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EHDITEID BY AAriLLI^3^d: ."EiElNrR.'ir I=EI^I?.I2Sr. 


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THE history of Crawford aucl Clark Counties, after months of persistent toil and research, is 
now completed, and it is believed that no subject of universal public importance or inter- 
est has been omitted, save where protracted effort failed to secure reliable results. We are well 
aware of our inability to furnish a perfect history from meager public documents and number- 
less conflicting traditions, but claim to have prepared a work fully up to the standard of our 
promises. Through the courtesy and assistance generously afforded by the residents of these 
counties, we have been enabled to trace out and put on record the greater portion of the impor- 
tant events that have transpired in Crawford and Clark Counties up to the present time. And 
we feel assured that all thoughtful people in these counties, mw and in future, will recognize 
and appreciate the importance of the work and its permanent value. 

A dry statement of facts has, as far as possible, been avoided, and incidents and anecdotes 
have been woven in with facts and statistics, forming a narrative at once instructive and interest- 

We are indebted to Hon. E. Callahan for the chapter on the - Bench and Bar' of Crawford 
County ; to Cxeorge W. Harper, Esq., for a sketch of " the pre^" and to Hon. W. C. Wilson for 
valuable and important historical data ; also to Hamilton Sutton, Esq., for his very able general 
history of Clark County ; to H. C. Bradsby, Esq., for the chapter on the '' Bench and Bar" of 
Clark, and to many other citizens of both counties for material aid to our historians in making 
the proper compilation of facts embodied in tiie work. 

April, 1883. , THE PUBLISHERS. 







CHAPTf^R I.— Introductory — Descriptive— Boundaries and 
Topography— The Science of Geology— Its Influence on 
Agriculture and Civilization— Geology of Crawford 
County— The Coal Measures— Outcrops' of Coal— Build- 
ing Stone— Its Quality and Durability— Iron Ore — Soils, 
Timber, etc., etc 11 

CHAPTER II.— Pre-historic Occupation of the Country- 
The Mound Builders— Relics and Works of the Lost 
Race— The Meroui Mounds — Earthworks and Mounds 
at Ilutsonville— other Relics, etc.— The Indians— l)ela- 
wares and Kickapoos— Their Position of Southern Illi- 
nois—Historical Sketches of their Tribes, etc.— Local 
Facts and Traditions 18 

CHAPTKIE III.— Settlement of the County by White Peo- 
ple—The Early French Explorers— Their Claim to Illi- 
nois—Gen. Clark's Expedition to Kaskaskia— Emigrants 
from the States— Fort Lamotte and the Rangers- The 
Culloms and Other Pioneers— The Hutson Family — 
Their Murder by Indians— Pioneer Life — Hardships 
and Dangers of the AVilderness, etc 29 

CHAPTER IV. — Organization of tlie County — Illin<iis a.-* a 
Part of Virginia— Divided Into Counties— Act of the 
IvCgislature Forming Crawford — Name of the County — 
The Courts, etc.— Locating the Seat of Justice— An In- 
dian Trial— Other Court Proceedings— List of (ttficers 
and Representatives— Court Houses and Jails— Civil 
Divisions of the County— Removal of the County Seat 
— Township Organizations, etc., etc .' 37 

CHAPTER v.— The Bench and Bar— Justice and Her Scales 
—First Courts and What They Did — Some of the Early 
Judges— Different Judicial Di.-«triets— The First Resi- 
dent Lawyers— Kitchell, Janney, French, etc.— Their 
Legal Ability and Social Traits— Other Lawyers of the 
Couniy— The Present Bar, etc., etc 54 

CHAPTER VI.— Internal Iraprovemeuts— The First Roads 
and Mridges — Railroads — Coming of the Iron Horse — 
The Old Wabash Valley Route— Paris and Danville— Its 
Completion, Changes and Condition — East and West 
Railroad Projects— The Narrow <^iauge — Value and 
Economy of the System— Other Roads That Were Never 
Built, and Never Will Be, etc., etc 66 

CHAPTER VII.— The " Raging" Wabash- Improvement of 
its Navigation — Boating in the I-^arly Times — Overflows, 
I.*vees, etc. — Damage Done to the Farmers— Agriculture 
— Early Mode of Opening and Cultivating Farms — Pio- 
neer Plows and Hoes— Crawford County Agricultural 
Society— Incorporation and List of (itficers— Horticult- 
ure — The County Poor, etc., etc 7;! 

CHAPTER Vin.— The County Press— Its Influence in the 
Community — Newspaper Enterprises of Crawford County 
— The Constitution and Argus — Educational — Pioneer 
Schoolhouses and Teachers— Advantages of Education 
— Scliool Statistics — Religious History — Early Preachers 
— Churches Oru'anized, etc-., etc 79 



CHAPTER IX.— War History— The Struggle for Independ- 
ence—Our Second "Round" with John Bull— Black 
Hawk and his Braves, and How We Thrashed Them— 
The Mexican War — Illinois' Participation In It— War 
of the Rebellion — DitJerent Regiments in which Craw- 
ford County was Represented— Facts and Incidents of 
the War, etc., etc 91 

CHAPTER X.— Robinson Township—Description and To- 
pography-General Character of the Countrv— Land 
Entries— Advent ^of the Whites— Time and Place of 
Settlement— Early Society— The Beginning of Agricult- 
ure—Pioneer Industries and Improvements- Early 
Markets, etc., etc li)7 

CHAPTER XL— Robinson Villag^-The Star of Empire— A 
New Town Laid Out— First Plat and Subsequent Addi- 
tions—I-larly Development— Growth of liusiness Inter- 
ests—The Railroad Impetus— Schools, Churches and 
Benevolent Societies— Cemeteries, etc., etc ug 

CHAPTER XII.— La Motte Township— General Description 
and Topography — Early Settlement— Joseph La Motte 
— The Eatons — Other Pioneers — Tho Seven Jesses — Ex- 
tract from I'icklin's Address— Schools and Churches — 
Palestine — Its Growth, Development aud Incoi-poration 
— The Land Otfice — Registers and Receivers — Education- 
al, Religious, etc., etc 127 

CHAPTER XUL — Ilutsonville Township — Topographv— 
Early Settlement— Hutson Family— Tne Barlows. New- 
lins aud Hills— i )ther Pioneers— Early Trials and Troub- 
les — Schools and Churches — Village of Hutsonville— Its 
Situation as a Trading Point— Some of the Merchants 
and Business Men- Fire, AVater, etc., etc 146 

CHAPTER XIV.— Licking Township— Description, Bounda- 
ries and Topography —Early Settlement- Pioneer Im- 
provements ami Industries — Villages— Early Schools, 
etc — Churchei aud Church Buildings KJO 

CHAPTER XV.— Oblong Township — Physical Features- 
Soil and Productions — The Coming of the Pioneers— De- 
velopment of the Country— Early Industries— Roads and 
Mil'.s— Village of Oblong — Church History — Early 
Schools — Patrons of Husbandry I7;i 

CHAPTER XVI.— Montgomery Township — Physical Feat- 
ures, Boundaries, etc— Early Settlers and Where They 
Came From— The Hurricane — Frontier Industries— A 
Race for the Bottle and its Rl'suUs— The Poisoning of 
Reed— Villages— Religious and Educational 18:^ 

CHAi'Ti:i: XVII.— Martin and Southwest Townships— Posi- 
tion and I'.oundaries — Formation of Southwest — Water 
Courses — Soil— Productions — Timbi-r- Pioneer Settle- 
ment—Early Incidents and Industries— Life in the Wil- 
derness—Early Roads— Church and School History— Vil- 
lages, etc., etc i9:j 

CHAPTER XVIIL— Honey Creek Township— Description 
and Topography— Advent of the Pale-Faces, and their 
Early Struggles— Pioneer Improvementc— Religious His- 
tory — An Incident — Schools and Schoolhouses — Villages 
—Parting Word-*, etc., etc 202 





CHAPTER I— i;eneral Descriptiou of Clark County— To- 
poeraphy and Physical Features— licology— Coal MeaB- 
ur|,_The Storv 'of the Rocks— BuUding Stone— Soils, 
Timber and Productions— Artesian Well— The Mound 
Builders and Their Works— Indian Relics, etc., etc 210 

CHAPTER II.— Early Settlements— The Pioneers and 
Where They Came From— Their Hard Life, Rude 
Dwellings and Coarse Clothins— Incident of a Biscuit- 
Salt— Ne(;ro Slavery- An Exciting Campaign— tol. 
\rcher—(i.ame—" Marks" and " lirands "—Taxation^ 
The Indians— Shooting Matches— ICarly Society— ( 'hm- 
tianity and Pioneer Preachers— Intemperance— The 
Climate, etc., etc. -" 

CHAPTER in.— Organization of the County— The Legisla- 
tive .'Vet Creating It— Location of the Seat of .Tustlee— 
The Courts— .\urora and Darwin— Removal to Marshall 
—Bitter contests— The Question Finally Settled— Di- 
vision of the County into Precincts— English Tithmgs 
—Township Organization— Benefit of the System, ete.... 2ib 

CHAPTER IV.— Clark's First Courts and Administration 
of .lustice— An Incident of Flogging- How a Sheriff 
\djourued Court^OBieers and Their Pay— War His- 
tory—Early Military Forces of the County— Black 
Hawk— Mexican War— The Rebellion— Part Taken lu 

it by Clark, etc., etc.. 


CHAPTER V.—Edueatioual— First Steps Toward Knowl- 
edge-School Lauds and the Fund Derived From Them 
—The Duncan School Law— Taxes for IJUieational Pur- 
poses-Changes of the School Laws— First Schools of 
the County- Early Temples of Le.arning and Pioneer 
Teachers— Academies and Colleges— Statistics, etc., etc.. 26o 

CHAPTER VI.— Internal Improveinents— The Old National 
Road— How it w;is Built- Railroads— Their .Appearance 
in Clark— Building of the Van.lalia Road— Wabash and 
Other Railroad Projects- Conclusion, etc., etc 273 

CHAPTER VII.— Bench and Bar— The Early Comers and 
Who They Were — .Some Comments on the Profession- 
First Lawyers— Biographies and Character Sketches- 
Anecdotes of Fickliu and Linder— Other Legal liumina- 
ries, etc '-'" 

CHAPTER VIII.— .^farshall Township— Introductijn-To- 
pography— -4n Illinois Barren— Primitive Attractions- 
Early Land Entries— Origin of the Village— Pioneer In- 
dustries and Improvements-Early Society, etc., ete 29.'! 

CHAPTElt IX.— The City of Marshall— The Pltlt and Sub- 
sequent Additions— OrRcial Organization and Progress- 
Internal Improvements— Business Growth— Newspapers 
—Schools and Churches— Secret and Benevolent Orders, 
etc., ete -^5 

CHAPTER X.— York Township — Topographical- Union 
Prairie— The Pioneer Settlement of Clark County— Early 
Life on the Wahash— Boating— York Village— Its Growth 
and Development— The Rise of Church and School, etc.. 3.30 

CHAPTER XL— Darwin Township- Description and Topog- 
raphy—Walnut Prairie- First Step Toward Civilization 
—Work and Play in a New Country— Sterliug-.iurora 
and Darwin — County Seats — Religious, Educational, etc. 347 

CHAPTER XII.— Casey Township — Boundaries-General 
Topography— Soil — Streams — Early Settlement— Inci- 
dents— Vigilance Committee— Pioneer Life— Condition 
of the Country— Indians— Mills— Village of Cumberland 
— Village f.f Casey — Secret Societies— School History- 
Religious, etc., etc S$3 

CHAPTER XIII.— Westfield Township — Topographical 

Features— Early Immigration— Characteristics- 
Growth and Development of Settlement— Richmond— 
Westfield Village— Its Rise and Progress— The College- 
Churches, Ministers and Schools 377 


CH,\PTER XIV. — Wabash Township — Configuration, 
Boundaries, etc.— Early Settlement— Pioneer Society— 
.Amusements— Indians— Improvements and Industries 
—Villages— Churches and Schools, etc., etc 394 

CHAPTER XV.— Martinsville Township— Topography- 
Soil and Timber— Pioneer Settlement— National Road- 
Early Hotels— Incidents— Indians— Village of Martins- 
ville— Its (;rowth and Development— Mills— Secret So- 
cieties— Schools-Churches 403 

CHAPTER XVI. — Dolson Township — Topography and 
Physical Features— The Coming of the Pioneers— Char- 
acter of the People— Mills, Roads and Other Improve- 
ments—Schools, Churches, etc.— Village of^Clarksville, 
etc *" 

CHAPTER XVII.— Anderson Township — The Lay of the 
Land— Original Entries— Early Settlement— The Birch 
Family— Schools and Churches 425 

CII.APTER XVIIL— Orange Township— Position— Topog- 
raphy— Soil and Productions— Pioneer Settlement— In- 
cidents— Early Condition of Country— Pioneer Dwell- 
ings—First Birth- First Marriage— Early Schools — 
Church History ^^^ 

CHAPTER XIX.— Melrose Township— Surface Character- 
istics-Timber, Growth, .Soils, etc — First Settlement 
— Baekwood Experiences— Pioneer Industries— Churches 
and Schools ; -139 

CHAPTER XX.— .Johnson Township— Location and Bound- 
aries— Topouraphv-Pioueer Settlement— Early Mills- 
First Birth, Marriage, Death— Schools— Church History 448 

CHAPTER XXI —ParkerTownship— Surface Features- The 
First Settlers— Pioneer Industries and Improvements- 
Churches and Preachers— Educational Facilities, etc 454 

CH.APTER -XXIL- Auburn Township— "E Pluribus Unum" 
—Its Pioneers and Organization— The "Emperor" of 
.Auburn— Early Expectations— .Auburn Village— Church 
and .«chooI *^^^ 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Douglas Township— C.eogr.aphioal Po- 
sition — Settlement by the Whites— Improvements — 
Distilleries, Mills and Roads— Schools, Sehoolhouses, 
Churches, etc.- Village of Castle Finn 46o 



Mai-shall Township ^ 

Wabash Township 2, 

Casey Township '7 

Martinsville Township 1"* 

Johnson Township Jji 

ParkerTownship ]*" 

Westfield Township }»* 

Darwin Township J°" 

York Township J'" 

Melrose Township '™ 

Auburn Township f^ 

Douglas Township...., 5"° 

Dolson Township -'" 

Orange Township f-^ 

Anderson Township ■ •• ; ■..■ :•■ -" 

Additional Sketches— Received too late tor insertion m 
proper place -^° 




Robinson Township 225 

Hutsonville Township 260 

La Motte Township ^95 

Montgomery Townsjiip J'-° 

Oblong Township ^^^ 

Martin and Southwest Township 3o7 

Honey Creek Township "^8 

Licking Township '•^'^ 




Archer, W. I! 225 

Bishop, Kzekiel ■W 

Hraabiiry, J. s 243 

Hradlev, R. II 261 

Callahan, E 03 

Cox,l!ryant. 189 

Crews, W. .T 2"9 

Praper, \V. L ]ȣ 

I'irebaugh, I.L ■Jl'' 

Fox, .lohn 333 

C.oldell, J. .7 *'l 

Harlan, .1 3G9 

Harlan, Lucinda •'•'*' 


Harper, G. W 81 

Hill, Doctor 405 

Hippard, (i 423 

Hurst, John R 153 

Jones, William C 99 

Reavill, Andrew J 441 

Euddell, Martha 459 

Steel, James II U7 

Sweariugcn, S. G . 27 

Talbott, John 171 

Tavlor, Henry Part HI. 17 

Wilson, W. C 207 

Woodworth, A. P Part IV. 23S 

Woodworth, J. S 13S 






" If the events of the past are buried in the waste 
of ages, there are no landmarlis by which to trace the 
track of tim", and no means of understanding the 
influences which have molded human destiny.'' — 

THE earliest records of humanity are found 
in the Sacred Scriptures, and for that rea- 
son have a strong claim on our diligent study. 
Next to inspired history, our own town, our 
own county, our own State, and our own com- 
mon country, and the deeds of our forefathers, 
who first. settled and improved the land we 
call our own, should receive our notice. The 
history of our age and our locality comes 
home to us personally. Commonplace as it 
may seem to us now, in the ages to come it 
will help to make up a whole; increasing in 
interest as time reels off the centuries, one 

*By W. H. Perrln. 

after another. It is the actions and deeds of 
the citizen which speak through some repre- 
sentative whose talent for becoming their ad- 
vocate has given him a fame justly to be 
shared by his cotemporaries, and of these, 
county history is to speak. They constitute 
the delicate tracery and details of the historic 
landscape destined some day to be as grand 
as it is distant. Just as the setting sun bathes 
every object he leaves behind with a fresher 
beauty, and more attractive interest, so in- 
scribing upon the historic page glowing views 
of past scenes, affords a richer enjoyment than 
when those scenes were enacted. This power 
of reproduction compensates for the flight of 
time and the decay of the physical powers. 
In the annals of a community, fathers being 
dead, yet speak, and the old man still living 
loves to rehearse the scenes of his early days. 
To preserve from oblivion the scenes and the 



facts and incidents which have transpired in 
this secti.jii of the country, is the object of 
this volume. 

Not long ago, comparatively, as to the 
woikl's chronology, this vast domain, which 
Columbus promised to give to his king, was 
an unbroken wilderness, the undisputed home 
and hunting-ground of savage men. Of this 
promised land Crawford County comprises but 
a small and inslgnillcant portion, and its his- 
tory, since the advent of the pale-face pioneer, 
is brief and soon told. But there is a page 
which comes before this, and like the prologue 
to a drama should be recited first. It is a 
page which treats of a science that traces the 
history of the earth back through successive 
stages of development to its rudlmental con- 
dition in a state of fusion. The history of any 
country properly begins with its geological 
formations, for it is upon them that it depejids 
for the pursuits of its inhabitants and the 
genius of its civilization. Phases of life and 
modes of thought are induced by them, which 
give to different communities and States char- 
acters as various as the diverse rocks that un- 
derlie them. It is no less true that the moral 
and intellectual qualities of man depend on 
material conditions. For instance, where the 
soil and subjacent rocks are profuse in the 
bestowal of wealth, man is indolent and eifem- 
inate; where elfort is required to live he be- 
comes enlightened and virtuous; and when 
on the sands of the desert labor is unable to 
procure the necessaries and comforts of life 
he lives a savage. 

" Fifty years ago," says a writer on the sub- 
ject, " no popular belief was more fixed than 
that the work of creation was accomplished in 
six days, each occupying twenty- four hours. 
Geologists, however, in investigating the 
structure of the earth, saw that, to account 
for all the mutations which it has undergone 
required the lapse of an indefinite period of 

time, stretching back so far remote as to defy 
computation. To this requirement every in- 
telligent investigator of this day assents. 
Geologists now find that the antiquity of man 
far antedates the era assigned to his creation 
by the received system of chronology, and 
submits the evidence of their belief to an en- 
lightened public sentiment. In the silent 
depths of stratified rocks are the former cre- 
ations of plants and animals, and even of hu- 
man remains, which lived and died during the 
slow dragging centuries of their formation. 
These fossil remains are fragments of history, 
which enables the geologist to extend his re- 
searches far back into the realms of the past, 
and not only determine their former modes of 
life, but study the cotemporaneous history of 
their rocky beds, and group them into sys- 

There is an intimate relation existing be- 
tween the physical geography and the geo- 
logical history of every portion of the earth's 
surface; and in all cases the topographical 
features of a country are molded by, and 
therefore must be, to some extent at least, a 
reflection of its geological structure, and the 
changes it has undergone from the surface 
agencies of more modern times. The varied 
conditions of mountain and valley, deep 
gorge and level plain, are not the results of 
chance, but on the contrary, are just as much 
due to the operations of natural laws, as the 
rotation of the earth, or the growth and con- 
tinued existence of the various species of 
plants and animals which inhabit its surface. 
Moreover, all the varied conditions of the 
soil and its productive capacities, which may 
be observed in different portions even of our 
own State, are traceable to causes existing in 
the geological history of that particular re- 
gion, and to the surface agencies which have 
served to modify the whole, and prepare the 
earth for the reception and sustenance of the 



existing races of beings.* Hence we see that 
the geological liistory of a country determines 
its agricultural capacities, and also the ainount 
of population which it may sustain, and the 
general avocation of its inhabitants. 

In the topography and geology of Craw- 
ford County, we extract most of our facts 
and information from the new geological 
survev of the State, recently published, and 
which does full justice to these subjects. It 
says: " Crawford County contains seven full 
and several fractional townships, making an 
aggregate area ol about 438 square miles. It 
is bounded on the north by Clark County, on 
the east by the Wabash river, on the south 
by Lawrence and Richland Counties and on 
the west by Jaspar County. It is located on 
the western side of the Wabash river, and is 
traversed by several small streams tributary 
thereto. The surface is generally rolling, 
and was orlginallv mostly covered with tim- 
ber, a large portion of which, however, has 
been cleared away and the land brought 
under cultivation, though there is still re- 
maining an abundance of timber to supply 
the present and also the prosjiective demand 
for many years. The southwest portion of 
the county from the Shaker Mills on the Em- 
l^arras river, nearly to Robinson, is quite 
broken, and there are also belts of broken 
land of greater or less extent on all the 
streams. The principal water-courses in the 
county tributary to the Wabash river are the 
Emljarras, which runs diagonally across the 
southwestern corner of the county; the North 
Fork, traversing its western border from 
nnrth to south; Crooked Creek, also in the 
southwest part, and Brushy Fork, Lamotte 
Creek, Sugar Creek, Hutson Creek and a few 
other smaller streams in the eastern portion 
of the county. But a small proportion of the 
land is prairie. The few prairies are gener- 


ally small, and for the most part rolling, and 
are mainly confined to the northern and west- 
ern portio IS of the county, and to the bottom 
and terrace lands adjacent to the Wabash 

GeolofJi/.— "The quarternary beds in Crawford 
County consist of bulF or drab marly clays 
belonging to the Loess, which are found cap- 
ping the bluffs of the Wabash, and attaining 
a thickness of ten to twenty feet or more, and 
from twenty to forty feet of brown gravell)' 
clays and hard-pan, the latter resting upon the 
bed-rock, or separated from it by a thin bed of 
stratified sand or gravel. If these beds were 
found in a vertical section they would show the 
following order of succession: Buff anl drab 
marly clays or sand, ten to twenty feet; brown 
and yellow gravelly clays, fifteen to twenty 
feet; bluish-gray hard-pan, ten to twenty-five 
feet; sand or gravel three feet. Generally 
these superficial deposits are thin, and at most 
places the bed-rock will be found within fifteen 
or twenty feet of the surface. Small bowlders 
are frequently met with in the branches, but 
large ones are quite uncommon, and they are 
more frequently derived from the limestone 
and hard sandstone of the adjacent coal meas- 
ure beds than from the metamorphic rocks 
beyond the confines of the State, though some 
of the latter may be seen. 

Coal Measures. — " The stratified rocks of 
this county all belong to tlie upper coal meas- 
ures, the lowest beds appearing in the beds of 
the Wabash river and the highest along the 
western borders of the county, and include the 
horizon of coals Nos. 11, 12 and 13 of the Illi- 
nois Section. The only knowledge that we 
have of the underlying formations is derived 
from a shaft, and boring made at Palestine 
Landing. The shaft was sunk to reach a coal 
seam reported in a boring previously made to 
be four feet thick, and at a depth of 123 feet. 
The bore was made about a mile and a half 
northwest of the shaft, and commenced fifteen 



feet below a thin coal wh'ch outcrops in the hill 
above. It was made for oil, duriiio^ the oil 
fever, and no great reliance can be placed in 
the reported thickness or character of the 
strata penetrated. The shaft was sunk to the 
horizon of a coal seam reported four feet thick 
in the bore, but on reaching it in the shaft it 
proved to be two feet of bituminous shale and 
six inches of coal. If any reliance can be 
placed on the reported section of this boring, 
it must have passed through coals Nos. 10, 9 
and 8 of the general section of the Illinois Coal 
Measures, and it is noticeable that in the shaft 
sunk at the landing, they found two thin beds 
of limestone over the coal at the bottom of 
the shaft, coal No. 9, showing that although 
this limestone has thinned out very much 
from what its outcrop shows in Clark County, 
it has, nevertheless, not quite disappeared. 
This coal was reported in the boring at four 
feet, without any recognition of the bitumi- 
nous shale above it, while in the shaft that 
■was sunk down to this horizon in the antici- 
pation of linding a good seam of coal, the bi- 
tuminous shale proved to be two feet thick 
and the coal only six inches. The rotten 
coal No. 27 in the section heretofore referred 
to, probably represents coal No. 8, which in 
Gallatin County is from 50 to 75 feet above 
No. 7, though no trace of the latter was re- 
ported in the bore. The coals intervening 
between Nos. 8 and 15 are seldom found of 
sufficient tbickness to be worked to advan- 
tage except when it can be done by stripping 
along their outcrops, and here they are of but 
little value as a resource for fuel. In the 
western portion of the county but little coal 
has been found, and only in a single mine, 
hereafter to be mentioned, has there been any 
attempt to mine for c al in a systematic way. 
The exposure in the bluffs just below Pales- 
tine Landing show the following beds: No. 
1, covered slope of Loess and Drift, fifteen 
to twenty feet; No. 2, shelly brown lime- 

stone, with fossils, two feet; No. 3, bitumi- 
nous shale and thin coal. No. 12, one to two 
feet; No. 4, sand shales and sandstone, forty- 
five to fifty feet: No. 5, bitura nous shale, 
with numerous fossils, two to three feet; No. 
6, coal No. 11; No. 7, liard, dark gray bitu- 
minous limestone, two to three feet; No. 8, 
shale, sixteen to twenty feet. The shelly 
brown limestone, No. 2 of the foregoing 
section, contains numerous fossils among 
which were recognized Spirifer camratus, 
Productus cortatus, P. punctatus, P. patten- 
ianus, P. longispinus, Chonetes Fleminffii, 
joints and plates of Crinoids, Ordis Pecosi 
and some undetermined forms of bryozoa. 
Further west in the county, and in Lawrence 
also. No. 12 coal is overlaid bv a buff calcar- 
eous shale, in which Orthis Pecosi and Lo- 
f)ltiiphyUmn proUferum are conspicuous. 

" The bituminous shale, No. 5 of the above 
section was found well exposed at the bridge 
on Lamotte Creek, on the road from Palestine 
to the landing, and the following group of 
fossils were obtained from it at this locality: 
Pleurotomoria, Aphmurluta, B. percariuta, 
P. tabulata, P. GraynlleurU, Bellerophon 
carbonaiiance, etc., corresponding with the 
beds at Lawrenceville and Grayvilie. Nu- 
merous bands of carbonate of iron occur in 
the shales at the base of the above section, 
both on Lamotte Creek and in the river bank 
at Palestine Landing. 

" Robinson is located on a sandstone de- 
posit overlaying all the rocks found in the 
bluffs at Palestine Landing, indicating a de- 
cided dip of the strata to the westward. The 
outcrops of sandstone on the small branch of 
Sun-ar Creek, which drains the section on 
which the town is built, show from fifteen to 
twenty feet in thickness of soft brown rock, 
in which a few small quarries have been 
opened. This portion of the bed affords 
shales, and thin-bedded, rather soft brown 
sandstone, with some thicker beds toward the 



baso of the outcrop, which are inacces- 
sible from tlie amount of strijipinp^ required 
to reach them, as well as from the fact that 
thej- are partly below the water level in the 
branch. At Isaac C. Hole's place, north of 
Robinson, on the northeast quarter of Section 
16, Township 7, Range 12, more extensive 
quarries have been opened in this sandstone, 
and a much greater thickness of strata is ex- 
posed. The quarries are on a branch in the 
timber, but there is almost a continuous out- 
crop along the branch, nearh' to the prairie 
level, showing the following succession of 
strata: Shaly sandstone, becoming thicker- 
bedded and harder toward the bottom, and 
containing broken plants, thirty to forty feet; 
massive brown sandstone, (main quarry rock) 
eight to ten feet; ferruginous pebbh' bed, 
three feet. The massive brown sandstone 
quarried here is locally concretionary, the 
concretions being much harder than other 
portions of the bed, and afford a very durable 
stone. This sandstone, with the shales usually 
associated with it, probably attains a maxi- 
mum thickness of sixty to eighty feet, and 
fills the intervening space between coals Xos. 
12 and 13 of the general section. It has been 
penetrated in sinking wells on the prairie in 
many places north and northwest of Robinson . 
Law's coal bank, formerly known as Eaton's 
bank, is on the southwest part of the north- 
east quarter of section 12, township 7, range 
13. The coal is a double seam, about three 
feet thick, with a parting of bituminous shale 
from two or three inches to two feet in thick- 
ness. It is overlaid here by shale and a hard7 
dark, ash-gray limestone, desti|Hte of fossils. 
One mile up the creek from this mine the 
coal is said to pass into a bituminous shale. 
The coal obtained here is rather soft, and 
subject to a good deal of waste in mining; 
but as the mine was not in operation there 
was no opportunity of judging of its average 
quality. A section of the creek bluff at the 

mine shows the following order: Gravelly 
clays of the drift, ten to fifteen feet; hard, 
dark, ash-gray limestone, one to one and a 
halffi-et; hard, siliceous shales, with nodules, 
half a foot; coal, with shale parting, three 
feet. A boring was made here by the propri- 
etor, and a thicker seam was reported to have 
been found some forty feet below; but if this 
report is correct, the sandstone usually inter- 
vening between coals Nos. 12 and 13 is here 
much below its average thickness, and no 
such coal is known to outcrop in the county. 
However, local coals are sometimes developed 
which onlv cover very limited areas, and this 
may be a case of that kind. 

" Four miles southwest of Robinson, a bed 
of hard, dark-gray bituminous limestone out- 
crops in the bed of Turkey Creek, and has 
been quarried for building stone, for which 
purpose it is but poorly adapted, as it splits 
to fragments after a limited exposure to the 
elements. The rock occurs in a single 
stratum about eighteen inches thick, overlaid 
by a brown calcareous shale, filled with nod- 
ules of argillaceous limestone. The shale 
contained numerous specimens of Lnpho- 
p/iyllum proliferum, associated with joints 
Z/entioidea. The foundation stone for the 
court house at Robinson was obtained here. 
This limestone may overlay a thin coal, but 
it could not be learned that any seam had 
been found in this vicinity. In the west&rn 
portion of the county outcrops arc rare, and 
so widely separated that no continuous sec- 
tion could be made. 

" On section 4, in Hutsonville township, at 
W. D. Lamb's place, a bed of limestone is 
found underlaid by five or six feet of blue 
shale and a thin coal. In a well sunk here the 
limestone was found to be live feet in thick- 
ness, a tough, fine grained, dark-grayish rock, 
containing no well preserved fossils. On Mr. 
Evans' place, just over the line of Clark 
County, on section 31, township 8, range 12, 



heavy masses of limestone are to be seen 
along the creek valley. It is a massive, gray, 
brittle rock, and contains Athyris suhtillta, 
Spirifer cameratus and Froduotus longispri- 
nus. A mile and a half further up the creek 
this limestone is found in place, and is 
burned for lime by Mr. Drake. These lime- 
stones belong, probably, below the sandstone, 
■which is found at Robinson and at Hole's 
quarry. At Lindley's mill, on the northwest 
quarter of section 7, township 8, and range 
13, a hard, dark gray limestone was found in 
the bed of the creek, only about two feet in 
thickness of its upper portion being exposed 
above the creek bed. A quarter of a mile 
south of the mill, at Mr. Reynolds' place, coal 
is mined by stripping along the bed of a 
branch. The coal is from 15 to 18 inches, 
overlaid by two or three feet of blue shale, and 
a grav limestone filled with large Product), 
Athyrus subtilita, etc., Productus costatus, 
with its long spines, seemed to be the most 
abundant species. This limestone, and the 
underlying coal, it is believed, represents the 
horizon of the upper coal in the bluff at 
Palestine landing, and No. 13 of the general 

"At Martin's mill on Brushy Fork, near the 
south line of the county, the limestone and 
shale found at the Lamotte Creek bridge, and 
also at Lawrenceville, representing the horizon 
of coal No. 11, is well exposed. The upper 
bed is there about a quarter of a mile from 
the creek, and at a somewhat higher level ap- 
parently, than the sandstone. No. 2 forming 
the top of the bluff; but the intervening space 
could not be more than ten to fifteen feet. 
Pockets of coal were found here in the con- 
cretionary sandstone; but although dug into 
for coal, they proved to be of very limited 
extent. The micaceous sandstone No. 3 of 
the section, affords some very good building 
stone, and some of the thin layers are distinctly 
ripple-marked. The calcareous shale afforded 

numerous fossils of the same species found 
at the Lamotte Creek bridge. 

" At Mr. Nettles' place, on the northeast 
quarter of section 2i, township 5, range 12, 
coal has been mined for several years. The 
coal is about eighteen inches thick and has a 
roof of fine black slate, resembling cannel coal, 
nearly as thick as the coal itself. The black 
slate is overlaid by two or three feet of cal- 
careous shale, containing Orthis Pecosi, Jiet- 
zia Mornio)ii, and joints and plates of ZiCii- 
noidea. This coal is probably the same as 
that near the top of the hill at Palestine land- 
incr, and No. 13 of the Illinois section. Prof. 
Cox reports the following outcrop in the 
county: In the hill east of the Shaker mill, 
section 33, township 5 and range 12, a soft 
yellowish massive sandstone, forming cliffs 
along the ravines, and in places wethering 
into rock houses, or over-like cavities. Sec- 
tion here is as follows: soft and covered space, 
five feet; flag2:y sandstone in two to eight 
inch layers, eight feet; solid-bedded sand- 
stone, thirteen feet. Sandy shales, flagstones 
and an occasional showing of massive soft sand- 
stone, form the prominent geological features 
of the southern and western portions of the 
county. Around Hebron, four miles south of 
Robinson, massive sandstone forms cliffs fif- 
teen to twenty feet high, probably a contin- 
uation of the rocks seen at the Shaker mill. 
Two miles and a half southeast of Bellair is 
the following section, at Goodin's coal bank: 
Slope of the hill, twenty feet; hard blue argil- 
laceous shale, ten feet; coal breaks in small 
frao-ments, one to one and a half feet. This 
mine is worited by a shaft. A quarter of a 
mile below, on Willow Creek, the same seam 
is worked on Mr. Matheney's place by strip- 
pino-, where the coal is of the same thickness. 
This coal must be as high in the series as 
No. 13 or 14 of the general section and may 
be the coal mined near Newton and New 
Liberty, in Jasper County. 



Coal. — "As stated in a precedinrr pa^-c, all 
the stratified rocks in tlie county, belong 
to the upper coal measures, extending from 
coals No. 11 to 14 inclusive; and as these 
seams are usually too thin to be worked in a 
regular way, no valuable deposit of coal is 
likely to be found outcropping at the surface 
in the county. The seam at Mr. Law's place 
northeast of Robinson, is said to attain a lo- 
cal thickness of three feet, and may be suc- 
cessfully mined, when the coal is good. 
When the demand for coal shall be such as 
to justify deep mining, the lower coals may 
bo reached at a depth of from four to six 
hurulrt'd feet. Their nearest approach to the 
surface is along the Valley of the "Wabash 
river, and the depth would be increased to 
the westward by the dip of the strata and the 
elevation of the surface. 

Huilding Stone. — " The best building stone 
to be found in the county comes from the 
heavy bed of sandstone above coal No. 12, 
which outcrops at various places in the coun- 
ty, and especially at Mr. Hole's quarries, north 
of Robinson. At some locations, a fair arti- 
cle of thin bedded micaceous sandstone is 
found between coals 11 and 13, as at Mar- 
tin's mill, on Brushy Fork, near the south line 
of the county. These sandstones afford a 
cheap and durable material for foundation 
walls, bridge abutments, etc. The limestone 
four miles west of Robinson, that was used in 
the foundation walls of the court house, is 
liable to split when exposed to the action of 
frost and water; and although seeming hai^ 
and solid, when freshly quarried, will not 
withstand exposure as well a»he sandstone, 
if the latter is carefully selected. The lime- 
stone at Reynolds' coal bank, near Lindley's 
mill, stands exposure well, and will afford a 
durable building stone. 

Iron Ore. — " The shales associated with 
coal No. 11 usually contain more or less car- 
bonate of iron, and at the locality below the 

bridge on Lamotte Creek, near Palestine 
landing, the quality seemed to be sufficient 
to justify an attempt to utilize it. The shale 
in the bank of the creek shows a perpendic- 
ular face of fifteen to twenty feet, and the 
bands of ore toward the bottom of the bed 
would afford from twelve to eighteen inches 
of good ore in a thickness of about six feet of 
shale. At the river bank just below the land- 
ing, this shale outcrops again, and the iron 
nodules are abundant along the river bank, 
where they have been washed out of the 
easily decomposed shale. Good brick clay 
can be found in the sub-soil of the uplands, 
and sand is found both in the Loess deposits 
of the river bluffs, and in the beds of the 

Soil and Timber. — From Hutsonville south 
there is a belt of alluvial bottom and terrace 
land, from one to three miles in width, ex- 
tending to the mouth of Lamotte Creek, a 
distance of about ten miles. This is mostly 
prairie, and the soil is a deep, sandy loam, 
and very productive. The upland prairies 
have a chocolate-colored soil, not so rich as 
the black prairie soils of Central Illinois, but 
yielding fair crops of corn, wheat, oats, clover, 
etc. On the timbered lands the soil is some- 
what variable. Where the surface is broken 
the soil is thin, but on the more level portions 
where the growth is composed in part of black 
walnut, sugar tr(>e, linden, hacki)erry and 
wild cherry; the soil is very productive, and 
yields annually large crops of all the cereals 
usually grown in this latitude. 

The varieties of timber observed in this 
county are the common species of oak a)id 
hickory, black and white walnut, white and 
sugar maple, slippery and red elm, honey lo- 
cust, linden, hackberry, ash, red birch, cotton- 
wood, sycamore, coffeenut, black gum, pecan, 
persimmon, pawpaw, red fliorn, crab apple, 
wild, sassafras, red bud, dogwood, iron 
wood, etc., etc. 



" The verdant, hills 
Are covered o'er with growing grain, 
And white men till the soil 
Where once the red man used to reign." 

LONG ago, before this country was pos- 
sessed by the red Indian, it was occupied 
by another race — the Mound Builders — wliose 
works constitute the most interesting class 
of antiquities found in the United States. 
These relics and works of a lost race, ante- 
date the most ancient records, and their cliar- 
acter can only be partially gleaned from the 
internal evidences which the works them- 
selves afford. Of the strange people who 
reared them, we know absolutely nothing be- 
yond conjecture. If we knock at their tombs, 
no spirit comes back with a response, and 
only a sepulchral echo of forgetfulness and 
death reminds us how vain is the attempt to 
unlock the mysterious past upon which ob- 
livion has fixed its seal. How forcibly their 
bones, moldering into dust in the mounds 
they heaped up, and the perishing relics they 
left behind them, illustrate the transitory 
character of human existence. Generation 
after generation lives, moves and is no more; 
time has strewn the track of its ruthless 
march with the fragments of mighty empires; 
and at length not even their names nor works 

*By W. H. Pei-rin. 

have an existence in the speculations of those 
who take their places. 

Modern investigations have thrown much 
light upon the origin of the human race. A 
writer upon the pre-historio period, savs: 
"The combined investigations of geologists 
and ethnologists have developed facts which 
require us to essentially modify our pre-exist- 
ing views as to the length of time during 
which the human race has occupied our 
planet. That man lived at a time far too re- 
mote to be embraced in our received system 
of chronology, surrounded by great quadru- 
peds which have ceased to exist, under a 
climate very different from what now prevails, 
has been so clearly demonstrated that the 
fact must now be accepted as a scientific 
truth. Revelations so startling, have been 
received with disquiet and distrust by those 
who adhere to the chronology of Usher and 
Petarius, which would bring the various mi- 
grations of men, the confusion of tongues, 
the peopling of continents, the development 
of types, and everything relating to human 
history, within the short compass of little 
more than four thousand years. 

" Those great physical revolutions in Eu- 
rope, such as the contraction of the glaciers 
within narrow limits, the gradual change of 
the Baltic from salt to brackish water, the 
submergence and subsequent elevation of a 



large portion of southern Russia and northern 
Germany, the conversion of a portion of the 
bod of the Mediterranean Sea into the desert 
of Sahara, the severance of France from En- 
gland, Europe from Africa and Asia from 
Europe, by the Straits of Dover, Gibralter 
and the Dardanelles, and the dying out of the 
volcanic fires of Auvergne — all these great 
physical changes which geologists, by univer- 
sal consent, admitted were infinitely older 
than any authentic history or tradition, must 
now be comprehended in the Human Epoch." 

Says Sir John Lubbock: "Ethnology is 
passing through a phase from which other sci- 
ences have safely emerged, and the new 
views in reference to the Antiquity of Man, 
though still looked upon with distrust and 
apprehension, will, I doubt not, in a few years, 
be regarded with as little disquietude as are 
now those discoveries in astronomy and geol- 
ogy which at one time excited even greater 
opposition." However strange these new 
views may appear, they but prove the origin 
of man at a time, as previously stated, far too 
remote to be embraced in the " received sys- 
tem of chronology." Speaking of the ruins 
of the magnificent cities of Central America, 
Davidson says: "The mind is almost startled 
at the remoteness of their antiquity, when 
we consider the vast sweep of time necessary 
to erect such colossal structures of solid ma- 
sonry, and afterward convert them into the 
present utter wreck. Comparing their com- 
plete desolation with the ruins of Baalbec, 
Palmyra, Thebes and Memphis, they must 
have been old when the latter were being 

The relics and ruins left by the Mound 
Builders — the lost race which now repose un- 
der the ground — consist of the remains of 
what were apparently villages, altars, temples, 
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifi- 
cations and pleasure grounds. The farthest 
of these discovered in a northeastern direc- 

tion was near Black River, on the south side 
of Lake Ontario. From this point they ex- 
tend in a southwestern direction, by way of 
the Ohio, the Mississippi, the Gulf of Mexico, 
Te.xas, New Mexico and Yucatan, into South 
America. Commencing in Cattaraugus Coun- 
ty, N. Y., there was a chain of these forts 
and earthworks, extending more than fifty 
miles southwesterly, and not more than four 
or five miles apart, evidently built by a people 
"rude in the arts and few in numbers." 
Particularly in the Ohio and Mississippi Val- 
leys are located many of these works, and 
some of the most extensive known to exist. 
" One of the most august monuments of re- 
mote antiquity," says Foster, " to be found in 
the whole country^, may stdl be seen in West 
Virginia, near the junction of Grave Creek 
and the Ohio River. According to actual 
measurement it has an altitude of ninety 
feet, a diameter at the base of 100 feet, 
at the summit of forty-five, while a partial 
examination has disclosed within it the ex- 
istence of many thousands of human skele- 
tons." In the State of Ohio, at the mouth of 
the Muskingum, among a number of curious 
works, was a rectangular fore containing forty 
acres, encircled by a wall of earth ten feet 
high, and perforated with openings resem- 
bling gateways. In the mound near the fort 
were found the remains of a sword, which 
appeared to have been buried with the 
owner. Resting on the forehead were found 
three large copper bosses, plated with silver, 
and attached to a leather buckler. Near the 
side of the body was a plate of silver, which 
had perhaps been the upper part of a copper 
scabbard, portions of which were filled with 
iron rust, doubtless the remains of a sword. 

The earthwoiks which seem to have been 
erected as means of defense, usuaiy occupy 
hill-tops and other situations easily fortified, 
to put it in modern terms. In Ross County, 
Ohio, is a fair illustration of this class, and is 



thus described by Squier and Davis, two emi- 
nent archaeologists: "This work occupies 
the summit of a lofty, d it lolied hil!, tw Ive 
miles westward from tlie city of Cliillicothe, 
near th.i viihige of Bjunieviile. The hill is 
no; far from Oiie h.indred feet m perpendicular 
height, and is remarkable, even among the 
steep hills of the west, for the general abrupt- 
ness of its sides, which at some points are ab- 
solutely inaccessible. * * * * 'pijg jp. 
fenses consist of a wall of stone, which 
is carried round the hill a little below the 
brow; but at some places it rises, so as to 
cut off the narrow spurs, and extends across 
the neck that connects the hill with the 
range beyond." Nothing like a true wall, 
however, exists there now, but the "present 
appearance is rather what might have 
been expected from the falling outward of 
a wall of stones, placed, as this was, upon 
the declivity of a hill." The area inclosed by 
this wall was 140 acres, and the wall itself 
was two miles and a quarter in length. Trees 
of the largest size now grow upon these ruins. 
On a similar work in Highland County, O.iio, 
Messrs. Squier and Davis found a large chest- 
nut tree, which they supposed to be 600 years 
old. " If to this we add," they say, " the 
probable period intervening from the time 
of the building of this work to its abandon- 
ment, and the subsequent period up to its 
invasion by the forest, we are led irresistibly 
to the conclusion that it has an antiquity of at 
least one thousand years. Bat when W3 
notice, all around us, the crumbling trunks of 
trees, half hidden in the accumulating soil, 
we are induced to fix on an antiquity still 
more remote." 

At Merom, Indiana, are works of a very 
interesting character, which have been 
thoroughly investigated and described by 
scientists. These works have yielded a num- 
ber of skulls, which, says Foster, " will form 
the basis of certain ethnic speculations as to 

the character of the Mound Builder, and his 
affiliation with other distinct and widely 
disseminated peoples." Mr. F. W. Putnam 
thus describes them: "The fort is situated 
on a plateau of Loess, about 120 feet in height 
ar)ove low water, on the east bink of the 
river. On the river side, the bank, which 
principally consists of an outcrop of sand- 
stone, is very steep, and from the western line 
of the fortification, while deep ravines add to 
its strength on the other side; the weak 
points being strengthened by earthworks. 
The general course of the work is from the 
north, where it is very narrow, not over fifty 
feet, owing to the formation of the plateau, 
south along the river bank aliout 725 feet to 
its widest portion, which is here about .S75 
feet east and west. From this point it follows 
a deep ravine southerly about 4130 feet to the 
entrance end of the fort. The bank trav- 
ersed by the entrance road is here much 
wider than at other portions, and along its 
outer wall, running eastward, are the remains 
of what was evidently once a deep ditch. The 
outer wall is about thirty feet wide, and is 
now about one and a half feet high; a de- 
pressed portion of the bank, or walk-way, 
then runs parallel with the outer wall, and 
the bank is then contiinud for about twenty 
feet further into the fort, but of slightly less 
height than the front. Through the center of 
these banks there are the remains of a dis- 
tinct road-way, about ten feet in width. 
From the northeastern corner of this wide 
wall the line continues northwesterly about 
350 feet, along the eastern ravine, to a point 
where there is a spring, and the ravine makes 
an indenture of nearly 100 feet to the south- 
west. The mouth of the indenture is about 
75 feet in width, and the work is here 
strengthened by a double embankment. The 
natural line of the work follows this indent- 
ure, and then continues in the same northerly 
course along the banks of the ravine to the 



narrow portion of tlie plateau, about 550 feet, 
to the starting point. There is thus a con- 
tinual line, in part natural and in part artifi- 
cial, which, if measured in all its little ins and 
outs, would not be far from 2,-150 feet. Be- 
sides the spring mentioned as in the indent- 
ure of the eastern ravine, there is another 
spring in the same ravine, about 175 feet to 
the north of the first, and a third in the south- 
western corner of the work. Looking at all 
the natural advantages offered by this loca- 
tion, it is the one spot of the region, for sev- 
eral miles along the river, that would be se- 
lected to-day for the erection of a fortification 
in the vicinjty, with the addition of the pos- 
session of a small eminence to the north, 
which in these days of artillery would com- 
mand the fort. Having this view in mind, a 
careful examination was made of the eminence 
mentioned, to see if there had been an op- 
posing or protective work there, but not the 
slightest indication of earthwork fortification 
or mounds of habitation was discovered. * 
* * * On crossing the outer wall, a few 
low mounds are at once noticed, and all 
around are seen large, circular depressions. 
At the southern portion of the fort, these de- 
pressions, of which there are forty-five in all, 
are most numerous, thirty-seven being located 
on the northern side of the indenture of 
the eastern ravine. These depressions 
vary in width from ten to twenty-five or 
thirty feet, and are irregularly arrangeil. 
One of the six depressions opposite the 
indenture of the eastern ravine is oval in 
shape, and is the only one that is not nearly 
circular, the others varying but a foot or two 
in diameter. Two of these depressions were 
dug into, and it was found that they were 
evidently once large pits that had gradually 
been filled by the hand of time with the ac- 
cumulation of vegetable matter and soil that 
had been deposited by natural action alone. 
In some instances large trees are now grow- . 

ing in the pits, and their many roots make 
digging difficult. A trench was dug across 
one pit, throwing out the soil care'fully until 
the former bottom was reached at a depth of 
about five feet. On' this bottom, ashes and 
burnt clay gave evidence of an ancient fire; 
and at a few feet on one side, several pieces 
of pottery, a few bones of animals, and one 
stone arrow-head were found. A spot had 
evidently been struck where food had been 
cooked and eaten; and though there was not 
time to open other pits, there is no doubt but 
that they would tell a similar story; and the 
legitimate conclusion to he drawn from the 
fact is, that these pits were the houses of the 
inhabitants or defenders of the fort, who were 
probably further protected from the elements 
and the arrows of assailants by a roof of logs 
and bark or boughs. The great number of 
the pits would show that they were not for a 
definite and general purpose; and tlioir reg- 
ular arrangement would indicate that they 
were not laid out with the sole idea of acting 
as places of defense; though those near the 
walls of the fort might answer as covers, from 
which to fire on an opposing force boyond the 
walls; and the six pits near the eastern indent- 
ure, in front of three of which there are traces 
of two small earth- walls, would strengthen 
this view of the use of those near the em- 
bankment. The five small mounds ware sit- 
uated in various parts of the inclosure. The 
largest was nearly fifty feet in diameter and 
was probably originally not over ten feet in 
height. It had been very nearly dug away 
in places, but about one fifth of the lower 
portion had not been disturbed. From this 
was exhumed one nearly perfect human skel- 
eton, and parts of several others that had 
been left by former excavators. This mound 
also contained several bones of animals, prin- 
cipally of deer, bear, opossum and turtles; 
fragments of pottery, one arrow-head, a few 
flint chips and a number of thick shells of itnios. 



two of which hii'l been bored near the hino^e. 
This mound has yielded a number of human 
bones to the industry of Dr. H. Frank Har- 
per. The second mound, which was partly 
opened, was some twenty-five feet in diame- 
ter and a few feet in heijjht, though probably 
once much higher. In this a number of bones 
of deer and other animals were found, sev- 
eral pieces of pottery, a number of shells and 
a few human bones. The other three mounds, 
one of which is not over ten or twelve feet 
in diameter and situated the farthest north, 
were not examined internally. The position 
of all the mounds within the inclosure, is 
such as to suggest that they were used as ob- 
servatories; and it may yet be questioned if 
the human and other remains found in them 
were placed there by the occupants of the 
fort, or are to be considered under the head 
of iiitntsioe burials by the later race. Per- 
haps a further study of the bones may settle 
the point. That two races have buried their 
dead within the inclosure is made probable 
by the finding of an entirely different class of 
burials at the extreme western point of the 
fortiftcation. At this point Dr. Harper, the 
year previous, had discovered three stone 
graves, in which he found portions of the 
skeletons of two adults and one child. These 
graves, the stones of one being still in place, 
were found to be made by placing thin slabs 
on end, forming the sides and ends, the tops 
being covered by other slabs, making a rough 
stone coffin in which the bodies had been 
placed. There was no indication of any 
mound having been ere 'ted, and they were 
placed slightly on the slope of the bank. This 
kind of burial is so distinct from that of the 
burials in the mound, that it is possible that 
the acts mav be referred to two distinct races 
who have occupied the territory successively, 
though they may prove to be of the same 
time, and simply indicate a special mode, 
adopted for a distinctive purpose." 

We have devoted considerable space to the 
Merom Mounds, from the fact that their near 
proximity renders them of peculiar interest in 
the history of Crawford County, more espe- 
cially, as another group of mounds on the 
west side of the Wabash, near Hutsonville, 
were investigated and described by the party 
to whom we are indebted for the foregoing 
description of the works near Merom. Of the 
mounds near Hutsonville, the same authority 
says: "A group of fifty-nine mounds is to be 
seen a few miles Up the river from Merom, on 
the Illinois side at Hutsonville. The relative 
position and size of the mounds are shown by 
a cut from a plan made by Mr. Emerton. 
This group commences just beyond the river- 
terrace, and widens out to the east and west, 
covering a distance of about 1,000 feet from 
the mound on the extreme east to that furthest 
west, and continues southward, back from the 
river, on the second or prairie-terrace, some 
1,400 or 1,500 feet. The greater number of 
the mounds forming the group are situated in 
the northern half of the territory covered, 
while only ten are on the south of this central 
line. The mounds are very irregularly dis- 
posed over the territorv included in the limits, 
and vary in size from fourteen to eighteen 
feet to forty-five or fifty in diameter, and are 
now from a foot and a half to five feet in 
height, though probably formerly much higher. 
Four of the mounds at the southern portion of 
the group were surrounded by a low ridge, 
now somewhat indistinct, but still in places 
about a foot in height. These ridges are com- 
posed of dirt, evidently scooped -up from 
round the base of the mounil, as between the 
ridge and the mound there is still a slight and 
even depression. The ridges about the 
southernmost mounds have openings nearly 
facing each other, while the one to the north 
of them has the ridge broken on both the 
eastern and western sides, and the one stdl 
further to the north has the ridge entire. 



"In referring to this group of mounds I 
have called them mounds of habitation, and it 
seems as if that was most likely to have been 
their use. First, from the character of the 
surrounding country, which is level, and only 
some twenty-five or thirty feet above the 
present level of the river, with every indica- 
tion of a clear, damp soil in former times, 
though the part now under cultivation is cov- 
ered with a heavy growth of trees, several 
large trees even growing immediately on 
some of the mounds. ^Yhat would be more 
natural to persons wishing to avail themselves 
of this tenace-prairie and proximity to the 
river, than to make a mound on which to erect 
their dwelling? 

" Socondiv, their great variation in size and 
irre2;ularity in positiou would indicate that a 
number of persons had got together for some 
common purpose, and each family working 
with a common view to provide for certain 
ends, had erected a mound, varying in size 
according to the number at work upon it, or 
the degree of industry with which its makers 
worked during the time at their disposal. 

"Thirdly, four of the mounds were most 
carefully examined, to ascertain if they were 
places of burial, one of them being opened by 
diaro-ino- a trench through it some three or 
four feet in width, and to a depth of about 
one to two feet below the level of the surface 
on which the mound was built. The other 
three were opened from the top, by digging 
down in the center until the original under- 
lined surface was reached. None of these ex- 
cavations brought a single bone or an imple- 
ment of any kind to light, but, on the con- 
trary, showed that the mounds had been made 
of various materials at hand, and in one case 
ashes were found which had probably been 
scraped up with other material and thrown 
upon the heap. 

"Fourthly, the ridge surrounding four of 
the mounds may be the dirt thrown up to help 

support a palisade or stake fence enclosing 
these particular mounds for some special pur- 
pose. The absence of human remains and 
all refuse in the shape of kitchen heaps, as 
well as implements, would seem to indicate 
that it a place of resort at special seasons, 
or for some particular purpose. That the 
mounds are of quite ancient date there can 
be no question; but beyond the fact that at 
least a second growth of trees has taken place 
on some of them, we have no data for indi- 
cating their age." 

There are no other mounds or earthworks, 
so far as we have been able to learn, in the 
county. But in many portions of the Slate 
they are numerous, and in some very large. 
Between Alton and East St. Louis there is a 
group containing some sixty odd structures in 
which is included the great mound of Ca- 
hokia, which is denominated the " monarch of 
all similar structures in the United States." 
But our space will not admit of further de- 
scription of the works and relics left by this 
strange people — works that contain no in- 
scriptions which, like those found on the 
plains of Shinar, or in the valley of the Nile, 
can unfold the mysterious of by -gone centu- 
ries. The questions, who were the Mound 
Builders? who reared these mysterious struct- 
ures? have never been satisfactorily answered. 
We can only exclaim with Bryant — 

" A race that long has passed away 
Built them, a disciplined and populous race, 
Heaped with long toil the earth, while yet the Greek 
Wiis hewing the Pentelicus to forms 
Of syuim 'try, and reaving on its rock 
The glittering Parthenon." 

Following the Mound Builders, and sup- 
posed by some writers to have been their 
conquerors, came the red Indians, the next 
occupants of this country. They were found 
here by the Europeans, but how long they 
had been in possession of the country, there 
is no means of knowing. Like their precur- 



Bors, the Mound Builders, " no historian has 
preserved the story of tlieir race." Tlie 
question of the origin of the Indian has long 
interested archasologists, and is one of the 
most difficult they have been called on to 
answer. It is believed by some that they 
were an original race indigenous to the 
Western Hemisphere. A more common sup- 
position, however, is that they are a derivative 
race, and sprang from one or more of the 
ancient peoples of Asia. In the absence of 
all authentic history, and even when tradition 
is wanting, any attempt to point out the par- 
ticular theater of their origin must prove un- 
satisfactory. The exact place of their origin, 
doubtless, will never be known, yet the 
striking coincidences of physical organization 
between the oriental types of mankind point 
unmistakably to some part of Asia as the 
place from whence they emigrated. Instead 
of 1,800 years, the time of their roving in the 
wilds of America, as determined by Spanish 
interpretation of their pictographic records, 
the interval has perhaps been thrice that pe- 
riod. Scarcely three thousand years would 
suffice to blot out every trace of the language 
they brought with them from the Asiatic 
cradle of the race, and introduce the present 
diversity of aboriginal tongues. Like their 
oriental progenitors, they have lived for cent- 
uries without progress, while the Caucasian 
variety of the race, under the transforming 
power of art, science and improved systems 
of civil polity, have made the most rapid ad- 
vancement. At the time of their departure 
eastward a strong current of emigration 
flowed westward to Europe, making it a great 
arena of human effort and improvement. 
Thence proceeding further westward, it met, 
in America, the midway station in the circuit 
of the globe, the opposing current direct from 
^sia. The shock of the first contact was the 
beginning of the great conflict which has 

since been waged by the rival sons of Shem 
and Japheth.* 

The first thought of the red men, when 
hostilities commenced on the Atlantic border, 
was to retire westward. Fiom the eastern 
shores of the continent they were pressed 
backward toward the setting sun, strewing 
their path with the bones and skeletons of 
their martyred warriors. They crossed the Al- 
leghanies, and, descending the western slope, 
chanting the death-songs of their tribe, they 
poured into the Mississippi Valley. Halting 
upon the prairies of the"Illini," amid the 
forests that bounded the southern streams 
and shaded the luxurious valleys, the warlike 
Delawares and the bloodthirsty Kickapoos 
made the last home of their own choosing. 
How long they occupied this section of the 
State, is not definitely known, for no rude 
pyramid of stone or " misshapen tomb," with 
traditional narratives transmitted by heredi- 
tary piety from age to age, tell the exact pe- 
riod of time when they first planted their 
wigwams on the banks of the Embarras and 
the Wabash. It is enough to say, however, 
that they were not allowed to remain here in 
peace. From across the ocean the colonists 
of a new and powerful people came, and ef- 
fected a lodgment at isolated spots within 
hearing of the roar of the Atlantic surf. 
They grew into a great multitude, and like 
the little stone cut out of the mountains by 
unseen hands, were rolling on as a mighty 
avalanche, overv;helming all in its way. In 
the early glimmering of the nineteenth cent- 
ury, the Indians were forced to take up their 
line of march from southern Illinois, nor al- 
lowed to pause, until far beyond the great 
Father of Waters. 

The Indians occupying this portion of Illi- 
nois, when the first actual settlers came to 

* Davidson. 


the territory, were the Delawares and Kicka- 
poos, with occasional small bands from other 
tribes. The Delawares called themselves 
Jjcnno Lenape, which signifies " original " or 
"unmixed" men. "When first met with by 
Europeans," says Gallatin, " they occupied a 
district of country bounded easterly by the 
Hudson River and the Atlantic; on the west 
their territories extended to tiie ridge sepa- 
rating the flow of the Delaware from the other 
streams emptying into tlie Susquehanna 
River and Ciiesapeake Bay." The Delawares 
had been a migratory people. According to 
their own traditions, many hundred years ago, 
they resided in the western part of the conti- 
nent; thence, by slow emigration, they 
reached the Alleghany River, so called from 
a nation of giants, the " Allegewi," against 
whom they (the Delawares) and the Iroq\iois 
(the latter also emigrants from the west) car- 
ried on successful war; and still proceeding 
eastward, settled on the Dela,ware, Hudson, 
Susquehanna, and Potomac Rivers, making 
the Delaware the center of their possessions. 
By the other Algonquin tribes the Delawares 
were regarded with the utmost respect and 
veneration. They were called "fathers," 
" grandfathers," etc.* 

The Quakers who settled Pennsylvania 
treated the Delawares in accordance with 
the rules of justice and equity. The result 
was that, during a period of sixty 3'ears, peace 
and the utmost harmony prevailed. This is 
the only instance in the settling of America 
by the English, where uninterrupted friend- 
ship and good will existed between the col- 
onists and the aboriginal inhabitants. Grad- 
ually, and by peaceable means, the Quakers 
obtained possession of the greater . part of 
their territory, and the Delawares were in the 
same situation as other tribes — without lands, 

' Taylor's History. 

without means of subsistence, and were 
threatened with starvation. 

The territory claimed by the Delawares 
subsequent to their being driven westward 
from their former possessions, by their old 
enemies, the Iroquois, is established in a 
paper addressed to Congress, May 10, 1779, 
from delegates assembled at Princeton, N. J. 
The boundaries as declared in the address 
were as follows: " From the mouth of the 
Alleghany River at Fort Pitt, to the Venango, 
and from thence up French Creek, and by 
Le Bceuf (the present site of ^yaterford, 
Penn.) along the old road to Presque Isle, 
onthe east; the O'lio River, including all the 
islands in it, from Fort Pitt to the Ouabache, 
o?i the south; thence up the River Ouabache 
to that branch, Ope-co-mee-cah, (the Indian 
name of White River, Indiana,) and up the 
same to the head thereof; from thence to the 
headwaters and springs of the Great Miami, 
or Rocky River; thence across to the head- 
waters of the most northeastern branches of 
the Scioto River; thence to the westernmost 
springs of the Sandusky River; thence down 
said river, including the islands in it and in 
the little lake (Sandusky Bay), to Lake Erie, 
on the west and northioest, and Lake Erie, on 
the north." These Ijoundaries contain the 
cessions of lands made to the Delaware Nation 
by the Wyandotts, the Hurons, and Iroquois. 
The Delawares, after Gen. Wayne's signal 
victory in 1794, came to realize that further 
contests with the American colonies would be 
worse than useless. They, therefore, submit- 
ted to the inevitable, acknowledged the su- 
premacy of the whites, and desired to make 
peace with the victors. At tlie close of the 
treaty at Greenville, made in 1795 by Gen. 
Wayne, Bu-kon-ge-he-las, a Delaware chief 
of great inOuence in his tribe, spoke as fol- 
lows: "Father, your children all well under- 
stand the sense of the treaty which is now 
concluded. We experience daily proofs of 



your increasing kindness. I hope we mav all 
have sense enough to enjoy our dawning 
happiness. All who know me, know me to 
be a man and a warrior, and I now declare 
that I will, for the future, be as steady and 
true; friend to the United States as I have, 
heretofore, been an active enemy." 

This promise of Bu-kon-ge-he-las was 
faithfully kept by his people. They evaded 
all the eiforts of the Shawanee prophet, Te- 
cumseh, and the British, who endeavored to 
induce them, by threats or bribes, to violate 
it. They remained faithful to the United 
States during the war of 1812, and, with the 
Shawaneos, furnished some very able war- 
riors and scouts, who rendered valuable serv- 
ice to the United States during this war. 
After the Greenville treaty the great body of 
Delavvares removed to their lands on White 
River, Indiana, whither some of their people 
had preceded them, while a large body of 
them crossed the Wabash into Southern Illi- 
nois. They continued to reside on White 
River and the Wabash, and their branches, 
until 1819, when most of them joined the 
band emigrating to Missouri, upon the tract 
of land granted by the Spanish authorities in 
1793, jointly to them and the Shawanese. 
Others of their number who remained behind, 
scattered themselves among the Miamis, 
Pottavratomies and Kickapoos, while others, 
including the Moravian converts, went to 

The majority of the nation, in 1829, settled 
on the Kansas and Missouri Rivers. They 
numbered about 1,000, were brave, enterpris- 
ing hunters, cultivated lands and were 
friendly to the whites. In 1853 they sold the 
Government all the lands granted them, ex- 
cepting a reservation in Kansas. During the 
late Rebellion, they sent to the United States 
army 170 out of their 200 able-bodied men. 
Like their ancestors, they proved valiant and 
trustworthy soldiers. 

The Kickapoos, who also dwelt in this por- 
tion of the State, were but a remnant of a 
once powerful tribe of Indians. The follow- 
ing bit of history contains some items of in- 
terest: In 1763 the Kickapoos occupied the 
country southwest of the southern e.xtremity 
of Lake Michigan. They subsequently 
moved further south, and at a more recent 
date dwelt in portions of the territory on the 
Mackinaw and Sangamon Rivers, and had a 
village on Kickapoo Creek, and at Elkhart 
Grove, from which they roamed southward 
hunting game. They were more civilized, 
industrious, energetic and cleanly than the 
neighboring tribes, and, it may also be added, 
more implacable in their hatred of the Amer- 
icans. They were among the first to com- 
mence battle, and the last to submit and 
enter into treaties. Unappeasable enmity 
led them into the field against Gens. Harmar, 
St. Clair and Wayne, and to be first in all 
the bloody charges on the field of Tip- 
pecanoe. They were prominent among the 
Northern Nations, which, for more than a 
century, waged an exterminating war against 
the Illinois Confederacy. Their last hostile 
act of this kind was perpetrated in 1805, 
against some poor Kaskaskia children whom 
they found gathering strawberries on the 
prairie above the town which bears the name 
of their tribe. Seizing a considerable num- 
ber of them, they fled to their villages before 
the enraged Kaskaskias could overtake them 
and rescue their offspring. During the \'ears 
1810 and 1811, iij conjunetion with the Chip-, Pottawatomies and Ottawas, they 
committed so many thefts and murders on 
the frontier settlements that Gov. Edwards 
was compelled to employ military force to 
suppress them. When removed from Illi- 
nois they still retained their old animosities 
against the Americans, and went to Texas, 
then a province of Mexico, to get beyond 
the jurisdiction of the United States. 


' W I 

lOj V( fytl-JL Coi-VhyP L^iyO 



' As some lone wanderer o'er this weary world 

Oft sits him down beneath some friendly shade, 
And backward casts a long and lingering look 
O'er the rough journey he has thus far made 
So should we pause " 

AS the Indians succeeded the Mound Build- 
ers in this territory, so the Anglo-Saxons 
followed close in the footsteps of the retreat- 
ing savages. The first white people who laid 
claim to the country now embraced in tiie 
State of Illinois were subjects of vine-clad 
France. The interest which attaches to all 
that is connected with the explorations and 
discoveries of the early French travelers in 
th(^ Northwest but incr(!ases with the rolling 
years. A little more than two centuries ago, 
such men as ^Marquette, La Salle, Joliet, De 
Frontenac, Hennepin, the Chevalier de Trull, 
Ciiarlevoix, and other Frenchmen, traversed 
the territory now embraced in the great State 
of Illinois, and made settlements along the 
Mississippi, Illinois and Wabash Rivers. Upon 
many trees and stones were to be seen the 
impress of thojieur de lis of France, and Kas- 
kaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes became enter- 
prising French towns, surrounded by flourish- 
ing settlements. The sainted Marquette dis- 
covered the " Great Fatlier of Waters," and 
spent years of toil and labor and privation 

*By W. H. Perrin. 

in explorations, and in christianizing the na- 
tives, then laid down his life, with no kind 
hand to " smooth his dying pillow," other 
than his faithful Indian converts. La Salle 
penetrated to the mouth of the Mississippi, 
and there, on the shores of the Mexican Gulf, 
alter planting the royal standard of France, 
and claiming the country in the name of his 
king, was basely and treacherously murdered 
by his own followers. 

For almost a hundred years (from 1080) this 
country was under French dominion. But in 
the great struggle between France and Eng- 
land, known in our history as the "old French 
and Indian War," it was wrested from France, 
and at the treaty of Paris, February 16, 1763, 
she relinquished to England all the territory 
she claimed east of the Mississippi River, 
from its source to Bayou Iberville; and "the 
Illinois country" passed to the ownership of 
Great Britain. Less than a quarter of a cent- 
ury passed, however, and England was dis- 
possessed of it by her naughty child, who had 
grown somewhat unfdial. In 1778, Gen. 
Georire Rogers Clark, a Revolutionary officer 
of bravery and renown, with a handful of the 
ragged soldiers of freedom, under commission 
from the governor of Virginia, conquered the 
country, and the banner of the thirteen colonies 
floated in the breeze for the first time on the 
banks of the Mississippi. Thus in the natural 



course of events, the lilies of France drooped 
and wilted before the majestic tread of the 
British lion, who, in his turn, quailed and 
cowered beneath the scream of the American 
eao-le. The conquest of Gen. Clark made 
Illinois a county of Virginia, and wrested it 
forever from foreign rule. This acquisition 
of territory lirought many adventurous indi- 
viduals hither, and southern Illinois soon be- 
came the great center of attraction. But a 
few years after Clark captured Vincennes 
and kaskaskia, emigrants began to cross the 
Wabash, and to contest the red man's title to 
these fertile lands. 

As to the motives which set journeying 
hither so many people from the States south 
of the Ohio, we confess to have been moder- 
ately curious, until fully enlightened by a 
thorough investigation. Many of them had 
not reached life's meridian, but they were 
men inured to toil and danger. They were 
hopeful, courageous, and poor in actual worth, 
but rich in possibilities; men with iron nerves, 
and wills as firm as the historic granite upon 
which the Pilgrim Fathers stepped from the 
deck of the Mayflower, in 1020. Illinois was a 
territory when the first settlers came, reposing 
under the famous ordinance of 1787, and many 
of these pioneers have left their record, that 
they sought homes here because the land would 
not be blemished by negro slavery; or, that 
civil and social distinctions would be yielded 
only to those who owned " niggers." A fat 
soil, ready for the plow, cheap lands and a 
temperate climate, were not peculiar to Illi- 
nois, or to Crawford County. For the grand 
simplicity of their lives and their sturdy 
virtue, these early settlers got recognition 
and fame, as Enoch Arden did — after death. 
They had been brought up, many of them, 
amid " savage scenes and perils of war," 
where the yell of the Indian and the howl of 
the wolf were the principal music to lull 
them to sleep in their childhood and youtii. 

Such were the men who formed the advance 
guard — the picket line of the grand army of 
emigrants that were to follow, and people 
and improve the great northwest. They ac- 
complished the task assigned them, and have 
passed away. The last of the old guard are 
gone, and many of their children, too, have 
followed them to that " bourne whence no 
traveler returns." 

We can not write history as a blind man 
goes about the streets, feeling his way with a 
stick. The facts are transparent, and through 
them we catch gleams of other facts, as the 
raindrop catches light, and the beholder sees 
the splendor of the rainbow. We are to 
speak of common men, whose lot was to 
plant civilization here, and who, in doing it, 
displayed the virtues which render modern 
civilization a boast and a blessing. These . 
early times can not be reproduced by any 
prose of a historian. They had a thousand 
years behind them, and in their little space 
of time they made greater progress than ten 
centuries had witnessed. Theirs was a full 
life; the work thirty generations had not 
done, they did, and the abyss between us of 
to-day and the men of seventy-five years ago 
is wider and more profound than the chasm 
between 1815 and the battle of Hastings. 
They did so much that it is hard to recognize 
the doers; they had a genius for doing great 
things. That olive leaf in the dove's beak 
perished as do other leaves, but the story it 
told is immortal. Of their constancy, one 
can judge by the fact that none went back to 
their ancestral homes. They "builded wiser 
than they knew," and the monuments of their 
enernry and perseverance still stand in per- 
petuation of their memory. 

The only history worth writing is the his- 
tory of civilization, of the processes which 
made a State. For men are but as coral, 
feeble, insignificant, working out of sight, 
but they transmit some occult quality or_ 



'power, upheave society, until from the moral 
and intellectual plateau rises, as Saul, above 
his fellows, a Shakespeare, a Phidias or a 
lliimilton, the royal interpreters of the finest 
sense in poetry, in art and statesmanship. 
At the last, years color life more than cent- 
uries had, as the sun rises in an instant, 
tiioutrh he had beeu hours in hastening to 
this moment. 

The French, as we have shown, were the 
first white people who possessed this country. 
The first regular settlements made in the 
present county of Crawford, were in and 
around Palestine. There is a tradition, that 
the first settlers found an old Frenchman 
named Lamotte, living near the margin of the 
prairie which still bears his name. But little, 
however, is known of him, or hia residence 
here. One fact there is, which is borne out 
by the records of the county, that Lamotte 
owned considerable lands on this side of the 
Wabash, but whether he lived here is by 
some deemed problematical. As Vincennes 
was, however, a French town, from whence 
many of its people came into Illinois, there is 
no just ground for controverting the state- 
ment that Lamotte actually lived in what is 
now Crawford County, especially when we 
reflect that Lamotte Prairie, Lamotte Creek 
and Fort Lamotte, the latter the site of Pal- 
estine, all bear his name. There were a few 
French families among the early settlers of 
the county, but eventually we believe most of 
them returned to the east bank of the Wa- 
bash, or removed to Kaskaskia and St. Louis. 

It is not known with perfect certaintv at 
the present day, who was tha first actual set- 
tler from the States to locate within the pres- 
ent limits of the county. The first deed re- 
corded in the clerk's office is dated December 
10, ISlO, and is from .John Dunlap, of Edwards 
County, to Samuel Harris, but it is beyond 
dispute that there was a considerable settle- 
ment here several years prior to that time. 

The following families, so far as we can learn, 
were among the first settlers: The Eatons, 
Van Winkles, McGahoys, ' Kitchells, Wood- 
worths, Culloms, Woods, Isaac Hutson, Dr. 
Hill, the Lagows, Brimberrys, Wilsons, Wal- 
drops, Piersons, Houstons, Kennedys and the 
Newlins. The Eatons are believed to have 
been here as early as 1809, and very gener- 
ally admitted to have been the first actual 
settlers though no one can definitely settle the 
point now. There were Benjamin, Joseph, 
John, Stephen and Richard Eaton. They 
were genuine pioneers and frontiersmen, and 
were in the fort at Palestine. They dis- 
agreed with some of the other inmates of the 
fort, withdrew from it and built another fort 
at some distance, which received the name 
of Fort Foot, in consequence of the fact that 
the Eatons possessed extraordinarily large 
feet. The McGaheys (Allen and David) are 
supposed to have come to the country in 
iS09 or ])erhaps in 1810; Dan and Green 
Van Winkle also came about 1810; the 
Woods in 1811, and Hutson in 1812. Isaac, 
Joseph and William Pierson came perhaps 
the same year. The others mentioned all 
came in early — prior to 1818, and several of 
them became prominent in the history of the 
county, as more particularly detailed in other 
chapters of this volume. Woodworth was 
the second sheriff of the county; the Mc- 
Gaheys served in the legislature and in other 
positions, while the Lagows and Houstons 
were also active citizens, as elsewhere noticed. 
The Kitchells were perhaps the most prom- 
inent among the early families in the county. 
The names of Joseph and Wickliffe Kitchell 
are not only connected with the history of this 
county, but with that of the State. They 
were from Virginia and possessed much of 
the social qualities and cordiality of manners 
characteristic of the old Virginia type of 
gentleman. As Attorney-General of the 
State, in the State Senate and legislature. 


and in the land office, they left their impress. 
More will be said of them in connection with 
the court and bar. 

Edward N. Cullom, next to the Kitchells, 
was one of the most prominent of the early 
settlers, and has a son, Leonard D. Cullom, 
still livincr in Lawrenceville, 111. Mr. Cul- 
lom landed at Palestine November 25, 1814, 
or rather at Fort Lamotte, where Palestine 
now stands. We are informed by Mr. Leon- 
ard Cullom, whom we visited at his home in 
Lawrenceville, that when his father's family 
arrived at Fort Lamotte, there were then 
within its protecting walls twenty-six fami- 
lies, and ninety rangers, who were stationed 
there for the purpose of guarding these isolat- 
ed settlers. This blockhouse or fort had been 
erected here about the commencement of the 
war of 1812, and the rangers quartered in it 
were under the command of Capt. Pierce 
Andrew, a frontier officer. Mr. Cullom now 
only remembers, among those living in the 
fort, the following families: Isaac and Sam- 
uel Brimberry, Thomas and James Kennedy, 
the Batons, the Shaws, .Joseph Waldrop and 
two sons — William and .John — the Garrards, 
the Woods, David Shook and a man named 
Harding. The latter was " skin dresser," and 
a rather disagreeable man in his family. Mr. 
Cullom calls to mind a circumstance in which 
Harding figured conspicuously, in the day> 
when they were "forted." Harding, for 
whipping his wife, was taken by the rangers 
and shut up in his " skin-house," a house 
■where he was in the habit of smoking and 
drying his skins, and put through much the 
same process for indulging in such family 

Edward N. Cullom eame from Waj'ne 
County, Ky., making the trip in wagons, the 
principal mode of transportation at that time. 
He raised a number of stalwart sons, some of 
whom were prominent men as well as their 
father in the county. They were Francis, 

William, Leonard D., Edward N., Thomas 
F., and George W. Leonard was 14 years 
old when his father came to the county, and 
George W. was the only one of his sons born 
in the new home. 

Mr. Cullom was a man of considerable 
prominence in the county, and served in a 
number of responsible positions. When he 
came here he bought the land on which the 
fort stood (including the improvement on it) 
for $4.1(5 per acre. The improvement had 
been made by Brimberry. He bought and 
entered other lands until he owned several 
thousand acres. The first summer Cullom 
raised a large crop of corn, and the winter fol- 
lowing he loaded a flat boat with corn, and 
took it to New Orleans. It was the first boat 
that ever went out of the Wabash River from 
the Illinois side. He paid S150 for the boat, 
and at New Orleans, sold it and the cargo for 
$1,:S00 in money; then made his %vay home 
overland through the " Indian Nation," as it 
was then known. His money was in two 
$500 "post notes," as they were called, or 
bank drafts, and the remainder in specie. 
That was an enormous sum of money lor those 
days, and Cullom was considered a very rich 
man. He laid it out mostly in lands, and be- 
came one of the largest land owners in South- 
ern Illinois. In later years, however, he lost 
the large part of it by going the security of 
others, and died comparatively a poor man. 

The following comjirises many of the early 
settlers of the county, though it is by no means 
a complete list: Edward N. Cullom and his 
sons, John Dunlap, Edward H. Piper, Joseph 
Malcom, John Malcom, George W. Kinkade, 
Joseph Cheek, Isaac Moore, James Gibson, 
Thomas Gill, John Cowan, Thomis Handj', 
William Lockard, John Allison,William How- 
ard, Charles Neely, George Catron, James 
Caldwell, James Ray, Isaac Parker, Arthur 
Jones, James Shaw, Smith Shaw, S. B. A. Car- 
ter, Chester Fitch, David Porter, Jan Martin, J. 


Gallon, John Garrard, Ulialkev Draper, Joha 
Berry, Isaac Gain, George W. Carter, John 
Mills, ^yillialn Hugh Miller, Jacob Blaze, 
William Y. Hacket, James Gill, Abram Coon- 
rod, William Lowe, Seth Gard, Peter Keene, 
Samuel Harris, William Ashbrook, John Gif- 
I'ord, Asahel Haskins, William Barber, John 
Small, Thomas Westfall, D. Mcllenry, Jona- 
than Young, E. W. Kellogg, Al.irk Snipes, 
Samuel Baldy, John H. Jackson, James Dol- 
son, Thomas Trimble, David Stewart, Aaron 
Ball, Henry Gilliam, Daniel Funk, Enoch 
^V'ilhite, Ze])haniah Lewis, John Cobb, Will- 
iam Jones, John Sackrider, Jacob Helping- 
steine, George Calhoun, William Highsmith, 
Jeremiah Coleman, William McDowell, James 
Boatwright, Daniel Boatwright, John W. Bar- 
low, Bottsl'ord (^omstock, George Boher, JojI 
Phelps, Cornelius Taylor, William Gray, 
George Wesner, John C. Alexander, William 
Magill, Benjamin Myers, John Boyd, Asa 
Norton, Sewell Goo^lrich, etc., etc. These 
])ioneors will receive ample notic3 in the his- 
tory of the several townships of the county. 
The settlement has been given in this connec- 
tion in a general way, but in other chapters it 
will be more fully noticed. Our aim here has 
been merely to show the different possessors 
of the soil, and the succession in which they 
followed each other. 

When the first settlements were made in 
this region, there were still many Indians 
roaming through the country, as stated in a 
previous chapter. They were generally 
friendly toward tHe whites, except for a 
short period during the war of 1813, when 
they became somewhat excited and com- 
mitted depredations upon the whites, such 
as stealing horses and other stock, and in a 
few instances, murdering their pale-faced 
neighbors. The saddest instance of this kind 
that ever occurred in what is now Crawford 
County, was the mur ler of the Hutson fam- 
ily, who lived a few miles south from where 

Hutsonville now stands, and which was 
somewhat as follows: Isaac Hutson was a 
native of Oliio and removed from Chillicothe 
in 1811 to Indiana, locating in the present 
counly of Sullivan, and in what is now Tur- 
man Township. Indians were plenty in that 
region, and some of them were hostile. A 
block-house or rude fort was erected in the 
Turman settlement for the protection of the 
few whites then living there. Hutson, one 
day, crossed the river and visited the section 
now known as Lamotte prairie; and being 
attracted by its beauty and fertility, resolved 
to at once move hither. Accordingly, in the 
latter part of the winter of 1813 he built a 
cabin at the north end of the prairie, to which 
he moved his family in the spring. A man 
named Dixon settled near bj', about the same 
time. Hutson at once began preparations for 
a crop. His family consisted of a wife and 
six children, the eldest a girl of perhaps six- 
teen. One day in April, Hutson went to Pal- 
estine to mill, and did not get started for 
home until nightfall. When about half wav 
to his cabin, he noticed an unusual light in 
the direction of it. Fearing the worst, he 
threw his sack of meal from his horse and 
urged him forward at full speed. Upon near- 
ing his house, his worst fears were realized. 
His entire family had been murdered by a band 
of Indians; and to complete the ruin and des- 
olation, they had sot fire to his dwelling. 
Frantic with grief and despair, he rode sev- 
eral times around the ruins, calling wildly the 
names of his wife and children. There was 
no one left to tell the bereaved father how 
his loved ones had perished. He could 
only realize the heart-sickening truth that 
all had perished. A few roc's from the 
burning building, lay the body of Dix- 
on, mutilated almost beyond rccog h.on. 
His breast had been cut o[)en and his heart 
taken out and placed upon a pole which 
was planted in the ground near by. Satisfy- 



ing himself that the havoc was complete, 
Hutson made his way to Turmaii's, havino; 
swam the Wabash, which place he reached 
about midnight. 

Hutson was a fine type of the frontiers- 
man. He was above six feet high, a man of 
great strength and possessed of extraordinary 
powers of endurance. He was an adven- 
turer and knew no law beyond his own will 
and his own ideas of right. Having lost all 
for which he cared to live, he swore revenge; 
and to this end, joined the army at Fort Har- 
rison, near where Terre Haute now stands. 
Shortly after he had joined the army, one of 
the sentinels reported that he had seen an 
Indian in the grass, some half a mile below 
the fort. A party was sent out to recon- 
noiter, among whom was Hutson. Arrived 
at the designated spot, it was discovered that 
quite a party of savages had been there dur- 
ing the previous night. The trail led off to 
a thicket of brush wood a short distance 
away. The officer in command rashly deter- 
mined to make an attack, without any attemjjt 
to discover the exact wliereabouts of the en- 
emy, or their number and position. Hutson 
was placed in the front, but distrusting the 
speed and power of his horse, asked an- 
otlier position. The officer reproached him 
with cowardice, when Hutson dashed for- 
ward, calling on the men to follow, declaring 
that he could go where any one else could, 
and leaving the officer in the rear. Upon 
approaching the wood, they were fired on, 
and Hutson receiving a ball in the forehead, 
fell from his horse dead. 

The name of Hutson is preserved in the 
beautiful little town of Hutsonville, and of 
Hutson Creek, which flows near by where he 
had reared his lonely cabin. 

Another incident is related of a man 
named James Beard, being murdered by 
Indians in that portion of the county now 
embraced in Lawrence County, just about the 

close of the war of 1813. Beard was plow- 
ing in the field one day, anil the Indians 
having become incensed at him for some 
cause stole upon him, and shot him at his 
plow. Beard, who was a large man, ran to 
where one Adams, a nephew, was cutting 
bushes, and told him he was shot, when 
Adams, notwithstanding the giant size of 
Beard, picked him up and carried him to the 
house. A Frenchman named Pierre Devoe, 
lived near by, and when asked to go and 
help guard Beard's house during the night he* 
refused. His wife, a large and rather mascu- 
line looking woman, when her husband re- 
fused, declared she would go, and taking up 
an ax called out to " Come on," she " was 
ready." But the Indians made no further 
attack on the house. 

Mr. Leonard Cullom relates the following: 
During the time of "forting" at Palestine, 
Isaac Brimberry and Thomas Kennedy, who 
generally went by the name of the " Buck- 
eye Coopers," went up to " Africa's Point," 
as it was called, on the Wabash, after some 
timber. They discovered signs of Indians 
and went back to the fort and reported the 
same, when a squad of men was sent out to 
look after them. They divided into two par- 
ties, one going on in advance and the other 
acting as a reserve corps. When near the 
spot where the signs had been seen, they 
found a number of Indian canoes pulled up 
out of the water. Instead of consolidating 
their numliers and proceeding with caution, 
the foremost party kept on fully exposed, and 
were soon fired upon by the savages. Lathrop, 
Price, and Daniel Eaton were killed, and Job 
Eaton and John Waldrop were wounded, but 
succeeded in escaping and making their way 
back to the fort. The "rear guard," when 
they heard the firing, instead of going to the as- 
sistance of their comrades, "fell back in good 
order," and returned to the fort, conscious 
that discretion was the better part of valor. 



Such were some of the trials anil dangers 
to which the early settlers were exposed, in 
the development of this country. But upon 
the close of the war of 1812, the savages of 
southern Illinois buried the hatchet, and 
peace reigned among the scattered settle- 
ments. Though the savages rose in other 
sections of the State, and clouds of war 
gathered in the horizon, they rolled away 
without bursting upon this community. 
When peace was fully restored to the country 
in 1815, the population began to rapidly in- 
crease in the Wabash Valley, and gradually 
to extend out over the country. In subse- 
quent chapters the progress of these settle- 
ments, as we have already stated, will be 
fully detailed, together with all events of in- 
terest pertaining to them. 

The Indian troubles were not the only 
drawbacks met with in the early history of 
Crawford County. The settlers were mostly 
poor, and all had come here with the desire 
to better their fortunes. They came with a 
meager outfit of this world's goods, expecting 
to increase their stores and provide a home 
for their old age. Some came in frontier 
wagons drawn by horses or oxen, and some 
used the more primitive " pack-horse " as a 
means of transporting their limited posses- 
sions. The journey was one of toil and pri- 
vation at best. There were no well beaten 
highways, no bridges over the streams, but 
each emigrant followed the general trail. If 
the season was one of much rain, the swamps 
they were compelled to cross, were almost 
impassable; if dry, the roads were rough, and 
water scarce. But the emigrant could endure 
trial, hunger and pain, if a home stood at the 
end of his journey, beck(jning him on. Faith 
and hope are two anchors without which the 
poor mortal would be cheerless indeed on 
life's pathway. 

Thus the county was settled under difficul- 
ties, and amid hardships and dangers. But 

the very dangers drew the people closer to- 
gether, and made them more de[)endent upon 
each other. All lived in a state of compara- 
tive social equality, and the only lines drawn 
were to separate the very bad from the gen- 
eral mass. The rich and poor dressed alike; 
the men generally wearing hunting-shirts and 
buckskin pants, and the women attired them- 
selves in coarse fabrics produced by their own 
hands. The cabins were furnished in the 
same style and simplicity. The bedsteads 
were home-made and of rude material, and 
the beds, usually filled with leaves and grass, 
by honest toil were rendered 

" Soft as downy pillows are." 

One pot, kettle and frying-pan were the 
only articles considered indispensable, and a 
a few plates and dishes, upon a shelf in one 
corner, was as satisfactory as a cupboard full 
of china is now, while food was as highly 
relished from a slab table as it is in this fast 
age from one of oiled walnut or inahogany. 
It is true they then had but little to eat, but 
it sustained life. Mr. Cullom says they often 
had no bread, and he calls to mind an in- 
stance, when his father's family, who had been 
without bread for some time, took corn before 
it was sufficiently matured to shell from the 
cob, dried it in the chimney, and grated it 
into a coarse meal. From this bread was 
made, a " shoat " was killed for the occasion, 
and with beech bark tea they had quite a 
feast. A neighbor, who happened in, was 
asked to dine with tliem, and when dinner 
was concluded he thanked the Lord that he 
had had one more good, square meal, but he 
didn't know where the next would come from. 
Mrs. Cullom gave him some meal and a piece 
of the shoat to take home with him, and he 
went away rejoicing. 

But the credit of subduing the wilderness, 
and planting civilization in the West, is not 
the work of man alone. Woman, the help- 



meet, and guiding spiiit of the sterner sex, 
nobly did her part in the great work. The 
"hired girl " had not then become a class. In 
case of illness — and there was plenty of it in 
the early times — some young woman would 
leave home for a few days to care for the 
afflicted household, but her services were not 
rendered for the pay she received. The dis- 
charge of the sacred duty to care for the sick 
was the motive, and it was never neglected. 
The accepted life of a woman was to marry, 
bear and rear children, prepare the household 
food, spin, weave and make the garments for 
the family. Her whole life was the grand, 
simple poem of rugged, toilsome duty bravely 
and uncomplainingly done. She lived his- 
torj', and her descendants write and read it 
with a proud thrill, such as visits the pilgrim 
when at Arlington he stands at the base of the 
monument which covers the bones of four 
thousand nameless men who gave their blood 
to preserve their country. Her work lives. 

but her name is whispered only in a few 
homes. Holy in death, it is too sacred for 
open speech. 

Three quarters of a century has produced 
marvelous changes, both in country and so- 
ciety. In the years that jjave come and gone 
in quick succession, while the panorama has 
been unfolding to view, the verdant wastes of 
Crawford County have disappeared, and in 
their place are productive fields, covered with 
flocks and herds, and peopled with twenty 
thousand civilized and intelligent human be- 
ings. The Indian trail is obliterated by the 
railway track, and the ox-team and the 
" prairie schooner " are displaced by the rush- 
ing train. In the grand march of civilization 
and improvement, who can tell, or dare pre- 
dict what the next fifty years may develop? 
Within that period it is not impossible tliat 
we may be flying through the air, as we now 
fly over the country at the heels of the iron 



" The ultimate tendency of civilization is toward 
bai-barism. ' ' — Hare. 

THE General Assembly of Viro;inia, in Oc- 
tober, 1778, passed an act for " establish- 
ing the County of Illinois, and for the more 
efiFectual protection and defense thereof." 
This act declared: "That all the citizens 
of this Commonwealth, who are already set- 
tled, or shall hereafter settle on the western 
side of the Ohio, and east of the Mississippi, 
shall be included in a distinct county, which 
shall be called Illinois County." The Gov- 
ernor of Virginia was to appoint " a county 
lieutenant or commandant-in-chief," who 
should "appoint and commission so many 
deputy commandants, militia officers and 
commissaries," as he should deem expedient, 
for the enforcement of law and order. The 
civil officers were to be chosen by a majority 
of the people, and were to " exercize their 
several jurisdictions, and conduct themselves 
agreeable to the laws which the present set- 
tlers are now accustomed to." Patrick Henry, 
the first Governor of the " Old Dominion," 
appointed as such county lieutenant Com- 
mandant John Todd, and on December 12, 
1778, issued to him his letter of appointment 
and instructions. 

* By W. H. Perrin. 

From the record book of John Todd's offi- 
cial acts while he was exercising authority 
over Illinois, a book now in the Chicago His- 
torical Society, some interesting facts are 
gleaned of the early history of Illinois. We 
extract the following from its pages: 

Todd was not unknown on the frontier. 
Born in Pennsylvania and educated in Vir- 
ginia, he had practiced law in the latter Col- 
ony for several years, when, in 1775, he re- 
moved to Kentucky, then a county of Vir- 
ginia, and became very prominent in the 
councils of its House of Delegates or Repre- 
sentatives, the first legislative body organ- 
ized west of the Alleghany mountains. Early 
in 1777, the first court in Kentucky opened 
its sessions at Harrodsburg, and he was one of 
the justices. Shortly after, he was chosen 
one of the representatives of Kentucky in 
the Legislature of Virginia and went to the 
capital to fulfill this duty. The following 
year he accompanied Gen. George Rogers 
Clark in his expedition to " the Illinois," and 
was the first man to enter Fort Gage, at Kas- 
kaskia, when it was taken from the British, 
and was present at the final capture of Vin- 
cennes. ' 

The act creating the County of Illinois had 
been passed by the Legislature of Vir^-iuia, 
and at Williamsburg, the capital then of the 



newly male State, in the very inansi.m of 
the royal rulers of the whilom Colony, Pat- 
rick H^nry indited his letter of appointment 
t ) John Todil, and entered it in the book 
already referred to. It occupies the first five 
pages and is in P.itrick Henry's own hand- 
writing. This book, made precious by his 
pen, was intrusted to a faithful messenger, 
who carried it from tidewater across the 
mountains to Fort Pitt, thence down the 
Ohio until he met with its destined recipient, 
and delivered to him his credentials. It is 
supposed that Todd received it at Vincennes, 
then known to Virginians as St. Vincent, not 
long after the surrender of that place on the 
SJrth of Februarj^ 1779, and thereupon as- 
sumed his new duties. 

This old record book, of itself, forms an 
interesting chapter in the history of Illinois; 
but our space will admit of only a brief ex- 
tract or two from its contents. The follow- 
ing is in Todd's own handwriting, and no 
doubt will sound strangelj' enough to many 
of our readers at the present day. We give 
it verbatim et literatum, as follows: 

"Illinois, to-wit: To Richard Winston, 
Esq., ShurilF in chief of the district of Kas- 

" Negro Manuel, a slave in your custody, 
is condemned by the Court of Kaskaskia, 
after having made honorable Fine at the 
Uoor of the Church, to be chained to a post 
at the Water Side and there to be burnt alive 
and his ashes scattered, as appears to me by 
Record. This Sentence you are hereby re- 
quired to put in execution on tuesday next at 
9 o'clock in the morning, and this shall be 
your warrant. Given under my hand and 
seal at Kaskaskia the 13th day of June in the 
third year of the Commonvrealth." 

It is a grim record and reveals a dark 
chapter in the early history of Illinois. It is 
startling, and somewhat humiliating, too, to 
reflect that barely one hundred years ago, 

that within the territory now composing this 
great State, a court of law deliberately sen- 
tenced a human being to be burnt alive! It 
is palpable that the inhuman penalty was 
fi.xed by the court, ami as the statute deprived 
tlie commandant of the power to pardon in 
such cases, it is probable that the sentence 
was actually executed. The cruel form of 
death, the color of the unfortunate victim, 
and the scattering of the ashes, all seem to 
indicate that this was one of the instances of 
the imagined crime of Voudouism, or negro 
witchcraft, for which it is known that some 
persons suffered in the Illinois country in the 
early period. Reynolds, in his " Pioneer His- 
tory," recites a similar instance to the one 
above given, as occurring in 1790, at Ca- 

A few words additional, of .fohn Todd, 
the first civil Governor of " the Illinois 
Country," and we will take up the org.iniza- 
tion of Crawford Cpunty. In the spring of 
1780, Todd was elected a delegate from the 
County of Kentucky to the Legislature of 
Virginia. In November following, Kentucky 
was divided into three counties, viz.: Fayette, 
Lincoln and Jefferson, and in 1781, Thomas 
Jelfjrson, who had become Governor of Vir- 
ginia, appointed Todd Colonel of Fayette 
County, and Daniel Boone, Lieutenant-Col- 
onel. In the summer of 1782, Todd visited 
Richmond, Va., on business of the Illinois 
Country, where, it is said, he had concluded 
to reside permanently, and stopped at Lex- 
ington, Ky., on his return. While here, an 
Indian attack on a frontier settlement sum- 
moned the militia to arms, and Todd, as 
senior colonel, took commmd of the little 
army sent in pursuit of the retreating sav- 
acres. It included Boone and many other 
pioneers of note. At the Blue Licks, on the 
18th of August, 1783, they overtook the 
enemy, but the headlong courage of those 
who would not follow the prudent counsels of 



Todd and Boone, precipitated an action which 
proved more disastrous to the whites than any 
ever fouorht on Kentucky soil — that early 
theater of savage warfare. One third of those 
who went into the battle were killed out- 
right, and many others wounded. Among 
the slain was the veteran Todd, who fell gal- 
lantly fighting at the head of his men. Near 
tiio spot where he fell, on the brow of a 
sin.ill hill overlooking Blue Licks, his re- 
mains repose under the pines. On the 18th of 
August last (1882) the centennial of the dis- 
astrous battle of Blue Licks was held upon 
the ground where it was fought, and a resolu- 
tion adopted to erect a monument to the 
heroes who there fell in defense of their 

Gen. Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the 
Northwest Territory, in company with the 
Territorial judges, went, in the spring of 
1700, to Cahokia, where, by proclamation, he 
organized the County of St. Clair, the first 
formed in what now comprises the State of 
Illinois, and its capital was fi.xed at Kask:is- 
kia. Randolph was the next county created 
in Illinois, and its organization dates back to 
179.5. No more counties were made until 
the session of the Territorial Legislature of 
1811-12, when there were three formed, viz.: 
Madison, Gallatin and Johnson. At the ses- 
sion of 1814, Edwards was created, and at 
the session of 181(3, AVhite, Jackson, Monroe, 
Pope and Crawford were formed. At the 
last session of the Territorial Legislature, 
and previous to the admission of Illinois as 
a '^tate, Franklin, ^^'ashlngton, Union, Bond 
an . Wayne Counties were organized. Thus 
it will be seen, that Crawford was the elev- 
enth county formed in the State. It is be- 
lieved to have been named for Gen. William 
Crawford, a Revolutionary soldier, who com- 
manded an expedition against the Wyandot 
Indians in the "Ohio Country," in 17S2; was 
captured by them and burned at the stake, at 

a spot included in the original limits of 
Crawford County, Ohio. The act of the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature for the formation of this 
county was passed at the session of 1810-17, 
and is as follows: 

An act for the division of Edwards Conn tv: 
Be it enacted by the Legislative Council 
and House of Representatives of the Illinois 
Territory, and it is hereby enacted bv the 
authority of the same: That all that tract of 
country within the following boundaries, to- 
wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Einbar- 
ras River, and running with the said River to 
the intersection of the line dividing Townships 
number three and four north, of range eleven 
west of the second principal meridian; thence 
west with said town.s/iip line to the meridian, 
and then due north until it strikes the line of 
Upper Canada; thence to the line that sepa- 
rates this Territory from the State of Indi- 
ana, and thence south with said division line 
to the beginning, shall constitute a separate 
County, to be called Crawford; and the 
seat of justice shall be at the house of Ed- 
ward N. Cullom, until it shall be perinaniMuly 
established, in the following method, that is: 
Three persons shall be appointed, to-wit: 
John Dun lap, Thomas Handy and Thomas 
Kennedy, which said commissioners, or a 
majority of them, being duly sworn before 
some judge or justice of the peace of this 
Territory, to faithfully take into view the 
situation of the settlements, the geography' 
of the county, the convenience of the people, 
and the eligibility of the place, shall meet 
on the second .Monday in March next, at the 
house of Edward N. Cullom, and proceed to 
examine and determine on the place for tiie 
permanent seat of justice, and designate the 
same: Provided, the proprietor or proprietors 
of the land shall give to said county, for the 
purpose of erecting public buildings, a quan- 
tity of land at said place not less than twenty 
acres, to be laid out in lots and sold for the 
above purpose. But should the said propri- 
etor or proprietors refuse or neglect to make 
the said donation aforesaid, then in that case 
it shall be the duty of the commissioners to 
fix upon soTne other place for the seat of just- 
ice, as convenient as may be to the different 
settlements in said county, which place, when 
fixed and determiued on, the said conimis- 



sioners shall certify under their hands and 
seals, and return the Siune to the next county 
court in the county aforesaid: and as a com- 
pensation for their services, they shall each 
be al owed two dollars for every day they be 
necessarily employed in iixing the aforesaid 
seat of justice, to be paid out of the county 
lew, which said court shall cause an entry 
thereof to be made on their records, etc., etc. 

Speaker of the House of Representatives, ^i)'o 

President of the Legislative Council. 

Approved, Deceinl)er 31, I81G. 


The remaining sections of the act, of whicli 
there are two or three, are not pertinent to 
the subject under consideration. From some 
cause, the commissioners did not locate the 
seat uf justice at the time specified in the 
foregoing act, as will be seen further on in 
the proceedings of the court. 

At the time of organization all county 
business was done by justices of the peace, 
instead of by county commissioners, as was 
the custom a few years liter, or by supervis- 
ors as at the present day. The first term of 
the County Court was held at the house of 
Edward N. Cullom, near the present town of 
Palestine, on the 26th day of February, 1817. 
From this record it will be seen that the 
county was fully organized and its civil ma- 
chinery setin motion, without any unnecessary 
delay, from the approval of the act (December 
31, 1816.) This first term of court was held 
by Edward N. Cullom and John Dunlap, jus- 
tices of the peace; Edward H. Piper, clerk, 
and Francis Cullom, sheriff. The first act of 
the court was to accept the bond of Cullom 
as sheriff. Then Joseph Malcom was sworn 
in as a constable. The next act was to "di- 
vide the county into districts or election pre- 
cincts," as follows: The first comprised the 
tract of country from the mouth of the Em- 
barras River, which was the southern bound- 

ary of the county, extending up the Wabash 
River to the center of township five, thence 
west to the county line, and vras named "Al- 
lison." The second, all that country between 
the center of townships five and eight, and 
was called " Lamotte." The third included 
all north of township eight to Canada, and 
was named "Union." Assessors were ap- 
pointed for these precincts as follows: Georgo 
W. Kincaid in Allison; Joel Cheek in La- 
motte, and Isaac Moore in Union. The fol- 
lowing was the tax levied: On all horses, 
mares, mules and asses, ST.J cents per head; 
on all stallions the sums for which the owners 
charge for thvnr services; on all unmarried 
men over 31 years of ago, and who had not 
$200 worth of taxable property, one dollar; 
on each bondsmen or slave over the age of 
16 years, one dollar; on all mansion houses, 
whieh included houses of all kinds, thirty 
cents on the hundred dollars valuation; on 
the ferry of James Gibson, five dollars; and 
on the ferry of E. Twombley, three dollars. 
The rates of ferriage across the Wabash was 
fixed at the following: a wagon and team, 
75 cents; a two-wheeled carriage, 37^ cents; 
a man and horse, 12.V cents; a man on foot 
65^ cents; cattle four cents a head, and sheep 
and hogs two cents a head each. Fence 
viewers and road overseers were appointed 
for the different precincts, and then court 
adjourned, having completed its work for the 

The second term of County Court con- 
vened at the same place, and was held by 
Edward N. Cullom, John Dunlap and Isaac 
Moore, embracing the 23d and 2-lth days of 
June, 1817. Permission was granted by the 
court to Isaac Parker to build a "water mill" 
on Mill Creek, about twenty-five miles north 
of Palestine. The laying out of roads occu- 
pied a portion of the time of the honorable 
court, and we find that James Caldwell, 
George Catron and William Lockard were 



appointed to " view and mark out a road " 
from Edward N. CuIloiii''s, on Laniotte prai- 
rie, to the head of Walnut prairie, and 
Smith Shaw, Benjamin Eaton and Francis 
Cullom were appointed to view out a road 
from the same place (Cullora's) to Arthur 
Jones' ferry. Several ottier roads were 
ordered laid out; also the county officers 
filed their bonds. Edward II. Piper as county 
clerk, Allen McGahey as the first coroner, 
and John Dunlap as first county surveyor, 
wiiich concluded the business of the term. 
A third term was held also at CuUom's, in 
October, which was taken up mostly in order- 
\u<r roads laid out, and other routine busi- 
ness, not specially interesting to the general 

Edward N. Cullom, at this early period, 
seems to have been the animating spirit of 
the community, and his bustling activity 
found ample scope for its exercise. In the 
newly-formed court he presided as one of the 
justices; he originated and superintended 
many of the public enterprises of the time, 
and for many years was one of the most ac- 
tive and enterprising men in the settlement. 
His home for some time was the actual capi- 
tal of the county, for Palestine 

"Was then a city only in name. 
The houses and barns had not yet a frame. 
The streets and the squares no mortal could see, 
And the woodman's ax had scarce hit a tree." 

The courts were held at his house; roads 
were laid out from thence to radiating points, 
and, indeed, it seems to have been the center 
round which the little community revolved. 
The county had no other capital until the 
laying out of Palestine some two years or 
more after the organization of the county. 

At the fourth term of the court — held, as 
usual, at Cullom's, on the (ith, 7th and 8th 
days of Aijril, 1818, by Samuel Harris, 
George W. Kinkade, James Shaw, Smith 
Shaw, and Joseph Kitchell, the following re- 

port was received on the third day of the 
term, from Soth Gard and Peter Keene, who 
had iieen appointed by the Legislature in 
place of those mentioned in the original act, 
to locate the county seat: "The center of 
the public square to be eight3' roods north of 
the southeast corner of the southeast quarter 
of section 31, in to^vnship 7 north, range 11 
west. The center of said public square to 
extend exactly on the line dividing sections 
34 and 35 in the township and range above 
stated. The donation given to the county 
to be one equal half of sixty acres of 
ground, to be laid off on the following quar- 
ter section: To be laid the whole length of 
the southeast quarter of section 34, as above 
stated, and on the east side of said quarter, 
and the whole length of the southwest quar- 
ter of section 35, to be laid the whole length 
of said quarter, and on the west side of the 

On the land thus described in the above 
report of the commissioners, the town of 
Palestine was laid out into one hundred and 
sixty lots, with streets and alleys, and became 
the seat of justice of Crawford County, an 
honor it held until the growth and increase of 
population demanded a more eligible location, 
when it was moved nearer to the center of 
the county. The land upon which the town 
was laid out, was owned by Edward N. Cul- 
lom and Joseph Kitchell; that on the east 
side of the square by Cullom, and that on 
the west side by Kitchell. Each alternate 
lot was donated to the county by the propri- 
etors, in consideration of tlie establishing of 
the county scat upon their land. David Por- 
ter was appointed agent of the county, with 
authority to sell the lots thus donated. Lots 
were sold by him from time to time, and 
houses were erected upon them; people 
moved in and took up their abode, inaugurat- 
ing business of different kinds, and the place 
grew slowly, but Steadily, into a town. As 



• cities rise and sink 

Like bubbles on the water," 

so Palestine rose to prominence, and for many 
years was a place of considerable importance 
— in fact the Athens of the State. Aside 
from KnsUaskia and Vandalia, the first two 
State capitals, there are few points in Illinois 
richer in historical lore. It was the county 
seat; the land office was located there, and 
doubtless it would have become the capital 
instead of Vandalia, but for its unfortunate 
geographical position on the extreme border 
of the State. Within its precincts asseml)led 
the wise and great, the pleasure seeker, the 
rich and the fair — the creme de la creme of 
the whole frontier, for social interchange and 
enjoyment. But the gay little city reached 
the zenith of its prosperity, and then its star 
began to wane. From the removal of the 
seat of justice to Robinson may be dated its 
decline, and the growth of the latter place 
proved the death of its glory and magnifi- 
cence. It is almost as dead to the energy 
and enterprise of this fast age of improve- 
ment as though lying buried as deep as 
Pompeii beneath the lava from Vesuvius. Its 
decaying buildings show the ivy clinging to 
their moldering turrets and " hoary lichen 
springing from the disjointed stones." 
Mocked by its own desolation, the " btt, shrill 
shrieking woos its flickering mate," and the 
" serpents hiss and the wild birds scream." 
As has been said of ancient Rome, 

"The spider waves its web in ber palaces; 
The owl sings his watch-song in her towers." 

