorum in hoc loco commanentium : et tarn liberum et 
quietum honorem Sanctae Werburgae dedimus et con- 
stituimus, pro salute anima regis Willielmi, et omnium 



Stortonam et Graisby, dedit ind^ decimam de omnibus nostrum, vit nullus post nos aliquid libertatis vel quietis 

quae decimari debent, sicut antea dederat in suis propriis addere possit : Et quando nos banc chartam confirma- 

maneriis ; quaj omnia confirmavit Nigellus de Burceio vimus, nullum opus, nullum servitium, nullam consue- 

veniens in hEereditatem, augens etiam ex sua parte tudinem, nullam rem omnino praeter orationes in terra 

terram de octo bobus in Gravesbiri. Teste Ranulfo, et Sanctae Werburgse retinuimus praeter hoc soliim quod 

Garacino fratre ejus, multisque aliis. si abbas hujus locisuperbia inflatus nollet facere rectum 

Item Radulfus Ermiwini filius, et uxor ejus Claricia, vicinis suis, comes constringeret eum ad rectum facien- 

dederunt terram ad octo boves in Wudechurch, et de- dum, et hoc in curia Sancta; W'erburwffi. Ideoque vo- 

cimam de Berlestona in Wirhale, et de Wervelestona lumus quod Sancta Werburga habeat per omnia curiam 

in Wyschesfeld, de equabus omnibus ubicunque sint, suam, sicut comes suam. Et ut haec omnia rata essent 

et de omnibus quas decimari possint. Teste Godfrido et stabilia in perpetuum, ego comes Hugo, et barones 

Mercatore, Roberto Anglico, Fulberto, multisque aliis. mei, confirmaviinus ista omnia coram Anselmo archi- 

Item Robertus de Fremouz dedit Fideleustan. Teste episcopo, non soliim sigillo meo, sed etiam sigillo Dei 

Radulfo fratre suo, Roberto Dapifero, Ricardo de omnipotentis, id est, signo Sanctae Crucis S: ita qu5d 

Briceio. singuli nostrum propria manu in testimonium posteris 

Wacelinus, nepos Walteri de Vernon, dedit quendam signum in modum crucis facerent. ® Signum Hugonis 

agricolam, et terram quatuor boum in Nessa, et deci- comitis. ffi Signum Ricardi filii ejus. ® Signum 



mam de omnibus rebus suis quae decimari possint in 
Prestona, in Levedesham, et tertiam partem totius sub- 
stantias suae et uxoris ejus. Teste Gilberto multisque 
aliis. 

Seward dedit capellam de Bebinton, et terram qua- 
tuor boum, et decimam illius manerii, et decimam de 
Bromhale, et de Walei, et de Maynes, et de Westona, 
et de Willne, et post obitum suum omnis substantiae 
suae et suae mulieris tertiam partem, de Cestursira, et 
de Maynes. Teste Willielmo Constabulario, Hugone 
Osberni filio, et Wimundo de Col. 



Hervei episcopi. © Signum Ranulfi nepotis comitis. 
S Signum Rogeri Bigod. ffi Signum Alani de Percey. 
©Signum Willielmi Constabularii. ©Signum Ranulfi 
Dapiferi. ©Signum Willielmi Malbedeng. ©Signum 
Roberti fihi Hugonis. © Signum Hugonis filii Nor- 
manni. © lignum Hamonis de Massy. © Signum 
'^ Roberti de Loges. 

Anno Domini 1098 U Willielmi Rufi, this Hugh 
earl of Chester, and Hugh de Montgomerj- earl of 
Shrewsbury, took Anglesey. They slew many of the 



Item Gilbertus de Venables dedit Deo et Sanctas Welsh ; some they gelded, and put out their eyes ; 
Werburga; ecclesiam de Astbury cilm medietate bosci Hoveden ; also Brompton, pag. 994. The Welshmen 
et plani, et omnium quae pertinent ad Neubold. called Hugh earl of Shrewsbury, Hugh Gogh, that is. 



= An error either clerical or typographical for Etone. O. 
f Alii Bigot de Loges hie legunt : Vide Monasticoii, pars 1. pag. 200, and 202. 

tE 



P. L. 



14 



Ci)e ©istor^ of Ct)e£jf)ire* 



Hugh the Red, because of his red head ; and Hugh 
earl of Chester they called Hugh Vras, that is, Hugh 
the Fat. Powel's Notes on the History of Wales, 
pag. 155^. 

Some refer the structure of the castle and walls of the 
city of Chester to Hugh Lupus. Cambden in his Bri- 
tannia, in Cheshire, saith thus: Cuqi jam templum 
conditum esset, Normannici comites moenia (Cestriae 
scilicet) etcastrum adjecerunt. But I see not how this 
agrees with Ordericus, pag. 5l6, for there we find, that 
in anno Christi 1069 (which was one year before Hugh 
Lupus was made earl of Chester) the Cheshire men and 
the Welsh besieged Shrewsbury ; at which time Wil- 
liam the Conqueror brings his army to Chester, sup- 
pressing all the commotions through Mercia : He then 
built a fort or castle at Chester [Munitionem condidit] 
and in his return, another at Stafford, both which he 
garrisoned with store of men and victuals ; unless bj- 
munitionem we understand onely a garrison of men : 
But condere munitionem signifies to erect a fortification, 
which must be either a castle, or walls, or both ; for the 
garrisoning thereof with men and victuals, he speaks of 
afterwards. 

Again, we find that Elflede the countess of Mercia, 
with Ethelred her husband, repaired the city of Chester, 
anno 908, which the Danes had demolished ; and 
erected new walls there, enlarging the town very much ; 
so that the castle situated near to the river (which be- 
fore stood without the old walls) was now within the 
compass of the new walls ; Polychronicon. So before 
this, there was a castle and walls : So that the Norman 
earls did not first erect the castle and walls of Chester. 
Probably the Conqueror might re-edifie the castle, ac- 
cording to Ordericus : And it is likely that Hugh Lupus, 
and the succeeding earls, have by degrees beautified, 
and added to the structure both of the walls and castle. 

The Wife and Issue of Hugh Lupus. 

He married Ermentrude, daughter of Hugh de Clari- 
mont earl of Beavoys in France, by whom he had onely 
one child, called Richard, who succeeded earl of Ches- 
ter after his father's death ; Ordericus, pag. 523, and 
pag. 787. 

His Base Issue. 

Robert, made monk of Utica in Normandy, anno 
Christi 1081, Ordericus, pag. 602; and afterwards made 
abbot of Edmundsbury in Suffolk, in England, anno 
1100. Ordericus, pag. 783, 

Othuerus, or Ottiwell, tutor to the king's children ; to 
wit, the children of Henry First. Malmesbury calls him 
frater nutricius Richard comitis Cestriae, p. l65, that is, 
bastard-brother^; which phrase I have often seen used in 
old deeds for the same. He was drowned with his bro- 
ther Richard earl of Chester, anno 1 1 19, saith Orderi- 
cus ; but most other of our historians do place that un- 
fortunate accident anno 1120. When he saw the ship 
sinking, he clips the young earl of Chester in his arms, 
and so both were drowned together. Ordericus, p. 870. 

Philip, another base son, whom Miles in his Catalogue 



of Honor affirms he hath seen mentioned as a witness 
to a charter of William the Conqueror. 

Geva, a base daughter, married Geffrey Riddell ; to 
whom earl Hugh her father gave Drayton-Basset in 
Staffordshire, as appears by this deed, taken out of a 
manuscript in Arundel-house in London anno l638, 
wherein the old deed belonging to the Bassets of Dray- 
ton-Basset in Staffordshire, about the reign of king Rich- 
ard the Second, were enrolled. Ibid. fol. 67, a. 

Ranulphus comes Cestriee, Willielmo Constabulario, 
et Roberto Dapifero, et omnibus baronibus suis, et ho- 
minibus Francis et Anglicis totius Angliae, salutem. 
Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Gevae Riddel, filise co- 
mitis Hughes, Draitunam, cum pertinentiis in libero 
conjugio, sicut comes Hughes ei in libero conjugio 
dedit et concessit; et teneat bene et in pace, honorific^ 
et liber^, ut melius et liberius tenuit tempore Hugonis 
comitis, et aliorum meorum antecessorum, eisdem con- 
suetudinibus et libertatibus. Testibus Gilberlo filio Ri- 
caidi, et Adeliza sorore mea, et Willielmo Blundo, et 
Alexandro de Tresgor, et Rogero de Bello Campo, et 
Willielmo de Sais, et Roberto de Sais, et Ricardo filio 
Aluredi, et Hugone filio Osberti, et Henrico de Chal- 
der, apud Saintonam. 

She founded the monastery of Canwell in Stafford- 
shire, within four miles of Lichfield, as appears by this 
transcript, which I received from Mr. Dugdale : The 
original remained with sir William Peshale of Suggen- 
hill in Stafl'ordshire, anno l638. It is also in Monasti- 
con, 1 Pars, pag. 439. 

Universis sancta; Del ecclesicE fidelibus, Geva filia 
Hugonis comitis Cestriae, et uxor Gaufridi Ridelli, sa- 
lutem. Noverint tam posteri quam prassentes, quJid 
ego Geva concilio religiosarum personarum, et autho- 
ritate Rogeri episcopi Cestriae, et assensu Ranulfi comi- 
tis Cestriae cognati mei, pro salute aniuiEe meae et om- 
nium antecessorum et parentum meorum, I'undavi quan- 
dam ecclesiam in honorem Sanctae MariaB et Sancti 
Egidii, et omnium sanctorum, in loco qui dicitur Can- 
well, ad opus nionachorum ibidem Deo servientium : 
Et concedo eis in elemosynam terram de Sticliesleia, 
et unum pratum quod vocatiir Little- Mersi, et molen- 
dinum de Fareslei. Praeterea concedo eis in Duntona 
manerio nieo quatuor virgatas terrae, et unam virgatam 
ex dono Osberti capellani mei, cum ouinibus quae ad 
eas pertinent; et in eadem villa unum moleadinum 
quod dicitur Le Corre. Et volo et concedo, ut praedicti 
monachi teneant haec omnia bene et in pace, liber^ et 
quiet6 ab omni servitio seculari ad me, vel ad baeredes 
meos pertinente. Et habeant omnes consuetudines et 
libertates suas in nemore et piano, pratis et pascuis, itk 
quc)d nuUus eis neque pro pannagio, neque pro aliqu& 
occasione, molestiam vel injuriam faciat. Hanc quo- 
que donationejn feci concessione haeredum meorum, sci- 
licet Gaufridi Ridelli et Radulfi Basset. Hujus con- 
cessionis sunt testes, Radulfus decanus de Blabi, Gau- 
fridus decanus de Butneswella, Gubertus canonicus de 
Legercestria, &c. 

This deed was made about the year 1120, or soon 
after : And though she here writes herself uxor Gau- 



f Hugh Lupus distinguished himself by his fidelity to king William IT. and when Henry his hrother possessed himself of many strung places itt 
Normandy, he rendered to the king those which were in his hands, and was .also one of the principal commander? against Philip king of France, who 
had entered Normandy with a great army. He enlarged his territories on the Welsh side by the conquest of Tegenel and Ryvoniuc, and of the 
land lying on the sea shore down to the river Conway. Dugdale's Bar. on the authority of Ordericus and Powel's Wales. — Giraldus Cambrensis 
mentions, that this earl made prisoner by treachery Griffin, son of Conaw, Prince of North Wales, and after keeping him in bonds many years at 
Chester, laid waste his lands in Anglesea, and for the security of his conquest built one castle in the island, and another in Arvon. Earl Hugh 
also built the castle of Deganwy near Conway. O. 

! For that such were educated with legitimate children usually in those ages, P. L. 



ILe^cester's ^rolejgometta* 



15 



f'ridi Ridel, yet truly was her husband then lately 
drowned ; Ordericus, pag. 870 ; with many others of the 
nobility: Neither could she have made a deed legally 
without her husband, had he been alive. 

And because of the civility of those ages, she was 
stiled onely daughter of earl Hugh, not base daughter ■ 
whence some suppose her a legitimate daughter : But 
if she had been legitimate, then must her issue have in- 
herited the earldom of Chester, and not earl Randle ; 
for as much as a sister is inheritable before an aunt. 
Besides, Ordericus tells us in express words, that earl 
Hugh had no other child by Ermentrude but onely 
Richard ; nor doth it appear by any record, or ancient 
historian, that he ever had any other wife besides Er- 
mentrude : But Ordericus saith, E pellicibus plurimam 
sobolem utriusque sexiis genuit ; quae diversis intortu- 
niis absorpta pene tota periit, pag. 522. But these be- 
fore-named are so many of theui as I have hitherto col- 
lected, or met withall. 

As for the usual custom in ancient times, of omitting 
that infamous title of bastard, Robert earl of Glocester, 
base son of Henry the First, is termed onely brother of 
Maud the empress, by Hoveden, pag. 553. Also in a 
charter made by Maud the empress herself, he is stiled 
brother, not bastard-brother; Selden, Tit. Hon. p. 649. 
Reginald, earl of Cornwal, another bastard of Henry I. 
is called uncle to Henry the Second, not base uncle, by 
Hoveden, pag. 536. Infinite other such examples we 
meet with ''. 



The Death of Hugh Lupus. 

This Hugh earl of Chester died the 27 day of Julv, 
anno Christi 1101, in the first year of the reign of 
king Henry I. almost expired ; so Ord. Vitalis, p. 787. 

Anno 1101. — Interea Hugo comes Cestriae in lectum 
decidit, et post diuturnum languorem monachatum in 
coenobio, quod idem Cestrise construxerat, suscepit : 
atqu^ post triduum sexto calendas Augusti obiit'. 

Polychronicon thus : — Anno 1 102. Hugo comes Ces- 
trensis, nepos regis Willielmi Conquestoris ex parte so- 
roris, obiit. But for the most part the year is very 
uncertainly put down in the margent, and many times 
omitted by him. 

He was carl of Chester one and thirty years. 

This Hugh had Whitby in Yorkshire given him by 
the Conqueror, and he gave the same to William de 
Percy, who founded an abbey there; Monasticon, vol. I. 
pag. 172. Earl Hugh gave also to the prior of Whitby, 
the church of St. Peter's of Whitby, and also the church 
of Flemesburgh. Monasticon, vol. I. pag. 73. 

This earl also founded the abbey of St. Severus, in 
the bishoprick of Constance in Normandy; Monasticon, 
vol. 2. pag. 950. He gave also to the abbey of Bek in 
Normandy, the mannor of Atherstone in England in 
Warwickshire. Ibid. vol. 2. pag. 954''. 

Robert de Beaumont earl of Mellent in France, and 
this Hugh earl of Chester, were the principal supporters 
of Henry the First, in advancing him to the crown of 
England. Ordericus, pag. 783. 



CHAP. 11. 



0i mtci^arti Carl of Cfjester^ 

Gules, Ceusilly Or, a wolf's head erased Argent. 



I. Richard, the onely child of earl Hugh by Ermen- 
trude his wife, succeeded his father in the earldom of 
Chester, anno 1101. Ordericus, lib. 10. pag. 787. 

He was but seven years old when his father died, saith 
the monk of Chester in his Polychronicon, lib. 7, cap. 
13, with whom agrees Knighton the monk of Leycester, 
pag. 2376. And I find in an old leiger book of the mo- 
nastery of Abbington, a manuscript in Cotton's library 
at Westminster in London, noted — Claudius, c. 9, fol. 
147, of the whole book, but lib. 2, fol. 45, of that par- 
ticular pa,rt De Historia Ecclesiw Abbendonensis, speak- 
ing of this Richard's grant of Wudmundsley to the 
said abbey and church of Abbington — Ipse comes be- 
nefactum extulit, et suo descripto roboravit : quod 
descriptum sigillo quidem matris signari constitit : 
nondum enim militari baltheo cinctus, materno si- 
gillo literee quaelibet ab eo directae includebantur : 
hac de re, quod eb annotatur, comitissiE potii"is quam 



comitis sigillo signatur. Cujus forma haec fuit. — 
Ricardus Cestrensis comes, et Ermentrudis comitissa 
mater ejus, Nigello de Oilli, et Rogero fiho Radulfi, et 
omnibus baronibus de Oxenford scira, salutem et ami- 
citiam. Sciatis quia pro amore Dei, et anima patris 
mei, et remissione nostrorum peccatorum, concedimus 
hidam illam, quam Droco de Andeleia dedit ecclesis 
Abbendonensi, quae est in loco qui dicitur Wudemun- 
deslai : Nos eidem ecclesiae concedimus et auctoriza- 
mus perpetuo habendam, solidam et quietam ab omni 
nostro servitio : Et Rogerus filius Radulfi et successores 
ejus sint quieti in nostro servitio, quantum ad illam hi- 
dam pertinet: Et defendimus iit nullo modo Rogerus, 
vel alius pereum, inquietet habitantes in terra ilia: Hoc 
autem fecimus et testimonio nostrorum baronum ; sci- 
licet Willielmi filii Nigelli, et Hugonis filii Normanni, 
et Ricardi Balaste, et Willielmi filii Auskitilli, et Ri- 
cardi filii Nigelli, et Domini Goisfridi capellani, et ali- 



1' Sir William Dug;dale nevertheless states Geva to be legitimate in positive terms. Sir Thomas Maiiiwariiig, in his celebrated controversy with 
sir Peter Leycester, also adopts the same opinion, meeting the arguments of sir Peter Leycester, by slating tliat Ordericos, in using the words 
" quem solum genuit," uses solum as an adjective, without the adverbial mark given by sir Peter Leycester in his discourse on Amicia; consequently 
that be intends no more than that Hugh Lupus /lad one son only by Ermentrude; that sir Peter Leycester*s oljei-tiuii as to inheritance might be 
avoided by supposing half blood, or anew grant of the earldom after the extinction of the male line on which it might probably have been settled : and 
that though Ordericus mentions earl Hugh's numerous base issue, he no where includes the name of Geva in the list. It is observable that sir Thomas 
Mainwaring liere positively charges sir P. Leycester witli altering the sense of Ordericus, by saying, " neither is it marked as an adverb in Ordericus 
his book, Ihmigh it be so in yours." Def. of Amicia, p. 43 ; and in his answer to this book, sir P. Leycester docs not deny the charge in replying to 
this passage at p. 40 : yet the reader will see, by referring to sir P. Leycester, p. 1 16, (p. 17, col. 1, of this volume) that he did not interpolate any 
adverbial mark, but gave solum as an adjective. O. 

i His body was first buried in the cemetery of the abbey, but was afterwards removed to the chapter-house by Randle Meschines, on which occa- 
sion he gave the manor of Upton to the monks. O. 

>= Hugh Lupus gave also the tithes of Sauley, Co. Bucks, and of Pillerton, co. VVarw. and a hide of land in the latter place, to the monastery of 
Utica in Normandy. Dugd. Baron. Aug. O. 



16 



%\^t ^i^tox^ of Ci)es|)tte. 



omm. Hoc actum est in sexto anno regni Henrici 
regis, in mense Maii, in die Pentecostes. This was in 
May, anno Christi 1106. Earl Richard being then 
about twelve years old. 

By the words [nondum militari baltheo cinctus] I 
suppose the monk meaneth that the earl was a child, 
and under the tuition of his mother ; and for that rea- 
son used her seal to this charter, and also to other his 
letters. Of which opinion likewise is Selden, in his 
Titles of Honor, pag. 786. The law, saith he, being 
such, that whosoever was knighted, though before the 
age of one and twenty, he was esteemed as of full age 
in regard of any wardship or other tuition ; and the use 
being, that such great lords were often knighted before 
they were of full age. Now this earl as yet not having 
received that honour of knighthood, but being under 
age, used the seal of his guardian to make the act more 
authentick and valid ; and that he was but a child when 
his father died, take the authority of Ordericus, lib. 10. 
pag. 787. Richardus autem pulcherrimus puer, ama- 
bilis omnibus, consulatum [Cestriae scilicet] tenuit. 

n. He married Maude, daughter of Stephen earl of 
Bloys in France, by his wife Adela, daughter of William 
the Conqueror ; and had no sooner tasted the pleasures 
of his marriage-bed, but he with his young countess 
were by the churlish waves, not onely prohibited their 
mutual love embraces, and hopes of future posterity to 
succeed them, but were deprived of their lives also, as 
they were saiHng for England, anno Domini 1119. Or- 
dericus, pag. 787. So that he was about the age of 
twenty-five years when he was drowned. 

Milles in his Catalogue of Honour hath clearly mis- 
taken the name of this earl's wife, calling her Lucy in- 
stead of Maude, vouching no authority; a gross absur- 
dity in a herald. 

III. But because this lamentable accident is memor- 
able for the destructive influence it had upon many of 
the nobility of England, I will collect the whole story 
out of Ordericus, and as briefly as I may, lib. 12, pag. 
868, 869, 870. The master of the ship was Thomas the 
son of Stephen, who came to King Henry the First, 
then in Normandy, and ready to take shipping for Eng- 
land, and offered him a mark of gold (in elder ages va- 
lued at six pound in silver. Rot. Mag. Pipffi de Anno 
1 Hen. II. and as others say ten marks of silver, 
61. I3s. 4d.) desiring, that as Stephen his father had 
transported the Conqueror when he fought against king 
Harold in England, and was his constant mariner in all 
his passages between England and Normandy, so that 
he himself likewise might now have the transportation 
of king Henry with all his attendance, as it were in fee; 
for he had a very good ship called Candida Navis, or 
The White Ship, well furnished for that purpose. The 
king thanked him, but withal told him, he had already 
made choice of another ship, which he would not 
change ; yet he would commend him to his two sons, 
William and Richard, with many others of his nobility : 
whereat the mariners much rejoiced, and desired the 
prince to bestow some wine upon them to drink : He 
gave them tres modios vini, three hogsheads of wine, 
wherewith they made themselves sufficiently drunk. 
There were almost three hundred in this unfortunate 
ship ; for there were fifty skilful oars or galleymen, had 
they not been intoxicated with wine, which belonged to 
the ship, besides the young gallants which were to be 
transported : but now being neither able to govern 
themselves nor the ship, they suffered it to be split on a 
rock, and so all were drowned, except one Berolde, a 
butcher of Roan, in Normandy, who was took up the 



next morning by three fishermen into their boat after a 
cold frosty night's shipwrack, and with much ado reco- 
vered and lived twenty years after. 

There were, saith Hoveden, in this ship militaris nu- 
raeri 140, nautarum 50, ciim tribus gubernatoribus, 
with many noblemen and women. 

The names of the more eminent persons who then pe- 
rished [of whom Huntington thus — Omnes, vel fer^ 
omnes, sodomitica labe dicebantur irretiti,] I have here 
collected out of Ordericus, viz. pag. 869. William and 
Richard, two sons of king Henry the First ; Rafe Rufus, 
and Gilbert de Oximis; and pag. 870, Maude, daughter 
of Henry the First, wife of Rotron earl of Morton ; 
Richard earl of Chester, juvenis multa probitate et benig- 
nitate laudabilis, with Maude his wife, sister to Tedbald 
earl palatine of Blois ; Othuerus also, brother to Rich- 
ard, Hugonis CestricB comitis filius, tutor regiffi prolis 
et paedagogus, ut fertur, diam repentina fieret ratis sub- 
versio, nobiliumque irreparabilis dimersio, adolescentu- 
lum (meaning Richard earl of Chester) illic6 amplexatus 
est, et cum ipso in profundum irremeabiliter prolapsus 
est; also Theodoricus puer, Henrici nepos imperatoris 
Almannorum ; also two brave sons of Ivo de Grente- 
maisnill, and William of Rothelent their cosin, who by 
the king's command were coming to recieve their fa- 
ther's inheritances in England ; William sirnamed Bi- 
god, with William de Prior the king's steward ; Geffrey 
Ridell, and Hugh de Molinis; Robert Malconductus or 
Malduit, and Nequam Gisulfus semba regis : aliique 
plures multae ingenuitatis. And in page 649, he names 
two more, Engenulfe and Goisfred, sons of Gilbert de 
Aquila : And in Stowe we find named Walter de Curcy, 
and Geffrey archdeacon of Hereford ; in all 16O persons. 

Of which shipwrack an excellent rhimer of those times 
composed these verses. Ordericus, pag. 869. 

Accidit hora gravis, Thomaeque miserrima navis, 

Quam malh rectaverit, rupe soluta perit. 
Flebilis eventus, dum nobilis ilia juventus 

Est immersa mari perditione pari. 
Jactatur pelago regum generosa propago : 

Quosque duces plorant, monstra marina vorant. 
O dolor immensus ! nee nobilitas, neque census 

Ad vitam revocat, quos maris unda necat. 
Purpura ciim bysso liquido putrescit abysso, 

Rex quoque quem genuit, piscibus esca fuit. 
Sic sibi fidentes ludit fortuna potentes : 

Nunc dat : nunc demit: hinc levat, inde premit. 
Quid numerus procerum, quid opes, quid gloria rerum .'' 

Quid, Guillelme, tibi forma valebat ibi .'' 
Marcuit ille decor regalis, et abstulit aequor 

Quod factus fueras, quodque futurus eras. 
Iter aquas istis instat damnatio tristis, 

Ni pietas gratis caelica parcat eis : 
Corporibus mersis animse si dona salutis 

Nactae gauderent, moesta procul fierent : 
Certa salus animae veriim dat tripudiare 

His, bene qui charos commemorant proprios. 
Hinc dolor est ingens, humana quod inscia fit mens. 

An requies sit eis, quos capit uda Thetis. 

The place or haven where they took shipping is called 
Barbaflat, that is, Harefleet in Normandy; the time 7 
calend. Decemb. 1119- So Ordericus. But Hoveden, 
Huntington, Paris, and judicious Cambden, do all place 
it in anno 1120. Hoveden expresseth the very day of 
the week, — Anno 1120, in scopulos, dictos Chaterase, 
fracta est navis 6 calendas Decembris, feria quinta, noc- 
tis initio apud Barbefleet : where he computes the night 
to the day following ; Ordericus, to the day past. 



ilEjcester'si ^rolesomma* 



17 



IV. I cannot but take notice here of the printer's 
error in Ordericus, as it is set out by Andrew du Chesne 
with other authors, and printed 1619. We read p. 787, 
— Ricardus autem pulcherrimus puer, quem soMm ex 
Ermentrude filia Hugonis de Claromonte genuit, con- 
sulatum ejus fere 12 annis amabilis omnibus tenuit : 
where the number 12 should have been 19, for if this 
place be conferred with page 870, then Richard, by 
exact computation out of Ordericus, was earl of Ches- 
ter just eighteen years and four months : But if you 
place the time of this shipwrack in anno 1120, as most 
authors do, then must he have held the earldom nine- 
teen years and four months. 

I shall close all concerning this earl with his charter 
of confirmation to the abbey of St. Werburge, which 
remained among the evidences of that church anno 
1644, but were after removed thence in the late war 
1648. 

Anno ab incarnatione Domini millesimo centesimo 
decimo nono, regnante potentissimo rege Henrico, ego 
comes Ricardus meique homines communi concilio con- 
firmavimus sigillo meo omnes donationes, quae datae 
sunt a me vel a meis in meo tempore ecclesiae Sanctae 
Werburgae, Cestriae : ego itaque comes Ricardus post 
obitum patris mei dedi, pro salute animse et suae, terram 
quag fuit Wulfrici praepositi foris portam de North, 
priis per unam spicam frumenti, deind^ per unum cul- 
tellum super altare Sanctae Werburgae ; et molendinuin 
de Bache, et tres mansuras quietas et ab omni re liberas, 
duas in civitate, et unam extra portam de North. Tes- 
tibus Willielmo Constabulario, W altero de Vernon, Ra- 
dulfo Dapifero, et multis aliis. Willielmus Constabn- 
larius dedit Neutonam simul cum servitio Hugonis filii 
Udardi de quatuor bovatis ; et servitium Wicelini de 
duabus bovatis. Hugo filius Normanni dedit Gostrey 
et Lawton. Testibus Hugone de Lacy, et Radulfo et 
Rogero filiis Normanni, multisque aliis. Ricardus de 
Praers dedit Knoctirum. Testibus Willielmo et Ada, 
filiis ejus. Corbinus dedit unam carucam terrae in 
Werewel. Hamundus de Mascy concessu haeredum 



suorum, et Rosa uxor Pigoti concessu Rogeri fratris 
ejus, dederunt Norwordinam et ecclesiam, ciim omnibus 
quae ad earn pertinent: concedentibus et testibus filiis 
eorum. Rogerus de Menilgarin dedit Plumleiam cim 
Widone filio suo quando factus est monachus. Teste 
Ranulfo et Willielmo filiis. Ranulfus Venator dedit 
Bresseford, et unam salinam in Northwich, concessu 
Ricardi comitis, et Hugonis de Vernon domini sui. 
Item Ricardus comes dedit decimum salmonem de 
ponte, et locum unius molendini citra pontem, et deci- 
mam illius molendini ultra pontem. Burel dedit eccle- 
siam de Haliwella, et decimam de molendino suo, et 
de omnibus rebus suis. Herebertus Wambarsarius de- 
dit terram quatuor boum in Hole. Ricardus Pincernai' 
dedit ecclesiam Sancti Olavi, et terram juxta ecclesiam, 
et duas mansuras in foro. Rogerus de Sancto Martino 
dedit terram duorum boum in Bebington. Willielmus 
de Punterling dedit Buttanari, cum omnibus appendi- 
ciis suis, id est, ecclesiam et totum manerium solutum et 
quietum, et silvam Lectone ad rogum faciendum et ad 
communem usum domestici operis ; consensu et testi- 
monio Hereberti filii sui, et Aluredi domini sui, et Ri- 
cardi comitis. Hugo de Vernon concessu Ricardi comitis 
dedit unam mansuram in civitate solutam et quietam ab 
omni re et consuetudine. His ita descriptis, ego comes 
Ricardus, meique barones, et mei homines, confirma- 
vimus non solum ista, sed etiam ilia omnia quae comes 
Hugo pater meus, et barones sui, confirmaverunt, &c. 
Ita libere ut nihil libertatis possit eisaddi ulterids; nihil 
enim retinemus practer orationes in rebus Sanctae Wer- 
burgae. Concedimus etiam, ut beata virgo Werburga 
habeat suam curiam de cunctis placitis et forisfactis, 
sicut comes habet suam. Ita vercj qu5d abbas illius 
loci non exeat nequ^ placitet contra aliquem de aliquo 
placito, vel de aliqua re extra curiam suam. Testibus 
Ranulfo de Meschines, et Willielmo fratre suo, Willi- 
elmo Constabulario, et Ricardo fi-atre suo, Hugone 
Malbanck, Osberno de Meschines, Hugone filio Os- 
berni, et Willielmo fratre ejus, multisque aliis : Apud 
Graham'. 



1 This earl gave to the abhey of St. Benedict upon Leyre in Normandy, the lordship of Mintings in Lincolnshire, the church of St. Andrew's there, 
and the church of All Saints at Gauteby, with divers lands in that county. Dugdale Baron, p. 36. 

Richard was unpopular with the monks of Chester. His donations were small, and he is said to have threatened to wrest Saighton Grange from 
thft abbot, if he had returned safe from his voyage. 

A romantic legend connected with his pilgrimage to Holywell will be found mentioned in the account of Hilbree Island, Wirral Hundred, p. 275, 



+ F 



18 



CJe ©tstor^ of Ct)e0j)ire» 



CHAP. III. 



m tf)e fim %mUt earl of Cfjestet* 



Or, a lion rampant, Gules. 



I. Randle the First, surnamed de Micines, or Mes- 
chines, viscount Bayeux in Normandy, obtained the 
earldom of Chester from king Henry the First, with all 
the patrimony thereof, as next heir to eail Richard ; for 
he was nephew to Hugh Lupus, to wit, son of Maude, 
sister to earl Hugh; Ordericus, lib. 12, pag. 871. He 
restored to king Henry all the land which he had by his 
wife the widow of Roger de Romara, for the earldom of 
Chester. Ordericus, pag. 876. 

He is also stiled Randle of Bricasard, who stuck faith- 
fully to king Henry the First, in the midst of a tumul- 
tuous rebellion in Normandy, sub anno 1119, with 
others of the nobility, scorning to be disgraced with the 
name of a traytor. Ordericus, lib. 12, pag. 851, and 879- 

In an ancient roll of knights fees due to the duke of 
Normandy, I find — 

Comes Cestriae servitium x militum de S. Severio, et 
de Bricasart; et ad suum servitium li milites, et dimi- 
divun, et quartam partem, et octavam unius militis : In 
the appendix added by Andrew du Chesne to the Nor- 
man writers, at the end thereof, pag. 104o. 

This earl Randle was lord of Cumberland and Carlisle 
by descent from his father ; for after the Normans had in- 
vaded England, Cumberland fell to the share of Raufe 
de Meschines ; cujus filius natu maximus Ranulfus fait 
Cumbrise dominus; et materno jure, principisque gratis 
etiam Cestriae comes ; saith Cambden in Cumberland. 

II. But king Stephen, willing to gain the favour of 
the Scots, gave Cumberland away to them again, to be 
held of the kings of England as by a right of protec- 
tion : For the eldest sons of the kings of Scotland, be- 
fore the Norman conquest, were governors of Cumber- 
land for a certain space. But king Henry the Second 
brought back the liberality of Stephen to himself, and 
took from the Scots, Northumberland, Cumberland, and 
Westmorland, as Cambden in the same place addeth. 

HI. Raufe de Meschines had by Maude his wife, sis- 
ter of Hugh Lupus, two sons : Randle the eldest, earl 
of Chester ; and William de Meschines, to whom king 
Henry the First gave the castle of Egremont in Cum- 
berland, per servitium unius militis, utque iret ad prae- 
ceptum regis in exercitu Scotiae et Wallias, as Cambden 
my author informs me \ 

This William gave the church of Dissart to the abbey 
of St. Werburge in the city of Chester, as appears by 
an ancient charter among the evidences of that church, 
and confirmed by this Randle earl of Chester ; which 
for better satisfaction I think fit here to insert. 

Universis Matris Ecclesiae filiis Ranulphus comes 
Cestria;, salutem. Notum sit vobis pariter me conces- 
sisse, quandb feci transferri corpus Hugonis comitis, mei 
Avunculi, a coemeterio in capitulum, ut in die mortis 
meae darem simul cum corpore meo ecclesise Sanctae 
Werburgae, Uptunam solutam et quietam ab omni re. 



ut elemosynam liberam, siciit ego ipse in ilia die habe- 
rem earn, in terris, in hominibus, in planis, in pascuis, 
in pratis, in placitis, et in omnibus pertinentiis suis, pro 
anima ipsius Hugonis comitis, et pro salute animae 
meae, et animarum omnium parentum meorum. Item 
quia comes Hugo concesserat autea ecclesiae Sanctae 
Werburgse theoloneum, et omnes reditus nundinarum 
trium dierum, id est, a nona vigiliae Sanctae Werburgse 
usqu6 ad vesperam sequentis diei post solennitatem : 
Ego comes Ranulfus illud idem concede et confirmo, con- 
stituens sic^t ipse constituerat,ut siv^ latro, siv^ robbator, 
sive aliquis malefactor venerit ad solennitatem, habeat fir- 
mam pacem diim fuerit in nundinis, nisi forte foris- 
fecit in illis. Et si forte aliquis forisfecerit in nundinis, 
omne placitum et forisfactum et justitia, a ministris 
abbatis et a vice-comite civitatis, tractabuntur in curia 
SanctsE Werburgae Virginis : Et ut vicecomes intentius 
et fidelius hoc agat, computetur et tallietur ei a meis 
camerariis in suam firmam, quicquid monachi ex his om- 
nibus acceperunt. Willielmus Meschines, frater mens, 
dedit Deo et ecclesiae Sanctae Werburgae ecclesiam de 
Dissard, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis, consensu Ra- 
nulphi comitis, et Ranulphi filii sui. Teste Willielmo 
clerico de Roelent, Willielmo Flandrensi, multisque 
aliis. Mattheus de Ruelent dedit ecclesiam de Turs- 
taniston ciim suis pertinentiis, quando Simon frater ejus 
factus est monachus. Testibus Roberto de Petroponte, 
multisque aliis. Hugo filius Osberni dedit unam man- 
suram in Cestria, et unum pratum quod vocatur Kings- 
eye. Suuein de Watenhale factus monachus, dedit 
duas bovatas in Watenhale, concedentibus filiis ejus. 
Ricardus de Cruce dedit unam mansuram in Cestria in 
vico apud pontem, et partem terrje quam habuit in Mor- 
cetone et vellet monachus fieri. Teste Normanno filio 
suo, multisque aliis. Letitia de Malpas dedit Deo et 
Sanctae ^VerburgaB unam mansuram versils portam 
Clippe. Teste et concedente Ricardo domino suo, et 
fratre suo Ricardo Mallard, Nigello Chaldell, multisque 
aliis. Willielmus filius Andreae dedit ciim filio suo mo- 
nacho facto unam magnam shoppam inter domum 
Winebalt et Hamundi in foro. Haec sunt itaqu^ dona, 
quae data sunt a me et a meis hominibus ecclesiae Sanctae 
Werburgae in meo tempore : Quapropter concedimus et 
confirmamus, tam ego quam homines mei, non soliim 
haec supradicta, sed et ea omnia, quae comes Hugo 
mens avunculus, vel Ricardus comes ejus filius, aut 
eorum homines, dederunt ecclesiae Sanctae Werburgae ; 
deprecantes et prsBcipientes cunctis nostris amicis et 
hominibvis, tam praesentibus quam futuris, quatenus ea 
omnia sint stabilia, soluta, et quieta, et ut elemosyna ab 
omni re ita libera, ut nihil libertatis possit eis addi ulte- 
riiis, quia nihil retinemus in his exceptis orationibus. 
Adhiic etiam concedimus et confirmamus, siciit praedicti 
comites et eorum homines ante^ confirmaverunt, ut 



a Getfrey, a third son, to whom his brother Randle gave Gillesland in Cumberland ; and to William, Coupland in Cumberland. An old parchment 
roll, in custody of Henry Ferrars of Badsley in Warwickshire. See also Monasticon, vol. i. pag. 400. P. L. 



iLepcester's prolegomena. 



19 



beata Werburga habeat de cunctis rebus curiam suam, 
ita qu6cl abbas illius loci non placitet usquam contra 
aliquem de aliqua re ad ecclesiam pertinente extra cu- 
riam suam. 

Et ut ego comes Ranulfus darem exemplum posteris, 
veni ipse propter unum placitum in curiam abbatis, au- 
diens et suscipiens ibi meum judicium, non a meis sed a 
judicibus abbatis, ut in omnibus haberet beata Wer- 
burga jus suae dignitatis in perpetuum. Et ut igitClr 
sic sint omnia, sicut prsedictum est, libera, confirmamus 
ea hinc sanctse crucis signo, ©. Hinc meo sigillo, 
hinc horum virorum testimonio ; scilicet, Willielmo 
Meschini, Willielmi Constabularii, et Radvilfi Da- 
piferi, Hugonis Malbanc, Ricardi Banaster, Hugo- 
nis filii Osberni, Osberni filii Hugonis, Roberti de 
Mascy, Roberti filii Bigot, Adee de Praers, Gaufridi 
Capellani, Turgicii Doctoris, Ricardi filii Nigelli. Sig- 
num ffl Ranulfi comitis. Signum S Willielmi Meschini. 
Signum S Willielmi Constabularii. Signum © Roberti 
de Palmas. Signum S Radulfi Dapif'eri. Signum 
© Hugonis Malbanc. Signum © Ricardi Banaster. 
Signum® Hugonis filii Osberni. Signum ©Osberni 
filii Hugonis. Signum © Roberti de Mascy. 

TV. The Wife of Randle the First. 

He married Lucy, the widow of Roger de Romara, 
son of Geroldus; Ordericus, pag. 871- She was the 
daughter of Algar the Saxon, earl of Mercia, and sister 
to the two great earls, Edwine earl of Mercia, and Mor- 
car earl of Northumberland, who stoutly opposed Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. This Lucy had three husbands, 
and survived them all : the first was Ivo de Talbois 
earl of Angeau ; the second was Roger de Romara, son 
of Gerold, by whom she had issue William de Romara 
earl of Lincoln ; the third was this earl of Chester. 
Cambden in his Britannia, at the end of Leycestershire. 

This lady Lucy countess of Chester and Lincoln, 
founded the priory of Spalding in Lincolnshire, where 
in times past were monks of Anjou in France. So Le- 
land, a manuscript in Oxford library, pag. 86. See Mo- 
nasticon, vol. 1. pag. 307, 308, and vol. 2. pag. 871. 

The same Lucy, with her two sons, Randle earl of 
Chester, and William de Romara earl of Lincoln, found- 
ed a priory of nuns at Stikeswold, of the order of Cis- 
tercians, in the county of Lincoln. Idem Leland ibidem, 
pag. 87. See Monasticon, vol. 2, p. 809. 

V. The issue of Randle the First, by Lucy. 

This Randle the First had issue by Lucy, Randle the 
Second, who succeeded earl of Chester ; Ordericus, 



pag. 871. William, another son, earl of Cambridge, 
who was witness, with his brother Randle the Second, 
to a charter of Alexander bishop of Lincoln, of the 
island of Haferholm to the nuns of St. Maries, of the 
order of Cistercians, dated 1139, 4 Stephani. Also 
Agnes, a daughter, the first wife of Robert de Grente- 
maisnil; Ordericus, pag. 692. Afterwards he married 
Emme, daughter of Robert de Stotevill ; and his third 
wife was Lucy, daughter of Savaricus, son of Canus. 

Adeliza, another daughter of this Randle, married 
Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, of whom he begot 
three sons ; which Richard was slain by the Welsh. 
Will. Gemeticensis, lib. 8, cap. 38. Monasticon, vol. I. 
pag. 118. 

Randle the First died anno Domini 1 128, after he had 
been earl eight years; Polychronicon, lib. 7, cap. 17. 
""He is called comes Cumbriae, Monasticon, vol. 1. p. 397; 
but erroneously, and by mistake ; for they were stiled 
Domini Cumbriae, not comites, as Cambden observes. 
And I doubt whether in these early ages there was any 
earl of Cumberland at all, properly to be understood. 

This Randle the First gave to the abbey of St. Mary's 
at York, the church of St. Michael, and the church of 
St. Laurence of his castle of Apelby, with all their ap- 
purtenances, id est, which belonged to his castle of 
Apelby, in Westmorland. Monasticon, vol. 1. p. 399, 
in the reign of king Henry the First. 
, Randle Meschin gave also to the abbey of Kaldra in 
Cumberland, that land of Kaldra wherein the abbey was 
founded, and Bemertone, et Holgate, et unam mansu- 
ram in burgo de Egremunt, et duas salinas de Withane, 
et piscariam de Derewent, et piscariarn de Egre, et pas- 
cua ad omnia animalia in foresta ipsius Ranulphi ; Mo- 
nasticon, vol. 1. pag. 774. But quaere, whether this were 
not Randle de Micenis, son of William de Meschin 
lord of Coupland, who founded the cell of St. Beges in 
Cumberland, belonging to St. Mary's of York; see Mo- 
nasticon, vol. 1. pag. 395, 396, and not our earl of 
Chester here spoken of; for that the p. 774, before cited 
shews, that the abbey of Kaldra was founded anno Do- 
mini 1134, which was after the death of this Randle 
earl of Chester ; and it seems not to be meant of our 
second Randle earl of Chester, because then he would 
probably have been stiled earl, and not barely Randle 
Meschin, as there he is stiled. 

^ Lucia, the widow of this first Randle earl of Chester, 
gave 2661. 13s. 4d. for livery of her father's lands; and 
also 500 marks fine, that she might not be compelled to 
marry within five years'". 



1> Matt. West, sub anno 1073, calls him comes Ranulfus de Micenis. P. L. <: Pipe-Roll, 5 Stephani. Lincolnshire. P. L. 

d She gave to the nuns of Stikeswould in Lincolnshire seven carucates and four oxgangs of land, lyings in Huntendon ; and confirmed to the 
priory of Spalding in the same county the manor of that place, which Ivo Talbois her first husband had formerly given to the monks of St. Nicholas 
at Anglers in France, unto which monastery this was a cell, where she had afterwards sepulture. Dugdale, Baron, p. 37. 

Dugdale enumerates several accounts and traditions relative to the mode in which this earl became possessed of the earldom of Chester, and 
relinquished Cumberland, which are at very considerable variance with each other. O. 



20 



Cj)e f^istor? of Cf)e0t)ire» 




CHAP. IV. 



M 3^antile tj)e ^econti* 



Gules, a lion rampant, Argent. 



I. Randle the Second, sirnamed Gernouns, because 
he was born at Gernon-castle in Normandy % was son 
and successor to his father Randle the First, in the 
earldom of Chester, and in all his patrimony both in 
England and Normandy, anno 1 128. Ordericus, lib. 12, 
pag. 871. Gemeticensis, lib. 8, cap. 38. Polycronicon, 
lib. 7, cap. 17. 

Anno Domini 1139. King Stephen made Henry, son 
of David king of Scotland, earl of Northumberland, at 
Durham; and gave him Carlisle and Cumberland, upon 
a peace then concluded between Stephen and the king 
of Scotland : which incensed this Randle earl of Chester 
more vehemently against Stephen ; howbeit in respect 
of his alliance to Robert earl of Glocester, whose 
daughter he had married, Randle was more apt to be 
drawn unto the part of Maude the empress : so that 
John prior of Hagulsted, in his Continuation of the 
History of Simon of Durham, pag. 268, tells us, that in 
anno 1 140, Henry son of the king of Scotland, with his 
wife, coming to visit king Stephen in England, this earl 
of Chester was much displeased at him ; for Randle re- 
quired Carlisle and Cumberland as his rightful patri- 
mony, and would have fought the said Henry in his 
return to Scotland : But Stephen having notice of 
Randle's intentions, sent Henry back into his countrey 
safe from all danger ; and afterwards was the earl of 
Chester's indignation bent against king Stephen, and 
the earl surprised the castle of Lincoln, and possessed 
himself of all the strong holds in Lincolnshire. 

IL This Randle was a gallant man at arms, and took 
king Stephen prisoner at the battel near Lincoln, on 
Candlemas-day, anno Domini 1141; Ordericus, Hun- 
tington, and Hoveden. But Mat. Paris placeth this 
battel in anno 1140. The story is set down at large by 
Ordericus, lib. 13. Eccles. Hist. pag. 921, 922, as fol- 
loweth. 

Anno Domini 1141. Anno sexto Stephani regis, 



Randle earl of Chester, and William de Romara his 
half-brother by the mother, earl of Lincoln, rebelled 
against Stephen, and fraudulently surprised the castle of 
Lincoln, wherein king Stephen had placed a garrison 
of soldiers for defence of the town ; which castle was 
taken thus. Spying the opportunitj^ when the castle- 
soldiers were dispersed abroad, the earl of Chester un- 
armed, and without a cloke or coat (as if he meant to 
fetch home his wife, whom he had before sent thither, 
accompanied with the countess of Lincoln, wife of 
the said William de Romara, as walking abroad for 
their recreation) enters the castle with three soldiers, 
which followed him not far off, no man suspecting any 
treachery. They presently seised the port or gate, and 
took all the arms which they found, letting in William 
de Romara, with a company of armed soldiers, who 
hasted after, according to the contrivement of the plot; 
and so turning all out that remained in the castle, which 
were of the king's part, the two brothers possessed them- 
selves both of the town and castle. 

Bishop Alexander, and the townsmen, willing to insi- 
nuate themselves into the favor of king Stephen, gave 
him notice of what had hapned. The news much in- 
censed the king, and so much the more, by how much 
the fact was committed by those whom he took for his 
special friends, and on whom he had conferred many 
favors. Stephen forthwith gathereth an army, and 
after Christmas-day, which was in the seventh year of 
Stephen's reign, anno 1141, marched towards Lincoln; 
where by his sudden and unexpected coming in the 
night, and the intelligence of some of the townsmen, he 
surprized seventeen of the earl's soldiers which were in 
the town. 

The two earls with their wives and friends were be- 
sieged in the castle, and knew not how to escape this 
present danger. At last Randle earl of Chester (who 
was the younger and more courageous earl) adventures 



a Powers Notes on the Welsh Hist. pag. 295. Vernon-Castle ; the letters of G and V in the beginning of words being promiscuously used. P. L. 
*** For an account of the seal given in this page, see the Note p. 26- • _ 



2.e^cesiter'si i^rokgometta. 



21 



out by night, attended onely with a few, and went to 
Cheshire as amongst his own men : he makes known 
his condition to Robert earl of Glocester his father-in- 
law, and to others of his friends : The disinherited 
Welsh and many others he exasperates against the 
king, and raiseth all the forces he can, to help his 
friends that were besieged in the castle of Lincoln ; es- 
pecially he implores the aid of Maude the empress and 
countess of Anjou, swearing fealty unto her, whose fa- 
vour he obtained. Having now gathered a numerous 
army, the two earls, Robert earl of Glocester, and 
Randle earl of Chester, march speedily to Lincoln. The 
king, hearing of their approach, adviseth what is to be 
done : Some counsel him to leave a competent strength 
to defend the town, and to go away himself, and raise a 
potent army through all the parts of the kingdom, 
whereby in due time he might be able to disperse them, 
if they should continue before that town. Others advise 
him to send a parley to the enem^', to put off the battel, 
since that day (being Candlemas-day) was sacred, and 
to be set apart in commemoration of the Purification of 
the Virgin Mary. But the obstinate king, not willing 
to delay the matter, draws forth all his forces immedi- 
ately ; both armies meet near the town of Lincoln, and 
being put in order, joyn battel. The king divides his 
army into three bodies; so did the earls likewise divide 
their army on the contrary part. In the front of the 
king's army were the Fleramings and the Britons, com- 
manded bj' William de Ipvo and Alan de Dinan. On 
the opposite part to them stood a furious company of 
the Welsh, commanded by two brothers, Mariadoth 
and Kaladrius. 

The earl of Chester alights from his horse, resolving 
to fight on foot. The stout earl bravely encouraged 
his courageous Cheshire regiment of foot, and made 
this short speech to the earl of Glocester, and the rest 
of his army — 

" I humbly thank you, most invincible general, and 
you the rest of my fellow soldiers, that you have so 
faithfully and courageously expressed your affection to 
me, even to the hazard of your own lives : And since I 
have been the cause of this your danger, it is but rea- 
son I should lead the way, and give the first onset to 
the army of the perfidious king, who hath broken the 
truce he made ; and onely out of the confidence of your 
valour, and the king's injustice, I doubt not to dis- 
sipate his forces, and with my sword to make way 
through the midst of my enemies : Methinks 1 see them 
run already."'' 

Then Robert earl of Glocester, who commanded in 
chief, encouraged his soldiers, and told theBassians and 
others who were disinherited, that now they should 
have one bout for the recovery of their right and in- 
heritance. 

King Stephen on the other part ahghts from his horse, 
and fought on foot very stoutly both for his life and 
kingdom ; but having no audible voice, commanded 
Baldwin de Clare, a man of great honour and prowess, 
to make known his mind to the army : who made an 
oration to encourage the soldiers'^; "impeaching the earl 
of Chester, as a man audacious, but without judgment ; 
heady to plot a treason, but still wavering in the pur- 
suit of it ; ready to run into battel, but uncircumspect 
of any danger ; aiming beyond his reach, and conceit- 



ing things meerly impossible ; and therefore hath but 
fpw with him that know him, leading onely a rout of 
vagrant and tumultuous pesants : So there is nothino- 
in him to be feared ; for whatsoever he begins like a 
man, he ends like a woman ; unfortunate in all his un- 
dertakings : In his encounters he hath either been van- 
quished, or if by chance he rarely obtain a victory, it is 
with greater loss on his part then the conquered." 

But as soon as he had ended his oration, the fight 
began ; which was ver5; fierce and terrible, many slain 
on both parts. In the head of the king's army were 
very stout soldiers; but his enemies outvying him in 
number, prevailed. "William de Ipro with the Flem- 
mings, and Alan with the Britons, first turn their backs ; 
■' which much discouraged the king's friends, but encou- 
raged the enemy. The king was ill betrayed ; for some 
of his nobles accompanied him in person, whiles they 
sent whole troops to the other side. 

Waleran earl of Mellent, and William de \A'arren 
his brother, Gilbert de Clare, and other famous knights 
both of England and Normand)-, ran away as soon as 
they saw their own side shrink : But Baldwin de Clare, 
and Richard, son of Ursi, Engelram de Say, and Ilde- 
bert Lacy, stuck stoutly to the king, and fought it to 
the last man : Stephen himself, like a noble branch of 
an heroick family, fought so gallantly, that when his 
sword was broken, taking a battel-a.xe from a young 
gentleman which stood near him, he ceased not to en- 
counter with his over-powerful enemies; but at last 
was constrained to yield himself prisoner to Robert earl 
of Glocester, his cosin, who sent him "to Maude the em- 
press at Bristow, where he was imprisoned. Baldwine 
de Clare likewise, and other excellent champions on the 
king's part, were taken prisoners. 

Thus by the voluble wheel of fortune was kin"- 
Stephen taken prisoner at the battel of Lincoln, on 
Candlemas-day anno Domini 1141, according to Orde- 
ricus, who lived in that very age ; which was principally 
occasioned by the valour and assistance of Randle earl 
of Chester. 

III. 'Alan earl of Brettaine, a treacherous and cruel 
man, lying in ambush for the earl of Chester, to revenge 
the dishonor of taking his lord and king prisoner, was 
himself taken and imprisoned till he did homaoe to 
Randle earl of Chester, and had delivered up his castles 
unto him. Others say, Alan earl of Richmond and 
Little-Britain, was sent for by Randle to speak with 
him, and so was apprehended by him, anno 1141. John 
Hagustaldensis, pag. 26y. 

Not long after this, Robert earl of Glocester was 
taken prisoner in another battel, by some others of 
Stephen's party ; and so immediately king Stephen and 
earl Robert were exchanged each for other. 

Anno 1143. Stephen being released out of prison, be- 
sieged Lincoln, and would have built a fort over against 
the castle, which Randle earl of Chester kept ; but the 
earl killed almost eighty of his workmen, and so he was 
forced to give it off. Mat. Paris, and Hen. Huntington. 
But Hoveden placeth this 1144, 9 Stephani. 

Anno Domini 114.5. King Stephen gathering a great 
army, built a strong castle over against Wallingford • 
whither Randle earl of Chester accompanied him with 
great forces, and was restored unto his favour : But af- 
terwards the earl coming to the king's court at Nor- 



>> This speech is not in Ordericus ; but is taken out of Huntington, p. 390. It is also in Hoveden and others. P. L. <= Henry Huntington, lib. 8. P. L. 
<• Huntington and Hoveden say ihey beat the Welsh, but the earl of Chester coming up with his forces quite routed them. P. L. 
e Gesta Stenh. p. 9.53. P. L. 

to 



22 



Cj)e ^istot^ of C|)esf)ite» 



thampton, was surprized, little dreaming of any such 
matter, and cast into prison, until he restored the castle 
of Lincoln, which he had fraudulently taken, and all 
other castles which he injuriously had taken from the 
king. Chronica Normanniae, put out by Du Chesne 
with other histories, pag. 982. Also Polychronicon 
addeth. That the Welshmen then wasted Cheshire, but 
were intercepted at Nantwich, Ub. 7, cap. 19- Monasti- 
con, vol. 1, pag. 890. 

But for the reconcilement of Stephen and Randle, it 
is more fully set down in Gesta Stephani, pag. 968, thus 

The earl of Chester (who had got almost a third part 

of the kingdom by his sword), comes to the king, and 
desires pardon for his rebellion at Lincoln, and for the 
seizing of his soveraign's possessions, and thereupon 
was received into favour : And in farther testimony of 
his obedience, he helped the king's forces, and gallantly 
assaulted the town of Bedford, which had much weak- 
ned and shattered the king's army ; and having taken it, 
delivers it into Stephen's hands. After this he accom- 
panied king Stephen to Wallingford, attended with 
three hundred gallant horse, till the king had erected a 
stately castle in prospect thereof, to stop the incursions 
of the enemy, which were wont to issue out of Walling- 
ford, and prey upon the countrey. But for all this 
friendship, Randle was suspected of Stephen, because 
he surrendred not the castles and rents which he had 
violently taken from him ; and because of the earls wa- 
vering and unstable mind, not having put in pledges of 
his fidelity ; so that neither the king nor his prime 
councellors durst rely upon him, unless he would sur- 
render all the king's possessions : and if he refused this, 
then the king ought to clap him up at his best opportu- 
nity. Ibidem, pag. 970, 971. 

Randle earl of Chester, seeing he was suspected, turns 
himself to his wonted course of treason, plotting how 
he might more easily without infamy deliver the king 
into the hands of his enemies: and coming to the court 
with some attendance, whereby he might be the freer 
from suspicion, he complained how he was beset with 
a barbarous multitude of Welsh, who made great spoil 
and waste of his lands ; so that he and all his tenants 
hordcring on the confines of his county, would be quite 
extirpated, unless the king gave him speedy assistance ; 
telling him, that his presence would do more by the very 
name of a king, than many thousands of soldiers with- 
out him. The king cheerfully promiseth his assistance ; 
but the councel about his royal person would not suffer 
it : for they wished the king to consider, least the earl 
had a design to ensnare him, telling him, that it was 
not safe for him to bring his army into the midst of so 
barbarous a countrey, through mountainous and steepy 
places, where he might be entrapped on every side : be- 
sides it were a very rash part, to go into his countrey 
who had taken from him the greatest part of his king- 
dom : for although he might seem to incline to the king, 
yet there was no certainty of his fidelity, nor pledges of 
assurance : And that if he would have the king's assist- 
ance, he should first deliver up what he had unjustly 
taken ; which if he refused, then presently he should be 
seized on as the king's enemy, and be imprisoned till he 
made restitution. But Randle, when he heard the con- 
ditions which he was to perform before he could have 
the king's aid, answer'd, that he came not to the court 
for that purpose, neither had he any notice of this be- 
forehand, whereby he might have advised thereon ; and 
uttering many high words, he was laid hold on by the 



king's officers, and imprisoned. The nobles who took 
part with earl Randle, petitioned the king for his en- 
largement, and offered sureties, or any security the king 
should demand, for the delivering up of those castles 
which were of right belonging to the king, so that the 
earl might be released. And thereupon Randle earl of 
Chester (having given pledges, and taken a solemn 
oath, that he would never hereafter take up arms against 
the king) was restored to his liberty. 

But as soon as he was released, he violated his oath, 
and raised an army against the king, prosecuting his 
wrathful indignation with revenge of fire and sword 
wheresoever he came; and, as my author saith, " In om- 
nem aetatem, in omnem sexum, Herodianam tyranni- 
dem, Neronianam truculentiam exercebat." He came 
often with a party of soldiers in view of the town of 
Lincoln (where now the king had placed the flower of 
his soldiery), and had many skirmishes with them ; 
sometimes he was put to the worse, sometimes by the 
smiling success of fortune he victoriously triumphed 
over the king's party. He likewise blockt up the castle 
of Coventrey (which also he had delivered up to the 
king) till Stephen came to relieve it with victuals, 
whereof it was in some distress ; and that was done with 
great difficulty to the king, by forcing his passage 
through Randle's army; where by the way he had many 
conflicts. In the first skirmish the king having received 
some slight wound, was forced to retreat ; but as soon 
as he was recovered, he fell upon the earl's army, took 
many, wounded others, and the earl himself put to 
flight, and almost slain. The king then pulls down the 
castle of Coventrey, which had been delivered to him 
before, and victoriously proceeds to other castles in 
Randle's possession, sometimes blocking them up, some- 
times burning and destroying all about them, and ever 
after became a sore enemy to Randle and his adherents. 
Thus much ex Gestis Stephani. 

Anno Domini 1150. David king of Scotland, enter- 
tained Henr}', son of Maude the empress, at Carlisle 
very magnificently about Whitsuntide, and knighted 
him there in the presence of Henry, son of king David, 
and Randle earl of Chester; which Randle was then 
appeased concerning his claim of Carlisle and Cumber- 
land as his patrimony, and did homage to king David ; for 
there was some speech amongst them, that for Carlisle, 
Randle should have the honour of Lancaster, and that 
earl Randle's son should marry one of the daughters of 
Henry prince of Scotland : And so king David, and 
Henry duke of Normandy, and earl Randle were agreed 
to unite their forces against king Stephen. And king 
David, with his son Henr\', came to Lancaster with 
their forces, where earl Randle promised to meet them 
with his ; but Randle failing of his promise, they re- 
turned back. Johannes prior Hagustaldensis, pag. 
277, 278. 

Anno 1151, Randle earl of Chester having been im- 
prisoned (which imprisonment Radulfus de Diceto, 
Chronica Gervasii, John Bromton, Chronica Nor- 
manniae, Mat. Paris, and Mat. Westminster, do all 
place in anno 1145, but Hoveden in anno 1146), and 
having given his nephew Gilbert de Clare for his hos- 
tage, was released : but falsifying his word, and endan- 
gering his hostage, he sendeth for Henry duke of Nor- 
mandy into England, promising him all assistance. 
Whereupon Henry came into England; to whom Ro- 
bert earl of Leycester, and many of the wisest noble- 
men of England then resorted; Idem. Johannes p. 278. 



ilejcesiter's prolegomena* 



23 



What a tumultuous age this was, and how the great 
men of the kingdom divided the spoils, maj' appear by 
the agreement made between this Randle earl of Ches- 
ter, and Robert, sirnamed Bossu, earl of Leycester, 
about the year 1151, the original whereof remains in 
Cotton's Library in Westminster. 

Hmc est conventio int^r Ranulfum comitem Cestrise, 
et Robertum comitem Legrescestriae ; et finalis pax et 
Concordia quae fuit concessa et divisa ab eis, coram 
secundo Roberto episcopo Lincolnice, et hominibus 
eorum ; ex parte comitis Cestrioe, Ricardo de Lovetot, 
Willielmo filio Nigelli, Ranulfo vice-comite ; ex parte 
comitis Legrecestrise, Ernaldo de Bosco, Gaufrido ab- 
bate, Reginaldo de Bordineio ; scilicet, quod comes 
Ranulfus dedit et concessit Roberto comiti Legrecestriae 
castrum de Mountsorell, sibi et haeredibus suis. Te- 
nendum de eo et hseredibus suis haereditarie et siciit 
charta ipsius comitis Ranulfi testatur : et ita quod 
comes Leycestriae receptare debet ipsum comitem Ra- 
nulfum et familiam suam in burgo et balliis de Mount- 
sorell, ad guerrandum quemcunque voluerit ut de feodo 
suo : et ita quod comes Leycestriae non potest ind^ foris- 
facere comiti Ranulfo pro aliquo : et si nccesse sit 
comiti Ranulfo, corpus ipsius receptabitur in dominico 
castro de Mountsorell : et ita quod comes Leycestriae 
portabit ei fidem, salva fide ligei domini sui : et si opor- 
tuerit comitem Leycestriae ire super comitem Cestria: 
cum ligeo domino suo, non potest ducere secum plus 
quam viginti milites : et si comes Leycestriae, vel isti 
viginti milites aliquid ceperint de rebus comitis Cestrioe, 
totum reddetur. Nee ligius dominus, comes Leycestrise, 
nee aliquis alius potest forisfacere comiti Cestriae, nee 
suis, de castris ipsius comitis Leycestriae nee de terra 
suS, : et ita qu6d comes Leycestriae nee potest propter 
aliquam causaiu, vel propter aliquem casum, impedire 
corpus comitis Cestriae, nisi eum defidaverit quindecem 
dies an tea : et comes Leycestriae debet juvare comitem 
Cestriae contra omnes homines, praeter ligium doniinum 
ipsius comitis Leycestriae, et comitem Simonem : comi- 
tem Simonem potest juvare hoc modo, quod si comes 
Ranulfus forisfecerit comiti Simoni, et ipse comes Ra- 
nulfus noluerit corrigere forisfactum propter comitem 
Leycestriae, tunc potest eum juvare: et si comes Simon 
forisfecerit comiti Cestriae, et noluerit corrigere se 
propter comitem Leycestriae, non juvabit eum comes 
Leycestriae : et comes Leycestriae debet custodire terras 
et res comitis Cestriae, quag in potestate ipsius comitis 
Leycestriae sunt, sin^ malo ingenio. Et comes Leyces- 
trias pepigit comiti Ranulfo, quod castrum de Raven- 
stona cadet, nisi concessu comitis Ranulfi remanserit : 
et ita qu6d si aliquis vellet illud castrum tenere contra 
comitem Leycestriae, comes Ranulfus auxiliabitur 
absque malo ingenio ad diruendum castrum illud : et si 
comes Ranulfus fecerit clamorem de Willielmo de 
Alneto, comes Leycestriae in sua curia habebit eum ad 
rectum quamdiu ipse Willielmus manserit homo comitis 
Leycestriae et terram tenebit de eo : et ita quod si Wil- 
lielmus vel sui recesserint a fidelitate comitis Leycestriae 
propter castrum prostratum, vel quia rectum noluerit 
facere in curia comitis Leycestriae, non receptabuntur 
in potestate comitis Cestriae, nequ^ Willielmus neque 
sui, ad malum faciendum comiti Leycestriae : in hac con- 
ventione remanet comiti Leycestriae castrum de Witewie 
hrmatum ciim caeteris castris suis. 

Et e converso, comes Ranulfus portabit fidem comiti 
Leycestriae, salva fide ligii domini sui : et si oportuerit 
comitem Cestriae ire super comitem Leycestriae, cum 



ligio domino suo, non potest ducere secum plus quam 
viginti milites : et si comes Cestriae, vel isti viginti 
milites, aliquid ceperint de rebus comitis Leycestrise 
totum reddetur : nee Hgius dominus, comes Cestriae, aut 
aliquis alius potest forisfacere comiti Leycestrise nee 
suis, de castris ipsius comitis Cestriae, nee de terra sua : 
et ita quod comes Cestriae non potest propter aliquam 
causam, vel aliquem casum, impedire corpus comitis 
Leycestriae, nisi eum defidaverit quindecem dies ante. 
Et comes Cestriae debet juvare comitem Leycestriae 
contra omnes homines, praetor ligium dominum ipsius 
comitis Cestriae, et comitem Robertum de Ferrariis. 
Comitem Robertum potest juvare hoc modo, si comes 
Leycestriee forisfecerit comiti de Ferrariis, et ipse comes 
Leycestriae noluerit corrigere forisfactum propter co- 
mitem Cestriae, tunc potest eum juvare comes Cestriae : 
et si comes Robertus de Ferrariis forisfecit comiti Ley- 
cestriae, et noluerit se corrigere propter comitem Ces- 
trias, non juvabit eum comes Cestria. Et comes Ces- 
triae debet custodire terras et res comitis Leycestriae, 
quae in potestate ipsius comitis Cestriae sunt, sinS malo 
ingenio. Et comes Cestriae pepigit comiti Leycestriae, 
quod si aliquis vellet castrum de Ravestona tenere con- 
tra comitem LeycestriaB, comes Ranulfus auxiliabitur 
sine malo ingenio ad diruendum castrum illud : nee 
comes Cestriae, nee comes Leycestriae debent firmare 
castrum aliquod novum inter Hinckley et Coventrey, 
nee inter Hinckley et Hardredeshellam, nee inter Co- 
ventrey et Donintonam : nee inter Donintonam et Ley- 
cestriam, nee ad Grataham, nee ad Cheneldestam, et 
Belvier, nee inter Belveer et Hocham, nee inter Hocham 
et Rockingham, nee propius, nisi communi assensu 
utriusque : et si aliquis in praedictis locis, vel infra prae- 
dictos terminos, firmaret castrum, uterque alteri erit 
auxilio sin^ malo ingenio donee castrum diruatur. Et 
banc conventionem, sicut in hac charta continetur, affi- 
davit uterque comes, videlicet Cestrensis et Leycestren- 
sis, in manu Roberti secundi, Lincolniensis episcopi, 
tenendam : et posuerunt eundem episcopum obsidem 
hujus conventionis super Christianitatem suam : ita 
quod si aliquis exiret ab hac conventione, et nollet se 
corrigere infra 15 dies postquam inde requisitus fuerit 
sine malo ingenio, tiinc episcopus Lincolniensis, et 
episcopus Cestrensis facient justitiam de eo tanquam 
de fide mentita. Et episcopus Lincolniae, et episcopus 
Cestriae tradent obsides uterque duos, quos receperunt 
propter conventiones istas tenendas, illi videlicet qui 
conventiones istas praedictas tenebit. 

How Randle earl of Chester was rewarded for taking 
part with Henry Fitz-Empress, being yet but duke of 
Normandy and earl of Angeau, may appear by this 
deed following, which I conjecture was made about the 
year 1 1.52, when Stephen and Henry made an agree- 
ment : the original hereof is in Cotton's library ; it is 
also upon record in one of the great couchir books in 
the dutchy office at Gray's Inne in London, torn. 2, Honor 
sive Soca de Bolingbroke, num. 7, pag. 498, 499. 

Heneicus dux Normanniae, et comes Andegaviae, om- 
nibus archiepiscopis, episcopis, comitibus, baronibus, 
vice-comitibus, et omnibus amicis et fidelibus suis, Nor- 
mannis et Anglis, salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et con- 
cessisse Ranulfo comiti Cestriae omnem haereditatem 
suam Normanniae et Angliae, sicut unquam aliquis an- 
tecessorum suorum eam melius et liberiiis tenuit : et 
nominatim castellum de Vira et Barbifluvium cilm tali 
libertate, quod per totam baleugam possit capere foris- 
factum suum : et brullium de fossis, et Alebec, et hoc 



24 



Ct)e ^istor^ of C|)esi|)ire, 



(und^ erat vice-comes) de Abrinciis, et in sancto Ja- 
cobo, de hoc feci eum comitem : et quicquid habui in 
Abrinches ei dedi praeter episcopatum, et abbatiam de 
monte sancti Michaelis, et quod eis pertinet : insuper 
dedi et concessi ei totum honorem comitis Rogeri Pic- 
taviensis ubicunque aliquid habet : et totum honorem 
de Eia, sicut Robertus Mallet, avunculus matris suae 
ilium melius et plenius unquam tenuit : insuper dedi ei 
Stafford et Staffordshire, et comitatum Staffordia; to- 
tum, quicquid ego ibi habui in teodo et haereditate, 
excepto feodo episcopi Cestriae, et comitis Roberti de 
Ferrars, et Hugonis de Mortuo Mari, et Gervasii Pa- 
gani, et excepta foresta de Canok quam in manu mea 
retineo : et feodum Alani de Lincolne ei dedi, qui fuit 
avunculus matris sua;: et feodum Ernisii de Burun, 
sicut suam hffireditatem : et feodum Hugonis de Sco- 
teneio ei dedi, ubicunque sit : et feodum Roberti de 
Chalz, ubicunque sit: et totum feodum Radulfi filii 
Odonis : et totum feodum Normanni de Verdun : et 
feodum Roberti de Stafford, ubicunque sit : et triginta 
libratas terrse, quas habui in Grimesbeia, ei dedi: et 
Nottingham castle, et burgum, et quicquid habui in 
Nottingham, in feodo et haereditate sibi et haeredibus 
suis: dedi et totum feodumWillielmiPeverelli ubicunque 
sit, nisi poterit se dirationare in mca curia de scelere et 
proditione, excepta Hecham : et si Engelramus de Albe- 
marle non voluerit se capere mecum, neque comes Si- 
mon, et illud vi capere potero, praedictam Hecham 
reddo comiti Ranulfo, si earn habere voluerit : et Tor- 
cheseiam, et Oswardebek Wapentack, et Derbeiam cum 
omnibus pertinentiis : et Maunsfield cum soca, et 
Roelay cum soca, et Stanleiam juxta Coventreiam cum 
soca, et de Belvario tenebo ei rectum quam citius po- 
tero, sicut de sua haereditate : et sex baronibus suis, 
quos elegerit, cuique centum libratas terras dabo, de his 
quae mihi ex hostibus meis adquisita acciderint, de me 
tenendas : et omnibus parentibus suis suam reddo haere- 
ditatem und^ potens sum, et de hoc unde ad prassens 
potens non sum, rectum plenarium tenebo ex quo po- 
tens ero. Testibus Willielmo cancellario, Reginaldo 
comite Cornubiae, Rogero comite Herdia, Patricio co- 
mite SalisburiaB, Umfrido de Bohun dapifero, J. filio 
Gilberti, R. de Hum. constabulario, Guarino filio Ger. 
Roberto de Curcy dapifero, Manassero Bysset dapi- 
fero, Philippo de Columbe. Ex parte comitis Ranulfi, 
Willielmo comite Lincolniae, Hugone Wac. G. Castell 
de Fines, Simone filio Willielmi, Thurstano de Monte- 
forti, Gaufrido de Costentyn, Willielmo de Verdon, 
Ricardo de Pincerna, Rogero Wac. Simone filio Os- 
berti. Apud Divisas'. 

And here I cannot pass by Vincent's error in the 
review of the second edition of Brooks's Catalogue of 
Nobility, pag. 662, where he saith thus : " that the 
barons of the earls of Chester were chosen in the time 
of Hugh Lupus, I doubt : for what should move Henry 
the Second (when he was but yet duke of Normandy 
and earl of Anjou) among divers grants that he made to 



Randle de Gernouns earl of Chester, to say in his char- 
ter — et sex baronibus suis, quos elegerit, cuique centum 
libratas terrae dabo : that he would give to the six 
barons, quos elegerit, which he shall cliuse, not quos 
eligerit, which he hath already chosen, a hundred pound 
land apiece, &c. if they had been chose in Hugh 
Lupus's time .'"' Thus Vincent. 

But to pass by his gross distinction of elegerit and 
eligerit ; for it is elegerit in both tenses, future and pre- 
terperfect tense ; nor is eligerit any true Latin word at 
all. Methinks he reads not the English to a proper 
and genuine sence ; for [ conceive the meaning to be 
plainly thus, — Et sex baronibus suis, quos elegerit, 
cuique centum libratas terrae, &c. that is, to six of his 
barons, whom he shall chuse or appoint out, he will 
give to every one of them a hundred pounds worth 
of land apiece. So that there might be many more 
barons at that time for all this : And indeed the charter 
of Hugh Lupus of the foundation of the monastery of 
St. Werburge in Chester, anno 1093, mentions barons 
at that time; which you may see at large supra, pag. 
109, 110, in,' in the subscription whereof it is said. 
Ego comes Hugo et barones mei confirmavimus : and I 
pray you, how comes the duke here to know Randle's 
mind to elect barons, if they were yet to be chosen ? 

But where he renders it. And to the six barons which he 
shall chuse, I should render it. And to six of his barons 
whom he shall chuse or cull out; for the grant being 
made to earl Randle, there was so much to be given to 
six of his barons, but left to the appointment and no- 
mination of earl Randle which six barons he would 
have to be the men to enjoy those lands : for if we 
should render it, And to his six barons, &c. implying 
onely that set number, and no more, the following words 
(quos elegerit) wovild be superfluous ; for being given to 
six barons equally, there is no choice left at all to the 
earl where there be no more barons ; unless we suppose 
six barons to be made, and that there were none before, 
which evidently appears to the contrary. Therefore in- 
deed these words, rightly understood, do imply there 
were more barons at that time, out of which Randle 
had the nomination of the six here intended left unto 
him. 

But of these barons I shall speak more particularly in 
the third part of this book. 

Take here a deed or two of this Randle's, which are 
in one of the great Couchir books in the Dutchy Office 
at Gray's Inn : the first being of certain waste lands in 
Leycestershire, which this Randle gave to Henry the 
Second, and the king gave them to Robert Bossue earl 
of Leycester. 

Ibidem, torn. 2, Comitatus Leycestriae, num. 66. 

Henricus Dei gratia rex Angliae et dux Normanniae, 
archiepiscopis, episcopis, &c. salutem. Sciatis, quia 
Ranulfus comes de Cestria dimisit et concessit mihi 
habere in dominio Cernelegam, et Cernewodam, et 



' King Stepben gave to Randle Gernouns the castle and city of Lincoln, till lie should be restored to all his lands in Normandy and his castles 
there, and thereupon gave him liberty to fortifie one of the towers of Lincoln castle, to have command thereof till the king should deliver the 
castle of Tickill, and then to deliver up Lincoln castle, excepting the earl's own tower, which his mother had fortified, and the constableship of 
that castle, and the whole county, which was his ancient inheritance ; and also the castle of Belvoir, with all the barony, and all the land of Wil- 
liam de Albiney, then lord of Belvoir ; and Graham (vulgo Grantham) with Sok : and if the heirs of Graham should compound with the king, yet 
the barony to remain tdl the king gave other lands for it. By the same charter the king gave him New-Castle in Staffordshire, and Socam de 
Roeley, Torksey, Derby, Mansfield, Stoneley, the wapentack of Orwardebek, and all the lands of Roger de Busley, with all the honour of Blithe 
nigh Tickhill, and all the lands of Roger de Poictu from Northampton to Scotland, except vfhat belongs to Roger de Montbegon in Lincolnshire ; 
also all the lands between Ribbell and Mersey ; and the land which the king had in demaine in Grimsby in Lincolnshire, and all the land which 
the earl of Glocester had in demaiiie in that raannor of Grimsby. And also he restored, for Randle's sake, unto Adelize de Condy all her lands, viz. 
Horncastle in Lincolnshire, when the castle was demolished. And all his own other lands the king restored unto him. Ex charta original! nuper 
in Castro de Pomfret, Which note I had from Mr. Dugdale. P. L. ' P. 12 and 13, of this Volume, 



iLej'cesiter's prolegomena^ 



25 



Aldremanehagam, indefenso sicut aliquod defensum cha- 
riiis habeo ; et omnia nemoia quae fuerunt de feodo 
comitis d^ Cestra, quae attingunt forestam Legrecestriac, 
piaeter parcum suum, habere ia def'enso, de wasto, et 
de bestici salvagia. Sicut autein prffidictus comes Ra- 
nulfus mihi haec dimisit et concessit, ita et ego concedo 
Roberto comiti Legrecestrae, habere haereditabihter ci^m 
alio feodo suo. Et volo et firmiter praecipio, ut ben^ et 
quiete et honorifice teneat cum omnibus consuetudini- 
bus suis. Testibus Theobaldo comite Blesense, et 
Gualeranno comite de Mellent, et WilHehiio de Tano, 
et Nigello de Albiun, et Wilhelmo de Luriaco, et Adam 
de Portu, et Pagano filio Johannis, et Gaufrido filio 
Pagani, et Andrea de Baldement, et Roberto de Done- 
stanvilla. Apud Haveringas. 