The agitation consequent to the removal 
of the county seat commenced as early as 
3 840. Hutsonville conceived a jealousy of 
Palestine, and itself sought to become th« 
seat of justice. Originally York had con- 
tested the right of Palestine to that glory, 
and losing the honor, had kicked clear out of 
the harness, and kicked herself into Clark 

County. Through the efforts of Hutsonville, 
and other interested parties, the matter was 
brought to a vote of the people, at the election 
held in August, 1843. Hutsonville by this 
time had given up the contest, and retired 
from the race. Five other places, however, 
bid for it. as follows: on 40 acres donated 
by Finley Paull, Wm. Wilson, and R. A. and 
Jno. W. Wilson, (now Robinson); 40 acres 
donated by P. C Barlow; the same amount 
donated by Nelson Hawley; Palestine and 
the geographical center of the county. The 
vote stood: The donation of Paull and others 
— 213 votes; donation of Barlow — 133 votes; 
donation of Hawley — 38 votes; Palestine — 
132 votes; and the center — 9 votes. No one 
of these received a majority of the votes 
cast, and the question was aarain submitted to 
the people on the 12th day of October follow- 
inor, with the condition that the two places re- 
ceiving the highest number of votes at the first 
election, should alone be voted on. The result 
was as follows: The point offered by Paull, 
Wilson and others — 351 votes, and that offered 
by Barlow — 184 votes. Thus Paull and the 
Wilsons received the majority, and their do- 
nation became the county seat. A town was 
laid out, and named Robinson, in honor of 
Hon. John M. Robinson, a lawyer well known 
here some years ago. 

At the same term of court, at which Gard 
and Keene made their report, locating the 
county seat at Palestine, an order was passed 
making "wolf scalps" at $3 apiece, a legal 
tender. These " trophies of the chase " passed 
current for " whisky, tobacco and other nec- 
essaries oi life," and were also receivable, by 
order of the court, for county taxes. It may 
be of interest to some of our readers, who 
were unacquainted with the " wolf scalpers " 
of that day, to give a few of their names and 
the number of scalps presented by each at a 
single term of court. They are as follows: 
Jan Martin, one scalp; J. Gallon, one; John 



G.urard, one; Clialkey Draper, one; John 
Berry, one; James Gain, nine; John Allison, 
three; Georo^e W. Carter, one; John Miller, 
one; John Walilrop, five; Hugh Miller, three; 
Jacob Blaze, two; Thomas Handy, ten; Win. 
Y. Hackett, one; James Gill, two; Abraham 
CoonroJ, two; \Vm. Lowe, one; Francis Cul- 
lom, ten; making a total of fifty-five scalps, 
yielding quite a revenue for that day. This 
term of court also regulated the price tavern- 
keepers might charge for their exhileratino- 
beverages — all who sold whisky at retail had 
to take out tavern-license and were forced to 
keep sufficient house room to accommodate a 
certain number of persons, together with 
stable room for their horses. The prices 
were: For half a pint of wine, French 
brandy or rum, 50 cents; half a pint of peach 
or apple brandy, 18f cents; half a pint of 
whisky, 12^ cents; for a horse feed, 13^- 
cents, and for a meal's victuals, 25 cents. 

The most important business transacted at 
the fifth term of court, (held as usual at (Jul- 
lom's) was the passing of an order for build- 
ing a jail. Hitherto the people were so simple 
and ho.iest as to require no prison, and indeed, 
but few of the restraining influences of the 
law. But as they grew in numbers and in- 
creased in civilization it became necessary to 
erect court houses and jails for the purpose of 
awing evil-doers into submission to the re- 
quirements of society. This prison was or- 
dered to be built of hewn timber, twelve 
inches square, and was considered, in those 
pioneer times, quite a terror to all who dared 
trample upon the majesty of the law. The con- 
tract was let to the lowest bidder, on the 22d 
day of August, 1818. Joseph Wood drew 
the prize, and was to receive for the job 
$514.00, one half of which wns to be paid 
when the work was completed, and the re- 
mainder twelve months after completion. Mr. 
Piper, the clerk, was appointed manager of 
tiie work on the part of the countv. Com- 

mencing on the 7th of December, 1818, Jo- 
seph Kitchell, David Porter and Thomas An- 
derson, held the si.\th and last term of the 
County Court under the old Territorial laws. 
The usual routine of business was despatched, 
but nothing of sufficient importance to ne- 
cessitate the transcribing of it in these pages. 

A new era now commenced in doing the 
county business. Illinois had been admitted 
(in 1818) as a State into the Federal Union; 
a State Coristitution had been framed and 
adopted, and the laws materially changed in 
many respects. County business was now 
transacted by three officials, styled County 
Commissioners, and Wicklitie Kitchell, Ed- 
ward N. CuUom, and William Barbee were 
chosen the first Commissioners of Crawford 
County. They held their first court in the 
tavern of James Wilson, in the town of Pal- 
estine, commencing on the 7th day of June, 
1819; Edward H. Piper, clerk, and John S. 
Woodworth, sheriff. Thomas Kennedy was 
appointed county treasurer. The county 
was now nearly three years old, its machinerv 
was running smoothly, and everything indi- 
cated future prosperitv. 

Court Houses. — At the December term 
(1819) of the County Commissioners' Court, the 
jail, which had been built by Joseph Wood, 
was officially received. A contract had previ- 
ously been let for building a court house, to 
William Lindsey, of Vinoennes, but some dis- 
satisfaction was evinced by the commission- 
ers, as to quality arid workmanship of the brick 
work of the buililing,and they called'on Thomas 
Westfall, D. McHenry and Jonathan Young, 
three brick masons, to judge and determine 
the work and material, which they did, and 
decided in favor of T.indsey, the contractor. 
The building was officially received at a spe- 
cial term held the latter part of December, 
and the court paid Westfall, McHenry and 
Young !j;9 for their services as referees. The 
new court house was occupied for the first 



time at the March term of the court, 1820. 
The following order was made at a term of 
court held in October of the same year: 
" That Venetian blinds be made for the court 
house in Palestine and slips to shut them 
against; tiie two doors be faced with strong 
'ruff' scantling, and double batten shutters 
be made and hung to each; that the windows 
and doors be hung with good wrought or 
cast hinges, and each side be cornished up 
with good, neat, solid cornish, like that on the 
steam saw-mill at Vincennes." 

The court house had been built of very- 
poor material and worse workmanship, but 
was received by the court. There was troulile, 
however, between the contractor and the 
c(inimissioners in regard to the p^y for it, and 
suit was finally brought by Lindsey, in the 
Circuit Court of Edwards County, and judg- 
ment obtained in his favor for $1,768.64. It 
served as a court house for several years, but 
the material of which it was composed was of 
such inferior quality, that the building was 
never entir.ily finished. It was struck three 
times by lightning and the walls so injured 
tliat it l)ecan)e necessary to take them down; 
which was done, and the material sold. A 
part of the brick is now in Lagow's house in 
Palestine. The county was now without a 
court house, and was compelled to rent rooms 
wherever it could, and often the Circuit Court 
and grand jury occupied rooms in different 
parts of the town. 

At the March term of the Commissioners' 
Court in 1830, it was ordered, "that a frame 
court house be built on the southwest corner 
of the public square," which was afterward 
let out to the lowest bidder. David Porter 
furnished the hewn timbers for $119, and the 
contract for building was let to Benjamin 
Myers and others, or, as they were then 
calleil the "seven Jesses," they being a fam- 
ily of seven brothers, and Jesse was the lead- 
ing one of them. The house was completed. 

but unfortunately for all parties concerned, 
the night before it was to have been received 
by the court " some malicious person or per- 
sons " set fire to it, and it was entirely con- 
sumed. The loss to the county was as great 
as to the contractors, either party being illy 
able to sustain it, but the county bore the 
greater part of it, as on the 7th of March, 
183.3, we find from the records that the court 
allowed Myers $460.50 for work done on the 
house and material furnished, which was 

Thus the county was again without a court 
house, but at the December term of the court 
in the year 1833, John Boyd, James H. Wil- 
son and Asa Norton, the then county commis- 
sioners, ordered, " that another court house be 
built on the same ground, and of the same 
kind and size of the one burnt." It was built 
bv Pr.^slev O. Wilson and Sewell GooJridge, 
and is still standing. It was used for a court 
house until the county seat was removed to 
Robinson, since which time it has been used 
frii- various purposes; lately by the Christian 
Church as a house of worship. 

When the county seat was moved to Rob- 
inson in 1843, the first term of court was held 
in a frame house that stood on the corner 
where the Rolnnson Clothing Store now is, 
and the next in a frame house at the south- 
west corner of the square belonging to Mr. 
Wilson. The present court house was built 
in 1844, at a cost of about $4,300. It has 
several times been remodeled and improved, 
and at the present time sadly needs improving 
with a new one. 

The court house was built and paid for out 
of what was known as. the "bonus fund." 
This was a fund received partly from the sale 
of the saline and mineral lands, and partly 
from the State, under an act of the Legislature, 
donating to each county that was without 
r.iilroads or canals, a certain sum of money, 
for t'.ie purpose of building bridges and im- 

ch^^ ^^y ;^ 


proviiif^ their roaJs. It was sometimes called 
" hush money," as it was intended to hush any 
grumbling on the part of the county receiving 
it at not getting its share of internal improve- 
ment. The county received as her bonus 
.-everal thousand dollars, which was placed at 
interest, and used as occasion required. 

The old log jail was moved from Palestine 
with the county seat, but in 1845, a brick jail 
was built. It was a poor affair, and about 
1855-6, another was built with iron cells. 
This, however, was deemed unliealthv, and in 
1877, the present stone jail was built, south- 
east of the court house, and in connection 
with the sheriff's residence. 

Circuit Court. — The first Circuit Court, 
held for Crawford County, convened on Mon- 
<iay the 15th day of September, 1817, at the 
house of Edward N. Cullom, agreeably to an 
act of the General Assembly, passed at its 
last session, and was presided over by the 
"Honorable Thomas Towles, Judge." The 
following are the names of the first grand 
jury: William Howard, foreman; Uaniel 
Travis, M''illiam Travis, Thomas Mills, Ira 
Allison, Samuel Allison, Asahel Haskins, 
Jiiiin Waldrop, Sen., Richard Eaton, Thomas 
.lones, Daniel Martin, William Garrard, Benj. 
Parker, Jonas Painter, Samuel Briniberry, 
Poter Price, .John Lamb, William Everman, 
William Hicks, George Smith and Newberry 
York, who were "sworn to inquire for the 
County of Crawford," and who "received 
their charge and retired out of court to con- 
sider of their presentment." The first case 
was as follows: 

Stepuex Beck, Plaintiff, ) 

ar/ainst ■ In Debt. 

Joseph Bogart, Defendant. ) 

It was a plain suit for debt, and the de- 
fendant, Bogart, confessed the same and judg- 
ment was rendered accordingly. Tlie next 

Elisua BRADiiKPvRV, Plaintiff, ) , ,, , 

a i/i It II --ft V ij. 4-1. 

Robert Gill, Defendant. ) ' 6r\ . 

was a jury case, and it was tried before the 
following jurj-: Thomas Wilson, Ithra By- 
shears, Joseph Shaw, John Funk, Andrew 
Montgomery, John R. Adams, James Moore, 
Joseph Eaton, Joseph Wood, Isaac Parker, 
George Bogher and Jame> Giljson. The jury 
found a verdict for the plaintiff of §37.02, 
which was approved by the court. There 
were a few other trifling cases, and among the 
proceedings tiie following order was entered 
upon the record: "Ordered that Thomas 
Handy, Charles Neeley and John Funk, Jr., 
be summoned here at the next term of this 
court to show cause why they shall not be 
fined for failing to attend as grand jurors 
agreeably to the summons of the sheriff." 
Then the grand jury reported their indict- 
ments, among which we note the following 

UxiTED States ) Indictment for bring- 
agaiiiKt > ing home a hog with- 

Cf)RXELius Taylor. ) out the ears. 

Court then adjourned until eight o'clock the 
next morning, and, when it met, it adjourned 
"until court in coarse." We find no record 
of another term of the Circuit Court being 
hold, until on Wednesday, July 7, 1819, in P;d- 
estine, with Honorable Thomas C. Brown as 
presiding judge, and William W/ilson, circuit 

Among the indictments made bv the grand 
jury at this term was the following: 

The State of Illinois' 

VK. Indictment for 

William Kilbuck, )■ Miirder. 

Captain Tuomas, | A true bill. 

Big Panther. J 

The parties named were three Delaware 
Indians, who wore chartred with the murder 
of Thomas McCall, under the following cir- 



cumstances: Cornelius Taylor kept a still 
house, and had been forbidden to let the In- 
dians have whisky without a written order 
from proper authority. McCall was a sur- 
veyor, and had been in the habit of some- 
times trading with the Indians, and it is said, 
used to occasionally give them an order to 
Taylor for whisky. The Indians named in 
the indictment went to McCall and begged 
him for "fire-water," and finally to rid himself 
of their importunities wrote something on a 
piece of paper which he handed them, and 
which they supposed was the necessary order. 
They went to Taylor with it, who read it 
aloud to them. It was an order — but an 
order not to let them have the whisky. The 
Ind ans were so incensed that, to gratify 
their revenare, they murdered McCall. 

They were indicted and tried at the term 
of the court convened, as already stated, July 
7, 1819. The trial of the Indians was set 
for the 9th, the third day of the term. The 
following are the jury: .las. Sliaw, Smith 
Shaw, John Barlow, Jas. Watts, Wm. Barbee, 
Wm. Wilson, David Van Winkle, John W«l- 
drop, James Kennedy, Isaac Lewis, Joseph 
Shaw and Gabriel Funk. The jury, upon 
hearing the evidence, returned a verdict of 
"guilty." A motion was then made to arrest 
judgment, which motion was sustained by the 
court, and a new trial ordered. This time 
Kilbuck was tried separately, found guilty 
by the jury, and sentenced by the court to be 
hanged on the 14th of July, 1819, but made 
his escape before the appointed day. Captain 
Thomas and Big Panther asked for a con- 
tinuance, which was granted, and afterward a 
nolle prosequi was entered by the prosecuting 
attorney. So ended the Indian trial. 

For some ten years after the organization 
of the county most of the cases tried in the 
Circuit Court were for assault and battery; a 
few being for debt, and an occasional one for 
larceny. From the great number of assault 

and battery cases, it may be inferred that 
fighting was the popular amusement of the 
day. To get drunk and fight was so common 
that a man who did not indulge in these pas- 
times was considered effeminate and coward- 
ly. To be considered the " best man," that is, 
the best fighter, or as we would say to-day, 
the greatest bully, and rough, was an honor 
as much coveted and sought after by a certain 
class, as in this enlightened age, is honor and 
greatness. This rude state of society brought 
to the surface some of the roughest characters 
of the frontier. For instance, at a single 
term of the Circuit Court, we find that one 
Cornelius Taylor was indicted for larceny, for 
assault and battery, for rape, etc., etc. He 
was a had man and a detriment to the pros- 
perity and welfare of the community. With 
an utter disregard for law and order, he 
prej^ed upon others, and there are those who 
knew him still living to bear witness to his 
numerous shortcomings. There were many 
charges him, which were doubtless 
true, among which were horse-stealing, hog- 
stealing, and even darker crimes were hinted 
at in connection with him. In proof of the 
rough state of society, the following speaks 
for itself and is but one of many: 

The People OF THE State 1 t t . , ^ 

T T-,,,- Indictment for 

OF Illinois, lit., a u i 

^, ' ' > Assault and 

Hugh Dail, Defendant. J ^' 

" Be it remembered that heretofore to wit, 
on the l"3th day of May, 1834, it being the 
third day of the May term of the said court, 
the grand jury, by John M. Robinson, circuit 
attorney, filed in the clerk's office of said Cir- 
cuit Court, a certain bill of indictment 
against said defendant, which indictnipnt is 
in the words and figures following, to wit: 

State of Illinois, ) 

Crawford County. ) At the Circuit Court 
of the May term, in the year of our Lord 
1824. The grand jury of the people of the 



State of Illinois, cinpanneled, charged and 
sworn to inquire for the body of the said 
County of Crawford in the name and by the 
authority of the people of the State of Illi- 
nois, upon their oath present that Hugh Dail, 
late of the township of Palestine, in the said 
County of Crawford, laborer, on the first day 
of May, in the year of our Lord 1824, with 
force and arms, in the township aforesaid, and 
county aforesaid, in and upon Isaac Meek did 
make an assault, and him, the said Isaac, then 
and there did beat, bruise, wound and threat 
and other wrongs to the said Isaac then and 
there did, to the great damage of the said 
Isaac, contrary to the form of the staute in 
such case made and provided, and against the 
peace and dignity of the people of the State 
of Illinois." (Signed,) 


Co. Att'y. 
Upon this voluminous and very lucid docu- 
ment, was issued the following iron-clad writ, 
" in the words and figures following to wit :" 
" The people of the State of Illinois to the 
Sheriff of Crawford County, greeting : We 
command you to take Hugh Dail, if he be 
found in your bailmick, and him safely keep, 
so that you have his body before the judge 
of our Crawford Circuit Court at the court 
house in Palestine, on the first day of our 
next October term, to answer the people of 
the State of Illinois in an indictment pre- 
fered against lilm by the grand jury at the 
last May term, for assault and battery, and 
have then there this writ." 

Witness. "Edward H. Pipeu, 

Clerk &c., of said Court 

this 5J3d day of 

[siiAL.] 1824:, and the 48th 

year of the Independ- 
ence of the United 
Edward IT. Pipkr, 


A return made upon the'back of the writ 
by the sheriff showed that Dail was not in his 
" bailmick," whereupon a writ was issued to 
the sheriff of Edgar County for him, and in 
due time he_ was produced, acknowledged his 
offense in court, and was fined the enormous 
sum of .50 cents and '' costs." 

The courts moved on in the usual manner 
of all backwoods counties, having plenty of 
business, such as it was, upon the dockets at 
the different tribunals, and which was gener- 
ally dispatched in a summary, backwoods 
stj-le, distinguished quite as much for equity 
and fairness between man and man, as in ac- 
cordance with the wisdom of Blackstone. 

Coxinty Officers. — The first county com- 
missioners, or as they were then called, county 
j ustices of the peace, were elected or appointed 
February 26, 1817, and were E. N. Cullom, 
John Dunlap and Isaac Moore. The next 
year, 1818, this board wi^s increased to twelve, 
as follows: E. N. Cullom, Samuel Harris, 
Geo. W. Kincaid, .Tames Shaw, Smith Shaw, 
.foseph Kitchell, S. B. A. Carter, Chester 
Fitch, Wm. Lockard, David Porter, David 
McGahey and Thomas Anderson. In 1819, 
it dropped liack to three commissioners — E. 
N. Cullom, Wickliffe Kitchell and William 
Barbee; in 1820, David Stewart, Aaron Ball 
and Henry M. Gilliam; in 1821, Aaron Ball, 
iJavid Stewart and E. N. Cullom; in 1832, 
Daniel Funk, Enoch Wilhite and Zephaniah 
Lewis; in 1823, Daniel Funk, John Sackrider 
and Enoch Wilhite; in 1824, Daniel Funk, 
John Sackrider and William Highsmith; in 
1826, Daniel Funk, Daniel Boatright and 
Bottsford Comstock; in 1828, Wm. High- 
smith, Wm. Magill and Doctor Hill; in 1832, 
Asa Norton, Jas. H. Wilson and John Boyd; 
in 1834, Asa Norton, Gabriel Funk and John 
Boyd; In 1836, John Boyd, Eli Adams and 
Wm. Cox; in 1838, L. ~V>. Cullom, Daniel 
Boatright and John Boyd; in 1839, Wm. 
Highsmith, Daniel Boatright and Wni. Gill; 



in 1810, Wm. Gill, Win. Highsmith and Win. 
Mitciiell; in ISll, Wm. Highsmith, Win. 
Mitchell and John Musgrave; in 1843, Wm. 
Higlisniitli, Jolin Musgravo and Lott Watts; 
in ISl-t, Will. Highsmith, Lott Watts and 
John Boyd; in 1845, John Boyd', Lott Watts 
and Benj. Beckwith; in 184(j a probate 
judge was added, and Presley O. AVilson 
was elected to the office, which he filled until 
1849, with the following commissioners: 1846, 
Boyd, Watts and Beckwith; 1847, Beckwith, 
F. M. Brown and John Newlin; 1848, Brown, 
Newlin and Wm. Reavill. In 1849 another 
change was made. A county judge, with 
Associate Justices, composed the board, as 
follows: J. B. Trimble, county judge, and 
Isaac Wilkin and John B. Harper, associates; 
in 1853, Richard G. Morris, county judge, 
and Jas. F. Hand and Wm. Reavill, associ- 
ates; in 1855, John W. Steers, county judge, 
and Win. Reavill and James F. Hand, associ- 
ates; in 1857, W. H. Sierrett, count}- judge, 
and Hand and John Shaw, associates; in ]8'31, 
Wm. C. Dickson, county judge, and D. W. 
Odell and J. J. Petri, associates; in 1805, 
Dickson, county judge, and Benj. Price and 
I. D. Mail, associates; in 1807-8 still an- 
other change was made in the management 
of county business. The county adopted 
township organization, and H. Alexander was 
county judge; in 1809, John B. Harper, 
county judge; in 1877, Wm. C.Jones; in 
1879, Franklin Robb, and in 188-->, J. C. 
OKvin, who is the present county judge. 

Circuit and County Clerks. — Edward H. 
Piper was both circuit and county clerk 
from the organization of the county to 1835. 
The offices were then separated, and A. G. 
Lagow was made county clerk, and D. W. 
Stark, circuit clerk; in 1837, E. L. Patton be- 
came county clerk, and in 1838, W. B. Baker 
became both county and circuit clerk, which 
positions he held until 1848, when they were 
again separated, and James H. Steel became 

county clerk, and C. M. Hamilton, circuit 
clerk; in 1849, Wm. Cox was elected circuit 
clerk, but died, and Wm. Barbee became 
clerk; in 1854, he was succeeded by John T. 
Co.x, who in 1856 was succeeded by Hiram 
Johnson, and he by Wm. Johnson, in 1805; 
in 1806, Sing B. Allen was elected to the 
office, and in 1876 he was succeeded by our 
Fat Contributor, the only, the funny and good- 
natured John Thomas Cox, the present 
courteous and accommodating incumbent. 
Mr. Steel remained county clerk until 1857, 
when the elder John T. Cox was elected. He 
was succeeded by Wm. C. Wilson, familiarly 
known as " Carl " Wilson, who held the office 
until 1877, when he surrendered it to David 
Reavill. The latter died before his term ex- 
pired, and T. S. Price was appointed to fill 
out the term, when he was re-elected, and is 
at present the county clerk. 

aheri^fs. — Francis Cullom was the Hrst 
sheriff of the county; in 1818, John S. 
Woodvvorth was sheriff; in 1823, John Hous- 
ton; in 1820, Joel Phelps; in 1827, A. M. 
Houston; in 1829, E. W. Kellogg; in 1835, 
John Eastburn; in 183S, Presley O. Wilson; 
in 1840, R. Arnold; in 1844, L. D. Cullom; 
in 1850, J. M. Grimes; in 1852, H. Johnson; 
in 1854, D.D. Fowler; in 1856, John D. New- 
lin; in 1858, David Little; in 1860, Wm. 
Reavill; in 1802, Wm. Johnson; in 1804, 
H. Henderson; in 18i 6, Wm. Reavill; in 
1808, Davii Reavill; in 1870, R. Leach; in 
1872, A. B. Houston; in 1874, H. Henderson; 
in 1876, Win. Johnson; in 1878, S. T. Lind- 
sey; in 1880, John M. Highsmith, and in lSrf2, 
d! M. Bales. 

2'reasurtrs. — The first treasurer of the 
county was Thomas Kennedy; in 1824, John 
Houston was elected treasurer; in 1820, John 
Malcom; in 1833, Charles Kitchell; in 1835, 
Daniel Hulible; in 1830, John L. Buskirk; 
in 1837, John A. Williams; in 1839, Fmley 
PauU; in 1844, James Weaver; in 1845, Jas. 



S. Otey; in 1S4G, C. II. Fitch; in 1853, W. 
C. Wilson; in 1855, James Mitchell; in 18G1, 
Samson Taylor; in 18G7, John C. Page; in 
1871, Wm."RcavilI; in 1873, Wm. Updyke; 
in 187S, i. U. JIail, and in 1882, Samson 

Surveyors and' Coroners. — John Dunlap 
was the first surveyor, and Allen McGahey 
the first coroner, who was succeeded bv Jon- 
athan Wood in 1820. In 18:23 George Cal- 
houn was appointed county surveyor, but 
shortly after was succeeded by Jacob Help- 
ingstiene; in 1823 George Calhoun was 
again appointed; in 1838 W. B. Baker was 
appointed; in 184G, C. H. Fitch; in 1847, 
Jas. H. Steel; in 1850, PI. B. Jolly; after 
wiiich we lose trace of the office. 

Sch< ol Commissioners. — As early as 1819, 
R. C. Ford was appointed school commis- 
sioner by act of the Legislature, and in 1833 
Thos. Kennedy was appointed; in 1836 he 
was succeeded by Wm. Barbee; in 1841 Fin- 
ley Paul! was appointed; in 1842, Jas. S. 
Otey; i'n 1845, Nelson Hawley;^in 1853, F. 
Robb; in 1856, Jno. T. Cox; in 1SG7, Geo. 
W. Peck; in 18G1, John C. Page; in 1865, 
Geo. N. Parker; in 1869, S. A. Burner; in 
1873, P. G. Bradberry; in 1876, G. W. Hen- 
derson; in 1880, Hugh McHatton; and in 
1883, H. O. Hiser. 

State Senators. — First session, 1818-20. 
Joseph Kitchell; 1830-33, Joseph Kitchell; 
1833-34, Dan'l Parker; 1824-36, Dan'l Par- 
ker; 1826-38, Wm. B. Archer; 1838-30, 
Wickliflfe Kitchell; 1830-33, WicklifTe Kitch- 
ell; 1833-31, Djvid McGahey; 1834-30, Da- 
vid McGahey; 1836-38, Peter Pruyno; 1S3S 
-40, Abner Greer; 1840-43, John Houston; 
1842-44, John Houston; 1844-46, Sam'l Dun- 
lap; 1846-48, Sam'l Dunlap; 1848-50 (the 
State had been re-districted, and Crawford 
was a part of the 9th district), Uri Manly; 
1850-53, Josiah R.Winn; 1852-54, J. R. 
Winn; lS54-5'i, .Mort rner O'Kaii; 1856- 

58, Mortimer O'Kean; 1858-60, Mortimer 
O'Kean; 1860-62, Presley Funkhouser; 1863 
-64, Sam'l Moffatt; 1864-6G, Andrew J, 
Hunter; 1866-68, A. J. Hunter; 1868-70, 
E<hvin Harlan; 1870-73, John Jackson and 
Edwin Harlan; 1872-74, Wm. J. Crews; 
1874-76, O. V. Smith; 1876-78, O. V. Smith; 
1878-80, Wm. C. Wilson; 1880-82, AVm. C. 
Wilson; 1882-84, W. H. McNairy. 

Jtepresentatives. — First session, 1818-20, 
David Porter; 1830-33, Abraham Cairns; 
1822-24, R. C. Ford; 1824-26, David Jlc- 
Gahey; 1826-28, John C. Alexander; 1828- 
30, J. C. Alexander; 1830-32, J. C. Alexan- 
der; 1832-34, William Highsmith; 1834-36, 
J. D. McGahey; 1836-38, Wilson Lagow; 1838 
-40; H. Alexander; 1840-42, Wm. Wilson; 
1843-44, Wm. Wilson; 1844-46, R. G. Mor- ' 
ris; 1846-48, M. Boyle; 1848-50,* R. G. „ 
Morris; 1850-52, Jas. C. Allen; 1852-54, W. 
H. Sterritt; 1854-56 (Crawford was now in 
17th district), Randolph Heath; 1856-58, 
Isaac Wilson; 1858-60, H. C. McCleave; 18G0 
-62, Aaron Shaw; 1863-64 (Crawford was 
now in the 11th district), David W. OJell; 
1864-66, Thos. Cooper; 1866-68, D. W. Odeli; 
1868-70, Joseph Cooper; 1870-72, Wm. C. 
Jones;\Jl873-74 (Crawford was now in the 
45th, with three Representatives from the 
district), Harmon Alexander, Thos. J. Golden 
and J. L. Flanders; 1874-76, E. Callahan, J. 
H. Halley and J. W. Briscoe; 187G-78, A. 
J. Reavill, J. H. Halley and Wm. Lindsey; 
1878-80, A. J. Reavill J. W. Graham and 
J. R. Johnson; 1880-83, J. C. Olwin, J. C. 
Bryan and W. H. H. Mieur; 18S2-84, Win. 
Updyke, J. M. Honey and Grandison Clark. 

Miscellaneous. — In the constitutional Con- 
vention held at Kaskaskia in July, 1818, Craw- 
ford was roprosenteil by Joseph Kitchell and 
Edward N. Cullom; in tliat of 1847-8, by Nel- 

*The county was districted, and Crawford was a 
put of Iho lOth irgislative dit'.ric-t. 


son Hawley; of 186:3, by H. Alexander; of 
1870, by James C. Alien. The county has 
furnished one Governor — Augustus C. French 
—1846 and 1849; in 1839 Wickliffe Kitch- 
ell was attorney-general; James C. Allen rep- 
resented the district in the 33d, 34th and 3Sth 
Congress; James C. Allen, circuit judge, 1873; 
and in 1879 Wm. C. Jones, of Crawford, was 
elected circuit judge, and fills the office at the 
present time. 

Township Orr/anization. — The county, as 
we have seen, was divided into three election 
precincts at the first session of the court, viz.: 
Allison, Lamotte and Union. As population 
increased, other counties were formed out of 
the vast territory of Crawford, Clark being 
set off in 1819, Lawrence in 18'il, and .Jasper 
in 1831: thus reduaing the area of Crawford 
to its present dimensions. From the time 
when it was laid oil into three precincts, its 
civil divisions were changed, divided and 
sub-divided, to suit the extent of territory 
and the increased population. Under the 
regime of commissioners, the county was di- 
vided into a certain number of election pre- 
cincts which, with various changes, was at 
the close of the late war as follows: Hutson- 
ville, Robinson, Watts, Licking, Martin, 
Franklin, Embarras, Northwest, Montgom- 
ery, Oblong, Palestine, Southwest. The 
Constitution adopted in 1847-8, contained 
the provision of township organization — a 
provision that was to be voted on by the peo- 
ple of each county, and leaving it optional 
with them to adopt or reject it in their re- 
spective counties. In accordance with the 
provisions of that Constitution, and in obedi- 
ence to a demand from the people in the 
northern part of the State, who had observed 
its practical workings in the eastern States, 
the first township organization act was passed 
by the Legislature. But the law, in attempt- 
ing to put it into practical operation, dis- 
closed radical defects. It was revised and 

amended at the session of 1851, substantially 
as it has existed until the recent revision in 
1871. The adoption of township organiza- 
tion marks an era in many of the counties of 
the State. The northern part of the State, 
settled by people from the east, principally, 
and who, as we have said, were familiar 
with the township system, adopted it first, 
the people in the southern part being much 
more slow to take hold of it. 

Crawford County adopted township organ- 
ization in 1868, and the county was divided 
into townships as follows: All the territory 
known by Government survey as the north 
half of township 6 north, range 12 west; all of 
township 7 north, range 13 west, except one 
mile in width on the north side; also one 
mile in width off the east side of township 6 
north, range 13 west, and sections 12, 13, 24, 
25 and 36 of township 7 north, range 13 
west, was formed into one township, and 
called Robinson. All the territory in frac- 
tional township 8 north, range 11 west, and 
all of township 8 north, range 13 west, also 
one mile in width off the east side of town- 
ship 8 north, range 13 west; also one mile in 
width off the north side of township 7 north, 
ranges 11 and 13 west, and section 1 of 
township 7 north, range 13 west — was formed 
into a township and called Hutsonville. All 
of township 8 north, range 13 west, except 
one mile in width off the east side; also frac- 
tional township 8 north, range 14 west; also 
sections 3, 3, 4, 5 and 6 of township 7 north, 
range 13 west, and sections 1 and 3 of town- 
ship 7 north, range 14 west, was formed into 
a township and called Licking. All of town- 
ship 7 north, range 13 west, except one mile 
in width off the north and east sides; also all 
of fractional township 7 north, range 14 west, 
and sections 1 and 3 on the north side; also 
the north half of township 6 north, range 13 
west, except sections 1, 13 and 13; and mirth 
' half of fractional township 6 north, range 14 



Avest, was to be known as Oblong Township. 
All of fractional township 7 north, ranpje 10 
west, also township 7 north, range 11 west, 
except one mile in width on the north side, 
and the north half of township 6 north, 
ranges 10 and 11 west, to be known as Pales- 
tine Township. All of fractional township 5 
north, range 10 west, and the south half of 
fractional township 6 north, range 10 west, 
also fractional township 5 north, ranfre 11 
west, and the south half of township 6 north, 
range 11 west, was to be known as Franklin 
Township. All of fractional township 5 north, 
range 13 west, also the south half of township 
6 north, range 13 west, also sections 1, 12, 13 
and 24 of township 5 north, range 13 west, 
and sections 2i, 25 and 36 of township 6 
north, range 13 west, to be known as Hebron 
Township. All of township 5 north, range 
13 west, except sections 1, 12, 13 and 24, also 
south half of township 6 north, range 13 
west, except sections 24, 25 and 36, also frac- 
tional township 5 north, range 14 west, and the 
south half of township 6 north, range 14 west, 
was to be known as Hardin Township. Upon 
reporting tlie names to the Auditor of State, 
it was found that four of the new townships 
bore the same names as townships in other 
counties of the State, and the following 
changes were made: Palestine was changed 
to Lamotte; Hardin to Martin; Hebron to 
Honey Creek, and Franklin to Montgomery 

The first Board of Supervisors elected was 
as follows: Robinson Township, Dwight 
Newton; Palestine Township, John D. Shep- 
ard; Hutsonville Township, John Newlin, Sr. ; 
Licking Township, R. R. Lincoln; Oblong 
Township, Wm. M. Douglas; Hardin Town- 
ship, R. E. Haskins; Hebron Township, Henry 
Wierich, and Franklin Township, .Ino. R. 
Rich. Since the division of the county into 
townships as described above, Southwest 
Township has Ijcph formed, comprising the 

territory south of the Enibarras River. At 
present the townships are represented in the 
Board of Supervisors as follows: Robinson, 
John Collins; Hutsonville, Simpson Cox; 
Lamotte, T. N. Rafferty; Montgomery, Thos. 
R. Kent; Oblong, D. T. Newbold; Honey 
Creek, George H. Mixwell; Licking, F. iL 
Niblo; Martin, John Mulvane, and South- 
west, J. C. Spillman. 

The township system of Illinois is not 
closely modeled after the New England 
States. There a Representative is sent di- 
rectly from each town to the lower House of 
the Legislature. In New York, owing to her 
vast extent of territory, this was found to be 
impracticable, and a countj- assembly, denom- 
inated a Board of Supervisors, composed of a 
member from each township, was then estab- 
lished. This modified system has been copied 
almost exactly in this State. 

Townships are often compared by writers 
to petty republics, possessing unlimited sov- 
ereignty in matters of local concern; and 
Boards of Supervisors are often popularly 
supposed to be vested with certain limited 
legislative powers. Neither is the case. 
"Both the county and township boards are 
the mere fiscal agents. They hold the purse- 
strings of the counties; they may contract, 
incur debts, or create liabilities — very great 
powers, it is true — but they can not prescribe 
or vary the duties, nor control in anjr manner 
the county or township officers authorized bv 
law. While the Count\' Court of three mem- 
bers is a smaller, and, therefore, as a rule, more 
manageable or controllable body by outside 
influences, there is little doubt that a Board 
of Supervisors is not only more directlv ex- 
pensive, but also that a thousand and one 
pett\' claims of every conceivable character, 
having no foundation in law or justice, are 
constantly presented, and being loosely in- 
vestigated, and tacitly allowed, aggregate no 
insi::);iiificant sum. 








"Let us consider the reason of the case. For no- 
thing is Law that is not reason." 

• — Sir John Powell. 

"Where the law ends, tyranny begins." 


"The law is a sort of hocus pociis science that 
smiles in yer face while it picks yer pocket, and the 
glorious uncertainty of it is of mair use to the pro- 
fessors of it, than the justice of it." 

— Macklin. 

THE first two of the above cjuotations are 
from men who, by lives of stuJy and 
toil, had accjuired eminence in the world as 
lawyers and as statesmen. Tiie last is from 
one who knew nothing of the law; who was 
ignorant of its theory and practice, and rep- 
resents a common, but utterly mistaken 
view, both of the law and its administration. 
The law has grown out of the struggles of 
nations, states, classes and individuals against 
■wrong and for the right. "All the law in the 
world has been obtained by strife. Everv 
jirinciple of law which obtains, had first to be 
■wrung by force from those who denied it; and 
every legal right — the legal rights of a whole 
nation, as well as those of individuals — sup- 
poses a continual readiness to assert it and 
defend it. The law is not a mere theory, 
but a living force, and hence it is that jus- 
tice, which in one hand holds the scales in 
which she weighs the right, carries in the 

* By Hon. E. Callalian. 

other the sword with which she executes it. 
Tho sword without the scales is brute force; 
the scales without the sword, is the impotence 
of law. The scales and the sword belong to- 
gether, and the state of the law is perfect only 
where the power with which justice carries 
the sword is equaled by the skill with wiiich 
she holds the scales." No men have more 
power, or are clothed vyith more responsibility, 
than judges and lawyers who are the ministers 
of justice in society, and the history of a State 
or a county would be incomplete which omitted 
to mention the men who have set on the 
bench and practiced at the bar in its courts. 
The first court of record held in Crawford 
County, as elsewhere stated, was held at the 
house of Edward N. Cullom o;i the 15th dav 
of September, A. D. 1817, by the Hon. Thomas 
Towlc'S, Territorial judge, from October 28, 
181.5, until the State was admitted into the 
union. The term continued for two davs, 
but all business was completed on the first 
day. There is nothing in the record disclos- 
ing what members of the bar were present. 
There were five civil cases on the docket, and 
four indictments were returned, two were fir 
assault and battery, one for selling whiskv 
to Indians, and one for " bringing home a 
hog without the ears." The first term of 
court held after the State was admitted into 
the union was a special term, held on the 7th 
day of .July, A. D. 1819, by the Hon. Thomas 



C. Brown who was ono of the judges of the 
Supreme Court, from October 9th, 1818, until 
January 18th 1835. This was the term at 
which Vniliam Killbuck, Captain Thomas and 
B:g Panther, were tried for the murder of 
Thomas McCall. AVilliara "Wilson was the 
circuit a'^tornev, and William Bado-er was 
^\v•orn as his assistant. It does not appear the record who was counsel for the de- 
fendants, or vvhat, if any, attorneys were pres- 
ent at this term. 

.fudge Brown held all the courts, until 
October, 1824, when William AVilson, who 
was one of the judges of the Supreme Court 
from July 7th, 1819, to December 4th, 1848, 
held the court for a single term. The writer 
never knew .Judge Wilson until after his re- 
tirement from the bench, and can only speak 
of him from iiis record as a judge and the 
traditions of him, that still exist among the 
older members of the bar. As a judge his 
written opinions are short, clear, and satis- 
factory. They are models of brevity, and 
generally contained nothing but good law. 
Ills judicial record stands in the history of 
the State untarnished by a single act that did 
not comport with the dignity of his office. 
J udge Wilson was a great lover of stories, and 
would often entertain his listeners with 
marvelous tales of great herds of cattle and 
immense agricultural productions which had 
no existence except in imagination. He re- 
sided in White County and died several j'ears 
ago, at a very advanced old age. 

On the division of the State into circuits in 
1824, James O. Wattles was elected judge of 
the fifth judicial circuit, which included the 
county of Crawford. He was commissioned 
January 19, 1825, and legislated out of 
office by the act of January 12, 1827. Noth- 
itig is known, or can be gathered from old 
citizens, of the personal history or character 
of Judge Wattles. James Hall, judge of 
the fourth circuit, held the November term 

1825, but was never one of the judges elected 
to hold the courts in Crawford County. On 
the fourth day of January, 1835, Justin 
Harlan, of Clark County, was commissionrd 
as judge of the fourth circuit, which th'iii 
included this county, and continued to hold 
the courts until the year 1859, when the 
twenty-fifth circuit was created, and Alfred 
Kitchell, of Richland County, was elected 
judge in the now circuit. He was succeeded 
in 1861 by James C. Allen, then a resident of 
this county. .Judge Allen resigned in De- 
cember, 18(32, having been elected to Con- 
gress, and Aaron Shaw, of Lawrence County, 
was elected to iUl the vacancy. 

Judge Shaw is a native of the State of Now 
York, but came to Illinois while ayouncr man 
and resided at I^awrenceville until about the 
year 1870, when he removed to Olnej' in 
Richland Couiit3'. His reputation has been 
that of a criminal rather than a civil lawyer. 
He has always had a large practice and has 
been a successful lawyer. He is impulsive 
and often stormy at the bar, but on the bench 
he was always courteous, dignified and impar- 
tial. He has been a member of Congress and 
is now the member elect from the 16th con- 
gressional district of Illinois. 

In the year 1865 the. county was again 
placed in the fourth circuit, and Hiram B. 
Decius, of Cumberland County, was elected 
and commissioned on the first day of Decem- 
ber, A. D. 1865. He was re-elected and re- 
commissioned on the 27th day of June, A. D. 
1869. .Judge Decius, was a native of the 
State of Ohio, but came to Cumberland 
County when a boy. His ojiportunitios for 
accjuiring an education were very poor, but he 
improved them to the best possible advan- 
tage, and read law after he reached his man- 
hood. He was a successful practitioner and 
during his lifetime acquired a large estate. 
He was a rough, but vigorous thinker and 
talker. In politics he was a democrat, and 



one who clung to the doctrines and tradi- 
tions " of his party. In religion he was a 
liberal ist of the broadest gauge. 

After the ado]ition of the constitution of 
1870, Crawford County was again in the 
21st circuit, and .James C. Allen was, on the 
2d day of .June, 1873, elected judge for a term 
of six years. 

James C. Allen was born in Shelby County, 
Ky., on the 22d day of .January, A. D. 1822, 
and removed with his father to Parke County, 
Indiana, in the year A. D. 1830. He lived 
* on a farm until 1840, attending the public 
school in the winter season and then spent 
two years at the county seminary in Rockvillo. 
He then entered the law-office of Howard & 
Wright, of Rockville, Ind., and pursued liis 
legal studies until January, A. D. 18-±4r, when 
he was admitted to the bar. He located at 
Sullivan, Ind., and in 1845 was elected State's 
attorney for the seventh judicial circuit of 
the State. At the end of his term of office 
he removed to Palestine, Illinois, and sought 
health in farming, not, however, abandoning 
his profession. He formed a partnership with 
Franklin Robb, Esq., of Robinson, which con- 
tinued until his election to Congress in 
1852. In November, 1852, he was elected to 
the State Legislature, and obtained notoriety 
by his opposition to what was known as 
"State Policy." This policy opposed the 
chartering of any railroad which terminated 
at or near any city outside of the State of 
Illinois, or that would tend to carry the trade 
of the State beyond its own borders. It was 
an extreme phase of the doctrine of State 
rights. Men look back now and wonder that 
it should have been advocated by men of the 
brilliancy of Linder and the ability of Palmer. 
The Vandalia line and the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Railroad Company were seeking charters 
to build roads to terminate at East St. Ijouis. 
The advocates of State policy were deter- 
mined to defeat them unless thev terminated 

at Alton. Mr. Allen held that railroads 
should be chartered and built wherever the 
business interests of the country at large re- 
quired, and was the leader in the house of 
this liberal policy. His attack upon State 
policy was able, earnest and successful, and 
was heartily indorsed by his constituents. 
He was also opposed to the system of bank- 
ing established by the Legislature in 1852, 
which has since resulted in disaster to the 
business interests of the country. 

The reputation which he had acquired in 
the State Legislature resulted in his election 
to congress in the 7th district in November, 
1852; he was re-elected in 1854, and was then 
elected clerk of the House of Representatives 
that met on the first Monday of December, A. 
D. 1858. Over this house lie presided dur- 
ing the memorable contest for the election of 
a speaker, which resulted in the election of 
Mr. Penington, of New Jersey. This was at a 
time when bad blood was at fever heat, and 
the difficulties of his position as the presiding 
officer of an unorganized body of excited men 
were very great. But he so discharged the 
duties of his position as to receive a unanimous 
vote of thanks at the end of the contest. In 
1860 he was the candidate of the democratic 
party for governor of Illinois, and made a 
canvass which commanded the admiration of 
both his political friends and opponents, 
but was beaten by Hon. Richard Yates. 
In 1862 he was elected to Congress for the 
State at large, as a "war democrat" over 
Eben C. IngersoU, a brother of Hon. Robert 
G. IngersoU. During this term in Congress 
he possessed the confidence of President 
Lincoln, and voted for every appropriation 
of men and money which was asked by 
the administration to prosecute the war. 
Mr. Lincoln tendered him the command 
of a brigade, to be known as the Ken- 
tucky brigade. This position he declined on 
the ground that he had not the military ex- 



perience or trainiiinr necessary to fit him for 
so responsible a position. He was re-nomi- 
nated for Congress for the State at large in 
186i, but was defeated by Hon S. W. Moul- 
ton, the republican candidate. In 1879 he 
was elected, without opposition, a member of 
the State constitutional convention, which 
Met in January, A. 1). 1870, and framed the 
present State constitution. In this conven- 
tion he was chairman of the committee on 
the I^cgislative Department, and is very 
largely the author of the legislative article in 
the constitution which was adopted as it came 
from the committee. In June, 1873, he was 
elected judge of the Circuit Court, which 
office he held until 1879. In 1877 after the 
Appellate Court was created he was appoint- 
ed by the Supreme Court, one of the Appel- 
late Judges for the fourth district, and until 
1879 discharged the duties of an Appellate 
Judge in addition to his service on the cir- 
cuit bench. In the fall of 1876 he removed 
to Olney in Richland County, where he still 
resides. After he left the bench he resumed 
the practice of his profession, and is still en- 
gaged in it. Judge Allen is a man of rare 
natural endowments, a splendid physical 
organization and a commanding presence sup- 
j)lemonted with a voice that is equally music- 
al in telling a story or singing a song, makes 
him a welcome guest, in any and every circle. 
He has been too much in politics to make 
what is called a close lawyer, but his knowl- 
edge of the fundamental orinciples of the law 
is thorough, and both as a judge and as a law- 
yer he uses this knowledge to the best possible 
advantage. He is largely gifted with that 
kind of sense which enables him to grasp read- 
ily and correctly the common questions of 
life and controversies of business. This of- 
ten serves him better tl; ji the learning of 
books. He is an able advocate before a 
jury: often eloquent, and always impressive, 
ardent, and impulsive, he sometimes strikes 

blows that seem uncalled for, but is ever 
ready to undo a wrong. As a judga he pre- 
sided with dignity, unless overcome by some- 
thing funny or ludicrous. He was sometimes 
accused of scolding the bar to amuse the laity. 
His uprightness and integrity were unques- 
tioned; in politics he is arraditional democrat; 
in religion, a Presbyterian. 

Alfred Kitchell was born at Palestine in the 
year A. D. 1820. His education, excepting 
three terms at the Indiana State University, 
was such as could be obtained in the com- 
mon schools. He was admitted to the bar in 
December, A. D. 1841, and in 1842 entered 
the practice at Olney in Richland County. 
In January, 1843, he was elected State's at- 
torney for the fourth circuit, and was re- 
elected in 1845. He -nas a member of the 
constitutional convention of 1847, and in 1849 
he was elected county judge of Richland 
Count}'. In 1859 he was elected to the cir- 
cuit bench in the twenty-fifth circuit. He 
assisted to establish the first newspaper ever 
published in Olney. In politics he was an 
anti-slavery democrat, and naturally opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and 
the extension of slavery. His principles led 
him out of the democratic party, and in 1856 
he assisted in the organization of the repub- 
lican party, with which he acted until his 
death in November, A. D. 1876. He was an 
active promoter of the Ohio and Mississippi 
Railway, and was opposed to what was then 
called "State policy." 

Judge Kitchell was at the Crawford County 
Bar for many years, and is remembered by its 
older members as one of the most pleasing 
and gentlemanly of lawj^ers. He was always 
courteous in his intercourse with others. As 
an advocate he was clear and practical rather 
than eloquent. His standard of honor and 
integrity was a high one, and he lived well 
up to it. 

Though he left the count v before he was 



admitted to the bar, the fact that he was born 
and lived to manhood in the county, and then 
returned to it, both as a lawyer and a judge, 
entitles him to a place in its history. 

In 1877 the judicial system was so changed 
as to create the State into thirteen circuits 
and provide for the election of one judge in 
each circuit, to hold until the year 1879, when 
three judges should be elected in each of the 
thirteen circuits. Under this change John 
H. Hatly, of Jasper County, was elected in 
the second circuit, and held tlie courts of this 
county during his term of office. Judge Ral- 
ly is a Virginian by birth, and resided, until 
near the close of the war, in the south. He 
was "subjugated" before many of his com- 
rades in the southern army, and came north 
to avoid the final catastrophe. His literary 
and legal education are both liberal, and 
•when aroused he is a formidable adversary in 
a lawsuit. He is eminently social and loves 
the sports of a Virginia gentleman. The 
music of his splendid pack of hounds falls 
pleasantly on his ear, and he joins in the 
chase with the utmost eagerness. He justly 
enjovs a large practice, and is held in high 
esteem by those who know him, both as a 
man and a lawyer. 

On the IGth day of June, 1879, Chauncy 
S. Conger, of White County, Thomas S. 
Casey, of Jefferson County, and William C. 
Jones, of Crawford County, were elected 
judges in the second circuit. Since tliat 
time the courts in this county have been 
held by Judge Jones, excepting when changes 
of venue called in one of the other judges. 

Judge Jones was born at Hutsonville, July 
15th, 1848. His father, Caswell Jones, Esq., 
was a successful merchant, and died in March, 
1853. His mother was mari'ied to E. Callahan, 
in June, 1855; in 18G1 Mr. Callahan, removed 
to Robinson and opened a law office. Young 
Jones, of his own choice, went into the Moni- 
tor newspaper office, and for near one year 

performed the duties of the youngest ap- 
prentice. In 1863, he entered as a student 
in the Oliio Wesleyan University, where 
he remained for tiirec years. In 18G7 he 
read law in the office of Messrs. Callahan 
& Steel, after which he attended a course of 
law lectures at the Iilichigan State Uni- 
versity at Ann Arbor. He was admitted to 
the bar May 9th, 1SG8, and in June formed a 
Copartenship with Mr. Callahan which con- 
tinued for ten years. On the •^5th of Novem- 
ber, 1809, he married to Mary H. Steel, daugli- 
ter of James H. Steel, Esq., then a member 
of the Crawford County Bar. In November, 
1870, he was elected member of the 27th 
General Assembly. In November, 1877, he 
was elected judge of the County Court, 
which office he filled with entire satisfaction 
to all parties until June 1879, when he was 
elected to the circuit bench. He has 
brouirht with him into the judicial office 
that unflagging industry, and energy, and 
high sense of justice and right, wliich have 
made his life a success. He is still a young 
man, and one of whom his friends expect much 
in the future. He resides in Robinson and 
takes a lively interest in the affairs of his 
town and county. He is a democrat in poli- 
tic.*, and has always been elected as a par- 
tisan candidate. He belongs to no church, 
but believes in the Bible and the doctrine of 
the Christian religion. 

It is impossible to notice the lawyers of the 
bar in the order in which they properly 
stand, and all that can be done is to give them 
severally such mention as the writer has been 
able to gather from the data at his com- 

Wickliffe Kitchell wns born on May 21st, 
1789, in the State of New Jersey. He was 
descended from Robert Kitchell, who came 
from England in the year 16:!9, and was the 
leader of a community of Puritans who set- 
tled at Cjruili'ord Colony of Connecticut. 



Robert removed to Newark, New .Jersey, in 
ItitiO, where many of desoendants still reside. 
Early in the present century Asa Kitchell, 
the father of VVickliffe removed with his fam- 
ily to what was then the " far west," and 
WicUliffe reached his majority in the vicinity 
of what is now Cincinnati, Ohio. School 
privileges were in those early days, extremely 
limited, and the time spent b}- him at school, 
according to his repeated statement, did not 
exceed two or three months; but between the 
hours of laljor, and by the fire-lii;ht at night, 
he succeeded in obtaining a fair English edu- 
cation, sufficient for the practical duties of 
life. On the 29Lh of February, 1812, he mar- 
ried Elizabeth Ross, with whom his early 
childhood has been passed, and who, with her 
parents, had emigrated from New Jersey in 
company with the Kitchell family. 

About the year 181-i he removed to south- 
ern Indiana, upon White River. That portion 
of the country was then an almost unbroken 
wilderness and was largely occupied by tribes 
of hostile Indians, and lie and his wife and 
family, with other families, wei-e often com- 
])elled to seek shelter and security in the forts 
and block-houses that existed here and there 
in the thinly settled region. He was elected 
sheriiT of the county in which he resided 
(pre.-umably Jackson County), and was, of 
course, thrown much in contact with lawyers 
and others in attendance upon the courts, 
and he determined to read law. He obtained 
possession of a few text-books, and those he 
read by the light of log fires and during rainy 
days. While clearing ground about his 
Indiana cabin he cut his foot with an ax so 
severely as to lame him for life; and this 
accident served to strengthen his resolutioTi 
to continue in his course of reading-, and he 
was eventually admitted to the bar. In 1817 
he removed to Palestine, Illinois, where he re- 
sided until in the year ] 838. He was a soldier 
in tlie Black Hawk war, but was coinpuUed 

to return before its conclusion on account of 
the lameness of his foot. He thought the 
war was cruel and unnecessary, and never 
failed to comment severely upon the manner 
in which it was prosecuted. He was a mem- 
ber of the lower house of the General As- 
sembly of 1820-21 from Crawford County. 
In the spring of 1838 he removed to Hillsboro, 
Montgomery County, Illinois, in order to give 
his children the advantages of the excellent 
schools then flourishing at that place. He was 
again elected a member of the Legislature 
from Montgomery County in IS-tl. He held 
the office of State's Attorney for several years. 
In 1839 he was appointed Attorney General 
of the State and held that office for one year. 
In 1847 he moved with the remnant of his 
family, to Fort Madison, Iowa, remaining 
there for seven years, and again returned to 
Hillsboro, Montgomery County. He had the 
true pioneer spirit, and only declining years 
prevented him from going to the Pacific 
coast. After the death of his wife, October 
5th, 1802, having ceased to practice his pro- 
fession, he spent the remainder of his days 
with his children, who were settled at diflfer- 
ent places in Illinois and Indiana, and mostly 
with his youngest son, John W., at Pana, 
•Christian County, Illinois, and where he died 
on the 2d of February, 18GD, at the ripe age 
of 80 years. 

From the time of its organization until 
1854 he was a member of the democratic 
party. In that year, objecting strongly to the 
ground taken by the party on the slavery ques- 
tion he abandoned the organization forever 
and took strong, anti-Nebraska ground. He 
was present as a delegate at the first Repub- 
lican State Convention held at Bloomington, 
Illinois, and was a zealous supporter of that 
party and its policy until his death. He re- 
tained to a remarkable degree his activity of 
mind and habits of physical labor. 

Eldridge S. Janney was born July 12th, 



ISO , in Alexandria, Virginia. His father 
was Thomas .Tanney, a wealthy merchant, and 
ship owner of that city. Mr. Janney was a 
graduate of Nassau Hall College, Princeton, 
New Jersey, and continued his reading of 
chissic literature in the original languages 
until the shadow of total blindness fell upon 
the pages of the old authors, and hid them 
from him forever. He read law with Thomas 
Hewitt, Esq., and in 18'-i7, immediately after 
his admission to the bar, came to Crawford 
Countj', and began the practice of his profes- 
sion. He was a careful, painstaking lawyer; 
a good special pleader. His address to a 
jury was terse and forcible, rather than elo- 
quent. He was a member of the State Legisla- 
ture in the sessions of 1844, and 1846. 

Governor Ford, in his history of the State 
of Illinois, pays a high compliment to Mr. Jan- 
ney, for his action on the canal loan question, 
which resulted in saving the State from the 
disgrace of repudiation. In 1853 his sight 
had so far failed him, that he was compelled 
to abandon his profession.^ He removed to 
Marshall, in the county of Clark, and engaged 
in a woolen-mill, which he carried on until his 
death on the 17th day of December, A. D. 1S75. 
In politics he was a democrat; in rebgion, a 
liberalist; in all the relations of life, a gentle- 

William H. Sterrett was born in Nova 
Scotia, and read law with the Hon. Lucius 
Case, of Newark, Ohio. He came to Robin- 
son, about the year 1845, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession, and was continually 
in practice until 1853, when he was elected 
county judge. His health was already fail- 
ino-, and he abandoned practice, and shortly 
after the expiration of his term as county 
juda-e he returned to Nova Scotia and died. 
He was a member of the lower House in the 
eighteenth. General Assembly. As a law- 
yer he was positive in his positions when 
taken. He was not an orator, but an earnest 

and zealous advocate of the cause of his 
client. As a judge he was willful and arbi- 
trary, and took but little counsel beyond that 
of his own will. He administered the law 
as he understood it. 

Elihu McCtilloch was a native of South 
Carolina and a graduate of Columbia College. 
He removed first to Gibson County, Indiana. 
In the year A. D. 184G he located in Robin- 
son and engaged in the practice of the law 
and continued until in the fall of 1849 when 
he died. He was a brother-in-law of Hoii. 
Franklin Robb, a member of the present 
Crawford County Bar. He was a democrat 
in politics. A man of industry and deeply 
learned in the science of law. He gave 
promise of a career of usefulness to the pub- 
lic and honor to himself. 

Augustus C. French, came from New Eng- 
land to Edgar County, and represented that 
countv in the Legislature of 183G. In 1839 
h3 removed to Palestine, having received an 
appointment in the land-office at that place, 
a position he filled for about three years. He 
was a man of business as well as law and 
purchased lands south of Palestine which he 
afterward converted into a beautiful country 
seat which he called " Maplewood." In the 
fall of 1840 he was elected Governor of the 
State, and was re-elected in 1849 at the 
election held under the constitution of 
1847, and was governor until January, 1853, 
when he was succeeded by Joel A. Matteson, 
of Will County. Governor French was a 
man who was little understood by the mass 
of the people. His rigid economy in aff'airs 
of business was called stinginess, and many 
stories are still current in regard to his 
habit of gathering and saving in small 
thino-s. When it is known that all his care 
and saving was to feed, clothe and educate 
younger brothers and sisters who were de- 
pendent upon him, and that all he made and 
saved for many years was religiously devoted 



to that purpose, it presents his character in a 
iairer light, and a more charitable judgment 
than has been usually accorded to it. His ad- 
ministration of the alFairs of the State was 
fininently successful. He never afterward 
entered actively into the practice of law, but 
alter a few years of leisure at Maple wood, he 
roMioved to Lebanon and took charge of the 
law school at ]\[cKendree College. He died 
several years ago, respected by all who knew 
iiiui, as an honest man. Politically he was 
a democrat. In reHgion he was a Methodist. 
George W. Peck, one of the brightest 
ornaments of the Crawford County Bar, was 
born at Salem, and educated at Greencastle, 
Indiana. He was twenty-one years of age 
when he located in Robinson in the summer 
of 1853. Old lawyers at once recognized his 
worth and accorded to him a high position in 
the profession. He rapidly obtained a prac- 
tice which steadily increased until he entered 
the army in ISGl. Ho was a good special 
pleader, and his address to a jury was always 
clear, logical and often eloquent. His mental 
and physical organization were both of very 
fine texture and eminently fitted him for a 
high rank in the legal profession. He was a 
delegate to the national convention which 
nominated Mr. Lincoln for President. He 
was a great admirer of ilr. Lincoln |)ersonally 
and politically, and entered into the campaign 
for his election with all the enthusiasm of his 
ardent nature. He organized and com- 
manded the "wide awakes" and in tin's 
showed a capacity for organization and drill 
that was extraordinary. His speeches durino- 
this campaign ranked with those of the best 
orators of the partj'. 

At the commencement of the war he raised 
a company of men and repaired to camp at 
Mattoon. This company became company 
I in the 21st regiment of Illinois volunteers, 
commanded by Col. U. S. Grant. During 
the campaign in Missouri he was much ex- 

posed and contracted bronchitis, from which 
he never recovered. He remained with his 
regiment and participated in every battle in 
which it was engaged, and when Col. (irant 
was made a general. Captain Peck was made 
Lieut. Col., and after the death of Col. Alex- 
ander he commanded the regiment until he 
was too feeble for duty in the field. He was 
then detailed for duty as Provost Marshal at 
Louisville, Ky., and discharged the duties of 
that position with honor to himself and the 
service until his constitution broke down 
entirely and compelled his resignation, and he 
returned to his mother at Salem, Indiana, to 
die. He had that rare courage that enabled 
him on all occasions to act as duty prompted, 
reason guided and conscience dictated. 
Though he died young he lived long enough 
to win reputation as a lawyer and lame as a 

James N. Steel was Ijorn in Philadelphia, 
and removed to Crawford County in his boy- 
hood. He was several years clerk of the 
county court, and on his retirement from thai- 
ofBce read law, and on the thirteenth day of 
July, A. D. 185", was admitted to the bar, 
and commenced practice. His large acquaint- 
ance and perfect familiarity with business 
gave him at once a large business. His first 
view of a legal question was generally correct, 
while further reasoning often led him into 
doubt. He was a fine special pleader and 
very quick to detect faults in the pleadings 
of his adversary. He had a clear, intellectual 
face and a pleasant conversational voice. His 
address to court or jury was usually clear 
and logical, and was addressed to the judg- 
ment rather than to the passions. As an 
office lawyer he has had no equal at the Craw- 
ford County Bar. His social qualities were 
of a high order. He was successful in busi- 
ness and left a handsome property to his 
children. He was among the first to unite 
with the republican party in the county, and 



was a zealous advocate of its pi-inciples. His 
health failed and he retired from practice, 
and died in Robinson on second day of De- 
cember, A. ]). 18r3. 

W.liiain Clendeniiin Dickson came to this 
county from Indiana as a physician and prac- 
ticed medicine for several years in Moutpjo- 
mery and Honey Creek Townships. He was 
known as an active democratic politician and 
speaker. At the election of 1861 he was 
elected County Judge and held that office 
four years. He had previously read law and 
was now regularly admitted to the bar, and 
during his life time continued to practice. 
He came to the bar too late in life and lived 
too short a time to acquire either a large 
practice or reputation as a lawyer. He died 
at Robinson in the year A. D. 1873. 

Alfred G. Lagow was a member of the 
C awford County Bar in its early history when 
the courts were held at Palestine. The writer 
has been unable to learn the date of his ad- 
mission to the bar or the date of his death. 
From the court records it would appear that 
his practice was not large or very long con- 
tinned, but papers prepared by him still re- 
maining on file show care and legal skill. He 
was a son of Wilson Lagow, one of the oldest 
settlers of the county, and those who remem- 
ber him speak of him as a kind, pure-hearted 

Edward S. Wilson, of the Richland County 
Bar, is a native of this county, and entered 
the practice in Robinson about the year 1860. 
In 1863 he was appointed State's attorney for 
the circuit and for several years discharged 
the duties of that office with ability. During 
his official term he removed to Olney, where 
he ?ti.l has a large praetice, and stands among 
the foremost members of the bar in that 

Henry C Firebaugh, now a member of the 
San Francisco Bar, is also a native of this 
county. He read law in the office of Mr. 

Callahan and was admitted to practice in 
1864, and remained a short time in the county 
when he went to California, where he has 
been rewarded with a very large measure of 

In the olden time when judges and lawyers 
" rode the circuit " together, such men as 
Gen. W. F. Snider, Hon. O. B. Ficklin, .Judge 
Charles H. Constable, Joseph G. Bowman, 
William Harrow, Senator John M. Robinson, 
John Scholfield and E. B. Webb were often 
seen at the bar of this county and talcs are 
still told by the "old settlers" of the con- 
ti'sts that took place between these giants of 
the law in courts where there were but 
few books, and plausible speeches were of 
much more value than they are at the pres- 
ent time in winning verdicts from either court 
orjurv. The limits of this chapter forbid 
more than a mere mention of the names of 
these old men, the most of whom have been 
summoned to a "bench and bar beyond the 
murky clouds of time." 

The present bar of Crawford County con- 
ists of the following membars: 

The Hon. Franklin Robb who was born 
Februarj' 15, A. D. 1817, in Gibson County, 
Indiana, and was licensed to practice law in 
Indiana in January, A. D. ISlo. Licensed 
in Illinois in the year 1847, and began prac- 
tice in Robinson in 1851. 

Ethelbert Callahan was born in Licking 
County, Ohio, December 17, A. D. 1839. 
Admitted to the bar in 1860, and practiced 
in Robinson since 1S61. 

Jacob C. Olwin was born December 6, 
1838, near Dayton, Ohio, and admitted to the 
bar in 1864, and has practiced in this county 
since that time. 

George N. Parker was born April 9, 
1843, in Crawford County, Illinois, and was 
admitted to practice in the State Courts June 
IS, 1870, and in the Supreme Court of the 
United States December 9, A. D. 1S78. 





Presley G. Bradbury was born in Crawford 
County, Illinois, October 6, 18i7, and ad- 
mitted to the l)ar in Illinois on the 4th day of 
July, 1876, and in Indiana in November, 


James O. Steel was born in Crawford 
County, Illinois, on the 7th day of Jan- 
uary, 1848, and admitted to the bar in Jan- 
uary, A. D. 18r3. 

John Calvin Maxwell was born in Craw- 
ford County, Illinois, on the 26th day of 
September, A. D. 181:7, and admitted to 
the bar on the 7th day of January, A. D. 

Singleton B. Allen was born in Parke 
County, Indiana, on the 7th day of Septem- 
ber, A. D. 1840, and admitted to the bar 
in the State of Illinois, on the 29th day of 
January, 1863. 

Mathias C. Mills was born in the State of 
Indiana on the 22d day of February, A. D. 
1838, and admitted to the bar in the State 
of Indiana March 17, A. D. 18G1, and in the 
State of Illinois Sept. 27, A. D. 1882. 

Alfred H. Jones was born in Crawford 

County, Illinois, on the -Ith day of July, 
A. D. ]850, and admitted to the bar in Illi- 
nois on the 14th day of .June, A. D. 1875. 

Joseph B. Crowley was born in Coshocton 
County, Ohio, on the 19th day of July, 
A. D. 1858, and admitted to the bar in Illi- 
nois on the 15th day of June, A. D. 1882. 

Enoch E. Newlin was born in Crawford 
County, Illinois, on the 22d of February, 
A. D. 1858, and was admitted to the bar in 
Illinois in June, A. D. 1882. 

Lucian N. Barlow was born in Crawford 
Countv, Illinois, on the 1st day of Novem- 
ber, A. D. 1854, and admitted to the bar in 
Illinois on the 17th day of June, A. D. 1882. 

The present bar of Crawford County will 
compare favorably with the bar of any of the 
surrounding counties, both in legal ability 
and personal character. The majority of its 
members are young men with the larger part 
of their professional life yet before them. So 
far they have done well and their present 
standing gives promise that the high charac- 
ter of the county bar in the past will be 
maintained in the future. 









THE building of roads and the construction 
of highways and bridges, rank as the most 
important public improvements of a State or 
a county. When the first whites came to 
Crawford County, the canoe of the Indian 
still shot along the streams; the crack of his 
rifle echoed through the solitudes of the great 
forests, and the paths worn by his moccasined 
feet were alone the guiding trails of the emi- 
grant's wagon. There were no roads through 
the country, nor bridges over the streams. 
But as soon as the white people obtained a 
hold in the country, and became firmly set- 
tled, they turned their thoughts to roads and 
highways. Among the first acts of the 
County Court after its organization was the 
laying out of a road from the house of Ed- 
ward N. Cullom's to the head of Walnut 
Prairie, and another from the same place to 
Jones' ferry. In 1823 the first important 
highway was laid out under an act of the Leg- 
islature, viz: a road from Palestine to Van- 
dalia. This was the commencement of road 
building in the county, and, while the system 
of wagon roads are not of the best quality, 
yet they compare favorably with the roads in 
any prairie country, where the material for 
macadamizing is not plentiful, or to be easily 
obtained. There are places on the Wabash 

_ * By W. H. Perrin. . ... 

River, however, where good material £or mak- 
ing roads may be had, but the people have not 
yet awakened to the necessity of using it for 
that purpose. Although the roads of the 
county are poor in quality, they are sufficient 
in quantity for all practical purposes and 
matters of convenience, and may be thus 
clas ed: good in summer but execrable in 

The first bridge built in the county was 
across Lamotte Creek at or near Palestine, 
and was rather a rude affair. We find in the 
early court proceedings an order allowing a 
small sum for the use of a "whip saw," for 
sawing lumber for this bridge. As the people 
grew well-to-do, and increased in worldly 
goods, they devoted more attention to inter- 
nal improvements, by building roads and 
bridges wherever required, until to-day we 
find the county well supplied with these 
marks of civilization. 

Jtailroads. — But the grand system of in- 
ternal improvements are the railroads. They 
surpass all others, and affect, more or less, 
every occupation of interest. Agriculture, 
manufactures, commerce, city and country 
life, banking, finance, law, and even govern- 
ment itself, have all felt their influence. But 
especially has it contributed to the material 
organization for the diffusion of culture 
among the people, thus preparing the condi- 



tioiis for a new step in social proirress. 
Wholly unknown three fourths of a century 
ago, the railroad has become tlie greatest 
single factor in the development of the ma- 
terial progress, not only of the United States 
and of the other civilized nations of the 
earth, but its blessings are being rapidly ex- 
tended into the hitherto semi-civilized and 
barb.irous portions of the globe. 

The earliest attempts at railroad building 
in the West originated in the desire to ennch 
that vast domain by the system of internal 
improvements. This fever of speculation 
broke out in several parts of the United 
States about the year 1835. It appeared in 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois 
nearly at the same time, and, when past, left 
an enormous debt on each. In Illinois, it 
amounted to nearly fifteen millions, while in 
Pennsylvania it was more than double that 
amount, and in Ohio and Indiana it was near- 
ly equal to Illinois. Examination of the 
legislative acts of the Prairie State at that 
period, discloses an almost unbroken line of 
acts for the construction of some highway, 
which was destined only to partially see the 
light of day in detached parcels, some of 
which still remain as silent monuments of a 
supreme legislative and popular folly. When 
the collapse came, in 1837, and work on all 
was entirely suspended, only the old North- 
ern-Cross Railroad — now a part of the Wa- 
bash, St. Louis & Pacific — was found in a 
condition fit to warrant completion, and that 
only for a short distance. It was originally 
intended to extend from Meredosia through 
Jacksonville, Sijringfield, Decatur and 13an- 
ville to the eastern line of the State, where it 
was expected it would be joined to some road 
in Indiana and be continued eastward. A 
vast quantity of flat bar rails had been pur- 
chased in England by the agents of the State, 
at an enormous expense, too; and quite a 
quantity had been brought to Meredosia, pre- 

paratory to being laid on the track. In the 
s[iring of 1838, some eight miles of this old 
track were laid, and on the 8th day of No- 
vember of that vear, a small locomotive, the 
" Rogers," made in England and shipped 
here in pieces — "knocked down," as we 
would say at the present day — was put to- 
gether and made atrial trip on the road. It was 
the first locomotive that ever turned a wheel 
in the Mississippi Valley, and on the day of 
this trial trip, carried George W. Plant as 
engineer; Murray McConnell, one of the 
Commissioners of Public Works; Gov. Dun- 
can, James Dunlap and Thomas T. January, 
contractors; Charles Collins and Myron Les- 
lie, of St. Louis. 

The most imposing ceremonies character- 
ized the laying of the first rail on this road 
May 9, 1837; and on through the summer, 
the work proo;ressed slowly until when, as al- 
ready stated, the locomotive made the pioneer 
trial trip in the Valley of the Great West. 
Only twelve years before had the first rail- 
road train made a trip in th«*new continent; 
and only a }-ear or two before this, had the 
first application of steam been successfully 
made in this manner in England. The first 
practical locomotive was probably invented 
by a Frenchman, Joseph Cugnot, of Void, 
Lorraine, France. He made a three-wheeled 
road-wagon in 1770, which was used with 
some success in experimenting; but owing to 
the French Revolution breaking out soon 
alter, the machine was abandoned, and is now 
in the museum at Metiers. One of the first 
locomotives built for use in America was 
made for Oliver Evans, who, owing to the in- 
credulity existing at that day, could not get 
the necessary permits required by the State 
Legislature to erect one here, and sent to 
London, where, in 1801, a high-pressure lo- 
comotive was built for him. It was not, how- 
ever, until 1830 that one was built in the 
United States. That year Peter Cooper, then 



an enterprising mechanic and builder, con- 
structed an excellent one for the day, with 
which, on the 38th of August of that year, 
he made a public trial, running it from Balti- 
more to Ellicott's Mills, twenty-six miles, at 
an average speed of twelve miles per hour. 
From that date the erection of American lo- 
comotives became a reality. Now they are 
the best in the world. 

The first railway ever built, was a simple 
tramway of wooden rails, used in the collier- 
ies in the North of England. It is difficult 
to determine whon they began to be used — 
probably early in the seventeenth century. 
The covering of the wooden rail with iron was 
only a question of time, to be, in its turn, dis- 
placed by a cast-iron rail; that, by a malleable 
one, which, in turn, gave way to the present 
steel rail. 

AVhen the use of steam applied to road 
wagons came to be agitated, one of the first 
uses it was put to was the hauling the cars to 
and from the coal mines. By and by, pas- 
sengers began to ride on them; then cars for 
their use were made; then roads were built 
between important commercial points, and 
with the improvement of the locomotive, and 
increase of speed, the railway carriage came 
to be a palace, and the management, construc- 
tion and care of railroads one of the most stu- 
pendous enterprises of the age. 

The first tramway, or railway, in America 
was built from Quincy, Mass., to the granite 
quarries, three miles distant. The first rail- 
vvay, built in America, on which "steam- 
cars" were used, was the Mohawk & Hudson 
Road, completed in 1831. On the 9th day of 
August of that year, the pioneer passenojer 
train of America was hauled over this road, 
drawn by the third American locomotive, 
John B. Jervis, engineer. The train con- 
sisted of three old-fashioned coaches, fastened 
together by chains, which, in the sudden 
starting and stopping, severely jolted the 

passengers — so much so, that fence rails were 
placed tightly between the cars, thus keeping 
the chains taut. From the rugged Eastern 
States, the transition to the level prairies of 
the West was an easy matter, culminating in 
the eflForts already described. 

When the great collapse of the internal im- 
profement system came, leaving only one 
small road of a few miles in length, so far 
completed as to warrant work to be continued 
on it, the shock was so great that it was 
twelve years before another was begun and 
put in working order. In February, 1850, the 
Chicago & Elgin (now the Chicago & North- 
western) Railroad was completed to Elgin, 
and a train of cars run from one city to the 
other. From that date, until now, the march 
of progress in railroad development has been 
uninterrupted and constant. 

During the speculative fever that raged 
throughout the Western States, and the extrav- 
agant legislation on internal improvements, 
several railroad enterprises were inaugurated, 
then abandoned, but with returning prosperity 
and confidence taken up again and roads 
finally constructed. The route from Terre 
Haute to Alton is one, whose earliest incep- 
tion may be traced back to 1835, and the old 
Wabash Valley Railroad (which was never 
built) is another. It was not until about 
1849-50, that the country became aroused 
from its lethargic condition, and began to 
open its eyes to a dawning prosperity. By 
that time the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had 
reached the eastern line of the State, and 
asked permission to cross to St. Louis, its con- 
templated western terminus; but it here met 
with a check that took it years to overcome. 
A " State Policy " party sprung up, denying 
the right of any foreign corporation to cross 
the State, especially when the effect be to en- 
rich the neighboring City of St. Louis, a city 
Alton was vainly endeavoring to outstrip in 
the march of progress, and which she then 



confidently expected to do. This " State 
Policy " party held several rousing meetings 
in the furtherance of their scheme — a scheme 
delusive in its effects upon the State at large, 
and confined mainly to the Alton interest. 
Counter-influences were aroused, however, and 
an antagonistic parts^, much inferior at first, 
began to appear. The culmination came when 
the Terre Haute, Vandalia & St. Louis Road 
asked for a charter. The Baltimore & Ohio 
Road had succeeded in their endeavor to build 
their track across the State, a right mainly 
brought about by the press outside of the 
State. It had, with one voice, denounced the 
"" policy " as narrow, selfish, mean, contempt- 
ible and invidious. It was sustained by the 
press in the northern part of Illinois, and hid 
already begun to open the eyes of many influ- 
ential persons belonging to the Policy party. 
When the Vandalia Road asked for its char- 
ter the Policy party exerted themselves to 
the utmost to defeat it, and for a time pre- 
vailed. "While these affairs were agitating 
the State, Congress had passed the act grant- 
ing a magnificent domain of land to the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad. The United States 
Senators from Illinois wrote letters to many 
influential men at home, urging upon them 
the necessity of being more liberal in their 
acts to foreign corporations, and not attempt 
to arrogate to the State, a right she could not 
expect to possess. They further urged that the 
donation from the general government could 
not have been secured had not they pledged 
their earnest effort to wipe out this disgrace- 
ful policy. These influences had their effect. 
The "Brough" road, so-called from its prin- 
cipal projector, afterward Governor of Ohio, 
gained a charter and was enabled to begin 
work on its proposed Vandalia line. In the 
meanwhile influences were working to build 
anew the projected roads of the improvement 
period. But to the roads of this county. 

Southern Illinois was far behind the central 
and northern portions of the State in railroad 
progress, and it is but recently that Crawford 
County could boast of a railroad, though 
efforts were made for one many years ago. 
Among the railroad projects which have 
agitated this section of the country, and in 
which the people of the county have taken 
more or less interest, may be mentioned the 
following: " The Wahiish Valley Railroad," 
" St. Louis & Cincinnati," " Terre Haute & 
Southwestern," "Chicago, Danville & Vincen- 
nes," " Tuscola & Vincennes," " Paris & Dan- 
ville," " East & West Narrow Gauge," " Indi- 
ana & Illinois Commercial," " Pana & Vin- 
cennes," " Cincinnati & St. Louis Straight 
Line," etc., etc. Of these the Paris & Dan- 
ville, novp a division of the Wabash, and the 
East & West Narrow Gauge Road, are all 
that have been carried to completion. 

The building of the Paris & Danville, 
grew out of the old project of the Wabash 
Valley Railroad. The latter was agitated as 
far back as 1850-52, and its origin, doubtless, 
might be traced still farther back — to the pe- 
riod of the Internal Improvement fever. The 
project was well conceived, and had it been 
carried out at that day, it would have proved 
a formidable rival to the Illinois Central. It 
was intended to extend from Chicago to Vin- 
cennes, and ultimately to the Ohio River, 
thus connecting the commerce of that great 
water highway, with the lakes of the north. 
A company was formed, under the title of the 
"Wabash Valley Railroad Company," and 
work commenced, and prosecuted with more 
or less activity, for several years. Much of 
the grading was done in this county, as may 
still be seen between Huisonville and Pales- 
tine, which was the settled route of the road. 
But the hard times, an insufficiency of capital, 
the general indifference manifested toward it 
in portions of the country through which it 



p.issod, and dowiu-ig-lit opposition in otlicrs, 
had their effect, and the project was finally 

After the close of the war, the enterprise 
of a road from Chicago to the Wabash Valley 
was again agitated under the title of "Chicago, 
Danville & Vinccnnes Railroad." As such it 
was chartered February 16, 180.5, and the 
main line put in operation in 1872. After 
numerous changes it hocame the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois, and with leased lines extends 
from Chicago via Danville, through Indiana 
to Evansville. March 3, 18G9. the Paris & 
Danville Railroad Company was organized, 
to extend the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes 
on south through Illinois instead of through 
Indiana, as then seemed the intention of the 
latter company. The road was ]iut in opera- 
tion from Danville to Paris in September, 
1873, aljout the time the Chicago, Danville & 
Vinccnnes was finished, but was not com- 
pleted to Robinson until in August, 187.3. 
During the same fall it was finished to Law- 
renceville, on the Ohio & Mississippi, and 
connection made with that road, and arrange- 
ments effected, by which the P. & D. trains 
commenced running into Vincennes in May, 
1876, over the O. & M. tracks. This was the 
first railroad (out of all the railroad projects 
agitated from time to time) completed 
through Crawford County. 

The Paris & Danville was built on the old 
grade of the Wabash Valley Railroad in this 
county, until after leaving Hutsonville, when 
it diverged to the west in order to tap Rob- 
inson. It proved of considerable advantage 
to the county, and to the country generally, 
through which it passed — although from its 
very completion it has been but poorly man- 
aged. There is no just reason why it should 
not be a valuable and profitable road, if kept 
in good condition. In August, 1875, a re- 
ceiver was appointed, and the road operated 
by him until June 30, 1879. The purchasers 

then operated it fcjr a few months, when, on 
the 8th of Octol)fr following, a new company, 
under the title of "• Danville & Southwestern," 
was formed, and took possession of the prop- 
el ty. This company bought, or leased the 
Cairo & Vincennes Railroad, built a link from 
Lawrenceville to St. Francisville on the latter 
road, thus making a complete and direct line 
from Danville to Cairo. In September, 1881, 
it was consolidated with the Wabash, St. 
Louis & Pacific Railway, and has since been 
operated as a division of the Wabash system. 

The Danville & Southwestern, or, as now 
known, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, passes 
through as fine a section of country as may 
be found in the State. Together with the 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, with which it 
connects at Danville, it forms an unbroken 
line from Cairo to Cliicago, that is said to be 
eleven miles shorter than by the Illinois (Cen- 
tral. But the dilapidated and even danger- 
ous condition in whicli the road is allowed to 
remain, and the arbitrary manner in which it 
is managed, is a reproach to the Wabash 
company, and a disgrace to the country 
through which it extends. The Railroad 
Commissioners, and the people who must 
necessarily patronize it, and who aided in 
building it, should take the matter into their 
own hands, and compel its improvement, or 
stop its operation. 

An east and west railroad through this 
county is an old project, and one agitated 
years ago. A company was organized in 
1869 at Sullivan, Ind., as the "Indiana & Illi- 
nois Commercial Railroad Company," for 
the purpose of building a railroad from 
Worthington, Ind., to Vandalia, 111. In No- 
vember, 1809, a vote was taken in Crawford 
County, to donate )S100,000 to this road, and 
carried by 430 majority in favor of the dona- 
tion. Tho company was reorganized, or, 
rather, a new one formed, which was entitled 
the " St. Louis & Cincinnati Railroad Com- 



psny," and the vote of the county again 
taken upon the proposed donation of 
$100,000, and again carried by a good ma- 
jority. At the same time the townships of 
Oblong, Robinson and I>amotte, voted an ad- 
ditional donation of $20,000 each. The agi- 
tation of the project was kept up for several 
vears, and considerable interest manifested 
by the leading citizens of the county, and a 
strong belief prevailed that it would be built 
at no distant day. The enterprise, however, 
smouldered for awhile, and about 1875-6 it was 
revived, and the idea entertained of building a 
narrow gauge railroad upon the contemplated 
line. The project of building a narrow 
gauge road from Terre Haute to Cincinnati 
was receiving considerable attention, a matter 
that seemed favorable to the building the 
east and west road through this county upon 
the same gauge to connect with the former 
road somewhere east of the Wabash River. 

Upon the subject of narrow gauge rail- 
roads in place of our present system, a late 
writer says: "As fast as the different lines 
wear out and need rebuilding, the narrow 
three foot g:aua:e is claimino; a large share of 
the attention of railroad men and capitalists; 
and it seems not improbable that the argu- 
ments in favor of a complete reorganization 
of our railroad traffic, will become so strong 
in a few years as to make the three foot 
gauge as prevalent in this country as the old 
four foot ten inches has been and is now. 
The first argument consists in the economy 
of construction — the narrow gauge costing 
but little, if any, over 50 per cent, per mile 
upon the cost of present roads. The grad- 
ing and embanking require vastly less labor, 
while for ties, iron, spikes, etc., there is a cor- 
responding reduction. Another point in their 
favor is the facility and cheapness with which 
the narrow gauge cars can be run after being 
built. ****** 

" Gen. Rosecrans, an eminent engineer, in 

a letter published a few years ago, which at- 
tracted much attention among railroad men, 
showed from official records that the cost of 
the railroads of the country up to the close of 
the year 1867 (39,244 miles), amounted to 
$1,600,000,000. The narrow gauge would 
have been built from 30 to 50 per cent, 
cheaper, while the cost of transporting thereon 
would have been reduced at about the same 
rate. When we compute the money that 
might have been saved in the original con- 
struction, and also the annual saving accru- 
ing from decreased expenditures under the 
narrow gauge system, we find ourselves in pos- 
session of an aggregate amounting to nearly 
one half of the national debt. But the amount 
to be saved when the railroad system of the 
country in the future becomes well-nigh de- 
veloped by the narrow gauge, supposing the 
fi<rures ffiven to be accurate and reliable, are 
prodigious." A work published a few years 
ago shows that, should the States composing 
the present Union come to have railway 
mileage " averaging what Ohio already has," 
it would give us 165,800 miles. The result 
then of the new system is something worth 
considering. It requires but little mathe- 
matical genius to calculate the sum to be 
thus saved in railroad construction and man-, 

The east and west road, after many ups 
and downs, was built through the county as 
the Springfield, Effingham and Southeastern 
narrow gauge railroad, and trains put on it 
in the summer of 1880. A bridge was built 
across the Wabash River, and the trains began 
running through from Effingham to Swissi 
City in December following, the road doingi 
an excellent business. But the bridge was 
washed away in January, 1882, and has not 
yet been rebuilt. Everything now must be 
transferred at the river by boat to the Indi- 
ana division, thus causing great inconven- 
ience, and losing to the road much freight andl 


business that it would otherwise receive. 
All things considered, the little narrow 
gau^e is a better road, is in better condition, 
and much safer to the traveling public than 
the Wabash, which, after all, is saying but 
little to the credit of the narrow gauge. 

The Terre Haute & Southwestern Railroad 
was ail enterprise that at one time excited 
considerable interest in this county. It was 
to start from Terre Haute, cross the Waljash 
somewhere between Darwin and York, and 
thence in a southwesterly direction, via 01- 
ney or Flora, tap the Mississippi River at a 
convenient place, and so on to a southwestern 
terminus. This route would open up a re- 

gion then having but few railroads, a region 
rich in mineral wealth, as well as in agricult- 
ural resources. Lines were surveyed, work 
was commenced and some grading done in 
places. Much of the timber for the bridge 
over the Wabash was gotten oat and col- 
lected at the place of crossing, and every- 
thing seemed to indicate the building of the 
road. But amid the great number of railroad 
projects of the country, it was lost or swal- 
lowed up, and now it is, we believe, wholly 
abandoned. The same fate has overtaken a 
number of other railroads which, had they 
all been completed, would have made Craw- 
ford County a perfect network of iron rails. 



THE improvement of the Wabash River 
is a question that has long agitated the 
country contiguous thereto. The navigation 
of tins stream in the early settlement of Craw- 
ford Coun ty was a matter in which the people 
then were much interested, as they relied 
chiefly upon it to reach the best markets for 
the disposal of their surplus products. Fifty 
years ago boating on the Wabash vras no in- 
considerable business. Flat boats loaded 
witii grain, pork, hoop-poles, staves, etc., etc., 
were taken out of the Wabash every season 
by scores, thence down the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi to New Orleans, which was then the 
best and most liberal market this country 
could reach. Many steamboats used to come 
up the Wabash, some of large tonnage, in 
high water, and load with grain and pork for 
the Cincinnati, Louisville and New Orleans 

Many efforts have been made to improve 
the Wabash so as to make it a permanent, re- 
liable and durable water highway, and the 
question has been agitated in Congress from 
time immemorial almost. It was the opinion 
of many wise men (who were interested in 
its improvement), that with but little work and 
expense it might be made one of the best and 

* By W. H. Perrm. 

most profitable water routes in the whole 
country, while others, with an equal amount 
of wisdom perhaps, but less pecuniary inter- 
est, did not think much of it as a water 
highway. Of the latter class, was Dr. J. W. 
Foster, who, in a letter to the New York 
Tribune^ gave his opinion as follows: 

" With regard to the importance of tlie Wa- 
bash River as a great artery of trade, I am 
not profoundly impressed. This stream, like 
Ohio, each year its sources are cleared up 
and its swamps drained, appears to flow with 
diminished volume. A survey with reference 
to the improvement of its navigation has just 
been completed under direction of the United 
States Topographical Bureau, and the plan 
contemplated is to remove the snags and 
sawyers, and e.xcavate channels through the 
sand-bars. This plan, while it might remove 
many impediments, would not increase, but 
rather diminish, the average of water, by per- 
mitting to flow more freely, and wlien com- 
pleted would only admit of the navigation of 
the river for a limited portion of the j'ear by 
steamers of small capacity. To slack-water 
the river would be impracticable, for the in- 
tervals borderint^ the stream are broad, and 
lar^e tracts of rich land, now cultivated, 
would be inundated and renih^red valueless. 
The only feasible method to render the Wa- 



bash thoroughly navigable, is to start at the 
head of Lake Michigan, say at Michigan 
City, and cut a canal, at least 100 feet broad 
on the bottom, to the northernmost bend of 
the Wabash, and us"^ a jDortion of the water 
of that great reservoir to keep the river in a 
boatable condition, except when closed by 
ice. By this means water communication far 
cheaper than any land conveyance, might be 
maintained throughout the entire length of 
the State of Indiana and a good portion of 
Illinois, thus uniting the commerce of the 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers with the Great 

The foregoing is perhaps the most practica- 
ble view to be taken of the Wabash River 
improvement, and no doubt something like 
that sooner or later will be done. The time 
is not very far distant, when water highways 
will receive more attention than they do now; 
when they will be used by the people in self- 
defense, that is, in competing with great rail- 
road monopolies. The subject of canals, as 
affording cheaper transportation for heavy 
freights than railroads, is now being strono-ly 
agitated in many portions of the country, and 
we believe it a question of but a few years, 
when the building of canals, especially in the 
West, will become a reality. 

Boating on the Wabash, as we have said, 
was a big business years ago. Some of our 
readers, whose memory extends back to the 
river period, will doubtless remember, and 
will be interested in knowing the time and 
occasion of the following wrecks on the Wa- 
bash: In 183(3 the steamer Concord, which 
plied between Cincinnati and Lafayette, Ind., 
was wrecked four miles below Clinton going 
up. The Highlander sunk two miles below 
Montezuma in 1849; the Kentucky, a fine 
bo:it. Wis wrecked in 1838 at York cut-ofF 
The Visitor collided with the Hiram Powers 
in 1849 at Old Terre Haute. The Confidence 
struck a snag in Hackberry bend and floated 

down two miles where she sunk, many years 
ago. " In those days," said an old river man 
to us, in speaking of the river business, " the 
Wabash was an important stream. Laro-e 
vessels constantly plowed her waters and 
an immense trade was done." It was the 
only way the early settlers had of getting to 
market, except by wagons and teams. As 
the country settled, and towns sprung up, 
teaming to St. Louis and Chicago, relieved 
the river of much freight which had formerly 
reached market through that source alone, 
and in later years the railroads have almost 
entirely absorbed the river business. 

It would be of almost unto:d value to the 
country bordering the Wabash River, if some 
plan could be invented, or some means 
adopted, to secure the lowlands from inunda- 
tion. Its periodical overflows annually de- 
stroy hundreds of thousands of dollars worth 
of property, often sweeping away in a few 
short hours a whole year's labor of the farm- 
er. When the Wabash gets on the rampage, 
it can cover more ground than any other river 
of its size in the world perhaps, and carry 
away wheat shocks and stacks, and overflow 
cornfiel Is by wholesale. In the summer of 
IS? J, and again in 1876, it overflowed all the 
low country bordering it, and the damage to 
farmers in Crawford County alone aggregated 
many thousand dollars. Some farmers were 
almost totally ruined financially, while all 
who owned and cultivated farms in the bot- 
toms sustained more or less loss. 

A system of leveeing its banks was under- 
taken a few years ago, but has never been of 
much, if any, benefit to the farmers of the 
county. Under a law of the Stato, Commis- 
sioners were appointed to manage the work. 
They issued bonds and taxed people accord- 
ing to the amount of benefit they would 
probably receive from the levee. Much of 
the work was done, and the contractors were 
paid in bonds, which they afterward sold, or 



entleavoic'd to sell, as best thtn' cnuid. The 
levee was never completed, a fact which ren- 
dered that portion built, valueless. Squab- 
bles and differences arose among those inter- 
ested; law suits followed, and finally the 
Supreme Court decided that the levee bonds 
were unconstitutional. The matter thus 
ended in a grand fizzle. Some who invested 
in the bonds sustained considerable loss, and 
are not yet through swearing at the enter- 
prise. Indeed, the subject of levee bonds 
is scarcely a safe topic of conversation to this 
day in a miscellaneous crowd in the eastern 
part of the county. 

Agriculture.- — This science is the great 
source of our prosperity, and is a subject in 
which we are all interested. It is said that 
" gold is the jiower that moves the world," 
and it might truthfully be said that agricult- 
ure is the power that moves gold. All thriv- 
ing interests, all prosperous industries, trades 
and professions, receive their means of sup- 
]3ort, either directly or indirectly, from the 
farming interests of the country. Its prog- 
ress in Crawford for nearly three quarters of 
a century, is not the least interesting nor the 
least important part in its history. The pio- 
neers who commenced tilling the soil here 
with a few rude implements of husbandry, 
laid the foundation of that perfect system of 
agriculture we find at the present day. They 
were mostly poor and compelled to labor for 
a support, and it required brave hearts, strong 
arms and willing hands — just such as they 
possessed — to conquer the difficulties with 
which they had to contend. 

Jolinston, in his " Chemistry of Common 
Life," gives the following graphic descrip- 
tion of the system of farming commonly 
adopted by the first settlers on this continent, 
and which applies to a single county with as 
much force as to the country at large. He 
says: " Man exercises an influence on the 
Boil which is worthy of attentive study. He 

lands in a new country and fertility every- 
where surrounds him. The herbage waves 
thick and high, and the massive trees sway 
their proud stems loftily toward the sky. He 
clears a farm from the wilderness, and ample 
returns of corn repay him for his simple la- 
bor. He plows, he sows, he reaps, and from 
the seemingly exhaustless bosom of the earth 
gives back abundant harvests. But at length 
a change appears, creeping slowly over and 
gradually dimming the smiling landscape. 
The corn is first less beautiful, then less abun- 
dant, and at last it appears to die altogether 
beneath the scourge of an unknown insect or 
a parasitic fungus. He forsakes, therefore, 
his long cultivated farm, and hews out an- 
other from the native forest. But tlie same 
early plenty is followed by the same vexa- 
tious disasters. His neighbors partake of the 
same experience. They advance like a devour- 
ing tide against the verdant woods, they tram- 
ple them beneath their advancing culture; 
the ax levels its 3'early prey, and generation 
after generation proceeds in the same direc- 
tion — a wall of green forests on the horizon 
before them, a half-desert and naked region 
behind. Such is the history of colonial cult- 
ure in our own epoch; such is the history 01 
the march of European cultivation over the 
entire continent of America. No matter 
what the geological origin of the soil may be, 
or what the chemical composition; no matter 
how warmth and moisture may favor it, or 
what the staple crop it has patiently yielded 
from year to year; the same inevitable fate, 
overtakes it. The influence of long, contin- 
ual human action overcomes the tendencies 
of all natural causes. But the influences of 
man upon the productions of the soil are ex- 
hibited in other and more satisfactory results. 
The improver takes the place of the exhauster, 
and follows his footsteps on these same al- 
tered lands. Over the sandy and forsaken 
tracts of Virginia and the Carolinas he 



spreads large applications of shelly marl, and 
the herbage soon covers it again, and profita- 
ble crops; or he strews on it a thinner sow- 
ing of gypsum, and as if by magic, the yield 
of previous years is doubled and quadrupled; 
or he gathers the droppings of his cattle and 
the fermented produce of his farm-yard, and 
lays it upon his fields, when lo! the wheat 
comes up luxuriantly again, and the midge, 
and the rust, and the yellows, all disappear 
from his wheat, his cotton and his peach trees. 
But the renovater marches much slower than 
the exhauster. His materials are collected 
at the expense of both time and money, and 
barrenness ensues from the early labors of the 
one far more rapidly than green herbage can 
be made to cover it again by the most skill- 
ful, zealous and assiduous labors of the other." 

There is a great deal of truth in the above 
extract, and we see it illustrated in every 
portion of the country. The farmer, as long 
as his land produces at all plentifully, seems 
indifferent to all efforts to improve its failing 
qualities. And hence the land, like one who 
nas wasted his life and exhausted his ener- 
gies by early dissipation, becomes prema- 
turely old and worn out. When, by proper 
care and timely improvement, it might have 
retained its rich productive qualities thrice 
the period. 

The tools and implements used by the pio- 
neers of Crawford County, were few in num- 
ber and of a poor quality, and would set the 
farmer of the present day wild if he had to 
use them. The plow was the old " bar share," 
with wooden mold-board, and long beam and 
handles. Generally they were of a size be- 
tween the one and two horse plows, for they 
had to be used in both capacities. The hoes 
and axes were clumsy implements, and were 
forged and finished by the ordinary black- 
smith. If any of them were broken beyond 
the abilitv of the smith at the station to re- 
pair, a new supply had to be procured from 

the older settlements. There was some com- 
pensation, however, for all these disadvan- 
tages under which the pioneer labored. The 
virgin soil of the Wabash Valley, when once 
brought into cultivation, was fruitful, and 
yielded the most bountiful crops. As a sam- 
ple of the corn produced, under poor prepa- 
ration and cultivation, we learn fiom Mr. 
Leonard Cullom that his father planted 
ninety acres of sod corn in 1815, the next 
year after he came to the county, from which 
he raised a large crop, and shipped a flat boat 
load to New Orleans, retaining enough at 
home to last him plentifully until he could 
grow another crop. 

The first little crop consisted of a " patch " 
of corn, potatoes, beans and other garden 
" truck." In some instances a small crop of 
tobacco and of flax were added. Quite a 
number of the settlers also raised cotton for 
several years. Indeed, it was thought in the 
first settlement of Southern Illinois, that cot- 
ton would eventually become the staple crop. 
But the late springs, and the early frosts of 
autumn soon dispelled this belief. Cotton 
was produced more or less, however, for a 
number of years, and the people were loth to 
give up the attempt to grow it successfully, 
but, in time, were forced to yield to the un- 
propitious seasons. 

But with the settlement of the country, 
the increase of population, and the improve- 
ments in stock, tools and agricultural imple- 
ments, the life of the farmer gradually be- 
came easier, his farming operations greater, 
and agriculture developed and improved ac- 
cordinglv. The change was not made in a 
year, but the growth and development of the 
farming interests were slow, increasing by 
degrees, year by year, until it reached the 
grand culmination and perfection of the 
present day. 

Agricultural societies, as an aid to farming 
and the improvement of stock were formed, 



ami i'aiis were held to promote the same end. 
The iirst agricultural association of Crawford 
County was organized about 1856-7. 
Grounds were purchased and improved in 
tiie northeast part of Robinson, adjoining the 
cemetery. In IbTO these grounds were sold 
for some $500, and the present grounds, one 
mile west of town, were purchased. They 
comprise twenty acres, for which the society 
paid $30 per acre. The grounds have been 
enclosed, good buildings erected, stalls put 
up, trees planted, wells sunk, so that now 
the society possesses in them a very good 

About the year 1871, it was incorporated 
under the general law of the State relating 
to such organizations, as the Crawford Coun- 
ty Agricultural Board. Since that period, 
the officers of the board have been as fol- 
lows: For 1872 — Hickman Henderson, pres- 
ident; A. J. Reavill, R. R. Lincoln and 
"VVm. Updyke, vice-presidents; Guy S. Al- 
exander, recording secretary; Wni. C. Wil- 
son, corresponding secretary, and Wm. Par- 
ker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1873 — Hickman Henderson, 
l>resident; A. J. Reavill, R. R. Lincoln and 
W'ra. Updyke, vice-presidents; Guy S. Al- 
exander, recording secretary; Wm. C. Wil- 
son, corresponding secretary, and Wm. Par- 
ker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1874 — James S. Kirk, presi- 
dent; I. D. Mail, D. B. Cherry and G. Bar- 
low, vice-presidents; W. Swaren, recording 
secretary; W. L. Heustis, assistant secretary, 
and Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1875 — Wm. Updyke, president; 
Oliver Newlin, Sargent Newlin and A. .1. 
Reavill, vice-presidents; W. Swaren, re- 
cording secretary; W. L. Heustis, assistant 
secretary, and Wm. Parker, treas^urer. 

Officers for 1876—1. D. .Mail, jjresldent; 
J. M. Highsmith, J. H. Taylor and T. J. Sims, 
vice-presidents; W. Swaren, recording sec- 

retary; W. L. Heustis, assistant secretary, and 
Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1877 — J. S. Kirk, president; 
McClung Cawood, W. A. Hope and Wm. 
Athey, vice-pesidents; W. Swaren, secre- 
tary, and Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1878 — P. P. Connett, presi- 
dent; Alva Burner, McClung Cawood and 
W. A. Hope, vice-presidents; L. V. Chaffee, 
secretary, and Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1879— P. P. Connett, president; 
Alva Burner, G. Athey and J. H. Taylor, vice- 
presidents; W. Swaren, secretary, and Wm. 
Parker, treasurer. 

Tiie constitution was amended at this time 
by adding a fourth vice-president to the 
board, and one or two other subordinate 

Officers for 1880 — Wm. Updyke, president; 
J. M. Highsmith, Sing B. Allen, B. Wood 
and J. L. Woodworth, vice-piesidents; L. V. 
Chaffee, secretary, and Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 1881 — L. E. Stephens, president; 
Wm. Athey, Wm. Wood, D. M. Bales and 
J. L. Woodworth, vice presidents; L. V. 
Chaffee, secretary, and Wm. Parker, treasurer. 

Officers for 18s3* — L. E. Stephens, presi- 
dent; Wm. Wood, J. M. Highsmith, Wm. 
Fife and Bennett Wood, vice-presidents; 
L. V. Chaffee, secretary, and Wm. Parker, 

Horticulture. — Gardening, or horticulture 
in its restricted sense, can not be regarded ag 
a very prominent or important feature in the 
history of Crawford County. If, however, 
we take a broad view of the subject, and in- 
clude orchards, small fruit culture and kin- 
dred branches outside of agriculture, we 
should find something of more interest and 

That the cultivation of fruit is a union of 

* No fair was held in 1881, en account of the great 
drouth, and the old officers held over. 



the useful and beautiful, is a fact not to be 
denied. Trees covered in spi-ina; with soft 
foliage b;ended with fragrant flowers of 
wliite, and crimson, and gold, that are suc- 
ceeded by fruit, blushing with bloom and 
down, rich, molting and grateful, through all 
the fervid beat of summer, is indeed a tempt- 
ing prospect to every landholder. A peo])le 
so richly endowed by nature as we are should 
give more attention than we do to an art that 
supplies so many of the amenities of life, and 
around whirh cluster so many memories that 
appeal to the finer instincts of our nature. 
With a soil so well adapted to fruits, horticult- 
ure should be held in that high esteem which 
becomes so impoitant a factor in human 

The climate of this portion of the State, 
antl of Crawford County, is better adapted to 
fruit culture than further north, though as a 
fruit-growing region it is not to compare 
to some other portions of our countrj'. The 
same trouble mentioned in connection with 
cotton-growing, applies as well to general 
fruit-culture, viz.: the variability of tempera- 
ture, being subject to sudden and frequent 
changes, to extreme cold in winter, and to late 
and severe frosts in spring, as well as to early 
and killing frosts in the fall. 

The apple is the hardiest and most reliable 
of all fruits for this region, and there are 
probably more acres in apple orchards, than 
in all fruits combined, in the county. The 
first fruit trees were brought here by the 
pioneers, and were sprouts taken from varie- 
ties around the old home, about to be forsaken 
for a new one, hundreds of miles away. A 
Mr. Howard, who settled in that portion of 

Crawford County, now in Lawrence, is suj)- 
posed to have planted the first apple trees in 
this section, and to have brought the scions 
with him when he came to the country. Ap- 
ples and peaches are now raised in the 
county in considerable quantities, and small 
fruits are receiving more attention every year 
— especially strawberries and raspberries. 
Many citizens, too, are engaging in grape cult- 
ure to a limited extent. 

Coiinty Paupers. — "The poor ye have 
with you al way." It is a duty we owe to that 
class upon whom the world has cast its frowns, 
to care for them, and furnish them those com- 
forts and necessaries of life wiiich their mis- 
fortunes have denied them. None of us 
know how soon we may become a member of 
that unfortunate portion of our population. 
" The greatest of these is charity," find to 
what nobler purpose can superfluous wealth 
be devoted than to succoring the poor, and 
relieving the woes of suffering humanity. 

Crawford is far behind many of her sister 
counties in the care of her paupers. A large 
majority of the counties in the State own 
large farms, with commodious buildings upon 
them, where their paupers are kept and kind- 
]j cared for. This county seems to always 
have " farmed " out the poor, as it were, or, in 
other words, to have hired anybody to keep 
them who was willing to undertake the 
charge. This does not strike us as the bes 
method of exercising charity, nor the most 
economical. Where the county owns a good 
farm well improved, the institution, if proper- 
ly managed, can be rendered well-nigh self- 
supporting. Yerhum sat sajpie/Ui. 



"A history which takes no account of what was 
said by the Press in memorable emergencies befits an 
earlier age than ours." — Horace Greeley. 

THE subjoined sketch of the Press was writ- 
ten for this work by George W. Harper, 
Esq., at our earnest solicitation. The article 
is an excellent one and we commend it to our 
readers. It is as follows: 

A history of a county without a chapter on 
the newspaper history, would be " like the 
play of Hamlet with Hamlet left out." There 
is no more faithful historian of a community 
than the local press; and be it ever so hum- 
ble or unpretentious, it. can not fail in the 
course of years to furnish valuable iftforma- 
tion for future reference. A file of the local 
paper for a dozen or more years presents a 
fund of information, the vali^ of which can 
hardly be estimated. 

Some people have an idea that newspapers 
will lie; others are so wise that they will only 
believe a newsjiaper report when they think 
it would be easier for the paper to tell the 
truth than to tell a lie; others think it the evi- 
dence of flashing wit to reject with a deri- 
sive laugh any evidence for authority that 
comes from " the newspapers." To .such an 
extent has this thoughtlosj juilgnient of the 
press been carried, that much of its sphere of 
usefulness has been circumscribed. It is true 

By W. H. Perriii. 

there must be some occasion for this wide- 
spread impression — " there must be some fire 
where there is so much smoke." Yet how 
many men can show a record for correctness, 
accuracy and truthfulness that will at once 
compare with the average newspaper? The 
editor gathers his news from a thousand 
sources, from acquaintances and strangers, 
from letters and papers. He sits and culls, 
hunts and details, and endeavors to get "the 
straight"' of every story he publishes, for it 
goes to the world over his own name, and he 
knows that in a great measure he will be held 
responsible. The private individual hears a 
piece of gossip, listens carelessly to another 
with equal carelessness, and if called upon 
for details, in nine cases out of ten can not 
give enough of them to make an intelligent 
item for a newspaper. " Writing makes an 
exact man," says Lord Bacon. ' The news- 
paper verifies the truth of the statement. 
Let any one who doubts this sit d ixvn and 
put on paper some piece of gossip, with the 
purpose of having it printed over his own 
signature, and he will see in a moment how 
little he knows about a matter he thought 
himself familiar with. He will then wonder 
not that the newspaper should contain occa- 
sional inaccuracies and misstatements, but 
that it contains so few. And his wonder will 
wonderfully increase when he remembers 
that the editor has to deoend for so much of 



■what he publishes on the common run of man- 

An eminent divine has truly said, "the lo- 
cal paper is not only a business guide, but it 
is a pulpit of morals; it is a kind of public 
rostrum where the affairs of state are consid- 
ered; it is a supervisor of streets and roads; 
it is a rewarder of merit; it is a social friend, 
a promoter of friendship and good will. 
Even the so-called small matters of a village 
or incorporate town are only small to those 
■whoso hearts are too full of personal pom- 
posity." It is very important if some school 
boy or school girl reads a good essay, or 
speaks well a piece, or sings well a song, or 
stands high in the class-room, that kind men- 
tion should be made publicly of such suc- 
cess, for more young minds are injured for 
■want of cheering ■words, than are made vain 
by an excess of such praise. In the local 
papers, the marriage bell tolls more solemnly 
than in the great city dailies. The rush and 
noise of the metropolis take away the joy 
from items about marriages, and detract from 
the solemnity of the recorded death; but 
when the local paper records a marriage be- 
tween two favorites of society, all the readers 
see the hapjiiness of the event; and equally 
when the columns of such a home paper tell 
us that some great or humble person has 
gone from the world, we read with tears, for 
he was our neighbor and friend. 

The Wabash Sentinel. — The pioneer paper 
of Crawford County was the Wabash Senti- 
nel. It was established at Hutsonville, in 
1852, by George W. Cutler, a printer who 
came from Evansville, Indiana, bringing his 
press and material from that place. The 
paper was independent in politics. Its pub- 
lication was continued by Mr. Cutler some- 
thing over a year, when the material and 
good-will were transferred to Ethelbert Calla- 
han, then a pedagogue of the village, no^w 

one of the leading attorneys of Southeastern 
Illinois, and a prominent Republican poli- 
tician of the State. Under Mr. Callahan's 
administration the name of the paper was 
changed to the Journal., and its publication 
was continued for something over a year, 
when the material was sold and removed to 
Marshall, Clark County. 

llie Muralist. — This was the next news- 
paper venture, and was established in Pales- 
tine, in 1856, by Samuel R. Jones, a native 
Virginian, •who had been brought up by 
Alexander Campbell, the eminent minister 
of the gospel and expounder of the doctrine 
and faith of the religious denomination 
known as Disciples or Christians. The Ilu- 
ralist, like its predecessors, was independent 
in politics. Jones was rather an eccentric 
man, with numerous professions, combining 
those of a preacher, lawj-er and doctor, with 
that of editor and publisher. He was im- 
bued with the spirit of "Reform" in almost 
everything, and ■was disposed to make the 
paper a special advocate of his own peculiar 
notions and isms. In December, 1S5G, 
George W. Harper, a printer boy of some 
eiiihteen years, came from Richmond, Indiana, 
and w as employed by Jones to take mechan- 
ical charge of the Ruralist, and as he had 
" so many irons in the fire," he soon virtually 
surrendered all charge of the paper into Har- 
per's hands, who endeavored to make it more 
of a literary and local paper than it had been 
previously. Its publication was continued 
until October, 1857, when it was suspended, 
and Dr. Jones removed to Wooster, Ohio, to 
take pastoral charge of the Christian church 
there. He remained about a year, and just 
prior to the breaking out of the late war, he 
removed to Mississippi. After the close of 
the war himself and son published for a short 
time a religious paper at Garner, Hinds 
County, that State. He is now located at 




Jackson, Miss., and although over seventy 
years of age is still actively engaged in the 

The. Crawford Banner. — Tliis paper was 
stiirted at Hutsonville in July, 1857, by W. 
F. Ruljottom, who came from Giayville, this 
State, and was puhlished by him as an inde- 
])endent paper until October of the following 
year. Jlr. Rubottom c mmeiiced the prac- 
tice of medicine when he retired from the 
jjublication of the Danner, and afterwerd 
went West. 

The Huhinson Gazette.— The Gazette was 
the first paper published in Rol)inson. After 
the suspension of the Jiuraliat, the material 
was leased to G. W. Harper, moved to Rob- 
inson, and the first issue of the Gazette made 
its appearance December 1^, 1857. This was 
the first political paper issued in the county. 
Mr. Plarper, the editor, although not a voter, 
t;iLing strongground in favorol' the principles 
of the Douglas wing of the Democratic party. 
Tiio pu lication of the Gazette was continued 
by Mr. Harper until the expiration of his lease 
in 1858, when the paper was suspended, and the 
material passed into the hands of O. H. Bris- 
tol & Co., to whom it had been mortgaged by 
Dr. Jones to secure the paj-ment of a debt. 
Harper then purchased the Banner at Hut- 
sonville, and removed it to Palestine, where 
he continued its publication for a year as a 
Democratic paper. In July, 185 ', while pub- 
lishing the Banner, its editor took the "Wa- 
bash shakes," and did not succeed in getting 
rid of them until tlie October following. The 
paper had a somewhat sickly existence also, 
and suspended publication in November. 

The Yellow Jacket. — Such was the " blis- 
tering " name given to a paper started at 
Palestine in December, 1859, by Dr. A. Ma- 
lone and E. Logan, on the ruins of the de- 
funct Banner. Dr. Malone withdrew from 
the paper in a few months, and left Logan 
in sole charge, who continued its publication 

for about three years. Tlie paper was Re- 
publican in politics, and in the campaign of 
1800 contained sliarp and spicy editorials, 
which made it quite well known in this part 
of the State. 

The Crawford County Bulletin. — .\s the 
Yellow Jacket was the onlv paper in the 
county, the Democrats were not well pleased 
with its sharp thrusts and cutting sarcasm; 
especially so, Hon. J. C. Allen, the Demo- 
cratic ntmiinee for Governor of the State, 
then residing in Palestine. He therefore 
purchased the material at Robinson, and Hor- 
ace P. Mumford, then connected with a pa- 
per at Greenup, but recently from Kenton, 
Ohio, was placed in charge, and in July, 1860, 
commenced the puljlication of the Crawford 
County Bulletin, at Robinson, as a Demo- 
cratic paper. Tlie paper was very ably 
edited, and was during the campaign a fear- 
less and outspoken advocate of its party 
])riiiciples. When the war broke out the 
editor was one of those patriotic men who 
wanted "country first and parly alterwaid," 
and hence took a decided stand in favor of 
the prosecution of the war for the preservation 
of the Union. He assisted in recruiting: 
three or four infantry companies in this 
county, and in September, 1861, he raised a 
company for the Fifth Illinois Cavalry, of 
which he was commissioned captain. He was 
afterward promoted to be major of the same 
regiment. He made a gallant and dashing 
cavalry officer, being quite frequently men- 
tioned and commended in reports of his su- 
perior officers for his bravery and daring in 
battle, skirmish and raid. In October, 1861:, 
having been nominated by the Union party 
of this Senatorial district for State Senator 
he obtained leave of absence for thirty days 
from his regiment, then stationed at Vicks- 
burg, and left for home. He was first to re- 
port at Springfield. Arriving there he was 
taken with a severe spell of dysentery, and 



died in two or three days, aged twenty-three 
years. The publication of the Bulletin was 
continued a short time after Mumford went 
into the army, by his brother, W. D. Mum- 
ford, and N. T. Adams, two young printers. 
Young Mumford withdrew in the summer of 
18(32, and left Adams in charge. After con- 
tinuing the publication alone for a few weeks 
Adams also abandoned tlie paper, and it was 

The Monitor. — The publication of the 
Yelloto Jacket, at Palestine, having been sus- 
pended, Mr. Logan now got hold of the Bul- 
letin material and started the Monitor, at 
Robinson, which had a rather lively six 
months' existence, when it "joined the grand 
army gone before." The Bulletin was again 
resurrected by Charles Whaley, a printer 
from Terre Haute, and had a very sickly ex- 
istence of " half sheets " and " doubled ads " 
for some six months, when it too " turned its 
toes to the daisies." 

The Constitution. — This paper was estab- 
lished in October, 1863, by John Talbot, who 
purchased the Bulletin material. He contin- 
ued as editor and publisher of the paper for 
some three years, during which time the 
Constitution was conceded to be the ablest 
edited, most fearless and outspoken Demo- 
cratic paper in this section of the State. 
While the course of Mr. Talbot was severely 
criticised by the opposition press and party, 
he was conceded to be honest and conscien- 
tious in his views, and was a perfect gentle- 
man in his intercourse with all. 

Mr. Talbot was born in Tipperarj', Ireland, 
September 21, 1797, and died in Robinson 
September 22, 1874. When quite young he 
removed to Canada, and after remaining in 
that province several years he emigrated to 
the United States, settling in Perry County, 
Ohio, where he engaged in the hardware 
trade at Somerset. While in business there 
he came across Phil Sheridan, then a poor 

Irish boy, and took him into the store. 
Through Mr. Talbot's influence Sheridan ob- 
tained his appointment to West Point, and 
undoubtedly owes his present position to the 
kind offices of Mr. Talbot. Having indorsed 
rather heavily for friends who failed to meet 
their own obligations, the property of Mr. 
Talbot, accumulated by several years of in- 
dustry and toil, was swallowed up to meet 
these demands, and he came to Illinois with 
a bare pittance. In 1867, owing to failing 
health, he relinquished control of the paper 
to his son Henry Grattan Talbot. That dread 
but sure disease, consumption, had already 
marked Henry for its victim, and he was able 
to give to the office and paper but little per- 
sonal attention, being soon confined to his 
room. On the 2d day of January, 1808, he 
died, aged twenty-four years. The senior 
Talbot again assumed charge of the paper, 
and continued as its editor and publisher un- 
til some two years prior to his death, when he 
relinquished its control to his son Richard, 
the present senior editor and publisher. At 
his death the office was left by devise to his 
widow. Richard Talbot continued as editor 
and publisher until the death of his mother, 
when the office was purchased by himself and 
brother, Percy J. Talbot. The two brothers 
continued as joint publishers until March, 
1879, when Richard sold his half interest to 
Thomas S. Price, present county clerk. Af- 
ter his election as clerk Mr. Price desired to 
retire from the printing business, and in 
March, 1880, Richard Talbot again became 
the senior editor and publisher of the jiaper. 
It is a good live newspaper, and the Demo- 
cratic organ for this county. 

The Robinson Argus. — The first number of 
the Argus was issued December 10, 1863, by 
George W. Harper, the present editor and 
proprietor, under whose control it has been 
ever since, excepting a few months in 1866- 
67. The office was leased to Wm. Benson, 



a printer from Sullivan, Iiid., in October, 
1SG6, under whose management the paper 
suspended in about three months. On ac- 
count of a severe affliction of rheumatism, 
from whiih Mr. Harper has been troubled 
more or less from boj-hood, he sold the office 
after its suspension, but no satisfactory ar- 
rangements being made for resuming publi- 
cation of the paper, he repurchased it in some 
two or three months, and its publication was 
resumed by W. E. Carothers, under Mr. 
Harper's management. This arrangement 
not proving satisfactory, Mr. Harper in a few 
motiths again assumed full charge of the pa- 
per as editor, publisher and proprietor, and 
by strict attention to Dusiness and good man- 
agement, has made it rank with the best 
country papers of the State. The office is 
equipped with a fine cylinder press, and ma- 
terial for doing fine printing of all kinds, pre- 
senting quite a contrast to the outfit with 
which the paper was started, occupying then 
a small room with only one 10xl2-light win- 
dow. The paper being of the minority party, 
published in a town which had less than 800 
inhabitants until within the last six or seven 
years, enjo^'ing none of the "official" pat- 
ronage of county officers, has proved a mira- 
cle of success, and is a worthy tribute to the 
business enterprise and management of its 

The Real Estate Advertiser. — This was 
a monthly publication started at Palestipe 
in October, 1871, by Andrew E. Bristol, a 
real estate agent at that place. The pnper 
was printed at the Argus office in Robinson. 
It was very ably edited, containing historical 
articles, and others calculated to advertise the 
fertility of the soil and business resources of 
the county. Mr. B. was competent to his 
task, and would no doubt have made a suc- 
cess of his undertaking. After issuing the 
fcecond number of the paper, and while prepar- 
ing copy for the third in his room one night, 

he was suddenly stricken with paralysis, and 
laj' upon the floor helpless through the night 
and a greater portion of the succeeding day, 
before being discovered. He had suifered 
intensely during this time, and died in a few 
days afterward. 

The Palestine JVeirs.- — The N'ews was a 
little paper started at Palestine in 187'i by 
N. M. P. Spurgeon, a semi-mute printer, 
who, after publishing it some six months, 
removed to Hutsonville, where the publica- 
tion was continued as the Hutsonville N^ews 
some six months longer, when it went, too, to 
its last rest. 

7^he Crawford Democrat. — This was the 
next paper started " to fill a long-felt want," 
and made its appearance in Robinson in May, 
1879, with Ira Lutes as editor and proprietor. 
Mr. Lutes had previously been engaged in 
mercantile Inisiness in Robinson, became dis- 
satisfied, and thought the newspaper business 
his special forte. After the lapse of some 
five or six months he conceived the idea that 
this was not a proper location, and packed 
his material and removed to Lincoln, Kansas, 
where he started up again, but soon after- 
ward sold out and went into other business. 

The Palestine Saturday Call. — This paper 
was started in July, 1880, by W. E. Carothers, 
a printer who had at different times been em- 
ployed on the Argus. The paper was printed 
at the Argits office. An edition for Hutson- 
ville, under the name of the Herald, was also 
issued. The Call was a spicy little local 
paper, started on the " three months plan." 
Although it had proved a financial success, 
its publisher chose to aljandon it at the end 
of the first quarter, to prevent its becoming 
stranded on financial breakers. 

The Anti- Monopolist was started by "The 
Anti-Monopolist Publishing Co.," at Robin- 
son, just prior to the election last fall, printed 
from the old material of the Hutsonville 
Keirs, on the Argus press. After issuing 



some three or four numbers, the paper was 
suspended for a few weeks, when the com- 
pany purchased a small establishment and 
resumed publication. 

Educational. — In the early settlement of 
this part of the State, there were a great 
many influences that worked ajrainst general 
education. Neighborhoods were thinly set- 
tled, money was scarce, and the people were 
generally poor. There were no sclioolhouses, 
nor was there any public school fund to build 
schoolhouses, or even to pay teachers. Added 
to this was the fact that many of the early 
settlers were from the Southern States — a 
section that did not manifest as great an in- 
terest in educational matters as New En- 
gland. And still another drawback was the 
lack of books and of teachers; besides, all 
persons of either sex, who had physical 
strength enough to labor, were compelled to 
take their part in the work, that of the 
women being as heavy and important as that 
of the men; and this strain upon their indus- 
try continued for years. When we consider 
all these facts together, we are led to wonder 
that the pioneers had any schools at all. 

As soon, however, as the settlements would 
at all justify such a spirit of development, 
schools were established in the different 
neighborhoods, and any vacant cabin, or 
stable, or other outhouse was brought into 
service, and made to do duty as a temple of 
learning. The Fchools were paid for by in- 
dividual subscription, at the rate of aliout 50 
or 75 cents a month per scholar. Although 
the people of Illinois and of Crawford County 
displayed such early interest in educational 
matters, the cause met with many difficulties, 
and its progress was slow in the extreme. 
The pioneer schoolhouses, as a general thing, 
were of a poor quality. In towns they were 
dilapidated buildings, either frame or log, 
and in the country they were invariably of 
logs. As a general thing but one style of 

architecture was used in building them. They 
were erected, not from a regular i'und or sub- 
scription, but by labor given. The neighliors 
would gather together at some place previ- 
ously agreed upon, and with ax in hand, the 
logs were cut, and the cabin soon erected. 
The roof was of broad boards, and a rude 
fireplace and clapboard door, a puncheon 
floor, and the cracks filled with "chinks," 
and these daubed over with mud, completed 
the building. The furniture was as rude and 
primitive as the house itself, and the books 
were limited in quantity and quality, and 
were in keeping with the house' and its fur- 
nishings. But it is unnecessary to follow the 
description further. Those who have known 
only the perfect system of schools of the 
present can form no idea of the limited ca- 
pacity of educational facilities here from 
fifty to seventy-five years ago. But there are, 
no doubt, many still living in Crawford Coun- 
ty who can recall their experience in the 
pioneer schools and schoolhouses. 

Nothing for which the State pays money 
yields so large a dividend upon the cost as 
the revenue expended upon education. The 
influence of the school-room is silent, like all 
the great forces of the universe. The sun 
shines without shouting, " Behold the I'ght!" 
Gravitation spins the planets in their paths, 
and we hear the cracking of no heavy timbers 
and the grinding of no great iron axles. So, 
from the humble scene of the teacher's labors, 
there are shot into the heart of society the 
great influences that kindle its ardors for ac- 
tivity, which light civilization on its widening 
way, and which hold the dearest of humanity 
in its hand. The statistics are the smillost 
exponents of the worth of our schools. There 
are values that can not be expressed in dollars 
anil cents, nor be quoted in price-currents. 

The governing power in every country upon 
the face of the globe is an educated power. 
The Czar of the Russias, ignorant of interna- 



tioiial law, of domestic relations, of finance, 
commerce and the or<2;aiiization of armies and 
navies, could never hold under the sway of 
his scepter, 70,000,000 of subjects. An au- 
tocrat must be intelligent and virtuous, or 
only waste and wretchedness and wreck can 
wait upon his reign. England with scrupu- 
lous car.', fosters her great universities for the 
training of the sons of the nobility for their 
places in the House of Lords, in the army, 
navy and church. What, then, ought to be 
the character of citizenship in a country 
where every man is born a king, and sover- 
eign heir to all the franchises and trusts of 
the State and Republic? An ignorant people 
can be governed, but only an intelligent 
people can govern themselves; and that is 
the experiment we are trying to solve in 
these United States. 

Every observing student of the biography 
of our representative men, has been struck 
with the preponderance of those who re- 
ceived their education in the old log school- 
house. They are designated " self-made 
men"; but the aspirations that have enabled 
them to mount to prominence and distinction 
are oftenest the product of inspirations 
awakened by the studies that put the key in 
their hands that unlocks the storehouses of 
knowledge. It has been quoted until it has 
become stale, that " a little learning is a dan- 
gerous thing"; but there has been a period 
in the history of every scholarly mind when 
its attainments were small. The superiority 
of communities in which learning is fostered, 
over those in which ignorance reigns, has 
been the subject of pleasing reflection to 
every man who appreciates the advantages 
of intelligence. The transforming power of 
a good school upon any neighborhood hitherto 
without one, or possessed of an indifferent 
one, has shown, in every case where the ex- 
periment has been tried, the happy effects 
ensuing, which mark the transition and the 

consequences that wait upon the flight of a 
single decade of vears. In such, the children 
of the poor, competing with the scions of 
wealthy families for the rank and prizes ac- 
corded intellect, have been able to surmount 
the privations incident to poverty, and to find 
their way into a society and pursuits other- 
wise impossible. Thus, the rich, who would 
have borne themselves with a haughty dis- 
dain toward the sons and daughters of their 
less fortunate neighbors, have been com- 
pelled to accredit an aristocracy of intellect, 
and to honor with social respect those who, 
but for common schools, would have ever re- 
mained the subjects of a purse-proud neglect. 
The first school in Crawford County was 
taught in Palestine, as for many years that 
town was the Athens, not only of the county, 
but of this part of the State. It was of the 
regular pioneer type, and will be more fully 
described in the chapters devoted to Pales- 
tine. We find the followinjr among: the 
county records of the school at that place: 
"Know all men by these presents, that we, Jo- 
seph Kitchell, Hervey Kitchell, Asa Kitchell 
and Wm. Wilson, are held and firmly bound 
to Smith Shaw, John Cowan and Benj. Ea- 
ton, as trustees of the school at Palestine, 
Crawford County, Illinois Territory, and to 
their successors in office, in the penal sum of 
five hundred dollars, for which payment well 
and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our 
heirs, executors, etc. The condition of the 
above obligation is such that if the above 
bounden Joseph Kitchell shall make or cause 
to be made a good and sufficient deed for lot 
one, in the town of Palestine, to the trustees 
for the school of Palestine, for the use and 
benefit of a school in said town, within three 
years from date, then the above obligation to 
be void, otherwise to remain in full force. 
Witness our hands and seals, this Tth day of 
May, 1818;" and signed by the parties men- 
tioned above. From this it will be seen that 



steps were taken very early for a school in 
the couTity's capital. As Palestine increased 
in wealth and in — children, — a second school- 
house was built, in connection with the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, the upper story being used 
as a lodge-room, and the lower story lor the 

The little school taught in Palestine more 
than sixty years ago, has expanded into the 
liberal educational facilities of the present 
day, and nearly a hundred schools, with thou- 
sands of children, are found within the lim- 
its of the county. In illustration of the rapid 
strides made by education, we give some sta- 
tistics, furnished us by Mr. Moore, late as- 
sistant county commissioner of schools, as fol- 

Kumber of children under 21 years of nge 8,189 

" between 6 and 21 years 5,550 

of graded sehools in tlie county 1 

of scliool-liouses Brick 4 

Frame 83 

Log 9 

. ^_ Total 96 

Number of males attending school 2.8(;6 

females - " 2.709 

' male teachers employed lOB 

" female " " 58 


Balance on hand June 30, 1881 $ 7,215 27 

Amount of State fund received S 5.918 90 

Special tax for school purposes 22,015 35 

Interest on township fund - 1,412 47 

Keceived from other sources 217 12 

Total amount received.. 

$-9,59?, U 

Grand total $36,809,11 

Amount paid teachers $20 741 91 

For building school-houses 6,500 32 

School sites and buildings 136 85 

Repairs and iniprovenienls 1,376 80 

Incidental expenses 2,183 95 

Total expenditures 

Balance on hand, June 30, 1682.. 

S ,869 28 

Principal of township fund $22,146 48 

There is one well-grounded criticism upon 
the schools, not only of Crawford County, but 
most of the counties in Southern Illinois, viz.: 
the small salary paid the county commis- 

sioner of schools, which is far below that in 
the central and northern part of the State. 
The small compensation allowed the commis- 
sioner, is no object to a man qualified for the 
position, or when held in connection with 
some other business, of sufficient inducement 
to command much of his attention. The com- 
missioner should be paid a salary large enough 
to enable him to devote his entire time and 
attention to the schools, without being com- 
pelled to add some other calling in order to 
eke out a living. Better compensation would 
also be the means of securing a man — or a 
woman, — better qualified for the position, 
and the schools be thereby greatly benefited. 
Jie/if/ious. — Eighteen hundred years ago 
the Son of Man gave the command, " Go ye 
into all the world and preach the gospel to 
every creature." It was not intended alone 
for the salvation of those nations which 
brought tribute to Ciesar, but with prophetic 
vision the world's great Redeemer gazed on 
nations then unborn, and heard the cry of 
those who groaned beneath the yoke of sin. 
Then for the redemption. He gave to his dis- 
ciples the commands which, in later years, 
have caused His people to widely spread 
God's glorious truth. 

The solitary settlers of the western frontier 
rejoiced to hear the early messengers of God 
proclaim the "glad tidings of great joy," or 
wept at the story of Pilate, his pitiless crown 
of thorns, and the agonies of Golgotha and 
Calvary. The dark and gloomy forests were 
pierced by the light that shone from the Star 
of Bethlehem, and the hymns of praise to God 
were mingled with the sound of the pioi.eer's 
ax, as he reared his lone cabin for the shelter 
of his loved ones. These early ministers ex- 
posed themselves to all the dangers of the 
wilderness, that they might do their Master's 
will, and up yonder they should receive 
crowns bright with many jewels. They trav- 
eled on foot or on horseback, among the early 



settlers of Crawford County, stopping where 
night overtook them, and receiving the hospi- 
talities of the cabin " without money and 
without price." Reverently asking the bless- 
ing of God upon all they did, their lives were 
simple and unostentatious, their wants few 
and easily satisfied; their teachings were 
plain and unvarnished, touched with no elo- 
quence save that of their daily living, which 
was seen and known of all men. They were 
of different religious sects, yet no discord was 
ever manifested between them, but a united 
effort was made by them to show men the 
way to better things by better living, and 
thus, finally, to reach that best of all — a home 
in Heaven, that 

" The good old paths are good enough, 
The fathere walked to Heaven in them, and 
By following meekly where they trod, all reach 
The home they found." 

They were not only physicians for the soul's 
cure, but they sometimes administered to the 
body's ailments. They married the living 
and buried the dead; they clirlstened the 
babe, admonished the young and warned the 
old; they cheered the despondent, rebuked 
the willful and hurled the vengeance of eter- 
nal burnings at the desperately wicked. 
Wherever they went they were welcome, and 
notice was sent around to the neighbors and 
a meeting was held, and all listened with 
rapt attention to the promises of the gospel. 
For years these pioneer preachers could say 
literally, as did the Master before them, " The 
foxes have holes, and the birds of the air 
have nests, but they (the sons of men) had 
not where to lay their heads." An old min- 
ister, speaking of the establishing of churches 
in the frontier settlements, said: "It used 
to make my heart sick in the early days of 
my ministry to dismiss members of my 
charge to churches in distant regions, and 
have brothers, and sisters and neighbors leave 
us for the new settlement in the opening 

territories. But as I have grown older, and 
followed these emigrants to their new homes 
and have found them far more useful in 
church and State than they ever could have 
been in the regions they left behind, where 
others held the places of influence; as I have 
seen them giving a healthy and vigorous tone 
to society, while the separation causes a pang 
of sorrow, the good accomplished more than 
compensates for the pleasure lost." 

The good seed thus carried by emigrants 
is usually sufficient to begin the work of rais- 
ing society to a higher level of civilization, 
and their transforming power counteracts 
those demoralizing influences which tend to 
social degeneration and disruption. These 
Christian influences are active in their con- 
flicts with evil and attractive in social power; 
and they generally act as a nucleus around 
which gather the refining influences necessary 
to carry society onward to a state of compar- 
ative perfection. We may see by comparing 
the past and present, how much has been 
done in this respect. The progress and tri- 
umph of Christian truth, the superstructure 
on which societv must rest, if it ever approx- 
imates perfection, is made apparent. It is 
thus easily to be seen that no other power 
than Christian truth can vitalize, expand, har- 
monize, direct and control the forces which 
underlie and build up the great fabric of so- 

The Baptists were the pioneers of religion 
in Crawford County. They were of what is 
denominated the " Hardshell " Baptists, and 
had ministers here among the first settlers. 
They were followed soon after by the Method- 
ists, who built the first house of worship in 
the county. The first Baptist preachers were 
Thomas Kennedy and Daniel Parker, both 
early residents of this portion of the country. 
Elder Newport was also an early Baptist 
preacher, but lived in what is now Clark 
County. His ministrations, however, were 



not confined to any particular section, but de- 
voted to the needy in every community. 
Elder Daniel Parker was a zealous minister 
and preached almost everywhere and to 
everybody. He preached from Illinois to 
Texas and back to Illinois, and then made up 
a colony which he led to Texas. They made 
the trip by land, and every night during the 
journey they assembled around the camp-fire, 
held religious services, passing the evening 
in prayer and praise to the Giver of all good. 
Arriving in Texas the colony continued an 
organized society under the name of " Pil- 
grim Church," which name they had borne 
during their "sojourn in the wilderness." 
The l,amotte Church was organized by these 
plain and simple old ministers, thefi rst 
church organization, perhaps, in the county. 
Elder Parker was a prominent man in the 
early history of this section of the country, 
and has been termed one of the ablest men 
ever in Crawford County. Aside from his 
ecclesiastical duties, he found time to mingle 
in temporal matters. He served as State 
Senator in the Third and Fourth General As- 
semblies, and was an active and able legis- 
lator. He was plain and unpolished — the 
diamond in its rough state — honest to a fault, 
kindly, and of the justest impulses, a noble 
type of a race fast passing away. 

Elder Thomas Kennedy was also prominent 
in the business affairs of the county. He was 
its first treasurer; was county commissioner 
of schools, probate judge, etc., and was thus 
enabled to deal out justice to either religious 

or profane delinquents. He was not the equal 
of Parker in intellect, but, nevertheless, was 
no ordinary man. Of Newport more will be 
said in the second part of this volume. 

The first Methodist preacher was Rev. 
John Dolhjjhan. He lived in that portion of 
the county afterward stricken off in Law- 
rence, and settled there prior to 1820. Rev. 
Mr. Fox was the first Methodist preacher in 
the Palestine settlement. These were not 
what the world would call gifted preachers, 
but they were earnest and instructive, and 
faithful to the religion they taught. As emi- 
grants came in and the people increased in 
worldly wealth, steps were taken to provide 
for their spiritual welfare. At first religious 
meetings were held in any vacant cabin, or 
in people's houses, but with the growth of the 
coinitry religious societies were organized, 
and churches were built, until the silence of 
the landscape was broken by 

" the sweet and solemn hymn 

Of Sabbath worshippers." 

The first church in the county was built at 
Palestine by the Methodists. A few years 
later the Presbyterians also erected a church 
there. Hebron church was built very early, 
and was perhaps the next in the county. 
Temples of worship may now be seen in 
every village, hamlet and neighborhood. But 
the churches and church organizations will re- 
ceive a more extended notice in the chapters 
devoted to the several townships and vil- 









" Fair as the earliest beam of eastern light. 
When first, by the bewildered pilgrim spied. 

It smiles I pon the dreary brow of night. 
And silvers o'er the torrent's foaming tide. 
And lights the fearful path on monntain side; 

Fair as that beam, although the fah-est far, 
Giving to horror grace, to danger pride, 

Shine martial Faith, and Courtesy's briglit star. 

Throogh all the wreckful storms that cloud the 
brow of war." 


ALTHOUGH as a nation we are over a hun- 
dred years old, j'et we have lived, com- 
paratively, a quiet and peaceable life. Aside 
iVdni our strujTgles with the Indians (in many of 
which they had the better cause), we have had 
but few wars. But those in which we have in- 
dulired, have been wars of more than ordinary 
importance. We started out in business for 
ourselves by threshing our paternal ancestor, 
Mr. John Bull, thereby inaugurating' what is 
known in American history as the Revolu- 
tionary War, and in time achieving our lib- 
erty and independence. Liberty and inde- 
pendence! Often as the wheels of iime roll 
on the anniversary of American Independ- 
ence, so often does our patriotic zeal blaze 
out from one end of the Union to the other, 
in commemoration of those brave war-worn 

* By W. H. Pen-in. 

veterans, who bought with tlieir blood our 
freedom. When the war was over and our in- 
dependence acknowledged, the patriot sol- 
diery was paid off in valueless paper and in 
western lands. This brought many of them 
to the West, mostly to Ohio and Kentucky, as 
the lands of those States were in market 
some time before those of Illinois. There 
were, however, a number of Revolutionary 
soldiers among the early settlers of Southern 
Illinois and of Crawford Uounty. But after 
this long lapse of time, it is impossible to 
designate all who participated in the war for 
libertv, and we shall not attempt it. We 
have heard of but three, viz.: Asahel Has- 
kins, Daniel Kinney and George Miller. Ref- 
erence is merely made to that war as a pre- 
lude to others that have followed it, and which 
will occupy considerable of our space in the 
subsequent pages. 

After the close of the Revolutionary War 
our martial experience was confined to the 
Indians until our second war with Groat Brit- 
ain, which terminated with that brilliant tri- 
umph of American arms, the victory of Gen. 
Jackson at New Orleans on the 8th of Janu- 
ary, 1815. The opening scenes of this war 
were characterized by defeat, disgrace and 
disaster; but toward the close of the struggle 
a series of glorious achievements compensated 



for these misfortunes. Croafhan's sfallant de- 
fense of Fort Stephenson; Perry's victory on 
Lake Erie; the total defeat by Gen. Harrison 
of the allied Biitish and Indians under Proc- 
tor and Tecumseh on the Thames, togetlier 
with the closing scene at New Orleans, have 
few parallels in modern warfare. The people 
then living in what is now Crawford County, 
though far removed from the seat of war, felt 
its effects in some degree. The Indians in 
this section, as already noticed, became some- 
what unruly, and bands of them took the war- 
path, though they committed few depreda- 
tions on the people of this county. Their 
conduct, however, occasioned considerable 
anxiety, and kept the people continually on 
the lookout for danger. Many of the early 
settlers who came to the county following the 
war of 1812, had participated in it some time 
during iis progress. But there is no record 
now by which to obtain any reliable data of 
tho-e old soldiers and their exploits, and we 
pass on, with this brief allusion to the sub- 

The Blade HawJc War. — This war brings 
us to a period in the history of Crawford 
County, whpn she had attained an impor- 
tance second to few counties in the State, as 
evinced by the part she took in the chas- 
tisement of Black Hawk. We shall now no- 
tice briefly some of the leading incidents and 
facts pertaining to this war. 

It is unnecessary to go into the details 
which originated the Black Hawk War. It is 
the old story of the white man's oppression 
and the Indian's resentment. Speaking of 
the causes which eventually led to it. Gov. 
Edwards, in his history of Illinois, says: 
"There is no doubt, however, that the whites, 
who at this period were immigrating in large 
numbers to the northwest, and earnestly de- 
sired their removal further Westward, pur- 
posely exasperated the Indians, at the same 
time that they greatly exaggerated the hos- 

tilities committed." The Indians thus mad- 
dened by the encroachments of the whites 
upon their hunting grounds, and the insults 
and injuries heaped upon X.\wm by their pale- 
faced enemies, finally broke out in open war, 
and gathered around Black Hawk as their 

When war commenced, Crawford County 
aroused herself to action, and many of her 
able-bodied men shouldered their guns and 
marched to the scene of conflict. Two full 
companies were sent from Crawford, while 
others served in companies and regiments 
recruited elsewhere. Captain Highsmith's 
company formed a part of the second regi- 
ment of the second brigade, and from the re- 
port of the adjutant-general of the State we 
learn that it enlisted in June, 1832, and was 
as follows: William Highsmith, captain; 
Samuel V. Allen, first lieutenant; John H. 
McMickle, second lieutenant; B. B. Piper, 
first sergeant; Thos. Fuller, second ser- 
geant; Wra. McCoy, third sergeant; John 
A. Christy, fourth sergeant; Nathan High- 
smith, first corporal; Martin Fuller; second 
corporal; Jackson James, third corporal; 
John Lagow, fourth corporal; and John 
Allison, Samuel H. Allison, David M. Alli- 
son, John Brimberry, John Barrick, Benj. 
Carter, James Condrey, Thomas Easton, John 
Gregg, Wm. R. Grise, Peter Garrison, Hi- 
ram Johnson, John Johnson, Geoige W. Kin- 
ney, James Lewis, Wm. Levitt, John L. My- 
ers, A. W. Myers, Andrew Montgomery, 
Isaac Martin, John Parker, Sr., William Par- 
ker, Thomas N. Parker, John Parker, Jr., 
Amos Phelps, William Reese, Robert Simons, 
Thomas Stockwell, Jacob Vaunrinch, James 
Weger, privates. The company was mus- 
tered out of service August 2, 1832, at Dix- 
on's Ferry, Illinois, its term of enlistment 
having expired. 

Houston's company also belonged to the 
second regiment of the second brigade. It 


was enrolled June 19, 1833, and was as fol- 
lows: Alexander M. Houston, captain; George 
"W. Lagow, first lieutenant; James Boat- 
right, second lieutenant; O. F. D. Hampton, 
first sergeant; Levi Harper, second sergeant; 
David Porter, third sergeant; James Christy, 
fourth sergeant; Cornelius Doherty, first cor- 
poral; James B. Stark, second corporal; 
Joseph .Jones, third corporal; Rivers Heath, 
fourth corporal; Francis Waldrop, bugler, 
and Geo. W. Baugher, Blanton Blathares, 
John Bogard, Andrew Baker, Alexander 
Boatright, Samuel Cruse, Silas L. Danforth, 
Geo. B. Doughton, Edwin Fitch, Henry 
Fowler, John Goodwin, Silas Goodwin, Rob- 
ert Grinton, John Hutton, Joseph Hackett, 
John A. Hackett, Wm. Hawkins, John 
Houne, Wicklitfe KitchelL' James Kuyken- 
dall, Alexander Logan, Matthew Lackey, 
John McCoy, Johnson Neeley, Robert Por- 
ter, Wm. Porter, Wm. Pearson, Joseph Pear- 
son, Edwin Pearson, Zalmon Phelps, Samuel 
Shaw, John Stewart, John F. Vandeventer, 
Vastin Wilson, Jacob Walters, privates. 
This company was mounted, and was mus- 
tered out of the service at the end of the 
term of its enlistment, August 15, 1833, by 
order of Brigadier General Atkinson. 

The war ended with the battle of August 
3, 1833, at the mouth of Bad Axe, a creek 
emptying into the Mississippi River, a short 
distance above Prairie du Chien. In Sep- 
tember a treaty was made, which ended the 
Indian troubles in this State. Black Hawk 
had been captiired, and upon regaining his 
liberty ever after remained friendly to the 

Tlie 3Iexican War. — All readers of our 
history are acquainted with the events which 
led to the war between the United States 
and Mexico. It resulted from the "annexa- 
tion of Texas," as it was known, a former 
province of Muxico, and her adniissiou as a 

State into the Federal Union. Texas had re- 
volted, and for years her citizens had been 
carrying on a kind of guerrilla warfare with 
Mexico — a war attended with varied results, 
sometimes one party, and sometimes the 
other, being successful. The battle of San 
Jacinto was fought in 1836, and the Texans 
achieved a brilliant victory, capturing Santa 
Anna, then Dictator of Mexico, and killing 
or making prisoners his entire army. Santa 
Anna was held as a prisoner of war, and was 
finally released upon his signing a treaty ac- 
knowledging the independence of Texas. 
With all the treachery for which that Repub- 
lic has ever been noted, Mexico, in violation 
of every principle of honor, refused to recog- 
nize this treaty, and continued to treat Texas 
and the Texans as she had previously done. 
From this time on petitions were frequently 
presented to the Congress of the United 
States, praying admission into the Union. 
Mexico, however, endeavored to prevent this 
step, declaring that the admission of Texas 
into the American Union would be reo^arded 
as suificient provocation for a declaration of 

In the Presidential contest of 1841, between 
Henry Clay and James K. Polk, the annexa- 
tion of Texas was one of the leading issues 
before the people, and Mr. Polk, whose party 
(the Democrats) favored the admission of 
Texas, being elected, this was taken as a 
public declaration on the subject. After this. 
Congress no longer hesitated as to the grant- 
ing of the petition of Texas, and on the 1st 
of March, 1845, formally received the " Lone 
Star " into the sisterhood of States. In her 
indignation, Mexico at once broke off all di- 
plomatic relations with the United States, 
and called home her Minister. This, of itself, 
was a declaration of war, and war soon fol- 
lowed. Congress passed an act authorizing 
the President to accept the services of 



50,000 volunteers (which were to be raised at 
once), and appropriated $10,000,000 I'or the 
prosecution of tlie war. 

Illinois, in the apportionment, was required 
to luiriish three regiments of infantry or ri- 
flemen, the entire force called for being 
drawn principally from the Southern and 
Western States, on account of their closer 
proximity to the scene of war. Gov. Ford, 
in obedience to the act of Congress, called 
for thirty full companies of volunteers of a 
maximum of eighty men, to serve for twelve 
months. The call was responded to with en- 
thusiasm, and in ten days thirty-five compa- 
nies had organized and reported, and by the 
time the place of rendezvous (Alton) had 
been selected, seventy-five companies were 
recruited, each furious to go to the war. The 
Governor was compelled to select thirty com- 
pjinies — the full quota of the State — and the 
remaining forty odd companies were doomed 
to the disappointment of staying at home. A 
company made up in Crawford County was 
of this character. Bi'lbre they reached the 
" muster place " the quota was filled, and they, 
with the other companies not needed, vpere 
furnished transportation to their homes at the 
expense of the Government. 

The three original regiments were organ- 
ized as follows: First Rcqiment — John J. 
Hardin,* colonel; William B. Warren, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and Wm. A. Richardson, ma- 
jor, with ten full companies rank and file. 
btcoml Regiment — William H. Bissell, colo- 
nel; J. L. D. Morrison, lieutenant-co'onel, 
and Xerxes F. Frail, major; also ten full 
companies. Third Megimeiit — F. Foreman, 
colonel; W. W. Willey, lieutenant-colonel; 
and S. D. Marshall, major; with likewise ten 
companies. At the expiration of their term 

* Killed at thfi battle of Buena Vista, Feb. 23, 
1847, in the famous charge with Clay and McKee, of 
Kentucky. Wm. Weatherford was afterward elected 
colonel of the regiment. 

of service (one year) the first and second 
regiments were organized for "during the 
war," many of the soldiers re-enlisting, and 
the discrepancies being tilled by new recruits. 
Alter the quota of Illinois had been filled 
by the organization of the three regiments 
mentioned above, Hon. E. U. B iker, then a 
member of Congress from the Springfield 
district, induced the Secretary of War to ac- 
cept another regiment from this State, and 
thereupon the F'ourth regiment was organized 
as follows: Edward D. Baker, colonel; John 
Moore, lieutenant-colonel, and Thomas L. 
Harris, major. This regiment, like the others, 
contained ten companies, rank and file. A 
number of independent companies, in addi- 
tion to these four regiments, were enlisted in 
the State during the war. 

Under the second call for troops, a call 
known as the "Ten R'giments Bill," the 
First and Second Illinois regiments were re- 
organized. The Whigs, as a party, opposed 
the war with Mexico, and their opposition to 
the measure for additional troops and money, 
was bitter in the extreme. It was in opposi- 
tion to this bill that the Hon. Thos. Corvvin, 
of Ohio, in the United States Senate, made 
the ablest, speech of his life. In it he used 
the memorable words which have since be- 
come proverbial: "If I were a Mexican I 
would tell you, ' Have you not room in your 
own country to bury your dead men? If you 
come into mine, we will greet you with 
bloody hands, and welcome you to hospitable 
graves.' " But notwithstanding the opposi- 
tion to the bill it passed, and the war was 
fou'^ht out bv which the United States ac- 
quired valuable territory. 

Crawford County, as we have said, recruited 
a company, but wore too late, or too slow in 
their movements, to be admitted into the reg- 
iments allotted to the State. Of the men 
comprising this company we have but little 
data now, as the adjutant-general's report 



jyives but tlie names of those who actually 
participated in the war. Notwithstamling 
this company was not accepted, yet quite a 
number of men from the county went into 
the army from other sections. Tiie names of 
tiiese, liowevor, could not be obtained. Some 
of them have moved away, others are dead, 
and nut one is now known to be livinn; here. 
But there are several Mexican soldiers living 
in the county, who, at the time of their en- 
listment lived in other counties, and other 
States, and luive removed to this county since 
ih ' close of that war. 

The Ri hellion. — The lato war between the 
States next claims luir :itt<'ntion. We do not 
desiifn, how -ver, to write its history, as there 
is, at ]iiesent, more war literature extant than 
is read. But a history of Crawford County 
that did not contain something of its war 
record, would scarcely prove satisfactory to 
the general reader. It is a duty we owe to 
the soldiers who took part in the bloody 
struggle, to preserve, by record, the leading 
facts. Especially do we owe this to the long 
list of the dead, who laid down their lives 
that their country might live; we owe it to 
the maimed and mangled cripples who were 
torn by shot and shell; and, lastly, we owe it 
to the widows and orphans of those, who, for 
love of country, forsook home with all its en- 
dearments, exposing theinselves to the hor- 
rors of war, and whose bodies now lie rotting 
in the land of "cotton and cane." 

When the first call was made for volun- 
teers, it set the entire State in a blaze of ex- 
citement. Who does not remember the stir- 
ring days of '61, when martial music was 
lieard in every town ami hamlet, and tender 
■women, no less than brave men, were wild 
with enthusiasm? Wives encouraged their 
husbands to enlist, mothers urged their sons 
to patriotic devotion, and sisters te.derly 
gave their brothers to the cause of their 
country. It was not unlike the summons- - 

the fiery cross — of Rhodoric Dim to his clan — 

" Fast as the fatal synibjl flies. 
In arms the huts and hamlets rise; 
From winding glen, and upland brown, 
They poured each hardy yeoman down." 

But the citizens of Crawford County re- 
qu're no reminder of those thrilling times. 
The naines of their patriots are inscribed in 
characters that will stand as monuments in 
the memories of men, who, thoua:h dead lono- 
ago, yet will live, bright and imperishable as 
the rays of Ansterlitz's sun. Many who went 
forth to battle, came back to tlieir homes 
shrined in glory. Many left a limb in the 
swamps of the Chickahomlny; on the banks 
of the Rapidan; at Fredericksliurg, along the 
Shenandoah, or in the Wilderness. Many 
still bear the marks of the strife which raged 
at Stone River, Chickamauga, on the heights 
of Lookout Mountain, where in the lano-uasfe 
of Prentice — 

" they burst 

Like spirits of des^ruction, through the clouds, 
And "mid a thousand hurtling missiles, swept 
Their foes belore them, as the whirlwind sweeps 
The strong oaks of the forest.'' 

And there were those who came not back. 
They fell by the wayside, in prison and in 
battle. Their memory is held in sacred 
keeping. Others dragged their wearied 
bodies home to die, and now sleep beside 
their ancestors in the quiet graveyard, where 
the violets speak in tender accents of woman- 
ly devotion and affection. Some sleep in un- 
known graves where they fell, but the same 
trees which shelter the sepulcher of their foe- 
men shade theirs also; the same birds carol 
their miitins to both; the same flowers sweeten 
the air with their fragrance, as the breezes 
toss them into rippling eddies. Both are re- 
membered as they slumber there in peaceful, 
glorified rest. 

While we weave a laurel crown for our own 
dead, let us twine a cypress wreath about the 



memory of those who fell on the otlior side, 
and who, though arrayed against us, were — 
OUK BROTHERS. Mistaken though they were, 
we reinemijer hundreds of them over whose 
moldering dust we would gladly plant flowers 
with our own hands. Let us strike hands 
over the grave of Slavery, and be henceforth 
what we should ever have been — " brothers 

From the adjutant-general's report of the 
State, together with facts gleaned from local 
records, we compile a brief history of Craw- 
ford County in the late war. The sketch is 
necessarily limited and doubtless imperfect 
but is complete as time and space will per- 
mit us to make it. A few words will be de- 
voted to each regiment drawing men from 
the county. The first in the list was Grant's 
old rea-iment (the Twenty-first), which was 
recruited in an early period of the war. 

The Twenty-first Illinois Infantry was or- 
ganized at Mattoon, and was sworn into the 
State Service by Captain U. S. Grant, May 
15, 18G1, for three months, and on the 28th 
of June following it was mustered into the 
United States service for three years by 
Capt. Pitcher, of the United States Army, 
with U. S. Grant as colonel. He was com- 
missioned brigadier-general on the 6th of 
August, and Col. J. W. S. Alexander suc- 
ceeded him as colonel of the Twenty first. 
He fell at the battle of Chickamauga, Sep- 
tember 20, 18G3, at the head of the gallant 
old regiment. George W. Peck was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-first, 
but was discharged September 19, 1862, on 
account of ill-health. 

Company I of this regiment was recruited 
in Crawford County, and was officered as fol- 
lows: George W. Peck, captain; Clark B. 
Lagow, first lieutenant, and Chester K. 
Knight, second lieutenant. Capt. Peck was 
promoted to lieutenant-colonel September 2, 
1861, and Lieut. Knight became captain, and 

was mustered out November 16, 1864. Lieut. 
Lagow resigned in consequence of having 
been selected by Gen. Grant as a member of 
his staff. He served in this capacity, partici- 
pating in all of Gen. Grant's hard campaigns 
and desperate batth s from Belmont until he 
left the Western Department to take com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac, when, 
owing to a long continued attack of rhcu- 
m:itism, and an injury received from his horse 
falling under him at luka, he was compelled 
to resign. He was promoted from captain 
to colonel of volunteers, and then to colonel 
in the regular army for distinguished services 
rendered previous to the siege of Vicksburg. 
Durinor the sieg-e Gen. Grant wanted to use 
some steamers below the city, and could only 
get them there bypassing down the river di- 
rectly under the guns of the Confederate bat- 
teries. This, he said, was such a desperate 
undertaking, he would not detail any one to 
the duty, but called for volunteers to man 
the fleet. Col. Lagow, being of the number 
who volunteered, and one of Gen. Grant's 
tried officers, was given command of the ex- 
pedition — if such it could be called. He 
boldly stood upon the deck of the flag 
steamer while they ran the terrible gauntlet, 
in face of the enemy's concentrated batteries 
raining shot and shell upon them. His ves- 
sel was so riddled with shot that it had to be 
abandoned in front of their batteries, but he 
and the men surviving the terrible fire suc- 
ceeded in boarding another boat. Col. La- 
gow came through the ordeal without serious 
injurv, and saved the other boats, somewhat 
damaged, but not beyond repair, as their sub- 
sequent use demonstrated to the army. For 
this brilliant exploit he was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. 

The Twenty-first served in Jlissouri until 
the spring of 1863, when it was ordered to 
Corinth, Miss., and upon the evacuation of 
that place was engaged in several expedi- 



tions in the State. It pjirticipated in the 
Buell-Brag'g' race to Louisville, Ky., where it 
arrived September 37, 18G',aiid was engaged 
in the battle of Perryville on the Sth of Oc- 
tober, after which it returned to Nashville, 
Tenn., via Crab Orchard and Bowling Green, 
Ky. After participating in several trifling 
skirmishes it took an active part in the battle 
of Muifreesboro, doing gallant service, and 
losing more men than any other regiment en- 
gaged. It was with Rosocrans' army from 
JMurfreesboro to Chattanooga, and bore an 
honorable part in tlie bloody battle of Chick- 
auiauga, September 19th and 20th, 1863, los- 
ing its colonel kil'ed; its lieutenant-colonel also 
being wounded, the command of the regiment 
devolved on Capt. Knight. After the battle 
of Chickamauga it was on duty at BriJge- 
port, Ala., during the fall and winter of 1863, 
as a part of the First Brigade, First Divis- 
ion of the Fourth Army Corps. Its hard 
fighting was over, and after the close of the 
war it was on duty in Texas, until mustered 
out of the service at San Antonio, December 
16, 1805, when it returned to Illinois, and on 
the 18th of January, 1S66, it was paid off and 
discharged at Camp Butler. 

' The Thirtieth Illinois Infantry was indebt- 
ed to Crawford County for Company D, 
which went into the service with the follow- 
ing ofiScers: Thomas G. Markley, captain; 
Michael Langton, first lieutenant, and George 
E. Meily, second lieutenant. This company 
was unfortunate in officers. Capt. Markley 
was killed in the battle of Belmont Novem- 
ber 7, 1861; Lieut. Langton was promoted 
(laptain in his place, and resigned October 
23, 1862; Lieut. Meily was promoted captain 
April 13, 1803, and was killed May 16th fol- 
lowing; Patterson Sharp was promoted cap- 
tain June 13, 1803, and was mustered out of 
the service July 8, 1805. First Lieut. W. D. 
Hand (vas promoted captain .July 10, 1805, 
but mustered out as first lieutenant; Martin 

L. James was promoted to second lieutenant, 
but mustered out July 17, 1865, as sergeant. 

The Thirtieth Infantry was or2:anized at 
Camp Butler, August 28, 1861, and moved at 
once to Cairo, where it was assigned to the 
brigade of Gen. John A. M Clernand. It 
was sent on an expedition to Columbus, Ky., 
in October, and November 7th it took part in 
the battle of Belmont, where it performed 
gallant service, capturing the celebrated 
Watson's New Orleans battery. In February 
it moved up the Tennessee River, and was at 
Forts Henry and Donelson. As a part of 
Logan's brigade, it participated in the siege 
of Corinth. It served in Mississippi until 
late in December, when it was ordered to 
Memphis, Tenn., where it arrived January 
19, 1803. Here it formed a part of Leg- 
gett's brigade, Logan's division, and McPher- 
son's corps. In February it was ordered to 
Louisiana, but in the latter part of April it 
returned to Mississippi, taking part in sev- 
eral skirmishes, and on the 10th of May it 
participated in the battle of Champion Hills, 
losing heavily. It crossed Black River with 
the army, and arrived in the rear of Vicks- 
burg May 19, 1803. It was actively engaged 
in the siege of Vicksburg until .Tune 33J, 
when it moved to Black R ver, under Gon. 
Sherman, to watch the Confederate Gen. 
Johnson. After the fail of Vicksburg, it re- 
mained in camp until August 29lh, when it 
removed to Monroe, La., but soon returned 
and was on duty in Mississippi the remain- 
der of the year. 

It was mustered in January 1, 1864, as a 
veteran organization, and continued on duty 
in Mississippi until the 5th of March, when 
it left Vicksburg on veteran furlough, and ar- 
rived at Camp Butler on the 12th; on the 
18th of April it left for the front, and pro- 
ceeded to Tennessee, serving in that State 
and AlaVjama until the opcn)ingof the Atlanta) 
Campaign, in which it took an active part. 



It participated in the several enarasements 
around Atlanta, and on the ith of October it 
went in pursuit ol" Gen. Hood, returning No- 
vember 5th to camp. It accompanied Sher- 
man's army in its march to the sea, taking part 
in that famous c;impaign. It went to Wash- 
ington April 29, 1SG.5, by way of Richmond, 
participating in the grand review May 24:th, 
at Washington, and June 11th it left for 
Louisville, Ky., where it was mustered out of 
the service, and returned to Camp Butler for 
final discharge. 

The Thirty-eighth Illinois Infantry, was the 
next regiment to which the county con- 
tributed. Company D was drawn princi- 
pally from Crawford, and went into the service 
with the following commissioned officers: 
Alexander G. Sutherland, captain; James 
Moore, first lieutenant, and Robert Plunkett, 
second lieutenant. Captain Sutherland re- 
signed April 15, 1864, and Robert Duckworth 
was elected captain, but also resigned Sep- 
tember IS, 1865. Lieut. Moore resigned May 
29, 1863, and Nicholas Glaze was promoted 
to first lieutenant and mustered out as ser- 
geant September 14, 1864. Robert Stewart 
was promoted to first lieutenant and was 
mustered out with the regiment March 20, 
1866. Lieut. Plunkett was mustered out at 
the end of first three years. 

The Thirty-eighth was organized at Camp 
Butler in September, 1861, and soon after was 
ordered to Missouri, and wintered at Pilot 
Knob. In March, 1863, at Reeves Station; 
the Twenty-first, Thirty-third and Thirty- 
eighth Illinois, the Eleventh Wisconsin In- 
fantry; the Fifth, Seventh and Ninth Illinois 
Cavalry, the First Indiana Cavalry and the 
Sixteenth Ohio Battery, were formed into the 
Division of Southeast Missouri under com- 
mand of Brigadier-General Steele. The first 
brigade of this force was commanded by Col- 
Carlin of the Thirty-eighth Illinois, and con- 
sisted of the Twenty-first and Thirty-eighth 

Illinois Infantry, Fifth Cavalry and the Six- 
teenth Ohio Battery. On the 2 1st of April 
the command moved into Arkansas, Ijut in May 
the Twenty-first and Thirty-eighth were or- 
dered back to Missouri, and thence proceeded 
to Mississippi, arriving before Corinth during 
the last days of the siege. It remained in 
Mississippi until August when it joined Buell's 
army and took part in the chase of Bragg 
to Louisville. Returning, it participated in 
the battle of Perryville, capturing, with its 
brigade, an ammunition train, two caissons 
and about one hundred prisoners, and was 
honorably mentioned in Gen. MitchpU's re- 
port of the battle. It followed in pursuit of 
Bragg as far as Crab Orchard, Ky., and then 
returned to Nashville, arriving November 9th. 
It advanced with its brigade from Nashville 
December 26th and took an active part in the 
battle of Stone River, in which it sustained a 
loss of thirty-four killed, one hundred and 
nine wounded, and thirty-four missing. It 
remained at Murfreesboro until in June, 1803, 
being in the meantime transferred to the 
Twentieth Army Corps. It was at Liberty 
Gap, and on the 25th of June, it was ordered 
to relieve the Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania, 
which was hotly pressed by the enem\-. The 
Thirtj'-eighth charged across a plowed field 
under a heavy fire, and drove the enemy from 
their works and cajjtured the flag of the 
Second Arkansas. In a skirmish the next 
day the regiment lost three men killed and 
nineteen wounded. It remained in active 
service during the summer and bore a promi- 
nent part in the battle of Chickamauga in 
which it lost 180 men killed, wounded and 
missing, out of 301 who went into the battle. 
It went to Bridgeport, Ala., October 25th, 
where it went into winter quarters. February 
29, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted, and in 
March, came home on veteran furlough. At 
the expiration of its furlough it returned to 
Nashville, and on the 17th of May it entered 





upon the campaicru in Georgia, wliich termi- 
nated with the fall of Atlanta. It was ('ni;fa"-ed 
principally in escort duty, with frequent 
skirmishes, until in June, 1805, when it em- 
barked lor New Orleans, and in July it went 
to Texas, where it served until its muster out 
December 31, 1865. It was then ordered to 
Springfield, 111., where it was paid off and dis- 

The Sixty-second Illinois Infantry drew a 
company from Crawford, as well as a couple 
of its field officers. Stephen M. Meeker, the 
major of the Sixty-second, was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel August 13, 1863, and Feb- 
ruary 3, 1865, was discharged. Guy S. Alex- 
ander, who entered the service as second 
lieutenant of Company F, was promoted to 
first lieutenant, then to captain, and under 
the consolidation of the Sixty-second was pro- 
moted to major of the new organization. 

Company D of the Sixty-second contained a 
few men from this county, while Company F 
was principally made up here. Company F 
went into the service with the following com- 
missioned officers: Jesse Crooks, captain; 
James J. McGrew, first lieutenant, and Guv 
S. Alexander, second lieutenant. Captain 
Crooks died October 7, 1864, and December 
16th, Lieutenant Alexander was promoted to 
captain. Upon the promotion of Captain 
Alexander, George B. Everingham, who had 
risen to second and then to first lieutenant, 
was, on the 5th of May, 1865, promoted to 
captain, and transferred to the consolidated 
regiment as captain of Company F. Lieu- 
tenant McGrew resigned September 11, 1862, 
and Guy S. Alexander promoted in his place. 
George F. DollUigji was promoted from 
second lieutenant to first, and transferred, 
and James Moore, John E. Miller and Wash- 
ington T. Otey were promoted to second 

The Sixty-second was organized at Anna, 
Illinois, in April, 186"2, and was at once or- 

dered to C.iiro. May 7th it moved to Paducah, 
and in June to Columbus, Ky., and from thence 
to Tennessee. It remained in Tennessee 
until ordered into Mississippi. On the 
20th of December, Van Dorn captured Hollv 
Springs, and among his prisoners were 170 
men of the Sixty-second, including the major 
and three lieutenants. These were paroled, 
but all the records and papers of the regiment 
were destroyed. April 15, 1863, the regiment 
was brigaded with the Fiftieth Indiana, 
Twenty-seventh Iowa and the First West 
Tennessee regiments, in the second brigade 
of the Third Division, Sixteenth Army Corps. 
It was on duty in Mississippi and Tennessee 
until the 24tli of August, when it was ordered 
to Arkansas, where it served until January, 

1804. It then re-enlisted as veterans, and 
on the 25th of April moved to Pine Bluff, 
remaining there until August 12th, when it 
came home on veteran furlough. At expira- 
tion of its furlough it returned to Pine Bluff, 
where it arrived November 25, 1804. Here 
the non-%'eterans were mustered out and the 
veterans consolidated into seven companies, 
and remained on duty at Pine Bluff. July 
28, 1805, it was ordered to Fort Gibson, in 
the Cherokee Nation, and served in the Dis- 
trict of the frontier until March 6, 1860, when 
it was mustered out of service at Little Rock 
and sent home for final pay and discharge. 

The Sixty-third Illinois Infantry also drew 
a company from Crawford County. C'ompany 
G was enrolled with the following commis- 
sioned officers: Joseph R. Stanford, cap- 
tain; W. B. Russell, first lieutenant, and W. 
P. Richardson, second lieutenant. Captain 
Stanford was promoted to major, June 14, 

1805, and mustered out with the regiment 
on the 13th of July. Lieutenant Russell re- 
signed February 4, 1803; Second Lieutenant 
Richardson was promoted to adjutan^., De- 
cember 10, 1802. George W. Ball was made 
first lieutenant upon the resignation of Lieut. 



Russell, and died May 34, 1884, when Charles 
G. (Jochran became first lieutenant, and on the 
promotion of Capt. Stanford, was made cap- 
tain in his place. Harvey G. Wycoff was 
made first lieutenant, but mustered out as ser- 
geant, July 13, 1865, with the regiment. 
George B. Richardson was promoted to sec- 
ond lieutenant, and resigned December 20, 
18G3; Benj. B. Fannam was also promoted 
to second lieutenant, but mustered out as ser- 

This regiment, like the Sixty-second, was 
organized at Anna, III., known then as Camp 
Dubois, in December, 1801, and on the 27th of 
April following it was ordered to Cairo. Af- 
ter a short expedition into Kentucky, it was, 
on the 4th of August, ordered to Jackson, 
Tenn., where it was assigned to the Fourth 
Brigade, Seventh Division of the Seventeenth 
Army Corps, .John A. Logan commanding 
the Division. It operated in Tennessee 
and Mississippi, and was at the siege of 
Vicksburg. On the 12th of September, 1803, 
it was ordered to Helena, Ark., and on the 
28th to Memphis; it moved toward Chatta- 
nooga October 6th, and on the 23d of Novem- 
ber participated in the battle of Mission 
Ridge. After pursuing the enemy to Ring- 
gold, Ga., it returned to Bridgeport, Ala., 
thence to Huntsville, where it arrived on the 
26th and went into winter quarters. Janu- 
ary 1, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as vet- 
erans, and on the 3d of April came home on 
furlough. May 21st, it reported again for duty 
at Huntsville and was assigned to the duty of 
guarding the railroads until the 11th of No- 
vember, when it was ordered to join Gen. 
Sherman. It accompanied him in his cele- 
brated march to the sea, participating in most 
of the battles and skirmishes of the campaign. 
It left Raleigh, N. C, and proceeded to Rich- 
mond, Va., thence to Washington city, where 
it took part in the grand review on the 24th 
of May. After the review it was ordered to 

Louisville, Ky., where, on the 13th of Julj-, 
1865, it was mustered out of the service and 
sent home. The following statistics are fur- 
nished of this resriment: 


Original aggregate 888 

Present when re-enlisted 322 

Veteran? of eiglit companies (two companies being in- 
eligible) '^72 

Arrival at Camp Butler, July 16, 1865, for discharge 272 


Distance traveled by rail 2,208 

'* '* ** water 1,995 

" marched 2,250 

Total 6,453 

The Seventy-ninth Illinois Infantry con- 
tained, we believe, a few men from Crawford 
County; but no organized force was enlisted 
here for the regiment. We have no data at 
hand of the recruits from the county to the 
Seventy-ninth, or of their service. 

The Ninety-eighth Illinois Infantry drew 
more men, perhaps, from this county, than 
any other regiment. Two full cotnpanies (D 
and E) may be termed Crawford County 
companies. Company D was sworn into the 
service with the following commissioned offi- 
cers: M'^illiam Wood, captain; James II. 
Watts, first lieutenant; and William G. 
Young, second lieutenant. Captain Wood 
resigned, Dec. 5, 1864, and Second Lieuten- 
ant Young became captain in his place. 
Lieutenant Watts resigned February 22, 

1863, and David L. Condrey was promoted 
in his stead, remaining with the regiment to 
its muster-out. Achilles M. Brown became 
second lieutenant, and resigned March 22, 

1864. Of other promotions, we have no facts. 
Company E was organizsd with the follow- 
ing officer^: .John T. Cox, captain; I.-a A. 
Flood, first lieutenant; and Charles Wil- 
lard, second lieutenant. Captain Cox re- 
signed April 13, 1863, and Lieutenant Flood 
was promoted to the vacancy, and on the 15th 
of June, 1865, he was promoted to major, 
but mustered out as captain. George B. 



Sweet beciime secoml lieutenant, was pro- 
moted to first, iind then to captain, but mus- 
tered out as first lieutenant. John Boes 
became second lieutenant, and was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant, and mustered out 
with the regiment. Second Lieutenant Wil- 
lard resigned .March 20, 1863; J. W. .fones 
was promoted to second lieutenaut, but mus- 
tered out as sergeant. 

The Ninety-eighth * was organized at Cen- 
tralia. 111., and was mustered into the United 
States service September 3, ISG'i, and on 
the 8th it started for Louisville, Kv., then 
threatened by Gen. Bragg. It was embarked 
on two railroad trains, and when near Bridge- 
port, 111., the foremost train was thrown from 
the track by a displaced switch and five men 
killed, among whom was Captain O. L. Kel- 
ly of Company K, while some 7-) others were 
injured, several of whom afterward died. 
Arriving at Louisville, it was brigaded with 
the Seventy-second and Seventy-fifth In- 
diana Infantry, and the Thirteenth Indiana 
Battery, Col. A. O. Miller of the Seventy- 
second Indiana, commanding. The regi- 
ment, witli its brigade, served in Kentucky 
until in November, when it marched into 
Tennessee. From Gallatin it moved to Cas- 
tilian Springs, and on the 14th of Dec(>mber, 
to Bledsoe Creek. December 2Gth it began 
the march northward in pursuit of Gen. Mor- 
gan, arriving at Glasgow on the 31st; and on 
the 2d of January, 1863, it moved to Cave 
City, and from thence to Nashville on thj 
5th; then to Murfreesboro where, on the l-tth, 
it was assigned to the First Brigade, Fifth 
Division, Fourteenth Army Corps. On the 
8th of March, the regiment was ordered to be 
mounted, and served in Tennessee where it 

* The sketch of the Ninety-eighth given herewith 
is oompileil from a history of thj regim 'nfc written 
by Adjutant Aden Knoph, and published in the Ar- 
gus in Septembsr, 1882. 

did active duty in scouting- guarding for- 
age trains, etc., until the Chattanooga cam- 
paign, in which it participated. On the 20tii 
of September, at Cliattanooga, Col. Funk- 
houser of the Ninety-eighth, was severely 
wounded, and the command of the regiment 
devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel Kitchell. 
The regiment lost in the l)attle five men 
killed and thirty-six woan:led. It continued 
to operate in Tennessee, engaged in scout- 
ing and skirmishing, until the campaign in 
Georgia, when it was assigned to the Second 
Cavalry Division, commanded by Gen. Crook, 
and took an active part at Ringgold, Buzzard 
Roost, Dallas, Marietta, Rough-and-Ready, 
and other places familiar to the Army of the 
Cumberland, the Ohio, and Tennessee. On 
the 1st of November, 1864, the Regiment 
turned over its horses and equipments to Kil- 
patrick, and moved via Chattanooga and 
Nashville to Louisville, where it arrived on 
the 16th, and lay in camp for some time, wait- 
ing to be equipped anew. Taking the war- 
path again, it, on the 31st of December moved 
to Eiizidjethtown, Ky., thence to Mumford- 
ville. Bowling Green, and finally to Nashville. 
,Tanu;ir\' 1"2, 1805. the command moved into 
Alabama, remaining at Gravelly Springs un- 
til March 8th, when it moved to Waterloo, 
and on the 31st, to Montevallo, and April 2d 
took part in the capture of Solma. This was 
the last severe duty of the Ninety-eighth, as 
on the 20th of April they were detailed as 
provost guard of JIacon, Ga. May 22d it 
started for Chattanooga, and from thence to 
Nashville, where it arrived on the loth, and 
June 27, 1865, it was mustered out of the 
service and ordered to Springfield, 111., for 
final discharge. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
called into service for 100 days, had one com- 
pany recruited mostly in Crawford County. 
Company 11 was commanded bv Capt. James 
1>. A^'icklin, with Philip Brown as first lieu 



tenant and A. D. Otey, second lieutenant. 
We have no record of its operations during 
its term of service. 

Tlie One Hundred and Fifty-second In- 
fantry recruited under the call for " one year 
service," contained a Crawford County com- 
pany. Company H veent into the field in 
charge of the following commissioned officers: 
George W. Beam, captain; William Dyer, 
first lieutenant; Ferdinand Hughes, second 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second was 
recruited for one year, and was organized at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, February 18, 1865. It 
went to Nashville, and thence to TuUahoma. 
It was mustered out of the service September 
11, 1865, at Camp Butler. 

The One Hundred and Fifty- fifth Infantry 
drew a company from Crawford County. 
Company C was principally from this county, 
and had the following commissioned officers: 
John W. Lowber, captain; Ross Neeley, first 
lieutenant, and Marshall C. Wood, second 

This regiment was organized at Camp But- 
ler, Illinois, February 28, 18G5, for one year. 
March 2d, the regiment, 904 strong, proceeded 
via Louisville and Nashville to Tullahoma, 
where it was employed mostly in guard duty 
on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. 
September 4, 1865, it was mustered out of 
the service at Camp Butler and discharged. 

The Fifth Illinois Cavalry contained a 
Crawford County company of men. Com- 
pany F was principally from this county, and 
was officered as follows: Horace P. Mum- 
ford, captain; Francis M. Doroth}', first lieu- 
tenant, and Wm. Wagenseller, second lieu- 
tenant. Capt. Mumford was promoted to 
major of the regiment May 24, 1803, and died 
October 26, 1864, at Springfield, 111. Lieut. 
Dorothy resigned January 10, 1863; Lieut. 
Wagenseller was promoted to first lieutenant 
January 10, 1863, and to captain May 24, 

1863, and then resigned. Thos. J. Dean be- 
came second lieutenant, was promoted to first 
lieutenant May 24, 1863, to captain July 5, 

1864, and died on the 20th of September fol- 
lowing. James H. Wood became second 
lieutenant May 34, 1863, was promoted to 
first lieutenant July 5, 1864, to captain Sep- 
tember 20, 1864, and was mustered out with 
the regiment at the close of the war. Edwin 
P. Martin was promoted to second lieutenant, 
then became adjutant and alterward resigned. 
Jacob Stifal was made first lieutenant, and 
remained in the service until the muster out 
of the regiment; James G. Bennett was pro- 
moted to second lieutenant October 26, 1865, 
but mustered out as sergeant. 

Of the field and staff, Major Mumford, 
Adjutant Martin, Quartermaster Robert C. 
Wilson, and Surgeon Wm. Watts, were 
Crawford County men. Adjutant Martin re- 
signed. Quartermaster Wilson was mustered 
out of the service. Dr. Watts entered as 
assistant surgeon, was promoted to surgeon, 
and was mustered out October 27, 1865, with 
the regiment. 

Maj. Mumford died in the latter part of 
1664. The following tribute to his gallantry 
as a soldier and officer, was paid him by Gen. 
Dennis, in a letter to Hon. Jesse K. Dubois: 
'' This will be handed you by Maj. Mumford, 
Fifth Illinois Cavalry Volunteers. The Major 
has been in my command for the last four 
months, and the greater portion in command 
of his regiment. In the expedition from 
Vicksburg, the Major had command of the 
entire cavalry forces, composed of parts of 
four regiments. When I say that he handled 
his command as well, and did better fighting 
than any cavalry officer I have met with in 
Mississippi, it will be indorsed by all the old 
officers who were with the late raids. Maj.- 
Gen. Slocum was so well please i and satis- 
fied with him and the good discipline of his 
men, that he continued him in coniuiand, noi 



withstanding his supoiiois were present with 
the expedition." 

The Fifth Cavalry was organized at Camp 
ButU;r in November, 1861, witli Hall Wilson, 
colonel. It served in Missouri and Arkansas 
until the SOth of May, 1803, when it embarked 
for Vicksburg. xVfter the fall of that rebel 
stronghold, it accompanied Gen. Sherman's 
army toward Jackson, and was engaged in 
several skirmishes with the enemy in which it 
sustained some loss. It was on active duty in 
Mississippi until January 1, 1864, when many 
of its men re-enlisted as veterans, and on the 
17th of March, the veterans were furlougliod. 
May 27th, Col. McConnell took command, 
when eight companies were dismounted, and 
Companies A, B, C and D, were fully armed 
and equipped. This battalion of cavalry con- 
tinued to serve in Mississippi, and was actively 
engaged most of the time in raiding and 
scouting. January 24, 1865, the battalion 
moved to Memphis, and thence on an expedi- 
tion to Southern Arkansas and Louisiana, re- 
turning February 13th. On the 1st of .luly, 
it was ordered to Texas. It served in Texas 
until October 6th, when it was sent home to 
Springfield, 111., and on the 27th, was mus- 
tered out of the service, paid off and dis- 

This completes the sketch of Illinois regi- 
ments in which Crawford County was repre- 
sented. Many men, however, enlisted in 
other States, particularly in Missouri and In- 
diana. Several Missouri regiments contained 
a large number of Crawford County men, but 
how many, we have no accurate means of 

During the four years of the war, the county 
kept up her enlistments, equal to almost any 
other county in the State. There was but 
one draft, and that vcas for a few men only. 
The deficiency was thus apportioned among 
the different precincts: Hutsonville, 10; 
Robinson, 5; Watts, 19; Licking, 16; Mar- 

tin, none; Franklin, 33; Embarras, 11; North- 
west, 8; Montgomery, 21; 01>long, 0; Pales- 
tine, 14, and Southwest, 3. Buforo the date 
fixed for the draft, some of the precincts had 
filled their quotas, and others had decreased 
the deficiency, so that when it actually took 
place, it was as follows: Franklin, 16; Watts, 
8; Licking, 8; Hutsonville, 1; Oblong, 3; 
Northwest, 4; Montgomery, 10; with a like 
number of " reserves " from each of the drafted 
precincts. The Argus published the following, 
as the full quota of the county by precincts, un- 
der the] different calls, including the last two 
in 1864, whicli two alone aggregated 500,000 
men: Hutsonville, quota 176 — credit, 166; 
Robinson, quota 198 — credit, 193; Watts, 
quota, 67 — credit, 48; Licking, quota 72 — ■ 
credit, 56; Martin, quota 69 — credit, 69; 
Franklin, quota 144 — credit. 111; Embarras, 
quota 55 — credit, 44; Northwest, quota 59 — 
credit, 51; Montgomery, quota 86 — credit, 65; 
Oblong, quota 55 — credit, 49; Palestine, quota 
148 — credit, 133; Southwest, quota 20 — 
credit, 17; total quota, 1,149; total credits, 
1,' 03; deficiency, 146. Another draft was 
ordered later on, to fill up the quota on a last 
call, but before the appointed day came, more 
welcome nev\-s was flashed over the wires, viz.: 
the fall of Richmond, the surrender of Gon. 
Lee, and the armies of the Confederacy. The 
draft was declared " off;" the war was over, 
the country was saved, and the troops were 
coming home. The saddest part of the home- 
coming, was in the many vacancies in the 
broken ranks — the absence of " those who 
came not back." A little poem dedicated to 
the "Illinois dead," and published in the 
initiatory number of the Arffun, is appropriate: 

" Oh, sing the funeral roundelay, 
Let warmest tears be shed, 
And rear the mighty mouumenta 
For the Illinois dead. 

" On many a field of victory 
Tliey slumber in th';'ir gore, 



They rest beneath the shining sands 
On ocean's soundmg shore. 

" Where from Virginia's mountain chains, 
By Rappahannock's side, 
Upon the Heights of Maryland 
Her gallant sons have died. 

" The broken woods of Tennessee, 
Are hallowed by their blood. 
It consecrates Missouri's plains, 
And Mississippi's flood, 

" Kentucky's ' dark and bloody ground, 
Is furrowed by theu- graves; 
They sleep in Alabama's soil, 
By Pamlico's dark waves. 

" And Mississippi's poison swamps, 
Arkansas river ways, 
And Pennsylvania's pleasant towns 
Attest our heroes praise. 

"They saw them in the ranks of war, 
Oh. memory dark with woe! 
They saw them yield to death, who ne'er 
Had yielded to the foe. 

" Then weave the chaplets fair and well 
To grace each noble name. 
That grateful llhuois writes 
Upon the scroll of fame. 

' Her sons have led the battle's van. 
Where many fought and fell, 
With all the noble Gracchi's zeal. 
The hero faith of Tell." 

We can not close this chapter more appropri- 
ately, than to devote a few words to the noble 
women of the land, whose zeal and patriotism 
were as strong as those who bore the brunt 
of the battle. They could not shoulder their 
guns and march in the ranks, but they w >re 
not idle spectators of the struggle. How 
often was the soldier's heart encouraged; how 
often his right arm made stronger to strike for 
freedom by the cheering words of patriotic, 
hopeful women! And how often the poor lad 
whom disease had fastened, was made to tliank 
devoted women for their ceaseless and un- 

wearied exertions in collecting and sending 
stores for the comfort of the sick and wounded. 
We may boast of the fame and prowess of a 
Grant, a Sherman, a Lee, a Sheridan, but the 
devotion of those noblewomen surpasses tiiem 
all, and truly, the world sustains its heaviest 
loss when such spirits fall. A war correspond- 
ent paid them the following merited tribute: 
"While soldiers of every grade and color are 
receiving eulogies and encomiums of a grate- 
ful people, patient, forbearing w^oman is for- 
gotten. The scar-worn veteran is welcomed 
with honor to home. The recruit, the colored 
soldier, and even the hundred days' men re- 
ceive the plaudits of the nation. But not one 
word is said of that patriotic, widowed mother, 
who sent with a mother's blessing on his head, 
her only son, the staff and support of her de- 
clining years, to battle for his country. The 
press says not one word of the patriotism, the 
sacrifices of the wife, sister or daughter, who 
with streaming eyes, and almost broken heart, 
said to husbands, brothers, fathers, " much as 
we love you, we can not bid you stay with us 
when our country needs yon; nay, we bid you 
go, and wipe out the insult offered the star- 
spangled banner, and preserve unsullied this 
union of States." 

Brave and noble, self-sacrificing women! 
your deeds deserve to be written in letters of 
shining gold. Love and devotion to the un- 
fortunate and heart-felt pity for the woes of 
suffering humanity are among your brightest 
characteristics. Your kindly smiles of sym- 
pathy break through the clouds of misfortune, 
and your gentlest tones are breathed amid 
the sighs of suffering and sorrow. Your 
o-entle ministrations to the war-worn soldiers, 
in humble imitation of Him who taught the 
sublime lesson about the cup of cold water to 
the little one, will live as long as the trials 
and hardships of the war are remembered, 
and that will be glory enough. 







"And nature glarlly gave them place. 
Adopted them into her race." — Emerson. 

nOUTHERN Illinois is an offspring of the 
O "South." Freed from British control in 
177S by a son of Virginia, and passing its early 
existence under the colonial regime as the 
county Illinois of the State of Virginia, its 
first American settlements were founded by 
emigrants from County Kentucky, and the 
parent State. Later, as the territorial posses- 
sion of the general government, the story of 
its beautiful plains, its stately woods and its 
navigable rivers, spread to the contiguous 
States of North Carolina and Tennessee, and 
brought from thence a vast influ.x: of popula- 
tion. The early tide of emigration set 
toward the region marked by the old French 
settlements, and reaching out from this point 
followed the course of the rivers which drew 
their sources from the northern interior. 
Thus for some thirty j-ears the eastern side of 
this fair country was almost ignored, but the 
military activities involved in the war of 1813 
brought many of the hardy citizens of the 
south in actual contact with the beauties of 
the " Wabash country," and the years of 
1S14-15 witnessed a concourse of clamorous 
immigrants held in abeyance upon the bor- 
der only b}' the slow pacification of the Indi- 
ans who had engaged in the war on the side 
of the British. Here and there, one more 

•By .1. H. Battle. 

bold than the rest, reared his rude tabernacle 
upon this debatable ground and occasion- 
ally paid the forfeiture of his life for his 
temerity. But the barrier once removed, the 
swollen tide spread rapidly over the coveted 
land, and up sprang as though by magic, the 
log cabins, the teeming harvests, the mill, the 
church, the school-house, and all the " busy 
hum " of pioneer activity. Such in brief is 
the history of Crawford County. 

The division of the County to which our 
attention is now directed, is the outgrowth of a 
later development. As settlements increased, 
precincts were formed which were after- 
ward subdivided, and in 1868 the present 
township organization was effected. Under 
the original division this township formed the 
central part of LaMotte Precinct, and on the 
removal of the county seat from Palestine, 
this became Robinson Precinct, in honor of .f. 
M. Robinson, a leading attorney and promi- 
nent citizen of Carmi. The township thus 
designated includes thirty sections of town 7 
north, range 12 west, of the government sur- 
vey, eighteen sections of town 6 north, same 
range, sections 1, 13, and 13 of town north, 
range 13 west, and sections 12, 13, 24, 25 and 
36, of town 7 north, same range, a total of 
fifty-six sections. The original character of 
the country included within these limits was 
part," barrens" and part true prairie. These 
were irregularly distributed, the latter gener- 
ally proving to be low levels when the con- 



centrated moisture prevented the growth of 
the timber of this region. The whole surface, 
however, was such as to afford but little ob- 
stacle to the progress of the regular fall fires, 
and only here and there a good sized tree 
stood out upon the blackened plain as evi- 
dence that the whole land had not been van- 
quished by the fiery onslaught. But the first 
settlers found further evidence of the char- 
acter of the land, in the roots or "grubs" 
•which still remained in the ground, and it 
seemed an aggravation of the usual hardships 
of pioneer experience that the condition of 
the prairie land forced the new-comer to se- 
lect the poorer land. The' natural drainage 
of the township is toward the east, south and 
■west from the central part. Sugar Creek 
received two small affluents from the western 
side; Honey Creek takes its rise a short dis- 
tance to the south of the village, and an arm 
of Big Creek drains the eastern side. The 
soil is a strong yellow clay, which has been 
the chief resource of the community settled 
here. Since the early years of the settlement 
but little attention has been paid to stock 
raising, save perhaps in the case of hogs, and 
a system of mixed husbandry in which the 
cultivation of corn and wheat has been prom- 
inent, has prevailed. 

The settlement of Robinson township was 
not the result of that orderly succession of 
immigrants often observed, but checked at 
the Palestine fort, for a year or two the immi- 
gration gathered such members that when 
once the fear of Indian hostility was removed, 
the cooped- up settlers spread simultaneously 
in all parts of the country. A list of the early 
entries of land will give some notion of the 
early comers to the country and their choice 
of lands, though they did not all settle upon 
the lands they entered. The entries in town 
7 north, range 12 west, were on section 9, 
Jesse Page and Harmon Gregg, in 1817; on 
sect;on 10, James Newlin and John Hill, in 

1818; on section 11, Thomas Newlin, Thomas 
Young and Nathan Mars, in 1818; on section 
12, Joshua Barbee, in 1818, and Enoch Wil- 
hoit in 1820; on section 13, William Dunlap 
and William Everman, in 1818; on section 15, 
James J. Nelson, in 1818; on section 17, 
Armstead Bennett, in 1818; on section 22, 
W. T. Barry, in 1818, and in the previous year 
on section 27; on section 23, Wilson Lagow, 
in 1817, and WilHam Nelson, in 1818; on 
section 24, William Mitchell, in 1818, and 
William Barbee in 1817; on section 25, John 
Mars and William Mitchell, in 1817. In 
town 6 north, range 13 west, entries were 
made by Charles Dawson, in 1818, and Jona- 
than and John Wood, in 1819, on section 1; 
and by Richard Easton, on section 3, in 
1818. In town 7 north, range 13 west, on 
section 11, Wilson Lagow made entry in 
1817, and Ithra Brashears, in 1818; on sec- 
tion 12, Lagow made an entry in 1817, and in 
the following year, Lewis Little and Barnett 
Starr, made entries of land. A number of 
these entries were made for speculative pur- 
poses; other entries were subsequently relin- 
quished for a consideration or of necessity, and 
a number of persons came here who stayed 
for a few years and moved away without 
making any attempt to secure a title to land 
or staying here permanently, entered land 
much later, so that so far as forming any 
judgment of the actual settlement of Robin- 
son, these entries afford but little data. 

Among the earliest of the settlers in this 
township was the Newlin family. The flat- 
tering reports of the character of the Wabash 
Valley had reached North Carolina, and 
leaving his native State, Nathaniel Newlin 
went to Tennessee, where his brothers, John 
and Eli, had settled, to urge them toward 
the new land of promise. He was so success- 
ful that in 1817 the three brothers moved to 
the "Beech Woods" in Indiana. Nathaniel 
was not then married, but the trip to this 



region satisfied him that this was the country 
to live in, and in the fall he returned to brinor 
out his father, John Newlin, Sr. In the fol- 
lowing spring he returned to the valley, but 
his brother not liking their location, he de- 
termined to try the west side of the river, and 
eventually fixed upon a site on section 10, 
towi' 7 north, 13 west. In the same spring, 
the boys, John and Eli, left their place on the 
Indiana side and came to Robinson. When 
the older Newlin came, his son Thomas was 
prepared to move at the same time, but his 
wife being sick he was obliged to remain. 
Durinsr the summer Nathaniel returned to 
North Carolina, married a lady and assisted 
his brother, Thomas, to get his goods togeth- 
er for removal. The latter's wife had so far 
recovered as to attempt the journey. The 
family consisted of the sick wife, his sister, 
and five children, with Nathaniel and his 
bride. With these stowed away in such space 
as the household effects left in a large Vir- 
ginia land schooner, the journey was begun, 
the men walking most of the way or riding a 
spare horse which was the marriage portion 
of the bride. Quite a number of families 
started in company for the new country, con- 
tinuing together across a corner of Virginia 
to Crab Orchard, Kentucky, where the rest 
took the right hand road which led toward 
Indiana, thus parting company. While pass- 
ing through Virginia, Mrs. Newlin grew 
worse, and finally died, the sorrowing family 
being compelled to bury her there among 
strangers. On reaching this country, they 
found shelter in the cabin of John Newlin, 
Sr., who very soon afterward took up his 
home in a new but smaller cabin which was 
at once constructed. 

In 1817, Thomas Young, William Barbee 
and Nathan Mars, came to this country to 
prospect for a home. The other two men 
had married sisters of Barbee, and in the fol- 
lowing year they all returned with their 

families, Barbee settling on section 25, Mars 
and Young on section 11. On their return 
in 1818, from their native State of Kentucky, 
they were accompanied by the family of John 
Wright, \sho was also a brother-in-law of 
Barbee. Jesse Page, a native of Kentucky, 
came here in 1817, entered land on the 
fractional quarter on the southeast of section 
9, and in the following spring brought his 
family to a farm, whence he moved to Clark 
County in 1834. Harrison Gregg came here 
in the same spring, a young married man with 
wife and two children, but left this country 
for Texas some years later. Joshua Barbee, 
a brother of William, came in the spring of 
1818 from Kentucky, but left for the Lost 
River country a few years later. William 
Everman came about the same time from the 
same State, and located on section 13. Arm- 
stead and Steven Bennett came from Ken- 
tucky in 1818, and located on section 13. 
This family were in comfortable financial cir- 
cumstances, and improved a good farm, but 
subsequently left for Texas, selling out to 
Guy Smith. William Mitchel was a young 
unmarried man, a new emigrant from Eng- 
land. He entered land as early as 1817, and 
perhaps was the first actual settler in Robin- 
son township. After maintaining bachelor's 
hall for a number of years, he married Sarah 
Newlin, and lived on his place until the day 
of his death. Enoch Wilhoit was an immi- 
grant of 1820, coming from Kentucky, and 
settling on section 12. 

The " entry book " indicates an interval 
of a number of years between the coming of 
Wilhoit and the next entr}', and it is probable 
that there were few permanent accessions to 
the community planted here before 1830. 
Under the peculiar condition of affairs in a 
new country it was frequently the case, that 
people in search of a new home would come 
to this section, build a cabin, raise one crop 
and then move to some locality which prom- 



ised better results. This was true to some 
extent in this township, and later comers 
found no ditHculty in securing a cabin fitted 
at least for a temporary abode. Of this later 
accession John Nichols was an early settler. 
He came from Virginia about 1830, settling 
upon property which stiil remains in posses- 
sion of the family. John Gwin a son-in-law 
of Nichols, was another incomer of this time, 
and located about a mile and a half north of 
town. John Cable came here about this time 
and purchased considerable land about the 
site of the village. His cabin was erected 
on what is now known as the Dunham place. 
He was a man of good education for the time 
and had formerly engaged in teaching. An 
active, intelligent farmer, the prospect of im- 
proving a large farm and securing a fine com- 
petency seemed bright before him, when the 
death of his wife, leaving four little children 
to his care, dashed his hopes in this direction. 
He at once sold his property, and moving in- 
to Indiana engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
subsequently acquiring considerable wealth, 
and rearing his children without the aid of a 
second wile. 

His old cabin still does duty as a stable for 
Samuel Maginnis. In 18.33 F. M. Brown 
came to the east side of the village and en- 
tered 160 acres of land. He was a native of 
Virginia, from whence he had gone to Gar- 
rard County, Kentucky, thence to Indiana, 
and finally to Illinois. Nicholas Smith, a 
family connection of Brown's, had settled 
here, and it was through the representations 
of the former that Brown came here. The 
journey was made in a big schooner wagon 
drawn by two yoke of oxen. In this was be- 
stowed the household effects, the wife, and so 
many of the eight children as could not make 
part of the way on foot. Two cows and a mare 
and colt completed his whole worldly posses- 
sion, aside from the entry price of his land. 
On arriving here, the family found shelter in 

a deserted cabin built by William Patton, 
on the site of the old brick-yard. Brown's 
land lay just beyond the limits of the present 
village, to the northeast, and when the ques- 
tion of erecting a cabin on this property 
came, there was a division of opinion. The 
head of the family had chosen as the pro- 
posed site, a pleasant grove situated on a 
little knoll just east of the village, but Mrs. 
Brown, always accustomed to wooded coun- 
try, feared such an exposed situation, and de- 
sired the cabin built on lower ground in the 
edge of the timber. It was finally left to a 
vote of the children, who, sharing the preju- 
dices of their mother, decided in favor of the 
low land and timber. In 1833 John Blank- 
enship came to the central part of this town- 
ship. He was an old soldier of the war of 
1812, as Brown had been, and the two had 
campaigned together. It was through the 
influence of Brown that he came here. He 
built a cabin where Aldrich Waters now 
lives, the first residence on what is now the 
village of Robinson. He made no entry or 
purchase of land here, and subsequently 
moved elsewhere. 

Succeeding the accessions of this period 
another interval of some eighteen years 
occurred in which there were few or no addi- 
tions to the settlement in this township. The 
removal of the county seat, and the laying 
out of Robinson village, however, changed 
this apathy into a vigorous activity, though 
the immediate effect was more apparent in 
the history of the village than in the surround- 
ing country, where the last of the public lands 
were not taken up until about 1851 or later. 

There was much to remind the first settlers 
that this was a frontier country. Following 
close upon the cessation of Indian hostilities, 
they found the natives in undisturbed pos- 
session of the hunting grounds they had fre- 
cpiented from time out of mind; to the north 
for miles there was but here and there an 



isolated cabin, while the nearest village was 
thirty miles to the southeast. A well traveled 
trail led up from Vincetines, through Pales- 
tine to Vandalia, and later a mail route was 
marked by a bridle path from Palestine 
through the central part of Robinson. The 
whole country, however, was open to travel, 
xliere was but little to obstruct the way, or 
even the view. Doer could be seen as far as 
the eye would reach, and travelers found it 
necessary only to avoid the low prairie land 
which throughout the summer was so wet as 
to allow a horse to mire to the hock-joint. 
These lands have since proven the best farm- 
ing property in the country, but were orig- 
inally so wet as to be entered only as a last 
resort. The settler once here, the neighbor- 
hood which extended for miles about, was 
summoned and a cabin raised. Here there 
was no dearth of assistance, but in the lower 
part of the county, early settlers were occa- 
sionally obliged to build a three-sided shelter 
until enough men came in to build a cabin. 
The difficult method of transportation pre- 
vented the bringing of any great amount of 
furniture. Beside the family, the wagon load 
consisted of provisions, bedding, a few hand 
tools, and perhaps a chair or two. The New- 
lins brought in three chairs strapped on the 
feed-box, and the first care of Thomas was to 
go to Vincennes where he purchased a barrel 
of salt for eighteen dollars, some blacksmith 
tools and a cow and calf. 

The home once secured, attention was then 
turned to the preparation of a crop for the 
next season's support, " Clearing " did not 
form an onerous part in the first work of the 
farm. Tlie principal growth was brush, 
which necessitated a good deal of pains-taking 
" grubbing," and then the firm sod was 
turned by the plow. The first of these im- 
plements in use here, was the Gary plow with 
a mold board, part wood and part iron, hewed 
out of beech or maple, which necessitated a 

stop once in about twenty rods, to clean with 
a woodeti jiaddle carried for that purpose. 
These were succeeded by the Diamond plow, 
manufactured principally at the country 
blacksmith's. Their construction involved an 
oblong piece of steel, 13 by 10 inches, which 
was cut into a rude diamond shape, bent to 
serve as a plowshare and point, and welded 
to an iron beam. This was a considerable 
improvement upon its predecessor, and the 
two forms sufficed for years. The first crop 
of corn was very often planted in gashes made 
in the sod by an ax. From such rude hus- 
bandry an abundant harvest was received, 
amply sufficient at least for the support of the 
family and such stock as needed feeding 
grain. Thomas Newlin was a blacksmith by 
trade, and set up his forge very soon after his 
arrival. This shop was a valuable acquisition 
to this community, and was the only one for 
miles about. Here almost everything a farmer 
needed of iron was made: plows made and 
sharpened, hand tools and kitchen utensils. 
An important resource of the early com- 
munity, and one, in fact, without which the 
settlement of this country must have been 
greatly hindered, was the game that found 
food and shelter here. Deer were found in 
almost countless numbers, and in some sea- 
sons of the year as many as fifty or seventy- 
five have been counted in a single herd. 
The settlers who came here were not born 
hunters, and most of them had to learn to 
shoot deer, though fair marksmen at other 
game. One of the noted hunters of this re- 
gion said he missed at least one hundred of 
those animals before he ever hit one. Hun- 
dreds of them were killed, and so unequal 
was the supply and demand of venison that 
it was years before a deer with the hide 
would bring fifty cents. When the village 
growth of the county became such that they 
could be disposed of at this price considerable 
numbers were brought in, and the money thus 



acquired saved for taxes. It is related on one 
occasion a settler shot a fine deer, dressed it, 
and took the two hind quarters to Palestine 
to dispose of. He met a man newly arrived 
in the village and when asked the price of 
them, the hunter put a big price upon them, 
charging fifty cents apiece, but to his utter 
astonishment the stranger took both quarters 
and paid down the cash without a question. 
Much as he needed the monej', the settler has 
never been quite sure to this day that the 
stranger was compos mentis, or tiiat he did 
not overreach his immature experience. Oc- 
casionally a deer would turn upon his antag- 
onist and give the sport a zest which did not 
lessen the attraction to the frontiersman. 
One of the Newlins out in quest of deer, got 
a shot at a fine buck and dropped him to the 
ground. Supposing he had killed the animal 
instantly, he approached without observing 
the precaution of loading his rifle. He had 
his ax in hand, and just before reaching the 
animal, the buck, which he had only " creased," 
sprang to its feet and made a desperate 
charge upon the hunter. Seizing his ax in 
his right hand, he warded off the horns with 
his left and aimed a blow with his weapon, 
but only succeeded in avoiding the antlers 
of the infuriated animal to be knocked down 
by its shoulder. A second charge followed 
which resulted only in Newlin giving the 
animal a wound but being again knocked 
down. A third charge resulted in both fall- 
ing together, the animal on top, but stimu- 
lated by the exigencies of the circumstances, 
the hunter got to his feet first and by a well 
directed blow of the ax swung in both hands, 
crushed in the forehead of the animal as it 
got to its feet. The favorite way of shooting 
these animals was, in the early years, by "still 
hunt." The hunter taking a seat on a log 
near a deer trail, and shooting such animals 
as came within his reach. Others watched a 
'* lick " and shot the deer as it came to drink. 

Later, as the deer grew scarce they were pur- 
sued with dogs, most farmers keeping one or 
two and sometimes a dozen. 

Bears were sometimes found, though but 
few are known to have been killed in this 
township. One with two cubs passed near a 
new cabin that had been raised. The settler 
succeeded in catching one of the cubs, but 
the mother, contrary to her traditional love 
for her offspring, lost no time in getting into 
the timber. On another occasion a party of 
hunters started out from this settlement with 
several dogs in pursuit of a bear whose tracks 
they found in the snow. After following the 
trail to McCall's prairie they were met by a 
sudden snow-squall which filled the tracks 
and blinded the hunters, but the dogs exhib- 
iting a desire to rush on, were set loose 
and soon had bruin at bay. The men pushed 
on and found the animal had taken to a tree, 
but at the approach of the hunters it came 
down and was soon at war with the dogs. 
It was impossible to shoot because the dogs 
surrounded the victim, so one of the hunters 
rushed up with an ax and struck it a fatal 
blow while it held a dog in its teeth. 

" Painters," wild cats and wolves were nu- 
merous and considerably feared, though no 
mishap ever happened to the early settlers here 
from their attack. There have been a good 
many narrow escapes from what seemed 
imminent danger, which served to emphasize 
the fear generally entertained, but these 
hardly reached the dignity of an incident. 
It is related that a hunter following a 
wounded deer, after he had expended all his 
bullets was seriously menaced by eight 
wolves, which the trace of fresh blood from 
the deer had attracted, and that they came 
so close that he prudently climbed a tree. 
He was not besieged long as the trail of the 
deer promised better game, and the wolves 
passed on depriving the hunter of his game. 
But while these wolves were not very trouble- 



sonio to pui-soMS, tlioir attacks upon stock 
jiroveda source of annoyanco to the pioneer 
farmer. There was but little stock in the 
country. Most of the new comers brought 
in a cow and team of horses or oxen, and 
these were generally free from attacks. The 
young stock, however, were often victimized. 
Calves, heifers, and occasionally cows were 
killed, while young pigs and sheep escaped 
the voracious jaws of these animals only 
through the utmost care. A drove of sheep 
was early brought to Palestine, and many of 
the farmers bought enough to supply wool for 
their family needs. For years these small flocks 
had to be carefully watched during the day 
and folded at night, the younger members 
of the family acting as shepherds. The 
farmers' dogs soon learned to keep the wolves 
off, though it generally needed the presence 
of some one of the family to give them the 
necessary courage to attack. 

Bees were found here in great numbers, 
and honey and bees-wax became an article 
of commerce. Many made honey an object 
of search and became expert in hunting this 
kind of game. The plan was to burn some 
of the comb to attract the bees to a bait of 
honey or a decoction of anise seed, and when 
loaded up to watch their course. In this way 
hundreds of trees were found stored with the 
sweet results of the busy labor of these insects 
that would have probably escaped the sharp- 
est sciutiny. S(jme were found containino- 
fifteen gallons of honey, and the past year 
is the first, since his residence here, Matthew 
Newlin relates, that he has not discovereil 
one of these trees. 

In such a land, literally flowing with milk 
and honey, it was natural to expect the 
Indian to linger till the last possible moment. 
The treaty with some of the natives of this 
region provided for the payment of a certain 
sum of money in four or five annual install- 
nn,'nts at Vinccunes. This seived to keep 

these loiterers here, who in the meantime 
visited their old time haunts for game. There 
was on the whole the utmost good feeling 
entertained by both parties. There were 
several cases of hostility with fatal results 
in other parts of the county, some of which 
threatened to involve the whole country here 
in a serious conflict, but the matter was ar- 
ranged and the peaceable relations existing 
between the two people were not disturbed. 
While the Indians generally respected thg 
rights of property holders, and are not gen- 
erally charged with stealing the settlers' 
stock, etc., they did not hesitate to take any- 
thing they could eat whenever within their 
reach. Those who were fortunate enough to 
have a spring near their cabins constructed 
a rude spring house where the milk was kept. 
This was free plunder to the natives, and 
they did not scruple to come in day light and 
drain the last drop before the indignant eyes 
of the housewife. Others were in the habit 
of coming to certain cabins just about break- 
fast time, when they had learned to e.>cpect a 
large corn-pone fresh from the bake-kettle. 
The settlers soon learned to prepare for these 
visits and so save their own meal. One 
morning fourteen of the Indians came to a 
cabin early, seeking something to eat. A 
huge pone was just cooked and removing the 
lid of the old-fashioned oven the head of the 
family pointed to the dish. The Indians fln- 
derstoud the gesture and one of their num- 
ber thrusling his knile into the steaming 
bread took it from the fire, laid it on the 
table, and dividing into fifteen pieces, took a 
double share and left, munching the food 
with grunts of satisfaction. The rest each 
took a share, leaving the family without an 
important part of their breakfast. Such in- 
cidents were accepted with philosophic com- 
posure by the majority of the early white in- 
habitants, who had a little more to complain 
of in regrad to the natives. Tliere were 



others, however, who were ready to charge 
upon the Iiuli;u)s the loss of sundry hogs and 
cattle, though it is generally believed that 
such charges were made to account for the 
hatred they cherished against them. One or 
two chaiacters are mentioned who, for some 
depredations committed by the savages in 
Kentucky, took occasion to here avenge 
themseves upon innocent members of the 
same race. 

The natives were chiefly of the Kickapoo 
and Delaware tribes, and spent several winters 
here. Tliey were provided with a canvass 
wirrwam, the top being open to allow the 
smoke to escape, and, contrary to the gene- 
ral custom of the tribes, tilled no corn field, 
evidently preferring to depend upon the 
bounty of the whites and the results of a little 
petty exchange which grew up between the 
two races. Furs, dressed buckskin, and 
game were exchanged for corn, bread, and 
pork on ver\- good terms for the whites. They 
gradually became very good company with 
the athletes of the settlement, and took their 
defeats with the best of good nature. In 
shooting at a mark, jumping, wrestling and 
running they were frequently out-done by 
the whites, but in feats of long endurance, 
shooting game and woodcraft, thej' sustained 
the reputation which history has generally 
given them. 

The whites, separated from even the crude 
advantages of a frontier society, were at first 
whoU}' dependent upon their own ingenuity 
for the commonest necessaries of life. Most 
of the early families came from communities 
where flour was not considered a luxury, mills 
were within an easy journey, mechanics were 
abundant and the best implements of the time 
within their reach. But in coming to this 
country all these were left behind. Few had 
money to expend upon anything save the 
price of their land, and the absence of stores 
■was not at first felt to be so much of a priva- 

tion, but wiien their first stock of ];rovision 
was expended, and tliis with their clothing 
was to be replaced, the only resort was to 
Vincennes, some thirty miles away. Here 
another difficulty presented itself. The farm- 
er had a surplus of corn and but little more. 
This was neither legal tender nor good for ex- 
change very often, and later, when it became 
marketable, the exchange for a wagon load 
would not burden a child. Under such cir- 
cumstances every piece of coin was husband- 
ed with miserly care to meet land payments 
and taxes, and often did not suffice for that. 
At one time a large proportion of the taxes, 
which for the whole county did not amountto 
more than sixty dollars, was paid in wolf- 
scalps and coon-skins. There was absolutely 
no money to be had. There was but little 
wheat sown, as it was believed it would not 
grow, and even where the seed was found to 
thrive the slight demand for it discouraged its 
culture. Corn was the great staple, and va- 
rious means were resorted to, to make it an- 
swer the various demands of the farm and 
family. The nearest mill was at first in Sha- 
kerville, and subsequently on the Embarras 
River in what is now Lawrence County. 
]}ut these mills were twenty miles away and 
man3- an emergency arose when there was no 
meal in the cabin, and lack of time, stress of 
weather or other obstacle hindered the tedi- 
ous journey and delay of going to mill. Hom- 
inj' mortars were found at many of the cabins, 
which were generally used. These were 
simply formed out of a convenient stump or 
laro-e block into which a large excavation was 
made by f;re and tools. Over this a " sweep " 
was erected to which was attached a heavy 
wooden pestle faced with a piece of iron. In 
such a mill the corn was beaten to various 
o-rades of fineness, the finest separated by a 
sieve made of perforated buckskin, was re- 
served for dodgers, while the coarsest made 
the traditional dish of hominy. Jesse Page 



refined upon this construction ainl maile aiudo 
lianilniill vvliicli was kept in prettj' constant 
use by himself and neighbors. An ordinary 
stone properly dressed was set in an excavated 
stump, and another was cut in circular form 
■ind titted on top of it. An iron set in the 
lower stone protruded through a hole in the 
center of the upper stone, which, ])rovided 
with a wooden handle near its outer edge, 
completed the machine. The corn placed be- 
tween these stones was converted into very 
fair meal with not much exertion or expend- 
iture of time. Later, William Barbce con- 
structed a single-geared horse-mill near the 
central part of what is now Robinson town- 
ship. This mill consisted of a small run of 
stone with a hopper attachment run by a gear- 
ing propelled by horses. The mill proper was 
in a log cabin provided for the purpose. 
Outside, a perpendicular shaft carried at its uj3- 
per end a large wheel fifteen to twenty feet in 
diameter, on the circumference of which was 
provided cogs to fit in the shaft-gearing which 
turned the mill. In the lower part of the up- 
right shaft, arms were fitted, to which two or 
four horses were attached and the vphole cov- 
ered with a shed, constituted a horse-mill of 
the olden time. This proved a great conve- 
nience, the farmers using their own teams 
and paying a good toll for the use of the ma- 

The absence of any considerable streams 
in the township prevented the construction of 
many of those aids to pionejr communities 
thac do much to mitigate the discomforts of a 
frontier experience. The horse-mill, while 
not the best the country, afforded in this line, 
was much better than going twenty miles for 
better grinding, though at a later period, 
when wheat became common, it was found 
necessary to go to Ilallcnbeck's mill in York 
township, or to the Shaker mill. But at 
these mills the wheat was not screened nor 
the fl jur bolted, and the bread made from the 

proJuce of these mills would hardly satisfy 
the fastidious taste of the modern house- 
keeper. Barbee afterward sunk vats and did 
some tanning, which was a great addition to 
the advantages of this community. But all 
were not dependent upon this for their supplv 
of leather. Brown & Nichols made a tanner's 
ooze for themselves, and tanned hides in a 
trough for years. It was not until about 
18-49 that the first saw-mill was erected north 
of the village, by Barbee & Jolley. One of 
the Barbees had a small distillery here, about 
the same time, but it was in operation but a 
short time when it was discontinued. 

The clothing of the family depended 
largely upon the handiwork and ingenuity of 
the women. The flax was grown and the 
sheep were sheared, but with this the work of 
the men generally ceased. To transform 
these materials into fabrics and thence into 
clothing, called for accomplishments of no 
trivial order, but the women of that day were 
equal to their duties. Work and play were 
intimately associated, spinning and quilting 
bees lightened the labor and brought the 
neighborhood together for a pleasant inter- 
change of gossip and frolic in the evening. 
Linsey-woolsey, a combination of linen and 
wool was the general wear of the women, en- 
livened by the rare luxury of a calico dress 
for special occasions. The nun wore jeans, 
the pants generally faced in front with buck- 
skin, a style generally called "foxed," and in 
which tlie women displayed no little origi- 
nality in their effort to make the addition take 
on an ornamental as well as useful character. 
Social gatherings were marked by the play- 
ing of games rather than dancing. The 
latter was a favorite form of amusement, but 
there was a large element of" old school Bap- 
tists" among the early settleis that did not 
favor this form of amusement, which led to 
the employment of other forms of entertain- 
ment. Whisky was less in general use here 



than in many frontier communities, and 
drunkenness was at least no more frequent 
than now, in proportion to the population. 

The earliest market for the produce of, 
the farmer was at Lawrenceville, the mer- 
chants of which did much more business forty 
years ago than now. Here the farmers drove 
their hogs and cattle and hauled their corn, 
which finally found a market at New Orleans. 
Later the villages of Palestine and Hutson- 
ville afforded a nearer market. Fruit, honey, 
bees-wax, tallow, and even corn, were fre- 
quently hauled to Chicago, the wagons 
returning loaded with salt. Stock raising, 
especially of cattle and hogs, was a promi- 
nent feature of the early farm industry, and 
brought to the farmer a pretty reliable 
revenue. Cattle were sometimes driven to 
Chicago, but the most of the stock was sold 
to itinerant buyers at the farm, though at 

marvelously low prices compared with those 
ruling at this day. A cow and calf sold for 
$5 or $(3, and a fine fat steer for $6 or $8. 
John Hill, Jr., sold, on one occasion, seven 
fine steers, for $50, a price which he obtained 
only through the most stubborn persistence. 
Garwood, an Ohio cattle dealer, offered $48 
for the cattle, but as Hill was depending 
upon the sale for the purchase of forty acres 
of land, he insisted upon the additional $'i, as 
there was no money to be got otherwise. 
For two days and nights Garwood haggled 
over the price, when finding Hill unyielding, 
gave the price and took the stock. 