Ibidem, Honor sive Soca de Bolingbroke, pag. 433, 
Num. 3. 

Ranulfus comes Cestriae, constabulario suo, et da- 
pifero, et cunctis baronibus suis, ct hominibus Francis 
et Anglis, et amicis et vicinis tain clericis quam laicis, 
salutem. Sciatis, me dedisse et concessisse Williehno 
comiti Lincolniae I'ratri meo, Watteleiam in feudo et 
haereditate sibi et haeredibus suis, 8cc. inde reddendo 
servitium duorum mihtum in singuhs annis : haec aut^m 
donatio facta est in anno quo ipsemet WilHehuus redivit 
de itinere sancti Jacobi apostoH in crastina die post 
festum sanctae Crucis quod celebratur mense Septembri. 
Et inde sunt testes ex mea parte Wilhehnus de Colevill, 
Robertus Grainssac, Gaufridus Malab. Ex parte vero 
comitis WiUielmi, Hadewisacomitissa Lincolniae, Wido 
de Pouilla. 

These following deeds concern the Abbey of St. 
Werburge. 

Ranulfus comes Cestriae, constabulario, dapifero, 
baronibus, justiciariis, vicecomitibus Cestriae, tam prae- 
sentibus quam futuris, et omnibus hominibus suis 
Francis et Anglis, clericis et laicis, salutem. Univer- 
sitati vestrae notum facio, me dedisse in elemosj'na in 
perpetuum Deo et sanctae M arise, et ecclesiae sanctae 
Werburgae, et Radulfo abbati et conventui praedictae 
ecclesiae, pro salute animae Hugonis comitis, praefatae 
ecclesiae fundatoris, ac pro salute animae Ranulfi co- 
mitis patris mei et antecessorum meorum, et pro salute 
animae meae, et Christianorum omnium, omnem deci- 
niam integraliter et plenarie omnium reddituum meo- 
rum civitatis Cestriae, 8cc. Si quis aut^m yestrum 
infoelix banc elemosynam a me manu sup^r altare 
sanctae Werburgae oblatam forte disturbare vel minuere 
praesumpserit, precor episcopum Cestriae et obnixe 
j-equiro, et justiciarium meum Cestriae super amorem 
meum et meorum praecipio, qu6d ilium justitiet donee 
ad dignam satisfactionem venerit. Teste Roberto dapi- 
fero, Normanno de Verdon, Willielmo Capellano, Ri- 
cardo Capellano, Ricardo Pincerna, Rogero filio Ri- 
cardi de Aquila, Spilem' Camerario, Hugone filio 
Oliveri, Dunun filio Walmari, et multis aliis. 

Ranulfus comes Cestriae, constabulario, dapifero, 
justiciario, baronibus, vice-comitibus, ministris et bal- 
livis, et omnibus hominibus suis, Francis et Anglis, 



clericis et laicis, tam praesentibus quam futuris, salu- 
tem. Sciatis me confirmasse — omnes donationes et 
libertates, quas comites antecessores mei, scihcet Hugo 
comes, et Ricardus filius ejus, et Ranulfus pater meus, 
et barones mei, in tempore illorum vel in meo, dederunt, 
— &c. Teste Roberto dapifero, Normanno de Verdon, 
Ranulpho vicecomite, Hugone Hostr. Ada de Praers, 
Ricardo Pani, Willielmo Gridell. Apud Cestriam. 

And, by another deed, he gave to the church of St. 
Werburge, for the satisfaction of all the evils done by 
him to that church, Estham and Brunborough in Wir- 
rall. Teste Waltero episcopo, et aliis : apud Gresel. 
This was made about the year 1 152. 

The Wjfe and Issue of Randle the Second. 

He married Maude, daughter of Robert earl of Glo- 
cester, bastard son of King Henry the First, by whom 
he had issue Hugh earl of Chester, and Richard. Ge- 
meticensis, lib. 8, cap. 38 ; Ordericus, pag. Q1\. 

Powell, in his Notes on the Welsh History, pag. 295, 
calls this countess Alice, for Maud ; and so doth Feme 
in his Lacy's Nobility, pag. 43, in his most absurd pe- 
degree of the Earls of Chester there. Both these authors 
are grosly mistaken herein. See her name proved by 
the deed infra, pag. 130 and 131, (p. 27.) 

The Death of Randle the Second. 

Anno Domini 1 153, ^ Ranulfus ille nobilis et famosus 
comes Cestriae, vir admodilm militaris, per quendam 
Willielmum Peverellum (ut fama fuit) veneno infectus 
post multos agones militaris gloriae, vir insuperabilis 
audacicE vix sola morte territus et devictus, vitam finivit 
temporalem. Chronica Gervasii. Which John prior 
of Hagustald placeth in anno 1154, Chronica Norman- 
niae say, anno 1152. 

Anno 1155, Willielmum Peverell causa veneficii, 
quod Ranulfo comiti Cestriae fuerat propinatum, rex 
Anglorum Henricus exhaeredavit. In cujus pestis consor- 
tio plures conscii extitisse dicuntur, saith Matthew Paris". 
He was earl of Chester 25 years, and founded the 
nunnery in Chester city. Monasticon, 1 pars, pag. 
507. He died excommunicated by Walter Durdant 
bishop of Lichfield, for whose absolution Maud his wife, 
and Hugh his son, gave the town of Styshall near 
Coventry to the bishop and his successors : ex vetusto 
exemplari in baggo de diversis inquisitionibus penes 
thesaurarium et camerarium scaccarii Westmonaste- 
riensis, Londini. 

Maud his widow founded the priory of Holy Trinity 
at Repindon in Derbyshire, anno Domini 1 172, 18 Hen. 
II ; and she died the 29 day of July, 1 189: Monasticon, 
vol. 2, pag. 280. 

Randle the Second founded the priory of Trentham 
in Staffordshire : Sciatis me dedisse centum solidatas 
terrae meae Staffordiesire Deo, et sancta; Mariae, et 
omnibus Sanctis, ad restaurandum quandam abbathiam 
canonicorum in ecclesia de Trentham — et eas assign© 
de Trenteham, untie rex Henricus habuit centum soli- 
dos : so run the words of the grant. Monasticon, vol. 
2, pag. 260. He gave also Cumbe to the abby of 
Bordesly in Worcestershire, which his countess Maude 



f Obiit 1153, 18 Stephani regis.— The 16 day of December. Monasticon, vol. 2, pag. 280. P. L. 

S Gervase gives this further account of the disinheriting of Peverell ; 1155. Rex igitiir Ehoracum et occidentales partes Anglic visitavit. Quod 
audieiis Willielmus Peverellus, cum de morte comitis Ranulfi sibi esset male conscius, novi regis illuc adventantis magnanimitatem metuens, in 
coenobio quodam ditionis suee relictis omnibus attonsus est et cucuUatus. Rege vero mense Februario ab Eboraco digrediente, et in provincia de 
Notingeham ubi latebat cucuUatus perveniente, idem Willielmus latenter evasit et aufugit, cunctasq. munitiones suas ubertate refertas regiie reliquit 
veluntati. Gervasii Chron, col. 1377. O. 

t H 



26 



Ci)e flistor^ of Ci)e6i)tre» 



and Hugh his son did afterwards confirm ; Monasticon, 
vol. 1, pag. 805. And also to the abby of Basingwerk 
in Flintshire, Holes, and half of Leche, and five pound 
rent in Chester ; Monasticon, vol. 1 , pag. 720. 

Also he founded the priory of Mentings in Lincoln- 
shire, a cell of the abbey of St. Benedict super Leyre ; 
Monasticon, vol. 1, pag. 592. He. gave also the town 



of Canoe (vulgo Kank) to the abbey of Stoneley in War- 
wickshire ; Monasticon, vol. 1, pag. 820. 

Also he gave liberty to the monks of Coventry to 
have two carts going to and fro, twice every day except 
holy-days, unto his woods there, for fewel and other 
necessaries. Char. 22 Edw. IH. per inspeximus, 
num. O.*" 



CHAP. V. 



^f flugj) tf)e ^econtj, sirnameti C^beltofe* 

Because he was born in thb Commote or Province of Cyveliok situate in that part of 

Wales, anciently called Powys. 

Azure, six Garbs, Or, 3, 2, 1. 



I. Hugh the Second, sirnamed Cyveliok, succeeded 
his father Randle the Second in the earldom of Chester, 
anno Domini 1153. 

He performed many valiant acts, and by his sword 
made purchase of the land called Bromfield, from the 
Welsh, his most harmful neighbors. 

Anno 1172. Hugh earl of Chester, with the king of 
Scotland, and Robert earl of Leycester, rebelled against 
Henry the Second : These took part with the king's son 
against the king. 

"And in anno 1173, 19 Hen. H. Hugh earl of Chester, 
and Rate de Filgiers in Normandy, had almost possessed 
themselves of all the province of Little-Britain in 
France, but were overcome in battel by Henrj' the 
Second ; at which time these, with many others of the 
nobility of Britain, were forced to retreat to the castle 
of Dole ; but the Braibants, whereon king Henry relied, 
besieged them on every side, the 13 of the calends of 
September, being Tuesday. The king hereof being cer- 
tified, came to Dole on the Friday following : So the 
earl of Chester, and the rest that were in the castle, seeing 
themselves unable to defend it, surrendered both them- 
selves and it to the king on the Sunday following, being 



the 7 of the calends of September, or the 26 of our 
August. The names of such as were taken prisoners in 
that castle, are more at large set down by Hoveden, 
pag. 535, 536. So was Hugh earl of Chester taken pri- 
soner, 1173''. 

But in anno 1177, at a parliament at Northampton, 
in January, both Robert earl of Leycester, and Hugh 
earl of Chester, were restored to all their lands by the 
king. Hoveden, pag. 560. 

H. This Hugh confirmed to the abbey of St. Wer- 
burge in Chester, Granisby in Wirrhall, which Richard 
de Rullos had given thereunto. Teste Matilda matre 
mea, Ricardo de Rullos, et Roberto fratre suo, Roberto 
Basset, R. Capellano, et multis aliis. The original 
hereof was among the evidences of that church at Ches- 
ter, anno 1644. 

He gave also the church of Prestbury to the same 
abbey, in these words. 

Hugo comes Cestria;, constabulario, dapifero, justi- 
ciario, baronibus, vicecomitibus, ballivis, et omnibus 
hominibus suis, clericis et laicis, Francis et Anglis, 
tam preseutibus qnam futuris, salutem. Sciatis, me de- 
disse cum corpore meo Deo et Sanctte Werburgae ec- 



l» In addition to the works of piety enumerated by sir P. Leycester may be mentioned among the acts of Randle Gernons ; 

The gift to the abbey of St. Werburgh (in addition to the grant of Eastham and Brombrorough mentioned by sir P. Leycester) of the tithes of his 
rents in Chester, his mills there, and his mills at Leek, and of the right of holding fairs and markets at the gate of their abbey. Chartulary, 
Harl. MSS. 1965. 

Grants of certain crofts to the Chester nuns ; of the manor of Barow in Leicestershire to the abbey of Gerondon (Mon. Ang. i. 769) ; of lands in 
Tetteney to the monks of Louth park in Lincolnshire (ibid. p. 305) ; of 401. rent issuing from Olney mill to the monks of St. Peter at Gloucester (ibid, 
p. IIB) ; of two houses in Chindred Wiche to Shrewsbury abbey, with an exemption from toll on salt made there (ibid. 383) ; of lands near Chester 
bridge to the nuns at Clerken«ell, (ibid. 433) ; of the manor of Fifhide and the churches of St. Leonard, St. Nicholas, and AlUiallows at Bristol, to 
the canons of St. Augustine there (Mon. Ang. vol. ii. 233) ; of lands in Roely, Barow, and Quorndon, and the church of Barow and chapel of Quorn- 
don to the canons of St. Augustine at Leicester, (ibid. p. 313); of Colkesby church and lands in Frodsham to the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
(ibid. p. 548) ; and of lands in Bareston to the nuns of Stikeswould in Leicestershire. 

*jfi* A representation of the Great Seal of Randle IL is prefixed to the account of this earl. The original seal was found in I774 under the floor 
of the great aisle of the church of St. Edmundsbury in Suffolk, by Mr. Godbolt, and given by him to Edward King, esq. F. S. A. author of Muni- 
menta Antiqua, in the hands of whose widow it now remains. It is of the same size as the wood-cut, much corroded by age, and of no great thick- 
ness. An engraving of it is given in the fourth volume of the Archa;ologia, which has been obligingly collated with the original by Edward Bootle 
Wilbraham, esq. M. P. It is to be observed that this earl's illegitimate cousin, Robert, base son of Hugh Lupus, was abbot of St. Ed- 
mundsbury, and it is most probable that the seal was concealed there, during the earl's contests with Stephen. O. 

a These three personages were taken prisoners at Alnwick, hut were released on the pacification between prince Henry and his father. Dugdale, 
Bar. quoting Chron. Evesham MS. in Bibl. Bodl. O, 

■j During this second captivity the person of the earl was secured with the most rigorous strictness. On the king's departure for Normandy in 
1174, according to Ralph de Diceto (col. 576). " comitem Cestrensem — et alios plures quos habebat in vinculis, ante faciem suam praemisit apud 
Barbeflete." Earl Hugh was subsequently imprisoned in the castle of Faleize, until, in the same year, the king returned to England, " ducens 
secum regem Scotorum, comitem Leicestrensem, comitem Cestrensem, Hugonem de Castello, ([uos habebat in vinculis." col. 578. Previous to 
his liberation the earl was again taken to Normandy, and imprisoned in Faleize. O. 



ile^cester's jprolejsomena* 



27 



clesiam de Prestbury cum omnibus pertinentiis, — &c. 
Deo teste at omnibus Sanctis, Joh. priore de Trentham, 
Samsone Canonico, Radulfb Barba appellate, R. clerico 
de Wicho, Ranult'o de Wicho, Radult'o de Menilwar- 
inge, Radulfo filio Warini, Gilberto filio Pincernse, 
Roberto fratre ejus, Frombaldo, Bertramo Camerario, 
G. filio Elise. Haec charta facta fuit coram comitissa 
Matilda matre comitis, et Bertreia comitissa sponsa 
ejus, et Ranulpho heerede suo concedente. 

Some other Chartes of this Hugh I have met withal, 
which I have also here transcribed, as followeth. 

Charta Hugonis Cyveliok. 

■^HuGO comes Cestrias, justiciario, constabulario, da- 
pifero, vice-comiti, et omnibus baronibus suis, et omni- 
bus ministris suis, et omnibus horainibus suis, Francis 
et Anglicis, taai praesentibus quam futuris, salutem. 
Sciatis, me dedisse — in puram et perpetuam elemosy- 
nam pro salute animae meee, et pro anima patris mei, 
et pro animabus antecessorum meorum, abbatiae de Be- 
nedicto loco do Stanlaw, et monachis ibidem Deo servi- 
entibus, quietantiatn Theolonei in villa mea CestrifE de 
omnibus, quae praefati monachi ibi emerint a'd opus sua; 
dominicae domus de Stanlaw. Testibus abbate Cestrias, 
Johanne constabulario, Radulfo filio Warini, Hugone 
de Dutton, Johanne Burd, Martino Angevin, Adam de 
Dutton, et multis aliis. Apud Cestriam. 

A very fair seal : the earl on horseback. 

■^ Universis sanctae matris ecclesiae filiis, Hugo comes 
Cestriae salutem. Sciatis me concessisse, et hac prac- 
senti charta mea confirmasse Deo et abbathiae Sanctae 
Mariae de Coventrey, et monachis ibidem Deo servien- 
tibus, pro salute animae nieae, et patris mei, et Ricardi 
fratris mei, cujus corpus in praedicta abbatiti sepelitur, 
donationem illam quam pater meus Ranulfus comes 
Cestriae eis fecit, et charta sua coniirmavit, scilicet ca- 
pellam Sancti Michaelis de Coventrey, cum omnibus 
pertinentiis suis, quae sita est in feodo meo ; libere et 
quiete in perpetuum possidendam, sicut charta mea eis 
testatur ; et ut concessio rata et firma permaneat, earn 
praesentis scripti autoritate et sigilli mei testimonio con- 
firmavi. Testibus Edmundo archidiacono Coventria', 
Johanne priore Trentham, Ricardo avunculo meo filio 
comitis Glocestriae, Rogero Mallylaste, &c. 

'Hugo comes Cestriae, constabulario suo, dapifero, 
omnibus baronibus suis, omnibus hominibus suis, 
Francis et Anglicis, tam futuris quam praesentibus, sa- 
lutem. Concedo sanctimonialibus de Bolintona staa:- 
num meum de Dunintona firmum terrae meae, sicut 
fuit tempore Henrici regis, in perpetuum elemosy- 
nam pro anima mea, et patris mei, et meorum ante- 
cessorum : Et praecipio omnibus hominibus meis, quod 
habeant meam firmam pacem ; ittl quod nullus ind^ 
praedictis sanctimonialibus injuriam vel contumeliam 
faciat. Teste Roberto dapifero de Monte alto, Filippo 
de Kima, Simone filio Osberti, Willielmo Patric, Ra- 
dulfo filio Warneri, Rogero de Maletot, Johanne priore 
de Trentham, Orm ejus canonico, Roger monacho de 
Hambi, Willielmo clerico comitis qui chartam scripsit 
apud Beltesfort, et multis aliis. 

A fair seal, with the impression of the earl on horse- 



back, written about, — Sigillum Hugonis comitis 
Cestriae. 

"^RoBERTO Dei gratia Lincolniensi episcopo, et capi- 
tulo sanctae ecclesiae Lincolniae, totique clero illius prae- 
sulatus, Hugo comes Cestriae, salutem. Nee non et 
constabulario, et dapifero, et baronibus, et ministris, et 
famulis, et hominibus suis omnibus, tam clericis quam 
laicis, salutem similiter. Vos scire volo, me concessisse 
et confirmasse sanctimonialibus de Grenefelt illam ter- 
ram, quam Willielmus filius Otuheri eis in elemosynam 
perpetuam dedit ; quam yeib pater meus comes Ranul- 
phus eis concessit carta sua confirmatam : Eapropter 
volo et praecipio, quod praefatae sanctimoniales terram 
illam perennitfer ben^ et quiet^, et liber^ habeant et 
possideant. Testibus Matilda comitissa matre mea, 
Simone filio Willielmi, Rogero Capellano, Ricardo Ca- 
pellano, et aliis multis : Apud Beltesford. Valete. 

A very fair seal, with the impression of the earl on 
horseback ; and on the back part of the seal two lesser 
impressions of a man holding or setting something on a 
form or stool, inscribed about — Contra-Sigillum comitis 
Cestriae. 

HI. The Wife of Hugh Cyveliok. 

He married Bertred, daughter of Simon earl of Eve- 
reux in Normandy. Vincent upon Brook, pag. 105. 

That her name was Bertred, and that she survived 
her husband, take this deed to prove it, in the Couchir 
book in the Dutchy-office, in Gray's-Inn, London, torn. 
2. Honor sive soca de Bolingbroke, num. 7, pag. 112. 

Omnibus hoc scriptum audituris et visuris, Bertreya 
comitissa Cestriae, salutem. Noverit universitas vestra, 
me concessisse et hac mea praesenti charta confirmasse 
Radulfo Carbunel de Haltuna et haeredibus suis, pro 
homagio et servitio suo, feodum dimidii militis quod 
tenet de me in Haltona^; pro tribus soHdis annuatim 
mihi et hasredibus meis ad duos terminos reddendis, de 
illo et de haeredibus suis, pro omni servitio etexactione; 
scilicet ad nativitatem Sancti Johannis Baptistae decern 
et octo denarios, et ad natale decem et octo denarios. 
In hujus autem rei testimonium pragsenti scripto sigil- 
lum meum apposui. Hiis testibus Radulfo filio Simo- 
nis, Simone de Seis, Andrea filio Willielmi, Willielmo 
de Maletoft, Willielmo de Haghc, Ricardo de Bunino-- 
ton, Ricardo de Harderna, Alano filio Ramgoti, et aliis. 

The Issue of Hugh Cyveliok by Bertred. 

1. Randle the Third, sirnamed Blundevill : he died 
without issue, and his four sisters shared his inheritance. 

2. Maude, eldest daughter of Hugh, married David'' 
earl of Huntingdon, brother to Wilham king of Scot- 
land ; of whom he begot John, sirnamed The Scot, earl 
of Chester in his mothers right : She had the earldom 
of Chester, and lands in North Wales to her share". 

3. Mabill, second daughter of Hugh by Bertred, mar- 
ried Wilham d'Albiney earl of Arundel. She had the 
manor of Barow, with 5001. lands. This was Barow in 
Leycestershire. 

4. Agnes, third daughter of earl Hugh by Bertred, 
married William Ferrers earl of Derby. She had the 



c The original of tliis was in possession of Mr. Townley of Carre in Lancashire, 1657. P. L. 

■1 Ex Libre signato (L.) penes Kogerum Dodswortli, Eboracensem, fol 24. P. L. 

c The original of this remained in possession of Sir Simon Dewes, baronet, 1649, noted EE. num. 6. P. L. 

t Ibidem, EE. num. 4. P. L. B Halton in Lincolnshire. P. L. 

I' Married in J 190. Bromton's Chron. p. 1190. O. i .\nd the advowson of Coventry Priory. Dugd. Bar. O. 



28 



%\)t History of C|)esif)ire. 



castle of Chartley ^, and the lands in that part of Wales 
anciently called Powys. She confirmed to the church 
of St. Mary at Mirival the manor of Great-Hole, and 
part of the wood of Alteker, which William her husband 
had before given. One of the Couchir books in the 
Dutchy-office, torn. 1. fol. 133. 

'5. Hawise, fourth daughter of earl Hugh by Ber- 
tred, married Robert Quency, son and heir of Saher de 
Quency earl of Winchester. She had the earldom of 
Lincoln, to wit, the castle and honour of Bolingbroke, 
and all the lands of earl Randle in Lindsey and Holland 
in Lincolnshire ; for which she gave 501. for relief. 

On Hawise was estated for joynture, Bukby, Gran- 
tesset, Bradeham, and Herdwick, as appears by this 
deed in the Couchir Book of the Dutchy-office. Tom. 2. 
Honor sive soca de Bolingbroke, num. 26, pag. 308. 

Saherus de Quency comes Wintonise, omnibus ho- 
minibus et amicis suis, prsesentibus et futuris, salutem. 
Sciatis, me concessisse et dedisse et prsesenti charta 
mea confirmasse Roberto de Quency filio meo et ha'redi 
ad dandum in liberum donarium Hawisise sorori comi- 
tis Cestrias, uxori ejusdem Roberti, Bucehebeiam, et 
Grantesset, et Bradeham, et Herdewich, ciim omnibus 
earundem terrarum pertinentiis, pro centum llbratis 
terrse : Et si hse prsedictse terrae non valeant per 
annum centum libras, ego in aliis terris meis de 
propria haBreditate mea in Anglia, ei tantum per- 
ficiam, quod plenari^ habeat centum libratas terraj 
per visum et considerationem legalium militum homi- 
num, videlicet, comitis Cestrise et meorum. Et pra?- 
terea dedi eidem Roberto feoda duorum militum, scili- 
cet feodum Matthei Turpin in Winterslawa in Wilte- 
shire, pro servitio feodi unius militis, ad dandum simul 
cum terris nominatis praedictee Hawisias uxori suae in 
liberum donarium. Testibus his, comite Davide, Wil- 
lielmo comite de Ferrars, Philippo de Orreby, Roberto 
de Basingham, Ricardo de Lindeseia, Willielmo de 
Grumpington, Henrico de Braibroc, Willielmo de Syel- 
ford, David Giffard, Wiellielmo Picot, Hugone et Tho- 
ma et Henrico Dispensariis, Waltero de Coventrey, 
Waltero Daivilla, et multis aliis. 

1232. This Hawise had the earldom of Lincoln"" given 
unto her by her brother Randle, a little before his death, 
l6 Hen. HL 1232, in these words : which deed is trans- 
cribed in one of the Couchir-books in the dutchy-office, 
torn. 2. Honor sive soca de Bolingbroke, pag. 500, 
num. 11. It is also transcribed by Vincent, in his cor- 
rections upon Brooke, pag. 3 1 7, which he affirmeth he 
took from the original itself in Cotton's library, 
thus — 

Ranulfus comes Cestri<e et Lincolniae, omnibus pra;- 
sentibus et futuris, praesentem chartam inspecturis vel 
audituris, salutem in domino. Ad universitatis vestrae 
notitiam volo pervenire, me dedisse, concessisse, et hac 
praesenti charta mea confirmasse, domina; Hawisiae de 
Quency sorori meae charissimae comitatum Lincolnice, 
scilicet quantum ad me pertinuit, ut inde comitissa ex- 
istat. Habendum et tenendum de domino meo rege 
Angliae, et haeredibus suis, liber^, quiet^, plenfe, pacifice, 
et integre jure haereditario, cum omnibus pertinentiis 
8uis, et ciim omnibus libertatibus ad praedicium comita- 
tum pertinentibus, Et ut praesens scriptum perpetuita- 



tis robur obtineat, illud sigilli mei appositione roborare 
dignum duxi. Hiis testibus, venerabilibus patribus P. 
AVintoniae, et Alexandre Coventriae et Lichfeldise 
episcopis, R. Marescallo comite Pembroke, Wilhelmo 
de Ferrars comite Derbiae, Stephano de Segrave justi- 
ciario Angliae, Simone de Monteforti, Willielmo de 
Ferrariis, Philippo de Abiniaco, Henrico de Aldith, 
Willielmo de Cantilupo, et aliis. 

Hawise transfers the earldom of Lincoln to John 
Lacy, and the heirs of his body which he shall beget on 
Margaret his wife, daughter of the same Hawise. 1 Pa- 
tent, anno 17 Hen. HL memb. 9, num. 35. It is also 
in the register of the dutchy of Lancaster. Honor sive 
soca de Bolingbroke, pag. 500, num. 10. 

Henricus Dei gratis rex Angliae, dominus Hiberniae, 
dux Normanniae et Aquitanice, comes Andegaviae, om- 
nibus ad quos prsesentes literas pervenerint, salutem. 
Sciatis, quod ad instantiam Hawisiae de Quency dedi- 
mus, et concessimus dilecto et fideli nostro Johanni de 
Lacy constabulario Cestriae, illas viginti libras, quas 
Ranulphus quondam comes Cestriae et Lincolnia3 rece- 
pit pro tertio denario comitatus Lincolniae, nomine co- 
mitis Lincolniae ; et quas praedictus comes in vita sua 
dedit praedietEe Hawisiae sorori suaj : Habendas, et te- 
nendas, nomine comitis Lincolniae, de nobis et haeredi- 
bus nostris, ipsi Johanni, et haeredibus suis, qui exibunt 
de Margareta uxore sua, filia praedicta; Hawisiae, in 
perpetuum. Et in hujus rei testimonium has literas 
nostras patentes ei fieri fecimus. Teste meipso apud 
Northampton, 23 die Novembris, anno regni nostri 17- 

IV. The base Issue of Hugh C'jveliok. 

Paganus, dominus de Milton", whom I have seen wit- 
ness to a deed, subscribed thus— Filius bastardus Hu- 
gonis comitis Cestria. 

Roger, witness to a deed of his brother Randle's, to 
the abbey of St. Werburge, whom I conceive was a 
bastard. 

Amicia, the wife of Raufe Manwaring, sometime 
judge of Chester; to whom Hugh Cyveliok earl of Ches- 
ter, her father, gave in libero maritagio servitium Gil- 
bert! filii Rogeri : scilicet servitium trium militum; 
faciendo sibi servitium duorum militum, as the words 
of the original deed do run, now in the possession of sir 
Thomas Manwaring of Over Pever, Baronet. 

Also another base daughter, as 1 conceive, married 
one Bacun, and had issue Richard Bacun, founder of 
the priory of Roucester in Staffijrdshire, about the reign 
of king John, for the safety of his soul, and the soul of 
his uncle, Randle, earl of Chester. Monasticon, part 2, 
pag. 267. 

And here I cannot but mislike the boldness and ig- 
norance of that herald, who gave to Manwaring of Pe- 
ver the quartering of the earl of Chester's coat of arms : 
which device was never done before the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, in the time of sir Randle Manwaring, late of 
Pever, the elder, my grandfather by the mother : for if 
he ought of right to quarter that coat, then must he be 
descended from a coheir to the earl of Chester ; but that 
he was not : for the coheirs of earl Hugh, as you see 
before, were married to four of the greatest peers of the 



Chartley in Staffordshire, with the castle and manor of West-Derby, and all earl Randle's lands between the rivers of Ribbel and Mersey in Lan- 
cashire, Buckbroc in Northamptonshire, and Navenby in Lincolnshire, Claus 17 Hen. HI. memb. 1. P. L. 

IClauB 17 Hen. III. memb. 17. Pipe-Rolls, 17 Hen. III. Lincolnshire. P. L. "' To wit, all the lands of earl Randle" in Lincolnshire. P. L. 

" Mylneton. O. 



ilepcesiter'si ^Prolegomena. 



29 



kingdom, the earl of Huntington, the earl of Arundel, 
the earl of Derby, and the earl of Winchester's son and 
heir, who lived not to be earl : Neither was Manwaring 
then an equal competitor, to have married a coheir to 
the earl of Chester. And it is plain, ex placitis 18 Hen. 
ni. Rot. 14. In the Tower of London, where the coheirs 
implead John the Scot, earl of Chester, for their part, 
there is no mention of Amice claiming any part, or any 
from or under her, in the record. Besides, all ancient 
authors of those times, as Polychronicon, Matthew 
Paris, Knighton, Stowe, and others, would not have 
omitted her among the rest which they have set down, 
had she been a coheir ; which also she must needs have 
been, had she been legitimate : for Hugh Cyveliok never 
had any other wife but Bertred, and she survived him. 

And though Amice in the deed before mentioned is 
styled— Fiiia Hugonis comitis, without the addition or 
note of bastard, it was very usual in those elder ages so 
to do. The like we find of Geva, base daughter of Hugh 
Lupus, and several others. 

V. Concerning this Bertred, the wife of Hugh Cyve- 
liok, I cannot omit the falsities and absurdities of some 
authors, as Powel on the Welsh History, pag. 295, and 
Feme in his Lacy's Nobility, pag. 53, both of them call- 
ing this Bertred by the name of Beatrix, and saying 
she was the daughter of Richard Lucy, chief justice of 
England ; a most gross falsity. I am very certain that 
Hugh Cyvelioc's wife was not daughter of Lucy, nor 
ever called Beatrix in any old deed or record ; though 
I find by good authority that there was a woman called 
Beatrix Lucy, but never wife of earl Hugh. 

The Death of Hugh Cyveliok. 

This Hugh earl of Chester died at Leeke in Stafford- 
shire, and was buried at Chester, anno Domini 1181, 
27 Hen. H. ; Hoveden, pag. 6 15, with whom Westmin- 
ster, Polychronicon, and Cambden inter comites Ces- 
triae, do all agree. 

He was earl of Chester 28 years, and gave the church 
of Bettesford to the prior and canons of Trentham after 
the death of William Barba, who at the time of this 
grant possessed the same ; a copy of which deed I re- 
ceived from sir Simon Dewes, baronef*. 

Now because I find that some are displeased at my 
placing of Amice, sometime the wife of Raufe Man- 
waring, judge of Chester, among the base issue of Hugh 
Cyveliok earl of Chester, and also that I am informed 
that three eminent judges and four heralds are of opi- 
nion that she was legitimate, and not a base daughter 
of earl Hugh, it is very necessary that I put down here 
my reasons why I have so placed her, protesting withal, 
that I have not done it out of any prejudicate opinion 
or calumny intended in the least, but onely for the truth's 
sake, according to the best of my judgment, and that after 



a long and diligent scrutiny made herein : for I must ever 
acknowledge myself to be extracted out of the loyns of 
this Amice by my own mother; but you know the old 
saying of Aristotle, Amicus Plato, amicus Socrates, sed 
magis amica Veritas. Neither were bastards in those 
eider ages of such disrepute as now in our days : Me- 
mini me alicubi legisse (saith Spelman in his Glossary 
on the word Bastardus) priscos septentrionales populos 
etiam spurios admisisse in successionem : And where 
he farther tells us, that king William the Conqueror 
began his letter to Alan earl of Little Britain, as he 
did many other more, in these words, — Ego Willielmus 
cognomento bastardus : of which title it seems he was 
not ashamed, otherwise he would never have used it 
himself. 

' And therefore the question being no more than this. 
Whether Amice was a base daughter or no f I will 
first answer those reasons which seem to be the chief 
ground of those worthy persons abovesaid who think 
Amice was no bastard, and then in order set down my 
own reasons why I conceive her to be a bastard, sub- 
mitting myself wholly to the judgment of all learned 
persons herein. 

The Reasons that she was no Bastard. 

L Our common law alloweth not, that any lands can 
pass in libero maritagio with a bastard daughter. Coke 
upon Littleton, fol. 21, b. ; and therefore Amice having 
land given with her, in libero maritagio, by the deed, it 
must be presumed that she was no bastard. 

Answ. To which I answer, that it is true that the 
law is so taken at this day with us, but that the law 
was so taken in the elder ages of Henry the Second, 
when Hugh Cyveliok lived, and upwards, I very much 
doubt ; and if we mark well this grant, it is the grant 
of earl Hugh to Rafe Manwaring, with Amice his 
daughter, in frank-marriage, of the service of Gil- 
bert son of Roger, to wit, the service of three knight's 
fees, by doing the service of two knight's fees to the 
said earl and his heirs, which is rather a release of 
the service of one knight's fee, than the grant of any 
land. But to pass by this, I say that the common law 
in sundry things is altered at this day from what it was 
in former ages, long after Henry H. Cook upon Little- 
ton, fol. 34, sect. 39. Cook, ibid. fol. 3, a. fol. 8, a. at 
the bottom of the page, and on the other side (b) at the 
bottom, fol. 26, b. sect. 29, and infinite other particu- 
lars may be cited. And that in this particular also, 
of passing land in libero maritagio with bastards, the 
law seems clearly to be altered herein since the reign of 
Henry the Second ; for the common practice I take to 
be the common law, and I shall give you here one pre- 
cedent made about the reign of king Stephen, (and 
doubtless many others might be mustered up from those 



d To this must be added a grant by this earl of the manor of Cumbe in Gloucestershire to Bordesley abbey in Worcestershire (founded by Maud 
the empress his mother's aunt), for the purpose of maintaining six monks to pray for his soul, and those of his father Randle, his grandfather Robert 
earl of Gloucester, his mother's, and all Chiistian souls. Charters of other donations to religious houses have been enumerated in p. 27. 

^ This discussion respecting the legitimacy of Amicia, gave rise to the celebrated controversy between sir Peter Leycester and his kinsman sir 
Thomas Mainwaring. The opinions expressed in the Cheshire Antiquities occasioned in the first instance a private correspondence, which was fol- 
lowed by an appeal to the public. The titles of the books and pamphlets published on each side are as follows, all of which, with the exception of 
those marked with an asterisk, are in the library of the author. 

1. ^ defence of Aniida, daughter of Hugh Cyvelioe, earl of Chester, wherein it is proved that sir Peter Leicester, baronet, in his book 
entitled Historical Antiquities, in two books; the first treating in general of Great Britain and Ireland ; the second containing particular remarks 
concerning Cheshire, hath without any just grounds declared the said Amicia to be a bastard. By Sir Thomas Mainwaring, of Peover in Cheshire 
baronet: London, printed for Sam. Lowndes, over against Exeter House in the Strand, 1673. 12mo. 80 pp. exclusive of preface 8 pp. 

2. An Answer to the book' of sir Thomas Manwaringe, of Pever in Cheshire, baronet, entituled, a defence of Amicia, daughter of Hugh Cyvelioe, 
earl of Chester, wherein is vindicated and proved that the grounds declared in my former book, concerning the illegitimacy of Amicia, are not evinced 
by any solid answer or reason to the contrary. By sir Peter Leycester, baronet, A. D. 1673. 12mo. 90 pp. 3. » Addenda 

t I 



30 



Cf)e Htsitorp of CJesiJire, 



elder ages, if any curious person would take pains to 
search old deeds and records) which deed I received 
from sir Simon Dewes, transcribed out of a manuscript 
in Arundel House in London, belonging anciently to 
the barons of Stafford, wherein the old charts belong- 
ing to the Bassets of Drayton-Basset in Staffordshire 
were enrolled about Richard the Second's time ; ibid. 

fol. 67, a. 

Ranulfus comes Cestria;, Willielmo constabulario, 
et Roberto dapifero, et omnibus baronibus suis, et 
hominibus Francis et Anglicis totius Anglia, salutem. 
Sciatis me dedisse et concessisse Gevae Ridell fihaj co- 
mitis Hughes, Draitunam cum pertinentiis in libero 
conjugio, sicuti comes Hughes et in libero conjugio 
dedit et concessit : et teneat bene et in pace, honorifice 
et libere, ut melius et liberius tenuit tempore Hugonis 
comitis, et aliorum meorum antecessorum, eisdem con- 
suetudinibus et libertatibus. Testibus Gilberto filio 
Ricardi, et Adeliza sorore mea, et Willielmo Blundo, 
et Alexandro de Tresgor, et Rogero de Bello Campo, 
et Willielmo de Sais, et Roberto de Sais, et Ricardo 
filio Aluredi, et Hugone filio Osberti, et Henrico de 
Chalder. Apud Saintonam. 

Wherein Geva is called daughter of earl Hugh Lupus, 
as Amice in that other deed is termed daughter of earl 
Hugh Cyveliok. Now that Geva was a bastard is very 
plain out of Ordericus, a man that lived in that very age : 
he tells us, lib. 10, pag. 787, speaking of Hugh Lupus 
his death, Ricardus pulcherrimus puer quern solum ex 
Ermentrude filia Hugonis de Claro-monte genuit, &c. 
Richard, a brave youth, whom onely Hugh Lupus 
beo-ot on Ermentrude, daughter of Hugh de Clare- 
monte, &c. ; nor can this be restrained to the onely son, 
for then it must have been otherwise expressed; and if 
Hugh Lupus had any other son or daughter by Ermen- 
trude, then cannot Richard be said onely to be begot- 
ten on her by earl Hugh, and so Geva was a bastard or 
else Ordericus lyes. Also the same author tells us, lib. 
4, pag. 522, that Hugh Lupus had also many base sons 
and daughters by several strumpets, who were almost 
all swept away by sundry misfortunes ; and very pro- 
bably if Hugh Lupus had any more legitimate children 
by his wife besides earl Richard, either son or daughter, 
Ordericus would have recorded them as well as he hath 
put down others in like nature, being indeed his usual 
method through the whole course of his history ; and 
had Geva been legitimate, then her issue ought rather 
to have succeeded into the earldom of Chester, than 
Randle de Meschines, after the death of Richard earl 
of Chester, forasmuch as the sister and her heirs ought 
to inherit before the aunt and heirs : and howbeit 
many earldoms have descended to the heirs males, and 
not to the heirs general ; yet in this case were no heirs 
male, but two females, an aunt legitimate, who had it, 
and a sister not legitimate : and shew me a precedent 
whereever the heirs of an aunt inherited before the heirs 



of a sister, both legally born, and no heirs male left, 
unless in case of forfeiture by treason, or some other 
great cause to hinder the same. 

Secondly, add to these the words of Glanvill, chief 
justice of England, who lived under Hen. U. in that 
very age with Amice, lib. 7, cap. 1. Quilibet liber homo 
quandam partem terrse suae cum filia sua, vel cum aliqua 
alia quilibet muliere, dare potest in maritagium, sive 
habuerit haeredem sive non, velit hseres vel non, imo 
et eo contradicente : and if a man might give land then 
in free marriage with any woman whatsoever, then he 
might give it to his bastard, and then the law is now 
changed ; for now it must be of the donor's blood, and 
a bastard is now said not to be of the donor's blood, 
quasi nullius filius. And it seems to me, that, in those 
elder ages, bastards were reputed of the blood, by the 
frequent appellation of them by the names of uncle, 
brothel", daughter, son, and cosin. Besides, our laws 
were then imperfect, dark, and obscure in most things, 
till Bracton, under king Henry the Third, compiled 
the body of our laws, and brought them into a method. 

And now I have done concerning this chief reason, 
whereupon those worthy judges grounded their opi- 
nions ; and we daily see opinions of lawyers follow the 
putting of the case, which many times, upon mature 
deliberation, and hearing of the case well argued, may 
then be of another opinion. 

Now follow the arguments of lesser moment, which 
I perswade my self were no grounds for the judges 
aforesaid. 

n. The disparity of the years between Hugh Cyve- 
liok and Bertred his wife, may suppose he had a former 
wife ; for Bertred was but 26 years old at the death of 
earl Hugh 1181, as appears by the Inquisition taken 
SO Hen. H. 1183, after the death of Hugh Cyveliok, 
and Hugh was earl of Chester 28 j'ears, which was one 
or two years before Bertred was born, besides what 
years were run up of his age before his father Randle 
died, which may be supposed to be a competent term 
of years, and then it is probable he had a former wife, 
and that he stayed not unmarried so long as till Ber- 
tred was fit for marriage. 

Answ. Now let us examine the matter a little, it will 
give us some light : Robert earl of Glocester, married 
Mabill, daughter and heir of Robert Fitz-Haimon, anno 
Domini 1110; so Stowe in his Chronicle; see also 
Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 647 ; by her he had issue four 
sons and two daughters. Maude, the younger daughter, 
married Randle de Gernoniis earl of Chester, father to 
Hugh Cyveliok; Vincent upon Brook, pag. 216. Now 
suppose we Maude to be the fourth child; probably she 
was not born till about the year 1117 or thereabout, 
and that about the year 1139 she was married to earl 
Randle, whereby Robert earl of Glocester strengthened 
his party for Maude the Empress. At that time she 
cannot well be supposed above 22 years old, if she were 



3. * /Iddcnda to the same woi-k, published by sir P. Leycester, Nov. 1673. 12mo. 

4. A Keply to an answer to Ihu defence of Amicia, daughter of Hugh Cyvclioc earl of Chester, wherein it is proved that the reasons alleadged by 
sir Peter Leicester in his fornner booV:, and also in his said answer concerning the illegitimacy of the said Amicia, are invalid, and of no weight at all. 
By sir Thomas Mainwaring, of Peover in Cheshire, baronet. London, (printed as sir T. M.'s former work) 1673, 12mo. pp. 105. 

5. An Answer to sir Peter Leicester's Addenda, or some things to be added in his answer to sir Thomas Mainwaring's book ; written by the said 
sir Thomas Mainwaring. London, printed as before. 1673-4, 12mo. pp. 53. 

6. 7- Two Books. The first being styled a reply to sir Thomas Mainwaring's book, entituled an answer to sir Peter_ Leicester's Addenda, the other 
styled sir Thomas Mainwaring's law eases mistaken ; by the said sir Peler Leicester, anno Domini 1674. Printed in the year JIDCLXXIV. The first 
part 36 pp. 12mo. exclusive of preface 3 pp. The second part 51 pp. exclusive of dedication 2 pp. and errata 2 pp. This latter part has also the 
following separate title. Sir Thomas Mainwaring's law-cases mistaken, or the antient law misunderstood, and the new law misapplyed, wherein is 
shewed that all those parcels of law produced by sir Thomas Mainwaring, b,aronet, in all his books to avoid a bastardy, are all clearly mistaken by 
him, and were either no law in the age of Glanvil, or are altogether impertinent to the point for which they are urged by him. By sir Peter Ley- 
cester, baronet. London, printed in the year mdclxxiv. g. An' 



i^ejcester's prolegomena* 



31 



so much. Now earl Randle died 1153, so that Hugh 
Cyveliok could not possibly be above twelve years old 
at his father's death ; he might be much less ; but sup- 
pose we in a middle way that he was six years old at 
his father's death, which is more than can be well af- 
firmed, then could not earl Hugh be above seven or 
eight years older than Bertred his wife : and what great 
matter is this ? I myself was eight years older than my 
wife when I was married : but it is much more probable 
that he never had any other wife, because he had many 
bastard sons and daughters, whose heat of youth might 
by a very timely marriage have been possibly prevented, 
or at least asswaged in some measure. 

HI. Bertred, the wife of Hugh Cyveliok, was a wit- 
ness to the deed in frank-marriage with Amice ; and 
Amice had a daughter called Bertred after the name of 
the countess, ergo probably Amice was no bastard. 

Answ. Truly this is of so little weight that it will 
need no answer ; for I yet apprehend no reason in it. 

IV. Roger Manwaring, son of Raufe Manwaring, 
calls Randle Blundevill, earl of Chester and Lincoln, 
his uncle in another deed ; wherefore it is to be supposed 
that Amice was no bastard, otherwise Roger durst not 
have presumed to have called the earl uncle. 

Answ. Histories, deeds, and records, are full of ex- 
amples in this nature, where we find bastards frequently 
called cosin, brother, uncle, son, and daughter : for 
example, Robert earl of Glocester, base son of king- 
Henry the First, is frequently called in histories brother 
to Maude the empress ; Hoveden, pag. 553. He is also 
so stiled in a deed made by Maude empress herself; 
Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 649 : called also cosin to king 
Stephen ; Ordericus, pag. 922. Reginald earl of Corn- 
wall, another base son of Henry the First, stiled Avun- 
culus regis Henrici Secundi by Hoveden, pag. 536. 
Robert and Ottiwell, two bastard sons of Hugh Lupus, 
frequently called filii Hugonis comitis Cestrise, and 
Ottiwell stiled frater Ricardi comitis Cestriaj, Ordericus, 
pag. 602 and 783 and 870. Geva, a base daughter of 
Hugh Lupus, stiled in old deeds, filia Hugonis comitis; 
and there also she calls earl Randle her cosin, Monas- 
ticon, par. 1, pag. 439. Also Richard Bacon, son of 
another base daughter of Hugh Cyveliok, calls Randle 
Blundeville, earl of Chester, his uncle in another deed, 
as Manwaring in like manner here stiles him in this 
deed; Monasticon, par. 2, pag. 267. Every man that 
is but the least versed in antiquities knows these things 
to be very usual. 

The Reasons that Amice was a Bastard. 

L If Hugh Cyveliok had no other wife but Bertred, 
then Amice must certainly be a bastard ; for she was 



not a daughter by Bertred, as is granted on all ' 
sides. 

But Hugh Cyveliok never had any other wife but 
Bertred; ergo Amice was a bastard. 

Now the minor is to be proved b^' the affirmer, opor- 
tet aflirmantem probare ; for as yet I never saw the least 
proof thereof, either by deed, record or any ancient his- 
torian, nor yet any inducement of good reason to incline 
my belief of it ; and till this be done, it is unreasonable 
to impose it upon any man's belief, bj- supposing that 
he had another wife, for suppositions are no proof at 
all. It is not enough to suppose Auiice might be by a 
former wife, but it must be clearly proved, or strongly 
inferred from solid reason, that it is so, and that Hugh 
had a former wife. 

Neither is it a sufficient answer hereunto to say. That 
it is unreasonable to conclude all children bastards 
whose mothers cannot be proved: God forbid. But in 
this case we find a wife certainly recorded, and a son 
and four daughters (who were afterwards coheirs, and 
carried away all earl Hugh's lands) clearly proved by 
records and ancient historians. And also earl Hugh is 
certainly known to have had many bastards, both sons 
and daughters ; which gives occasion of strong suspicion 
that Amice was a bastard, she being neither recorded 
by any historian, nor ever had or claimed any land as 
a coheir, and therefore here is a necessity of proving a 
former wife, which for my part I believe firmly earl 
Hugh never had. 

II. Whatsoever is given in frank-marriage is given 
as a portion ; now the release of the service of one 
knight's fee in frank-marriage, seems not a competent 
portion for a legitimate daughter of the earl of Chester, 
especially for the eldest daughter; for so she must be, 
being of the first venter, which always is more worthy 
than the second, if she were at all legitimate ; and we 
find the other daughters married to four of the greatest 
earls in England ; all which is a strong presumption 
that Amice was a bastard and no legitimate daughter. 

To this it may be answered. That possibly earl Hugh 
might give Amice a great portion in money, though 
she had no lands. And I say possibly too he might give 
her no money, or at least nothing considerable; which 
great portion in money, when it shall appear to be true, 
may take oiF the strength of this argument or second 
reason ; till then it must be very pressing. 

III. The ancient historians of our nation, as Poly- 
chronicon writ by the monk of Chester, Henry Knighton, 
the monk of Leycester, and others, also Stowe and 
Cambden, have recorded the lawful daughters and co- 
heirs of earl Hugh, and so the record of 18 Hen. III. 
And had Amice been a legitimate daughter, it is likely 
that these historians would not all have omitted her; 



8. ^n .Answer to two" books, the first being styled a reply tu sir Thomas Mainvvaring's book, entituled an answer to sir Peter Leicester's Addenda, 
the other stiled sir Thomas Mainwaring's law cases mistaken, written by the said sir '1'. M. London, (printed as sir T. M.'s former books;, IVIDCLXXV. 
i2mo. 63 pp. exclusive of preface 4 pp. 

9. *^« Advertisement to the Reader, by sir P. L. unanswered. 

10. * Sir Peter Leycester'' s second reply, d:itcd May 28, 1675. 

11. * Peroratio ad Lectfyrem, by sir P. L. dated Dec. 17, 1676. 

13. * The Case of Atnicia truly stated, printed and paged after the Peroratio, but dated before it, Aug. 5, 1675. These last three books were 
published together, and in the Peroratio sir P. L. stated that he had done if sir T. M. had done. No answer was published by sir T. M. before the 
death of sir P. L. excepting what may in some measure be considered distinct from the controversy, although originating in the ill-blood it produced, 
vi;!. a most severe scrutiny of various errors committed liy sir P. Leycester, entitled as follows. 

13. An admonition to the reader of sir Peter Leicester's books, written by sir T. M. Printed in the year 1676, 12mo. pp. 24. 

14. The Legitimacy of Amicia, daughter of Hugh Cyveliok, earl of Chester, clearly proved, with full answers to all objections that have at any 
time been made against the same, by sir Thomas Mainwaring, of Peover in Cheshire, baronet. London, (printed as sir T. M.'s other works) 
1679. 12mo. pp. 171, exclusive of preface 8 pp. 

It would be vain to attempt to give within the limits of this' work, any view of the arguments produced on the two sides, relating wholly to the 
moat abstruse points of law in a dark and distant period. The contest itself might have been easily avoided. Sir Thomas Mainwaring, in his first 
book, states that he should have rested satisfied if Sir P. L. had spoken of the matter as an uncertainty ; and sir Peter Leycester, in his reply, states. 



32 



Cf)e flisitor? of Cf)esi|)ire» 



but of her there is altum silentium among all the his- 
torians and records which I have yet seen ; though in- 
deed I look upon this onely as a probable, not as a sure 
evincing argument. 



These were the reasons which inclined my opinion 
to place Amice in that order as I have done : but 
since there are some learned men of another opinion, I 
must leave every person to the dictate of his own reason. 



that if he had known this to be the case, he should certainly have gratified him. All that sir T. M. avows himself to contend for, was, that his ances- 
tress was issue of earl Hugh by a first marriage, and that he was therefore entitled to quarter the arras of that earl by ordinary usage, in consequence 
of the failure of his issue male, altiiough the said Amicia could not in any way be considered as a coheir of the lands of the earldom with her half 
sisters, who were of the whole blood to earl Randle III. The disproportion of Amieia's marriage, when compared with those of her sisters, is in 
some degree done away with, by considering that they took place at a much later period, after tlie decease of her brother without issue; a degree 
of intimacy is also proved between the Mainwariligs and the family of their local prince, beyond what an illegitimate connection would seem to 
warrant J and it is observable that after his marriage Ralph Mainwaring signs immediately after the earl, taking precedence of the barons of the 
palatinate, both before and after bis resignation of the justiceship. The essential question relative to the possibility of giving lands in frank mar- 
riage with a bastard, was long argued with great ability on the part of sir Peter Leycesler ; but some of his arguments are ascertained to rest on the 
authority of incorrect transcripts, and it is probable that few will read the last book of his opponent which sums up the various aKguments, without 
allowing the victory to sir T. IVI. The opinions of the greater part of (if not all) the judges who were consulted, were given in favour of Amieia's le- 
gitimacy, and the authorities of the College of Arms have also been in her favour, under the express sanction of sir William Dugdale. 

*M* The annexed representation of the seal of Hugh Cyveliok, is taken from a very fine impression of the same size on green wax, with silken • 
strings of the same colour, in the possession of Mr. Thomas Sharp of Coventry, obligingly communicated through the medium of William Hamper, 
esq. The deed, to which the original is appended, contains a grant from the earl to Godfrey his homager, of " duodecim num'atus terre," and 
two assarts at Coventre. " Testibus istis, Bertreia coniitissa Cestr', Will'o Patric, Alueredo de Cumbray, Galfrido de Co-tentin, Radulpho filio 
Warneri, Rob' Patric, Ric' de Luvetot, Will'o de Ruuelent, Rog'o de Livet, el Herb'to clerico, qui banc cartam scripsit apud Cestriam." The 
secretum, or privy seal, consists of an antique head, (possibly a gem found at Chester) round which are two inscriptions. The first is very obvious, 
forming a monkish line, ending with the first word in the inner circle ; Q'lS cut q'id mandet p'sens mi:a chartula pand't. The second line, which 
is in Norman French, and like the preceding one rhymes in the middle, is toy obscure to offer any decided interpretation. O. 




iLe^cester'0 prolegomena* 



33 





(Bi %mtilt tf)e Cj)irti, sttnameti Bluntie\jilL 



Azure, three Garbs Oe, two and one. 



1. Randle the Third, sirnamed Blundevill", suc- 
ceeded his father Hugh Cyvehok in the earldom of 
Chester, anno Domini 1181. 

King Henry the Second knighted him, and gave him 
to wife Constance, the widow of Geffrey his fourth son, 
daughter and heir of Conan duke of Little Britain, and 
earl of Richmond, anno 1 18S^ 34 Hen. II.; Polychro- 
nicon, lib. 7, cap. 24. But Hoveden placeth it anno 
1187, 33 Hen. H. for Geffrey died 1 186^ and left Con- 
stance great with child, who bore Arthur a son eodem 
anno. Hoveden. 

This Randle confirms to the abbey of St. Werburge 
all the grants of his predecessors, in these words : 

Ranulfxjs comes Cestriae, constabulario, dapifero, 
justitiario, baronibus, ministris, et ballivis, et omnibus 
hominibus suis, Francis et Anglis, clericis et laicis, tam 
prsBsentibus quamfuturis, salutem. Sciatis me conces- 
sisse — omnes donationes et libertates, quas coniites an- 
tecessores mei, scilicet Hugo comes et Ricardus filius 
ejus, et Ranulfus comes, et alius Ranulfus avus meus, 
€t Hugo pater meus, et barones tempore illorum, vel 



in meo, eidem ecclesiae sanctas Werburga? dederunt, 
&c. Testibus Bertreya comitissa matre mea, Radulfo 
de Mesnilwaringe, Hugone de Bosco-Ale, Radulfo filio 
Simonis, Rogero fratre comitis, Rogero constabulario, 
Gaufrido de Buxeria, Stephano de Longo Campo, 
Alano de Bosco-Ale, Bertramo Camerario, Alexandro 
filio Radulfl, Johanne Clerico, Bech dispensatore, Petro 
Clerico, et aliis multis : apud Cestriam in capitulo mo- 
nachorum in anniversario die Hugonis comitis patris 
mei. 

II. I will begin first with the acts of this Randle, then 
with his titles, then with his wives. 

For his acts"=. Anno 1194, 5 Rich. I. earl David, 
brother of the king of Scotland, Randle earl of Chester, 
and the earl Ferrars, with a great army besieged 
Nottingham castle, which John, the king's brother, 
had caused to be garrisoned against the king in his ab- 
sence, whiles he was detained prisoner by the Roman 
emperor; Hoveden, pag. 735: but the castle was not 
taken till the king came in person to assault it. 

Anno 1216. After the death of king John, on the 



^ More properly Blandevill, from bis birth at Album Monasterium in Powys, now called Oswestry. Dugd. Bar, O. 

■» " Cum tota Britannia et comitatu RicbmondiiE." Chron. Evesham, Dugd. Bar. i. 41. O. 

<: The swords of state, at the second coronation of Richard, were carried by William king of Scotland, Hamelin earl of Warren, and Randle earl 
ol Chester i Randle earl of Chester being placed at the left hand of the king of Scotland. 

The following account of many interesting passages in this part of earl Handle's life, omitted by Leycester, is extracted from Dugdale's Bar. 
i. 41. where the several authorities are given. 

" In 3 Joh. the castle of Similly (in Normandy) was committed to his custody. Howbeit, in 4 Job. (upon Friday in Easter week) the king being 
told that this earl, with some others, intended to desert him, came to the castle of Vire, where he repaired to him, and so excused the matter, that 
the king, with those who then attended him, seemed well satisfied, but would not longer trust him with the castle of Similly without sufficient 
pledges for his fidelity ; so that he was necessitated to procure his friend William de Humet, then constable of Normandy, and Roger, constable of 
Chester, upon penalty of forfeiting all the fees he held of him, for his faithful custody thereof. 

In 6 Joh. he had a grant from the king of all the lands, fees, and liberties belonging to the honour of Richmund, which Geffrey, earl of Rich- 
mund, held in Richmundshire, excepting ix knight's fees, a half, and a quarter, whereof Roald constable of Richmund held. 

In the same year he gave the king a palfrey for a lamprey, which shews of what high estimation that sort of fish was in those days. 

In 1 2 Joh. he re-edifted the castle of Uyganwy in Wales, standing on the sea shore, east of the river Conway, which prince Lewellyn had destroyed, 
and fortified the castle of TrefFyniion of St. Winifrid. 

In 30 Joh. he answered for no less than XL knight's fees and a half for the honour of Richmond, which he possessed in right of Constance 

his wife. 

******* Moreover 

tK 



34 Ct)e History of Cijesjjite, 



feast-day of Simon and Jude the Apostles, the twenty- Anno 1214. That convent was removed to Deulacresse 

eishth day of October Henry the Third, being then but in Staffordshire, 10 calendas Maii, by this earl Randle. 

nine years old, eldest son of king John, was crowned at Monasticon, vol. 1. pag. 891. 

Glocester, principally by the power of Wallo the pope's ' 1 Hen. HI. the king gave to this Randle the custody 

Lea:at Peter bishop of Winchester, Randle earl of of the honour of Lancaster, and the castle of Montsor- 

Chester, and William Marshall earl of Pembroke, and rel, which Randle demolished. 

some others. Paris and Polychronicon. '2 Hen. HI. the king gave him the custody of the 

Anno Domini 1217. after Easter, Randle earl of honour of Brittany, in the counties of Cambridge, Nor- 

Chester with manv others, met about the besieging of folk, and SuflFolk : And he executed the office of sheriff 

the castle of Mountsorell, by the procurement of William by his deputies in the counties of Salop and Stafford 

Marshall regent of England for the young king, which 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 Hen. HI. and in the county of Lancaster 

they fiercely assaulted. But Lewis king of France, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Hen. III. as by the Pipe-Rolls of those years 

the barons of England, sent forces from London in the appeareth. 

very beginning of May, to raise the siege. Randle earl Anno 1218. 2 Hen. HL Randle earl of Chester, after 
of Chester, hearing thereof, with others, came to Not- he was accorded with Lhewellin prince of Northwales, 
tingham. The barons march on and besiege Lincoln took a voyage to Jerusalem. In which year Damieta 
castle. In the interim William Marshall, guardian of was taken by the Christians^. Mat. Paris, pag. 303. 
the young king and kingdom, commanded all the forces •" 1 1 Hen. HI. the king gave him all that part of the 
out of his several garrisons, to meet at Newark on Tues- honour of Richmond, which he formerly had of the 
day in Whitsun-week, for the raising of the siege at grant of king John, to hold for Randle's life, upon con- 
Lincoln ; among whom Randle earl of Chester was the dition that he should make no agreement with the earl 
prime commander ; and in the beginning of the week of Brittany to surrender the same up to him, unless the 
following they routed the barons at Lincoln. Mat. Paris, earl of Brittany could obtain those lands in Normandy 
pag. 294, 295. And the monk of Chester in his Poly- which the earl of Chester had lost in the service of king 
chronicon saith, that Randle earl of Chester slew many John. 

of the French; so that Lewis the French king seeing Anno 1220. 4 Hen. HI. Randle returning out of the 
his party much weakned, for a sum of money surrenders Holy Land, built Beeston Castle in Cheshire and Chart- 
up all his gan-isons, and returns to France. ley castle in Staffordshire, and ' the abbey of Delacresse 

Anno IISS*. The abbey of Pulton in Cheshire was near Leeke in Staffordshire, of the order of white 

founded. monks'*. Towards the charge of the castles he levied a 

Moreover in 15 Job. he was one of tliose that attended the king into Poictou. 

In 16 Joh. in the Parliament then held at London, he rebuked the king for violating the wives and daughters of the nobility; and joined witli 
William Mareshal, and the bishops of Winchester and Norwich, in that undertaking for the payment of the sum of forty-thousand marks, unto the 
archbishop of Canterbury and others, upon relaxation of the interdict under which the kingdom then stood. 

In 17 Joh. he had the castle and honour of Lancaster, with the castle of Peek in Derbyshire, committed to his charge ; and was one of those 
loy.ll peers who firmly adhered to the king, when many others put themselves in arms against him under pretence of asserting the laws of the realm 
and liberties of the people. 

In the same year also he had a grant from the king of the castle and manor of Newcastle-under-Line, to hold by the service of one knight's fee, 
and likewise the custody of all the lands of Simon de Montfort, with the forests to the use of the said Simon. 

In 18 Job. he had the custody of the county of Salop j so likewise of the castles of Salop, Bruges (Bridgenorth), and Richmond, with express 
command to demolish that of Richmond if he thought it not tenable. 

In which year, on Ash-Wednesday, he took upon him the cross, in order to a voyage to the Holy Land, as the king himself then also did; 
but the king's death happening soon after, prevented his journey at that time. 

And as he stood firm to king John in his greatest distresses, so did he approve himself a stout and faithful champion for Henry 111. insomuch 
that the very preservation of that king, and raising him to his father's throne, if we may give credit to an old monk of Peterborough (Walter 
de Wittlesey), may chiefly be attributed to him : whose relation touching the same being not taken notice of by our ordinary historians, I 
shall here insert. 

" Upon the death of king John, the great men of England, fearing that the son would follow his father's steps in tyranny over the people, 
resolved to extirpate him and all of his blood; and to that end, determined to set up Lewis, son to the king of France (a youth then but fourteen 
years old) in his stead: whom, at the instance of the rebellious barons, that king, for the purpose alledged, sent over into England in the last 
year of king John, under the tuition of the earl of Perch and other great men of that realm ; who having landed himself in England accordingly, 
and received homage of the Londoners, expecting the same from the northern nobility, advanced to Lincoln ; which being made known to this 
earl, who did abominate any conjunction with them in that their conspiracy, he convened the rest of the northern powers, and being the chief 
and most potent of them, taking with him young Henry, son of king John, and right heir to the crown, raised a puissant army, and marched 
towards Lincoln. To which place, at the end of four days, after Lewis got thither, expecting him, he came. To whom the earl of Perch, observing 
his stature to be small, said, have we staid all Otis while for such a little man, such a dwarf I To which disdainful expression he answered : * I vow 
io God and our Lady, whose church this is, that before to-morro^o eveniiig I will seem to thee to be stronger, and greater, and taller than that steeple.^ 
Thus parting with each other, he betook himself to the castle. 

" And on the next morning the earl of Perch, armed on all parts except his head, having entered the cathedral with his forces, and left 
Lewis there, challenged out our earl to battle, who no sooner heard thereof, but causing the castle gates to be opened, he came out with his 
soldiers, and made so fierce a charge on the adverse party, that he slew the earl of Perch, and many of his followers, and immediately seizing 
upon Lewis in the church, caused him to swear upon the gospel and relics of those saints then placed upon the high altar, that he would 
never lay any claim to the kingdom of England, but speedily hasten out of the realm with all his followers. Which being done, he sent for 
young Henry, who during that time lay privately in a cow-house belonging to Bardney abbey (near Lincoln, towards the west) and setting 
him upon the altar, delivered him seisin of this kingdom as his inheritance, by a white wand instead of a sceptre, doing his homage to him, as did 
all the rest of the nobility then present." Dugd. Bar. i. 41. O. 

d The next year he bad the honour of Bretanny, in the counties of Cambridge, Norfolk, and Suffolk, committed to him, and then seeing the 
troubles in England terminated, took upon him the Cross. Before his departure he granted his celebrated charter to his Cheshire barons. O. 
c Pat. I Hen. III. mem. 4. to mem. 7. P. L. f Pat. 2 Hen. III. mem. 10. P. L. 

8 Henry of Huntingdon, speaking of his conduct at this siege, says, " ubi dux Christians cohortis prasstitit gloriosa." O. 
h Pat. 1 1 Hen. HI. mem. G. P. L. 

' De ordine Cisterciensi. To which abbey he gave Leeke and Rudeyard in Staffordshire. Monasticon, vol.1, pag. 391, 892. Bivelegh, vulgo 
Byley, near to Middlewich in Cheshire, was a grange belonging to the monks of Delacresse. Monasticon, vol. 2. p.ag. 9IS. P. L. 

k " On the return of Blundevill from the Holyland, when he was at sea, there happening a dreadful storm, he asked the mariners, how long it 
was then to midnight, and they told him, it was almost two hours. Said he then, labour till that lime, and I trust to God, the tempest will cease. 
But when midnight approached, the tempest increased so much, that the master of the ship bad him commend himself to God, for they were .all 



ilejcester's prolegomena. i308734 ^^ 



tax through all his lands and tenants; Polychronicon. 
Also Knighton, pag. 2430. 

- Nor can I here pass by the mistake of Bale de Scrip- 
toribus Britanniffi, cent. 3, num. 93, where he writes 
thus — 

Ranulfus de Glaunvyle Cestriee comes, vir nobi- 
lissimi generis et in utroque jure eruditus, in albo illus- 
trium virorum a me merito ponendus venit. Ita probe 
omnes adolescentiae suse annos, legibus tiim humanis 
turn divinis consecravit : ut.non priiis in hominem per 
Eetatem evaserit, quam nomen decusque ab insigni eru- 
ditione sibi comparaverit : Ciim profecti essent Franco- 
rum heroes Ptolemaidem, inito ciim Johanne Brenno 
Hierosolymorum rege concilio, Damiatam Egypti 
urbem obsidendam constituebant ; anno salutis humanse 
1218, misit illiic Henricus rex, ab Honorio tertio Roma- 
norum pontifice rogatus, cum magna armatorum nianu 
Ranulf'um ad rem Christianam juvandam : cujus vir- 
tus, Polydoro teste, in eo bello miris omnium laudibus 
celebrata fuit : Quo confecto negotio, Ranulfus in pa- 
triain reversus scripsit unum librum de legibus Angliae : 
Fertur prseterea et alia quaedam scripsisse : sed tempus 
edax rerum ea nobis abstulit. Anno 1230, claruit, con- 
fectus senio dum Henricus Tertius sub Antichristi ty- 
rannide in Anglia regnaret. So Bale ; and from him 
Pitseus thus, — 

Ranulfus Glanvillus ex splendidissima familia Cestria; 
comitum in Anglia natus, &c. in his book De illustribus 
Angliae Scriptoribus. 

These are both mistaken in the name, confounding 
Randle Blundevill and Randle Glaunvill together. 
Randle Glaunvill indeed was chief justice of England 
under Henry H. and writ a book De Legibus Anglite, 
yet extant amongst us. He died at the siege of Accon, 
anno Christi 1190; Hoveden, pag. 685. But this Randle 
Blundevill earl of Chester is of later time a little, and 
died anno Christi 1232. This earl was at the siege of 
Damiata, but writ no book De Legibus : Glaunvill writ 
the book, but was neither earl of Chester, nor of the 
race of the earls of Chester. So much of Bale. See 
Spelman's Glossary, pag. 338, b. 

Anno 1224. Randle earl of Chester, John Constable 
of Cheshire, and others of the nobility, were much dis- 
pleased with Hubert de Burgo, chief justice of England, 
alledging, that he did exasperate the king against them, 
and did not well execute the laws ; insomuch that the 
earl of Chester with his complices at Leycester, instead 
of surrendring up the castles which the king demanded 
from him, as belonging to the crown, had thought to 
have sent threatning messages both against the king 
and his chief justice ; but upon more deliberate advice 
surrendred them. Paris, pag. 318, 319, and 320." 

Anno 1229- The king having gathered a great army 
together at Portsmouth, thought to transport them be- 



yond sea, to recover those lands which his father had 
lost ; but not finding sufficient shipping for half his 
army, he imputed the fault to the treachery of Hubert 
de Burgo, that he should have been bribed thereunto 
by the queen of France ; and drawing his sword to have 
killed Hubert, Randle earl of Chester interposed and 
saved him, that he got out of the king's sight till his 
fury was past. Paris, pag. 363. And in the same year 
Randle earl of Chester refuseth to pay tythes to the 
pope. Paris ibidem. 

Anno 1230. Randle earl of Chester marched through 
Anjou, and took certain castles, and so returned into 
Little Britain, where the king had made him commander 
in chief of his forces, together with William Marshall 
and AVilliam Albemarle. Paris, pag. 367. 

Anno 1232. In the Parliament assembled at London, 
the king demanded money for the discharge of his debts 
occasioned by the wars. The earl of Chester answering 
for the nobility of the kingdom, told him, that the earls, 
barons, and knights, which hold of him in capite, were 
personally with him in the service, and had exhausted 
their own money in that service, and therefore ought not 
to pay any thing, and so nothing was granted. Paris, 
pag. 372. 

In this year Randle earl of Chester did a second time 
save the life of Hubert de Burgo, when the king being 
exasperated with Hubert, sent to the mayor of London 
to send away all the armed he could raise, immediately 
to put him to death ; who in one night's space were 
encreased to 20,000 willing of the occasion : But the 
king, by the perswasion of Randle earl of Chester, tell- 
ing how dangerous it might be to raise such a seditious 
tumult, which perhaps could not be alla3fed when he 
would, and besides the rumour of the world for such a 
fact would be much to his prejudice, messengers were 
sent to stop the fury of the people ; and so he escaped". 

This Randle among the many conflicts he had with 
the Welsh, as I find in an ancient parchment roll, writ- 
ten above two hundred years ago, wherein the barons 
of Halton with their issue were carefully collected", v.-as 
distressed by the Welsh, and forced to retreat to the 
castle of Rothelent in Flintshire, about the reign of 
king John, where they besieged him : He presently 
sent to his constable of Cheshire, Roger Lacy, sirnamed 
Hell, for his fierce spirit, that he would come with all 
speed, and bring what forces he could towards his re- 
lief. Roger having gathered a tumultuous rout of fid- 
lers, plaj'ers, coblers, debauched persons, both men and 
women, out of the city of Chester (for 'twas then the 
fair-time in that city), marcheth immediately towards 
the earl. The Welsh, perceiving a great multitude com- 
ing, raised their siege and fled. The earl coming back 
with his constable to Chester, gave him power over all 
the fidlers and shoemakers in Chester, in reward and 



like to perish j whereupon he went out of his cabin, and stoutly assisting them, the tempest soon assuaged. The day following therefore when the 
seas were calm, and the danger clearly over, the master asked him, wJiy he would not stir to assist them till midnight, telling him that his lielp was 
then more than all the mariners in the ship. Quoth he; because my monks and other devout people who are of mine and my ancestor's foundation, 
did then rise to sing divine service : for that reason therefore did I put con6dence in their prayers ; and therefore my hope was that God Almighty 
for their prayers and suffrages would give me such strength as I had not before, and assuage the tempest as I foretold." Dugd. Bar. i. 43, from 
Matt, of Westm. O. 

"> The rebellious nobles were alarmed by a threat of excommunication from the archbishop of Canterbury, and submitted to the king at Nor- 
thampton. In 1 1 Hen. III. the earl of Chester, however, joined the other discontented nobles in demanding restitution to Richard earl of Cornwall 
of his manor of Berkherapstead, and a new Charta de Foresta, in lieu of that which the king had cancelled at Oxford. These differences were 
settled by a convention at Northampton, and in order to propitiate Randle Blundeville, he had a grant for life of that part of the honour of Rich- 
mond, with a stipulation that it should not be restored by the king to the earl of Britanny, unless he could obtain from the king of France for earl 
Randle, those lands in Normandy which he had lost by adherence to king John. Dugd. Bar. J . 49. O. 

" When Hubert de Burgh heard of the death of Blundeville, the messenger announcing it as the decease of his greatest enemy, he sighed deeply, 
and exclaimed, God have mercy on his soul ; and being then fasting, called for his Psalter, as he stood before the cross, and ceased not till he Jud 
sung it all over for the health of the deceased earl. Dugd. Bar. I. 45. O. 

° Lib. C. fol. 85, b. P. L. 



36 



%1^t History of Cf)e2ii)ite. 



memory of this service. The constable retained to him- 
self and his heirs, the authority and donation of the 
shoemakers, but conferred the authority of the lidlers 
and players on his steward, which then was Button of 
Button; whose heirs enjoy the same power and autho- 
rity over the minstralcy of Cheshire even to this day ; 
who in memory hereof keep a yearly court upon the 
feast of St. John Baptist at Chester, where all the inin- 
strels of the county and city are to attend and play be- 
fore the lord of Button : And none ought to use their 
minstralcy but by order and licence of that court, 
under the hand and seal of the lord Button or his 
steward, either within Cheshire or the city of Chester. 
And to this day the heirs of Button, or their deputies, 
do in a solemn manner yearly upon Midsummer-day, 
being Chester fair, ride attended through the city of 
Chester, with all the minstralcy of Cheshire playing be- 
fore them on their several instruments, to the church of 
St. John's, and at the court renew their licences yearly. 

I cannot here pass by the gross mistake of Powel on 
the Welsh history, pag. 296, whom Caiubden in his 
Britannia seems to follow ; where Raufe de Button is 
said to have gathered this army, and to have rescued 
the earl : whereupon he had the power over the mins- 
tralcy granted immediately from the earl. 

For first, there was never any such an heir of Button 
of Button, that was called Rafe de Button. But I shall, 
for more satisfaction, transcribe the original deed made 
to Button, remaining among the evidences of that 
family, which now by a daughter and heir is devolved 
to the lord Gerard of Gerards Bromley in Staffordshire. 

P SciANT praesentes et futuri, qubd ego Johannes con- 
stabularius CestricB, dedi et concessi, et hac praesenti 
charta niea confirmavi, Hugoni de Button, et hare- 
dibus suis, magistratum omnium leccatorum et meretri- 
cum totius Cestershirise, siciit liberiiis ilium magistratum 
teneo de comite ; salvo jure meo mihi et heredibus 
meis. Hiis testibus, Hugone de Boidele, Alano fratre 
ejus, Petro de Goenet, Liulfo de Twamlow, Ada de 
Button, Gilberto de Aston, Radulfo de Kingsley, Ha- 
mone de Bordington, Alano de AValeie, Alano de Mu- 
linton, Willielmo filio Ricardi, Martino Angevin, Wil- 
lielmo de Savill, Galfrido et Roberto filiis meis Blethp- 
ris'', Herdberd de Waleton, Galfrido de Button. 

In which deed it is, John Constable of Cheshire (not 
the earl of Chester) grants to Hugh de Button (not to 
Raufe de Button) the authority over all the letchers and 
whores of all Cheshire ; salvo jure meo. So as the right 
was the constables, which he held of the earl ; but now 
transfers it over to Hugh Button, about the end of king 
John's reign. By the ancient roll it should seem Roger 
Lacy rescued the earl, and now John his son transfers 
this power to Button: Which original grant nientioneth 
nothing of the rule of fidlers or minstrels ; but ancient 
custom hath now brought it onely to the minstrelsie : 
for anciently I suppose the rout which the constable 
brought to the rescuing of the earl, were debauched 
persons drinking with their sweet-hearts in the fair, fid- 
lers, and such loose kind of persons as he could get ; 
which tract of time hath reduced onely to the minstrels. 