Since then, how marked the change. The 
generation is growing up that will scarcely 
believe the unvarnished tale of pioneer ex- 
perience in this land, and will only value the 
advantages of the present when they accu- 
rately measure the sacrifices and achieve- 
ments of the past. 





THE geocrraphical location of Palestine made 
tlie eventual removal of the county seat 
td a more central site a foregone conclusion 
from the very first. But, while this fact vras 
recognized by all, the influence of Palestine 
interests was bent to delay the inevitable 
change to the last possible moment. The 
rapid development of York and Hutsonville 
soon made them active rivals for the metro- 
poiitan honors of the county and foolishly 
jealous of the prestige of the favored tovifn. 
As the settlement of the county advanced 
and communities grew up in the northern and 
western parts, the long, tedious journeys re- 
quired to transact public business created an 
Ticreasing demand that the change should be 
made as early as possible. There was no 
reasonable ground on which either of the 
other prominent towns could hope to succeed 
to official honors, but the removal, it was 
thought, would seriously cripple the com- 
mercial importance of their rival. This agi- 
tation was not expressed in any combined 
action until 1843. At this time Hebron had 
become quite an important inland center, and 
acting as a cats-paw for Hutsonville, the ini- 
tiatory steps for the removal were started in 
these villages, and the matter brought before 
the people for decision. The first vote was 
on the cpiestion of removal, which was de- 
cided affirmatively. An election was then 
called to choose the site. The act authorizing 

*Ry J. H. Battle. 

the removal required a donation of forty 
acres which should be platted, the sale of 
which should provide the means for the 
erection of public buildings. Offers of the 
requisite land were made on the site of the 
present village, at Hebron and at a site five 
miles southwest of the present village of 
Robinson. In the election which followed, 
beside these localities, the site on the farm of 
W. S. Enamons, the geographical center of 
the county, Hutsonville and Palestine re- 
ceived votes, but without a sufficient pre- 
ponderance to make a choice. A second 
election was then called to decide between 
the Robinson site and P. C. Barlow's site, in 
which the former proved successful. 

The site thus chosen was the judicious 
selection of the whole people uninfluenced by 
partisan considerations. It was situated at 
the central point of the dividing line between 
sections 33 and 3-i in town 7 north, range 13 
west. The east " eighty " was owned by 
William Willson, the southwest " forty " by 
Finley Paull and Robt. C. Wilson, and the 
northwest " forty " by John W. Wilson, ten 
acres from the converging corners of each 
section formino' the donation for the village. 
The forty acres thus constituted were prairie 
land partially covered with a heavy under- 
growth of brush with here and there a large 
tree, and skirted with considerable heavy 
timber. It was an eligible site in every way, 
and for the purposes of a county seat was 
probably the best site in the county, though 



there were but two cabins in the vicinity of 
the proposed town at that time. William B. 
Baker, the official surveyor, under the in- 
structions of the commissioners at once set 
about platting the new village, and on De- 
cember 25, 1843, presented the result of his 
labors for record, with the following concise 
description: "The size of the lots in the town 
of Robinson is sixty-five feet front, east and 
west, and 130 feet long. The public square 
is 260 feet north and south and 2-iO feet, east 
and west. The streets each side of the 
square (east and west sides) are fifty feet 
broad. The main streets through the center 
of the town each way, are eighty feet, and 
all the rest are sixty feet, save the border 
streets on the outside of the lots which are 
forty feet." The lines are run by the cardinal 
points of the compass, the plat fronting the 
north. The streets running east and west, 
lieginning at the south side are Chestnut, 
Locust, Main, Walnut and Cherry; at right 
angles with these, beginning on the east, are 
Howard, Franklin, Court street, Marshall, 
Cheapside, Jefferson and Lincoln. Court 
street and Cheapside are short thoroughfares 
which define the public square and connect 
!Main and Locust streets. Marshall street 
ends at the central entrance on the north side 
of the square, its projection on the south side 
lieing called Broadway. The plat was thus 
divided into fourteen regular and three 
irregular sized blocks aggregating 120 blocks. 
Robinson, thus evoked out of the wilderness, 
was simply a "fiat" town. It represented no 
commercial advantages, served no speculative 
purpose, and awakened no animated interest 
in its success. It is believed by some that 
lots were offered at public sale early in 1844, 
but this is probably a mistake, or the result 
was deemed unworthy of record. The prop- 
erly was not the kind which would find ready 
purchasers at lair figures, as few whose pro- 
fession or official duties did not require their 

presence would care to leave more important 
business centers for any inducements this site 
could offer. The earliest record of the pur- 
chase of lots is dated December 3, 1844, when 
Francis Waldrop bought lots No. 77 and 78, 
for $45.75. The second purchase was made 
by Wm. B. Baker and consisted of lots No. 
101 to 108, both inclusive, lots 69, 70, 71, 73 
and 80, paying S300 for them. There is no 
further record until December, 1846, when 
W. H. Starrett bought lot 74 for S22,50; Wal- 
drop bought lot 56, for $.30, and Leonard D. 
Cullom bought lots 79, 81 and 82, for $41. In 
1847, in September and December, lots 22, 
23 and 24 were purchased by Wra. and Thom- 
as Barbee for $33; lot 98 by D. A. Bailey 
for $25; lot 75 by Wm. Brown for $25; lot 
54 by Mary Johns for $20; lot 99 by Anna 
Longnecker for $15; lot 67 by Wm. Young 
for $12.12; and lots 41 and 42 by George C. 
Fitch for $30. In the following year aliout a 
dozen lots were disposed of at prices ranging 
from $11 to $25. Robert and Henry Weaver, 
David Lillie and J. M. Grimes appearing 
among the names of purchasers. These names 
indicate the early accessions to the com- 
munity though there were others hen; who 
seem to have bought land at second-hand or 
occupied a building site some time before 

The first building erected was a small frame 
structure on the site of Collin's exchange 
store. This was put up by James Weaver and 
was subsequently moved to the northeast cor- 
ner of Marshall and Main streets, where it 
served as kitchen to a large two-story log ho- 
tel built on that corner. This building still 
serves as a dwelling in the northwest part of 
the town. The vacant frame building now 
standing on the northwest corner of Locust 
street and Cheapside is the second structure 
erected in the village. This was built by 
Francis Waldrop in the spring of 1844, and 
united store and dwelling under one roof. 



The kitchen part afforded quarters for one of 
the earliest sessions of the Commissioners' 
Court. Some time during this year Mr. Wal- 
tlrop put in a small stock of goods which was 
boiiirht privately at Hutsonville. A third 
building was the residence of W. B. Baker. 
This was a building constructed of peeled 
hickory logs and situated in the grove just 
southeast of the plat, where the residence of 
Mr. Hill now stands. The grove substantial! v 
as it now stands, was secured by purchase of 
the lots above mentioned and the balance 
from Wilson, the original owner of that sec- 
tion. Baker soon closed up that part of the 
streets that passed through his property, a 
summary proceeding which has since received 
the doubtful sanction of a legislative act. The 
briek residence occupies the point where the 
south and east border streets met. About 
this time the contractor on the court house 
put up a log building and moved his family 
here for a temporary residence. This com- 
prised the village community of Robinson in 
the fall of 1845, when it received its first 
professional accession in Judge Robb, who 
was then practicing medicine. He built a log 
building about eighteen feet square on the 
site of Charles Hill's present residence, which 
placed him just outside the precincts of the 
rising city. It will hardly be surprising that 
forty acres should prove sufficient to contain 
the village, at this rate of increase for some 
fifteen years. It is questionable whether the 
crowded condition of things even then de- 
manded an addition, but it is evidence of 
growth that in 1858 Asa Ayers did plat 
twelve lots between Marshall and Franklin 
streets, adjoining the northern line of the 
original plat. In 1865 an estimate of the 
population in the village placed it at less than 
four hundred, but there was evidence of slow 
but steady growth, and in 18tJ7 William C. 
Dickson's addition of twenty lots, and Robb's 
first addition of twenty-four lots, were made. 

In 1870 Robert Morrison added sixteen lots, 
and four years later Watts' addition of twenty 
lots was made. In 1875 a new element was 
added to the situation. The agitation of the 
question of railroads materialized and gave 
such an impetus to the development of the 
new town that property holders on the eastern 
side of the village, catching the infection, vied 
with each other in platting their lanils. In 
this year ninety-three lots were added in 
seven "additions." In the following year 
seven more additions, aggregating 193 lots, 
were made, and in 1877, seventy more were 
added in three parcels. In 1878, two addi- 
tions aggregating twenty-seven lots, were 
made, and a final one, in 1881, of thirty-six 

Until 18GG, the destiny of the village was 
guided by the justice of the peace, the con- 
stable and road supervisor. Some few at- 
tempts at internal improvements had been 
made but nothing approaching a systematic 
effort. Early in this year a meeting of the 
voters of the village was called at the court 
house, at wliich it was decided by a nearly 
unanimous voice to take the legal steps to in- 
corporate the village under the general law. 
On the 2d day of March, E. Callahan, Thos. 
Barbee, Thos. Sims, D. D. Fowler and A. P. 
Woodworth were elected trustees, who met 
on the following day and organized by elect- 
ing Thos. Barbee, president, J. C. Olwin, 
clerk, Joseph Kent, constable, and Thos. 
Sims, treasurer. At an adjourned* meeting 
the usual list of ordinances were adopted, the 
first of which defines tlie limits of the corpo- 
ration as follows: " Commencing at the south- 
east corner of the west half of section thirty- 
four, in town 7 north, of range 12 west, and 
running thence north one mile, thence west 
one mile, thence south one mile, thence east 
one mile to the place of beginning." The 
limits thus established have proven sufficient. 
without subsequent extension, to include the 



growth of the village to this time. By this 
orio-inal code of municipal laws, litter and ob- 
structions upon the sidewalks were forbidden, 
and the sale of liquor as a beverage, public 
business on the Sabbath, gambling, etc., ta- 
booed. The more immediate effect of the 
new order of things was seen in the build- 
ing of sidewalks. In 18(58 property holders 
about the public square were required to lay 
brick or plank walks, and in other parts of 
town where there was most demand. In 1S75, 
when the railroad infused new life into every 
department of society, the town board rose to 
the importance of the occasion and appro- 
priated a thousand dollars for this purpose. 
In the following year 50,000 feet of lumber 
was bought and another thousand dollars ap- 
propriated, and this spirit of enterprise has 
been maintained until there are few villages 
of the size of Robinson that are so well pro- 
vided with broad, well made walks. The 
streets have been under the direction of a 
road master, and upon them have been ex- 
pended each year the "poll-tax labor" of the 
village with some tangible result. Koad 
making material is scarce in thi's vicinity, and 
but little more has been done than to care- 
fully turnpike the streets. Some gravel has 
been used on the streets about the square but 
only with the effect to modify the depthless 
mud that mars the streets of this village during 
the spring time. Recently some effort looking 
toward the lighting of the streets has been 
made, though so far no definite action has 
been taken. 

Another subject which is the perennial 
source of agitation in the villages of Illinois, 
and which devolves especial responsibility 
upon the authorities that be, is the regulation 
of the sale of liquor. The attitude of the first 
board of trustees undoubtedly expressed the 
prevalent sentiment of the community in re- 
stricting the sale of "ardent spirits "to simply 
the demands for mechanical, medicinal or 

sacramental purposes. But the minority 
upon this subject, by constant pressure of 
specious arguments, soon effected a change 
in the public policy. In 1870 license was 
granted for the sale of liquor in unlimited 
quantities, the vendor, with exception of drug- 
gists, to pay three hundred dollars and give 
an indemnifying bond. In the following year 
the whole liquor traffic was taken out of the 
hands of regular dealers and the somewhat 
novel plan of appointing agents to sell only 
for " mechanical, medicinal and sacramental 
purposes." This plan seems hardly to have 
been well considered before initiated, and the 
board soon found itself involved in the most 
perplexing maze of evasions and technicali- 
ties, and in very despair the whole scheme 
was abolished in 1874, and the regular " no 
license" plan again adopted. Since then the 
subject has alternated from one extreme to 
the other, the license fee reaching as high as 
§1,200 on the statute book, but without occa- 
sion of enforcing it. It stands now at eight 
hundred dollars and a substantial bond to in- 
sure the I'quor seller's compliance with the 
terms of his contract. Even at this figure the 
tr iffic is such that three saloons find induce- 
ment to carry on the business here. 

A late outgrowth of enterprise rather than 
demand of the village, is the fire department. 
In the early part of 1881, the propriety of 
securing a hook and ladder apparatus was 
brought up and carried forward with com- 
mendable spirit to a successful issue. Rubber- 
pails were added to the outfit, a company or- 
ganized and a suitable building erected at a 
total cost of some five hundred dollars. Early 
in the follownng year a hand engine for which 
the city of Vincennes had no further use was 
purchased and added to the department. 
There has been no occasion yet to demon- 
strate the efficacy of the fiie department, nor 
is its complete organization strong-ly vouched 
for, but it has had a formal institution and 



will doubtless develop with the occasion for 
its service. 

There was but little to attract business to 
the ni wly laid out town of Robinson, and 
Waldrop for a time monopolized the fi-ade. 
In the course of a year or two, however, Ma- 
ginley set up an opposition store, and Felix 
Hacket opened a saloon, or grocery where 
whisky was the principal stock in trade, in 
a log building on the east side of the square. 
Barbee and Brown were also amoncr the first 
log Store merchants, doing business near the 
center of the east side of the square. In 
Iy53 brick business houses began to ap- 
pear. In this year John Dixon, who began 
trade in Robinson about 1819, put up the first 
brick store building in the village on the cor- 
ner of Main and Marshall streets, which is 
now used by Griffith as a shoe store. In the 
following year Thomas Barbee, who had " kept 
hotel " on Marshall street, a block or two north 
of Main, built the Robinson House, which is 
now the principal hostelry of the town. In 
the same fall Woodworth and Lagow began the 
erection of the brick building occupying the 
southeast corner of Main and Court streets, 
finishing it in the following spring. These 
buildings were a little later follc)wed by the 
erection of the Masonic Building, and just 
before the completion of the railroad, what is 
known as the Southside Block was erected. 
This block consists of six two-storied brick 
buildings seventy feet deep and twenty in 
width outside of three stairways and halls on 
the second floor of four feet each. The con- 
struction of this block was first conceived bj' 
Judge W. C. Jones, who erected two of the 
buildings, A. H. Jones the third, Jones and 
Maxwell a fourth, A. O. Maxwell the fifth, 
and Mrs. Callahan the sixth. The influence 
of the new railroad was at its heisrht, and al- 
though its old-time competitors proclaimed 
Robinson "finished," A. H. Waldrop, then 
owner of the Robinson House, commenced 

the erection of a large two-story brick addition 
in the rear of the hotel at once. In the same 
season the Robinson Bank and the storehouse 
of E. E. Murray & Co., both two-storj' bricks 
of 20x70 feet, were erected, followed in the 
succeeding season by two more buildings of 
the same size, erected by J. H. Wood, which 
closed up the vacant ground on the east side 
of the square from the Masonic building to 
the Woodworth buildings. The same season 
John Hill & Son erected a two-story building 
on the corner east of the square, extending 
from Douglas to Jefferson street. In the 
meantime, beside these structures for business 
purposes, several fine and substantial resi- 
dences were erected at a cost of from six to ten 
thousand dollars. In 1878 the block of brick 
buildings north of the square was erected, 
and in the following year .T. U. Grace erected 
an addition on the west side of the Robinson 
House, 18 by 110 feet, the lower story for a 
place of business and the upper to furnish 
additional rooms for the hotel. 

About the same time with Dixon, the 
Lagows started a branch of their Palestine 
store in Robinson, which in 1853 was con- 
ducted by the firm of Woodworth and Lagow. 
Barbee and Jolly began business here about 
1855, but continued for only a year or two 
when they closed up with an assignment, 
their liabilities being principally to eastern 
merchants and reaching a very considerable 
amount. On the death of Dixon about 1855, 
the Preston Brothers, a heavy business firm of 
Hutsonville with stores in a half dozen places 
in Clark and Crawford Counties and else- 
where, established a branch house in Robin- 
son, occupying the Dixon building. This 
firm with that of Woodworth and Lagow were 
the largest business houses here at that time 
and until the coming of the railroad attracted 
a large and peculiar trade. There was but 
little money in the country until 18GI or 3 
and business was conducted almost entirely 



without it. Goods were sold on a year's cred- 
it and in the fall the merchants bought all 
the grain, hogs or cattle for sale. Each firm 
had warehouses and packing houses on the 
Wabash, beside a farm fitted for the purpose 
of feeding stock. In the spring, grain, pork 
and cattle were shipped by the river to New 
Orleans. Considerable quantities of grain 
were taken in and stored ■ at Robinson until 
the hard road of the winter afforded an op- 
portunity of hauling it to the river. One of 
these firms made a practice of buying horses 
in the fall, securing the most of them on 
accounts due them for goods. These were 
assorted, the inferior stock traded off, and the 
better ones got in good condition and sent 
down the river in the spring to market. Thus 
to insure success in business here, the mer- 
chant found it necessary to combine the qual- 
ities of a good stock speculator as well as 
those of a storekeeper, a failure in either 
branch proving disastrous to the business. 
The operations of these business houses took 
a remarkable range, the Preston Brothers 
maintaining one partner whose whole time 
and attention was occupied with these out- 
side affairs. 

The coming of railroad facilities wrought a 
speedy revolution in business circles. The 
abundance of currency set afloat by the Gov- 
ernment during the war had nearly done away 
with the prevailing system of barter and thus 
curtailed the profits with the extent of the 
operations of the old time trade. The old 
firms gradually passed away with the old cus- 
toms, giving place to others of a younger 
generation. But there has been no perma- 
nent contraction of business on account of this 
change. The large operations of the few have 
been divided among the number who have 
succeeded and the business of the village has 
larg'^y expanded. The coming of the Paris 
and Danville road, gave Robinson a decided 
advantage over its competitors for the trade 

of the county, but the subsequent construc- 
tion of the "narrow gauge railroad," rather 
restored the equilibrium, and the "county 
seat," while still far in the lead, finds the com- 
petition in the grain trade, at least, one of 
considerable imnortance. 

A number of mills — saw, grist and planing 
mills — constitute most of the manufacturing 
industries of the town. The large brick 
figuring mill was built by Brown, Sims & 
Waldrop, and is now used by John Newton 
and Dyer's estate. The Junction mills, 
owned by Collins & Kirk, was built by Will- 
iam C. Shafer. The saw-mill near the Junc- 
tion mills was built by Brigham and Wilson, 
and is' now owned by Reinoehl & Co. Near 
it is the Robinson machine shop and foundry, 
put up about a year ago, by Ogden & Martin. 
It is not running at present. The planing 
mill of Wiseman & Brubaker is located near 
the Wabash depot. It was originally built 
by Wesley Fields. A planing mill stands 
near the narrow guage depot, owned by Otey 
& Sons. School furniture is manufactured at 
this mill. A few other manufacturing enter- 
prises are in contemplation, but have not yet 
resulted in anything definite. 

The educational facilities of Robinson are 
confined to the public schools. The early 
history of education in the village is not dis- 
similar to that of other early settlements. 
The first school is supposed to have been 
taught in a log building about 1848, by Wm. 
Grimes. The court house was used several 
years for school purposes. The town has 
now a very good, comfortable school- house — 
a two-story frame building, but not adequate 
to accommodate the growing wants of the 
"young ideas," and a large building must 
soon take the place of the one now in use. 

The regular attendance of the Robinson 
public school is over three hundred pupils. 
Prof. S. G. Murray, an excellent teacher, is 
principal; D. G. Murray, teacher of grammar 



di'partine:it; other teachers, W. G. llale, 
Miss Mary Firman and Mrs. Fh)ra B. Lane. 

Tue Methodist Episcopal Church organi- 
zation is the oldest church in Robinson, and 
dates back into the " forties." Of its earliest 
history we obtained no reliable data, and can 
give but a brief sketch of it. The elegant 
and tasteful brick church edifice was built in 
1866, at a cost of more than S5,000. The 
membership is large and flourishing, and is 
under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Massey. A 
good Sunday school, of which John Maxwell 
is superintendent, is maintained during the 
entire year. 

The Presbyterian Church, the sketch of 
which is taken from the Argus, was organized 
originally, October 38, 1848, with sixteen 
members, chiefly from the Palestine church. 
Under this organization it hal a brief exist- 
ence, and the members dissolved and re- 
turned to the old church. On the 8th of 
November, 1872, Rev. Thomas Spencer and 
Elder Finley Paull renewed the organization 
as the "First Presbyterian Church of Robin- 
son." The first elders were Wra. C. "Wilson, 
John H. Wilkin and Rufus R. Lull; the first 
minister, Rev. Aaron Thompson. He was 
succeeded by Rev. Thomas Spencer and he 
by Rev. John E. Carson, all of whom have 
been stated supply. No church building has 
been erected by the society, but they used the 
Methodist church. They own a parsonage 
which cost $1,000, but are at present without 
a pastor. 

The Christian Church was organized in 
Robinson in the spring of 1876, and among 
the original members were N. S. Brown and 
wife, M. C. Shepherd, Mrs. Mary Callahan, 
Hickman Henderson, and Jas. M. Gardner 
and wife. The organization of the church 
resulted from a meeting of several days' du- 
ration held in the court house by Elder A. D. 
Daily, of Terre Haute. Some fifteen or 
twenty additions were made to the member- 

ship during the meeting. Elder Daily visited 
the church once a mojith for a year or more. 
The next minister was Elder I. G. Tomlinson, 
of Indianapolis, who preached here once a 
month. The church was built about a year 
after the society was organized, N. S. Brown, 
ilrs. Callahan, H. Henderson and M. C. Shep- 
herd being the principal movers toward the 
building of it. It Wiis completed and dedi- 
cated in the summer of 1883 by Prof. R. T. 
Brown, of Indianapolis. There are at present 
about one hundred members, and they are 
without a pastor. A Sunday school is main- 

Robinson Mission Catholic Church was es- 
tablished in 1882 by Father Kuhlmann, of 
Marshall, with a strength of about fifteen 
families. The church building was erected 
the same year, at a cost of $700, and was 
dedicated by Rev. Father Kuhlmann, who 
has been the only rector, administering to the 
congregation once a month. 

The secret and benevolent institutions of 
Robinson come in regular conrse next to the 
Christian churches. They do as mush good 
in their way as the churches themselves. And 
the best men in the country do not deem it 
beneath their dignity to lend their assistance 
and countenance to these institutions. The 
Masonic fraternity has been represented here 
by a lodge and a chapter. 

Robinson Lodge, No. 250, A., F. & A. M., 
was organized in 1856, and the charter signed 
by J. H. Hibbard, grand master, and H. G. 
Reynolds, grand secretary-. The charter 
members were John T. Cox, Daniel Perrine, 
Joseph H. Huls, Irvine Heustis, J. M. Alexan- 
der, J. C. Ruddell, John D.Smith and Charles 
Meilley. John T. Cox was the first master; 
Daniel Perrine, senior warden; J. H. Huls, 
junior warden; D. M. Mail, treasurer, and 
Irvine Heustis, seeretar}-. The present of- 
ficers are: T. S. Price, master; H. B. Lutes 
senior warden; W. P. Stiles, junior warden; 



J. C. Evans, treasurer, and M. C. Mills, sec'y. 

Robinson R. A. Chapter No. 149 was or- 
ganized December 1, 1871, and among its 
charter members were J. M. Jarrett, John 
Newton, A. J. Haskett, 0. M. Patton, Wm. 
C. Wilson, Wm. Dyer, Geo. W. Harper, 
Wm. C. Jones, E. Callahan, S. MidkiflF, S. 
Taylor, J. L. Cox, I. D. Mail, W. F. Fleck, J. 
O. Steel, etc. The first officers were J. M. 
Jarrett, H. P.; John Newton, K.; A. J. Has- 
kett, S.; C. M. Patton, C. of H.; Wm. C. Wil- 
son, P. J.; Wm. Dyer, R. A. C; Wm. C. 
Jones, S. Midkifif and W. H. Fleck, G. M. of 
v.; Samson Taylor, treasurer; E. Callahan, 
Fecretary, and G. W. Harper, tiler. To the 
shams of the fraternity be it said, they have 
let the chapter die out, and the charter has 
been surrendered to the grand chapter. 

Crawford Lodge, No. 124, I. O. O. F., was 
instituted in 1855, with thai following charter 

members: Wm. C. "^Vilson, Wm. Barbee, 

A. W. Gordon, S. H. Decius and James S. 
Barbee. The first officers were W. C. Wil- 
son, N. G.; Wm. Barbee, V. G., and James 
S. Barbee, secretary. It died out, but was 
resuscitated again in a few years. The pres- 
ent officers are T. S. Price, N. G.; A. B. Hous- 
ton, V. G.; George Kessler, treasurer, and 
G. W. Henderson, secretary. 

Robinson Lodge, No. 1744, Knights of 
Honor, was organized in August, 1880, and 
among its charter members are Peter Walk- 
er, C. H. Grube, J. P. Murphy, M. C. Mills, 
T. S. Price, A. H. Waldrop, J. C. Olwin, A. 

B. Houston, Zalmon Ruddell, I. L. Fire- 
baugh, Geo. N. Parker and others. The 
present officers are George W. Harper, P. 
D.; W. N. Willis, D.; P. Walker, reporter; 
Sol Moers, financial reporter, and J. C. Ol- 
win, treasurer. 



"When in the chi-onicles of wasted time 
I read descriptions, etc." 

— Shakespeare. 

n^^IIE marvelous development of our coun- 
-L try is without parallel in history. Look 
back a generation or two and behold tliese 
smiling- fields a primeval forest or wild prai- 
rie. There are scores of people still living 
who recollect when hazel brush grew upon 
the site of the county's capital, and when the 
roads were little else than blind trails, and 
unbridged streams were swum or waded; 
when, instead of the locomotive's whistle, 
was heard the dismal howling of the wolf or the 
far-off screech of the hungry panther. Rapid 
as have been the changes and great the im- 
provements in this section, Crawford is only 
well upon her course; the energies which 
have brought her to her present state will not 

"Lo! our land is like an eagle whose young gaze 
Feeds on the noontide beams, whose golden 
Float moveless on the storm, and, in the blaze 
Of sunrise, gleams when earth is wrapped in 

This civil division of Crawford County forms 
no inconsiderable part of the history of the 
great commonwealth of Illinois. No portion 

* By W. H. Perrin. 

of the county, nor indee 1 of the State, is richer 
in historical interest. It contained the first 
seat of justice of the county; the first land 
office established in the State was located 
within its limits, and the first settlement 
made in the county was in what is now La- 
motte Township. Here were erected forts 
and block-houses, when Indians were far 
more plentiful on this side of the Wabash 
than pale-faces, and here transpired some of 
the stirring events that have embellished 
with interest the history of the State. 

Lamotte Township lies on the eastern bor- 
der of the county and contains much fine 
productive land. Its surface beyond the 
river bottoms, which are low and subject to 
overflow, is generally level or undulaling, re- 
quiring little artificial drainage. With the 
exception of the bottoms above alluded to, 
our idea of its topography does not fully co- 
incide with the poet-laureate of Palestine 
when he penned the following lines: 

" Half a century ago I lived in Egypt's famed land, 
Where the soil was composed of dark loam and sand; 
There were swamps on this hand and swamps on that, 
And the remainder of the land was level and flat." 

The township lies south of Hutsonville 
township, west of the Wabash River, north 
of Montgomery and east of Robinson town- 
ship. It is drained principally by Lamotte 
Creek, which flows in a southeasterly course 



and empties into the Wabash near Palestine 
landing. The original timber growth was 
oak, iiickory, walnut, hackberry, buckeye, 
sycamcre, pecan, cottoiiwood, etc., etc. Upon 
the whole, the township is a fine agricultural 
region, and in 1880 had a popuhition of 2,160 
souls — and as many bodies. The S. E. and 
S. E. narrow gauge railroad traverses it from 
east to west, thus affording the people railroad 
communication and benefiting the township 
to a considerable extent. 

Early Settlement. — The first occupation 
by white people, of what is now Lamotte 
Township, is veiled somewhat in obscurity. 
Prior to the war of 1813 a number of families 
were living in this region, and when the war 
broke out, they congregated where Palestine 
now stands, and built a fort or block-house. 
But how long before, white people lived 
here, there is no one now to tell, for they are 
o-athered to the r fathers. It is believed that 
as far back as 1808 or 1809, there were peo- 
ple of our own kind in this immediate neigh- 
borhood, to say nothing of the French, who, 
as they were numerous about Vincennes, 
mav have been much earlier, and very 
probably were. Many believed that Joseph 
Lamotte once lived in this portion of the 
county, though there is little but tradition, 
concerning his occupation of the country. The 
following is related by Mr. Martin Fuller, of 
Monto-omery Township, who married Rosana 
Twomley. She was a daughter of Isaac 
Twomley, who kept a ferry at Vincennes at a 
very early day. Twomley married the widow 
of Joseph Lamotte, and of this marriage was 
born Rosana, the wife of Martin Fuller. Mr. 
Twomley used to say that Lamotte was an 
Indian interpreter, and spoke seven dialects 
of the Indian language, beside English and 
French, and that the Indians, for his services 
as interpreter in some of their grand pow- 
wows with the pale-faces, had given him all 
that tract of country, now known as Lamotte 

Prairie. But when they saw a chance of sell- 
ing it to the United States Government, had 
watched for an opportunity, and had slain 
Lamotte. They threw his body into a deep 
hole of water in the creek just west of Pales- 
tine cemet'ry. After the death of Lamotte, 
Twomley was made Indian interpreter. He 
spoke five Indian dialects as well as English 
and French, and his daughter, Mrs. Fuller, 
also speaks French fluently. 

This story of Lamotte, of course, is tra- 
ditional, as there are none now living who 
seem to know anything very definite con- 
cerning him, beyond the fact that there was 
once such a man. This, as stated in a pre- 
ceding chapter, we learn from the old court 
records, from conveyances of land made by 
Lamotte. It is probably doubtful, however, 
if Lamotte ever lived here, notwithstanding 
the fine prairie north of Palestine still bears 
his name, also Lamotte creek, and this town- 
ship, together with the old and original fort 
which stood on the present site of Palestine. 

It is a generally accepted tradition, and it 
is fast becoming a tradition only, that the 
Eatons were the first of our own kind to 
occupy this portion of the county, and they 
are believed to have been here as early as 
1808-9. They were a large family of large 
people, and possessed most extraordinarily 
lar^e feet. The latter was a distinguishing 
feature, and when a little unpleasantness oc- 
curred in Fort Lamotte, and the Eatons with- 
drew and built another fort, it was unani- 
mouslv dubbed Fort Foot, in derision of the 
Eatons' feet. 

Mr. D. W. Stark, an old and well-known citi- 
zen of Palestine for many years, furnishes us, 
throuo-h Mr. Finley Paull, the following re- 
garding the early settlement: "There must 
have been a settlement there and in the 
vicinity, reaching back toward the beginning 
of the century, for at the breaking out of the 
war of 1812 a considerable body of settlers 



assembled at Palestine, where thev built 
two forts in which they I'orteJ during the war. 
One of the forts, I think, stood somewhere in 
the southeast of the present town, for in the 
fall of 18",'0 I well recollect seeing some of the 
ruins and stoekade still standing. This fort 
was called Fort Lamotte, after the name of 
the prairie, and it was named after an old 
Frenchman. Where the other fort stood, if I 
ever knew, I have forgotten. It was named 
Fort Foot, as I understood, from the fact of 
two or three families of Batons forting in it, 
who were all noted as having very large feet." 
The Batons were pioneers in the true sense 
of the word, and had gone west — had aban- 
doned home and the signs of civilization, and 
plunged into the vast solitudes, in order to 
better their condition, and finally secure 
homes for themselves and children. These 
sturdy, lone mariners of the desert were 
men of action. Not very social in their 
nature, moody and almost void of the imagi- 
native faculty, they simply whetted their in- 
stincts in the struggle for existence atyainst 
the wild game, the ferocious beasts and the 
murderous savage. They, and such as thev, 
laid the foundations on which rests the civili- 
zation of the great west. They took their 
lives in their own hands, as it were, pene- 
trated the desert wilderness, and with a pa- 
tient energy, resolution and self-sacrifice that 
stands alone and unparalleled, worked out their 
allotted tasks, and to-day, we, their descend- 
ants, are enjoying the fruitage of their la- 

As we have before stated, the Batons were 
a large family, and consisted of the patriarch, 
who is believed to have been named Will- 
iam, and several sons, among whom were 
John, Job, Benjamin, Joseph, William and 
several others. It is not known of a certainty 
where they came from, but it is believed 
they were either from Kentucky or North 
Carolina. They wore in the fort at Palestine 

during the stormy period of our last war with 
England, and when the war clouds passed 
over and the olive branch was waved 
throughout the country, wooing the red man 
to peaceful sports, as well as the belliger- 
ent nations who had lately measured their 
strength with each other, and the people 
could branch out from the forts, with none 
to " molest or make them afraid," then the 
Batons moved out and scattered in different 
directions, some of them settling in Hutson- 
ville township, where they receive furthe) 
mention. One or two of the Batons weni 
killed by the Indians during the time tho 
people were " forted " at Palestine, which is 
spoken of elsewhere in this volume. 

Other pioneers, many of whom lived for 
awhile in the fort, were Thomas Kennedy, 
David McGahey, the McCalls, the Brim- 
berrys, James and Smith Shaw, J. Veach, the 
Millses, George Bathe, J. Purcell, Jesse Hig- 
gins, Mrs. Gaddis, John Garrard, the Woods, 
David Reavill and others. Thomas Kennedy 
was a Baptist preacher, and had squatted on 
a place, the improvement of which he after- 
ward sold to John S. Woodwortli. Kennedy 
then settled in the present township of Mont- 
gomery. McGahey was a prominent man, 
and opened a farm south of Palestine, on 
which Wyatt Mills now lives — himself of the 
original pioneer Mills family. McGahey 
served in the Legislature, was connected with 
the land office, and held other responsible 
positions. George Bathe entered land with 
McGahey. He has a son, George Bathe, Jr., 
now 77 years old, living in Palestine. Smith 
Shaw, after times became quiet, settled in the 
present County of Bdgar, where he made his 
mark, and where he was still livino- a few 
years ago, when we wrote the history of that 
County. John Garrard came from South 
Carolina, and was here as early as 1811. He 
has descendants still living in Palestine, one of 
■whom is proprietor of the Garrard House. 




John, Joseph and Welton Wood lived a few 
miles from Palestine. Welton still lives in 
the west part of the county. David Reavill 
was born in Delaware, and came to Illinois in 
1810, stoppino- at Kaskaskia, then the State 
capital. When the war broke out with Eng- 
land, he went to Vincennes and joined the 
Rangers, serving with them until peace was 
made, when he came to Palestine. He was 
killed by lightning, a circumstance known to 
many of the old citizens. The McCalls (two 
brothers) were surveyors, and the first in the 
county. In the southeast corner of Lamotte 
Township stands one of their old "witness 
trees," on " Unce Jimmy " Westner's place? 
and is the only one in the county known to be 
yet standing. Witness trees were marked by 
taking off the bark and scratching with an 
iron instrument called "three fingers," form- 
ing a cross. It was a mark known to all 
government surveyors, and when made upon 
a tree, though the bark would grow over it, 
the mark could be deciphered a hundred 
years after it was made. Hence, the name of 
witness tree. 

Thomas Gill and family, and John S. Wood- 
worth, came in the fall of 1814, and were 
from Mt. Sterling, Ky. Mr. Gill settled on a 
farm some four miles northwest of Palestine, 
where he lived, and where he died about 1840. 
He had a numerous family, but none of them 
are now in the township; James, the only one 
left, lives in Cumberland County. Mr. Gill 
had served in the Revolutionary War, and 
was a highly respected citizen of the county. 
John S. Woodworth married a daugiiter of 
Gill's, and raised a large family of children. 
But three of them are living, viz.: Martin and 
Leander of Palestine, and A. P. Woodworth, 
cashier of the Robinson bank. The first pur- 
chase of land made by Mr. Woodworth, was 
the squatter's claim of Thos. Kennedy to IGO 
acres. When it came in market he purchased 
it, and had to pay $6.10 per acre for it, a 

heavy price for the time. Mr. Woodworth 
was the second sheriff of Crawford County. 
He was not an office-seeker, but devoted 
his time and attention chiefly to agriculture. 
He accumulated a large estate in landed 

Edward N. Cullom came in the spring of 
1814, and at a time when the forts were still 
occupied by the whites. He also was from 
Kentucky, and had a large family. Two of 
his sons are still living — Leonard, who lives 
in Lawrenceville, and George, living in Fay- 
ette County. Cullom was a very prominent 
man, and he and Judge Joseph Kitchell were 
the original proprietors of the town of Pales- 
tine. He acquired considerable property and 
purchased large tracts of land, but eventually 
lost a good deal of it through betrayed 
trusts. Much is said of the Culloms in a pre- 
ceding chapter. 

The Kitchells and the Wilsons were among 
the prominent families of the county. Will- 
iam Wilson, the father of W. C. Wilson of 
Robinson, came here in 1816, and was from 
Virginia. He settled at Palestine and died 
in 1850. James H. Wilson, his father, came 
the next year, 1817, and was the first probate 
jud;j;e of the county. His sons were James 
H., Vastine J., Presley O. and Isaac N., Gen. 
Guy W. Smith married a daughter of Mr. 
Wilson. They are all dead, except Isaac N., 
who lives in Kansas. William Wilson's 
children are all dead, except Robert C, Carl, 
Eliza M. Patton, and Jane, the latter unmar- 
ried. Guy S. Wilson of Palestine, is a son of 
James H. Wilson Jr. Benjamin Wilson's 
children are all dead, except one living in 
California. Presley O. Wilson was quite 
prominent; was county judge and sheriff one 
or two terms. His widow, " Aunt Maria," as 
everybody called her, is living in Palestine. 

The Kitchells were natives of New Jersey. 
Judge Joseph Kitchell emigrated westward 
and stopped for awhile in Hamilton County 



Oliio; from i hence he moved to Indiana, and 
in 1817, came to Crawford County, locating 
in P.ilestine. He lived and died upon the 
place where he first settled. His old house is 
still standing in the west part of town, on the 
road leading out to Robinson. He was the 
first register of the land office when it was 
established, and was connected with it for 
more than twenty years. He afterward 
served in the State Legislature and held other 
positions of honor and trust. He had the first 
mill, probably, in the county — a horse mill, 
but an important institution in its day; really 
more important than the land office itself. 
Wickhfl'e Kitchell came to the county the 
next year, 1818, and was a brother to Joseph. 
About 1838, he removed to Hillsboro, 111., 
with his whole fainil}', except one daughter, 
the wife of Mr. D. W. Stark. He was the 
first lawyer in Crawford County, and was at 
one time attorney-general of the State. His 
wife died at Hilisboro, and he died at Pana, 
111., at the age of 82 years. One of his sons, 
Alfred, was circuit judge of this judicial dis- 
trict at one time, and afterward m ived to 
Galesburg, 111., where he died. Another son, 
Edward, entered the army at the beginning 
of the late war, and rose to the rank of brevet 
brigadier-geni^ral. After the war he returned 
to Olney, his former home, and died there a 
few years later. 

Col. John Houston, whom the citizens of 
Palestine well remember, and himself a cit- 
izen of the place for n<.-arly sixty years, be- 
longed to the Rangers that operated in this 
section during the war of 1812. He located 
here permanently about 1818, and engaged 
in the mercantile business. He came here 
just when he was most needed, and his finger- 
marks may yet be seen, tolling the story of 
his handiwork, and writing his epitaph in the 
hearts of many who are now reaping, and who 
will in the future enjoy the fruits of his labor 
and foresight. He served the county in many 

responsible positions; was sheriff, county 
treasurer, served in the State Senate, etc., 
but it was as a msrchant and businessman he 
was best known. We shall speak further of 
him under the business of Palestine. Alex- 
ander M. Houston was his brother, and for 
years his partner in business, a soldier in the 
Black Hawk War, and a prominent citizen of 
the count}'. Mr. D. W. Stark was also a 
partner of Col. Houston's, and is now living 
in Indiana. To him we are indebted for 
many facts pertaining to the Houstons, and 
other early settlers. We, however, knew 
Col. John Houston personally, some years 
ago, and can say much to his honor and credit 
from our own knowledge. 

The Alexanders were another of the promi- 
nent families of this section, and must have 
come here as early as 1825, as we find John 
C. Alexander the representative of Crawford 
Countv, in the Legislature, at the session of 
1826-1828. Harmon Alexander also repre- 
sented the county in the Legislature some 
years later. They were from Kentucky, and 
have descendants still in the county. There 
are many more pioneer families entitled to 
mention in this chapter, but we have been 
unable to learn their names, or anything defi- 
nite concerning them. This section was the 
first settled of any portion of the county. 
For years, the settlement was scattered 
around Fort Lamotte, and not until after all 
danger was over, consequent upon the war of 
1812, did the settlers begin to extend their 
skirmish line from the base of operations — 
old Fort Lamotte. As new-comers made 
their appearance, they stopped awhile in the 
vicinity, until homes and places of settle- 
ment were selected. Thus it was that nearly 
all the early settlers of the county were once 
settlers of this town and township, and hence 
many of them are mentioned in other chap- 
ters of this work. Along from 1825 to 1835, 
a number of families came, who have been 



identified prominently with the town and 
county. Of these we may mention the La- 
g-ows, Juda:e Harper, Finley Paull and others, 
wlio for tifty years or more were, and are 
still, a part of the country. The I^agows for 
years were among the most prominent citi- 
zens and business men of Palestine. Wilson 
Lao-ow was one of the very first merchants 
in the county. Judge Harper and Finley 
Paull are among the oldest citizens of the 
town living. They came here young men — 
they are old now, and far down the shady 
side of life, with the evening twilight gather- 
ing around them, and life's last embers burn- 
ing low. For more than half a century 
Judge Harper has lived here, and has held 
prominent positions in the county. Mr. 
Paull was long a merchant, bought goods in 
Cincinnati and Louisville, and hauled them 
here in wagons. In closing up his business, 
he would accept in payment of accounts any- 
thing he could turn into money, live stock in- 
cluded. Thus, he became possesse 1, like 
Jacob of old, of many cattle. These he used 
to herd on the prairie where Robinson now 

The Seven Jesses were as noted a family 
in Crawford County, as the family of Seven 
Oaks in England, but in character, they 
were the very antipodes of the latter. There 
were seven brothers of them, and they lived 
two miles south of Palestine. Their name 
was Myers, and the Christian name of the 
eldest was Jesse. A very strong family re- 
semblance existed between them, and hence 
they finally all received the nick-name of 
Jesse. Gen. Guy Smith, who had a keen 
sense of the ludicrous,, was the first to give 
tliem the unanimous name of Jesse, on ac- 
count of their strong resemblance. They 
had many peculiar and eccentric traits, one 
of which was, theyalways went in single file, 
and it was no uncommon thing to see the 
seven leave home together, riding invariably 

one right behind another, with all the pre- 
cision and regularity of a band of Indians. 
They were coarse, rude, ungainly and wild 
as the game they hunted. They were illit- 
erate, not ignorant; but shrewd, active, 
alert, and possessed strong, praetical, com- 
mon sense. Jess went to Terre Haute just 
after the first railroad was completed into 
that town. When he returned home he was 
asked by some of his neighbors if he saw the 
railroad, and he replied: " Yas, by hokey, 
and it beats anything I ever seed. A lot of 
keridges come along faster'n a boss could 
gallop, and run right inter a house, and I 
thought they would knock hell out of it, 
but two men run out and turned a little iron 
wheel round this way (imitating a brakoman) 
and the demed thing stopped stock still. 

They did by . I'm goin' to take mam 

anfl livd to see 'em shore." The latter were 
his mother and sister. At another time Jess 
went to Vincennes, and stopped at Clark's 
hotel. Next morning when he came down 
stairs, Mr. Clark said: "Good morning, sir." 
Jesse replied, " what the h — 1 do you say good 
morning for, when I have b(,en here all 
night?" Clark then asked him if he would 
have some water to wash, and received in 

response, " No, by ! we Myerses never 

washes." Clark saw he had a character, and 
drew him out in conversation, enjoying his 
eccentricities in the highest degree. 

A book as full of humor as Mark Twain's 
"Innocents Abroad," could be written of the 
sayings and doings of the Seven Jesses, with- 
out exao-o-eratins anv of their characteristics. 
Thevall lived to be old bachelors before they 
tried the slippery and uncertain paths of mat- 
rimony;' Jess was the first to make a break, 
as the bell-wether always leads the flock, 
and he was over thirty when he married. 
How well he liked the venture is indicated iiy 
the fact that the others went and did like- 



Laniotte Township contains some pre-his- 
toric relics. In the soutlieast portion of the 
town of Palestine there was a mound, now 
nearly obliterated, but when the town was 
laid out, was in a fine state of preservation. 
Judge Harper informs us it was some sixty 
feet in diameter at the base and at least 
twelve foet high, and cone-shaped. Upon its 
summit stood an oak tree about three feet 
through at the stump, which was cut down 
by Judge Kitchell, who owned the land, and 
made it into rails. When Levi Harper built 
his blacksmith shop, which stood on rather 
low ground, he hauled forty odd wagon loads 
of dirt from this mound to fill up and level 
the ground around his shop. In so doing 
many human bones were exhumed, but so 
long had they been under ground, that as 
soon as they were exposed to the atmosphere, 
they crumbled into dust. A number of other 
mounds south and west of the town are still 
to be seen. There is one near where Judge 
Harper now lives, which has been nearly lev- 
eled with the surface, but no bones have been 
discovered. Flint arrow heads, however, 
• have been found in quantities in the imme- 
diate vicinity. These evidences are conclu- 
sive that the lost race once inhabited this 
region, ages before it was occupied by the 
Anglo-Saxons. But they have faded away 
from the face of the earth, and have left no 
traces behind of their existence save the 
mounds and earthworks found in many parts 
of the country. 

Milk-sick. — That scourge of the western 
frontier, "milk-sick," was common in this 
portion of the county, and the early settlers 
suffered severely from its effects. Many people 
died of thi? worse than plague. A case is 
related of Thos. Gill's butchering a beef, and 
after the meat was dressed, he sent a quarter 
of it to his son-in-law, John AVoodworth. But 
as soon as he looked at it he discovered evi- 
dences of its being "milk-sick" beef, and 

would not take it. A neighbor who happened 
to be present, said if he would let him have it 
he would risk it being milk-sick beef. He took 
it, and every one of his family who ate of it 
came near dying. Thus milk-sick lay in 
wait for man and beast along nearly all the 
streams throughout the county, and often 
proved as fatal as the horrible malaria which 
freighted the air, floating out from its 
noisome lurking places, spreading far and 
wide its deadly poison. Milk-sick is a dis- 
ease that has puzzled the wisest medical men 
for years, and is still an unsolved question. 

The early life of the people of Lamotte 
Township, and indeed, of Crawford County, 
for the time was when what is now Lamotte 
Township comprised the settled portion of 
the county, maybe learned by a brief extract 
from an address delivered by Hon. O. B. 
Ficklin, before the old settlers of Crawford 
County, October 6, 1880. Upon that occa- 
sion, Mr. Ficklin said: "This country was 
taken fiom the English by Gen. George 
Rogers Clark in 1778, and the people heard 
of it in the older settled States, though there 
were no telegraph lines then — but the peo- 
ple heard of it all the same. The Revolu- 
tionary soldiers heard of this Northwestern 
country, and the news was transmitted to 
Virginia, to the Carolinas — all over the 
country, everywhere. To be sure it was not 
done then as it is now, but our people had 
sufficient word of it. They knew enough 
about it. They had heard enough about it 
to want to emigrate to the new country, and 
we are a wonderful people to emigrate; v?e 
go everywhere; we penetrate every new 
country, and the pioneers started from Vir- 
ginia, they started from Pennsylvania, and 
from the Carolinas, and from Georgia, and all 
that Atlantic belt of country, and came out 
as pioneers to this newly acquired region. 
They stopped in Ohio, they stopped in Indi- 
ana, they stopped in Illinois — stopped in each 



successive State they came to. A few peo- 
ple — pioneers, men and women of nerve, of 
pluck, of energy and industry have come 
here and settled in this country, dotted around, 
some on the Ohio, some on the Wabash and 
some on llie Mississippi River, and from this 
handful, Illinois has grown into a great 

What was it stopped the stream of emi- 
gration in this particular spot? What was 
there here to tempt emigrants to brave all 
danger, and cause tiiem to pause, and fix here 
the nucleus around which all this present peo- 
ple and their wealth has gathered? They 
could not see the toil and danger that lurked 
upon every hand, yet they could see enough, 
one would think, to appal the stoutest heart. 
The wily and treacherous savage was here, the 
horrible malaria was in the air they breathed, 
the howling, and always hungry wolf and 
the soft-footed panther crouched in every 
thicket, and scores of other impediments were 
encountered at every step. Then what was 
the attraction ? Doubtless, it was the broad 
expense of rolling prairie, the primeval forests 
that towered along the Wabasli and its trib- 
utaries, combining a vision of loveliness con- 
vincing to the pioneer fathers, that if the 
Garden of Eden was not here, then there was 
a mistake as to its place of location. Imbued 
witii this idea, when a town was laid out, they 
caled it Palestine, after the capital city of the 
Holy Land. Considering all the difficulties 
under which these "strangers in a strange 
land " labored, it is a wonder indeed that they 
ever came to this earthly paradise, or re- 
mained after they came. But the pioneers, 
with something of that spirit with which the 
poet invests Rhoderick Dhu 

" If a path be dangerous known, 
The danger's self is lure aione," 

faced the perils of "flood and field," whollv 
indifferent to, if not actually courting the 

danger that met them on every side. Such 
as they were they had to be, in order that 
they tiiiglit blaze the way into the heart of 
the wilderness for the coming hosts of civili- 

Cotton was extensively grown here in early 
times, not so much as an article of commerce 
as to satisfy the necessities of the times. It 
was the custom then for each family to manu- 
facture their own clothing, and to this end 
cotton was cultivated to a greater or less 
extent by every settler who made any pre- 
tensions to farming, while some planted large 
crops of this, now great staple. Mr. Wiley 
Emmons informed us that he has seen as 
much as seventy acres of cotton in one field. 
Sand prairie produced it well, yielding as 
much as 200 pounds per acre. Half that 
amount was the usual crop on ordinary land. 
William Norris put up the first cotton giti in 
that portion of the county now embraced in 
Lawrence County. But experience devel- 
oped the fact that the county, upon the whole, 
was not adapted to cotton growing, and as a 
crop it was eventually abandoned. 

The fii St school in Lamotte township was 
tau.tjht in Palestine, as the early settlement 
encircled that place. The township now 
a comfortable school building in each neigh- 
borhood, and is provided with excellent 
schools. The early schools will be more par- 
ticularly mentioned in connection with the 
history of the town. 

A village called " Bolivar," was staked off 
in an early day on Lamotte Prairie, on the 
high ground near the north end of the Monre 
pond. But it was never regularly laid out, 
nor otherwise improved. 

Churches. — The early preacher, as "one 
crying in the wilderness," came with the tide 
of immigration, and the pioneers received 
ghirlly his spiritual counsels. Mr. Samuel 
Park, at an old settler's meeting, gives a true 
picture of the frontier preacher in the follow- 

a f^ Td^'^^-V^Cc^C^TPlyi^ 



ing: "But see yomlcr in tlie distance, winJ- 
ing along the path that leads to the cabin, is 
a stranger on horseback. He is clad in liotne- 
spun, has on a plain, straight- breasted coat and 
a broad brimmed hat, and is seated on a large 
and well-filled pair of saddle-bags. Ah! that 
is the pioneer preacher, hunting up the lost 
sheep in the wilderness. He brings glad tid- 
ings from friends far away, back in the old 
home of civilization. Not only so, but he 
brings a message from the celestial regions, 
assuring the brave pioneer of God's watchful 
care of him and his household, telling him of 
God's promise of deliverance and salvation 
from all sin to all who faithfully combat and 
overcome the evils with which they are sur- 
rounded. Most of those brave spirits have 
alreadj' realized the truths of the message 
they bore by entering upon their reward. 
Others are still westward bound over the un- 
explored plains of time toward the setting 
sun. Soon, very soon, they will reach that 
point where the sun will set to those old pio- 
neers to rise no more. Already their tot- 
tering limbs show weariness from many hard- 
fought battles, and their eyes have become 
dim to the beauties of this world." Such was 
the pioneer preacher, and in his humble way, 
he did more to advance civilization than any 
other class that penetrated the wilderness of 
the west. He may have been very ignorant, 
but he was wholly honest and sincerely hum- 
ble. Generally illiberal and full of severity, 
and warped and deformed with prejudices, 
he took up the cross of his Master, seized the 
sword of Gideon and smote His Satanic Maj- 
esty wherever he could find him. But he 
was a God-fearing good man, and but few, if 
any ministerial scandals were known. 

The Methodists and the Hardshell Baptists 
were cotemporaneons in their coming, and, as 
one informed us, " the Methodists shouting, 
and the Hardshells singing their sermons 
through their nose, but in their different fields 

of usefulness, they dwelt together in true 
Christian love and friendship." Thomas 
Kennedy, who was among the very early set- 
tlers of this section, was a Hardshell preacher, 
and "old Father" McCord, John Fox and 
John Stewart were early Methodist preachers. 
These veteran soldiers of the Cross first 
preached the Gospel to the people of what 
now forms Lamotte and Montgomery town- 
ships. But after this long lapse of years, it is 
hard to say when or where the first church 
society was organized, whether in Palestine 
or in the adjoining neighborhoods. Weshall 
not attempt to decide the question, but give 
brief sketches, so far as we have been able to 
obtain them, of the churches in the town and 

There are some four or five church buildings 
in the township, outside of Palestine, but the 
original organization of the difi^erent churches 
can not, in all cases, be given. The old 
Lamotte Baptist church, originally organized 
by Elder Daniel Parker in a very early day, 
was no doubt the first church in the town- 
ship, but it has long since become extinct, 
through death of members, removals, and the 
formation of other churches. But they once 
had a church building on Lamotte Prairie and 
a large congregation. 

East Union Christian Church in the south 
part of the township, was organized in 
1848, by Elder John Bailey, with fifty mem- 
bers. It has prospered, and has now about 
120 members. Their first meetings were held 
in a log school-house, and in 1862, their pres- 
ent frame church was erected at a cost of 
about $1,000. The present pastor is Elder 
J. T. G. Brandenburg. The pastors since its 
organization, have been Elders John Bailey, 
L. Thompson, John Mullias, David Clark, 
G. W. Ingersoll, John T. Cox, J. H. Sloan, 
J. Chowning, Jacob Wright, O. T. Azbill, 
John Ingle, P. E. Cobb, J. J. Lockhart, F. G. 
Roberts, and J. T. G. Brandenburg, the pres- 



ent pastor. A Sunday-school was organized 
in 1873, and lias a regular attendance of about 
fifty, under the superintendence of John 

Richwoods Baptist Church is situated in 
the southeast corner of the township, and was 
founded in the fall of 1871, by Elder D. Y. 
Allison, with eight original members. The 
first meetings were held in the Harding school- 
house. In 1873 the congregation built a good, 
substantial frame church. The pastors have 
been Elders D. Y. Allison, J. L. Cox, Jacob 
Clements, and Isaiah Greenbaugh. In 1881 
it had 36 members, and at the present time is 
without a pastor. 

There are two church buildings in the 
north part of the township: the Union church 
at the Jack Oak Grove cemetery, and the 
Dunkard church near by. The circumstances 
attending the formation and building of these 
churches were as follows: About the year 
1870-71 there was quite a revival of religion 
held on " Rogue's Island," as it is called, at the 
old Wright school-house, under the auspices 
of the New Lights. The religious interest 
awakened suggested the thought of erecting a 
church building. As the subject was can- 
vassed sentiment became divided as to the spot 
where the church should be located. Some 
wanted it on the island where the revival had 
been held, while another faction insisted on 
having it at the Jack Oak cemetery, inas- 
much as the latter was an old burying ground. 
The controversy finally culminated in the 
building of two churches, one at the cemetery, 
and the other a little east, on the old State 
road. Both were erected by a general sub- 
scription from all denominations, and were 
built by the same carpenter in the summer of 
1871. About 1875, the one erected on the 
State road was burned down, and has never 
been rebuilt. The one built at the cemetery is 
^^till standing, is open to all denominations, 

but is used chiefly by New Lights and the 

The Jack Oak Grove Cemetery is one of 
the oldest burying grounds in the county, and 
contains the mouldering dust of many of the 
pioneers of this township. Some of their 
graves are unmarked and unknown, and their 
fast receding memories are alike unhonored 
and unsung. They quietly sleep in this lonely 
graveyard where the grass grows rank with 
the vapors of decaying mortality, without so 
much as a rude boulder to mark the spot 
where they lie. Here rests Thomas Gill, a 
Revolutionary soldier who fought under Gen. 
Putnam, and around him sleep some of the red 
sons of the forest, who, from this quiet spot, 
took their flight to the happy hunting 
grounds, so often described in the rude wild 
eloquence of the medicine men. But not all 
of the graves here are neglected. Many are 
marked by stones, moss-grown from age, with 
dates running back to 1835-30. There also 
are some very handsome stones and monu- 
ments. When the first burial was made, is 
not known, but many who died in this portion 
of th3 township in early days were interred in 
this cemetery. Several Indians were buried 
here, which shows its age as a place of sepul- 
ture. Side by side the white and red man 
sleep, and " six feet of earth make them all 
of one size." 

The Dunkards had an interest in the Jack 
Oak Grove church when first built, but there 
were too many interested to suit them, as they 
could not alwHys have the use of it when they 
wanted it. Hence, in the summer of lS8'i, 
they built a church of their own in the vicin- 
ity, which is a neat and handsome frame 

Swearingen Chapel, Methodist Episcopal, 
has been recently built, and is situated in the 
southwest part of the township. It was built 
principally by Samuel Swearingen. Rev. J. 



B. Reeder was the fiist, and is the present 

Harmony Church is located in the extreme 
northwest corner of the township, and is a 
union church. It was built by general sub- 
scription and is open to all denominations 
wlio choose to occupy it. But it is used 
mostly by the United Brethren, Methodists 
and New Lights. It is a neat and substantial 
frame building, and will comfortably seat 
about two hundred persons. 

The old Wabash Valley Railroad which is 
noticed at some length in a preceding chap- 
ter, created a great interest in this portion of 
the county in its day. As a railroad project 
it grew out of the old internal improve- 
ment system of the State, and was inaugurated 
as early as ]S50. About 1854 work com- 
menced on it in this county, and much of the 
grading was done, and the most sanguine 
hopes entertained of its ultimate completion. 
An amount of money, aggregating $60,000 
was subscribed to the enterprise, mostly in 
this portion of the county. A corps of men, 
were sent here to take charge of the work. 
They opened an office in Palestine, and in- 
stead of pushing the work with energj', they 
spent most of their time in town, drinking, 
carousing, and in "riotous living." The funds 
disappeared faster than the enterprise pro- 
gressed. Nearly enough money had been 
subscribed along the line to have built the 
road, had it been judiciously and economi- 
cally used. But it was squandered, and the 
project of building the Wabash Valley Rail- 
road finally abandoned. The old grade is still 
to be seen, an eye-sore to the people of this 
section, and a daily reminder of " what might 
have been." Later, when the project was 
revived under the Paris & Danville Railroad, 
in building the same, it diverged from the old 
Wabash grade a little south of Hutsonvillo, 
and run to Robinson, leaving this township 
out in the cold. It was not until the building: 

of the Springfield, Effingham & Southeastern 
narrow-guage railroad that Lamotte Township 
and Palestine received raiboad communica- 
tion with the outside world. 

Trimble station is on the Wabash Railroad 
just on the line between Lamotte and Robin- 
son Townships, but most of the town, if town 
it can be called, is on the Robinson side of the 
line. It consists of merely a store, post-office, 
a shop or two, a saw mill, Harmony church, 
and some half a dozen dwellings. 
" I can not throw my staff Aside, 

Or wholly quell the hope divine, 
That one delight awaits me yet, — 

A pilgrimage to Palestine." 

Palestine. — The town of Palestine, the orig- 
inal capital of the county, and fifty or sixty 
years ago one of the most important towns 
in the State, was laid out on the 19th and 
20th days of May, 1818, by Edward N. Cul- 
lom and Joseph Kitchell, the owners of the 
land, and David Porter, agent for the county. 
The original plat embraced lUO lots of ground, 
each fronting 75 feet, and 142 feet deep, 
with the public square containing two 
acres. This was Palestine as it was laid out 
sixty-five years ago. Several additions have 
since that time been made, but they are not 
pertinent to this sketch. Of the first build- 
ings and the first business we have been un- 
able to gather much satisfactory information. 
A communication written by D. W. Stark, 
Esq., to ^h: Finley Paull, who has taken an 
active interest in aiding us in our researches, 
gives some interesting facts of the early busi- 
ness. We make the following extract from 
his communication to Mr. Paull: 

"About 1818-19 John Houston, in connec- 
tion with Francis Dickson, of Vincennes, 
purchased lot No. Ill, in Palestine, built a 
house intended for dwelling and store-room 
combined; finished off the south room on the 
corner for a store — the room was about 10 or 
IS feet square. In the year 1819, or in the 



beginning of 1820 they brought on a stock of 
goods to Palestine. This, I believe was the 
first stock of goods ever in Palestine, or, as 
far as I know, ever on the west side of the 
river, north of Vincennes. John Houston 
married my oldest sister, Jane M. Stark, in 
the spring of 1831. They were ever after 
residents of Palestine until their deaths a few 
years ago. 

" John and Alexander Houston were the 
sons of Robert Houston, a minister of the 
Presbyterian church, who broke off from the 
church in Kentucky, in the year 1803, at the 
time Stone, Dunlevy, McNemar and others 
did. Houston embraced the Shaker faith, 
moved to the Wabash country about 1806. 
He located at the old Shaker town, to which 
point a considerable body of Shakers soon 
collected and built the old Shaker village. A 
few years later, Houston for some reason or 
other left the Wabash, and went to reside at 
the Shaker village, in Logan County, Ken- 
tucky, where he lived until his death at the 
advanced age of 95 years. John and Alex- 
ander Houston both left the Shakers when 
quite young — before they were scarcely 
grown. Alexander left a short time first, 
going to Nashville, Tenn., to an uncle who re- 
sided there. John, when he left, remained 
on the Wabash, and when the war of 1813 
broke out joined the Rangers and continued 
in the service until peace in the beginning of 
1815. Then for three or four years was en- 
gaged in running barges and keel-boats on 
the Ohio and Wabash rivers, in connection 
with an uncle of the same name, who lived 
in Mason County, Ky., but who afterward 
moved to Palestine and died there — the fath- 
er-in-law of David Logan. 

"Alexander M. Houston in a short time 
after going to Nashville, entered the regular 
army where he remained for seven or eight 
years, rose to the rank of lieutenant and 
quartermaster, and then resigned. He came 

to Palestine, and went into partnership with 
his brother John (wlio had bought out Dick- 
son's interest), probably about 1833. The two 
brothers remained in business together in 
Palestine until 1835, when Alexander moved 
to Rockville, Ind., where he lived for some 
years, but his wife's health failing, he re- 
turned to Palestine, where she afterward died. 
He finally married again, moved to the State 
of New York, and died there. Neither of the 
Houstons had any children; .John was up- 
ward of 86 when he died, and Alexander was 
76; both they and their wives are dead, and 
both families are extinct. 

" My father, David W. Stark, moved from 
Mason County, Ky., to Palestine in the fall of 
1830, and built a residence east and directly 
across the street from the old Wilson tavern. 
My mother died in 1833, and a year or two 
later my father married a widow Neeley, who 
resided at the head of Laraitte prairie, where 
he died in the year 1816. I went to reside 
with John Houston in 1831, when I was about 
fifteen years old. I remained with him until 
I was married in 1831, and continued business 
with him and Alexander Houston until 1839, 
when I removed to Rockville, Lid., where I 
have since lived. I am now 77 years old, and 
the last of my father's family that is alive. 

"As it may be of some interest to you to 
know, I think I can give you the names of at 
least nine-tenths of the heads of families, re- 
sidinof in Palestine in 1830. They areas fol- 
lows: Joseph Kitchell, Wickliffe KitchcU, 
Mrs. Nancy Kitchell and family, shea widow, 
Edward N. Cullom, James Otey,- James Wil- 
son, Wm. Wilson, David Stewart, Dr. Ford, 
Edward N. Piper, Daniel Boatright, David 
W. Stark, Guy W. Smith, George Calhoun, 
John Houston, Robert Smith — the t^vo latter 

These lengthy extracts give much of the 
early history of Palestine, when it was a 
strao-o-ling village, and the backwoods county 



seat of a realm of almost undefined bounda- 
ries. From a series of articles published in 
the Robinson Artjim some years ago, entitled, 
" Palestine Forty Years Ago," we gather some 
items of interest. From them we learn that 
in 18.i"2, Palestine was a place of some five 
or six hundred inhabitants, and contained 
five dry goods stores, two groceries, two sad- 
dle shops, three blacksmith shops, one car- 
penter shop, one cabinet maker shop, one 
wagon shop, one cooper shop, one tailor shop, 
one hatter shop, two shoe shops, two tan 
yards, two mills with distilleries attached, one 
cotton gin, one carding machine, two taverns 
and one church. 

Palestine was an important place then — a 
more important place than Hutsonville ever 
was, for it was the county seat, and this gave 
it an air of great dignity. The businessmen 
could number among their customers men 
who lived twenty-five and thirty miles dis- 
tant. The merchants were John Houston & 
Co., Uan forth & JIcGahey, Wilson Lagow, 
.Tames & Mauz}', A. B. Winslow & Co., Otey 
& Waldrop, Ireland & Kitchell. The part- 
ner of Ireland was J. II. Kitchell. Thej' 
bought up and loaded a flat boat with pro- 
duce, and Asa Kitchell started with it to New 
Orleans. It is a fact remembered still by 
many of the old citizens, that he nor the lioat 
were ever after heard of. The suppositiim 
was that the boat was swamped and all on 
board lost, or that it was captured by river 
pirates and the crew murdered. 

Of the two mills, one was an o,\-mill, the 
power made by oxen upon a tread-wheel, and 
was owned by John Houston & Co., but was 
being run by James and Peter Higgins. It 
had a distillery in connection with it, also in 
ojjeration. The other was a horse-mill, and 
belonged to Joseph Kitchell, but was rented 
to one Morris. A distillery w.ts in operation 
in Qonnection with it also. Morris died, and 
bijth mill and distillery ceased operation. 

Corn was then cheap and plenty, and making 
whisky was profitable. It was shipped to 
New Orleans mostly — what was not used at 
home as antidote for snake bites (!) only. An 
incident is related of the proprietor of a dis- 
tillery being reproved by his pastor for fol- 
lowing a business, even then considered disre- 
putable and inconsistent with religious teach- 
ings. He listened attentively to the holy 
man, and then informed him that he was 
shipping it down south to kill Catholics. 
There is no record of what further took place, 
but as Protestant ministers then were more 
prejudiced against Catholics, if possible, than 
now, it is supposed the preacher considered 
that the end justified the means, and the man 
might continue the business. The ox-mill 
stood for many years, and furnished much of 
the flour and meal for the surrounding coun- 
try. It was afterward converted into a steam- 
mill, and is still standing, but is old and 
rickety, and belongs to Mrs. Noll. Reuben 
Condit built a mill in 1850-52. It is now 
owned by MiesenheKler & Son, and stands in 
the southeast part of town. It is a frame 
building, and still doing a good business. A 
saw-mill is connected with it. 

The taverns were owned Ijy the AVilsons 
and Elisha Fitch. That one owned by Wil- 
son changed hands frequently, and became 
the Garrard House. I. N. Wilson run it for 
years, and made money at the business. It 
was a great place of resort for a hundred 
miles around. People who came to buy land 
and to attend court stopped at it, and it was 
often the scene of balls and parties, grand 
and gorgeous for a backwoods cotnmunitv. 
It was the stage stand, and this brought it all 
the transient custom. The old-fashioned sign 
swung in front of both these oM-fasliioned 
taverns. The device on Wilson's was the 
rising sun, and that on Fitc'h's the moon a 
few d.iys old. As he had but little custom 
compared to Wdsun, the boys called it the 



" Dry-moon tavern." The Garrard House is 
still in operation, but the gay times it once 
knew it now knows no more. 

Palestine was incorporated by an act of the 
general assembly, February 16, 1857, and 
organized under special charter in April fol- 
lowing-. It continued under this organization 
until the third Tuesday in April, 1ST7, when 
it was re-organized under the general law, 
or incorporating act, and officers were elect- 
ed accordiuQ-ly. The present board of trus- 
tees are Andrew Saulesbury, Wm. R. Eni- 
rnons, R. H. Kitchell, John W. Patton, and 
Amos Miescnhelder, of which Andrew Saules- 
bury is president, Amos Miesenhelder, treas- 
urer, and Wm. Alexander, clerk. 

But little is known of the early schools of 
Palestine. George Calhoun taught in the 
town as early as 1820; but little else can be 
ascertained of him and his school. As early 
as 1830 the Masons and school board owned 
a building, which was used jointly as a 
Masonic lodge and a school house, the Masons 
occupying the upper part, and the school the 
lower. The lodge had a large membership 
then, but many moving away, and others dy- 
ing, the lodge finally ceased to exist. The 
building was used for school purposes until it 
became too small, and after the county seat 
w: s moved to Robinson, the old court house 
was used some time as a school building. 
The present school-house was built about 
1870-72, and is a substantial two-story frame. 
The school has an attendance of some two or 
three hundred children. Prof. James A. 
ISIaxwell is principal, and Prof. Bussard, Miss 
Mary Goram and Miss Lizzie Alexander, 
assistant teachers. The school building oc- 
cupies the old public square, which makes a 
beautiful school yard. 

Palestine in early days was the Paris of 
Illinois; it was the center of fashion, of wealth, 
pleasure and social enjoyment. Many of 
its citizens were cultured, educated people. 

belonging to the very best class of society, 
and ranking among the aristocracy of the 
country. While this was true, however, of a 
large class, there was another class, and quite 
as large, that were just the opposite in every- 
thing. They were the fighting, roystering, 
drinking, devil-may-care fellows always to be 
found in frontier towns. To hunt a little, 
frolic much, go to town often and never miss 
a muster or general election day, and get 
"glorious" early, and fight all day for fun, 
was the pleasure and delight of their lives. 
At musters and elections they had a glorious 
picnic from "early morn to dewy eve," and 
they made ihe most of it. But such charac- 
ters do not last long, and generally follow the 
ffame westward. 

The time was when Palestine was a place 
of considerable business. For years it was 
the only place in a large area of country 
where pork was bought, packed and shipped. 
It was the first place in the county to pur- 
chase and ship wheat. It carried on a large 
trade in pork and wheat. O. H. Bristol & Co., 
who bought wheat extensively from 18-12 to 
1815, built a grain warehouse. Many people 
made sport of it and said it would hold more 
wheat than the county would raise in ten 
years, but the business done proved them 
false prophets; Bristol & Co. often had it full 
of wheat two or three times a year. They 
had been merchants, but went into the grain 
business, which they continued several years. 
Other firms embarked in the grain and pork 
business, but when a railroad was built through 
the county it crippled Palestine as a grain 
market. The building of the narrow-gauge, 
railroad, however, has revived somewhat this 
line of business. Morris, who has been al- 
ready referred to, commenced a big distillery 
about 1831. He broke up at it, and died 
before completing it. Harmon Alexander 
bought the property and turned it into an oil 
factory, and for several years manufactured 



castor and linseed oil very extensively. A 
woolen mill was built here some years ago, 
but it never proved a success, and is now 
standing idle. 

The Land Office. — This public institution 
was established at Palestine May 11, 1S30. 
The first land sale took place several years 
jiri'viouslv, we have been told, to the date of 
opening the office here. Tlie following wore 
the registers and receivers during its contin- 
uance at Palestine, as furnished by the State 
auditor: Joseph Kitchell, from the establish- 
ment of the office to 1811 ; Jesse K. Dubois, 
from ISll to 1842; James McLean, from 184:i 
to 184.5; '•Harmon Alexander, from 1845 to 
1849; James McLean, from 1849 to 1853; 
Vllarnion Alexander, from 1853 to 1855. The 
receivers were, Guy W. Smith, from the es- 
tablishment of the office to 1839; Augustus 
C French (afterward governor), from 1839 to 
KS42; David McGahey, from 184-2 to 1845; 
William Wilson, from 1845 to 1849; Jesse K. 
Dubois, from 1849 to 1853; Robert C. Wilson, 
from 1853 to 1855, when the office was dis- 
contijiued and the books and records moved 
to Springfield. 

The land-office was quite a feather in the 
ca]) of Palestine as it rendered it the most 
important town in the State, perhaps the State 
capital excepted. It was established in a 
couple of years after the town was laid out, 
and continued its e.xistence here for a quarter 
of a century. All who entered land in the 
southern part of the State had to come to 
Palestine to do it, and this brought trade and 
importance to the town. The office was dis- 
continued after all the land was taken up 
south of the Danville district. 

Mr. Guy Wilson now owns the old desk 
used in the land-ollice for many years, which 
lie values highly as a relic. It is a massive 
piece of furniture, and was made in Philadel- 
phia specially for the office. It is of walnut 

lumber, and is still in an excellent state of 

The Jlethodist Episcopal Church, is the old- 
est religious orgiinization in Palestine. Most 
of its orioinal members were from Wesley 
Chapel, and among them were the Culloms. 
Revs. John Fox and old Father McCord were 
the eany preachers, and the church was or- 
ganized about 1828-29. The first church 
house was a frame and was never finished. 
The present church was built for a town hall, 
and somewhere about 187:^-73, was bought by 
the congregation and converted into a church. 
It is a frame building, has been re-modeled 
and improved, and is a very comfortable and 
even elegant church. Before its purchase, 
the congregation worshiped some time in 
the Presbyterian church. Rev. Thos. J. Mas- 
sey is the present pastor of the church. A 
Sundaj'-school is maintained, of which Arthur 
Vance is superintendent. 

The Presbyterian Church of Palestine was 
organized in 1831.* Rev. John Montgomery 
of Pennsylvania, and Rev. Isaac Reed of New 
York, held a meeting here embracing the 
14th, 15th and Kith of May, of the above 
year, and during its progress organized the 
church, with the following members: John, 
Nancy, Jane and Eliza Houston, Mary Ann 
Logan, Wilson, Henry and Alfred Lagow, 
James and Margaret Eagleton, James Cald- 
well, Phoebe Morris, Anna Piper, John and 
Ann Malcom and Hannah Wilson. John 
Houston and Wilson Lagow were chosen 
elders. The following have since filled the 
office: James Eagleton, Dr. E. L. Patton, 
Fiidcy Puull, Andrew McCormick, James C. 
Allen, J. M. Winsor, J. H. Richey, Dr. J. S. 
Brengle, J. C. Raniey, and H. T. Beam. 
The following preachers have ministered to 

* From Dr. Norton's History of the Presbyterian 
church in Southern llliii us. 



the congregation: Revs. John Montgomery, 
Reuben White, James Crawford, Isaac Ben- 
nett, E. W. Thayer, R. H. Lilly, Joseph Piatt, 
John Crosier, J. M. Alexander, Joseph Piatt 
(again), A. MoFarland, A. Thompson, Thomas 
Spencer, J. E. Carson and S. W. Lagrange. 
There is no pastor at present. Of the original 
members all are dead, and of those present at 
its formation, but two were present at its 
semi-centennial, May 14th, 15th and IGth, 
1881,; these two were Isaac N. Wilson and 
Abigail Wilson, members of the Presbyterian 
church of Olney. 

Dr. Norton, in his work on the Presbyte- 
rian (Church of Illinois, pays an eloquent and 
justly merited tribute to Mr. Finley PauU. 
After speaking of his long and faithful ser- 
vice, he closes as follows: " Elder Finley 
Paull has been an elder nearly ever since his 
union with the church in ]83i, and in all that 
time has missed but two meetings of the ses- 
sion, while but three members have been ad- 
mitted when he was not present." There are 
few instances of a more faithful stewardship. 

Of former pastors, there were present at the 
semi-centennial. Rev. E. W. Thayer of Spring- 
field; Rev. J. Crosier of Olney, and Rev. A. 
McFarland of Flora. There had been 440 
persons connected with the church since its or- 
ganiza'ion fifty years before, and two churches, 
Robinson and Beckwith Prairie churches have 
been formed from its membership. The first 
house of worship was a carpenter shop they 
bought and fitted up for the purpose. In 
1840 they built a church 38x50 feet at a cost 
of §1,300. Tlie house has been remodeled 
and enlarged and a bell attached. A Sunday- 
school in connection with the church is car- 
ried on, with Mrs. Lottie Ramey as superin- 

The Christian church of Palestine is an old 
organization, but we were unable, through 
the negligence or indifference of its members, 
to learn anything concerning its early history. 

Their first church edifice was a frame and was 
burned some years ago. In 1874 they erected 
their elegant brick church, which in outward 
appearance is the handsomest church in the 
town. They have no regular pastor at pres- 

Palestine Lodge No. 2352, K. of H., was 
instituted January 31, 1881. The present 
officers are as follows: J. A. Martin, Dicta- 
tor; H. H. Haskctt, Vice Dictator; Perry 
Brimberry, Assistant Dictator; J. W. Laver- 
ton, Past Dictator; A. C. Goodwin, Repor- 
ter; W. R. Emmons, F. Reporter, and J. A. 
Maxwell, Treasurer. 

The site of Palestine is a beautiful one for 
a town, and its selection shows good taste in 
the commissioners who selected it for the 
county seat. It seems a pity that the seat of 
justice could not have remained here, but the 
center of population demanded its removal. 
The question of public buildings and removal 
of the county seat is noticed in the chapter 
on the organization of the county. The little 
town in its palmy days produced some able 
men, agovernor (A. G. French); an attorney 
general (Wiokliffe Kitchell); and a circuit 
judge and member of Congress, m the person 
of James C. Allen. With the removal of the 
county seat the town lost much of its former 
prestige, and to-day it is a rather dilapidated, 
rambling, tumble-down old town, almost 
wholly devoid of life and energy. Some 
beautiful residences, standing in spacious and 
well-kept grounds are an ornament to the 
place, and show a refinement of taste in their 

The cemetery of Palestine, like that at 
Jack Oak Grove, on the prairie, is an old 
burying ground, and is the resting place of 
many of Crawford County's early citizens. It 
is a very pretty grave-yard, with some fine 
monuments, and elegant marble slabs, silently 
testifying to the affection of surviving friends 
for their loved lost ones. 








" Against the cold, clear sky a smoke 
Curls like some column to its dome, 
An ax, with far, but heavy stroke 
Rings from a new woodland home." 

— Joaquin Miller. 

THERE is no perfect history. We dimly 
outline from our own stand-point the his- 
tory -which meets our eye, and steer our course 
between extremes of dates and happenings, 
while incompleteness marks the narrative. 
Transcribing recollections of the aged, waver- 
ing in memory, we do not seek to reconcile 
discrepancies, but to embody in these pages 
the names and deeds of those whose like can 
never more be seen. Most of the pioneers of 
this division of the county have passed to 
their reward, and the few still left are totter- 
ing on down toward the dark valley and must 
soon enter its gloomy shadows. A few more 
brief years and the last land-mark will have 
been swept away as the morning mist before 
the rising sun. 

Hutsonville Township is one of the most 
important civil divisions of Crawford County. 
It is situated on the eastern border, and is 
bounded north by Clark County, east by the 
AVabash river, south by Robinson and La- 
motte townships and west by Licking Town- 
ship. The land is drained by the Wabash 
and the streams which flow into it through 

*Bv W. H. Pernn. 

the township, the principal ones of which are 
Hutson and Raccoon creeks. The surface is 
rather low and level along the river back to 
the second terrace, and much of it subject to 
periodical overflows. Beyond the second 
bottom it rises into slight hills, and from their 
summit stretches away in level prairie and 
timbered flats. The original timber was 
black and white walnut, hickory, pecan, elm, 
sugar maple, oak, cotton wood, sycamore, 
hackberry, buckeye, etc., etc. By the census 
of 1880, the township, including the village, 
had 1,983 inhabitants. No better farmino- 
region may be found in Cravpford County 
than is comprised in the greater portion of 
Hutsonville Township. Aside from the inun- 
dation of the low lands, the worst draw-back to 
its agricultural prosperity is the great number 
of large unwieldy farms. Ohio farmers have 
grown wise in this respect, and the large farm 
in that State is now the exception. There 
are plenty of farmers in the State of Ohio, 
who, one year with another, make more money 
on a hundred acres than any farmer makes, 
upon an average, in Hutsonville Township, or 
in Crawford County for that matter. Small 
farms well cultivated, pay better than large 
ones poorly worked. A little poem, going 
the rounds of the press some years ago, enti- 
tled the " Forty- Acre Farm," is not in appro- 
priate, but may be read with profit. It is as 



" I'm thinkin', wife, of neigbbor Jones, that man of stalwart 

He lives in peace and plenty, on a forty-acre farm; 
While men are all around us, with hands and hearts asore. 
Who own two hundred acres and still are wanting more. 

•' His is a pretty little farm, a pretty little house; 

He has a loving wife within, iis quiet as a uiouse; 

His children piny aniund the door, their father's life to charm 

Looking as neat and tidy as the tidy little farm. 

"No weeds are in the corn fields ; no thistles in the oats ; 
The horses show good keeping hy thAr fine and glossy 

The cows within the meadow, resting beneath the bcochcn 

Learn all their gentle manners of the gentle milking maid. 

" Within the fields, on Snturday, he leaver no cradled grain 
To be gathered on the morrow, for fear of coming rain ; 
He keeps the .'^abbaih holy, hi-i ehildieu learn his ways, 
And plenty fill his barn and bin after the harvest uays. 

" He never has a lawsuit to take him to the town, 
For the very simple r ason there are no line fences down. 
The bar-room in the village does not liave for him a cliarm 
I can always find my neighbor on his forty -acre larm. 

"His acres are so very few he p'ows them very deep; 

'Tis his own hands that turn the sod, 'tis his own hands 

that reap. 
He has a place tor everything, and things are in their place ; 
The sunshine smiles up .n his fields, contentment tin hi. 


" May we not learn a lesson, wife, from prudent neighbor 

And not— for what we haven't got— give veut to sighs and 

moans ? 
The rich aren't always happy, nor free from life's alarms ; 
But blest are Ihcy who live content though small may be 

their farms." 

Of all those immortals who have helped to 
make this world wholesomo with their sweat 
and blood, the early pioneers were the hum- 
blest, but not the meanest nor most insignifi- 
cant. They laid the foundation on which 
rests the civilizn'-icn of the great West. The 
importance that attaches to their lives, char- 
acter and work in the cause of humanity will 
some day be better understood und appreci- 
ated than it is now. To say that in this 
chapter, it is proposed to write the history of 
every familj' in the order in which they came 
into the township would be promising more 
than lies in the power of any man to accom- 
plish. But to give a sketch of some of the 
leading pioneer and representative men of 
the times is our aim, and to gather such facts, 

incidents, statistics and circumstances as we 
may, and transmit tliam in a durable form to 
future generations is the utmost limit of oui 
desire and our work. 

The'Hutson family, there is no doubt, were 
the first white people in what is now Hutson- 
ville Township. The sad story of their tragic 
death — the massacre by the Indians, of the 
whole family, except the unhappy father and 
husband, is told in a preceding chapter. 
Hutson was from Ohio, and settled due south 
of the village of Hutsonville, where the widow 
Albert McCoy now lives, and which is the old 
Barlow homestead. The war of 1S1"2 was not 
yet over, and the Indians were still on the 
war path more or less, but committing few 
depredations in this part of the country. 
Hutson believed there really was no danger, 
and so declined to take refuge in the fort 
where most of the people of the country then 
resided for safety. One day when Ilutsnn 
was absent from home, a band of prowling sav- 
ao'ps came to his cabin and murdered the fam- 
ily — wife and four ciiihlren, and a man named 
Dixon, for what cause, except on general prin- 
ciples, was never known, as no one was left to 
tell the tale. When Hutson returned, he 
found his family all dead and his cabin in 
fl:tmes. These are the facts in brief. Hutson 
joined the arm\' at Fort Harrison and was 
soon after killed in a skirmish with the sav- 

The Batons, who figured conspicuously here 
in early davs, settled in the southwest part of 
this township; or rather some of them did. 
" Uncle Johnny " Eaton, was of those who 
became a settler in this township after leav- 
in<r old Fort Lninotte, where the people 
" hibernated " during the war of ISI'2. He 
died but a few years ago, and had a mind 
well stored with im/idonts of the early history 
of the county. All, however, that could be 
learned of the Eatons, has already been 



The Buriows, next to the Hutson family 
and the Batons, if the latter settled here 
immediately after leaving the fort, were the 
first settlers in what now forms Hutsonville 
township. .lohn W. Barlow came from cen- 
tral Kentucky, and sprung from a family of 
Virginia origin. lie was brought up in a 
region where the first rudiment learned was 
that of Indian warfare — where the people 
learned to fight Indians with their mothers 
and sisters in their cabins, in ambuscades and 
open fields, and before the savage war-cry 
had died away upon the frontiers of Indiana 
and Illinois, he had left the dark and bloody 
ground as though following the red man's 
retreating footsteps. Mr. Barlow stopped two 
years in Indiana, near the Shaker village, and 
in the spring of 181G came here. He settled 
on the place where the Hutson family were 
massacred, and when the land came 
in market lie purchased it. Hutson's cabin 
had been burned by the Indians, but there 
was an old stable standing. In this Mr. Bar- 
ow sheltered his family, while preparing his 
cabin, and while they still occupied it a child 
was born to them. Literally, it was " born in 
a manger, " and was doubtless the first birth 
in the township. Mr. Barlow lived upon this 
place until 1839, when he removed to Mar- 
shall. He raised a large family, the names 
of which were as follows: Sarah .lane; married 
VVm. McCo}'; Frances, an invalid daughter; 
Henry M. (he that was born in the stable), 
now a resident of Texas; Xancy O. (Mrs. 
John R. Hurst); Rebecca, married Wm. T. 
Adams, she is dead and he lives in Marshall; 
Alfred died on the farm; Polyxona, a daugh- 
ter who died single; Dr. James JI., living in 
Jasper County; Dr. John W., died in AVest- 
field. 111.; Dr. J. Milton, died two years ago 
in Clark County; Joel died while yet an inl'ant, 
and Wm. Hugh die 1 before reaching matu- 
rity. Mr. Barlow died in 18G3and his wife in 
1879, and side by side they sleep in the cem- 

etery at Hutsonville. For more than half a 
century they toiled together, and even in 
death they were not long separated. 

Joel, Jesse and James were brothers of 
Mr. Barlow. The first two came here with 
him and settled, Joel south of Hutsonville, 
and Jesse on vvhat is now known as the Steel 
farm. James came several years later. They 
are all dead; Joel died and was buried in 
Hutsonville cemetery. About the same time 
that the Barlows arrived in the township 
John Neeley and Joseph Bogard came — 
probably came with them. Charley Newlin 
lives on the place where Bogard settled, while 
Neeley settled on what is known as the Cal- 
lahan place. They are all dead and gone. 
When their strong and busy hands fell nerve- 
less at their sides in death, their life work 
was taken up by those who came after them. 

The Newlins, Hills, and John Saekrider 
came to the county in 181S, and settled in the 
present township of Hutsonville. The New- 
lin family is one of the most extensive and 
numerous probably in the whole county. It 
used to be a standing joke, that you might 
start out and go west from the village of Hut- 
sonville, and if you met a stranger, call him 
Newlin, and you would hit the nail on the head. 
Another remark often made of the Newlins 
and Hills, and one to the truth of which all 
who know them will bear testimony, is, that 
the word of a Newlin or a Hill is as good as 
his bond, and when once pledged is never 
broken but held sacred as though bound by 
the strongest oatiis. 

John Newlin, the patriarch of the tribe, 
came here with his family in 1818. He was 
from North Carolina (tii!s township was set- 
tled almost entirely from the "Tar-heel" State), 
and stopped for one year in Indiana, but not 
being favorably impressed with Hoosierdom, 
crossed the Wabash, and settled in this divis- 
ion of Crawford County. His sons were Na- 
thaniel, Thomas, James, " Caper'' John, Jon- 



athan, and William. The old pioneer and all 
his sons, except Nathaniel — '■ Uncle Natty," 
as the present generation call him — who lives 
now with his son-in-law, George McDowell, 
on the prairie south of Hutsonville, are dead. 
For some years before the old man's death ho 
made his home with Thomas, who lived in 
what is now Robinson Township. Some of liis 
sons settled oriijinally in that township, hut 
most of the family have always livetl in this 
township, and are among its best citizens. 
James Newlin entered a section of land in a 
half mile of where Cyrus Newiin lives, upon 
which he lived until his death in 1853. He 
raised eight children, all sons, viz.: Andrew, 
John, Hiram, Alfred, Abraham, Oliver, Na- 
than and Cyrus. Nathan lived and died on 
the homestead, and met his death by cutting 
down a tree and being caught under it as it 
fell. The other sons, with one or two excep- 
tions, are living in this township. John Hill 
also came from North Carolina, and settled 
on the place now owned by " Bub " Newlin, 
and upon which he died some thirty years 
an^o. He had four sons: Charles, Doctor, Will- 
iam and Richard, all of whom are dead ex- 
cept Mr. Doctor Hill, who lives in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of his father's settlement. 
John Hill 01 Robinson is a nephew, and one 
of the most respected busini ss men of that 
enterprising young city. Sackrider was an 
active and energetic man. He was a captain 
in the war of 1813, and was with Perry on 
Lake Erie. He died thirty-five or forty years 
asco. Solomon and Allen were his sons, and 
are both dead. Wm. Boyd lives on a part of 
the old Sackrider farm. Allen Sackrider died 
in Terre Haute, and Solomon died in this 

Of such men as we have been writing 
about, how true are the words of Lord Bacon: 
". That wherounto man's nature doth more 
aspire, which is immortality or continuance: 
for to this tendeth generation, and raising of 

houses and families; to this buildings, found- 
ations and monuments; to this tendeth the 
desire of memory, fame and celebration, and 
in effect the strength of all other human de- 
sires. We see then how far the monu- 
ments of learning are more durable than the 
monuments of power or of the hands." These 
men have left monuments as lasting as the 
" monuments of power or of the hands " — 
monuments that will live in the hearts of gen- 
erations yet to come. 

From 1818 to 1831, came Aaron Ball, 
Malin Voorhies, Eli Hand, and perhaps others. 
Ball was from New Jersey, and settled here 
in the latter part of 1818, or in the early part 
of 1819. Edward, Montgomery, John and 
Aaron were his sons, and two of them he ed- 
ucated for doctors and two for fanners. Ed- 
ward was a physician and lived and died in 
Terre Haute; Aaron was also a physician and 
moved west, where he still lives and is prac- 
ticing his profession. John is still living 
wliere he originally settled, and Montgomery 
died here some years ago. Mr. Voorhies was 
also from New Jersey, and was an uncle to 
the Tall Sycamore of the Wabash — Senator 
Voorhies. He settled on the farm where his 
son, Henry C. Voorhies, now lives, and with 
the exception of a few years, it has never 
been out of possession of the family. It 
is owned now by Henry, one of the honorable 
men of the township. Mr. Hand was a na- 
tive of Virginia, and came here in 1831, set- 
tlino- where his grandson, Woodford D. Hand 
now lives. He emigrated to Ohio, when the 
Buckeye State was on the very verge of civ- 
ilization, and afterward came to Illinois as 
above, bringing his family and his earthly all 
in a three-horse wagon. He died in 18.57. 
Jas. F. Hand was his son, and the father of 
Woodford. He was an active man in the 
neighborhood, and among other positions he 
held, was that of associate judge of the 
county, and justice of the peace. He died 



in ISTo, and the mantle of the active old man 
has fallen upon the shoulders of his worthy 
son, who is treading in his footstops. 

Nathan ilusgrave, a good old Quaker from 
Xorth Carolina, came to the settlement in the 
spring of 182G. He left his old home in 1823, 
as the leader of a large company bound for 
the great West. Tliero was Mrs. Zylpha 
Co.x, a widow, his mother-in-law; William 
Co.x, her son ; A. B. Raines, John R. Hurst, 
Philip Musgrave, James Boswell, Joseph 
Green, A.xum Morris, Philip Corbett and fam- 
ily, and Benj. Dunn and wife. Dunn died 
on the road, and like Moses, never reached 
the Promised Land. They first stopped in 
Minor County, where they remained about 
three years and then came here — all of them, 
except Morris, Corbett and Philip Muso-rave. 
Mrs. Cox's sons were William, Thomas and 
Wiley, and William was the first merchant 
in Hutso:ivilIe. Nathan Musgrave, has but 
one son, William P., and a daughter living — 
Mrs. Belle Kennedy. Williura Muso-rave, 
who came to the township in 1833, also mar- 
ried a daughter of Mrs. Cox. When Nathan 
Musgrave came here he found two or three 
families living in the neighborhood where he 
settled, among them the Lindleys. Thomas 
I^indley was living where his son John H. 
died some years ago. He was from Virginia, 
it is believed, ai d died upon the place where 
he settled. His sons were Abraham, William, 
John H., and Morton. He had two brothers 
Samuel and William, also early settlers in this 
part of the tciv ns'i p. Young Sam Lindlev, 
as he is called, is a son of William, and a 
daughter married Lafayette Raines. Samuel 
lives where his father settled, and Lafayette 
and Simpson Raines live where the elder 
Samuel Lindloy settled. The Lindleys and 
Musgraves were another honest set of men, 
and of the strictest integrity. Nathan Mus- 
grave lived to a ripe old age and amassed a 
fortune. One of the boys who came here 

with Old Nathan Musgrave, took his first 
lessons in honesty, uprightness and square- 
dealing, which have marked his course through 
a long life, from him. We mean " Uncle 
Jack " Hurst. He came here but a boy, and 
lived with Nathan Musgrave, in fact, was 
mostly raised by the good old Quaker, and 
imbibed many of his sterling qualities. The 
lessons thus learned have been his guide 
through life, so that now, when he stands 
upon a spot from which he can see the even- 
ing twilight creeping on, the name of John R. 
Hurst is without blot or blemish. And when 
the race is nearly run, to see this venerable, 
white-haired old man, and his white-haired 
companion hand in hand passing along. Hear- 
ing the journey's end, receiving the love and 
reverence of all, is a picture that many loving 
hearts would wish might never fade. 

Chalkley Draper came to the county in a 
very early day, and was a man much above 
the ordinary. He lived first in the vicinity of 
Palestine, the general stopping place of all 
the early emigrants. He finally settled on 
the place where Franklin Draper now lives. 
He was a Quaker and of the strict honesty 
that characterized all the old time members 
of that peculiar sect. He had several sons of 
whom were Axum, Asa, Jesse and Franklin. 
The latter is the only one living, and resides on 
the old homestead. Mr. Wm. L. Draper of 
Hutsonville is a son of Axum Draper. Alex- 
ander McCoy was also a very early settler. 
He had three sons, William, John and Squire. 
William married Sarah Jane Barlow, and a 
daughter-in-law, Mrs. Albert McCoy, lives on 
the old Hutson place, as previously stated. 
Squire McCoy followed the river, and never 
lived in the township. The old man died 
here many years ago. 

The Lowes were early settlers in the county. 
William Lowe was the first of the name to 
come, and he settled in the lower part of the 
county below Palestine. He was there as 



early as 1811-18, but afterward came to this 
township anil located in the Lindley neia;hbor- 
hood. 1-Ie finally died in Terre Haute. A 
son of his, Isaac N. Lowe, long a resident 
of Hntsoiiville, was known to nearly every 
man in both town and township, and univer- 
sally esteemed by all. Old " Jackey " Lowe 
came here in 1834, and Benjamin, an old 
bachelor l.irother, came about the same time. 
They are both dead, and few now, except the 
oldest citizens, remember them. 

Another o-ood old Quaker family from 
North Carolina were the Gyers. They came 
first to Indiana, and about the year 1835-26 
came here and settled northwest of the pre- 
sent village of Hutsonville. Aaron Gyer died 
about 1840; of other branches of the family we 
have no data, though there are still a number of 
them living in the township. Joseph Green 
"vvas a member of the company that came out 
from North Carolina with Nathan Musgrave. 
He died here about 1S55. Another family are 
the Coxes, thouo-h they came at a later date. 
Bryant Cox, still living, came from North Caro- 
lina, and arrived here the first of .June, 18ol. 
He settled where his son, Sim|)Son Cox, now 
lives, while he lives a few hundred yards dis- 
tant. His sons are Wm. R., Andrew J., John 
T., the good-natured circuit clerk of the 
county, and Simpson, one of the most whole- 
souled men in Hutsonville Township. Mat- 
thew Cox was of a different family. He came 
from Tennessee in 1830, and settled in the 
northwest corner of the township, where he 
died several years ago, but has several sons 
still living. 

This is but a brief and meager sketch of 
some of the pioneer families who settled this 
division of the county. The list no doubt is 
very incomplete, as the means of obtaining 
information of this "long ago period" are 
few, and year by year are becoming lessened. 
With all the disadvantages under which thi 
historian must necessarily labor, it is not 

strange if many names, together with impor- 
tant facts and incidents are overlooked or 
omitted altogether. 

The hard life of the early settlers is a theme 
often discussed. There is no question but 
they did live a hard life. But there were ex- 
ceptions just as there are now. There was 
then, as now, great ditTerence in the forethought 
and thrift of the people. Many, even in tlie 
earliest years of the county's existence lived 
in generous plenty of such as the land af- 
forded. True, the pioneers had to have pow- 
der, tobacco and whisky, but for everything 
else they could kill game. Meat of a supe- 
rior quality and in varieties that we now can 
not get were within the easy reach of all, but 
for meal they at first had to go to the Shaker 
mills in Indiana until mills were built here. 
Game of all kinds was plenty, as well as wild 
beasts, which a man would not care to " meet 
by moonlight alone," such as bears, panthers 
and wolves. Mr. Hiram Newlin tells the fol- 
lowing panther story: He, with his father 
and brother were out one day hunting wild 
hogs, when the dogs " treed " some kind of a 
"varmint." The boys threw rocks at it until 
tired, when Hiram, the most venturesome of 
the lot, climbed the tree. The varmint 
jumped out, and the dogs chased it to another 
tree. The great fuss the dogs and the boys 
made, brought some other men upon the 
scene, who like themselves, had been hunting 
hogs, and who happened to have a gun with 
them. They shot the animal, when lo, and 
behold! it was a full grown panther of a large 

There is but little of interest in Hutsonville 
township to write about, aside from the mere 
facts of its settlement, as the |irincipal history 
of the township is connected with the village. 
There is a group of mounds near Hutsonville, 
but they are fully described in a preceding 
chapter, and nothing can be said of them here 
without repetition. Of the early schools their 

histoi:y of crawford corxrv. 


history in this township is but a repetition of 
the same in other parts of the county, viz.: 
the log cabin-school house, the illiterate 
pedagogue and the dirty faced urchins. The 
township is well supplied at this day .with 
good scliool-houses, and its educational facil- 
ities are ecpial to its requirements in that 

Churches. — The Quaker church is one of 
the oldest church organizations in the town- 
ship — so old that we could not learn the time 
of its formation as a church. They first held 
their meetings in a double log-house which 
stood near the grave-yard on the John H. Lind- 
ley place. A few years later a log churcli 
was built on the road leading to York and a 
short distance from the old place. The next 
was a frame church at the Cross Roads near 
Ezekiel Bishop's place. When that o-ave 
out, the present frame church building on the 
"Quaker lane," as it is called, was built, and 
a strong congregation occupy it. It has 
been a church organization for sixty years. 

Hutsotiville Baptist Church was organized 
February 21, 1856. The facts which led to 
its formations were these: A few Baptists liv- 
ing at and in the vicinity of Hutsonville, in 
the summer of 1855, requested the missionary 
board of Palestine association to send some 
one to Hutsonville, and in compliance the 
board sent Elder .1. W, Riley. In company 
with Elder E. Frey, he commenced a meet- 
ing at Hutsonville on the lOtii of February, 
1856, and at its close organized a church con- 
sisting of the following members: .Jane Bar- 
low, Daniel S. Downey, Joseph Medley, Mary 
Medley, Hezokiah Winters, Maria Vance, 
Phoebe Downey and Anna Paine. Elder E. 
Frey was the first pastor, and Elder Asa 
Frakes the next, followed by Elder A. .J. 
Fuson, and he by Elder J. L. Cox, the pres- 
ent pastor. Although the church was organ- 
ized in Hutsonville, yet when a church edifice 
was built, it was located about three and a half 

miles northwest of the village. It was built 
in 1865 — is a frame building 21:X.36 feet, and 
cost-Sl,{iOO, with 140 members at present. 

Elder Frakes, the second pastor, was a 
Kentuckian by birth, and spent the lastyears 
of his life in Vigo County, Ind. He wielded 
a great influence for good throughout his lono- 
life. When he came to Hutsonville he found 
the church at a very low ebb. Under his 
labors it thrived and grew constantly during 
his administration. He was a man of great 
firmness, full of life and perseverance. When 
he first commenced in the ministry, he could 
not read; he studied night and day and would 
go to the woods and procure bark to make a 
light to read by, sitting up late at night, pre- 
paring himself for his ministerial labors. He 
was afflicted with dropsy, and near the close 
of his life, had to sit while speaking. 

Elder Fuson was born in Ohio and came to 
this country in early life, settling in Clark 
County, between Marshall and Terre Haute. 
He lived there several years, extending his 
labors up and down the Wabash River, and 
then moved to the southern part of Crawford 
County, where he remained until the fall of 
1S72 and then moved west. He was of a deli- 
cate constitution, but of great perseverance. 
_Jhe country was new; without railroads, and 
his mode of traveling was on horseback, 
facing wind and storm. He traveled several 
years for the home missionary board of New 
York. His education was fair for that dav. 
The Hutsonville church greatly increased 
during his pastorate. 

The Universalist Church was organized in 
the Methodist church at Hutsonville, April .5, 
1870, by Rev. Robert G. Harris. Most of the' 
members lived in the country, and when a 
church-house was built, it, like the Baptist 
chui-eh, was built some two miles from town. 
It was built some ten years ago, at a cost of 
about S-IOO, and is a neat little frame build- 
ing. The last minister was the Rev. Mr. 



Gibb, Ijut h(> closed his pastorate in 1882, and 
the flock is at present witiiout a shepherd. 

The Village. — Hutsonville was laid out as 
a village in April, 1833. A body of land in- 
cluding that upon wiiich the town stands, was 
entered by Andrew Harris, who sold a por- 
tion of it to his father, Israel Harris. The 
latter built a tavern on the river bank, near 
where the calaboose stands, and the site of 
which is marked by a sink in the ground (the 
old tavern cellar) and a few bushes growing 
out of it. This was on the old State road 
from Vincennes to Chicago, and which passed 
through Palestine, York, Darwin, Paris, Dan- 
ville, and on to Chicago. Harris lost money 
in tavern keeping, and finally traded the 
property, together with the land around it, to 
Robert Harrison, for property in Terre Haute, 
and moved to that place. 

Robert H.irrison laid out the town in 1833, 
as above stated, and the original plat em- 
braced 48 lots, most of which were sold at the 
first sale. Harrison afterward surveyed and 
laid off 80 lots rttore which was known as 
"Harrison's addition to the town of Hutson- 
ville." There have been other additions 
made of a later date, but to go into the 
details of each, is not pertinent to the subject, 
nor of special importance. The town was 
called Hutsonville, in memory of Isaac Hut- 
son, whose family was murdered by the 

The first residence built in Hutsonville after 
the town was laid out was erected by Wm. 
Cox, in the fall of 1833. The house was built 
on lot 33, fronting the river, and was of 
hewed logs, and was afterward " weather- 
boarded." By a strange coincidence it has 
fallen down from age, since we commenced 
writing this chapter. Wm. M. Hurst, a 
brother of "Uncle" Jack's; put up the next 
residence. He built a kitchen in the fall of 
1833, and occupied it and the counting room 
of his store, until he could complete the 

remainder of his residence, which was the fol- 
lowing spring. His was a small one-story 
building, also on the river bank, and is stdl 
standing and known as the " Gascon Adams 
House." Residences now went up rapidly'; 
so rapidly we are unable to keep trace of 

The mercantile business took an early start 
in Hutsonville. William Cox and William 
M. Hurst, above mentioned were the pioneer 
merchants. Under the firm name of Cox & 
Hurst, they opened a store in August, 1833, a 
few months after the town was laid out. 
They continued business until 1837-38, when 
they closed out for the purpose of collecting 
up the debts they had made. Everybody 
there who sold goods at all, sold on a credit — 
" the cheap cash store " had not yet been 
invented — and hence, every few years, the 
merchant had to close out his business, and 
collect his outstanding accounts in order to 
raise money to buy another stock of goods. 
Thus Cox & Hurst, after running a store some 
five or six years, were forced to pursue this 
method to replenish their stock, and the mer- 
cantile field was left to others. After clos- 
ing out their business, they rented their store- 
house to C. C. McDonald, who opened a large 
store, but he soon run his course and dropped 
out of the race. But in the meantime, the 
second store had been started in 1835, by 
Scott & Ross, who came here from Terre 
Haute, for the purpose of making their for- 
tunes. Scott soon sold out to Ross, and after- 
ward Ross sold to Royal A. Knott, who took 
William McCoy in as a partner. In two or 
three years they were forced to close out and 
gather up their scattered capital. 

About the year 1840, William Cox, the 
pioneer merchant, together with Hurst and 
others, under the firm of Wm. Cox & 
Co., again embarked in the mercantile busi- 
ness, but in three or four years, and for the 
same reason as heretofore, again retired. 





Caswell Jones opened a store oa a small scale 
about 1839-4:0, and continued in business for 
some ten years. Henry A. Steele also opened 
a store about the same tmie as Jones. He 
built a store-house where the large brick 
block now stands, but retired from business 
in a year or two. (Ai^ain about lSo4, in 
company with A. P. Harness, he opened a 
large store, which was continued until his 
death in ISGO.) Harness then wound up the 
business and afterward he and .McDowell 
commejiced a store which they operated for a 
few years. In 1843—14 the mercantile busi- 
ness had subsided into almost nothing, and 
the people had to go to York to supply them- 
selves with " store goods," or in a measure 
do without them. Early in the year 1845, 
Dr. Lucius McAllister rented the Steele store- 
house and opened out a good stock. He 
flourished but a year or two when he signally 
failed, and left town. He located somewhere 
about Tuscola, wliere he recuperated and made 
money. In 184^-48 the Preston Brothers 
started a store in the Steele house, which 
they operated several years. But while in 
full blast .John Sweeny bought the Steele 
store-house and compelled them to vacate it. 
Prestons then built a store on the corner 
opposite the present post-office, and after a few 
years more, closed out, and devoted their 
attention mostly to pork packing. A man 
from York named Coleman rented the Pres- 
ton store-house and opened a stock of goods, 
but did not remain but a year or two, when 
he closed out and returned whence he came. 
February, 1804, the Prestons ag&in opened 
a store, and on a much larger scale than be- 
fore. Under the firm of Preston, Lake & Co. 
they continued business until a few years 
ago, and made a great deal of money — just 
how much none but themselves perhaps know. 
But in pork-packing, merchandizing, and in 
grain thej' did the most extensive business 
ever done in the town. This was the general 

headquarters of nine stores which they had in 
successful operation. They let the stock run 
down, and a few years ago, sold it to George 
McDowell, who continued business, until one 
of the fires, -which Hutsonville is subject to, 
swept away the entire block, and the Preston, 
Lake & Co.'s building, where money had been 
accumulated for years, was but a " heap of 
smouldering ruins." 

We will go back now and gather up anoth- 
er thread of the mercantile history of Hut- 
sonville. John A. Merrick opened a large 
store about 18-53-53. He built the brick store- 
house occupied by Hurst &01win, when they 
were burned out in 1873. He commenced in 
the old Steele house, several times referred to, 
where he remained until his new brick store 
was finisheil. Mr. Merrick carried on an ex- 
tensive business for ten or twelve years, when 
he sold to Gen. Pearce & Sons. They closed 
out in a short time, and rented the store-house 
to Musgrave & Coffin. After a few months 
Musgrave bought out Coffin, and continuing 
business a short time longer, he (Nathan Mus- 
grave) died, when Wm. P. Musgrave, closed 
out the store. About the year 1854, Luther 
A. Stone opened a store as successor of Wm. 
Cox & Co. He took in Levi Moore as a part- 
ner, and Wm. L. Draper, then a young man. 
was employed as a clerk. Stone, Moore & Co 
continued a few years, when Stone died, and 
Moore closed out. A man from Terre Haute 
opened a store in the house lately occupied 
by Stone, Moore & Co., and in a short time 
sold out to Draper & Wood. A man named 
Mclntire succeeded Wood, and the firm be- 
came Draper & Mclntire. Moore again be- 
came a partner, and so continued until ha 
died. Draper, after Moore's death, closed up 
the business, and about 18G3 sold out to 
John T. Cox, a son of the pioneer merchant 
of Hutsonville. A. J. Cox became a partner, 
and the business continued thus several years. 
Wm. P. Musgrave & Co. (John R. Hurst 



the Co.) opened a store March 17, ISiU ; the 
Pi-estons had re-opened business here in Febru- 
ary preceding. Wni. P. Musgrave & Co. con- 
tinued about eighteen months when Musiirave 
sold out to I. N. Lowe, and the fn-m became 
J. R. Hurst & Co. In Novemlier, 1867, .John 
Olwin was admitted into the firm, and shortly- 
after Hurst bought out Lowe, and changed 
the firm name to Hurst & Olwin, which still 
continues in liusiness. W. B. Hurst became 
a. partner in 1S71. "Uncle Jack," as every- 
body calls Mr. Hurst, has retired from active 
business but the old sign, like that of Doni- 
bey & Son, still swings in the breeze. 

W. L. Draper, who sold out in 1863, and 
went to Terre Haute, afterward returned to 
Hutsonville and went into business again. 
In 1875, S. L. Bennett was admitted a part- 
ner, and the firm of Draper & Bennett con- 
tinued until about the close of the year 1883, 
when thev sold out to Golden & Canaday, 
now in business. 

This comprises a brief sketch of the early 
mercantile business of Hutsonville, together 
with some of the old firms, so well known to 
the people of this section of the county. We 
leave the records of more modern firms and 
business men to some future historian. Many 
men have embarked in business in Hutson- 
ville, and some have enjoyed prosperity and 
success, while others failed; some of them 
swept over the scene like untamed meteors, 
flashed, darted and fizzled, and then went out. 
Qnorum pars maf/naj'ui. Yes, the writer 
invested his surplus capital in Hutsonville, 
but it was swept away in the great overflow 
of " '75 " — otherwise in the '• August freshet," 
and in overflows of a different character, but 
nevertheless it went. There have been others 
who met with like misfortvines here. But 
there is consolation in the fact that what is 
the loss of one is the gain of others. But 
Hutsonville has proven an Eldorado to many. 
INIore than one snug little fortune has been 

carved out here and carried away to enrich 
other sections of the country. 

Taverns. — Israel Harris, as stated, was 
keeping a hotel, or tavern, as they were then 
called, when Hutsonville was laid out, and 
sold it to Robert Harrison. He kept the tav- 
ern for years, and finally killed himself by 
excessive drinking. Some time before he 
died he sol i the tavern and ail the land he 
owned (outside of the town lots) to John El- 
liott, who, alter running the tavern for a 
while, sold it to Enoch Wilhite, the father of 
Squire James Wilhite, whom many of our 
readers still remember. Mr. Wilhite kept 
the tavern as long as he lived. It was once 
a very important place; it was the stage- 
stand, when a four-horse stage ran daily 
between Vincennes and Danville. The 
next tavern was opened by Levi Moore. 
During the mercantile career of Stone, 
Moore & Co. they built the brick resi- 
dence now owned and occupied by Mr. W. 
L. Draper, and in this, after the death 
of Stone, Moore kept tavern. Moore sold it 
to Simons, who also kept it as a tavern for 
a while, and then rented it to William Boat- 
right, who used it for the same purpose. The 
next tavern was kept by Joel Barlow, on the 
corner where Newton & Rackerby's drug store 
stands. Then a tavern was opened on the 
site of the present Adams House. The house 
was put up as a private residence by John 
Musgrave, but was rented to C. C. McDonald, 
who kept it as a tavern. It has charged 
hands and landlords often since then; altera- 
tions have taken place, additions been built ' 
to it, old portions torn down and repairs made, 
until to-day there is, perhajis, not a single 
square inch of the original building left in the 
present house. For thirty years or more it 
has been a tavern-stand, and twice during that 
period it has been the " Adams House." Who 
does not remember "Uncle Joe" Adams, and 
"Aunt Jane," and their home-like tavern? 



The present proprietor, Mr. Lewis Adams, is 
a t^euial host, judging from his evening com- 
p;iny, and an accommodating landlord. 

A post-office was established liere in 1832, 
and Wdliain Cox was the postmaster. It 
was small and insignificant compared to 
wiiat it is now. The mail was rocoivt'd over 
the old Slate road then, and wlien Murpliy & 
Goodrich started their big four-horse mail 
coaches, their arrival created a greater sensa- 
tion than Charley Willard does now when he 
conies in from the depot with the mail-bag on 
his shoulder. Murphy & Goodrich started 
tiieir coaches about the year 183S, but broke 
up in a few months, and again the mail 
dropped back to first princi])les — the hack, or 
trie "post-rider" — until the iron horse dashed 
in with it at lightning speed. 

Pork-packing has been an extensive and 
profitable business in Hutsonville. Cox and 
Hurst commenced the business in 1835 on a 
small scale, but followed it only two or three 
years. About 18-i8-9 Carson, Hurst & Mus- 
grave, as Carson & Co., did a large business 
in pork-packing. H. A. Steele followed the 
l)usiness for a few years, and so also did John 
A. Merrick. He built a pork house and 
packed extensively for two or three years. 

But the Prestons did the largest business 
in packing pork. They commenced about 
the time they first opened their store, having 
rented Cox & Co.'s pork house. In a few 
years they bought land near the ferry and 
built a pork house of their own. To this they 
made additions as their business incneased, 
until it became an establishment. 
They did a large business in pork, as well as 
in merchandise, and grew immensely rich. 
To the large fortune they are supposed to 
liave accumulated, Hutsonville and Crawford 
County contributed far the larger portion. 
In the beginning of the pork business here it 
was shipped almost entirely to New Orleans 
by llat-boats. ^Vhen the Prestons got under 

way they sh.ipped bj' steamboats, and shipped 
east mostly instead of south. 

John A. Merrick was one of the finest and 
most accomplished business men ever in 
Hutsonville. He made money rapidlv, accu- 
mulating a handsome little fortune. But in an 
evil hour he invested his capital in the old 
distillery below town, which proved the rock 
upon which his ship went down, and has been 
equally disastrous to many since his time. 
Indeed, nearly every one who invested in it 
failed tttterly. Merrick and Joseph Volke of 
Palestine built this distillery, and broke up 
at it. After breaking everybody that took 
hold of it, the distillery itself broke up — the 
best break of all. 

jnils. — Solomon Sackrider built a steam 
grist-mill on Hutson Creek about three hun- 
dred yards from the mouth of the creek, the 
first mill in the town. It was quite an exten- 
sive establishment and did a profitable busi- 
ness. The Prestons traded for it, and it 
finally blew up from some cause, and in the 
explosion one man was killed. The mill was 
never rebuilt. 

The Hutson mills were built by the Mark- 
leys, and was the next enterprise in the town, 
in the way of a steam grist-mill. They com- 
prise a large three-story, frame building, with 
five run of buhrs, and a capacity of one hun- 
dred barrels of flour per day, most of which, 
aside from home consumption, is shi])ped 
south. The mills have all the latest improved 
machinery, and use the patent process in the 
ma ving of flour. They have changed hands 
many times since they were originally built, 
and are now owned by Harness, Newton and 
Rackerby. These mills, already mentioned, 
together with the mill at the old distillery, 
and a number of saw-mills built about town 
at different times, embrace the manufacturing 
interests of Hutsonville in the way of mills. 

The stave-factory, saw and planing-mills, 
on the river above town is an enterprise of 



considerable magnitude. It was built by 
Hussong & Co. in 1881-83. It works a num- 
ber of hands, and does quite an extensive 

The first school in Hutsonville was taught 
b}' a man named Broom, in a little house built 
for school purposes, and now occupied as a 
residence by Jack Woolverton. The next 
school-house built, was the present one. 
The present attendance at school is about 100 
pupils — a little more than half of tlie enroll- 
ment. Another short-sightedness in the peo- 
ple, is not compelling their children to go to 
hchool. When parents allow their children 
to run wild in the streets, instead of sending 
them to school, tliey can blame no one but 
themselves if they bring up in the peniten- 
tiary. Such things are by no means uncom- 
mon. The ])resent teachers of the Hutson- 
ville schools, are Mr. Arthur Horning, and 
Miss Dora Braden. 

Rev. .lames McCord, a local Methodist 
preacher, delivered the first sermon in Hut- 
sonville, on Sunday before Christmas, 1833. 
He then lived near the town, and often 
preached for the people at their residences. 
He preached the sermon above referred to in a 
little unfinished house built by T. G. Moore on 
Water street. About the year 1840 a Meth- 
odist church was organized; a class, however, 
had been organized sometime previously. In 
February of the year noted, a quarterly meet- 
ing was held in the village by Rev. Beadle, 
the circuit rider, and Rev. William Crews, 
presiding Elder, and a church organized. 
Harvey Wilhite had been killed by the kick 
of a horse, and his funeral sermon was 
preached at this quarterly meeting by Rev. 
Crews. A great revival of religion followed 
the organization of the church, and Christian- 
ity prospered accordingly. The church has 
existed ever since its original organization, 
though it has dwindled down at times, and 
become lukewarm. The present lirick church 

was built, between 1850 and 1854, by contri- 
butions from all denominations, but some 
years ago it was regularly dedicated as a 
Methodist church. Rev. Mr. Massey is the 
present pastor, and Mr. C. V. Newton, super- 
intendent of the Sunday school, which is car- 
ried on during the entire year. 

The Christian Church was organized soon 
after the Methodist church, but a church edi- 
fice was not built until in 1800, when the 
present frame church was erected. Elder 
Alfred P. Law organized the society in a 
little log-house which stood on lot- 18, and is 
now used as a stable. The next preacher 
after Law was Elder William Tichnor. 
There is no regular pastor at present. The 
church is numerically strong, and has had 
some able ministers, the ablest of whom per- 
haps were James Morgan and Elder Black. 
A flourishing Sunday school is maintained 
under the superintendence of Mr. A. J. Cox. 
There are no other church organizations in 
the village than those mentioned. 

Hutsonville Lodge No. 136 A. F. and A. 
M., was organized October 5, 1853, under E. 
B. Ames, Grand Master, and H. G. Reynolds, 
Grand Seoretarj'. The first officers were B. 
F. Robinson, Master; Joshua Davis, Senior 
Warden, and J. J. Petri, Junior Warden. 
The present officers are John M. McNutt, 
Master; John 01 win. Senior Warden; L. W. 
Smith, Junior Warden; R. W. Canaday, Treas- 
urer; G. V. Newton, Secretary, and C. Rogers, 

Hutsonville Lodge No. 106 I. O. O. F., was 
instituted October 15, 1853, by W. L. Rueker, 
Grand Master, and S. A. Goneau, Grand Sec- 
retary. The charter members were Win. T. 
B. ilclntire, J. N. Cox, Liberty Murphy, J. 
M. Wilhite, and Andrew P. Harness. The 
present officers of the lodcre are Price John- 
son, N. G.; John Carpenter, V. G.; E. Kinnej', 
Treasurer, and H. H. Flesher, Secretary. 

Osmer Lodge No. 3330 Knights of Honor, 



was organized and a charter issued under date 
ol' June 9, 1881, to Jolm O win, Win. E.iton, 
Danl. Iloldennan, J. L. Musj^rave, M. P. 
Rackerby, C. W. Keys, C. V. Newton, C. 
Rodgers and others, as charter members. 
The present ofEcers are Wm. Eaton, P. D.; 
James Handy, D.; Lucius Hurst, A. D.; Jesse 
C. Musgrave, V. D.; John Oiwin, Treasurc^r; 
C. V. Newton, Reporter, and M. P. Rackerby, 
Financial Reporter, and several others too te- 
dious to mention. 

Hutsonville has been incorporated time 
after time. Its first experience of this kind 
was some time between 1840 <md 1850. This 
style of government was allowed to go by de- 
fault finally, and about 18")2 it was incorpo- 
rated under a special charter, which "Uncle 
Jack" Hurst says was as voluminous as the 
■ history of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, and as binding in its provisions as the 
laws of the Medes and Persians. This charter 
was repealed in a few years, and the village in- 
corporated under a special act of the Legisla- 
ture, and the following Board of Trustees 
elected: Benj. Henry, President; W. Holdcii, 
Treasurer; W. L. Draper, Clerk; andCatlin 
Preston, John R. Hurst and J. O. Harness. In 
1875, it was re-incorporated under the general 
law, and the following trustees elected: John 
Harness, President; I. N. Lowe, Clerk; C. W. 
Keys, Treasurer; J. M. Wilhite, Police Magis- 
trate; and R. W. Truitt, Frank Brivogal, W. 
P. Claypool and Geo. W. Wood. The pre- 
sent board are, C. V. Newton, President; H. 
H. Flesher, Clerk; M. P. Rackerby, Treas- 
urer; M. T. Wolf, Police Magistrate; and 
Lewis Adams, Henry Draper, C. W. Keys, 
Green Becknal and Jack Plough. 

Destructive conflagrations and disastrous 
overflows are common to Hutsonville. The 
town has been inundated by the roaring Wa- 
bash scores of times and much property de- 
stroyed. It has been burnt out so often that 
a fire is no longer a noveltv to its citizens. 

The two great elements — fire and water — 
seem to have conspired against the growth 
and prosperity of the place. What the floods 
leave fire sweeps away, and as Shakespeare 
says: " So thickly do they follow as to tread 
on each other's heels." The great overflow of 
1875 — the " August fresh " — of which so 
much has been said, was an epoch — a kind of 
chronological starting point from which all 
matters of village gossip dated. But the 
" February fresh " of 1SS3, put the "August 
fresh " of 1875 in its little bed, and closed the 
mouth of the " oldest inhabitant " with ten or 
twelve inches more of water than the Wabash 
marked in the great flood of 1828, or in that 
of 1875. The " February fresh " takes the 
place of the "August fresh," thus constituting 
a new starting point in the town's chro- 

To conclude its history, Hutsonville is noted 
for many things. Not the least of these are 
the courtesy of its inhabitants, the beauty of 
its women, the integrity of its business men, 
its calamities from fire and water, and its 
many burglaries. 

West York, a small village situated on the 
railroad in the extreme north part of the town- 
ship, was laid out Ijy Ezekiel Bishop, Es^q., an 
early settler in this section of the county. It 
grew out of the building of the railroad, and 
has a population of about a dozen families at 
the present time. The first store was kept by 
H. J. Musgrave, who sold out to G. W. Bishop. 
The store is now kept by Buckner Brothers. 
It is a good grain point, and two grain ware- 
houses are in operation, one by G. W. Bishop, 
and the other by S. C. Brevoe. 

The first car-load of grain shipped from 
Crawford Count}', was by Jesse C. Musgrave 
and G. W. Bishop, the pioneer grain dealers of 
West York. The car was loaded at Quaker 
Lane, and run out on Sunday, March 26, 1875, 
b}' the construction train, as no regular trains 
had, at the time, been put on the road. 



THE events of every-day life are like the 
stones in a Mosaic, each going to make up 
the whole picture, and it is often th;it these 
trifling occurrences are of far more interest to 
us than the great events of the time. Doubt- 
less the buiiders of the Parthenon were more 
pleased with the goodness of the midday 
meal which their wives brought thein than 
they were with the magnificence of the grand 
temple they wore erecting. In all probability 
Shakspeare thought more of the acting quali- 
ties of the ideal characters he created than of 
the echoes thny would send down through the 
lonor corridors of time. So in the annals of a 
county or town, the historian's aim is to chron- 
icle, not great events that affect the destiny 
of a nation, but rather the homely events of 
everv-day life, and such as have occurred 
•within the last sixty years. The pioneers 
who bore the brunt of toil and danger; whose 
lives were spent, not in the lap of luxury, 
surrounded by affluence, but amid perils and 
manifold hardships; and the j-outh whose 
infant cradles were rocked to the music of the 
■wild wolf's howl — these and kindred inci- 
dents are such as embellish the early hist Ty 
of this part of Illinois, and are of more inter- 
est to us than the great questions which shake 
empires and kingdoms. These scenes and 
incidents, together with those who figured in 
them, deserve perpetuation in history. The 
majority of the original pioneers have passed 
away; but few of the old guard remain, and 

* By G. N. Beny. 

manv of their children, too, have followed 
them to that " bourne from whence no traveler 
returns." It is highly fitting then that a rec- 
ord of the "old times" should be maile to 
stand as a monument to their industry and 
hardships. Licking township occupies the 
northwest corner of Crawford County, and is 
eight miles in extent from east to west 
and seven miles from the northern to tlie 
southern boundarv. It contains fifty-six 
sqtiare miles of territory and possesses a 
pleasant diversity of surface, with prairie aud 
woodland alternating in about equal propor- 
tions. An arm of the Dolson prairie extends 
through the eastern part of the township from 
north to southwest, embracing an area of about 
twelve hundred and sixty acres. Willow 
prairie lies near the central part and includes 
a scope of land about three and a half miles 
long from north to south and three miles in 
extent from east to west, while White's 
prairie occupies a strip about one and a half 
miles in width, along the western border of 
the township. These prairies possess a gently 
undulating surface, and a rich gray loam soil 
which is well adapted for agricultural pur- 
poses. The subsoil is clay, which renders 
* farmincr, during wet seasons, rather difficult, 
owing to its impervious nature. The wooded 
portions of the township are more uneven, and 
along the various water-courses by which the 
country is drained the land is somewhat irreg- 
ular and broken. The original forest growth 
consisted of various species of oak, black 
and white walnut, sugar maple, elm, sycamore, 



ash, hickory, sassafras, persimmon, locust, 
and a number of other varieties. The under- 
growth consists of hazel, sumac, dog-wood, 
spice-bush, paw-paw, grape, wild plum, etc. 
The immediate valleys of the streams in the 
southern and central portions of the township 
are well titnbered and occasionally there are 
to be seen isolated copses or trroves in the 
open prairie. But in these the trees do not 
exiiibit that thrifty sxrowth characteristic of 
the forests. The timbered land possesses a 
soil superior in many respects to the prairies 
for general farming purposes. It is of a 
clayey nature, wears well, and seems espe- 
cially adapted to wheat and the other small 
grains. The township is traversed by several 
streams, among which are Muddy Creek, 
Maple Creek, Willow Creek, and Big Creek. 
The last named flows through the southeast 
corner of the township, and is a stream of con- 
siderable size and importance. Muddy Creek 
crosses the northern boundary, in section 1, 
flows diagonally through the township in a 
southwesterly direction and leaves from sec- 
tion 6. In its course it receives a number of 
affluents, the principal of which is Maple's 
branch, which flows a southerlv course, through 
sections 3, 9 and 16. Willow Creek is formed 
by the junction of two small streams in sec- 
tion 7, from which point it flows a southerly 
course and leaves the township from section 
1, about two miles from the western boundary. 
The township is noted as an agricultural 
region and some of the largest and best 
improved farms in the county are to be seen 
■within its limits. There are many fine graz- 
ing districts in various parts of the country, 
and stock-raising is rapidly coming to the 
front as an industry. 

The advent of pioneers into that portion of 
the county embraced within the limits of 
this township dates back to a period more 
than sixty years gone by, but by whom the 
first settlement was made can not be correctly 

determined. It is known, however, that a 
number of transient sattlers had "squatted" 
on Congress land in the southern part of the 
township as eariy as the year IS'^O, but 
beyond erecting a few insignificant cabins, 
and clearing small patches of ground, they 
made no improvements. The names of these 
squatters, and facts concerning them, have 
been lost in the lapse of time, and any attempt 
to designate their location would be mere 
conjecture. A man by name of Phelps, of 
whom but little is known, settled one mile 
north of Henry Kerby's farm, about the year 
1820, where he buiit a rude cabin and 
improved about an acre of ground. He came 
to this part of the country from one of the 
southern States, and like many of the precur- 
sors of civilization, was induceil to come west 
in quest of game, which at that time, was 
plentiful, and easily procured. His wants 
were few and easily satisfied and he led a 
charmed life in quest of his' favorite pursuit, 
until the year 1S20, when on the appearance 
of more permanent settlers he left the country 
and went further west. 

Among the earliest inhabitants of Licking 
is remembered one John Mdler, a native of 
Philadelphia, who settled temporarily near 
the southern boundary of the township in 
section 3, about the year 1821. He was a 
true type of the backwoodsman, and led a 
wild, free life in his isolated cabin, untram- 
meled by the usages and exactions of society 
for which he had the utmost contempt. He 
was an expert with the rifle, and spent the 
greater part of his time hunting and trapping, 
and realized enough from the sale of furs and 
wild game to keep his family in such articles 
of clothing and groceries as they needed, 
which fortunately were few. He sold his im- 
provements to John Howard in the fall of 
1824, and moved west, and finally made his 
way to California. A number of years later 
he returned to the township and entered land 


near the central part, wliere he lived until 
the time of his death, about twenty years 
ago. His reputation for honesty was not of 
the highest order, and he was detected in 
manv petty acts of thievery. His chief means 
of support after game had disappeared from 
the country, was derived from his hogs of 
which he kept large numbers. William John- 
son came to the township about the year 1833, 
and made a few improvements on the farm 
at present occupied by Henry Kerby. John- 
son immigrated to this State from Indiana in 
an ox cart, and settled first near Hutsonville, 
where he remained but a short time. He was 
in many respects like his neighbor Miller, and 
ilepended for a livelihood upon his rifle which 
was his most valuable piece of property. He 
lived where he first loi'atcd about six j'ears, 
when he sold his cabin and moved further 
northwest near the Bellaire road, where he 
afterward became possessor of a small farm 
on which he resided until the year 18G6. 

An early settler in the southern part of the 
township was John Howard, whose arrival 
dates from the year 1826. He was a native 
of Kentucky, and was induced to immigrate 
to this State in the hope of securing land, 
which could be obtained at that early day at 
a very nominal price. The family came in a 
wagon, and were many weeks on the journev, 
owing to the wet condition of the season and 
the absence of roads, much of the way lay 
through an almost unbroken wilderness, 
through which roads had to be cut, thus ren- 
dering the trip very slow. Howard made 
his first settlement in the eastern part of the 
county, near Palestine, where he lived for a 
number of years before moving to this town- 
ship. He purchased the improvements which 
Miller had made and moved his family here 
in the fall of the year mentioned, and until 
the time of his death in 1849 was promi- 
nently identified with the development of the 

township. One daughter, Mrs. Kirby, is liv- 
ing in the townstiip at tlie present time. 

In the spring of 18 J6 Eraslev Curtis, a na- 
tive of North Carolina, immigrated to Lick- 
ing, and was joined, the fall of the same year, 
by James Cox, both of whom selected homes 
near the central part of the township. Curtis 
did not make any improvements for a number 
of years, beyond erecting a rude cabin, and 
was, like many of the early settlers, a hunter 
and trapper. He afterward entered land near 
where he located, and for about twenty-three 
years was a resident of the township. Cox 
came frotn Indiana, and was no credit to the 
community in which he settled. He raised 
a large family of boys all of whom inherited 
in a marked degree their father's evil dispo- 
sition and bad habits, and grew up to be the 
terror of the country. Becoming implicated 
in some difficulty of a serious nature, and 
fearing prosecutioTi, the boys and the old man 
left the country about the year 1843, and 
when last heard from vrere in the State of 
Missouri. Other settlers in 1836 were Will- 
iam Maples, who located in section 11, 
in northern part of the township; William 
Cooley, a native of North Carolina, who set- 
tled near the present site of Portersville, 
where he made extensive improvements, 
and William Goodwin who came from Indi- 
ana and entered land in section 33, near 
Hart's Grove. John Hart came a little later, 
and entered land near the grove which bears 
his name. He was born in Virginia, and 
left his native State for Kentucky immedi- 
ately after his marriage. He cleared a good 
farm in the latter State, and lived on it for 
twenty years, accumulating in the meantime 
considerable property. He lost this farm 
through a defect in the title, and spent all of 
his hard-earned wealth lawing for its recov- 
ery. After his possessions were all gone he 
determined to emigrate, which he did in the 



smninorof 1S33, and came with his family to 
Piili-'stiiie, arrivinp^ there with iiut few shil- 
lings in his poclcet. lie rented land near the 
river, where he remained for two years, at 
the expiration of which time he found him- 
self in possession of a sufficient amount of 
money to enter eighty acres of land. He 
made his first entry in section 34, and moved 
his family to his new home a few weeks later. 
He improved a good farm, which was his 
home until the year 185'^. A son, .facol) Hart, 
came with his father to the country, and has 
been a prominent resident of the township 
for forty-nine years. He settled near Big 
Creek a few years after his arrival, where he 
lived for about ten years, when he sold and 
moved near the western part of the township 
on Willow Creek, his present place of resi- 

During the year 1837 the following persons 
became residents of Licking. Sargent Hill, 
John Tate, William Dicks, .lames Hollowell, 
" Rick " Arnold, and a man by name of Lan- 
dern. Hill came from North Carolina and set- 
tled in the eastern part of the county in an 
earlv day. He entered land in section 25 in 
this township, which is still in possession of 
his descendants. Hill was a prominent citi- 
zen, and his deseen(hants are among the lead- 
ing and substantial business men of the coun- 
ty. Tate located in the southern part of the 
township in section 34, where he entered 
land. He came from North Carolina in coni- 
j)any with a number of other families, the 
most of whom settled on the river. He lived 
in the township about twenty years, when he 
sold out and moved to Vandalia. Dicks was 
a native of North Carolina also, but had lived 
in Indiana a number of years prior to moving 
to this State. He entered land in section 11 
a short distance north of the village of Annap- 
olis, and for twenty-five years was promi- 
nently identified with the township. His 
death occurred in 1857, and the place on 

which he lived is at the present time owned 
by the Cunningham heirs. James Hollowell 
was born in Virginia, but was taken to Indi- 
ana by his parents when but six years of age. 
He lived in Indiana until 1836, at which time 
he made a tour of observation through the 
west for the purpose of selecting a home. He 
went as far as Arkansas but was not satisfied 
with the country, and on his return passed 
through the northern part of Crawford County. 
The appearance of the land here pleased him 
and he entered a tract in section 11, to which 
he moved a short time afterward. He brought 
his family in the fall of 1837, and domiciled 
them in a rude cabin which had lieen used 
bv a squatter. Being a man of considerable 
energv he soon had a more commodious 
structure erected and a goodly number of 
acres under cultivation. He was a man of 
unblemished reputation and a prominent citi- 
zen of the township for a period of nine years. 
The old place is in possession of his son Silas 
Hollowell, one of the oldest living settlers of 
the township and one of its leading ritizens. 
" Rick " Arnold settled near the central part 
of the township, where he made a few tem- 
porary improvements. Later he entered land 
near the southeast part. He was a man of 
considerable intelligence, and served the 
county two terms as sheriff, having been 
elected about the year 1838. He moved to 
Missouri in the year 1848 and died in that 
State a few years later. Landern located in 
the northern part of the township, near the 
village of Annapolis. He was an old bachelor 
and a very eccentric genius, and seemed to 
shun all communications with his neighbors. 
He kept large droves of hogs, which he fat- 
tened on the mast in the woods; from the sale 
of his porkers he acquired considerable money 
which he hoarded away very carefully', being 
a perfect miser in his love of the " filthy lucre." 
He sold all of his hogs about the fall of 1840, 
and embarked in a small flal-hoat for New 



Orleans, since which time nothing has been 
lieard of him. The supposition is that he was 
robbed and killed on the journey. 

About the same time the Ibieg'MnG;' settle- 
ments were being made in the northern and 
southern parts of Licking. A few pioneers 
made their way to the western part of the 
township. Among these was John White, or 
a? he was more familiarly known, "Fluker" 
White. He settled in the eastern part of the 
county when Palestine consisted of but few 
houses, and participated in the battle which 
■was fought at that place between the settlers 
and Indians. In this engagement he was 
shot through the body with an arrow and 
given up for dead by his comrades. He ral- 
lied, however, and lived a number of years to 
relate his narrow escape from death at the 
hands of the red-skins. His first improvement 
in this township was made a little southeast 
of the village of Bjllaire, where he lived until 
about the year 1845, at which time his death 
occurred. Jackson James settled in the same 
locality about the same time, and became 
possessor of a considerable tract of real estate. 
Mortimer Parsons, Elijah Clark, Tobias Liv- 
ingston and James Metheny were early resi- 
dents in the western part of the township 
near Bellaire. In addition to the settlers al- 
ready enumerated the following persons found 
homes within the present limits of Licking 
prior to 1840: Thomas Boring settled in sec- 
tion 3; Daniel Coate, northern part in section 
2; James Dixou and Ezekiel Rubottom in the 
same section; Jacob Mullen, section 25; Igel 
Beeson in southwest part; James Boyd, sec- 
tion 1; R. G. Morris, same section; Jeremiah 
Willison, section 6: Uriah Hadley, section 20; 
James Netherby, section 24; John Bonham 
in same locality; William B. Newlin and B. 
Clark, section 25, and Henry Kerby in south- 
ern part on section 3. Kerby's marriage to a 
daughter of John Howard's was among the 
first events of the kind ever solemnized in 

this township. From the year 1840 to 1850 a 
tide of immigration came into the township 
from Ohio, the majority of the settlers hailing 
from Licking County of that State, which fact 
suggested the name by which the township is 
at present known. 

The hardships of the early settlers in their 
efforts to secure homes for themselves and 
their posterity are but a repetition of those 
experienced in other portions of the county, 
with the exception, perhaps, that thej' were 
not quite so severe, owing to settlements be- 
ing made elsewhere a little earlier. But life 
in this locality in the early days was hard 
enough. The ground, owing to its wet nature 
and the lack of necessary agricultural imple- 
ments, made small crops a necessity. Corn was 
the principal product, no wheat beina: raised 
until a number of years had elapsed from the 
date of the first settlement. The first wheat 
was raised in small patches, two acres being 
considered a large crop. Harvesting was 
done by the old-fashioned reap hook and 
sickle, neighbors helping for help in return. 
Considerable attention was given to the rais- 
inc of buckwheat bj^ the early settlers, and 
on almost every farm could be seen a patch 
of this grain, which, at thai time, could always 
be sold for a good price in the maikcts of 
Palestine, York and Terre Haute. Wild 
honey was found in large quantities in the 
woods and formed one of the chief sources of 
revenue to the pioneer, as it could readily be 
exchanged for dry goods and groceries at the 
various market places. Bees-wax, venison 
hams and deer-skins were articles of com- 
merce, by means of which the pioneer farmer 
was enabled to pay off many of his debts. 

The early settlers of Licking obtained their 
flour and meal from the older settlements in 
the eastern part of the county, and it was 
not until about the year 1848 that a mill was 
erected within the present limits of the town- 
ship. The first mill of which we have any 



knowledge was erected by Henry Varner on 
Willow Creek near the southern boundary of 
the township some time during the year 
mentioned. It was a rude aflfair, contained 
but one buhr which had been manufactured 
from a "nigger head," and was operated by 
water power. The building was a small 
frame structure eighteen hy twenty feet and 
one story high. The mill was in operation 
ahout ten years and did a very good business 
considering its capacit}-. A man by name 
of Tregul erected an ox-mill on his farm near 
the central part of the township a few years 
later, which he operated very successfully for 
si-v or eigiit years. It was kept running night 
and day for some time after its erection in 
order to suppU' the demand made for flour. 
The old building disappeared long since, and 
at the present time not a vestige remains to 
mark the spot it occupied. 

In the year 1853 a steam flouring mill was 
built about one mile west of the village of 
Annapolis by Holmes & Doty. It was a 
frame building two stories high, and had luit 
one run of buhrs. A saw was afterward at- 
tached and for several years the mill did a 
very flourishing business, both in sawing and 
grinding. Holmes & Doty operated it about 
five years, when it was purchased by George 
Dixon who run it until the year 1858, at 
which time it was burned. The boiler and 
most of the machinery were saved from the 
fire and sold a short time afterward to M. 
Vance and a man by the name of Bates, who 
erected another mill of the same size in the 
same locality. They operated the mill for 
three years and then sold it to a man by 
name of Brown, who moved the machinery 
to Mississippi. A saw-mill was erected bv J. 
Ward near the central part of the township 
about the year 1858. It was a water mill and 
did a very good business while there was 
sufficient water in the creek to run the ma- 
chinery. Allen Tregul purchased the mill one 

year later and operated it until about the year 
1868. The Annapolis steam flouring mill was 
erected about the j-ear 18GT by Jerry Reese 
and cost the sum of 89,000. It is a large two 
story and a half frame building tliiity by 
seventy feet with three run of buhrs and a 
grinding capacity of about forty barrels of 
flour per day. Reese sold to Johnson and 
Calvin after running the mill a few years, and 
in 1880 the entire interest was purchased by 
.Johnson, who is the present owner. F. S. 
Boyle is running the mill at the present time 
and doing an extensive business. 

The roads of a country are an indication 
of its internal improvement. The first roads 
were but Indian trails through the thick for- 
est and over the prairies. As the whites came 
in and settled the lands regular roadways 
were established, but with no reference to 
section lines. The first legal I}' established 
hii'-hwav in liicking appears to have been the 
Stewart Mill and York Road which was laid 
out by John B. Richardson as early as the 
year 1842. It passed through the eastern 
part of the township in a southerly ilirection 
but it has undergone so many changes during 
the last forty years that it is difficult to de- 
fine the original route. The Palestine and 
Bellaire Road which passes through the cen- 
tral part of the township from east to west 
was laid out and established about the year 
1845 and is still one of the leading thorough- 
fares in the northern part of the county. The 
Hutsonvillc and Bellaire Road, which con- 
nects those two places, passes through the 
northern part of the township about two and 
a half miles south of the county line. It was 
laid out in the year 1846 by county surveyor 
Fitch, having been viewed a short time 
previous by Doctor Hill, John Vance and a 
man by name of Freelin. It is still a 
good road and extensively traveled. Another 
early highwav is the Robinson and Martinf- 
ville Road which was laid out about the vcar 



1845 or 1846. The origin-il nuro, which has 
been greatly changed, passed through the 
tc)wiiship in an irregular course from north to 
south. It intersects the Hutsonville and 
Bellaire Road at the village of Annapolis, 
about one mile west of the eastern boundary, 
and is one of the best roads in the township. 
A number of other roads have been estab- 
lished from time to time which intersect each 
other at proper intervals, and in the matter 
of good highways Licking is as well supplied 
as any other township in the county. 
^ In educational matters the cit zens of this 
township have always taken an active inter- 
est, and schools were established at a very 
early day. It is difficult to determine, at this 
distant da)', when, where, and by whom the 
first school in the township was taught, as 
opinions concerning the matter are consid- 
erably at variance. From the most reliable 
information, however, we are safe in' saying 
that "Rick" Arnold taught one of the first 
terms as early a,s 1837, in a little cabin which 
stood in the southern part of the township 
near the Kerby farm. This cabin had been 
fitted up by the few neighbors living in the 
vicinity, for school purposes, and was in use 
but one year. Among the first teachers was 
Sarah Ann Curran, who taught in a small log 
building which had been used as a residence 
by the family of James Dixon. This house 
stood in the northern part of the township 
near the present village of Annapolis, and 
was used for school purposes but one year. 
Miss Curran's school numbered about twelve 
pupils, and lasted three months. A man by 
name of Hampton taught a term in the 
southern part of the township about the year 
1841, and used for the purpose a vacated 
cabin which stood on the farm, at present 
owned by Mr. Rausard. Hampton is remem- 
bered as a good teacher, and his school, like 
all others at that day, was supported by sub- 
scription, and lasted about three months. In 

the year 1843 there were tvs-o schools in the 
township.taught respectively, by Sarah Handy 
and Huldah Woods. The first named taught 
in a part of .Jonathan Di.\on's residence- in 
the northern part of the tow{iship, and Miss 
Woods wielded the birch in an old aban- 
doned dwelling about three miles southw.^st 
of Annapolis. These ladies were both good 
instructors, and for a number of j'oars were 
identified with the schools of Licking. 
Another early teacher of the township was 
John Metheny, who had charge of a school 
where Miss Woods taught in the year 1844. 
He was a professional instructor, but had to 
abandon the work on account of a serious 
malady which unfitted him for teaching. 
Ann Lamb taught near the village of Bellaire 
the same year, and Louisa and Alice V^ance 
taught near the central part of the township 
a couple of years later. The first building 
erected especially for school purpose was 
the Mount Pleasant school-house which stood 
three miles south of the village of Annapolis. 
It was erected in 1846 and was in use about 
thirty years. The first teacher who used it 
was Elias Wilkins. The second school-house 
was erected about one year later and stood 
in the northeast corner of the township. It 
was a hewed-log structure and served the 
two-fold purpose of school and meeting-house, 
having been used as a place of worship by 
the Quakers for a period of ten years. It 
was sold in the year 1859 and moved to 
Annapolis, where it is still standing and in use 
as a dwelling. The township was supplied 
with free school about the year 1855, at which 
time the present districts were laid off and 
good frame buildings erected. Perhaps no 
township in the county is better supplied 
with school-houses than Licking, and it is 
certain that nowhere else is there more in- 
terest taken in educational matters. There 
are fifteen good frame buildings, all of which 
are neatly finished and well furnished, and 



schools are m:uiitained about seven months 
of the year. The present township board of 
education consists of the following gentle- 
men: Isaac Lainl), Robert Lincoln and Peter 
Welbert. Melvin Colter is clerk of the board, 
and treasurer. 

The Quakers are said to have been the 
pioneers of religion in Licking, and a society 
of them was formed in the northern part of 
the township in a very early day. Tlie first 
services were held at the residence of James 
Dixon whose house was used as a meeting 
place for seven or eight years. Among the 
first members of this society were William 
Dixon and wife, 1. Beeson and family, Mrs. 
.lames Dixon, William Lindley and family, 
Nathan Musgrove and family and Thomas 
Cox a wife. A regular organization was 
maintained for about twenty j'ears, and meet- 
ings were held in the school-house which stood 
on the Dixon farm. Owing to deaths and re- 
movals the church was finally abandoned. 
The last preacher was Andrev? Tomlinson. 
The scattered members of the old society were 
re-organized a few years ago in Hutsonville 
township, where they have a strong church 
and a handsome house of worship. The 
Methodists organized a class at the Mount 
Pleasant school-house about the year 1848 and 
have maintained a society in that vicinity 
ever since. They used the school-house as a 
place of worship until it was torn down, and 
since that time have been holding services at 
the Union school-house. Atone time the or- 
ganization was very strong and numbered 
among its communicants the majority of the 
citizens in the vicinity. It has decreased in 
numbers very materially during the last fif- 
teen years and at the present time the class 
is but a remnant of its former self. The pas- 
tor in charjre is Rev. Mr. Seeds, who is assist- 
ed in the work by Rev. Mr. Cullom. 

The Portersville Methodist church was or- 
ganized about the year 18(33 with twenty 

members. The first meetings were held in 
the old log school-house in eastern part of the 
village, which served the society as a place of 
worship until the Union church building was 
erected in 1875. The class was organized by 
the Protestant Jlethodists and continued as a 
church of that denomination until the year 
1878, at which time it was re-organized as a 
Methodist Episcopal society through the efforts 
of Rev. Mr. Stauffer. Among the stated sup- 
plies of the church were Revs. Jackson An- 
derson, Daniel McCormick, R. Traverse, R. 
Wright, J. D. Dees, Newton Stauffer, J. M. 
Jackson. The pastor in charge at the present 
time is Rev. S. A. Seeds. The present mem- 
bership of the church is fifty-one. A good 
Sundayschool is maintained during the greater 
part of the year. A. J. Holmes is the efficient 

The United Brethern Mission at Annapolis 
dates its history from the year 18(36, at which 
time Rev. Richard Belknap came into the 
country, and at the suggestion of D. B. Shires, 
and by their joint efforts a class of about fifty 
members was organized. Belknap preached 
two years and was succeeded by Rev. James 
Page, who remained with the church one year. 
Then came in regular succession Revs. Shep- 
herd, Samuel Starks, John Helton, Samuel 
Slusser, Ephraim Sliuey, Daniel Buzzard, 
William Hillis and — Zoeler. The present 
pastor is Rev. John Cardwell. A society of 
the M. E. church was organized at Annapolis 
a number of years ago by members of the Un- 
ion church who lived considerable distances 
from their place of meeting. The class was 
kept until the year 1873, when it was dis- 
banded and the few remaining members trans- 
ferred back to the original society. In 1875 
the members living in Annapolis and surround- 
ing country united with a part of the class 
which met at Willow church and organized a 
second class in the village with a member- 
• ship of twenty-three. The organization was 



brought about principally by the efforts of 
Dr. J. C. Mason and Rev. R. Wetherford, and 
the society became a regular appointment on 
the Oblong circuit. Wetherford was pastor for 
one year and was followed by Rev. Ira King, 
who remained on the circuit for the same 
length of time. The next pastor was Rev. 
Allen Bartley; then came in regular succes- 
sion, Newton Stauffer, James G. Dees and John 
M. Jackson. The present pastor is Rav. S. 
A. Seeds, who is assisted by Kiv. J. W. Cul- 
lom. There are on the records the names of 
thirty-seven members in good standing, at the 
present time. Services are held alternately 
with the United Brethren in the Union church 
building. The Union church house was 
erected by the citizens of Annapolis and vi- 
cinity, in the year 1875, and cost the sum of 
$'3,000. The project originated with Rev. John 
Anderson of Portersville, who had preached 
in the villajr.3 at intervals, using the school 
house for church purposes. Bjing a man of 
considerable enterprise, he soon convinced the 
citizens that a more suitable place for wor- 
ship was needed, and money enough vvas soon 
collected to complete the work. The build- 
ing is a neat frame structure, 33xiS feet, 
with a seating capacity of about three hun- 
dred. It was finished and dedicated in Au- 
gust of the year referred to. 

The Christian Church of Portersville was 
organized in the year 1875, bv Elder Wood, 
with twelve members. The following pastors 
have preached fqr the society at different 
times since its organization: William Beadle, 
Elders McCash, Lockhart, Couner, Boor and 
Grimm. The church at the present time is 
in a flourishing condition, and numbers about 
seventy communicants; services are held every 
liOrd's day. The Portersville church edifice 
was erected in the year 1875 by the public at 
large for general religious purposes. It is a 
frame building 35x50 feet, and cost the sura 
of $1,500. The house is open to all denomi- 

nations and at the present time is used by the 
Methodists and Christians alternately. 

The West Harmony Christian Church was 
organized a number of years ago near White's 
Piairie in the western part of the township. 
The society is in good condition and numbers 
among its members soma of the best citizens 
of the community. The neat temple of wor- 
ship used by the congregation was erected 
about seven j'ears ago. 

The villiige of Bollaire is situated in the 
•western part of the township on section 14, and 
dates its history from the year 1844. The 
necessity of the village was created by the 
distance of that localitv from any trading 
points, and partly through a spirit of specu- 
lation by which the proprietor was actuated. 
The first store in the place was kept by John 
Rym, who erected a small hewed log house 
for the purpose a short time after the town 
was platted. He did a good business for 
about six years when the building burned to 
the ground anil completely destroyed his stock 
of goods. With the assistance of the neigh- 
bors in the localitv, another house was soon 
al'terw ird erecti;d and Ryan em'iarked for 
the' second time in the mercantile business. 
Hi continued but a short time, when he moved 
his goods away. Much against the wishes of 
the neighbors, who assisted in building his 
house with the expectation that he would re- 
main with them. John Brown started a store 
soon afterward, which he kept for a number 
of years in the Ryan building and did a very 
good business. He sold his goods at auction 
and left the village after becoming dissatisfied 
with the place. A few months later, Catron 
Preston enlarged the old store-house and 
stocked it with a large miscellaneous assort- 
mjnt of merchandise. He kept a very good, 
store for about fifteen years when he moved 
his goods to Granville, Jasper Countv. Ma- 
rion Dougherty was the next merchant in the 
village, and continued in business until a few 



years aj^o, when he was succeeded by a man 
named Mills. The villat^e at the present time 
is a mere h.imlet containing a couple of dozen 
houses and three stores, kept respectively by 
John Pearson, Benjamin Purdell and Nicho- 
las Fi'ssler. 

In the year 18j'2 Richard Porter settled on 
the southeast quarter of section 36 in the 
eastern part of the township where he en- 
ojaged in the blackstnithino: Inisiness. About 
one \ear later Doctor ilcAlister of Hutson- 
ville l)ought a lot of Porter on which lie 
erected a dwelling, and an office for the pur- 
pose of being nearer the central part of his 
extensive practice. The blacksmith shop 
and the physician's office, together with sev- 
eral houses that had been built near by, gave 
the place a local prominence, and a small vil- 
lage soon sprang into existence. In 1854 
Porter sold his land to Catron Preston and 
Catlin Cullers, who laid out the town of Ber- 
lin the same year. Henry Leggett was one 
of the first to purchase real estate in the new 
village, which he did soon after the town was 
laid out, and at once commenced the erection 
of a store-room and dwelling. This building 
was a small log structure and was used by 
I-eggett, who kppt a little grocerv in it for 
two years. In the year 1856 Hamilton Sil- 
vers built a frame store-house in the village 
which he stocked with a general assortment 
of goods. He was in the mercantile business 
about one year and six months, when he sold 
out to a man by name of Perry, who in turn 
disposed of the stock to Horace Graves, after 
running the store for a short time. Graves 
did a fair business for about two years, when 
he was succeeded by his son-in-law William 
Linelnirger, who sold goods until the year 
186"J. The village is pleasantly located 
on the Palestine and B.,'Ilaire roa 1 and lias a 
population of about one hundred souls. Its 
business interest is represented bv one good 
dr^' goods and grocery store kept by Morris 

and Markwell — a flour exchange, one drug 
store and a blacksmith and wagon shop. 
The name of Portersville by which the village 
is commonly known was given the place in 
compliment of Richard Porter the original 
owner of the land. 

The Portersville Grange was organized in 
the year lSi3 witii a membership of sixteen; 
meetings were held in the school-house until 
the 1875, since which time the Union church 
building has been used as a meeting place. 
The present officers of the lodge are G. W. 
Pleasant, master; A. J. Holmes, overseer; 
D. W. Faught, sect.; Isaac Lamb, treas.; W. 
W. Hall, chaplain; Jasper Faught, steward; 
John Lineburger, gate-keeper; Mrs. Jane 
Watson, Pomona; Mrs. Tabitha Lineburger, 
Ceres; Mrs. Abott, Flora; and Mrs. Belle 
Woods, lady ass't steward. 

A. G. Murkey came to the township in the 
year 18 j6 and located in the eastern part at 
the crossing of the Hutsonville and Martins- 
ville roads on section 12, where he started a 
small store. 

The Corners, as the place was called, became 
quite a trading point for the farmers of the 
surrounding country by affording an easy 
market for their produce which Murkey would 
haul to Terre Haute and exchange for mer- 
chandise. About one year and a half later 
Thomas Spencer moved into the locality from 
Ohio and purchased a tract of land lying in 
sections Vz and 13, on which he laid out the 
village of Spencerville in December, 1858. 
The scheme was purely a speculative venture 
on the part of Spencer who saw, as he thought, 
a fortune in the prospective city. Among 
the first to purchase real estate in the village 
were Andrew Myers, Lorenzo Price, — Cau- 
horn, Richard Porter and Doctor Lowler. 
The platting of the town, and the influx of 
population caused thereby, gave new impetus 
to the mercantile business and several stores 
were soon in successful operation. Murkey 



continued in business with good success until 
the year 1883. The second store in the vil- 
lage was started bv Oijlesbv a short time 

alter the lots were laid out, and was kept in a 
small building which had been used for a 
shoe-shop. This store was continued about 
two years when the proprietor moved the 
goods to Brazil, Indiana. J. F. Johnson 
erected a large frame store house in the year 
1869, wiiich he stocked with merchandise to 
the amount of several thousand dollars, and 
has continued the business very successfully 
ever since. A third store was brought to the 
village about the year 1873 by William 
Wheeler, who sold goods about six years, 
when he disposed of the stock to Jacob Myers. 
In October, 1879, a second village called An- 
napolis was laid out just west of Spencerville, 
which it joins. The proprietors of the new 
town were Silas and Sarah Ilollowell. At the 
present time both places are known as Annap- 
olis and comprise a population of about two 
hundred inhabitants. The village is sur- 
rounded by an excellent agricultural district, 
and its future is very promising. The busi- 
ness of the place is represented by three 
stores of general merchandise kept respect- 
ively by J. F. Johnson, Mrs. Murphy and 
Jacob L. Myers; one grocery store by George 

Newlin; two small notion stoi'es, and one good 
drug store; G. L. Baker keeps a wagon shop 
and an undertaking establishment; James 
Hill, blacksmith; C. M. Stauffer, harness 
maker, and O. E. Page, general repair shop. 
There is one hotel in the village kept by G. 
L. Baker. 

Crawford Lodge No. 66G A. F. and A. M. 
was organized October, 1871, with the follow- 
ing charter members: Edward A.Bali, Will- 
iam H. Joseph, S. H. Newlin, Joel L. Cox, 
Thomas G. Athey, James Bennett, T. P. Bar- 
low, Richard Laney, R. L. Holmes, M. P. 
Rackerby, Henry Stephens, William Laugh- 
ery, Juhn L. Mount, John W. Bline, E. S. 
Rathbone ami D. D. Bishop. The first offi- 
cers were Joel L. Cox, W. M.; Thomas G. 
Athey, S. W., and James Bennett, J. W. 
The officers in charge at the present time are 
T. G. Athey, W. M.; J. L. Myers, S. W.; 
M. T. Vance, J. W,; J. C. Griffith, S. D.; 
J. N. Thornburg, J. D.; William H. Joseph, 
Sect.; J. W. Bline, Treas.;C. H. Price, Tyler. 
The Lodge is not in as good condition as 
formerly, and at the present time numbers 
only eighteen members. The hall in which 
the lodge meets was erected in the year 1871 
and cost $250. 




"But long years have flown o'er these scenes of the 

And many have turned gray in the winter's cold 

While others only think of the time that is gone; 
They are bent by the years that are fast rolling on." 

HE who svttempts to present v?ith unvary- 
ing accuracy, the annals of a county, or 
even of a district, no larger than a township, 
the history of which reaches back through a 
period of more than a half centurj', imposes 
upon himself a task beset with many difficul- 
ties. These difficulties are often augmented 
by statements widely at variance furnished by 
descendants of early settlers, as data from 
which to con'pile a true and faithful record of 
past events. To claim for a work of this 
character perfect freedom from error would 
be to arrogate to one's self that degree of wis- 
dom not possessed by mortal man. To give 
facts, and facts only, should be the aim and 
ambition of him who professes to deal with 
the past; and in the pages which follow we 
incline to those statements supported by the 
greater weight of testimony. In the western 
part of Crawford County lies a prairie which 
on account of its peculiar shape was named by 
the early settlers who located near it. Oblong, 
a name afterward applied to the township 
which forms the subject of the following 
pages. This township lies in the west central 
part of the county and embraces a geograph- 

* By G N. Berry. 

ical area of fifty-six square miles of territory 
being eight miles in extent from north to 
south and seven miles from the eastern to 
the western limits. Surrounding it on the 
northeast and south are the townships of 
Licking, Robinson and Martin, respectively, 
while Jasper County on the west make up 
the complete boundary. A number of 
streams traverse the township, among which 
may be noticed Big Creek, North Fork, Dog 
Wood, Willow and Muddy Creeks. Big 
Creek, which affords the principal drainage of 
the eastern part, enters the township near the 
northeast corner, flows a southwesterly direc- 
tion and crosses the southern boundary in 
section 17. It is a stream of considerable 
size and importance and flows through a well- 
wooded and somewhat broken section of 
country. Tlic North Fork flows a southerly 
course through the extreme western part of 
the township and receives a number of afllu- 
ents, the principal of which is Willow Creek. 
The last-named stream, waters the northwest 
corner of the township, flows a southerly 
course and empties into North Fork near the 
county line, in -section 30. Dog Wood 
branch rises in Licking Township, flows a 
southwesterly course through Oblong and emp- 
ties into Big Creek, in section 17, about a half 
mile from the southern boundary. The face 
of the country presents no scenes of rugged 
grandeur, but rather the quiet beauty of 
rounded outlines of surface, clothed with 
grassy plains, and forests, often arranged in 



piirk-like order. About one half of the town- 
ship was originally woodland, the timbered 
portion being confined principally to the 
eastern and western parts and to the water 
courses enumerated. The timber found 
growing here is similar to that of other parts 
of the county, and consists of walnut in limit- 
ed quantities; sugar maple along the creeks, 
elm, ash, hickory, sassafras and the difFer(?nt 
varieties of oak common to this part of the 
State. Much of the best timber in the town- 
ship has long since disappeared, and many of 
the finest farms were originally covered with 
a heavy forest growth. Oblong Prairie, to 
which reference has already been made, oc- 
cupies a scope of territory in the western part 
of the township, embracing an area of about 
ten sections, while Willow Prairie includes a 
similar amount of land in the northern and 
central portions. Small prairies are found at 
intervals in the southern and southeastern 
parts of the township, all of which are desig- 
nated by names peculiar to their localities. 
The soil of the wooded portion is a rich gray 
loam underlaid with a clay subsoil, which 
renders it susceptible of enduring a continued 
drouth. The prairie soil is darker, very fer- 
tile and well adapted for general farming and 
grazing. Agriculture is the chief resource of 
the people, tlie great majority of whom own 
land, and perhaps in no division of the county 
are there as few renters as in this township. 
One happy fact upon which the citizens of 
Oblong are to be congratulated, is that there 
are no large tracts of land owned by single 
individuals, to retard the country's develop- 

The settlement of this part of the county 
dates back to the year 1830, when Lott Watts 
made the first permanent improvement in the 
hitherto undisturbed forest. Previous to his 
arrival, however, a number of persons had 
traversed the country on tours of inspection 
for the purpose of selecting homes, but at the 

date mentioned no family appears to have 
been living within the present limits of the 
township. Watts was a native of Tennessee 
and immigrated to this State a few years prior 
to 1830, settling first a short distance north- 
east of Robinson, where he became the pos- 
sessor of eighty acres of land, which he after- 
ward sold to Judge Kitchell. He located in 
the southern part of the township and made 
the first entry of land in section 6, one year 
after his arrival. He was a man of consider- 
able note and, in recognition of his worth the 
precinct of which Oblong originally formed a 
part, was named in compliment to him, 
" Watts Precinct." At the first election he 
was unanimously called to the office of justice 
of the peace and later was elected associate 
county judjje, a position he filled very cred- 
itably. He was a resident of the township 
until the time of his death in 1854. Robert 
Watts, a brother of the preceding, came to 
the county the same year and located in the 
same locality. He settled in this township 
about the year 1831, on land at present in 
possession of William Wood, on which he 
lived until 1871, at which time his death oc- 
curred. In company with Robert Watts came 
Jesse and Jeremiah York, who were followed 
in the latter part of the same year by Jesse 
Eaton. Jesse York came from Tennessee 
and had lived several years in the vicinity of 
Robinson before moving to this part of the 
county. He improved eighty acres in the 
southwest part of the township which he 
afterward entered. " Uncle " Jesse, as he 
was familiarly called by the early settlers, was 
a man of character and influence in the little 
pioneer community, and did much both by 
precept and example to improve the morals 
of his neighbors, many of wlioin stood in 
special need of culture in that direction. He 
was a pious member of tl e Methodist church 
and opened his house for the first religious 
services ever held in the township. In the 



year 18.J3 he sold his farm to a man l)y name 
of Poarce and moved to the northern part of 
the State, and later to Missouri whore he died 
several years nsn. Jeremiah York vvas a 
cousin of Jesse and a native of the same 
State. He settled near the southern limit of 
the township on land which he entered four 
years later, and was identified with this part 
of the county until the year 1865. The farm 
on which he located is at the present time 
owned and occupied by H. Larabee. 

Jesse Eaton settled on North Fork near the 
western boundary of tlie township, where he 
made a few temporary impiovements on 
government land. lie lived in that locality 
a couple of years when he left his improve- 
ments and moved to the northeastern part of 
the township, whore he afterward entered 
land and resided until the year 1863. Eaton 
was a minister of the Old School Baptist 
church and preached at different places 
throughout the township during the early 
years of its histor}'. In the year 183-4 " Arch " 
York and Ezekiel York, relations of Jesse 
and Jeremiah York, found homes in the town- 
ship, the first named settling in the southern 
part near the Watts farm, where he lived 
until the year 1855 when he sold out and 
moved to Missouri. Ezekiel became posses 
sor of a good farm in the same locality, which 
he retained until 1868, at which time he dis- 
posed of his possessions and followed his 
brother west. In striking contrast to the set- 
tlers enumerated, who were all miMi of princi- 
ple and high moral worth, was George Miller, 
a squatter who settled in the northeastern 
part of the township about the year ISo-l. 
Miller hailed from Kentucky and belonged to 
that class of characters generally found on the 
outskirts of civilization, where departure from 
a community is always looked upon as a hap- 
py omen. In him were combined the quali- 
ties of the successful hunter and trapper in a 
marked degree, to whicii were added the ani- 

mal strength and low cunning so essential to 
the bully and frontier rough. He maintained 
his family principally by hunting, but did not 
scruple to supply his larder from his neigh- 
bors' smoke-houses when favorable occasions 
presented themselves. He lived for some 
time in Licking Township and afterward 
moved to the western part of the county on 
North Fork, where he died about t!ie year 
1863. Another character deserving of spe- 
cial mention and similar in many respects to 
the one referred to, was .James Watts, a son 
of Robert Watts. He came to the country in 
company with his father and soon acquired a 
wide-spread reputation as a hunter and back- 
woods fighter. He was daring almost to fool- 
hardiness, and many are the adventurous 
exploits related of him. He afterward mar- 
ried a daughter of William Wilson, built a 
small cabin on his father's farm and spent the 
latter years of his life trapping, at which pur- 
suit he acquired considerable means. 

In the year 1836 the following persons witli 
their families were added to the townshiji's 
population: Greenberry Eaton, John Salis- 
bury, Elijah and John Smith. Eaton settled 
in section 36, a short distance north of the 
village of Oblong, where he entered land the 
same year of his arrival. He was a cooper 
and found plenty of work at his trade in sup- 
plying the neighljors with barrels, tubs and 
buckets, articles which they had hitherto ac- 
customed themselves to do without. He sold 
h!s place to Reuben Leach in the year 1851, 
and moved from the township. Salisbury was 
a native of Germany, but came to Illinois 
from Indiana. He. settled in section 10 
about two and a half miles north of Oblong 
village, where by industry and almost nig- 
gardly economy he acquired a valuable tract 
of real estate. His only object seems to 
have been money, and ho possessed a nature 
totally devoid of any refining quality. His 
close dealings, together with the cruel treat-| 



ment of his wife and children, gave him a very- 
unenviable reputation in the community, and 
his friends were few and far between. The 
Smitii brothers were Kentuckians and men of 
roving tendencies. Elijah made his first set- 
tlement in southern part of the township on 
Dogwood Creek, where he remained but a 
short time, afterward moving about from place 
to place with no definite place of residence. 
John was of an adventurous nature, and spent 
the greater part of his time in hunting, which 
afiforded his chief amusement and the main- 
tenance of his family as ■well. Another 
brotlier, .Tames Smith, came in a short time 
afterward, and settled east of Oblong, where 
lie became the possessor of forty acres of land. 
He was a good man, and served as constable 
in an early day, being one of the first in the 
precinct to fill that office. Prominently iden- 
tified with the early history and development 
of Oblong was Joseph Wood, whose settle- 
ment in the township dates back to the year 
1839. Wood was born in Virginia, but 
moved to Vincennes, Indiana, as early as the 
year 1809, traveling all the way horseback, 
and packing the few household goods the 
same way. He remained at Vincennes about 
one year and a half, when, thinking there 
were better lands and more favorable chances 
further west, he moved to this State and set- 
tled near Palestine. During the Indian troub- 
les he served as a "ranger" alongr the Wa- 
ft C5 

bash, and engaged in several bloody bouts 
with the redskins. It is related that upon one 
occasion he and a companion were so hard 
pressed by the Indians that they were com- 
pelled to go three days without tasting a mor- 
sel of food. The Indians relaxed the pursuit 
on the fourth day, which gave the rangers an 
opportunity to rest and seek some nourish- 
ment. The latter was afforded by a coon, 
which was cooked and greedil}' eaten with- 
out the use of salt or other condiments. Wood 
said it was the most delicious. repast he 

ever ate in his life. At the close of the In- 
dian troubles Wood settled near Palestine, 
and engaged in farming and stock raising. 
He afterward located in the vicinity of Rob- 
inson, where he lived until 1839, when, be- 
coming dissatisfied with the country on ac- 
count of the milk-sick, which proved a seri- 
ous hindrance to his stock, he moved to Ob- 
long Township. He settled southeast of the 
village of Oblong near Big Creek, in section 
3, where he made his first entry of land. He 
afterward entered land at dift'erent places in 
the township, until he became the owner of 
more than two thousand acres. He was a 
man of considerable prominence, and died in 
the year 1866. The old homestead is at the 
present time owned by his sons, J. H. and 
Robert Wood, both of whom aie prominent 
citizens and men of character. Another son, 
William Wood, came to the township in com- 
pany with his father, and has been one of its 
leading citizens ever since. His place of 
residence is situated about one mile east of 
Oblong on the Vandalia State road. Other 
settlements were made in 18 J9 by Richard 
Lecky, a son-in-law of Wood, who located 
near the eastern boundary in section 3. D. F. 
Hale, a native of New York, who entered 
land in northeastern part. Abraham Wal- 
ters who located in same vicinity. John 
Holingsworth in section 33, and Reily York, 
who made improvements in southern part of 
the township on section 18. Later came 
George JeEFers, who entered land in section 
27, which lie afterward sold to William Hill. 
James Boatright, a native of Tennessee, who 
located a farm in section 23, in the eastern 
part of the township. Ira King, a native of 
■New York, who settled where the widow 
Henry now lives in section 27. William Wil- 
son, who settled in section 31, where he pur- 
chased land of John Holingsworth and John 
McCrillis, an Ohioan, who located in section 
''32, east of the village of Oblong, where he 



improved a fine farm, and operated a tan 
vard. Other settlers came in from time to 
time, and by the year 1850, all the vacant 
lands were taken up and the township well 
populated, the majority of the imrai2;rants 
being from the States of Ohio and Indiana. 
The carving of a home in a new and unde- 
veloped country a half century ago, was a 
task from which the most of us at the present 
day would be willing to shrink. Savages 
were still to be seen, and wild animals both 
fierce and dangerous were plenty, and roamed 
the forests and prairies everywhere. Pro- 
visions, except game, were scarce. None of 
the luxuries and but few of the comforts of 
life were to be had. For years the pioneer's 
home was a rude log cabin of the most primi- 
tive type, and his food and raiment were 
equally poor; and yet the early settler was 
happy and enjoyed his wilderness life. There 
are those still living in Oblong who remem- 
ber the rude log cabin with its stick chimney 
and puncheon floor, the spinning wheel and 
the loom. These rough times, together with 
tlie relics of a pioneer age, have passed away, 
and the country, where a few years ago they 
reigned supreme, is now the cradle of plenty 
and the home of education, progress and 

The pioneer's attention is first of all direct- 
ed to the im])ortance of a mill, and one of the 
first cares is the erection of some kind of rude 
contrivance to provide his family with the 
stafT of life. The first mill within the present 
limits of Oblong was erected by George Miller 
near the northern boundary of the township 
as early as the year 18;)2. It was a horse 
mill and when kept running constantly could 
grind about fifteen bushels of corn per day. 
Miller operated it but a few years when it foil 
into disuse on account of other mills being 
erected in different parts of the country. 
Richard Eaton built a water mill on the North 
Furk in the western part of the township 

about the year 1833. The building was frame, 
its dimensions about twenty by thirty feet, 
and two stories high. It was a combination 
mill and for a number of years did a very 
good business both in grinding and sawing. 
Joseph Wood erected a mill in section 34 in 
the eastern part of the township about the 
year 1840. It was a combination mill, had 
one buhr and could grind when kept running 
steady about one hundred bushels of grain 
per day. It was a frame building 20 by 32 
feet, and two stories high. It was operated 
by the water of Big Creek and was kept run- 
ning about sixteen years when the machinery 
was removed and the building torn down. 
The Oblong steam flouring mill was built in 
18(59 by John Miller, who was unable to com- 
plete it on account of a financial embarrass- 
ment. It was purchased by Wood and Con- 
drey the same year, who finished the enter- 
prise, which proved a very successful venture, 
by supplying a long-felt want in the com- 
munity. The building occupies a space of 
ground 30x40 feet, is two stories and a half 
high, and was erected at a cost of §3,000. 
Wood and Condrey operated the mill as part- 
ners about two years and a half, when the 
entire interest was purchased by the former, 
who sold to Joel Zeigler one year later. 
Zeigler ran it two years when he disposed of it 
to W. and P. Condrey. It afterward passed 
into the hands of Levi Stump, who in turn 
sold out to the Kirtland brothers, the present 
proprietors, about the year 1879. It was 
thoroughly remodeled and furnished with new 
and improved machinery in the year 1881, 
and at the present time is considered one of 
the best mills in the county. It has three run 
of buhrs, with a grinding capacity of fifty 
barrels per day, and does both custom and 
merchant work. 

Among the early Industries of Oblong was 
a distillery which stood in the northeast cor- 
ner of the township. It was built b}' a man 



by name of Barlow about the year 1849, but 
did not prove very remunerative, and was 
abandoned a few years later. A wagon and 
general repair shop was erected in an early 
day about two miles east of Oblong Village 
by Robert Tindolph, who worked at his trade 
in that locality for two years. A number of 
wagons made at this shop are still to be seen 
in various parts of the country. The first 
blacksmith shop in the township was built 
about the year 1852 and stood in the northern 
part near the Barlow distillery. It was built 
by Jesse Barlow, who operated it very suc- 
cessfully for four or five years. John 
McCrillis opened a tan yard on his farm east 
of the village of Oblong in the year 1857, 
which he operated until 1863. A very good 
article of leather was made at this yard, and 
during the time the business was carried on it 
returned a fair profit to the proprietor. A 
second tan yard was afterward started in the 
village by David McCrillis, who conducted 
the business on a more extensive scale. He 
continued it, however, but two years when he 
abandoned the business to engage in other 

The first legally established highway in 
Oblong is the Vandalia State road which 
passes through the central part of the town- 
ship from east to west. It was laid out about 
the year 1831, and has been since that time 
one of the principal thoroughfares of the 
county. The range line road which crosses 
the township from north to south was sur- 
veyed about the year 1852. It intersects the 
Vandalia road at the village of Oblong, and 
is the second road of importance in the town- 
ship. The Stewart's Mill and York road was 
laid out in a very early day through the east- 
ern part of the township. It passes through 
the county in a northeasterly direction, but 
has undergone so many changes in the past 
twenty years that it would be difficult to de- 
scribe its original course. Another earlv road 

known as the Henry road crosses the northern 
part of the township and was laid out for the 
purpose of connecting Hanner's mill in Jasper 
county with Robinson. Other roads have 
been established from time to time, all of 
which are well improved and kept in good 
condition. The condition of the country 
during certain seasons renders traveling over 
these highway's exceedingly difficult on ac- 
count of the mud, but such is the nature of the 
soil that it dries out very rapidly after the 
frost leaves the ground. The S., E. and S. E. 
narrow gauge railroad passes from east to west 
through the central part of the township. It 
was completed in the year 1880, but up to 
the present time has proved of little benefit 
to the country. Its history will be found more 
fully given in another chapter. 

In 1853 D. W. OJell built a store-house at 
the crossing of the range line and Vandalia 
roads, near the central part of the township, 
and engaged in the mercantile business. The 
distance of the locality from any town — the 
nearest market-place being about ten miles 
away — gave the "cross-roads" quite a repu- 
tation, and Odell's store soon had a large run 
of customers. Other families settled in the 
vicinity from time to time, and within a few 
years quite a thriving little village sprang 
into existence. Among the first who pur- 
chased real estate and located at the " cross- 
ing" were John B. Smith and Joel Zeigler, 
two blacksmiths, who erected a shop shortly 
after their arrival. David McCrillis was an 
early settler in the village also, and worked 
very diligently for the success of the place. 
A second store was started about the year 
1855 b}' Lucas and Pearson who erected a 
building for the purpose a short distance west 
of Odell's building on the west Fide of the 
range line road. The firm did a good busi- 
ness for about two years when they sold the 
house and moved their stock to Greenfield, 
Indiana. In 1S58 William Wood erected a 



two-story brick business house in the central 
part of the village which he stocked with a 
lar^e assortment of sreneral merchandise. 
The presence of this store gave additional im- 
portance to the place and it soon gained the 
reputation of being one of the best trading 
points in the southern part of the county. 
Wood sold goods about four years when he 
disposed of his stock to John Smith, who did a 
flourishing business until the year 18G7, at 
which time the store was purchased by Will- 
iam Parker of Robinson. Parker increased 
the stock and continued the business about 
two vears when he was succeeded by Wood, 
Arnold & Muchmore. The firm was after- 
ward changed to Muchmore & McKnight who 
are doing business at the present time. Odell 
sold goods uninterruptedly for twenty years 
■when, becoming tired of the business, he closed 
out to the Gooch brothers, who have had 
charge of the store since 187o. In the mean- 
time the population of the place had con- 
stantly increased and at the earnest solicita- 
tion of the citizens of the village and sur- 
rounding country the town was regularly laid 
out and platted in the year 1872. It is sit- 
uated in the southwest corner of section 31 of 
town 7, range 13 west, and was surveyed by 
A. W. Gordon for D. W. Odell, proprietor, 
and named Oblong. 

Shortly after the village was platted a num- 
ber of lots were sold and several buildings 
erected among which was the business house 
af McQuillis & Buff situated on lot V2, north 
of Main street. Wirt and Wood built a fine 
brick store house north of Main Street near 
the central part of the town in the year 1883. 
It cost about S'2,500, and at the present time 
is occupied by the large general store of 
Zachariah Wirt. The village at the present 
time has a population of about three hundred 
and twenty, and supports the following busi- 
ess: three large general stores, three grocery 

stores, one furniture store, one millinery store, 
two drug stores, two blacksmith shops, two 
carpenter shops, three grain houses, one under- 
taking establishment, two butcher shops, one 
shoe shop, two harness shops and one barber 
shop. There are two hotels in the town, the 
Oblong and Cottage Houses, kept respectively 
by William J. OJell and William Runkle. 
The locality is said to be a very healthy one, 
yet despite this fact the following medical 
gentlemen reside in the village and practice 
their profession in the town and surrounding 
country: T. J. Edwards, H. C. Kibby, M. E. 
Ratferty and W. R. Dale. The Oblong post- 
office was established in the year 1851 and 
D. W. Odell appointed postmaster. The 
present postmaster is D. C. Condrej'. 

The Oblong City Lodge No. 644 A., F. & 
A. M. was organized October, 1870. The 
charter was granted by Grand Master H. G. 
Reynolds and contains the following names: 
D. Z. Condrey, J. D. Smith, William Wood, 
Manuel Beaver, Benjamin F. Buff, John J. 
Burton, Henry M. Barlow, M. Cawood, Thom- 
as J. N. Dees, Joseph C. Hughes, William 
Larabee, Hiram Larabee, James McKnight, 
James G. McKnight, George McCriUis, Hiram 
McCrillis and George Routt. The first offi- 
cers were D. Z. Condrey, W. M.; John U. 
Smith, S. W., and William Wood, J. W. The 
officers in charge at present are T. J. Ed- 
wards, W. M.; Clinton Cawood, S. W.; M. E. 
Rafferty, J. W.; R. H. xMcKnight, Trcas.; 
Zachariah Wirt, Sect.; L. R. Bowman, S. D.; 
C. D. Condrey, J. D.; J. R. McKnight, Tiler; 
M. L. James, Chaplain.; Marion Blake, S. S.; 
and B. F. Byerly, J. S. Meetings -were held 
in hall over Muchmore & McKnight's store 
until the year 1875, when the place of meeting 
was changed to Wirt & Wood's hall which 
had been fitted up for the purpose. In 1878 
the lodge was moved back to the hall first 
used which has been the meeting place ever 



since. At the present time tlie lodge is in a 
flourishing condition and numbers thirty-five 

The Gospel was introduced into this town- 
ship by the pioneers themselves, and long be- 
fore churches were built religious services 
were held in their cabins, and when the 
weather permitted, in groves. When no min- 
ister was present at these meetnigs, some one 
accustomed to "praying in public" would 
read a chapter in the holy book, offer a prayer 
to the Most High, after which the exercises 
were of a more general nature, consisting of 
singing, praying and " telling experiences," 
in which all who felt religiously inclined were 
at liberty to participate. As their numbers 
and wealth increased societies were organized, 
church buildings erected in different sections 
of the country, and ministers employed. 
Just when or where the first church edifice 
was erected in Oblong is not known, unless 
it was the old Mount Comfort church, which 
stood near the southern boundary of the 
township. A society of the Methodist church 
was organized in that vicinity a number of 
years ago, with a large membership. Meet- 
ings were held at private residences and 
school-houses until about the year 1860, when 
steps were taken to erect a house of worship. 
Ralph Johnson donated ground for the pur- 
pose, and citizens of the neighborhood took 
an active pari by contributing both work and 
money toward the enterprise. The building 
"was a hewed log structure, very comfortably 
finished, and was used as a meeting place 
about twenty years. The society, at one time 
in such flourishing condition, gradually di- 
minished in numbers, until it was found im- 
possible to maintain an organization. The 
class was finally disbanded and the building 
allowed to fall into decay. Among the early 
pastors of this church were William St. Clair, 

C. C. English, Noll, John Leeper, J. 

P. Rutherford, and Wallace. The 

Oblong class was organized in the year 1850 
at the house of Owen Jarrett, with the follow- 
ing members: Isaac Dulanev and wife, Owen 
Jarrett and wife, and Lj^dia Leech. The 
first accessions after the organization were 
David Caudman and wife, who joined the 
society at the second meeting. The organi- 
zation was effected by the labors of Rev. 
William St. Clair, at that time on the Rob- 
inson circuit, who preached for the congrega- 
tion two years. He was succeeded by John 
Leeper who had charge of the circuit one 
year. Then came in regular succession John 
Taylor, Noll, Williamson, Woolard, Butler, 
Bonner, Hennessee and English. The pres- 
ent pastor is Rev. S. A. Seeds, who is assist- 
ed by John CuUora. The residences of Owen 
Jarrett and David Caudman were used as 
places of worship until the Oblong school- 
house was built, when the organization was 
transferred to the village. Services were 
held in the school- house about ten vears, 
when the Baptists erected their house of wor- 
ship which has served as a meeting place for 
both denominations ever since. The society 
was attached to the Oblong circuit alj^ut ten 
years ago, and at the present time has upon 
its records the names of forty members. 

The Prairie Methodist Church is located in 
the northern part of the township, and dates 
its history from the year 1857, at which time 
their first house of worship was erected. It 
was a neat frame building, about forty by 
fifty feet, and cost the sum 81,500. The 
society was organized by Rev. John Leeper, 
a master of the Gospel, well known in Craw- 
ford County, and a man of considerable abil- 
ity and untiring industry. Under his labors, 
about si.xty members were gathered into the 
church shortly after the organization, but as 
the original records could not be obtained none 
of their names were learned. Their building 
was used as a place of worship until the year 
1879, when it was abandoned. At that time 



the memborship was scattered over such an 
extent of country tliiit it was found expedi- 
ent to divide the society into two distinct or- 
ganizations, which was done the same year 
by mutual consent of all parties interested. 
The members living in the vicinity of the old 
church met for worship at the prairie school- 
house, while those living west formed them- 
selves into what is known as the Dogwood 
class, and held religious services in a school- 
house of the same name. In the year 1881 
the two societies divided the old church prop- 
erty, and erected houses of worship, which 
arc known as the Dogwood and Prairie 
churches. They are both fine frame build- 
ings 38x42 feet, and cost about $1,100 each. 
The Prairie church numbers fifty-six com- 
municants at the present time, while the 
records of the Dogwood chapel contain the 
names of sixty-seven members in good stand- 
ing. Both churches maintain good Sunday 
schools, which are well attended. The fol- 
lowing pastors have preached for the churches 
since the reorganization in 1879: Revs. 
Leeper, Taylor, Hardakor, Sapington, St. 
Clair, ^^^ool'ii'd, English, Glatz, Lopas, 
Grant,' Carson, Waller, Reeder, Rutherford, 
Harrington, King, Bartley, Stanfer, Dee, 
Jackson, Seeds and Cullom. The last two be- 
ing pastors in charge at the present time. 
The Wirt Chapel Christian Church was or- 
ganized by Elder G. W. Ingersoll, at the 
Wirt school-house in the year 1862. The 
school-house served the congregation for a 
meeting place until 1875, when their present 
temple of worship was erected. Their build- 
ing is frame, 30x36 feet, cost $900, and 
stands in the western part of the township, 
two and three-quarter miles southwest of Ob- 
long, on land donated by Mrs. Deborah Og- 
den. Elder Ingersoll had pastoral charge of 
the church until the year 1873, at which time 
he resigned. The second pastor was Elder 
Daniel Conner, the exact length of whose 

pastorate was not ascertained. Elder Daniel 
Gray succeeded Conner, and preached very 
acceptably for a couple of years. The pres- 
ent membership is about thirty-six, it having 
started with ten. A good Sunday school is 
maintained in connection with the church, 
which at the present time is under the effi- 
cient management of Jacob AVirt, superin- 
tendent. Among the early preachers of the 
township were Daniel Doly, Richard New- 
port, Daniel Parker and Thomas Canady, 
Baptist ministers, who held services at Ob- 
long Village at intervals for a number of years. 
A few members of that denomination resided 
in the village and vicinity, and organized 
themselves into a society November 2, 1872 
The organization was brought about princi- 
pally by the efforts of William H. Smith and 
D. W. Odell, and the following names record- 
ed as constitutional members: John B. 
Smith, Nancy Smith, Eliza Ellis, Blanche 
Gill, Samuel R. Mock, Amelia Mock, Chris- 
tina EofF, Margaret Eaton, D. W. Odell and 
Margaret Odell. William H. Smith has been 
pastor of the church since its organization. 
There are eighteen members belonging at the 
present time. The house of worship where 
the society meets, was erected a short time 
prior to the organization, on ground donated 
b}' D. W. Odell. It is a neat frame structure, 
stands in the eastern part of the village, and 
represents a value of about $600. The pres- 
ent trustees are John B. Smith, D. W. Odell 
and Samuel R. Mock. The Universalist 
Church of Olilong was organized in the spring 
of 1873, by Rev. Harris, with a membership 
of about twenty persons. Eft'orts were im- 
mediately put on foot to erect a house of 
worship, and a building committee, con- 
sisting of D. Z. Condrey, E. Ubank, T. J. 
Price, J. H. Watts and John King appointed. 
This committee purchased ground of William 
Wurtzburger in the western part of the vil- 
lage, and work at once began on the building. 



The house, which is a frame erlifice 26x30 
feet, >\-as completed in the summer of 1873, 
at a cost of $700. Rev. Harris, the first pas- 
tor, preached two years and was succeeded 
by Rev. C. C. NefF, who remained with the 
church three years. Then came Rev. M. L. 
Pope, who ministered to the congregation 
about two years, and was in turn followed by 
Rev. S. S. Gibb, the present pastor. The 
present membership is about forty. 

In educational matters the citizens of this 
township have always taken a lively interest, 
and schools were established shortly after the 
first settlers made their appearance. The first 
school-house, as near as could be ascertained, 
stood on the west side of Oblong Prairie near 
the North Fork, and was built some time 
prior to 1836. Among the first teachers who 
wielded the birch in this rude domicile 
was one James Smith; the names of other 
early teachers who dignified this frontier 
college with their presence have unfor- 
tunately been forgotten. The second school- 
house was a hewed log building and a decided 
improvement on the one described. It was 
erected about the year 1837 and stood near 
the Oblong grave-yard. It was first used by 
a man by name of Fithian who taught a three 
months' term in the winter of 1837 and 1838 
with an attendance of about fifteen pupils. 
Among the early teachers who taught in the 
same place are remembered Samuel Crump- 
ton, John M. Johnston, Levi James, J. H. 
Price, and Peter Long. The house was in 
use until the year 1863 when it was aban- 
doned as being no longer fit for school pur- 
poses. The first frame school-house stood on 
Jesse Barlow's farm in the northeast corner 
of the township and was erected about the 
year 1850. It was in use for twenty-six 
years. The school lands were sold in the year 
1851 and realized to the township the sum of 
81,100. Seven per cent of this amount to- 
gether with $70 which the township drew the 

same year formed the basis of the present 
splendid school fund. There are at the pres- 
ent time ten good buildings in which schools 
are taught about seven months in the year, 
thus bringing the advantages of a good edu- 
cation within the easy reach of all. Nine of 
these buildings are frame, and one, the Ob- 
long school-house, is brick. The latter was 
erected in 1881 at a cost of 83,000. It is two 
stories high, contains three large, well fur- 
nished rooms, and covers a space of ground 
forty-three feet long by twenty feet wide. 
The Mount Comfort Grange No. lOOG P. of 
H. was organized in 1873 with a membership 
of thirteen. First officers were Harrison 
Seers, Master; D. M. Bales, Overseer; and A. 
Walters, Sect. The present officers are Will- 
iam Cortourly, M.; Edward Johnson, C; 
Joseph Kirk, S.; Albert Skaggs, Sect.; Wm. 
Johnson, Treas.; Chas. Johnson, Chap.; Thom- 
as Keifer, Lecturer; J. E. Skaggs, Gate 
Keeper; Anna Cortourly, P.; Lucinda John- 
son, A. S.; Rachel Kirk, F.; Catherine 
Keifer, C. 

Dog Wood Grange No. 1007 was organized 
January 29, 1874, at the Dog Wood school- 
house with thirty charter members. First offi- 
cers were the following: Preston Condrey, M.; 
Matthew Wilkin, O.; Scott Thornburg, L.; 
William E. McKnight, S.; Absalom Wilkin, 
A. S.; J. H. Wilkin, Chaplain; Hiram Lara- 
bee, Treas.; R. S. Comley, Sect.; Wilson 
Brooks, G. K.; Emily Wilkin, Ceres; Eliza- 
beth Condrey, Pomona; Carrie Snider, Flora; 
Rosilla Larabee, L. A. S. The present offi- 
cers are A. Reed, M.; C. Stifle, O.; R. S. 
Comley, L.; S. Wilkin, S.; J. A. Wilson, A. 
S.; G. W. Crogan, Chap.; A. Weir, Treas.; 
M. Wilkin, Sect.; J. J. Waterworth. G. K.; 
Mrs. E. E. Wilkin, Pomona; Miss E. Reed, 
Flora; Mrs. Mary Wilkin, Ceres; Mrs. C. 
Wilson, L. A. S. The lodge is in flourishing 
condition at the present time, and numbers 
forty-two members. 






" What is the tale that I would tell ? Not one 
Of strange adventure, but a common tale." 

PIONEER hardships and privations on the 
frontier are a " common tale " to the 
writer of western annals. Those who have 
beard the old settlers tell of their hunting 
frolics,log-rollino;s, house-raisings, wolf-chases, 
etc., etc., were sometimes led to believe that 
pioneer life was made up of fun and frolic, 
amusement and enjoyment, but it is a woeful 
mistake. AVhile there was more or less of 
pleasure and happiness among the frontiers- 
men, with their rude, wild life, " wild ab the 
wild bird and untaught, with spur and bridle 
undeliled," there was much more danger, toil, 
privation, self-denial, a lack of all the com- 
forts of life, and many of its necessaries. 
Indeed, these were the main constituents that 
compose the grandeur of frontier life and 
rast a glamour over its dangers and hardships. 
To the early settlers of this division of the 
county we will now devote our attention, and 
transcribe some of their deeds and adven- 

Montgomery Township is the southeastern 
division of Crawford County, and borders on 
the Wabash River. It is an excellent agri- 
cultural region and contains some very fine 
farms. Like all the Wabash bottoms, the 
lowlands along the river are frequently in- 
undated, sometimes subjecting the people to 

* By W. H. Perrm. 

serious loss of property. The center line of 
the township forms the divide, from which 
the water flows both ways — to the east into 
the Wabash River by Doe Run and Buck's 
Creek, and to the west into the Embarras by 
Brushy Fork which runs in a south-southwest 
direction. The east part of the township, a 
distance of two miles from the river, was 
known as the "Rich Woods," and was very 
rich, heavy-timbered Ian 1, and is yet as rich 
land as there is in the county. But the 
largest portion of Montgomery was called 
" Barrens," on account of its barren appear- 
ance, being almost entirely destitute of 
timber, except a few scattering, scrubby oaks 
and shelbark hickories. The barrens were 
caused by the great fires which annually 
swept over the prairie districts. After the 
prairie grass burned, the fire died out, the 
barrens disappeared and the heavy timber be- 
gan. It was usually black, red, water, white 
and burr oaks, hickory, sassafras, persimmon, 
with soft wood trees along the streams. The 
Rich Woods produced several kinds of oak, 
walnut, beech, sugar tree, elm, poplar, linn, 
hackberry, sycamore, honey locust, cofl'eenut, 
pawpaw, etc. Only the northwest corner of 
the township was prairie, and was called 
Beckwith Prairie, and was but a few hundred 
acres in extent. Montgomery Township lies 
south of Lamotte Township, west of the 
Wabash River, north of Lawrence County, 
east of Honey Creek Township, and by the 



census of 1880 had a total population of 1,959 

The fii'st settlement of Montgomery Town- 
shij:) was made seventy years or more ago. 
There is a prevailing tradition that James 
Beard settled here as early as 1810, hut it is 
hardly probable that it was much before the 
cfose of the war of 1812. Beard was from 
Kentucky, and had been brought up among 
the stirring scenes of the dark and bloody 
ground in the days of Indian warfare. He 
had a nephew named Eli Adams, who came 
to this county with him and lived with him 
here. Their cabin stood in the southeast cor- 
ner of the township. Beard was killed by 
the Indians, as detailed in a preceding 
chapter. But it is not known what ever be- 
came of Adams. 

Thomas Kennedy, who figures prominently 
in this work, both as an early county officer 
and as a pioneer Baptist preacher was an early 
settler in this township. He was from southern 
Kentucky, and first squatted on the place 
where John S. Woodworth originally settled, 
the improvement of which he sold to Wood- 
worth. He then settled ia this township, on 
what is known as the Gov. French farm, and 
at present owned by Mr. Fife. Kennedy 
lost several members of his family by the 
milk-sick, and sold out and moved to Beck- 
■with Prairie, where he died at a green old 
age. He was a good, honest man, somewhat 
illiterate, l)ut endowed with sound common 
sense. As stated, he was a Hardshell Bap- 
tist preacher, but much more liberal in his 
religious convictions than many of that stern 
and zealous creed. He used to often cross 
swords with Daniel Parker upon church gov- 
ernment and relations, and the church once 
tried to turn him out for what it termed his 
heresies, but failed in the attempt. Old 
" Daddy " Kenned}' was a man who possessed 
the confidence of the people among whom he 
lived, and enjoyed a reputation for honor and 

integrity, that remained unstained during a 
long and active life. 

Another early settler was John Cobb. He 
came to Montgomery Township in 1820 and 
opened a farm. He had six children, some of 
whom grew up and made prominent men. 
One of these, Amasa Cobb, studied law in St. 
Louis, and at the breaking out of the Mexican 
war, entered the army, taking part in that un- 
pleasantness. He afterward located in Wis- 
consin ; was sent to the Legislature and to Con- 
gress from the Badger State, and was in Con- 
gress when the war clouds rose on the south- 
ern horizon in 18G1. He at once offered his 
services to the government, was commis- 
sioned colonel of a regiment, and distinguished 
himself in the field. At this time, he is serv- 
ing his second term as judge of the Supreme 
Court of Nebraska. Another son is living in 
this township, and is a prominent farmer. 

The following incident is intimately con- 
nected with the early settlement of this sec- 
tion. About the year 1811-12, a hurricane 
swept over the country, passing from the 
southwest to the northeast, through the north- 
western part of Montgomery and the south- 
eastern part of Lamotte Township. Marks 
of its destructive course may yet be seen in 
many places. It was about half a mile in 
width, and the timber was felled before it, as 
grain before the reaper. A family named 
Higgins had just moved in, and had not vet 
had time to build a cabin and had constructed 
a rude hut to shelter their heads until better 
accommodations could be provided. The hut 
stood directly in the path of the hurricane, 
and after the storm was over the people gath- 
ered together, and knowing the location of 
Higgins' hut, supposed the family all killed, 
and that nothing remained to them, but to 
make their way into the fallen timber, get out 
the unfortunates and bury them. Upon work- 
ing their way to them, they were found to be 
wholly uninjured, not a single tree having 



fallen upon the hut, or touched it, but the 
huge monarchs of the forest were piled pro- 
miscuously all around them, rendering their 
escape as remarkable as that of Tam O'Shan- 
ter's Mare. It was the only spot in the whole 
track of the hurricane for miles that was not 
covered over with fallen timber. The inci- 
dent is still remembered by many who have 
received it as a family tradition. 

Among the settlers of Montgomery, addi- 
tional to those already mentioned were, Joseph 
Pearson, Ithra Brasliears, James Shaw, John 
^Yaldrop, Gabriel Funk, Sr., Andrew Mont- 
gomery and others whose names are now for- 
gotten. Pearson came from Indiana, and set- 
led here, bat not much was learned of him. 
Brashears was in Fort Lamotte, and when 
peace was established received from the 
Government 100 acres of land for some ser- 
vice against the Indians, but just what the 
service was is not remembered. He was from 
Kentucky, and like all those old pioneers from 
that region, W'asa trained Indian fighter. He 
had one of the early mills of the county. His 
children are all dead except one daughter. 
James Shaw settled what is now known as the 
Winn place. He has descendants still living. 
John V/aldrop was from Kentucky, and set- 
tled very early. Gabriel Funk, Sr., came here 
in 1815, and was a great hunter. He had a 
son named Gabriel, who followed in his fath- 
er's footsteps in regard to hunting. Andrew 
Montgomery came from Irelatid and settled 
here very early. He raised a large family of 
children. Mr. Montgomery was a prominent 
man, and the township bears his name, an 
honor that is not unmerited. Many others 
might be named in connection with the early 
settlement, but after this long lapse of time, 
their names are forgotten. Others will be 
mentioned in the biographical department of 
this work. 

For many j'ears after the whites came here, 
tli'.'y had hard work to live. Even up to 

1815-50, times were hard and produce low, 
commanding the most insignificant prices. 
Particularly from 1810 to 1815 were farm pro- 
ducts low. Corn sold at 6;^ cents per bushel, 
after being hauled to the stage-stand at Ver- 
non in the north part of the township. AVheat 
■was 37i to 40 cents per bushel in trade for 
salt, after being hauled to Evansville, Ind. 
Pork, from §1.50 to $'i.00 per hundred pounds; 
cattle, three and four years old sold for §6 and 
S7 a piece. Clothing was coarse and cheap. 
Many wore buckskin, and all wore home-made 
clothes. A family who came here from Vir- 
ginia made clothing of cotton and the fur of 
rabbits mixed, the latter being sheared from 
the backs of the rabbits like wool from sheep. 
This is a pioneer story, and like many of their 
stories, is somewhat huge in proportion, when 
we consider how many rabbits it would take 
to furnish wool enough to clothe an army. 
But it is told that Mr. James Laiidreth wore 
clothing composed of the material above de- 

Mills were among the early pioneer indus- 
tries of Montgomery. James Allison had a 
mill very early in the south part of the town- 
ship. Jesse Higgins built an early mill where 
Morea now stands. Ithra Brashears also built 
a mill in an early day, and James Brockman 
had a mill near the Wabash river, in the 
southeast part of the township. He was killed 
by his step-son. Bill Shaw. 

Distilleries were also a prominent industry 
among the pioneers. Veach had a distillery 
a half mile east of Flat Rock, while Shaw 
owned one in the east part of the township. 
Adams had one of the first in the country 
Another distillery was built in the southeast 
portion of the tox'wi, and afterward a tannery 
established at the same place. Hatfield was 
the first blacksmith, and Wm. Edgington was 
a pioneer blacksmith and run a sort of gun 
factory in the township for sixty years. 

Jioads. — The Vincennes State road was one 



of the first public higlivvixys through Mont- 
gomery. It was surveyed in 1835. It was 
usually called the State Road, but its proper 
name was Vincenncs and Chicago road. The 
" Purgatory Road " as it was called, was laid 
out in 183G. It was so called on account of 
a large swamp through which it passed. It 
run from Viiicennes to Palestine, and is the 
real State road. While the Vincennes road, 
is merely an improved Indian trail, probably 
several hundred years old. The township is 
supplied with roads of as good quality as any 
portion of the county, and in many places 
good bridges span the streams. 

An incident occurred in this township some 
years ago, which shocked the moral sensibility 
of all the better class of people. Leonard 
Reed was a well-to-do citizen, and a man who 
stood fair among his neighbors. He lived five 
miles southeast of Palestine, and was poisoned 
by his wife that she might secure his property 
all to herself. She dosed him with arsenic, 
putting it in his victuals in small quantities, 
with the design of killing him by inches and 
thus escaping suspicion. The drug gave out 
and she was compelled to procure a second 
supply. One morning the hired girl saw her 
put something in her husband's coffee from a 
paper, and his violent pains a few moments 
afterward aroused the girl's suspicions. It 
seems the woman had given her husband a 
larger dose than usual, infuriated perhaps at 
his tenacious hold on life, and from the effects 
of it he died. The hired girl then told some 
of the neighbors what she had herself seen, 
and a medical examination was the result, 
which revealed the presence of arsenic in the 
stomach. The woman was arrested and 
lodged in the jail at Palestine. Before her 
trial came on she attempted to escape by 
burning a hole in the jail wall, which was of 
wood. She would burn a little at a time, and 
then extinguish the fire in order not to excite 
suspicion. One night she let the fire get the 

mastery of her, and when seeing that both 
she and the jail must burn together, she 
screamed for help. Sam Garrard, still a citi- 
zen of Palestine, was the first to reach the 
scene and succeeded in rescuing her from the 
flames. She was afterward transferred to 
Lawrence countv on a change of venue, tried 
for the murder of her husband, condemned, 
and finally hunsf in Lawrenceville. 

Another tragedy occurred in this township, 
which, though accidental, was none the less 
deplorable, inasmuch as it resulted from a 
barbarous custom. A young man named 
Green Baker, who lived in the southeast part 
of Montgomery, in " racing for the bottle " at 
a wedding was thrown against a tree and in- 
stantly killed. It was a custom in those ear- 
ly times at a wedding for two or three young 
men to be selected to go to the house of the 
bride for the usual bottle of spirits that graced 
the occasion. At the proper time they started 
on horseback at break-neck speed, as one 
would ride a hurdle-race, turning aside for 
no object or impediment. The one who 
gained the race by first reaching the bride's 
residence and getting possession of the bottle 
was the hero of the day, a kind of champion 
knight among the fair ladies. In obedience 
to this rude custom Baker and one or two 
otheis started on the race for the bottle. 
Thev were running their horses at full speed, 
and at a turn in the road by which stood a 
tree somewhat bent. Baker swayed his body 
to the side he supposed the horse would go, 
but contrary to his expectations it went on 
the other side. His head struck the tree and 
death was instantaneous. Thus, by observing 
a rude and barbarous custom, an occasion of 
gavety was turned into the deepest mourning. 

The people of Montgomery Township take 
an active interest in education. It is not 
known now who taught the first school in the 
township. It is known, however, that schools 
were established as soon as there were 



children enough in a neighborhood to support 
a school. There are now ten school-houses 
in the township, hut the school township ex- 
tends two miles into Lawrence County. All 
the school-houses are frame, and their average 
cost is about §850.. The state of education is 
the best in the county aside from the towns. 
Especially is this the case in District No. 1, 
which is noted for its interest in education, 
and in which stands the McKibben school- 
house, one of the best in ihe township. 

Villafies. — There are several villages in the 
township, but all of them put together would 
not make a town as large as Chicago. Al- 
though they are dignified by being called 
villages none of them have been regularly 
laid out as such. One of the first places to 
be designated as a village, was Vernon. It was 
on the Vincennes road and was a stiige-stand 
when the old-fashioned stage-coach was the 
principal means of travel. A small store, a 
post-office, a tavern and a blacksmith shop 
comprised its proportions. The tavern was 
kept by Spencer Hurst, and one Salters was 
the blacksmith. The town, however, has dis- 

!Morea is another hamlet, and consists of a 
half dozen houses or so. Wm. P. Dunlap 
built the first store-house, but the first goods 
were sold by Wm. Wallace. The place con- 
tains but one store which is kept by Henry 
Sayre. A post-of5ce was established here, 
with A. W. Duncan as postmaster. It is now 
kept by Dr. J. A. Ingles. Tlitse, with a churehj 
school-house and blacksmith shop, constitute 
the town. The first move toward a town was 
the building of the church, which is a Pres- 
bj'terian church. Alexander MacHatton gave 
the ground upon which it was built. He also 
gave one acre of land to David Kelchner,who 
erected a house upon it. 

The school-house was built originally about 
a quarter of a mile from the post-office, and 
was a log structure. Later the present school- 

house was built, by parties, who made a kind 
of stock company of it, taking shares of stock. 
The upper portion is used for religious and 
literary purposes. The church will be referred 
to later on in this chapter. 

Heathville is another of the same sort. A 
post-office was established, and R. Heath, an 
old pioneer now living in Russelville, was the 
first post-master. The present one is Mr. 
Sullivan. A store, a shop or two, and a few 
houses are all there is of this lively town. 

Crawfordsville is situated on the line be- 
tween Montgomery and Honey Creek Town- 
ships. The first record we have of the place, 
was when Edward Allison built a water-mill 
here about 1830. Allison sold out to a man 
named Kiger, who in turn sold to H. Martin, 
a son of John Martin, who came to the county 
in lSlO-13. He built an ox-mill afterward, 
and later, a steam-mill, which is still stand- 
ing, and is owned by Dennis York and J. T. 
Wood. H. Martin kept a blacksmith shop 
about 18.j5. Elijah Nuttalls established a 
general store, and afterward several others 
had stores at different periods. During all 
this time it was known as Martin's mill, but 
when a post-oilice was established it was then 
called Crawfordsville. Samson Taylor was 
the first postmaster. The post-office was re- 
moved to Flat Rock when that town was laid 
out after the building of the railroad. A 
woolen-mill was connected with the steam-mill 
about 1870, and operated until 1879, when it 
closed business. 

Churches, — Wesley Chapel Methodist Epis- 
copal church is among the oldest churches in 
the county', dating its original organization 
back at least to 1825. The Methodists being 
missionary in their style, this church grew 
out of work done years previous to organiza- 
tion. Among the original members were 
James and Nancy McCord, Edward N. and 
Mary Cullom, Nancy Funk, Smith Shaw and 
wife, John and Mary Fox, S. B. Carter and 



Margaret Carter, Daniel and Christina Funk, 
William Garrard and wife, and Jacob Gar- 
rard and wile. It was organized by Rev. 
John Stewart, one of the earliest preachers 
of the Methodists in the Wabash valley. The 
first church edifice was built in 1845, and was 
a frame, 2Gx40 feet, costing about $800. In 
1878 a larger and more commodious house 
was commenced, and finished the next year. 
It is 30x50 feet, with many of the modern 
improvements — two class-rooms, gallery, bel- 
fry, stained glass windows, and will seat com- 
fortably some 250 persons. It has at present 
about 100 members. Many of the churches 
surrounding country grew out of this vener- 
able churcli, among which was that at Pales- 

The following is furnished us of the dif- 
ferent pastors of this church: Rupert Delapp, 
a good proacher, but rather too plain spoken 
to be popular; Wra. McReynolds, a good 
man and polished gentleman, and much liked 
by all; John, his brother, and very similar; 
Samuel Hulls, a good man liut common 
preacher, one of those who wept when he 
preached, very excitable but popular and 
influential, held many responsible positions 
in the church, and is still living; John Miller 
and Finley Tliompson officiated tog-ether, and 
were both good men; John McCain, a de- 
voted and influential preacher, Israel Risley 
rather dry, but a man of good sense; Chai4es 
Bonner, a warm-hearted young man, and a 
preacher of medium talents; James M. Mas- 
sey, one of the best preachers the church 
ever had, and faithful to the end; a son, T. 
J. Massey, is now in charge of the Robinson 
circuit; Ira McGinnis, a good preacher; Wm. 
S. Crissy, promising young preacher; John 
Chamberlin, an elegant gentleman, and a 
mediocre preacher; Asa McMurtry and Wm. 
Wilson together; Wm. Ripley; Isaac Barr; 
Jas. Woodward; Americus Don Carlos; W. 
(;. Blondill; Michael S. Taylor; John Shep- 

herd; Jacob Reed; J. F. Jaques; Joseph 
Hopkins; W. H. H. Moore; Z. Percy; John 
Hill; John Glaze; Levi English; John John- 
son; James Holey; Jacob Reed and V. Lin- 
genfelter; D. Williamson; Charles McCord; 
Wm. Nail; John Leeperand W.J. Grant; S. 
P. Groves; James Thrapp; Lewis Harper; D. 
Williamson; Wm. Cain; O. H. Clark; O. H. 
Bruner; Wni. Hennessey; Joseph Ruther- 
ford; W. W. McMorrow; Wm. Bruner; .1. 
J. Boyer; Jason Carson; John Weeden and 
D. B. Stewart; John Weeden and Joseph 
Van Cleve; J. D. Reeder, the present pastor. 
Under his pastorate forty-four members have 
been added, " a record that has not been 
beaten," since the organization of the church. 

A Sunday-school in connection with the 
church, has been in operation since 1873. 
The regular attendance is about seventy-five 
children, and Wm. Fox is the superintendent. 

Canaan Baptist Church is another of the 
old church organizations of this section of 
the country. It was established by Elder 
Daniel Parker, a Hardshell Baptist preacher, 
near Fort Allison, away back about 1830, 
under the name of " Little Vdlage Baptist 
Church." A few years later it was moved to 
this township, and is now of the Missionary 
Baptist faith. They have some eighteen 
members, and hold their meetings in the 
Canaan school-house, in which they own an 

Liberty Baptist Church was organized July 
15, lSi3. The old Lamotte Baptist Church, 
great in numbers and in boundaries, con- 
tributed toward its formation. The mem- 
bers in the southeast part of the congrega- 
tion, thought it best to form a church nearer 
their homes. Among those wlio entertained 
this belief were D. Y. Allison, Sarah Allison, 
Benjamin Long, Jane Long, Isaac Martin, 
Mary Martin, Thos. F. Highsmith, Elizabeth 
Highsmlth, Wm. V. Highsmith, Sina Allen, 
Rebecca Rush and Amos Rich. Elders 

Drudut CoX- 



Stephen Kennedy and Wm. S. Bishop offi- 
ciated at the organization. Since then tlie 
pastors have been: Elders Hezeklah Shelton 
and A. J. Fuson, by direction of the New 
York Home Mission Board; Solomon D. Mon- 
roe, D. Y. Allison, J. T. Warren, T. J. Neal, 
and J. L. Cox, the present pastor. The first 
church was built of logs eighteen by twenty 
feet, and a few years afterward another room 
of the same size was added, at a total cost, 
perhaps, of $200. The second church was 
built in 1S7A, and cost about $1,200. It has 
sixty-three members, and a Sunday-school, 
which was organized in 1865, by Jacob 
Clements and Hachel E. Dickinson. Clem- 
ents was superintendent. 

This church had but little ministerial aid 
in the early days of its existence; ministers 
being scarce and hard to procure in a new 
country such as this was then. But its mem- 
bers persevered, and it increased in power and 
usefulness. Twr> churches were afterward 
organized chiefly from its membership: one 
north of where it is located, and the other 
southwest, and just north of Lawrenceville. 
The United Presbyterian Church of Morea, 
as also the Associated Presbyterian Church 
and the United Presbyterian Church of Duii- 
canvilie, had their origin with a few families, 
mostly from East Tennessee, who settled in 
the Maxwell neighborhood. At their request 
they were organized into a " vacancy " of the 
Associated Presbyterian Church (commonly 
called seceders), under the care of the Pres- 
bytery of Northern Indiana; Rev. James 
Dickson, of the Presbytery, officiated at the 
organiz ition. Not long after, A. R. Rankin, 
a licentiate, was called to be their pastor, and 
accepting the call, was installed in the fall 
of 1852. A church was built a few years 
later, which served as a house of worship for 
nearly a quarter of a century. Rev. Rankin 
remained with them some five or six years 
and the congregation increased rapidly. He 

was succeeded by Rev. J. D. McNay as stated 
supply, and about 1858, while he was yet 
with them, the churches were united under 
the name of the United Presbyterian Church. 
Rev. McNay and a portipn of his flock de- 
clined going into this union, and Rev. R. 
Gil more, assistant editor of the Presbyte- 
rian Witness, of Cincinnati, re-organized the 
church and reported it as a " vacancy," under 
the care of the Presbytery of southern 
Indiana. Rev. Alexander MacHatton was 
pastor in 18G1, at which time the membership 
was thirty-eight. The congregation used the 
Beckwith Prairie church until they could 
build one of their own, which they did some 
years later; a good substantial building, and 
free of debt. This was the first building 
erected in Morea, and is still occupied by the 
congregation, though there is not one of the 
original thirty-eight now in connection with 
it. Soon after building the house the mem- 
bership increased to 120. A few families 
then in the northwest part of the congrega- 
tion obtained leave and formed a new church, 
and erected a building at Duncanville, where 
they have prospered, and for some years have 
had a settled pastor in Rev. Hugh MacHat- 
ton. In April 1877, after about sixteen years' 
service Rev. Alexander MacHatton resigned 
bis charge, and is now living on a farm near 
Morea. The next pastor was Rev. O. G. 
Brockett, in 1879, who remained until 1882, 
since which time the church has had no 
pastor. It has now about filty-five members 
and is in a flourishing condition. 

A Sunday-school is maintained, and was 
organized in 18G2, and since then it has con- 
tinued uninterruptedly. The attendance is 
about ninety children. 

The Green Hill Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized about 1850-55. Although the 
Methodists had lield meetings in the neigh- 
borhood ever since 1830 in log school-houses, 
and in the cabins of the early settlers, it was 



not until this time that an organization was 
effected. One Dr. J. R. Winn, who came 
here about 1837, made a will, in 1855, in 
which he donated land on which to build a 
church, and also gave $100 for the same pur- 
pose, on condition that the people would 
build it within a given time. A frame church 
■was erected, and the original members were 
twelve in number; at piesent there are but 
sixteen members. The first minister was 
Rev. Bruner. The church is in the same cir- 
cuit of Wesley chapel, and since its organi- 
zation has been administered to by the same 
preachers, except in 1878 and 1879, when 

they had their own minister, Rev. Mr. Hen- 
nessey. The present pastor is Rev. J. U. 
Reeder. The church was dedicated by Rev. 
C. J. Houts, presiding elder. A Sabbath- 
school, established in 1874, is maintained 
under the charge of the church, of which J. 
Landreth is superintendent. 

Another denomination, the Christians, have 
an organization here and hold their meetings 
in this church. It was organized by Rev. 
J. R. Wright, who is the present pastor. But 
other ministers have been with them at dif- 
ferent times. 




The formation 

"Time though old is swift in fliglit." 