I find in the records at Chester, inter placita, 14 Hen. 
Vn. a quo warranto brought against Laurence Button 
of Button, esq. why he claimed all the minstrels of 
Cheshire, and in the city of Chester, to meet before him 
at Chester yearly, at the feast of Saint John Baptist, 



and to give unto him at the said feast quatuor lagenas 
vini, et unam lanceam ; that is, four bottles of wine, 
and a lance : and also every minstrel to pay unto him 
at the said feast four pence half-penny : And why he 
claimed from every whore in Cheshire, and in the city 
of Chester, officium suum exercente, four pence to be 
paid yearly at the feast aforesaid, &c. Whereunto he 
pleaded prescription. 

And whereas by the statute of 39 Eliz. cap. 4. fidlers 
are declared to be rogues, yet there is an especial pro- 
viso in the statute for the exemption of those in Che- 
shire, licensed by Button of Button, as belonging to 
his ancient custom and privilege : So that the fidlers of 
Cheshire, licensed by the heirs of Button of Button, are 
no rogues. But enough of this. 

This Randle earl of Chester purchased all the lands 
of Roger de Meresey, which he had between the rivers 
of Ribble and Mersey in Lancashire, about the 13 year 
of the reign of Henry the Third, 1230, as appears by the 
deeds following. 

Couchir Book of the Butchy-Office at Gray's-Inn, Lon- 
don ; torn. 1. Comitatus Lancastrias, fol. 77, num. 70. 

HiEC est conventio facta inter dominum Ranulfum 
comitem Cestrise et Lincolnise, et Rogerum de Maresey; 
videlicet, quod dicti comes et Rogerus tradiderunt do- 
mino Radulfo de Bray in aequali manu quadraginta 
marcas argenti, et chartam quam dictus Rogerus fecit 
domino comiti de venditione et dimissione omnium 
terrarum suarum, quas habuit vel habere potuit inter 
Ribble et Mersey : Ita scilicet qu6d idem Rogerus sine 
dilatione iturus est inter Ribbel etMersey ad deponendum 
se de dicta terra, et ad faciendum omnes illos (qui de 
ipso ibidem tenuerunt) homagia sua facere dicto domino 
comiti, vel fidelitatein ejus ballivis loco suo constitutis : 
et etiam ad seisinam de Boujton cum omnibus perti- 
nentiis dicto comiti faciendam : Quo facto dictus Ra- 
dulfus de Bray saepe-dicto comiti chartam jam dictam 
reddet, et eidem Rogero dictas quadraginta marcas : Et 
si contingat, quod tenentes de dictis tenuris ad hoc, 
quod prajdictum est, domino comiti faciendum per 
ipsum Rogerum adesse noluerint, saepe-dictus comes, 
vel ballivi sui, ipsos compellent ad hoc faciendum. Et 
dictus Rogerus ad sumptus domini comitis itinerabit 
una ciim ballivis comitis, quousque negotium istud, se- 
cundum quod praedictum est, fuerit consummatum. Et 
ad majorem hujus rei securitatem uterque illovum prse- 
senti scripto, more cheirographi, sigillum suum appo- 
suit. Hiis testibus, domino Waltero abbate Cestrias, 
domino Willielmo de Vernon justiciario Cestriae;, Ra- 
dulfo de Bray, Waltero Bayvill, Ricardo de Biron, Jo- 
hanne de Lexington, Simone et Johanne clericis. 

Charta Rogeri de Maresheia, ex eodem libro. Comi- 
tatus Lancastriae, num. 79. 

Omnibus prcesentibus et futuris, — Rogerus filius Ra- 
nulfi de Maresheya, salutem. Sciatis me vendidisse et 
in perpetuilm de me et haeredibus meis dimisisse domino 
Ranulpho comiti Cestriae et Lincolniae, manerium de 
Boulton, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis : scilicet quic- 
quid habui, vel ad me vel ad haeredes meos accidere 
potuit, in dicto manerio de Bolton, et in Parva Bolton, 
in Tonge, in Halghe, in Brethmete, in Ratecliffe, in 
Ormeston, in WefFeleg, in Sharplis, in Haghe, in Fane- 



V Lib. c. fol. 139. p. L. 

t It is either thus as 1 liave put it ; or, G.ilfriilo ct Roberto filiis ineis, Blolbero Herhenl de Waleton, &c. I leave it to the reailer to juiljje. 



P. L- 



ile^cester'si ^rolegometta* 



3? 



disch, in Longeere, in Sevington, in Chernoc, et in 
Hedchernoc, in Dokesbury, in Adelvinton, in Whitall, 
in Hirelton, in Skaresbreck, in Heton juxta Lancaster, 
in Melner, in Derwente, et in Eccleshill, et in omnibus 
aliis locis acl dictas terras pertinentibus : in homagiis, 
feodis, servitiis, consuetudinibus, dominicis, custodiis, 
releviis, redditibus, escaetis, advocationibus ecclesiaruui, 
et in omnibus aliis rebus — : Reddendo ind^ annuatim 
quasdam cheirothecas albas, vel unum denarium, ad 
pascha, pro omnibus servitiis et demandis universis, 
salvo t'orinseco servitio. Et pro hac venditione et di- 
missione mihi dedit praedictus comes ducentas marcas 
argenti, &c. Hiis testibus, domino Waltero abbate 
Cestriae, domino Willielmo justiciario Cestriee, Radulfo 
de Bray, Ricardo de Burun, Galt'rido de Button, Gal- 
frido de Appelby, Johanne de Lexington, magistro Gil- 
berto de Weston, Rogero de Derbej', Simoneet Johanne 
Clericis, et multis aliis.'' 

in. Now for his titles. After that he married with 
Constance the widow of Geffrey, fourth son of king 
Henry the Second, and daughter and heir of Conan 
duke of Little-Britain and earl of Richmond, which 
marriage by the king's consent was solemnized in anno 
1 187, 33 Hen. II. as Hoveden informs us, pag. 637, then 
did he also assume those titles, and writ himself thus : — 
Ranulphus dux Britannia, et comes Cestriffi et Rich- 
mondise. 

A deed or two I shall produce for proof hereof : One 



from the original, which I saw in the possession of 
Peter Daniel, of Over-Tabley, esq. 10 die Junii, 1650, 
as folio weth. 

Ranulphus dux Britannias, et comes Cestriae et 
Richmondiae, omnibus tam prsesentibus, quam futuris 
qui chartam istam viderint et audierint, salutem. Sciatis 
quod ego dedi et concessi Andreae filio Mabiliae, et ha;- 
redibus suis, ut sint liberi, et quieti de me et meis haeredi- 
bus de Teloneo per totam terram meam, et in aqua, et in 
terra, et in civitate Cestriae et extra, et a brevibus por- 
tandis, et a prisonibus capiendis et custodiendis, et a 
namis capiendis, et a vigiliis faciendis nocte vel die, et 
a caeteris hujusmodi consuetudinibus et exactionibus, 
n^c de querela aliqua in civitate Cestriae, vel extra, re- 
spondeant in praesentia mea, vel summi justitiae met : 
Et super forisfacturam meam x librarum prohibeo, ne 
aliquis eos de supradictis libertatibus impediat vel in- 
quietet, sed eas liberi et quieti teneant,reddendo mihi et 
hseredibus meis annuatim vi denarios ad festum Sancti 
Michaelis. Hiis testibus, Bertre comitissa Cestriae, Ra- 
dulfo de Meinewarin, Radulfo seneschallo, Hugone de 
Boidele, et Alano fratre ejus, Roaldo, Roberto cam', 
Roberto Saraceno, Ranulfo Dubeldai, Nicolao tilio Ro- 
berti, Thoma fratre suo, Willielmo Marmiun, Ricardo 
Poibel, Rogero Clerico, et multis aliis. Apud Cestriam. 

A large seal of paste, or kind of white wax, with the 
impression of the earl on horseback on both sides. 




I ,1 /■:■;•«' !'"■■> 1 




Also another taken ex majori Libro de Whalley et Stan- 
law, penes Radulfum Ashton, Militem, l649. Tit. 
Num. 8. fol. 33. 

Ranulfus dux Britanniae, comes Cestriae et Rich- 
mondiEe, constabulario, dapifero, camerario, et omnibus 
ministris ejus, et omnibus baronibus et militibus suis, 
et omnibus hominibus suis, Francis et Anglicis, clericis 
et laicis, tam presentibus quam futuris, salutem. Notum 



sit Vobis omnibus, me concessisse et hac charta mea 
confirm asse Deo et abbatiae de loco benedicto de Stan- 
law, et monachls ibidem Deo servientibus, omnes illas 
libertates et donationes, quas eis fecit comes Hugo 
pater mens ; et prout charta sua, quam habent monachi 
praedicti, testatur. Testibus Johanne constabulario 
Cestriae, Petro cancellario, Radulfo de Maynilwar- 
inge, Hugone de Boidell, Ranulfo de Praers. Apud 
Cestriam. 



113 Hen. III. The king granted a confirmation to Randle earl of Chester, of all his lands between the rivers of Ribbell and Mersey in Lancashire, 
to wit, the town and wapentake of West Ueiby, the borough of Leverpool, the town and wapentake of Salford, and also the wapentake of Leyland, 
with all forests, and appurtennaces. Claus. 13 Hen. Ul. mem. 2. P. L. 

tl. 



38 



Ci)e flistor^ of Ci^es|)ire» 



But after his divorce from Constance, which hapned 
anno Domini 1200, he relinquished the titles of dux 
Britanniae and comes Richmondise, having no issue by 
her." She after her divorce married Guy viscount of 
Thouars, and she died 3 Johannis regis 1201. Hoveden, 
pag. 822, leaving issue by Guy a daughter called Alice, 
given afterwards by the king of France in marriage to 
Peter Mauclerc, militi suo cum Britannia. Vincent 
upon Brooke, pag. 62, 63. And howbeit Milles in his 
Catalogue of Honour, tells us that this Randle had the 
earldom of Richmond given him, with all the fees and 
priviledges belonging thereunto, the which Geffrey, 
sometimes earl of Britain, held in Richmondshire, ex- 
cept certain knights fees, which Roald constable of 
Richmond, and Henry son of Harvey, held in the same : 
The charter dated at York, 6 die Martii, 6 Johannes 
regis, 1204. Yet was he never stiled comes Richmon- 
diae after his divorce, though perhaps he enjoyed the 
profits thereof for some space ; but only comes Cestria; 
was his style, as appears by these following charters. 

The Originals of these two following Deeds were in the 
possession of Mr. Townelay of Carre in Lancashire, 
June 23, l637, both of them made in the reign of 
king John, as appears by the Witnesses. 

Omnibus sanctse matris ecclesiae filiis, — Ranulfus 
comes Cestriic, salutem. Notum sitvobis me dedisse — 
Deo et Beatae Mariaj, et monachis de Stanlaw, quietan- 
tiam de bestiis sylvestribus occisis, vel attinctis in terra 
ipsorum monachorum, portandis usque ad Cestriam : 
et quod dicti monachi et eorum homines non ideo cau- 
sentur propter aliquam bestiam aliquo casu mortuam 
et inventam in terra eorum, nisi fuerint aliquis Sakerbor 
qui de hoc loqui voluerit adversus dictos monachos, aut 
eorum homines : et quod sint quieti de servientibus et 
forestariis. Testibus hiis, Rogero constabulario Cestriae, 
Warino de Vernon, Hamone de Massy, Philippo de 
Orreby, WilUelmo de Venables, Ricardo de Aldford, 
Adam et Hugone de Dutton, Petro Clerico, Thoma 
Dispensatore, Collino de Quatuor-Maris, Radulfo de 
Munfichet, Gaufrido de Dutton, Adam de Byri, et mul- 
tis aliis. Apud Frodsham. 

Ranulfus comes Cestriae, constabulario suo, et da- 
pifero, justitiae, et vicecomiti, baronibus, et ballivis suis, 
salutem. Sciatis me pro Dei amore, et pro salute ani- 
mae meae, dedisse— -in perpetuam et puram elemosynam 
Deo, et Sanctae Marias, et monachis loci benedicti de 
Stanlaw, quietantiam de Tolneio per totam terram 
meam, de Sale et de omnibus aliis rebus quas emerint vel 
vendiderint ad usus suos proprios, tarn per aquam 
quam per terram, &c. Testibus hiis, Rogero constabu- 
lario Cestriae, Philippo de Orreby, tunc justiciario Ces- 
triae, Warino de Vernon, Willielmo de Venables, Petro 
Clerico, Adam et Hugone de Dutton, Liulpho Vice- 



comite, Alexandre filio Radulfi, Bertramo camerario, 
Josceramo de Hellesby, et multis aliis. Apud Cestriam. 

Both these deeds aforesaid were sealed with the im- 
pression of a lion in an escocheon, or rather a triangu- 
lar form, like a heart. 

Couchir-Book in the Dutchy-Office, torn. 2. Honor sive 
Soca de Bolingbroke, pag. 116, num. 17. 

Omnibus tarn futuris quam praesentibus, — Petrus 
cantor de Quarendona, salutem. Sciatis me remisisse 
et quietum clamasse de me et de haeredibus meis domino 
meo Ranulfo comiti Cestriie, totam teriam meam quam 
habebam in Weinflet, et aliam terram meam totam in 
Lindseia, quae pertinet ad terram praedictam in Wein- 
flet : Tenendas praedicto comiti Cestriae, et heredibus 
suis, haereditarie in dominico suo, &c. Hiis testibus, 
Thoma Dispensario, Willielmo Picot, Waltero de Co- 
ventreya, Juhello de Loningneio, Johanne de Pratell, 
Helya Pincerna, Gaufrido de Sancto Bricio, Engeramo 
Pisce, Henrico Dispensario, Willielmo filio Hamonis, 
Henrico de Civile, et multis aliis. Apud Baronam. 

But when Gilbert de Gant earl of Lincoln, was taken 
prisoner, who had then forfeited both his lands and ho- 
nour in taking part with the rebellious barons against 
the king of England, which title Lewis king of France 
conferred upon him a little before, to wit, anno 1216, 
then was Randle earl of Chester made earl of Lincoln 
by king Henry Third, 1217, 1 Hen. HL for so was the 
writ directed to the sheriff of Lincoln, dated at Lincoln 
23 Mali, 1 Hen. HL Claus. 1 Hen. HL memb. 17. com- 
manding him quod habere faciat comiti Cestriae tertium 
denarium de comitatu Lincolniae, qui eum contingit 
jure haereditario ex parte Ranulphi patris sui. Where, 
if Vincent hath not mis-writ the record, it should have 
been avi sui, not patris : For Randle the Second, sur- 
named Gernons, earl of Chester, was half-brother by 
the mother to William de Romara earl of Lincoln ; as 
whose heir, upon this forfeiture, Henry the Third now 
grants the earldom of Lincoln to Randle Blundevill. 

Another writ was dated at Worcester, 1.5 Martii 
2 Hen. HL directed to the same officer: — Praecipimus 
tibi, qu(id recipias clericum ilium, quem fidelis noster 
et dilectus Ranulphus comes Cestriae et Lincolniae ad 
te miserat per literas suas, ad eundum tecum per comi- 
tatum Lincolniae, et ad recipiendum tertium denarium de 
placitis comitatus ejusdem, nomine comitis Lincolniae, 
ad opus ipsius comitis, sicut eidem ilium tertium dena- 
rium concessimus. Vincent upon Brook, pag. 3l6. Mat. 
Paris, pag. 296.P 

And from this time, to the time of his death, he was 
usually stiled in all his charters, — Ranulphus comes 
Cestriae et Lincolniae. Some deeds I shall insert here, 
proving the same. 



" The disagreement between earl Randle and tbe countess of Brittany first appears to have broken out into an open rupture in 1 1 96, according to 
Hoveden. 

435, b. Eodem anno (1196) cum comitissa Britannis mater Artburi veniret per mandatum Ricardi R. in Normanniam loqui cum eo. venit obvi- 
am ei Ranulphus comes Cest. maritus ejus ad Pontem Ursonis et cepit earn et inclusit earn in castello suo apud Sanctum Jacobum de Beverun quam 
cum Arthurus fil. suus liberare non potuit, adhaesit regi Francifie et terras patrui sui combussit, deinde R. Ang. magno exercitu congregato intravit 
hostiliter Eritanniam et earn devastavit. 

Immediately before bis divorce earl Randle was summoned with other suspected nobles to appear before the king at Northampton (1 Johan.) and 
he there swore fealty to tbe king, qjl receiving a pledge of security for his own right. Ibid. 450, b. 

In the Monasticon (2. 1013.) is a very remarkable letter by earl Randle, written during his possession of the duchy of Britanny, in right of this 
marriage with Constance, to the following purport. 

Randle earl of Chester recommends to the bishop of London the canons of Fulgers in Bretanny, intrealing him to assist them in obtaining pos- 
session of the church of Cestrehunt, given them by his predecessors earls of Britanny, or in obtaining for them a pension from Master Osbert the pos- 
sessor, concluding in this remarkable manner : " Et sciatis quod postquam egrotavi sigillum meum penes me non habui, et ideo has literas vobis 
destino, sub sigillo dominee matris mese. Teste meipsu apud Martillum." O. 
P Claus. 2 Hen. III. mem. 9. P. L. 



iCe^cestet's ^rolej^omena. 



3.9 



Couchir-Book in the Dutchy-Office, torn 2. Honor siv^ 
Soca de Bolingbroke, pag. 111. num. 5, of lands in 
Lincolnshire. 

Omnmbus preesentibus, — Gilbertus de Beningeworth, 
salutem. Noverit universitas vestra me dedisse — Ra- 
nulpho comiti Cestrise et Lincolnise, et hseredibus suis, 
— totum manerium meum de Halton, in dominicis, in 
hominibus, &c. et homagium Radulfi de Gousle 
de feodo unius militis in Yreby, &c. et totum manerium 
meum de Kynthorp, &c. Pro h^c ver6 donatione dedit 
mihi prsedictus Ranulphus comes ducentas libras ster- 
lingorum : Et adquietavit me versiis Elyam filiutn Mar- 
trinse Judteum Lincolnise de octi^s viginti et decern 
marcis argenti, &c. Hiis testibus, Radulfo filio Simonis, 
Gilberto Cusyn tunc seneschallo, &c. 

Ibidem, pag. 111. num. 6. 

SciANT praesentes et f'uturi, quod ego Gilbertus de 
Beningworth quiete clamavi — Ranulpho comiti Cestrise 
et Lincolnise et hseredibus suis, totum manerium de 
Stepinge, quod est de feodo ipsius comitis, cum tota 
terra de Halton, et cum advocatione ecclesise de Step- 
inge, &c. Pro hac veto donatione et quieta clamatione 
dedit mihi prsedictus Ranulfus comes ducentas marcas 
Esterlingorum, &c. 

Many other of his charters might be produced, but 
let these suffice. 

IV. Now roR HIS Wives. His first wife, as you have 
already heard, was Constance the widow of Geffrey, 
fourth son of king Henry the Second, and daughter and 
heir of Conan, duke of Little Britain and earl of Rich- 
mond. She was married to Randle, anno 1187, 33 Hen. 
II. as is before proved. 

But upon the divorce of Constance, anno scilicet 
Christi 1200, 2 Joh. regis, he married Clemence, sister of 
Geffrey de Filgiers in Normandy, and widow to Alan 
de Dinnam. Feme in his Lacy's Nobility, pag. 58, and 
Powel on the Welsh history, pag. 296, most absurdly 
call her the daughter of Ferrers earl of Derby : and the 
translator of Polychronicon, lib. 7, cap. 32, calls her 
daughter of Rafe de Filgiers, who in truth was her 
grandfather. But she was daughter of William de Fil- 
giers, and sister to Geffrey. See Monasticon, 2 pars, 
pag. 997. And for farther proof hereof take these two 
subsequent deeds. 

Couchir Book in the Dutchy-Office at Gray's-Inne, 
torn. 2. Comitatus Northampton, num. 8. 

Omnibus tam futuris quam preesentibus, ad quos li- 
terse praesentes pervenerint, Gaufridus de Filgeriis sa- 
lutem. Notum sit vobis, me concessisse et dedisse Ra- 
nulfo comiti Cestrise cum Cleipentia sorore mea in 
liberum maritagium, totum maritagium quod cum ipsa 
datum fuit Alano de Dinnamo priore marito suo : Sci- 
licet totam terram, quam antecessores mei habuerunt in 
valle Moretonise cum omnibus pertinentiis et libertati- 
bus ejusdem terrse ; et unum manerium in Anglia, quod 
vocatur Belingtona cum omnibus pertinentiis et liber- 
tatibus suis, tam libere et quiete et integre ut Williel- 
mus de Sancto Johanne illud habuit et tenuit anno et 
die quo fuit vivus et mortuus : Qui scilicet Willielmus 
manerium illud habuit in maritagio cum Oliva matre 
Radulfi de Filgeriis avi mei : Et si aliqua occasione in- 
terveniente non possum ei terras prsedictas deliberare, 
in aliis terris meis de haereditate mei in Anglia et in 
Normannia illi perficiam trecentas libratas terrae ad 



monetam Andegavise : Quod si facere non possum, in 
aliis terris meis de haereditate mei, competentem faciam 
gratum prajdicti comitis de trecentis libratis terra; ei 
perficiendis. Praeterea dedi praenominato comiti in 
liberum maritagium cum praedicta sorore mei totam 
dotem matris meae, habendam praedicto comiti, post de- 
cessum matris mea3, integr^ et plenarie cum omnibus 
pertinentiis suis, sicut pater meus cam dedit matri mea; 
in dotem : Et ut hoc ratum et inconcussum permaneat 
in posterum, pra;senti scripto et sigijlo meo ad ipsum 
confirmavi : Et Willielmus de Humetto constabularius 
Normannia; juravit hoc legitime tenendum, et sigillo 
suo confirmavit. Hiis testibus Willielmo Constantiffi 
episcopo, Johanne abbate Alneti, Angoto abbate de Lu- 
serna, Willielmo abbate Hambeiae. Testibus etiam et 
juratis his, Fulcone Paganello, Willielmo Bac', Hu- 
gone de Colonc', Harstulpho de Salingneio, Petro de 
Sancto Hilario, Henrico de Humetto, Jordano de Hu- 
met, Thoma de Humetto, Petro Roaud, Rauno de Per, 
Juhello de Lavingneia, Juhello Beringen, Johanne de 
Humetto, Bartholomseo abbate, Radulpho de Agnis, et 
multis aliis. 

Ex Originali penes Simonem Dewes, militem et baro- 
nettum; Notato EE. num. 12. Anno l649. 

■"SciANT omnesad quos praesentes literse pervenerint 
quod contentio, quae fuit inter Ranulfum comitem Ces- 
triae et Willielmum de Filgeriis super maritagio Cle- 
mentiae de Filgeriis uxoris praedicti comitis et proneptis 
pr^dicti Willielmi, hoc modo pacificata est : Scilicet, 
quod praedictus Willielmus reddidit Gaufrido de Filo-e- 
riis pronepoti suo, ad dandumin maritagio cum de- 
mentia sorore sua praidicto comiti, totam terram quaih 
Radulfus de Filgeriis habuit in valle Moretonii, et sicut 
de ea seisitus fuit anno et die quo earn dedit Alano de 
Dinnam in maritagio cum prsedicta dementia, excepto 
dominio abbatiae Savierguen, et exceptis lx solidis 
Andegavensium, quos idem Radulfus dedit Aehciae nepti 
suae (quae est monialis apud Moreton) habendos quam- 
diu ipsa vixerit per manum servientis de Romei er- 
geneio ; et post decessum ipsius monialis revertentur 
praedictae Clementiae, et haaredibus suis : Et praeterea 
dabit praedictus Wilhelmus praedicto comiti centum 
libras Andegavenses annuatim a natali Domini, quod est 
anno verbi incarnati 1201, usque ad quinque annos, in 
nativitate Sancti Johannis Baptistae solvendas: Praeterea 
concessit prsedictus Willielmus prsedicto comiti unum 
maritagium in denariis Par TaiUiae de Augusto, haben- 
dum per totam terram Filgerii, excepta villa Filgeria 
quae combusta erat : Inter praedictum vero WiHielmum 
de Filgeriis et Gaufridum pronepotem suum hsec est 
conventio per consilium amicorum ejusdem Gaufridi 
facta : videlicet, quod praedictus Willielmus totam ter- 
ram de Filgiers, sicut Radulfus de Filgeriis earn illi 
commisit fideliter custodiendam, tenebit a praedicto na- 
tali usque in quinque annos : Et si quis ei super hoc 
contraire aut cum vexare voluerit, prsedictus comes et 
Willielmus de Humet et alii amici Gaufridi et homines 
terrae Filgiers (qui banc conventionem fideliter tenen- 
dam juraverunt) praedicto Willielmo erunt auxiliantes 
et consulentes pro posse suo : Completis autein quinque 
annis praedictis, prsefatus Willielmus reddet praedicto 
Gaulrido pronepoti suo totam terram Filgerii sine con- 
tradictione, sicut Radulfus de Filgeriis earn illi com- 
misit custodiendam fideliter : Quam cum reddiderit, 
idem Galfridus (qui a praedicto Willielmo requisitus 



1 This deed bears date anno 1200. P. L. 



40 



%fft History of C!)e0|)tre» 



fuerit) de jure suo terrae Filgiers per consilium ami- 
corum utriusque partis, et hominum terra: Filgeru, ta- 
ciet quod facere debebit : Et si per consilium amicorum 
suorum, et hominum terra, inter se concordari non po- 
terint, per judicium curiae domini Britannise sine dila- 
tione illi faciet quod facere debebit. Et si alter uter 
illorum contra hoc venire voluerit, tarn homines terrae 
-Filgerii quam amici utriusque partis auxiliantes erunt 
illi, qui banc conventionem tenere voluit ; et nocentes 
ei, qui eam tenere recusavit : Si autem contigerit, Cle- 
mentiam uxorem praedicti comitis Cestriae decedere in- 
fra quinque annos praedictos, ipse comes dicto Williel- 
mo de Filgeriis terram de valle Moritonii quiete reddet, 
si de dementia haeredem non habuerit: Et si Gaufridus 
de Filgeriis infra prffidictos quinque annos decesserit, 
idem Willielmus terram Filgerii integre et sine contra- 
dictione aliqua, et absque termino, dementia; et hsere- 
dibusejus reddet: Et ipsa dementia et sponsus ejus 
tenebunt prsdicto Willielmo conventionem, quam Gau- 
fridus de Filgeriis et amici sui ei tenere debebant: Am- 
plius Willielmus de Filgeriis de omnibus, quoscunque 
posuerit in castello Filgerii infra quinque annos, jurare 
faciet, quod si ipsum in fata quiescere contigerit, ipsi 
^Gaufrido de Filgeriis, vel praedictffi 
dementiiE sorori sua; si ipsa ei superstes fuerit : Et in 
hac conventione remanserunt Willielmo de Filgeriis 
praedicto maneria in Anglia, scilicet Tuiford et Wat- 
kinton, qua; Radulfus de Filgeriis frater ejus illi dedit 
pro hoinagio suo et servitio, sicut charta; dicti Radulfi 
legitime testantur: Et insuper eidem Willielmo remanet 
manerium de Belington, quod fuit maritagium 
et eum contingit jure hajreditario ex parte matris suae: 
Has conventiones fecit Willielmus de Filgeriis ad Scac- 
carium apud cum Ranulfo comite 

Cestria; et Clementia uxore ejus, et cum Willielmo de 
Humet quern idem comes et Clementia uxor sua loco 
suo assignaverunt super hoc ageret 

ratum habituri ; in praesentia Samsonis abbatis Cadomi, 
et Hugonis de Chaucumb, et Guiterii 

de Motyr, et Decani Sancti Juliani tunc justitiariorum 
domini regis : Has conventiones 

tam prasdictus comfes Cestriae, quam Willielmus de Fil- 
geriis : Et ex parte comitis juraverunt isti, Hugo 
Praer, Petrus de Sancto Hilario, 
Petrus Roaud : Ex parte Willielmi de Filgeriis jurave- 
runt Henricus de Viterio, Gaufridus 
de Sancto Bricio, Willielmus de Sancto Bricio : Et hoc 
ipsum juraverunt Fontenai : ut autem 
ha; conventiones firmae et inconcussa; permaneant, 
Sigillorum comitis Cestriae, et con- 
stabularii Normanniae, et Willielmi de Filgeriis, et 
Alani filii comitis, et Guidonis de Avail, confirmata;. 
Actum est autem hoc nonis Octobris, anno Incarnationis 
Domini 1200. 

Three large seals of green wax appendant. 

Anno 1230. Ranulfus comes Cestrensis munivit cas- 
tellum apud Sanctum Johannem de Beverona, quod ad 
jus uxoris suae comitissae jure haereditario pertinebat, 
militibus, alimentis, et armis : Reddiderat illi CasUum 
illud comes Britanniae Henricus quando confoederatus 
regi Angliae omnia jura sua in regno Angliae, rege con- 
cedente, recepit. Mat. Paris, p. 367. 

Some have added here a third wife to Randle, namely 
Margaret, daughter of Humfrey Boliun constable of 
England. So Feme and Powel, and Brooks in his Ca- 
talogue of Nobility, who for this his error is justly cor- 



rected by Vincent. These persons are full of absolute 
falsities. 

It is plain that Clemence countess of Chester survived 
her husband Randle Blundevill ; for she sued out her 
dower. In the Close Rolls, claus. l6 Hen. III. meinb. 1. 
a writ is directed to the sheriff of Lincoln — Quod de 
maneriis de Beminton et de Luneberge, quae sunt mari- 
tagium ClementisB comitissaa Cestriae, quae fuit uxor 
Ranulfi comitis Cestriae, plenam seisinam eidem Cle- 
mentiae habere faciat : faciat etiam eidem Clementiae 
plenam seisinam habere de omnibus terris quas Bertreia 
quondam comitissa Cestriae habuit nomine dotis in ma- 
neriis de Wadinton, Normanby, &c. quas quidem rex 
assignavit eidem Clementia; loco dotis ad sustinendum : 
eo tamen salvo dictae comitissae, quod plus possit petere 
in dotem, si non fuerit suffieienter dotata. 

How could Randle now have any wife after Clemence, 
unless he could marry when he is dead f Away with 
these lyes. 

But Randle had no issue by either of his wives, leav- 
ing his whole inheritance to be shared by his four sis- 
ters and coheirs, as is before mentioned in Hugh Cy- 
veliok. 

V. The Death of Randle the Third, sirnamed 
Blundevill. 

Anno 1232, Ranulfus comes CestrisE et Lincolniae 
apud Wallingford diem clausit extremum quinto calen- 
das Novembris [that is the 28 day of our October] cujus 
corpus delatum est apud Cestriam tumulandum, viscera 
apud Wallingford tumulabantur. Mat. Paris, p. 380. 

The book of Teuksbury thus — Anno 1232, obiit Ra- 
nulphus comes Cestriae 7 calendas Novembris apud 
Wallingford, ubi posita sunt viscera sua : cor apud De- 
lacres ; Corpus apud Cestriam. 

Agreeing herewith take this deed, which I found tran- 
scribed in a paper book belonging to sir Thomas Delves 
of Dodington in Cheshire, baronet, anno 1668, vouch- 
ing the original to have been in possession of Mr. Tho- 
mas Rudyard of Rudyard ; and to be sealed with three 
garbs or wheatsheafs, as followeth, made a little before 
Randle's death, about the 16 Hen. HI. 1232. 

Universis — Ranulfus comes Cestriae et Lincolniae, 
salutem. Sciatis me dedisse Deo, et Sanctae Mariae de 
Delacres, et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, cor 
meum post obitum meum ibi sepeliendum, ubicunque 
corpus meum sepeliri contigerit : Quare volo et firmiter 
praecipio, quod ubicunque vitam meam finiri contigerit, 
aut ubicunque corpus meum tumulatum fuerit, quod 
haeredes mei et homines mei cor meum ad abbatiam 
meam de Delacres, quam ego ipse fundavi, absque omni 
impediinento et contradictione asportent, condendum 
ibidem, — &c. Testibus W. abbate Cestriae, Willielmo 
de Vernon tunc justiciario Cestriae, &c. 

The monk of Chester in his Polychronicon thus : — 
Anno 1232, Ranulphus comes Cestriae, Lincolniae, et 
Huntindoniae, obiit apud Wallingford, et sepultus est 
apud Cestriam in capitulo monachorum, cum progeni- 
toribus suis. 

Certainly the monk is mistaken here in the title of 
Huntindoniae ; for Randle was never earl of Huntindon. 
John the Scot, who next succeeded earl of Chester, was 
also earl of Huntindon. 

I find that Randle earl of Chester and Lincoln, had 
the earldom of Leycester given to him by Henry the 
Third, as Cambden in Leycestershire informs us. 



r The deed is torn out in these places. P. L. 



iCe^cester's prolegomena. 



41 



For Simon Montfort, earl of Leycester, in right of his 
wife, took part with the French king, and for his rebel- 
lion was expelled England. He was slain at the siege 
of Tholouse in France, anno 1219- Mat. Paris. After 
whose death, Henry the Third gave Simon Montfort's 
lands in England to Randle earl of Chester. Howbeit, 
I find not that Randle ever assumed or used the title of 
earl of Leycester at any time. But Almaric de Mont- 
fort, son and heir of the said Simon, petitions Henry 
the Third, thus, — 

Couchir Book in the Dutchy-office at Gray's-Inn, torn. 2. 
Comitatus LeycestricB, num. 4. 

ExcELLENTissiMO domino suo, HenricQ Dei gratia 
illustri Anglorum regi, Almaricus comes Montisfortis et 
Leycestriae, salutem, in eo qui dat salutem regibus ; et 
cilm omni subjectione tam debitum quam devotum ad 
obsequia famulatum : Vestrae regiae majestati multoties 
supplicavi humilit^r et devot^, ut mihi terram meam et 
jus meum, quod habeo et habere debeo in Anglia, quod 
bonae memoriae pater mens de vestro tenuit, et tenebat 
(diim decessit) pacific^ et quiet^, mihi vestro militi red- 
deretis : Quod quiatdominationi vestrae non placuit huc- 
usqu^ facere, adhuc vestrae majestati supplico humili- 
tate qua possum, quateniis hac vice mihi vobis servire 
parato (sicut decuit) reddere dignemini terram. Et si 
hoc vobis non placuerit, ego ad pedes dominationis 
vestrae transmitto Simonem fratrem meum, qui de do- 
mino rege Franciae nihil tenet, cui si cam reddideritis, 
me pro bene pacato tenerem. Datum Parisiis mense 
Februario. 

Whereupon king Henry, 6 Februarii, 14 Hen. IH. 
anno 1229, engageth himself to restore all the lands in 
England, which were parcel of the honour of Le3'cester, 



ciim tertio denario comitatus Leycestriae, to this Simon 
younger brother of Almarick aforesaid, so soon as he 
could get them out of the hands of Randle earl of Ches- 
ter and Lincoln ; for to him he had formerly granted 
them. 

And afterwards Almarick surrendered up his right to 
his brother Simon, 23 Hen. HL in these words following. 

Couchir-Book in the Dutchy-office, torn. 2. Com. Ley- 
cestriae, num. 5. 

SciANT praesentes et futuri, quod ego Almaricus 
comes Montisfortis, Franciae constabularius, in prae- 
sentia Henrici illustris regis Angliae, filii regis Johannis, 
apud Westmonasterium die Lunae proxime post quin- 
denam paschae, anno regni ipsius Henrici vicesimo 
tertio, recognovi, concessi, et quietum clamavi de me et 
haeredibus meis, dilecto fratri meo Simoni de Monteforti, 
comiti Leycestrias, totam partem honoris Leycestriae, 
ciim omnibus pertinentiis in regno Angliae, ade6 plen^ 
et integr^ sicut comes Simon pater noster, vel Robertus 
comes Leycestrensis, illam unquam meliiis, pleniiis, et 
liberius tenuerunt. Habendum et tenendum eidem Si- 
moni fratri meo, et haeredibus suis de corpore suo pro- 
creatis, de praedicto domino Henrico rege, et haeredibus 
suis in perpetuiim,— &,c. Actum apud Westmonasterium, 
anno et Die praenominatis, 1239. 

Which the king at that very instant confirmed unto 
him : But this was after the death of Randle earl of 
Chester and Lincoln. Howbeit this Simon lost the same 
again by his rebellion, and was slain at the battel of 
Evesham, 4 Augusti, 49 Hen. HL 1265. 

Randle, sirnamed Blundevill, was earl of Chester 5 1 
years. 



*** Representations of four seals of this earl are given. The first, exhibiting an armed figure of the earl, (p. 33) was copied from an original 
seal of white wax with a brown varnish, appendant to a grant of lands at Coventry without date ; in the possession of Mr. Thomas Sharp of 
Coventry. 1816. 

The second, (ibid.) representing a lion (or wolf) rampant within a heater shield, was copied from an original seal appendant to a grant without date, 
made by this earl to the canons of Mobberley, in the possession of William Hamper, esq. 1816. The same seal appears to have been attached to 
the charters to Stanlaw abbey, given at p. 38. 

The third seal, with the secretum, inserted at p. 37, was appendant to a charter by this earl of lands at Stoke near Coventry, of green wax, and 
in the possession of Mr. Thomas Sharp, 1816. An impression of the same seal and secretum appear to have been attached to the original copy of the 
charter which it immediately follows in that page. 

The last seal, inserted at this page, with the secretum, is a fac-simile of a wood-cut given by Vincent in his " Discoverie of Errors," p. 317. The 
original was appendant to the grant of the earldom of Lincoln made by this earl to Hawise de Quencie (p. 28) and Vincent states his cut to be a 
fac-simile ** as neere as art can." 

A seal of this earl is given in Nichols's Leicestershire closely resembling the last, excepting that the horse's trappings are charged with garbs. O. 




+ M 



42 



Ci)e ilijstor? of Ct)cs!)ire. 



CHAP. vri. 



iBi f of)tt, sitnametJ tj)e ^cot, Carl of Cfiester* 



Ok, three piles Gules. 



I. John, sirnamed the Scot, son of David earl of 
Huntington, succeeded earl of Chester anno 1232, 17 
Hen. HI. in right of Maude his mother, eldest sister 
and coheir to Randle the Third, sirnamed Blundevill, 
earl of Chester. 

His father David, brother of William king of Scot- 
land, was knighted by king Henry the Second, 1170, 
Hoveden, pag. 518 ; and made earl of Huntington 1184, 
Hoveden, pag. 622, and David died about anno 1219; 
so that John Scot was earl of Chester and Huntington. 

Take here the charte remaining among the evidences 
of St. Werburge church in Chester, as followeth : 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus prsesens scriptum visuris 
vel audituris, Johannes de Scotia comes Cestriae et 
Huntindoniae salutem in domino. Sciatis me conces- 
sisse et confirmasse Deo et domui sanctee Werburgae de 
Cestria, et abbati et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, 
in puram et perpetuam elemosynam pro salute mea et 
comitissse mea3, et pro anima comitis Davidis patris 
mei, et comitissse Matildae matris meae, et pro animS. 
Ranulfi comitis avunculi mei, et pro animabus omnium 
antecessorum meorum, omnes donationes, et dignitates, 
et libertates, quas comites antecessores mei et barones 
eis dederunt. Insup&r ego ipse do, concedo, et prae- 
senti scripto confirmo praedictis abbati et monachis 
quietantiam de tribus panibus, quos aliquando solebant 
dare diurne ad turrim castelli mei de Cestria; et quie- 
tantiam de putura servientium in villis suis, scilicet 
Huntington, Cheveley, Idinchale, Wyrvin, tempore 
pacis ; et Prestbury et Gostrey in perpetuilm, &c. Tes- 
tibus domino Ricardo Phiton tunc justiciario Cestriae, 
domino Warino de Vernon, Willielmo de Venables, 
Hamone de Massy, Hamone de Phitton, Willielmo de 
Malo-passu, Willielmo de Boydell, Ricardo de Son- 
bach, Ricardo de Wibinberie tilnc vice-comite Cester- 
shiriaE, et aliis. This was made about 18 Hen. III. 1233. 

" H. This John, earl of Chester and Huntington, con- 
ceiving that an earl might not lawfully be summoned 
in any other county than that whereof he was earl, did 
except against the summons in Northamptonshire upon 
a writ De rationabili parte, brought against him there 
by the other coheirs to R;indle Blundevill ; but was 
ordered to answer. The record 1 have here tran- 
scribed, as it is cited by Selden in his Titles ol Honour, 
pag. 643, ex fragmentis tempore Hen. HI. quae in 
archivis arcis Londinensis servantur : orta est ista lis 
in 18 Hen. III. quod satis constat ex placitis 18 Hen. 
HI. Rot. 14. 

Northampton -Johannes comes Cestriae et Hun- 

tingdoniae, summonitus fuit ad respondendum Hugoni 
de Albiniaco, Willielmo comiti de Ferrariis, et Agneti 
uxori ejus, et Hawisiae comitissae Lincolniae, quare de- 
forciat eis rationabilem partem suam, quae eos contingit 
de hsereditate Ranulfi quondam comilis Cestriae, et unde 
ipse obiit seisitus in comitatu Cestriae ; computa cum 



eisdem Hugone, Willielmo et Agnete, et Hawisia, 
parte su& rationabili de terrS, quam niinc tenet alibi de 
eadem hsereditate. Et comes alias respondit, qtuid 
noluit respondere ad hoc breve nisi curia consideraverit, 
et consideratione parium suorum, per summonitionem 
factam in comitatu Northamptoniae de terris et tene- 
mentis in comitatu Cestriae ubi brevia domini regis non 
currunt. Et quia usitatum est hue usqu^, qu^d pares 
sui, et alii qui libertates habent consimiles (sicut epis- 
copus Dunelmensis, et comes mareschallus) respondent 
de terris et tenementis infrS. libertates suas per summo- 
nitionem factam ad terras et tenementa extra libertates 
suas : ide6 consideratum est, quod respondeat. 

III. This John Scot, earl of Chester, carried the 
sword before king Henry the Third at the marriage of 
queen Elianour, Anno Domini 1236, 20 Hen. III. at 
which time all the great men of this kingdom used those 
offices and places which had of ancient right belonged 
to their ancestors at the coronation of the kings ; and 
is mentioned by Matthew Paris in these words, sub 
anno 1236. Comite Cestriae gladium sancti Edwardi, 
qui Curtein dicitur, ant^ regem baiulante in signum 
qu6d comes est palatii, et regem (si oberret) habeat de 
jure potestatem cohibendi; suo sibi, scilicet Cestrensi, 
constabulario ministrante, et virga populum (cum se 
inordinate ingereret) subtrahente. 

This is the first time, saith Selden in his Titles of 
Honour, pag. 641, speaking of the title of earl-pala- 
tine in England, that in express words he found the 
earl of Chester called earl-palatine ; nor hath he ob- 
served the word palatine to be applied so with us before 
Henry the Second's time, or thereabout. 

For although the county of Chester be frequently 
called a county palatine, as well in our laws as in com- 
mon language, as comitatus palatinus, or palantinus, 
or counter-paleys, corruptly for county-paleis, as some- 
times it is in our law-books. And although indeed it 
be truly a county-palatine, and hath so continued ever 
since the first gift to Hugh Lupus, unless we except the 
short time whiles it was a principality, statute 21 Rich. 
II. cap. 9. which was repealed 1 Hen. IV. cap. 3. yet 
neither in their summons to parliament, nor in any other 
writ directed to them, were thej' stiled earl-palatines : 
neither do I see testimony to perswade me that, when 
the first grant was made to Hugh Lupus, it was granted 
to him by the name of earl-palatine. 

But this earldom being given him with such liberties 
and kind of regal jurisdiction as count palatines of ter- 
ritories in foreign parts had, it hath therefore since 
been called a county palatine, and the earls thereof 
palatines. Now to be earl palatine, was to have the 
possession of a county or earldom ad regalem potesta- 
tem in omnibus under the king, as Bracton well expres- 
seth the same. 

And to this day the county palatine of Chester hath 



•1 In the differences between the king and Richard earl marsh.ill, this earl of Chester, and John earl of Lincoln, hroke their engagements to the 
carl marshall, and joined the king, in consideration of a bribe of 1000 marks given them by Peter de Rupibus, then bishop of Winchester. 

Dugd. Bar. i. 46. O. 



^Leicester's prolegomena* 



43 



had a chamberlain, who supplieth the place of chan- 
cellor ; and also justices, before whom the causes, which 
of their nature should otherwise belong respectively to 
the King's Bench and Common Pleas, are triable ; a 
baron of the Exchequer, a sheriff, and other officers, 
proportionable to those of the crown at Westminster. 
See more of this county palatine in my lord Cook's Ju- 
risdiction of Courts. 

IV. The Wife of John Scot. 

He married Helen, daughter of Lhewellin, prince of 
North Wales, about anno Domini 1222, 6 Hen. HI. 
This marriage was concluded on as a final peace between 
Lhewellin and Randle, sirnamed Blundevill, earl of Ches- 
ter. Knighton,, pag. 2430. 

Take here the agreement about this marriage, the 
original deed whereof remained in the possession of 
Somerford Oldfield, esquire, at Somerford in Cheshire, 
anno Domini \653. 

Haec est conventio facta inter dominum Ranulfum 
comitem Cestriae et Lincolniae, et dominum Lhewelli- 
num principem Northwalliae ; quod Johannes de Scoti^, 
nepos praedicti comitis de sorore su& primogenita, 
ducet in uxorem Helenam filiam ipsius Lhewelini : ita 
qu6d dictus Lhewelinus dabit dicto Johanni in libero 
maritagio totum manerium de Budeford in WarewicS,, 
et manerium de Suttehele in comitatu Wigorniae cdm 
omnibus pertinentiis, sicut dominus Johannes rex ea 
illi dedit in libero maritagio : et totum manerium de 
Welneton in comitatu Salopesburiae cum omnibus per- 
tinentiis infra villam et extra. Habendum dicto Jo- 
hanni, et haeredibus suis ex dicta Helena provenienti- 
bus, sicut idem Lhewelinus ea aliquo tempore meliiis et 
integriiis tenuit. Et praaterea dabit eidem Johanni 
mille marcas argenti, &c. Testibus domino reverendo 
episcopo de sancto Asaph, domino H. abbate Cestriae, 
domino Hugone de Lasci comite Ultonioe, Philippo de 
Orreby tilnc justiciario Cestriae, H. de Aldideley, 
Gualtero de Daivill, Ricardo Fitton, Edrevet Liagham, 
Edmundo filio Righerit, Coronon filio Edrevet, Helin 
Idhit, magistro Estruit, magistro Ada, Davide clerico 

Lhewelini, magistro H. et clericis domini 

comitis Cestriae, et multis aliis. 

V. The Death of John Scot. 

This John Scot, earl of Chester and Huntingdon, 
died without issue, at the '' abbey of Dernhale in Che- 
shire, the seventh day of June, anno Domini 1237, 21 
Hen. III. not without suspicion of being poysoned by 
the contrivance of Helene his wife, and was buried at 
Chester, having been earl of Chester almost five years : 
for Matthew Paris saith, anno 1237, 21 Hen HI. Jo- 
hannes comes Cestriae, uxore suS. filia Leolini machi- 
nante, potionatus diem clausit extreuium circa pente- 
costen. With whom agrees Polychronicon, Walsing- 
ham, and Knighton, pag. 2431. 

Helene, the widow of this John, sirnamed the Scot, 
did afteruards marry Robert de Quincy, third son of 
Saher de Quincy earl of Winchester ; see Vincent upon 
Brook, pag. 260 ; which Robert de Quincy died anno 
domini 12.57, 41 Hen. III. at the justs or tourneament 
at Bhe ; Matth. Paris, put out by Wats, 1640, pag. 942; 
and I find that Saher de Quincy, earl of Winchester, 
had two sons called Robert ; Robert de Quincy, eldest 
son, married Hawise, fourth sister and coheir to Randle 
earl of Chester and Lincoln, sirnamed Blundevill, by 



whom he had a daughter called Margaret, married to 
John Lacy, constable of Cheshire and baron of Halton, 
and after earl of Lincoln in his wife's right, as is before 
more fully proved in the issue of Hugh Cyveliok earl of 
Chester. This Robert died in the life-time of Saher 
his father; which Saher died 1220, as Matthew Paris 
recordeth. Roger de Quincy, second son of Saher, suc- 
ceeded his father in the earldom of Winchester; and 
this Robert, third son of Saher, who married the widow 
of John Scot. 

VL But this John the Scot having no issue, king 
Henry the Third took the earldom of Chester into his 
own hands, and laid it to the demaine of his crown; 
and gave unto the sisters of John the Scot other lands, 
unwilling that so great an inheritance as the earldom 
of Chester was, should be divided (as the king himself 
said) among distaff's ; Cambden's Britannia, printed 
1607, pag. 464. 

Now the sisters were these ; Margaret the eldest, was 
the second wife of Alan de Galloway, constable of Scot- 
land, of whom he begot Debergoille, married to John , 
Baliol, of Bernards castle in the bishopric of Durham, 
founder of Baliol colledge in Oxford, and died 1269, 
and was father to John Baliol, sometime king of 
Scotland, in the reign of Edward the First, king of Eng- 
land. Isabel, second sister to John the Scot, married 
Robert de Bruis. Maud, the third sister, died without 
issue ; and Alda, or Ada, the fourth sister, married 
Henry Hastings; Knighton, pag. 2431. 

But the first wife of Alan de Galloway aforesaid, was 
the daughter of Hugh Lacy of Ireland, by whom he 
had issue three daughters ; Helen, married Roger de 
Quincy earl of Winchester, in whose right he was after- 
wards constable of Scotland, but had no issue male, 
onely three daughters ; Christian, second daughter of 
Alan de Galloway by his first wife, married William de 
Fortibus earl of Albemarle ; and Mary, third daughter, 
died without issue ; Cambden's Britannia, printed l607, 
pag. 693 ; Matthew Paris, put out by Wats, 1764, 
pag. 430, where also it appears, that in anno 1236, 
Alan had a brother named Thomas, and also a bastard 
son called Thomas, who, by the assistance of their great 
allies, sought by force to possess themselves of Gallo- 
way in Scotland, which the king of Scotland had dis- 
tributed to the three daughters and heirs of Alan; but 
these rebels were beaten and dispersed by the king of 
Scotland, anno 1236. 

But to return to our earls of Chester. The line of 
the ancient earls of Chester now failing, this earldom 
was, by king Henry the Third, taken into his own 
hands, anno Domini 1237, 21 Hen. III. It remains that 
I now shew the earls of Chester of the royal blood 
since this time, which in the next chapter I shall briefly 
reckon up. 

And observe that the county of Flint appertaineth to 
the dignity of the sword of the earls of Chester, and 
that the county palatine of Chester is still preserved in 
the crown as a county palatine, if there be no creation 
of the prince into the title of earl of Chester. If the 
king's eldest son be created prince of Wales, then 
usually is the title of earl of Chester also conferred with 
it ; but upon the death ol every prince so created, these 
titles are preserved in the crown till a new creation. 

These notes following I had from Mr. Dugdale. 
Helen, the widow of John the Scot, held these lands 



'' The manor lioiise of Dernhale, the abbey not being then founded ; for further corrections see Dernhall, Edisb, Hund. p. 97. O. 



44 



%\}t ©istor^ of Cib^sf)ire. 



following till a dower was assigned out: viz. Fothering- 
hay and Jarwell in Northamptonshire ; Keweston in 
Bedfordshire; Totnam in Middlesex; Bramton, Co- 
nington, and Limpays in Huntingtonshire ; Bado in 
Essex ; and Exton in Rutlandshire ; Claus. 22 Hen. III. 
memb. 20. 

The sisters of John Scot had these lands following. 

Devergoil, daughter of Margaret, eldest sister of 
John, had the mannors of Luddington and Torksey in 
Lincolnshire, with the farm of Yarmouth in Norfolk ; 
Tower of London, pat. 22 Hen. HL memb. 11.'= 

Isabel had Writtell and Hathfield in Essex. Maude, 



the third sister, died without issue. Pat. 22 Hen. III. 
mem. 4. 

Ada, the fourth sister, had Bromsgrove in Worces- 
tershire ; Bolsover in Derbyshire ; the mannor and 
castle, the mannor and sok of Maunsfield in Notting- 
hamshire, and "^ Oswardbeck wapentake ; and Wurfield, 
Stratton, and Cundover in Shropshire ; Wigginton and 
Wolverhampton in Staffordshire. Pat. 22 Hen. III. 
memb. 4. claus. 22 Hen. HI. mem. 12. 

After this, to wit 31 Hen. III. the earldom of Ches- 
ter, with the castles of Gannok and Disart' in the bor- 
ders of Wales, were annexed to the crown for ever ; 
Pat. 31 Hen. HI. mem. 7. 



*** The annexed i;eiy rarfs representation of a seal of this earl, is a facsimile of a drawing by Ranile Holme. Harl. MSS. 207 1 • p.*- The ori- 
ginal is stated to be appendant to tire grant of the tithes of Dee mills to Chester abbey. O. 




CHAP. VIII. 



(Bi t^z Cities of prince of ^omales anti Carl of Chester, 

Since they were invested in the Crown of England, and who have been so created, with 

THE time of their CrEATION. 



I. King Henry the Third brought Lhewellin, prince 
of North Wales, into subjection, and made peace with 
Lhewellin, anno Domini 1228, 12 Hen. HI. upon con- 
dition that Lhewellin and his successors should be 
called princes, and do homage to the kings of England ; 
whereupon king Henry received from him three thou^ 
sand marks, Knighton, pag. 2436, and then king Henry 
made a charter to Lhewellin, which was confirmed by 
the pope. 

Anno 25 Hen. HI. 1241, David, the son of Lhe- 
wellin, obligeth himself to king Henry to hold all his 
lands in capite of the king, and to free his elder brother 
Griffith*, and Owen, the eldest son of Griffith, out of 
prison, whom he had unjustly detained ; and that the 
land of Englesmere should remain to king Henry and 
his heirs; Mat. Paris, put out by Wats, pag. 625 ; and 



yet did this David acknowledge to hold his lands in 
Wales of the pope, endeavouring to shake off the yoke 
of his fealty to the kings of England: and Griffith 
promised by sureties, if he obtained his portion of the 
lands due unto him, to pay 300 marks yearly to king 
Henry and his heirs for ever. 

Now David rebelled, and after much perplexity and 
destruction of his lands in Wales by king Henry, he 
died anno 1246. 

King Henry the Third, anno Domini 1254, 38 Hen. 
HI. gave Wales to his eldest son prince Edward, by 
the name of una cum conquestu nostro Wallise ; as also 
Gascony, Ireland, and some other territories recited in 
the charter : this was upon the marriage of prince Ed- 
ward with Elinour, sister to Alphonso king of Spain ; 
yet (saith Selden) notwithstanding the grant of Wales, 



c This is incomplete ; Margaret, eldest sister of John, had two daughters and coheiresses. Devergoil, the eldest, wife of John Baliol, had the 
manors here stated. Christian, the youngest, had the manor of Driffield in Yorkshire, and the manor and advowson of Thingden in Northamp- 
tonshire. O. 



■< Oswaldesbeck in Nottinghamshire, see Stat. 32 Hen. VIII. cap. 29. P. L. 
« Stowe saith Griffith was a bastard son of Lhewellin, pag. 185. P. L. 



' Disart castle is in Denbighshire. P. L. 



iCe^cester'si ^roUjSomena, 



45 



I find no warrant that therefore the special title of prince 
of Wales, as it belongs to the son and heir apparent, 
began in this prince Edward; Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 
594; Matthew Westminster, sub anno 1254; also 
Matthew Paris, put out by Wats, l640, pag. 890. Nor 
were the ancient princes of Wales of the British blood 
at this time quite extinct, for Wales was not absolutely 
subdued till this prince Edward was king of England ; 
scilicet 1283, 11 Edw. I.; so Stowe. Neither did this 
Edward, whiles he was prince, ever assume the title of 
prince of Wales, as far forth as I can find. 

And for the earldom of Chester, Cambden saith it was 
given by Henry the Third to this prince Edward, who, 
being taken prisoner by the barons, surrendred it up to 
Simon de Montfort earl of Leycester, that he the prince 
might be redeemed ; sed Simone statim interfecto, ad 
regiam familiam cito rediit ; Cambden's Britannia, Tit. 
Cheshire, ad finem. 

And indeed by the charter of Maxfield, dated 45 Hen. 
in. 1261. this prince Edward seems to be possessed 
of the county of Chester ; howbeit, in this charter, and 
all others that 1 have seen, he useth onely the title of, 
Edwardus illustris regis Anglia; primogenitus, and not 
at all the title of comes Cestria;. 

The charter made to Simon de Montfort of the earl- 
dom of Chester, bears date 24 die Decembris, 49 Hen. 
in. 1264, at Woodstock. Vincent upon Brook, p. 108. 
whereunto the king was forced to make his peace : I'or 
both the king, and prince Edward his son, were then 
prisoners to Simon, taken at the battel of Lewis in Sus- 
sex, 12 die Mali 48 Hen. III. 12S4. See Stowe. Yet 
Simon enjoyed it but a little space; for he was slain 
at the battel of Evesham, the fourth da}' of Au- 
gust, 49 Hen. III. 1265, and then all Montfort's estate 
was forfeited by his rebellion ; and so the earldom of 
Chester reverted back to Henry the Third : And I have 
seen the copy of the deed wherebj' prince Edward con- 
firms to the barons of Cheshire, all the liberties which 
Randle sometime earl of Chester, had formerly granted 
unto them by his charter ; and in this he is onely stiled 
— Edwardus illustris regis Anglise primogenitus, dated 
27 die August!, 49 Hen. III. ^^hich is but 23 days after 
the battel of Evesham : so that the prince soon had the 
earldom again; but 1 find not that he ever used the title 
of Earl of Chester. 

II. A Catalogue of all such Princes of Eng- 
land, AS HAVE BEEN CREATED PriNCES OF WaLES 

AND Eaels of Chester, and used these Titles. 

1. Edward of Caernarven, fourth son of king Edward 
the First, born at Caernarven in Wales, ihe twenty-fifth 
of April 1284, was summoned to the parliament, anno 
1303, 32 Edw. I. being now the king's eldest son living, 
by the name of Edward Prince of Wales and Earl of 
Chester, our most dear son. Selden's Tit. Hon. p. 594; 
and was afterwards king of England, by the name of 
King Edward the Second. 

2. Edward of Windsor, eldest son of king Edward the 
Second, born at Windsor Castle, 13 die Novembris 
1312, 6 Edw. II. had onely the title of Earl of Chester 
and Flint in his summons to the parliament 1322, 
15 Edw. II. being then scarce ten years old. Cambden's 
Britannia, edita 1607, pag. 118. He was also duke of 
Aquitain, and earl of Pontive, created 19 Edw. II. 1325. 
Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 599, and Stowe ; and was (after 
he had deposed his father) king of England by the name 
of King Edward the Third ; crowned February 1, 1326. 

t 



3. Edward of Woodstock, commonly called The 
Black Prince, eldest son of king Edward the Third, born 
15 Junii 1330, 4 Edw. III. was made earl of Chester 7 
Edw. III. I find him stiled — Edwardus illustris regis An- 
gliae filius, comes Cestrise, in a writ at Chester, dated 
13 die Aprilis, 9 Edw. III. 1335. R. num. 18. 

He was created duke of Cornwall by patent, dated 
17 die Martii, 11 Edw. III. 1336. Habendum sibi, et 
haeredum suorum regum Anglise filiis primogenitis : Per 
ipsum regem, et totum consilium in Parliamento. Sel- 
den's Tit. Hon. pag. 752. And he was the first duke in 
England, as that title was now made a distinct dignity; 
and by this creation, not onely the first-born son of the 
kings of England, but the eldest living, are always dukes 
of Cornwall, neither needed any new creation of this 
title, although sometimes we find it joyned with the cre- 
ation of the title of Prince of Wales and Earl of Ches- 
ter. Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 754. 

He was also created prince of Wales bj' patent, dated 
12 die Mail, 17 Edw. HI. 1343. Habendum sibi, et hse- 
redibus suis regibus AnglitE in perpetuiim : Per ipsum 
regem. Selden's Tit. Hon. pag. 595. And since this 
time the title of Earl of Chester hath been usually joyned 
with that of Prince of Wales in the Patent. Seldenibid. 
pag. 598. 

So that now the Black Prince was Prince of Wales, 
Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester. 

In the 40 of Edward the Third, his style was — Prin- 
ceps Aquitanise et Wallife, dux Cornubife, et comes 
Cestriffi, lib. c. fol. 181. w. He died June 8, 1376,50 
Edw. III. in the life-time of his father. 

4. Richard of Burdeaux, son and heir to the Black 
Prince, was created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, 
and Earl of Chester, by his grandfather king Edward 
the Third, in festo Sancti Michaelis, 1376, 50 Edw. III. 
Stowe. But Walsingham names onely the title of Earl 
of Chester in parliament 1376, pag. 19O. Others say he 
was after created Prince of Wales at Haveringe, 20 No- 
vembris, 50 Edw. III. Powel on the Welsh History, 
pag. 385. He had a special charter for duke of Corn- 
wall, anno 50 Edw. III. Cook's Reports, lib. 8, fol. 30, 
for he was not eldest son of the king, his father dying 
before he enjoyed the crown. This Richard was after- 
wards king of England, by the name of King Richard 
the Second. And in anno 1397, he erected the earldom 
of Chester into a Principality, and ordained that no 
grant should be made thereof to any person but to the 
king's eldest son onely, if it please the king to make 
him. See Stat. 21 Rich. II. cap. 9. But this parliament 
was wholly repealed, 1 Hen. IV. cap. 3. which Henry 
deposed Richard the Second, and made himself king 
1399. 

5. Henry, eldest son of Henry the Fourth, born at 
Monmouth anno 1388, was created Prince of Wales, 
Duke of Cornwall, and earl of Chester, about October 

I Hen. IV. 1399, in parliament; and not long after was 
created Duke of Aquitain in the same parliament, 
Stowe; and was afterwards king of England, by the 
name of king Henry the Fifth. F. num. 99- 

6. Edward, onely child of king Henry the Sixth, born 
at Westminster 13 Octobris 1452, 31 Hen. VI. Fabian, 
pag. 456. He was created Prince of Wales and earl of 
Chester in parliament, March 15, 31 Edw. VI. 1452, and 
was murthered at the battel of Teuksbery, May 4, 1471, 

II Edw. IV. See Vincent upon Brook, p. 143. He was 
also duke of Cornwall by descent. 

King Henry the Sixth was never created Prince of 



46 



Cfie flistor^ o! C!)e0j)ire* 



Wales, nor Earl of Chester ; he was king whiles he was 
but an infant of eight months old. 

7. Edward, eldest son of king Edward the Fourth, 
born at Westminster November 4, 1470, 10 Edw. IV. 
was created Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester, July 
26, 1471, 11 Edw. IV. Vincent upon Brook, pag. 115 ; 
and in anno 19 Edw. IV. he was made earl of Pem- 
broke and March. He was also Duke of Cornwall, and 
so entituled; and was afterwards king Edward the Fifth, 
but was most barbarously murthered in the Tower by 
the procurement of his uncle Richard duke of Glocester, 
anno 1483, who usurped the crown to himself. 

8. Edward the onely child of king Richard the Third, 
created earl of Salisbury 1477, 17 Edw. IV. was also 
created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, by his fa- 
ther, August 24, 1483, 1 Rich. III. being then about ten 
years old, and died about March 1484, in the life-time 
of his father. 

9. Arthur, eldest son of king Henry the Seventh, 
created Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester, Novem- 
ber 30, in 1489, 5 Hen. VII. and died without issue at 
Ludlow, in April 1.502, 17 Hen. VII. about the age of 
sixteen years, in the life-time of his father. He was 
also duke of Cornwall by birth. 

10. Henry duke of York, second son of king Henry 
the Seventh, after the death of his brother Arthur, was 
created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, February 
18, 1502, 18 Hen. VII. at the age of eleven years ; and 



was afterwards king of England by the name of King 
Henry the Eighth. 

11. Henry Stewart, eldest son of James king of Great 
Britain, was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Ches- 
ter, in parliament June 4, l6lO, 8 Jacobi; and died No- 
vember 6, l6l2, 10 Jacobi, without issue, in the life- 
time of king James his father. He was also duke of 
Cornwall by birth, 

12. Charles Stewart, second son of king James, born 
at Dunferling in Scotland, Nov. 19, l600, was duke of 
Albany in Scotland ; and was also created duke of York 
in England by his father, at Whitehall in London, Ja- 
nuary 6, l604, and after the death of his brother prince 
Henry he was duke of Cornwall : for the case of the 
dutchy of Cornwall (in Cook's Reports, lib. 8.) was 
printed by his majesty's special command l6l3, 11 Jac. 
where it is set forth, that by the advice of the privy 
council it was clearly and absolutely resolved, that 
prince Charles (now the king's eldest son) was in right, 
and by virtue of the statute of 11 Edw. III. ought to be 
duke of Cornwall; and therefore his majesty commanded 
that prince Charles his son should have and enjoy the 
honor and stile of Duke of Cornwall ; which he pre- 
sently had and enjoyed accordingly. Vincent upon 
Brook, pag. 146, 147; and on the third of November 
I6l6, 14 Jacobi, he was also created Prince of Wales 
and Earl of Chester, and was afterwards king of Eng- 
land, by the name of King Charles the First. 



*^* 13. Charles Stewart, eldest son of king Charles I. 
born in the palace of St. James, May 29, 1630 ; at eight 
years of age, May 21, 14 Car. I. was elected a Knight 
of the most noble Order of the Garter, and soon after by 
the king's declaration, not creation, he had the title of 
Prince of Wales, with the whole profits of the principa- 
lity, and lands annexed to the earldom of Chester granted 
to him, and held his courts separate from the king's ^ 

14. On the accession of king George I. to the crown 
of Great Britain on the demise of queen Anne, Aug. 1, 
1714, his eldest son George, Prince Electoral of Bruns- 
wick, born Oct. 30, l683, became prince of Great Bri- 
tain, duke of Cornwall, &c. On September 22 following, 
the first day of his majesty's coming to council, his royal 
highness by his command was introduced into the privy 
council, and took his place at the upper end of the board, 
at his right hand ; and five days after was created Prince 
of Wales, and Earl of Chester, and of Flint"". 

15. Frederick-Lewis, eldest son of king George II. born 
at Hanover, Jan. 20, 1706-7, was introduced to the 
council-board as Prince of Great Britain, Duke of Corn- 
wall, &c. Dec. 18, 1728, and on Jan. 8, 1728-9, was cre- 



ated Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester, to hold to 
him and his heirs kings of England for ever ; and the next 
day received his summons to Parliamenf^. 

16. After the death of Frederick-Lewis, Prince of 
Wales, in the life-time of his father, the dutchy of Corn- 
wall merged in the crown, and his eldest son George- 
William-Frederick (his present majesty) succeeded him 
in his titles of Prince of Great Britain, Electoral Prince 
of Brunswick- Lunenburgh, Duke of Edinburgh, Marquis 
of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Carrick and Eltham, Viscount 
of Launceston, Baron of Renfrew and Snaudon, Lord 
of the Isles, and Steward of Scotland ; after the recital of 
which in council at St. James's, April 20, 1751, his ma- 
jesty ordered letters patent for creating his said royal 
highness Prince of Wales, and Earl of Chester.'' 

17. George-Augustus-Frederick, eldest son of George 
III. born at St. James's, Aug. 12, 1762, had the titles 
of Prince of Great Britain, Duke of Cornwall and Roth- 
say, &c. by birth, and on Aug. 17, 1762, his majesty 
ordered letters patent for creating him Prince of Wales, 
and Earl of Chester, with the usual limitations.' 



a Sandford's Genealogical History. 
1 Collins, vol. 1. p. 29. edit. 17G8. 



I" Bill. Signal. 1 Geo. I. ibid. 
' Ibid. p. 31. 



« Bill. Signal. 2 Geo. II. 



iLe^tesJter'fi prolegomena* 



47 



'^etiijsree of tfje ^ajcon. anti Jtorman €arl0 of Ct)es(ter« 

armjs of t^e jl3orman Catlis, 

Hugh I, Azure, a wolf's head erased Argent. Richard, Gules, crusuly Or, a wolf's head erased Argent. 

Randle I. Or, a lion rampant Gules. Randle II. Gules, a lion rampant Argent. Hugh II. Azure, six garbs Or. 3, 2, and 1. 

Randle III. Azure, three garbs Or. '■Z andl. John, Or, three piles Gules. 




r-\ 

Godwin. 
Edwis, slain by 
Griffith king; of 

Wales, 1039. 



Leofwin, earl of Mercia, livin 
about the year 1000. 



I 



1 

Norman, slain 
with Edric 
of Streona, 
1018. 



1 



TuRSTiNE, sirnatned 
Goz. =p 

I 



Umfrid de Telliolo, governor of Hastings, married Adeliza, 
sister of Hugh de GrentmaisniJ. 



LEoraic, earl of Mercia, witness to-pGoDiVA, sister Margaret, ute-^RicHARD,sirnamed 



Cnut's charter to Croylaiid abbey 
1032, died at Bromley, Aug. 31, 
1057, buried in the monastery at 
Coventry. 



of Tborold 
sheriff of 
Lincoln- 
shire. 



rme sister of 
William the 
Conqueror. 



Algar, earl of Mercia,= 
died 1059, and was 
buried at Coventry, 



sister of 
William 
Mallet. 



, wife 

of William 
earl of Ewe in 
Normandy. 



Judith, wife of 
Richard de 
Aquila. Had 
issue. 



Goz, governor of 
Avranches inNor- 
mandy. 



Robert de 

ROTHELENT,ba- 

ron of Rhudd- 

land, slain 

1088. 



Matilda, wife 
of Randolph 
Meschines. 



Ermentrude, dau.^HuGH d' Avranches, earl of 



j—n 

Algitha, wife of Griffith RogerFitz-= 

king of Wales, after of Gerold, 

Harold king of England, sirnamed de 

Edwin, earl of Mercia, Romara, 

slain by treachery, 6 second hus- 

WiU. I. band. 

MoRCAR, earl of North- 
umberland, slain in pri- 
son, 2 Will. n. 



n 



r 



Lucia, -pi. Randle I. (sirnamed 



marr. 
Yvo 
Tal- 

bois, 
earl of 
Anjou, 
Isthus- 

band. 



deMeschinrs, and also 
DE Bricasard) viscount 
of Bayeux in Normandy, 
earl of Cumberland, lord 

of Carlisle, and earl of 
Chester, died 1128, bu- 
ried in the abbey of St. 
Werburgh, 



1 
2.W1LLIAM 
DE Mes- 
chines, 
lord of 
Egremont, 
by giVt of 
Henry L 



I 
3. Geof- 

FRY, 

lord of 
Gilsland. 



of Hugh Ciare- 
mont,earl of Beau- 
voys in France. 

r 



Geva, wifeof 
Geoffry Rid- 
del, (illegi- 
timate ac- 
cording tosir 
P. LO'legiti- 
mate accord- 
ing to Dug- 
dale. 



Chester, sirnamed LuPuSjdied 
July 27, HOI, buried in the 
abbey of St. Werburgh, ^ 

Robert, a 

monk of 

Utica. 

Ottiwell, 
tutor to the 



Richard, only son 
and heir, earl of 
Chester, married 
Maude,dau.of Ste- 
phen earl of Blois 
in France, drown- 
ed 1119. 



children of 
Henry I, 
Philip. 



William de 

Romara, earl 

of Lincoln, 

temp. Hen. i. 

A supposed first' 
wife. 



r~\ 

Adeliza, wife of Richard, 
son of Gilbert de Clare. 

Agnes, first wife of Ro- 
bert de Grentemaisnil. 



— I 

Randle H. (sirnamed Gernons)= 
born at Gernon or Vernon castle 
in Normandy; died 1153, buried 
in the abbey of St. Werburgh. 



=Maude, dau. of 
Robert earl of 
Gloucester, base 
son of k. Hen. I. 



William, 

earl of 
Cambridge 
livingll39. 



r 

I 

Randle, 

died in his 

father's 

life-time. 



Cecilia, wife of 
Rob. deRomeli, 
lord of Skipton 
in Craven, 



Hugh H. (sirnamed Kevelioc) died at Leek in Staffordshire-^-BERTREiA, daughter of Simon earl of Mont- Richard, second 

: 1181, buried in the abbey of St, Werburgh. =p fort and Evreux in Normandy. son 



Amicia, wife 
of Ralph 

Mainwaring, 
justice of 

Chester, had 
a grant in 
frank mar- 
riage from 
her father. 



r -i—r-r-^-^-^-' 

. . . . , whose Paganus de Milne- 

illegitimacy TON, ancestor of 

is doubtful, Milneton of Grafton. 

wife of .... Roger, witness to a 

Baeun, and charter of Chester 

mother of abbey. 

Richard Ba- , parent 

cun, founder of Randle de Est- 

of Roucester bury, 
priory. 



Randle HL (sirnamed Blundeville) earl of Matilda, eld- 
Chester and Lincoln, and duke of Bretagne est dau. and 
and earl of Richmond, in right of his wife, coheiress, 
died at Wallingford, 1232, buried in Chester wife of David 
abbey, s. p. : married, Ist, Constance, dau. earl of Holl- 
and heiress of Conan, duke of Bretagne and tingdon, 
earl of Richmond, widow of GeofFry Plantage- brother of 
net, divorced ao 1200, remarr. Guy viscount of William king 
ThouerSjdied 3 Johann. : 2dly,Clemence, sister of Scotland, 
of Geoffry deFilgiers, widow of AlandeDinhara. == 



I 
Mabilia, 2d 
dau. and co- 
heiress, wife 

of William 
d'Albeney, 

earl of 
Arundel. 



r~i 

I I 
Ada, wife of Henry 
Hastings, had is- 
sue Henry Hastings. 
Isabella, wife of 
Robert Brus, fa- 
ther of Robert 
Brus, king of 
Scotland. 



r~i 

1 I 

Matilda, died unmarr. 

Margaret, wife of 
Alan de Galloway, had 
issue Devorgill, wife 
of John Baliol, and 
Christiana, wife of 
William de Fortibus, 
earl of Albemarle. 



~r 



John, sirnamed the Scot, Wil)liam 

earl of Chester and Hun- and Hugh, 

tingdon, married Helen, succes- 

dau. of Llewelyn, prince of sively earls 

North-Wales, and died at of Arundel, 

Dernhall, June 7, 1237, o. s. p. 
s. p. buried in Chester 
abbey. 



rn 

Mabell, 1st dau. 
and coheiress, wife 
ofsirRobertTates- 
hall, kt. 

IsABELL, 2nd dau. 
and coheiress, wife 
of John Fitz-Alan, 
lord of Clun and 
Oswaldstre. 



NiCHOLAA, 3d dau. 
and coheiress, wife 

of Roger lordSomery. 

Cecilia, 4th dau. 
and coheiress, wife 
of Roger de Mon- 
talt, baron of Ha- 
warden. 



r~i 

Agnes, third dau, 

and coheiress, 
wife of Wm. Fer- 
rers, earl of Derby, 

had male issue. 
Hawisia, wife of 
Robt. de Quincy, 
countess of Lin- 
coln, by gift of 
her brother. =^ 

I ' 

Margaret, dau. 
and coheiress, 
wife of John 
Lacy, baron of 
Halton, and 
earl of Lincoln, 



* Substituted for sir P. Leycester's " summary collection of the Earls of Chester." 



48 



C|)e fltstorp of Ct)esf)ite^ 



PART III. 

Treating of the ancient Baeons to the Earls of Chester, with several Catalogues of all 
THE Chamberlains, Judges, Sheriffs, and Escheators of Cheshire. 



CHAP. I. 



^f tf)e ancient Barons to t^t Carls of Cf)ester» 



I. Concerning the antient barons to the earls of 
Chester, of whom I promised before to speak in this 
Third Part of my book, these things I have principally 
to discuss and illustrate ; the true notion of their title, 
the time of their institution, their office, place, and 
number. 

II. For the true notion of their title, Selden tells us 
in his Titles of Honour, pag. 688, that the noblest and 
greatest tenants to the greater sort of subjects, had an- 
ciently the appellation of Barons ascribed to them, es- 
pecially those to the earls of Chester. 

Spelman in his Glossary deriveth the word Baro from 
the old English Saxon Per or Wer, and of latter times 
written Par ; Francis Antiquis, Ber, signifying the same 
with the Latine word Vir ; Glossarium Latino-Gallicum, 
Ber, Baro, Vir; so that the Latine word Vir seems to 
be the original fountain whence it springs. And both 
these words Baro^ by some written Varo, and Vir, do 
agree in their several significations ; sometimes for a 
man barely and absolutely ; sometimes for a man of 
worth, power, or prowess ; sometimes for a husband. 

For the notion of the word here, it denotes as much 
as Magnates or Optimates : where we may observe, that 
noblemen or barons, seem to be a necessary supplement, 
as essential to the royalty of a count palatine : for the 
earl of Chester having royal authority within himself, 
we may not unfitly stile him a petty king : And that 
the majesty of his palace may be answerable to a 
king, he must have noblemen about him, in imitation of 
the barons of the kingdom. Hence also the earls of 
Chester substituted offices, making the baron of Halton 
constable in Cheshire in fee, in imitation of the lord 
high-constable of England ; and making the baron of 
Montalt steward of Cheshire in fee, after the example 
of the lord high-steward of England. These barons 
under the earl ruled and governed the county ; and 
from their great power and sway, had the appellation of 
barons. 

HI. As to the time of their first institution, I find the 
great men of Cheshire about the earl, stiled Barons in 
the time of Hugh Lupus : In the charter of his founda- 
tion of the monastery of St. Werburge in Chester, anno 
1093, 6 Willielmi Rufi, in the conclusion thereof it is 
said, — Ego comes Hugo et mei barones confirmavimus 
ista omnia coram Anselmo archiepiscopo, &c. Neither 
must we fondly imagine or expect any formal creation 
of them, either by patent (for such are of later times bj^ 
much,) or any solemn investure. But (as I conceive) 
upon the conferring of the earldom of Chester on Hugh 
Lupus by the Conqueror, anno Domini 1070, the prin- 
cipal gentlemen and commanders under earl Hugh, 
being called to advise and assist the said earl (either in 



any time of imminent danger, or in regulating and or- 
dering the more weighty affairs of the county) were of 
course so stiled : and thus I conceive they retained the 
name of Barons by little and little, after the manner of 
the great nobles of the realm. 

IV. And hence may we guesse their office, adesse 
comiti in concilio, as Cambden hath it, to assist the earl 
in council upon all grand designs and affairs. 

V. Concerning their place of precedence and dignity, 
we must consider them either in relation to others, or 
among themselves. 

In relation to others out of the county, I conceive 
them inferior to the rank of the barons of our realm ; for 
these are but titularly or analogically barons (as I may 
so speak) to those of the kingdom ; nay, in place be- 
neath all knights; but they were the greatest men in 
the county under the earl for power and estate. 

Their priority or dignity among themselves we . shall 
trace as exactly as we can, in so remote and obscure a 
path. Some would have the baron of Malpas to be the 
prime baron, forasmuch as Robert Fitz-Hugh (who was 
baron of Malpas under Hugh Lupus in the Conqueror's 
time) hath for the most part the pre-eminence in the 
subscription of old charts of those ancient times, as also 
in the record of Doomsday book, where among all the 
rest of the barons he is put down first next after the 
earl ; and by which it appears also that he held more land 
in this county than any one of the rest, except William 
Malbedenge. But this difficulty is easily removed, if 
we consider the uncertainty of subscription of wit- 
nesses ; but especially admitting him to be the prime 
baron, till certain offices were annexed to other barons : 
After which time the matter is without controversie ; for 
William Fitz-Nigell, baron of Halton, being made con- 
stable of Cheshire in fee, carries it clear by his office 
annexed to his baron}'. And for further satisfaction 
take this charter, remaining in one of the Couchir 
Books in the Dutchj'-office at Gray's-Inne, London ; 
scilicet tom. 1. Comitatus Cestrise,' num. 2. fol. 41, 
which deed was made in the reign of king Stephen by 
Randle the second, sirnamed Gernouns, to Eustace Fitz- 
John, who married the elder daughter and coheir to 
William Fitz-Nigell : for William the younger died 
without issue. 

Ranulfus comes Cestrice, episcopo Cestriee, dapi- 
fero, baronibus, justiciariis, castellanis, vice-comitibus, 
ministris et ballivis, et omnibus hominibus suis Francis 
et Anglis, clericis et laicis, salutem. Proculdubi6 sci- 
tote me reddidisse et dedisse Eustachio filio Johannis 
totum honorem qui fuit Willielmi filii Nigelli constabu- 
larii Cestriaa, in rebus et dignitatibus omnibus : Et ip- 
sum Eustachium constituisse hsereditarie constabu- 



ilejcester'si ^prolegomena. 



49 



larium, et supremum consiliarium post me super omnes 
optimates et barones totius terrae meae ; ea propter volo 
et firmit^r prtecipio, de slcut ei rectum suum reddidi et 
donavi, et concessi constabulariam et honorem integrum 
constabulariae Cestrias et totius terra; mese ; quod in omni- 
bus rationabiliter ei intendatis sicut corpori meo : Pro- 
ind^ prsBcipio, qu6d ipse Eustachius et hseredes sui de 
me et de haeredibus meis praedictum honorem et terram, 
et tenuram totam pertinentem eidem honori scilicet 
constabulariae, teneat ita bene et honorific^, et liber^ et 
quiete, sicut unquam WiJlielmus Nigelli filius meliiis et 
liberiiis tenuit, et siciit Willielmus constabularius ejus 
filius in vita sua bonorabilius tenuit, et die qua fuit 
vivus et mortuus : Teneat etiam ita libere et quiete, 
sicit unquam Willielmus filius Nigelli tenebat in tem- 
pore comitis Hugonis, et comitis Ricardi, et tempore 
patris mei Ranulfi, in villa et extra, in foro et mercato, 
in bosco et piano, in pratis et pascuis, in viis et semitis, 
in forestis, in molendinis et aquis, in piscariis et stagnis, 
et in omnibus aliis locis, ciim socc^ et sacca, et tol et 
theam, infangetheof, et ciim sciris et hundredis, et ciim 
omnibus consuetudinibus, et libertatibus omnibus et 
quietantiis. Testibus Willielmo comite Lincolniae, et 
Willielmo de Percei, et Turstano Banester, et Simone 
filio Willielmi, et Normanno de Verdon, et Ricardo 
Pincerna, et Roberto Basset, et Simone de Tuschet, et 
Gaufrido Dispensatore, et Ivone constabulario de Co- 
ventriS,, Ricardo de Vernon, Walclielino Mamicoc, Hu- 
gone de Nueris, Rogero de Maletoc, et Willielmo Male- 
benge, Hugone de Sancto Paulo, et Willielmo de Vecy, 
et Huberto de Muntehan', et Rogero Flamiagvill, et 
Willielmo filio Guerii, Reginaldo Basset, et Willielmo 
Capellano, et Herveo filio Willielmi, et Willielmo Ca- 
pellano comitis Cestriae, et Rogero filio Ricardi, et Gis- 
leberto de Aquil&. Apud Coventriam. 

By this charter you find first the words Optimates et 
Barones explaining and expounding one another. Next 
you have the preheminence given to the constable of Che- 
shire (who was the baron of Halton) above all the other 
barons of the earl : and this appears also in the form of 
all the charters made by the earls of Chester in those 
ancient times, where the stile runs — Ranulfus comes 
Cestriae constabulario, dapifero, baronibus, &c. salutem: 
where the Constable is first named, then the Steward, 
then the Barons in general ; onely in this chart above- 
said the constable is omitted, in regard he was party to 
the deed, and in whose room it was directed to the 
bishop ; but Dapifero follows in his proper place : so 
that the constable had the first place, the steward next 
after him, and then the other barons followed in their 
order. And in this order they are ranked by Cambden 
and Spelman : 

1 . Baro de Halton. He was High-Constable of Che- 
shire in fee. 

2. Baro de Monte alto. He was High-Steward of 
Cheshire in fee. 

3. Baro de Wich-Maldebeng (id est) Nant-wich. 
4.^ Baro de Malpas. 

5. Baro de Shibbroke. 

6. Baro de Dunham-Massie. 

7. Baro de Kinderton. 

8. Baro de Stockport. 

According to this order I think little scruple can be 



made, unless it be for the barony of Malpas, why he 
should not precede the baron of Wich-Malbeng, not- 
withstanding the offices annexed to the two first barons. 
Now the issue of Robert Fitz-Hugh failing (who was 
the first baron of Malpas), another came in his room of 
as distinct a stock" and linage ; but where or how to be 
placed, let the more curious determine. I have here 
placed him next after the baron of Wich-Malbeng. 

VI. For the number of these Cheshire barons it is not 
yet sufficiently agreed. Spelman, in his Glossary, on the 
word Baro, with its several notions, saith this : — Ab 
Hugone Lupo institutes esse Barones certum est : Sed 
de numero non ita convenit : Quidam xii asserunt, ip- 
sumque Conquestorem Hugoni persuasisse ut pauciores 
non crearet ; pollicitus se largiturum eis idonea patri- 
monia in Anglia, si comes hoc nequivit in sua patria : 
reperiuntur vero (de quibus praecipu^ constat) octo 
tantum. Nam quos alii suggerunt, suspecti habentur. 
Nigellus — Baro de Halton: [seu potius Willielmus 
filius Nigelli.] 

•■Robertus — Baro de Monte alto. 
Willielmus Malbeng — Baro de Wich-Malbeng. 
Ricardus Vernon — Baro de Shibbroke. 
Robertus filius Hugonis — Baro de Malpas. 
Hamo de Massy— Baro de Dunham-Massy, 
Gislebertus de Venables — Baro de Kinderton. 
N. Baro de Stockport. 

But for the better clearing of this point, it is certain 
that in the Conquerour's time there were some other 
barons and men of eminenc}' about the earl, than what 
are here reckoned up ; but these are all, whose heirs 
and posterity have been certainly known, and accounted 
barons by long continuance to the successive earls of 
Chester : And of all these, their names and families 
were long since extinct, except the line of Gilbert Ven- 
ables, whose name and family continueth at this day, 
and is yet commonly stiled Baron of Kinderton; all the 
rest, with their whole possessions, are devolved to other 
persons and families, by marriage of their several 
daughters and heirs, and so became extinct long time 
ago. 

And if any ask me what other barons were in the time 
of Hugh Lupus ? I answer : Robert of Rothelent was 
one of earl Hugh's barons, and not the meanest; for he 
was the principal commander of all the forces in Che- 
shire, and the prime governour of the county under earl 
Hugh his cosin. Ordericus, pag. 670. But we find no 
mention of his posterity in succeeding ages among us, 
and therefore not reckoned as a baron among those, 
whose heirs and posterity have by long continuance ob- 
tained the title and honour, as it were hereditarily, under 
the successive earls : And the like perhaps may be said 
of some others. 

Neither must I here forget a touch of Vincent (whose 
corrections need a corrector) in his Review of York's 
second edition, pag. 66 1, 662, where he saith, That he 
believes the barons of Cheshire are not so ancient as the 
time of Hugh Lupus. But whether he believe it or no, 
it is most certain they were stiled barons in the charter 
of Hugh Lupus, of the foundation of the monastery of 
St. Werburge in Chester, anno 1093, which charter I 
have at large transcribed above in the second part of 
this book. 



a Sir p. L. followed the story relative to the possession of the barony by Ralph ap Eynion See Malpas, Broxton Hundred, p. 328. O. 
t Robert de Monte alto was not baron till the end of Henry I. or beginning of king Stephen ; but the rest, except Stockport, were b.irons In the 
Conqueror's time, and so was the ancestor of this Robert, P. L. 

to 



50 



Ci)e History of C!)est)tte. 



VII. As to the baron of Stockport, mentioned in the 
last place by Spelman, it is much to be doubted whether 
he were any of the ancient barons to the earls of Ches- 
ter; howbeit his arms are put up in the Exchequer at 
Chester among the barons : but all those arms were but of 
late times put up there, and where the baron of Monte- 
alto is most unjustly placed above the baron of Halton. 

It is certain, that in Dooms-day book we find not any 
person that held Stockport ; whereby it may seem then 
to be waste and not inhabited. And as concerning sir 
Richard de Stockport and his family, we find little or 
no mention before the reign of Henry the Third, in 
which king's reign the ancient earls of Chester were ex- 
tinct: so that the family of Stockport could be none of 
the ancient barons. 

VIII. I shall conclude this chapter with the charter 
of Randle the Third, sirnamed Blundevill, to his barons 
of Cheshire, made about the year of Christ 1218, grant- 
ing them many priviledges, transcribed by me out of a 
little parchment book in quarto, remaining among the 
records in the Dutchy-office at Gray's-Inne, London, 
fol. 107. 

Ranulfus comes Cestrise, constabulario, dapifero, 
justiciario, vicecomiti, baronibus, ballivis, et omnibus 
hominibus suis et amicis, praesentibus et futuris, prae- 
sentem chartam inspecturis et audituris, salutem. Scia- 
tis me cruce signatum pro amore Dei, et ad petitionem 
baronum meoruni Cestershiriae, concessisse eis et hsere- 
dibus suis, de me et haeredibus meis, omnes libertates 
in prcesenti charta subscriptas in perpetudm tenendas et 
habendas : scilicet, qu6d unusquisque eorum curiam 
suam habeat liberam de omnibus placitis et quaerelis in 
curia mea motis, exceptis placitis ad gladium meum 
pertinentibus : et quod si quis hominum suorum pro 
aliquo delicto captus fuerit per dominium suum, sin^ 
redemptione replegietur : ita quod dominus suus eum 
perducat ad tres comitatus ; et eum quietum reducat, 
nisi sacraber eum sequatur : et si aliquis adventitius 
(qui fidelis sit) in terras eorum venerit, et ei placuerit 
ibidem morari, liceat baroni ipsum habere et retinere, 
salvis mihi advocariis qui sponte ad me venerint, et 
aliis qui pro transgressu aliunde ad dignitatem meam 
venerint, et non eis : et unusquisque baronum, dum 
opus fuerit, in Werr& plenarie faciat servitium tot feo- 
dorum militum quot tenet : et eorum milites et libere 
tenentes loricas aut haubergella habeant, et feoda sua 
per corpora sua defendant, lic^t milites non sint : et si 
aliquis eorum talis sit, quod terram suam per corpus 
suum defendere non possit, alium sufficientem in loco 
suo ponere posset : nee ego nativos eorum ad arma 
jurare faciam, sed nativos suos qui phr Ranulfum de 
Davenham ad advocationem meam venerint, et alios 
nativos suos (quos suos esse rationabiliter monstrare 
poterant) ipsos quietos concedo : et si vicecomes meus, 
aut aliquis serviens, in curia mea aliquem hominum 
suorum inculpaverit, per Thiertnic se defendere poterit 
propter Shirife-Tooth, quod reddunt nisi secta eum se- 
quatur. Concedo etiam eis quietantiam de garbis et 
oblationibus, quas servientes mei et bedelli exigere 
solebant: et qu6d si aliquis judex aut sectarius hun- 
dredi aut comitatus in curia mea misericordiam incide- 
nt, per duos solidos quietus sit judex de misericordia, 
et sectarius per duodecem denarios. Concedo etiam eis 
libertatem assertandi terras suas infra divisas agricul- 
turae suae in foresta : et si landa aut terra infra divisas 
villa; sufe fuerit, quae priiis culta fuit ubi nemus non 
crescat, liceat eis illam colere sine herbergatione : et 
liceat eis housbote et haybote in nemore suo capere de 



omrii genere bosci sin^ visu forestarii : et mortuum 
suum boscum dare aut vendere cui voluerint : et ho- 
mines eorum non implacitentur de forest^ de superdicto, 
nisi ciim manuopere inveniantur : et unusquisque omnia 
maneria sua dominica in comitatu et hundredo, per 
unum seneschallum prassentem defendere possit. Con- 
cedo etiam qucid mortuo viro uxor sua per quadraginta 
dies pacem habeat in domo sua, et haeres suus (si aeta- 
tem habuerit) per rationabile relevium haereditatem 
suam habeat ; scilicet feodum militis per centum soli- 
dos ; neque domina, neque haeres maritetur, ubi dispa- 
ragetur; sed per gratum et assensum generis sui mari- 
tetur : et eorum legata teneantur : et nullus eorum 
nativuui suum amittat occasione si in civitate Cestriae 
venerit, nisi ibi manserit per unum annum et unum 
diem sin^ calumniS. : et propter grave servitium quod in 
Cestershiria faciunt, nullus eorum extra Limam servi- 
tium mihi faciat nisi per gratum suum et ad custum 
meum. Et si milites mei de Anglia summoniti fuerint, 
qui mihi wardam apud Cestriam debent, et venti sunt 
ad wardam suam faciendam, et exercitus aliunde ini- 
micorum meorum non sit in prresenti, nee opus fuerit, 
ben^ liceat baronibus meis interim ad domos suas redire 
et requiescere : et si exercitus inimicorum meorum 
promptus fuerit de veuiendo in terram meam in Cester- 
shire, vel si castellum assessum fuerit, praedicti barones 
cum toto exei'citu suo avisu suo statim ad summonitio- 
nem meam venient ad removendum exercitum ilium ad 
posse suum : et cim exercitus ille de terra mea recessus 
fuerit, praedicti barones ciim exercitu suo ad terras suas 
redire poterint et quiescere, diim milites de Anglia war- 
dam suam facient, et ad opus de eis non fuerit, salvis 
mihi servitiis suis quae facere debent. Concedo etiam 
eis, qu6d in tempore pacis tantiim duodecem servientes 
itinerantes habeant in terra mea cijin uno equo qui sit 
magistri servientis, qui etiam prebendam non habeat a 
Pascha usque ad festum sancti Michaelis, nisi per gra- 
tum : et ut ipsi servientes comedant cibum, qualem in 
domibus hominum invenerint, sine emptione alterius 
cibi ad opus eorum : nee in aliquibus dominicis baro- 
num comedant : et tempore guerrae per consilium 
meum, aut justiciarii mei, et ipsorum, ponantur ser- 
vientes sufificientes ad terram meam custodiendam, 
prout opus fuerit. Et sciendum est, quod praedicti ba- 
rones petitiones subscriptas, quas a me requirebant, 
omnino mihi et haeredibus meis de se et haeredibus suis 
remiserunt : ita quod nihil de eis de caetero clamare 
poterint, nisi per gratiam et misericordiam meam : sci- 
licet seneschallus petitionem de VV'rec et de pisce in 
terram suam per mare dejecto : et de Bersare in foresta 
mea ad tres arcus ; et de percursu canium suorum : et 
alii petitionem de agistamento porcorum in foresta me&, 
et de Bershare ad tres arcus in foresta mea, vel ad cur- 
sus leporariorum suorum in foresta in eundo versi^s 
Cestriam per summonitionem, vel in redeundd : et peti- 
tionem de misericordia judicum de Wich triginta bul- 
lionibus salis : sed erunt misericordia et leges in Wicb 
tales, quales prius fuerint. Concedo igitur, et prae- 
senti charta me& confirmo de me et haeredibus meis, 
communibus militibus omnibus et libere tenentibus to- 
tius Cestershire et eorum haeredibus, omnes praedictas 
libertates habendas et tenendas de baronibus meis et de 
CEBteris dominis suis, quicunque sint, sicut ipsi barones 
et milites et caeteri libere tenentes eas de me tenent. 
Hiis testibus, Hugone, abbate sanctEe Werburgae Ces- 
triae, Philippo Orreby tunc temporis justiciario Cestrife, 
Henrico de Aldithley, Waltero Deyvell, Hugone Dis- 
pensario, Thoma Dispensario, Willielmo Pincerna, 



iLepcester's ^Ptolesomena. 



51 



Waltero de Coventrey, Ricardo Phitton, Roberto de 
Cowdrey, Ivone de Caletoft, Roberto de Say, Nor- 
manno le Painter, Roberto Dispensario, Roberto Dey- 
vell, Mattheo de Vernon, Hamone de Venables, Ro- 
berto de Massy, Alano de Waley, Hugone de Columbe, 
Roberto de Pulford, Petro clerico, Hugone de Pasey, 
Joceralino de Hellesby, Ricardo de Bresby, Ricardo de 
Kingsley, Philippo de Terven, Liulfo de Tvvamlowe, 
Ricardo de Perpoint, et toto comitatu Cestrias. 

This charter I have here, for the satisfaction of some, 
translated also into English, as followeth, with the expo- 
sition of the hardest words. 

Ran OLE EAHL OF Chester, to his constable, steward, 
judge, sheriff, barons, bailiffs, and to all his tenants 
and friends, present and to come, that shall see 
or hear this charter, sendeth greeting. Know ye, that 
I, being signed with the cross' for the love of God, and 
at the request of my barons of Cheshire, have granted 
to them and their heirs, from me and my heirs, all the 
liberties in this present charter underwritten, to have 
and to hold for ever : to wit, that every one of them 
may have his own court free from all pleas and plaints 
moved in my court, except such pleas as belong to my 
sword ■' : and if any of their tenants shall be taken for 
any offence within their fee or lordship, he shall be 
replevied without any ransom, so as his lord bring him 
to three county courts ; and then he may carry him 
back as acquit, unless •= sakerborh do follow him. And 
if any stranger (who is faithful) shall come upon their 
land, and desires to dwell there, it shall be lawful for 
the baron of that fee to have and retain him, saving to 
me the advowries who shall come to me on their own 
accord, and others who for any trespass elsewhere shall 
come unto my dignity, and not to them. And every 
one of my barons, when need requireth, shall in time 
of war do the full service of so many knight's fees as he 
holdeth : and their knights and freeholders shall have 
their coats of mayle and haubergeons ; and may defend 
their own land by their bodies, although they be not 
knights : and if any of them be such a one that he can- 
not defend his own land by his body, he may put an- 
other sufficient person in his place : neither will I com- 
pell their villanes to take arms ; but I do hereby acquit 
their villanes, which by Randle of Davenham shall 
come to my protection, and other their villanes, whom 
they can reasonably shew to be their own. And if my 
sheriff, or any officer, shall implead any of their tenants 
in my court, he may defend himself by thirtnic*^ for the 
sherifF's-tooth, which they do pay, unless fresh suit do 
follow him. 1 do also grant unto them acquittance 
from the corn and oblations which my serjeants and 
bedells were wont to require ; and that if anyjudger", 
or suitor of the hundred or county court, shall be 
amerced in my court, the judger shall be quit from his 
amercement for two shillings, and the suitor for tvpelve 
pence. I do also grant unto them liberty of inclosing 
their lands within the boundaries of their tillage in the 



forrest : and if there shall be a land or parcel of ground 
within the boundary of their township, which hath been 
formerly manured, where no wood groweth, it shall be 
lawful to till the same without graizing : and they may 
also take housebote and haybote in their woods, of all 
manner of wood, without the view of my forester; and 
may give or sell their dead wood to whom they please, 
and their tenants shall not be impleaded for the same 
in the forest court, unless they be found in the manner 
or very act. And every one of my barons may defend 
all his mannors and lordships in the countv or hundred 
court, by having a steward present. I do also grant, 
that the wife, upon the death of her husband, shall re- 
main peaceably in her house forty days : and the heir 
(if he be at age) shall have his heritage for reasonable 
relief, to wit, five pounds for a knight's fee : nor shall 
the widow, nor the heir, be married where they may be 
disparaged, but shall be married by the free assent of 
their kindred. None of them shall lose his villane by 
reason of his coming into the city of Chester, unless 
the same hath remained there a year and a day without 
claim. And in regard of the great service which my 
barons do me in Cheshire, none of them shall do me 
service beyond the Lime'', but at their own freewill, and 
at mj' cost. And if my knights from England shall be 
summoned, which ought to ward at Chester, and are 
come to keep their ward, and that there be no army of 
my enemies at present from some other place, and that 
there be no need, then my barons may in the mean 
time return unto their own houses, and take their ease : 
and if an army of my enemies be ready to come into 
my land in Cheshire, or if the castle be besieged, the 
aforesaid barons, upon my summons, shall immediately 
come with all their army, to remove the enemy, accord- 
ing to their power : and when that army of the enemy 
shall retreat out of my land, the said barons may return 
to their own homes and rest, while my knights from 
England keep the guard, and that there shall be no 
need of my barons, saving unto me the services which 
the barons ought to do. 1 do also grant unto them, 
that in time of peace they may have onely twelve ser- 
geants itinerant in my land, with one horse of the mas- 
ter sergeant, which shall have no provend from Easter 
to Michaelmas, but by curtesie: and that the sergeants 
eat such meat as they shall find in men's houses, with- 
out buying any other provision for their use : nor shall 
they eat in any mannor-houses of the barons. And in 
the time of war shall be appointed sergeants sufficient for 
the keeping of my land, by mj' advice, and by the ad- 
vice of my judge and barons, as need shall require. And 
you are to know, that my barons aforesaid have for 
them and their heirs, released to me and my heirs, the 
petitions under written, which they desired from me ; 
so that they can challenge nothing hereafter of them, 
but by my free favour and mercy : 

To wit, my steward hath released his petition of Wrec, 
and of fish cast upon his land by the sea, and liberty 



■: Those were said to be signed with the cross in these ages, who had undertaken a voyage to Jerusalem in defence ol ihe Holy Land ; and as a 
badge of their warfare they wore a cross on their right shoulder. So Spelman. — P. L. 

<> The pleas of the sword were the pleas of the dignity of the earl of Chester, who held that earldom as freely lo the sword, as the king held 
England to the crown. P. L. 

e Sakerborh, Sakber, and Sacraber, is as much as a pledge to sue : one that puts in surety to prosecute another. Spelman. — P. L. 

f Thiertnic, or Thirdiiicht, is Trium Noctium hospes. Hoveden, pag. 606. Here it seemeth to signifie three nights' charges for the sherifT's 
tooth. Sheriff' s-tooth was a common tax levied for the sheriff's diet. P. L. 

s It is in the deed Judex, which is sometimes taken for a judge, sometimes for a jury-man or freeholder; which freeholders are by law the 
judges of a court-baron. P. L. 

h That is, out of the limits of the county, as 1 conceive, Lima being an old word for Limes. P. L.— Two towns situated on the verge of the Pa- 
latinate, Ashton and New-Castle, still retain the addition of " subtus limam," or " under lyne." O, 



52 



%i)t flistor^ of €^tsUn. 



of shooting deer in my forrest for three shoots', and for 
the running of his dogs. 

Others their petition for lay of their swine in my for- 
rest, and shooting at deer for three shoots, and for run- 
ning their greyhounds in the forrest going to Chester 
upon summons, or in returning ; and also the petition 
of the amercement of the judgers of the Wich of thirty 
walms of salt : but the amercements and laws of the 
Wich shall be such as they were before. 

I do therefore grant, and by this present deed con- 
firm, from me and my heirs to all my common knights 
and gentlemen of Cheshire, and their heirs, all the afore- 
said liberties, to have and to hold of my barons, and of 
other their lords, whosoever they be, as the same barons 
and knights, and other gentlemen, hold the same of me; 
these being witnesses, Hugh abbot of St. Werburge of 
Chester, Philip Orreby, then judge of Chester, &c. 

Prince Edward, son of king Henry the Third, con- 
firmed the aforesaid liberties in these words : 

Edwardus illustris regis Anglise primogenitus, om- 
nibus — salutem. Sciatis, quod concessum est, pro 
nobis et haeredibus nostris, baronibus, militibus, libere 



tenentibus et aliis, ac toti communitati Cestershiriae, 
quM ipsi in perpetuum habeant et gaudeant omnibus, 
libertatibus et consuetudinibus, eisdem et progenitoribus 
suis dudum concessis a domino Ranulpho quondam 
comite Cestriae per chartam suam, prout in eadem 
charta pleniiis continetur. Concessimus autem eisdem, 
qu6d si aliquis tenens terram in comitatu Cestriae de 
quacunque felonia convictus fuerit, ubicunqu^ locorum. 
fuerit, dominus feodi feodum suum habeat et recipiat 
post annum et diem sinfe contradictione alicujus : Vo- 
lumus etiam, quod servitia (quae praedicti hoeredes Ces- 
tershiriae nobis ad opus et rogatum nostrum extra comi- 
tatum prasdictum fecerunt) in posterum non trahentur 
in consvietudinem. Et ut omnia haec rata et firma in 
perpetuum remaneant, praesentibus literis sigillura nos- 
trum duximus apponi. Datum Cestriae 27 die Augusti, 
anno regni domini regis patris nostri 49. 

Which afterwards he confirmed also when he was 
king, dated March 30, 28 Edw. I. as appears by the ex- 
emplifications of all these charters in Rotulo Recogni- 
tionum, 3 Edw. 4. 



^ttitrtttons* 

An account of the Baronies within the modern limits of Cheshire will be found under their proper heads in 
the respective Hundreds, with the descent of the same to the present time. The privileges of the courts are 
now reduced to those of ordinary courts leet and baron, wdth the exception of that of Halton, which is one of 
the only two Cheshire manors from which the tenants hold by copy of court roll. 

' Two baronies, which will not occur in the parochial topography, in consequence of the heads of the baronies 
being situated in North Wales, will be noticed with propriety under this head — Rothelent and Montalt. 
The first is generally omitted in the list, having become extinct with the decease of its founder. 

ROTHELENT. 



The seat of this barony was at Rhuddlan in Flint- 
shire, called Roelent in Domesday. At the period of 
that survey Robert had divided possession with his 
cousin the earl, of half the castle and burgh of Roelent, 
half the church, the mint, the iron mine, the stream of 
Cloith (Clwyd) with its fisheries, and mills, and the toll 
and forests not attached to particular vills of that ma- 
nor. He had also a moiety of Bren with five berewicks, 
and had lands in thirt3f-three berewicks of Englefeld, 
formerly attached to Roelent, and five manors in Atis- 
cros Hundred. These were held from the earl of 
Chester. 

The same Robert held from the king in fee " Ros et 
Reweniov," and held also from the same " Nortwales ad 
firmain pro xl libris, praeter illam terram quam rex ei 
dederat in feodo, et praeter terras episcopatus." He 
also advanced a claim to the Hundred of Arvester (as 
part of this district) then held by Roger earl of Shrews- 
bury. 

In Cheshire Robert de Roelent held the two Mol- 
lingtons, Leighton, Thornton Mayow, Gayton, Hasel- 
wall, Thurstanston, the two Meolses, Wallesey, Neston, 
and Hargrave. 



These possessions were dispersed on his death. It is 
however probable that he left illegitimate issue, as 
Thurstanston continued in possession of a family who 
bore his name, from whom it has descended by heirs fe- 
male to the present proprietor. 

Sir Peter Leycester gives the following account of this 
great baron : '' 

" This Robert of Rothelent, or Ruthelan, is de- 
scribed by Ordericus, p. 669, thus : He was a valiant and 
an active soldier, eloquent, facundus et formidabilis, but 
of a stern countenance, liberal, and commendable for 
many vertues. Hie Edwardi regis armiger fuit. He 
was one of those who attended the person of king Ed- 
ward the Confessor, from whom he received the honor 
of knighthood. Touching his descent, his father was 
Umfrid de Telliolo, son of Amfrid, of the progeny of 
the Danes : His mother's name was Adeliza, sister of 
Hugh de Grentemaisnill, of the famous family of the 
Geroians. He was commander in chief at the siege 
of Rochester, 1 Willielmi Rufi. At which time Griffith 
king of Wales invaded the coasts of England, and had 
made a great destruction about Rothelent. For his 
works of piety, he gave to the abbey of Utica in Nor- 



» The deed runs tljus 
ur dart. P. L. 



Et de Bersliare in rorestii niea ad tres arcus. Birsare, i. e. telo configere, a Germ, Birsen ; so Spelman: to shoot an arrow 
l< Inserted in the original edition in the account of Hugh Lupus his kinsman. O. 



He^cesiter'si ^rolesomena* 



53 



mandy (where his brothers Ernald and Roger were 
monks, and his father and mother, aliique parentes 
ejus, were buried) the church of Tellioles, and the tythe 
of his mills, lands, and beer in his cellar : And he gave 
in England two carucates of land, and twenty villanes, 
and the church of Cumbivel, all the town, tythe, and 
church of Kirkby in Wirrall within the county of Che- 
shire, and the church of the Island, and the church of 
St. Peter's in Chester city. 

In the charter of confirmation of all the lands given 
unto the abbey of Utica by many noblemen in England, 
made by William the Conqueror, anno 1081, we read 
among other things thus : Robertus vero de Rodelento, 
praefato Hugone Cestrensi comite domino suo conce- 
dente, dedit Sancto Ebrulfo Cherchebiam cum duabus 
ecclesiis ; unam scilicet quae in ipsa villa est, et aliam 
prope ilium manerium in insula maris : et ecclesiam 
Sancti Petri apostoli, et quicquid ad eam pertinebat, in 
Cestrensi urbe : et in Merestona (quae est in Northamp- 
tonshire) ecclesiam Sancti Lauren tii et quicquid ad eam 
pertinet, et in eadem provincia ecclesiam de Bivella 
cum duabus terrae carucatis, &c. Tliis charter is set 
down at large in Ordericus, pag. 602. So that Kirkby 
vrith the two churches, I conceive is Kirkb}' in Wirrall 
within Cheshire, one church then standing in the said 
town, and the other near thereunto in the island of the 
sea, which I conceive is meant of the island now called 
llbree. 

Robert of Rothelent came very young into England 
with his father, and served king Edward the Confessor 
both in his house and in his wars, till at last the king 
knighted him ; afterwards, having been trained up in 
arms here, he got leave of king Edward to go see his 
friends in his own countrey of Normandy : and after 
the battel of Senlace he came again into England with 
his cosin Hugh,-son of Richard de Auranches, sirnamed 



Goz, and was a very principal man in all military em- 
ployments. And after many conflicts, the said Hugh 
was made earl of Chester, and Robert of Rothelent was 
the chief commander of all the forces under earl Hugh, 
and made governor of all Cheshire. And William the 
Conquerour caused Rothelent castle and town to be 
built, and gave it to this Robert, that he might make it 
a defence to England, by curbing the excursions of the 
Welsh : And this stout champion seating on their bor- 
ders, had many skirmishes with the Welsh, and slew 
many of them, and enlarged his territories; and on the 
mount Dagaunoth, close by the sea, he built a strong 
castle, and for fifteen years sore afflicted the Britons or 
Welshmen. But at last Grifiith, king of Wales, on the 
third day of July anno Christi 1088, landed with three 
ships under the hill called Hormaheva ; and when he 
had pillaged the countrey, returned back to his ships. 
But as soon as Robert had notice, he calls his soldiers 
together, and with a few soldiers coming to the top of 
the hill, he saw them shipping the men and cattel which 
the Welsh had taken ; and being incensed thereat, him- 
self runs violently down the steep hill, attended onely 
with one soldier, called Osberne de Orgiers, towards 
the enemy; but they perceiving him so slenderly guarded, 
returned back upon him, and with their darts or arrows 
mortally wounded him : yet whilst he stood and had his 
buckler, none durst approach so near as to encounter 
him with a sword ; but as soon as he fell, the enemy 
rushed upon him and cut off his head, which they 
hanged upon the mast of the ship in triumph : After- 
wards with great lamentation both of the English and 
Normans, his soldiers brought his body to Chester, and 
it was interred in the monastery of St. Werburge in that 
city : which monastery Hugh earl of Chester had built, 
and had made Richard, a monk of Becke in Normandy, 
the first abbot thereof. Thus Ordericus, pag. 670, 671. 



M O N T A L T. 



Hugo de Mara was the Norman grantee of the Che- 
shire possessions of the barons of Montalt, which were 
originally inconsiderable, consisting of part of Lea near 
Aldford, Bruge and Radeclive (Handbridge, and the 
lands under St. John's church), Caldey, Lawton, B3'ley, 
and Goostrey. Hawarden and other lands, afterwards 
attached to the office of steward of the earldom, were in 
the hands of Hugh Lupus at the Domesday survey. 

This Hugh occurs twice in the foundation charter of 
the abbey of St. Werburgh, first under the name of 
Fitz Norman, and in a subsequent grant, recited in 
that charter, under the name of de Mara. In the first 
of these (the grant of lands, &c. in Lostock, Coddington, 
and Lea), he is joined by his brother Ralph, most pro- 
bably the same with Radulfus dapifer, who signs after 
him, as witness to the grants of Hugh Lupus. His 
second charter (of Radeclive) is witnessed by Ranulfus 
dapifer, probably another brother, who occurs in two 
other parts of the charter with Hugo Fitz Norman and 
Radulfus Dapifer. 

It is however certain that the possessions of Hugh de 



Mara, and the office of Dapifer or Seneschal of the 
earldom, were united in the next generation in Robert 
de Montalt, who by Dugdale and other authorities is 
stated to be son of Ralph, brother of Hugh Fitz Nor- 
man, and who assumed the name of his castle of Montalt 
or Mold. 

The following account of his descendants is tran- 
scribed from Dugdale, the additions being given as 
notes. 

" After the death of Ranulph de Gernons, earl of 
Chester, the lands of that great earldom were, as it seems, 
in the king's hands for some time ; for in 6 H. II. this 
Robert de Montalt was one of those who accounted to the 
king's exchequer for the farm of them, and likewise for 
what was then laid out in building at the castle of 
Chester. 

This Robert had issue Robert™, his son and heir, and 
he Roger", in the time of which Roger, there being 
much hostility between the English and Welsh, David 
the son of Lewelyn Prince of Wales, invaded his lands 
at Montalt, btit upon that accord made in 25 Hen. III. 



' A long epitaph, said to have been inscribed on his tomb, is given in Dugdale's Baronage. 

'" He had issue by Leucha his wife, Ralph, Robert, and William. Robert succeeded to Ralph, and confirmed his deeds. See Neston, Wirral Huml. 
p. 295. O. n Roger de Montalt was justice of Chester, 1247, 58 and 59. 

tP 



54 



Cf)e flistot^ of Ct)est)ire» 



betwij^t king Henry and the same David, amongst 
other of the articles then agreed on, one was for the re- 
stitution of those lands to this Roger. 

Which being done, the next year following, king 
Henry the Third made him governour of the castle 
there, whereof John le Strange, justice of Chester, not 
many months before had the trust. And in 28 Hen. HI. 
the same David breaking out again, this Roger was 
sent, with the earls of Glocester and Hereford, to en- 
counter him in battel, which happened with great 
slaughter to the Welsh, whereupon the king made resti- 
tution to him of both castle and manor ; but upon con- 
dition that he should upon reasonable summons appear 
before him, with the same David ap Lewelyn, and if 
then it could not be made evident, that his grandfather 
or father had wholly quitted their claim therein to the 
father or grandfather of David, he should thenceforth, 
for ever, enjoy it quietly. Upon which restitution that 
grant by him formerly made of this castle and manor to 
king Henry was annulled and made void. 

That which I next find memorable of him is, that 
34 Hen. HI. being reputed one of the greatest barons of 
this realm, and signed with the Cross in order to an 
expedition to the Holy Land, then resolved on by 
several persons of honour, and some bishops, in assist- 
ance of the king of France against the infidels, he 
passed away a great part of his woods and revenues, 
which he had at Coventry (in right of Cecilia his wife), 
to the monks of that place, in consideration of a large 
sum of money then received from them, to fit himself 
for that journey. 

Some years after this, viz. in 42 Hen. HI. upon ano- 
ther insurrection of the Welsh, under the command of 
Llewelyn ap Griffith, amongst others, he had summons 
to attend the king at Chester, on Monday preceding the 
feast of St. John the Baptist, well fitted, with horse and 
arms, to restrain their incursions; and in 44 Hen. III. 
received command, with other of the Baron M archers, 
to repair into those parts, and there to reside, for the 
defence of the country against the like attempts. But 
in this year he died (Cecilie his wife, second sister and 
one of the coheirs to Hugh de Albini earl of Arundel, 
surviving, who thereupon had livery of the lands of her 
own inheritance), leaving issue two sons John and Ro- 
bert, as also a daughter called Leucha", wife of Philip 
de Orreby the younger. 

Which John having first married with Elene, the 
widow of Robert de Stokeport, and afterwards with 
Milisent, daughter of William de Cantilupe, died with- 
out issue, leaving Robert, his brother and heir, who had 
issue two sons, Roger and Robert. 



Of these, Roger, being in that rebellion of the barons 
against king Henry HL returning to his due obedience, 
and thereupon undertaking to defend the town of Cam- 
bridge against those who then stood out, was there- 
upon admitted to favour. 

After which I have not seen any thing more of him 
until 22 Edw. L ; but then he was in that expedition 
made into Gascoigne. So likewise in 23 Edw. I. in 
which year he had summons to Parliament amongst the 
barons of this realm ; and having married Julian the 
daughter of Roger de Clifford, departed this life in 
25 Edw. L being then seized of the manor of Frames- 
den, in com. Suffolk ; also the manor of Castle Rising- 
ham ; likewise of the manor of Haworthyn, in com. 
Flint, held by the service of steward ; moreover of the 
moiety of the manor of Tackley, and of the manors of 
Neston and La Lee, also clx pans of salt in Middle- 
wich, all in com. Cestr. and belonging to the said stew- 
ardship, besides a certain liberty called Twertnyk, per- 
taining likewise to the said stewardship, leaving Robert 
his brother and heir, xxvii years of age. Which Ro- 
bert, then doing his homage, had livery of his lands, and 
in that same year, was in that expedition then made 
into Gascoigne. 

In 26 Edw. I. this Robert was also in the Scottish 
wars ; so likewise in 29 Edw. I, 31 Edw. L 4 and 7 Edw. 
n. : and 8 Edw. H. amongst others, had summons to be 
at Newcastle upon Tine, on the Assumption of our 
Lady, to restrain the incursions of the Scots ; and in 
10 Edw. H. he was in another expedition then made 
into Scotland; and in 19 Edw. H. in the wars in Gas- 
coigne. 

After all which, having no issue, in 1 Edw. IH. he 
passed his castle, town, and manor of Montalt ; his ma- 
nor of Hawardyn, and stewardship of Chester ; his 
manors of Lee and Boselee in com. Cestr. ; with his 
lordships of Walton upon Trent in com. Derb. Chey- 
lesmorejuxta Coventry in com. War.; likewise cviil. 
yearly rent, payable from the monks of Coventry and 
their successors ; also his castle and manor of Rising in 
com. Norf. the manor of Cassyngland in com. Suff. 
his manors of Snetesham and Kenynghale, with the 
fourth part of the Tolbouthe of Lenne in com. Norf. 
Neston in com. Cest. and Fraunesdon in com. Suff. for 
want of issue male by Emma his wife, to Isabel queen 
of England (mother of king Edward HI.) for life, and 
afterwards to John of Eltham, brother to the king, and 
his heirs for ever. And having been summoned to Par- 
liament from 28 Edw. I. till 3 Edw. III. departed this 
life the same year, and was buried in the conventual 
church of Shuldham, in com. Norf." p 



° For deeds proving the descent of the Ardernes from this marriage, see Alvanley, in Edisbury Hundred, p. 37. 

V Many particulars of the Montalts will be found in the account of their Cheshire manors. It is probable that the Gerards and Domvilles descend 
from this family (see Edisb. Hund. p. 61, and Wirral Hund. p. 240, 295.) to whom some authors add the Crewes, who bear the arms of Montalt. The 
seats of the barony were at Hawarden and Mold ; the first is a picturesque ruin, distant about four miles west of Chester, in Flintshire, of which there 

is a large coarse engraving by giving a very good idea of the strength of the antient works. The castle of Mold is completely rased, but there 

is a small mount planted with trees at the end of the town, near the church, which was probably the site of the Keep tower. 



2.epcesiter's ^prolegomena* 



55 



BARONS OF MONTALT. 

Arms. Azure, a lion rampant Argent. 
Crest. On a wreath a lion's gamb erect and erased Argent, grasping an oak branch Vert, acorns Or. 




NORMANNUS. 



I' 



Hugh Fitz Norman, or de Mara, a bene- 
factor to Chester abbey, living 1093. 



Ralph, brother of Hugh, probably the same 
with Radulfus Dapifer, living 1093. =p 



Ranulfus Dapifer, 

living 1093. 



Robert DE MoNTALT, seneschal of the earldom, temp,= 
R. Steph. 



=Leucha, daughter of held the church of Neston in 

dower. 



Ralph de Montalt, seneschal of Chester, 
gives the said church to Chester abbey ; 
married Matilda, daughter of . . . . , and 
died s. p. temp. Ric. 1. 



1 

Beatrix, concubine of 
William, baron of 
Malpas, and mother 
of David the Bas- 
tard. 



nr 



— I 

Robert de Montalt, seneschal of Chester, 
confirms his brother's donation to Ches- 
ter abbey in the time of Philip de 
Orreby. ^= 



William de Montalt, rec- 
tor of Neston, noticed in 
his brother's grant to 
Chester abbey. 



Roger de Montalt, seneschal=pCECiLiA, fourth daughter of William de Albeney, 



of Chester, and justice of 
Chester, 1247, 58, 59; died 
1260, 44 Hen. III. 



Leuca, wife of Philip de 
Orreby, of Alvanley, the 
younger, which Philip and 
Leuca were deceased before 
1228. =p 



1 

John de Montalt, seneschal of 
Chester, married Elena, widow 
of Robert de Stokeport; and, 
2dly, Millisent, daughter of Wil- 
liam de Cantilupe. o. s. p. 



earl of Arundel, (by Matilda, sister and co- 
heiress of Randle Blundeville, earl of Chester 
and Lincoln) and 6naUy coheiress by the de- 
cease of her brothers s. p. 



Agnes, sole daughter and heiress,= 
ward of Roger de Montalt, who 
sold her wardship for 100 marks 
to Philip de Orreby the elder, 
about 1228, the said Agnes being 
then an infant. 



=Walkelin de Arderne, 

justice of Chester, 

37—42 Hen. 111. seized 

of Alvanley, Upton, and 

Frankby, in right of his 

wife, 28 Hen. III. 



Robert de Montalt, seneschal of 
Chester, heir to his brother, 
calledtheBlackSteward of Ches- 
ter, died 3 Edw. I. Inq. p. m. 
6 Edw. 1. =p 
I 

r 

Roger de Montalt, seneschal 
of Chester, son and heir, sum- 
moned to parliament 23 Edw. 
1. married Juliana, daughter 
of Roger de Clifford, and died 
s. p. 25 Edw. I, 



Hugh de Ralph de Montalt, clerk, 
Montalt, forcibly presented toNes- 

o. s, p. ton by Roger de Montalt, 

Harl. MSS. 1965.34. 



Robert de Montalt, seneschal of Ches- 
ter, brother and heir, summoned to 
parliament from 28 Edw. I. to 3 Edw. HI. 
in which year he died, having settled his 
lands on queen Isabella, and John of 
Elthara and his heirs, s. p. 



Ardernes of Alvanley. 



CHAP. IV. 



^ Catalogue of tje Ci^amljerlains of Cj^ester* 



Philippus Camerarius, in the time of Randle 

sirnamed Gernouns, earl of Chester. 
Spilem' Camerarius, in the time of the same 

Randle. Vide supra pag. 128. (25.) 
Bertramus de Verdon, chamberlain in the time of 
Hugh Cyveliok, and also in the time of Randle 
Blundevill. This Bertram was sheriff 31 and 
33 Hen. 2. 1 187. He lived in the reigns of 
Henry the Second, Richard the First, and king 
John. 

1262. Ricardus Orreby Camerarius, 46 Hen. 3. 

1272. Willielmus Bruchull Camerarius, 56 Hen. 3. : Ule 
fuit decanus ecclesias Sancti Johannis Cestriae. 
Lib. H. fol. 117. e. John Booth of Twamlow's 
book. 

Quae sequuntur ex Recordis (scilicet inter recognitiones 
Scaccarii Cestriae apud Cestriam), propria manu col- 
lecta sunt. 

1277. Hugh Bruchull, 5 Edw. 1. 

1278. Stephanus Chesnut, 6 and 8 Edw. 1. 
1281. William Burstow, 9, 10, 11 Edw. 1. 
1 284. Robert Hemington, 12 Edw. 1 . 
1300. Willielmus Molton, 29 Edw. 1. 

William Stonehall, 3 Edw. 2. 
1309. Paganus Tybotot, 3 Edw. 2. 
1315. Walter Fulborne, 9 Edw. 2. 
1321. Ricardus de Sancto Edmundo, 15 Edw. 2. 
1324. Willielmus Essington justiciarius, 18, 19 Edw. 2. 



1326. John Paynell, 20 Edw. 2. etiam 1 Edw. 3. 

1328. Thomas Blaston, 2 Edw. 3. 

1329. John Stonehall, parson of Plemston, 3 Edw. 3. 

1330. Simon Ruggeley, 4 Edw. 3. 

1331. John Paynell, 5 Edw. 3. 

1332. 1333, 1334. Simon Ruggely, 6, 7, 8 Edw. 3. 

Sir John Wendour was chamberlain when Adam 
Parker was sheriff of Cheshire, about 9 Edw. 3. 
1336. B. Paynell, 10 Edw. 3. 
1338. John Perye, 12 Edw. 3, etiam 14 Edw. 3. 

1341. John Brunham, parson of Eccleston, 15 Edw. 3. 

1342. John Perye, 16 Edw. 3. etiam 17 Edw. 3. 
1344. William Linford, 18 Edw. 3. 

1346. John Brunham junior, 20 Edw. 3. He was cham- 
berlain to the 41 Edw. 3. but how long after, 
I find not precisely. 

1376. John Woodhouse, 50 Edw. 3. He was chamber- 
lain to the 17 Ric. 2. 1393. 

1393. Robert Paris, from the 17 Ric. 2. 1393. to the 
23 Ric. 2. 1399, about five years. 

1399. John Trever bishop of St. Asaph, made chamber- 
lain 23 Ric. 2. He continued to 6 Hen. 4. 
about five years. 

1404. Thomas Barnaby, chamberlain 6 Hen. 4. He 
continued to the 14 Hen. 4. eight years. 

1412. William Troutback, esquire, made chamberlain of 
Chester 14 Hen. 4. He continued to the 17 
Hen. 6. about twenty-six years. 

1438. John Troutback, made chamberlain in reversion 



56 



CJe Hisitot:^ of Ci)e0t)ite. 



after his father's death, by patent dated the 
fifteenth day of August, 15 Hen. 6. howbeit he 
sat not as chamberlain till 1 7 Hen. 6. when 
his father died : which year he was also sheriff 
of Cheshire. He continued chamberlain to 
the 35 Hen. 6. about eighteen years. 

1457. Sir Richard Tunstall, part of 35 Hen. 6. He con- 
tinued the remainder of Henry the Sixth's reign, 
about four years. 

1461. Sir WiUiam Stanley* (of Hooton, as I conceive), 
chamberlain 1 Edw. 4. to the 10 of Hen. 7, 
about thirty-four years. 

1495. Sir Reginald Bray, made chamberlain the tenth of 
April lOHen.7. He continued to the 15 Hen. 7, 
about 4 years. 

1499. Sir Richard Pool, made chamberlain of Cheshire 
(quamdiil nobis placuerit) 14 Januarii, 15 
Hen. 7. He had another patent (durante bene 
placito) dated 3 Aprilis IQ Hen. 7. Sir Randle 
Brereton was vice-chamberlain 19 Hen. 7, and 

20 Hen. 7. William Tatton also vicc-cham- 
berlain, 20 Hen. 7. Pool was chamberlain to 

21 Hen. 7, about six years. 

1505. Sir Randle Brereton, made chamberlain 21 Hen. 7. 
In the same year before this patent was ano- 
ther made of the same office, unto sir John 
Longford, knight. This sir Randle Brereton 
of Malpas, was one of the knights of the body 
to Henry the Seventh, 19 Hen. 7. He conti- 
nued chamberlain to 23 Hen. 8. about twenty- 
six years. In the year 21 Hen. 8. reciting 
where before he had given officium clerici 
scaccarii Cestrise, vulgarit^r nuncupatum offi- 
cium baronis scaccarii Cestriae comitatus Pa- 
latini Cestrise, Johanni Tatton, et Nicolao Far- 
rington, &c. and that Nicolas Farrington was 
dead, and John Tatton living. The king 
sranted the reversion of the same office, after 
the death of John Tatton, to Randle Brereton, 
per nomen officii clerici scaccarii Cestrise, et 
vulgarit^r nuncupati baronis scaccarii Cestrite. 
This Randle Brereton baron of the exchequer, 
I take it, was bastard brother to the cham- 
berlain. 

1331. William Brereton, esquire, made chamberlain 
23 Hen. 8. He continued to 28 Hen. 8. about 
five years. He was of the king's privy cham- 
ber, and beheaded May 17, 1536, 28 Hen. 8, 
for matters touching queen Anne. Stow. 

1536. Rees Manxell, 28 Hen. 8. He continued to 21 
Eliz. about twenty-three years. 

1559. Edward Stanley earl of Derby, chamberlain of 
Chester 1 Eliz. William Glazier vice-cham- 
berlain eodem anno. Earl Edward chamber- 
lain six years. 

1565. Robert Dudley earl of Leycester, 7 Eliz. He con- 
tinued to 30 Eliz. about twenty-three years. 
William Glazier, vice-chamberlain 17 and 
22 Eliz. 

1588, Henry Stanley earl of Derby, 30 Eliz. He con- 
tinued chamberlain to 35 Eliz. about five 
years. 



1593. Sir Thomas Egerton, after lord-keeper, was cham- 
berlain 35 Eliz. He continued to the first 
year of king James ; about ten years. 
l603. William Stanley earl of Derby, made chamber- 
lain of Chester for his hfe, October 30, l603, 
1 Jacobi. He makes Henry Townesend, esq. 
his vice-chamberlain (durante beneplacito) as 
freely as ever sir Peter Warburton, one of the 
judges of the Common Pleas, or any other 
vice-chamberlain, held the same office before. 
Dated 13 Januarii, 1 Jacobi. 

After this there was another patent, joyning James 
lord Strange with William his father, for both 
their lives, and to the survivor. 

To Townesend succeeded sir Thomas Ireland of 
Beausy, in Lancashire, vice-chamberlain. 

To Ireland, Roger Downs of Wardley in Lanca- 
shire. 

To Downs, Orlando Bridgeman (son of John lord 
bishop of Chester), vice-chamberlain 1640. 

William earl of Derby, died l642, and James his 
son continued chamberlain till the Parliament 
put in their Speakers. 
1647. Edward earl of Manchester, Speaker of the House 
of Lords, and William Lenthali, Speaker of the 
House of Commons, were made chamberlains 
of Chester by the Parliament, 23 Car. 1. l647. 
Homfrey Macworth of Shropshire vice-cham- 
berlain. 
1654. John Glinne, made chamberlain 1654; Philip 
Younge of Shropshire his vice-chamberlain. 

This Glinne purchased Harden Castle from 
Charles earl of Derby, about l654. 

Charles earl of Derby, made chamberlain of Ches- 
ter by the king, for the lives of himself and 
William his son, 12 Car. 2. I66O. Edward 
Rigby of Preston in Lancashire, sat vice-cham- 
berlain 1662. 



1660. 



''I673. Sir Heneage Finch succeeded Charles earl of 
Derby as chamberlain in 1673, and continued 
in office to 1676. 

1677 — 1702. William earl of Derby. Eubule Thelwall, 
esq. and sir Christopher Greenfield, knight, of- 
ficiated as his vice-chamberlains. 

1702 — 1735. James earl of Derby on the death of his 
father ; Sir Christopher Greenfield, knight, Ni- 
cholas Starkie, and Robert Fenwick, esq. vice- 
chamberlains. 

1735 — 1770. George earl of Cholmondeley, on the death 
of James earl of Derby ; Robert Fenwick and 
Randle Wilbraham, esq. vice-chamberlains. 

1770. George James earl (and now marquis) of Chol- 
mondeley, succeeded on the death of his grand- 
father, and is the present chamberlain. Sir 
Richard Perryn, knight, succeeded Randle 
Wilbraham, esq. as vice-chamberlain, and was 
succeeded by Hugh Leycester, esq. the present 
vice-chamberlain 1817. 



» Of Holt, beheaded 10 Hen. 7. O. 

^ Continued from the Bills and Replies in the Exchequer of Chester. 



The Vice-Chamberlains are supplied from Cowper's Chester MSS. O. 



ile^cejjter's prolegomena. 



57 



CHAP. V. 



^ Catalogue of tlje f utiges of Ci)esitet* 

Collected out of the old Deeds and Charters to the Reign of Edward the First, and from 

THENCE downwards, OUT OF THE FlNES AT ChESTER, AND OUT OF THE RECOGNIZANCES IN THE 

Exchequer.^ 



Johannes Adams justiciarius comiti's, witness to 
a deed of William constable of Cheshire the 
younger, made to the abbey of St. Werburge 
in Chester, of Raby in Wirrall, about the be- 
ginning of l<ing Stephen's reign. 
Raufe Manwaring, judge of Chester towards the 
end of Henry the Second, and Richard the 
First. 
Philip Orreby, judge of Chester in the time of 
Roger Lacy constable of Cheshire, about the 
tenth year of king John's reign, anno 1209 : for 
Roger Lacy died 1211, 12 Johannis, saith 
Matthew Paris. He was judge to 13 Hen. 3. 
1228, above twenty years. 

1230. William Vernon, judge of Chester, 14, 15, and l6 
Hen. 3. 

1234. Richard Phitton, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 Hen. 3. 

1238. Richard Dracot, 22 Hen. 3. 

1241. John Lexington, 25 Hen. 3. 

1244. Johannes Extraneus, id est, John Strange, 28 and 
29 Hen. 3. 

1246. John Grey, 30 Hen. 3. 

1247. Sir Roger de Monte-alto, steward of Cheshire, 31 

Hen. 3. 

1248. Henry Torboc, locum tenens Johannis Grey, 

32 Hen. 3. 

1249- Richard Vernon, locum tenens Johannis Grey, 

33 Hen. 3. 

1250. Alan de Zouch, 34, 35, 36, and 37 Hen. 3. 

Walkelinus de Arderne. 
1258. Roger de Monte-alto, 42 Hen. 3.; etiam 43 
Hen. 3. 

1261. Fulco de Orreby, proved by the original charter 

of Maxfield, 45 Hen. 3. 

1262. Thomas de Orreby knight, 46 Hen. 3. 

1265. Lucas de Tanai, made judge by Simon de Mont- 

fort, 49 Hen. 3. 

1266. James de Audeley, 50, 51, and 52 Hen. 3. 

1269. Thomas Bolton, 53 Hen. 3. ; etiam 54 Hen. 3. 

1270. Reginald Grey, part of the 54 Hen. 3. as appears 

by the charter of Dernhale, 2 die Augusti, 
54 Hen. 3. 
Idem Reginaldus, 55 and 56 Hen. 3. Robertas 
de Huxley ejus locum tenens, anno 1271. 

Sub Edwahdo Primo. 

1273. Idem Reginaldus de Grey, 1 and 2 Edw. 1. 

1275. Guncelinus de Badelesmere, to 10 Edw. 1. 

1282. Reginald Grey, 10 to 28 Edw. 1. Radulphum 
Hegham sibi associavit, 13 Edw. 1. 
Ricardus Massy locum tenens in absentia Re- 
ginaldi, 20 Edw. 1. Idem Ricardus locum 
tenens pro Reginaldo, 25 Edw. 1. 

1300. Richard Massy, judge of Chester, 28 Edw. I. 



1301. William Trussell, 29 to 35 Edw. I. 

1307. William Ormesby in ultimis assisis, 35 Edw. I. 



Sub Edwardo Secundo. 

1308. Robertus de Holland, 1 to 4 Edw. 2. 

1311. Paganus Tibotot, 4 and 5 Edw. 2. 

1312. Robert Holland, part of 5 ; etiam 6 Edw. 2. 
1314. Hugh de Audley, 7 to 12 Edw. 2. 

1319. John Sapy, 12 Edw. 2. 

1320. Robert Holland, 13 and 14 Edw. 2. 

1322. Oliver Ingham, 15 to 19 Edw. 2. John Hegham 

his deputy judge, 18 Edw. 2. 
1326. Richard de Eumary, 19 Edw. 2. to 2 Edw. 3. 

Sue Edwardo Tertio. 

1328. Oliver Ingham, 2 to 5 Edw. 3. 
1331. William Clinton, 5 to 10 Edw. 3. 

1336. Sir Hugh Frenes, 10 Edw. 3, 

1337. Henry Ferrers, including part of the 10 to 15 

Edw. 3. 

1341. Raufe Stafford, 15 Edw. 3. 

1342. Oliver Ingham, 16 Edw. 3. 

1343. Henry Ferrars, 17 Edw. 3. 

1344. Oliver Ingham, 18 Edw. 3. 

1345. Thomas de Ferrars, 19 to 27 Edw. 3. 

Roger Hillary, judge ad comitatum die Martis 
proxime post festum Assumptionis Beatee 
Mariffi, 27 Edw. 3. 
1353. Bartholomew Bughurst, 27 to 42 Edw. 3. Jo- 
hannes Delves locum tenens justiciarii Cestriae, 
33 Edw. 3. Johannes de la Pool locum tenens, 
40 Edw. 3. 

1368. Thomas Felton, 42 Edw. 3. 

1369. Bartholomew Burghersth, part of this year, 43 

Edw. 3. 

1370. Thomas abbot of Vale-Royal, part of 43 ; etiam 

44 Edw. 3. 

1371. Thomas Felton, part of 44 to 50 Edw. 3. 

1376. John de la Pool, sub fine 50 Edw. 3. etiam 51 

Edw. 3. 

Sub Ricardo Secundo. 

1377. Thomas Felton Miles, and Johannes de la Pool, 

1 and 2 Ric. 2. 

1379. Thomas de Felton, 3 Ric. 2. 

1380. Thomas Felton and John de la Pool, 4 Ric. 2. 

1381. John Holland, made judge of Chester for his life. 

His patent in the Exchequer is dated 5 Ric. 2. 
and he made Thomas Molineux his lieutenant- 
justice, dated eodem anno. 
John Holland, continued to 9 Ric. 2. 
1386. Edmund duke of York, the king's uncle, made 
judge of Chester ad terminum vitse, eo uiodo 
quo Johannes Holland habuit, by the king's 



* Continued to 1763 from Cowjiei's MSS. The remainder extracted from records in the Prothonotar^'s office by Faithful Thomas, esq. 

t s 



38 



Cj)e ©istor^ of Ctjesfjire, 



patent, dated 28 Septembris, 9 Rich. 2. He 
had another patent, giving him power to make 
a lieutenant, dated 9 Ric. 2. and he makes Tho- 
mas abbot of Vale Royal, his lieutenant-justice, 
with forty marks fee yearly, dated on St. Mar- 
tin's eve, 9 Ric. 2. The same Edmund made 
John Massy of Podington his lieutenant, 15 No- 
vembris, 9 Ric. 2. 

The duke was judge to 12 Ric. 2. 

The patent of Henry abbot of St. Werburge in 
Chester, Thomas Davenport, John Pigot, and 
Robert Dutton, giving power to an3' one, or 
more, to execute the place of judge of Chester 
pro hac vice; dated 11 Mail, 11 Ric. 2. 

The like commission unto Robert Vere duke of 
Ireland and earl of Oxford, Robert abbot of 
Cumberraere, and Robert Dutton, pro una vice; 
dated 8 Juni, 11 Ric. 2. 
1388. Thomas duke of Glocester (Thomas Plantagenet), 
12 Ric. 2. to l6 Ric. 2. This Thomas deputes 
his cosin Hugh Burnell (quamdiu nobis pla- 
cuerit) his lieutenant justice, 12 Ric. 2. 

Henry abbot of St. Werburge in Chester, is made 
judge of Chester pro una vice, 13 Januarii, 
16 Ric. 2. 
1393. Thomas comes mareschallus et Nottinghamiae 
(Thomas Mowbray), 17 to 20 Ric. 2. William 
Bagot locum tenens, 18 Ric. 2. 

Roger Brescy, and Hugh Hulse, made judges una 
vice, 19 Ric. 2. The commission pro Hugh 
Hulse una alia vice, 19 Ric. 2. Also Hugh 
Holes or Hulse, made lieutenant-justice to 
Thomas earl of Nottingham, 10 Julii, 20 Ric. 2. 

1396. Gilbertus Talbot, in tine hujus anni. 20 Ric. 2. 

1397. William Scroop earl of Wiltshire, 21 Ric. 2. to 

1 Hen. 4. 
John Knightley locum tenens sub Scroop, 22 
Ric. 2. 

Sub Henrico Quarto. 

1399. Henricus Persey (son to the earl of Northumber- 
land), made judge of Chester, eo modo quo 
Willielmusle Scroop habuit, giving him power 
to make a lieutenant-justice, 29 Octobris, 
1 Hen. 4. 

John Knightley made his lieutenant-justice, 1 
Hen. 4. 

Henry Percey was judge to 4 Hen. 4. 

Roger Horton, and Henry Birtles, judges pro h&c 
vice, 3 Januarii, 1 Hen. 4. 

Sir Hugh Hules, and Roger Horton, made judges 
ad iter apud Frodsham pro h^c vice, 13 Aprilis, 
1 Hen. 4. 

John Pigot, made judge pro uno comitatu, 3 
Hen. 4. Sir Hugh Hulse made judge pro alia 
vice, eodem anno 3 Hen. 4. 
1402. Gilbert Talbot's patent, dated 4 Hen. 4. and he 
makes John Knightley his lieutenant-justice 
eodem anno. 

John Knightley, made judge of Chester pro una 
vice, 4 Hen. 4. 

This Gilbert was made lord Talbot, 7 Hen. 4. He 
, continued judge of Chester to 6 Hen. 5. 

Nicolas Fare, made judge pro uno itinere apud 
Frodsham, 23 Januarii, 9 Hen. 4. 

Sub Henkico Qbinto. 
John Pigot, judge unS. sessione, 1 H^n. 5. 



James Holt locum tenens for Talbot, 2 Hen. 5. 
1418. James Holt made judge of Chester, 6 Hen. 5. to 

1 Hen. 6. 
Gilbert lord Talbot, James Holt, Henry Birtles, 

Peter Massy, made judges ad unum iter apud 

medium Wichum, 19 Septembris, 6 Hen. .'5. 
Idem Gilbert, James Holt, Robert Mere, and 

Henry Birtles, ad unum iter apud Maxfiekl, 

21 Septembris, 6 Hen. 5. 
Henry Birtles, judge pro uno comitatu, 11 Feb- 

ruarJi, 8 Hen. ."j. 

Sub Henrico Sexto. 

1422. Thomas Holland, duke of Excester, 1 to 6 Hen. 6. 

1427. Homfrey duke of Glocester, 6 to 9 Hen. 6. Wil- 
liam Buckley his lieutenant justice, 7 and 8 
Hen. 6. 

1430. Thomas duke of Excester, 9 Hen. 6. 

1431. Homfrey duke of Glocester, 10 to 18 Hen. 6. 
Thomas abbot of Chester, and Henry Birtles, 

judges pro uno comitatu Cestria;, 26 Maii, 
4 Hen. 6. 

Sir John Stanley, sir John Savage, Henry Birtles, 
John son of Peter Legh, and Richard Piggot, 
ad tria hundreda itineris apud Maxfield justi- 
tiarios constituimus : or to any two, quorum 
praefatum Henricum unum esse volumus ; 22 
Septembris, 5 Hen. 6. 

Peter Pool made judge uno comitatu Cestrise, hac 
vice; 8 Aprilis, 5 Hen. 6. Idem Petrus uno 
comitatu CestriiE hac vice, 29 Aprilis, 5 
Hen. 6. 

Thomas abbot of Chester, and Henry Birtles, 
uno comitatu CestriaB, 26 Julii, 7 Hen. 6. 

Richard Bold, and John Bruen de Tarvin, uno 
comitatu apud Cestriam, 27 Junii, 8 Hen. 6. 

Thomas abbot of Chester, William Chauntrell, 
and Henry Birtles, pro uno comitatu Cestriae ; 
20 Decembris, 8 Hen. 6. 

Richard Bold and John Bruen, pro uno comitatu 
Cestriae, 16 Januarii, 9 Hen. 6. 

Sir John Stanley, sir John Savage, Henry Birtles, 
John Savage jun. John Legh del Ridge, and 
Richard Piggot, ad tria hundreda itineris apud 
Maxfield, or to any two, quorum praefatum 
Henricum unum esse volumus, 12 Augusti, 9 
Hen. 6. 
1439. William de la Pool earl of Suffolk, made judge 
of Chester and Flint, sicut avunculus noster 
Humfridus dux Glocestriae ante a habuit; 9 
Februarii, 18 Hen. 6. 

W^illiam de la Pool makes sir Thomas Stanley, 
William Roerly, and Richard Roules, his 
deputies (quamdiu sibi placuerit) 23 Februarii, 
18 Hen. 6. 

The commission of sir Thomas Stanley, and Wil- 
liam Ruckley of Eaton ; That whereas Wil- 
liam de la Pool was made judge of Chester for 
his life, he now makes them his lieutenant- 
justices, and that thej' shall receive 401. per 
an. per manus Camerarii. Dated on the eve 
of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin 
Mary, 19 Hen. 6. 

A commission to sir Thomas Stanley, sir Robert 
Booth, sir Lawrence de Fitton, Roger de Legh, 
and Thomas Duncalfe, for judges, ad tria 
hundreda itineris apud Maxfield, or to any 
two, whereof the said Roger or Thomas Dun- 



ile^cester's prolegomena* 



59 



calfe to be one. Dated 27 Septembris, 19 
Hen. 6. 
William de la Pool was judge to 22 Hen. 6. 

1443. William de la Pool comes, et Thomas Stanley, 

miles, 22 Hen. 6. 

1444. William de la Pool comes SufFolcise, 23 Hen. 6. 

1445. Williclmus de la Pool marchio SufFolciae, et 

Thomas Stanley miles ; 24 Hen. 6. and they 
continued to 29 Hen. 6. William Buckle}', 
justiciarius sub Willielmo de la Pool, 26 
Hen. 6. 
1450. Thomas Stanley miles, solus, 29 Hen. 6. and con- 
tinued to 38 Hen. 6. 

John Nedham, lieutenant-justice, 30 Hen. 6. 
M. num. 17. 

Thomas was made lord Stanley, 35 Hen. 6. 
1459. John earl of Shrewsbury', 38 Hen. 6. His com- 
mission for judge of Chester (quamdiu nobis 
placuerit) is dated 24 Februari, 37 Hen. 6. 

There was a former commission for John Talbot 
viscount Lile, making him judge of Chester 
for life, after the death of sir Thomas Stanley, 
prout idem Thomas habuit. Dated 20 Mali, 
30 Hen. 6, which was void upon the new com- 
mission. He was judge to 1 Edw. 4. 

Sub Edviardo Quarto. 

14G1. John Nedham, 1 Edw. 4. 

1462. Thomas lord Stanley, 2 Edw. 4, and continued 
to 1 Hen. 7. 

Sir John Nedham his lieutenant-justice, 18 Edw. 4. 

John Hawarden his lieutenant, 1 Rich. 3. 

Sub Henkico Septimo. 

1486. Thomas Stanley earl of Derby, and George Stan- 
ley lord Strange. They continued from 1 to 
19 Hen. 7. 

John Hawarden locum tenens, 10 Hen. 7. 
1504. Sir Thomas Englefield; from 19 Hen. 7, to the 
32 Hen. 8. Quasre if there were not two Tho- 
mas Englefields, father and son, who succeeded 
one another ; the son from 6 Hen. 8. 

George Bromley lieutenant-justice, 20 and 21 
Hen. 7. 

Thomas Englefield miles, was judge of Chester 
uno comitatu apud Cestriam, hac vicetantum; 
tenendum in omnibus quse ad officium perti- 
nent, prout habuit in tempore quo fuit locum 
tenens Thomse comitis Derbise, 20 Augusti, 
18 Hen. 7. 

Sub He.vrico Octavo. 

1540. Nicolas Hare miles, 32 to 37 Hen. 8. 

1545. Sir Robert Townesend, 37 Hen. 8. to 3 Marise. 

Sub Maria. 

1556. Sir John Pollard, 4 M arise. 

1557. George Wood esquire, 5 Mariai. 

Sub Elizabetha. 

1558. John Throckmorton esquire, 1 Eliz. From 6 

Marise to 21 Elizab. 
Edward Hassal his deputy, 13 Eliz. 
Simon Thelwall his deputy, 18 Eliz. 
1579. John Throckmorton, and Henry Townesend, 

21 Eliz. 



Simon Thelwall their deputy eodem anno. 

1580. George Bromley, and Henry Townesend, 22 to 
31 Eliz. 

1589. Sir Richard Shuttleworth, and Henry Townes- 
end, esq. 31 Eliz. and continued to 42 Eliz. 

1600. Sir Richard Lewknor, and Henry Townesend, 
42 Eliz. and continued to 14 Jacobi. 

Sub Jacobo. 

I6l6. Sir Thomas Chamberlain, and sir Henry Towne- 
send. 14 Jac. and continued to 19 Jac. 

1621. Sir James Whitlok, and sir Henry Townesend, 

19 Jac. 

1622. Sir James Whitlok, and sir Marmaduke Lloyd, 

20 Jac. and continued to 1 Car. 1. 

Sub Carolo Primo. 

1625. Sir Thomas Chamberlain, and sir Marmaduke 
Lloyd, 1 Car. 1. 

1026. Sir John Bridgeman, and sir Marmaduke Lloyd, 
2 Car. 1. and continued to 12 Car. 1. 

1636. Sir John Bridgeman, and Richard Prythergh, 
esquire, 12 Car. 1, and continued two years. 

1638. Sir Thomas Milward, of Eaton in Derbishire, 
and the said Richard Prythergh a \^'elshman, 
14 Car. 1, and continued to 23 Car. 1. 

1647. John Bradshaw, late of Congleton, and Peter 
Warburton of the Grange nigh Weverham, 
both natives of this county, made judges of 
Chester by the Parliament, sin^ Rege l647, 
23 Car. 1." 

1649. Homfrey Macworth of Shrewsbmy, as deputy to 
Bradshaw, and Thomas Fell of Lancashire, 
to 1655. 

1655. Bradshaw and Fell, to 1659. 

1659. Mr. RatcliflF, recorder of Chester, deputed by 
Bradshaw at Easter assizes, 1659, pro h&c vice 
tantum ; for Bradshaw was then sick at Lon- 
don, and died that year, and Fell died before, 
in 1658, at his house in Low Furneys in Lan- 
cashire. 

Sub Carolo Secundo. 

1661. Job Chorleton, of Ludford in Herefordshire, 

esquire (deputy to sir Geffrey Palmer, baronet, 
attorney-general, and chief-justice of Chester) 
and Robert Milward, of Stafford, esquire, 
younger son of sir Thomas Milward, late chief 
justice of Chester, sat judges of Chester, 13 
Car. 2. September 16, 1661, after the restora- 
tion of king Charles the Second. 

1662. Sir Job Chorleton, knight, now made chief jus- 

tice of Chester (quamdiii nobis placuerit, with 
power to make a deputy if he please) and the 
said Robert Milward, sat judges at Chester, 
July 28, 1662, 14 Car. 2, and so have con- 
tinued to this preserit 1669. 

1674. Sir Job Chorleton, kt. George Johnson, esq. 

1680. Sir George Jeffries, kt. George Johnson, esq. 

168 1. Sir George Jeffries, kt. John Warren, esq. 
1684. Sir Edward Herbert, kt. John Warren, esq. 

James H. 

1686. Sir Edward Lutwyche, kt. John Warren, esq, 
In the same year sir Job Chorleton again. 



60 



C|)e ?|isitor^ of Ci^esf)ite» 



William and Maky. 

1689. Sir John Trenchard, kt. Littleton Powis, esq. 
John Comb, esq. deputy to the chief-justice. 

William III. 

169.'). Sir John Comb, kt. sir Salathiel Lovell, kt. 

John Hooke, esq. deputy to the chief-justice. 
1697. Joseph Jekyll, esq. sir Salathiel Lovell, kt. 

Anne. 

1707. Sir Joseph Jekyll, kt. John Pockhngton, esq. 
17] 1. Sir Joseph Jekyll, kt. John Ward, esq. 

George L 

1714. Sir Joseph Jekyll, kt. Edward Jeffries, esq. 
1717. Spencer Covvper, Edward Jeffries, esqrs. 
1726. Spencer Cowper, John Willes, esqrs. 

George IL 

1729. John Willes, William Jessop, esqrs. 

1734. The Hon. John Verney, A'Villiam Jessop, esq. 

1736. The Hon. John Verney, Piichard Pottinger, esq. 



1739. Matthew Skynner, Serjeant at law, Richard Pot- 

tinger, esqrs. 

1740. Matthew Skynner, esq. the Hon. John Talbot. 
1749. William Noel, esq. the Hon. John Talbot. 
1757. William Noel, Taylour White, esqrs. 

George HL 

1763. John Morton, Taylour White, esqrs. 
1778. John Morton, Daines Barrington, esqrs. 
1780. Lloyd Kenyon, Daines Barrington, esqrs. 
1784. Pepper Arden, Daines Barrington, esqrs. 
1788. Edward Bearcroft, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1797. James Adair, esq. serjeant at law, and Francis 

Burton, esq. 

1798. William Grant, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1799. James Mansfield, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1804. Vicary Gibbs, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1805. Robert Dallas, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1813. Richard Richards, Francis Burton, esqrs. 

1814. Sir William Garrow, kt. Francis Burton, esq. 

1815. Samuel Marshall, esq. serjeant at law, attended 

as deputy to sir William Garrow at the Spring 
Assizes. 
I8I7. Sir William Garrow, kt. William Draper Best, 
serjeant at law. 



CHAP. VL 



91 Catalogue of t!)e ^fjertffs of CijesSire, 

Collected out of old Deeds to the latter end of Edward the Third, and thence downwards 
OUT OF THE Records at Chester, in the Prothonotary's Office, and also in the Exchequer 
there, with some Particulars out of old Deeds. 



Ranulphus vicecomes, witness to a deed of the 
second Randle earl of Chester, in the reign of 
king Stephen, among the evidences of St. 
Werburge at Chester, 1644. Vide supra 25. 

Gilbertus Pipardus, 30 Hen. H. 

Bertramus de Verdon : fuit etiam camerarius 
Cestria5, 31 and 33 Hen. 2. 

Lidulfus, or Liulfus, vicecomes, about the reign 
of Richard the First, or King John. This 
Lithulfe was lord of Goostrey, Twamlow, Crox- 
ton, and Crannach. 

Sub Henrico Tertio. 

Sir William Thebaud, sub initio Hen. 3. lib. c. 
fol. 264. num. 1 and 3. 

Richard Perpoint, tempore Philippi Orreby jus- 
ticiarii Cestriee. lib. C. fol. 152 a. 