THE unheeded lapse of time is the histo- 
rian's greatest enemy. The events of one 
day are so closely crowded by those of the 
next, and so much occupied are we with the 
aflFairs of the present, that almost unawares 
we fulfill the scriptural injunction: "Take no 
thought for the morrow." History is commonly 
defined to be a record of past events, but 
shall we wait till the events must be recalled 
by di'feclive memories before we record them? 
Th. !i W(' get no perfect history, for no mem- 
ory is infallible, and often lie who thinks him- 
self most sure is least to bo relied upon. In 
recording the annals of even so small a place 
as a single township, absolute justice can not 
be given, as many events of importance, to- 
gether with the actors who participated there- 
in have been forgotten through the lapse of 
time. The division of Crawford County, 
which forms the subject of this chapter, origi- 
nally embraced the present townships of 
Martin and Southwest, and included in all 
fiftv-six square miles of territory, with the 
followiiig boundaries: Oblong Township on 
the north, Robinson on the east, Lawrence 
and Richland counties on the south, and 
Jasper County on the west. 

A few years after township organization 
(1869), that portion lying south of the Em- 
barras was formed into a distinct division 
with the river for its northern boundary, and 

*ByG.N. Ben-y. 

named Southwest Township, 
of Southwest was brought about by petition 
signed by the citizens of that part of the 
country, and chief among the several reasons 
urged in favor of the division was the diffi- 
culty experienced Jn reaching the voting 
place on account of high water during cer- 
tain seasons of the year. The history of the 
tvv 1 townships, however, is identical, and in 
the pages which follow we speak of them 
both as one division. The tov\nship is well 
watered and drained by the Embarras river. 
Big Creek, Dogwood Branch, Honey Creek 
and their affluents which traverse the country 
in various directions. Embarras river, the 
principal stream of importance, flows between 
the two townships, crossing the western 
boundary in section 4, and passing a north 
easterly direction about four miles, and unites 
with Big Creek in section 8. From this point 
the channel deflects to the southwest, leaving 
the township from section 24 about one mile 
north of the southern boundary. The stream 
flows through a well wooded but somewhat 
flat country, and afi'ords the principal drain- 
age for the western and southern portions of 
the county. Big Creek, the second stream 
in size, flows a southerly direction, through 
the central part of the township, and passes 
in its course through sections 21, 22, 29 and 
32 of town G, and section 5 of town 5. Dog- 
wood Branch is the largest tributary, which 
it receives in section 29, in the northern part 
of the township. Honey Creek flows through 



a somewhat broken portion of country, lying 
in the eastern part of the township, and 
empties into the Embarras in section 13. 
The general surface of the township is what 
might be termed level with undulations of an 
irregular character in the southeastern part 
and along the streams enumerated. About 
three fourths of the area is woodland, the 
forest growth consisting principally of the 
different varieties of oak, hickory, ash, maple, 
with walnut, elm and sycamore skirting the 
creeks. When first settled the woods were 
almost entirely devoid of undergrowth, ow- 
ing to the prevalence of forest and prairie 
fires, which swept over the country in fall of 
each year. With the improvement of the 
land these fires ceased, and in woods which 
have not been disturbed a rank growth of 
"underbush" has sprung up, principally 
spice, pawpaw, grapevine, dogwood and 
many other varieties. The northeast corner 
of the township is occupied by an arm of the 
Grand Prairie, which embraces an area 
equivalent to about eight sections. The 
prairie presents a very level surface and af- 
fords many inducements to the stock-raiser, 
as the greater portion of it is much better 
adapted to pasturage than to general farming. 
The south end of Oblong Prairie extends into 
the northwest part of the township, while a 
strip of prairie land about five miles long 
and one mile wide extends along the southern 
boundary. The soil of the land lying remote 
from the water courses is a gray clay-loam 
mixed with gravel, while the low ground ad- 
jacent to the creeks possesses a deep black, 
mucky soil, rich in decayed vagetable matter 
and very fertile. Corn and wheat are the 
staple productions of the wooded portions of 
the country, while corn and grass are the 
leading crops raised on the prairies. Taken 
as a whole the township is not so well 
adapted to agriculture as the northern and 
eastern divisions of the county, but as a fruit 

growing country it stands second to no other 

The early settlement of Martin Township, 
like all portions of the county, is somewhat 
obscured, and we are left in a great measure to 
conjecture. It is thought, however, that one 
Daniel Martin was the first to make improve- 
ments, and it is certain that he made the first 
entry of land as early as the year 1830. He 
was a native of the State of Georgia, and 
left his childhood home some years prior 
to the dawn of the present century, and set- 
tled in Kentucky. He married in the latter 
State and eniigrated to Illinois about the 
year 1810, settling, with a number of others 
who accompanied him near the present site 
of Palestine. His journey to the new country 
was replete with many incidents, some of 
tliera of a decidedly unpletsant nature, for 
at that time the country was full of Indians, 
many of whom were inclined to be trouble- 
some. Martin packed his few household 
goods on one horse and his family on another 
and thus the trip through the wilderness was 
made in safety, though they were surrounded 
at different times by hostile redskins, and 
it was only through Martin's fiimness that 
the lives of the little company were 
spared to reach their destination. Upon 
his arrival at Palestine, Martin fi und himself 
in possession of sufficient means to purchase 
thirtv acres of land on which a previous set- 
tler had made a few rude improvements. 
During the Indian troubles he figured as a 
brave fighter and participated in many bloody 
hand-to-hand combats with the savages, whom 
he hated with all the intensity cf his strong 
ruffo-ed nature. Being a great hunter, he 
passed much of his time in the woods, and in 
one of his hunting tovirs he chanced to pass 
through the central part of this township, and 
being pleased with the appearance of the 
country he decided to make a locatirm here and 
secure a home. He was induced to take 



this step from two considerations: one for the 
purpose of securing mora land than he at 
that time possessed, and the other beini;r his 
desire to rid himself of society, for the usages 
and conventionalities of which he had the 
mo-t profound contempt. He sold his little 
farm to Joshua Crews in the year 1830, and 
from the proceeds was enabled to enter eighty 
acres of government land, which he did soon 
after, selecting for his home the east half of 
the southeast quarter of section Si, in town 
6 north, range 13 west. He immediately be- 
gan improving his land by erecting thereon 
a good log cabin twenty by eighteen feet, to 
which he moved his large family as soon as 
the building was raised and roofed. Mar- 
tin did but little work on the farm, leaving 
that labor to be performed by his daughters, 
of whom there were several buxom lasses 
who inherited their father's powerful physical 
strength in a marked degree. They opened 
the farm, did almost all the plowing, chopped 
wood and looked after the interests of the 
place in general, while the father's rifle 
kept the family well supplied with fresh 
meat. Upon one occasion while out hunting, 
he had a narrow escape from being shot, under 
the following circumstances: He and a com- 
panion, who was getting old and had defect- 
ive eyesight, started out one morning in 
quest of deer, Martin riding his favorite 
steed, "Old Ball." A fine buck was soon 
started to which the hunters gave chase. Mar- 
tin, who was an expert shot, directed his com- 
rade to circle round a certain piece of woods for 
the purpose of dislodging the deer, while he 
would remain stationary and drop it as it went 
by. The hunter followed the directions as 
well as he could, but being misled by his near- 
sightedness, soon got back near the spot 
where Martin was stationed. Seeing, as he 
supposed, the deer among the branches, and 
thinking to surprise Martin, he "drew bead" 
and fired. The surprise was complete both 

to Martin and himself, for no sooner was the 
gun discharged than Martin's voice broke the 
stillness in the following terse exclamation: 
" There, by the gods, poor Ball's gone." The 
horse had been shot dead. Martin lived on 
his place about thirtv-three years, and 
died in 1SG3 at the age of seventy-si.TC 
vears. Two daughters, Mrs. Shipman and 
Mrs. Thomas, are living in the township 
at the present time. The old homestead 
is owned and occupied by Esau Har- 
din. The next actual settler of whom we 
have any knowledge was Abel Prvor, who 
located near the village of Hardinsville in the 
year 1831. He was born in Kentucky and 
moved from that State to Illinois in an early 
day and settled near the Palestine fort. 
Here he became acquainted with a daughter 
of John Martin, between whom and himself 
a mutual attachment sprang up which soon 
terminated in matrimony. After his marriage 
Pryor moved to Coles County, where he lived 
about three years, when, becoming dissatis- 
fied with the country, he came to this town- 
ship and entered land in section 26, at the 
date mentioned. He possessed many of the 
characteristics of the successful business 
man, to which were added an almost inordi- 
nate love of out-door sports, especially hunt- 
ing, which continued to be his favorite 
amusement as long as he lived. He became 
the possessor of several tracts of valuable 
land, and raised a large family, consisting of 
sixteen children, a number of whom still 
reside in the township. Pryor died in the 
year 1875. A man by name of Huffman set- 
tled in the eastern part of the township about 
the same time that Pryor came to the country, 
but of him nothing is known save that he mad 
a few improvements on land which was entered 
by Absalom Higgins two years later. William 
Wilkinson settled near what is known as the 
Dark Bend on the Embarras River, in 1831, 
where he cleared a small farm. A short time 



after his arrival he married a daiicrhter of 
Daniel Martin, which is sa d to have been the 
first wedding that occurred in the township. 
He afterward entered land on the lower end of 
Oblong Prairie, where he resided until his 
death, which occurred about the year 18G3. 

Among other pioneers who secured homes 
in the township in 1831 was William Ship- 
man, who located near the site of Hardinsvilie 
village. Shipman was a native of Indiana 
and a man of considerable prominence in ihe 
community, having been noted for his indus- 
try and business tact. He entered land in 
section 34 a few years later and was one of 
the principal movers in the laying out of Har- 
dinsvilie. His marriage with Virginia, daugh- 
ter of Daniel Martin, about throe years after 
his arrival, was the second event of the kind 
that transpired in the township. In the year 
1833 the following persons and their families 
were added to the township's population: 
Hezekiah Martin, Zachariah Thomas and Absa- 
lom Hio-gins. The first-named was a nephew 
of Daniel Martin. He was a native of Kentucky 
and came with his uncle to Illinois, and lived 
until the year 1833 on a small farm near Pal- 
estine. The farm which he improved in this 
township lies in section 34, near HanlinsviUe. 
He lived here about five 3'ears, when he traded 
his place to EphraimKiger for a mill on Brushy 
Run in Honej- Creek Township, to which he 
moved in the year 1838. Higgins, to whom 
reference has already been made, settled in the 
eastern part of the township on land which had 
been improved by Hufi'man, whom he bought 
out. He immigrated to this State from Ken- 
tucky, and was, like man}^ of the early settlers 
of the county, a pioneer hunter of the most 
pronounced type. He kept a large number of 
dogs, with which he hunted wolves, and was 
instrumental, in a great measure, in ridding 
the county of these pests. On one occasion, 
while out hunting, his dogs brought a large 
panther to bay, but were afraid to attack it. 

Higgins encouraged tlie dogs for the purpose, 
he said, of "seiiing some fun," but was very 
soon sorry for what he did, when he saw two 
of his favorites bite the dust. At this junc- 
ture he thought it was time for him to act, so 
he took deliberate aim at the beast and fired. 
Instead of the shot taking effect on the pan- 
ther, it killed one of his dogs, as they were 
running around and barking at a fearful rate, 
another and another shot were fired, which 
only wounded the wild animal, and a fourth 
discharge laid out another of the dogs. Fi- 
nally, after discharging seventeen shots and 
killing three dogs, he succeeded in bringing 
the ferocious animal to the ground. Higgins 
was a resident of the township until the year 
1863, at which time he sold his possessions to 
Garrett Wilson and moved to Terre Haute, 
Indiana. Thomas was a Kentuckian, and 
made his first improvements' in section 34. 
But little canJbe said of him — at least in his 
favor, as he was not what one would call^ 
valuable acquisition to a community. Among 
the more prominent settlers of the township 
is remembered Thomas R. Boyd, who moved 
here from Palestine about the year 183(3 and 
located a short distance from Hardinsvilie. 
He was one of the early pioneers of tlie 
county, having moved from Kentucky to 
Palestine when the latter place^.was a mere 
hamlet of two or three houses. He was a 
prominent farmer, and one of the first stock- 
dealers in the township, at which business he 
accumulated considerable wealth. His death 
occurred in the year 1877. His widow and 
two daughters are residing in Martin at the 
present time. Samuel R. Boyd, a brother of 
the preceding', came out on a vssit from his 
native State about the year 1837, and being 
pleased with the country, he determined to 
locate here and make it his home, which 
decision was strengthened by the earnest so- 
licitation of his brother's family. He married, 
soon after his arrival, a young lady by name 



of Hiiskins, and inimediateiy went to work 
and soon had a fine farm under successful 
cultivation. He sold his farm to a man by 
name of Baker, in the year 1850, and moved 
to Fort .Jackson in the adjoining townsliip of 
Honey Creek. Other settlers came in from 
time to time, among whom were .John Gar- 
rard, Alfred Griswold, Benjamin Boyd, .John 
Thomas and Robert Boyd. Garrard improved 
a farm in section 23, on land which he ob- 
tained from the government in the year 1838. 
He was, like the majority of pioneers in this 
section of the county, a native of Kentucky, 
and raised the largest family in the township. 
He was the father of seventeen children, the 
majority of whom grew up to manhood and 
womanhood. Griswold entered a large tract 
of land in section 15, but did not improve it. 
Thomas was a son-in-law of Daniel Martin, 
and a man of but little consequence in the 
community. His distinguishing character- 
istic was a dislike for anything known as 
work, and his laz ness became proverbial 
throughout his entire neighborhood. Benja- 
min and Thomas Boyd were brothers of the 
Boyds already alluded to, and like them were 
men of eiiterijrise and character. Benjamin 
and Ezekiel Bogart, two brothers, came to 
the township in an early day and located at 
the Dark Bend near the central part of the 
township. They made but few Improve- 
ments; and if all reports concerning them are 
true, many acts of lawlessness were traced to 
their doors. A short time after their arrival 
William Wilkinson, Jackson Inlow, David 
lidow, .Jerry ^V'ilkinson, Ephraim Wilkinson, 
and Thomas Inlow, made their appearance 
and settled in the same locality. They were 
ail men of doubtful character, and their neigh- 
borhood became widely noted as a place of 
bad repute. 'Tis said, upon good authority, 
that the Bend was noted for years as the ren- 
dezvous of a gang of horse-thieves and out- 
laws who chose it as a secure refuge from the 

minions of the law. Many crimes of a much 
darker shade than stealing are said to have 
been committed among the somber recesses 
of the thick woods, and persons having occa- 
sion to pass through that locality alw?.3's went 
well armed. The following fatal termination 
of a deadly feud which existed between two 
brothers, Jack and Thomas Inlow, is related : 
It appears that both brothers became enam- 
ored of the same woman, a widovir of unsa- 
vorv reputation by name of May. A bitter 
jealousy soon sprang up, which was aug- 
mented by the woman, who encouraged the 
visits of both, and so bitter did this feeling 
become that threats of violence were openly 
made by the two desperate men. They both 
happened to meet at the "siren's" house one 
day and a terrible quarrel ensued, during 
which weapons were dra^w and freely used. 
In the fight which followed, Thomas was fa- 
tally shot, and died soon afterward. David 
was arrested and lodged in the Palestine jail. 
He was tried for murder, but was cleared on 
the ground of self-defense. The woman mar- 
ried again soon afterward, but was never heard 
to express a regret for the sad occurrence of 
which she was the cause. 

The following persons additional to the set- 
tlers already enumerated, made entries of 
land in the township prior to the year 18-10: 
Bethel Martin, in section 23; William B. 
Martin, section 22; Robert Goss, in section 
25; Benjamin Mvers, in section 30; and Fos- 
ter Donald, in section 22. The last named 
is the oldest settler in the township at the 
present time, having been identified with the 
country's growth and development since the 
year 1830. (See biography.) Jlrs. Donald 
relates that during the first summer of their 
residence in the township, her husband was 
absent the greater part of the time making 
brick at Palestine. In his absence she was 
left .alone, and in addition to her domestic 
duties, she was compelled to look after the. 



interests of the place, and many lonely nights 
were passed in the little cabin while the 
wolves chased around the house and scratched 
upon the door trying to get in. Probably in 
no other part of the county were the wolves 
as troublesome as in this township, and for a 
number of years the settlers found it very 
difficult to raise any stock on account of them. 
Their attacks were not always confined to cat- 
tle and sheep, as the following will go to prove : 
A Mr. Waldrop shot a deer upon one occa- 
sion, and dressed it in the woods; while in 
the act of hanging the meat on a limb, he 
was set upon by a pack of wolves and com- 
pelled to flee for his life. After devouring 
the part of the deer left on the ground the 
wolves followed up the trail of AValdrop, and 
soon overtook him. He shot two of his 
pursuers, but soon found himself in a death 
struggle with his fierce assailants. His cloth- 
ing was almost stripped from his body and 
a number of ugly wounds inflicted, when he 
gained a tree near by, which he ascended. 
He passed the long, cold night in his lofty 
perch listening to the wild howls of his gaunt 
enemies, and was not relieved until the fol- 
lowing morning. Many devices were resorted 
to by the settlers to rid the county of the 
wolves, the most popular of which was the 
Sunday hunts, when all the citizens for miles 
around would start at a given signal, and 
close in on a circle. This would bring the 
wolves close together when they could be 
easily shot. Another serious hindrance to 
the pioneer farmer was the numerous flocks 
of crows which infested the country. These 
birds destroyed almost entire fields of corn, 
and premiums were ofi"ered for their destruc- 
tion. Grain-fields had to be carefully watched, 
and when the field was very large, dogs were 
tied in difi'erent places to scare the birds 
away, while the man with his gun watched 
the other parts. 
The settlers obtained their flour and meal 

from the early mills at Palestine and Law- 
renceville, and in later years the little mill 
belonging to Joseph Wood in Oblong Town- 
ship was patronized. The first mil! in Martin 
was built by a Mr. York as early as the year 
1840 and stood on the Einbarras in the south- 
west part of the township. It was a water- 
mill with two run of buhrs, and for several 
years did a very good business. A saw was 
afterward attached, which proved a very pay- 
ing venture. York operated the mill a short 
time when he sold to Alexander Stewart who 
run it very successfully for about twenty 
years. A man by name of Williams then pur- 
chased it, and in turn sold to John Baker, who 
operated it but few years. It ceased opera- 
tions a number of years ago, when the dam 
washed out. The old building is still stand- 
ing a monument of days gone by. A steam 
flouring mill was erected at the little village 
of Freeport about the year 1848, but by whom 
was not learned. It was a good mill with 
two run of buhrs, and for a number of years 
was extensively patronized. The last owners 
were McNeiss and Sons. An early industry 
of the township was the Ruby distillery, which 
stood about two and a half miles east of the 
village of Hardinsville. It was erected in 
the year 1858 and ceased operations about 
the year 186'.J, the proprietor being unable to 
pay the large revenue demanded by the gov- 
ernment. It had a capacity of about one 
hundred gallons of whisky per day, and dur- 
ino- the years it was run before the war, did a 
very good business. But little can be said of 
the early churches of Martin, as the first set- 
tlers were not all religiously inclined. Sun- 
day was their gala day, and was generally 
spent in hunting, horse racing, or in athletic 
sports, such as jumping, wrestling, etc., favor- 
ite amusements during pioneer times. 

The first religious exercises were conducted 
by Elder Stephen Canady, a Baptist minister, 
at Daniel Martin's barn. This meeting had 



been announced several days previous, and 
when the hour for services arrived, the barn 
was partially filled with women and children. 
The men accompanied their families, but did 
not go into the sanctuary; at the close of the 
service, each stunly pioneer shouldered his 
gun which he always carried wi'.h him, and 
spent the remainder of the d ly in the woods, 
much to the minister's disgust. Jesse York, 
a Methodist preacher, living in Oblong Town- 
ship, organized a small class at the residence 
of Jacob Garrard about the year 1846. The 
original members of this class as far as known 
were Jacob Garrard and wife, Polly Garrard, 
Margaret Higgins, Caroline Donald, Lillis 
Peacock and wife, Samuel R. Boyd and wife, 
and John Haskins and wife. York preached 
several years and was a man of great zeal and 
piety. Dr. Hally, of Hebron, was an early 
preacher and did much towards building up 
the consregation. Garrard's residence was 
used as a meeting place until a school-house 
was erected in the neighborhood. Services 
were held in the school-house at stated inter- 
vals until the year 1881, when in conjunction 
■with the United Brethren, the church erected 
a very commodious temple of worship 
about two miles north of Hardinsville on 
ground donated by Foster Donald. The 
building is a frame structure with a seating 
capacity of about two hundred and fifty, and 
cost the sum of $300. 

The Hardinsville Christian church was 
organized about the year 1850 with a substan- 
tial membership. Services were conducted 
at the Hardinsville school-house until the year 
1858, when their present house of worship was 
erected. It was built principally by donation 
of work by the citizens of the vicinity and re- 
presents a capital of about S600. It is a 
frame house 30x40 feet and will comfortably 
seat two hundred persons. Among the pas- 
tors, and stated supplies of the church were 
Elder Morgan, Allan G. McNees, to whose 

efforts the society is indebted for much of its 
success. F. il. Shirk, Beard, Lock- 
hart, P. C. Cauble, Joan Crawford and Sala- 
thiel Lamb, the last named being pastor in 
charge at the present time. The present 
membership is about forty. A Methodist 
class was organized at Hardinsville a number 
of years ago, with a membership of about 
thirty; meetings were held in the school-house 
for some years, and efforts were made at one 
time to erect a house of worship. The house 
was never built, however, and the class was 
finally disbanded. A second class was 
organized at the same place in the year 
1883 by Rev. Dee. Aiiout twenty mem- 
bers belonged to this class and worship 
was regularly held at the school-house for 
one year. The old school-house was sold in 
the fall of 1881, and a new one erected, in 
which religious services were not allowed to 
be held. Since then there have been no reg- 
ular meetings of the society. At the present 
time efforts are being made to build a meeting 
house. The United Brethren have a good 
society which meets for worship in the new 
church north of Hardinsville, to which we 
have already alluded. The society is in a 
flourishing condition and numbers among its 
members some of the best citizens of the 

The Missionary Baptists have a society in 
the eastern part of the township, which is 
large and well attended. They have no 
house of worship but use a school-house for 
church purposes. 

The first school in the township was taught 
about the year 18-43, in a little hewed log 
house which stood a short distance south of 
Hardinsville. The name of the first teach- 
er and particulars concerning his school 
could not be learned. The house was moved 
to the village a short time afterward and 
was used for school and church purposes a 
great many years. The second achool-house 



■was built about four years later and stood on 
the Bethel Martin farm north of Hardinsville. 
It was a hewed log structure also, and was 
first used by William Cunningham in the 
■winter of 1846 and 1847. Cunningham's 
school was attended by about twenty pupils, 
and he is remembered as a very competent in- 
structor. Samuel Blakely and Miss Dee were 
early teachers at this place also. A third 
bouse was erected about two miles west of 
Hardinsville in the year 1850. It was built of 
plank, and was in constant use until 1882, when 
it was torn down and replaced by a more 
commodious frame structure. Another early 
school-house stood east of the village on 
land which belonged to a Mr. Dewcomer. 
It was built about the year 185(3 and was in 
use until 1880. At the present time there 
are ten good frame houses in the township, 
all of which are well furnished with ail the 
modern educational appliances. The schools 
are well supported and last from four to 
seven months in the year. 

The village of Hardinsville is situated in the 
southwestern part of the township in section 
34, and dates history from September, 1847. It 
was laid out by Daniel Martin, purely as a 
speculation venture, but the growth of the 
town never came up to bis expectations. 
"While the village plat was being surveyed 
Martin was interrogated by a by-stander as 
to what his intentions were in locating a town 
in such an out-of-the way place. The old 
man replied in his characteristic humor, 
"Why, by the gods, twenty years from this 
time will see a second St. Louis right on this 
spot or I am no true prophet." Will- 
iam Shipman erected a store building and 
engaged in the mercantile business about the 
time the village was laid out. He sold both 
bouse and goods to Charles Inman two years 
later who increased the stock and did a very 
good business for about three years when he 
closed out and moved from the place. 

Among the first business men of the 
village was one Daniel Miller, a rough char- 
acter, who kept a small grocerj^ and whisky 
shop which was the resort of all the desper- 
adoes of the country. This place became 
such an eyesore to the community that efforts 
were made to induce Miller to quit the 
whisky business and turn bis attention to 
other pursuits. To all these efforts, however, 
be turned a deaf ear, and instead of the "dive" 
becoming more civil it became worse and 
worse. At last the patience of the better 
class of citizens became exhausted, and as a 
dernier resort a keg of powder was placed 
under the building, after the carousers bad 
left, the charge was exploded, and the last 
seen of the saloon it was flying skyward in 
minute fragments. This had the desired 
effect, and no saloon was started in the town 
again for many years. A man by name of 
Rhodes was an early merchant and sold goods 
i 1 a little building which stood on the corner 
where Hicks' store now stands. John Hig- 
gins was an early merchant also; be occupied 
the building in which Inman's store was kept 
and continued in the business about two 
years. The Preston brothers came in about 
the year 1855, and erected a large business 
house on the corner of Market and Main 
streets, which they stocked with goods to the 
amount of §10,000. At one time they did as 
much, if not more business than anv other 
firm in the county, and accumulated consid 
erable wealth during their stay in the village. 
"Jack " Hasket succeeded them in the year 
1861, and continued the business until 1870, 
when be sold out to Miller & Paiker. The 
firm was afterward changed to Parker & 
Kid well and the store moved to the village 
of Oblong. At the present time there is but 
one store in the place. It is kept by G. B. 
Hicks in a large frame building which was 
erected by William F. Bottoms in the year 



The Hardinsville Lodge No. 75G A. F. & 

A. .\I. was organized October, 187S, with the 
lollovvinsf cliaiter members: William Dvar, 
Green B. Hicks, Robert E. Haskins, .John 
Mulvean, John M. Donnell, John E. Cullom, 
Fay K. Wallar, James Shipman, Mills Hughes, 
Joseph C. Hughes and Tliomas H. Haskins. 
The first officers were William Dj'ar, W. M; 
G. B. Hicks, S. W.; and Robert E. Haskins, 
J. W. The officers in charge at the present 
time are, John Mulvean, W. M.; John M. 
Donnell, S. W.; James Shipman, J. W.; G. 

B. Hicks, S. D.; Mills Hughes, Treas.; C. J. 
Price, Sect.; C. P. Carlton, J. D. Present 

membership about twelve. Meetings are 
held in hall over G. B. Hicks' store. 

In the year 1855 a small village was laid 
out in the western part of the township by 
Andrew Nichols, and named Freeport. For 
several years it was considered a very good 
trading point and supported two good stores, 
one mill and a blacksmith shop. These in 
time disappeared, and a general decay fast- 
ened itself upon the once promising town. 
At the present time nothing remains of the 
village save a few dismantled and dilapidated 



" The rank thistle nodded in the wind, and the 
wild fox dug his hole unscared." — Sprague. 

HONEY CREEK Township, though an 
early-settled portion of the county, has 
advanced very little in some directions 
and its citizens of to-day stand where 
their fathers stood fifty years or more 
ago, clinging with a wonderful tenacity 
to the relics of a bj'-gone period. Here we 
still find the primitive log cabin, together 
with many of those pioneer customs and 
habits, which the few old grandfathers and 
grandmothers yet living delight to dwell 

Much of the land in Honey Creek Town- 
ship is of a rather inferior quality, as com- 
pared to other of the county. It is mostly 
timbered land and a good deal of it seems to 
be a kind of oak flat with a light, thin soil. 
There is, however, some very good land in 
the township, but that of a poorer quality 
largely predominates. The original timber 
growth consisted of several kinds of oak, 
hickory, elm, gum, maple, walnut, etc., with 
a few other trees and shrubs indigenous to 
this section. The Embarras River just barely 
touches the southwest corner of the township, 
Honey Creek flows through the northwest 
corner, and Brush and Sugar Creeks through 
the southeast portion. These, with a few 
other smaller and nameless streams, constitute 
its system of natural drainage. Honey Creek 

* By W. H. Perrin. 

is bounded on the north by Robinson Town- 
ship, on the east by Montgomery Township, 
on the south by Lawrence County, and on 
the west by Martin and Southwest Townships. 
The Wabash railroad passes along the town- 
ship line, and has improved the country to 
some extent. Several villages have sprung 
up since the construction of the road, which 
have added their mile to the growth and 
prosperity of the surrounding country, but 
there still remains vast room lor improvement 
and enterprise. 

Before the war-whoop of the savage had 
died away, the pale-faced pioneers were com- 
ing into this portion of the county. The first 
white men who located here were John and 
Samuel Parker, in 181t>. They were genuine 
pioneers, and of that character of men who 
were fully able to cope with privation, and 
with danger in any form. John and George 
Parker, now living in this township, are de- 
scendants of these hardy old frontiersman. 
John and George Parker came to the town- 
ship in 1830, from Kentucky, and settled on 
the "range road," near the present village of 
Flat Rock. They are of the true pioneer 
stock, like their progenitors, and are scarcely 
alive to and up with the age of improvement 
in which they live. 

About the time John and George Parker 
came the settlement was further augmented 
by the arrival of the following families: The 
Seaney family, Seth and Levi Lee, Jesse and 
James Higgins, John Hart and Wm. Carter. 



These settlements were made about the time 
the land office was established at Palestine. 
After this there was quite a cessation in the 
arrival of emijvrants, and several years 
elap-^ed before vvc hear of any more new- 
comers to this immediate vicinity. 

Aaron Jones settled here about 183'2. He 
was originally from Vir<)-ini^ but settled in 
Buller County, Ohio, and ^Ifew years later 
came to this county. He died in 18G1, and 
his wife soon after followed him to the land 
of rest. Mr. Jones made his trip from Butler 
County, Ohio, with wagons and teams. The 
country was then very wild, and much of the 
distance was along Indian trails, and paths 
beaten down by hunters and emigrants, 
who had preceded him. Indianapolis was a 
strasfflinsr villaffe of a few rude cabins, and 
the country for miles and miles was without 
a single habitation. Robinson had not yet 
arisen from the hazel thickets and prairie 
grass, and the phase of the country generally 
was not inviting by any manner of means. 

The first land entered west of the range 
road — a road running from Mt. Carmel to Chi- 
cago, was entered b}' Asa Jones, a brother 
of Mr. J. M. Jones. About the time he 
made his entry, one .Tacob Blaythe wanted 
to enter a piece of land, and being unable 
to distinguish the corner, cut the num- 
ber of the land from a tree, and carried the 
block to the land-office at Palestine. Rich- 
ard Highsmith now living in Honey Creek 
assisted to build the fort at Russelville, and 
was one of the first who slept in it after its 

Another early settler was Leonard Simons. 
He came from Tennessee, and located first at 
Palestine, in the days when the people found 
it conducive to longevity to live in forts. Af- 
terward he settled in this township. He 
died in the county aliout 1875, at an ad- 
vanced age. Samuel Bussard came originally 
from Maryland, but stopped for a time in 

Ohio, and came from the Buckeye State to 
this county, and settled where his son now 
lives. He raised a large family of children, 
and died some tvrenty-five years ago. Peter 
Kendall, from Kentucky, settled where John 
Parker now lives. He moved away some 
years ago. Robert Terrill, also from Ken- 
tucky, settled in IS-tS, and lives now in Flat 
Rock. There were many other pioneers who 
deserve a place in these pages, perhaps, but 
we failed to obtain their names. 

Wolves, panthers, wild-cats, deer, etc., etc., 
were here in the most plentiful profusion 
when the first settlements were made. The 
rifle of the pioneer supplied his larder with 
meat, but bread was not so easily obtained. 
Wolves and other ravenuous beasts rendered 
the rearing of hogs and sheep a very uncer- 
tain business for a number of years — in fact, 
until the country was somewhat rid of the 
troublesome animals. Milling is usually a 
serious task to the early settler in a \^ld 
country, and in the settlement of Honey 
Creek, the people went to Palestine and other 
places until they had mills built in their own 
neighborhood. The first roads were merely 
trails through the forest. These were cut 
out and improved as population increased 
and demanded more and better highways. 

Silas Tyler, of this township, is the oldest 
freemason in the county, or perhaps in the 
State. He was initiated in the ancient and 
honorable fraternity in 1818, in the State of 
New York, being at the time 22 j'ears of age. 
He afterward served as master of the lodge 
in which he took his degrees. Mr. Tyler, 
though not as early a settler of the township 
as some others, is certainly as early a mason. 
He was in his masonic prime at the time of 
the Morgan excitement, and remembers 
something of that stormy period to the fra- 

Of the first school-house in Honey Creek 
township, and the fi'-st teacher, but little was 



learned. The first sc}iools here, as in other 
parts of the county, were tauc^ht in any cabin 
which mioht happen to be vacant. The first 
school-houses were built of logs, after the 
regular pioneer pattern, and the first teachers 
■were as primitive as the buildings in which 
they wielded their brief authority. The 
townsiiip is now very well supplied with 
temples of learning, in which good schools 
are taught for the usual term each year. 

Relio-ious meetings were held in the 
pioneer settlements of this section, almost as 
early as the settlements were made. The 
first meetings of which we have any reliable 
account were held in the old Lamotte school- 
house, and the first sermon in the township is 
supposed to have been preached by Elder 
Daniel Parker, of whom reference has been 
made in preceding chapters, and who was 
of the "Hardshell" Baptist persuasion. He 
was one of the early ministers, not only of 
thia but of the surrounding counties, and 
■was considered a powerful preacher in his 
day. It is told of him, that he would never 
accept pecuniary compensation for his minis- 
terial labors, but deemed it his duty to preach 
salvation to a " lost and ruined world," with- 
out money and without price. In this he 
differed from his clerical brethren of the 
present day. Mr. Seaney relates the follow- 
inn- incident of one of Elder Parker's meet- 
ings: Mr. Seaney started out one Sunday 
morning to look for some calves that had 
strayed away from him, when upon nearing 
a church or school-house, he encountered a 
group of young men, barefooted, dressed in 
leather breeches and tow-linen shirts. They 
were patiently awaiting the arrival of the 
minister, and whiling away the time in " cast- 
ing sheep's eyes " at a bevy of young ladies 
who had just arrived upon the scene, gor- 
geous in "sun-bonnets and barefooted." This 
seems on a par with the costume of the Geor- 
gia major, which, we are told, consisted of a 

paper collar and a pair of spurs, but whether 
this was the extent of the young ladies' ward- 
robe or not we can not say, but no other ar- 
ticles of wearing apparel were mentioned. 
The preacher finally made his appearance, 
clad, not like John the Forerunner, with "a 
leathern girdle about his loins," but in a full 
suit of leather. He walked straight into the 
house, and as he'flid so he hauled off his old 
leather coat and threw it upon the floor. 
Then after singing a hime and making a 
prayer, he straightened himself, and for two 
mortal hours he poured hot shot into " the 
wor Id, the flesh and the devil." John Parken 
a brother of Daniel Parker, was a preacher 
of the same denomination, and used to hold 
forth among the early settlers in their cabins, 
and at a Ifiter date in the school-houses. 
Thomas Kennedy, well known as one of the 
early county officers, was also a pioneer Bap- 
tist preacher. 

Bethel Presbyterian Church was organizsd 
m 1853, by Rev. Joseph Butler. Among the 
early members were A. D. Delzell, Mrs. M. 
E. Delz 11, Wm. Delz-11, Mrs. M. J. Delzell, 
L. B. Delzell, John Duncan and Mrs. S. M. 
Duncan. Rev. Butler visited them a few 
times and then left the society to die, which 
it lost but little time in doing. Some of the 
members united with the church at Palestine 
and some aided in founding the church at 
Beckwith prairie a few years later. 

Beckwith Prairie Presbyterian Church was 
oro-anized bv Revs. E. Howell and Allen Mc- 
Farland, and Elder Finley Paul, with twenty- 
eifht members, mostly from Old Bethel church 
above described. The first elders were James 
Richey, Samuel J. Gould and Wm. Delzell. 
The ministers, since its organization, have 
been Revs. A. McFarland, J. C. Thornton, 
Aaron Thompson, Thos. Spencer and John E. 
Carson. The house of worship, a neat white 
frame, was erected in 1859, at a cost of §1,:300, 
and stands on the southeast quarter of section 



23, one mile from Duncanville, in a southwest 

Good Hope Biiptist Church was organized 
in a very early day. Anioni); the earlj- mem- 
bers were George Parker, Hiram Jones, Sam- 
son Taylor and wile, W. F. Allen, Wm. Croy, 
S. Goff and Wm. Carter. The first church 
was a log building, erected .about 1848. The 
present church is a handsome frame recently 
completed, and the membership is in a flour- 
ishing condition, and numliers about eighty, 
under the pastorate of Elder John L. Cox. 
A good Sunday-school is carried on, of which 
Hiram Jones is the present superintendent. 

The Methodist Episcopal church at Flat 
Rock was built about the year 1871. They 
had previously held meetings a half mile south 
of the village near James Shaw's. We failed 
to receive full particulars of this church. 

The United Brethren church at New He- 
bron was built in 1855-56 by individual sub- 
scription. Rev. Mr. Jackson was among the 
first ministers. Before the erection of the 
church, meetings were held in the school- 
houses throughout the neighborhood, and 
were participated in by all denominations — 
the Methodists at that time being the most 
numerous. Samuel Bussard and the Gear 
family were among the early members of the 
church. A Methodist Episcopal church was 
organized here about the time the buildino- 
was erected, but the exact date was not ob- 
tained. From this it will be seen that the 
people of Honey Creek Township have never 
lacked for church privileges. If they are not 
religious, it is certainly their own fault, and 
they can blame none but themselves for any 
shortcoming charged to their account. 

Villaffes. — The township can boast of 
several villages, but all of them are rather 
small, and have sprung up mostly since the 
building of the railroad. Hebron, or New 
Hebron, as it is now called, is an exception. 
It was laid out in July, 1840, by Nelson Haw- 

ley, and is located on section 31 of township 
6 north, range 12 west, or Honey Creek Town- 
ship, and was surveyed and platted by Wm. 
B. Baker, the official surveyor of the county. 
The land was entered by Dr. Hawley in 1839 
and the year following he laid out the town. 
He practiced medicine in the neighborhood 
until 1850, or thereabout, when he opened a 
store in Hebron, the first effort at merchan- 
dizing in the place. He was from Ohio, and 
was a local preacher, as well as a physician, 
and administered to the soul's comforts as well 
as to the body's infirmities. After establish- 
ing a store at Hebron, he ceased the practice 
of medicine except in cases of emergency, 
when he was found always ready to lend his 
assistance in relieving suffering humanity. 
He eventually moved to OIney, where he de- 
voted his time wholly to the ministry. He 
was the first postmaster at Hebron, as well 
as the first merchant and phvsician. 

Leonard Cullom opened a store in the old 
Hawley building after Hawley had moved to 
Olney. Cullom came to the county when a 
boy and lived for a time in old Fort Lamotte. 
He remained in business in Hebron but a 
short time, when he moved his goods back to 
Palestine. A man named Newton was the 
next merchant, and about ISGO John Haley 
opened a store. He has been in business 
here ever since. He keeps both the hotel and 
store, and is also the present postmaster. 

The first house in New Hebron was built 
by Thomas Swearingen. A tread-wheel mill 
was built by Dr. Hawley at an early day, most 
probably the first mill in the township. It 
was afterward converted into a steam-mill; a 
saw-mill now forms a part of it. The boards 
for the original mill were all sawed out with 
whip-saws. Hezekiah Bussard was the first 
blacksmith; Wm. Gates was the next, and J. 
S. Bussard and S. H. Preston now follow the 
same business. 

A school-house, the first built in Hebron. 



■was erected about the year 1S4"2, and has long 
since passed away. It was constructed of 
logs and was used for all purposes. A brick 
school-house was built to take its place, about 
1858, situated in the south part of the town. 
It is also gone, and the neat frame was 
built about ten years ago. 

The village of Flat Rock was laid out April 
20, 1876, by J. W. Jones. It is the old town 
of Flat Rock somewhat modified, and moved 
to the railroad. It is situated on the east 
half of the southeast quarter of section 6, 
township 5 north, range 11 west, and was sur- 
veyed by John Waterhouse for the proprie- 
tor. The first merchant was J. W. Jones, who 
kept a grocery store and sold whisky. He 
commenced business in a small way, and has 
been very successful. In 1876 he built a 
large store-house, fronting the railroad, where 
he still does a prosperous business. S. P. 
Duff was the second merchant, and started a 
store soon after the railroad was built. To 
sum up his history as it was given to us — he 
eloped with a neighbor's wife, and his store 
was closed out by creditors. I. Golf next 
started a dry goods store, but did not continue 
long in the business, when he closed out and 
rented his store-house to J. W. Jones. Dr. 
A. L. Malone established the next store, but 
after operating ic a short time removed his 
stock to Palestine. 

A drug store was established in Flat Rock 
by Dr. H. Jenner and S. R. Ford. James 
Kirker had started a drug store sometime 
previously, and sold out to Jenner and Ford, 
who continued about eighteen months, when 
they sold out to Bristow & Barton ; the 
latter sold to A. W. Duncan who still carries 
on the business. Other lines of business have 
been opened, and Flat Rock is jus ly con- 
sidered one of the best trading points in the 
county. A masonic lodge has been organized 
in the village, but of its history we failed to 
learn any particulars. 

Duncansville is located on the northeast 
quarter of the northwest quarter of section 
24, township 6 north, range 12 west, and was 
laid out September 6, 1876, for R. N. Dun- 
can, the owner of the land. Its existence may 
be accredited to the building of the railroad, 
as its birth has been subsequent to the com- 
pletion of the road. The first store was kept 
by T. L. Nichols. He was succeeded by A. 
S. Maxwell, who is still merchandizing in the 
place, and doing a thriving business. A saw- 
mill, with a shop or two, and a few resi- 
dences constitute all there is of the town. 

Port Jackson is situated on the Embarras 
river about ten miles south of Robinson. It 
was laid out May 22, 1853, by Samuel Hanes, 
and years ago, was a place of some impor- 
tance, a point from whence shipping by flat- 
boats on the Embarras River was carried on 
to a considerable extent. Hanes built a mill 
here and opened a store, and did a rather 
lucrative business for several years. A dis- 
tillery was built and operated until the be- 
ginning of the war. Hanes finally moved 
away, and the town went down. The build- 
insr of the railroad, and the laying out of 
other towns, has buried Port Jackson beyond 
the hope of resurrection. 

Parting IVoi'ds. — This brings us to the 
close of the first part of this volume, the con- 
clusion of the history of Crawford County. 

" How dull it is to pause, to make an end, 
To rust unburnished, not to shine in use ! 
As though to breathe were life." 

The writer has appeared in the roll of his- 
torian to this community probably for the last 
time. The task of rescuing from oblivion the 
annals of the county, and of preserving on 
record the deeds of the pioneers who have 
made it what it is, though an onerous, has 
been a pleasant one, as well from a love of 
the work, as that he once considered himself 
a part — though a very small one — of the 
county. That he has been permitted to dis- 




charge this duty affords him no little satis- 
faction. While the work may be somewhat 
imperfect in minor details, it is believed to be, 
on the whole, substantially correct. And now 
that it is fitiished, the writer strikes hands 
with the old pioneers, with whom his stay has 
been so pleasant, and with his many friends 
throughout the county, with a kind of mourn- 
ful and melancholy pleasure, conscious that 

their next meeting will be beyond the beauti- 
ful river, for the pioneers still left, who con- 
stituted the advance guard — the forlorn hope 
of civilization in the Wabash Valley, must 
pass to that " bourne whence no traveler 
returns." It is not probable, then, that we shall 
meet again, and the writer with many kind 
remembrances of the people of Crawford 
County, bids them — farewell. 

PART 11. 




" Ye mouklering relics of departed years, 
Your names have perished; not a trace remains," etc. 

CLARK County, originally, was diversified 
between woodland and prairie. It is situ- 
ated on the eastern border of the State, and is 
bounded on the north by Edgar and Coles 
Counties, on the east by the Indiana line and 
tlie Wabash River, on the south by Crawford, 
and on the west by Cumberland and Coles 
Counties. It contains ten full and eight frac- 
tional townships, making a total area of about 
five hundred and thirteen square miles. The 
surface of the country in the western portion 
of the county is generally rolling, though 
some of the prairies are rather Hat. The 
eastern portion is much more broken, especial- 
ly in the vicinity of the Wabash bluffs, where 
it becomes quite hilly and is often broken into 
steep ridges along the courses of the small 
streams. The general level of the surface of 
the highlands above the railroad at Terre 

* The succeeding' chapters on the county at large, 
have been written and prepared by Hamilton Sutton, 
Esq., for this volume. — Ed.] 

Haute, which is a few feet above the level of 
high water in the Wabash, is from one hun- 
dred and twenty-five to one hundred and 
fifty feet. The principal streams in the west- 
ern part of the county are North Fork (of the 
Embarras) which flows from north to south, 
and empties in the Embarras River in the 
eastern part of .lasper County; and Hurricane 
Creek, which rises in the south part of Edgar 
County, and after a general course of south 
twenty degrees east, discharges its waters into 
the Wabash River near the southeast corner of 
the county. In the eastern part of the county, 
Big Creek, and two or three of less note, after 
a general southeast course in this county, 
empty into the Wabash River. The North 
Fork, throughout nearly its whole course, runs 
through a broad, flat valley, affording no ex- 
posures of the underlying rocks, and the bluffs 
on either side are composed of drift clays, and 
rise from thirty to fifty feet or more above the 
valley, and at several points where wells have 
been sunk, these clays and underlying quick- 
sands are found to extend to an equal depth 
beneath the bed of the stream. The creeks 



ill the eastern portion of the county are 
skirted by bluffs of rock throup,-h some por- 
tion of their courses, and afford a better 
opportunit}' for determining the geological 
structure of the county. 

Geology.* — The quarternary system is 
represented in this county by the alluvial 
deposits of the river and creek valleys, the 
Loess of the Wabash bluffs, the gravelly clays 
and hard-pan of the true drift, and the under- 
lying stratified sands that are sometimes 
found immediately above the bed rock. The 
drift deposits proper vary in thickness from 
twenty to seventy-five feet or more, the upper 
portion being usually a yellow gravelly clay 
with local beds or pockets of sand. The 
lower division is mainly composed of a bluish- 
eray hard-pan, exceedingly tough and hard to 
penetrate, usually impervious to water, and 
from thirty to fifty feet in thickness. This is 
underlaid by a few feet of sand, from which 
an abundant supply of water can be had 
when it can not be found at a higher level. 
A common method of obtaining water on the 
highlands of this county, where a sufficient 
supply is not found in the upper portion of 
the drift, is to sink a well into the hard-pan, 
and then bore through that deposit to the 
quicksand below, where an unfailing sup|)ly is 
usually obtained. Bowlders of granite, sye- 
nite, trap, )orphyry, quartzite, etc., many of 
them of large size, are abundant in the drift 
deposits of this county, and nuggets of native 
copper and galena are occasionally met with, 
having been transported along with the more 
massive bowlders, by the floating ice, which 
seems to have been the main transporting 
agency of our drift deposits. 

Coal 3feasures. — All the rocks found in this 
county belong to the Coal Measures, and 
include all the beds from the limestone lies 
about ?5 feet above Coal No. 7, to the sand- 

* State geological sm-vey. 

stone above the Quarry Creek limestone, and 
possibly Coal No. 14 of the general section. 
These beds are all above the main workable 
coals, and although they include a total thick- 
ness of about 400 feet, and the horizon of five 
or six coal seams, yet none of them have been 
found in this county more than from twelve 
to eighteen inches in thickness. In the north- 
west part of the county several borings were 
made for oil during the oil excitement, some 
of which were reported to be over 000 feet in 
depth; but as no accurate record^ seems to 
have been kept, the expenditure resulted in 
no general benefit further than to determine 
that no deposits of oil of any value existed in 
the vicinity at the depth penetrated. The 
following record of the "old well," or "T. R. 
Young Well," was furnished to Prof. Cox by 
Mr. Lindsey : Soil and drift clay, 23 feet; 
hard-pan, .30 feet; sandstone, 20 feet; mud- 
stone, 20 feet; coal and bituminous shale, 3 
feet; sandstone, 23 feet; coal, 1 foot; sand- 
stone, 5 feet; clay shale — soapstone, so-called, 
23 feet; blackshale, 9 feet; sandstone, 12 feet; 
coal, 1 foot; sandstone, 90 feet; mudstone, 2 
feet; hard-rock, 1 foot; sandstone, 52 feet. 
The upper part of this boring corresponds 
very well with our general section, except in 
the absence of the Quarry Creek limestone, 
which should have been found where they 
report 20 feet of " mud-stone," but whatever 
that may have been, it seems hardly probable 
that such a terra would be used to designate 
a hard and tolerably pure limestone. This 
well was tubed with gas-pipe for some eight 
or ten feet above the surface, and water, gas, 
and about half a gallon of oil, per day, were 
discharged. All the wells, so far as I could 
learn, discharged water at the surface, show- 
inn- that artesian water could be readily 
obtained here, but it was all more or less 
impregnated with mineral matters and oil, 
sufficient to render it unfit for. common use. 



TliG 900-i'oot well must have been carried 
quite through the Coal Measures, and if an 
accurate journal had been kept, the int'orma- 
tion it would have afforded would have been 
of great value to the people of this as well as 
of the adjacent counties. It would have gone 
far toward settling the question as to the 
number and thickness of the workable coals 
for all this portion of the State and the depth 
at which they could be reached from certain 
specified horizons, as, for instance, from the 
base of the Quarry Creek or Livingston lime- 
stones, or from either one of their coals of the 
upper measures that were passed through in 
this boring. As it is, the expenditure was 
an utter waste of capital, except in so far as 
it may have taught those directly engaged in 
the operation the folly of boring for oil where 
there was no reasonable expectation of find- 
ing it in quantities sufficient to justify such 
an expenditure of time and money. 

The beds forming the upper part of the 
general section in this county are exposed on 
Quarry Creek south of Casey and one mile 
and a half east of Martinsville, on the upper 
course of Hurricane Creek, and the Blackburn 
branch southeast of Parker prairie. At the 
quarry a mile and a half east of Martinsville, 
the limestone is heavy-Iiedded, and has been 
extensively quarried for bridge abutments, 
culverts, etc., on the old National Road. The 
bed is not fully exposed here, and seems to 
be somewhat thinner than at Quarry Creek, 
where it probably attains its maximum thick- 
ness, but thins out both to the northeast and 
southwest from that point. The upper part 
of the bed is generally quite massive, afford- 
ing beds two feet or more in thickness, while 
the lower beds are thinner, and at the base it 
becomes shaly, and locally passes into a green 
clay with thin plates and nodules of limestone. 
These shaly layers afford many fine fossils in 
a very perfect state of preservation, though 
they are neither as numerous nor as well pre- 

served here as at the outcrops of this lime- 
stone in Edgar County. Possibly the appar- 
ent thinning out of this limestone to the 
northward in this county may be due to sur- 
face erosion, as we nowhere saw the overlay- 
ing sandstone in situ, and Prof. Bradley gives 
the thickness of this bed in Edgar County as 
above 25 feet, which does not indicate a very 
decided diminution of its thickness in a north- 
easterly direction. Below this limestone, in 
the vicinity of Martinsville, there are partial 
outcrops of shale and thin-bedded sandstone, 
with a thin coal, probably No. 4 of the pre- 
ceding section, and southwest of the town 
and about three-quarters of a mile from it 
there is a partial outcrop of the lower portion 
of the limestone in the bluff on the east side 
of the North Fork valley, where we obtained 
numerous fossils belonging to this horizon. 
West and northwest of Martinsville no rocks 
are exposed in the bluffs of the creek for stmu 
distance, but higher up partial outcrops of a 
sandstone, probably overlaying the Quairy 
Creek limestone may be found. 

At Quarrj' Creek, about a mile and a half 
south of Casey, on section 28, township 10, 
range 14, this limestone appears in full force, 
and has been extensively quarried, both for 
building stone and the manufacture of quick- 
lime. It is here a mottled-gray, compact 
limestone, locally brecciated, and partiy in 
regular beds from six inches to two feet or 
more in thickness. At least 25 to 30 feet of 
limestone is exposed here, and as the overly- 
ing sandstone is not seen, its aggregate thick- 
ness may be even more than the above esti- 
mate. At its base the limestone becomes 
thin-bedded and shaly, passing into a green- 
ish calcareous shale with thin plates and nod- 
ules of limestone abounding in the character- 
istic fossils of this horizon. At one point of 
this creek a bed of green shale about two feet 
in thickness was found intercalated in the 
limestone. A large amount of this stone was 



quarried here for lime, for macadamizing ma- 
terial and for bridge abutments on tne old 
National Road, and this locality still furnisiies 
the needed supply of lime and building stone 
for all the surrounding country. At the base 
of the limestone here there is a partial ex- 
posure of bituminous shale and a thin coal, 
probably representing the horizon of Xo. 4 
of the preceding section, below which some 
ten or twelve feet of sandy shale was seen. 

On Hurricane branch, commencing on sec- 
tion 14, township 10, range 13,. and extending 
down the creek for a iistance of two miles or 
more, tiiere are continuous outcrops of sand- 
stone and sandy shales — No. 12 of the county 
section. The upper portion is shaly with 
some thin-bedded sandstone, passing down- 
ward into a massive, partly concretionary 
sandstone that forms bold cliffs along the 
banks of the stream from twenty to thirty 
feet in height. At the base of this sandstone 
there is a band of pebbly conglomerate from 
one to three feet in thickness, containing 
fragments of fossil wood in a partially car- 
bonized condition, and mineral charcoal. The 
regularly bedded layers of this sandstone have 
been extensively quarried on this creek for 
the construction of culverts and bridge abut- 
ments in this vicinity, and the rock is found 
to harden on exposure, and proves to be a 
valuable stone for such uses. Some of tjie 
layers are of the proper thickness for flag- 
stone, and from their even bedding can be 
readily quarried of the required size and 
thickness. This sandstone is underlaid \)y 
an argillaceous shale, and a black slate which, 
where first observed, was only two or three 
inches thick, but gradually increased down 
stream to a thickness of about fifteen inches. 
The blue shale above it contains concretions 
of argillaceous limestone with numerous fos- 
sils, which indicate the horizon of No. 13 
coal, and in Lawrence, White and Wabash 
Counties we find -a well-defined coal seam as- 

sociated with a similar shale containing the 
same group of fossils, but possibly belonging 
to a somewhat lower horizon. 

The limestone on Joe's Fork are the equiv- 
alents of the Livingstone limestone, and 
they pass below the bed of the creek about a 
mile above the old mill. The sandstone 
overlaying the upper limestone here, when 
evenly bedded, is quarried for building stone, 
and affords a very good and durable material 
of this kind for common* use. At the mouth 
of Joe's Fork the lower limestone is partly 
below the creek bed, the upp?r four feet only 
being visible, and above it we find clay shale 
two feet, coal ten inches, shale five to six feet, 
succeeded by the upper limestone which is here 
only three or four feet thick. The upper 
limestone at the outcrop here is thinly and 
unevenl}' bedded and weathers to a rusty 
brown color. The lower limestone is more 
heavily bedded, but splits to fragments on 
exposure to frost and moisture. It is of a 
mottled gray color when freshly broken, Init 
weathers to a yellowish-brown. Fossils were 
not abundant in either bed, but the lower 
afforded a few specimens oiAthyris iSubtilita, 
a coral like JlcUophyllum, Froductus costa- 
tus and Terehratula boindens. At Mr. 
Spangier's place, on Section Vi in Melrose 
Township, a hard brittle, gray limestone out- 
crops on a branch of Mill Creek. The bed is 
about eight feet in thickness, and is under- 
laid by a few feet of partly bituminous shale 
and a thin coal from six to eight inches thick. 

The upper bed of limestone (No. 18 of the 
County Section), is traversed by veins of cal- 
cite and brown ferruginous streaks, that give 
the rock a mottled appearance when freshly 
broken. The upper layer of the lower bed is 
about thirty inches thick, and is a tough, com- 
pact, gray rock, that breaks with an even 
surface and has a slightly granular or semi- 
volitic appearance. The lower part of this 
bed is a mottled gray fine-grained limestone 



and breaks with a more or less conchoidal 
fracture. The upper division of this limestone 
thins out entirely about a mile above the 
bridge, and passes into a green shale like that 
by which the limestones are separated. The 
tumbling masses of limestone that are found 
in the hill-tops above the railroad bridge, no 
doubt belong to the Quarry Creek bed, which 
is found in partial outcrops not more than 
half a mile back from the creek, and from 
eighty to ninety feet above its level. The in- 
tervening sandstones and shales which separate 
these limestones in the northeastern part of 
the county are much thinner than where they 
outcrop on Hurricane and Mill Creeks in the 
southern portion indicating a general thinning 
out of the strata below the Quarry Creek bed 
to the northward. 

The coal SPam at Murphy's place, near the 
mouth of Ashmore Creek, on Section 20,T. 11, 
R. 10, averages about eighteen inches in thick- 
ness and affords a coal of fair quality. Trac- 
ing the bluff northeastwardly from this point 
the beds rise rapidly, and about half a mile 
from Murphy's there is about thirty feet of 
drab-colored shales exposed beneath the lime- 
stone which is here found well up in the hill. 
At the foot of the bluff on Clear Creek, near 
the State line, a mottled brown and gray 
limestone four to five feet in thickness is 
found, underlaid by ten or twelve feet of vari- 
egated shales which are the lowest beds seen 
in the county. Extensive quarries were 
opened in this limestone to supply material 
for building the old National Road, and in the 
debris of these old quarries were obtained 
numerous fossils from the marly layers tiirown 
off in stripping the solid limestone beds that 
lay below. The limestone is a tough, fine- 
grained, mottled, brown and gray rock, in 
tolerably heavy beds, which makes an excel- 
lent macadamizing material, and also affords 
a durable stone for culverts, bridge abutments 

and foundation walls. From what has already 
been stated it will be inferred that there is no 
great amount of coal accessible in this county, 
except by deep mining. In the thin seams 
outcropping at Murphy's place, near the Wa- 
bash River, and at Mr. Howe's and Mrs. 
Brant's, southeast of Casey, the coal varies in 
thickness from a foot to eighteen inches, and 
though of a fair quality the beds are too thin 
to justify working them except by stripping 
the seams along their outcrop in the creek 
valleys. The coal at Murphy's place has a 
good roof of bituminous shale and limestone, 
and could be worked successfully by the ordi- 
nary method of tunnelling if it should be 
found to thicken anywhere to twenty-four or 
thirty inches. The higher seams found at the 
localities above named, southeast of Casey, 
are thinner than at Mr. Murphy's, though one 
or both of the upper ones are said to have a 
local thickness of eighteen inches. There is 
no good reason to believe that the main work- 
able seams that are found outcropping in the 
adjacent portions of Indiana, should not be 
found by shafting down to their proper horizon 
in this county, notwithstanding the reported 
results of the oii-well borings in the north- 
western portion of the county. 

The writer specially requested Mr. David 
Baughman to furnish him with particulars of 
an artesian well sunk on his place in 1873-74 
In reply he received the following in substance 
from Mr. Baughman: The well was sunk to a 
depth of 1,211 feet, and showed the following 
section: At a depth of 110 feet coal was 
reached, four and three quarter feet thick; two 
feet of fine clay was found underlying it. At 
the depth of 144 feet, a vein of coal tbi-ee feet 
thick was found; and at the depth of 230 feet a 
vein of coal over seven feet in thickness was 
found, specimens of which, Mr. Baughman in- 
forms us, he has on hand, subject to the inspec- 
tion of any who may wish to examine them. If 



there is no mistake in the reported section of 
this well, there are veins of coal to be found 
in that locality at a depth to justify their 
being profital)lj^ worked. 

Building Utone. — Clark County is well 
supplied with both freestone and limestone 
suitable for all ordinary building purposes. 
The sandstone bed on Hurricane Creek, 
southeast of Martinsville, is partly an 
even-bedded freestone, that works freely 
and hardens on exposure and is a reliable 
stone for all ordinary uses. The abut- 
ments of the bridge over the North Fork on 
the o;d National Road were constructed of 
this sandstone, which is still sound, although 
more than thirty years have passed away since 
thev were built. The sandstone bed overlying 
the limestone at the old Anderson mill below 
the mouth of Joe's Fork, also affords a good 
building stone, as well as material for grind- 
stones, and the evenlj'-bedded sandstone 
higher up on Joe's Fork, which overlies the 
green shales, is of a similar character, and af- 
fords an excellent building stone. Each of 
the three limestones in this county furnishes an 
excellent macadamizing material, and the 
Quarry Creek limestone, as well as the beds 
near Livingston, furnish dimension stone and 
material for foundation walls of good quality. 
A fair quality of quicklime is made from both 
the limestones above named, and on Quarry 
Creek the kilns are kept in constant operation 
to supply the demands for this article in the 
adjacent region. 

An excellent article of white claj', suitable 
for pottery or fire-brick, was found in the 
shaft near Marshall, about eighty to eighty- 
five feet below the Livingston limestone and 
about fifty feet above the coal in the bottom 
of the shaft, which was probably the same coal 
found at Murphj-'s. This bed of clay would 
]>robubly be found outcropping in the Wabash 
bluffs, not far below Murphy's place. 

Soil and Timber. — The soil i~ generally a 

chocolate-colored sandy loam, where the sur- 
face is rolling, but darker colored on the flat 
prairies, and more mucky, from the large per 
cent of humus which it contains. The prai- 
ries are generally of small size, and the county 
is well timbered with the following varieties: 
White oak, red oak, black oak, pine oak, 
water oak, shell-bark and pig-nut hickory, 
beech, poplar, black and white walnut, white 
and sugar maple, slippery and red elm, hack- 
berry, linden, quaking ash, wild cherry, honey 
locust, red birch, sassafras, pecan, coffee-nut, 
black gum, white and blue ash, log- wood, red- 
bud, sycamore, cotton wood, buckeye, per- 
simmon, willow, etc. The bottom lands along 
the small streams, and the broken lands in the 
vicinity of the Wabash bluffs, sustain a very 
heavy growth of timber, and fine groves are 
also found skirting all the smaller streams 
and dotting the upland in the prairie region. 
As an agricultural region this county ranks 
among the best on the eastern border of the 
State, producing annually fine crops of corn, 
wheat, oats, grass, and all the fruits and 
veo-etables usually grown in this climate. 
Market facilities are abundantly supplied by 
the Wabash River, the Vandalia, Wabash 
and other railroads passing through the 
county, furnishing an easy communication 
with St. Louis on the west, or the cities of 
Terre Haute and Indianapolis on the east, and 
Chicago on the north. Notwithstanding the 
fine character of the soil and lands of the 
county, much of the land has been almost 
worn thread-bare by constant cultivation, no 
rest, and no manuring or fertilizing. By 
proper means it may be improved, and re- 
stored to its original quality and strength. 

In addition to the indications of coal, the 
county contains mineral wealth to some ex- 
tent, though perhaps not in sufficient quanti- 
ties to justify mining. ' At one time it was 
believed that silver existed here in consider- 
able quantities, and the excitement occasioned 



thereby was, for a time, intense. The people 
nearly went wild, and lands supposed to be 
impregnated with silver were held at fabulous 
prices. But the most critical examination 
by experts showed that while silver actually 
existed in many places, it was in such a lim- 
ited way as to be wholly unremuncrative to 
even attempt to do anything toward mining. 
Further particulars of the silver excitement 
will be given in the township chapters. 

JI/oMwrfs.— Clark County abounds in mounds, 
relics of that lost race of people of whom 
nothing is definitely known. These mounds, 
the origin of which is lost in the mists of re- 
mote antiquity, and of which not even tradi- 
tionary accounts remain, number about thirty 
in this county, and extend along the Wabash 
river, and at the edge of the prairie from near 
Darwin to below York, thence into Crawford 
county. They are of different sizes and shape, 
and some of them of considerable extent, rang- 
ing from ten to sixty feet in diameter, and 
from two to fifteen feet high. In early times 
they were much higher, having been worn and 
cut down by the cultivation of the land; in- 
deed, some of them are almost if not entirely 
obliterated, while all, at least, have been more 
or less reduced in altitude. The largest is on 
the land of James Lanhead, near York, and 
one and a fourth miles from the river. This 
mound has been explored, and from its depths 
were taken stone hatchets, fragments of 
earthenware, arrow-heads, flints, etc. Sev- 
eral others have been opened of late years, 
with much the same results. 

[It has been pretty definitely settled by 
pre-historic writers, that these mounds were 
actually built by a race of people, and 
■were of different kinds, viz.: temple mounds; 
mounds of defense; burial mounds; sacrifi- 
cial mounds, etc., etc. See Part I of 
this work. — Ed.] The countless hands that 
erected them; the long succession of genera- 
tions that once inhabited the adjacent coun- 

try, animating them with their labors, their 
hunting and wars, their songs and dances, 
have long since passed away. Oblivion has 
drawn her impenetrable veil over their whole 
history; no lettered page, no sculptured mon- 
ument informs us who they were, whence they 
came, or the period of their existence. In 
vain has science sought to penetrate the gloom 
and solve the problem locked in the breast of 
the voiceless past, but every theory advanced, 
every reason assigned, ends where it began, 
in speculation. 

" Ye moklering relics of departed years, 
Your names have perished; not a trace remains, 

Save where the grass-grown mound its summit rears 
From the green bosom of your native plains — 
Say, do your spirits wear oblivion's chains? 

Did death forever quench your hopes and fears?" 

The antiquities of Clark County are similar 
to other portions of the State. Indian graves 
are not uncommon, especially in the vicinity 
of the mounds above described. Fragments 
of bones, and in one or two instances whole 
skeletons in a remarkable state of preserva- 
tion have been found. Near Rock Hill church, 
on Union Prairie, in the year 1850, Jonathan 
Hogue, while digging a cellar and some post- 
holes, discovered three stone-walled graves 
within a radius of a hundred feet, and about 
two feet beneath the surface, each containing 
the perfect skeleton of an adult person in a 
silting posture facing the sunrise. Flints, 
arrow-heads, etc., were also found in these 
graves. In other instances graves have been 
found, where the length from head to foot did 
not exceed four feet, and yet contained a 
skeleton of full stature. This, at first, gave 
rise to the belief that the skeletons of a race 
of pigmies had been discovered. But a more 
careful examination of the position of the 
bones showed that the leg and thigh bones 
laid parallel, and that the corpse had been 
buried with the knees bent in that position. 




In natural advantages Clark County is in- 
ferior to none of her sister counties. She has 
her Dolson and Parlcer Prairies, ar.ible and 
productive; her Rich woods, which are all the 
name implies; her Walnut and Union Prai- 
ries, the garden spots of Illinois. She lias her 
river and creek bottoms, receiving their allu- 
vial deposits from the annual overflows, ren- 
dering them inexhaustible in fertility. She 
'las her barrens, capable of producing almost 
any product grown in this latitude. Has her 
hill country, that only awaits the sinking of 
tiie shaft and the light of the miner's lamp to 
reveal coal-beds of exceeding richness. Sil- 
ver, too, has already been found in small 
quantities, at the mine already opened in Wa- 
bash township, by enterprising citizens, and 
there is no foretelling the possibilities. Pe- 
troleum exists in many parts of the county, 
and yet flows from the Young well, in Parker 
township. Capita! will, at no distant future, 
explore the hidden depths, and compel it to 
become an important factor in the wealth and 
commerce of the county. 

As a county, she is admirably adapted to 
the growth of all products peculiar to an ex- 
cellent soil in this latitude. Corn grows lux- 
uriantly, and yields abundantly; the various 
esculents attain perfection, and as a wheat 
and grass county, ranks among the foremost 
in the State. There is no portion of it but 
what is well adapted to the growth of large 
fruits, and within her limits are some very fine 
orchards. Small fruits, of all varieties com- 
mon to the climate, seem indigenous to our 
soil, and with little care and attention return 
bounteous yields. 

Stock raising is one of her great resources, 
and can be prosecuted with large profits. It 
is an industry that has rapidly increased since 
the advent of railroads, and ono that is attract- 
ing attention and capital. And large areas of 
land, where once the craviffish raised his hill- 
ock, and the frog and the turtle held sway, 

now sustain herds of cattle and flocks of 

The health of the county isinferior to none. 
With the exception of chills ane fever along 
the miasmatic river and creek bottoms, there 
is but little sickness. Our county being a 
pleteau exceeding in elevation any adjoining 
counties, the atmosphere is naturally purer 
and more salubrious, and as a consequence, 
ths mortality among our people, in proportion 
to population, is as little as any county in the 
State. We have the purest water to be found 
anywhere. Living springs gush out in 
countless places, and nature's pure and whole- 
some beverage can be found anywhere for 
the digging. Our railroad advantages are 
first-class, abundantly able to accommodate 
all the wants of commerce. We have supe- 
rior educational facilities, the efficiency of 
our school system being evidenced on every 
side; and the corps of teachers throughout 
the county, far above the average. Our peo- 
ple, as a class, are tetnperate, law abiding and 
industrious; and religious denominations with 
large followings flourish in country and town. 

Clark is capable of supporting a dense pop- 
ulation, and offers superior inducements to 
immigrants of all kinds. The farmer in 
search of a home, can purchase lands, im- 
proved or unimproved, at reasonable rates; 
the artisan can find employment for his skill, 
the laborer find employment, the professional 
man find business. There is room for ail. 

Although Clark -si as one of the pioneer 
counties of the Wabash Valley, and although 
one of her towns at one time rivaled Terre 
Haute, yet she was among the last to receive 
within her territory one of those mighty arter- 
ies of commerce, a railroad. 

For two decades or more her condition was 
that of inaction and stagnation. Owing to 
various disappointments in regard to the 
building of railroads through the county, men 
of skill and enterprise, as well as capital, left 



her to seek elsewhere locations more conge- 
nial and better adapted to active business 
pursuits. This centrifugal influence came 
very near depleting the countj' of the best 
part of her population. They went to places 
where the transportation facilities were equal 
to the wants of the people, and where years 
of their lives would not be spent in listless 

She sat supinely by, after the failure and 
disappointment in her railroad projects, and 
saw the rushing trains speed across the do- 
mains of hersister counties, by far her juniors. 
Saw their uninterrupted course of prosperity; 
saw their lands rise rapidly in value — saw 
the smoke of their factories — heard the dull 
thunder of their mills. Saw them in the 
front rank of advancement, marching to tlie 
grand music of progress. Saw them double, 
even treble, her in wealth. 

But things were changed as by some ma- 
gician's power. When the first shriek of the 
locomotive awoke the echoes of her hills, and 
the rumble of the trains rolled across her 
prairies, old Clark arose, Phcenix like, from 
the ashes of her sloth, and like a young giant, 
shook off the lethargy that bound her; took 
up the line of march toward prosperity, and 
made gigantic strides toward the position she 
should occupy in modern progress. She was 
infused with new life, and capital and enter- 
prise were attracted to her borders. 

Her advancement has been almost phe- 

nomenal, and has far exceeded the anticipa- 
tions of the most sanguine. Inaction gave 
way to energy, and lethargy to enterprise. 
Emigrants poured in, land and lots increased 
in value; farms were opened in every section, 
and industry flourished beyond precedent. 
Towns and villages sprang up as if by magic. 
Tidy farm-houses, neat and tasty school-hous- 
es, and churches, those surest indexes of 
prosperity and culture, and mighty promoters 
of all that is good, dotted the prairies and 
nestled in the uplands. Every department of 
business received an impetus powerful and 
lasting, and the trades flourished as they had 
never before. She entered upon an era of 
unprecedented prosperity. Improvements 
were visible on every hand. Where once sol- 
itude reigned, the hum and smoke of the 
mills fret and darken the air. Her future is 
indeed bright. She is grid-ironed with rail- 
roads and sieved with telegraphs, and the 
products of her fields reach an hundred marts. 
And when her immense agricultural and min- 
eral resources are fully developed, old Clark 
will occupy a proud position in the galaxy of 
counties that compose this mighty State. To- 
day, Clark stands side bj' side with her sister 
counties of the Wabash Valley, in agriculture 
and all its kindred associations. It on !y needs 
the active energy of her citizens to place her 
in the van, advancing as the years advance, 
until the goal of her ambition is reached. 



" Great nature spoke; oliservant men obey'd; 
Cities were built, societies were made: 
Here rose a little State; another near 
Grew by like means, and join'u through love or 
fear." — Pope. 

IT has been said, that civilization is a 
forced condition of existence, to which 
man is stimulated by a desire to gratify arti- 
ficial wants. And again, it has been written 
by a gifted, but gloomy misanthrope, that "As 
soon as you thrust the plowshare under the 
earth, it teems with worms and useless weeds. 
It increases population to an unnatural extent 
— creates the necessity of penal enactments — 
builds the jails — erects the gallows — spreads 
over the human face a mask of deception and 
selfishness — and substitutes villainy, love of 
wealth and power, in the place of the single- 
minded honesty, the hospitality and the honor 
of the natural state." These arguments are 
erroneous, and are substantiated neither by 
history or observation. Civilization tends to 
the advancement and elevation of man; Lifts 
him from savagery and barbarism, to refine- 
ment and intelligence. It inspires him with 
higher and holier thoughts — loftier ambitions, 
and its ultimate objects are his moral and 
physical happiness. But as every positive of 
good has its negative of evil, so enlightened 
society has its sombre side — its wickedness 
anil iminoralities. 

The pioneer is civilization's forlorn hope. 
Without him, limited would be its dominions. 
He it is who forsakes all the comforts and 
surroundings of civilized life — all that makes 
existence enjoyable; abandons his early home, 
bids adieu to parents, sisters and brothers, 
and turns his face toward the vast illimitable 
West. With iron nerve.s and lion hearts, these 
unsung heroes plunge into the gloomy wilder- 
ness, exposed to perils and disease in a thou- 
sand different forms, and after years of in- 
credible toils and privations they subdue the 
forest, and thus prepare the way for those 
who follow. 

"Who were the first settlers of Clark 
County? " is a question most difficult to satis- 
factorily answer. There is considerable di- 
versitjr of opinion among our oldest living citi- 
zens as to the first pioneers. There is a 
story extant that the first white inhabitant of 
Clark, as its territory is now defined, was a 
man who shot and killed his brother at Vin- 
cennes, in 1810; he escaped in a canoe and 
paddled up the Wabash, landing near the 
present Chenoweth ferry, and lived a wild, 
semi-savage life, a fugitive from justice. It 
is said he was seen by one or more of the 
settlers who came years later, and that the 
Indians asserted the fact of his existence, and 
tiiat he was the first wliite inhabitant of the 



county. There is nothing corroborative of 
this stor}', find we niaj' regard it as one of the 
many traditions of the past. 

As early as 1812, Fort Lamotte, on the site 
of Palestine, was built, and the nearest settle- 
ment, except Vincennes, was Fort Harrison» 
near Terre Haute. A family named Hutson, 
however, located about five miles north of 
Palestine, where they were massacred by the 
Indians, and their buildings destroyed. As 
the savages were troublesome and hostile 
during the war of 1813, it is hardly probable 
that there were any settlements in Clark prior 
to its close, though it has been strenuously 
asserted that settlements were made in the 
county as early as 1814. From the roost reli- 
able information obtainable, the first perma- 
nent settlers were the Handys; Thomas, and 
his sons John and Stephen. They came from 
Post St. Vincent, near Vincennes, to Union 
Prairie, in the spring of 1815; broke ground 
planted and raised a crop of corn, erected cab- 
ins, and in the fall ensuing, removed their fam- 
ilies hither. Thomas, the father, settled on the 
farm now occupied by James Harrison; John, 
where West Union stands, and Stephen, on 
the farm occupied by Mrs. Sophronia Brooks. 
The late Thomas Handy, son of John, once 
prominent and well known among our people, 
is said to have been the first white child born 
in Clark County. This is disputed by some 
of the oldest living settlers, who assert posi- 
tively, that Scott Hogue and Isabel Handy, 
born within a few hours of each other, saw the 
light of day prior to Thomas. 

In the year following, there were signs of 
Indian hostilities and the Handys erected 
a fort or stockade on the hill, one half 
mile south of West Union, called it " Fort 
Handy," and removed their families there 
for security. The well dug within the work, 
and which furnished the water supply for the 
dwellers, could be seen a few years ago. 
This fort, the only structure of the kind ever 

built in the county, was situated on the pres- 
ent farm of James Harrison. It was not a 
very formidable or extensive work of defense, 
and was built out of abundant caution by the 
settlers. It contained two or three cabins 
for the accommodation of the families, and 
was surrounded liy a bullet-proof palisade, 
pierced with loop-holes at convenient dis- 
tances. The same year (181G) other families 
came, among whom were the Hogues, the 
Millers, Bells, Megeath, Prevo, Blaze, Crow, 
Leonard, the Richardsons and Fitchs, who 
all settled on Union Prairie, the two last 
named founding the town of York in 1817. 
The first house erected there, a log dwelling, 
was built by Chester Fitch. James Gill, yet 
living and residing in Cumberland County, 
aided in its erection. Henry Harrison set- 
tled in the timber, immediately west of Un- 
ion, in 1818. The Bartletts located near him 
about the same time. 

Walnut Prairie, just north of Union, and 
separated from it by Mill Creek and a nar- 
row strip of timber, was settled in 1817 by 
the Archers, Neely, McClure, Welch, Chen- 
oweth, Dunlap, Blake, Shaw, Poorman, Staf- 
ford, Lockard, Essery and a few others. Mr. 
Essery afterward entered land on Big Creek, 
two miles northeast of where Marshall now 
stands, and opened what is known as the 
" Cork farm," where he died at an advanced 
age. Reuben Crow for a few years culti- 
vated cotton on Union Prairie, with some suc- 
cess, and erected, perhaps, the first cotton- 
gin north of the Ohio River. The experi- 
ment of raising cotton was tried with fair 
results, some years later, on Walnut Prairies. 
The soil of these two prairies seems admira- 
bly adapted to the culture of cotton, but the 
climate is too irregular to render its produc- 
tion remunerative. 

About the year 1823 a settlement was 
commenced at the head of Parker Prairie. 
Among these early inhabitants were the fam- 



ilies of Parker, Coiinely, Bean, Newport (a 
noted Baptist preacher), Biggs, Iiee, Duncan) 
Dawson, Briscoe, Bennett, Redman, Evin" 
gor and otliors. On Big Creek there were 
some new settlers: the Mains, Forsythe, Mc- 
Clure, and David Reynolds, an aged and re- 
spected pioneer yet living. But it is unnec- 
essary to follow the subject farther, as an 
extended notice of the early settlements and 
settlers will be given in the respective ciiap- 
ters devoted to each township. 

The cabins of the early settlers were rude, 
but secure. Thev were generally built of 
large logs and constructed with an eye to 
safety and defense; for the Indians were nu- 
merous, and at times threatened hostilities. 
Mrs. Justin Harlan relates that the cabin 
constructed by her father, David Hogue, and 
situated on the present farm of M. C. Dol- 
son, near York, was a Gibralter of primitive 
architecture. The logs composing the walls 
were massive and heavy, and pierced with 
loop-holes commanding every approa^ h. The 
roof was so constructed as to be almost fire- 
proof, while the door was a ponderous affair 
of slabs, and secured by fastenings that 
would have resisted the efforts of a giant. 
James Gill, then a boy of fourteen, says that 
in company with seven men he assisted in 
the construction of a cabin near the present 
town of York, in 1816, and during its build- 
ing one of the men killed a deer and hung it 
in a tree near by. During the night, the loud 
barking of the dogs, and the snorting and 
plunging of the horses, aroused the settlers 
and the dread whisper went around — " In- 
dians!" They arose in silence — each man 
grasped his trusty rifle and manned his allot- 
ted loop-hole. Skirmishers were thrown out 
with the utmost caution and strict guard was 
kept until broad da3\ No signs of Indians 
were discovered, and they concluded that it 
was some wild beast, attracted by the scent 

of blood from the slain deer, that had caused 
the alarm. 

The privations endured by the early settlers 
were such as none but stout hearts would dare 
to encounter. Nothing but the hopeful in- 
spiration of manifest destiny urged them to 
persevere in bringing under the dominion of 
civilized man what was before them, a howling 
wilderness. These sturdy sons of toil, pio- 
neers in the early civilization of Clark County, 
mostly hailed from the States of New York, 
Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina, and a few 
from South Carolina. They were exceptions, 
to a great degree, of the accepted rule, 
"that immigrants on settling in a new coun- 
try, usually travel on the same parallel as 
that of the home they left." 

The fashions were few and simple, com- 
pared with the gaudy and costly paraphernalia 
of the present time. Comfort and freedom 
were always consulted. The principal articles 
for clothing were of home manufacture, such 
as linsej'-woolsey, jeans, tow-linen, etc. The 
world was not laid under tribute as now, to 
furnish the thousand mysteries of a lady's 
toilet — mysteries that like the ways of Prov- 
idence, are past finding out, at least bv the 
sterner sex. Powders and lotions, and dan- 
gerous cosmetics by which the modern belle 
borrows the transient beauty of the present, 
and repays with premature homeliness, were 
unknown to her frontier ancestors, whose 
cheeks were rosy with the ruddy glow of 
health — painted by wholesome exercise and 
labor. Shoes and slippers of kid and morocco,' 
with high and villainous heels, were not then 
worn. The beauty and symmetry of the fe- 
male form was not distorted and misshapen 
by tight lacing. The brave women of those 
daj-s knew nothing of ruffles, curls, switches 
or bustles; had not even dreamed of those 
fearful and wonderful structures of the pres- 
ent, called " boiuiets." Instead of the organ 



or piano, before -which sits the modern miss, 
torturing selections from the majestic operits(!) 
they had to handle the distaff and shuttle, 
accompanying the droning wheel or rattling 
loom with the simple and plaintive melodies 
of the olden time, contented with their lin- 
sey clothing — their roughly made shoes, and 
a sun-bonnet of coarse linen. Proud and 
happy was she, and the envy of her less for- 
tunate sisters, who was the possessor of a cal- 
ico dress, brought from Cincinnati or far off 
Orleans. An estimable old lad}', now living, 
informed the writer, that the first shoes, other 
than of home manufacture, that she ever pos- 
sessed, were of the heaviest calf-skin; and so 
careful and jealous was she of them, that 
many a time she carried her shoes and stock- 
ings in her hand to within a hundred yards of 
the place of meeting, to keep from soiling or 
wearing them out. And this she repeated on 
her way homeward, even if escorted by some 
rustic gallant. The costume of the men was 
as simple and primitive. The " wamns " was 
almost universally worn. This was a kind of 
loose frock, reaching to the waist, open before, 
with large sleeves and cape, the latter some- 
times fringed by raveling and attaching a 
piece of cloth different in hue to the garment. 
The " wamus " resembled an army^ overcoat 
of the present day, with the tail cut off. 
Breeches and leggings furnished the cover- 
ing of the thighs and legs. Home-made shoes 
or moccasins supplied him with footgear, and 
the skin of the raccoon made him hat or cap, 
though not a few of the men dressed in full 
suits of buckskin. 

The pursuits of the early settlers were 
chiefly agricultural. Fort Harrison and Vin- 
cennes were their nearest trading points. 
However, a Pennsylvanian, naire'l.Iohn Wise, 
brought a small assortment of goods to York, 
in 1818, the first ever in the county. He was 
the pioneer merchant of Clark, and is yet 
living in Vincennes. The two first named 

were the principal points, where they bartered 
for the few necessaries which could not be 
produced or manufactured at home. There 
were no cooking stoves and ranges, and the 
thousand culinary apparatuses of to-day were 
unknown among the early settlers. Broad 
was generally baked in what was called 
" Dutch ovens;" though frequently on aboiird 
before the fire, and often in the ashes. Among 
the poorer classes, the "corn dodger" was 
tiie only bread. It is related that a wearied 
traveler stopped at one of these humble 
cabins to rest and refresh himself and jaded 
horse. In his saddle-bags he had a few of 
those old-time, yellow, adamantine indigesti- 
bles — saleratus biscuit, and by accident 
dropped one upon the hearth. He was absent 
a few moments, and upon returning, the eldest 
boy had covered the wheaten bowlder with 
live coals, saying to the surrounding tow- 
heads, " I'll make him stick his head out and 
crawl," mistaking the biscuit for some new 
species of terrapin. Tea, coffee and sugar 
were rarely used, except on the visit of the 
preacher, or some other equally momentous 
occasion. The fare was plain, substantial 
and healthj'. The richlj- flavored, highly sea- 
soned, dyspepsia-promoting food of to-day, is 
the invention of a later civilization. There 
were no friction matches, their place being 
supplied by the flint and steel. In nearlv 
every family, the chunk, like the sacred fires 
of the Aztecs, was never allowed to expire. 
In the genial spring-time, the prudent house- 
wife, in making her soap, always stirred it 
" widdershins " that is, from east to west, 
with the course of the sun. To stir the reverse 
of this, was to destroy all the cleansing qual- 
ities of the soap. 

The people were quick and ingenious to 
supply by invention, and with their own 
hands, the lack of mechanics and artificers. 
Each settler, as a general rule, built his own 
house — made his own plows, harrows and har- 



r.ess. The cultivation of the soil was con- 
ducted after the most approved fashion of 
primitive times. The plows, with wooden 
mold-board, turned the sod; the harrow, with 
wooden teeth, prepared it for planting. The 
harness was often made of ropes, sometimes 
with the bark of trees. The collars were of 
straw. Corn was the principal crop; very 
little wheat was produced, and was seldom 
sown on Walnut or Union prairies, or along 
the river and creek bottoms, for more than a 
quarter of a century afier the formation of 
the county. For the soil of these sections 
was thought to be wholly inadapted to its 
growth. It is only of late years that wheat 
has become the staple crop on the prairies 
and bottom lands. The ]>ioneer also made 
his furniture, and other indispensable articles. 
And considering his few tools, and the entire 
absence of all machinery, many of these were 
models of skill and workmanship. Their 
carts and wagons, however, were ponderous 
affairs, made wholly without iron, the wheels 
often consisting of cuts from six to eight 
inches in thickness, sawed from the end of a 
large log:. A hole was made in the center for 
the insertion of the spindle. Into the axle 
the huge tongue was inserted. The bed was 
fastened to the axle, and extended about an 
equal distance before and aft; the front end 
was secured to the tongue. Soft soap was 
substituted lor tar, to facilitate the movement 
of the vehicle. Dr. Williams, of Casey, relates 
that when a boy, he once accompanied his 
father to a horse-mill, in one of these old-time 
carts. It was in the winter, and they were 
delayed about their grinding, and did not get 
started home until the evening of the second 
(ay. Darkness overtook them, and to render 
matters worse, their lubricating supply gave 
out. The lumbering and creaking of their 
juggernaut could be heard a mile or more, 
and soon aroused all the wolves in four town- 
ships. At first they were timid, and kept 

well behind; but as they proceeded, became 
bolder, and the gloomy woods resounding 
with their dolorous howls were only equaled 
by the horrible noise of the wagon. The 
snarling and growling pack kept clos- 
ing in, until their fiery eyeballs could be 
seen, and their panting be heard. His father 
would drop one occasionally with his rifle, 
which would temporarily check the pursuit, 
but it was only after a desperately contested 
struggle that they escaped being devoured. 

That indispensable article, salt, was at first 
wagoned from Cincinnati to Vincennes, or 
floated down the Ohio and keel-boated up the 
Wabash. The more prosperous of a neigh- 
borhood, who could purchase two or three 
bushels at a time, soon found it a profitable 
investment, for they doled it out to their less 
fortunate neighbors, at largely increased 
price, and were as careful in the weight and 
measurement as if each grain were gold. 
In after years, the Vermillion County salines 
rendered salt more abundant and less difficult 
to obtain. 

From 1S19 to IS'23 immigration to Clark 
County, and in fact to the Wabash Valley, 
almost ceased, on account of their unhealth- 
iness. The principal diseases were bilious 
and intermittent fevers. These fevers took 
their most malignant character in the bottom 
lands bordering large streams, especially the 
AVabash. There, in the rich black loam, 
formed from the alluvial deposits of the 
spring floods, and of great depth, vegetation 
luxuriated in almost tropical profusion. Im- 
mense quantities were produced, the decay 
of which generated vast volumes of miasma. 
The high bluffs which usually border these 
teeming lands, covered with dense woods, 
prevented the circulation of the purer air 
from the uplands, and left all the causes of 
disease to take their most concentrated forms 
among the unfortunate settlers of these dis- 
mal solitudes. Here, at fated periods, these 



disorders, or " Wabash chills," as they were 
termed, found their most numerous victims. 
Some seasons they Ijecame epidemic — a pes- 
tilence, almost — prostrating the entire com- 
munity. The inhabitants of the adjacent 
prairies were by no means exempt from these 
plagueful visitations which seemed indiaje- 
nous to the soil. From the sluggish sloughs 
that penetrated these districts arose the dis- 
ease-burdened malaria, which tainted the air 
and left its imprint in the sallow complexions 
and emaciated forms of the people. By rea- 
son of these ailments the crops frequently suf- 
fered sadly for want of proper cultivation and 
care, often entailing suffering and destitution 
the ensuing winter. Physicians were few, and 
the victims of those distressing plagues sel- 
dom received any medical attention or reme- 
dies. Every family was its own doctor, and 
roots and herbs supplied, though illy, the place 
of quinine and the more powerful cures and 
preventatives of the present. As the coun- 
try was opened up and reduced to cultiva- 
tion, and the people became acclimated, 
these fevers became less prevalent, and lost 
in some degree their virulence. 

According to the first county census taken 
by Silas Hoskins, of Aurora, in 1820, there 
were nine hundred and thirty whites and 
one slave, thus indicating: that the blisrhtino- 
curse of human slavery once desecrated 
Clark County. In this connection a brief 
mention of a few of the provisions of the 
" Black Laws," as they were called, enacted 
by our first Legislature, and which disgraced 
our statute books for twenty-five years, may 
not prove uninteresting. There were com- 
paratively few negroes in our county during 
the existence of these laws, the highest num- 
ber being thirty-eight. Under this code, 
immigrants to the State were allowed to 
bring their negroes with them; and such of 
the slaves as were of lawful age to consent, 
could go before the clerk of the county and 

voluntarily sign an indenture to serve their 
masters for a term of years, and could be 
held to the performance of their contracts; 
if they refused, their master could remove 
them from the State within sixty days. The 
children of such slaves were taken before an 
officer and regiit?red, and were bound to 
serve their masters until thirty-two 3-ears of 
age. Such slaves were called indentured and 
registered servants, and were annually taxed 
by the county authorities, the same as horses 
and cattle. No -negro or mulatto could re- 
side in the State, until he had produced a cer- 
tificate of freedom, and given bond with se- 
curity for good behavior, and not to become 
a county charge. The children of such free 
negroes were registered. Every person of 
color, not having a certificate of freedom, was 
deemed a runaway slave; was taken up, 
jailed by a justice, advertised and sold for 
one year by the sheriff; if not claimed in that 
time, was considered free, though his master 
might reclaim him any time thereafter. Any 
slave or servant found ten miles from home, 
without a pass from his master, was punished 
with thirty-five lashes. The owner of any 
dwelling could cause to be given to any ser- 
vant entering the same, or adjoining grounds, 
ten stripes upon his bare back. Any person 
permitting slaves or servants to assemble for 
dancing, night or day, was fined twenty dol- 
lars; and it was made the duty of every 
peace officer to commit such an assemblage 
to jail, and order each one whipped, not ex- 
ceeding thirty-nine lashes on the bare back. 
In all cases where free persons were punish- 
able with fine, servants were corrected by 
whipping, at the rate of twenty lashes for 
every eight dollars' fine. The object of these 
laws was to prevent free negro immigration, 
and to discourage runaway slaves from coming 
to Illinois to become free. But for what pur- 
pose such rigorous punishments were meted 
to slaves and servants, for such trifling of- 


^^ {^^At^^^ — 



feiises, when their paucity of numbers pre- 
cluded all danger of seditions and insurrec- 
tions, can only be conjectured. 

The most exciting and memorable cam- 
paign that ever marked the history of the 
Slate, occurred in the years 182.3-4. It grew 
out of a proposition of the pro-slavery party, 
which had a majority in both branches of the 
Legislature, to call a convention, subject to a 
vote of the people, to frame a constitution 
recognizing slavery in Illinois, in utter defi- 
ance to the ordinance of 1787, by which 
slavery was prohibited in the Northwest ter- 
ritorv. The campaign began in the spring 
of 1823, and lasted until August 2, 1824. It 
was the longest contest ever in the State or 
count}-; a contest angiy and bitter, and char- 
acterized by torrents of personal detraction 
and abuse. The excitement extended even 
to the ministry. The Baptists and Method- 
ists were the prevailing denominations, and 
were, almost to a man, opposed to a conven- 
tion and slavery. And the old preachers, in 
outbursts of rude and fiery eloquence, and in 
language so fierce and caustic as to ill be- 
come the armor bearers of the lowly Nazarine, 
fired the hearts of their flocks against the 
"divine institution," and painted slavery in 
all its hideousness. Governor Coles was the 
leader of the anti-slavery movement, and his 
trenchant reasoning portrayed all the iniquity 
and deformity of slavery. The anti-slavery 
party was victorious by a majority of over 
two thousand, and forever put at rest the 
question of slavery in Illinois. The vote of 
Clark was thirty-one votes in favor of a con- 
vention and slavery, and one hundred and 
sixteen against. 

Colonel William B. Archer was the anti- 
slavery candidate for the Legislature; his op- 
ponent, William Lowrie. Colonel Archer 
was triumphantly elected by a vote of one 
hundred and thirty-eight to five. Although 
raised in a slave State, Colonel Archer at an 

early age imbibed an unconquerable aversion 
to human slavery; and during his long and 
busy life, whether in legislative halls or the 
private walks of life, he ever advocated the^ 
cause of freedom and free States. And we 
deem it not inappropriate to give here an ex- 
tended notice of this remarkable man. 

He was the oldest of eight children of 
Zachariah Archer, three of whom yet survive: 
.Judge Stephen Archer, Hannah Crane and 
Elizabeth Hogue. His father's family removed 
from Warren County, Ohio, to Kentucky, 
and from thence to this county, landing here 
in a keel boat near what is known as the 
Block School House, during the memorable 
Wabash freshet in the year 1817. He was 
tall of stature, spare made and slightly 
stooped. He had tlip endurance of an Indian 
— was insensible to fatigue — a man of iron. 
His character was rugged, strong and res- 
olute, and marked with peculiar irulividuality. 
He had a sound judgment, a firm confidence 
and abiding faith in his own convictions of 
right, and a moral courage to defend them that 
is rarely met with. In fact, were 

"The elements so mixed in him 
That Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, 
This is a man." 

The people recognized his sterling qualities, 
and he at once took a commanding position 
in the affairs of the infant settlement. He 
then commenced a long, busy and useful ca- 
reer. He was the first county and circuit 

He was appointed one of the commission- 
ers of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and 
laid out the town of Lockport, on the Illinois 
River. He was engaged on some public im- 
provement near Chicago, and that city hon- 
ored him by naming an avenue in his honor, 
which still bears the name of " Archer Ave- 
nue." He promptly responded to the call for 
troops in the Black Hawk War, was made 



captain, and served with distinction. He was 
again circuit clerk, in 1S4S. In politics he 
was a Whig, and a partizan, yet respectful 
for the opinion of others. He made the mem- 
orable congressional race against Judge J. C. 
Allen, which resulted in a tie. He was 
defeated in the next election. 

It is said of him that he was the first man to 
bring the name of the lamented Lincoln, of 
whom he was a devoted friend, into public 
notice. He was a delegate to a convention, 
at Philadelphia, we believe, and during the 
deliberations. Colonel Archer proposed the 
name of Lincoln for Vice President, when a 
pert member sarcastically asked: "Who is 
Lincoln? Can he fight?" The Colonel an- 
swered: " Yes, by Guinea, he can, and so 
can I." 

In private life he was genial and kind, and 
around his private character cluster many 
noble virtues. He was married to Eliza Har- 
lan, and the result of that union was a 
daughter, who became the wife of the late 
Woodford Duianey, of Kentucky. His reli- 
gious convictions we never knew, but suffice 
it to say, he was an honest man. He was an 
honored member of the Masonic fraternity for 
sixty years. But the absorbing and control- 
ling idea of his life was for the improvement 
and development of the county, both town 
and country. For this he labored — for this he 
toiled, and for this he gave the best years of 
his manhood. 

He became interested in the construction 
of the old Wabash Valley Railroad, (the pres- 
ent Wabash) and entered into the work with 
all the zeal and energy of his indomitable 
nature. He gave his time and his money, 
and just as it seemed that success would 
crown his efforts, the project was abandoned. 
He was never destined to see its completion. 
He did more for Clark County than any man 
in his day or since. But no recognition, pe- 
cuniary or otherwise, was ever given him for 

his long and valuable services. Possessed at 
one time of ample means, yet so absorbed 
was he in his schemes of public improvement, 
that he was careless as to his private affairs, 
became involved and lost nearly everything. 

Time bent his form, silvered his locks and 
enfeebled his steps, but it could not conquer 
his spirit. Butat last the end came. Bowed 
down by the weight of eighty years, and in- 
firmities incurred by a long life of incessant 
toil for the general good, on the 9th day of 
August, 1870, he calmly passed to his final 
reward, leaving as his only legacy, an untar- 
nished name, and the enduring monuments of 
his labor and enterprise in the county. 

For a considerable period after the forma- 
tion of the county, and for years before, 
there was but little or no good money in 
circulation. The people were involved in 
debt, the lands purchased from the United 
States were unpaid for and likely to be for- 
feited. Such bank-notes as were in circula- 
tion had driven out the specie; and as these 
notes became worthless, one after another, 
the people were left almost destitute of any 
circulating medium whatever. The county 
commerce was insignificant; we exported lit- 
tle or nothing, except the scanty surplus of 
produce occasionally shipped to New Or- 
leans. Hence there was nothing to attract 
an influx of coin into the countrj'. The 
great tide of expected immigration from 
abroad failed to come, and real estate of ev- 
ery description was unsalable. This state 
of affairs prevailed all over the State; and 
to remedy the evil, the Legislature of 1831 
created a State bank. All br^inches of indus- 
try and business flourished for a time, but the 
bank was founded on false theories of solv- 
ency and utterly failed of its contemplated 
objects — -in fact almost bankrupted the peo- 
ple. A considerable period following the 
decline of the State Bank was called the 
" harvest of the Shylocks." The legal rate 



of interest was six per cent; but there were 
no interest limits to special contracts, nor no 
penalties for usury. Consequently, those 
having money took advantage of the neces- 
sities of the people and extorted exorbitant 
interest rates, often as high as one hundred 
and fifty per cent being charged. 

Game was abundant in the early settle- 
ment of the count}'. Deer, turkeys, hares, 
squirrels, foxes, otters, muskrats, raccoons, 
opossums, etc., existed in large numbers. 
A lew bears were killed, but they were never 
numerous. Panthers, catamounts, wolves and 
wildcats abounded, to the great annoyance 
of the settlers. Smaller vermin, such as 
weasels, minks, skurdcs and polecats were 
very plentiful; and these, with the owls and 
hawks, rendered the raising of domestic fowls 
very difficult. Porcupines were also quite nu- 
merous. In an early day droves of wild horses 
roamed over portions of the; country west of us 
(then in Clark County), but there is no ac- 
count of any ever having been within our 
present limits. The streams were alive with 
fisii, especially the Wabash. The catfish, 
muskalonge, bass, perch, sturgeon, spoon- 
bills, shad, eels, etc., were very plenty. In 
the early spring the river, creeks, ponds and 
ba)-ous were covered with geese, ducks, 
brant and other water-fowl, and on the prai- 
ries were large numbers of prairie-chickens, 
grouse and partridges. 

In early times, when the amount of cul- 
tivated land was very small and live stock 
had unbounded range, owners were more 
particular than in later times about their 
marks and brands. Horses were always 
branded; other stock was marked. These 
were their only means of identification, as 
cattle and hogs were often turned out in the 
early spring and were likely to be seen no 
more till cold weather. Sheep were gener- 
ally kept through the day in inclosures, and 
at night in stout high corrals, to prevent their 

destruction by the wolves. Some of the 
early marks were curiosities in their way. 
Charles Neely's mark was recorded May 26, 
1S19, the first in the county, and was "A 
smooth crop ofiF of the left ear and a slit in 
the same." The mark of Hugh Miller was 
"An under-bit or half penny out of the un- 
der side of each ear." That of Joseph Shaw, 
"A smooth crop off the right ear and an 
underslope from heel to point of the left 
ear, bringing the ear to a point, similar to 
foxing." Cushing Snow's was, " A smooth crop 
oif the left ear and a poplar leaf in the right; 
that is, a crop ofi' the point, and upper and 
under bit in the same, which forms a poplar 
leaf." The penalty, on conviction, for alter- 
ing or defacing any mark or brand with intent 
to steal, or prevent identification by the 
owner, was a public whipping, not exceeding 
one hundred lashes on the bare back, impris- 
onment not exceeding two yeais, and fine in 
a sum not less than one half the value of the 
animal on which the mark was altered or 
defaced. The severity of the punishment 
indicates the jealous importance our ances- 
tors attached to their marks and brands, and 
their lofty regard for the rights of property. 
The condition of society, and the moral de- 
portment of the early settlers were very good 
for a new country, where the laws were lax, 
and feebly enforced, where schools were few 
and inferior, and where religious instruction 
and church organization were rare, and not 
publicly carried on as in later years. Candor, 
honesty, and a readiness to help a friend or 
neighbor in distress, were the chief character- 
istics of the early pioneers. They were in- 
dustrious as a class, generous in their hospi- 
tality, warm and constant in their friendships, 
and brave in the defense of their honor. As 
is the case in all newly-settled countries, there 
was among them a rough and boisterous ele- 
ment, a low grade and type of civilization. 
An element ignorant, vicious and uncouth; its 



members loud in their deiuinciations of any 
innovations tending to better their condition, 
or that looked toward the erection of 
Christian institutions. 

The lives of the early pioneers must indeed 
have been monotonous. The settlements vrere 
scattering, and the population sparse. There 
■was no general system of schools, or of reli- 
gious teachings, and as a consequence, for 
years the Sabbath was simply observed as a 
day of rest by the young and old. When 
anv future event, that promised to relieve the 
tedium of their existence became bruited 
throughout a settlement, its coming was im- 
patiently awaited. A house or barn raising, or 
log rolling, a quilting frolic, or husking bee — 
each and all of these were looked forward to 
with liveliest anticipation. But nothing 
stirred society to its remotest depths like the 
announcement of a wedding. A marriage was 
a momentous event, and was looked forward 
to with e:iger expectation by young and old 
Mrs. Judge Stockwell relates that she was- 
present at the marriage of Stephen Archer to 
Nancy Shaw, and that the wedding and 
"infare" carnival lasted three days and 
nights in one continuous round of merry-mak- 
ing, and was only terminated by exhaustion 
and loss of sleep on the part of the guests. 

There was a rapid influx of population after 
the year 1825. The census of 1S30, at which 
time the county had been greatly reduced in 
territorial extent, being somewhat over twice 
its present size, showed a population of 3,921 
■white, and 19 colored. The increase in num- 
ber of white people being over four hundred 
per cent, over the census of 1820. The ma- 
jor part of this immigration ■ was from the 
Southern and Middle States. Nearly all the 
necessaries and the few luxuries of frontier 
life, which had hitherto been wagoned over 
the mountains to Pittsburg, thence floated 
down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, 
and pulled and poled up that stream on keel 

boats, were now transported by steam-boats, 
quite a number of which plied the 
waters of the latter stream. About all the 
surplus products of the county, such as corn, 
bacon, and the like, together with lumber, 
staves and hoop-poles, were generally shipped 
to New Orleans, an undertaking that involved 
a long, perilous and tedious voyage, often re- 
quiring two and three months for going and 
returning. The journey home was gerieially 
performed on foot, through three or four In- 
dian tribes inhabiting the western parts of 
Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky. There 
are citizens now living in the county, who 
have each made five different pedestrian trips 
from New Orleans to Darwin; carrying with 
them, over all the long and weary miles, the 
proceeds of their cargoes, which wore invari- 
ably in silver coin. This system of co iimerce 
was carried on regularly, and quite exten- 
sively for many years, and was the principal 
channel of shipment for surplus, but the 
railroad system of the present day has 
changed all this. 

The taxes during the first decade or two 
"were neither heavy nor burdensome. The total 
amount of taxes for each of the ten years, 
ranged from two to five hundred dollars. Yet 
these insignificant sums were to defray all 
the contingent expenses of the county, which 
was then larger than many of the principali- 
ties in Europe. Lands were taxed by the 
State, and were divided into three classes : 
first, second and third, 'and were valued at 
four, three and two dollars per acre, and were 
taxed respectively, two, one and a half, and 
one cents per acre. In 1821 the first tax was 
levied, and the property included was horses 
and cattle, clocks and watches, town lots and 
pleasure carriaares. The last item was evi- 
dently a mild bit of pleasantry on the part of 
the early authorities, as such things existed 
only in the imagination, in Clark County. In 
1823, slaves, registered and indentured ne- 



groes aod mulattoes, and rlistilleries, were 
made taxable by the county commissioners. 
A stout, lusty ne<;ro servant or skve was as- 
sessed at about the same as five good horses. 
Ill 18;i7, hogs, sheep, and ferries over the 
Wabash, were made taxable. 

The county commissioners had broader and 
more extensive povrers than our present law- 
makers. They not only had authority to 
license certain occupations, but also to fix 
and establish a scale of prices for conducting 
the same. They issued license to the keeper 
of a tavern or house of entertainment, speci- 
fied the amount he should pay for the same, 
and tiien arbitrarily fixed the rates he should 
charge his guests; and if the wayfarer was 
bibulously inclined, and desired a stimulant, 
the law stepped in, and not only scheduled 
the kind and quantity of his potation, but 
fixed the maximum price for it. To illustrate, 
a specimen is herewith given: At the JIarch 
term, 1820, of the commissioners' court, ap- 
pears the following: "Court grant license 
to Silas Hoskins to keep a tavern in Aurora, 
at tiie rate of two dollars per year, to be paid 
into the county treasury, and fix his rates as 
follows: for one night's lodging, per man, 12^ 
cents; one meal's victuals, per man, 25 cents; 
one feed for horse, per gallon of corn, 12^ 
cents; one horse to hay and oats, per night, 
37^ cents. For one pint of rum, wine or 
brandy, 75 cents; for one half pint of same, 
374^ cents; for one pint of whisky, 25 cents; 
for one half pint of same, 12J cents; for one 
gill of same, li^ cents; ale, beer or cider, per 
quart, 25 cents. 

About this time the Galena lead mines were 
at the height of successful operation, and our 
people would run up the Mississippi in the 
spring, labor in the mines during warm 
weather, and then return to their homes in 
the fall, thus establishing, as was supposed, 
a similarity between their migratory habits 
and those of the piscatorial tribe called suck- 

ers. For this reason the name "Suckers" 
was applied to the Illinoisans, at the Galena 
lead mines by the Missouriaiis, and which has 
stuck to them ever since, and no doubt al- 
ways will. Missouri sent hordes of uncouth 
ruffians to these mines, from which our people 
inferred that the State had taken a puke, and 
had vomited forth all her worst population. 
As analogiis always abound, the Illinoisans, 
by way of retaliation, called the Missourians 
"Pukes," a name they will be known by for 
all time. 

The Indians were quite numerous in the 
county at the time of its early settlement. 
There were camps on Mill Creek; one about 
a mile and a half southeast of what is now 
Marshall, on what is now known as the Wat- 
son quarrj-; one a short distance north of the 
present town of Livingston, and one south of 
the same, near the Ahvood hill. But the 
largest camp was on Dial's Creek, in the Rich- 
woods; a large majority of these Indians were 
Kickapoos, and the remainder chiefly Potta- 
watomies. They were generally quiet, peace- 
able and friendly, spent their time in hunting 
and trapping, and bartered the proceeds of 
the chase with the whites, for corn, powder 
and lead, salt, etc. They about all disap- 
peared during the Black Hawk War. Though 
during the war, and while a large portion of 
our male population was absent in the army, 
there was a large number on Mill Creek that 
threatened hostilities, to the great apprehen- 
sion of the remaining settlers. They held 
pow-wows, danced their war dances, and at 
night their fierce and savage yells could be 
heard a great distance, to the terror of de- 
fenceless women and children. 