Ricardus filius Lidulfi, tempore Philippi Orreby 
justiciarii, as appears by a deed in possession 
of Edmund Swetenham, of Sommerford in 
Cheshire, anno 1664. 

Richard de Sonbach, tempore Philippi Orreby 
justiciarii. lib. C. fol. 225 c. 
1230. Ricardus de Sonbach, 15 Hen. 3. 
1233. Ricardus de Wibenbury, tempore Richardi Fit- 
ton justiciarii, et Johannis Scotici comitis Ces- 
trise, 18 Hen. 3. 
1248. Ricardus Berner', vel Bernerd, tempore Johannis 
Grey justiciarii, lib. C. fol. '270 b. 32 Hen. 3. 



1252. David de Malpas, tempore Alani le Zouch justi- 
ciarii, 36 Hen. 3. 
Joceramus de Hellesby, tempore Thomse de 
Orreby justiciarii ; sed tempore Philippi de 
Orreby, saith the deed of Warford in Vernon's 
notes. Quaere. 

1262. Robert Buckley, 46 Hen. 3. 

1266. Robert de Huxley, 50 Hen. 3. 

1267. Jordanus de Penlesdon, tempore Jacobi Audley 

justiciarii. 
Randle of Sidington, tempore Tho. Bolton, 1269. 
Charta intfer Jes fines Cestrice. 

1268. Sir Thomas Dutton of Dutton, tempore Thomse 

Bolton justiciarii, 52 Hen. 3. 
1270 and 1271. Richard Wilbraham, 54 and 55 Hen. 3. 
1272. Hugh de Hatton, 56 Hen. 3. 

Sub Edwardo Primo. 

Robert de Huxley, tempore Gozelini de Badles- 
mere. lib. B. pag. 31, m. about 4 Edw. 1. 
1274. Hugh de Hatton, 3 Edw. L 

James Pool, lib. B. pag. 32, r. I am uncertain 
of the time. 

1277. Patric de Haselwel, tempore Guncelini de Badeles- 

mere justiciarii, about 5 Edw. 1. 

1278. Richard de Massy, 6 Edw. 1. 

1279. William de Hawarden, lib. C. fol. 268, num. 36, 

etiam 1280. 
1281. Wilham de Spurstowe, 9 and 10 Edw. L 



ilepcester'fi prolegomena. 



61 



1284. Robert Grosvenour, of Hulme in Allostock, 12, 
13, 14, and 15 Edw. 1. Etiam l6 Edw. 1. 
lib. B. pag. 32, n. 

1292. William Praers, 20 Edw. 1. 

Richard de Bradwell, G. num. 9. I am uncer- 
tain of the time. 

1295. Philip de Egerton, 23 and 24 Edw. 1, F. num. 1. 

1297. William Praers, 25, 27, and 28 Edw. 1. Placita 
25 Edw. 1. memb. 2. in dorso. 

1303. Robert Bressy, 31 and 33 Edw. I. 

1307. Ricardus de Fowlcshurst, 35 Edw. 1. 

SuTS Edwardo Secundo. 

1308. Ricardus de Fowleshurst, 2 Edw. 2. 

1309. Robert Buckley, 3 Edw. 2. lib. H. pag. 109, g. 

John Booth's book of Twamlow. 
1311. Richard Fowleshurst, tempore Pagani Tibotot 
justiciarii, 5 Edw. 2. Etiam 1313 et 1316. 

1319. William de Mobberley, 13 Edw. 2. 

1320. Richard de Fowleshurst, 1320, 1321, and 1324, 

and 1326, 14 to 20 Edw. 2. 

Sub Edwaedo Tektio. 

1328. John de Wrenbury, 2, 3, and 4 Edw. 3. 
1330, Robert Praers, 5 Edw. 3. 

1332. William Praers, 1331, in a deed of sir Thomas 

Mainwaring's of Baddiley, 6 Edw. 3. 

1333. David de Egerton, 7 Edw. 3. by another deed of 

sir Thomas Mainwaring's. 

1334. Robert Praers, 8 Edw. 3. 

1335. Adam Parker, 9 Edw. 3. 

1337 and 1338. John de Wrenbury, 11 Edw. 3. 

1341. Robert de Buckley, jun. 15 Edw. 3. 

1342. Randle de Aldington, sive Olton ; l6 Edw. 3. 

Etiam 1344 and 1345. 

1346. Hugh Hough, 20 Edw. 3. 

1347. Nicolas de Ruggeley, 21 Edw. 3. John Booth's 

Book, H. pag. 135, K. 

1348. Sir James Audely, made sheriff for a year, 25 

Junii, 22 Edw. 3. 
■1349. William Praers of Baddiley, 23 Edw. 3. 
1351. Thomas Danyers, vulg6 Daniel, 25 and 27 

Edw. 3. 
1356. Thomas de Dutton, 30 Edw. 3. Etiam 33 Edw. 3. 

1360. Thomas Young, 34 Edw. 3. 

1361. Richard de Whitley, his patent for sheriff (quam- 

diia nobis placuerit) is dated 35 Edw. 3. Etiam 
vicecomes 38 Edw. 3. 
1367. John Scolehall, his writ is dated 41 Edw. 3. He 
was also escheator of Cheshire, 40 Edw. 3. 

1369. Sir Nicholas de Manley, 43 Edw. 3. John Booth's 

book, lib. K. pag. 79, b. Etiam 44 Edw. 3. 

1370. Sir Lawrence Dutton, of Dutton, knight, his 

writ dated 44 Edw. 3. also 46 Edw. 3. and 1 
Rich. 2. 1 Novembris. 



Sub Ricaedo Secundo. 
1378. Hugh Venables of Kinderton, 2 Ric. 2. 



His 



writ for sheriff in the exchequer of Chester 
(quamdid nobis placuerit) is dated 1 Ric. 2. 
Etiam 3 Ric. 2. lib. H. num. 137. 

1383. Nicolas Vernon, 7 Ric. 2. ut per chartam penes 
Swetenham de Somerford, anno 1664. 

1385. Hugh earl of Stafford. His writ at Chester dated 
9 Ric. 2. Tenendum dictum coraitatum Ces- 
triae ad duos vel tres annos, et ad faciendum 
quod ad officium vicecomitis pertinet in eodem 
comitatu. 



This earl Hugh deputed sir Richard Venables of 
Kinderton to execute the place, eodem anno, 
9 Ric. 2. 
1387. Sir John Massy, of Tatton, knight, U Ric. 2. 

1389. Sir Robert Grosvenour of Houlme in Allostock. 

His writ in the exchequer at Chester (quamdii) 
nobis placuerit) is dated 1 Januarii, 12 Ric. 2. 
1388. 

1390. Sir John Massy, of Tatton, knight, made sheriff 

18 Octobris, 13 Ric. 2. 1389. 

1393. Sir Robert Legh of Adlington, 17 Ric. 2. 

1394. Sir Robert Grosvenour of Houlme. He was 

made sheriff again 31 Octobris, 18 Ric. 2. 
1395. He died the year following, scilicet 

19 Ric. 2. 

1396. John de Olton, 20 Ric. 2. as appeared by a deed 
of sir Thomas Manwaring's of Baddiley, anno 
1663. 

1398. Sir Robert Leigh of Adlington, 22 Ric. 2. 

Sub Henrico Quarto. 

1400. John Massy of Podington, 1 Hen. 4. 

1401. Henry de Ravenscroft, 2 Hen. 4. Vernon's Copy 

of Aston's Deeds, pag. 56, L 
1404. John Mainwariug of Over-Pever, was made 

sheriff 18 Septembris, 4 Hen. 4. and continued 

5 and 6 Hen. 4. 
1409. Sir William Brereton, 10, 11, and 12 Hen. 4. 

His writ is dated 10 Hen. 4. 
1412. Sir Lawrence Merebury, knight, 13 Hen. 4. lib. C. 

fol. 117, 118. 

Sub Henrico Quinto. 

1415. John Legh del Booth's nigh Knotsfoid, 3 to 9 

Hen. 5. 
1422. Hugh Dutton, of Hatton near Chester, 10 Hen. 5. 
made sheriff (quamdiu nobis placuerit) 2 Octo- 
bris, 9 Hen. 5. 1421. 

Johannes Legh nup^r vicecomes Cestriae, Ri- 
cardus Warburton, Ricardus Filius Roberti 
de Aston, Ricardus Buckley de Chedell, Ro- 
gerus le Bruen, WiDielmus Leycester (id est, 
de Tabley) Willielmus Daniel de Daresbury, 
Thomas Legh del Baggiley, sir William Stan- 
\ey, knight, John Legh de Legh, John de Ca- 
rington, William del Holt, and William Hol- 
ford, venerunt in scaccarium — Et fatentur, 
unumquemqu^ eorum debere Domino Regi 
1401. de arreragiis compoti ipsius Johannis 
Legh nup^r vicecomitis, &c. 14 Julii, 10 Hen. 
5. 1422. 

There was also a new writ issued out against this 
John Legh, dated 6 Hen. 6. for the great ar- 
rears of his sheriffship, then unsatisfied. 

I find Hugh Dutton sheriff also, 3 Hen. 6. Lieger 
Book of Vale Royal, fol. 74, a. 

Sub Henrico Sexto. 

1424. Hugh Dutton of Hatton, 3 Hen. 6. 

1426. Richard Warburton, 5 Hen. 6. 

1428. Sir Randle Brereton (of Malpas I think) made 
sheriff, quousque alium ind^ duximus ordinan- 
dum in eodem officio, 12 Januarii, 6 Hen. 6. 
A writ is directed to the executors of Richard 
Warburton, late sheriff, to bring in all ihe 
rolls touching his sherifl'ship unto Randle 
Brereton, dated 13 Januarii, 6 Hen. 6. 



tK 



62 



Cf)e fitsitorp of Cj)est)ire» 



Handle was sheriff also 1 1 and 14 Hen. 6. as I find 

in the said records. 
Upon a writ of Diem clausit extremum of the 

said Richard Warburton, dated 6 Hen. 6. 

there is mention made of his accounts not 

given up for his late sheriffship since 5 Hen. 6. 
(Sir Hugh Button of Hatton occurs in a fine, 10 

Hen. 6.) 
1437. John Troutback esquire, l6 and part of 17 Hen. 6. 

1 find sir Robert Booth sheriff 17 Hen. 6. 
1443. A patent requiring the surrender of a former 

patent to Robert Booth, and now making sir 
Robert Booth and William his son (conjunctim 
vel divisim) sheriffs for both their lives, and to 1524. 
the survivor, dated 8 Martii, 21 Hen. 6. 1442. 

Will, del Bothe I find sheriff 33 Hen. 6. 

This was the first patent granted of the sheriffship 1324. 

for life that I meet with, made to sir Robert 

Booth of Dunham-Massy, who married Dowse, 1525. 

the coheir of Venables of Bollin, by virtue of 

which patent sir William Booth his son, sur- 1526. 

viving, was sheriff 30 Hen. 6. etiam 2 Edw. 4. 

which sir William died not till l6 Edw. 4. 1476. 

1527. 
Sub Edwaedo Quarto. 

1463. William Stanley, of Hooton, sen. 3 Edw. 4. made 

sheriff (quamdii\ nobis placuerit) l6 Januarii, 1528. 

2 Edw. 4. 1462. Idem Willielmus Stanlej', 
one of the king's carvers, made sheriff for his 1529. 
life, 26 Februarii, 5 Edw. 4. He continued 
sheriff till 10 Hen. 7. 1531. 

Soon after Edward the Fourth had obtained the 
crown, he created a new sheriff of Cheshire, 
notwithstanding the patent for lives granted to 1532. 
Booth by Hen. 6. This appears by Stanley's 
first patent, as followeth : 1537. 

Edwardus, &c. salutem. C^m l6 die Decembris 

1460, humilis et fidelis ligeus noster Williel- 1540. 
mus Stanley de Hooton, sen. retentus fuerit 1541. 
pro termino vitaj cum excellentissimo et 
praepotentissimo principe beatse memoriae Ri- 1543. 
cardo duce Eboracensi patre nostro quern 
Deus absolvat, facturus fidele et diligens 1544. 
servitium praefato patri nostro et nobis erga 1545. 
omnes terrenas creaturas ; pro quibus reten- 
tione et servitio, prsefatus pater noster pro- 
misit et concessit, quod tali tempore quo ofti- 
cium vicecouiitis nostri comitatus palatini 
Cestrise perveniret, vel pertineret concession! 
ipsius patris nostri, quod tunc ipse concederet 1550 
praefato Willielmo idem officium, — &c. Ha- 
bendum pro termino vitse, prout in quibusdam 
indenturis sub sigillo praedicti patris nostri, 
quas habet demonstrare : Nos concessimus 
eidem Willielmo idem officium vicecomitis, — 
&c. Habendum et occupandum per eundem 
Willielmum, et per suum deputatum sufficien- 
tem, quamdiH nobis placuerit, — &c. Teste 
meipso apud Cestriam, 16 die Januarii, anno 
regni nostri secundo, 1462. 

Sub Henkico Septimo. 

1495. John Warburton of Arley, esquire, made sheriff 1560. 
(quamdid nobis placuerit) 6 Aprilis, 10 Hen. 7. 
The sheriffship of Cheshire (with all its profits, 
given to John Warburton, uni mihtum pro 
corpore Henrici Septimi, durante beneplacito, 
4 Aprihs, 19 Hen. 7, 1504. And 1 Mali 19 



Hen. 7, sir John Warburton, with others, enter 
into a recognizance of 2001. that the said sir 
John shall pay 301. yearly unto Randle Brere- 
ton vice chamberlain, so long as he continueth 
sheriff. 
The same sir John is made sheriff of Cheshire for 
his life, with all the profits thereof to himself, 
to be executed by himself or a deputy, 19 Julii, 
23 Hen. 7, 1508. Raufe Birkenhead was under 
sheriff, made 9 Decembris 21 Hen. 7. Sir John 
was sheriff to 15 Hen. 8. 

Sub Heneico Octavo. 

Thomas Warburton, gentleman, made sheriff ra- 
tione mortis Johannis Warburton militis nuper 
vicecomitis, 8 Aprilis 15 Hen. 8. 

Sir George Holford of Holford, made sheriff (du-' 
rante beneplacito) 24 Septembris 16 Hen. 8. 

Sir William Stanley of Hooton, made sheriff (du- 
rante beneplacito) 20 Februarii 17 Hen. 8. 

William Venables of Kinderton (he was after- 
wards sir William Venables), made sheriff (du- 
rante beneplacito) 19 Decembris 18 Hen. 8. 

Sir William Pool of Pool, in Wirrall, made she- 
riff (durante beneplacito) 30 Novembris 19 
Hen. 8. 

Thomas Fowleshurst of Crew, esq. made sheriff 
(durante beneplacito) 19 Decembris 20 Hen. 8. 

John Done of Utkinton, esquire, made sheriff (du- 
rante beneplacito) 19 Novembris 21 Hen. 8. 

Edward Fitton of Gawesworth, esquire, made 
sheriff (durante beneplacito) 24 Novembris, 23 
Hen. 8. 

George Paulet, esquire, made sheriff (durante bene- 
placito) 8 Decembris 24 Hen. 8. 

Sir Henry Delves of Dodington made sheriff (du- 
rante beneplacito) 20 Novembris, 29 Hen. 8. 

Edmund Trafford, esquire, 32 Hen. 8. 

John Holford, esquire, made sheriff (durante bene- 
placito) 10 Decembris 33 Hen. 8. 

Sir Peter Dutton of Button and Hatton both, 35 
Hen. 8. 

Sir Edward Fitton of Gawesworth, 36 Hen. 8. 

Sir Henry Delves of Dodington, 37 Hen. 8. 

Sub Edwakdo Sexto. 

1 Sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cholmeley. 

2 Sir William Brereton of Brereton. 

3 Thomas Aston of Aston, esquire. 

4 Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

5 Sir Lawrence Smith of Hatherton. 

6 Sir William Brereton of Brereton. 

Sub Maria Regina. 

1 Sir Peter Legh of Lime. 

2 Sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cholmley. 

3 Richard Wilbraham of Woodhey, Esquire. 

4 Sir Thomas Venables of Kinderton. 

5 Sir Philip Egerton of Egerton. 

6 Sir Edward Fitton of Gawesworth. 

Sub Elizabetha Regina. 

2 Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

3 Sir Raufe Egerton of Wrine-Hill. 

4 Sir John Warburton of Arley. 

5 Richard Brook of Norton, esquire.. 

6 William Massy, esquire. 

7 Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 



3lepcesiter's ^rolejsomena. 



63 



Sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cholmeley. 

Lawrence Smith of Hatherton, esquire. 

Raufe Done of Flaxyardes, esquire. 

George Calveley of Lea, esquire. 

Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

William Booth of Dunham-Massy, esquire. 

Thomas Stanley of Alderley, esquire. 

Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

Idem sir John Savage. 

Henry Manwaring of Carincham, esquire. 

Sir Rowland Stanley of Hooton. 

John Warren of Pointon, esquire. 

Thomas Brooks of Norton, esquire. 

Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

Sir Raufe Egerton of Wrine-Hill. 

Sir George Calveley of Lea. 

Sir William Brereton of Brereton. 

Peter Warburton of Arley, esquire. 

William Leversage of Wheelok, esquire. 

Thomas Wilbraham of Woodhey, esquire. 

Hugh Calveley of Lea, esquire. 

Randle Davenport of Henbury, esquire. 

Thomas Legh of Adlington, esquire. 

Sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cholmeley. 

William Brereton of Honford, esquire. 

Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 

Thomas Brooke of Norton, esquire. 

Thomas Venables of Kinderton, esquire. 

Peter Warburton of Arley, esquire. 

Peter Legh of Lime, esquire. 

John Done of Utkinton, esquire. 

Sir George Booth of Dunham-Massy. 

Sir Edward Warren of Pointon. 

Sir Thomas Holcroft of Vale-Royal. 

Sir Thomas Smith of Hatherton. 

Sir Thomas Aston of Aston. 

Richard Grosvenour of Eaton-boate, esquire. 



9 
10 
11 

1570. 12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

1580. 22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

1590.33 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

1600. 42 
43 
44 



Sub Jacobo. 



1 Sir George Leycester of Toft. 

2 Sir William Davenport of Broomhall. 



Sir Randle Manwaring of Over-Pever. 



Sir Thomas Vernon of Haslington. 
Sir John Savage of Rocksavage. 
Sir Henry Bunbury of Stanney. 
William Brereton of Ashley, esquire. 
l6l0. 8 Geifrey Shakerley of Houlme, esquire. 
9 Thomas Dutton of Dutton, esquire. 

10 Sir William Brereton of Brereton. 

11 Sir Urian Legh of Adlington. 

12 Sir George Calveley of Lea nigh Eaton-boate. 

13 Sir Richard Lea of Lea and Dernhale. 

14 Sir Richard Wilbraham of Woodhey, baronet. 

15 John Davenport of Davenport, knighted hoc 

anno. 

16 Raufe Calveley of Saughton, esquire. 

17 Sir Randle Manwaring of Over-Pever. 
1620. 18 Sir Robert Cholmeley of Cholmeley, baronet. 

19 Thomas Merbury of the Mere nigh Comber- 

bach, esquire. 

20 Sir George Booth of Dunham-Massy, bart. 

21 Sir Thomas Smith of Hatherton. 

22 Sir Richard Grosvenour of Eaton-boate, bart. 

Sub Carolo Peimo. 

1 Sir Thomas Brereton of Ousaker. 

2 Sir John Done of Utkinton. 



3 John Calveley of Saughton, esquire. 

4 Sir Edward Stanley of Bickerstaffe in Lanca- 

shire, baronet. 

5 Thomas Legh of Adlington, esquire. 
1630. 6 Peter Dutton of Hatton, esquire. 

7 Thomas Stanley of Nether- Alderley, esquire. 

8 Richard Brereton of Ashley, esquire. 

9 Sir Edward Fitton of G awes worth, bart. Obiit 

sin^ prole. 

10 Peter Venables, esq. baron of Kinderton. 

11 Sir Thomas Aston of Aston, baronet. 

12 William Legh of Booths, esquire. 

13 Sir Thomas Delves of Dodington, baronet. 

14 Thomas Cholmeley of Vale-Royal, esquire. 

15 Philip Manwaring of Over-Pever, esquire. 
1640. 16 Sir Thomas Powel of Birket- Abbey, baronet. 

17 John Bellot of Morton, esquire. 

18 Hugh Calveley of Lea; knighted hoc anno. 

19 Thomas Legh of Adlington, esquire. 

20 Richard Grosvenour, esq. son of sir Richard 

Grosvenour of Eaton-boate, baronet. 
Henry Brooks of Norton, by the two Houses 
of Parliament. 

21 Robert Tatton of Witthenshaw, esquire. 
Henry Brooks, by the two Houses of Parliam. 

22 Henry Brooks of Norton, esquire, by the two 

Houses, sine rege. 

23 Idem Henry, continued by Parliament, sin^ 

rege. 

24 Roger Wilbraham of Darford, esquire, by the 

Parliament sin^ rege. 

1649. Robert Duckenfield of Duckenfield, esq. by the 

Committees of State, calling themselves Cus- 
todes Libertatis Anglia;, after they had be- 
headed the King. 

Sub Cakolo Secundo. 

1650. Sir Henry Delves of Dodington, baronet, by 

the Committees of State. 

165 1 . Edmund Jodrill of Yerdesley, esq. by the Com- 

mittees of State. 

1652. John Crew of Crew, esq. by the Committees 

of State. 

1653. Peter Dutton of Hatton, esq. by the Commit- 

tees of State. 

1654. George Warburton of Arley, esq. by Oliver 

Protector. 

1655. Philip Egerton of Olton, esquire, by the same 

Oliver. 

1656. Idem Philip continued by Oliver. 

1657. Thomas Manwaring of Over-Pever, esquire, by 

Oliver. 
1608. John Legh of Booths, esq. by Oliver. 

1659. Idem John continued by Oliver. 

1660. 12 Thomas Cholmondeley of Vale-Royal, esquire, 

by the King now restored. 

1661. 13 Idem Thomas, continued by the King. 

1662. 14 Thomas Legh of Adlington, esq. 

1663. 15 Sir John Bellot of Morton, made baronet this 

year. 

1664. 16 Sir Thomas Wilbraham of Woodhey, bart. 

1665. 17 Sir Thomas Delves of Dodington, baronet. 

1666. 18 Sir John Arderne of Harden, knight. 

1667. 19 Sir Richard Brook of Norton, baronet. 

1668. 20 Roger Wilbraham of Darford, esquire. 

1669. 21 Sir Peter Brook of Mere, knight. His writ is 

dated in November I668, 



64 



Cf)e History of €\)tsi\)ixt. 



1670. 22 Roger Wilbraham of Nantwich, esquire. 

1671. 23 Edmund Jodrill of Yerdsley, esquire. 

1672. 24 William Lawton of Lawton, esquire. 



1673. 
1674. 
1675. 
1676. 
1677. 
1678. 
1679. 
1680. 
1681. 
1682. 
1683. 
1684. 



1685. 
1686, 

1687. 
1688, 



1689. 
1690. 
1691. 
1692. 
1693, 
1694. 
1695. 
1696, 
1697. 
1698. 
1699. 
1700. 
1701. 



1702. 
1703. 
1704. 
1705. 
1706. 
1707. 
1708. 
1709. 
1710. 
1711. 
1712. 
1713. 
1714. 



1715. 
1716. 
1717. 
1718. 
1719. 
1720. 
1721. 
1722. 
1723. 
1724. 
1725. 
1726. 
1727. 



25 Thomas Touchet of Nether Whitley, esq. 

26 Thomas Bunbury of Stanney, esq. 

27 Sir Philip Egerton of Oulton, knight. 

28 Richard Walthall of Wistaston, esq. 

29 John Davies of Manley, esq. 

30 Sir Peter Stanley of Alderley, hart. 

31 Sir James Bradshaw of Brombrorough, knt. 

32 Edward Legh of Bagulegh, esq. 

33 Edward Downes, of Shrigley, esq. 

34 Sir Peter Pindar of Idenshaw, bart. 

35 Peter Wilbraham of Dorfold, esq. 

36 James Davenport of Woodford, esq. 

James the Second. 

1 Henry Davies of Dodleston, esq. 

2 The same Henry Davies. 

3 Robert Cholmondeley of Holford, esq. 

4 Thomas Legh of Adlington, esq. 

William and Mary. 

1 Sir Thomas Grosvenor of Eaton, bart. 

2 John Bruen of Stapleford, esq. 

3 Sir Willoughby Aston of Aston, bart. 

4 Peter Legh of Booths, esq. 

5 Sir William Glegg of Gayton, knight. 

6 William Davenport of Bromhall, esq. 

7 Richard Legh of East Hall, High Legh, esq. 

8 Charles Hurleston of Newton, esq. 

9 William Whitmore of Thurstanston, esq. 

10 Thomas Lee of Dernhall, esq. 

11 Thomas Delves of Erdshaw, esq. 

12 Sir Henry Bunbury of Stanney, bart. 

13 Laurence Wright of Mobberley, esq. 

Anne. 

1 John Davenport of Woodford, esq. 

2 Sir John Chetwode of Whitley, bart. 

3 John Baskervyle of Old Withington, esq. 

4 John Legh of Adlington, esq. 

5 Sir Francis Leycester of Tabley, bart. 

6 Edmund Swetenham of Somerford, esq. 

7 Sir Samuel Daniel of Tabley, knt. 

8 William Domville of Lymme, esq. 

9 Glutton Wright of Nantwich, esq. 

10 John Amson of Lees, esq. 

1 1 John Leche of Garden, esq. 

12 Sir Thomas Cotton of Combermere, bart. 

13 Randle Wilbraham of Nantwich, esq. 

Geoege the First. 

1 Richard Walthall of Wistaston, esq. 

2 Francis Jodrell of Twemlowe, esq. 

3 James Bayley of Wistaston, esq. 

4 John Bromhall of Hough, esq. 

5 Samuel Barrow of Shepenhall, esq. 

6 Sir Thomas Brooke of Norton, bart. 

7 Edmund Swetenham of Somerford, esq. 

8 George Davenport of Calveley, esq. 

9 Sir Thomas Aston of Aston, bart. 

10 Edward Downes of Shrigley, esq. 

1 1 John Parker of Fallows, esq. 

12 Richard Rutter of Moore, esq. 

, 13 Charles Hurleston of Newton, esq. 



Geokge the Second. 

1728. 1 Peter Brooke of Mere, esq. 

1729. 2 Robert Davies of Manley, esq. 

1730. 3 John Daniel of Daresbury, esq. 

1731. 4 Edward Warren of Poynton, esq. 

1732. 5 William Brock of Upton, esq. 

1733. 6 Leigh Page of Hawthorne, esq. 

1734. 7 Henry Bennet of Moston, esq. 

1735. 8 Trafford Barnston of Churton, esq. 

1736. 9 William Dod of Edge, esq. 

1737. 10 Thomas Booth of Twemlowe, esq. 

1738. 11 William Tatton of Withinshaw, esq. 

1739. 12 Robert Hyde of Cattenhall, esq. 

1740. 13 John Spencer of Huntington, esq. died in office. 

1740. 13 Sir John Byrne of Stanthorne, bart. 

1741. 14 William Chesshyre of Hallwood, esq. 

1742. 15 Peter Legh of Lyme, esq. 

1743. 16 Philip Egerton of Oulton, esq. 

1744. 17 Sir Peter Warburton of Arley, bart. 

1745. 18 Thomas Hall of Hermitage, esq. 

1746. 19 Ralph Leycester of Toft, esq. 

1747. 20 Charles Legh of Adlington, esq. 

1748. 21 Edward Green of Poulton, esq. 

1749.22 George Leigh of Oughtrington, esq. 

1750.23 James Croxton of Guilden Sutton, esq. 

1751.24 Sir William Duckenfield-Daniel of Ducken- 

field, bart. 

1752. 25 Sir Richard Brooke of Morton, bart. 

1753. 26 John Leche of Garden, eisq. 

1754. 27 Robert Lawton of Lawton, esq. 

1755. 28 Thomas Sloughter of Ner^vton, esq. 

1756. 29 Thomas Prescot of Eardehaw, esq. 

1757. 30 William Robinson of Wlhatcroft, esq. 

1758. 31 John Egerton of Broxton, esq. 

1759. 32 Samuel Harrison of Craanach, esq. 

1760. 33 Sir Peter Leicester of Tajbley, bart. 

George the Third. 

1761. 1 John Arden of Harden, esq. 

1762. 2 Hon. Richard Barry of Marbury. 

1763. 3 John Alsager of Alsager, esq. 

1764. 4 John Crewe of Crewe, esqj. 

1765. 5 Hon. John Smith Barry of Belmont, esq- 

1766. 6 Peter Brooke of Mere, esq. 

1767. 7 Sir Lister Holt of Breretom, bart. 

1768. 8 Henry Harvey Aston of Aston, esq. 

1769. 9 Philip Egerton of Oulton-, esq. 

1770. 10 Sir Robert Cunliffe of Saighton, bart. 

1771. 11 John Crewe of Boleswortb, esq. 

1772. 12 Sir Henry Mainwaring of Peover, bart. 

1773. 13 George Wilbraham of ToTvnscnd, esq. 

1774. 14 William Leche of Garden,, esq. 

1775. 15 Thomas Patten of Buertoii, esq. 

1776. 16 John Astley of Duckenfield, esq. 

1777. 17 Peter Kyffin Heron of Mo-ore, esq. 

1778. 18 William Tatton of Withenshaw, esq. 

1779. 19 John Bower-Jodrell of Yea rdsley, esq. 
1780.20 Samuel Barrow of Shepperihall, esq. 
1781. 21 William Davenport of Bro,mhall, esq. 

1782.22 Sir Peter Warburton of W arburton, bart. 

1783.23 Davies Davenport of Gapes thorn, esq. 

1784. 24 Thomas Willis of Swettenham, esq. 

1785. 25 Hon. Wilbraham Tollemacs'ie, Woodhey. 

1786. 26 Henry Cornwall Legh of Hlighlegh, esq. 

1787. 27 Sir Richard Brooke of Norttm, bart. 



i 



iCe^cester's ^prolegomena* 



65 



1788. 
1789 



1790. 
1791. 

1792. 
1793. 
1794. 
1795. 
1796. 
1797. 
1798. 
1799. 
1800. 
1801. 
1802. 



28 John Glegg of Withington, esq. 1803 

29 The same ; Spring Assizes. 1804 
Sir John Chetwode of Agden, bart. ; Autumn 1805 

Assizes. 1806. 

30 John Arden of Harden, esq. 

31 Charles Watkin John Shakerley, of Somerford, 1807. 

esq. 1808. 

32 Thomas Cholmondeley of Vale Royal, esq. 

33 John Egerton of Oulton, esq. 1809. 

34 Domville Poole of Lymme, esq. 1810. 

35 James Hugh Smith Barry of Marbury, esq. 1811. 

36 Hon. Booth Grey of Wineham. 1812. 

37 John Leche of Stretton, esq. 1813. 

38 Richard Hibbert of Birtles, esq. 1814. 

39 Joseph Green of Poulton Lancelj-n, esq. 1815. 

40 Roger Barnston of Churton, esq. 1816, 

41 WiUiam Rigby of Oldfield, esq. 1817 

42 Lawrence Wright of Mottram, esq. 



. 43 John Feilden of Mollington, esq. 

. 44 Sir John Fleming Leicester of Tabley, bart. 

. 45 George John Legh of High Legh, esq. 

46 Sir Harry Mainwaring Mainwaring of Over 

Peover, bart. 

47 Francis Duckenfield Astley of Duckenfield, esq. 

48 Charles Trelawney Brereton of Shotwick Park, 

esq. 

49 Thomas William Tatton of Withenshaw, esq. 

50 Thomas Brooke of Church Minshull, esq. 

51 Booth Grey of Ashton Heys, esq. 

52 Edmund Yates of Ince, esq. 

53 Francis Bower-Jodrell of Henbury, esq. 

54 John Baskervyle Glegg of Gayton, esq. 

55 John Isherwood of Marple, esq. 

56 Samuel Aldersey of Aldersey, esq. 

57 Sir Richard Brooke of Norton, bart. 



CHAP. vn. 



9i Catalogue of tlje Csejeators of Cijester 



TO THE REIGN OF KING JAMES. 



In ancient time there were but two Escheators in 
England, the one on this side of Trent, and the other 
beyond Trent ; at which time they had Sub-Escheators : 
But in the reign of Edward the Second the offices were 
divided, and several Escheators made in every county 
for life, &c. and so continued till the reign of Edward 
the Third. And afterwards by the statute of 14 Edw. 3. 
it was enacted, that there should be as many escheators 
assigned, as when Edward the Third came to the Crown, 
and that was one in every county, and that no escheator 
should tarry in his office above a year : and by another 
statute, to be in office but once in three years : The lord 
treasurer named him. Cook upon Littleton, fol. 13. b. 

But Chester, and other county-palatines made their 
own escheators long time before the statute of 14 Edw. 3. 
and their priviledges for making escheators are allowed 
by the said statute. 

!26l. Thomas de Orreby, 45 Edw. 3. as appears by the 
original deed of the liberties of Maxfield. 
Hugo le Mercer, sub Edw. 1. 

1282. Adam de Chetwine. Mr. Holms's book, lib. B. 
pag. 124. Ex placitis Cestriae die Martis prox- 
imo post festum Sancti Nicolai, 10 Edw. 1. de 
custodia et maritagio Johannis filii et haeredis 
Hugonis de Hatton. 

1294. Frater Robertus de Valla Regali, 22 Edw. 1. per 
inquisitionem post mortem Hugonis de Dutton. 
Lib. C. fol. 156. bb. 

1296. Peter of Newcastle under Lime, as appears by the 
writ for the office of Urian de Sancto Petro, 
vulgc) Sampier, in the Pleas at Chester proxime 
post festum Sancti Augustini episcopi, 28 
Edw. 1. 

1299. Hugh Bushy, per inquisitionem concerning Sam- 
pier, in placitis ibidem in festo Translationis 
Sancti Thomae apostoli, 27 Edw. 1. 

t 



1312. Matthew de Hulgrave. 6 Edw. 2. 

Edward de la Mare, also 6 Edw. 2. Mr. Holms's 
book B. pag. 114. 

1327. William deSwetenham; ut per inquisitionem post 

mortem Hugonis de Dutton, 1 Edw. 3. Lieger 
book of Vale-Royal, fol. 46. 

1328. John de Wetenhale. 2 Edw. 3. Mr. Holms's book 

E. fol. 2.56. 

1331. Thomas Daniers, 5 Edw. 3. ut per inquisitionem 

pen^s me. V. num. 11. 

1332. Hamo Massy de Tatton, 6 Edw. 3.0. num. 1. He 

was younger son to Robert Massy of Tatton in 
Cheshire, and married Katherine, daughter and 
heir of Alan Rixton of Rixton in Lancashire, 
6 Edw. 3. 1332, from whom the Massyes of 
Rixton. He was afterwards sir Hamon Massy, 
knight, 1347. Lib. C. fol. 105. num. 42, and fol. 
292. num. 1. 

1333. Peter Arderne, made escheator 7 Edw. 3. Mr. 

Holms's book E, fol. 77- Quamdiii bene se 
gesserit. This Peter had lands in Over-Al- 
derley. 
1345. Hugh de Hopwas, 19 Edw. 3. as appears by an in- 
quisition ex officio, for the boundary of Stubs 
super Rudheath,qua! teneturdefratribus Sancti 
Johannis Hierosolymitani ; in possession of sir 
Thomas Delves of Dodington, baronet, anno 
1664. He was also escheator 23 and 26 Edw. 3. 

Quae sequuntur, ex Recordis (scilicet int^r recognitiones 
scaccarii Cestriae apild Cestriam) propria manu 
collecta sunt. 

1361. Adam de Kingsley, 35 and 36 Edw. 3. 

1365. John Scolehall, made escheator (quamdiil nobis 
placuerit) 26 Martii, 39 Edw. 3. He was also 
sheriff of Cheshire, 42 Edw. 3. I find him also 
escheator, 2 Ric. 2. and 6 and 7 Ric 2, 



66 



Cf)e ?|tstorp of Ci)e0l)ire« 



1384. Adam Kingsley, 8 Ric. 2. 

1386. John Ewlowe, 10 Ric. 2. 

1387. Adam Kingsley, 11, 12, 13 Ric. 2. 

1390. John Leech, part of 13 and 14 Ric. 2. 

1391. Thomas Masterson of Nantwich, part of 14, 15. 

and 16 Ric. 2. 

1392. Adam de Kingsley, part of 16, and 19 and 20 

Ric. 2. 

1398. Hugh Leigh (id est, of High-Legh of the East- 

Hall) made escheator quamdiii nobis placuerit, 
23 Octobris 21 Ric. 2. The original is among 
the evidences of Mr. Legh of High-Legh of 
the West-hall, anno l664. 

1399. Adam de Kingsley, 22 Ric. 2. 

1400. Richard Manley, 1 and 3 Hen. 4. and 18 August), 

4 Hen. 4. 
1403. Matthew Mere, made escheator 4 Hen. 4. 
1405. Richard Manley, made escheator 7 Hen. 4. I 

find him also escheator 10 Hen. 4. 
1414. Henry de Ravenscroft, 2 and 3 Hen. 5. and 

6 Hen. 5. 

1421. Richard Done of Crowton, made escheator 9 

Hen. 5. 

1422. John Wetenhale of Nantwich, made escheator, 

quamdiii nobis placuerit, 26 Aprilis 10 Hen. 5. 

He continued to 7 Hen. 6. and part of 7 Hen. 6. 
1428. John Bruen, made escheator December 8, 7 Hen. 6. 

He continued to 12 Hen. 6. and part of 12 

Hen. 6. This was Bruen of Stapleford. 
1434. John Legh del Ridge, 12, 13, 14, 15, l6, 17, and 

18 Hen. 6. and 31 Hen. 6. 

1459. Raufe Legh ; ut per inquisitionem post mortem 

domini Thomae Dutton de Dutton militis, 
38 Hen. 6. 

1460. Robert Fowelhurst, made escheator 4 Julii 38 

Hen. 6. 

1461. William Venables de Copenhale, made escheator 

20 Julii 1 Edw. 4. 
1477. Thomas de Walton, 17 Edw. 4. and 21 Edw. 4. 
1495. Roger Manwaring, gentleman, made escheator, 

quamdiu nobis placuerit, l6 Julii, 10 Hen. 7. 

Idem Roger, 2 Julii, 17 Hen. 7. Idem Roger, 



made escheator durante beneplacito, and to 
have the whole profits thereof. Dated 4 Aprilis, 
19 Hen. 7- He was also escheator 24 Hen. 7- 
and was a younger son to Manwaring of Ca- 
rineham. 
1509. Sir Raufe Egerton, and Roger Manwaring, made 
escheators of Cheshire for their lives, and to 
the survivor of them, 7 Julii 1 Hen. 8. It ap- 
pears Manwaring was dead 6 Hen. 8. and the 
said sir Raufe Egerton (one of the gentlemen 
ushers of the king's chamber) was made ranger 
of the king's forest of Delamere in Cheshire, 
during his life, 6 Hen. 8. 
This sir Raufe (as I take it) was younger son to 
Egerton of Egerton, and the first Egerton of 
Ridley. He died 1528. The Egertons of Rid- 
ley in short time attained to a great estate, but 
it is all now sold and gone, except some small 
part in Yorkshire, called Allerton, cum per- 
tinentiis. 
Urian Brereton, one of the grooms of the privy 
chamber, made escheator, and ranger of Dela- 
mere forest, pro termino vitae, after the death 
of sir Raufe Egerton, with 101. fee per annum. 
Dated 1 Aprilis 18 Hen. 8. He was after Bre- 
reton of Honford in right of his wife, and 
younger son of Brereton of Malpas. 
1540. Urian Brereton, armiger, unus gromettorum pri- 
vatse cameras regis, escheator 32 et 35 
Hen. 8. Et Urianus Brereton senior miles, es- 
cheator 2 Edw. 6. ut patet per inquisitionem 
captam apud Northwich, 18 Junii 2 Edw. 6. 
post mortem Johannis Carington de Caring- 
ton, armigeri. Sir Urian died 19 Eliz. 1577. 
1577. John Cotton, esq. 19 Eliz. 

1580. John Nutthall, made escheator pro termino vits, 
17 Junii 22 Elizabethffi; etiam 25 Ehz. This 
was Nutthall of Cattenhall nigh Dutton. 
1590. Sir Hugh Cholmeley of Cholmeley the younger, 

33 Eliz. : he died 43 Eliz. 
1615. Henry Manwaring of Carincham, esq. 13 Jac. 



JProlegomena* 



67 



£fet0 of County ©fficersf 



OMITTED BY SIR PETER LEICESTER. 



iLortJ ILieutenants, 



The earliest Lord Lieutenant of Cheshire that occurs 
is Edward Stanley, hid Earl of Derby, who 
died at Latham Oct. 4, 1574. Hollinshed and Stow in their 
excellent character of this nobleman, notice " his fidelity 
unto two kings and two queens, in dangerous times and 
great rebellions, in which time, and always as cause served, 
he was lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire'." 

Henry ivth Earl of Derby, is described as " lord 
lieutenant of the counties of Chester and Lancester, and 
of the citie of Chester," in the inscription on a fine ori- 
ginal painting preserved at Bramall Hall, dated 1.583. 

Sir George Booth occurs as deputy of William vith 
EARLof Derby, lord lieutenant,in an inspection of troops 
on the Roodeye, in l6l4. The deputies were at this 
time e.Ytremely limited in number. In sir John Crewe's 
memoir of sir Hugh Cholmondeley, who died in 1601, 
he is described as " one of the two only deputy lieuten- 
ants of Cheshire''." 

The gallant and unfortunate James viith Earl of 
Derby, held the lieutenancies of Cheshire, Lancashire, 
and North Wales, before and after the decease of his fa- 
ther, in 1642. Being ordered in this capacity, when Lord 
Strange, to make preparations for the intended raising 
of the royal standard at Warrington, he mustered 20,000 
men on three heaths near Bury, Ormskirk, and Preston, 
and would in all probability have met with similar suc- 
cess in his other lieutenancies if the place for erecting 
the standard had not been changed to Nottingham'^. 

After the restoration, Charles viiith Earl of 
Derby, being then lieutenant of Lancashire, was on 
July 30, 1660, constituted lord lieutenant of the county 



of Chester"*, in which office he was afterwards associated 
with William Lord Brereton*". 

William Richard George ixth Earl of Derby, 
who had been removed from his lieutenancy of Lanca- 
shire by James IL was, in 1688, constituted lord lieu- 
tenant of the county of Lancashire and Cheshire'. 

April 12, 1689, Henry Booth Lord Delamere 
was made lord lieutenant of the county of Chester, and 
on July 19 following custos rotulorum of the said county, 
which offices he held until his death in 1693. 

About the year 1708, Hugh Cholmondeley ist 
Earl of Cholmondeley was constituted lord lieuten- 
ant and custos rotulorum of the county palatine, and 
county of the city of Chester, but was removed from his 
offices in 1713; he was restored to them on the acces- 
sion of George L in the year following, and dying Jan. 
18, 1724-5, was succeeded by his brother 

Gjorge Cholmondeley, iid Earl of Chol- 
mondeley, who was appointed March 20, in the same 
year, to his brother's offices of lord lieutenant of the 
county and city of Chester, and custos rotulorum of the 
said county. In these offices he was succeeded in his 
life-time by his son George Viscount Malpas, after- 
wards third Earl of Cholmondeley, Nov. 2, 1727, who 
was continued in the same by his present majesty. 

George James ivth Earl of Cholmondeley was 
appointed on the death of his grandfather to this office, 
and having subsequently resigned it, was succeeded 
therein May 14, 1783, by George Harry Earl of 
Stamford and Warrington, the present lord lieu- 
tenant. 



il^epresentatitjes of tl)e County ^^alatine of Cijester in Jparliament* 



In the year 1541, the inhabitants of the county and 
city of Chester, represented to the king that though they 
were bound by acts and statutes of the high court of par- 
liament, they had never had their knights and burgesses 
within the said court, and had consequently been often- 
times grieved by statutes derogatory to their antient 
privileges ; and further petitioned for the privilege of 
electing two knights for the said county, and two bur- 
gesses for the said city. Pursuant to this application 
an act passed in the 34th and 35th Hen. VIII. by which 
it was enacted 

" That from the end of this present session the said 
county palatine of Chester, shall have two knights for 
the said county palatine, and likewise two citizens to 
be burgesses for the city of Chester, to be elected and 
chosen by process to be awarded by the chancellor of 
England unto the chamberlain of Chester, his lieutenant 
or deputy for the time being ; and also like process to 
to be made by the said chamberlain, his lieutenant or 



deputy, to the sheriff of the said county of Chester, and 
the said election to be made under like manner and 
form, to all intents, constructions, and purposes, as is 
used within the county palatine of Lancaster, or any 
county and city within this realm of England." 

The act further states, that the said knights and bur- 
gesses shall be returned by the sheriff's to the chancery of 
England, as any other shenfi's make return in like case, 
and shall be knights and burgesses of the high court of 
parliament, have like voice and authority, to all intents 
and purposes, and " shall and may take every such like 
liberties, advantages, dignities, privileges, wages, fees, 
and commodities, concerning this said court of parlia- 
ment, to all intents, constructions, and purposes, as any 
other the knights and burgesses of the said court, shall, 
may, or ought to have, take, or enjoy." 

This act passed in the last parliament of king Henry 
VIII. and the first parliament of his successor Edw. VI, 
was called in 1546'^. 



a Collins' Peerage, 2, 459, edit. 1768. 
" Bill. Signat. 12 C. 11. 



b See Edisbury Hund. page 77. 
<^ Collins' Peerage, 4, 481, edit. 17C8. 



OiJgdale's Baronage, 2, 251. 
'Ibid. p. 482. 



68 



C|)e Sisitor^ of Cf)esi)ire. 



3^mst)ts of ti^e ^!)ire, for ti)e County of Chester* 



Edward VI. 



1. Thomas Holcroft. 



7, Sir Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, kt. 
Sir Thomas Venables, of Kinderton, kt. 

Maky. 

I . Sir Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, kt. 

Edward Fytton, of Gawsworth, esq. 
] . Sir Henry Delves, of Doddington, kt. 

Richard Wilbraham, of Woodhey, esq. 

Philip and Mary. 

1 and 2. Sir Richard Cotton, of Combermere, kt. 

Richard Wilbraham, of Woodhey, esq. 

2 and 3. The same. 

4 and 5. Richard Hough, of Leighton, esq. 
James Done, of Utkinton, esq. 

Elizabeth. 

1. William Brereton, of Brereton, esq. 

Sir Ralph Leycester, of Toft, kt. 
5. Sir Thomas Venables, of Kinderton, kt. 

William Massye, of Podington, esq. 

13. Thomas Calveley, of Lea, esq. 
Thomas Stanley, of Alderley, esq. 

14. George Calveley, of Lea, esq. 
William Booth, of Dunham, esq. 

27. Thomas Egerton, Solicitor General. 
Hugh Cholmeley, of Cholmeley, esq. 

28. Thomas Egerton, Solicitor General. 
John Savage, of Rock Savage, esq. 

31. Sir George Beeston, of Beeston, kt. 

John Savage, of Rock Savage, esq. 
35. Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, esq. 

John Done, of Utkinton, esq. 
39. Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Sir William Beeston, of Beeston, kt. 
43. Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Sir Peter Legh, of Lyme, kt. 

James L 

1. Sir Thomas Holcroft, of Vale Royal, kt. 
Sir Roger Aston, of Aston, kt. 
12. Sir William Brereton, of Brereton, kt. 

18. Sir William Brereton, of Brereton, kt. 

Sir Richard Grosvenor, of Eaton, kt. 
21. William Booth, of Dunham Massey, esq. 

William Brereton, of Ashley, esq. 

Charles L 

1. Sir Robert Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley, bart. 

Sir Anthony St. John, kt. 
1 . Sir Richard Grosvenor, of Eaton, kt. and bart. 

Peter Daniel, of Tabley, esq. 
3. Sir Richard Grosvenor, of Eaton, kt. and bart. 

Sir William Brereton, of Handford, bart. 

15. Sir William Brereton, of Handford, bart. 
Sir Thomas Aston, of Aston, bart. 

16. Peter Venables, of Kinderton, esq. 

Sir William Brereton, of Handford, bart. 
George Booth, esq. succeeded on the displacing 
one of the other members. 



Charles IL 

During the Usurpation. 

5. Robert Duckenfield, of Duckenfield, esq. 
Henry Birkenhead, of Backford, esq. 

6. John Bradshaw. serjeant at law, chief justice of 

Chester. 
Sir George Booth, of Dunham Massey, bart. 
Henr}' Brooke, of Norton, esq. 
John Crewe, of Utkinton, esq. 

8. Sir George Booth, of Dunham Massey, bart. 
Thomas Marbury, of Marbury, esq. 
Richard Legh, of Lyme, esq. 

Peter Brooke, of Mere, esq. 

11. John Bradshaw, serjeant at law, chief justice of 

Chester. 
Richard Legh, of Lyme, esq. 

12. Sir George Booth, of Dunham Massey, bart. 
Thomas Mainwaring, of Over Peover, esq. 

After the Restoration. 

12. William lord Brereton of Leighlin. 
Peter Venables, of Kinderton, esq. 
Sir Foulk Lucy, kt. on the death of lord Brereton, 

1664. 
Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, on the death 
of Peter Venables, 1669. 
31. Henry Booth, of Dunham Massey, esq. 
Sir Philip Egerton, of Oulton, kt. 

31. Henry Booth, of Dunham Massey, esq. 
Sir Robert Cotton, of Combermere, kt. 

32. The same. 

James IL 

1. Sir Philip Egerton, of Oulton, kt. 
Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

12. Sir Robert Cotton, of Combermere, bart. 
John Mainwaring, of Over Peover, esq. 

William and Mary. 

2. John Mainwaring, of Over Peover, esq. 
Sir Robert Cotton, of Combermere, bart. 

7. The same. 
10. The same. 

12. The same. 

13. The same. 

Anne. 

1. Sir George Warburton, ofArley, bart. 

Sir Roger Mostyn, of Beeston, bart. 
4. Hon. Langham Booth. 

John Crewe Offley, of Crewe, esq. 

7. The same. 

9. Sir George Warburton, of Arley, bart. 
Charles Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

12. The same. 

George I. 

1 . Sir George Warburton, of Arley, bart. 
Hon. Langham Booth. 

8. Charles Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 
John Crewe, of Crewe, esq. 



^prolegomena* 



69 



Geoege II. 

1 . Charles Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, of Comberniere, bart. 
8. Charles Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

John Crewe, junior, esq. 
15. The same. 
21. The same, John Crewe dying, Charles Crewe, 

esq. was elected in his place. 
27. Charles Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 
Samuel Egerton, of Tatton, esq. 
Charles Cholmondeley, esq. dying April 28, 1756, 
Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. was 
elected in his place. 

Geoege III. 
l76l, Ap. 8. Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Samuel Egerton, of Tatton, esq. 
1768, March 29, Samuel Egerton, of Tatton, esq. 

John Crewe, of Crewe, esq. 



1774. The same. 

1780. Sir Robert Salusbury Cotton, bart. 

John Crewe, of Crewe, esq. 
1784. The same. 
1790. The same. 

1795. The same. 

1796. John Crewe, of Crewe, esq. 

Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 
1802. Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

William Egerton, of Tatton, esq. 

Davies Davenport, of Capesthorne, esq. elected 
in the room of William Egerton, who died 
April 21, 1806. 
1806. Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Davies Davenport, of Capesthorn, esq. 
1807- Thomas Cholmondeley, of Vale Royal, esq. 

Davies Davenport, of Capesthorn, esq. 
1812. Wilbraham Egerton, of Tatton, esq. 

Davies Davenport, of Capesthorn, esq. 



$rotl)onotatiej3 anti Clerks of ti)e CroVijn for ti)e County of Cj)esiter»' 



Temp. Ric. III. Randle Bould, prothonotary and clerk 
of the crown, co. Cest. 

22 Hen. VII. Adam Birkenhead, kinsman of Randle 
Bould, succeeded to the same offices, by patent 
dated July 15, 22 Hen. VII. 

8 Hen. VIII. 15 Dec. John Millet and John Birken- 
head had grant by patent of the said offices for 
their lives successively. 

19 Hen. VIII. April 8. John Birkenhead aforesaid, 
Ralph his son, and Henry Birkenhead his 
brother, had a similar grant for their lives suc- 
cessively. 

1 and 2 Phil, and Mar. 16 April. Henry Birkenhead 
aforesaid, and Henry and Erancis his sons, had 
a similar grant for their lives successively. 

34 Eliz. Feb. 7- Henry Birkenhead, esq. and Henry his 
son, had grant of the said offices for their lives 
successively. 

3 Jac. Henry Birkenhead last mentioned had grant of 
the said offices for his life, and those of his two 
sons Henry and Thomas successively. 

12 Car. II. 31 July. Sir John Booth, kt. had a similar 
grant by letters patent, of the said offices of pro- 
thonotary and clerk of the crown of Cheshire 
and Flintshire, for himself and his sons. 



George and sir John Booth, for their lives suc- 
cessively. 

13 Will. III. 16 Nov. Edward Lloyd, sen. esq. had a 
similar grant of the said offices to himself and 
his heirs, from the death or other determination 
of the interest of George Booth, esq. during 
the lives of Edward Lloyd, jun. and Hugh 
Foulkes, esq. 

1719- By death of George Booth, esq. (6 Geo. I.) the 
said offices devolved upon Edward Lloyd, esq. 
as heir to his father. On a surrender of this 
grant by the last-named Edward Lloyd, esq. 

7 Geo. 11. 31 Aug. Roger Comberbacb, esq. had grant 
of the said offices during his own life, and for 
the lives of his sons Roger and Edmund, and the 
survivor ; which Roger having succeeded his 
father in 1757, and Edmund having died in 1762, 

3 Geo. III. on a surrender of his patent, the said 
Roger had a new patent for his own life, and 
that of his son Roger Comberbacb, jun. esq. 

10 Geo. III. Bagot Read, esq."" succeeded Roger Com- 
berbacb in the said offices, and dying Dec. 18 16, 
was succeeded by Samuel Humphreyes, esq. the 
present prothonotary and clerk of the crown for 
the counties of Chester and Flint. 



Barons of t^t €xt^tt[Utx of C!)ester/ 



Writs were not signed with the baron's name until 
about the middle of the reign of Jac. I. when 

Edward Dod, of Edge, esq. was baron. 

In the reign of Charles I. Edwards, of Rhyal, 

esq. near Mold in Flintshire, was baron, and was suc- 
ceeded during the usurpation by 

Jonathan Bruen, esq. of Bruen Stapleford. 

At the Restoration, Edwards again, and 

about 1664, 



Robert Werden, esq. was baron, after whom were, 
in order of succession, 

Sir John Werden, bart. 

Thomas Bootle, of Latham, esq. afterwards knighted. 

James Mainwaring, of Brombrorough, esq. and 

Owen Salusbury Brereton, of Shotwick, esq. 

George Lane Blount, esq. the present baron of the 
exchequer, succeeded on the death of O. S. Brereton, 
esq. in 1798. 



a From Cowper's MSS. with continuation to tlie present time. !> Having purchased the interest of R. C. junr. from the widow of R. C. senr. 

*^ Cowper's MSS. This office was formerly styled "officium clericiScaccarii Cestriae, vulgariter nuncupatum Baronis Scaccarii Ceetrrffi.** See p. ft6. 

t T 



70 



Cj)e f^ifitor^ of C!)est)tre. 



Bi^ljopric of Chester. 



(Bf tf)e Bisfjops of Chester. 



(I find no mention of a bishop at Chester before the 
Norman Conquest, onely we read that Dwina, a Scotch- 
man, was made bishop of Mercia by king Oswy, 
whereof Cheshire was a small parcel ; and that he had 
his seat at Lichfield, anno Christi 656, from which 
time there remained a succession of bishops in that see, 
until by doom of canon law all bishops were to remove 
to the greatest cities in their diocese ; Polychronicon, 
lib. i. cap. 52. And thereupon Peter bishop of Lich- 
field, anno Domini 1075, removed his seat from Lich- 
field to Chester, and was then commonly styled bishop 
of Chester. But Robert de Limsey, next successor to 
Peter, leaving Chester, fixed his seat at Coventrey, 
anno 1095, which was brought back to Lichfield by 
Roger Clinton in the reign of Henry the First, but so 



as his title was bishop of Lichfield and Coventrey. 
From \vhich time downwards, the bishops here were 
sometimes stiled of Chester, sometimes of Lichfield, 
and sometimes of Coventrey, from the place where they 
fixed their residence, having then three sees, one at 
Lichfield, another at Coventrey, and a third at Chester, 
yet all one and the same bishoprick. 

At last king Henry the Eighth made Chester an en- 
tire episcopal dignity, anno regni sui 33, turning the 
monastery of St. Werburge in Chester, into the bishop's 
palace : unto which jurisdiction was allotted Cheshire, 
Lancashire, Richmondshire, and part of Cumberland, 
and was appointed to be within the province of York ; 
see Stat. 33 Hen. VHI. cap. 31.) 

Sir P. Leycester. 



9ltitiitionsi to ^ir 3^ttn iLejcesiter's Account, 

I. 

OF THE SEE OF CHESTER BEFORE THE ERECTION OF THE PRESENT BISHOPRIC BY 

KING HENRY VUL 



Mention of a bishop of Chester in ages anterior to 
the Norman conquest, occurs in several of the old 
chronicles and legends, and may not be improper for 
notice, though more as matter of curiosity than his- 
tory. Henry Bradshaw, the monk of St. Werburgh's, 
enumerating the three archbishops constituted by Lu- 
cius, places " the second o'er North Wales in the city of 
Legions." Hoveden says that Chester was a bishop's see 
whilst it was under the dominion of the Britons ; and an 
ancient MS. (formerly in the possession of Henry Ferrers, 
esq. and printed in the Monasticon, i. 197.) informs us of 
Egbert's intending to have his daughter St. Edith veiled 
by the then bishop of Chester. " And the king Eg- 
bryght for the wollenesse that was in Sent Modwen, 
betoke to hure his dowghtr Edyth, to norych, and to 
kepe, and to informe liur, after the reule of Sent Benett, 
and after to veyle hisdowghtur of the BoscJioppe of' Ches- 
ter." Wilfric is also called bishop of Chester, in the 
time of Ethelred, in the MS. Chronicle of St. Wer- 
burgh's abbey. Part of these accounts are obviously 
fabulous, and the other most probably allude to the 
bishops of Mercia under the designation of bishops of 
Chester. It is however observable, that Randle Hig- 
den, the monk of Chester, in speaking of the subdivi- 
sions of the Saxon bishopric of Lichfield into five sees, 
after mentioning the one placed at " Legecestria"," 



adds " qu<E nunc Cestrae dicitur," repeating after its 
next mention, " quae nunc Cestria dicitur." The si- 
milarity of the Saxon names of Chester and Leicester 
appear in this instance to have misled the monk, for it 
is agreed by the best authorities, that the seat of this 
bishopric was in Leicester, and Rethunus, one of the 
later bishops of this series, expressly signs himself, in 
the grant of Bertulphus to Croyland abbey in 851, 
" episcopus Legerensis''," which alludes apparently to 
Leicester and not Chester. 

It is also to be noted, that, though William of 
Malmesbury, speaking of these bishops, uses the term 
" episcopus Legecestrensis," which properly refers to 
Chester, he does not intend Chester by it as Randle 
Higden does. This appears from his afterwards saying 
of this see, " hodie non extat," which he would not 
have said of Chester, as he states in another place Ches- 
ter and Lichfield to have an equal claim to be consi- 
dered the head of the Norman see, formed out of that 
part of the Mercian territories which lay adjacent to 
and included this county. 

At the latter end of the ninth century, Chester, as 
well as the see which Randle Higden appears to have 
erroneously placed at it, sunk under the incursions of 
the Pagan Danes, and remained in their hands, with 
occasional interruptions, until the year 947, when king 



» Leicester was called Legerciester, Lygeraceaster, Legraceaster, Ligoracester, and Ligorz. Chester, Legeeestre and Legeacestre. 
•> Ingulphus, Gale, p. 15. 



prolegomena* 



71 



Edmund wrested it from their hands, and again intro- 
duced Christianity within its walls. From this period 
to the Conquest Cheshire was indisputably subject to 
the see of Lichfield, as it most probably had previously 
been from the earliest establishment of that diocese'^. 

In the year 1075, when several bishops removed their 
sees to the largest towns of their diocese, Peter, who 
had been constituted bishop of Lichfield, removed his 
see to Chester, making the collegiate church of St. John 
the Baptist his cathedral. This bishop is thus noticed 
in Domesday, where he has precedence of the earl 
himself. 

In Cestre Scire tenet Episcopus ejusdem Civi- 
TATis, DE Rege, quod ad suum pertinet episcopatum. 
Totam reliquam terram comitatus tenet Hugo comes de 
rege cum suis hominibus. 

Episcopus de Cestre habet in ipsa civitate, has con- 
suetudines. 

Si quis liber homo facit opera, in die feriato, inde 
episcopus habet viii solidos : de servo autem vel an- 
cilla feriatuin diem infringente, habet episcopus iv 
solidos. 

Mercator superveniens et trussellum deferens, si 
absque licentia ministri episcopi dissoluerit eum a nona 
hora sabbati, usque ad diem lunae, aut in alio festo 
die, inde habet episcopus iv solidos de forisfactura. 

Si homo episcopi invenerit aliquem homineni cari- 
cantem infra leuvas civitatis, inde habet episcopus de 
forisfactura quatuor solidos, aut duos boves. 

The rest of the entry specifies the estates held by the 
bishop of Chester, viz. Ferentone (Farndon) in Dudes- 
tan hundred, Terve (Tarvin) in Riseton hundred, Sud- 
tone (Sutton) in Wilaveston hundred, Eitune in Exestan 
hundred (Denbighshire), Wimeberie (Wibunburj') in 
Warmundestron hundred, and Burtone (Burton) in 
Riseton hundred. 

After the death of Peter, his successor Robert de 
Limesie, in order to possess himself of the riches of 
the monastery of Coventry, which had been so 
amply endowed by earl Leofric, that it was looked upon 
to be the most wealthy in the land, removed his see 
from Chester to that monastery. After this period the 
church of St. John in Chester has little claim to be con- 
sidered as other than collegiate, the dean and prebends 
of that church having no voice in the election of the 
bishop of that see, which was determined in the time of 
Alexander Savensby, to be vested alternately in the 
canons of Lichfield and the prior and monks of Coven- 
try. The bishop is said to have retained a palace near 
the church of St. John. As late as the reign of Edward 
III. he' pleaded claims to a quo warranto in right of 
three churches of Lichfield, Coventry, and Chester ; and 
from the removal of the see by Robert de Limesey, to 
the formation of the peculiar see of Chester, the bishops 
of Lichfield continued to be occasionally termed bishops 
of Chester. 

Of this, the following list, including every bishop ex- 
cepting Nicholas Close, must be allowed to give sub- 
stantial proof. It is founded on the MS. Cowper Col- 
lections ; some instances have been withdrawn which 
appeared strained, and others have been added. The 
references also, have, with very few exceptions, been 
verified by collation. 

After Robert de Limesey, Peter's successor, removed 
the see to Coventry, he continued to write himself 



bishop of Chester, as appears by his subscription to a 
charter of Herbert bishop of Tfaetford, 1101, " Eo-o 
Robertus Cei<;e«sz> episcopus subscripsi ;" Mon. i. 410: 
to king Henry's charter to Norwich, ibid. p. 411, " Ego 
Rotbertus Cestrensis episcopus subscripsi :" and to the 
charter of the same king for changing the abbey of Ely 
into a bishopric, " signum Roberti Cestrensis episcopi," 
ib. i. p. 95. Cowper refers also for the same style to 
Matthew Paris, Florence of Worcester, and the Saxon 
Chronicle, and a letter from king Henry I. to this 
bishop. 

. His successor, Robert Peccham, uses the same style 
in witnessing the foundation charter of Shrewsbury 
abbey by Roger earl of Shrewsbury, " Testibus hits, Ro- 
berto episcopo Cestriec," Mon. i. 379. 

Roger Clinton. A charter of Walter de Hestynges 
is in " presentia Rotgerii Cestrensis episcopi," Mon. i. 
199; and the confirmation of the same begins Rogerus 
Dei gratia, Cestrensis episcopus, ibid. In two grants 
from Stephen, Mon. iii. 235, of the church of Wolver- 
hampton, Pencriz, and Stafford, the words officially 
addressed to Roger Clinton are very remarkable, the 
first being " R. episcopo Cestrensi et ecclesiaj de Lich- 
field. ;" and the next " Rogero episcopo Cestrensi, et 
ecclesia; SanctiB Maria; de Coventria, et ecclesiie Sancti 
Ceddae de Lichfield. Under the name of Rogerus epis- 
copus Cestrensis, he confirms the foundation charter of 
Combermere abbey, Mon. i. 765, and is twice described 
by it in deeds relating to the removal of the canons 
of Runcorn to Norton. 

Walter Durdent is likewise written bishop of Chester 
in Henry II. 's confirmation of the gift of Brombroro' 
to the monks of St. Werburgh's, and in that king's 
charter to Stoneley, (Walt. Cestr) Mon. i. 821, as like- 
wise in a confirmation charter to the canons of Derby, 
Mon. iii. G], " Walterns D. G. Cestrensis episcopus." 
He is one of the witnesses to the treaty between Stephen 
and Henry by the style of episc. Cestr. and in his time 
Henry duke of Normandy grants to Handle earl of 
Chester, the county of Stafford, excepting the fees of 
the bishop of Chester. Il6l, obiit Walt, ep'us Cestrensis. 
Chron. MS. S. Werb. 

Richard Peche. Ricardus arehidiaconus Cestrensis 
fit episcopus in sna ecclesia. Trivet, i. p. 41. Hoveden 
p. 3U, mentions the archbishop of Canterburj' claim- 
ing in his time, among other dioceses, " episcopatum 
Cestremem," as part of his province. 1182, obiit Ri- 
cardus Peche, episcopus Cestrensis. Chron. MS. S. 
Werb. 

Gerard Pucella " electus est a° 1182, in episcopatum 
in Anglia Cestriensem." A. D. 1184. ob. pie memorie 
Gerard Ep. Cest. Chron. MS. S. Werb. 

Robertus Montensis, instituted " ad regimen Ces- 
trensis ecclesia." Gervas. p. 146. 

Hugh Novant. " Hugo Novantinus, Cestroisis epis- 
copus, &c. 5. cap. 5 hb. Chron. Gul. Parvi Novobur- 
gensis, styled also " venerabilis frater noster Cestrensis 
episcopus," in a mandate from the pope to Hubert arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, respecting the restoration of the 
Coventry monks ; and bishop of Chester in the purchase 
of the lands of Coventry priory from Ric. I. Stow's 
Chron. p. 159. Hugo Cestrensis at the coronation of 
Ric. I. by Hoveden, p. 374. Hugo de Nunante epis- 
copus Cestrensis in languorem decidit. Ang. Sac. i. 303. 

Geoffry de Muschamp, " qui fuerat arehidiaconus de 



" Sciendum est quod a tempore fundationis LichesfeUensis usque ad tempus Lanfranci archiepiscopi Cant, sempei- fuit sedes Cathedralis npud 
Lkhesfeldam tantum, sine cmjunctione aliaijus cdterius ecclesia:. Ang. Sacra, i. 43. 



72 



%\}t ?|i6tor^ of C|)e£i!)ite« 



Clivelande, episcopus Cestrensis factus est." Annal. 
Winton. in Angl. Sacra, i. 305. and styled " Cestren- 
sem episcopum," in the account of his embassy to the 
king of Scots. Hoveden, p. 466. 

William Cornhull, written bishop of Chester by 
Matthew Paris and Trivetus, i. p. 179- 

Alexander de Savensby, styled " episcopum Cestria," 
by Matt. Westm. pars 2. 123. in the account of the dis- 
pute between the prior of Coventry and the monks of 
Lichfield, by which, however, it appears that the chap- 
ter of Chester had no vote in the election ; by Matthew 
Paris, p. 350, in the account of an embassy to Rome ; 
in the account of his consecration at Rome. Act. 
Westmonast. 1224 ; and in that of his death 1238, by 
Trivetus, 189. 

Hugo Pateshull, " sub anno 1242, obiit Hugo Pates- 
hull, episcopus Cestrensis, sive de Coventre, vel de 
Lichfield. Mailross. Chron. 

Roger de Weseham. Episcopus Cestrensis. Matt. Par. 
865, and 953, and Ang. Sac. ii. 696. 

Roger de Meyland, also called episcopus Cestria, by 
Matt. Par. 7 Edw. I. Hugh Bromle gave land in Ash- 
borne to the monks of Bordesley, which at that time the 
Bishop of Chester held of them. Dugd. Warw. 392. 
" 1295. Die iii Janua. Rogerus episcopus Cestria se- 
pultus fuit apud Lichfield." Annal. Vigorn. Angl. 
Sac. i. 518. 

Walter de Langton is noticed as Bishop of Chester 
by many historians ; by Fabian, in his account of the 
imprisonment of prince Edward for the injuries done to 
him, 2. 134. and by the same in mentioning his subse- 
quent imprisonment by Edward when king ; by Sand- 
ford, p. 145. ; by Kennet, Parochial Antiq. p. 339. ; in 
Annal. Vigorn. Ang. Sac. i. 529. Dominus Walterus 
de Langeton episcopus Cestria, detentus est in cus- 
todia regis; and by Knighton, Col. 253). He is also 
termed episcopus Cestria, in the returns of his manors 
by the sheriff of Staffordshire, temp. Edw. H. (extant 
in the office of remembrancers of the treasury at West- 
minster) ; in a list of the Lords of the Ainsty of the 
county of the city of York ; and in a return of Prees in 
Shropshire, given by Browne Willis. 

Roger de Northburgh, Walter Skirlawe, and Richard 
Scrope, are called "episcopiCoventrenses, Lichfeldenses, 
seu Cestreiises," by Dr. Harpsfield. Skirlawe, episcopus 
Cestrensis, in Ang. Sac. i. p. 570. Canon. Will. Hist. — 
Northburgh in an Inquisition after the death of Robert 
de Ridgesley, 23 Edw. HL ; — and Robert Stretton his 
successor, predecessor of Skirlawe, in an Inquisition 
after the death of Roger le Bruen, 35 Edw. III. North- 



burgh, although styled bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
in a plea to a quo warranto, 22 Edw. III. puts in claims 
in right of his three churches of Coventry, Lichfield, and 
Chester. 

John Brughill, styled bishop of Chester,. hy Walsing- 
ham, in the account of his translation from Llandaff. 
In Codice Tinemutensi. Frater praed. confessor, regis 
translatus a Landaf ad Cestrensem episcopatum. He 
is also called bishop of Chester by Speed, in his men- 
tion of the funeral ceremony for king Richard II. 

John Ketterich, " praesul pius et bonus, electus est in 
episcopatum Cestriensem." Ex Registro Menevensi. 

William Heyworthe, " electus (episcopus) Cestriensis 
custodiam habet temporalium, 15 Ap. Pat. 8 Hen. V. 
m. 27. Richardson's Godwin, p. 322. 

William Booth. " Plurimi in populo surrexerunt, et 
persecuti sunt episcopum Cestria Buthe nomine, et epis- 
copum Norvicensem." E. Collectan. Tho. Gascoygne, 
MS. in Bibl. Coll. Line. Oxon. 

Nicholas Close. No instance has occurred with re- 
spect to this bishop. 

Reginald Bowler, or Butler. " Translatus est ab Her- 
ford ad Chester. Ex libro ecclesiae Herefordensis. 

John Hulse. Johannes de Egerton, miles tenuit xv 
shopas, et xv gardinas adjacentes in le Foregate street, 
de Johanne episcopo Cestria, per servitium, &c. Inq. p. ni. 
38 Hen. VI. Queen Margaret, vvyfe to Henry VI, and 
Chestershire men lost the fielde (at Blorehcath) ; she 
cam from Eccleshall thither. Hauls bishop of Chester, 
her chapeleyn, caussid the queene to ly there. Leland. 

William Smith. 

Cestrensis presul, post Lincolniensis, amator 

Cleri, &c. Epitaph in Lincoln Cathedral. 

John Ai-undel, bishop of Chester, and sir William Tay- 
lor, knight, make and sign an award between Lawrence 
Dutton, esq. and Dame Anne, relict of sir Thomas 
Molyneux, knight, April 4, 14 Hen. VII. 

Geoffry Blythe, styled by Hollinshed bishop of 
Chester. 

Inq. p. m. 21 Hen. VII. Hugo Egerton, armiger, te- 
nuit diversa mess. terr. et ten. in Farndon de episcopo 
Cestria. 

No instance has occurred of Rowland Lee the last 
bishop before the separation of the dioceses, being per- 
sonally designated as bishop of Chester; but in or 
about his time Leland speaks of " Eccleshall castle 
longing to the bysshope of Chester." (Itin. 7. fol. 23.) 
from which it is apparent that this mode of describing 
the diocesan was not even then obsolete. 



prolegomena. 






II. 



OF THE PECULIAR BISHOPRIC OF CHESTER. 

(Rymer's Fcedera, vol. XIV. 717 — 724. edit. ]712.) 



The king by his letters patent, dated at Walden, 
Aug. 4, 1541, (Pat. 33 Hen. VIII. p. 2. m. 23.) founded, 
within the site of the dissolved monastery of St. Wer- 
burgh, an episcopal see and cathedral church, for one 
bishop, one dean, and six prebends, declaring by the 
same that the vill of Chester should thenceforth for ever 
be a city, and the county and city of Chester should be 
exempt from the jurisdiction of the bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield. 

The king further translates to, and confirms as bishop 
in the said see, John Byrde, bishop of Bangor, and an- 
nexes to the said bishopric the archdeaconries of Rich- 
mond and Chester, lately resigned to the king, with all 
their appurtenances, by William Knyght, LL. D. enu- 
merating among appurtenances of the first, the rec- 
tory and church of Bolton in Lonsdale, in Lancashire, 
the rectories and churches of Clapham, Esingwood, 
and Thornton Stuerd, co. Ebor. and the chapel of Ras- 
tal; and among those of the latter, the prebend of Bol- 
ton-le-Moors in Lancashire ; and also grants a specified 
portion of the abbey buildings, as the palace of the 
bishops of Chester. 

The subsequent provisions grant to the bishops the 
same ecclesiastical authority as all other bishops 
(and particularly the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield) 
enjoy in their several sees : place the entire see within 
the province of Canterbury : make the bishop a body 
corporate in himself, with all privileges of suing, &c. 
under the name of the Bishop of Chester : and appoint 
that the cathedral shall be thenceforth named. The Ca- 
thedral Church of Christ and the blessed Virgin Mary, 
and the episcopal See of their Bishop, and his successors. 



After this follow the s-everal nominations of 

Thomas Clerk, as first dean. 
William Walle, first prebendar}'. 
Nicholas Bucksye, second prebendary. 
Thomas Newton, third prebendary. 
John Huet, fourth prebendary. 
Thomas Radford, fifth prebendary. 
Roger Smith, sixth prebendary. 

Which dean and prebendaries are to rule themselves 
according to a charter to be afterwards made : to be the 
chapter of the new cathedral, with the same powers as 
that annexed to the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, 
or any other diocese : and a body corporate, with all 
privileges of suing, &c. : and shall have a common seal. 

The charter next grants to the said chapter all the 
abbey precincts (with the exception of the former grant 
to the bishop), and gives them the power of appointing 
or removing all the inferior officers of the cathedral, re- 
serving to the crown the appointment of the successors 
of the said dean and prebendaries. 

The final provision removes the archdeaconries of 
Richmond and Chester, from the several dioceses of 
York, and of Coventry and Lichfield, and annexes the 
same to the bishopric of Chester, subjects them to the 
episcopal jurisdiction of the bishop of that see, reserving 
the metropolitical and archiepiscopal prerogative of the 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

By a subsequent act of parliament, 33 Hen. VIII. 
the see of Chester was placed within the province of 
York. 



ENDOWMENT OF THE SEE OF CHESTER. 



(From the original documents in the Rolls chapel.) 



Pat. 33 Hen. VIII. The king grants to the bishop of 
the newly erected diocese of Chester. 

The archdeaconry of Richmond, wilii all its appurte- 
nances, rights, &c. &c. viz. 

The rectories of , 

Bolton in Lonsdale. 
Clapham, co. Ebor. 
Esingwold, ibid. 
Thornton Stuart, ibid. 
The chapel or chantry of Raskell. 
The chapel of Kirkby. 
With all tithes, &c. &c. belonging to the said 
churches, and parcel of the archdeaconry of 
Richmond. 

t u 



Also, the archdeaconry of Chester, and the prebend of 
Bolton-le- Moors, in Lichfield cathedral, annexed to the 
said archdeaconry, and all appendages to the said 
archdeaconry belonging, viz. 

The manors of Abbots' Cotton, co. Cest. and Weston, 
CO. Derby, with rents in Christleton, Crabwall, 
Heath house near Newton, St. Oswald, Podington, 
Burton, Pulton Lancelyn, and Bebington, co. Cest. 
and in Weston, Aston, Wilne, Schardelow, Morley, 
and Smalley, co. Derb. and in the parish of St. 
Peter in Derby, and elsewhere, to the said manors 
of Abbots Cotton and Weston belonging, being 
parcel of the dissolved Monastery of St. Wer- 
burgh. 



74 



Cf)e flistor^ of Ci)e0!)ire* 



And messuages, &c. in Handbridge, and the parishes 
of St. Mary, St. Martin, Trinity, St. Michael, St. 
Joh?t, St. Peter, and St. Werhurgh, and in Flesh- 
monger Lane, St. John's Lane, Foregate Street, and 
in the parish of St. John, in the city of Chester, late 
part of the possessions of the dissolved Nunnery of 
Chester. 
And also in the parishes of Mancote, Hawarden, 
Christleton, Nantmch, Northwich, Acton, Northenden, 
Middlewich, Wollaston, Neston, Haselwall, Saugh- 
howh', Bidston, Thornton, Eccleston, Rosthorne, and 
Davenham,in the counties of Chester andFlint, also 
parcel of the aforesaid dissolved nunnery. 
Also the rectory of Lanyerun in South Wales. 

Rectory of Bebbyoke, and Chapel of Caernarvon, 

in North Wales. 
Rectory of Over, in Cheshire, with appurte- 
nances. 



Pensions from the rectory of Handley, and chapel 
of Budworth le frith, in the parish of Over in 
the said county. 
And all advowsons of the vicarages of the said 

churches. 
Being parcel of the said dissolved nunnery. 
Also the rectory of Byddeston, parcel of the dis- 
solved monastery of Birkenhead. 
And the advowson of the rectories of Tattenhall 
and Waverton, co. Cest. and Weston, Aston, and 
Morley, co. Derb. parcel of the dissolved monas- 
tery of St. Werburgh. 
Reserving to the crovpn the site and demesne land 
of the said nunnery. 
To be held by the bishop and his successors from the 
croven in frank almoigne, rendering for all rents, exac- 
tions, &c. vjrhatsoever, the yearly sum of 481. 17s. Od. 
Test. Aug. 5, 33 Hen. VIII. 



EXCHANGE OF TEMPORALITIES. 

1546. Jan. 8. 38 Hen. VIII. Pat. 5.^ 



The king grants to John bishop of Chester in consi- 
deration of Weston cum p'ts in Weston, Aston, 
Wilne, Schardelow, Morley, and Smalley, co. Derb. and 
messuages, &c. in Handbridge, and parishes of St. 
Mary, St. Martin, Trinity, St. Michael, St. John, St. 
Peter, and St. Werburgh, in the city of Chester ; and 
in Fieshmonger-lane, St. John's-lane, Foregate-street, 
and in parish of St. John in same city ; and in parishes 
of Mancote, Hawarden, Christleton, Nantwich, North- 
wich, Acton, Northenden, Middlewich, Wollaston, 
Neston, Heswall, Saughough, Bidston, Thornton", Ec- 
cleston, Rosthorne, and Davenham, co. Cest. and Flint, 
and tenements in Abbots Cotton, Christleton, Crabwall, 
Heath House near Newton, St. Oswald, Podington, 
Burtoo, Pulton Lancelyn, and Bebington, 
The Rectories and Advowsons and Vicarages of 

Cotingham, co. Ebor. 

Kirkby. 

Ravensworth. 

Patrick Brompton, co. Ebor. 

Wyrklington, Cumb. 

Ribchester, Lane. 

Chipping, Lane. 

Mottram. 

Bradley, co. Staff. 



Two parts of Castleton, co. Derby, part of the 

dissolved monastery of Vale Royal. 
Half of Wallezey, co. Cest. part of the dissolved 

monastery of Byrkenhead. 
Weverham, part of the dissolved monastery of 

Vale Royal. 
' Byrkeford, and 

Bowdon, part of the dissolved monastery of Bir- 
kenhead. 
Yielding and paying as chief rent, 151. 9s. 9d. 
*^Besides the original dotation of the bishopric, 33 
Hen. VIII. and the exchange of the temporalities, 38 
Hen. VIII. there was a grant 4 and 5 Phil, and Mary, 
of St. Bees and Cartinel, and of the patronage of the 
prebends of Chester, in recompence of the rectory of 
Wirklington, which had been granted 38 Hen. VIII. 
but which had been before granted to Robert Brock- 
lesby and John Dion. 

In 3d Eliz. another grant of Cartmel and Childwall. 
In 6 Jac. the like. 

In 4 Eliz. a pension of 261. 12s. 2d. from the earl of 
Chester was confirmed. 

There are also some minor grants which do not ap- 
pear worthy of enumeration. 



■ Salghall. ^ This and the preceding documents were abstracted from the original patents in the Rolls chapel by permission of J. Kipling, esq. 
Backford. f Communicated by William Ward, esq. dep. reg. of Chester. 



ile^cesiter's prolegomena* 



75 



9i Catalogue of tl)e Btsftops of €\}tmt. 

Since 33 Hen. VIII. 1541, 

WHICH BiSHOPRICK WAS ERECTED UPON THE DISSOLUTION OF THE AbBEYS. 

(Leycester.) 



I. John Bird, doctor of divinity of the University of 
Oxford, having been formerlj' a friar of the order of the 
CarmeHtes, was the first bishop of this new founda- 
tion. He was born in Coventrey, and made bishop of 
Bangor, anno 1539, thence translated to Chester, 1541, 
33 Hen. VIII. He was preferred for some sermons 
preached before the king against the pope's supremacy, 
anno Christi 1537. He was deprived of his bishopricli 
of Chester by queen Mary, anno 1554, because he was 
married, and died at Chester anno 1556. 

II. George Cotes, one of the prebends of Chester, 
sometime of Magdalen colledge in Oxford, and after- 
wards master of Baliol colledge, made bishop of Ches- 
ter I Mariae, 1554. He survived his consecration not 
two years. Some mistake this bishop's name, calling 
him John for George : it plainly appears by the register 
book of the consistory court at Chester, that his name 
was George Cotes. 

III. Cuthbert Scot, doctor of divinity, and master of 
Christchurch colledge in Cambridge, made bishop of 
Chester by queen Mary, 1556. He was after put out 
by queen Elizabeth ; a froward person, who being put 
into the prison of the Fleet in London, made an escape, 
and fled to Lovain, where he died. 

IV. William Downeham, chaplain to queen Eliza- 
beth before she came to the crown, doctor of divinity. 



and sometime of Magdalen colledge in Oxford, was 
consecrated bishop of Chester May 4, 156l, 3 Eliza- 
bethan. He died in November 1577, and was buried 
in the quire of the cathedral church at Chester, having 
sat bishop there sixteen years and a half. He had two 
famous sons, George, bishop of London-Derry in Ire- 
land, and John batchelour of divinity, a learned and 
painful writer. 

V. William Chaderton, doctor of divinity, fellow of 
Christ's colledge in Cambridge, and after president of 
Queen's colledge in Cambridge, and sometime the king's 
professor of divinity in that university, was consecrated 
bishop of Chester, 9 Novembris, 1579, thence translated 
to Lincoln, 159^. He was bishop of Chester sixteen 
years ; and had onely one daughter and heir, called 
Jone, the first wife of sir Richard Brooke, of Norton 
in Cheshire; but these after parted and lived asunder. 
This bishop was a learned and witty man, and died in 
April 1608. 

VI. Hugh Bellot, doctor of divinity and bishop of 
Bangor, brought up in St. John's colledge in Cam- 
bridge, was translated to Chester, 1557, 37 Elizabethae. 
He lived scarce one year after his translation, and died 
about Whitsuntide 1596, buried at Wrixham in Den- 
bighshire. His funeral was solemnized at Chester 22 
Junii. 



annitionis tfl ©ic petct Lepcestec'g account. 



1, John Bird is said by Wood to have been descended (if he mistakes not) 
from the antient Cheshire family of his name. He was made provincial 
of the order of Carmelites in England in 1516, but enjoyed the office 
only three years. His character was that of a temporizer, and he had 
been engaged in state intrigues, being one of the persons sent by Henry 
VIU. to queen Catherine to advise her to forbear the name of queen. 
After his deprivation he was made vicar of Dunmow in Essex, and con- 
tinued to live with his wife until 1566, when he died in an obscure con- 
dition, and was buried in his former cathedral according to Wood, but 
at Dunmow according to Le Neve. He wrote and published, Lectures 
on St. Paul. De Fide JustJficante, liber I. Learned Homilies, with an 
Epicede on one Edmund in prose. See Wood's Ath. Oxon. edit. 1813. 238. 

n. George Cotes, Cootes, or Cotys, elected probationer fellow of 
Baliol college 1522, being then B. D. ; afterwards fellow of Magdalen, 
M. A, 1526, subsequently one of the proctors of the university and D.D. ; 
master of Baliol college 1539; lecturer in divinity 1542; consecrated 
bishop of Chester, in the church of St. Saviour in Southwark, April 1, 

1554, by Stephen bishop of Winchester, by virtue of letters commissional 
from M. N. Wotton, dean of Canterbury, that see being then void ; re- 
ceived the temporalities April 18 same year (Pat. I. Mar. p. 1.) holding 
with that see the moiety of the church of Cotgrave ; died at Chester 

1555, and was obscurely buried in the cathedral near the bishop's throne. 
George Marsh suffered martyrdom at Boughton in the time of this bishop. 
See Ath. Oxon. edit. Bliss, ii. 763. 

III. Cuthbert Soot was vice-chancellor of Cambridge in 1554 and 1555, 
one of the delegates commissioned by cardinal Pole to visit that uni- 
versity, and one of the four bishops who, with as many divines, under- 
took to defend the doctrines of the church of Rome against an equal 
number of reformed divines. On the Tuesday following, (April 4) he, 
with most of his fellow disputants, was sent to the Tower for some abusive 
threats and irreverent expressions uttered against the queen, but was 
afterwards admitted to bail. On the 20th of the same month bishop Scot 
spoke warmly against the act of uniformity, and was one of nine prelates, 
who with as many temporal peers entered their dissent. Cowper's MSS, 

IV. William Downham was born in Norfolk, elected probationer of 
Magdalen college 1543, and perpetual fellow 1544, being then M.A. 



He was made first canon of the tenth stall in Westminster abbey in 1560, 
and being consecrated bishop of Chester, as above, received the tempo- 
ralities on the 9th of the same month. He was created D.D. in 1566. 
The inscription on his gravestone, which has long perished, is given in 
Webb's Itinerary. 

V. William Chadderton was prebendary of York and Southwell, arch- 
deacon of York, and warden of Manchester. In Peck's Desiderata Cu- 
riosa, vol. i. is a very large collection of letters to this bishop, (as one 
of the commissioners for causes ecclesiastical) chiefly relative to the 
Cheshire and Lancashire recusants. The castle of Chester is stated to 
be too near the sea, and the recusants were therefore mostly kept in the 
*' new fleete at Manchester," the inhabitants of it being " generally well 
affected in religion." In one letter from the earl of Huntingdon is a 
curious passage relative to the residence of the bishop there. *' I am glad 
your lordship liketh to live in Manchester, fur as it is the best place in 
those parts, soe do you well to continue and strengthen them, that they 
maie increase and go forward in the service of the Lord. And surelie by 
the grace of God, the well plaintinge of the gospell in Manchester and 
the places nere to yt, shall in time effect much good in other places." 
Desid. Cur. lib. iii. p. 38, vol. i. The entire number of recusants then 
in England was 8512, of whom 2442 were in the diocese of Chester. 
Hral. MSS. 280. 

VI. Hugh Bellot was second son of Thomas Bellot, of Moreton, esq. 
Before his preferment to the see of Bangor, he had been rector of Tydde 
in Cambridgeshire, and vicar of Gresford in Denbighshire. The follow- 
ing inscription to his memory was placed on his monument at Wrexham, 
erected by his brother Cuthbert Bellot, prebendary of Chester. 

Sub certa spe gloriosa resurrectionis hie in Domino obdormivit reve- 
rendus in Christo pater, Hugo Bellot, sacrae theologia; doctor, ex an- 
tiqua familia Bellotorum de Moreton in com. Cestnae oriundus : quem 
ob singularem in Deum pietatem, vitae integritatem, pnidentiam, et doc- 
trinara, regina Elizabetha primum ad episcopatum Bangurensem, in quo 
decern annos sedit, postea ad episcopatum Cestrensem transtulit, ex quo 
post paucos menses, Christus in coelestem patriam evocavit, an. Dom. 
1596, setatis suae 54. Cuthbertus Bellot, fratri optimo et charissimo, 
moBStissimus posuit. 



76 



Cf)e ^istor^ of €\)t&\}ixt. 



VII. Richard Vaughan, doctor of divinity, the 
queen's chaplain and bishop of Bangor, brought up in 
St. John's colledge in Cambridge, succeeded Bellot both 
in the bishoprick of Bangor and Chester. He was 
translated to Chester in June, 1597. Lee saith he was 
translated May l6, 1596, and enstalled November 10, 
1597, and continued there six years and more ; and was 
translated hence to London about the end of Decem- 
ber 1604, and died March 30, )607. He was a man of 
a prompt and ready utterance ; the beginning of whose 
advancement was under the lord-keeper Puckering, who 
designed him to examine such as sued to him for bene- 
fices in his gift. So Lee, pag. 45 of the Vale Royal of 
England. 

VIIL George Lloyd, doctor of divinity, bishop of the 
isle of Mann, sometime fellow of Magdalen colledge in 
Cambridge, was consecrated bishop of Chester, 14 die 
Januarii, l604. He died the first of August I6l5, in 
the 55 year of his age, at his parsonage of Thornton, 
and was buried in the quire of the cathedral church at 



Chester, near to bishop Downeham ; and was bishop of 
Chester ten years. 

IX. Thomas Moreton, son of Richard Moreton, of 
York city, mercer, doctor of divinity, brought up in 
St. John's colledge in Cambridge, and sometime dean 
of Winchester, was consecrated bishop of Chester, 7 
die Julii, I6l6, translated hence to Lichfield and Co- 
ventrey, 6 Martii, I6l8, and thence to Durham 1632. 
He died 22 die Septembris 1659, anno aetatis 95, after 
he had written many learned tractates, and was never 
maried. See this bishop's life and death in Daniel 
Lloyd's Memoires, printed l668. 

X. John Bridgeman, son of Thomas Bridgeman, of 
Greenway in Devonshire, doctor of divinity, brought 
up in Cambridge, the king's chaplain, and parson of 
Wiggan in Lancashire, was consecrated bishop of 
Chester 1619. He lived till the parliament pulled down 
all bishops in a puritanical frenzy of rebellion, and had 
beheaded king Charles the First, and after died at Mor- 
ton, not far from Oswaldestrey in Shropshire. He 



VII. Richard Vauglian held the arclideaconry of Middlesex, and a ca- 
nonry in Welh cathedral, before his preferment to the bishopric of 
Bangor. He was interred in Kempe's chapel in the old cathedral of St. 
Paul. Cowper's MSS. 

VIII. George Lloyd held the rectory of Halsall in Lancashire, among 
his preferments, jirevious to being appointed to the see of Bangor. The 
inscription on a brass plate formerly affixed to his tombstone, is given in 
Webb's Itinerary. 

Ger.'VRd Massie was nominated to this bishopric after the death of 
Lloyd, but died before consecration. He was representative of the 
family of Massie of Grafton. See Broxton Hundred, p. 387. 

IX. Thomas Moreton is said to have been of the same family with the 
celebrated archbishop Moreton. He was born in the city of York, March 
20, 1564, and educated there, and at Halifax. After being elected fellow 
of St. John's against eight competitors, and applying closely to study, he 
took the degree of B. D. in 1598, was presented to the rectory of Long 
Marston near York, and was chaplain to the earl of Huntingdon, and 
to the lord Sheffield, successively presidents of the North. In 1602 he 
distinguished himself by his attendance on the sick during the great 
plague at York; in the year following went with lord Eure, the queen's 
ambassador, into Germany and Denmark, and after his return, beco- 
ming domestic chaplain to the earl of Rutland, composed in his family 
the first, part of the Apologia Catholica, in consequence of the merit of 
which archbishop Matthews collated him to a prebendal stall at York. 
In 1606 he took the degree of D. D. was sworn chaplain to king James I. 
who gave him the deanery of Gloucester, and appointed him one of the 
council for the marches of Wales. About this time he was incorporated 
at Oxford, and in 160S succeeded to the deanery of Winchester and the 
rectory of Aylesford. To Winchester cathedral he was a great bene- 
factor, and about this time commenced an intimacy with the celebrated 
Isaac Casaubon, for whom, when bishop of Durham, he erected a monu- 
ment in Westminster abbey. At the ceremony of his consecration as 
bishop of Chester, there were present three archbishops, twelve bishops, 
above thirty noblemen, and upwards of eighty knights and gentlemen. 
He began his journey towards his see after recovering from a violent 
fever, and was met on the confines of the diocese by all the principal 
gentry and clergy in the county, who conducted him in procession to 
Chester; with this see he held the rectory of Stopford, and diligently 
applied himself to reconcile popish recusants and scrupulous nonconform- 
ists to the established church, his success in which was noticed in the 
royal declaration in 1618. From hence he was translated to Lichfield, 
and in 1632 advanced to the see of Durham. After having undergone, 
with the greatest patience, confiscation, imprisonment, and many severe 
hardships, he retired to the seat of sir Henry Yelverton, hart, at Easton 
Mauduit in Northamptonshire, where he died ; and was buried in that 
parish church, with the following epitaph. 

In memoria sacra 
heic vivit, usque et usque vivat 
exiguum illud quod mortale fuit 

Viri 5 ?■!'='."= I ""^Pi'^'i""" I celeberrimi 
I Litens 5 Elemosynis ^ 

Reverend! in Christo patris ac domini 

ThomEE Dunelnaensis episcopi, 

eoque nomine palatini coniitis, 

clara Mortonorum familia oriundi, 

quern Richardo peperit Elizabetha Leedale 

sexto de novendecim puerperio, 



Eboraci in lucem editum : 

quern collegium S.Johannis Evangelists 

in Acad. Cantabr. perquam nobile 

alumnum fovit instructi?sinium, 

ornamentura perpetuo celebravit singulare ; 



C Marstoniensis ") 

Quern ecclesia < AlesforJensis > 

t Stopfordensis ) 



Rectorem sedulum. 



Eboracensis canonicura plum, 

Glocestrensis, } r~>. -j 

,,,. , . . ' > Decanum providum, 
Wintoniensis, ^ * 

fCestrensis, ^ 

Quern ecclesia -J Lich. et Covent. > Pra;sulem vigilantem habuere ; 

{_ Dunelmensis, 3 

Qui post plurimos 

' pro sancta ecclesia Christi catbolica, 

exantlatos labores, 

elucubrata volumina, 

tolerates afflictiones, 

dtuturna heu nimium ecclesiffi procella 

hinc inde jactatus, 

hue demum appulsus, 

bonis exutus omnibus, 

bona praeterquam fama et eonscientia, 

tandem etiam et corpore 

senex et coelebs, 

heic requiescit in Domino, 

felicem praestolatis resurrectionera, 

quam sue demum tempore bonus dabit Deus. Amen. 

NuUo non dignus elogio, 

60 vero dignior, 

quod nuUo se dignum estimaverit. 

^,... .. ^ -, .^, . ( Anno Salutis 1659. 

Obnt crastino b. Matthiffi, j ^* *:„ 05 

Sepultus festo S. Michaelis, ^ Episcopatus 44- 

Lloyd's Memoirs and Cowper's MSS. 



X. John Bridgeman was son of (not Thomas but) Edward Bridgeman, 
esq. sheriff of Devonshire 15*8. He was fellow of Magdalen college, 
Cambridge, and after taking the degree of M.A. was admitted ad euii- 
dem at Oxford. He afterwards took the degree of D. D. was elected 
master of Magdalen college, and made domestic chaplain to king James, 
and was by him presented to Wigan in 1615. Being elected bishop of 
Chester, March 15, I6I8-I9, he was consecrated at Lambeth, May 9, 
1619, and made rector of Bangor in Flintshire, June 1621, which living 
he held in commendam. Having deeply shared in the troubles of the 
times, he died, as mentioned by Leycester, at his sun's seat, and was 
buried in Kinnersley church near Morton. He was the compiler of a 
valuable work relating to the ecclesiastical antiquities of the diocese, 
now deposited in the episcopal registry, and usually denominated bishop 
Bridgman's Leger. 

Bishop Bridgman's only memorial was in the first instance a plain blue 
stone, inscribed " Hie jacet sepultus Johannes Bridgraan, episcopus 
Cestriensis." His grandson, sir John Bridgman, baronet, subsequently 
erected a monument with the following inscription : 
M.S. 

Reverendi admodum viri Johannis Bridgman, episcopi Cestriensis, qui 
iniquitate temporum, quibus factio et usurpatio valebant, ab episcopali sede 



Ce^cesiter'si ^^rolej^omena. 



rr 



married Elizabeth, daughter of doctor Helyar^ canon 
of Excester, and archdeacon of Barstable, and had 
issue sir Orlando Bridgeman, made lord-keeper 1667, 
Dove Henry, now dean of Chester, sir James Bridge- 
man, and Richard. 

XI. Brian Walton j born at Cleaveland in Yorkshire, 
doctor of divinity, brought up in Peterhouse in Cam- 
bridge, was consecrated bishop of Chester 2 die De- 
cembris 166O, upon the restoration of king Charles the 
Second. He died November 29, in vigiliis Sancti 
Andrese 1661, anno aetatis 62, buried in the cathedral 
of St. Paul at London. He had a principal hand in 
setting out the Great Bible of many languages; and 
married Jane, daughter of doctor William Fuller, dean 
of Durham. 

XII. Henry Feme, doctor of divinity, master of Tri- 
nity college in Cambridge, was consecrated bishop of 
Chester 9 die Februarii 166I. He died very soon after, 
and never lived to come to Chester, and was buried at 



Westminster. He writ clear Resolutions of certain 
cases of Conscience, relating to the Differences between 
the late King and his rebellious Parliament. 

Xni. George Hallj one of the sons of doctor Joseph 
Flail, bishop of Excester, was sometime of Excester 
colledge in Oxford, and doctor of divinity, and conse- 
crated bishop of Chester, anno Christi I662. He was 
also parson of Wiggan in Lancashire, by the giit of sir 
Orlando Bridgeman, then chief justice of the Common 
Pleas. This bishop married Gartred, sister to sir Amos 
Meredith, now of Ashley in Cheshire. He died at Wig- 
gan August 23, 1668, without any issue of his body ; 
and Gartrede his lady also died at Wiggan in March 
following. 

XIV. John Wilkins, doctor of divinity, son of 
Walter Wilkins, a goldsmith in the city of Oxford, 
was first student of Christ church in Oxford, and after 
made warden of Wadham colledge in the same univer- 
sity, about the year of our Lord lQb\. He married 



depulsus, atl aedes filii sui apud Moreton se contulit ; ubi latius pie- 
tati preoibusque vacabat, et tandem suaviter dormiebat in Christo; cujos 
reliquia mortalia, sub mariiiore Juxla banc par'ietem locata. in resurrec- 
tionein supremo die fuluram omnibus deo perfidem inservientibus recon- 
duntur. In memoriam proavi sui optim^ meriti, hoc monumentum 
posuit Joh'es Bridgman, baronettus "21 die Decembris, An. Dn. 
1719. 

XI. Brian Walton was born in 1600, and before bis removal to Peter 
House, was a sizar of Magdalen College, Cambridge, where he took the 
degree of M A. in 1623. In early life he kept a school, and serveil as 
curate in Suffolk j but gradually rising as his abilities developed them- 
selves, obtained successively the livings of St. Martin's Orgar, in London, 
Sandori, in E-^sex, and St. Giles's in the Fields, and when he commenced 
D. D. in 1639, was a prebendary of St. Paul's, and a chaplain to the king. 
Having rendered himself extremely obnoxious to the republican party, 
he was declared a delinquent by the Parliament in the following distur- 
bances, lost tiis livings by sequestrations, and fled for personal safety to 
Oxford, where he was incorporated Aug. 12, 1645. 

At this period he commenced his celebrated Polyglot Bible, and after 
pursuing his labours with various interruptions from the ruling powers, 
in the house of bis father-in-law, Dr. Fuller, had the happiness to com- 
plete and publish it in 1657. Shortly after the restoration he presented 
his work to the king, who made him chaplain in ordinary, and promoted 
him to the see of Chester, where his arrival was hailed with honours and 
demon- trations of joy, which had never been equalled on any other pub- 
lic occasion. His enjoyment of this situation was, however, short-hved, 
as meni'oned by Leyeester, His remains were interred in St. Paul's 
cathedral, where a monument was erected to his memory. In addition 
to the Polyglot, he published, Introductio ad lectionem Linguarum Ori- 
entalium, 8vo. 1655. 

Beiore his marriage with Jane Fuller, bishop Wilkins married Anne 
Claxton, of a good family in Suffolk, who died in 1643, and was buried 
at San don. 

XII. Henry Feme, D. D. eighth son of sir John Ferne, knight, was 
born at York, educated at Uppingham, co. Rutland ; admitted of St, 
Mary Hall, Oxford, 1618, and removed to Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he was elected Fellow Afterwards B. D. chaplain to Dr. Morton, 
bishop of Durham, presented to the living of Marsham, in Yorkshire, 
and subsequently to the rectory of Medbonrn, co. Leicestc, shortly 
after which, he was collated to the archdeaconry of Leicester. D.D. 1642, 
and made chaplain to the king, after preaching before him, at Leicester 
on July 22. In November following he publi.shed his " Case of Con- 
science, touching rebellion," said to be the first thing printed on behalf 
of the royal cause. In the following disturbances, Ferne was driven 
from Medbourn, and afterwards trom Newark, and then joining the king, 
at his request, during his imprisonment in the Isle of Wight, was the 
last of his chaplains that preached before him. After the restoration he 
went through the following successive dignities. Master of Trinity Col- 
lege, Aug. 3, 1660; vice-chancellor of the University the same year; dean 
of Ely, Felj. 1660-61 ; prulocuior of the Convocation, May ?, 1661 ; and 
vice-chancellor a seconti time, November following. He was consecrated 
bishop of Chester, in Ely-house, Holborn, Feb. 9, 1661-2, died the fifth 
Sunday after his consecration, and ^as buried in St. Edmund's chapel, 
in Westminster-abbey, March 25, 1661-2, the whole convocation of clergy 
(as well bishops as others), with many of the nobility, being present at 
bis funeral. The following inscription was engraved on a brass plate 
fixed on his tomb-stone — " Hie jacet Henricus Ferne, S.T. D. Johannis 
Feme militis (civitate Ebor. % secretis) filius natu octavus, coUegU SS. 



Trinitatis, Cantabr. praefectus, simul et Cestrensis episcopus, sedit 
quinque tantum septimanis. Obiit Martii 16 A. D. 1661, aetatis 59.'* — 
Bentham's Ely, 235. 

XIII. George Hall was born in 1612, at Waltham Holycross, while his 
father was rector there, and admitted commoner of Exeter College, 1628. 
He was collated to a prebend in Exeter cathedral, 1639, and to the arch- 
deaconry of Cornwall, 1641, and was also rector of Menhinnet in that 
county, but suffered sequestration, and was prevented from keeping a 
school for bis subsistence. After the restoration he obtained the prefer- 
ments mentioned by sir Peter Leyeester. Bishop Hall was a considerable 
benefactor to Exeter college, and the author of several sermons, and of 
a treatise, entitled, " The triumiihs of Rome over despised Prntestancy," 
Lond. 1655. His death was occasioned by a wound received from a knife, 
which happened to be in his pocket, as he accidentally fell from a mount 
in his garden at Wigan. Ath. Oxon. vol. ii. and Chalmers's Biog. Dict- 

XVII. 57. 

XIV, John Wilkins was born at Fawsley 1614, in the house of his 
maternal grandfather, John Dod, the Decalogist, a younger brother of 
the Dods of Shocklach, in Broxton Hundred. He received his early edu- 
caticm at Oxford, entered at New Inn Hall in 1627, removed to Magdalen 
Hall, and after proceeding M. A. and taking orders, was first chaplain to 
William lord Say, and then to Charles, count palatine of the Rhine and 
prince elector. 

On the breaking out of the civil war he joined the Parliament, took 
the solemn league and covenant, and being made warden of Wadham 
college by the committee appointed for reforming the university, was 
created B.D, April 12, 1648, and put in possession of his wardenship the 
day following. Nest year he was created D.D. and about that tima 
took the engagement enjoined by the ruling powers. After this ha 
bad a dispensation from the Protector to retain his wardenship, which 
would otherwise, according to the statutes, have been vacated by mar- 
riage. 

Having been made master of Trinity college, Cambridge, by Richard 
Cromwell, in 1659» he was ejected at the restoration, but was subse- 
quently made preacher at Gray's Inn, rector of St. Lawrence Jewry, dean 
of Rippon, and in 1668 bishop of Chester, on which occasion Dr. Tiilot- 
son, who had married his daughter-in-law, preached his consecration 
sermon. His death took place at Dr. Tillotson's house in Chancery-lane, 
Nov. 19, 1672. 

The character of Wilkins, which of course was appreciated by different 
persons according to the part which they took in the various and vio- 
lent opinions of the times, is thus candidly given by one of very opposite 
principles, Anthony Wood. " He was a person endowed with rare gifts; 
he was a noted theologist and preacher, a curious critic in several mat- 
ters, an excellent mathematician, and experimentist ; and one as well 
seen in mechanisms, and new philosophy, of which he was a great pro- 
moter, as any man of his time. He also highly advanced the study and 
perfecting of astronomy, both at Oxford, while he was warden of Wad- 
ham college, and at London, while he was fellow of 'he Royal Society, 
and I cannot say that there was any thing deficient in him, but a con- 
stant mind, and settled principles." 

The works of Wilkins were, *' The Discovery of a new World, or a 
Discourse tending to prove that there may be another habitable World 
in the Moon, with a Discourse concerning the Possibility of a Passage 
thither," 8vo. 1638. 

" A Discourse concerning a new Planet, tending to prove that it is 
probable our Earth is one of the Planets," 1640. 

" Mercurv, or the secret and swift Messenger, shewing how a man 



f X 



78 



C|)e ^istot^ of C!)esit)tre» 



Robina, sister to Oliver Cromwel the late Lord Protec- 
tor, but hath no issue as yet. He was made master of 
Trinity Colledge in Cambridge about the year l659, and 
after the restoration of king Charles the Second he was 



made dean of Rippon in Yorkshire ; and was conse- 
crated bishop of Chester, anno Domini 1668. He was 
also parson of Wiggan, by the gift of sir Orlando 
Bridgeman, baronet, now lord-keeper of England. 



may with privacy and speed communicate his tlioughts to a friend at any 
distance," 8vo. 1641. 

" Mathematical Magic, or Wonders, that may be performed by me- 
chanical Geometry," 8vo. 1648. 

All these pieces were published in one volume 8vo. in 1708, as the Phi- 
losophical and Mathematical Works of Bishop Wilkins, with an abstract 
of a larger work, printed in 1668, entitled, " An Essay towards a real 
Character, and a Philosophical Language." The unpublished MS. of a 
translation of this by Ray, is now in the library of the Royal Society. 
Bishop Wilkins also invented the Perambulator, or measuring wheel. 



The bishop's theological works are, 

" Ecelesiastes, or a discourse of the Gift of Preaching, as it falls under 
the Rules of Art," 1646. 

" A discourse concerning the Beauty of Providence in all the rugged 
Passages of if," 1649. 

" A discourse concerning the Gift of Prayer, shewing what it is, wherein 
it consists, and how far it is attainable by Industry, &c." ]6^3. 

*' Sermons preached on several occasions ;" and " The Principles and 
Duties of Natural Religion." These two last were published after his 
death by Dr. Tillotson. — Chalmers's Biog. Diet. XXXll. 74. 



Ccntinuatiott» 



XV. John Pearson, D.D. born Feb. 12, 1612, at Snor- 
ing, in Norfolk, of which place his father was rector, 
was of Eton school, l623 ; elected to King's college, 
Cambridge, l632; B. A. l635, and M. A. l639, in which 
year he resigned his fellowship, and lived afterwards a 
fellow commoner. The same year he entered into 
orders, and was collated to a prebend in the church of 
Sarum. In l640, being appointed chaplain to lord 
Finch, he was by him presented to the living of Tor- 
rington in Suffolk. On the breaking out of the civil 
war, he became chaplain to lord Goring, whom he at- 
tended in the army, and was afterwards chaplain to sir 
Robert Cook in London. In 16.50 he was made minis- 
ter of St. Clement's in Eastcheap. Soon after the res- 
toration he was presented by bishop Juxon to the rec- 
tory of St. Christopher's in London ; created D. D. at 
Cambridge, in pursuance of the king's letters manda- 
tory, installed prebendary of Ely, archdeacon of Surrey, 
(which he held in commendam with Wigan in Lanca- 
shire) and made master of Jesus college, Cambridge, all 
before the end of l660. March 25, 1661, he succeeded 
Dr. Love in the Margaret professorship of that univer- 
sit}', and on the first day of the ensuing year was nomi- 
nated one of the commissioners for the review of the 
liturgy, in the conference at the Savoy. April l662 he 
was admitted master of Trinity college, Cambridge, and 
in August resigned his rectory of St. Christopher's, and 
prebend of Sarum. In l667 he was admitted F. R. S. 
and was consecrated bishop of Chester, Feb. 9, 1672-3. 
Bishop Pearson subsequently had the misfortune to 
lose his memory, and became, as Burnet says, an affect- 
ing instance " of what a great man can fall to ; for his 
memory went from him so entirely, that he became a 
child some years before he died." This event happened 
at Chester July l6, 1686, and he was buried within the 
altar rails of his cathedral without any memorial. His 
works are 

1. An Exposition of the Creed, London, 4to. 1659, 
frequently reprinted. Translated into Latin, by Simon 
Joannes Arnoldus, and abridged by the rev. Charles 
Burney, LL.D. in 1810. 

2. The Golden Remains of the ever memorable Mr. 
John Hales of Eton, 1659, with a preface by Pearson. 



3. VindicicB Epistolarum S. Ignatii, in answer to Mons. 
Daille, to which are subjoined, Isaaci Vossii Epistolse 
duaj adversus D. Blondellum, Cainb. l672. 

4. Annales Cyprianici, published at Oxford in 1684, 
in Dr. Fell's edition of that father's works. 

Two Sermons. " No Necessity for a Reformation," 
4to. l66l, and a Sermon preached before the King, pub- 
lished by command l671. 

The posthumous works of bishop Pearson were pub- 
lished by Dodwell, two years after his decease. His 
manuscript notes on Suidas are in the library of Trinity 
college, Cambridge, and other MSS. by him are noticed 
in the Gent. Mag. for 1789, p. 493. Bishop Burnet has 
pronounced him to be " in all respects the greatest 
divine of his age," and Dr. Bentley is said to have de- 
clared, that " his very dross was gold''." 

XVI. Thomas Cartwright, born at Northampton, Sept. 
1, 1634, admitted of Magdalen hall, Oxford, but re- 
moved to Queen's college, by the parliamentary visi- 
tors in 1649 : afterwards chaplain of that college, and 
vicar of Walthamstow in Essex, and in l659 preacher 
at St. Mary Magdalen's in Fish-street. After the resto- 
ration he recommended himself so powerfully by his 
professions of loyalty, that he was made domestic chap- 
lain to Henry duke of Gloucester, prebendary of Twy- 
ford in the church of St. Paul, of Chalford in the church 
of Wells, chaplain in ordinary to the king, and rector 
of St. Thomas Apostle, London, and created D. D. al- 
though not of standing for it. In 1672 he was made 
prebendary of Durham, dean of Rippon l677, and con- 
secrated bishop of Chester at Lambeth, Oct. 17, 1686, 
having a dispensation to hold with it his vicarage of 
Barking, and the rectory of Wigan in commendam. 

Dr. Cartwright was one of the ecclesiastical commis- 
sioners appointed by king James, in his memorable 
contest with the fellows of Magdalen college, Oxford, 
and was so warm a defender of that sovereign's mea- 
sures, that on the landing of the Prince of Orange, he 
was forced to fly to France, to avoid the insults of an 
enraged populace. He was subsequently nominated by 
James to the see of Salisbury, accompanied him to Ire- 
land, and dying of a dysentery in 1689, was interred 
with great pomp at Christ church, Dublin. Being 



» Abstracted from Chalmers's Biog. Diet. XXIV. 231. and Cowper's MSS. 



^rolejsomena. 



79 



visited on his death-bed by the titular bishop of Clog- 
her, and the new dean of Christchurch, he expressed 
his faith in equivocal expressions, leaving it doubtful 
whether he died in the communion of the Protestant or 
Popish church. 

Wood enumerates his speech spoken to the society of 
Magdalen college, his Examination of Dr. Hough, and 
some occasional Sermons, which are extant in print''. 

XVII. Nicolas Stratford, S.T. P. consecrated l689. 
This bishop is so amply commemorated by the inscrip- 
tion on the monument, which the piety of his son, arch- 
deacon Stratford, erected to his memory, that it is only 
necessary to add to the list of his preferments, the sine- 
cure rectory of Llansanfrayd, and to the topics of well 
merited eulogy, the care which the worthy bishop paid 
to the repairs of his cathedral, and the interest which 
he took in the establishment of the Blue Coat hospital. 
A copy of the inscription will be found among the mo- 
numents in the choir of Chester cathedral. 

XVIII. Sir William Dawes, Bart, and D. D. youngest 
son of sir John Dawes, bart. by Jane, onlj' child of 
Richard Hawkins, of Braintree, in the county of Essex, 
gent.; born September 12, 1671, at Lyons, near Brain- 
tree, educated at Merchant Taylors' school, scholar of 
St. John's college, Oxford, 1687, and afterwards fellow. 
On the death of his two brothers, and his consequent 
succession to the family title and estates, sir William 
Dawes removed to Cambridge, where he proceeded 
M. A. ; and not long afterwards married Frances, eldest 
daughter of sir Thomas Darcy, of Biaxted Lodge in 
Essex, bart. Subsequently he took orders, and was 
unanimously elected to the mastership of Catherine 
Hall, Cambridge, I696, having obtained a royal man- 
date for the degree of D. D. to qualify himself for it. 
He contributed largely to the completion of the chapel 
there ; and obtained an act for the perpetual annexation 
of a prebend in Norwich cathedral to this mastership. 

Shortly after his election he was vice-chancellor of 
Cambridge ; chaplain in ordinary to king William 
1696 ; installed prebendary of Worcester, Aug. 26, 
1 698 (on the presentation of the crown) ; collated by 
archbishop Tenison, Nov. 10, I698, to the rectory, and 
Dec. 19, 1698, to the deanery, of Booking ; chaplain to 
queen Anne ; and consecrated bishop of Chester, Feb. 
8, 1707-8, from which he was translated to York, 
1713-14. 

Sir William Dawes is said to have been most scrupu- 
lously laborious in discharging the duties of his high 
offices, uniting easiness of manners with the most dig- 
nified deportment, and recommended by all the qualifi- 
cations of personal gracefulness. After remaining 
archbishop ten years, he died April 30, 1724, and was 
buried in the chapel of Catherine Hall, Cambridge, 
near his lady, to whom he had erected a handsome mo- 
nument. 

His collected works were published in three volumes 
Bvo. 1733, with a life and preface, and include those 
written by himself. 1. An Anatomy of Atheism, a 
poem; Lond. 4to. l693. 2. The Duties of the Closet. 
3. The Dut}' of communicating explained and en- 
forced. 4. Sermons preached on several occasions be- 
fore king William and queen Anne"^. 

XIX. Francis Gastrell, D.D. descended from an an- 
cient family in Berkshire, and son of Henry Gastrell, 
esq. of East Garston in that county, was born l662, 



educated at Westminster school, and from thence 
elected student of Christ church, Dec. 17, 1680; B.A. 
June 13, 1684; M. A. April 20, l687 ; admitted into 
deacon's orders, Dec. 29, l689; and ordained priest, 
25th of June following ; B. D. June 23, l694 ; and D. D. 
July 13, 1700. 

In 1694 he was made preacher to the Hon. Society 
of Lincoln's Inn, and in l697 was appointed to preach 
Boyle's lecture, which he published in the same year, 
and added another discourse in 1699- By these dis- 
courses he was introduced to that distinguished patron 
of learning, Robert Harley, esq. who on becoming 
Speaker of the House of Commons, appointed Dr. 
Gastrell chaplain, in consideration of which service he 
was recommended to queen Anne for a canonry of 
Christ church, where he was installed January 16, 1702. 

In this year Dr. Gastrell published " Some consider- 
ations concerning the Trinity, and the Ways of mana- 
ging that Controversy :" in 1707, his well-known and 
excellent work, " The Christian Institutes," and in the 
same year a discourse preached at the anniversary 
meeting of the London Charity Schools, and vindica- 
tion of his work on the Trinity, in reply to Collins's 
" Essay concerning the use of Reason." To these in 
1714, he added " Remarks upon the Scripture Doctrine 
of the Trinity by Samuel Clarke ;" and also published 
anonymously " A moral proof of a future State." 

Dr. Gastrell was nominated in this year to the see of 
Chester, and consecrated April 14, 1714, in Somerset 
House chapel, and was allowed to hold his canonry in 
commendam. In this situation he conceived it his 
duty to refuse to admit the rev. Samuel Peploe to the 
wardenship of Manchester, to which he had been nomi- 
nated by the crown, and for which, on the recommen- 
dation of the primate, he had qualified himself by the 
Lambeth degree of B. D. instead of proceeding regu- 
larly at his university, as he himself had originally in- 
tended. It was not probable that Mr. Peploe could 
have experienced any difficulty in obtaining his degree 
at Oxford, and the bishop of Chester, at the same time 
that he insisted on qualification by the regular degree, 
offered his interest to obtain it, if any unforeseen diffi- 
culty should occur. The matter was however carried 
to the King's Bench, and a decision given against the 
bishop, who thereupon published " The Bishop of 
Chester's Case, with regard to the Wardenship of Man- 
chester, in which it is shewn, that no other Degrees but 
what are taken in the University can be deemed legal 
qualification for any Ecclesiastical Preferment in Eng- 
land." After the publication of this at Oxford, the uni- 
versity decreed in full convocation, March 22, 1720, 
that solemn thanks should be returned to the bishop for 
having so fully asserted the rights, privileges, and dig- 
nities, belonging to the university degrees, in this book. 

In a History of Cheshire it may not be improper to 
notice, that the Collections of the Randle Holmes, after 
being rejected by the corporation of Chester, were pur- 
chased, through the interference of bishop Gastrell, by 
the earl of Oxford, and thus preserved for the public''. 
From these and his Episcopal Registers, he compiled his 
excellent MS compendium of documents relating to the 
benefices of the diotese, entitled " Notitia Cestriensis." 

Bishop Gastrell died Nov. 24, 172j, and was buried 
without memorial in the cathedral of Christ church, 
Oxford. His distinguished friend the earl of Oxford 



l* Chalmers's Bios. Diet. Vlll. 330. Ath. Oxon. vol. 11. and Cowper's MSS. 
•I Gower's Sketch of Materials, p. 40. 



c Chalmers's Biog. Diet. XI. 359. 



80 



CJe History of C|)es|)ite* 



caused a print of him to be taken by Vertue, from a 
painting by Dahl, under which are these Hnes. 
Reverendus admodum in Christo pater 

Franciscus Gastrell, episcopus Cestriensis, S. T. P. 

ex ^de Christi in Academia Oxon. 

nee Cantabrigiensi minus interim charus, 

quippequi utriusq. jura egregie tuebatur. 

Veritatis semper 

indagator sagacissimus, 

Vindex acerrimus'. 

XX. Samuel Peploe, S. T. P. who by a singular coin- 
cidence, succeeded to his learned adversary, was of an 
antient family in Shropshire, and educated at Penkridge 
in that county ; afterwards entered as batler of Jesus 
college, Oxford, where he proceeded M. A. and being- 
admitted into holy orders, was presented to the rectory 
of Kedleston in Derbyshire, and subsequently to the 
vicarage of Preston in Lancashire, where, during the 
rebellion in 1715, he distinguished himself by a loyal 
attachment to the cause of king George the First, who 
not long afterwards was pleased to appoint him to suc- 
ceed Dr. Richard Wroe, as warden of the collegiate 
church of Manchester. On this, as before mentioned, 
he obtained the Lambeth degree of B. D. and on the 
death of bishop Gastrell was nominated to the see of 
Chester, April 4, 1726, and consecrated on the 26th of 
the same month at St. Margaret's, Westminster. He 
died at his episcopal palace, Feb. 21, 1752, leaving issue 
by his wife Anne, only daughter of Thomas Browne of 
Shredicote in Staffordshire, esq. one son, Samuel Pep- 
loe, LL.D. warden of Manchester, and chancellor of 
Chester, and three daughters, Mary, wife of Francis 
Jodrell of Yeardsley, esq. Anne, wife of James Bayley, 
esq. registrar of the diocese of Chester, and Elizabeth, 
wife of John Bradshaw of Manchester, esq. Bishop 
Peploe's second wife was Anne, daughter of the rev. 
Thomas Birch, M. A. his immediate predecessor in the 
vicarage of Preston ^ The memorial of this bishop is 
given among the epitaphs in the choir of Chester ca- 
thedral. 

XXr. Edmund Keene, born 1713, younger son of 
Charles Keene, of King's Lynn in Norfolk, esq. and 
brother and heir of sir Benjamin Keene, K. B. many 
years ambassador at Madrid. He was educated at the 
Charter House, and admitted of Caius college, Cam- 
bridge in 1730, elected fellow of Peter House 1739, in 
the following year presented to the rectorj' of Stanhope 
in the bishopric of Durham, and in December 1748, 
chosen master of Peter House. In 1750, he was vice- 
chancellor of the university, in which office his zealous 
exertions in promoting discipline exposed him to some 
obloquy from the younger part of the university, but were 
rewarded in January 1752, with the see of Chester, of 
which he was consecrated bishop, in Ely House chapel, 
on Palm Sunday, March 22. With this, he held in 
commendam his rectory, and for two years his head- 
ship, in which he was succeeded by Dr. Law. In 1770 
bishop Keene was translated to Ely, where he rebuilt 
the palace, with the exception of the outer walls, hav- 
ing previously rebuilt altogether, the palace at Chester, 
and Ely House in London. He died July 6, 1781, in 
the sixtv-eighth year of his age, and was buried at his 
own desire in bishop West's chapel, in Ely cathedral, 
where is a short epitaph drawn up b3r himself". 

XXL William Markham, LL. D. a native of Le- 



land, was educated on the foundation at Westminster, 
from whence he was elected to Christchurch, Oxford, 
and proceeded M.A. March 28, 1745, B.C.L. Nov. 20, 

1752, and D. C. L. Nov. 24, following. His succes- 
sive preferments were the head-mastership of West- 
minster school, the second stall in Durham cathedral, 
the deanery of Rochester, and the deanery of Christ 
Church. In 1771 he was advanced to the bishopric of 
Chester, and shortly afterwards was appointed preceptor 
to the prince of Wales and the duke of York. From 
this see, in 1776, he was translated to the archbishopric 
of York, on the demise of Dr. Drummond, and was ap- 
pointed lord high almoner to the king, and visitor of 
Queen's college, Oxford. This venerable primate died 
at his house in South Audley-street, in 1807, at a very 
advanced age. The only printed works of his which 
have occurred, are several poetical pieces inserted in 
the Carmina Quadragesimalia, published at Oxford in 

1753, a Consecration Sermon printed in 8vo, Concio 
ad Clerum, 4to, Lond. 1769, and a Sermon before 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 8vo. 
Lond. 1777. 

XXIII. Beilby Porteus, D. D. was born at York, 
May 8, 1731, of American parents, and was the young- 
est but one of nineteen children. He received his early 
education at York and Rippon, and was afterwards ad- 
mitted a sizar of Christ's college, Cambridge, in which 
university his merits and abilities soon became distin- 
guished, and were made more generally known by 
his excellent poem on " Death," which received the 
Seatonian prize. His first church preferments were two 
small livings in Kent, which he exchanged for Hunton 
in the same county, and a prebend in Peterborough ca- 
thedral, and not long afterwards obtained the rectory of 
Lambeth. In 1769 he was made chaplain to his ma- 
jesty, and master of the hospital of St. Cross near Win- 
chester, and Dec. 31, 1776, was promoted to the bishop- 
ric of Chester, from whence he was translated to Lon- 
don in 1787, and died on the 14th of May, 1808, in the 
78th year of his age, having directed his remains to be 
interred at his favourite retreat at Hyde hill, near 
Sundridge in Kent, where he had built a chapel, and 
endowed it with 2501. per annum. Among other chari- 
table benefactions, he transferred in his life-time nearly 
70001. stock, to the archdeacons of the diocese of Lon- 
don, as a permanent fund for the relief of the poorer 
clergy of that diocese ; and he also established three an- 
nual gold medals at Christ's college, Cambi'idge, and by 
his will bequeathed his library to his successors in the 
see of London, with a liberal sum towards erecting a 
building for its reception in the episcopal palace at Ful- 
ham. The bishop's works which are too well known to 
be particularized, have been published collectively by 
his executors, with a life by his wife's nephew, the 
rev. Robert Hodgson, now dean of Chester.'' 

XXIV. William Cleaver, D. D. was son of the rev. 
William Cleaver, M. A. of Lincoln college, Oxford, 
and was brother of John Cleaver, M.A. prebendary of 
Chester and vicar of Frodsham, and of Dr. Euseby 
Cleaver, successively bishop of Leighlin and Femes, 
and archbishop of Dublin. He was educated by his 
father, and admitted of Magdalen college, Oxford, 
where he was elected a demi ; subsequently removed to 
Brasenose on being elected a fellow of that college, and 
took successively the degrees of M.A. May 2, 1764, 



f Cowper's MSS. Bioj. Brit. Chalmers's Biug. Diet. XV. 331. 

B Abstracted from Beiitham's Ely, and Chalmers's Biog. Diet. XIX. 280. 



f Cowper's MSS. 
I' Chalmers's Blo^. Diet. XXV. 207. 



prolegomena* 



8] 



and B. D. and D. D. Jan. 26, 1786. In 1768 he was a 
candidate for the office of librarian of the Bodleian, 
and dividing with his opponent the votes of the univer- 
sity, lost his election in consequence of his juniority by 
a few months. In 1784 he was promoted to a preben- 
dal stall in the church of St. Peter at Westminster, in 
1785 elected principal of Brasenose college (which he 
resigned in 1809), and in 1787 was advanced to the see 
of Chester, through the interest of his former pupil the 
marquis of Buckingham, whom he had attended as 
chaplain when lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He was con- 
secrated bishop of this see Jan. '20, 1788, and was 
translated in 1799 to Bangor, and from thence, on the 
death of bishop Horsley in 1806, to the diocese of St. 
Asaph, over which he continued to preside until his 
decease, at his house in Bruton-street, May 13, 1815. 

The works of bishop Cleaver are, a treatise " De 
Rhythmo Graecorum," published at Oxford, 8vo. 1777- 
Directions to the Clergy of the Diocese of Chester in the 
choice of Books, 8vo, 1789; reprinted at Oxford 1808. 
Pardon and Sanctification proved to be the privileges 
annexed to the use of the Lord's Supper, a sermon 
preached before the university, 8v(). 1791- A Charge 
delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Chester in 
1797, 4to. A Sermon preached at the meeting of 
the Charity Children in St. Paul's, 4to. 1794. A Ser- 
mon preached before the Lords on the anniversary of 
king Charles's Martyrdom, 4to. A Sermon before the 
university of Oxford on the Athanasian Creed, 8vo. and 
another on the Articles, 8vo. He also edited the Ca- 
techism of Nowell. His sermons were published col- 
lectively, together with some of his father's. 

Bishop Cleaver married Anne, daughter of Ralph 
Assheton, of Downham and Cuerdale in the county of 
Lancaster, esq. by whom he has left issue. 

The principal and fellows of Brasenose college have 
recently erected, in their ante-chapel, a monument to 
the memory of this bishop, with the following inscription. 



M. S. 

Reverendi admodum Gulielmi Cleaver, S. T. P. 

Episcopi primum Cestriensis, 

Deinde Bangoriensis, postremo Asaphensis, 

Et per annos fere xxv hujusce CoUegii Principalis. 

Qualis fuerit Episcopus, 

Praedicent, quibus praefuit, Diceceses, 

Quae prsesentem veneratione suspiciebant, 

Amissum desiderio prosequuntur. 

Qualis extiterit Principalis, 

Hoc (qualecunq. sit) testetur monumentum, 

Quod Viro, de suis iEneanasensibus optime merito, 

Reverentiae et Pietatis ergo. 

Principalis et Socii 

P. P. 

A. D. MDCCC.XV. 

The monument is executed by Bacon. Upon a 
marble slab placed over the bishop's vault, is inscribed 
the date of his death. 

Ob. 15'° Mali, 1815. 
^t. 73. 

XXV. Henry -William Majetidie, D.D. one of the 
canons residentiary of St. Paul's, nominated in the 
place of bishop Cleaver May 24, and consecrated June 
14, 1800, translated, 1810, to the see of Bangor; 
living 1817. 

XXVI. Bowyer-Edzeard Sparke, D.D. dean of Bris- 
tol, and rector of Leverington in the isle of Ely, the 
first of which he resigned, and held the latter in com- 
mendam, nominated Oct. 7, 1809, consecrated Jan. 21, 
1810; nominated to the bishopric of Ely May 23, 1812 ; 
living 1817. 

XXVII. George-Henry Laze, D. D. prebendary of 
Carlisle, nominated in the place of bishop Sparke, June 
20, 1812, consecrated July 5, 1812. His lordship, who 
is son of Edmund late lord bishop of Carlisle, and bro- 
ther of Edward lord Ellenborough, lord chief justice of 
the King's Bench, is the present bishop of this see, 1817, 




•- y 



82 Ctie ©istorp of Cj)e0i)ire» 



ecclesiastical Jumtiiction of tje Btocese* 

""The ecclesiastical jurisdiction of this diocese of operation as to his effects within the archdeaconry of 

course corresponds as to its general nature with that of Chester, neither can the commissary grant any licence 

every other, and it will only be necessary to state the for marriage in any church within the archdeaconry of 

divisions of authority of the respective officers, whose Chester ; but, on the other hand, it has been determined, 

appointments are all derived from the bishop. that any -property within the latter archdeaconry is suffi- 

The vicar general, or chancellor, as he is usually cient to found the chancellor's jurisdiction over the 
termed, has always the most extensive, and sometimes xehole effects within the diocese, of a person dying in either 
the only jurisdiction throughout the diocese; that is, arcMeafo«;7/, and that his licences are available for mar- 
upon every occasion of the bishop's general visitation riage in am/ church zoithin the diocese, when either of the 
of his diocese, his lordship previously inhibits his other parties resides within the archdeaconry of Chester. 
officers (to be hereafter named), for six months, during The modern archdeacons have no jurisdiction what- 
which period all the proceedings of the diocese pass ever attached to their appointments, but the archdeacon 
under the name of the chancellor, and all the fees are of Chester usually holds also the office of general rural 
payable to him. At other times the principal jurisdic- dean of the archdeaconry of Chester : which is rather 
tion of the archdeaconry of Richmond is vested in ano- of modern institution ; for it appears that previous to 
ther officer, who is stiled the commissary, who holds a the time of bishop Bridgman, there was a rural dean for 
spiritual court at Richmond for the decision of all ec- each of the eight deanries, but that these places had 
clesiastical suits arising within that part of the diocese, become the subjects of traffick and great abuse, being 
proves wills, grants marriage licences, and exercises sometimes (strange as it may appear) even held by 
most other authorities within his department; and females, on which account they were united by that 
against his decisions no appeal lies either to the chan- bishop into one office, to which is attached the right of 
cellor or bishop, but only to the provincial court at proving all wills, &c. (except of clergymen and esquires) 
York. The chief difference in the general powers of where the eifects are below 401. of holding a court of 
the chancellor and commissary is, that the acts of the visitation for swearing in the churchwardens, and re- 
latter would be complete nullities as to any thing within ceiving their presentments, &c. In the archdeaconry 
the archdeaconry of Chester ; for instance, the probate of Richmond, the office of rural dean is merged in 
of a will by the commissary of Richmond, though of a that of the commissar}', the title of rural dean being 
person dying within that archdeaconry, would have no never used there in any proceeding''." 

» Communicated by William Ward, esq. deputy registrar of Chester. 

l* The commissary of Richmond used to keep his court only at Richmond, but for the convenience of that archdeaconry, the parts of vvhich are 
divided and lie at a great distance from one another, leave was granted by bishop Dawes to hold another court at Kendal, which court, for more 
convenience, was in 1718 removed to Lancaster. 

There are registries at each of the seats of these courts, viz. at Chester, Richmond, and Lancaster, of which the first is the principal registry, and 
wills are there proved, when relating to property within the archdeaconry of Chester, or when the testator's property lies in both archdeaconries, 
but not when relating to property exclusively within the archdeaconry of Richmond. 

The contents of this office are described in a communication from William Nicholls, esq. deputy registrar, to the Commissioners of Public Re- 
cords, May 17th, 1800, from which the following particulars are extracted. 

Original wills, or copies thereof, proved there from the year 1590 to the present time, and bonds given by persons administering to the effects of 
persons dying intest<ate. 

Pleadings and proceedings exhibited in causes in the consistory court of Chester, and books of the acts in the same causes. 

Sentences of consecrations of churches, chapels, and burial grounds in the diocese. Faculties for re-building and improving churches, chapels, 
and parsonage houses, confirmations of seats, and other ecclesiastical commissions and faculties. 

Proceedings on the installation of bishops, patents of the offices of vicar general, and official principal, commissaries, rural deans, registrars, proc- 
tors, and apparitors. 

Entries of presentations or institutions to ecclesiastical benefices in the diocese. 

Two volumes of MS collections, known by the names of Bridgman's Ledger, and Gastrell's Notitia Cestriensis, collected by those bishops, en- 
dowments, compositions, grants, agreements, leases, charters, orders by the crown, rentals of synodals, jirocurations, pensions, tenths, and subsidies, 
patents and statutes of grammar schools. 

Entries of licences of marriage, probates of wills, and letters of administration, names of the clergy, church and chapel wardens, account of 
exhibits at episcopal visitations, and correction books. 

Original presentations to benefices, and nominations to curacies and schools, and terriers, and parish, and chapel registers. 
The principal imperfections and deficiencies are before the year 1650 ; and for the ten years following there is a total deficiency. 
The Registry of Richmond is part of the antient chapel, called Trinity Chape], in the Market Place of tlie Borough of Richmond. Its contents are 
described as follows, in a return from William Ward, esq. Deputy Registrar, to the Commissioners of Public Records, May 32, 1800. 

Original wills, bonds taken upon the issuing of letters of admitiistration, tuition, and curalion, affidavits and bonds relative to marriage licenses, 
proceedings iti ecclesiastical suits, inrolments of faculties for pews and galleries in churches and chapels, terriers and duplicates of parish registers, 
and other matters relative to the office of the commissary of the archdeaconry of Richmond. 

The return further states, that ** From the most antient of the said records, instruments, and papers, down to the year 1750, they comprize 
the wills, administrations, and tuition bonds, which have arisen from every part of the archdeaconry of Richmond; but since that year a division 
thereof hath taken place, and the wills and other papers and records, not relating to such business as is usually called contentious, arising from the 
five deaneries of Amounderness, Kendal, Copeland, Lonsdale, and Furness, part of the said archdeaconry, have been deposited in the parish church 
of Lancaster, under the custody of another officer there; and that from the most remote period the duplicates of parish registers, terriers, and all 
other records, proceedings, and papers (except those of a contentious nature, and the wills, &c. before mentioned) of the said five deaneries, are also 
deposited at Lancaster, whilst all other wills, papers, and records, arising within the said archdeaconry, have continued to be deposited, and remain 
in the registry of the said consistory court at Richmond." 

The Registi-y of Lancaster is a convenient room at the east end of, and within the parish church of Lancaster ; its contents are described as fol- 
lows in a return from John Dowbiggin, esq. Deputy Registrar, to the Commissioners before mentioned, June 23, 1800. 

All original wills, within the five several deaneries of Amounderness, Copeland, Lonsdale, Kendal, and Furness, within the archdeaconry of 
Richmond, proved before the commissary of the said archdeaconry, or his surrogates, since Nov. 1, 1748 ; bonds taken on granting letters of admi- 
nistration, curation, tuition, and marriage licences, and copies of parochial registers, within the said five deaneries. 

The return further contains an account of all the parish churches, and parochial or other chapels within the said deaneries, and specifies, as well 
the places which return registers, as those which return none at the visitation ; and also specifies the registers of places which return none to the 
visitation directly, but are included in others, which are duly returned at each visitation, — First Report on Public Records, Appendix, L 18. 
a, b, and c. 



83 



Ct)e Mottsit of Ct)ej?ter 

Contains Two Archdeaconries^ in which are 598 Churches and Chapels : 

1. The Archdeaconry of Chester has 12 Deaneries, containing 319 Churches and Chapels ; 

5. The Archdeaconry of Richmond has 8 Deaneries, containing 279 Churches and Chapels. 

Explanation.— Names in Capitals are Rectorial or Vicarial Churches ; those in Small Letters are dependant Churches or Chapels, many uf which 
are parochial. Those in Black Letter are Borough Towns. 

R. Rectory. V. Vicarage. CL Curacy (o an Impropriation. 

The Figures shew the Valuations of such Livings as are in the King's Books. 
Dis. signifies a Living discharged from the Payment of First Fruits. 



^rcj)tieaconr^ oi Cj)ester* 



1. Cljester Deanrp. 

Having 28 Churches and Chapels. 

In Chester City. 
St. Bridget's R 

St. John Baptist V 

St. John Little 
St. Maries - R 52 

St. Michael's 

St. Olave's 
St. Oswald's, dis. V 8 18 4 

Brueia, or C. in Heath 
St. Peter's, dis. R 6 13 4 
Trinity, dis. - R 8 15 6 
Cathedral Church of Christ 

and the Blessed V.M. 

In Cheshire and Wales. 

Barrow - R 19 6 54^ 

Christleton - R 39 5 

DODLESTON - R 7 24- 

Eccleston - R 15 13 Hi 

Farndon - Cl 

GiLDEN Sutton CI 

Ha WARDEN - R 66 6 5~ 

Holt - - CI 

Iscoyd 

Ince - - CI 

Plemonstal - CI 6 13 4 

PULFORD - R 6 15 10 

Tarporley - R 20 3 4 

Tarvin - V 19 11 04 

Haigrave 
Thornton 
Waverton 



R 24 7 8-i 
R 23 6 8 



2. aBirral Deancg. 

Having l6 Churches and Chapels. 

Backford, dis. V 5 5 

Bebington - R 30 13 4 

Bidston cum Ford CI 



Birkenhead 
Brombrough 
Burton 
Eastham, dis. 
Heswall 
Neston 

OvERCIlURClI 

Shotvvick 
Stoak 



CI 
CI 

V 12 13 
R 18 8 4 

V II 5 
CI 

CI 
CI 



Thurstaston, dis. R 6 13 6 

Wallasey Med. dis. R 11 24 

West Kirby R 28 13 4 

Woodchurch R 25 9 2 

3. oeangor Deanrp. 

Having only 4 Churches and Chapels. 

Bangor - R 39 6 8 

Overton 
Hanmer 
worthenbury 



V 6 13 4 
R 19 13 4 



4. 90alpas a:)eanrg. 

Having 1 1 Churches and Chapels. 



Aldford 
Codington, dis. 
Handley, dis. 
Harthill 
Malpas 

St. Chad 

Whitwell 
Shocklach 
Tattenhall 
Tilston 

Threapwood ''^ 



R 16 17 84- 

R 5 4 2 

R 6 5 
CI 

T5T} 48 8 4 

■^"- 44 19 2 



CI 

R 13 17 6 
R 12 2 11 



5. Banttoicb Dcanrp. 

Having 16 Churches and Chapels. 

Acton - - V 19 9 7 
Burledam 
Wrenbury 



AUDLEM - V 5 16 8 

Baddeley, dis. R 

Bartomley R 25 7 1 

Haslington 
Alsager 
BunbUry - CI 

Burwardsley 

COPPENHALL R 6 10 

Minshull - CI 

Nantwich - R 

WlBUNBURY - V 13 12 1 

WlSTASTON, dis. R 4 3 

Marbury in the Parish 
of Whitchurch. 

6. aiiDOIetoicJ) Deanrg. 

Having 15 Churches and Chapels. 

AsTBURY - R 68 

Congleton 
Brereton - R 7 5 

BUDWORTH PaRVA CI 

Davenham - R 23 13 

Lawton, dis. - V 9 2 
MiDDLEWICH, dis. V 14 

Over, dis. - V 7 4 

Wettenhall 
Sandbach - V 15 10 

Goostrey 

Holmes Cli. 
Swettenham 
Warmingham 
Whitegate, dis. 



14 
7 



24- 



R 5 1 

R 12 4 
V 6 



7- ^accIesfielD Deanrp. 

Having 32 Churches and Chapeh. 



Alderley 
Cheadle 
Gawswoeth 
Mobberley 

MOTTRAM 

Wood head 



R 14 10 

R 13 

R 7 4 

R 23 3 

V 32 3 



10 

74 
44 
4 
9 



» Consecrated in Jan, 1817, imttided to be made a parish by act of parliament, hitherto considered as extra-parocliial. 



84 



Ct)e History of Ct)esf)ire. 



NOETHENDEN R 10 7 6 

Pkestbury V 10 

Adlington 

Bosley 

Cupesthome 

Chelford 

Forest chap. 

Macclesfield 

Christ Church, in Macclesfield 

Pott 

Marton 

Newton 

Poynton 

Rainow 

Saltersford 

Siddington 

Wincle 
Stockport - R 70 6 8 

St. Peter's, Stockport 

Chadkirk 

Disley 

Duckenfield 

Marple 

Norbury 
Taxall, dis. R 9 2 6 

WiLMSLOW - R 32 15 

8. jFroDSfjam Deanrg. 

Having 25 Churches and Chapels. 

AsHTON ON Mersey R 13 4 7 
BOWDEN - V 24 

Carrington 

Altrincham 

Ringey 
BuDwoRTH Magna V 6 10 

Little Leigh 

Nether Peover 

Witton 
pRonsHAM - V 23 13 11^ 

Alvandeley 
Geappenhall R 6 11 lOi 

Latchford 
Knutsford - ^ 

Lymm 

Warburton 
Rosthern - V 10 

High Leigh 

Over Peover 
Runcorn - V 10 4 2 

Aston 

Daresbury 

Thelwall 

Halton 
Waverham - V 12 11 10-i 

9. 9@ancf)ei0iter Deanry. 

Having 70 Churches and Chapels. 

Ashton Underline R 26 13 4 
Lees 
Mosley 
Stayley Bridge 



«^ti 11 5 



Bolton in the Moor, 

dis. - V 10 3 

Little Bolton 

Blackrod 

Bradshaw 

St. George's 

Rivington 

Turton 

Walmsley 

Lever 

Bury - - R 29 11 54 

St. John's 

Eatonfield 

Heywood 

Holcomb 

Dean, dis. - V 4 

Horwich 

Peel 

Westhoughton 

EccLEs, dis. V 6 8 

Ellenbrook 

Swinton 

Pendleton 

Flixton - CI 

Manchester college 213 10 11 

St. Ann's in Man. R 

St. John ditto R 

St. Mary ditto R 

St. Paul ditto 

St. Peter's Ch. 

Ardwick 

St. James's chapel 

Birch 

St. Michael's 

Blakeley 

Chorlton 

Cheetham 

Denton 

Didsbury 

Gorton 

Heaton Norris 

Newton 

Sal ford 

St. Stephen's 

Stretford 
Middleton R sQ 3 Hi 

Ashworth 

Cockey 
Prestwich - R 46 4 Qi 

Roj'ton 

Oldham 

St. Peter's ditto 

Hollinwood 

Ringley 

Ch. Uns worth 

Shaw 

Rochdale - V 11 4 94- 

Hundersfield in Roch 
Town 

Littlebrough 

Milnrow 

Saddleworth 

Friarmere 



Dobcross 
Todmordin 
Whitworth 
Lydiate 
Ratcliff 



R 21 5 



R 24 11 54- 



V 6 9 

V 9 



10. a^iiarrmgton Deantg. 

Having 59 Churches and Chapels. 

Altcar - CI 

AUGHTON - ' R 14 15 5 

Child WALL - V 5 11 8 

Hale 

Wavertree 

Garston 
Halsall 

Maghull 

Melling 

HUYTON, dis. 

Leigh, dis. 
Astley 
Atherton or Chowbent 

Litjetpool, Old Ch. R 

Trinity 

St. Stephen's 

St. Matthew's 

Christ Church 

St. Peter 

St. George 

St. James 

St. John 

St. Paul 

St. Thomas 

St. Ann Rich. 

St. Mark's 

St. Andrew's 
Northmeols R 8 3 4 

Ormskirk, dis. - V 10 

Skelmersdale 
Prescot - - V 24 10 

St. Helen's 

Farnworth 

Rainford 

Sankey 
Sephton - R .30 1 8 

Crosby magna 

Seaforth 
Walton 



Form by 
Kirkby 
West Derby 
Edge Hill 
Everton 
Toxteth . . 
Warrington 
Burtonwood 
Hollinfare 
Trinity 

ailigan 

St. George 
Billing 
Hindley 
Holland 



PV 69 16 104 
^'-'^ 6 13 4 



R 40 



R 80 13 4 





^rolejsometta* 




85 


WiNWicK - R 102 9 9t 
Ashton 
Lowton 
New Church 

jQetuton 
11. TBlacfetium S)eanrp. 


Tockholes 
Whalley - V 6 3 9 
Altham 
Acrington 
Bacup 
Burnley 
Holme 

Clitgero 

Church Kirk 

Colne 

Marsden 

Downham 

Goodshaw 


12. iLelanii Deantp, 

Having 16 Churches and Chapels. 
Beindle, dis. - R 12 8 4 
Ckoston - R 31 11 lOi 

Beconsall 

Chorley 

Rufforth 


Having 27 Churches and Chapels. 

Blackburn - V 8 1 8 
St. John's 
Balderston 
Darwen 


Tarleton 

EcCLESTON 

Douglas 
HooLE, dis. 
Leyland 


R 28 16 Oi 

R 6 14 
V U 


Harvvood 

Lango 

Law Ch. or Walton 


Haslingden 

New Ch. in Pendle 

New Ch. Rossendale 


Heapy 
Penwortham 
Lonfflon 


CI 


Samlesbury 
Salesbury 


Padiam 
Whitewell 


Standish 
Coppul 


R 45 16 8 



9[rc!)tieacont^ of 3glic!)mottti, 



1. 3mounDctne00 iDeantp 


. 


St. Lawrence 














RiBCHESTER 


V 39 9 9i 


Having 3.'J Churches and Chapels 


• 


Longridge 




Bispham 


CI 








Stidd 




Chipping 


V 


24 


16 


5i 






Cockehham, dis. 
EUell 


V 


10 


16 


S 


2. HonsDale ^zmt^. 


Shireshead 










Having 28 Churches and Chapels. 


Garstang 


V 


14 


3 


4 






Garstang 










Bentham 


R 35 7 8i 


Pilling 










Ingleton 




Kirkham 
Goosnargh 
White Chapel 


V 


21 


1 


Oi 


Ingleton Fell, or i 
Chapel in the Dale J 

Clapham, dis. V 5 17 1 


Hambleton 










Claughton, dis. 


K 9 13 10 


Lund 










Kirby Lonsdali 
Barbon 


,dis. V 20 15 2 


Rigby, or Ribby 










Firbank 




Singleton 










Hutton Roof 




Warton 














lanca^tec 

St. John 


V 


41 








Killington 
Mansergh 
Middleton 




St. Anne 














Admarsh 










Melling, dis. 


V 7 1 lOi 


Littledale 










Archolm 




Overton 










Hornby 




Poulton 










Sedberg, dis. 


V 12 8 


Stalmin 










Dent 




Wyresdale 
Lytham - 


CI 








Garsdale 
Howgill 




St. Michael's, dis. 


V 


10 


17 


6 


Tatham 


R 12 5 


Cop, or Ecclestoo 










Tathamfel 




Woodplumpton 
Poolton, dis. 


V 


7 


16 


8 


Thornton 
Burton 


V 28 13 li 


Preston 


V 


J 5 


3 


Ui 


Tunstall, dis. 


V 6 3 llf 


Marton 










Leek 




St. George 
Broughtoa 










Whittington - 


R 13 9 9t 










Caton and Cressingham, 1 
in Parish Lancaster. J 


Grimsargh 












1 



3. ftennal Deanrp, 

Having 36 Churches and Chapels. 



Beethom, dis. 

Witherslack 

Bolton in the Sands, 
dis. 

Overkellet 
Burton, dis. 

Preston Patric 
Grassmere 



V 13 7 4 



4 15 



V 15 17 



Ambleside, Part in") 
Windermere Par./ 



R 28 11 5i 



Langdale 
Halton 

Aughton 
Heversham 

Crossthwait 

Crosscrake 
Heysham - 
Kendal 

St. George 

Burnside 

Crook 

Grayrigg 

Helsington 

Hugil, or Ings 

Kentmire 

Natland 

Long Sledal 

New Hutton 

Old Hutton 

Selside 

Stavely 

Underbarrow 

Winster 
Warton 

Borwick 

Silverdale 



R 20 7i 
V 36 13 4 



R 
V 



8 9 

92 5 



V 74 10 24 



t z 



86 



Ctje flistor^ of Ci[)esibite» 



WiNDERMEEE 

Troutbeck 



R 24 6 8 



' 4. jrumeiSiei gDeanrp. 

Having 29 Churches and Chapels. 



Aldingham 

Dendron 
Cartmel 

Cartmelfel 

Fieldbroughton 

Flookborough 

Lindale 

Staveley 

COULTON 

Finsthwait 

Russland 
Dalton, dis. 

Kirby Irelith 

Ramside 

Walney 
Hawkshead 

Salterthwait 
Kirby, dis. 

Broughton 

Seathwaite 

Woodland 
Pennington 
Ulverston 

Egton 

Blawith 

Coniston 

Lowick 

Torver 
Urswick, dis. 



R 39 19 



CI 



1 

7 
3i 



CI 



V 17 6 8 



CI 



CI 
V 



.5 6 8 



Dean - R 19 3 U 

DiSTINGTON R 7 1 0-1 

Drigg - CI 

Egremont, dis. R 

GOSFORTH, dis. R 

Harrington, dis. R 
Hayle - CI 

St. John's - CI 

Ieton - - CI 
Lamplugh - R 10 

Millam, dis. V 8 

Thwaits 
Ulpha 

Moresby, dis. 

Muncaster 

Ponsonby 

Waberthwait, dis, 

Whitbeck 

Whicham, dis. 

Workington 
Clifton 



7 12 
17 14 

7 7 



4 
5 



Barton Cuthberts 

Startforth, dis. 

Wycliff 

Bolton on Swale, 
Catterick parish. 



V 
R 



4 10 

14 12 1 



R 6 2 3 
CI 
CI 

R 3 11 8 
CI 

R 8 15 
R 23 3 



7- Cattericfe Deantp. 

Having 40 Churches and Chapels. 



Aisgarth, dis. 

Askrigg 

Hardrow 

Hawes 

Lunds 

Stalinbusk 
Bedale 
Burneston 

Leeming 



V 19 6 8 



R 

V 



89 4 9i 
37 6 8 



6. Kicfjmonti Dcanrp. 

Having 38 Churches and Chapels. 



7 17 6 



5. copclano Deanrp. 

Having 44 Churches and Chapels. 



Arlecden - CI 

BOOTLE - R 19 17 

St. Bridget's CI 

Briggham, dis. V 20 l6 

Cocfeetmoutt 

Secmurthy 

Embleton 

Lorton 

Mosser 

Buttermire 

Wythrop 
St. Bees - CI 

Ennerdale 

Eskdale 

Hensingham 

Lousewater 

Nether Wasdal 

Wasdal Head 

Trinity Chapel "\ 
St. Nicholas > Whitehaven 
St. James's 
Cleater 
Corney, dis. 



3i 
Oi 






CI 
R 



9 17 1 



AiNDERBY Steeple, 

dis. - V 13 6 8 

Arkengarthdale CI 

Barningham R 19 17 1 

Bowes - CI 

Brignall - V 8 12 6 

Cleasby - CI 

Croft - - R 21 8 4 

Danbywisk R 9 3 Hi 

Yeaforth 

Easby - - V 2 13 4 

East-Cowton, dis. V 4 6 10|- 

Gilling - V 23 U 54- 

Barton St. Mary's 

Eryholm 

Forcet 

Hutton magna 

South Cowton 

Grinton, dis. V 12 5 7 

Muker 

KlRKBYWISK R 27 l6 5i 
KlRKBY RaVENSWORTH CI 

Langton on Swale, 

dis. - - R 6 10 10 

Manfield - V 6 1 3 

Marrick - CI 

Marsk - R 12 6 Si 

Melsonby - R 10 2 11 

MlDDLETON TyAS V 15 10 

Kicfimonti - r 15 5 7i 

Trinity 

ROMALDKIRK R 58 14 2 

Laithkirk 

Rookby, dis. V 4 3 9 

Smeaton - R 13 13 4 

Stanwick - V 6 13 4 



Catterick 

Bolton on Swale 

Hipswell 

Hudswell 

COVERHAM - CI 

Horsehouse 

DOWNHOLM CI 

Eastwitton V 

FlNGHALL - R 

Hawkswell R 

Hornby pec. dis. V 

KlRKBYFLETHAM,dis. V 

Kirklington R 

Marsham \ Y 

Kirkby Malzerd/ 

Middleham Decanus, 
Pec. 