There then lived in the northeastern por- 
tion of the county, a man beyond middle ao-e, 
named John House, who was a second Lewis 
Whetzel. \\'hen a boy the savages had 
massacred nearly alljiis father's family, and 
he had sworn eternal vengeance, and im- 



proved every opportunity to gratify it. He 
was well known to the Indians as " Big Tooth 
John," on account of his eye teeth projecting 
over his under lip, like tushes. It is re- 
lated that on one occasion, while hunting, an 
Indian stepped from an amliush, and ex- 
plained how easily he could have killed him. 
House pretended to be quite grateful, but 
watching his opportunity, shot the Indian 
dead. He enlisted in the Black Hawk War, 
and was in the memorable engagement on the 
banks of the Mississippi, of August 2, 1S33, 
in which tiie Indians were routed and which 
terminated the war. During the battle, a Sac 
mother took her infant child, and fastening it 
tea large piece of cottonwood bark, consigned 
it to the treacherous waves rather than to 
captivity. The current carried the child near 
the bank, when House coolly loaded his rifle, 
and taking deliberate aim, shot the babe dead. 
Being reproached for his hardened cruelty, 
he grimly replied, "Kill the nits, and you'll 
have no lice." 

Among the diversionsof tlie (^irly times, were 
shooting matches for beef, turkeys, whisky 
and sometimes for wagers of money. When 
a beef was shot for, it was divided into five 
quarters, the liide and tallow being the fifth, 
and considered the best of all. Among the 
most noted marksmen of the day, were Judge 
Stephen Archer and Stump Rhoads. Indeed, 
so expert were they, that both were generally 
excluded from the matches, and the fifth 
quarter given them, as a sort of a royalty, the 
possession of which was usually decided by a 
contest between themselves. The Judge had 
been several times victorious over his rival, 
who finally procured a new rifle, and badly 
defeated his opponent on a most momentous 
occasion. Smarting under his discomfiture, 
the Judge had a heavy, target rifle made, with 
especial reference to accurate shooting. This 
artillery he dubbed " Sweet Milk and 
Peaches," and patiently bided his time to 

vanquish his adversary. An opportune occa- 
sion soon arrived. It was in the summer; the 
usual donation had been made to these cham- 
pions, and Rhoads' best shot h;ul just grazed 
the center. The Judge's breeches were of 
the usual tow linen, and worn without 
drawers. As he was lying down, taking long 
and deliberate aim, his rival, by some means, 
slipped some bees up the leg of his pantaloons. 
These hostiles, after a short voyage of dis- 
covery, began to ply their harpoons. But so 
completely absorbed was the Judge in this 
struggle for victory, that he stiffened his limb, 
elevated it straight in the air, and crying: — 
" Stump .Rhoads, you can't throw Sweet Milk 
off that center with no dod-hlasted bee," 
pulled the trigger, clove the center, and was 
declared the winner. 

Though society was rude and rough, that 
curse of humanity, intemperance, was no more 
prevalent, in proportion to population, than 
now, perhaps not as much. Scarcely was the 
nucleus of a settlement formed, ere the steam 
of the still tainted the air. The settlers en- 
dured privations and hunger, and their 
children cried lor bread for want of mills; 
they groped in ignorance for want of schools 
and churches, but the still was ever in their 
midst, where the fanner exchanged his bag of 
corn for the beverage of the border. In 
every family the jug of bitters was an insep- 
arable adjunct, and was regularly partaken 
of by every member of the household, espe- 
cially during the chill season. The visit of a 
neisrhbor was signaii.^e>l by producing the 
bottle or demijohn. At all rustic gatherings, 
liquor was considered an indispensable arti- 
cle, and was freely us^d. Everybody drank 
whisky, ministers and all. True, there were 
some sections, in which the people resisted all 
ailvancement and progress. In these, liquor 
was used to great excess, and then, as now, 
was an active piomoter of broils, disturbances 
and fights. In these affrays, to their credit 



be it said, fists and feet were alone u&ed, and 
were called "rough and tumble." The 
knife, the pistol and the bludgeon, were then 
unknown, and are the products of a much 
later and more advanced civilization. These 
sections were known as the " hard neighbor- 
hoods," and were always shunned by re- 
spectable immigrants seeking homes. There 
is a story that an itinerant teetotaler once 
strayed into one of these haunts of immorality, 
and threw a fire-brand into the camp by de- 
livering a terrific discourse against the use of 
intoxicants. The speaker was interrupted by 
the representative man, who introduced him- 
self, and described the society of his locality, 
as follows: " I'm from Salt Creek, and the 
folks than are all bad and wooley; and the 
higher up you go, the wuss they air, and I'm 
from the headwaters. I'm a wolf, and it's my 
time to howl. Now, Mr. Preecher, what 
■would we do with our corn crop, if there wuz 
no still-houses?" " Raise more hogs and less 
hell around here," was the ready, but vigor- 
ous reply. The speaker was interrupted no 

The old time ministers were characters in 
their waj'. A distinct race so to speak, and 
were possessed of an individuality, peculiarly 
their own. As a class, they were uneducated, 
rough and resolute, and encountered and 
overcame obstacles that would appall the 
efl'eminate parsons of later days. They were 
suited exactly to the civilization in which 
they lived, and seem to have been chosen 
vessels, to fulfil a certain mission. These 
iiumble pioneers of frontier Christianity, pro- 
claimed the " tidings of great joy " to the 
early settlers, at a time when the 
country was so poor that no other kind of 
ministers could have been maintained. They 
spread the gospel of Christ when educated 
ministers with salaries could not have been 
supported. They preached the doctrine of 
free salvation, without money and without 

price, toiling hard in the interim of their 
labors, to provide themselves with a scanty 
subsistence. They traversed the wilderness 
through sunshine and storm; slept in the open 
air, swam swollen streams, suffered cold, 
hunger and fatigue, with a noble heroism, and 
all for the sake of their Savior, and to save 
precious souls from perdition. JIany of these 
divines sprang from, and were of the people, 
and without ministerial training, except in 
religious exercises, and the study of the 
Scriptures. In those times it was not 
thought necessary that a minister should be 
a scholar. It was sufficient for him to preach 
from a knowledge of the Bible alone; to 
make appeals warm from the heart; to paint 
the joys of heaven and the miseries of hell to 
the imagination of the sinner; to terrify him 
with the one, and exhort him, by a life of 
righteousness to attain the other. Many of 
these added to their scriptural knowledge, a 
diligent perusal of Young's Night Thoughts, 
Milton's Paradise Lost, Jenkins on Atone- 
ment, and other kindred works which gave 
more compass to their thoughts, and brighter 
imagery to their fancy. And in profuse and 
flowery language, and with glowing enthusi- 
asm and streaming eyes, they told the story 
of the Cross. 

Sometimes their sermons turned upon mat- 
ters of controversy — unlearned arguments on 
the subjects of free grace, baptism, free will, 
election, faith, justification, and the final per- 
severance of the saints. But that in which 
they excelled was the earnestness of their 
words and manner, the vividness of the pict- 
ures they drew of the ineffable bliss of the 
redeemed, and the awful and eternal torments 
of the unrepentant. 

" They preachetUhe joys of heaven and pains of hell, 
And wjrned the .-inner with becoming zeal. 
But on eternal mercy loved to dwell." 
Above all, they inculcated the great 
principles of justice and sound morality, 



and were largely instrumental in pro- 
moting the growth of intellectual ideas, 
in bettering the condition, and in elevating 
the morals of the people ; and to them 
are we indebted for the first establish- 
ment of Christian institutions throughout the 
county. These old-time evangelists passed 
away with the civilization of the days in 
which they lived and labored. They fougiit 
the good tight, well and faithfully performed 
the mission, and bore the burdens their divine 
Master assigned them, and may their sacred 
ashes repose in jjeace, in the quietude of their 
lonely graves, until awakened by the final 

The white population of our county has 
steadily and rapidly increased, as will be seen 
by the following exhibit by decennial periods: 
In 18"^0 the white population was 930; in 
1830, 3,921; in 1840, 7,420; in 1850, 9,494; in 
I860,' 14,948; in 1870, 1S,6'.:I8; in 1880, 21,843. 
The increase in colored population has been 
small, both by emigration and otherwise, in- 
creasing from one slave in 1820 to fifty-one 
free colored in 1880. After 1830 the moral 
and intellectual condition of our people grad- 
ually improved, each passing year recording 
a marked change for the better. But what it 
lacked in refinement it made up in sincerity 
and hospitality. The establishment of com- 
merce, the forming of channels of intercourse 
between distant sections by building exten- 
sive highways, the regular exportation of all 
our surplus products, were among the first 
means of changing the exterior aspect of our 
population and giving a new current to pub- 
lic feeling and individual pursuit. Tlie free 
diffusion of knowledge through schools and 
the ministry of the gospel also largely con- 
tributed to the liappv change, and to all these 
influences are we indebted for the civilization 
of the present. But still, when we ponder 
on those olden days, rude and rough as they 
were, wj almost wish for their return. Those 

good,. old days, when the girls rode behind 
their sweethearts to church or pjrty, and 
when the horses always kicked up, and the 
maidens held tightlj' oii; when wife and hus- 
band visited on the same nag, the former in 
front of her liege, with sleeping babe snugly 
cuddled in her lap. Those good old days, 
when the hypocrisy, shams, and selfishness of 
modern societv were unknown. Wiien the 
respectabilitv of men and women was not 
measured by their bank accounts and bonds, 
nor by displays of finery, but by the simple 
standard of worth and merit; by their useful- 
ness in the community, by their readiness to 
aid the suffering, to relieve the distressed. 
When there were no social castes or dis- 
tinctions, and when honesty and uprightness 
were the livery of aristocracy. When the 
turpitude of vice and the majesty of moral 
virtue were regarded with stronger sentiments 
of aversion and respect than they to-day in^ 

It is a well-established fact that the settle- 
ment and cultivation of a country have a 
noticeable effect upon the general tempera- 
ture of the climate. But the change has been 
so gradual that it is a matter of difficulty for 
our few surviving pioneers to distinctly rec- 
ollect and describe. At the first settlement 
of the country the summers were much cooler 
than now. Warm evenings and nights were 
not common, and the mornings, frequently, 
uncomfortably cold. The coolness of the 
niirhts was owing, in a great degree, to the 
deep, dense shade of the forest trees and the 
luxuriant crops of wild grass, weeds, and 
other vegetation, which so shaded the earth's 
surface as to prevent it from becoming heated 
by the rays of the sun. Frost and snow set 
in much earlier than now. Snowfalls fre- 
qu ntly occurn'd during the latter half of 
October, and winter often sot in with severity 
during November, and sometimes in the early 
part of it. The springs were formerly later 



and colder than tliey now are, but the chaiifje 
ill lliis respect is not favorable to vegetation, 
as the latest springs are generally I'ollowed 
by the most fruitful seasons. It is a law of 
the veg table world that the longer the gernii- 
natnig principle is delayed the more rapid 
when put in motion. Hence those far north- 
ern countries like Sweden, Norway, and 
Russia, which have but a short summer and 
no spring, are among the most productive in 
the world. While, in this latitude especially, 
vegetation, prematurely started by reason of 
open winters and delusive springs, is often 
checked by " cold snaps" and untimely frosts, 
and frequently fails to attain its ultimate per- 
fi'ction. From this imperfect account of the 
weather system of early times, it appears tliat 

the seasons have undergone considerable 
change. As a rule, our springs are earlier, 
summers warmer, the falls milder and longer, 
and the winters shorter and accompanied 
with less cold and snow than formerly. These 
changes can be partly, if not wholly, attrib- 
uted to the destruction of the forests. Every 
acre of cultivated land must increase the heat 
of our summers, by exposing an augmented 
extent of ground surface denuded of its tim- 
ber, to be acted upon and heated by the rays 
of the sun. But, by reason of there being 
no mountainous barriers either north or south 
of us, the conflict for equilibrium between 
the dense and rarified atmospheres of these 
two extremes will most likely continue our 
changeable and fickle climate forever. 



CRAWFORD Countj', from the territory 
of which Clark was taken, was created 
under the old territorial laws. It embraced a 
vast extent of country, including all of East- 
ern Illinois to the Canada line, and as far 
west as Fayette County. In order to form a 
new county, the law required the proposed 
district to have at least 350 iidiabitants. The 
northern portion of Crawford having the req- 
uisite population a petition was filed in 
the Legislature for a separate county. That 
body, at the session of 1819, passed the fol- 
lowing act: An Act Forming a new County 
out of the County of Crawford. 

Seo. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the 
State of Illinois represented in the General 
Assembly, That all that part of Crawford 
County lying north of a line beginning on 
the great Wabash River, dividing townships 
eight and nine north, running due west shall 
form a new and separate county to be called 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That for 
the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of 
justice for said county the following persons 
are hereby appointed commissioners, viz.: 
Smith Shaw, Thomas Gill and James Watts, 
which commissioners or a majority of them 
shall meet at the house of Charles Neely be- 
tween the first and second Mondays of May 
next, and after having been duly sworn before 

some justice of the peace within this State, 
faithfully to take into consideration the situa- 
tion of the settlements, the geography of the 
country and the conveniency and eligibility 
of the place, shall then proceed to establish 
the permanent seat of justice for the said 
county of Clark, and designate the same, 
provided however the proprietor or proprietors 
owning such land on which the seat of justice 
may be fixed, shall give to the county of 
Clark twenty acres of land for the purpose of 
erecting public buildings, to be laid out into 
lots, and sold for the use of said county, but 
should the proprietor or proprietors neglect 
or refuse to make the donation as aforesaid, 
then and in that case, the commissioners shall 
fix upon some other place for the seat of jus- 
tice for said county as convenient as maybe 
to the different settlements in said county, 
which place when determined on by said com- 
missioners they shall certify under their hamis 
and seals to the clerk of the commissioners 
court, and it shall be the duty of the said 
clerk to spread the same on the records of 
said county, and the said commissioners shall 
receive two dollars per each day they may he 
necessarily employed in fixing upon the afore- 
said seat of justice, to be paid out of the 
county levy. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That 
until the county commissioners shall other- 



wise direct, the court and elections for said 
county shall be held at the house of Charles 
Neely in said county. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the 
citizens of Clark County shall be entitled to 
vote for Senator and Representatives with 
Crawford County in the same manner as they 
would have done had this act not passed. 

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, Tliat the 
said county of Clark be and form a part of the 
second judicial district and that the courts 
tiierein be holden at such times as shall be di- 
rected in the act regulating and defining the 
duties of the justices of the Supreme Court. 

Sec. G. And be it further enacted, That the 
county commissioners shall proceed tolaj' out 
■ tiie land that may be given to said county 
into lots and sell the same or as much as they 
mav think proper and necessary for the erec- 
tion of public buildings, within three months 
from the time the seat of justice shall be 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted. That in 
order to remove all difficulty concerning the 
future division of Clark County, it is hereby 
enacted that all that tract of country lying 
north of an east and west line dividing 
townships numbered twelve and thirteen 
nortli, shall l)e the line between the county 
of Clark and a county whicii may be laid off 
north of the same, provided, however. That 
ail that part of Clark County lying north of 
the bne last mentioned shall remain attached 
to and be considered a part of Clark County 
until a new county shall be laid off north of 
the line as above stated. This act shall bo in 
force from and after its passage. 


Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

PjeerT! Menaed, 
Speaker of the Senate. 

Approved by the Council of Revision, 
March 22, 1819. Suadkacu Kond. 

Clark, at her organization, as we have said, 
embraced a large amount of territory. Fay- 
ette was formed in 1821, partly from Clark 
and Crawford. In the year 1823 Edgar 
County was taken from Clark, locating partly 
the present north line of our county. In 1830 
Coles County was formed from Clark and 
Edgar. By the forming of Coles, Clark was 
reduced to the area contemplated in the orig- 
inal act. But at the session of the Legisla- 
ture in 1823, AVilliam Lowry, the represent- 
ative from Clark and Crawford, procured the 
passage of a bill, at the solicitation of the 
people of the newly formed County of Ed- 
gar, cutting off three miles from the north 
line of Clark and adding the same to Edgar, 
for the reason that Paris was very apprehen- 
sive of losing the county seat; but by hav- 
ing this slice attached, it would so centralize 
her position as to enable her to retain the 
seat of justice. 

The county was named after Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, a gallant and meritorious of- 
ficer of the Revolution, born in Albemarle 
Count}', Virginia, in 1752, and die<l in Ken- 
tucky in 1806. His campaign through the 
Illinois did as much to establish the freedom 
of the colonies as any act of the whole war. 

Clark was the fifteenth formed county in the 
State. The fourteen older counties are men- 
tioned in the first part of this volume. 

At an election held in the county on Mon- 
day, April 2G, 1819, Joseph Shaw, John Chen- 
oweth and Samuel Ashmore were elected 
county commissioners. On the 7th day of 
June, following, the first commissioners' 
court was held at the house of Charles Nee- 
ley, on Walnut Prairie, at which William B. 
Archer was appointed clerk of the court, 
and William Lorkard, treasurer of the county. 

Smith Shaw, Thomas Gill and James Watts, 
the commissioners appointed under the act 
I'orming the county to locate the seat of jus- 
tice, made their report to the cuuit: Tuat 



having proceeded to examine the different 
situ itions in said county of Chuk, and have 
agreed on the following peace on a parcel of 
ground whereon the said seat of justice or 
court house shall be erected, situated on west 
fraction No. 15, Town ION., of Range 11 W., 
in the district of lands offered for sale at 
Vincennes, given by Chester Fitch, John 
Chenoweth and John McClure, containing 
two hundred and two acres and an half of 
land, it being the donation granted agreeable 
to law by Chester Fitch, to be laid off by the 
direction of the said county commissioners 
into town lots; and it is to be expressly un- 
derstood that the said Fitch is to be at one 
half of the expence in maping and survey- 
ins;^ said town; and the said Fitch is to have 
every other lot in the whole town equal 
in quality and quantity reserved for the ben- 
efit of said Fitch and his heirs forever. 
Given under our hands and seals this 6th day 
of May, one thousand eight hundred and 

Witnesses. Signed SMITH SHAW [l. s.] 
Charms Neely. THOS. GILL [l. s.] 

John Essret. JAMES WATTS [l. s.] 

Very few people, except surveyors, under- 
stand the true meaning and application of 
the term, " town and range," as mentioned 
in the foregoing report, and a brief expla- 
nation miijht not be uninteresting:. In all 
Government surveys, "principal meridians" 
are first established, that is, lines running 
due north from some designated point. 
These lines are intersected by " base lines," 
that is, lines running west from some 
given point. The term " range," means town- 
ships numbered either east or west of a prin- 
cipal meridian line. The term "town," sig- 
nifies townships numbered north or south of 
a base line. All lands in our county are 
reckoned from the second principal meridian, 
a line running due north from the mouth of 
Little Blue River, Indiana. The correspond- 

ing base line commences at Diamond Island, 
in the Ohio, opposite Indiana, and runs due 
west, striking tlie Mississippi a few miles 
below St. Louis. Our county lies north of 
the base line, and west of the praicipil me- 
ridian. Hence "town ten north, range 
eleven west," means the tenth township north 
of the base line and the eleventh township 
west of the principal meridian line; and as a 
congressional township is six miles square, 
the location of the county seat was sixty 
miles north of the base line, and sixty-six 
miles west of the principal meridian line. 
The reason it was called west fraction sec- 
tion 15, the Wabash River divides the sec- 
tion, leaving part in Illinois, the remainder in 

When the commissioners' court declared 
that the seat of justice should be known and 
recognized as Aurora, they named a capital, 
the realm of which was larger than the State 
of Connecticut. Under the auspices and guid- 
ance of Joseph Shaw, John Chenoweth and 
Samuel Ashmore, as county commissioners, 
and William B. Archer, as clerk, and Will- 
iam Lockard, as treasurer, was the infant 
county launched on her career as an independ- 
ent unit of this great State. Could they but 
briefly return from that " bourne " and behold 
from the few and humble seeds they sowed, 
the mighty and wonderful growth of wealth, 
improvement, prosperity and power, well 
might they exclaim, in the language of the 
prophet of old: " Mine eyes have seen Thy 
glory, now let Thy servant depart in peace." 

When Clark County was organized she had 
less than nine hundred inhabitants. Now, 
she has twenty-five thousand. When they 
named the seat of justice Aurora, there was 
not a town or village, not even a trading post. 
Now she holds within her limits sixteen towns 
and villages. Then there was but one road, 
the wilderness being threaded by the trail of 
the hunter or the Indian; now her bosom is 



checkered with hiL^hwavs, reaching; every 
point within her confines. Her first year's 
taxes were less than one hundred and twenty 
dollars; now they are over one hundred thou- 

About the year 1821, occurred a threatened 
government foreclosure on unpaid-1'or lands, 
that came very near leading to disastrous re- 
sults, and forms an interesting episode in the 
early history, as well as the entire West, but our 
limited space will not allow of details in this 
■work. All readers of the early history of 
Illinois are familiar with the subject. 

We find on July IG and 17, 1821, "Joseph 
Shaw and John Chenoweth, two of the com- 
missioners, met at Aurora to take the out- 
lines of the town, and fix the main street and 
public square." No court house was ever 
erected, the courts being held in a small log 
building, very low, and not to exceed twelve 
by fourteen feet, which was afterward 
used by Judge Stoi kwoll, as a corn-crib, and 
afterward as a stable. In this small and 
humble building, jurists of eminence presided, 
and lawyers of distinction practiced, of which 
mention will be made hereafter. 

The first sale of town lots took place Au- 
gust 5, 1819, and Septer Patrick purchased 
the first town lot ever sold in the county, for 
twenty dollars. Thirty-seven lots were sold, 
ranging in price from seventeen to three hun- 
dred dollars. The town improved as much as 
could have been expected, considering the 
meager number of inhabitants,that the country 
•was a wilderness, that there was no money, 
no currency scarcely, the circulating medium 
being hides and peltry and the limited prod- 
uce of the county, save when an occasional 
emigrantcame in,with a little of surplus money 
left, after locating his land. But these visita- 
tions were few and far between at that daj'. 
There was no market for anything, and if 
there had been the people had nothing to sell. 

so their surroundings were not altogether 

The county built a jail, a strong and sub- 
stantial structure. It was about twelve by_ 
eighteen feet, and two stories high. It was 
built of round logs, the cracks chinked and 
daubed. The upper story was for the im- 
prisonment of insolvent debtors, when the in- 
famous code of imprisonment for debts dis- 
graced our statute books. It had two barred 
windows, one on each side, where the un- 
fortunate prisoner could sit and look out 
upon the sunlight and feel happy because he 
was in prison. A pair of rough stairs as- 
cended to a stout, wooden door, opening into 
the debtors' room; there was no opening into 
tlie lower room, where all offenders other 
than debtors, were confined, from the outside, 
except a barred window. It was reached by 
a trap door from the debtors' room, through 
which the prisoners were taken in and out. 
The inside of the lower room, or cell, if such it 
may be called, was lined by oak slabs, securely 
pinned on with wooden pins; the ceiling was 
covered in like manner. The jail was built 
liy Acquilla Pulteney, for seven hundred and 
thirteen dollars. He was paid notes on the 
purchasers of town lots in Aurora. The com- 
missioners could afford to be a little liberal. 

The estray law at that day made it incum- 
bent on any taker up of an estray, to bring it to 
the county seat at the first circuit court after 
such taking up, and put it into the estray pen, 
which was a secure and substantial structure 
to say the least. It was constructed for the 
county by Col. Archer, and any one who 
knew anything of him, knows he never built 
anything but what was substantial. It was 
thirty feet square, six feet high, posts eight 
inches square, sunk three feet in the ground, 
and of white walnut wood. If an estray was 
not claimed and proven in open court, it was 
put up at auction, and if no one bid above 



the lawful charges on the same, it became the 
property of the taker up. 

The county also erected one of those ter- 
^rors to evil doers and petty offenders, a " whip- 
ping post." It was said to have been a round 
tree, stripped of the bark, and about twelve 
inches in diameter, and sunk about two feet 
in the ground. The offender was tied face to 
the post, his arms encircling it, his feet fast- 
ened on either side, his back bared, and the 
stripes well laid on. It was never used but 
on one occasion; a man named Whitley be- 
ing tied up and whipped for stealing hogs. 

Aurora was thought to be a most eligible 
situation for a town and county seat. It 
possessed the finest landing on the Wabash, 
which in that day was navigable all the year, 
and for crafts of considerable size. 

The town was situated about two miles 
north of Darwin, and its site is marked only 
by the farm house of Oliver C. Lawell. Not 
a stone is left to mutely tell its history or 
existence. It but obeyed the eternal man- 
date that all things earthly must pass away. 

The people of the county, believing that 
the present site of Darwin was a more pleas- 
ant location for a town, and a more central 
point than Aurora, that it would materially ad- 
vance the interests of the county, and be more 
convenient to the then sparsely settled coun- 
try, petitioned for a re-location of the seat of 
justice. By an act of the Legislature, approved 
January 21, 1833, the county seat was ordered 
to be removed to Darwin, then known as 
McClure's Bluff. John McClure, who had 
long kept a ferry there, was the proprietor of 
the land, and made a donation on which to 
build the seat of justice. The site was a 
level plateau, above high water mark, and 
sightly and Ijeautiful. Being above the 
stagnant ponds, and the miasma arising from 
them, it is, to-day, the healthiest point on the 

William Lockard laid off the town, and it 

consisted of sixty-four lots; numbers twenty- 
one and twenty-eight were reserved, by the 
commissioners, on which to erect a court 
house and jail. The sale of town lots occurred 
on the first Monday in August, ]S33. The 
purchasers of lots were to pay si.x per cent 
of the purchase money on day of sale, one- 
third of the remainder in nine months, the 
other two-thirds in equal annual installments. 

John Chenoweth was the crier of the sale. 
Our early settlers were evidently not teetotal- 
ers and never dreamed of the mighty wave of 
prohibition, that, in after years, would roll 
across the land from sea to sea, and reach the 
uttermost points of this great country. For 
the commissioners enter the following 
record: " Ordered by the court that John 
Richardson procure ten gallons ol whisky to 
be drunk on day of sale." Let us of the 
present day imagine a board of supervisors 
laying out a town into lots for sale, and then 
ordering the sheriff to procure ten gallons of 
whisky, to be drank upon the occasion, to 
be paid for out of the people's money. Such 
a storm of indignation would be raised about 
their ears that they would be glad to find 
peace and oblivion in their political graves. 

There were thirty-four lots sold in Darwin 
at the first sale, John Richardson being the 
first purchaser of a lot, paying for it the sum of 
eighty dollars. Lot thirty-two was sold to John 
Stafford for one hundred and eleven dollars. 
Lot sixty- four was sold to John Chenoweth 
for one hundred and three dollars. The low- 
est jirice paid for any lot was thirty dollars; 
and these for bare, naked lots, in a town 
without a building erected. It shows con- 
clusively, that the purchasers, and they were 
men of sound judgment, had great confidence 
in the future of Darwin. 

After the removal of the county seat to 
Darwin, part of Aurora was inclosed by a 
fence. Those having purchased lots in Aurora 
were allowed credit on lots purchased in 



Diirwiii for the amount for their Aurora lots, 
after deducting twenty-five per cent for the 
first cost of lots, at ten dollars and fifty cents 
for each lot i^ing within the inclosurc, or 
partly within, and fifty cents for each lot lying. 
without the inclosure. Why this distinction 

was made can only be conjectured. 

/ Darwin soon rose in importance, justifying 
the foresight of those wiio had invested. 
Lots were in demand at increased values. 
Buildings sprang up, the population increased 
rapidly, the various industries flourished, and 
from a single cabin, that marked the site of 
McClure's Bluff, there arose a thriving, pros- 
perous village. 

By her thrift and enterprise she laid under 
tribute the country as far west as Effingham, 
and as far north as Charleston and Danville. 
Farmers wagoned their wheat and corn, and 
drove their stock long distances, and ex- 
changed them for iron, salt, and other indis- 
pensable articles of frontier life. For five 
years Darwin town lots were worth more than 
those of Chicago. She soon became a formid- 
able rival of Terre Haute, and caused that 
town great uneasiness about her commercial 
safety. Her future then gave brilliant prom- 
ise of her becoming the metropolis of the 
■-Wabash valley. 

On the 4th of August, IS^.j, the commis- 
sioners instructed the clerk to advertise and 
give notice that the removing of the jail and 
estray pen from Aurora to Darwin, would be 
let to the lowest bidder on the 3d day of 
the following September term of the court. 
It was afterward let to John Welsh who per- 
formed the work according to contract. This 
jail was used until about 1830, when it was 
destroyed by fire. 

The commissioners on the 2d of March, 
1824, ordered that projiosals be received on 
the second day of the next circuit court, " for 
erecting a house to hold courts in," of the 
fi Uowing description: " Twenty-five feet long 

in the clear, of hewn oak logs, with a lap 
shir)gle roof, two windows in front, and one in 
the rear; a story and a half high, a partition 
up-stairs; a small window at each end of said 
house; plank iloor and rougli plank stairs; the 
windows- up stairs to contain six and those 
below twelve lights each; chink and plaster 
the cracks, and finish the same in a workman- 
like manner. The pay to be made in the 
notes of individuals who purchased lots in 
Darwin, in town lots in Darwin, or partly in 
each." The contract was let to Lucius Kibby 
for the sum of six hundred dollars. He 
agreed to take lots number forty-nine, fifty, 
sixt^'-three and sixty-four, at two hundred 
and eighty dollars, the remainder, three hun- 
dred and twenty dollars to be paid, one half 
on the first of April next (1825), and the re- 
mainder when the house is finished — which 
be engages to complete in one year from date. 
He did not finish the work within the time 
specified, nor was it finish- d until March, 
1827, nearly two years and a half being spent 
in its erection. The county commissioners 
were the first to occupy it, and held a special 
term of their court, on the 28th of April, hav- 
ing met to examine the court house. William 
Martin and Enoch Davis, two workmen 
mutually chosen by the commissioners and 
Lucius Kibby, to ascertain the same, having 
examined the house, reported that it had not 
been done according to contract, and sixty 
dollars was deducted from the amount origi- 
nally agreed upon for erecting building. 
The commissioners, however, gave Kibby an 
extra allowance of nine dollars for putting in 
a fire-place, and an additional window up- 

In September, 1832, the court house was 
weather boarded, and otherwise repaired, and 
rendered a very comfortable building for the 
period. A Presbyterian minister named 
Enoch Bouton, lived up-stairs and held serv- 
ices below. The hall of justice answered a 



variety of purposes, and was kept in constant 
service. The court house was situated on lot 
twenty-eight, and is still standing, and used 
as a stable by Doctor Pierce. 

On Wednesday, December 5, A. D. 1833, 
at a meeting of the county coraniissioners, 
it was ordered that a new jail be built. On 
the 5th of January, 1833, the coniraissioners 
met and offered to the lowest bidder, Mechom 
Main, junior, the contract for building the 
new jail, for which ho was to receive the sum 
of four hundred and ninety-five dollars. 

The glory and prosperity of Darwin were 
destined to pass away. Terre Haute, alarmed 
for her commercial safety, used every exertion 
to wrest from Darwin the trade she had earned. 
The National Road, that great thoroughfare 
from Wheeling, Va., to St. Louis, was in 
course of construction and passed through 
Terre Haute, who wished to secure the trade of 
the country west, while Darwin relied chiefly 
upon the river for prosperity. Terre Haute 
was independent without it. 

The opening of the National Road through 
the county in 1834 greatly increased the fa- 
cilities for travel and transportation, and the 
agricultural interests of the county, along its 
line, were very largely stimulated. The de- 
velopment of villages along and in the sev- 
eral townships contiguous to the then great 
thoroughfare, was very rajsid. 

The people soon began to feel that the seat 
of justice at Darwin, where they were com- 
pelled to go for the transaction of all public 
business, was too remote and isolated, and 
was not at all situated with reference to the 
wants and convenience of the then present 
and future population. The northern section 
also began to receive an influx of immigrants, 
and they, feeling and appreciating the incon- 
venience, joined in the clamor lor the relo- 
c.ition of the county seat. The proposition 
was vigorously and loudly opposed by the 
southern portion of the county. Meetings 

were held for and against the propos.tion, 
and the excitement ran high. The merits of 
geographical and population centers were 
loudly and vigorously discussed. 

In the fall of 1835 a petition for county 
seat removal, and remonstrance against, were 
industriously circulated through the county, 
the two receiving the signatures of nearly 
all the county voters, the removal petition 
having a decided majority. These memori- 
als were presented to the Legislature at its 
session of 1835-6, which body, in pursuance 
of the majority petition, passed an act sub- 
mitting the question to a vote of the people. 

The commissioners were all eminent. Gen. 
Thornton being one of the most distinguished 
men in the State. However, they failed to 
locate the seat of justice, being unable to 
agree upon any given site, and so reported to 
the county commissioners. 

In 1836 another petition and remonstrance 
were circulated, though not attended with 
the same excitement and acrimony that c lar- 
acterized the former year. These were pre- 
sented to the Legislature, which body, in 
order to forever settle the vexed question, 
passed another act, which became a law in 
March, 1837, submitting the question to the 
people. The election came off unattended 
with the usual fierceness and excitement, for 
it was evident that a majority of the people 
favored removal, though the opposition to the 
proposition made a vigorous and gallant 
campaign. The result was as follows: 

Precincts. For rfmoval. Against. 

East Union o'J 55 

West Union 4 'i 

Dubois, Cont. Darwin... 6 138 

Washington 164 , 31 

Cumberland 91 2 

Richland 64 

378 3;i8 

Majority for, 150. 
But after the county seat removal question 


C^^W- " if ^^.ii;:^^^^,^^^^.-^ 



was settled, the more exciting and more mo- 
mentous one arose, to wiiich point should it 
be removed — Auburn or Marshall — they be- 
ing the only eligible sites. Then occurred, 
from May to August, lSo~, a brief, but one 
of the most bitter and exciting election con- 
tests ever in the county; one that was char- 
acterized by scathing jiorsoiial detraction 
and abuse. There were no newspapers in 
the county in that day, and hence the matter 
could not be argued through those great dis- 
seminators of information. There were no 
politics in the question, and it became one 
merely of geographical location between 
the contestants, and one of personal and pri- 
vate interest. Meetings were held all over 
the county, which were largely attended by 
the people, to hear the merits of the two 
places discussed by haranguing orators. The 
only way of electioneering was to praise one 
place and denounce the other. Much that 
was bitter and acrimonious was said for and 
against the contesting points. Wordy doc- 
uments were widely circulated, influencing 
the public mind. Vituperation and ridicule 
were indulged in freely, and so fierce anil 
caustic was the fight, that the activity and 
bitterness of a present day political cam- 
paign would be moderation and mildness, 
compared with it. It was the all-absorbing 
topic — overshadowed and swallowed up every- 
thing else. The gathering of the people from 
different sections at the mills, on grinding 
days, in the small towns, at the blacksmith 
shops, and even at church meetings, was the 
signal for fierce discussions and clash of opin- 
ions. And in several instances where the 
respective merits of the two places could not 
be settled by argument and controversy, the 
matter was arbitrated by rough and tumble 
; fights. It is related that before the com- 
mencement of hostilities in some of the en- 
I gagements, it was stipulated that the de- 
\ feated should vote at the dictation of the 

victor; and one brawny Hercules is said to 
have converted to Auburn three contuma- 
cious men whose predilections were for Mar- 
shall, his missionary efforts being attended 
with only the loss of a few teeth and a por- 
tion of his scalp. It was a vigorous but con- 
vincing way of electioneering. 

The day at last arrived, the contest closed, 
and the votes gave tlie following result: 

Precincts. Marshall. Auburn. 

East Union 63 7'Z 

Cumberland 4 123 

West Un ion 5 42 

Richland I't 57 

Dubois ....l-tl 27 

Washington 221 41 

Total 453 362 


Marshall's majority Ul 

Had it not been for the decided majorities 
in Washington and Dubois Precincts, the 
two then embracing nearly one-half of the 
county and its voting population, the whole 
current of our county history might have been 

Marshall had been selected by the people 
as their county capital, with every indication 
of its ever so remaining. The town was laid 
out, October 3, 1835, by the proprietors. Col. 
W. B. Archer, and Joseph Duncan, after- 
ward Governor and United States Senator, 
on the south half of section thirteen, and 
the northwest quarter of section twenty- 
four, township eleven north, range twelve 
west, the dividing line of the sections pass- 
ino- through the courthouse, and was named 
in honor of John Marshall, the most eminent 
chief justice that ever adorned the Supreme 
Court of the country. The proprietors made 
liberal and munificent donations of land and 
lots in perpetuity to the county, for court 
house, jail and other purposes. 

The county seat was removed to Marshall in 



June, 1838. The present court house was not 
completed until the following year. The first 
jail, a log one, stood on the lot on which Mrs. 
Hannah Patten resides. The first court was 
held in a i'rame building, its site marked by 
the residence of Mrs. Sarah A. Lawrence. 
Succeeding courts, until the completion of 
court house, were held in a building on south 
side of square, near the old Sutton homestead. 

The county seat question like Banquo's 
ghost, " would not down." The corpse laid 
in its grave but a year or two, until the 
skeleton was dragged forth, clothed with spe- 
cious argument and held up to the view of 
pul)lic opinion. The agitation of the question 
then began. At first it had but few followers 
or advocates; but these were earnest and 
tireless and kept the question continually be- 
fore the people. And as the western portion 
of the county became more populous, the 
matter assumed definite shape. Again was 
the old question of geographical centers dis- 
cussed, and for some time the contest was 
warmer and far more bitter if possible, than 
in the removal from Darwin. 

Thus matters stood until the summer of 
1848, when petitions were widely circulated 
and largely signed, memirializing the Leo-is- 
lature, for a re-location of the county seat. 
That body enacted a law at its next session, 
again submitting the question to the vote of the 
])eople. The campaign was short, sharp and 
bitter, and on the third Monday in May, 1849, 
the contesting parties rallied their forces, and 
the battle was fought with the following re- 

Precincts. For Marshall. Against 

Darwin 161 20 

Clear Creek 99 00 

Mill Creek 34 13 

York TO 46 

Auburn 39 83 

Cumberland GO 43 

Martinsville 14 136 

Richland 47 137 

Johnson g 65 

Melrose H g() 

Livingston , 104 28 

JIarsliall 19-1. 2 

Total 771 


]\rarshall's majority 131 

Thus ended a memorable campaign, the 
last of the kind, and one, it is to be hoped 
which forever settled the county seat location. 
In England, about A. D. 871, King Alfred, 
to prevent the rapines and disorders which 
prevailed in the realm, instituted a system of 
territorial division, which was the nearest ap- 
proach to our Americin county and precinct 
system of which history gives anv account, 
and it is not impossible but that it contained 
the first gern^s of the' same. This was the 
division of the kingdom into " tithings," an 
Anglo-Saxon term equivalent to " ten things," 
or groups of ten. Each tithing was the area 
inhabited by ten contiguous families, who 
were "frank pledges," that is, free pledges or 
surety to the King for each others' good be- 
havior, and were bound to have any offender 
within their district arrested and forthcoming. 
One of the principal inhabitants of the tithing 
was annually appointed to preside over it, 
entitled tithingman, or bead borougli, sup- 
posed to be the most discreet man within it. 
And it is within the confines of possibility to 
suppose, that from "tithingman" through the 
modifications and gradations of the centuries, 
and our descent from the parent stock, was 
evolved our otBce of county commissioner or 
township supervisor. As ten families consti- 
tuted a tithing, so ten tithings constituted a 
hundred, governed by a high constable or 
bailiff; and an indefinite number of families. 
The shire, or county system, as created by 
Alfred the Great, changed and modified dui- 
ing the lapse of centuries, with its parish sub- 
divisions, corresponding somewhat to the old 



precinct system, were imported from Entjland 
by tlu' first settlers of Viigiiiia, and firmly 
enrjrafted upon the early statutes, wliere it 
still clings with un^'ielding tenacity, and with 
some modifications, is in full force at the pres- 
ent day. When Illinois was organized as a 
Virginia county, the same system was par- 
tially introduced for its government, which 
made a strong and lasting impress upon the 
early laws. It existed in Illinois intact while 
she was a Virginia county; through her sev- 
eral grades of territorial government; and as 
a State, until 1848, when the first departure 
was made. And in twenty-four counties the 
system, substantial!}', is still in force. 

From the organization of the county, in 
1819, until the year 1S49, the management of 
county affairs was entrusted to a county com- 
missioners' court, composed of three members, 
elected by the voters of the county. This 
court was first created under the legislative 
act of March 23, 1819, though the law was 
amended and changed at nearly every session 
of the Legislature, until the adoption of the 
Constitution of 1848. The court held four 
sessions each year, on the first Mondays of 
March, June, September and December, cor- 
responding almost exactly with the meetings 
of our present board of superv isors. It coul 
sit six days, unless the county business was 
sooner transacted. The court had exclusive 
jurisdiction in all matters pertaining to the 
fiscal affairs of the county, regulating and 
imposing the county tax. It appointed its 
own clerk, and could remove him at any time, 
for sufficient cause, and also had the appoint- 
ment of county treasurer, grand and petit 
jurors, together with numerous other duties. 

By the State Constitution of 1848, the form 
of the county commissioners' court was 
changed. The law provided for the creation 
of a county court, with original jurisdiction in 
all probate matters, etc., and the election of a 
county judge, to hold his office four years. 

The law further provided for the election of 
two justices of the peace, in the county at 
large, in addition to the number the county 
was entitled by law, whose jurisdiction was 
co-extensive with the county, and who should 
sit with the county judge, as a county court 
for the transaction of all county business, and 
in which court the law vested all the powers 
and authority hitherto exercised by the county 
commissioners' court. The county judge was 
the presiding officer, and any two of the court 
constituted a quorum. The two members of 
the court, other than the judge, were styled 
"Associate Justices." This form of county 
government continued until the adoption of 
township organization. 

The early subdivisions of the county are 
somewhat vague, as the countj' embraced so 
large a scope of country, that like the maps of 
the ancients the lines ran into unexplored 
realms. The law of 1819 made it obligatory, 
on the part of the county commissioners, to 
elect three justices of the peace to lay 
off the county into election districts, 
and upon the commissioners to divide 
the county into precincts or townships. 
The commissioners selected Joseph Shaw, 
Georo-e W. Catron and James W. Parker. 


They met at the house of Charles Neelj', at 
the head of Walnut Prairie, April 19, 1819, 
and proceeded to lay off the county into 
election districts according to law: 

No. 1. Beginning at the southeast corner 
of the said county, on the Wabash River, 
thence up said river to Mill Creek; thence up 
said creek to the west boundary line of said 
county, thence south to the southwest corner 
of said county, thence east with the county 
line to the place of beginning. 

No. 2. Beginning on the Wabash River at 
the mouth of Mill Creek, thence up said river 
to the mouth of Kirkendall's Creek (now Big 
Creek), ti'.ence up said creek to the west 
boundary of said county; thence soutli to the 



main channel of Mill Creek, thence down said 
creek with the " mianders " thereof, to the 
place of beginning. 

No. 3. Beginning on the Wabash River at 
the mouth of Big or Kirkendall's Creek, 
thence up the said river to the middle of the 
tenth range of townships to the north bound- 
ary of township twelve, thence west with the 
township line between twelve and thirteen, to 
the county line, thence south to Kirkendall's 
Creek, thence down said creek with the 
" mianders " thereof, to the place of begin- 

No. 4. Beginning at the middle of the 
tenth range of townships on the line between 
twelve and thirteen, thence north to the north 
boundary line of said county, thence west to 
the northwest corner of said county, thence 
south to the township between townships 
twelve and thirteen, thence east with said 
township line to the place of beginning. The 
first vvas called Union, the second, Dubois, 
the third, Washington, and the fourth, Wayne. 
The three first named townships, although 
greatly reduced in territory, retained their 
names and a portion of their boundaries, until 
after the adoption of township organization. 

By an act of the Legislature, of 1823, Guy 
W. Smith, who was a receiver of public lands, 
at Palestine, was authorized and requested to 
])roeure and have placed where the dividing 
line between the States of Indiana and Illi- 
nois leaves, the nortliwest bank of the Wa- 
bash, forty-six miles due north of Vincennes, 
at a mulberry post forty links from the 
water's edge, a hewn stone of at least five 
feet in length and fifteen inches in diameter, 
and cause the following inscriptions to be 
made thereon, namely: on the east "Indiana;" 
on the west, " Illinois;" on the north; " 159 
miles and forty-six links to Lake Jlichigan." 
He was to receive therefor any sum not ex- 
ceeding one hundred dollars. 

At the June term, 1S:20, of the commission- 

ers' court, a petition was filed by sundry per- 
sons of the County of Clark and State of 
Illinois, praying for a new township to be 
composed partly of Wayne and Washington 
townships. The court granted the petition 
and named the township " Pike." 

The formation of Edgar County, in 1823, 
extinguished Wayne township, and part of 
Pike. The commissioners ordered that Wash- 
ington township include all the county north 
of Big Creek. In .lune, 1824, the boundary 
was again changed, and the county commis- 
sioners ordered " that all of this county north 
of the south line of town eleven (11) north, 
and all north of Big Creek, be included in 
Washington Township. In June, 1827, the 
county was again re-districted as follows: 

" Court orders that all that part of this 
county, lying south of Mill Creek, be called 
Union Township. Court establish Dubois 
Township, as heretofore establisiied. Court 
order that Washington Township include all 
of this county lying north of Dubois Town- 
ship, and east of the line between range 
twelve and thirteen west. Court order that 
Enibarras Township include all of this county 
lying north of Dubois, and west of the 
line between range twelve and thirteen 
west." This line extending north, was the 
west line of Edgar County. The divisions so 
remained until in 1829, when there were 
some slight changes made in their territorial 
boundaries, but not of sufficient importance 
to notice here. 

The law of elections in that day, required 
the polls to be open at eight and close at six. 
Thirty minutes' announcement before the 
closing of the polls was necessary. The 
judges, at their option, could postpone closing 
the polls until twelve o'clock at night. Any 
elector could vote for president and vice- 
president anywliere in the State. For State 
senator and rejiresentativc, anywhere in the 
district he was entitled to vote. For countv 



ofiicers, at anj' voting place in the county. 
If he voted more than once, the penalty was 
a fine of a hundred dollars, to go to the 
county wherein the oft'ense was committed. 
There was no penalty of impiisounient. 
Think of that law being in force to-day, in 
some of our large cities, or even in our own 
county! At the first close and exciting 
election, the aggregate vote would indicate a 
population of sixty thousand. No naturaliza- 
tion papers were required; all that was neces- 
sary was a six months' residence in the State 
preceding the election. The judges had the 
power, for the preservation of order and to 
protect themselves from insult and abuse, to 
fine any and all riotous persons, and upon 
failure to pay, to send them to the county jail 
not exceeding twenty days. After the clos- 
ing of the polls, one of the poll books was 
sealed, and to be delivered to the county 
clerk within four days after the election, by 
one of the judges or clerks, to be determined 
by lot, if they could not otherwise agree. 
The other poll book was left with one of the 
judges, and kept open for inspection. Any 
person ofi"ering to vote, whose vote was chal- 
lenged, merely had to swear or affirm that he 
had resided in the State six months immedi- 
ately preceding the election and had not 
voted at the election. No identifying and 
corroborating witnesses were required. Any 
unqualified person voting, was to forfeit not 
more than fifty, nor less than twenty-five dol- 
lars. Though if the judges believed him a 
legal voter, he was not to be fined. 

The county remained thus divided until 
Coles County was organized in the winter of 
1830, which extingviished the townships or 
precincts of Embarras and Hamilton. In 
March, 1831, the commissioners formed a 
new precinct in the northwest part of the 
county, called "Richland." In 1836 a new 
precinct was added, called "Cumberland." 
Union precinct had hitherto been divided 

into East and West Union precincts. The 
precincts or townships in the county were 
now named East Union, West Union, Dubois, 
Washington, Richland and Cumberland. In 
March, 1848, the county was redistricted by 
the commissioners into twelve precincts, 
named as follows: East Union, or York, Du- 
bois or Darwin, Clear Creek, Livingston, 
Marshall, Mill Creek, Auburn, Melrose, Mar- 
tinsville, Richland, Cumberland and Johnson 

These divisions remained unchanged, with 
the exception that a new precinct, called 
Upper Marshall or Castle Fin, was added, 
until the adoption of township organization. 

The Constitution of 1848, for the first time 
in the history of the State, contemplated and 
recognized a departure from the old and 
time-honored precinct system of county gov- 
ernment, and opened the way for the intro- 
duction of the present township mode of gov- 
ernment. The section relating to the matter 
is as follows: "The General Assembly shall 
provide, by a general law, for a township or- 
ganization, under which any county may or- 
ganize whenever a majority of the voters of 
such county, at any general election, shall so 
determine; and whenever any county shall 
adopt a township organization, so much of 
this Constitution as provides for the manage- 
ment of the fiscal concerns of the said county 
by the county court, may be dispensed with, 
and the affairs of said county may be trans- 
acted in such manner as the General As- 
sembly may provide." 

In pursuance of the foregoing, the Legis- 
lature enacted a law, February 17, 1851, pro- 
viding that the county court, on the petition 
of fifty legal voters, should cause to be 
submitted to the voters of said county, at 
any general election, the question of the 
adoption or I'ejection of township organiza- 
tion. The law further provided that thet 
«;ounty court, at its next session after such, 



adoption, should appoint three residents of 
the county as commissioners, to divide the 
county into townships. The commissioners 
were to divide the county into as many towns 
as there were Congressional townships therein. 
Where there were fractional townships, caused 
by county or State lines, or by streams, such 
fractions could be added to other townships, 
or added together. Tlie commissioners were 
required to make a written report of their 
proceedings, giving the names and bounds 
of each town, to the county clerk, on or be- 
fore the first day of March nextsucceding the 
adoption of township organization. Town- 
ships were to be named in accordance with 
the e.xpressed wish of their inhabitants, un- 
less there was contention. In that case, the 
commissioners were to designate the name. 

At the September term, 1854, of the coun- 
ty court, a petition was presented, signed by 
the requisite number of legal voters, pray- 
ing the question of organizing Clark County 
into townships be submitted to the people, 
at the November general election following. 
There was considerable opposition to the new 
system, but the proposition carried over- 
whelmingly. The people had tried the pre- 
cinct system, with its many imperfections, 
even since the formation of the county, and 
were ripe and ready for any change that 
promised better. Many specious arguments 
were urged in favor of the proposed town- 
ship organization. By its adoption, it was 
claimed that every section of the county 
would have a representative in the board of 
supervisors to watch and guard its interests. 
By its adoption, each township was made a 
body corporate, with full and ample powers 
to manage and control its own internal affairs. 
It could dictate and control the levy of its 
own taxes for school, bridge, and the vari- 
ous other taxes for township purposes. It 
could conduct its schools after its own fash- 
ion, and could lay out, alter and vacat'; its 

roads at will. It could choos? one from their 
midst to value and assess their lands and per- 
sonal property, and one also to collect their 
taxes. In short it made eacli township a miii- 
atiire county, investing it with a degree of in- 
dependence, and with powers not to be deriveil 
from, or enjoyed under, the old precinct 

On the 7th day of November, 1854, the 
election occurred, with the following results: 

TOWNSHIP organization: 
Trecincts. For. Against. 

Darwin or Dubois 47 111 

Melrose 139 1 

Livingston 127 20 

Auburn 79 79 

Cumberland 79 00 

Mill Creek 20 3 

Marshall 184 183 

Richland lis 3 

Martinsville 153 76 

Union or York 94 15 

Castle Fin 34 8 

Clear Creek 80 29 

Johnson 127 00 

Totals 1277 528 

And so township organization was adopted. 
Township organization is a system of 
county government having its origin in the 
New England States; and as the people of 
those States have migrated westward, it 
has been carried into most of the Northern 
and Western States. It is purely a Yankee 
institution, and is a system whereby the ter- 
ritory of each county is divided into conven- 
ient districts, called towns or townships, or 
as they are styled in the law, quasi corpora- 

It is said the first town meeting ever held 
in New England or America to consider af- 
fairs of common interest, occurred on March 
2'i, 1621, for the purpose of perfecting mili- 
tary arrangements against the Indians, at 
which a o-overnor was elected for the ensu- 
ino- year. And it is noticed, as a coincidence, 



wliother from that source or otherwise, tliat 
* the annual town meetings in the New Enghmd 
States have ever since been held in the 
spring of the year. New York imitatetl this 
example; and in every Northwestern State 
where the township system exists, the annual 
town meeting for election of officers, oc- 
curs likewise in the spring, either in March 
or April. 

The township officers are one supervisor, 
who is ex officio, member of the county board, 
a town clerk, one assessor and collector each, 
three commissioners of highwaj's, two jus- 
tices of the peace and two constables, and 
as many road overseers as there are road 
districts in the township. Our system, as 
adopted and perfected, is borrowed almost 
entire from the laws of New York. The of- 
ficers are the same — their duties substan- 
tially the same. Boards of supervisors, as 
constituted by the laws of our State, are de- 
liberative assemblies and their proceedings 
conducted according to general parliamentary 

The county court, at its December term, 
1854, following the adoption of township or- 
ganization, appointed Randolph Lee, Charles 
H. Welsh and John B. Briscoe commission- 
ers to lay off the county into townships, as 
required and provided for in the legislative 
act, who performed their duty as follows: 
Wabash, Marshall, Dolson, Parker, West- 
field, Cumberland, Martinsville, Anderson, 
Darwin, York, Melrose, Orange and Johnson. 
The first supervisors elected under township 
organization were John Pearce, from Ander- 
son Township; George Conger, Cumberland; 
James Lockard, Darwin; Wesley Norman, 
Dolson; James Brooks, Johnson; Nathan 
Willard, Marshall; Morrison Spenny, Mar- 
tinsville; James Cowden, Melrose; John 
Swope, Orange; T. H.Connelly, Parker; An- 
drew Dunlap, Wabash; Chas. Biggs, West- 
field; and Jacob Dolson, York. 

There was considerable dissatisfaction con- 
cerning the division of the county into town- 
ships. The people of York Township, at the 
September term, 1855, of the board of super- 
visors, petitioned that so much of York Town- 
ship as lies north of Mill Creek, be attached 
to Darwin Township, which resolution was 
considered and rejected. The citizens of Dar- 
win Township also presented a petition for a 
change and alteration of the boundary line of 
the township, which was also rejected. 

The law delegated to boards of supervisors 
power and authority to create new townships. 
And so at the September term, 1858, the 
board created Douglas Township, the four- 
teenth organized townfhip. At their June term 
1859, the board organized a new township, 
composed of nine sections of land from Dol- 
son township, three from Martinsville, three 
from Marshall, and one from Anderson, and 
called it "Auburn." This is the central 
township in the county, and was the last 
formed. It is four miles square, and con- 
tains sixteen sections of land. 

No other change, either iu name or bound- 
ary of any township has been made up to the 
present time. The names and land areas of 
the townships as now organized, are as fol- 

Anderson Township, 35 sections. 

Auburn " 16 " 

Casey " 36 « 

Darwin " about 34- " 

Dolson, " 40.V " 

Douglas " 18' « 

Johnson " 36 " 

Marshall " 33 « 

Martinsville " 37| « 

Melrose " 36 " 

Orange " 36 " 

Parker " 36 « 

AVabash " 7:i " 

Westfield " 18 " 

York " about 35 « 

Total 519 



TN tlie earlj' days justice was administered 
•^ without much show or parade. Courts 
were mostly held in log houses, or in tavern 
rooms fitted up temporarily for the occasion. 
Yet, in these huml)le halls, as able and emi- 
nent jurists as ever graced any Bench pre- 
sided over the courts and dispensed justice 
with dignity and fairness. Not only were 
these judges renowned for their legal lore, 
but wore distinguished for their attainments 
in other fields of learning. Thus the plead- 
ings and doings in those early courts ap- 
pear strange and primitive to us, and a 
verbatim, copy of some of the records would 
furnish considerable amusement to the legal 
fraternity and generation of the present day. 
One marked characteristic of early courts, 
was the pointedness and remarkable brevity 
of their recorded proceedings. A few words 
sufficed to explain and record all that was 
necessary in the most important cases, and a 
small, three-quire blank book contains all 
the proceedings of the Clark County Circuit 
Court for seven years. A record that would 
scarcely serve to index the cases of one of 
our modern terms. 

The first court ever convened in this county 
was held at Aurora, Monday, September 20, 
1819, Thomas C. Browne, presiding judge. 
The court lasted but part of one day, and 
the only business transacted %vas approving 
the clerk's, coroner's and sheriffs bonds. 

" Thereupon," as the old record sagely re- 
marks, "the court adjourned until court in 
course." The litigation was usually of an 
inconsequential character. The lawsuits were 
principally small appeal cases, actions of tres- 
pass, slander, indictments for assault and 
battery, affrays, riots, selling liquor without 
license, etc. There was now and then an in- 
dictment for larceny, murder, and other 
felonies. There were but wo indictments 
for m\irder during the first twelve years of 
the county's history, and very few for minor 
felonies. The first killing in the county, of 
which the court took recognizance, was the 
murder of Cyrus Shafp by Jacob Blaze, in 
1823, near Big Creek, and about one half 
mile south of the residence of Joseph Cook, 

No negro, mulatto, or Indian could testify 
against a white person. Any having one 
fourth negro blood was adjudged a mulatto. 
The offenses committed were usually petty 
and trifling, and were punishable by fine and 
imprisonment in the count}"- jail. The pen- 
alty for felonies, other than murder and man- 
slaughter, was flogging, fine and imprison- 
ment. The death penalty was inflicted by 
hanging; and, on application, the body of 
the criminal turned over to the surgeons for 
dissection. Burglary, robbery and larceny 
were each punishable by not over one hun- 
dred lashes on bare hack, and tine and im- 



prisonment. Col. Fickliii relates a story, as 
having actually happened, of a fellow who was 
convicted of stealino; moat, and was sentenced 
to receive twenty-five stripes. The sheriff 
promptly removed the prisoner, and admin- 
istered the castinjation. AVhile undergoing 
the drubbin<r, his counsel had motioned for a 
new trial, and was arguing the same, when 
the culprit returned into court, smarting and 
twisting under the vigorous castigation. He 
soon comprehended the situation, and began 
sliding toward his attorney, and pulling his 
coat, said in a loud, hoarse whisper, that all 
could hoar: "Bell, for the Lord's sake don't 
git another trial, I took the meat, and thev've 
larruped the daylights outer me for it, and if 
vou git another hitch they'll lam me again, 
and ouch, how it hurts." 

The first cause ever tried' in Clark County 
■was on Monday, April 17, 1820, in which 
Thomas Wilson was plaintiff, and William 
B. Archer, executor of Lewis Bohn, deceased, 
was defendant. It was an appeal case from 
the judgment of Charles Patrick, justice of 
the peace. At this term there were five 
cases docketed, three of which were con- 
tinued. Whether our pioneer ancestors were 
any more given to mendacious tattling than 
their posterity can only be conjectured. But 
it seems that alleged slander was a fruitful 
source of litigation in early times. But the 
juries of the day either considered character 
and reputation of little worth, or else the of- 
fensive statements were true, as the defend- 
ant in these suits was seldom found guilty, 
and when convicted, the damage awarded 
was insignificant. The following' cited case 
will serve as an example for all the rest: 
Sarah Coneioay v. George W. Catron. Suit 
for slander. Damages claimed, $5,000. 
Fifteen witnesses sworn. Jury retire, who, 
after mature deliberation come into court 
and say, we, the jury, find the defendant 
guilty, and assess the plaintiff's damages to 

six and a fourth cents. Joseph Shaw, fore- 
man. Quite a considerable discount from 
the original claim. 

The first court in Darwin was held on Thurs- 
day, May 8, 1823. It was held in the tavern 
of John McClure, as were the two succeeding 
terms. The fourth was held at the house of 
Jacob Harlan, and .afterward in the court 
house. The arguments of counselors in 
those days were not embellished with quota- 
tions from numberless text book«, nor forti- 
fied with culled decisions from a half century 
of Supreme Court reports, for they had no 
library of hundreds of volumes to repair 
to at their pleasure. But in salient points of 
plain, fundamental law as uttered between 
the lids of Kent and Blackstone, their argu- 
ments were fully up to the standard of to-day. 

The appended lists embrace the names of 
all the judges who have held courts in Clark, 
with their respective terms of service, and also-' 
the names of all the proseeuting attorneys: 

Thomas C. BrowiifSept., 1819, to April, 
1820; William Wilson, Chief Justice, April, 
1830, to May, 1825; James O. Wattles, May, 
1825, to Nov., 1825; James Hall, Nov., 1825, 
to May, 1S26; James O. Wattles, May, 1826, 
to April, 1827; William Wilson, April, 1827, 
to April, 1835; Justin Harlan, April, 1835, to 
Oct., 1835; Alex. F. Grant, Oct., 18:J5, to 
May, 183(j; Justin Harlan, May, 1836, to May, 
1841; William Wilson, May, 1841, to May, 
1849; Justin Harlan, 1849 to 1801; Charles 
H. Constable, 1801 to 1860; Hiram B. Decius, 
1806 to 1872; Oliver L. Davis, 1872 to 1879; 
William E. Nelson, Colonel B. Smith, Oliver 
L. Davis, Jacob W. Wilken. 

Prosecuting Attorxeys. — .lohn M. Rob- 
inson, Edwin B. Webb, Orlando B. Ficklin, 
Augustus C. French; Gardner B. Shellady, 
Aaron Shaw, Alfred Kitchell, John Scholfield, 
James R. Cunningham, Silas S. Whitehead, 
John L. Ryan, Thomas L. Orndorff. 

The late Judge Harlan, with his prodigious 




memory, possessed an inexhaustible store of 
anecdotes, of old time courts, gleaned from 
his long years of individual experience as 
judge, and many were the amusing stories 
he related to the writer of early days, and 
two we will here repeat: In one of the 
southern counties of the circuit, a long, lank 
and cadaverous specimen, and as verdant as 
the backwoods he hailed from, was elected 
sheriff. He was clever and good hearted, and 
had a stentorian voice. At the first court 
after his election he walked into the room, 
carrying a heavy rifle, and dressed in a cos- 
tume at once unique and picturesque. He 
•wore the inevitable wamus, and his nether 
extremities were encased in a new pair of 
bright, pea green unmentionables, except a 
ten inch abbreviation of each leg was pieced 
out with cloth of blue. His first words were: 
"Well, Jedge, I'm the sheriff, what'll you 
have?" "Convene court, Mr. Sheriff." "Do 
what, Jedge?" replied the sheriff, the word 
"convene" having floored him. "Open court, 
Mr. Sheriff." This was done in a tone tiiat 
shook the rafters. Not a juryman was pres- 
ent, and the judge inquired, "Where is the 
panel, sheriff?" "Where is the what, Jedge?" 
"Why, the panel, the jury." "Oh! they're 
round somewhar, and I'll hunt 'em up." In a 
few minutes he returned, and said: "There's 
going to be a fight over at Brayley's, and 
they won't come 'till arter its over." "Mr. 
sheriff," said the judge sternly, "I command 
you to bring the jury here forthwith." "All 
right, Jedge, I'll fetch em." And seizing his 
rifle he marched over to Brayley's, and in a 
tone full of meaning, said: "Boys, the old man 
over thar is madder'n a hornet, and wants you 
oraediately. I'll give you jest one minit to 
git, and the chap that aint trottin' then, I'll 
drop," bringing his gun to his shoulder. It 
goes without saying, that the jury was speed- 
ily impaneled. 

No irreverence is intended by the following, 

but is merely to show the ignorance and stu- 
pidity of an officer, and a practical joke of 
early days: Among the hangers-on at the 
court, was a fellow named Murray, occasion- 
ally a jury man or bailiff. He was a great 
favorite with the judge, who liked him for his 
many genial qualities and sunny nature, but 
he was an incorrigible wan-. Taking the 
sheriff aside after the first adjournment, he 
told him privately as a friend, that he had 
been talking to the judge, who was well 
pleased with his promptness and efficiency, 
all except his manner of adjournment. But 
that he, the judge, felt some delicacy in tell- 
ing him, for fear of wounding his feelings. 
That the adjournment ought to be made in 
his loudest tones, so the outside world could 
hear, and that under the new code, the ad- 
journment should be closed with "so help me 
Jesus Christ and General Jackson, Amen," 
as this was a Democratic county. He urged 
him to say nothing, and at the next adjourn- 
ment, both surprise and please the judge. 
The sheriff, aware of Murray's intimacy with 
the judge, believed him implicitly. That 
evening, at the proper hour, the judge ob- 
served, "Mr. Sheriff, adjourn court." At a 
nod from Murray the officer braced himself 
and with a roar that awoke the echoes for a 
mile or more, he yelled: "Oh! yes; Oh! yes; 
the honorable Circuit Court is now adjourned 
until to-morrow morning at nine o'clock, so 
help me Jesus Christ and General Jackson, 

The court was adjourned, and the sheriff 
near losing his position for contempt, until 
Jlurray explained, and received a severe rep- 

Clark County with a distinct organization 
extending throusrh sixty- four years, from the 
morning till the twilight of the nineteenth 
century has had but very few officers in some 
departments. Owing to the absence of some 
of the old records, it is difficult to collate an 



accurate list of all those who have been hon- 
ored by the citizens of the county with posi- 
tions of profit and trust. Especially is this 
the case with regard to the treasurers and 
coroners. It is a fact to be remarked, how- 
ever, that in all the offices since the formation 
of the county but one vacancy has been oc- 
casioned by death, and but three from resig- 
nation. Owing to the then large area of the 
county, and the sparse population, the duties 
of some of the pioneer county officers were 
extremely arduous. In the listing of taxable 
pro]3erty by the treasurer, and the collection 
of the revenue by the sheriff, the isolation 
of the settlements necessitated long and te- 
dious journe3'S, through a wilderness without 
roads, leagues often intervening between 
habitations. Judge Stockwell relates that 
he onoe collected the taxes throughout the 
county, and walked through deep snow over 
the site of the present town of Charleston, 
Coles county, at the time the surveyors were 
laj'ing it out, and at the end of a week, he 
found upon comijaring, that he had traveled 
a mile for each cent of revenue he had re- 
ceived. At the December term, 1819, of the 
commissioners' court, the following appears 
of record: "It appearing to the court, that 
William Lockard, treasurer, has been put to 
much trouble in taking a list of taxable pro- 
perty this present year, that the sum allowed 
by law is not sufficient to compensate him, 
therefore court do allow him extra of his al- 
lowance by law, which amounts to only nine 
dollars and ten cents for this present year, 
the sum of fifteen dollars." No doubt this 
was considered ample remuneration for listing 
the property of a county at that time com- 
prising one eighth of the entire State. To-day 
the sum would scarcely complete the assess- 
ment of a school district. In the summoning 
of jurors, witnessess, etc., the serving of a 
single process often involved a journey of a 
hundred miles. Yet the salary of the sheriff 

was but fifty dollars per annum. County 
treasurers were appointed by the commis- 
sioners, and the office was not one usually from 
which the incumbent retired rolling in wealth. 
In addition to his allowance for assessment 
services, he received two per centum com- 
mission on collected revenues, which, in 
exceptional years, amounted to as much as 
four dollars, which swelled the aggregate of 
his annual salary to as much as thirty dollars. 
Charles Patrick, a pioneer treasurer, in an ex- 
hibit of the fiscal concerns of the county, re- 
ported that the levy of the previous year was 
two hundred and fifty dollars, and that all 
outstanding orders, except two for a dollar 
each, had been redeemed, and these remained 
in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, 
the sum of sixteen and one fourth cents. He 
also suggested and recommended a reduction 
in the tax levy of the then current year. No 
doubt he had the interest of the tax payers 
at heart, and perhaps was desirous to avoid 
the weighty responsibility of having as much 
as three hundred dollars in the county coffers 
at one time. The clerk of the circuit and 
commissioners' courts, for one person filled the 
dual position, was paid about in the same pro- 

The salary of Jacob Harlan for the year 
1834 was but $7-4.'25, which amount included 
the sum of $6.87| expended for years' sup- 
ply of stationery. For every dollar then paid, 
we now pay hundreds for the same articles. 
But these were the days of real frugality and 
economy. All legal instruments and docu- 
ments, summons, deeds, assessment lists, 
county orders, election notices, and in fact 
every instrument, was written out at length, 
as printed blanks were very rare and e,\c :ed- 
ingly costly. In 1824 the clerk was ordered 
to procure one quire of printed blank deeds, 
and the same cost $9 in Vandalia, the nearest 
press in the State, besides seventy-five cents 
postage to Darwin. This was the last pur- 



chase of blanks for many years. And it 
slioilld he bortie in mind that the salaries of 
these officers were paid generally in State 
bank notes, then very much depreciated. 
Though the county was small in population 
and extensive in territory, yet when we com- 
pare the cost of conducting affairs then with 
that of to-daj', one is astounded at the con- 
trast, and is a convincing argument that ad- 
vanced civilization and refinement are expen- 
sive luxuries. The population at the time re- 
ferred to was about one eleventh as large as 
it is to-day, and it would be natural to pre- 
sume that the business of the county, and the 
cost of conducting it, would increase in the 
same ratio as the inhabitants. But such is 
not the case in the matter of expenses, which 
have grown enormously' and far beyond all rea- 
sonable jiroportion. It is safe to say that the 
present cost of maintaining any one of the 
important county offices for one year would 
have defrayed every county expense in that 
day, including all courts, jurors, elections, 
salaries of officers, stationery, etc., for five 

The following county judges have worn the 
judicial ermine since the organization of the 
county. In early times they were appointed 
by the Legislature and were paid by fees: 

Samuel Prevo, 1819 to 1823; Charles 
Neely, 1823 to 1825; Jacob Harlan, 1825 to 
"~-4a35; Uri Manly, 1835 to 1843; Stephen 
Archer, 1843 to 1853; John Bartlett, 1853 
to 1854, resigned; John Stockwell, 1854 to 
1857; William C. Whitlock, 1857 to 1869; 
William R. Griffith, 1869 to 1873; Justin Har- 
lan, 1873 to 1877; William R. Griffith,* 1877 
to 1882; Eth Sutton, 1882. 

The commission of Samuel Prevo, first 
Judge of Probate, is among the county files, 

* It will be seen by the foregoing list that Judge 
Griffith, as well as all the other olficers whose terms 
of office expired in 1881, held until the general elec- 
tion of 1882, as provided by legislative enactment. 

and is the oldest document of the kind in the 
county. It is dated February 12, 1821, 
signed by Shadrach Bond, Governor, and Elias 
K. Kane, Secretary of State, and the usual 
formula, " To whom all these presents shall 
come, greeting:" reads, "To all who shall see 
these presents." The first instrument ever re- 
corded in the county, however, was the stock- 
mark of Charles Neely, bearing date May 
26, 1819. The judge of the Circuit Court ap- 
pointed its clerk,and the county commissioners 
their clerk,though one person usually filled both 
positions. And it was not uncommon for the 
offices of probate judge, circuit and county 
clerk, and justice of the peace, to be held by 
one individual. Jacob Harlan officiated in 
three of these capacities for years. 


William B. Archer,* 1819 to 1832; Jacob 
Harlan, 1823 to 1836; Jonathan N. Rathbone, 
1836 to 1837; ■'Uri Manly, 1837 to 1842; 
Newton Harlan, 1842 to 1848; William B. 
Archer, 1848 to 1852; William P. Bennett, 
1852 to 18G0; Thomas W. Cole, 1860 to 1872; 
Daniel J. Davidson, 1872 to 1880; William 
B. Hodge, Jr., 1880— elected for four years. 

In 1836, the circuit and county clerkships 
were separated, the latter being made elec- 
tive. Jonathan N. Rathbone was chosen to 
the office September 5, 1836, and served until 
ISIarch, 1837, when he resigned, and Joshua 
P. Cooper was appointed to fill the vacancy, 
and served until September of same year, 
when Darius Phillips was elected and held 
the office until 1851, when he resigned. 
Phillips was an able and competent officer; 
was an old resident, and was county treas- 
urer for one or more terms. By accident he 
became crippled in his right hand, and ac- 

* W. B. Archer resigned as clerk Commissioners 
Court, March, 1820, and as circuit clerk, May, 1822, 
and was succeeded in each position by Jacob Harlan. 



quired the art of writing with his left, and 
was an accomplished scribe. He was very 
popular for a time, and possessed the unlim- 
ited confidence of the entire people. But at 
last he was suspected of being connected with 
tiiat extensive and thoroughly organized horde 
of murderers and thieves, which infested the 
Mssissippi valley, and for a long time defied 
the law, and was under the leadership of the 
notorious Bob Birch, of Anderson township, 
this county, whose capture, escape, and final 
breaking up of the gang is so thrillingly 
recounted by Edward Bonny, a renegade 
member, as was generally believed. Phillips 
was accused with being in constant commu- 
nication with the gang in this county, and 
forewarning them with needful information 
concerning legal prosecutions, etc. So con- 
firmed became this suspicion that, in 1851, 
the regulators gave him an unmerciful whip- 
ping, his shirt being cut into ribbons. Im- 
mediately after the castigation, he climbed 
upon a stump, and in a brief but affecting 
speech to the regulators, resigned his office, 
and in a short time left the country. Howard 
Harlan, Sr., filled the vacanc}', by appoint- 
ment, until the succeeding fall, when John 
Stockwell was chosen, and served until De- 
cember, 1853. Allen B. Briscoe was elected 
in November of same year, and was re-elected 
five consecutive terms, and was succeeded by 
the present incumbent, Harrison Black, De- 
cemiier 1. 1377, who was re-elected in 1885, 
for the term of four years. 

Clark, since her organization, has had 
twenty-four sheriffs, as follows: 

Isaac Parker, 1819 to 1S20; .lohn Welsh, 
1820 to 1833; Joseph Morrison, 1833 to 1834; 
James P. Jones, 1S34 to 1831; John Stock- 
well, 1S31 to 1S3S; James Lockard, 1838 to 
1843; William P. Bennett, 1843 to 1848; 
Samuel McClure, 1848 to 1850; Thomas 
Handy, 1850 to 1853; Samuel MoClure, 1853 
to 1854; Horace E. Ritchie, 1854 to 1850; 

Morrison Spenny, 1850 to 1858; John B. Bris- 
coe, 1858 to 1860; Nicholas Hurst, 1860 to 
1863; Andrew J. Smith, 1863 to 1864; Tim- 
othy H. Connely, 1864 to 1866; Joseph A. 
Howe, 1866 to 1868; Timothy H. Connely, 
1868 to 1870; Samuel Lacy, 1870 to 1873; 
Warren Bartlett, 1873 to 1876; William T. 
Flood, 1876 to 1878; William H. Beadle, 
1878 to 1880; Henry Sherman, 1880 to 1883; 
Jacob N. Farr, 1883 — elected for four years. 
War History. — Though lacking the halo 
of warlike tradition and romance; though 
destitute of historic personages and deeds of 
arms, embalmed in story and in song; though 
wanting memorable battle-fields, made sacred 
by patriot blood; though not glorified with 
heroic achievements in the " times that tried 
men's souls;" though not a county during the 
struggle of 1813; yet the military history of 
Clark, though young and limited, is honor- 
able, and one of which she may well be pioud; 
one that reflects luster on her name, and credit 
on her patriotism; a history, every page of 
wiiich has proven her sons worthy descendants 
of courageous ancestry. The sires and grand- 
sires of our early settlers had fought with un- 
wavering hearts through the darkest hours of 
the Revol-ution; had crimsoned the snows with 
bleeding feet on long and perilous marches; 
starving and in rags, they had counted the 
lonely da3'S through that terrible winter at 
Valley Forge; they had lived on parched 
corn, and burrowed with the " swamp fox " 
in Carolinian- marshes, only sallying from 
their fastnesses to strike a blow for freedom; 
sustained and inspired through all their hard- 
ships, through all their sufferings, with an un- 
faltering and implicit faith in their ultimate 
independence. Strong in their might, invin- 
cible in their cause, the day of triumph at last 
dawned, and beneath the" bending skies at 
Yorktown, they beheld the lion of England 
prostrate in the dust before the eagle of Amer- 
ica. And from these heroes our pioneers in- 



herited the same fierce love of liberty that 
brooked no trammels which partook of op- 
pression and injustice. They, too, knew what 
war was. They bad threaded dangerous de- 
files, with Harmer, bristling with unseen and 
relentless foes; had stood in the gloom of 
death under ill-fated St. Clair, when the 
groans of the scalped and dying mingled with 
the crack of the rifio and the yells of savage 
victory. They had seen the blackened ruins 
and charred remains of kindred at Fort Minns; 
had fought with Harrison at Tippecanoe, and 
with ringing shouts hurled back the purple 
tide of Indian warfare, and avenged the sick- 
ening butcheries of other days. They stood 
at New Orleans, and before their deadly rifles 
the flower of Britain's chivalry melted like 
morning mist before the sunbeams. 

The first attempt to establish a military 
force in Clark, on a peace footing, was in 
June, 1831, when the commissioners proceed- 
ed to lay off the county into company districts 
for the organization of the militia. Union 
and Dubois townships were each a company 
district, and Washington and Pike composed 
one. County musters were required to be 
held at county seat the first Saturday in 
April, annually. Yearly battallion and regi- 
mental drills were had in September. Fines 
were imposed upon members for non-attend- 
ance to these, ranging from fifty to seventy- 
five cents. Officers were fined for neglectino- 
to wear any and every article of uniform. At 
all musters, shooting matches for beef and 
other property, including whisky, were legal- 
ized by State law. At these gatherings col- 
lected the best marksmen, far and near, and 
many were the close and exciting trials of 
skill. Running, jumping, wrestling, pitching 
horse-shoes, and other athletic sports, were 
indulged in, while every crowbait in the coun- 
ty, that could head off a steer, was paraded 
as a race-horse. In fact these musters were 
carnivals of eniovment on the frontier, durino- 

which our early settlers abandoned themselves 
to feasting, carousing and general jollity. 

In Movember, 1804, by a treaty piade by 
Gen. Harrison with the chiefs of the Sac and 
Fox nations of Indians, all th'eir lands. Rock 
river, and much more elsewhere, were ceded 
to the government. This treaty was after- 
ward ratified by portions of the tribes in 1815 
and 181G. But there was one old turbulent 
Sac chief who alwaj'S denied the validity of 
these treaties, and by his wild and stirring 
eloquence at times, though usually gloomy 
and taciturn, incited the Indians to hostilities. 
He was distinguished for his courage, and 
for his clemency to prisoners. He was firmly 
attached to the British; had been an aid to 
the famous Tecumseh and cordially hated the 
Americans. This chief was Mucata Muhic- 
atah or Black Hawk. Under pretense that 
the treaties before referred to were void. 
Black Hawk, in the spring of 1831, with three 
hundred warriors, invaded the State, drove off 
the white settlers, destroyed their crops, killed 
tlieir stock, and other violent depredations, 
besides committing several murders. Bv the 
promptness of the military he was quickly 
checked, and compelled to sue for peace, and 
ratified the original treaty of 1804. Not- 
withstanding this treaty, Black Hawk, with 
about six hundred warriors, again entered the 
State in the spring of 1832, and committed 
many acts of vandalism. Great alarm pre- 
vailed, and Governor Reynold's issued his 
call for two thousand troops which was 
promptly answered. This was the first de- 
mand upon the patriotism of our county. 
Drafting was at first resorted to fill Clark's 
quota, but as this entailed considerable hard- 
ship and injustice, volunteers were called lor. 
Two companies of about eighty men each 
were quickly raised and mustered at Darwin, 
and reported to and were accepted by the 
governor. The officers of the first company 
were William B. Archer, captain, Danie 



Poorman, first lieiUeiiarit, and Roj'al A. Knott 
second lieutenant. Upon arriving at tiie 
rendezvous, Captain Archer was assigned to 
the stafif of the commanding general with the 
rank of colonel*, and Royal A. Knott was elect- 
ed captain. The officers of the second com- 
pany were John F. Richardson, captain; 
Woodford Dulaney, first lieutenant, and Jus- 
tin Harlan, second lieutenant. Both these 
companies served with distinction until the 
war was ended. 

The next call upon Clark for the military 
services of her sons, was in the war with 
Mexico. One company of about seventy-five 
men was raised and mustered at Marshall, 
and officered as follows: ^yiIIiam B. Archer, 
captain; Nicholas Hurst, first lieutenant, and 
Charles Whitlock, second lieutenant. The 
company left Marshall June 6, 1846, and was 
transported to Alton in wagons; arrived there 
and reported to the governor, and was by 
him received as company number twenty- 
seven, on the 9th following. The company 
was discharged June 27, 184G, the State's 
quota having been filled by previously accept- 
ed troops. By an act of the Legislature, of 
February 20, 1847, the sum of six hundred 
dollars was appropriated by the State to de- 
fray the expenses and pay for the services of 
the company; and Justin Harlan, Timothy 
R. Young and^Uri Manlej-, were appointed 
a B lard of Commissioners for the disburse- 
ment of the fund. Several members of the 
coinpaii}', confident that it would not be re- 
ceived, and anxious to serve their countr}-, 
enlisted in other organizations, and served 
through the entire war, participating in its 
fiercest battles, one being killed at Buena 
Vista. Among these were the Hon. .James 
C Robinson, David Dolson, Austin Handy, 
Daniel and Luther Groves, and James Ben- 

The next occasion upon which Clark was 
called upon to manifest her patriotism and de- 

votion to the country, was the war of the re- 
bellion 18G1-5. It is unnecessary to refer to 
the causes which precipitated that stupen- 
dous struggle, that most gigantic civil war that 
marks the history of the world, for they are 
familiar to all. 

On the 4th of March, 1861, on the marble 
in front of the national capitol, in the pres- 
ence of thronging thousands that surged like 
an ocean around their feet, stood two men, 
Abraham Lincoln and James Buchanan, one 
old and gray, and bowed by responsibilities 
and years, gladly laying down the burden of 
his power and august position over a great 
people, for the quietude of a peaceful home; 
the other, accepting the thorny glories of the 
White House, and outward bound into the 
wild turmoil of contending hosts and heroic 
deeds. The strife of opinions and clash of 
factions which had been waxing deeper and 
stronger between the North and South con- 
centrated after Lincoln's election, and the 
heart of the Nation was almost rent in twain 
before he took the inaugural oath. Already 
had a Southern government been organized; 
already had the Palmetto flag kissed the sky 
at Montgomery. And when these two men 
shook hands, it was a supreme moment por- 
tentous with mighty events — the commence- 
ment of an epoch grand and terrible in the 
history of our country. And when Abraham 
Lincoln solemnly swore to preserve intact 
the Constitution and Union of his fathers, 
peace veiled her face, and shuddering, fled 
before the darkening pall and lowering gloom 
of intestine war. No one realized the com- 
ing terror, or thought how easy it was for a 
war of passions to verge into a war of blood. 
The idea of a rebellion that would rend our fair 
country for long and cruel years, that would 
fill the whole length and breadth of the land 
with widows and orphans, was not recognized 
as a possibility. The people hoped against 
hope that tiie calamity of war would bo 



averted, that milder counsels would prevail, 
that some plans of pacification could be 
united upon. But all iu vain, and when in 
the twilight calm of a southern morning a 
screaming shell burst over Sumter, its rever- 
aberations echoed from sea to sea, and aroused 
a mighty nation to arms. How little did the 
actors in that opening scene dream of the 
horrors that were to follow! 

In response to the first call for troops, in 
early May, 1S61, a company was at once 
enlisted, with. Edwin Harlan as captain, and 
Nineveh S. McKeen and A. G. Austin as first 
iind second lieutenants. It was afterward 
assigned to and becam<^ Company " H," 21st 
Infantry, of which U. S. Grant was colonel, 
and then began his illustrious military career. 
The next were Company " G," 10th Infantry, 
and Company " B," 2d Artillery. As the war 
progressed old Clark, true to her ^ancestry, 
sent company after company. She was rep- 
resented by Companies " F," of the 30th; " G," 
of theSitii; "C,"of the 62d; « G," of the 
70th; "I," of the 79th; " K," of the 130th, and 
" G," of the 152d Regiments of Illinois In- 
fantry. She had Company " K" in 1st Mis- 
souri Cavalry; her sons fought in the 14th 
Indiana. She was represented by detach- 
ments in Illinois and other State regiments 
other than above mentioned. Space pre- 
cludes an extended mention of each, and 
comparisons would be invidious. Suffice it 
to say they fought and died as freemen, and 
shed imperishable glory on the arms of the 
State. Clark, throughout that long and des- 
perately contested war, sent 1,.560 men to the 
lioid, over one tenth her population at the 
time, of which number it is safe to say, one 
eighth never returned. 

Old Clark was largely represented in the 
War of the Rebellion, and her sons fought in 
nearly every important battle in the south 
and soutliwest. They were in that gallant 
host that captured Forts Henry and Donel- 

son. They stood in the murderous hail at 
Crab Orchard and Stone River. They stormed 
at Lookout midst iiissing shot and hurtling 
shell, and planted the banner of their coun- 
try amid the war and shock of battle upon his 
dizzy crest. At Chickamauga they rallied 
around that " Rock of the Union," General 
Thomas, and aided in stemming the tide of 
inglorious defeat. They charged at Fred- 
ericktown and fouglit at Mission Ridge. 
Their blood crimsoned the fated field of Shiloh, 
and reddened the sod at Atlanta. They 
were in the sieges of Vickfburg and Mobile, 
at Corinth and the Wilderness. Before Nash- 
ville, at Franklin and Five Forks. They 
were in that wonderful masterpiece of modern 
warfare, unequaled in its boldness of concep- 
tion and execution in the histor}"- of the world, 
in that army that swept to the sea, and thence 
northward through the Carolinas and Virginia. 
They wore out their lives in weary waiting 
and hopeless captivity amidst the cruelty and 
disease of loathsome prison pens, and their 
ashes repose at Andersonville and Tyler. 
The bones of her children rest in unmarked 
graves along the lonely bayous of Texas and 
Louisiana. In the dusky glades of the Wilder- 
ness, in the sunny savannahs of Georgia, at 
the foot of frowning Lookout. And their 
bones reposing on the fields they helped to 
win, and in the graves they fill, are a perpet- 
ual pledge that no flag shall ever wave over 
their silent dust but the flag they died to 

Herewith are appended the muster-rolls of 
the two companies furnished by Clark County, 
during the Black Hawk War, and also the 
names of those who served, during the war 
with Mexico. They are appended in the 
belief that it is eminently appropriate that the 
names and memories of these gallant men 
should be perpetuated within the pages of 
this work, and that it will be a matter of in- 
terest to their descendants, for generations to 



come. The first company raised in the Black 
Hawk War, %vas that of William B. Archer, 
of wiiicli Tnentioii has herotoforo been made. 
It was known as Gapt. Royal A. Knott's 
company of the 1st Regiment of the 2nd 
Brigade, Illinois Mounted Volunteers, called 
into tiie service of the United States by the 
Governor's proclamation of May 15, 1832, and 
Inustered out August 15, 1832. 

The following is the roster: 

Daniel Poorman, 1st Lieut. 

George W. Young, 2d Lieut, discharged 
July 21^, 1832. Lost mare. 

Sergeants. — Stephen Archer, John Fears, 
James I.i0ckard, Oliver C. Lawell. 

Corporals. — William T. McClure, James 
Du-ilap, discharged July 31, 1832; Noah 
B ijauchamp, discharged July 31, 1833; John 
W. Thompson, lost mare,'saddle, bridle and 

Privates. — Jesse K. Archer, Daniel Boone, 
lost horse, strayed away; Samuel Burk, lost 
iiorse; William Bostick, George Berry, Thos. 
F. Bennett, Theophilus Cooper, lost his horse; 
Joel Cowen, Chalkley L. Cooper, lost mare; 
Jeremiah Crip, lost mare; Martin L. Cheno- 
iveth, Alexander H. DeHart, discharged July 
!J!, 18:;2; Lorenzo D. D.-Hart, disch. July 21, 
1S32; Alhanan Davis, Daniel Davis, Samuel 
Dolsiin, furloughed, Aug. 9, 1832; Andrew 
Fleming, discharged July, 21, 1832; Ahalis 
Faiiin, horse worn out; Phineas Fears, lost 
his blaid<et; Martin Grove, John B. Grant, 
James E. Henderson, Hez. A. Henderson, 
Sanford Johnson, Moses Kennedy, discharged 
July 21, 1832; Marshall Lafferty, Artemas 
I-athrop, William McCabe, John McCabe, 
Jolm McGuire, Thomas Minor, Benj. Ogden, 
sick and furloughed June 21; Nehemiah 
Ogdcn, Absalom O. Peters, Samuel Poorman, 
discharged July 21 ; Samuel Prevo, furloughad 
August 7, 1832; Ira Prevo, Ebenezer Payne, 
discharged July 2] ; Lyman B. Squires, Elon 
Sharp, lost lilaiikct; Jatnes Shaw, Elijah Staf- 

ford, discharged July 21; John Van Winkle 
lost his blanket; John Waters, lost his horse; 
Thomas Wailo, Thomas White, lost his horse. 

This company of volutiteers assembled in 
Darwin, Clark County, Illinois, May 31st, 
1832, and then and there elected officers; and 
from that place marched June 3, 1832, and 
under the Governor's oruer rendezvoused at 
Hennepin, on the Illinois river, June 11; next 
day marched and arrived at Fort Wilbourn, 
Lower Rapid, Illinois river, and the company 
was mustered into the United States' service 
June 19th, 1832. 

August 15, 1832, (signed) Royal A. Knott, 
Captain . 

The next command was Captain John F. 
Richardson's company, of Spy B.ittalion, 2d 
Brigade Illinois Militia Mounted Volunteers, 
called into service same as company forego- 
ing; organized June 5, 1832, marched to Fort 
Wilbourn and was mustered into the service 
of the United States June 19, 1832, and mus- 
tered out at Dixon's Ferry, Rock River, Illi- 
nois, August 15, 1832. 

The following is the roster: 

Woodford Dunlaney, 1st Lieut, furloughed 
August 4, 1832; Justin Harlan, 2d Lieut, fur- 
loughed August 4, 1832. 

Sergeants. — Jacob Dolson, John Wilson, 
lost horse, saddle and bridle ; Asher V. Bur- 
well, lost saddle and spancels; R )bert David- 
son, horse gave out, left at Ft. Winnebago. 

Coqiorals.— Christian Jeffers, Nathan Hal- 
lenbeck, Richard Ross, George Wilson. 

Privates. — Zeno A. Ashmore, Samuel M. 
Biggs, furnished Martin I.,. Ashmore, as suiist. ; 
Franklin Cooper, lost horse and saddle; 
Daniel Davidson, Aspano Elliot, Andrew 
Hadden, supposed to have been discharged; 
Samuel Hadden, supposed to have been dis- 
charged; .Joseph Hf)gue, sup]iosed to have 
been discharged; George Johnson, supposed 
to have been discharged; John Kerr, sup- 
posed to have been discharged; Conrad F. 



Locker, lost his horse; Joseph W. Markle, 
Stephen Nott, Nineveh Shaw, appointeil ad- 
jutant; Cyrus Sharp, Martin Thomas, Robert 
Taylor, deserted June 20; James Williams, 
Gideon B. White, Samuel White, lost his gun 
and blankets; Luther White, Robert White, 
Tarleton Wheeler, lost his horse; Alexander 
Yocum, Abel Laugham, supposed to be dis- 

Mexican War. — As has been elsewhere re- 
marked, Clark had no distinct organization 
in the war with Mexico. After the rejection, 
bv the governor, of the company from this 
county, several of its members enlisted in 
other organizations, and served through the 
war. The following list is reasonably accu- 
rate, though others may have served whose 
names are not embraced within it. 

In company " K," Capt. Lyman Mowers, 
of the First Regiment Illinois Foot Volun- 
teers, commanded by Colonel John J. Hardin, 

were the follovvlnir privates: David Dolson, 
Isaac English, Stephen Elam, Lyman Guin- 
nip, Jonathan Groves, Luther Groves, Aus- 
tin Handy, Cyrus Lathrop and W. H. Robin- 
son. They were enrolled June 18, 1846, at 
Alton, and were discharged June 17, 1847, at 
Camargo, Mexico. In company " D," Captain 
W. W. Bishop, of the Third Regiment, Illi- 
nois Volunteers, Col. Ferris Fornian, were 
Sergeant Burns Harlan, left wounded in 
hospital at Vera Cruz, May 7, 1847, and 
Corporal James C. Robinson. Their company 
participated in the siege of Vera Cruz, and 
at the battle of Cerro Gordo, and was dis- 
charged at New Orleans, May 21, 1847. In 
company " H," Captain John S. McConkey, 
of the Fourth Regiment, under Col. E. D. 
Baker, was Robert JI. Eaton, discharged Oc- 
tober 13, 1846, in Mexico, on surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability. 



" 'Tis education forms the common mintl: 
Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." 

A S early as 1G47, the question of educating 
-TL the masses throuu^h the medium of cotn- 
mon schools was agitated in New England. In 
that year, an act was passed, to enaljle " every 
child rich and poor alike, to learn to read 
its own language." This was followed by 
another act, giving to every town or district, 
h M in_' tiftv houseliolders, the right to have a 
cominoii school, and to every town or district 
having one hundred families, a grammar 
school taught by teachers competent to pre- 
pare youths for college. An eminent writer, 
in after years, commenting upon this act, 
stales it to be the " first iiistance in Christen- 
dom where a civil government took measures 
to confer upon its youth the blessings of edu- 
(• ition." " And never before," he adds, " was 
embodied in practice, a principle so compre- 
hensive in its nature, and so fruitful in good 
results, as that of training a nation of intelli- 
g.^nt people, by educating all of its youth." 
When our forefathers, nearly a century and 
a half later, declared in the ordinance of ITSi', 
that "knowledge, with religion and morality 
was necessary to the good government and 
happiness of mankind," they struck the ke^'- 
note of American liberty. 

The educational history of the county, 
should intereso every reader of this work, 
more perhaps than any other subject men- 

tioned and treated in the genera! history of 
Clark. When the survey of the Northwest 
territory was ordered by Congress, it was de- 
creed that every sixteenth section of land 
should be reserved for the maintenance of 
public schools within each township. The fa- 
mous ordinance of July 13, 1787, proclaimed 
that "schools and the means of education, 
should forever be encouraged." B .■ the act 
of Congress of April IS, 1818, enabling the 
people of Illinois to form a Sta e Constitution, 
the "section numbered si.xteen in every town- 
ship, and when such section has been sold, or 
otherwise disposed of, other lands equivalent 
thereto, and as contiguous as may be, should 
be granted to the State, for the use of the in- 
habitants of such township for the support of 
schools. The act further recites, " That five 
per cent of the net proceeds of the lands ly- 
ing within said State, and which shall be sold 
by Congress from and after the first day of 
January, 1819, after deducting all expenses 
incident to the same, shall be reserved for 
the purposes following: two fifths to be dis- 
bursed under the direction of Congress, in 
making roads leading to the State; the resi- 
due to be appropriated bj' the Legislature of 
the State for the encouragement of learning, 
of which one si.\th part shall be exclusively 
bestowed on a college or university." In 
other words. Congress donated to the State a 
full township, six miles square, for seminary 



purposes, and the thirty-sixth part of all the 
residue of public lands in the State, and thrie 
per cent of the net proceeds of the sales ot 
the remainder, to support common schools, and 
promote education in the then infant State. 
Truly a most magnificent and princely dona- 
tion and provision for education. The six- 
teenth section, so donated, amounted in the 
State to nearly a million acres; in Clark Coun- 
ty, to about nine thousand acres. 

Laws were first made directing county com- 
missioners courts to appoint three trustees for 
the school land in each township, where the 
inhabitants of such townships numbered 
twenty white persons. The first school trust- 
ees in Clark County, were appointed Decem- 
ber 2, 1819, and were Samuel Prevo, William 
Lockard and William B. Archer, for Union, 
or what is now York township; Charles Neely, 
Zaccheus Hassel and John McClure for Du- 
bois, now Darwin township; Thomas Black, 
Richard Armstrong and Samuel Peery for 
Washington, now Wabash township; Jona- 
than Mayo, Lewis Murphy and John Stratton 
for a township then in this county, and lying 
about seven miles north of the jjresent town 
of Paris. The commissioners also appointed 
three trustees for the school section lying two 
miles east of the city of Danville then in this 
county. These trustees had power to lease 
the school lands at public outcry, after twen- 
ty days notice, to the highest bidder, for any 
period not exceeding ten years, the rents to be 
paid in improvements, or in shares of the 
products raised. The laws were crude, and 
fell far short of their intended object. The 
school lands under the lessee or rental arrange- 
ment, yielded little or no revenue; many of 
the renters having no title to, nor common in- 
terest in the land, only opened and cultivated 
enough for a bare support, and of course pro- 
duced nothing to divide. Then squatters took 
possession of a considerable portion, and 
wasted the timber, and in many ways depre- 

ciated the value of the lands. As a result, the 
cause of education languished, and was at a 
stand-still for years. Tiiere were a great 
many influences and obstacles in the way of a 
general diffusion of knowledge. The settle- 
ments were sparse, and money or other means 
of remunerating teachers were scarce. And 
teachers competent to impart even the com- 
mon rudiments of an English education were 
few and school books were fewer. 

This state of affairs continued until 1835, 
when Joseph Duncan, then a member of he 
State senate, and afterwards joint owner with 
W. B. Archer, of the lands on which Mar- 
shall is situated, introduced a bill for the sup- 
port of common schools by a public tax. The 
preamble to the act, appended, was as 
follows: "To enjo}' our righs and liberties, 
we must understand them; their security and 
protection ought to be the first object of a 
free people; and it is a well-established fact, 
that no nation has ever continued long in the 
enjoyment of civil and political freedom, 
which was not both virtuous and enl'ghtened; 
and believing that the advancement of litera- 
ture always has been, and ever will be the 
means of developing more fully the rights of 
man: that the mind of every citizen in a re- 
public is the common property of society; 
and constitutes the basis of its strength and 
happiness; it is therefore considered the pe- 
culiar duty of a free government, like ours, to 
encourage and extend the improvement and 
cultivation of the intellectual energies of the 

. This admirable law gave education a power- 
ful impetus, and common schools flourished 
in almost every settlement. But the liw 
was in advance of the civilization of the times. 
The early settlers had left the older States, 
and plunged into the wilderness, braving 
countless dangers and privations, in order to 
better their individual fortunes, and to escape 
the burdens of taxation, which advanced re- 



fineiiient and culture in any people, invariably 
impose. Hence the law was the subject of 
much bitter opposition. The very idea of a tax 
was so hateful, that even the poorest preferred 
to pay all that was necessary for the tuition of 
their children, or keep them in ignorance, as 
was generally the case, rather than submit to 
the mere name of tax. This law, is the foun- 
dation upon which rests the supersti-ucture of 
the common school sj-stem of to-day. In 
fact, our present educational laws contain 
nearly all its salient and distinctive features. 
The law provided for the division of town- 
ships into school districts, in each of which 
were elected three trustees, corresponding to 
directors of the present day, one clerk, one 
treasurer, one assessor and one collector. 
The trustees of each district, had supreme 
control and management of the school within 
the same, and the employment of teachers and 
fixing their remuneration. They were re- 
quired to make an annual report to the county 
commissioners court of the number of chil- 
dren living within the bounds of such district, 
between the ages of five and twenty-one 
j'ears, and what number of them were act- 
ually sent to school, with a certificate of the 
time a school was kept up, with the expenses 
of tlie same. Persons over the age of twenty- 
one years, V'^re permitted to attend school 
upon the order of the trustees. And it was no 
uncommon thing for men beyond the meridian 
of life, to be seen at school with their chil- 
dren. The law required teachers at the close 
of their schools, to prepare schedules, giving 
alphabetically, the names of attemling pupils, 
with their ages, the total number of days 
each pupil attended, the aggregate number 
of days attended, the average daily attend- 
ance, and the standing of each scholar. This 
schedule was submitted to the trustees for 
their approval, as no teacher was paid any 
remuneration, except on presentation to the 
treasurer of his schedule, signed by a ma- 

jority of the trustees. The law further pro- 
vided that all common schools should be main- 
tained and supported by a direct public tax. 
School taxes were Dayable either in money 
or in produce, and teachers would take tiie 
produce at market price, or if there was no 
current value, the price was fixed by arbitra- 
tion. Peltries were received in full payment 
of school taxes. It is related that the salary 
of a teacher named Malcom, for a ten weeks 
school, was once paid wholly in coon skins. 
And that the pedagogue carried them on his 
back to Vincennes, a distance of over thirty 
miles, and there disposed of them. 

When this wise and wholesome law was 
repealed by the Legislature, General Duncan 
wrote, as if gifted with prophecy, "That com- 
ing generations would see the wisdom of his 
law, and would engraft its principles on their 
statute books; that changes in the condition 
of society, might render diiFerent applications 
of the same necessary, but that the principle 
was eternal and the essence of free and 
enlightened governments." " And," he ad- 
ded, " legislators who voted against the 
measure, will yet live to see the day, when 
all the children of the State will be educated 
through the medium of common schools, sup- 
ported and maintained by a direct tax upon 
the people, the burden falling upon the rich 
and poor in proportion to their worldly pos- 
sessions." These predictions are yellow with 
the years of a half century and over, and 
have been faithfully fulfilled and verified. 

The Duncan School Law, as it was called, 
remained in force only a little over two years, 
when it was repealed. It was, substantially, 
that the legal voters of any school district, 
had power, at anj' of their meetings, to cause 
either the whole or one half of the sum 
necessary to maintain and conduct a school 
in said district, to be raised by taxation. And 
if the voters decided that only one half of 
such required amount was to be so raised, the 



remainder was to be pa'd by the parents, 
masters and guardians, in proportion to the 
number of pupils which each of them might 
send to such school. No person, however, 
could be taxed for the support of any free 
school, unless by his or her consent first ob- 
tained in writing. Though all persons re- 
fusing to be taxed, were precluded from 
sending pupils to such school. In almost 
everv district there were those who had no 
children to educate, and then there was an 
uncivilized element of frontier life, who be- 
lieved education was a useless and unnec- 
essary accomplishment, and only needful to 
divines and lawyers. That bone and muscle, 
and the ability to labor, were the only re- 
quirements necessary to fit their daughters 
and sons for the practical duties of life. A 
proverb then current, was: " The more book 
learning, the more rascals." To quote a 
locahsm of the day: "Gals didn't need to 
know nothin' about books, and all that boys 
orter know, was how to grub, maul rails and 
hunt." That senseless prejudice, born of 
the civilization of the time, has descended in 
a slight degree to the present, and yet tinges 
the complexion of society in some localities 
in our county. 

The law required the trustees, when they 
deemed it expedient, to divide the township 
into school districts, so that each district 
should not contain a less number than 
eighteen scolars; and that the funds arising 
from the rents of school-lands, should be paid 
over to the several districts, in proportion to 
the number of attending scholars, to be ap- 
plied toward employing a school teacher, etc. 
At this time, 18:37-8, there were only three 
or four schools in the county. This law was 
repealed January 22, 1829, and a law enacted 
the same date, provided that the sixteenth 
section, given by the government to each 
township, might be sold upon petition of nine 

tenths of the freeholders of the township, 
to the trustees of school lands, the proceeds 
to be loaned on real estate and personal 
security, and the interest to be applied 
toward the payment of teachers. The lands 
not to be sold for less than government price, 
one dollar and twenty- five cents per acre. 
This law was repealed in turn, by an act of 
the Legislature of February 15, 1831, which 
provided th:it three fourths of the white male 
inhabitants of anj' township could petition 
for the sale of their school section, the pro- 
ceeds to be loaned at the highest obtainable 
rate of interest. The law furthur provided, 
that any five citizens, of any school district, 
could borrow any sum not exceeding two 
hundred dollars, for a period not exceeding 
ten years, for the purpose of erecting a school- 

Not one of all these laws embodied, nor 
did they for many years after, embody, a 
standard of qualifications for teachers. All 
that was necessary, was for the instructor to 
satisfy the people and trustees hiring them. 
As a consequence, many of the early schools 
were of a poor description. The teachers, as 
a rule, were illiterate, their acquirements con- 
sisting of a smattering knowledge of the 
trinal branches of early day teaching, namely: 
reading, writing and ciphering, which were 
then considered to comprise all needful learn- 
ino-. Geography, history and grammar, were 
never taught, the latter being considered as 
especially useless and superfluous. Once at 
at a debate, where the question, " whether 
or not grammar was necessary to learning," 
was discussed, a pioneer teacher paralyzed 
his opponents, and demolished their argu- 
ment, by declaring that " grammar was 
like the top-knot of a jay bird — more for 
ornament than for use." "For," he con- 
tinued, " what difference does it make 
whether a fellow says onions or ingens,' so ho 



can finger, and tell what five and a half 
bushels come to at twenty-three and three 
fourths cents a bushel." 

A portion of the school fund received from 
the State, known as the " State Interest 
Fund," and which has been paid regularly 
for over half a century for the support of 
common schools, occurred substantially in this 
way: In 1828 the practice of selling the 
school lands was first inaugurated. The sys- 
tem was continued under various laws, to 
follow which, through all their ramifications, 
would necessitate tedious prolixity, and be of 
no interest to the reader. The proceeds of 
such sales, together with the 3 per cent of 
the net proceeds of the sale of public lands, 
were paid into the State treasury, and were 
disbursed by legislative authority, as other 
moneys. But the State only borrowed these 
funds, and agreed to pay interest on them. 
Under the law trustees of school lands were 
authorized to invest the funds resulting from 
their sale in auditor's warrants, and State 
p;ipor, as the notes of the State bank were 
then called, at any discount they were able to 
procure. These vouchers were received by 
the State at face value, and interest was paid 
on them at the rate of 3 per cent per annum 
to February 15, 1831, when ttie interest was 
added to the principal, the State paying G 
per cent interest on the aggregate, and so 
on, adding the yearly interest to the princi- 
pal, until December 31, 1833, when the total 
amount became the jirincipal, to which has 
been added ail amounts since received, and 
on the total the State pays an annual interest, 
which is distributed yearly among the coun- 
ties, the share of each being proportioned to 
its school population. 

The first educational effort attempted in the 
county was a school taught by Peleg Spencer, 
west of York on Union Prairie, about the 
year 1820. He afterward removed to Law- 
rence County, and is described as having been 

a successful teacher for the period, but very 
harsh and severe; a grim tyrant in his little 
literary realm, over which he ruled with des- 
potic sway. He was a conscientious man, 
it is said, and ever bore in mind the golden 
maxim. "Spare the rod, and spoil the child." 
And from his freedom with the hazel and 
hickory it is safe to say his pupils were not 
spoiled. The next school was on Walnut 
Prairie, in a log building, where the brick 
school-house, near Shaw's Ferry, on the Wa- 
bash, now stands. It was taught by Robert 
Taylor, a pioneer and highly respected citizen 
of Clark, and who died in 1869. Mr. Taylor 
was eminently successful, as an educator; 
was a marked exception and far superior to 
the teachers of his da\' and age. There are 
estimable citizens now living in the county 
who remember him as their best benefactor. 
These were the pioneer schools of Clark 
County, no others being established until 
about the year ] 825, under the Duncan law, 
when three or four were put into operation: 
one in Washington, now Wabash Township, 
and was taught by a man named Johnson; 
one near the present^ town of Westfield, and 
one near Charleston, which was then included 
in this county. After the repeal of the Dun- 
can law, education, for over a generation, was 
in anything but a flourishing condition, 
either in the county or State. Like the stag- 
nant waters of a southern lagoon, it was dif- 
ficult to tell whether the current flowed back- 
ward or forward. For nearly forty years the 
school-houses, school books, school teachers 
and the manner of instruction, were of the 
most primitive character throughout a large 
portion of the county. 

The early school-houses, as a general thing, 
were of the poorest and rudest kind, and are 
fully described in other chapters of this work. 
A few of these humble school-houses — time- 
worn relics of the early days — are yet stand- 
ing, eloquent of an age forever past. The 



writer recalls one, rotten and shaky to the 
last degree, and serving as a receptacle for a 
farmer's corn-fodder. The huge, open-throated 
chimney has fallen down; the broad clap- 
boards of the roof, held on by crumbling and 
worm-eaten weight poles, are deeply covered 
with moss and mold; the rude door is gone 
and the puncheon floor has disappeared. The 
The genius of learning has long since flown 
to finer quarters, and over the whole edifice 
hangs a' gloom — a mist of decay. 