Patrick Brompton CI 

Hunton 
PicKHALL, dis. V 

Spenithorn R 

Bellerby 

SCRUTON - R 

Tanfield - R 

Thornton Steward, 

dis. 
Thornton Watlas 
Wath 



V 25 2 1 



5 15 10 

5 3 6i 
18 18 4 
20 14 4i 

6 15 
9 18 

25 7 



6 

2 
3i 



Well, dis. 
Wensley 

Bolton 

Redmire 
West Witton 



30 



15 9 4i. 



5 13 4 
20 10 5 

14 5 

13 5 

6 13 Hi 
6 10 10 

17 17 1 

8 13 7 

49 9 9t 



CI 



8. TBorougJtjriDge Oeanrp. 

Having 25 Churches atid Chapels. 

gintiorouBlij dis. v 9 19 5 
"Bocougljbrftige 

Dunsi'orth 

Allerton Maleverek CI 

Burton Leonard, dis. 

Pec. V 3 1 0| 

Copgrave, dis. R 597 











prolegomena. 












87 


CUNDAL - V 


3 


6 


8 


jKnacejsiiotoue;!) v 


9 


9 


4i 


OUSEBURN 


magna, dis, 




Farnham - V 


a 


12 


1 


Harrowgate 










V 


3 


10 


GOLDSBOROUGH R 
HUNSINGORE Pec. V 
KiRKBY SUPER MoRAM, 


10 
5 


1 
17 


3i 


Arkendale 

Marton cum Grafton, 
dis. - V 


2 


19 


4i 


ouseburn 
Ripley 


parva. 

Pec. CI 
R 


23 


8 9 


dis. - V 


7 


13 


6i 


NiDD, dis. - V 


3 


6 


lOi 


Stainley 


- CI 






Marton on the Moor 








NUNMONKTON CI 








Staveley 


R 


8 


17 n 


KiRKHAMERTON CI 
















Whixley 


- CI 







The Population of the Diocese, according to the Returns to Parliament in 1801. 

Cheshire . . _ _ 

Lancashire - - - 

Yorkshire, North Riding 

West ditto - - - 



Cumberland 

Westmoreland 

Wales 



191,751 
672,731 
51,103 
20,343 
37,833 
24,230 
9,255 

1,007,246 



The greatest length of the diocese is - 120 miles. 
The greatest width - - - 90 

The length of the bound ar}' line - 570 



Cfjancellors of tf)e Miottst of Cjiester, 



1. Adam Beccanshaw, Dec. Bacc. had a patent of 
official of the archdeaconry from William Knight, 
J. C. D. archdeacon of Chester, Nov. 26, 1522. 

2. George Wylmisley, B. LL. appears in a lease of 
the rectory of Bowdon, made by John then bishop of 
Chester, to be at that time chancellor, but no patent is 
in the office. This George Wylmisley is most probably 
George Savage, styled chancellor of Chester by sir Peter 
Leycester and Anthony Wood, who was brother of 
John Wylmisley, rector of Tarporley, and base son of 
George Savage, parson of Davenhain, by the daughter 
of one Wylmisley, or Wilmislovv. 

3. Robert Leche, A. M. afterwards LL. D. had a pa- 
tent from William lord bishop of Chester, Dec. 9, 1562, 
buried at Malpas 5 Nov. 1587. He occurs in the pedi- 
gree of the Mollington branch of the Leches of 
Garden '. 

4. David Yale, LL.D. prebendary of the fifth stall, 
had a patent from William lord bishop of Chester, Dec. 
9, 1587. 

5. Thomas Stofford, LL.B. upon Yale's resignation, 
had a patent granted from John lord bishop of Chester, 
dated March 1, 1624. 

6. Edmund Mainwaring, LL.D. is styled by sir Peter 
Leycester, chancellor of Chester l642; but his patent 
is not in the office. He is also described as chancellor, 
(but erroneously " of the county palatine of Chester") on 
the monument of his son, sir William Mainwaring, in 
Chester cathedral. This chancellor was second son of 
sir Randle Mainwaring of Over-Peover, knight, by 



Margaret his wife, daughter of sir Edward Fitton of 
Gaws worth, knight. 

7. Timothy Baldwyn, upon Dr. Mainwaring's resig- 
nation, had a patent from Bryan lord bishop of Chester, 
Nov. 30, 1660. 

8. John Wainewright, LL.D. on Baldwyn's resigna- 
tion, had a patent from the same lord bishop, dated 
April 5, 1661. 

9. Thomas Wainewright, LL. D. (on the resignation 
of his father Dr. John Wainewright) had a patent from 
John lord bishop of Chester, dated Dec. 15, 1682. 

These two chancellors are commemorated on one mo- 
nument in the vestibule of the north aisle. 

10. Peregrine Gastrell, esq. on the death of Dr. Tho- 
mas Wainewright, had a patent from Francis lord 
bishop of Chester, dated April 10, 1721. He died July 
23, 1748, and his memorial is given among the monu- 
ments in St. Mary's chapel. 

1 1. Samuel Peploe, LL.B. by patent from his father 
Samuel, lord bishop of Chester, Aug. 5, 1 748 ; comme- 
morated on a monument in the broad aisle of this cathe- 
dral; prebendary of the sixth stall, July 4, 1727; vicar 
of Northenden, Dec. 17, 1727; archdeacon of Rich- 
mond, June 4, 1729; rector of Tattenhall April l6, 
1743; and warden of the collegiate church of Man- 
chester; died Oct. 22, 1781. 

12. John Briggs, A. M. 30 Oct. 1781. 

13. Thomas Parkinson, D. D. 12 Oct. 1804. The 
present chancellor. 



" Wirral Hundred, p. 207. 



88 



%^t ?|istorp of Ct)esi|)tre, 



^rcjtjeacons of Cfjester* 



The archdeacons of Chester are mentioned by several 
writers very soon after the Norman Conquest. After 
Robert de Limesie removed the see to Coventry, their 
residence was near St. John's church in this city. The 
following passage in the Anglia Sacra, relative to the 
antient dignity of this archdeaconry is too remarkable 
to be omitted. 

" Fuit quidem archidiaconus Cestrise omnium archi- 
diaconorum dioceseos Cestrensis, Lichfeldensis, et 
Coventrensis, facile princeps ab initio. Coventrensis, 
StafFordensis, Salopiensis, et Derbiensis, archidiaconi in 
exterioribus ministeriis ecclesiasticis, habebantur quasi 
oculi domini episcopi. Solus archidiaconus Cestrensis 
jure pervetusto gavisus et usus est stallo in choro 
Lichfeldensi, et voce in capitulo. In urbe Lich- 
feldensi magnificas habuit aedes. — Whitlocke, Con- 
tin. Hist. Lichf. Ang. Sac. i. 457- 

The following list is chiefly from Cowper and Willis : 

One Halmar is mentioned as archdeacon in earl 
Richard's confirmation of his father's grants to the abbey 
of St. Werburgh. 

William archdeacon, witnesses a grant of Randle 
Gernons to Pulton abbey. 

Robert archdeacon, was in the time of Hugh Ke- 
velioc. 

William, chaplain to Walter Durdent, bishop of this 
see, was archdeacon here in 1149. 

Richard Peche was next archdeacon, and in 1162, 
was consecrated bishop of this see. 

Adam de Stafford occurs as archdeacon, and after him 

William de Villars, as also 

Thomas de Sancto Nicholao, a prebendary of St. 
John's ; and the next to him that can be met with, is 
Ralph de Maidston, chancellor of Oxford, and bishop 
of Hereford. 

Robert Grosthead, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, is 
inserted before Maidston by Willis, but after Eversdon 
by Cowper. 

Sylvester de Eversdon succeeded in 1246, rector of 
Handslap in Bucks, and afterwards bishop of CarUsle. 
On his removal succeeded 

John Basing, archdeacon about 1250; and after him 

Simon de Albo monasterio, abbot of St. Werburgh's. 

Adam Stanford, or Stafford, held it in 1271 and 1280. 
In his time bishop Meiland annexed the prebend of 
Bolton to it, and so made this archdeaconry prebendal. 

Jordan de Winburn succeeded 1281. 

Robert de Rodeswell, LL.D. held it 1289, and died 
at Lichfield June 13, 1314; but seven years preceding 
had resigned it to 

John Marcell, prebendary of St. John's in Chester. 

Richard Havering enjoyed it 1321 and 1323. 

Richard Fitz Ralph was from this dignity made dean 
of Lichfield 1337. 

Michael de Northburgh, afterwards bishop of London, 
was admitted to it Feb. 5, 1340. 

Peter Sabin, episcopus cardinahs Romanus, was ad- 
mitted by proxy, Aug. 8, 1342, on the resignation of 
Northburgh ; he held it 1345, and was succeeded by 



William de Navesby, before 1348, who having quitted 
it a little before his death for a pension, was buried in 
Drayton church, co. Salop, with this inscription on 
his grave-stone. 

" Hie jacet magister William Navesby, quondam 
archidiaconus Cestrise, qui obiit A. D. 1386, cujus 
animae propitietur Deus 11 die mensis " 

Nicholas Slake was admitted Oct. 30, 1385 (on 
Navesby's resignation no doubt) and exchanged it pro- 
bably with 

John de Herlaston, admitted March 11, 1386; his 
successor was 

William de Newhagh, admitted July 10, 1390 ; he re- 
signed it in 1413. 

Henry de Halsale was collated May 15, 1413, on 
Newhagh's resignation. 

David Price, collated March 7, 1422, resigned it 
1426, and was succeeded by 

Richard Stanley, admitted July 6, 1426, on Price's 
resignation ; to whom succeeded 

John Burdet, admitted March 24, 1432, on Stanley's 
death. 

George Radcliffe was collated April 26, 1449, on 
Burdet's death; he died about 1453, and was buried in 
the cathedral. He had appointed Roger Asser, dean of 
St. John's, his official. 

Edward Stanley succeeded 1453, and held it 1461. 

Thomas Saintjust succeeded 1462, and died 1467. 

Henry Ince succeeded 1467. The next that occurs is 

John Moreton, LL.D. Oxon. collated May 9, 1474, 
afterwards bishop of Ely, and translated thence to Can- 
terbury. 

James Stanley succeeded 1478, and died 1486. 

Christopher Talbot, son of John earl of Shrewsbury, 
succeeded 1486, being admitted June 7, on Stanley's 
death. After whom occurs 

John Birkenhead, dean of St. John's, occurs arch- 
deacon anno 1490. The next was 

Edmund Chaderton, admitted Feb. 27, 1492 ; in his 
will dated April 6, and proved Oct. 12, 1499, he ap- 
pointed to be buried at St. Stephen's college, Westmin- 
ster, if he died there, or at Southwell if he died near 
it. His successor was 

John Voysy (a distinguished clerical and political 
character), admitted Aug. 27, 1499; in 1515 he was 
made bishop of Exeter, and succeeded by 

Cuthbert Tonstall, a person of equal celebrity, and a 
sufferer in the troubles of the reformation ; admitted 
Nov. 17, 1515; in 1522 he was made bishop of Dur- 
ham. 

Wilham Knight, admitted Nov. 11, 1522, received 
this archdeaconry among other ecclesiastical honours 
which were heaped on him as a reward for his services 
in an embassy to the emperor Maximilian, and various 
diplomatic employments. From hence he was removed 
to the see of Bath and Wells, having enjoyed his dig- 
nity almost twenty years, and been the last archdeacon 
of Chester, previous to the formation of the new 
bishopric. 



J 



prolegomena. 



89 



arcjtreaeons of Cijestei* met tfje ereetton of tije ne\u Btsijopriefe, 



NO JURISDICTION. 



After the surrender of Dr. Knight, May 20, 1541, 
and his appointment to the bishopric of Batli and 
Wells, this archdeaconry remained vacant until John 
Bird, S. T. P. bishop of Bangor, being translated to the 
new see of Chester, got the entire archidiaconal power 
vested in himself, subject to the payment of a stipend of 
501. per annum, to a nominal aichdeacon, which stipend 
he reserved to himself, and had the offices executed by 
deputies. In the convocation 1545, Nicholas Buxsie was 
appointed his deputy for this archdeaconry. 

After the deprivation of Bird, George Cotes, his 
successor appointed, 

1. Robert Percevall, B.D. rector of Ripley, to be 
archdeacon in 1554, but in 1559 he was dispossessed of 
his archdeaconry and the fourth stall in this cathedral, 
and imprisoned on account of his religion. 

2. Robert Rogers, B.D. was admitted about 1581. 
He was a local antiquary, of much research and good 
judgment, and has left behind him collections relative 
to the local History of Chester, extant in JNIS. classed 
under nine heads, by his son, a part of which, relating 
to the antient customs and amusements of Chester, is 
given in this Work. William Aldersey is also said to have 
been indebted to Rogers's general papers for the docu- 
ments on which he founded his corrected list of ma3'ors. 
Mr. Rogers held in addition to his archdeaconry the 6th 
stall in the cathedral of Chester. An account of his 
family occurs on his widow's monument, among the 
sepulchral meuiorials at Eccleston. 

3. Cuthbert Bellott, B. D. prebendary of Westmin- 
ster, and rector of Machynlleth, a sinecure in the county 
of Montgomery, collated June 13, 1595. He was tenth 
son of Thomas Bellot, of Moreton, esq." and resigned 
the archdeaconiy before his decease. 

4. George Snell, D. D. collated Jan. 16, 16 18, rector of 
Smeaton ; of a moiety of Wallesey , l6 1 9, (deprived thereof 
in 1635) and rector of Waverton l632, and successively 
prebendary of the third and fifth stalls. He died Feb. 5, 
1655, and was buried in St. Mary's church in Chester, 
with this short epitaph : " hie situs est Georgius Snell, 
S. T. P. qui per injuriam temporis, in communionem 
laicam redactus, privatus obiit Feb. 5, l655. 

5. John Carter, minister of Highgate, co. Middlesex, 
was presented to this archdeaconry, Oct. 19, l660. 

6. William Finmore, M.A. of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, installed Nov. 6, 1666, prebendary of the sixth 
stall, July 25, 1664, vicar of Runcorn. He was buried 
in St. Mary's chapel in Chester cathedral l686, where 
a monument remains to his memorj'. 

7. John Allen, M.A. a very learned divine, chaplain 
to bishop Pearson, and prebendary of the second stall, 
was collated April 12, l686, and died I696, and was 
buried in the cathedral with this inscription on his mo- 
nument. 

Hie situs est reverendus Joannes Allen, hujus eccle- 
siae praebendarius, archidiaconus, necnon coll. S. Tri- 
nitat. apud Cantab. Socius ; vir antiquae probitatis, mo- 
destia singulari, verae eruditionis, immo natus ad Chris- 

tianarum virtutum exemplar ; propria maxima 

ei laus est, quod erat in concionando excellens, in con- 
gressibus benignus, erga amicos suavis, verbo dicam ita 



vixit, et sc paravit, ut simplicitate morum, ac vitse inte- 
gritate, Deo, hominibusque se probaret. Gravi morbo 
afllictus ad mortem, obiit 15 kal. Martii, an. salut. hu- 
man. 1695, setat. suae 50. 

8. Edmund Entwisle, S. T. P. collated April 30, l695, 
prebendary of the first stall in this cathedral I691, and 
presented to the rectory of Barrow, Oct. 10, in the 
same year. He was descended from an ancient Lan- 
cashire family, being the third son of John Entwisle, 
esq. of Foxholes in that county, and was an early 
patron, if not founder, of the charity for the relief of 
clergymen's widows and orphans within the archdea- 
conry of Chester. A very ample account of this arch- 
deacon will be found among the monumental inscrip- 
tions in the choir of Chester cathedral. 

9- John Thane, S. T. P. born at Lynn Regis in Nor- 
folk, presented 1707, was son to a physician who after- 
wards settled in Shrewsbury, where his son was educated 
until he was admitted of Trinity college, Cambridge, 
where he took his degrees in arts, and from thence came 
to Chester with his uncle. Dr. John Pearson, when 
made bishop of this see. He was collated to the sixth 
stall, April 17, 1686, and presented to the vicarage of 
Northenden, July 5, 1G9O. The archdeaconry of Ches- 
ter becoming void during the vacancy of the see after 
bishop Stratford's death, queen Anne took the disposal 
of it from the lord chancellor Cowper, and presented 
Mr. Thane, who then took the degree of D. D. He married 
Penelope, daughter of Robert Hyde, of Hyde and Nor- 
bury, esq. and dying June SO, 1727, was buried in St. 
Mary's chapel in Chester cathedral, where a monument 
exists to his memory. 

10. Lewis Stephens, A.M. presented by the arch- 
bishop of York by reason of option, Sept. 12, 1727, 
died 1747. 

11. William Powell, D. D. dean of St. Asaph, col- 
lated April 22, 1747, died April 14, 1751, buried at 
Christleton. 

12. Abel Ward, A.M. collated April 20, 1751, rural 
dean and rector of the church of St. Anne in Manches- 
ter, prebendary of the fifth stall, April 19, 1744, rector 
of Dodleston, Oct. 2, 1758, and vicar of Neston, Oct. 
19, 1761 ; died Oct. 1, 1785, aged 68 years. He has a 
memorial among the monuments in St. Mary's chapel. 

13. George Travis, A. M. a learned controversialist, 
collated Nov. 27, 1786, prebendary of the second stall, 
Feb. 9, 1783, vicar of Eastham, March 25, 1/66, and 
rector of Handley, Feb. 12, 1787. He died Feb. 24, 
1797, and has an elegant monument in the north aisle 
of the choir. 

14. Thomas Braithwaite, noticed under the archdea- 
cons of Richmond, was removed to this archdeaconry 
on the death of Travis, and dying in 1801, was suc- 
ceeded in his archdeaconry and prebendal stall, by 

15. Unwin Clarke, A. M. the present archdeacon and 
rural dean, collated to his predecessor's prebend Jan. 14, 
1801, and to the archdeaconry three days afterwards. 
Rector of Coddington, June 4, 1803, of Dodleston, Jan. 
16, I8O6, resigned Coddington 1806, and was again 
instituted Dec. 16, 1808. 



Virle pedigree of Bellot of Moreton in Northwich Hundred, 
t A A 



90 



%\\t ©istor^ of Ct)e0f)ire. 



9[rcj)tieacon6 of BtcSmonti since its connection VDitl; tj)c ^tt of Cjjester* 



(no jurisdiction.) 



Bishop Bird taking this office into his own hands, as 
he had taken the archdeaconry of Chester, appointed 
one Richard Smith to appear at the convocation 1545, 
and the same bishop held it afterwards five or six years, as 
is evident from a mandate directed to him by the king's 
letters patent, dated Jan. 11, 4 Edw. VI.'' This prelate 
being deprived in 1553, his successor, George Cotes, 
appointed to this archdeaconry, in 1554, 

1. John Hanson, who was deprived of this and his 
other preferments in about five years by queen Eliza- 
beth, and being threatened with imprisonment, retired 
with bishop Scot into Louvain, where he is supposed 
to have died. 

2. Christopher Goodman was instituted in his place 
in 1559 or 1560. This archdeacon was born at Chester 
in 1518, and having received his early education there, 
was admitted of Brasenose college, Oxford, where he pro- 
ceeded M.A. In 1547 Goodman obtained one of the 
senior studentships in Christ-church, and was after- 
wards appointed divinity professor. The accession of 
Mary compelled him to retire to Frankfort, from whence 
he removed to Geneva, where he and the celebrated 
John Knox were chosen pastors of the English church, 
and joined in compiling " the book of common order" 
used as a directory of worship in their congregations. 
After the death of Mary, Goodman became a minister 
of St. Andrew's in Edinburgh, and assisted in establish- 
ing the reformation in that kingdom ; and subseqviently 
removed to England, and attended sir Philip Sidney, 
in the capacity of chaplain, in his expedition against 
the Irish rebels. The other preferments of Goodman 
were Aldford and St. Bridget's in Chester. From the 
first of these he was removed by bishop Vaughan for 
nonconformity. In 1571 he was cited before archbishop 
Parker for certain opinions promulged in his work, 
published in the time of Mary, entitled " how far su- 
perior power ought to be obeyed," &c. but was for- 
given on an avowal of his loyalty to Elizabeth. Besides 
this work he published a commentary on Amos, and 
dying June 4, l603, was buried at St. Bridget's in 
Chester. 

3. Thomas Mallory, collated Nov. 6, 1603. Dea?i of 
Chester. 

4. Thomas Dod, A.M. collated Dec. 1, 1607, rector 
of Astbury, July 10, l607, prebendary of Chester, Nov. 
10, following, rector of the lower moiety of Malpas, Nov. 
4, l623, dean of Rippon, and chaplain in ordinary to 
king James I. and king Charles I."" 

5. Henry Bridgeman, A.M. collated May 20, 1648. 
Dean of' Chester. 

6. Charles Bridgeman, A. M. who had been educated 
at Haarlem, and at Queen's college, Oxford, was col- 
lated to this archdeaconry, June 10, l664. He was 
buried in the anti-chapel of Queen's college, Oxford. 
Over him was this short memorial, " sub spe redi- 
tus ad vitam, Caroli Bridgeman, A. M. Nov. 26, l676, 
denati, reliquise hie reponuntur." 



7. Henry Dove, D. D. of Trinity college, Cambridge, 
minister of St. Bride's church in London, chaplain in 
ordinary to king Charles II. and his brother king James, 
king William and queen Mary, was collated to this 
archdeaconry Dec. 3, 1678. 

8. Thomas Lamplugh, A.M. succeeded, and was 
collated April 2, l695. He died 1703, being also pre- 
bendary of York, and rector of the united parishes of 
St. Andrew Undershaft and St. Mary Axe, London, 
where he is buried. | 

9. William Stratford, collated Sept. 10, 1703. He ' 
was canon of Christ-church, Oxford, and rector of 
Little Shelford in Essex. An ample account of this 
archdeacon is given in his epitaph, in Christ-church 
cathedral, Oxford. 

H. S. E. 

Gulielmus Stratford, S. T. P. 

Nicolai episcopi Cestrensis filius unicus, 

collegii S'ti Petri Westraonasteriensis, 

deinde hujus pedis 

alumnus, 

et regnante Ann^ felicissimas memoriae regina 

ejusdem canonicus. 

Literis pulchre instructus, 

ad virorum omni ex ordine insignium 

consuetudinem accessit; 

hominumque et rerum sciens, 

cum magnis vixit; 

adulationis expers, libertatis amans, sententiae tenax, 

virtutis, pietatisque asslduus et animosus hortator, 

comes utilis et jucundus : 

nee erat quicum sermones solus cum solo malles : 

cliens devinctissimus 

nulla temporum vicissitudine avellendus. 

Hospes liberalis, 

etiam ubi decuit splendidus : 

amicus denique fidus, et egregie cordatus. 

Hujus sedis bibliothecse librorum auctarium decano 

et canonicis, ad aliquot sui patrocinii ecclesias paulo 

benignus dotandas 120 annui redditus praedium 

ex testamento reliquit, 

obiit 7mo Maii, A. D. 1729, aetatis suae 58. 

10. Samuel Peploe, LL. B. collated June 4, 1729. 
Chancellor of the diocese. 

11. Thomas Townson, D. D. collated Oct. 30, 1781."= 

12. Thomas Braithwaite, D. D. fellow of Brasenose 
college, Oxford, and afterwards rector of Stepney, co. 
Middlesex, collated to this archdeaconry July 9, 1792, 
prebendary of the second stall, March 11, 1797, removed 
to the archdeaconry of Chester 1797, rural dean, March 
22, 1798, died at Stepney 1801, and was there buried^ 

13. George Buckley Bower, M. A. collated April 25, 
1797, fellow of Brasenose college, Oxford, and rector 
of Great Billinge, Northamptonshire. 

14. John Owen, B. A. collated Jan. 14, 1801. 



* Reverendo in Christo patri, Johanni, perraissione divina, Cestriensi episcopo, archidiacono archidiaconatus Ricbmondis, ejusve viceregenti, &c. 
>> Vide Dod ped. Broxton Hund. p. 378, and a personal notice, ib. p. 342, among tlie rectors of Malpas. 
<= See the Qiemoirs of the rectors of Malpas, Broiton Hund, p. 342. 



^rolesomena* 



91 



3Elegt6trarsi (or 3aegisterfi) of Cfjestet, 

Compiled by Bishop Gastrell to 1715. 



Tlie first patent for register-general, was made to 
George Wilmsley*, and his assigns, for eighty years, 
anno 1544, in which the bishop obliges himself and his 
successors to pay the register a salary of 41. 13s. 4d. for 
the exercise of this office during that term ; in the pre- 
amble to which patent it is said that Edward Plankney, 
to whom this office was granted in 1541, had for a large 
sum of monev, paid him by G. Wilmsley, resigned it 
to his use and advantage. 

A° 1553. The same bishop (viz. Bird) grants the 
reversion of the registerships (after the death, resigna- 
tion, or forfeiture of Plankney) to Thomas and George 
Savage, sons of George Savage, alias Wilmsley, for 
their lives and that of the survivor. 

''A" l606. A patent was granted to John Morgell" 
for his own life and the lives of his two sons. 

A° 1630. Another patent was granted to John Mor- 
gell for the lives of his three sons, before the sealing 



whereof he enters into articles with the bishop, not to 
intermeddle with the deans rural, or their acts, or to do 
any thing in prejudice of the said deans, or their re- 
gisters. 

A° 1662. A patent for principal register was granted 
to Ralph Morgell, Sew. Fuller, and J. Tibbots, for their 
lives, with similar security respecting the rights of the 
rural deans, &,c. 

A° 1665. A patent was granted to sir Jos. Cradock, 
and John Wright. 

A° 1668. A patent to Walter Pope, M. D. confirmed 
by chapter a° I669. 

A° 1715. A patent to Mr. George Smith. 

9 Aug. 1745. James Bayley, esq. was constituted re- 
gistrar, and was succeeded, Dec. 4, 1769, by Benjamin 
Keene, esq. (son of Edmund Keene, then bishop of 
Chester) who continues to hold the office in 1817. 



» See the list of chancellors. The name is spelt variously. 

h Anno 1581. The office was granted to Thomas Case and his assigns for their lives, and confirmed by the Chapter. Note of Mr. Harwood in 
the Notitia, on the information of Mr. Speed, Dep. Reg, c of Moston. 



92 Cf)e History of Ct)e£i|)ire» 



appentitf to t|)e prolegomena, 

CONTAINING THOSE PARTS OF KiNG's VaLE RoYAL, WHICH WILL NOT ADMIT OF INCORPORATION WITH 

THE CORRESPONDING PARTS OF THIS WoRK* 



I. 

A TREATISE ON CHESHIRE. 

By WILLIAM SMITH, Rouge Dragon Poursuivant. 



^ Catalogue of t|)e Htngs of filwcm. 

Before I come to the particular description of this tion, for the better understanding of that which shall 

country, it shall not be amiss to speak a word or two of follow. 

the kings of March : whereby it may appear what acts And, first, it is to be understood, that the Saxons, 

they have done, and so consequently be as an introduc- and Englishmen, first entering into the land, they 

* The Vale Royal was published by Daniel King in small folio in 1656, under the following title : " Tlie Vale Royal of England, or the County Pala- 
tine of Chester illustrated, wherein is contained a geographical and historical description of that famous County, with all its Hundreds, and Seats of 
the Nobility, Gentry, and Freeholders, its Rivers, Towns, Castles, Buildings antient and modern, adorned with Maps and Prospects, and the Coats 
of Arms belonging to every individual Family of the whole County. Performed by William Smith, and William Webb, gentlemen, published by 
Mr. Daniel King. To which is annexed an exact Chronology of all its Rulers and Governors, both in Church and State, from the time of the foun- 
dation of the stately City of Chester to this very Day, fixed by Eclipses, and other Chronological Characters. Also an excellent Discourse of the 
Island of Ma7i, treating of the Island, of the Inhabitants, of the State Ecclesiastical, of the Civil Government, of the Trade, and of the Strength of the 
Island. London, printed by John Streater in Little St. Bartholomew's, and are to be sold at the Black Spread Eagle at the West End of Paul's, 1656." 
The first of these divisions, written by William Smith, is here given entire, with the exception of an extract from Leland, a list of mayors, for 
which a corrected one is substituted in its ptL'per place, a very incorrect list of benefices, and *' a note touching arms," referring to the alphabet of 
arms given in the Vale Royal, in lieu of which, arms attached to the pedigrees are given in this work. A more regular arrangement of the several 
chapters has also been attempted. This treatise occupies 99 pp. of the Vale Royal. 

The second treatise, by William Webb, occupying 239 pp. of the original edition has been arranged in the following manner. His description of 
Chester, with his succession of mayors, and city annals, and enumeration of city charters, has been incorporated with the account of the city, and 
his itineraries of the several hundreds have been prefixed to them. The rest of his treatise is given here entire, with the exception of some imper- 
fect lists of county officers. 

The third treatise, by Samuel Lee, (54 pp. original edit.) entitled Chronicon Cestrense is given unaltered. 
The fourth treatise, by James Cbaloner, is a distinct work relating exclusively to the isle of Man. 

King's publication (as far as relates to Cheshire) is embellished with 20 engravings ; an ornamented title, a prospect and bird's-eye view of Ches- 
ter by Hollar ; a bird's-eye view of Beeston and Halton castles given by John Savage, esq. eleven armorial plates given by Peter Venables, of Kin- 
derton, esq. a map given by Randolph Crewe, esq. Chester cathedral given by sir Orlando Bridgeman, the Earl in Parliament given by sir Richard 
Grosvenor, a small plan of Chester cathedral and small views of Birkenhead and Crewe, the latter of which was given by John Crewe, esq. A fac- 
simile of the plate of the Earl in Parliament has been engraved for this work, rather from a consideration of its high price and rarity, than its 
intrinsic value. 

A brief notice of the several authors may not be unacceptable. 

Tf^illiam Smith was younger son of Randle Smith of Old Haugh in the parish of Warmincham, who descended from a younger brother of the 
Smiths of Cuerdley. He was educated at Oxford, and after spending some time on the Continent, obtained the office of Rouge Dragon poursuivant 
in the College of Arms, on tlie recommendation of sir George Carey, Knight Marshall, and obtained no higher preferment. Many of his MSS. are 
remaining in the Herald's College, and others in private hands. In the Bodleian are two by him : the first entitled the Image of Heraldry ; the other. 
Genealogies of the different Potentates of Europe, 1578. His Cheshire MS. was deposited in the hands of Mr. Ranulph Crewe, son to the judge (who 
was the manevial lord of Warmincham) and was by him communicated to King, 

JVilUam fVehb^ was also educated at Oxford, where he proceeded M. A. he was afterwards clerk in the mayor's court at Chester, and in 1615 was 
under-sheriff to sir Richard Lea of Lea, knight. In one part of his works he mentions Peacham, author of " The compleat Gentleman," as his 
cousin. His Collections were communicated to King by sir Simon Archer of Tamworth. Besides this treatise Webb was author of *' A Discourse 
of English Poetry, together with the Author's Judgment touching the Reformation of our English Verse." By William Webb, Graduate. Imprinted 
at London by John Charlewood, quarto, 1586. 

Of Samuel Lee, little can be said. The name occurs about his time in the pedigree of the Lees of Darnhall, in the person of Samuel Lee, who 
died an infant, but it does not appear to be given afterwards to any other brother of the family. There can, however, be little doubt of Lee's 
being of Cheshire extraction, though he dates his communication from London. In several places he speaks of his intended Saxon History. 

King dedicates his publication to sir Orlando Bridgman, hut in some copies this dedication is cancelled^ and another, to Peter VenahleSy Baron of 
Kinder-ton, is substituted. The first dedication is dated Jane 20, 1656 : the second is without date, and the leaf without the sign A, which the first 
dedication has. Two commendatory Epistles, from Tho. Brown, and his kinsman John King, and the following quaint copy of verses are prefixed. 
In opus elucubratura et luculentum viri ingeniosissimi, necnon integritate morumque suavitate spectabilis, 
Danielis King, Antiquitatum indagatoris vigilantissimi. 
Cestria tolle caput ! medio velut acta sepulchro, Kinge ! serenato qui nubila discutis eethro, 

Tolle triumphales Cestria laeta comas ! Et nova Cimnieriis stas cynosura plagis, 

Cestria, Brutigens prsecellens gloria terrse, Kinge ! Palatinae fecialis nobilis ors, 

Atq. PalatinjE gemma decusq. domus ! Kinge ! decor patriae el buccina magna tuse ! 

Oh! quantum debebit amans tibi lector honoris, , Dicite ! Cestriaoe colitis qui cumpita terrje. 

Cum leget aurati tot monumenta libri.' Dicite, quis Kingo cotistituendus honos ! 

Tot monumenta nigris vix emersura tenebris, Dicite, et auratis accingite tempora sertis, 

Ni Kingus medicam forte tulisset npem. Et date victuro digna trophEea libro 1 



finis's ^ale Eoj^aU 



98 



chased all the Britains into Wales, Cornwall, and Gal- 
loway, and divided the land into seven kingdoms ; that 
is to say, Kent, South-Saxon, West-Saxon, East- 
Saxon, East- England, March, and Northumberland. 
And although that of March was the greatest; yet 
that of West-Saxon, in the end, brought all the other 
to one monarchy. 

This kingdom of March reached from London to the 
river of Marsey, which parteth Cheshire from Lanca- 
shire ; of which river some write it should take name : 
but that cannot I believe, but think rather it was so 
called, because it marched, or bordered upon all the 
other. 

It contained the shires following, as they be now cal- 
led, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, 
Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Leices- 
tershire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Derby- 
shire, Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Northampton- 
shire, Rutland, Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire, part 
of Hertfordshire, and part of Cambridgeshire. Lastly, 
all those countries lying on the south-side of the river 
of Trent, obtained the name of Middle-England. And 
that on the north-side, retained only the name of 
March ; as hereafter shall appear. 

A Catalogue of the Kings of March, with the 
Years of their raign, A. J). 585. 

I. "Crida was the first king of March, and began to 
reign about the year of our Lord 585. He was de- 
scended from Woden, and the tenth from him, by lineal 
extraction ; and reigned thirty-five years. 

n. Wibba, son to Crida, enlarged his kingdom 
greatly, and reigned twenty years. 

HL ''Ceorl, kinsman to Wibba, reigned ten years; 
in whose days, the Britons that dwelled about Chester 
(which city they had then in possession), provoked 
Ethelferd, king of Northunibers, unto war : whereupon 
he assembled an army, and besieged the city of Ches- 
ter, then called of the Britons, Caerlheon ar dour Deue, 
that is, Caerleon upon the water of Dee". The citizens, 
having a trust in their great multitude of people, came 
forth to give battle abroad in the field, whom he com- 
passed about and discomfited. There was come to the 
battle a great number of monks, of the monastery of 
Banger, to pray for the good success of the Britons, on 
whom the king set also, and slew of them to the num- 
ber of eleven hundred and odd, so that only fifty es- 
caped, with Brockwel, prince of Powis, and consul of 
Chester, who was their captain. 

'' Humphrey Lhwyd, folio 71, writeth, that afterwards 
the Britons, being aided with power from Belthurstus, 
duke of Cornwall, Caduan king of North-Wales, Mere- 
dock king of South-Wales, and heartened forward by 
the oration of their learned abbot Dunetus, who com- 
manded every one to kneel down, and kiss the ground, 
in commemoration of Christ's body, and to take up 
water in their hands out of the river of Dee, and to 
drink it, in the remembrance of the blood of Christ ; 
who having so communicated, they overcame the Sax- 
ons in a famous battle, slew of them, as Huntingdon 
writeth, 1066, and created Carduanus their king, in the 
city of Legions, or Chester. 

IV. "Penda, the son of Wibba, succeeded Ceorl in 



the kingdom of Marcia, and began to reign anno 636, 
being fifty years of age ; and reigned thirty years. He 
was a prince right hardy, and adventurous, ready of 
remembrance in time of peril ; his body could not be 
overcome with travel, nor his mind vanquished with 
business. '^But these his virtues were matched with 
notable vices ; as cruelty of nature, lack of courtesy ; 
great unsteadfastness in word and promise; and of un- 
measurable hatred toward the Christian religion. Upon 
confidence put in these his great virtues and vices, he 
thought not good to let any occasion pass, that was 
offered to make war, as well against his friends as ene- 
mies. He besieged the city of Excester, against the king 
of West-Saxons, where joining in battle with Caduallo, 
king of Britains, he was overthrown, and submitted 
himself to the said Caduallo, promising to be his liege- 
man, and to fight against the Saxons in his quarrel. 
So that he fought with Edwin, king of Northumber- 
land, and slew him at Hatfield, with his son Ossride, 
and Godbold, king of Orkney, who was come to his 
aid. And after he slew Oswald, king of Northumber- 
land at Maserfield, the fifth of August, anno 642. ^ But 
the said Penda was in the end slain himself by Oswy, 
brother to the said Oswald, and king of Northumber- 
land ''. Oswy, king of Northumberland, put Penda, the 
Marcian, to flight ; which the writers call Winwid 
lield, giving it the name by the victory'. 

This Penda had three sons, Wilserus, Peda, or Weda, 
and Edilred. To Weda, Oswy had before married his 
daughter Alesfled, by consent of Penda ; which Weda, 
by help of Oswy, was made king of Soutli-Marcia, or 
Middle-England : which lordship is divided from North- 
Marcia, by the river of Trent. 

V. ""Peda, or Weda, began to reign anno 653. In 
whose time, the people of Marcia (commonly called 
Middle-Angles) received the Christian faith. For he 
being a towardly young gentleman, yet could he not ob- 
tain the daughter of Oswy in marriage, except he would 
promise to become a Christian. The which he performed 
after the death of his father. Howbeit, he was within 
three years after slain, by procurement of his said wife, 
and his kingdom came to his brother Ulferus, who is ac- 
counted the first christened king of Marcia. 

VI. ' Ulferus succeeded his brother Weda. He over- 
came Cenwald, king of Wext-Saxons, and won from 
him the Isle of Wight, which he gave unto Adelwold, 
king of South-Saxons, or Sussex ; to the end, he should 
cause the people to receive the Christian faith. He died 
anno 675, when he had been king seventeen years ; or, 
as some write, nineteen. But they who reckon nineteen, 
include the time that passed after the slaughter of 
Penda, wherein Oswy and Weda held the aforesaid 
kingdom. 

VII. "Edilred, his brother, succeeded him anno 677- 
He invaded the kingdom of Kent, sparing neither church 
nor abbey. King Lothair, of Kent, durst not appear to 
give him battle, so that he destroyed Rochester, and 
with great spoils returned. After he had ruled his land 
twenty-nine years, he became a monk in Bardney abbey, 
and was after abbot of the house. He married Ostrida, 
sister to Egfrid, king of Northumberland ; by whom he 
had a son named Ceolred : But he appointed Kenred, 
son of his brother Ulferus, to succeed him. 



» R. Hoi. 143. 153. 

= Anno 636. f R. Hoi. 165. 

" Anno 653. R. Hoi. 173. 

»> Anno 677. R. Hoi. 18). 



b R. Hoi. 153. ' Mr. Fox, 160, col. i. '^ H. Lhwjd, 71. 

!St. Oswald, anno 642. h Near Kirkstall, in Yorkshire. ■ In Speed's Map. Mr. Fox, Hi'), 

1 R. Hoi. 176. This Ulfer was father to St. Werhurga, Mr. Fox, fol. 178. 

t B B 



94 



Cfje flistor^ of Ct)e£it)ire» 



The said Ostrida was cruelly slain, by treason of her 
husband's subjects, anno 697. 

VIII. Kenred, tbe son of Ulfer, was a prince of great 
virtue, devout towards God, and a furtherer of the com- 
mon-wealth. In the fifth year of his reign, he renounced 
the world, and went to Rome, with Offa, king of the 
East-Saxons, or Essex, where he was made a monk, and 
finally died there, anno 711°. 

IX. Ceolredus, the son of Edilred, succeeded him, 
and died in the eighth year of his reign ; or, as some 
write, in the third ; and was buried at Lichfield". 

X. Ethelbaldus descended of Eopa, brother to Penda 
(and the fourth from him in lineal succession) was cho- 
sen king of Marcia, and governed long time without any 
trouble. In the eighteenth year of his reign he besieged 
Somerton, and won it. He also invaded Northumber- 
land, where he got great riches, and returned without 
any battle oifered him. He overcame the Welshmen in 
battle, being joined with Cuthred, king of West- 
Saxons : But falling out with the said Cuthred, he was 
by him overthrown at Berreford, in the thirty-seventh 
year of his reign : And within four years after, to say, 
in the forty-first year, he was slain in battle at Sekinton, 
three miles from Tamworth, by his own subjects, under 
the leading of one Bernred, who took upon him to be 
king, but he prospered not long. The body of this 
Ethelbald was buried at Ripton p. 

XI. Bernred (having slain Ethelbald) took upon him 
to be king : But he had not reigned full a year, when 
his own subjects, with the help of Offa, took him, and 
burned him, as some write. 

XII. ''Offa, (surnamed Magnus) was king of Marcia 
after Bernred, anno 758. He was a man of such stout- 
ness of stomach, that he thought to bring to pass all 
things which he conceived in his mind. He overcame 
the Kentish-men in a great battle at Otford ; and the 
Northumbers also he vanquished, and put to flight. He 
fought with Kenulf, king of West-Saxons, in open 
battle, and obtained a notable victory, with small loss 
of his people. He craftily sent for Engilbert, king of 
East-Angles, under fair promises to give him his 
daughter in marriage, alluring him to come into 
Marcia : And receiving him into his palace, caused his 
head to be strucken off; and after, by wrongful means, 
invaded his kingdom, and got it into his possession : 
Yet he caused the bones of the first martyr of this land 
St. Albon (by miraculous means brought to light) to be 
taken up, and put into a rich shrine, adorned with gold 
and stone, building a goodly church of excellent work- 
manship in that place, which he endowed with great 
possessions. He removed the archbishop's seat from 
Canterbury to Lichfield, thereby to advance his king- 
dom of Marcia, in preheminence of spiritual power as 
well as temporal ; finally, he granted the tenth part of 
all his goods to the churchmen and poor people. He 
also endowed the church of Hereford with great reve- 
nues ; and, as some write, he built the abbey of Bath, 
placing monks in the same, of the order of St. Bennet, 
as he had done before at St. Albons. About the year 
77.5, he went to Rome ; and there, after the example of 
Inas, king of West-Saxon, he made his realm tributary 
to the church of Rome, appointing every house yearly, 
to pay a penny ; which money was after named Peter- 
pence. After his return, he ordained his son Egfrid 
king in his lifetime, and shortly after departed this 



life, when he had governed the space of thirty-nine 
years. 

This Offa (amongst his other great doings) caused a 
great ditch to be cast between his dominions, and the 
Welsh confines, to divide thereby the bounds of their 
dominions. This ditch was called Offditch ever after ; 
and stretched from the south-side by Bristow, under the 
mountains of Wales, running northward over the rivers 
of Severn and Dee, unto the very mouth of Dee, 
where the river falleth into the sea. He also builded a 
church in Warwickshire, whereof the town taketh name, 
and is called Oftchurch, even to this day. < 

XIII. Egfrid (or Egbert, as some write), son of king 
Offa, taking upon him the kingdom, began to follow the 
approved good-doings of his father; and first, he re- 
stored unto the churches their antient privileges, which 
his father sometime had taken from them. Great hope 
was conceived of his further good proceedings ; but 
death cut off the same, when he had reigned but four 
months, and ordained his cousin Kenulf to succeed 
him : Which Kenulf was descended from Penda, king 
of Marcia, of the line of his brother Kennalk. 

XIV. "^ Kenulf was the fourteenth king of Marcia; 
who, for his noble courage, wisdom, and upright deal- 
ing, was worthy to be compared with the best princes 
that have reigned. His virtues passed his fame: No- 
thing he did, which envy could with just cause reprove. 
At home, he shewed himself godly and religious : In 
war he became victorious. He had wars with Egbert 
Pren, king of Kent, whom he overthrew and took pri- 
soner ; and after released him again. For whereas he 
builded a church at Winchcomb, upon the day of the 
dedication thereof, he led the Kentish king, then his 
prisoner, up to the high-altar, and there set him at 
liberty. There was at that sight, Cuthred, whom he 
had made king of Kent, with thirteen bishops and ten 
dukes : The noise that was made of the people, at the 
bounteous liberality of the king, was marvellous. He 
also bestowed great rewards to the prelates and noble- 
men that were come to the feast ; every priest had a 
piece of gold, and every monk a shilling. Finally, 
after he had reigned twenty-four years he departed this 
life ; appointing his burial in the same abbey of Winch- 
comb. He left behind him a son named Kenelm, who 
succeeded him in the kingdom; but was soon mur- 
thered, by his unnatural sister Quenred, the 17th of 
July, as after appeareth. 

XV. 'Kenelm began his reign at the age of seven 
years, anno Dom. 821, who, through ambition and 
envy of his sister Quenred, was shortly made away. 
The said Quenred corrupted with great rewards and 
high promises the governor of his person, named Ash- 
bert ; who, upon a day, under colour to have out 
the king in hunting, led him into a thick wood, and 
there cut off his head from his body. 

XVI. Ceolwolf, uncle to Kenelm, and brother to Ke- 
nulf, succeeded him ; and, in the second 3'ear of his 
reign, was expulsed by Bernwolf. 

XVII. 'Bernwolf, in the second or third year of his 
reign, was vanquished and put to flight, by Egbert king 
of the West Saxons ; and shortly after slain by the 
East-Angles. The same Egbert subdued North- Wales, 
and the city of Chester; which, till those days, the 
Welshmen, or Britains, had kept in their possession. 

XVIII. Ludicanus was created king of Marcia, and 



"R. Hoi. 189. 

' R. Hoi. 205. Anno i 



' Anno 711. 



p Anno 748. 

' Mr. Fox, p. 



4 R. Hoi. 194. anno 758. 



' R, Hoi. 200. 



Mn^'s ^ale EopaL 



95 



within two years after, came to the like end as his pre- 
decessor before him, as he went about to revenge his 
death. So that the kingdom of Britain began now to 
reel from their own estate, and to lean to an alteration, 
which grew, in the end, to the erection of a perfect mo- 
narchy, and final subversion of their particular estates 
and regiments. 

XIX. Wightlaf succeeded Ludicanus, anno 828, who 
first being vanquished by Egbert, king of the West- 
Saxons, was afterwards restored to the kingdom by the 
said Egbert, and reigned thirteen years ; whereof twelve 
at the least were under tribute, which he paid to the 
said Egbert, and to his son, as to his sovereigns, and 
supreme governors. 

XX. Bertwolf reigned as tributary to the West- 
Saxons, the space of twelve years ; About the end of 
which term, he was chased out of the country by the 
Danes, who made one Burthred king of Marcia. 

XXI. Burthred married Ethelswida, sister to Ethel- 
wolf, king of the West-Saxons, and had great wars with 
Hungar and Hubba, two Danish captains, who won 
from him the town of Nottingham. And after, their 



power increased, by the coming of three Danish cap- 
tains more, which were named kings ; whose names 
were Godrun, Esketel, and Ammond : So that Burthred 
seeing himself not able to withstand them, departed out 
of the country towards Rome, when he had reigned 
twenty-two years, where he died, and was buried in the 
church of our lady, near unto the English school. 

XXII. Ceolvvolphus, servant to king Burthred, was 
by the Danes put in possession of the one half of Mar- 
cia : The rest, they kept themselves. But within few 
years, king Alfred obtained all that he held in Marcia, 
anno 886. In which j'ear it ended. So that the said 
kingdom of March continued three hundred and two 
years, under twenty-two kings. Some reckon but two 
hundred and seventy years, and seventeen or eighteen 
kings. But they begin at Penda, and do not account 
this Ceolwolphus. 

Here endeth the kings of Marcia, or March ; and the 
four following were entitled dukes of Marcia, and cre- 
ated by the kings of the West-Saxons ; who, at that 
time, were general monarchies over the whole land : So 
that they were called kings of England. 



Bufees of iHarcia, 

HEREAFTER FOLLOWETH THE DuKES AND EaELS OF MaRCH, WHICH WERE BEFORE THE CoNgUEST, 

WHO ALSO WERE PaLATINES OF CHESTER. 



Anno Dom. 894. The Danes won Chester; but 
were forced, through famishment, to eat their horses, and 
shortly after expulsed. Mr. Fox, pag. 189, col. 2. 

''Elared (or Etheldred), duke of Marcia, married El- 
fleda, daughter to king Alfred, and held a great portion 
thereof, which Ceolwolphus, beforetime, possessed by 
grant of the Danes, after they had subdued king Burth- 
red. This Eklred departed this life, anno 912, or 908, 
as some have. And then king Alfred seized into his 
hands the cities of London and Oxford, and all that 
part of Marcia, which he held. But afterwards he suf- 
fered Elfleda to enjoy the most part thereof (except the 
two cities aforesaid), during her life, which was eight 
years after her husband died. In which time, she 
builded and repaired many cities and towns ; as Tam- 
worth, Stafford, Warwick, Shrewsbury, Wedesbury, 
Edsbury in the Forest, besides Chester, Brimsbury 
Bridge upon Severn, Runcorn upon Marsey, and 
others''. Moreover, by her help, the city of Chester 
(which the Danes had greatly defaced) was newly re- 
paired, fortified with walls and turrets, and greatly en- 
larged : So that the castle, which before stood without 
the walls, was now brought within the compass of the 
new wall. She died at Tamworth, the 12th of June, 
anno 919, and was buried at St. Peter's, in Gloucester; 
which abbey her husband and she had founded. 

"^Alphar, cousin to king Edgar, was the second duke 
of Marcia, anno 975, and in the time of king Edward 
II. called the Martyr, unto whose death he was con- 
senting : But within three years after he was eaten to 
death with lice, anno 982. 

-\lfrick, son of Alphar, was within three years of his 
dukedom, banished the land ; but was afterwards, by 



king Egelred, made admiral of his fleet against the 
Danes; unto whom he, like a traitor, fled. And, after 
taking part with the Danes, encountered with the king's 
navy, where he had like to have been taken, but he 
escaped. The king being therewith sore displeased, 
took Algar his son, and caused his eyes to be put out. 

"•Edricus de Streona was by the said king Egelred, 
created duke of Marcia, anno 1007, and married Edgita 
the king's daughter, and fled also to the Danes, to the 
great discomfort of the Englishmen. By his means, 
king Edmund Iron-side, and Canutus the Dane, were 
reconciled, and reigned, jointly, kings in this realm. 
But as some write, the said Edrick murthered king Ed- 
mund, thinking therefore to be well rewarded of Canu- 
tus ; who, instead of reward, cut his throat, and threw 
him out of a window at Baynard's Castle into the 
Thames, anno 1018. 

'Leofrick, son of earl Leofwin, and brother to earl 
Norman, was by Canutus created earl of March. This 
Leofrick is commonly called earl of Chester. He was 
greatly favoured of the king ; insomuch, that he bare 
great rule under him in the common-wealth, as one of 
his chief counsellors ; as also to king Harold, Hardy 
Canutus, and king Edward the Confessor. In the six- 
teenth or seventeenth year of whose reign he died, anno 
1056. His wife Godwina freed the city of Coventry, 
where he was buried. He founded divers abbeys and 
priories ; as at Coventry, Wenlock, Worcester, Stone, 
Evesholm, and Leof ; besides Hereford : Also he 
builded St. John's, and St. Werburgh's churches in 
Chester ^ 

Algar, son of Leofrick, writ himself earl of Chester 
and Coventry;" he was also created earl of Oxford, in 



« R. Hoi. 238. 

' R. Hoi. 260. Mr. Fox, 215, col. 2. 



>> Mr. Fox, 194, col. 2. 



": R. Hoi. 238. 



il R. Ilol. 244. 



f R. H. 277. 



f Camden, 



96 



Ct)e flistor^ of Ci)esi!)ire* 



his father's time, after the death of earl Goodwin ; in 
whose time, Oxford did belong to his son Harald : 
Which Harald, after being king of England, gave Ox- 
ford unto Edgar Adeling, who was the right heir to the 
crown ; and so, instead of a king, he made him an earl. 
This Algar was banished the land by St. Edward ; he 
therefore got him into Ireland, where he got together 
eighteen ships of war, and landed in Wales, and with 
the help of the princes of Wales, gave the Englishmen 
and N ormans a great overthrow. He left behind him 
three sons, Edwin, Marcar, and Leofrick, who lived all 
three in the days of AVilliam the Conqueror. 

'■ Edwin (the son of Algar) was earl of Chester and 
Coventry ; who, with his brother Marcar, earl of Lin- 
coln and Northumberland, did take part with Edgar 
Adehng against William Conqueror : But they were 



put to the worse, and fled into Scotland ; and the earl- 
dom of Chester was by the said William Conqueror 
given to Hugh Lupus; whose genealogy shall follow in 
the latter end of this book. 

By that which is here already written, and that which 
shall follow, it may and shall appear, that Cheshire was 
a county palatine, as well before the Conquest, as 
since ; whose privileges have been established and con- 
firmed by divers and sundry kings of the realm. And 
first, king Richard H. in the twenty-first year of his 
reign, by act of parliament holden at Westminster, 
made it a principality, and entitled himself prince of 
Chester. Also, the same year, the said king being at 
Chester, did by his letters patents, dated the 7th of 
June, create William Burgess, harold of arms, and 
named him Chester le Harold, anno 1397. 



Ci)e (ienealos^ of tf)e Carls of Cf)ester, gince tje Conquest, 

Wherein is briefly shewed some part of their Deeds and Acts. 



Hugh sirnamed Lupus, or Wolf, a Norman, came 
into England with AVilliam the Conqueror, in the year 
of our Lord 1066, unto whom he gave the county pa- 
latine of Chester, to hold as freely by the sword, as he 
held England by the crown. He was the son of Rich- 
ard earl of Aurenches, and viscount of Abrinca, in 
Normandy, and of Emma "^ his wife, sister to William 
the Conqueror by the mother. This Hugh ordained 
under him (for the better government of his earldom) 
four barons : first his cousin, sir Nigell or Neal, baron 
of Haulton, who also was his constable and marshall, 
by condition of service, tojlead the vantguard of the 
earl's army, when he should make any journey into 
Wales, so as the said baron should be the foremost in 
marching forward against the enemies, and the last in 
returning. Of him the Lacies descended, that were 
barons of Haulton, constables of Chester, and lastly, 
earls of Lincoln. The second was sir Piers Malban, 
baron of Nantwich, sir Eustace baron of Malpas, and 
sir Waren Varnon baron of Shipbrook. He had issue 
by Armetrida his wife, Richard earl of Chester, Robert 
abbot of St. Edmondsbury, and Otwell tutor to the chil- 
dren of king Henry L He converted the church of St. 
Werburgh's to an abbey, and was there buried, when 
he had been earl forty years, anno 1 109, in the tenth 
year of king Henry L 

IL Richard, the son of Hugh Lupus, was earl of 
Chester after the decease of his father. He married 
Maud, daughter to Stephen earl of Champaigne, Blois, 
and Chartres, sister to king Stephen, and was drowned 
coming out of Normandy the 25th November, 1120, 
with his wife ; and with him William duke of Nor- 
mandy, the king's eldest son, and Mary his wife, 
daughter to Foulk Tailbois earl of Angeo, Richard his 
brother, and Maud countess of Perch his sister ; Otwell, 
brother to this earl Richard, and many other noblemen 
and women, and others, in all to the number of 140 
persons, or 150. Some write 160. Only one man es- 
caped, who was a butcher. This earl dying without 
heirs, the earldom of Chester descended to Ranulph 



Boham, as his next cousin and heir. Was earl eleven 
years. 

HL Ranulph, or Randulph Boham (otherwise named. 
Meschens), the son of John de Boham, and Margaret 
his wife, sister to Hugh Lupus, was the third earl of 
Chester, next after the Conquest. He married for his 
first wife Maud, daughter to Aubrey de Vere earl of 
Guisnes and Oxford, and great chamberlain of Eng- 
land, by whom he had issue, Ranulph, the second of 
that name, earl of Chester, and died the 31st year of 
king Henry I. anno 1130, when he had been earl ten 
years. And for his second wife, he married Lucia, 
sister to Edwin earl of March (widow to Roger Romare), 
and had by her William, surnamed Romare, earl of 
Lincoln, who died without issue. 

IV. Ranulph the second of that name (surnamed 
Vernoun) because he was born in the said castle ; was 
the fourth earl of Chester. He took part with Mauld the 
empress, and Henry her son duke of Normandy, against 
king Stephen, and kept the city and castle of Lincoln 
against the king, where joining together in battle, the 
king was taken prisoner and brought by him to the said 
empress. But after the king was delivered in exchange 
for Robert earl of Gloucester (who was taken prisoner 
by the king's party). Afterwards this Ranulph coming 
peaceably to the king, was put in prison, and con- 
strained to deliver, not only the castle of Lincoln, but 
also divers other castles and strong holds, which he 
kept for the use of Mauld the empress, and Henry 
her son. 

This earl was one of the worthiest warriors that was 
in his days. He married Alice daughter to Robert 
ConsuU earl of Gloucester aforesaid, by whom he had 
issue Hugh that succeeded him ; and Beatrix, married 
to Ralph baron of Malpas, and died in the 17th year 
of king Stephen, anno 1152, when he had been earl 
twenty-two years. 

V. Hugh Boham (alias Kiviliock, so called of the 
country in Wales where he was born) was the fifth earl 
of Chester; and took part with the children of king 



*^ This Edwin had a sister named Lucia, thrice married, mother to Wii. Romar, earl of Lincoln, and Roger Romar her second husband, and to 
Wil. Romar, per Ranulph, her third husband, earl of Chester. 
^ Brooks calls her Margaret. 



Hins's ^ale Eo^aL 



97 



Henry II. against their father. He fought a great battle 
against the king in Normandy, where he was taken pri- 
soner, and by the king committed to prison, in the castle 
of Falois. But after obtaining favour of the king, he 
returned into England, and married Beatrix daughter 
to Richard Lucy justice of England, by whom he had 
issue Ranulph the third of that name earl of Chester, 
and four daughters, that is to say, Mauld, married to 
David earl of Anguish and Huntington; Mabell, to 
William d'Albigny earl of Arundel ; Agnes, to William 
Ferrers earl of Derby ; and Havisa, to Robert Quincy, 
who after in her right was earl of Lincoln, and after 
him she was married to sir Warren Bostock. This 
Hugh died in the twenty-fourth year of king Henrj' II. 
anno 1181, when he had been earl twenty-eight years, 
and was buried at Leek, in Staffordshire. 

VI. Ranulph, the third of that name (surnamed 
Blondevile), of the place in Powis, called in Latin, 
Album Monasterium, which some say is Oswestry, where 
he was born, was the sixth earl of Chester, after the 
conquest. He was also earl of Lincoln, as cousin and 
next heir to William Romare, earl of Lincoln (second 
brother to Ranulf the lid), who died without issue. 

This Ranulph the Third was very well learned, espe- 
cially in the laws of the realm, insomuch, that he com- 
piled a book thereof: also very zealous in religion; in- 
somuch, as we read, that when the pope sent his col- 
lectors throughout Christendom to gather up tenths, 
he only refused to pay any, suffering none in his domi- 
nions, either layman or clerk, to yield any tenths to the 
pope's proctors, although all England, Scotland, Wales, 
and Ireland, yet paid it''. 

He atcheivgd many enterprises against Lewellin, 
prince of Wales : but being once forced to take the 
castle of Ruthlan for his refuge, he sent to Roger Hell 
(alias Lacy), constable of Chester, to come to his aid : 
which Lacy, calling his friends together, desired them 
to make as many men as they could and to go with 
him : at whose request Ralph Dutton, his son in law, 
being a lusty youth, assembled all the players and mu- 
sicians in the city, and went forth with the said con- 
stable against the Welshmen, who fled upon the 
sight of such a number of people. The earl being de- 
livered out of danger, granted to his said constable 
divers freedoms and privileges within the city, and in 
other places ; and granted to the said Ralph Dutton, the 
rule and ordering of all the musicians v.'ithin the county, 
which his heirs enjoy even at this day'^. 

This Ranulph founded the Grey-friars in Coventry ; 
also, after his return out of the Holy-land, the abbey of 
Delacress, not far from Leek in Staffordshire ; the 
castle of Beeston, in Cheshire, and of Chartley in Staf- 
fordshire. 

He was faithful to king Henry HI. in his minority : 
he gave battle to Lewis, the French king's son, near 
unto Lincoln, in the second year of king Henry III. 
where the said Lewis, and the barons which took his 
part, were put to flight and overthrovs^n. And, in the 
same year, he, with William earl-marshal, and other 
barons of the king's part, constrained the same Lewis 
to depart the realm ; which Lewis, in the seventeenth 
year of king John, was by the consent of divers barons, 
brought into England, meaning to depose king John, 
and to make him king. 

This Ranulf married, for his first wife, Constance, 
the daughter and heir to Conan, earl of Bretagne, 



widow to Jeffery, third son to king Henry II. which 
Jeffery was, in her right, earl of Bretagne, and had by 
her, Arthur earl of Bretagne, Richmond, and Anjou, 
and a daughter named Isabel. This Arthur was taken 
by king John in Normandy, and put in prison in the 
castle of Roan, where he died without issue ; and 
Isabel his sister was put in prison in the castle of Bris- 
tow, where she died a virgin, in the twenty-seventh 
year of king Henry III. By the counsel of king John, 
this Ranulf was divorced from his wife Constance, by 
whom he had no issue ; and after she was married to 
Guy, viscount of Tours, of whom descended all the 
dukes of Bretagne ; and for his second wife he married 
Clemence, daughter to William Ferrers, earl of Derby, 
by whom he had also no issue. And lastly, he mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter to Humphrey Bohun, earl 
of Hereford, and constable of England, by whom 
he had also no issue. And so died at his castle of 
Wallingford, the twenty-sixth of October, anno 1233, 
in the seventeenth year of king Henry III. when he 
had been earl fifty-one years. After whose death, 
his nephew, John Scot, was earl of Chester, and 
William d'Albigny, earl of Arundel, had the manor of 
Barrow, with .WOl. land. William, earl Ferrers and 
Derby, had the castle and manor of Chartley, whereof 
his successors were called lords Ferrers of Chartley. 
And Robert Quincy had the earldom of Lincoln, who 
by his wife Havisa, had two daughters, whereof the 
eldest, named Margaret, was married to John Lacy, 
baron of Haulton, constable of Chester, and earl of 
Lincoln. 

VII. John (surnamed Scot, because he was a Scot 
born) son to David, earl of Anguish and Huntington, 
was, in right of his mother Mauld, the seventh earl of 
Chester. He married Jane, daughter to Lewellin prince 
of Wales, by whom he was poisoned (as Matthew Paris 
writeth), and so died without issue, anno 1237, when he 
had been earl five years, leaving four sisters for his 
heirs, viz. Margaret, Isabel, Maud, and Eva. Mar- 
garet was married to Allen, earl of Galloway, who by 
her had three daughters, Darvogil, Helen, and Chris- 
tian. Darvogil was married to John Balliol, and had 
by him John Balliol, lord of Harcourt and king of 
Scots. Helen was married to Roger Quincy, earl of 
Winchester, and constable of Scotland. Christian was 
married to William earl of Arundel, but had no issue 
by him. Isabel, second sister to John Scot, was mar- 
ried to Robert Bruce, lord of Arundel, and had by him 
Robert Bruce, who married Martha, daughter and heir 
to the earl of Caricta ; by which Martha he had issue 
Robert Bruce, king of Scots. Maud died without issue : 
and Eva the youngest sister of John Scot, was married 
to Henry lord Hastings of Abergavenny, and had by 
him John lord Hastings, who was one of the competitors 
for Scotland in the days of king Edward the First. 

After the death of this John Scot, king Henry III. 
thought it not good to make a division of the earldom 
of Chester, it enjoying such a regal prerogative ; there- 
fore, taking the same into his own hands, he gave unto 
the sisters of John Scot other lands, and gave the 
county palatine of Chester to his eldest son. 

Edward, the first of that name, eldest son to king 
Henry III. was the eighth earl of Chester ; and after the 
death of his father he was king of England. He builded 
the abbey of Vale Royal, as before hath been declared ; 
and married for his first wife, Eleanor, daughter to Fer- 



*■ R. H. iii. ]X. Pope Gregory 9- Matt. Par, p. 71 and 74. Mr. Fox, p. 356. R. Hoi. p. 633 

tec 



R. Hoi. p. 641. Dav. Powel, p. 290", 



98 



d)e History of C|)e0t)tre» 



dinand III. king of Castile and Leon ; by whom he had 
issue, Edward II. king of England. He was earl thirty- 
five years before he was king ; and after he was king, 
twelve ; in all forty-seven years. 

Edward the Second was the ninth earl of Chester after 
the conquest ; and, after the death of his father, was 
also king of England. He married Isabel, daughter to 
Philip the Fair, king of France (sister and heir to Lewis 
Hutin, Philip the Long, and Charles the Fair, all three 
kings of France, one after another, and died all three 
without lawful issue) ; by which Isabel, he had Edward 
earl of Chester and Ponticum, afterwards duke of Aqui- 
tain ; and lastly, king of England. He was earl twent^'- 
three years before he was king of England, and after- 
wards five ; in all twenty-eight years. 

Edward, the third of that name, was the tenth earl of 
Chester, fourteen years before he was king, and after- 
wards four ; in all eighteen years. He mamed Phi- 
lippa, daughter to William, third earl of Hainault and 



Holland ; by whom he had issue Edward, surnamed the 
Black Prince, and sundry other children ; which prince 
died before his father, so that he never was king, but 
his son Richard. 

Edward, prince of Wales, duke of Cornwall, and earl 
of Chester (surnamed the Black Prince), was earl of 
Chester forty-seven years ; that is to say, from the day 
of his birth until the day of his death ; of which time he 
was prince of Wales and duke of Cornwall forty-four 
years. He married Joan, daughter and heir to Edmund 
of Woodstock, earl of Kent : by whom he had Edward, 
that died young, and Richard, the second of that name, 
king of England after his grandfather. Which Richard 
made the county-palatine of Chester a principality, as 
before hath been declared. Since the time of this Ed- 
ward, the eldest sons of the kings of England have been 
continually, even from the very day of their birth, with- 
out creation, princes of Wales, dukes of Cornwall, and 
earls of Chester. 



Ci)e descent of tl)e Barons of ©aulton> 



Constables of Chester. 



There came over into England (with Hugh Lupus, 
earl of Chester) a certain nobleman, named Nigellus, 
kinsman to the said Hugh, and with him came also five 
brethren; that is to say, Huddardus, Edarus, Wolmerus, 
Horswain, and Wolfaith, The same Hugh, earl of 
Chester, gave unto the said Nigell the barony of Haul- 
ton ; whereunto belong nine knights' fees and a half, 
and the fourth part of a knight's fee, in the name of 
constable of Chester, and made him his marshal] ; so 
that when the said Hugh should send his army into 
Wales, the said Nigel should be the first in setting for- 
ward and the last in returning back again. And, for 
this cause, the said earl gave unto the said Nigel, two 
knight's fees in Englefield, near to Rothlan, in Flint- 
shire ; which lands, the said Nigel, and his successors, 
held till the time of Roger Hell. The said earl granted 
to the said constable and marshal, that if any man 
did commit theft, robbery, murder, or any such like 
offence, that the bailiffs of the said Nigel should appre- 
hend them, and bring them to his castle of Haulton, 
and presenting them at three court days at Chester, 
should the third time let them go free, unless there were 
any man that would speak against them. And this 
liberty was confirmed in the time of king Edward I. 
and Henry the earl of Lincoln, then lord of Haulton. 
Moreover, the said earl gave unto the said Nigel his 
marshal, street-ward in the fair-time at Chester, and 
market-guild in all the lands pertaining to the honour of 
Haulton, waiff and straiflT, likewise ; and that his castle 
of Haulton should be kernellatum. And to have a free- 
prison, and there to take castle-ward ; and to have in 
his lordship of Haulton infangtheof and outfangtheof, 
wrecks, forfeitures, and franciplegia, and whatsoever is 
thought to belong thereunto, and to have a free borough 
in Haulton. And that all his burgesses should be free, 
and quit of all felon, stalage, passage, pontage, and 
murage in the city of Chester, and throughout the 
county of Chester, as free as the tenants of the said earl 
are in Chester. 

Also, the said earl gave unto the said Nigell and 



Huddard, for his homage and service, Weston and 
Aston, with the appurtenances ; that is to say, for 
one knight's fee. And of this Huddard are all the But- 
tons come. Also the said Nigel gave unto the said 
Edard and Huddard, brethren afore-named, certain 
lands in Weston, which the heirs of William de Wes- 
ton did hold : and to the other brethren, Wolmer and 
Horswain, he gave certain lands in Runcorn ; which 
after the abbot and convent of our lady of Norton did 
possess, of the gift of William, the son of the said 
Nigel. Wolfaith, the first brother, was a priest, unto 
whom the said Nigel gave the church of Runcorn ; 
which after the canons of the said abbey of Norton had. 
The said William Fitz-Nigel founded the said church 
and abbey of Norton, and was buried at Chester. After 
whom succeeded William, the younger, his son, who 
gave to the aforesaid canons, in exchange, other lands ; 
that is to say, the town of Norton, for those lands in 
Runcorn, to be transported to Norton. This William 
died in Normandy without issue, and had two sisters, 
Agnes and Mauld, betwixt whom the honour of Haul- 
ton was divided. Agnes was married to one Eustace 
(whom some do surname Fitz-Roger), who was slain in 
Wales; and Mauld was married to Aubrey Grisley. 
The said Eustace had, by the said Agnes, a son named 
Richard (and surnamed Eustace), which Richard married 
Albreda, or Aubry, sister to Robert Lacy, and had by her 
John Lacy, constable of Chester, founder of Stanlow ; 
and another son, named Robert, knight of the Rhodes ; 
also two daughters, Mary married to Robert Aldford, 
and Audrey married to Henry Basset; John Lacy married 
AUce, sister to William Mandeville, and had issue, 
Roger, Eustace, Richard, Galfride, Peter, and Alice; 
Roger, the eldest son, constable of Chester, was sur- 
named Hell ; and this is he, of whom I have before 
made mention, in the life of Ranulph the third earl of 
Chester. The said Roger married Mauld de Clare, and 
had by her John Lacy, baron of Haulton, and constable 
of Chester, who married Margaret, daughter and heir 
to Robert Quincj^, earl of Lincoln, and of Havisa his 



king's ^ale EopaL 



99 



wife, sister to the said Ranulph, earl of Chester and 
Lincoln ; by which Margaret, he had issue Edmund 
Lacy, that died before his father ; who married Alice, 
daughter to the marquis of Saluce in Italy, and had by 
her Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln ; who married Mar- 
garet, daughter to William Longespe, earl of Salisbury', 



and had by her, Edmund, John, Alice, and Joan. Ed- 
mund and John died both young, whereof one perished 
by a fall into a deep well, within the castle of Denbigh; 
and Alice was married to Thomas, earl of Lancaster, 
who claimed, and had, all such privileges as his wife's 
predecessors had in Haulton. 



Cop^ of a §)tipplicatton, 

Exhibited to King Hen. VL by the Inhabitants of the County Palatine of Chester, 

Anno 1450. 



To THE King, our Sovereign Lord, 
Most Christian, benigne, and gracious king; 
we your humble subjects, and true obaisant liege people, 
the abbots, priors, and all the clergy; j'our barons, 
knights, and esquires ; and all the commonalt}' of your 
county palatine of Chester, meekly prayen and be- 
seechen your highness : where the said county is, and 
hath been a county palatine, as well before the con- 
quest of England, as continuall}' since, distinct and se- 
parate from the crown of England : within such county, 
you, and all your noble progenitors, sithen it came into 
your bands, and all rulers of the same, before that time, 
have had your high courts of parliament to hold at your 
wills, your chancery, your exchequer, your justice to 
hold pleas, as well of the crown, as of common-picas. 
And by authority of which parliament, to make or to 
admit laws within the same, such as be thought expe- 
dient and behoveful for the weal of you, of the inhe- 
ritors, and inheritance of the said county. And no in- 
heritors, or possessioners within the said county, be not 
chargeable, liable, nor have not been bounden, charged 
nor hurt, of their bodies, liberties, franchises, lands, 
goods, nor possessions, within the same county, have 
agreed unto. And for the more proof and plain evi- 
dences of the said franchises, immunities, and freedoms; 
the most victorious king William the Conqueror, your 
most noble progenitor, gave the same county to Hugh 
Loup his nephew, to hold as freely to him and to his 
heirs by the sword, as the same king should hold all 
England by the crown. Experience of which grant, to 
be so in all appeals and records out of the same ; where, 
at your common-law, it is written, contra coronam et dig- 
nitatem vestram: it is written in your time, and your 
noble progenitors, sith the said earldom came into your 
hands, and in all earls' time afore, contra dignitatem 
gladii Cestrice. And also, they have no knights, citizens, 
ne burgesses, ne ever had, of the said county, to any 
parliament holden out of the said county ; whereby they 
might in any way of reason be bounden. And also ye 
and your noble progenitors, and all earls, whose estate 
ye have in the said earldom ; as earls of Chester, sith 
the conquest of England, have had within the same ; 
regalem potestatem, jura regalia, prcerogativa regia. Which 
franchises notwithstanding, there be your commissions 
directed out to several commissioners of the same 
county, for the levy of subsidy, granted by the com- 
mons of your land, in your parliament, late begun at 
Westminster, and ended at Leicester, to make levy 
thereof within the said county, after the form of their 
grant thereof, contrary to the liberties, freedoms, and 
franchises of the said county, and inheritance of the 
same, at all times, before this time used. That it please 
your noble grace, of your blessed favour, the premises 



graciously to consider : and also, how that we your 
beseechers, have been as ready of our true hearts, with 
our goods, at times of need, as other parts of your land ; 
and also ready to obey your laws and ordinances, made, 
ordained, and admitted within the said county. And if 
any thing amongst us, ready to be reformed by your 
highness, by the advice of your council, within the 
said county. And hereupon to discharge all such com- 
missioners of levy ol the said subsidy within the said 
county. And of your special meer grace, ever, to see 
that there be never act in this parliament, nor in any 
parliament hereafter holden out of the said county, 
made to the hurt of any the inheritors, or inheritance 
of the said county, of their bodies, liberties, franchises, 
goods, lands, tenements, or possessions, being within 
the said county. For if any such act should be made, 
it were clean contrary to the liberties, freedoms, immu- 
nities, and franchises of the said county. And as to 
the resigning of such possessions, as it hath liked your 
highness to grant unto any of 3'our subjects : all such 
as have ought of grant within the said count}', will be 
ready to surrender their letters patents, which they have 
of your grant, for the more honourable keeping of your 
estate ; as any other person or persons within any other 
part of your land ; or else they shall be avoided by us, 
under your authority committed unto us, within your 
said county. And furthermore, considering that your 
beseechers, are, and ever have been true, dreading, 
obaisant, and loving unto you, and of you, as unto you ; 
and of our most dowted sovereign lord, our earl and 
natural lord : we the said barons, knights, esquires, and 
commons, are ready to live and die with you, against 
all earthly creatures ; and by your license, to shew unto 
your highness, for the gracious expedition of this our 
most behoveful petition. And we the said abbots, 
priors, and clergy, continually to pray to God for your 
most honourable estate, prosperity, and felicity, which 
we all beseech God to continue, with as long life to 
reign, as ever did prince upon people ; with issue 
coming of your most gracious body, perpetually to reign 
upon us, for all our most singular joy and comfort. 

The King's will is, to the subsidy in this bill con- 
tained ; forasmuch as he has learned, that the beseech- 
ers in the same, their predecessors, nor ancestors, have 
not been charged afore this time, by authority of any 
parliament holden out of the said county, of any quin- 
disme, or subsidy, granted unto him, or any of his pro- 
genitors, in any such parliament ; that the beseechers, 
and each of them be discharged of the paying and levy 
of the said subsidy. And furthermore the king willeth, 
that the said beseechers, tlieir successors and heirs, have 
and enjoy all their liberties, freedoms, and franchises, 
as freely and entirely as ever they, their predecessors or 



100 



Ct)e ilistor? of Cf)esl)ire. 



ancestors in his time, or in time of his progenitors, had command our chief justice of our common pleas, sir 

and enjoyed it. James Dier, knight, with other three of our justices, 

that is to say, Richard Weston, Richard Harper, and 

Prosecuta fuit ista billa ad dominum regem per Jo- Thomas Cams, esquires, to call before them our officers 

hannem Manwaring militem, Radulphum Egerton, Ro- of our said county palatine, and such others also as pre- 

bertum Foulshurst Robertum Leigh de Adlington, et tended to impeach the said jurisdiction, and thereupon 

Johannem Needham, anno R. R- H. VI. post conques- to certify us what they should find due to be done for 

turn Anglise, vicessimo nono. good order in the premises ; whereupon they have 

By the King. shewed and declared unto us in writing, signed with 

Trusty and well-beloved in God, and trusty and well- their hands, their opinions concerning the said jurisdic- 
beloved we greet you well. And forasmuch as we have tion and liberties ; and also concerning a controversy 
understanding, by a supplication presented unto us, on between our president and council of Wales, and our 
the behalf of all our liege-people, within our county chamberlain of our said county palatine, grown upon 
palatine of Chester : how their predecessors, nor ances- a case of one Thomas Radford. And to the intent, 
tors have not been charged before tliis time with any some good order may issue and continue hereafter, for 
fifteenth or subsidy, granted unto us, or any of our pro- tje quietness, and for justice within our said county 
genitors, by authority of any parliament, holden out of palatine, we do herewith send you the said writing of 
our said county. For which cause, we have charged the said justices, contained in one sheet of paper, pre- 
our chamberlain of our said county, to make our writs, sented unto us the tenth day of February last, and sub- 
directed to all our commissioners, ordained for the as- scribed with their hands. Willing and requiring you, 
sessing and levy of the subsidy last granted unto us : to cause the same to be entered and enrolled in our 
chargino- them to surcease of any execution of our let- chancery, to remain of record, and to be used and ex- 
ters of commission, made unto them, in that parties, emplified hereafter, for the benefit of our said county 
Wherefore according to our commandment late given palatine, and the resients therein, as the cause shall 
by us, unto our said chamberlain : we will, that ye in require : and these our letters shall be your sufficient 



our behalf, open and declare unto all our said liege- 
people, how it is our full will and intent, that they be 
not charged with any such grant, otherwise than they, 
their predecessors and ancestors, have been charged 
afore time. And that they have and hold, posside and 
enjoy, all their liberties, freedoms, and franchises, in as 
ample and large form, as ever they had in our, or any 
of our said progenitors' days. And that ye fail not 
thereof, as we trust you, and as you deem to please us. 

Given under our signet of the eagle, at our palace of 
Westminster, the eighth day of March, anno R. R. 
H. VI. vicessimo nono. 

To our trusty and well-beloved in God, the abbot 
of our monastery of Chester; and to our trusty 
and well-beloved knights, sir Thomas Standley, 
our justices of Chester, and sir John Manwaring, 
and to every of them. 



warrant and discharge in this behalf. 

Given under our signet, at our palace of Westmin- 
ster, the sixteenth day of March, anno 1368, the 
eleventh year of our reign. 

Inspeximus etiam irrotulamentum opinionis dilecto- 
rum nostrorum Jacobi Dier militis, capitalis justiciarii 
nostri de communi banco : Richardi Weston et Richardi 
Harper, duorum aliorum justiciariorum de communi 
banco, et Thomas Cams unius justiciariorum nostrorum 
ad placita, coram nobis tenendi, assignandi, tangendi 
et concemendi jurisdictionem et libertates comitatus 
nostri Pallentini Cestrise, in rotulis cancellarise nostra;, 
virtute commissionis predict, irrotulat. et ibidem similiter 
de recordo remanent, in ha;c verba. 

The opinion of us, sir James Dier, knight, chief 
justice of the common pleas at Westminster, Richard 
Weston and Richard Harper, esquires, two other jus- 
tices of the same common pleas, and of Thomas Cams, 
esquire, one of the justices of the pleas to be holden 
before her majesty, declared and presented unto her 
highness the tenth day of February, 1568 ; by virtue of 
her majesty's letters, to us directed the second day of 
the same month, concerning the jurisdiction and liber- 
ties of the county palatine of Chester, and the authority 
of the chamberlain and his office there, and concerning 



Hereafter followeth the Confirmation of the 
Liberties of the County Palatine, by ouk 
Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1568. 

Elizabeth, Dei gratia, Anglise, Francise, et Hiber- 
nia; regina : fidei defensor, &c. Omnibus ad quos pre- 
sentes literse pervenerint salutem. Inspeximus irrotu- 
lamentum cujusdam commissionis, directas perdilecto 

et perqu&m fideli consiliario nostro Nicholao Bacon the controversy between the lord-president and council 

militi, custodi magni sigilli nostri Anglioe, in rotulis in Wales, and the said chamberlain's office, lately grown 

cancellariae nostrae, irrotulat. et ibidem de recordo re- upon Thomas Radford's case, exhibiteth unto us as 

manent. in haec verba. ensueth : 

First, by what we have seen and considered, the 
Elizabeth by the grace of God, &c. To our right county of Chester, wherein the city of Chester is, is 
trusty and well-beloved counsellor, sir Nicholas Bacon, now, and, for a good time past, hath been a county of 
knight, keeper of the great seal of England, greeting, itself, of very ancient time, before the reign of king 
Whereas we have been informed, that the jurisdiction Henry HI. hath been, and yet is, a county palatine, 
and authority of our county palatine of Chester, hath with other members thereunto belonging, and so from 
been of late years impeached, by certain foreign officers, time to time hath been received and allowed in law. 
upon pretence of a certain jurisdiction, claimed by them And therefore the laws, rightful usages, and customs of 
within the said county, contrary to the ancient right of the said county palatine, are to be preserved and main- 
our said county palatine: well minding to have our tained. 
said county preserved in the ancient right thereof, did It further evidently appeareth, by the like time of 



J 



Hing's male Eo^aL 



101 



antiquity and continuance, there hath been, and yet is, 
in the said county palatine, one principal or head 
officer, called, the chamberlain of Chester, who hath, 
and ever had, all jurisdiction belonging to the office of 
chancellor, within the said county palatine : and that 
there is also in the said county palatine, a justice, for 
matters in the common pleas, and pleas of the crown, 
to be heard and determined within the said county pala- 
tine, commonly called, the justice of Chester. 

We also see, that all pleas of lands or tenements, and 
all other contracts, causes, and matters, rising and 
growing within the said county palatine, are pleadable, 
and ought to be pleaded, heard, and judicially deter- 
mined, within the said county palatine, and not else- 
where out of the said county palatine : and if any be 
heard, pleaded, or judged out of the said county pala- 
tine, the same iS void, and coram non judice, except it 
be in causes of error, foreign plea, or foreign vouch. 

We also see, that no inhabitant of the said county 
palatine, by the liberties, laws, and usages of the same 
county palatine, ought to be called or compelled, by 
any writ or process, to appear or answer any matter or 
cause out of the said county palatine, for any the causes 
aforesaid, but only in causes of treason and error. And 
that the queen's writ doth not come, nor ought to be 
allowed, or used within the said county palatine, but 
under the seal of the said county palatine, except writs 
of proclamations, by the statute of king Edward VI. 
An. reg. primo. 

It doth further appear unto us by good matter of re- 
cord, to us shewed, that the court of the exchequer at 
Chester is, and by the time of antiquity and conti- 
nuance aforesaid, hath been used, as the chancery 
court for the said county palatine : and that the cham- 
berlain of Chester is the chief officer, and judge of that 
court. And that he is, and time out of mind hath been, 
a conservator of the peace by virtue of the same office. 
And hath like power, authority, preheminence, jurisdic- 
diction, execution of law, and all other customs, com- 
modities, and advantages pertaining to the jurisdiction 
of a chancellor within the said county palatine of Ches- 
ter; as the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster hath 
used, had, or ought to have used and executed,^ within 
the county palatine of Lancaster. Which more evi- 
dently appeareth by the understanding of the first grant, 
made by king Edward III. unto John his son, then 
duke of Lancaster, whereby he made the said county of 
Lancaster, palatine ; referring the said duke to have his 
chancellor, liberties, and regal jurisdiction to a county 
palatine belonging, adeo integre et libere, sicut comes 
CestritE, infra eundem comitatum Cestria, dignoscitur 
obtinere. 



Also it appeareth unto us, that the vice-chamberlain 
did lawfully and orderly commit to prison Thomas Rad- 
ford, named in the case preferred unto us, for that he 
refused to put in sureties of the peace, within the said 
exchequer, upon affidavit made in that behalf. And 
that the proceedings of the council in the Marches, 
touching the enlargement of the said Radford from the 
said imprisonment, and also their further order and 
dealing against the said vice-chamberlain, was, and is, 
without sufficient authority, and contrary to the juris- ■ 
diction of the office of the said chamberlain, and the 
ancient laws and liberties of the said county palatine. 

And we do also affirm, that the statute of 34 and 35 
of king Henry VIII. called, the Ordinances of Wales, 
whereby the authority of the lord president and council, 
within the dominion and principality of Wales, and the 
Marches of the same, is established, and hath the force 
of a law, for or concerning the determination of causes 
and matters of the same, comprehendeth not the county 
of Chester, and the city of Chester. Because the same 
county of Chester, and the city of Chester, be no part 
nor parcel of the dominion or principality of Wales, or 
of the Marches of the same. 

And for the enjoying of which liberties within the said 
county palatine, we perceive, that the inhabitants of 
the said county of Chester have paid, and must pay 
rightfully, at the change of every owner of the said earl^ 
dom, 3000 marks, called a mize. 

And the inhabitants of the county of Fhnt, being 
parcel of the said county palatine, must likewise pay 
2000 marks, which is also called a mize. 

Nos autem tenores irrotulamentorum praedictorum, 
ad requisitionem consanguinei et consiliarii nostri Ro- 
berti comitis Leicestriae, camerarii nostri Cestria;, dux- 
imus exeraplificandos per prsEsentes. 

In cujus rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri fe- 
ciraus patentes. Teste meipsa, apud Westmonasterium, 
vicessimo secundo die Martii, anno regni nostri undecimo, 

POWLE. 



j'Johannem Gybon, -\ 
Examinatur per nos -< Johannem Orphini vClericos. 
V- Strange. ) 

That the county of Flint pertained to the county pa- 
latine of Chester until this controversy chanced ; and 
then it revolted, and joined itself to the principality 
of Wales. 



flere liejsinneti) ti}t particular description* 



This county palatine of Chester, which in our com- 
mon speech is called Chestershire, and b3' corruption, 
more short, Cheshire, lieth on the north-west corner of 
that country, which was sometimes under the govern- 
ment of the kings of Marcia, as is before declared : 
Whose people were called b}' the Romans Devani ; that 
is, bordering on the river Dee. The proportion thereof 
is almost three cornered, or rather like to the wing of an 
eagle, being stretched forth at length. It hath on the 

t 



north side, Lancashire ; from which it is divided by the 
river of Marsey. On the north-east corner it toucheth 
upon Yorkshire. On the east it hath Darbyshire ; and 
Staffordshire on the south-east : from which two shires, 
it is divided by certain hills and mountains ; and, in 
some places, by brooks or rivers. On the south it hath 
Shropshire, and a part of Flintshire : on the west Den- 
byshire, and all the rest of Flintshire : and on the north- 
west corner it hath the Irish ocean. The longest 

D D 



102 



C|)e Ststot^ of Cfjesfjire* 



length thereof is from the Wood-head in the east (where 
the river of Marsey springeth) unto the furthest part of 
Werral, in the west (where the said river falleth into the 
sea), which I find to be about forty-four miles, following 
the course of the river. The broadest place thereof is 
from Crossford-bridge, on the north-side, to Titley-hall 
on the south, about twenty-five miles : and the compass 
thereof round about is near a hundred and twelve miles, 
every mile containing at the least fifteen hundred paces, 
and every pace five foot. In which circuit (besides the 
city of Chester), there is eleven market towns ; and of 
other towns and villages, with churches or chapels, 
about the number of a hundred and twenty-five, whereof 
eighty-seven are parish-churches. The longitude thereof 
is seventeen degrees thirty minutes, and the latitude of 
the pole-arctic fifty-three degrees thirty minutes. 

By natural situation it lieth low, nevertheless very 
pleasant, abounding in plenteousness of all things need- 
ful and necessary for man's use ; insomuch, that it me- 
rited and had the name of The Vale-Royal of England ; 
which name king Edward the First gave unto the abbey 
of Vale-Royal, which he founded upon the river Weever, 
in the midst of the same shire. The air is very whole- 
some ; insomuch, that the people of the country are 
seldom infected with diseases or sickness, neither do they 
use the help of the physicians, nothing so much as in 
other countries : for when any of them are sick, they 
make him a posset, and tie a kerchief on his head ; and 
if that will not amend him, then God be merciful unto 
him. The people there live till they be very old ; some 
are grand-fathers, their fathers yet living ; and some are 
grand-fathers before they be married. 

The summer time is temperate, and aboundeth not so 
much in heat as in other places, howbeit the winter is 
somewhat colder, and is oftentimes subject to great tem- 
pests of winds, especially when it bloweth at the west 
or north-west ; and namely the country of Werral, by 
reason of the sea at hand. 

The country, albeit it be in most places flat and even ; 
yet hath it certain hills of name (besides the mountains, 
which divide it from Staffordshire and Darbyshire), as 
Frodshum Hills, Peckfarton Hills, Buckley Hills, Helsby 
Tor, Wine Cader Hill, Shutlingslow Hill, Penket Cloud, 
Congleton Hedge (or Edge), Mowcop Hill, which is a 
mile from the foot to the top, but standeth most part in 
Stafl^ordshire. 

It aboundeth chiefly in arable, pasture, meadow, and 
woodland, waters, heaths, or mosses : and first, of woods, 
there is many, and of divers names and bigness ; and 
namely, two famous forests : that is, the forest of Dela- 
mer, not far from Chester ; and Maxfield forest, hard 
by Maxfield : also great store of parks ; for every gentle- 
man, almost, hath his own park. 

Of waters, there is also great store, in manner of 
lakes, which they call meres ; as Combermere, Bagmere, 
Comberbach, Pickmere, Ransthorn-mere, Okehanger- 
mere ; and certain also which they call pools ; as Ridley- 
pool, Darnal-pool, New-pool, Petti-pool, and divers 
others, wherein aboundeth all kinds of fresh-fish, as 
carps, tenches, breams, roches, daces, trouts, and eels, 
in great store. 

The heaths are common, so that they serve for cattle 
to feed on, especially sheep and horses ; a good help for 
the poorer sort. 

Out of the mosses they dig turves every summer, 
every man as shall serve his turn, to burn all the year : 
which turves, in some places, when they are dry, are 
reddish and soft, much like a sponge, which burneth 



fast away, and giveth not so good a light or heat as 
the other sort, which are black and very hard when they 
be dried, and are much better than the other. 

Moreover, in these mosses (especially in the black) 
are fir-trees, found under the ground (a thing marvel- 
lous !) in some places six foot deep, or more, and in 
some places not one foot; which trees are of a marvel- 
lous length, and straight, having certain small branches, 
like boughs, and roots at the one end, like as if they 
had been blown down with weather ; and yet no man 
can tell that ever any such trees did grow there ; nor 
yet, how they should come thither. Some hold opinion, 
that they have lain there ever since Noah's flood. 

These trees being found (which the owners do search 
out with a long spit of iron, or such like) they are then 
digged up, and first being sawed into short pieces (every 
piece of the length of a yard), then they cleave the said 
pieces very small ; yea, even as the back of a knife, the 
which they use instead of a candle, to burn, and they 
giveth a very good light : It hath a long snufi^, and yet in 
falling doth no harm, although it should light into tow, 
flax, or such like. 

Besides the heaths, mosses, woods and commons, the 
rest is inclosed ground, both for pasture and tillage, but 
the third part thereof, in a manner, is reserved only for 
tillage, which bringeth forth corn in great quantity 
(howbeit, more in some places than in othersome), es- 
peciallj' wheat and rye (which they sow in September, 
and so lieth in the ground all winter) : also, oats and 
barle}-, beans, pease, fitches, French wheat, and such 
like. 

The pasture ground is reserved, especially, for their 
kine (for their sheep and horses commonly go upon the 
commons.) The cause of their keeping of so many 
kine, is as well for breeding of cattle, as for their milk ; 
wherewith (besides that which they spend in their houses) 
they make great store both of butter and cheese. In 
praise whereof, I need not to say much, seeing that it 
is well known, that no other country in the realm may 
compare therewith, nor yet beyond the seas : no, not 
Holland in goodness, although in quantity it far ex- 
ceed. 

Their young cattle, which they breed and bring up 
(their own turn being served), they bring the rest to the 
market to sell, and many times are brought up as far as 
London, and further, by graziers who buy them there : 
and feeding them a certain time, do then sell them 
again. 

Their oxen are very large, and big of bone, and alto- 
gether with fair and long horns ; so that a man shall 
find divers, whose horns at the tops are more than three 
foot wide, or asunder, one from another ; with the which 
oxen they do all labour ; as tilling of their ground, 
carting of their corn, hay, turves, and wood, and gome 
come to London, with their wains laden with salt. They 
keep their oxen all the winter time in house ; but not 
their kine, as they do in some other countries. 

They keep nothing so many sheep, as in other coun- 
tries, because their ground serveth better to other pur- 
poses ; for commonly, they keep but so many, as to 
serve in their own houses for provision, and to sell to 
the butcher, and that the wool thereof may suffice to 
make apparel for their household. Of which sheep some 
have horns, and some not. Some are all black, and the 
wool thereof being spun and woven into cloth, or ker- 
sey, as it is undied, is not black, but more liker brown, 
such as we call a sheep's russet. 

Horses and mares they keep but so many as to serve 



Mn^'s ®ale ^ojaL 



103 



their turn, to ride on, or to carry corn to the mill (how- 
beit, in most places, the millers have carriers, which 
fetch the corn, and when it is ground, do bring it home 
again.) As for horses and mares to draw, they use not 
any, but only one or two at the most, to go before their 
oxen, except in some certain places, and that is com- 
monly amongst them that dwell on sandy ground. 

Swine, geese, ducks, cocks, capons, and hens, there is 
like store, as in other countries ; but all things much 
better cheap there, than in the south part of England. 

Besides the great store of deer, both red and fallow, 
in the two forests before named, there is also areat 
plenty of hares : In hunting whereof the gentlemen do 
pass much of their time, especially in winter: also great 
store of conies, both black and grey; namely, in those 
places where it is sandy ground : Neither doth it lack 
foxes, fulmards, otters, basons, and such like. 

Wild fowl aboundeth there in such store, as in no 
other country have I seen the like; namely, wild-geese, 
and wild-ducks. Of which first sort, a man shall see 
sometimes flying near two hundred in one flock ; and 
likewise of the ducks, forty or fifty in a flock. And in 
other kinds also it hath like store; as phesant, moor- 
hen, partridg, woodcocks, plovers, teels, widgins, and 
of all kinds of small birds. So hath it on the contrary 
sort, ravens, crows, choughs, kites, gleads, and such 
like. 

Of fruits; as apples, pears, wardens, plums, cherries, 
and such like, they have plenty in their orchards, not 
only to serve their own turn, but also to sell and give 
away. But quinces have I not seen in any place of the 
country that I remember. 

Likewise, doth every man keep certain hives of bees; 
but no greater store, commonly, than to serve their own 
turn ; yet some do bring to market both wax and 
honey. 

The soil of the country is, in most places clay, both 
black and red; in the which is found, in some places, 
certain veins of sand ; in other places it is black sand, 
which is near unto mosses. There is also found a cer- 
tain kind of fat clay, called marl, both white and red, 
which they dig up and spread upon their arable ground, 
which maketh it more ranker, and bringeth corn in as 
great abundance as that which is dunged. 

There is in some places, choak, white-lime, oker, 
red and yellow, and a certain kind of fine red earth, like 
unto red lead, and in some places cole. 

Likewise rocks and quarries of stone, out of which 
they dig very fair stones for building, and all kind of 
masonry ; also very broad slates, wherewith they cover 
their houses, and blue slate : But they that dwell far off, 
do use shingle of wood instead of slate. 

Also, there are very fair miil-stones digged up at 
Mowcop-hill. 

And to make an end, I must not forget the chiefest 
thing of all, and that is the salt wells, which they call 



brine pits; out of the which they make yearly a great 
quantity of fine white salt; a singular commodity, no 
doubt, not only to the country, but also to the whole 
realm ; wherein this shire excelleth, not only all other 
shires in England, but also all other countries beyond 
the seas. For in no country where I have been, have 
they any more than one well in a country : Neither at 
Durtwich in Worcestershire is any more than one; 
whereas in this country are four, and all within ten 
miles together; that is, one at Nantwich, another at 
Nonhwich, and two at Middlewich : In describing of 
which towns, more shall be said thereof. 

In building and furniture of their houses, till of late 
years, they used the old manner of the Saxons : For they 
had their fre in the midst of the house, against a hob of 
clay, and their oxen also under the same roof; hut zeithin 
these forty years it is altogether altered, so that they have 
builded chimnies, and furnished other parts of their houses 
accordingly. 

The people of the country are of a nature very gentle 
and courteous, ready to help and further one another • 
and that is to be seen chiefly in the harvest time; how 
careful are they of one another. In religion very zeal- 
ous, hovi'beit somewhat addicted to superstition, which 
Cometh through want of preaching. For the harvest is 
plenty, but the reapers are few. It is a thing to be la- 
mented, and redress to be wished, for in some places 
the)' have not a sermon in a whole year : Otherwise they 
are of stomach stout, bold, and hardy ; of stature tall 
and mighty ; withal impatient of wrong, and ready to 
resist the enemy or stranger that shall invade their 
countrj' : The very name whereof they cannot abide • 
and namely, of a Scot. 

So have they been always, true, faithful, and obedient 
to their superiors ; insomuch, that it cannot be said 
that they have at any time stirred one spark of rebel- 
lion, either against the king's majesty, or against their 
own peculiar lord or governor. 

Likewise be the women very friendly and loving, pain- 
ful in labour, and in all other kind of housewifery ex- 
pert, fruitful in bearing of children, after they be mar- 
ried, and sometimes before. 

Touching their housekeeping ; it is bountiful, and 
comparable with any other shire in the realm. And that 
is to be seen at their weddings and burials, but chiefly at 
their wakes, which they yearly hold (although it be of 
late years well laid down) ; for this is to be understood, 
that they lay out seldom any money for any provision 
but have it of their own, as beef, mutton, veal, pork, 
capons, hens, wild fowl, and fish. They bake their own 
bread, and brew their own drink. 

To conclude, I know divers men, who are but far- 
mers, that in their housekeeping may compare with a 
lord or baron in some countries beyond the seas. Yea, 
although I named a higher degree, I were able to jus- 
tify it. 



104 



%\^t ©ijstorp of Cf)e0l[)tte, 



'Efjt Courses of all tl)e Eitjers, 



The Dee, called in Latin Dea, in British Pifirdwy, is 
not only the chiefest river of this country, but also of 
all North Wales. I may well call it of this country; 
because it hath in some places, Cheshire on both sides 
thereof. And of it was the city of Chester, in times 
past called Deva, and the people of the country, De- 
vani. In springeth in Merionethshire in North-Wales, 
two miles from the great lake called Tegill : which lake 
is engendered, or rather fed, by divers rills and rive- 
rets, which descend from the mountains. The chiefest 
whereof is called Funon Dourdroy ; that is the head or 
fountain of the river Dee. From which lake it passeth 
north-east, near to a town called Bala, where it taketh 
in the river of Trowerin, from thence to Lanvair, Lander- 
velgadern, and Langar, near which town it receiveth 
the river Alwin (which Cometh out of Denbighshire), 
and so passeth to Corwen and Llansantfraid, and not 
far from thence entereth through Denbighshire, to Llan- 
disilio, Llangellon, Dinasbrain Castle, and beneath 
Ruabon, taketh in a small river, called Christioneth, 
and not far from thence, the Keriog, which cometh from 
Chirk. And here it hath Shropshire on the right ripe, 
for the space of two miles ; and thence proceedeth to 
Bestock, by Orton Madock ; and lastly, to Banger, 
where the slaughter of monks was (as before is declared 
in fol. 2.) having Flintshire on the right ripe, and Den- 
bighshire on the left. 

From Bangor it passeth to Worthenbury, where it 
receiveth a small river, that cometh from the east, hav- 
ino' two principal heads or meres : the one at Blakmere 
in Shropshire, which runneth through Whitchurch : the 
other at Coisley in Cheshire, from thence it goeth to 
Shocklich in Cheshire (where it hath Cheshire on the 
east, and Denbighshire on the west) ; not far from 
thence, it receiveth in a river that cometh from Wrix- 
ham, and also a little brook that cometh from Old- 
Castle, not far from the town of Malpas. And after- 
wards keeping his course north, and sometimes north- 
west : It passeth between Holt and Farnton, and after 
cometh to Churton ; where, within a mile beneath, it 
taketh in the river of Allen (which in some places parteth 
Denbighshire and Flintshire) ; so that it leaveth Den- 
bighshire on the west side, and hath Flintshire on the 
same side ; but not very far : for at Pooton (which is 
but a mile from thence), it hath Cheshire on both sides 
thereof, and so passeth by Audford, Eaton-Hall, Eccles- 
ton, Huntington-Hall, and lastly, toucheth on the 
south side of the famous city of Chester, capital city of 
the whole shire), where having passed the bridge, it 
fetcheth a round compass, making a fair plain, called 
the Rood- Eye ; and after toucheth on the west side of 
the city, at the Watergate. And having passed from 
thence, it receiveth the Flooker's-Book without the 
Northgate of Chester, which brook departeth Werral 
from the rest of Cheshire. Afterwards the Dee becometh 
very broad, so that at Shotwick Castle, over into Flint- 
shire, it is a mile broad ; at the New-Key (which is six 
miles from Chester), it is above two miles broad : unto 
which Key, all such goods or merchandize is sent and 
brought, which passeth or repasseth from any other 
country. And last of all, at Helbree-island (which is at 



the very corner of Werral) it is above four miles broad. 
So that being past the said island (which is sixteen 
miles from Chester,) it is called the sea. So that the 
whole course thereof, from the head unto the sea is 
about fifty-five miles. Which river of Dee aboundeth 
in all manner offish, especially salmons and trouts. 

The number of quicksands in this river, and the rage 
of winds, causeth changing of the channel. A south or 
north moon maketh a full sea at Chester. 

The Course of the River o/"Marsey. 

The Marsey is the second river of Cheshire, which 
springeth at a place called the Wood-Head, amongst the 
Peak-Hills : where these three shires, Yorkshire, Darby- 
shire, and Cheshire, do join together ; and keepeth his 
course south-west, to Mottram in Longendale, being 
the limit and mark between Darbs'shire and Cheshire, 
from the very head ; until it meet with a small river 
named Goit, which is three miles beneath the said Mot- 
tram ; where turning west, it crosseth over a corner of 
Cheshire, whereby it hath Cheshire on both sides, and 
cometh to the market town of Stopford ; but before it 
come there, it taketh in the Tame, which departeth 
Cheshire and Lancashire, till it meet with the Marsey ; 
and then the Marsey divideth them all his course, which 
is from Stopford to Chedle (where it receiveth a small 
river that cometh out of Lyme-Park, by Pointon, Nor- 
bury, and Bromhall), and then passeth to Northen, 
Stretford, Ashton on Marsey Bank, and Flixton, where 
it taketh in the Irwell, that cometh from Manchester, 
from thence to Partington and Hollingreen, where it 
receiveth the Gles, which cometh from Leigh in Lanca- 
shire ; and not far beneath, at Rixton, the Bollin, here- 
after described ; and before it come to Thelwall, a small 
brook that cometh from High Ligh and Lyme, and so 
cometh to Warrington in Lancashire, where the last 
bridge is that goeth over it ; nor far from thence it 
taketh in a small brook on Lancashire side, and beneath 
that, another that cometh from Gropnall, then the third 
on Lancashire side ; and lastly, the Grimsditch on 
Cheshire side, and so cometh to Runcorn, where there 
is a ferry to pass over. Half a mile from Runcorn, at 
Weston (commonly called Windy Weston), it meeteth 
with the \'\ eever, by means whereof, it suddenly be- 
cometh a mile broad, or more, at a full sea, and so 
goeth to Ince, and after taking in a river, which some 
call Gowy, cometh lastly to Lirpool, where it is much 
more narrower ; and there is likewise a ferry. Three 
miles from Lirpool, that falleth into the Irish Sea, mak- 
ing a fair haven, called Lirpool Haven. Which river 
of Marsey yieldeth great store of salmons, conger, 
playce, and flounders, which they call flounks ; smelts, 
which they call sparlings ; and shrimps, which they call 
beards. The whole course of the Marsey is about forty- 
four miles. 

- The Course of the River o/'Weever. 

The Weever springeth out of Ridley Pool (which 
Pool is engendered by certain waters descending from 



Hing's mult Eo^aL 



105 



Buckley and Peckfarton Hills/' and stretcheth along 
from Peckfarton by Ridley-Hall to Cholmley), from 
which Pool the Weever keepeth his course south-east 
to Wrenbury, where it taketh in a small brook that 
Cometh out of Marbury Meare, and, three miles from 
thence, another that cometh out of Comber Mear; and 
then it goeth east to Aulem, where it receiveth a river 
that springeth not far from Draiton in Shropshire. 
Then keeping his course directly northward by Hanky- 
low, three miles thence it receiveth in a small river that 
cometh from Wybenbury, and so passeth through 
Nantwich, to Beambridge, and not far from thence re- 
ceiveth a small brook, called Hurlston, and shortly after 
two other in one channel, which come from Marchford- 
bridge. 

From thence it goeth to Minshull, to the manor place 
of Weever, belonging to Mr. Stanley; to Winsford- 
bridge, the Vale-Royal, and Eaton ; to Hartford-bridge, 
and so to the Northwich, where it joineth with the 
Dane, and half a mile beneath the town, with the Pee- 
ver ; after which confluences, it goeth by Wereham to 
Acton-bridge, and the manor place of Dutton; and 
taking in three small rivers which come out of Dela- 
mer Forest, it cometh lastly to Frodsham-bridge, and 
not far from thence, by Rocksavage, meeteth with the 
Marsey at Weston, as is before declared, whose full 
course from the head is about thirty-three miles. 

The Course of the River o/'Dane. 

The Dane springeth in Maxfield Forest amongst the 
mountains, on the very edge of the shires of Chester, 
Derby, and Stafford, not far from a place called the 
The Three Shire Mears ; at which place also riseth two 
other rivers, the Goit, which parteth Cheshire from 
Derbyshire; and the Doue, which parteth Derbyshire 
from Staffordshire. The Dane then from its head is a 
limit between Cheshire and Staffordshire, until it come 
within two miles of Congleton ; and not far from which 
town it taketh in a water that cometh from Biddel, in 
Staffordshire. From Congleton the Dane runneth to 
Radnor-bridge, to the manor place of Davenport (com- 
monly called Damport), to the Armitage, and not far 
from Holmes-Chapel, to Cranage-bridge, Byley-bridge, 
within half a mile of the Middlewich, and at Croxton 
taketh in the Wheelock, hereafter described, and so 
passeth to Shipbrook, near unto Daneham, and at 
Northwich falleth into the Weever, and there loseth 
name. Although it be comparable with the ^^^eever in 
all respects, this difference is to be marked in these two 
rivers : the Weever is narrow, deep, and runneth slow ; 
the Dane is broad, shallow, and runneth swift. The 
course of the Dane, from the head until Northwich, 
where it falleth into the Weever, is about twenty- two 
miles. 

The Course of the River o/'Bollin. 

The Bollin springeth of divers heads in Maxfield 
Forest also, not far from the head of Dane. But the 
two principal heads come from the foot of Shutlingslow- 
hill, by the Hall of Ridge, and after taketh in another 
that cometh from the Chamber in the Forest, and so 
passeth to the Hall of Sutton (the ancient house of the 
Suttons) to Maxfield, BolHnton, Prestbury, and New- 
ton ; where, hard by, it taketh in a brook (that cometh 
from Pot-Chapel by Adlington and Woodford) ; from 
thence it passeth to Winslow, Pownall, Ringay, Ashley, 

t 



and by Bowdon, taketh in a small river called Birkin, 
which cometh from Mobberley, and soon after another, 
which cometh out of Ransthorm Mear ; and then goeth 
by Dunham, and not far from Warburton, falleth into 
the Marsey at Rixton ; whose course is about twenty 
miles. 

The Course of the River o/'Peever. 

The Peever springeth of two heads, one near Max- 
field, the other near Goseworth, which passeth by Sid- 
dington, and meet together by Chelford-Chapel, from 
whence it goeth to Upper Peever, Nether Peever, and 
Holford ; and after it is past "Winchambridge, it receiveth 
in the Lostock water, and then another that cometh 
out of Budworth Mear, and so falleth into the Weever, 
a little beneath the Northwich ; so that the whole 
course thereof is about fourteen or fifteen miles. 

The Course of the River o/' Wheelock. 

The Wheelock is also engendered of three small 
rivers, which spring not far from Mowcop Hill. The 
first cometh from Morton Hall, in Astbury parish, the 
other two from Lawton and Rode Hal], and meet toge- 
ther not far from Sandbach. From whence it passeth 
to the town and manor place of Wheelock, belonging 
to Mr. Liversedge ; to Elton, where it taketh in the Ful- 
brook, that cometh out of Oke-hanger Mear; and then 
goeth to Warmincsham, Sutton Mill, Wheelock Mill, 
and not far off falleth into the Dane at Croxton. This 
is here to be noted, that like as the water which falleth 
down on the west side of Mowcop engendereth this 
Wheelock, so doth that which falleth on the east-side 
make the very head of the famous river of Trent. The 
whole course of the Wheelock is about twelve miles. 

The Course of the River of Tav we. 

The Taume springeth in Yorkshire, at a village called 
Taume, and parteth Lancashire and Cheshire asunder 
all his course, which is from Micklehurst to Stayly Hall, 
Ashton Under Lyme, Duckenfield, Denton, Redish, and 
so near Stopfbrd falleth into the Marsey, where it giveth 
over both name and office. The whole course is about 
ten miles. 

The Course of the River ofGon. 

The Goit springeth in Maxfield Forest, and keepeth 
his course directly north to Taxhall and Shawcrosse, 
taking in on the east side two or three small rivers, and 
is a limit between Cheshire and Derbyshire, until it fall 
into the Marsey, which is not far from Goit Hall ; the 
space of nine miles, or thereabouts. 

Rivers in Cheshire. 

These be the chiefest rivers of name in Cheshire : But 
whereas some have written of divers others, as the 
Gowy, Wirral, Conibrus, Betley, Salop or Bar, Lea and 
Wulvarn, Ash, Biddel, Croco, Birkin, Mar, and Grims- 
ditch. These names are rather devised, or conjectured, 
than otherwise; yea, some of them feigned. Yet, to 
satisfy such as be desirous to know their courses, I will 
set down what I know, and not follow the reports of 
them which have written. 

The Gowy. 

That, therefore, which they call the Gowy, hath his 
head not far from Bunbury, and runneth north-west by 

E E 



106 



Ct)e History of Ci)e0j)ire« 



Beeston Castle, to Teerton and Huxley, where it di- 
videth itself into two parts ; one goeth west to Tatten- 
hall, Gosburn, Lea Hall, and at Aldford falleth into tlie 
Dee. The other part goeth northwards to Stapleford, 
Hocknel-plat, and Barrow (where it taketh in a brook 
that Cometh from Tarporley and Tarvin), and so passeth 
to Plemstow-bridge, Trafford, Picton, and Thornton, 
where it divideth itself again into two parts; one of 
which keepeth its course north-west to Stanley, Stanney, 
and Poole, and afterwards falleth into the Marsey. The 
other part goeth south-west to Stoke, Croughton, 
Chorlton, the Baits, and so falleth into the Dee, hard 
by Chester, being there called Flooker's-brook, and di- 
videth Wirral from the rest of Cheshire ; and therefore 
some imagine that it is called Wirral ''. 

The Combrus. 

The Combrus is that which cometh out of Comber 
Mere, and falleth into the Weever. 

The Betley. 

The Betley cometh from a town called Betley, near the 
Wrine Hill, and runneth by Duddington, Wybenbury, 
Barderton, and so into the Weever. 

The Hurlston. 

The Salop is a little brook which falleth into the 
Weever on the west-side, not far from Beambridge : He 
that did name it Salop did greatly mistrust himself, 
for Salop runneth beneath Durwich, in Worcestershire. 
John Leland calleth it Bar, because it ninneth from 
Bar-bridge into the Weever. But they of the country 
(whom we may best believe) call it Hurlston. 

Ash-Brook. 

The Ash (commonly called Ashbrooke) springeth in 
the forest of Delamer, and keepeth his course south, 
passing between Over and Little Budworth, (a mile 
from each) and after meeteth with another coming from 
the hall of Darley. Lastly (by Darnal Grange), maketh 



a pool, called Darnal Pool, and falleth also into the 
Weever, not far from the hall of Weever. 

BiDDEL. 

The Biddel cometh out of Staffordshire, from a town 
called Biddel or Bidulph, and falleth into the Dane, 
near unto Congleton. 

Croco. 



That which they call the Croco is a small brook, 
which cometh out of Bagmer-mear, and passeth by 
Brereton church and hall (the ancient house of the sur- 
names of Breretons) through Brereton park, Kinderton 
park, through the Middlewich, and not far from thence, 
falleth into the Dane at Croxton, near the same place, 
where the Wheelock falleth in also. 

BiRKlN. 

The Birkin is a small brook, which springeth not far 
from Chelford^chapel, and runneth northward to Mob- 
berley, and after taketh in a little rill that cometh out 
of Tatton-mere ; from which place, little more than a 
mile it falleth into the Bollin. 

Mar. 

The Mar cometh out of a mear, by the hall of Mere, 
and after at Rostorn maketh also a great mere (called 
llostorn-raere) ; and lastlj', falleth also into the Bollin. 

Grimsditch. 

The Grimsditch cometh from the hall of Grimsditch, 
by Preston, Darsbury, Kekewith, and so falleth into the 
Marsey. 

WULVARN. 

The Wulvarn cometh from Bartumley, by Crew and 
Coppenhall, and at Marchford-bridge meeteth with the 
Lea, which cometh from Lea and Wistanson, and so 
falls into the Weever. 



%f)t €it^ cf CJesiter* 



Raphael Hollinshed (alledging Henry Bradshaw 
for his author), writeth that king Leill repaired the city 
of Legions or Caerlheon, now called Chester. The which 
was begun by Lheon Gaver, a mighty giant, who built 
it with vaults : With whom also consenteth Rauulph 
Higden, monk of Chester, in his book called Poly- 
chronicon*^. 

Howbeit in another place, the said Higden saith. 
That it is not certain who builded the said city. And 
therefore some think that it took first name of the Ro- 
man Legions. And not unlike that it was built by P. 
Ostorius Scapula ; who after he had subdued Caracta- 
cus, king of the Ordovices, that inhabited the countries 
now called Lancashire, Cheshire, and Shropshire, 
builded in those parts and amongst the Silures, certain 
places of defence, for the better herbourgh of his men 
of war, and keeping down of such Britons as were still 



ready to move rebellion : Hitherto he. And afterwards 
in fol. .58, he hath these words following : 

There be some (led by conjecture, grounded upon 
good-advised considerations), that suppose P. Ostorius 
Scapula began to build the city of Chester, after the 
overthrow of Caractacus. For in those parts, he forti- 
fied sundry holds, and placed a number of old soldiers, 
cither there in that same place, or in some other near 
thereunto'', by wa3' of a colony. And for as much (say 
they) as we read of none other of any name thereabouts, 
it is to be thought that he planted the same in Chester, 
where his successors did afterwards use to harbour their 
legions for the winter season, and in time of rest. It is 
a common opinion among the people there, unto this 
day, that the Romans builded those vaults or taverns in 
the city under the ground, with some part of the Castle. 
And verily, as Ra. Higden saith, he that shall view and 



k See this very erroneous account of the Gowy, corrected in the Introductions to Broxton and Wirral Hundreds. 

<: Fol. 18. A. M. 3021. <l R. Hoi. fol. 58, and W. Harrison in his Chronology. 



Hittg's ^ale mo^aL 



107 



well consider those buildings, shall think the same to be 
the work of Romans rather than of any other people. 
That the Roman Legions did make their abode there, 
no man, seen in antiquities, can doubt thereof. For the 
ancient name Caerlheon ar dour Deuy, that is, the city 
of Legions upon the water of Dee, proveth it sufficiently 
enough. 

This is all that I find written touching this cit}'. 

The Longitude and Latitude of the City of 
Chester. 

The famous and ancient city of Chester standeth 
upon the river of Dee, on the west side of the country 
of Cheshire ; as also on the west part of England (for 
which cause it is of some called West-Chester), distant 
16 miles south-east from the main sea ; 20 miles east 
from Denbigh ; 30 north from Shrewsbury ; 36 north- 
west from Stafford ; 44 north-west from Derby ; and 55 
south from Lancaster. Chester lieth in Longitude 17 
deg. 29 min. as some have written ; and Latitude 53 
deg. 34 min. north. 

The Walls. 

The walls of the city contain at this present day, in 
circuit, two English miles ; within the which, in some 
places, there is certain void ground, and corn-fields, 
whereby (as also by certain ruins of churches, or such 
like great places of stone), it appeareth that the same 
was in old time all inhabited. But look wliat it wanteth 
at this day within the walls, it hath without, in very fair 
and large suburbs. 

The Gates. 

It hath four principal gates, the East-gate, towards 
the east; the Bridge-gate towards the south ; the Water- 
gate, towards the west; and the North-gate, towards 
the north. 

These gates in times past, and j'et still, according to 
an ancient order used here in this city, are in the pro- 
tection or defence of divers noblemen, which hold or 
have their lands lying within the county palatine. As 
first, the earl of Oxford hath the East-gate ; the earl of 
Shrewsbury hath the Bridge-gate ; the earl of Derby 
the Water-siate, who in the right of the castle of Ha- 
warden (not far off) is steward of the county palatine ; 
and the North-gate belongeth to the city, where they 
keep their prisoners. 

Besides these four principal gates, there are certain 
other lesser, like postern-gates, and namely St. John's- 
gate, between East-gate and Bridge-gate ; so called, 
because it goeth to the said church, which standeth 
without the walls. 

The East-gate is the fairest of all the rest; from which 
gate to the Banes, which are also of stone, I find to be 
160 paces of geometry. And from the Banes to Bough- 
ton, almost as much. 

The Bridge. 

The Bridge-gate is at the south part of the city, at 
the entering of the bridge commonly called Dee-bridge; 
which bridge is builded all of stone, of eight arches in 
length; at the furthest end whereof is also a gate; and 
without that, on the other side of the water, the suburbs 
of the city called Hondbridge. 



The Water-gate is on the west side of the city, where- 
unto, in times past, great ships and vessels might come 
at a lull sea. But now scarce small boats are able to 
come, the sands have so choaked the channel; and al- 
though the citizens have bestowed marvellous great 
charges in building the New Tower, which standeth in 
the very river, between this gate and the North-gate ; 
yet all will not serve : And therefore all the ships do 
come to a place called the New Key, six miles from 
the city. 

The Castle of Chester. 

The Castle of Chester standeth on a rocky hill, within 
the wall of the city, not far from the bridge : which 
Castle is a place having privilege of itself, and hath a 
constable ; the building thereof seemeth to be very an- 
cient. At the first coming in is the Gate-houae, which 
is a prison for the whole county, having divers rooms 
and lodgings; and hard within the gate is a house, 
which was sometimes the exchequer, but now the cus- 
tom-house. Not far from thence, in the base-court, is 
a deep well, and thereby stables, and other houses of 
office. On the left hand is a chapel ; and hard by ad- 
joining thereunto, the goodly fair and large shire-hall, 
newly repaired ; where all matters of law touching the 
county palatine are heard and judicially determined : 
and at the end thereof, the brave new exchequer for the 
said county palatine : all these are in the base-court. 

Then there is a draw-bridge into the inner ward, 
wherein are divers goodly lodgings for the justices, when 
they come : and herein the constable himself dwelleth. 

The thieves and felons are arraigned in the said shire- 
hall ; and, being condemned, are by the constable of 
the castle, or his deputy, delivered to the sheriffs of 
the city, a certain distance without the castle-gate, at a 
stone called the Glovers-stone ; from which place the 
said sheriffs convey them to the place of execution, 
called Boughton. 

Parish Churches in Chester. 

The city is divided into ten parishes : the first whereof 
is named St. Werburgh's*^; otherwise called the abbey, 
or minster; and is the cathedral church, having the 
parish church in the south ile of the same. This is a 
goodly, fair, and large cross-church, having a square 
steeple in the middest : and at the west end is a steeple 
begun, but not half finished ; and hard-by adjoining is 
the bishop's palace; and not far off the dean's house. 

The second parish church is St. John's, hard without 
the walls, upon the bank of the river Dee, a very fair 
and large church, with a fair, broad steeple; which 
steeple, in the year 1574, did half of it fall down from 
the very top to the bottom ; but it is building up 
again. 

St. Peter's, at the High-Cross, in the midst of the 
city, is a fair church with a spire steeple ; and under- 
neath the church in the street, is the Pendice, a place 
builded of purpose, where the major useth to remain ; 
and one may from thence see into the four principal 
streets or markets of the city. 

St. Trinities, between St. Peter's church and the Wa- 
ter-gate ; a fair church, with a spire steeple ; also 

St. Michael's in the Bridge-street. 

St. Bride's, right over against St. Michael's. 



' Note, that this parish is called St, Oswald's, because that St. Oswald's church, which was wunt to be the parish church, is now the com- 
mon hall. 



108 



Ci)e History of Cf)es!)ire. 



St. Olave's, commonly called St. Toolers, in the same 
street, near the bridge. 

St. Marie's on the hill, by the Castle gate, a very 
fair church, with a square broad steeple, in which 
church are certain fair tombs of divers gentlemen, and 
especially of the Trowtbecks, who (it should appear) 
were founders thereof. 



Little St. John's, hard without North-gate, sometimes 
a sanctuary, but now prophaned. 

St. Thomas's, without North-gate, is now pulled 
down, where Mr. Button hath builded a house, and is 
called Green-Hall. 

St. Martin's, not far from the Freers, towards the west 
part of the city. 



0t tj)e JHajor, ^lltiermen, ^fjeriffes, anti <BMttt& of tje Cit^» 



The Major. 

The estate that the Major of Chester keeps is great ; 
for he hath both sword-bearer, mace-bearer, Serjeants 
with their silver maces, in as good and decent order, 
as in any other city in England. His house-keeping 
accordingly, but not so chargeable as in other cities, 
because all things are better cheap there. 

The Pendice. 

He remaineth most part of the day at a place called 
the Pendice, which is a brave place builded for the pur- 
pose, at the high cross, under St. Peter's church, and in 
the middest of the city, in such a sort, that a man may 
stand therein, and see into the markets, or four princi- 
pal streets of the city. 

There sit also (in a room adjoining) his clarks for his 
said majors courts ; where all actions are entered, and 
recognizances made and such like. 

Aldermen. 

There are 24 aldermen ; there is none chosen alder- 
men except he have been first sheriffe. 

Sheriffes. 

The sheriffes (as also the major), on the work-days, 
go in fair long gowns, welted with velvet, and white 
staves in their hands ; but they have violet and scarlet 
for festival days. 

The Common Hall. 

Not far from the Pendice towards the abbey-gate, is 
the Common-hall of the city ; which is a very great 



house of stone, and serveth instead of their Guild-hall, 
or Town-house. 

The Rowes. 

The buildings of this city are very ancient; and the 
houses builded in such sort, that a man may go dry 
from one place of the city to another, and never come 
in the street, but go as it were in galleries, which they 
call the Roes ; which have shops on both sides, and 
underneath, with divers fair stairs to go up or down into 
the street ; which manner of building I have not heard 
of in any other place of Christendom. Some will say, 
that the like is at Padua, in Italy ; but that is not so, 
for the houses at Padua are built as the suburbs of this 
city be, that is, on the ground, upon posts, that a man 
may go dry underneath them, like as they are at Bil- 
lingsgate in London, but nothing like to the Roes. 

The Mekcers Row. 

It is a goodlj' sight to see the number of fair shops 
that are in these Rowes, of mercers, grocers, drapers, 
and haberdashers, especially in the street called The Mer- 
cers Row ; which street with the Bridge-street (being 
all one street), reacheth from the high cross to the 
bridge, in length 380 paces of geometry, which is above 
a quarter of a mile. 

Conduits of fresh Water. 

There are certain conduits of fresh water. And now 
of late (following the example of London), they have 
builded one at the high cross, in the middest of the city, 
and brins; the water to it from Boughton. 



Cije BStsljoprick of CjjesJter. 



Touching the bishoprick of Chester; some have 
lately written, that it was erected into a bishop's seat 
by king Henry VIII. and that all the bishops that were 
before that time (although they were commonly called 
bishops of Chester) were bishops of Lichfield, and had 
but their seat or most abiding in Chester. 

St. Chad, the first Bishop of Lichfield. 

Touching the bishoprick of Lichfield, I find that 
Cead (otherwise called St. Chad, the fifth bishop of 
March) had his seat assigned him at Lichfield, and was 
bishop two years and a half; his body was first buried 
in our Lady's church : But after St. Peter's church was 
built, his bones were translated thither. 



WiNIFRID. 

After him one Winifred was bishop, who for his dis- 
obedience, in some points, was deprived by Theodore 
archbishop of Canterbury, who appointed in his place 
one Sexulf, abbot and founder of the monastery of 
Meidhamsted, otherwise called Peterborough. 

Mercia divided into five Bishopricks. 

The said Theodore, by authority of a synod held at 
Hatfield, did divide the province of Mercia into five 
bishopricks, that is to say, Chester, Worcester, Lichfield, 
Cederna in Lindsey, and Dorchester, which after was 
translated to Lincoln. 

After Sexulf, one Aldwin was bishop of Lichfield; 



Hittjs's male a^o^aL 



109 



and next to him Eadulfus, who was adorned with the 
archbishop's pall, having all the bishops under king 
Offa his dominions, suffragans to him; as Denebertus, 
bishop of Worcester; Werebertus, bishop of Chester; 
Eadulfus, bishop of Dorchester; Uluardus, bishop of 
Hereford ; Halard, bishop of Elsham, and Cedferth, 
bishop of Donwich. There remained only to the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, but London, Winton, Rochester, 
and Sherburn". 

Hereby it appeareth, that there was in times past a 
peculiar bishop at Chester, but not always. For when 
bishopricks were translated from lesser towns to greater 
(which was in the days of William the Conqueror), then 
Lichfield was removed to Chester ; which bishoprick of 
Chester, Robert (being then bishop) reduced from Ches- 
ter to Coventry; or (as Hollinshed writeth) he joined the 
church of Coventry to the see of Chester''. 

Since which time, we read of divers in histories that 
were called bishops of Chester ; as Gerard, sirnamed 
Lapucella, who died anno 1184. And after him, Hugh 
Novant, who was sent into NGrmand\r, II9O; Walter, 
bishop of Chester, and lord chancellor of England ; 
Alexander Staines, and others ; 3'et were they not pro- 
perly bishops of Chester, but rather of Lichfield and 
Coventry : For in ancient writings it is called The Mo- 
nastery of Chester, in the bishopric of Lichfield. 

I have seen an old Latin book, wherein was the names 
of all the bishoprics and monasteries in Christendom, 
and how much every one of them yielded unto the pope; 



and therein I found the bishopric of Litchfield 3000 
florins, and the monastery of Chester 5000 florins. So 
that it appeareth, the daughter exceeded the mother. 

Here I had thought to have set down the catalogue 
of all the bishops ; but because I am about to make a 
description of Chester, and not of Lichfield, I mean only 
to set the names of them, that have been since the last 
erection thereof. 

The Diocesse of Chester. 

And first, the diocesse of Chester, as it is now, con- 
taineth all Cheshire, all Richmondshire, most part of 
Lancashire, to the river of Rible, part of Denbighshire, 
and part of Flintshire. 

Bishops of Chester since the beginning of the 

KEIGN OF KING HeNRY VUL 

1. John Bird, otherwise called Freer Bird, of whom 
mention is made in the book of Martyrs. 

2. George Cotes, in the beginning of the reign of 
queen Mary. 

3. Cuthbert Scott, in the time of queen Mary also. 

4. William Downam, in the beginning of the reign 
of queen Elizabeth. 

5. William Chatterton, bishop of Chester, and after 
of Lincoln, was doctor of divinity; and, anno 1568, was 
chosen master of Queen's College, in the University of 
Cambridge, and so continued till the year 1579. 



JHarfeet Co\uns in C|)es|)ire» 



Nantwich. 

Nantwich is accounted the greatest town in Cheshire, 
next to Chester, and standeth upon the river Weever, 
fourteen miles south-east from Chester, in the way to- 
wards London. 

Vicus Malbamis. 

This town is called, in Latin, Vicus Malbanus ; where- 
by it should appear, it took its name from the Malbans, 
who were barons thereof. There is kept every Saturday 
a market of all manner of things, especially corn and 
cattle : and once a year, on St. Bartholomew's day, a 
great fair. 

The manner of making Salt at Nantwich. 

Here at this town is great store of white salt made : 
it hath one salt-spring (which they call a brine-pit) 
standirg hard upon the river of Weever; from whence 
they carry the brine to the wich-houses, saving such 
houses as stand on the further side of the river. Within 
the said houses are great barrels set deep into the earth, 
which are all filled with salt-water ; and then when the 
bell rihgeth, they begin to make fire under the leads ; 
every house hath six leads, wherein they seethe the 
said salt-water, and as it seethes, the wallers (which are 
commonly women) do, with a wooden-rake, gather the 
salt from the bottom, which they put into a long basket 
of wicker, which they call a salt-barrow ; and so the 
water voideth, and the salt remaineth. 



The barons of Nantwich, of the surname of Malban, 
died shortly without heirs-male ; after whose time, Mr. 
Foulshurst, of Crew, had rule of the town; and after 
him, sir Hugh Cholmley : and now, lastly, sir Christo- 
pher Hatton. 

Nantwich burnt, Anno 1583. 

Of this town was most part miserably consumed with 
fire in December, anno 1583 : but through the benevo- 
lence gathered throughout the realm, it is new builded, 
and in as good case, or rather better, then before. The 
like mischance happened unto it in July, anno 1438. 

Malpas. 

Malpas, called in Latin Malus Passus, is a proper 
town, standing on a hill in the south corner of Cheshire, 
within three miles of Shropshire, Denbighshire, and 
Flintshire, eight miles south-west from Nantwich. It 
hath three streets paved, a grammar-school, and a hos- 
pital, erected both by sir Ranulph Brereton, whose house 
is at the end of the south street. The market is kept 
on the Monday, and yearly a fair on the eighth of De- 
cember. 

Comber-Mere Abbey. 

About six miles east from Malpas, and as many 
south from Nantwich, did stand the abbey of Comber- 
Mere, by a lake of the same name, founded by the 



» R. H. 195. 



Ij Anno 1076, Mr. Fox, 225. R. H. 33G. 



no 



CJe History of Ci^esf)ite* 



Malbones, barons of Nantwich ; but now belongeth to Henry IV. And, therefore, Mr. Warren, of Poynton, 
Mr. Cotton. is called baron of Stopford. 



The manmr of making Salt at Northwich. 

Northwich standeth where the river of Dane falleth 
into the Weever, twelve miles north-east from Chester, 
and ten north from Nantwich ; and is a proper town, 
having every Friday a market, and yearly two fairs ; 
that is to say, on the day of Mary Magdalen, and on 
St. Nicholas' day, being the 6th of December. 

Here is also a salt-spring, or brine-pit, on the bank 
of the river of Dane ; from the which the brine runneth 
on the ground, in troughs of wood, covered over with 
boards, until it come to the wich-houses, where they 
make salt, as before in Nantwich hath been declared. 

This town is (as it were) divided into two parts ; one 
part thereof is called the Cross, which belongeth to sir 
Thomas Venables ; and without the town's-end stand- 
eth a very fair church of stone, which although some 
call it Northwich church, yet is the proper name thereof 
Witton, and is but a chapel ; which causeth me to 
think that the town was named first Northwich, after 
the finding of the salt. 

The middest of Cheshire where. 

A mile south from this town is a parish church of 
stone, with a spire-steeple, called Davenham, which 
standeth in the very middest of Cheshire, so near as 
I can guess ; it may, peradventure, lack an inch, or 
more. 

Knutsford. 

Knutsford, as I think, should be called in Latin 
Vadum Canuti ; that is, the ford of Canutus, and stand- 
eth five miles north-east from Northwich. There is two 
towns, with two churches, hard together, called High- 
Knutsford, and Low-Knutsford. 

High-Knutsford, which is the parish-church, hath 
yearly a fair on Tuesday in Whitsun-week. Low-Knuts- 
ford, which is the market-town, hath a chapel, market 
every Saturday, and yearly two fairs ; the first on the 
29th of June, being the day of Peter and Paul ; the 
other the 23d of October. 

Altkingham. 

Altringham is five miles directly north from Knuts- 
ford, and three from Crosford-bridge, on the north-side 
of the country ; which, although it be none of the 
chiefest market-towns, yet it hath a maior, a weekly 
market, and yearly, on St. James's-day, a fair. 

A mile south-west from Altringham is the goodly 
manor and park of Dunham, belonging to Mr. Booth ; 
but in times past to sir Hamon Massey, one of the eight 
barons of the county palatine of Chester. 

Stopfoed. 

Stopford (commonly called Stopport), and I find it 
also written Stokefort, and Storeport, extendeth on the 
south side of the river of Mersey, which there parteth 
Cheshire from Lancashire, and is six miles north-east 
from Altringham. It hath market every Friday, and 
yearly three fairs ; that is to say, on Ascension Day, 
on Corpus Christi day, and St. George's even. This 
town, in times past, belonged to one of the same name, 
baron of Stopford, who had a daughter and heir mar- 
ried to sir Warren, knight, about the days of king 



Macclesfield. 

Macclesfield is one of the fairest towns in Cheshire, 
and standeth upon the edge of Macclesfield forest, upon 
a high bank, at the foot whereof runneth a small river, 
named Bollin, distant eight miles from Stopford. It 
hath market every Monday, and yearly two fairs ; that 
is to say, on Barnabas' day, and All Souls day. 

There is a fair church, with a very high spire steeple, 
and a college adjoining on the south side, founded by 
Thomas Savage, bishop of London, and after arch- 
bishop of York ; but the steeple thereof is not fully 
finished. Therein are divers goodly monuments of the 
Savages ; and not far from the church, is a huge place 
all of stone, in manner of a castle, which belonged to 
the duke of Buckingham, but now gone much to decay. 

I find the name of this town written Macclesfield, 
and gentlemen of the same surname, which now are dead. 

CONGLETON. 

Congleton, a fair market-town, standeth upon the 
river of Dane, six miles south-west from Macclesfield, 
within two miles of Staffordshire, and in Astbury parish ; 
which methinketh is a diffused thing, that most of the 
market-towns in this country, although they have fair 
churches of themselves, yet are they accounted but 
chapels ; as Nantwich is in Aighton parish, Northwich 
in Great Budworth parish, Macclesfield in Presbury 
parish, and Altringham ia Bowdon parish. Congleton 
hath two churches, one in the town, and the other at 
the bridge-end, on the other side of the Dane. It hath 
a market every Saturday, and yearly two fairs ; that is 
to say, on May-day, and on the second of July. 

MiDDLEWICH. 

Middlewich is so called, because it standeth between 
the other two Wiches ; that is to say six miles from 
Nantwich, and four from Northwich ; and is a great 
town, with two brine-pits on each side the river, which 
some name Croco, that half a mile from thence fall- 
eth into the Dane. 

The manner of making Salt at Middlewich. 

From these brine-pits the brine runneth in wooden- 
troughs over men's heads, from one house to another. 
The pits are four square, very broad and deep, boarded 
up on each side, and with great cross-beams in the 
middest, and at the four corners, steps, covered with 
lead. Middlewich is no market town, yet may it pass 
amongst them, as well for the bigness thereof, as also 
it hath burgesses, and other privileges, as the other 
Wiches have, yet it hath a small market of flesh and 
other things every Saturday, and yearly two fairs ; that 
is to say, on Ascension-day and St. Luke's-day. It 
hath divers streets and lanes, as King-street, Kinderton- 
street, Wich-house-street, Lewis-street, and Wheelock- 
street ; Pepper-lane, Cow-lane, and Dog-lane ; but the 
chiefesi place of all is a broad place, in the middest of 
the town, in manner of a market-place, called the king's 
Mexon. 

KiNDERTON. 

Half a mile north-east from Middlewich, is the goodly 
manor-place of Kinderton, belonging sir Thomas Vena- 
bles, commonly called the baron of Kinderton. 



ISltns's Wiult 3Si0^al. 



Ill 



Sandbach. 

Sandbach (commonly called Sandbitch) standeth on 
a high bank upon the small river of Wheelock, and is 
but a little town, with a fair church of stone ; lately 
made a market-town by sir John RadclifF, who is lord 
thereof. It hath a small market every Thursday, and 
yearly two fairs ; that is to say, on Tuesday and Wed- 
nesday in Easter-week, and Thursday and Friday before 
the Nativity of our Lady. In the market-place do stand, 
hard together, two sqviare crosses of stone, on steps, 
with certain images and writings thereon graven ; 
which, as they say, a man cannot read, except he be 
holden with his head downwards ; and this verse (as they 
hold opinion) is engraved thereon : 

In Sandbach, in the Sandy Ford, 
Lieth the ninth part of Dublin's hord. 
Nine to, or Nine fro, 
Take me down, or else I fall. 

They also affirm, that the said crosses were set up 
there before the birth of Christ ; but that is not so, for 
the story of the passion is graven thereon ; but whether 
the said verses be written thereon, or no, I know not. 
Certain I am, that on Sunday morning, the 1st of No- 
vember, 1561, there were three chests of tin, or such 
like metal, found near the said river, but nothing in 
them. On the covers were certain letters, or characters, 
engraved ; which chests were carried to the sherift's. 

Tervin. 

Tervin standeth four miles east from Chester, and 
was lately made a market town, by the means of sir 
John Savage. It hath a fair church of stone, and mar- 
ket every week. 

Frodesham. 

Frodesham standeth eight miles north-east from Ches- 
ter, and it is but one long street, with a castle of stone 
at the west end thereof; and a field's breadth, south 
from the town, is the church ; and hard by it, a great 
hill, with a beacon thereupon, called Frodsham-hills, 
which are the greatest hills in all Cheshire. This town 
(as also Tervin) was also of late years, by sir John 
Savage, made a market town. It hath market every 
week, and yearlj', on St. Lawrence day, a fair. 

We read in the chronicles, that this lordship of Frods- 
ham was given by king Edw. I. to David, brother to 
Lewellin prince of Wales; but he enjoyed it not long, 
for he was for treason beheaded : sir John Savage did 
dwell in the castle before he builded his house at Clifton, 
which is now called Rock-Savage. 

Frodsham-Bridge. 

A mile from Frodsham, and as much from Haulton, 
that is to say, half way between them, is Frodsham- 
bridge, builded most part of brick over the river Wee- 
ver. The longest bridge in Cheshire. 

Here endeth the market-towns : now a word or two 
of the chiefest of the others ; and so an end of that 
which was never well begun. 

Haulton. 

Haulton is a proper strong castle, all of stone, stand- 
ing on a high hill, a mile west from Ruucorii (in which 



parish it is contained), and two miles north-east from 
Frodsham, with a chapel, and a pretty town upon and 
round about the said hill, founded by one Nigel, baron 
of Haulton, and constable of Chester; of whom the 
Lacies descended, that were constables of Chester, and 
lastly, earls of Lincoln, whose issue ended in one 
daughter, married to Thomas earl of Lancaster : so that 
the honour resteth now in the duchy of Lancaster. 

In this castle, every fourteen da3's, on a Saturday, is 
a court kept for all matters done within a certain circuit 
thereof; it hath also a prison for thieves and felons, 
taken within the said precinct, which are at every ses- 
sions presented at Chester. 

Also, once a year at Michaelmas, do the queen's 
majesty's officers of the duchy of Lancaster, as auditors, 
attornies, and receivers, come and lye certain days in 
the said castle, and there keep a law-day. 

Sir Peers Datton was determined to have made this 
town a market town, if death had not prevented him. 
It hath a small market every Saturday ; and once a year, 
on the nativity of our lady, a fair. 

Norton-Abbey. 

Half a mile north-east from Haulton, is the village of 
Norton ; and not far oiT, the abbey of Norton, founded 
by William Fitznigell baron of Haulton, and constable 
of Chester ; but now belonging to Mr. Brook, 

BunwoRTH. 

Budworth is two miles from Northwich, and six east 
from Haulton, not far from a great lake called Bud- 
worth-Mear, in London way from Lancaster, and hath 
yearly a fair the first of February. It is called Great- 
Budworth, for difference of Little Budworth on the 
south side of Delamer-forest, commonly called Little- 
Budworth in the Frith. 

OUVER. 

Ouver standeth on the east end of Delamere-forest, 
not far from the river of Weever, and is but a small 
thing ; yet I put it in here, because of the great prero- 
gative that it hath. For it hath a maior ; and the church 
(which is a quarter of a mile south from the town) is 
lawless. Which privileges (because it standeth in Eds- 
bury hundred), I think it hath since the destruction of 
the city of Edsbury, which stood sometime in the forest 
of Delamere, in the same place where the Chamber in 
the forest now standing. 

Vale-Royall Abbey. 

A mile north from Ouver, upon the said river of Weever, 
stood the abbey of Vale-Royall founded by king Ed- 
ward [. who was the first earl of Chester of the king's 
blood, as after more at large shall be declared. Which 
Vale Royall is now the manor place of Mr. Holcroft. 

Breerton. 

Breerton standeth also upon London way, two miles 
north from Sandbach, and hath yearly a fair, purchased 
of late, which is kept on Breerton-green, on Lammas- 
day, being the first day of August. 

Not far off is the parish church of Breerton, and near 
unto the church, the goodly manor place newly builded 
all of brick ; the like whereof is not in all the country 
again. Therefore it is not to be omitted, and not so 



m 



%1^t f^isitor^ of C|)e£i!)ite* 



much for the buildings as for the number of ancient and Wereham standeth upon the Weever, two miles west 

valiant knights and gentlemen, who had, and have, from Northwich. 

their original from thence, whereof more shall follow Torporley is six miles south-east from Chester, in the 

hereafter. road to London. 

Prestbury, Wereham, and Toeporley. j-^y ^j^^ ^gg^ of the towns and villages here not named, 

Prestbury is two miles north from Maxfield, and is the I refer the reader to the general map of the whole county ' fl 



greatest parish in all Cheshire. 



placed in the beginning of this book. 



iltstsi of (Btntv^, |c« 

Hereafter followeth the Names of all the Knights, Esquires, Gentlemen, and Fheeholdees, 
IN THE County Palatine of Chester; and in what Hundred they dwell. 



Werall Hundred. 

Sir Rouland Stanley, of Hooton, 

knight. 
William Massy, of Potington, esq. 
John Pool, of Pool, esq. 
Thomas Bunbery, of Stanney, esq. 
Richard Hough, of Leighton, esq. 
Robert Fletcher, of Morley, esq. 
John Whitmore, of Thurstington, 

esq. 
William Glegg, of Gaj'ton, esq. 
Robert Parre, of Bakeford, esq. 
Peter Bould, of Upton. 
John Hocknell, of Prenton. 
Edward Stanley, of Pooton. 

Bennet, of Sanghall. 

Thomas Doe, of Sanghall. 
John Meales, of Meales. 
John Kirkes, of Lea. 
John Young, of Neston. 

Beoxton Hundred. 

Sir Hugh Cholmley, of Cholmley, 

knight. 
Sir George Calveley, of Lea-hall, 

knight. 
Sir Randoll Breerton, of Malpas, 

knight. 
Ralph Button, of Hatton, esq. 
George Cliff, of Huxley, esq. 
John Massy, of Coddington, esq. 
Richard Breerton, of Eccleston, esq. 
Thomas Grosvenor, of Eaton, esq. 
William Chauntrel, of the Bach, esq. 
Richard Massy, of Aldford, gent. 
John Monley, of Pulton, gent. 
Robert Massy, of Eggerley. 
John Aldersey, of Aldersey. 
John Horton. 
Robert Aldersey, 
Oliver Walker. 
Robert Dodd. 

John Aldersey, of Middle Aldersey. 
Rich. Bostock, of Barton. 
Randol Dodd, of Barton. 
Robert Croket, of Barton. 



Roger Dodd, of Barton. 

Rob. Bostock, of Churton. 

John Hanky, of Churton. 

Wil. Barneston, of Churton. 

Christ. Lowe, of Churton. 

John Stiinger, of Crew. 

John Crew. 

John Yardley, of Ferndon. 

Ranulph Breerton, of Kiddington. 

Owen Stocklow. 

Peter Dodd, of Broxton. 

Roger Dodd. 

George Bird. 

Thomas Bird. 

David Massy. 

Robert Bulkeley, of Bickerton. 

Peter Filkin, of Tattenhall. 

John Heath, of Horton. 

John Caterod. 

John Aldersey. 

Thomas Calcott, of Calcott. 

Thomas Yardley, of Crew. 

Thomas Booth, of Cholmley. 

Hugh Rode. 

Thomas Sparrow, of Bickley. 

Thomas Ball. 

John Wright. 

Thomas Hulme, of Coddington. 

John Rosingreve, of Hargreve. 

Thomas Molson. 

John Lloyd, of Kiddington. 

Peter Tilston, of Huxley. 

William Carison, of Bradley. 

David Pova, ofShocklach. 

John Dodd. 

Richard Massy, of Grafton. 

Randol Dodd, of Edge. 

Ralph Leech, of Garden. 

William Ear, of Tilston. 

John Aldersey, of Agdon. 

Randal Maddock, of Edge. 

John Dawson, of Tussingham. 

Randal Sound. 

Hugh Calveley, of Buckley. 

Richard Brassy. 

Ralph Huxley, of Sidwall. 

John Ketle, of Bursley. 



John Dodd, of Bickerton. 
John Bowker, of Egerton. 
Rich. Handley, of Newton. 
John Maddock, of Agdon. 
Thomas Maddock. 

Nantwich Hundred. 

Sir Lawrence Smith, of Hough, 

knight. 
Sir Ralph Egerton, of Wrinehill, 

knight. 
Thomas Wilbraham, of Wooday, 

esq. 
Henry Delves, of Duddington, esq. 
Rob. Foulshurst, of Crew, esq. 
John Minshul, of Minshul, esq. 
Henry Rop, of Stapley, esq. 
Thomas Varnon, of Haslington, esq. 
Richard Cotton, of Cumbermere, 

esq. 
Ralph Hassal, of Hankylow, esq. 
John Griffin, of Barterton, esq. 
Thomas Starky, of Wrenbury, esq. 
Thomas Hulse, of Marbury, esq. 
Lawrence Lea, of Lea, gent. 
Thomas Minshul, of Yardswick, 

gent. 
John Brook, of Leighton. 
Hugh Aston, of Aston. 
Robert Weever. 

Leycester, of Pool. 

Tho. Chitewood, of Worleston, gent. 

Richard Wilbraham, of Reseheath. 

Ralph Brein, of Aston. 

John Pratchet, of Wordlaston. 

John Crew, of Hassal. 

Will. Allen, of Brindley. 

George Huxley. 

Will. Ithel, of Burland. 

Tho. Brein, of Faddeley. 

Horton, of Cool. 

Robert Whitney. 

Thomas Gumil, of Burton. 

Thomas Brindley, of Winstanton. 

John Alexander. 

William Munkas. 

John Massey, of Coppenhall. 



Hing's ^ale Ko^aL 



113 



Thomas Wetnal. 

Thomas Massey. 

Frances Foulshurst, of Show. 

John Woodnet, of Shenington. 

Hugh Bromlejj of Norbury. 

Geo. Bickerton, of Townley. 

Randle Minshull, of Hulgreve. 

Randal Rop, of Chorlton. 

Randal More, of Haslington. 

Rob. Lawton, of Gorstie-hill. 

Hen. Wixted, of does. 

Rob. Augier, of Algier. 

Randol Pool. 

Rich. Lathom, of Weston. 

Rich. Pool, ofGonsiey. 

David Hinton, of Bradley-gveen. 

William Hinton. 

Hugh Wixted, of Wixted. 

Rich. Pool, of Marley. 

Roger Masterson, of Nantwich, 

gent. 
Roger Walthalk, gent. 
Tho. Glutton, gent. 
Rich. Hassal, gent. 
William Bromley, gent. 
Rich. Maisterson, gent. 
John Leech, gent. 
Rich. Wilbraham, gent. 
Roger Mainwaring, gent. 
Robert Croket, gent. 
Tho. Wettenhal, gent. 
Humphrey Mainwaring, gent. 
Henry Wright, sen. 
Henry Wright, jun. 
Richard Wright. > 

Thomas Wright. 
Reynold Wright. 
Lawrence Wright. 
Jesper Rutter, gent. 
Robert Godier. 
John Crew. 
Richard Church. 
Thomas Church. 
JeflFery Minshall. 
Thomas Mainwaring. 
John Mainwaring, major. 
John Mainwaring, minor. 
John Mainwaring, minimus. 
James Bullen. 
John Secarston. 
John Tench. 
Richard Robinson. 
Richard Wixted. 
William Tench. 



Edsbury Hundred. 

Sir Richard Egerton, of Oulton, 

knight. 
Sir Thomas Holcroft, of Vale-Royal, 

knight. 
Ralph Don, of Flaxyards, esq. 
Rich. Hurlston, of Oulton, esq. 
George Ireland, of Croton, esq. 
John Bruin, of Stapleford, esq. 
George Beeston, of Beeston, esq. 
George Spurstow, of Spurstow, esq. 



John Hocknel, of Hockenhel-plat, 

esq. 
Richard Berkenhead, of Manley, 

esq. 
Tho. Stanley, of Weever, esq. 
John Starky, of Darley, esq. 
Wm. Prestland, of Wardle, esq. 
Hugh Damport, of Calveley, esq. 
Tho. Manwaring, of Calveley. 
Rob. Manwairing, of Marton. 

Benedict Painter, of ■ ■, gent. 

Peter Warburton, of , gent. 

Tho. Rutter, of Kingsley. 
Rich. Gerrard, of Crewood. 
John Nuttall, of Tattenhall. 
Jas. Houghton, of Houghton. 
John Aldersey, of Spurstow. 
John Brassie, of Teverton. 
Rich. Hocknell, of Dudon. 
Rich. Stonely, of Alpram. 
John Trevis, of Harton. 
Rich. Litlor, of Wallerscot. 
John Witter, of Torperley. 
Wm. Frodsham, of Elton. 

■ • Bettrich, of Barrow. 

John Burton, of Burton. 

Steele, of Kelsal. 

Rich. Sumpner, of Acton. 
Wai. Farrer, of Wereham. 
Ralph Bruyn, of Tarvin. 
William Rutter, of Frodsham. 
Tho. Hal], of Norley. 
Rich. Eaton, of Sandyway. 
Rich. Ej're, of Kelsall. 
Rob. Ireland, of Kingsley. 
Thomas Hatton. 
Richard Spark. 
John Bowker, of Egerton. 
John Bostock, of Torperley. 
Tho. Brown, of Hole. 
Rob. Brook, of Upton. 

NoRTHwicH Hundred. 

Sir William Brereton, of Brcreton, 

knight. 
Sir Thomas Venables, of Kinderton, 

knight. 
Philip Mainwaring, of Peever, esq. 
Charles M ainwaring, of Croxton, esq. 
John Morton, of Morton, esq. 
Tho. Rode, of Rode, esq. 
Christopher Holfard, of Holfard,esq. 
John Lawton, of Lawton, esq. 
John Cotton, of Cotton, esq. 
William Liversedge, of Wheelock, 

esq. 
John Damport, of Damport, esq. 
Jeffery Shakerley, of Holm, esq. 
Ralph Leftwich, of Leftwich, esq. 
Thomas Winnington, of Hermitage. 
Thomas Smethwick, of Smethwick, 

gent. 
John Holford, of Davenham. 

■ Golborn, of Northwich. 

Charles Atherton, of Wharton. 
Ralph Bostock, of Multon. 

t G G 



Wil. Tomlinson, of Wharton. 
Wil. Warton, of Wimbaldsley. 
Ralph Hulse, of Clive. 
Wil. Anderton, of Croxton. 
Philip Oldfeld, of Middlewich. 
William Yardley. 
Humphrey Blackborn. 
James Brown, of Hulse. 
Tho. Wych, of Daneham. 
Law. Pickmer, of Hulse. 
John Cotton, of Lostock. 
Ranulf Wrench, of Lostock, 
John Eaton, of Goostry. 
Tho. Swetnam, of Crownests. 
John Rode, of Morebarrow. 
Peter Pavor, of Northwich. 

Bromfield, of the Cross. 

Leonard Stockley, of Newhall, gent. 
Greg. Oakes, of Somerford. 
William Croxton, of Ravenscroft. 
Richard Spencer, of Congleton. 
William HoUinshed, of Buglawton. 
John Winnington, of Birches. 
Wil. Barrington, of Bradwal. 
Henry Bostock, of Bostock. 
Wil. Bostock, of Bostock. 
Hugh Rowley, of Lawton. 
Rob. Pickmer, of Hulse. 
Roger Page, of Yardshaw. 
John Hatton, of Hollins. 
Hugh Amson, of Cranadge. 
William Booth, of Twamlew. 
Tho. Becket, of Cletford. 
Hugh Fithion, of Tetton. 
Randul Rode, of Walhill. 

BuLKLEY Hundred. 

Sir John Savage, knight, of Rock- 
savage. 

Sir Rob. Booth, knight. 

Sir Jeffery Warburton, knight, of 
Warburton. 

Ranulph Mainwaring, of Peever. 

Dutton, of Dutton. 

Thomas Carrington, of Carrington. 

Wil. Holfard, of Holfard. 

John Lecester. 

Robert Lecester. 

John Ligh, of Booths. 

Edmond Ligh, of Baguley. 

John Ashley, of Ashley, whose 
daughter and heir was married to 
Mr. Brereton, of Lea. 

John Legh, of Legh. 

Richard Aston, of Aston, esq. 

Richard Brooke, of Norton, esq. 

Thomas Daniel. 

John