The old-time pedagogue was a marked and 
distinctive character of our early history — 
one of the vital forces of our earlier growth. 
He considered the matter of imparting the 
limited knowledge he possessed, a mere ques- 
tion of effort, in which the physicial element 
predominated. If he couldn't talk or read it 
into a pupil, he took a stick and mauled it 
into him. This method, though somewhat 
distasteful to the urchin, always had a charm- 
ing result, — a few blubbers, red eyes and a 
good lesson. The schoolmaster, usually, by 
common consent was a personage of distinc- 
tion and importance. He was of higher au- 
thority, even in the law, than the justice of 
the peace, and ranked him in social position. 
He was considered the intellectual center,of 
the neighborhood, and was consulted upon all 
subjects, public and private. Generally, he 
was a Hard-shell Baptist in religion, a Demo- 
crat in politics, and worshipped General Jack- 
son as his political patron saint. But the old- 
time pedagogue — the pioneer of American 
letters — is a thing of the past, and we shall 
never see his like again. He is ever in the 
van of advancing civilization, and fled before 
the whistle of the locomotive, or the click of 
the telegraph were heard. He can not live 
within the pale of progress. His race became 
extinct here over a quarter of a century ago, 
when our common school system began to 
take firm hold, and became a fixed institution 
among our people. Our older citizens re- 

member him, l)ut to the young of to-day, he 
is a myth, and only lives in story and tradi- 

The Legislature, in 18.37, again revised the 
school law, making several important changes, 
repealing many objectionable features of for- 
mer enactments, and adding several wise and 
liberal amendments. Under this act, any 
township might become incorporated by a 
two thirds vote of the inhabitants. Three 
trustees were elected, whose duty it was to 
divide the township into school districts. 
Teachers were to be paid wholly, or as far as 
the same might extend, out of the interest 
arising from the proceeds of the sales of school 
lands, then or thereafter made. Any excess 
remaining, was to be added to the principal 
of the township fund, at the option of the 
trustees, and any existing deficiency to be 
raised cither by taxation or subscription, as 
the voters might determine. No teacher was 
to be paid, except on presentation to the town- 
ship treasurer, of a certificate of qualification 
to teach. A section of this act, and which is 
embodied in the school law of the present 
day, created what is [cnown as the Surplus 
Revenue fund, and from it is derived a por- 
tion of the State Interest fund. 

The first step toward establishing a higher 
or more advanced institution of learning in 
the county, than the common district school 
was in 1839, when a bill was passed incorpo- 
rating the " Marshall Academy," with Wil- 
liam B. Archer, James Whitlock, William U. 
Griffith, Channing Madison, Justin Harlan, 
Nineveh Shaw, William McKeen, Woodford 
Dulaney, Stephen Archer, James Plaster, John 
Bartlett, Jcmathau K. Greenough, William 
Tutt, Nathan TelTt, Thomas T. Wethers and 
Joshua P. Cooper as trustees. Stephen Arch- 
er is the only survivor of the original board. 
The act provided, that if at any time, the 
trustees desired to change the character of the 
institution, from an academy to a college, they 



should mi'inorialize the Legislatvire to that ef- 
fect, when a liberal charter woulilbe granted, 
with all the necessary powers to carry the 
same into effect, and that the name and style 
should he the " .Marshall College, of the East- 
ern Division of Illinois." The first academic 
building stood where the present brick high 
school of Marshall is situated; it was a long 
one-story frame structure, and was afterward 
removed to the present premises of M. R. 
Chenoweth. The academy was placed in 
charge of the late Rev. Dean Andrews, and 
many are the living representatives through- 
out the county, who received instruction in 
that humble building and from that able pre- 
ceptor. The main portion of the present 
brick building was afterward erected, and 
about 18.5G, the building and grounds were 
sold to the Methodist denomination, which 
conducted the school for many years. In 
187^, the people of school district, num >er 
five, Marshall township, became the purchas- 
ers of the building and converted it into a 
graded c muion school, and by additions to 
it, and improvements to the grounds, have ren- 
dered them commodious and sightly. 

In 1839, also, a law was passed, incorporat- 
ing the "Marshall Female Academy," with 
James McGabe, Isaac Hill, Thomas Hender- 
son, Thomas Carey, Justin Harlan, John Bart- 
lett, Stephen Archer, Woodford Dulaney and 
"William B. Archer as trustees. This institu- 
tion was never carried into successful oper- 

Matters pertaining to education and com- 
mon schools, remained substantially un- 
changed until 184-3, when a law was passed 
making the secretary of State ex-officio State 
superintendent of common schools, and autho- 
rizing a school tax to be levied in each dis- 
trict, sul)ject to the decision of the voters. 
The secretary reported to the Legislature in 
1847, that the common schools throughout the 
State, with the exception of a few localities, 

were in a deplorable condition, especially iu 
the southern portion. 

After the adoption of the constitution of 
1848, the school law was again revised in all 
its details. From the passage of this act, 
dates the office of school commissioner, who 
was made ex-officio county superintendent. 
School lands could be sold when two thirds 
of the white male inhabitants thereof, over 
twenty-one years of age, should petition the 
school commissioner. Each congressional 
township, was established as a township for 
school purposes; the law provided for the 
election of three trustees in each township, 
who had supreme control of the schools. The 
trustees divided the township into school dis- 
tricts, and three directors were elected in 
each, the employment of teachers, building 
and repairing school houses, and many other 
duties. Taxes could be levied by a majority 
of the voters of each district, but the levy 
was limited to twenty-five cents on the hund- 
red dollars valuation of property. The law 
required that all teachers be qualified to teach 
orthography, reading in English, penman- 
ship, arithmetic, English grammar, modern 
geography and the history of the United 
States. Each teacher was required to exhibit 
a certificate of the school commissioner certi- 
fying to his qualifications. This revision is es- 
sentially the foundation on which our present 
superstructure rests. 

The Constitution 1818, is silent upon the 
subject of educating the masses through the 
medium of common schools. The framers of 
the Constitution of 1848, went a little further, 
and said, in a subjunctive way, that the gen- 
eral assembly might provide a system of free 
schools. But it was not until after half a 
century of existence as a State, that, our dele- 
gates in convention assembled, engrafted 
upon the pages of our organic law, a manila- 
tory section, declaring that " the general as- 
sembly shall provide a thorough and efficient 



system of free schools, whereby all children 
of this State may receive a good common 
school education." 

The foilowinCT exhibit of the condition of 
the common school system in the county, for 
the year ending .Tune 30, 1882, is not unin- 
teresting to the friends of education. There 
are at present, in the county, on hundred and 
two school districts, and one hundred and 
four school buildings. There were em- 
ployed, during the year, one hundred and 
seventy-seven teachers, who imparted instruc- 
tion to six thousand and thirty-eight pupils. 
Of the one hundred and four schools taught 
in the county, six are graded, and two of the 
six are high schools proper, one each at Mar- 
shall and Martinsville. A graded school is 
where there are more than -one teacher, and 
where the school is divided into departments) 
usually with a reference to the age and 
advancement of the pupils, and known as the 
primarj', intermediate and advanced grades. 
The county in addition to her excellent and 
flourishing common school system, and her 
high and graded schools, has one college, 
conducted by an able faculty, and with a 
reputation inferior to none; it is under the 
direction and management of the United 
Brethren denomination, and is located at 
Westfield. All these will, be fully written 
up in the respective townships in which they 
are situated. The educational history of each 

township will also be given, from the small 
and humble beginnings, through their various 
changes and improvements to the almost per- 
fect state of the | resent. 

The total school expenditures, in each 
township, for all purposes, including wages 
of teachers, repairs, iuel, erecting school 
buildings, etc., are as follows: 

Anderson, $1,397.92; Casey, $14,794.93; 
Darwin, $1,497.65; Dolson, $3,9U8.53; Doug- 
las, $619.05; Johnson, $1,150.18; Marshall, 
$6,721.84; Martinsville, $4,439.19; Melrose, 
$1,955.32 ; Orange, $1,417.91 ; Parker, 
$1,325.88; Wabash, $4,336.51; Westfield, 
$8,018.87; York, $3, 459.65. -Total, $54,143- 

In the townships of Westfield and Casey 
new school-houses were built, which will ex- 
plain increased expenditures over those of 
the other townships. The above expenditures 
were for the year ending June 30, 1882. 
About one hundred and eighty unexpired 
teachers' certificates are outstanding, of wiiich 
about twenty are first grade, the remainder 
second grade. The county received from the 
State school fund, for the year, the sura of 
$7,437.13; from the State interest fund, 
$423.45; from fines and interest on loans, the 
sum of $189.42, making in all $8,050.00, 
which was distributed by the county superin- 
tendent to the treasurers of the different 
townships in the county. 






"When the iron steed shall know why man restrains 
His fiery course, or drives him o'er the plain," etc. 

-- , n^HE old National Road and its construc- 
-L tion created as much interest in its day, 
not only in this county, but in all the country 
through which it passed, as any internal im- 
provement ever inaugurated in the State of 
Illinois, perhaps. Jt was originally called the 
Cumberland Road, after the old stage road 
from Washington, D. C, to Cumberland, Mil., 
a great highway in its time, and forming the 
eastern division and terminus. This road was 
a national work. It had been provided for 
in tiie reservation of live per cent of the sale 
of public lands in Illinois and other States, 
and biennial appropriations were its depend- 
ence for a continuance to completion. ^^ hen 
Congress made any appropriation for this 
road, it required that "said sums of money 
shall be replaced out of any funds reserved 
for laying out and making roads, under the 
direction of Congress, by the several acts 
passed for the admission of the States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois and Missouri into the Union, 
on an equal footing with the original States." 
Tiie work was commenced on the road in 
this county in lS27-'28, by the cutting out 
of the timber on the line, and was pushed to 
practical completion as far west as nearly to 
the east line of Fayette County. Then with 
scattering work at the streams as far west as 
Vandalia, such as a levee across the Okaw 
bottom, and several bridges at that place, 
had exhausted the appropriations of Congress^ 

and the people of Illinois, becoming crazed 
over the foolish State policy, were divided in 
sentiment to the extent (some wanted it to go 
to St. Louis and others to Alton) that no fur- 
ther appropriations were procured, and the 
great work was stopped. To this portion of 
the country it was a most important public 
work. It gave the people access to the out- 
side world, where, before, they had been pent 
up by almost impossible obstacles. People 
could go to Terre Haute, and even to St. 
Louis, and thus reach markets and sell the 
little portable stuff they had, and buy such 
tilings as their necessities demanded and haul 
them home. But the growth of county im- 
provements was slow indeed. The county, 
like the people generally, was poor, and while 
they made commendable efforts, yet often the 
money was wasted through being expended 
by inexperienced or ignorant men. 

In after years, it may be of interest to 
some, to know which of the public highways 
passing through Clark County, was once 
known as the old National Road, and just 
where it was located. It is the road passing 
east and west through Marshall, on the north 
side of the public square, and known as Cum- 
berland or Main street within the corporate 
limits, taking its name from the original title 
of the road. It was a great thoroughfare be- 
fore the era of railroads, and was intended to 
cross the continent, even as railroads now 
cross it. But railroads were invented a little 
too soon for its entire completion, and its im- 



portance in this age of steam, is no greater 
than any ordinary county or State road. 

A branch diverged from the main line at 
Zanesville, Ohio, and crossed the Oiiio River 
at Maysville, Ky., passim,'- through Lexington, 
thence to Nashville, Tenn., and on to New 
Orleans. Thus the country was to he spanned 
from east to west and to the extreme south. 

Itailroads. — As we have stated in a pre- 
ceding chapter, all of Clark's early railroad 
projects resulted in failure, and she was 
doomed to sit idly by and see many of her 
sister counties, younger in years than herself, 
prospering through means of railroad commu- 
nication, of which she, herself, was wholly 
deprived. This was the case until a compar- 
ative late day in railroad building and rail- 
road enterprise. 

Hon. W. S. Wait, an old and prominent 
citizen of Bond County, in a letter to B. 
Gratz Brown, .June, 18G3, makes the best in- 
troduction to the history of the rise and pro- 
gress of the St. Louis, Vandalia & Torre 
Haute Railroad — the first road built through 
Clark County. Mr. Wait says: " The rail- 
road projected so early as 1835, to run from 
St. Louis to Terre Haute, was intended as a 
direct line of railway to the Atlantic cities, 
and its first survey was taken over the exact 
line of the great Cumberland road. We ap- 
plied to the Illinois Legislature for a charter 
in ISiG, but were opposed by rival interests, 
that finally succeeded in establishing two 
lines of raiload connecting St. Louis with 
the Waiiash — one by a line running north, 
and the other by a line running south of our 
survev, thus demonstrating by the unfailing 
test of physical geography that our line is the 
central and true one; the two lines alluded fo 
are the Terre Haute & Alton and Ohio & 
Mississippi. We organized our company 
■with the name of the Mississippi & Atlantic 
Company in 1850, by virtue of a general rail- 
road law passed the year previous, and im- 

mediately accomplished a survey. An ad- 
verse decision of our Supreme Court led us 
to accept the oiler of eastern capitalists to 
help us through, who immediately took nine- 
tenths of our stock, and gave us .John 
Brough for president. Our riyht to contract 
was finally confirmed, in Fe iruary, lS5i, the 
road put under contract and the work com- 
menced. The shock given to all railroad 
enterprises by the 'Schuyler fraud' suspend- 
ed operations, and before confidence was 
restored, the controlling power, which was 
enthroned in Wall street, had arrived at the 
conclusion, as afterward discovered, to pro- 
ceed no further in the construction of the 
Mississippi & Atlantic Railroad. For purposes 
best understood by themselves, the eastern 
manager amused us for several years with the 
hope that they were still determined to pros- 
ecute the work. When we were finally ctm- 
vinced of the intentional deception, we aban- 
doned the old charter and instituted a new 
company, under the name of the Highland & 
St. Louis Railroad Company, with power to 
build and complete by sections the entire road 
from St. Louis to Terre Haute. The charter 
was obtained in February, 1859, with the 
determination on the part of the Highland 
corporators to make no delay in constructing 
the section connecting them with St. Louis, 
but were prevented at the outset by difficul- 
ties since overcome, and afterward by the 
existing rebellion." 

This public letter portraj^s some of the 
chief difficulties with which the friends of this 
road had to contend. "State policy," the 
stupidest folly rational men ever engaged in, 
was openly urged by many of the leading 
men north and south of the "Brough road," 
as it was generally called. Hon. Sidney 
Breese, a long resident of Carlisle, on the line 
of the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, publicly 
declared for that doctrine, " that it was to the 
interest of the State to encourage that policy 



that would build the most roads throu<rh the 
State; that the north aii'isoutli roads (alhidod 
to in Wail's letter) shouhl first be allowed to 
get iiuo successful operation, when the Cen- 
tral line should then bo chartered, as the 
merits of that line would insure the building 
of the road on that line at once, giving to 
middle Illinois three roads instead of one, as 
the chartering of the Central line first would 
be a death-blow to the other two, at least for 
manv years to come." Mr. Wait replied im- 
mediately, saying it was the first instance he 
had ever known where the merits of a rail- 
road had been urged as a reason why it 
should not meet with merited encouragement, 
and after more than §100,000 had been ex- 
pended on the " Brough road." Further 
work was therefore suspended. 

Clark had taken an active interest in the 
road. At the November election, 1854, a 
proposition for the county to subscribe S75,- 
000 to the capital stock of the company, was 
submitted to the people and carried by five 
hundred majority. 

In February, 1865, the rebellion nearing its 
close, the people along the "Central Line," 
or " Brough " survey, again renewed their 
petition to the Illinois Legislature for negotia- 
tion of their right to build tlieir railroad on 
their own long-cherisliod route. 

Mr. Williamson Plant, of Greenville, who 
has been secretary of the road from its incep- 
tion, and is still in this position, furnishes the 
following facts of the history of the road: 

On the 10th of February, 1865, a liberal 
charter was granted for building the present 
St. Louis, Vandalia & Terre Haute Railroad. 

The line was designated in the charter as 
"commencing on the left bank of the Missis- 
sippi, opposite St. Louis, running thence east- 
ward through Greenville, the county seat of 
Bond County, and through A'^andalia by the 
most eligible route, to a point on the River 
Wabash."' The persons named as incorpo- 

rators were Henry Wing, S. W. Little, John 
S. Dewey, Andrew Mills, Solomon Kepfli, 
Garrett Crownover, Curtis Blakeman, Wm. S. 
Smith, Cliarles Hoile, Wm. S. Wa't, John B. 
Hunter, Williamson Plant, Andrew G. Henry, 
J. F. Alexander, Nathaniel M. MeCurdy, 
August H. Deickman, Ebcneze Capps, Fred- 
erick Remann, Mathias Fehren, Michael 
Lynch, Thos. L. Vest, J. F. AVaschefort, Sam'l 
W. Quinn, Chauncey Rose and J. H. Morgan. 

The counties along the line took an active 
interest, generally, in the roaJ, and Clark was 
not behind her sister counties in aid to the 
enterprise, but came forward with liberal sub- 

The first meeting of the board of incorpo- 
rators met at Vandalia on the 14th day of No- 
vember, 1865, for the purpose of organizing 
and electing a board of nine directors, with 
the following result: John Schofield and 
Charles Duncan, Clark County; Samuel 
Quinn, Cumberland County; J. P. M.Howard 
and S. W. Little, Effingham; C. Floyd Jones 
and F. Reemaer, Faj'ette; Wm. S. Smith and 
Williamson Plant, Bond County. At the 
first meeting of the Board of Directors, held 
at Effiingham on the 22i day of November, 
1865, for the purpose of electing the first 
officers of the company, J. P. M. Howard was 
elected president, and Williamson Plant 

Through the influence of E. C. Rice, who 
was Chief Engineer of the " Brough" survey, 
and had made estimates for the work under 
the same. Gen. E. F. Winslow, a gentleman 
of great energy and considerable .railroad 
experience, after various propositions being 
made to build part of the line, or parts of the 
road, contracted, August 22, 18G6, to build 
the entire line from the " west bank of the 
Wabash to the east end of the dyke at Illinois 
town." The contract was finally ratified at a 
meeting of the board of directors, hold at 
Vandalia November 14, 1866. An addi- 



tional agreemeut was entered into November 
28, 186G, and made part ol' the original con- 

The first shock received by the railroad 
company in the outset, wsiS the lamented 
death of its earnest leader and judicious 
friend, Hon. W. S. Wait, July 17, 1865, there- 
by depriving it of his mature judgn^ent and 
wise counsel in carrying out and making 
the contract al>ont to be entered into for 
building of the road under the charter so 
recently obtained from the LegisLiture. 

In 1807, first mortgage bonds were put on 
the " property, rights, franchises, leases and 
estate, etc., of the company to the amount of 
$1,900,000." When the property was leased, 
in February, 1808, a second mortgage was 
put on the same to the amount of S'^,6 0,000, 
each mortgage bearing 7 per cent interest, 
payable semi-annually. For the purpose of 
further equipment of the road, preferred stock 
has been issued to the amount of $1,544,700, 
bearing 7 per cent interest. 

The issue of $2,000,000 has been authorized. 
This stock will take precedence over the com- 
mon stock of the company in receiving divi- 
dends, and as the interest on the preferred 
stock may accumulate before anv payment 
thereof, the prospect for dividends on common 
stock is remote. 

By mutual understanding between the con- 
tractors and the company, E. C. Rice was en- 
gaged as Chief Engineer, January 18, 1867, 
and he commenced the first survey on the 
west end of the line in March, and the grad- 
ing was begun as soon as the line was fixed 
at the west end in April following. At the 
same meeting a code of by-lavps was adopted, 
and Greenville was designated as the general 
oflSce of the company. 

At the annual election held in .lanuary, 
186 r, J. P. M. Howard was re-elected presi- 
dent, Williamson Plant, secretary, and W. S. 
Smith, treasurer. April 3, 1867, Mr. Howard 

gave up the position by request, and J. F. 
Alexander was chosen president of the com- 
pany in his place. 

By the charter the company was authorized 
to issue first mortgage bonds, not to exceed 
$12,000 per mile. The capital stock was 
made $3,000,000, which could be increased 
at an annual meeting by a majority of stock- 
holders in interest, as they should direct. The 
road was completed to Highland, July 1, 1868. 
The first regular passenger train did not run 
to that point until August "iOth following. By 
consent of the railroad company. Gen. Wins- 
low, as contractor, was paid $120,000 for labor 
expended on the line, to the 10th day of Feb., 
1808, and at his request was released from his 
contract. The same was ratified and accepted 
by the company at their meeting, March 13, 
1868. The company entered into a contract, 
February 10, 1868, with Thomas L. Jewett 
and B. F. Smith, of Ohio; Goo. B. Roberts, 
of PhiladelpMa, and W. R. McKeen, of Terre 
Haute, in the firm name of McKeen, Smith & 
Co., to complete the road at an early day. At 
the same time and place, an agreement was 
entered into, leasing the St. Louis, Vandalia 
& Terre Haute Railroad to the Terre Haute & 
Indianapolis Railroad Company. In the re- 
port of the president of the Vandalia Compa- 
nv, made to the stockholders at the annual 
meeting, held at Greenville, January' 6, 1872, 
he says : 

"When on the 10th day of February, 1868, 
the contract was made insuring the comple- 
tion of your road, another contract was also 
made, providing for its forming a part of a 
continuous railroad line from St. Louis (via 
Indianapolis) to Pittsburgh; and for perfect- 
ing this object your line was leased for a pe- 
riod of 999 years to the Terre Haute & In- 
dianapolis Railroad Company, for the joint 
interests of the company and the several rail- 
road companies forming the said line. Under 
this lease the lessees were to work your road 


at their cost and expense, and to pay to your 
company 35 per cent of the gross earnings, 
first paying therefrom all interest due on the 
bonds of the company, and all taxes assessed 
against the property of the company, advanc- 
ing any deficit in the amount needed to meet 
these liabilities, and paying the surplus (if any 
remained) of the 35 per cent to your company. 
Your board, in view of the light traflic usually 
done upon a new line, reduced the proportion 
due your company of the gross earnings to 30 
per cent, provided that after payment by the 
lessees of the road, out of the 70 per cent re- 
ceived for that purpose, if any surplus re- 
mained, it should go to your company." 

From small earnings from the time the 
ro:id was opened, first to Highland and Green- 
ville, in 18GS, and finally through to Terre 
Haute, July 1, 1870, it has developed a mar- 
velous increase of business, not only to the 
road, but to the farming and all other indus- 
tries along the line. The whole cost of the 
road, and equipment of the same to July 1, 
1870, when the contractors turned the road 
over to the lessees, was §7,171,355.89, which 
was increased steadily as the line was more 
fully developed by " rolling stock " and 
"betterments," etc., on the road, until the 
last report of the treasurer, W. H. Barnes, 
made the total costs of the road and equip- 
ment to October 1, 1880, $8,330,410.75. The 
amount of business done over the line for the 
year 1881, aggregates $1,565,515.04, and the 
rental due to the company from the lessee 
for the year ending October 31, 1881, was 
8469,354.50, and for the same time $424,- 
837.04 was earned in carrying passengers; 
$43,490.57 for express, and $90,835.98 for 
mail services. 

The first regular passenger train over the 
whole line, on schedule time, was on the 12th 
day of June, 1870, and as mentioned before, 
the contractors turned over the road, as per 

contract, to the Terre Haute & Inilianapolis 
liailroad Company, July 1, 1870. 

The St. Louis, Vandalia & Terre Haute 
Railroad is 158 miles from East St. Louis to 
the eastern line of the State, and seven miles 
from State line to the Wabash river at Terre 
Haute, and about 25 miles in Clark County. 
The Wabash Valley Railroad was the next 
project in which Clark County became inter- 
ested. This project came up while the 
" Brough " road was on hand, and before 
work wholly ceased upon it. The Wabash 
Valley road ran north and south, the survey 
conforming substantially to the present Wa- 
bash, St. Louis & Pacific. It was one of the 
railroad projects growing out of the old inter- 
nal improvement fever. On the 5th of May, 
1855, by a vote of the people, $50,000 were 
subscribed by the county, to aid in the con- 
struction of the road. A line was surveyed 
from Chicago to Vincennes and work com- 
menced. The work was vigorously prose- 
cuted until the grading was fully half done, 
when for lack of funds and from other causes, 
work was eventually discontinued and the 
project, for the time being abandoned. 

Some years after the close of the late war, 
it was revived under the title of "Chicago, 
Danville & Vincennes Railroad," and as such 
it was completed to Danville. A new com- 
pany — " The Paris & Danville " — was then 
formed, and under that title the road was 
built through this county in the winter of 
1874-5, and during the next summer it was 
completed to the Ohio and Mississippi road 
at Lawrenceville. A more complete history, 
however, will be found in Part I. of this vol- 
ume, and hence a repetition is unnecessary 

The only railroad that Clark ever enjoyed 
until the completion of the Vandalia line, 
was a horse railroad with wooden rails, run- 
ning to the quarries on the Wabash, and was 



used for transporting stone to the Wabash 
valley. It was known as the " Williams 
Railroad," and was considered quite an insti- 
tution, by those who had never seen a rail- 

The Terre Haute & Southwestern Railroad 
was an enterprise in which Clark County 
took an active interest, particularly the south- 
east part of the county. At one time, it 
seemed almost certain that the road would 
be built, but from a lack of either funds or 
stamina, or a little of both, it failed, and prob- 
ably will never be revived. 

The Danville, Olney & Ohio River Railroad, 
passing through the western portion of the 
county, has been re(?ently constructed. When 
properly completed and equipped, it will 
jjrove a valuable and good paying road. 

Conclusion. — Written history, as a rule, is 
generally too formal, dignified and scholastic, 
to interest the mass. Of broadest scope, it 
requires too much nicety and precision as to 
circumstances and dates, and too much mul- 
tiplicity of detail. It requires, in order to be 
perfect, so much minuteness, and so many 
unimportant facts, as to often render it weari- 
some. Hence, the reader is requested not to 
consider the foregoing pages an elaborate 
history, or finished production, but more 
properly as a sketch of the county in which 
we live, and one, too, that is not written up 
to the level of critical perfection ; and the 
critic who expects or demands elegance of 
diction, grandeur and purity of expression, 
nicety of language or precision of words, will 
be disappointed. 

Though a sketch, and of course admitting 
of anecdote, excursive digressions, and a flex- 
ible texture of narrative, yet, for the most 
part, it is essentially historic. The writer has 
humbly endeavored to narrate within its pages 
some of the physical and moral features of our 

county, its formation, settlement, local divis- 
ions and progress; the habits and customs 
of the early pioneers, interspersed with indi- 
vidual incident. He has striven to execute 
his task with candor and fidelity, though pro- 
foundly aware that many inaccuracies and 
imperfections exist. Stating facts from the 
records, and on what appeared to be good 
authority, and avoiding as much as possible all 
false coloring and exaggeration. How far be 
has succeeded is submitted to the judgment 
of his fellow citizens of the county. 

Much of the early history of the county has 
been lost through the unusual mortality 
among our aged citizens, who have passed 
away in the fullness of years and honors, after 
living long, useful and eventful lives; after 
their early dangers and privations were but 
stirring memories of the forever past, they 
laid down their burdens, and "slumber in the 
sanctuary of the toinb, beneath the quiet of 
the stars." But much yet remains, and we 
have endeavored to record as we could, some 
of the events and ordeals of those early days; 
some of the habits, customs and incidents in 
the lives of those heroic men and women who, 
forsaking the comforts of civilization, and 
braving death and danger in countless forms, 
pluriged into the wilderness and transformed 
it into peaceful and happy homes for their 
descendants. We have recorded them as the 
customs and manners of our day and time, 
which will remain long after we have passed 
to the silent dust. 

In conclusion, while it would be rather in- 
vidious to name the kind friends from whom 
the writer has received sulistantial aid and 
encoura"-ement in the preparation of this 
sketch, yet it would be indeed rude if he did 
not return to them his humble and grateful 

'Try 4. 




"Time when the memory of man nmneth not to 
the contrary." — Blackstone. 

IN the very first steps of ororanization in the 
countv there were no local lawyers here. 
In fact, the legal machinery of the county 
had been all fully put in working order be- 
fore even the legal circuit riders came to 
gladden the hearts of the people with their 
imposing presence, seedy plug hats, and the 
singular combination of store clothes and 
home-made shoes and socks. But courts were 
a necessary part of the legal start of a county 
— justice had to be administered, quarrels 
adjudicated, rows settled, naturalization 
granted, and many other little things that 
could only be performed by this august body, 
were a pressing necessity, and the court, 
therefore, was among the early comers. 
Lawyers, then, especially to the county mu- 
nicipality, were much more esential than now, 
for in the very first essentials toward making 
a new county the assistance of trained legal 
minds were indispensable. The people could 
themselves move in the matter of forming a 
new county only so far as to talk up the project 
among themselves,and agree upon the bounda- 
ries, etc., but after this, at every step they must 
have the aid and guidance of lawj-ers. They 
had to reach the Legislature and a formal peti- 
tion dul\- signed had to be drawn; not only 
this, but a draft of a bill creating the county, 
defining in proper technical and accurate 

* By H. C. Bradsby. 

words the new countj-'s territory, naming 
three commissioners and defining their duties, 
etc., and to whom but a lawyer could they 
go for all this? The work of these men, then, 
was of the greatest importance, as they were 
the foundations upon which rests the future 
of the little municipality. Their advice to 
the people, their work in the matter of legal 
documents, were to remain with us in the long 
time and for the weal or woe of the unborn 
generations. But soon after the county or- 
ganization came the first term of the Circuit 
Court, and with it the lawyers to see after the 
little business that might perchance be there 
needing their learned attention. This array 
of traveling lawyers was but a meager crowd, 
but the woik awaiting them was light, and 
the fees were ranged down to coon-skin cur- 
rency prices. This meager caravan, however, 
as they traveled on horse-back, from county 
to county, constituted the early Bench and 
Bar. It was the court, and the " circuit 
riders," of the early fraternity, and without 
drawing invidious distinctions, the moving 
procession was constituted of some of the 
most valuable of our pioneer people. Their 
life was a hard one, their work often difficult 
and perplexing; they braved the heat and cold, 
the storms and floods, and all over the vast 
circuits (then embracing more than half the 
State), with their wardrobes and their law 
libraries in their saddle-bags — which, often, 
with all their clothes, they cairied on their 
heads while their horses were swimming the 


swollen streams. They traveled from one 
county seat to another, where often they 
would not find more oases on the docket 
tiian there were numbers of them, and these 
frequently unimportant and frivolous, the 
hotel accommodations meager and rude, and 
packed with perhaps a rough-and-tumble lot 
of hunters and trappers, who had come to 
town to have a jolly good time and make night 
and day hideous with their orgies. If the 
judge got a private room he was in luck, be- 
cause generally the rooms were all in one, and 
all over this were beds on the floor, and on cots, 
as thick as they could be placed, and all the 
iiio-ht lono- the chances for sleep were few and 
far between. Then below this vast sleep- 
ing room was the hotel bar-room, where 
drinking and "stag-dances" often rioted in 
noisy fun the most of the night, to the 
screeching of a cracked fiddle handled by 
some yahoo who could worry the very soul 
in acrony of all within ear-shot of his hideous 
caterwauling. The writer hereof will never 
foro-et hearing Judge Koerner, upon one oc- 
casion, somewhat like that above mentioned, 
express his exasperated feelings. The judge 
would be perfectly quiet in his cot for some 
time and then flounce over, pouch out his 
lips and blow, and, talking to himself ap- 
parently, say, "d — n dot feedling." And 
thus the long night was interminably drawn 

The Circuit Court held generally biennial 
sessions in each county. The judge was the 
great man, of course, upon the recurring- 
great day of the assembling of the court. 
The Bar was much like the nightly courtiers 
attending upon royalty, and it is not wonder- 
ful that they inspired the greatest respect and 
awe from all the people as they went in 
triumphal procession over the country. Even 
the clerks and sheriffs and other local ofBcials 
of the court, by virtue of their right to ap- 
proach the bench and bar upon something 

like terms of familiarity, and exchange words 
with them, were temporarily greatly enlarged 
and magnified and sometimes doubtless great- 
ly envied by the common crowds. But soon 
after the organization of each county came 
the local lawyer — the dv^eller among the 
people — and thus some of the glamour that 
invested the profession of law passed away. 
Soon, too, these increased in numbers, and 
as law and politics were synonymous terms, 
and, in their electioneering, they more and 
more mixed amona: the people, generally 
coaxing and wheedling them out of their 
votes, kissing babies, patting frowzled-headed, 
dirty faced boys; flattering the rural sun- 
flowers, kissing the blarney stone and dealing 
out thickened taifa to the old beldames, and 
hugoing like a very brother the voters, and 
dividing with them their supply of plug 
tobacco, and tipping the wink to the blear- 
eyed doggery keeper — making spread eagle 
speeches everywhere and upon all possible 
occasions, and thus the work of breaking 
down the one great barrier between the pro- 
fession and the people, and their mingling in 
discriminate herds, went on, until a lawyer 
o-ot to be simply a human being, "nothing but 
a man," as the boy said when the preacher 
for the first time dined at his mother's house. 
But the fact remains that in the early set- 
tlement of the State, and in the first forma- 
tion of the laws and customs of the different 
counties, these gentlemen had much to do, 
and to their glory be it said, they did their 
work wisely and well, and the proud State of 
Illinois, and her royal train of daughters — • 
the 102 counties — are imperishable monu- 
ments to their industry, patriotism, ripe 
judgment and incorruptible integrity'. We 
have here the fiurth State in the Union, and 
it was eager and swilt in the race for the 
third place. The next decade will place her 
second, and a few brief years may, naj', 
doubtless will, put her at the head of the 



groat column of States, and toward tliis 
grand consuminatiuri a nieeil of praise will 
always be due these good men — the early 
Bench and Bar. The first session of the 
Circuit Court in Clark County was held in 
Aurora, as stated in a preceding chapter, 
the first county seat, on the 20th day of Sep- 
tember, 1819. Judge Thomas C. Browne 
presiding, and W. B. Archer, clerk, and the 
first case ever entered upon the Circuit Court 
docket was a little appeal case, from the 
docket of C. Patrick. Wickliffe Kitchell ap- 
peared as the plaintiff's attorne}-, and John 
M. Robinson for the defendant. This first 
case of the court's docket, bear in mind, was 
not at the first term of the court, for, accord- 
ing to the record, there was no case put down 
for trial at this court. The records are models 
of their kind, and we much doubt if any 
county in the State can show records in their 
organization, that would compare with these 
ill their completeness or mechanical execu- 
tion. Every paper, every certificate and 
each proper entry are all in their place and 
are models that have never yet been improved 
upon. These splendid records shoulil be 
preserved by the county, as one would the 
ap])le of his eye, and the time will soon come 
when these books will be a just and fitting 
moiuiinont to the first county officials, especi- 
ally the clerk of the court. 

In Aj)ril, 18"^'0, the second term of the Cir- 
cuit Court for the county convened, Judge 
William Wilson presiding. There were only 
four cases on the docket, and two of these 
were for slander. At this term of the court 
appeared as attorneys, John McLean, John 
M. Robinson, WicklifTe Kitchell, Mr. Nash, 
and Henry W. Dunford. At the September 
term, 1820, William P. Bennet was enrolled 
as a practicing attoriiev. At the May term, 
1821, the clerk, W. B. Archer, makes this ex- 
])lanatory entry: " Be it known that the 
sheriff, clerk of the court, suitors, etc., at- 

tended at Aurora, the seat of justice of Clark 
County, on Wednesday the 23d day of May, 
1821, and until 4 o'clock of Thursday, the 
24th day of said month, and no judge appear- 
ing to form a court, the people dispersed." 
At the October term, 1821, Nathaniel Hunt- 
ington and Jacob Call were enrolled as at- 
torneys. At the May term, 1822, Jacob Har- 
lan acted as clerk pr> tein., and John M. Rob- 
inson appears upon the records as the first 
State's attorney for the county of Clark, John 
Jackson enrolled as a regular attorney. 

In 1823 the county seat was moved from 
Aurora to Darwin. In 1825 Hon. James O. 
Wattles succeeded Wilson as Circuit Judge. 
At the November term, 1825, Judge James 
Hall held a term of the court, and at this 
term T. C. Cone was enrolled as an attorney. 
Then in 1826 Judge Wattles again presides, 
and at the April term, 1827, Wilson is again 
on the bench. In 1831 Edwin B. Webb ap- 
pears as the State's attorney. 

O. B. FiciCLiN. — In 1830, now fifty-three 
years ago, in a memorable day in September, 
appeared in the little town of Darwin, the 
Hon. O. B. Ficklin, " on horseback." Judge 
Ficklin says he can distinctly remember the 
day, because it was just as the little town 
was in the greatest state of excitement over 
finding a den of snakes. He thinks if the 
whole village had been suffering an attack of 
jim-jams thev could not have had a worse at- 
tack of snakes. When found, the reptiles 
were intertwined into an immense roll, larger 
than a bale of hay, where they had apparent- 
ly gathered to go into winter quarters. When 
disturbed they started in every direction, and 
the people en masse had armed themselves 
and were working away in the slaughter like 
men threshing wheat with old-styled flails. 
The old judge says his arrival was wholly 
eclipsed by the serpents, but ho congratulates 
himself that he has stayed longer than the 
snakes, at least longer than that particular 



batch of them. Tlip people were not so much 
to blame for overlooking him and seeing 
only the snakes. They didn't know him then, 
as well as pretty much everybody in Illinois 
now does; they did know the snakes, and 
they literally pulverized the heads of the de- 
scendants of the first apple vender with their 
heels, and with sticks, clubs or anything they 
could lay their hands upon. Ficklin rode up 
to the tavern, dismounted, carried his rather 
emaciated saddle-bags into the house, had his 
horse put up, and immediately joined the lit- 
tle array that was so bravely battling with 
reptiles. Ficklin came from Missouri to Illi- 
nois, and fi.^ed his home at Mt. Carmel, and 
thus became a member of the Wabash bar, 
and entered actively upon the practice of his 
chosen profession. He diligently continued 
his studios, struggled hard to pay his light 
expenses of living, and by untiring energy to 
win a name and just fame among his fellow 
members of the bar. He was then but a 
bright, inexperienced boy, having been born 
in Scott County, Ky., December 10, 1808. 
It is not intended here to give a statistical 
bioii-raphv of Judge Ficklin, but rather a 
mere outline of dates and facts, as a founda- 
tion on whicli to build, or place a sketch of 
the man mentalU', morally, socially and polit- 
ically. His political life commenced as early 
as 1834, when he was elected to the Legisla- 
ture at Vandalia, the then State capitol. 
Here he first met Douglas, Lincoln, John T. 
Stewart, Jesse K. Duljois and many others 
who afterward gained wide celebrity. He 
describes Douglas as the little, sprightly boy 
of the Legislature, very bright, affaljle, indus- 
trious, and universally liked and petted by 
all the members. Lincoln was long, gang- 
linn-, uncouth, and his clothes always fit 
badly, and he looked so awkward that his 
friends were always afraid he would tramp on 
his own feet and trip himself. But he could 
tell a good story; sometimes showed fair 

ability in argjument, and was conceded to be 
an opponent who would bear a great deal of 
watching. Jesse K. Dubois — well, everybody 
on the Wabash knows him, and respects and 
loves his memory. He was one of the kind- 
est hearted, most genial men that Illinois ever 
produced. His power with men lay in his 
kind, warm heart. John T. Stewart impress- 
ed voung Ficklin as the giant among these 
pigmies, both intellectually and physically. 
He was all intellect, without thut flow of 
animal spirits that are generally essential to 
a politician. Then, too, he was more given 
to be a great lawyer than a great politician. 
His whole nature imbued him with the 
aristocratic ideas of the Whig party, and the 
Whig party in the early days of Illinois, was 
not well adapted to the wants and ideas of the 
people. Hence, Mr. Stewart never entered 
very seriously into polities, especially afte-r 
his momorable contest with Douglas for a 
seat in the United States Coni-ress. These 
were the men that Ficklin met at the State 
capitol in the winter of 1834. His recollec- 
tion is most distinct upon the point that there 
certainly was not one there who then even 
dreamed there was not only the materials for 
presidents, but men who by sheer force of their 
intellects, and in defiance of defeats in elec- 
tions, would send their fame all over the 
<j-lobe; whose memories would endure forever. 
In this remarkable school for young men, 
Judge Ficklin measured his capabilities in 
many a sharp contest, and from none of these 
did he ever have to retire with his plumes 
either ruffl ;d or plucked. He returned to his 
constituents, and in the winter of 1834-5 was 
chosen States attorney for the W.ibash D.s- 
trict. In 1S37 he removed to Coles County, 
locating in Charleston, where he has resided 
ever since, and entered here at once upon a 
large, and for those days a lucrative practice 
of the law. In 1843 he was elected to Con- 
gress. In the congressional delegation from 



Illinois at that time vvero Douglas, McCler- 
naiid and Wentwortli. He was re-elected in 
ISiJ: and again in 1846, and again elected in 
1850. He was a delegate to the National 
Democratic Convention of ISoG, when James 
Buchanan was nominated, and also a delegate 
to the Charleston convention of 18G0. In 
1370 he was elected to the Illinois Legisla- 
ture. In 1846 he married Elizabeth H. Col- 
quitt, of Georgia, daughter of United States 
Senator Walter T. Colquitt, and sister of the 
present U. S. Senator from Georgia, Gov. Al- 
fred Colquitt. 

This is the briefest outline of his political 
life, but it is of his legal and social career 
that we prefer to speak more full}'. He is 
the father, now, of the Illinois bar. A ripe 
scholar, a profound jurist. But his supreme 
gifts were an integrity and probity that were 
never suspected, and an intuitive knowledge 
of men that has never betai surpassed. He 
had a boundless contempt for human frauds 
and shams, and he hated a scoundrel with an 
intensity that never relaxed. So strongly was 
this in his nature that when once started in 
the pursuit of a nest of rascals, he at once lost 
sight of fees or emoluments, and for the pure 
love of right and justice he pursued the vil- 
lain as relentlessly and persistently as the 
blood-hound is said to follow the fleeing fugi- 
tive. A history of these dens and villains 
that he has uncovered, and laid the heavy 
hand of the outraged law upon, would make 
an instructive book of thrilling interest. 
When profoundly interested and aroused, his 
eloquence was of the highest type — his lan- 
guage strong and rich, and his sentences clear- 
cut and as fuiished as the highest classics. 
We know of nothing of a similar kind that 
surpasses for pathetic eloquence, his tribute 
to the memory of his friend, Judge Steel, 
before the court and bar when he presented 
the resolutions of respect to the departed 
jvnist and beloved friend. The words welled 

up spontaneously to the lips from a heart full 
of grief and sadness; they came unstudied, 
and for this very reason they came with a 
naturalness, power and fascination that has 
seldom been oqualed^never surpassed. But 
by his intimate acquaintances he will proba- 
bly be the best remembered for his rare 
social gifts and conversational powers. He 
loved to talk and to hear others talk, and it 
mattered not with whom or in what circle he 
found himself, his talent of adaptation was 
never at fault. From the most ignorant and 
simple he could, by his natural gifts for cross- 
examining, extract both information and quiet 
amusement. If he found them too ignorant 
for anything else, they could tell him about 
their " sisters, their cousins, and their aunts," 
and the absorbing interest of the old judge 
in these at once became a comical study. 
And even thus he was storing away informa- 
tion about the people that he at some time, 
either in the practice of the law or in his 
political campaigns, could use to a great ad- 
vantage. The younger lawyers of the district 
will tell you that he can go into almost any 
county in the Wabash district, or in central 
or southern Illinois, and on opening court 
day, take his seat in the court room and as 
each one of the younger generation of men 
enters, if he does not recognize him, he will 
ask his young lawyer friend the name of the 
man, and when told it, he will most generally 
reply by saying, " Oh, yes; I know; the son 
of such and such a man, who settled on such 
a creek," and then proceed to tell his friend 
all about the man's family and relatives. It 
is said that in this way he knows more people, 
and more about them, than any other man in 
the State. He would gather from his uncouth 
friends often as much or more quiet amuse- 
ment than information. For instance, riding 
along the road one day he overtook a woman 
driving a team of oxen, hauling rails. He 
slowed up his horse and opened a conversa- 



tion. Eventually, among other things, he 
asked her how she liked Illinois. "Oh," re- 
plied the woman, " it 'pears all well enough 
for men and dogs, but its powerful tryin' on 
women and oxen." Thus his store of amus- 
ing incidents and anecdotes are unsurpassed 
probably by any man living. But his most 
valuable associate in life was doubtless U. F. 
Linder, one of the most wonderful men that 
Illinois has ever produced. Ficklin and Lin- 
der were near the same age; had commenced 
the practice of the law at the same time, and 
from 1837, the date of Ficklin's locating in 
Charleston, they were neighbors, associates, 
and friends; most generally arrayed on oppo- 
site sides in the courtroom, their legal battles 
were the marvel of the age. In their mental 
and general make-up they were in pretty 
much everything perfect opposites. Linder's 
genius was transcendent, brilliant, flashing, 
unstable, feverish, and diseased. He blazed up 
into the highest heavens like a flashing rocket, 
from where his unbalanced nature plunged 
into the dark mud like a blackened stick. 
Before a jury or upon the hustings his elo- 
quence and genius played like the ragged 
lightnings in sportive twists. When his elo- 
quent tongue wagged unmolested he swayed 
and moved an audience as with the combined 
force of mesmerism and electricity, and 
seemed to revel and riot in almost super- 
natural powers, and when the feverish thrill 
had passed he was left weak, puerile and 
childish, full of superstitious fears, dreading 
and dodging unseen dangers, vain as a sim- 
pleton, and particularly vain of those very 
things he did not possess, and of which almost 
any other man with a modicum of sense would 
have been heartily ashamed. He failed in 
every great purpose of his life, if he ever 
formed any great purpose, which is doubtful, 
because when success came to his hands, for 
which he had struggled apparently like the 
fabled gods, he threw it away and trampled 

it in the mud and the mire. Judge Ficklin 
was essential, nay, absolutely necessary, to 
this wild child of genius as a prop and stay, 
and balance, to his very existence. The con- 
servative, strong nature of Ficklin was the 
only one thing in this world to stay and con- 
trol the gifted madness of Linder, and the 
truth of this is attested in the hard and griev- 
ous life that was his continuous existence 
after he moved away from Charleston and 
fixed his habitation in Chicago, where he died 
a few years ago. Linder was as fickle as he 
was brilliant, one moment loving his friends 
and pouring out upon them terms of endear- 
ment as intense and soft as a hysterical 
school-girl; the next moment raging at and 
abusing them like a fury, painting the moon 
with blood, or lashing them with that wonder- 
ful tongue that at times was as a whip of 
scorpions, then as causelessly as had been 
perhaps his firet wrath, he would humble and 
humiliate himself in abject apologies. The 
companionship, the legal contests before 
courts and juries, the warm friendships, the 
tiff's (always only on Linder's part), the social 
communings, the political battles and discus- 
sions upon the stump, their traveling all over 
the wide circuit on horse-back together, dis- 
cussing everything from the size of their 
respective clients' ears to the simple and 
sublime sermon on the Mount. Could they 
be put down upon paper, with all their 
strange, wierd and amusing phrases, would 
make a page in the world's history that would 
stand alone in interest. It was, it is true, 
something like hitching up for a draft team 
the noble Fercheron horse and the wild eagle 
of the crags. The marvelous brilliancy of 
Linder's genius attracted Ficklin, while Lin- 
der went to Ficklin in all his real and 
his numerous imaginary troubles as the 
helpless, heart-broken child does to its strong 
lovin<T father to pour out its griefs and have 



its wouiKis made whole. A story finely illus- 
trative, both of the times and of these two 
men, is told somewhat as follows: In 1844, 
tiiey each aspired to be candidates for con- 
gress — one a Wiiig, the other a Democrat. 
Earlv in the year they started out traveling 
from county to county, holding nearly every 
night joint discussions. They joined issue 
upon the then great question of the annexa- 
tion of Te.xas. They took sides, it seems, by 
lot, and Linder as a Whig, was warmly for get- 
ting Texas, and Mexico too, for tliat matter, 
■while Ficklin, as a Democrat, hotly opposed 
the whole scheme of blood and robbery. As 
these nightly battles grew and magnified, the 
people became deeply interested and many 
traveled from county to county to hear their 
favorites discuss these great questions. They 
had about got over half the districts, and their 
appointments were out for the remaining 
counties, when the slow word found its way 
to this wild country at last, that the National 
Democratic Convention had nominated Polk 
and Dallas, and upon the strongest kind of a 
Texas annexation platform. The word came 
like a thunder-clap to these young statesmen. 
What were they to do? They were to debate 
the next day in the adjoining county, and 
they cut the Gordian knot as thej' rode to the 
place, by changing sides, and then at it they 
went, hip and thigh, over the remainder of the 
district. This swapping sides was the life 
and joy of Linder, for it was his nature to 
stick at nothing very long. He joined pretty 
much every craze that came along, and al- 
ways for the nonce out-Heroded Herod. If a 
church revival happened along when he was 
in one of his frequent moods of depression, 
he would join, and his enthusiasm was bound- 
less and uncontrollable, and, of course, would 
soon blaze and burn itself out, when back he 
would go to his revelries and first loves. But 
always when he safely passed the prayer and 
shouting gauge, he would hie himself and 

hunt up Ficklin and beg and plrad with him 
to come and go along and be saved. He 
would attack every one he met, in the high- 
wavs and by-ways, and invite them to the 
marriage feasts, and, if they hesitated at all, 
he would open upon them his powerful po- 
lemical batteries, which discussions soon grew 
so heated that Linder would be more eager 
to fight it out, rough and tumble, give and 
take, than he had a few minutes before been 
anxious to save their imperiled souls. Thus 
every ism, society and church, that chance 
forced upon him, he tried in turns, not even 
slighting the Adventists with their ascension 
robes and a burning world. Ficklin reports 
him unusually serious upon this last-named 
reliofious experiment. Although it was in the 
dead of winter when the craze struck the vil- 
lage of Charleston and captured nearly all the 
people, as well as Linder, yet the colder the 
weather got the hotter Linder felt, and it so 
happened that on the day for the vast confla- 
gration there were two '' sun-dogs " rose up 
with the red sun. The people rushed into 
the streets and believed the red suns were the 
world's fire and that in the language of Fick- 
lin, the tire had about reached the Embarras 
River and as soon as it could get across the 
river it would devour Charleston. At the 
head of these was Linder, praying and shout- 
ing like mad, and exhorting the people that 
the day of judgment and the wrath of God 
was at hand, but the day passed and the 
world rolled on as cold and icy the next morn- 
ing as ever. Linder hunted up Ficklin and 
told him he had again got religion, that he 
was certain the world was coming to an end, 
that he firmly believed it had already passed 
its allotted time by twenty-four hours; that he 
was sincere in his religion and much wished 
his brother Ficklin would go along with him, 
etc. "But, brother Ficklin," said Linder, 

" I never intend my religion again to make a 

damn fool of me." 



S. S. Whitehead, of Marshall, tells of the 
first political speech he ever listened to. It 
•was made by Judge Fiokliii to an audience of 
the great " unwashed," the barefoot democ- 
racy in their hunting shirts. An issue of that 
day was, much as we have it now, the ab- 
struse problem in political economy, of a high 
protective tariff. The speaker finally came to 
this question, when he explained it with the 
simple proposition that " protective tariff is a 
Sunday-go-to-meeting word, and means high 
taxes upon you farmers and everybody else." 
We have no hesitation in saying, that for the 
crowd, the occasion and all the surrounding 
circumstances, this was the best speech ever 
made on that vexed question. 

.lusTiN Haklan. — Judge Harlan was a 
native of Ohio, born in Warren County, De- 
cember, 1800, and died while on a visit to a 
daughter in Kentucky, March 13, 1879. He 
had received an academic education and 
studied law in the office of Judge McLean, 
and afterward with Judge Callett, and came 
to Darwin in May, 1825. In the year 1833 
he was married to Lucinda Hoge, and resided 
in Darwin until the year 1840, when he took 
up his abode in Marshall. He had nine 
children, eight of whom are still living; one 
died in infancy; three of these, namely, How- 
ard, Cyrus and Edwin, were born in Darwin, 
and the others in Marshall. Mrs. Harlan, who 
survives him, was born in Knox County, In- 
diana, in the year 1813. When Judge Har- 
lan first came to Illinois he located in Pales- 
tine, and after a few years residence there re- 
moved to Darwin. His first office was justice 
of the peace in the last named village. He 
was a soldier in the war of 1833, and served 
out his term as orderly sergeant of his com- 
pany with credit and distinction. In the 
year 1835 he was elected circuit judge by 
the State Legislature, which honorable posi- 
tion he filled for eighteen consecutive years, 
the longest continuous period of any man who 

has yet held the office. So ably and well did 
ho discharge his high duties of judge that 
after hts first term he was re-elected without 
opposition. He was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention of 1848, and here his 
strong character,his familiarity with the funda- 
mental laws, and his polished scholarship 
made him a conspicuous and leading member 
of that body. He was appointed by President 
Lincoln Indian agent ot the Cherokee Na- 
tion, in which position he served until Lin- 
coln died, when he resigned and returned to 
his home in Marshall. He was one of the few 
Indian agents that brought no disgrace to the 
government, and when retiring from his post 
of usefulness was a loss to both the govern- 
ment and the Indians. After his return home, 
although he was not in accord politically with 
the majority of his county, he was elected 
county judge, which position he filled until 
within a short time of his death. 

This is the record dated of a long, a useful 
and a great life. No shadow ever fell upon 
his name or fame. Strength of mind and 
purity of purpose were his leading traits. In 
his profession of the law these made him a 
great chancery lawyer, no doubt the ablest 
that ever presided in a chancery court in the 
Wabash district, or practiced before the courts 
in Clark County. In that branch of the law 
practice that sometimes requires scheming 
and cunning diplomacy, he was neither great 
nor very successful. A proof that his nature 
was faithful and just, and that his pre-emi- 
nent integrity of mind was better adapted to 
the equitj"^ courts. When he had laid aside 
his cares of office and active life he gave up 
his time mingling among his troops of friends, 
where he moved like a great central figure 
marked by the love, respect and admiration 
of all. But his delight and keenest joys of 
old age was in the association of little, inno- 
cent children. He loved them all most de- 
votedly, and to make them happy to listen to 



the rippling laughter that bubbled up from 
their guileless hearts, watch their gambols and 
share in their boisterous and hearty fun and 
frolic, was his almost constant pastime. His 
house, in bad weather, and the shady sward, 
in good weather, was the resort for troops 
of these prattling innocents where they came 
to the joyous old man like genial sunbeams — 
a sweet picture in the gloaming of a great, 
pure and noble life — a fitting crown. Let it 
1)6 Judge Harlan's imperishable monument 
beneath which may he sweetly sleep forever. 

In 1835, at the October term of the Circuit 
Court, Judge Alexander F. Grant presided 
during the term as the judge i^ro tan. 

Among the early lawyers in Darwin was 
Eldridge S. Jenny, and a little later came a 
man of conside able ability in his profession, 
Mr. Shelledey. And then began to come 
Hon. Aaron Shaw of Lawrenceville, the 
present member of Congress, from this dis- 
trict. Josiah McRoberts, Kirby Benedict, of 
Paris, A. C. French, of Palestine, Charles Em- 
merson, of Macon Count}-, "Wickliffe Kitch- 
ell, and afterward his two sons, Alfred and 
Edward, from Palestine. Wicklifle Kitchell 
is remembered by the bar as a close student 
of the law, a faithful and conscientious attor- 
Uey, but inclined to be a little prolix and 
sometimes prosy. In a race for Congress 
Kitchell, Linder and Ficklin were the three 
" starters." Linder, of course, was in his 
glory, which could only have been increased 
by an increase in the number of his competi- 
tors. He would open his campaign speeches 
by saying that he was a candidate for Con- 
gress; that he was running against Fick- 
lin, and that his wife was running against 
Kitchell, and with this flippant allusion he 
would dismiss the further consideration of 
Kitchell and then turn his batteries upon the 
Democrats. To these merciless flagellations 
Ficklin would bravely respond, and then 
trut out Folk as " the little bob-tailed roached- 

maned Tennessee pony that was going to 
beat the great spavined Kaintuck boss, and 
that the Whigs were a case of blacklegs and 
preachers all put in the same bed, etc., etc. 
These are given as mere specimens of the tart 
and relish that were so well calculated to 
hold the interested attention of the crowds 
that listened to the discussions. 

Jldge Uki Manly. — He was one of the ; 
presiding judges of the Circuit Court of 
Clark County. He had read law with Judge 
Harlan's father in Kentucky. Judge Manly 
was a well-read lawyer, with a quick, bright 
mind. His mental cultivation had been ex- 
tensive, and his reading of a wider rano-e 
than the average lawyer and politician" of his 
day. He was much more remarkable for 
read}' shrewdness than for great profundity 
of thought. He was succeeded in oiBce by 
Judge Stephen Archer, who belonged to one 
of the oldest and best families that came iu 
the early times to Clark County. He dis- 
charged the duties of circuit judge with great 
fairness and more than average ability. 

Joshua P. Cooper came to Clark County as 
early as 1825. He located in Martinsville, 
where he married Marian, the daughter of 
Abner Stark. He died in ISGij in Erlgar 
County, to which place he had removed some 
years before, and where he had been elected 
County Judge. He was one of the most elo- 
quent men of his day. In early life he had 
been badly crippled by the " white-swelling." 
He was a member of the Legislature in 1848, 
and in the senatorial contest between Breeze 
and Shields he warmly espoused the cause of 
Judge Breeze. He stood for a re-nomination 
to the Legislature and was defeated by James 
C. Robinson, one of the most remarkable of 
all the eminemt men given to the State by the 
Wabash Country. A splendid specimen of 
frontier developement whose eventful life is 
full of romance and instruction. Born of 
humble parents in a new wild country, where 



all were generally poor and rich alike — the 
intensity of the pinch and struggle for life 
usually dependent upon the numbers of young 
children that had to be provided for, and sur- 
rounded by very little of the blessings of 
society and civilization, the very poorest 
school facilities, where the sum and substance 
of life was a constant battle with the ele- 
ments, hunger, the wild varments, and the 
beasts of prey, were the general surroundings 
of the childhood of " Jim Robinson," as his 
old friends still persist in calling him. The 
children of poor farmers in that day were put 
to work at a very tender age. In all these 
respects his earliest surroundings came at 
him rough end foremost. It may have been 
these very circumstances that whetted the 
child's natural shrewdness and cunning. At 
all events, it is told of him that at the earliest 
age he gave evidences that he had not been 
born with the gift of industry in tending swine 
very largely developed, and that his talent for 
shirking work off upon his older brothers was 
very marked indeed. In fact so masterly 
was his laziness, so utterly reckless was he of 
the health and comforts of both the domestic 
animals and the crops upon the farm, his tend- 
er-heartedness toward weeds as he saw them 
rise up in their might to choke the young 
corn in its efforts to make the family bread, 
that his family and friends despaired of his 
ever being of any account, and were willing 
to give him over to utter reprobacy. But as 
for playing marbles, " keeps," " shinny," 
mumble-peg, swimming, foot-racing, stealing 
out the old jaded plow horses of moonlight 
nights, or of Sundays when the older ones were 
at church, and running races for pin fish- 
hooks, whip crackers, or white alleys, he went 
forth conquering and to conquer. When 
more than half grown he was a lazy, lubberly, 
unkempt, unprepossessing bare-foot boy, 
reckless, rolicking and indifferent as to where 
the next feed was to come from as a cub- 

bear; a bundle of growing vitality, and ex- 
uberant animal spirits with no restraints or 
guides in the world except his own volitions 
and impulses. If his most partial friends 
ever supposed he possessed hidden possibili- 
ties of future usefulness and value, it must 
have struck them as a case of the jewel in the 
toad's head. Yet before he was grown, he had 
picked up in some unaccountable way enough 
education to be able to read and write, and 
had good books then fallen in his way he no 
doubt would have shown his friends for what 
purpose he was made, but they were not to 
be had and he therefore bloomed into a most 
expert jockey in the county. He passionately 
loved horses and especially horse-racing. The 
evidence that he admired women is well 
attested in the living fact that he is only 
eifjhteen years older than his oldeat son. 
Thus at the early age of eighteen he was the 
head of a family, a renter, a wretched farmer, 
and with no other earthly possessions, or visi- 
ble means of support, but he was as happy, 
contented and lazy as the day was long. 
The family of the young Benedict increased 
with a constant regularity, and he soon grew 
to be a leader in the county in all games and 
sports, and a prominent figure on exciting 
election days, and all kinds of hurrah gather- 
ings. At the first call for soldiers in the 
Mexican war he volunteered as a soldier and 
served his country until the end of the wai- 
and the disbandment of the army. This 
circumstance was no doubt the turning point 
in his career of life. Soldiering, and travel- 
ino-, as well as mixing somewhat with men 
of some culture, had educated him up to the 
knowledge of his real vocation in life. Upon 
his return home he borrowed a law book 
(some say it was a copy of the Illinois statu- 
tes) and commenced the study of the law. 
That summer he raised a meager crop of corn 
and read law in the shade, and at the fall term 
of the court obtained his license as an attorney. 



He quit the farm at once and opened a law 
office in Marshall, and his fortune was made. 
His indolence, and all former roysteririg, in- 
dift'erence to the cares of life wore 2*one, and 
by the sheer force of intellect and extraordi- 
nary talents, he took his position at the head 
of the bar as a jurj' lawj-er in his countj- — a 
position that he now holds in the bar of the 
great State of Illinois. In a short time he 
was elected to congress, and was re-elected 
a nuinher of times — in fact until he moved 
out of the district and located in Springfield, 
with a view of devoting his time exclusively 
to the practice of the law. When he took up 
his abode in Springfield that congressional dis- 
trict was and had l)een for a long time strong- 
ly republican in politics. A nomination, by 
the democracy, was forced upon his unwilling 
acceptance, and he canvassed the district, and 
wrested victory from the ja ws of defeat, and 
from that day to the present the district has 
sent only Democrats to Washington. He was 
the nominee of the Democracy for Governor 
during the war times, when there was prac- 
ticall}' no living Democratic party in the 
State, and, of course, he was defeated, but he 
made an able and memorable canvass. 

These, in the fewest words, are the promi- 
nent facts of his political life. In the mean- 
time while this rather larsre and active polit- 
ical life was ^oing on, his knowledge and 
fame in the profession of the law was growing 
and rapidly extending. Not only is this true, 
but his education and growth in knowledge 
kept pace with his wonderful advances in the 
respects above mentioned, until to-day, at the 
noon merely of his intellectual manhood, this 
misjudged, never understood farmer boy, with 
scarcely a single adventitious circumstance 
to mold and develop his mind in his youth 
and young manhood, has trod alone, sword 
in hand, and cleaved out his road to fame and 
fortune, and become not only a ripe literary 
scholar, the ablest of jury lawyers, the great- 

est popular orator of his day, but a statesman 
as well as a lawyer of national reputation. 
His powers as a conversationalist are as won- 
derful as his triuniphs in other intellectual 
paths, and have unquestionably contributed 
not a little to his successful life. 

This is the instructive story — only bv far to 
briefly told, and too much suppressed — of 
what a boy can do, not only without the 
schools, but without wealth, and with a family 
on his hands at the rather jjrcmature ago of 
eighteen years! If rightly read by thej'ouths 
of our country, it would prove the most val- 
uable lesson of their lives. 

Hon. Charles H. Constable. — This £,en- 
tleman was born in Chestertown, Maryland, 
.July 6, 1817, and died in the city of Effingham 
October 9, 1805. He had been educated in 
early life with great care and was a thorough 
and elegant scholar. He attended school at 
Belle Air Academy, a fine scientific and classi- 
cal school, and prepared himself to enter col- 
lege and then became a student of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, where he graduated with 
the first honor in 1838. Here he pursued, 
among other branches, the study of the law, 
when this department of the school was in the 
care of men of national reputation, and to 
their invaluable instruction he added his own 
patient and unremitting studies, and laid the 
foundation for that judicial knowledge which 
he in subsequent life displayed as an advo- 
cate and judge. Immediately after his grad- 
uation he came to Illinois, and located in Mt. 
Carmel, and here, on the 23d day of April, 
1840, was married to Martha, daughter of 
Reverend Thomas Hines, of that place. Here 
he soon won the honorable position of ranking ' 
among the ablest among the members of a 
bar, which, at that day, was justly estimated 
as the ablest of the West. And such were the 
strength and solidity of his abilities that this 
reputation soon extended all over the State. 
In 1846 he was elected a member of the State 



Senate, from the Wabash, Edwards and 
Wayne counties district, discharging the du- 
ties of the office with signal ability. He was 
elected a delegate to the Sfate Constitutional 
Convention of l.S-iS from Wabash County. 
His ripe scholarship, and profound knowledge 
of the law bi ought him conspicuously forward, 
and many of the most important features of 
the Constitution were his handiwork. After 
the convention had completed its labors he 
•was made chairman of a committee to prepare 
an address to the people of Illinois, to be sub- 
mitted with the Constitution. This was a 
most able and admirable paper and was wholly 
written by him. 

.Judge Constable was a devoted Old Line 
Whig, and acted strictly with that party until 
its dissolution in 1854, when he became a 
Democrat. He was the Whig candidate for 
Congress in 1852, in the 7th district, and was 
defeated by Hon. J. C. Allen. Many of the 
older citizens will yet contend that the can- 
vass made by Judge Constable in this election 
was by far the ablest and most brilliant ever 
made in the district. He was a Democratic 
elector in 1856, for the State at large. In 
June, 1861, he was elected judge of the 4th 
judicial circuit and this position he held until 
his death. 

He was a pure, able and just judge, ex- 
amining all questions that came before him 
with conscientious impartiality, great prompt- 
ness and discrimination. 

As a lawyer, judge and legislator, he was 
alike popular. In every position of life to 
which the people elevated him, he gained dis- 
tinguished honors. He was well fitted to 
adorn the highest places in the public trust, 
and had his life been spared to his people the 
public voice would have doubtless called him 
to yet higher places of trust. 

His acquirements as a lawyer were varied 
and profound. He had drunk deeply of the 
fountains of English common law, and he kept 
pace with the march of judicial science, by a 
familiarity with the reported decisions of our 
own courts and those of England. He had 
thoroughly studied and mastered the philoso- 
phy and spirit as well as the dry letter of the 
law. As a speaker he was forcible, eloquent 
and correct. His language showed the man 
of thought and cultivated taste. His bearing 
was digiiilied, courteous and polite. He was 
an ornament to the bench and an honor to 
the bar. 

At times .Judge Constable has been the ob- 
ject of the most violent and relentless polit- 
ical persecuiion, and yet those who knew him 
well, know that the man scarcely ever lived, 
who less deserved it. Firm and conscientious 
in all his views, and bold and fearless in their 
enunciation, ho had, at the same time, respect 
for those who honestly diifered from him on 
even the most vital tenets of his faith. His 
personal experience, his education and his 
reason taught him the fallibility of human 
judgment and the liability of honest and Vi^ise 
men to disagree upon almost every question 
of political philosophy in a government con- 
stituted as ours is; and he claimed no charity 
for himself that he did not cordially extend 
to others. 

In all the relations of life a sense of duty 
— stern and inexorable — accompanied him 
and characterized his every act, and disre- 
o-arding selfish and personal considerations, 
he obeyed its behests until the icy hand of 
death was laid upon his brow. 

The biographic record of the other mem- 
bers of the bar, now living in the county, will 
be found in the department of this work, 
under the head of Biographical Sketches. 



" "Tis nature's plan 
The child should grow unto the man, 
The man groijr wrinkled, old, and gray." 
— Longfelloic. 

"jl/TARSHALL Township was known in the 
-L'J- Congressional survey as town 11 north, 
range 12 west, and for nearly a score of years 
after the organization of the county, did not 
bear a more specific title. For some time it 
formed an insignificant part of the original and 
illy-defined townships of Washington and Du- 
bois and only secured recognition and promi- 
nence when it was named Marshall, and chosen 
as the site of the county seat of justice in 
I'S'-u. The site of this township was origi- 
nally occupied by w.hat was termed in the 
vernacular of the frontier, a " barren," — de- 
batable ground where the wild fires and 
timber met on somewhat equal terms and 
either might claim the mastery. The land 
was high and pleasantly situated with gentle 
slope toward the South, giving rise in the 
western half to an important branch of Mill 
Creek which joins the main stream on the 
southern line of the township. Mill Creek 
enters the original boundary of the township 
on section nineteen and taking a south- 
easterly course passes out of the middle part 
of section thirty-three. The highest point in 
the township and in the county, is about a 
mile south of the site of the village of Mar- 
sh.all, though the village generally seems to 

* By J. H. Battle. 

share in the pre-eminence, the land sloping in 
all directions from it. Big Creek, an impor- 
tant stream in the early history of the county, 
forms the boundary on the northeast corner, 
but receives no affluent from this territory. 
In the vicinity of Mill and Big Creeks the 
timber early gained the ascendency and 
clothed the somewhat broken land adjoining 
these streams with a heavy forest growth, but 
elsewhere the township v?as generally covered 
with an almost impenetrable undergrowth of 
willow, hazel, and blackjack, while here and 
there, towering above the underbrush, an oc- 
casional >hag-bark hickory flaunted its lofty 
top. This formed a paradise for wild or 
" Congress hogs " as they were called, narrow 
paths of which ramified this dense copse. 
Cattle early learned to find their way here to 
pick the young prairie grass that was found 
here and there in the open glades. Durino- 
the first half of the year the unfortunate fron- 
tiersman, who found himself here by accident 
or in quest of stock, was obliged to wade in 
about six inches of water which covered the 
ground with disagreeable uniformity. Later 
in the year the surplus moisture drained and 
dried off, and here and there the sunny ex- 
posures bore considerable quantities of deli- 
cious wild strawberries that attracted the early 
settlers from the older towns of York and 
Darwin, and game of all sorts recognizing 
here a natural retreat, made it an attractive 
resort for the hunter. 

The location of the National Road tluouoh 



this township in 18:27, gave to this locality a 
partially redeeming feature, but at that time 
failed to excite mnch interest in it as an eli- 
gible site for land entries. If the county 
records may be relied upon, Reason Wiley 
did enter 100 acres on the-west half of section 
two, and in the following year Mecom Maine 
made another entry on the east half of the 
northeast quarter of the same section, but 
these entries were evidently made more with 
reference to the quality of land, in that vi- 
cinity and the milling facilities likely to be 
afforded by Big Creek than any belief in the 
future of the township. In the meanwhile, 
the county seat which had been fi.xed at Au- 
rora in Darwin Township was, a few years 
later, removed to Darwin village, and the 
foreshadow of coming events plainly indi- 
cated that it must be again removed nearer 
to the center of the county, the limits of 
which had been permanently defined. The 
importance of the National Road made it 
certain that some part of Marshall would 
proiiably be chosen as the site for the per- 
manent seat of justice, and the moneyed 
men of the older settlements were look- 
ino- forward to discover the probable point 
with a view to speculation. This state of 
affairs culminated in 1835, and hundreds of 
acres were entered here in this year, princi- 
pallv by those who were residents in Darwin 
and York. The more significant of these were 
the entries of William B. Archer and Gov. J. 
Duncan on sections 13 and 24. Others fol- 
lowed rapidly in the succeeding years so that 
if each entry had represented an actual settler 
the township would have been thickly popu- 
lated by 1840, as the following list of entries 
to that date wiil show. In 1837, entry was 
made on section 2, by Reason Wiley; on the 
same section in 1828, by Mecom Maine; in 
1831, by Thos. Carey on section 31; in 1833, 
by Thos. Wilson on section 2; and in the 
same year on section 32, by John Craig. In 

1835, the following entries appear: Jno. B. 
Stockwell and Orlando B. Ficklin on section 
31, Wm. P. Twilley on section 28, John R ggs 
and Cornelius Lamb on section 25, Mdton 
Lake, Steven Archer, and Dr. Wm. Tutt on 
section 24, J. Duncan and W. B. Archer, and 
David A. Pritchard on section 13. In 183fj, 
entry was made by Wm. C. Blundell, Abram 
Washburn, Abel English and Jonathan Jones 
on section 1; by Woodford Dulaney and W^. 
B. Archer on section 13; by Oliver Davis on 
section 19; by Albert B. Kitchell on section 
21; by William Sullivan et al. on section 23; 
by Jacob and Justin Harlan on section 23; 
by Jno. Bartlett on section 25; by John Hol- 
lenbeck on section 27; by George B. Rich- 
ardson, Jno. Houston and Wickliffe Kitchell 
on section 28; by Thos. Weathers and Jno. 
McManus on section 29; by A. Davis and 
Abraham Lewis on section 30; by P. and 
Geo. Thatcher on section 31; by Wm. Craig 
on section 32; by Levi Stark on section 33; 
bv Win. Bartlett and Wm. McKean on sec- 
tion 3G. In 1837, on section 1, entry was 
made by Henry Cole, Michael Ripple, Samuel 
Galbreath and Jno. Beiers; on section 2, by 
Zachariah Wood; on section 9, by Jas. B. 
Anderson; on section 13, by Washington 
Cole and Hugh Malone; on section 14, by S. 
D. Handy; on section 15, by Wm. Keichum; 
ou section 17, by Robert Mitchel; on section 
19, by Hayward Davis; on section 22, by 
Jno. Thompson; on section 24, by Richard 
Grace; on section 28, by E. L. Janney; on 
section 30, by J. C. Hillebert, and on section 
34, by Vincent Handy. In 1838, entry was 
made on section 2, by Robert Ash more; on 
section 7, by Richard Airey; on section 9, by 
Stephen Lee; on section 12, by Jas. McKay 
and O. H. P. Miller; on section 13, by 
Michael Meeker; on section 17, by Cor- 
nelius Sullivan; on section 20, by Jno. Combs 
and Jno. B. Mitchel; on section 21, by Jas. 
L. Clark; on section 22, by Darius Phillips, 



Fred Quick and Joel Vansant; on section 23, 
by Caleb Philips; on section 25, by Wm. 
Harbcrt; on section 29, by Elza Neal; on 
section 30, by Win. Fanbush; on section 
'■^1, by Zach. Henry; and on section 33, by 
Wesley and Enoch Lee, and Matthew Cleave- 
land. In 1839, on section 9, entry was made 
bj- William King; on section 1-1, by Relly 
Madison; on section 18, by Richard Clapp; 
on section 19, by Peter Weaver; on section 
2], by Leonard Unibarger and Philip Smith; 
on section 27, by Lewis Hufl'; on section 30, 
by Christian Orendorflf, Jno. A. and Peter 
Fredenberg; on section 31, by Henry Jeffers; 
on section 32, by An<lrew Fleming, Calvin 
Bennett and George White; on section 33, 
by Archibald Irwin; and on section 3-1, by 
Jno. W. Bailor and Isaac W. JIartin. 

This list represents some ninety-five fami- 
lies, but ;i large number of them were non- 
residents of this county, and a still larger 
number either never lived in the township or 
did not come here until some time later than 
the date of these entries, and at the begin- 
ning of 1840 it is doubtful if there were 
more than thirty- families living within the 
present limits of Marshall Township. 

The first actual settlement was probably 
made in February, 1830, by Wm. George. 
But little is known of him. He was first 
found oil The eastern limit of the present 
village, near the line of the National Road. 
He never entered land, but simply "squatted" 
on the first available spot, with no definite 
intention, but simply to see what would turn 
up. He had a considerable family which he 
made comfortable as circumstances would 
allow ill a three-sided log structure, covered 
and banked about with the coarse prairie hay 
■which he had cut for the purpose. On tiie 
open side of bis structure was built a large 
fire, which served to keep off the damp, 
chilly air, and facilitate such "culinar\' at- 
tempts as the support of the family made 

necessary. He did not stay here long. At- 
tracted by the brighter prospects on Big 
Creek, the family soon moved there, and a 
little later went to Texas. In May, of 18 0, 
Abram Washburn came to near the western 
limit of the site of the present village. He 
was a native of Ohio, and came by way of 
the river to Shawneetowii; from this point he 
went into the country near the town and took 
up some land, where he lived for some nine 
years. About 1830, hoping to get employ- 
ment on the National Road, and at the same 
time secure a more healthful place to live, he 
came to this locality. He came in the usual 
covered wagon, and came to a halt near the 
site of McKeairs residence west of the vil- 
lage. Pitching out such things as would 
bear exposure to the weather, he prepared a 
bed for the older children on the ground under 
the wagon, while the parents and the younger 
ones occupied the shelter of the vehicle. A 
log cabin was soon put up, where the parents 
and six children found a comfortable home. 
Washburn obtained work upon the National 
Road, and subsequently found it convenient 
to change his residence to the east side of the 
site of the present village. While engaged 
on the public works he had neither time nor 
inclination to make any permanent improve- 
ments. A garden was cultivated for the fam- 
ily's supply of vegetables, but the land 
proved so poor that but little could be pro- 
duced, and resort was had to the 'rotted turf 
which had been thrown off the line of the 
public road, as fertilizer. Washburn subse- 
quently entered land on section 1, on which 
he moved and lived until his death. 

A very early settler, and of whom but 
little is known, was Mecom Maine. He en- 
tered land on spotion 2, in Marshall Town- 
ship, as early as 1828. He came from New 
York, and was probably in the county about 
the time he made his entr\' of land, but being; 
a quiet man, and occupied with the cares of 



a Trontier farm, he left but little impress 
upon the community which gathered there 
He stayer] here but a short time, and left for 
Texas before others of his family came to 
this locality, although he was entrusted to 
select lands for them. 

Thomns Wilson was another early settler in 
this vicinity. He was an Irishman, and made 
a characteristic settlement in the northern 
part of the township, which was popularly 
known as Whiskeyville. He put up one of 
the earliest saw-mills on tiie fork of Big 
Creek, where, in a little log structure, he did 
business when the state of the water per- 
mitted. He remained about here but a few 
years when he went to Florida. In IS'Si 
John Craig settled on section 32, and soon 
after put up a saw-mill on Mill Creek, wliioh 
furnished some material to the contractors on 
the National Road. In this year, also, Wm. 
C. Blundell came here. He was a preacher 
in the Methodist church, and made several 
improvements about the country, but sold 
one after the other, moving about from place 
to place. He entered land on section 1 in 
1836. but did not move onto the place. He 
spent most of his residence in the county 
within the limits of Wabash Township, 
preaching on the circuit which was assigned 
him. In 1836, Abel English, a native of Xew 
Jersey, came to Marshall, and entered land 
on section 1. In the following year, in 
company with a man by the name of Hick- 
man, who caine with or soon after him, from 
New Jersey, be put up a combined saw and 
grist mill. 

The first settlement on the present site of 
the village of Marshall was made in 183(3. In 
January of this year the Legislature passed 
an act to remove the county seat from Darwin 
to some point on the National Road. The 
growing demand was that it should be located 
near the center of the population which would 
eventually fill the county, and this act of the 

Legislature had been anticipated by the people 
for several years. But which should be the 
favored site was a question which aroused the 
liveliest competition among the friends of the 
various eligible points. In October, 1831, 
R. A. Ferguson had platted the village of 
Livingstone in the western part of what is 
now Wabash Township, on the National Road, 
and lots in this village, a little later, sold at 
fabulous prices. In September, 1833, Thomas 
Carey laid off the little village of Careyford 
on the east half of the northeast quarter of 
section 31, and on the west half of the north- 
west quarter of section 33, in town 11 north, 
range 12 west. This plat exhibits simply a 
row of lots on either side of the Cumberland 
Road with Mill Creek dividing it in nearly 
equal parts. Its founder was a native of 
New York and came early to Danville in this 
State, with an ox team. He was really a res- 
ident of Edgar County but attracted by the 
opportunity for speculation he came to this 
locality, and entered land in 1831. He had a 
contract on the road, part of the time in part- 
nership with James Whitlock, and built on 
the site of his village a large hotel for the 
accommodation of his hands and such travel- 
ing guests as found it convenient to use 
it. In Novem')er, 1836, Orlando B. Flcklin, 
Deinas Ward and Jonathan N. Rathbone laid 
off the village of Auburn, about a mile west 
of Careyford. This was a more aml)itious 
venture than the latter village, and was an 
open competitor for the prize to be awarded 
by the Legislative Commission. With the 
exception of Rathbone, the proprietors were 
non-residents of the county and entered into 
the matter as a speculation. Ficklin was a 
man of ability and influence, and entered into 
the contest with some assurance of success. 
A square in the center of the pla,t was reserved 
for the erection of county buildings, though 
it was wisely provided that in the event of 
the county seat being placed elsewhere, this 



square should be devoted to the use of the 
public as a park or coramon. In October, 
ISoJ, Marshall was pliitted on parts ol" sections 
i;5 and '-li: iu town 11 north, range 12 west, 
by J. Duncan and W. B. Archer. The g-round 
selected was hiffh and covered bv a forest 
growth which oiFered the least obstacles to 
niakinu; it habitable, but it had the disadvan- 
tage, owing to the character of the soil, of be- 
ing wet and as forbidding in appearance as 
its most determined opponents could wish. 
It was situated considerably east of the geo- 
graphical center of the county as well, but 
(lie contest was likely to be decided more by 
the strength of the battalions than the just- 
ness of the cause and these matters proved of 
minor consideration. A bill was passed by 
the Legislature iu .January, 1S3G, to change 
the county seat from Darwin to some point on 
tlie National Road nearer the center of the 
county, and appointed Gen. Wm. F. Thornton, 
AVm. Prentiss, and John Hendrix of Shelby 
County, and Charles Emerson and Wra. Red- 
dick of Macon County, as commissioners to fix 
upon the site. But four of the commissioners 
appeared upon the ground, and these were 
divided evenly in their choice between Mar- 
shall and Auburn. The matter was again re- 
ferred to the Legislature, and an act submit- 
ting the whole question to the people was 
passed. By this act it was provided that the 
people of the county should vote on the ques- 
tion of moving the county seat and if this was 
carried in the affirmative, they should again 
vote upon the question of the place. The 
two factions uniting upon the first question 
ha 1 no difficulty in out-voting the Darwin 
adherents, but upon the second Question the 
contest was not so uneven. The adherents of 
Auburn hail in the meanwhile been reinforced 
by J. C. Hillebert, a man of considerable 
■weath living in York, who secured an impor- 
tant share in the plat and lands lying near it. 

He was, however, of a cautious disposition 
and not so generous in the expenditure of 
money as the case seemed to demand. Col. 
Archer, on the other hand, was a man of con- 
siderable wealth, a memlier of the Legislature, 
and possessed of large influence in the com- 
munity in which he lived. He was of Irish 
extraction, born in Scott County, Kentucky, 
from whence he had gone with his father to 
Ohio, and with him, in 1817, came to Darwin. 
He early interested Joseph Duncan, who was 
Governor of the State in 1S3G, in his scheme, 
and bent all his influence and energies in 
promoting tlie success of this venture. After 
platting the town he secured a valuable be- 
ginning of the new community, in th*- settle- 
ment of John Bartlett and .lanijs Wliitloak. 
The latter was especially serviceable in the 
spirited "• electioneering" which preceded the 
final vote in 183^. Social entertainments were 
a part of the means empiojed to captivate the 
voters, and Whitlock " kept open house " in 
ttio new brick building into which he hadjust 
then moved. Here on Saturday night was 
held a weekly soiree to which the invitations 
were verj- generally extended. A piano was 
a part of Mr. Whitlock's furniture, a very rare 
sight in this country at that tima, and the 
ladies of the family devoted themselves to 
the entertainment of their guests. It is said 
that the ladies' influence was no mean factor 
in the contest, and the Auburn adherents 
were wont to say that some of their opponents 
thought ^Yhitlock's parlor was a type of 
heaven. At Careyford there was a dance 
continuing through three days, it is said, but 
it availed nothing. The election was held in 
July or August of 1837, and decided in favor 
of Marshall by a majority of eighty-one votes. 
This decision assured the eventual success of 
Archer's venture though it still required a 
good deal of attention to make it profitable 
as there was no small expense involved in 



t!io strutjgle beside the payment of five thou- 
sand dollars, which was one of the conditions 
of the removal. 

Early in 1836, Col. Archer had induced his 
hrother-in-law, John Bartlett to come to Mar- 
shall, and put up and conduct a hotel. Bart- 
lett was a native of New York and had come 
to Walnut prairie in 1817, but tired of coun- 
try life had determined to go to Chicago 
and cast in his fortunes with that growing 
village. He had gone so far in his prepara- 
tions as to rent a house there, when Archer 
took him in hand and demonstrated the supe- 
rior advantages of Marshall. At all events, 
Bartlett came here in April of 1836, and 
erected a double log-house on the east end of 
the lot on which the residence of Mrs. Gieen- 
ough now stands. The buildins: was formed 
of hickory logs, which being cut at the right 
time peeled oti their barU giving the structure 
a unique and attractive appearance. It fronted 
on Market street, and had three rooms, each 
opening by a door upon a porch which ran 
the whole leiia-th of the building. At this 
time the national road was in process of con- 
struction through the county. Through the 
village it had been graded and finished, but 
ill the near vicinity large forces of workmen 
were employed, and these men, with the 
through travel which began to bo a prominent 
factor iu the western communities, brought 
considerable revenue to this wayside inn. 

The corps of Government engineers en- 
gaged on the road made this point their 
head-quarters, and were tlie guests of the ho- 
tel for upward of three years, while the in- 
crease of transient business made it soon nec- 
essary to erect a long building on the west 
side of the lot for their accommodation. The 
second building erected iu the new village 
was a Lirge frame stable, 43 by 113 feet, which 
was placed on ttie corner of Market and 
Franklin streets, where Archer Bartlett's lum- 
ber-yard now is; and the capacity of this 

spacious building was frequently taxed to its 
utmost to afford accommodations for the horses 
of the hotel guests. Here Mr. Bart ett did a 
thriving business for years, the morning bills 
amounting from fifteen to fifty, and not un- 
frequently reaching one hundred dollars in 
amount. A little later in this year a second 
and important addition was made to the com- 
munity started here, in the family of Jas. 
Whitlock. He was a native of Richmond, 
Va., and came to Jonesboro, in this State, 
about 1825. After remaining a year or two 
at this place he removed to Vandal ia, then 
the site of the State capital. Here his ability 
obtained recognition and he was soon elected 
to the Legislature wiiere, after serving two 
or three terms, he was appointed as registrar 
of the first land-olBce opened in Chicago. 
He performed the duties of this office but a 
short time, however, when his eyes failed him, 
and attracted in some way by the growing 
prospects of Marshall, lie bought a stock of 
dry-goods and came at once to the new vil- 
lage. The site was certainly not the most 
attractive for business enterprises of this sort. 
The most of the large trees had been cut off 
the plat, but the streets and lots, which were 
marked by the surveyor's stakes, were only 
to be discovered by a careful search among 
the luxuriant under-brush. The only build- 
ings were the deserted cabin of Washburn, 
west of the village site, the cabin on the east 
of the town, which Washburn then occupied, 
and the hotel buildings. But unstinted hos- 
pitality was the virtue of the age, and Bart- 
lett did not hesitate to take in even a drv- 
goods store. One of the rooms of the hotel 
was at once fitted up for tiie purposes of a 
store, and here Whitlock opened up his 
stock. In the following year he put up a 
one-story brick building, which is still stand- 
ing on the corner of Franklin and Cumber- 
land streets, and to this he transferred his 
family and business. 



Tho early settlomcnt of Marshall village 
was of a peculiar character, and is not easily 
traced after the lapse of upward of fifty 
years. Its only attraction was the fact that 
it had been fixed upon as the county seat, 
and niuiy, whose business made it a Ivisabie 
to remove here, did so witli grim forebodings 
of finding it a hard place in which to live. 
At the first sale of lots, in 1835, a consider- 
able number were disposed of at prices rang- 
ing from ten to one hundred dollars; but 
many of these were bought to await tho issue 
of the venture, and did not represent any 
immediate growth of the village. When the 
final choice was made, a new element entered 
into the question and brought a number of 
families of considerable property, which 
greatly aided in advfincing the interests of 
the village. During the year or more which 
])r((ceded this decision, however. Col. Archer, 
who retained his home in Uarwin, spent 
much of his time about the new village, and 
turned every favorable circumstance to its 
advantage. At that time the national road 
was tho principal line of travel to the West, 
and scarcely a day passed that did not find 
some family journeying in the characteristic 
wagon, in search of a home in tiie new coun- 
try. A large part of this class of travelers 
were moving in an aimless way, with no defi- 
nite destination in mind. Where the locality 
suited their fancy they were prepared to halt 
and build a home, and there was nothing in 
the character or custom of the country which 
rendered this an unsuccessful method. Col. 
Archer was on the alert for such emigrants, 
and some of the earliest and valuable citizens 
of Marshall were of this class. Among the 
first of these itinerants to come under Col. 
Archer's persuasive influence was Thomas 
Henderson. He was on his way with his fam- 
ily to the West, and being a carpenter by 
trade, he was lured by the prospect of cm- 
jiloyment in the now town to slop licie. 

James Pounds was another mechanic that 
came here early. He was a brick-layer and 
came as early as 1S37, finding plenty of work 
on the new buildings which were rapidly con- 
structed during the first years of the new 

Thomas B. Wilson, who is not to be con- 
founded with another early settler of a sim- 
i ar name, came here as early as 1836. He 
too was on his way west with his family, in 
company with bis son-in-law, Paul Dennis. 
They were induced to settle here, Dennis put- 
ting up a cabin just north of the site of the 
new jail building, and his father-in-law erect- 
ing a shed building on the present site of the 
jail. The latter building was constructed of 
j)oles covered with clapboards and with a flat 
roof, with just inclination enough i[i one di- 
rection to carry off the rainfall, the inside 
being innocent of lath and plaster. Wilson 
was a stone mason and plasterer, a native of 
New York, and a man of good intelligence. 
He built a stone wall around the square on 
which the St. James hotel is situated, for 
Col. Archer, the remains of which still 
stand to attest his workmanship. Other early 
mechanics who came in through Col. Ar- 
cher's influence, were James Matthews, Wil- 
lard Center, carpenters, and Linda Patterson, 
a blacksmith. The latter was probably the 
first of his trade here, and a son born to him 
here is said to be the first birth in the town- 
ship. Eiza Neal was the first wagon maker, 
and came here from Bruceville, Ind., in 1837. 
His residence was on the site of his widow's 
present residence on Hamilton street, his shop 
occupying the site of the stable just east of 
his house and near the line of the railroad. 
A Mr. Woodward was also an early settler 
who had his residence on Franklin street just 
north of Whitlock's brick buildirjg. He was 
a man of the most pronounced Yankee type 
and early turned his attention to general 
teaming. His team is described as a paii- of 



uriJer-fed and under-sized horses of the most 
dejected appearance, but with these disad- 
vantages able to do good service, and Wood- 
ward and his team were long counted one of 
the regular institutions of the new town. 
The proprietor of the town early caused 
several small cabins to be erected in different 
parts of the village, which served to afford a 
home to such useful nieml)ers of society as 
were not able to buy a lot or put up a cabin, 
and many of these early mechanics moved 
into them, eventually fiuj-ing them or build- 
ing elsewhere. With the removal of the 
court and county offices to Marshall, a num- 
ber of well-to-do citizens from other parts of 
the county came to town. Among these were 
Steven Archer, a brother of the proprietor) 
vviio settled just south of the village on what 
is now known as the Park farm; Woodford 
Dulaney wlio built the house now occupied by 
T. F. Day near the public sciiool building; 
Uri Manley, who was then circuit clerk and 
probate justice of the peace; Darius Phillip, 
county clerk, and Justin Harlan, circuit 
judge, though he did not come until Decem- 
ber of 1839. 

Business was not more backward in coming 
to the new center of activity. One of the 
earliest places of business was opened in 
1836, on the northeast corner of Cumberland 
and Franklin streets, by Jack Hadden. This 
man had been working on the road, and con- 
cluding that the founduig of the village was 
a propitious opening for a business venture, 
put in a little stock of whisky and to!)acco. 
This enterprise preceded the coming of Whit- 
lock's store, but did not last long. Early in 
the same year James Waters, a merchant in. 
Darwin, sent his clerk, Western Chinneworth 
with a stock of goods and occupied the Ijuild- 
ing which Hadden had used. A little later 
in the year James Anderson, a brother-in-law 
of Waters, purchased the stock and moved to 
Marshall, building a little frame residence in 

the northeast part of the town. Anderson 
was a native of Ireland, and when four ^-ears 
of age was brought to New York. In 1S"20 
he came to Darwin and married a daughter of 
McCiure, an early settler of that place. He 
carried on the store in Marshall for several 
years when he sold out to McKay and Eld- 
ridge, and went to Andi-rson township to en- 
gage in milling. About 1838, Col. Archer 
started a store in a story and a half frame 
building on the southwest corner of these 
streets. His brother Steven attended to the 
business for a time, but it was soon disposed 
of to a man by the name of Scott, who in 
turn sold to Rowley and Davidson. Jonathan 
Greenough early became identified with the 
business of the new community. He was a 
lieutenant in the army and was assigned to 
duty on the National Road as assistant pay- 
master. He acted in this capacity for a year 
or more, when he was ordered to take charge 
of the post of St. Peters in the northwest. 
He had served at this post and had found the 
severity of the weather a serious tax upon 
his health, and after remonstrances proved 
unavailing he sent in his resignation. He 
married a daughter of Mr. Wliitlock, and en- 
gaged in business with his father-in-law. He 
sulisequently became sole proprietor and af- 
terward formed a copartnership with Beebe 
Booth, of Terre Haute. The Coles family 
were early residents of Marshall. Harry 
Cole lived on the Cumberland road about a 
mile east of the village as early as 1836, and 
he, with his brothers, David, Edwin and 
Jerome, who first settled at Livingstone came 
to Marshall soon after its beginning. They 
were among the early carpenters, David, 
however, starting up the first saloon in a little 
frame building, scarcely larger than eight by 
ten feet in size, located on the southeast cor- 
ner of Cum'^erland and Hamilton streets. 
John B. King was a tailor and settled in 
M: rs'iall in 1836 or 1837. He built a house on 



the north side of Cumberhiiul street, west of the 
public square. He liad a little money and con- 
siderable enterprise, and built several houses 
in that vicinity, which he disposed of one after 
another to the new settlers as they came in. 
He finally moved his shop into a little frame 
built by Manly on the site of B shop's gro- 
cery on the south side of the square. Here 
he established a flourishing business, for 
though the citizens were satisfied to wear 
home-made clothes during the week, the most 
of them soon aspired to fine suits for Sunday 
and gala occasions. 

Among the professional men who came 
here early was Uri Jlanly. His duties about 
the court made it necessary for him to live at 
the county seat, and he came to Marshall in 

1837. He purchased lots on the south side 
of the square, and, beside the building used 
by King, he erected another frame, just west 
of that, in which the second term of court 
was held, and a brick residence on the 
southeast ' corner of Clinton and Market 
streets. He was afterward appointed post- 
master, opening the first office in the village 
in his residence, but afterward transferring it 
to the frame building used by the court, 
where he added a small stock of goods, in 
partnership with Thos. Henderson. The 
first physician here was, pro iiably. Dr. Alli- 
son, who put up a small frame where Foster's 
shoe store now stands, on the north side of the 
square. Another early doctor was William 
Tutt. He came from Virginia to York, 
where he married and practiced until about 

1838, when he came to Marshall. Dr. Poole 
came a few years later, and bought the frame 
of a building which stood on the northeast 
corner of Clinton and Cumberland streets. 
The origin of this building, which was stand- 
ing in a shattered condition in 1838, has been 
forgotten, but it was eventually repaired and 
completed into a residence by Dr. Poole, and 
subsequently occupied by him. 

Of the industries to which the necessities 
of the situation in a new country give rise, 
milling played a prominent part in Marshall 
Township. Big Creek had several mills on 
its banks, but the elbow which touches the 
northeast corner of this township was espe- 
cially adapted to this purpose. A combined 
saw and grist mill was erected on the stream 
near the line of Douglas Township, by Bur- 
well, Sharpe and Blaize, about 1830. The 
buhrs were made of " nigger-head" stones 
that were found in the creek. Before the 
mill was completed, however, a difficult)' 
arose between Blaize and Sharpe, which re- 
sulted in the latter being shot and killed. 
Blaize at once fled the country, followed 
soon after by the friends of Sharpe, intent 
upon inflicting- dire vengeance upon him. 
Though very often close upon his trail, the 
pursuers, after a vain efifort of some six months, 
gave up the chase somewhere in the wilds of 
Arkansas. Blaize never returned to this re- 
gion but once afterward, and then soon found 
it expedient to leave. Alter this sad affair 
Burwell ran the mill for some time, when he 
sold it to Nance, after whose death it was 
rented. Subsequently, David Coles, marry- 
ing Nance's daughter, finally came into pos- 
session of the mill, but more modern and 
better located mills came in, and this one, 
with all the early mills passed away. An- 
other mill of this character was put up near 
where the railroad crosses Big Creek, by En- 
glish and Hickman. This was a frame struct- 
ure, and had buhrs made of raccoon stone, 
quarried near Dayton, Ohio, from whence 
they were transported by an ox team. This 
was built in 1837, and was an improvement 
on others, but it soon gave way to those of 
modern construction. Soon after this, about 
1839, Philip B. Smith put up a corn-cracker 
on the southeast corner of Bond and Market 
streets. It was a very rude afiair, and %vas 
propelled by tread power. A broad, solid 



wieel was so placed upon a perpendicular 
axle, as to incliue slightly, and upon this sur- 
face, furnished with cleats, horses or oxen 
tramped and gave motion to the machinery, 
which was geared to the axle. But the miller 
only supplied the mill, and many who had no 
team were forced to send their wheat and 
corn twenty-five miles away to get flour and 
meal; and this was, for those who could afford 
the time and trouble, much the better way, 
as the product was of a far superior cpiality. 
In 1839, Frederick Craiglow started a tannery 
in the west part of town, on the Cumberland 
road. It was never a large business nor a 
complete success, though the proprietor strug- 
gled on with it for some four years. At the 
end of that time he closed out the business 
and went to St. Louis. 

With all this growth and activity, which as- 
sumes larger proportions in the recital than in 
the actual exi)erience, the community which 
gathered in this township was essentially on 
the frontier at the time of which the forego- 
ing pages are written. While not so com- 
pletely isolated as the early settlements of 
Darwin and York, or the earlier settlements in 
this State, the people experienced many of 
the hardships and discomforts incident to fron- 
tier settlements. For the first year or two 
the nearest post-office was at Livingstone, and 
supplies were secured at Terre Haute or the 
stores at the older towns on the east side of 
the county. Mills were early built near by, 
but from lack of power or adequate machin- 
ery most of the flour and meal was obtained 
only by going long distances and enduring 
tedious delays. Outside the town, in the 
farming district, the settlement was of slow 
growth, the village seeming to absorb the 
greater part of the floating population. Here 
and there the smoke curled upward in the air 
from the scattered log cabins, and the busy 
pioneer protracted the day long into the night 
in clearing up his farm. 

Deer were shot in large numbers, while 
wolves, panthers, " Congress hogs," an occa- 
sional bear, and the whole class of small 
game that is found in this section, affoi'ded 
wholesome meals or rare hunting sport. The 
distance from any market was long felt among 
the farming community, and did much to re- 
tard its growth and early prosperity. 

The original settlers were principally ni- 
tives of the Southern States and brought with 
them many social characteristics peculiar to 
that section. Saturday afternoons was a gen- 
eral holiday in the countrj', on which the 
farmers repaired to the village. There was 
then a series of amusements which included 
impromptu horse races, wrestling and jumping 
matches, quoit-pitching, and fighting. But 
comparatively few in the community had 
scruples against the use of whisky, and 
strong potations tended to mike the fun fast 
and furious. A numi)erof saloons sprang up 
in the new town and throve under the gener- 
ous patronage which, reacting upon the com- 
munity, gave the village an unenviable re|)u- 
tation. " Free and easys " were a peculiar 
type of amusement which obtained a certain 
popularity here. The plan was for a party of 
men or boys to get up a supper consisting 
of chicken, whisky, bread, etc. These sup- 
plies were secured by the " free and easy " 
appropriation of the materials for the supper 
in the absence of the owner, and cooked and 
eaten in the woods or at some private resi- 
dence. The ladies of the community in- 
dulged in the usual quilting and spinning 
bees, with the " gentlemen in attendance 
after tea." The polite society of Marshall en- 
couraged and supported a dancing school 
over which Captain Tift presided and for 
which Whaley furnished the music. Tift was 
a popular teacher of the Terpsichorean art 
and had successful schools in various parts of 
the country around, and finally died " with 
his harness on," in a ball-room. 



ON September 22, 1835, Colonel W. B. Ar- 
cher issued a circular announcing the 
laying out of " The Town of Marshall," and 
the approaching sale of lots therein. In this 
he says: "This is a new town laid" off on 
the National Road, where the Vincennes and 
Chicago State Road crosses the former on 
Section 13, Township 11 north, Range 12 west, 
in Clark County, and is situated fifty-five 
miles north of Vincennes, sixteen miles from 
York and ten miles from Darwin; south of 
Paris fifteen miles, and fifty miles from Dan- 
ville, sixteen miles west of Terre Haute. 

" It is decidedly the handsomest site for a 
town between Terre Hnute and Vandalia, sur- 
rounded by good second rate land, a sufficient 
amount of timber, and the best of stone for 
bulldinci, and it may be truly said, that no 
point in this section of country has proven 
more healthy. The confirmed opinion of 
those on the National Road is that this selec- 
tion xcill he healthy. 

"The north and south road has been opened 
by the proprietors from Big Creek to Walnut 
Prairie, and can be traveled with convenience 
and when a permanent road shall be made, it 
will not vary from the present line. Mills 
are convenient. 

" The question of the removal of the seat of 

*By J. H. Battle. 

justice from Darwin has been agitated, and 
when finally acted upon, it is not improbable 
that the people of the county may find it 
convenient and to their interest to place the 
permanent seat of justice for the county at 
the Crossroads. The land is owned by Joseph 
Duncan and the subscriber, and a clear title. 
A sale of lots will take place on the 17th of 
October next, and terms of payment will be 
easy. The most liberal encouragement will 
be given to mechanics and others who will 

In this statement the strong points are 
probably marked by the italic which appear 
in the oricfinal document, and while nothinar 
is said of the extraordinary development of 
the " Craw-fish chimneys " to be found here, 
the salient points of the location are not un- 
fairly presented. The plat of the town thus 
referred to was filed for record in October, 
IbioD, and was bounded and divided by the 
following streets, beginning on the west side: 
West, Clinton, Hamilton, Fraidclin, Washing- 
ton, Jefferson, Fulton, Henry and East. Be- 
ginning on the north side the streets follow 
in order: North Green, Mechanic, Cumber- 
land, Market and South. Michigan street, 
now principally occupied by the Wabash Rail- 
road, passes through the plat in a nearly due 
north direction, cutting the plat diagonally. 
The references attached to the record set forth: 



" 1st. The town of Marshall is situated and 
located on the south half of section number 
13, and the north half of section number 24, 
in township number 11 north, of range I'i 
west, in Clark County, and State of Illinois. 
2d. Cumberland street, through which the 
National Road passes, is one hundred feet 
wide, ten feet on each side of the National 
Road being added for sidewalks, and bears 
south fifty-eight degrees west, by the mag- 
netic needle, to the west line of blocks, where 
it boars more west as will appear by the 
length of the lots. Michigan street is eighty 
feet wide and bears north, six degrees west. 
All other streets in the town, including the 
border streets, are sixty-six feet wide. Each 
and every alley is twenty- five feet wide. All 
the streets and alle3'S, Michigan street ex- 
cepted, run parallel or at rigiit angles with 
Cumberland street. 3d. Each lot where the 
squares are regular, is sixtj'-six feet front, 
and 123 feet in length, and when they are 
fractional or overrun, the size will be seen 
on the plat in feet marked in figures. 4th. 
Square number 5 is given and donated for 
educational purposes whereon to erect a col- 
lege. Lots five and six C)f square number 
fifteen, is given and donated for religious 
purposes whereon to erect a meeting house. 
Lot number one, and fractional lot number 
two, of square number three, are given and 
donated for educational purposes whereon to 
erect a school-house for the benefit of the 
citizens north of the National Road. Lots 
number 7 and 8, of square number 38, are 
given and donated for educational purposes 
whereon to erect a school-house for the bene- 
fit of citizens south of the National Road. 
5th. The north half, or lots 1, 3, 3 and 4, of 
square number 35, is given and donated for 
ground or space whereon to erect a Market 

The qualifications set forth in the circular 
quoted were sufficient at that time to bring 

together a very respectable oompanj' of pur- 
chasers, and on the day appoi:itod the sale 
proceeded with considerable animation, some 
seventy-five lots being disposed of, principally 
to residents of the county. No donation had 
been made at that time for the county public 
buildings, but it was generally known that 
block 36 would be the location fixed upon, 
should occasion for its use arise. In any 
event it would probably be a public square, 
and naturally form the business center of the 
town. The crossing of Cumberland and 
Michigan streets, the National and State 
roads, divided the choice of buyers for busi- 
ness sites, and about those two locations lots 
were considered the more valuable. Beside 
the lots donated as noted in the record of the 
plat, block 2G was reserved, together with 
lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, in block 20; lots 7 and 8 
in block 21; lots 4 and 5 in block 22; and 
lots 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in block 28. The reserva- 
tion of these lots indicates Archer's idea of 
where the business center of the town would 
be likely to form. There is no evidence of 
the competition which was manifested in se- 
curing the various lots save in the variation 
of prices paid for them, and this is an uncer- 
tain guide, as the situation and condition of 
the lot, considerations long since in operation, 
probably had a very large influence in deter- 
mining their value at that date. In block 21, 
which forms the northwest corner of Wash- 
ington and Cumberland streets, lot 1 was sold 
to Michael B. Thorn, for $12.50; lot 5, to James 
B. Anderson, for S71.50; and lot G, to Stephen 
Archer, lor $40. In block 22, just west of the 
preceding block, on the north side of Cum- 
berland street, lots 1 and 2 were sold to 
Robert Kirkham, for $30 each; lots Sand 6, 
for -SS and 830 respectively, to .Joseph Shaw; 
in block 23, lots 1 and 2, for $10 and $8.50, 
to James Waters; lot 4, to Arthur Foster, for 
$10.50; and lots 7 and 8, for $33 and $20, to 
Woodford D. Dulaney. In block 24, lot 1, 



to the Siime person, for §12; lot 4, to Isaao 
Kilso, lor $17; lot 5, ta Jacob Johnston, lor 
S35..")0; lot 7, to Win. McKcan, for $2G; and 
o 8, to Dulanej-, for $oO. In block 27, lot 
5 was S(-)lil to Isaac Keiso, for $12; lot U, 
for $7.."0, to Nathaniel Washburn. The 
only lot sold in block 28 was lot G, which 
fell to Dulaney, for $29. In block 29, 
lots 3 and 4 were sold respectively for $30 
and S!7S, to .lames Waters; lot 5, to Kelso, for 
§21.50; lot 8, for §20, to William Leatherman. 
In block 30, lots 2 and 3 wore sold for §23.50 
and §22.50, to James W. Waters; lots 4 and 
5, for §23.50 and §16.50, to Geo. Armstrong. 
In block .31, lot 1 was sold to Jacob Johnston, 
for §21, and lot 4, in block 32, was sold to 
Waters for the same price. Lots 4, 5 and 6, 
in block 37, were sold for §20.50, §7, and §10, 
respectively, to Dulaney; and in block 3S, 
lot 3 was sold for §9, to Wra. Forsythe; and 
lots 4 and 5, for §10.25 and §7, to John Ri^■g.^. 
Other ])urchases were located on blocks 9, 10, 
11, 12, 13, 17, 18 and 20, and ranged from §5, 
])aid for lot 1, in l)lock 18, b}' Milton Lsiko, to 
§78, paid by Waters, and §71, paid Iiy Ander- 
son. The largest nuniberof lots were bought 
by Dulaney who paid- an» aggregate of 
§203.50 for fifteen lots. The aggregate sales 
amounted to §1,154.25, and were made to 
about thirty individuals. 

It will be observed that among the pur- 
chasers at this sale there were but few who 
came here before the removal of the county 
seat to this place was determined, and some 
who did not come even then. During the 
following year, and in 1837 and the early part 
of 1838, there was a good demand for the 
remaining lots and Col. Archer sold upward 
of one hundre 1, principally in single lot sales, 
to thosi; who were on the ground to make the 
village their home. In the meanwhile prices 
had very iionsiderablj' advanced, scarcely any 
sales being made at prices below §35, and 
others mu h higher. All the lots in block 4 

wi>re sold to different persons for §50 each; 
those in block 6, from §53 to §05 each, la 
block 13, J. K. Dubois paid §75 for lot 3; 
for lot 7, in block 17, Jas. Whitlock paid §90; 
in the same lilock, lot 8 sold for §100, whilo 
lot 6, in block 19, lot 5, in block 33, and lot 
8, in