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Full text of "A History of Cumberland University 1842-1935"

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Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofcumberlOObone 




ROBERT L. CARUTHERS, LL.D. 

Founder 

President of Board, 1842-1882 

Professor of Law, 1868-1882 



A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 



A HISTORY OF 
CUMBERLAND 
UNIVERSITY 



1842-1935 



By 
WINSTEAD PAINE BONE 

OF THE CLASS OF 1886 

Sixth President of the University 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE AUTHOR 

LEBANON, TENNESSEE 
1935 



COPYRIGHT, 1935 

BY 

WINSTEAD PAINE BONE 



SET UP, PRINTEDj AND BOUND BY THE 
PARTHENON CRAFTSMEN AT NASHVILLE, 
TENNESSEE, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



DEDICATED 
To THE Trustees, Faculty, Students, and Friends 

OF 

Cumberland University 



PREFACE 

This history is a record of ninety-three years of dis- 
tinguished service in the field of education. It was origi- 
nally designed to be in commemoration of the Ninetieth 
Anniversary of the Founding of Cumberland University, 
an anniversary which was celebrated with appropriate 
ceremonies October 13, 14, 1932. The actual publication, 
however, has been unavoidably delayed. The story here 
presented is the first more or less complete history of the 
University. The first step in this direction was a sketch 
of eight magazine pages written by Dr. Thomas C. An- 
derson, second President of the University, and published 
in the Thelogical Medium, December, 18 58. The second 
was sixty-seven pages of an outline of the history from 
1842 to 1876, written by Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, of Nash- 
ville, and published in the Theological Medium, October, 
1876. Still another was a sketch of fifteen pages in the 
History of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, by Dr. 
Benjamin W. McDonnold, third President of the Univer- 
sity. 

Feeling the need of a history more comprehensive and 
one that would more adequately cover the life of the in- 
stitution from the beginning to the present, the authorities 
of the University asked the writer more than four years 
ago to undertake the task. He had been gathering mate- 
rial at odd times for the preceding ten years, and had 
cherished for a still longer period the idea of writing a 
brief history of the institution. Much information had 

(7) 



8 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

been already obtained from the older men of the Uni- 
versity. The information received from the late Chancel- 
lor Green concerning some of the earlier events in the his- 
tory of the University was especially valuable. The au- 
thor was intimately associated with him in the University 
Faculty for a period of twenty-iive years. Chancellor 
Green's connection with the University extended through 
the first four administrations, 1842-1919. The author has 
been connected with all the administrations except the 
first three. Doubtless he will be pardoned for saying that 
the institution has been a very significant part of his life. 
The author's actual connection with the University, in- 
cluding the two years of his student days, 1884-86, has 
extended over a period of forty-three years. Many of the 
items recorded here are matters of personal knowledge. 

The writing of this narrative has been a very pleasant 
task. The work has been done with one object only in 
view, that the good may live on. In reciting this history 
and telling something of its heroes, there is no disposition 
to abide or even linger in the past. The account here given 
is written purely for the people of to-day and for the 
generation that follows. A leading educator, Dr. J. H. 
Snowden, says: "The present is always an outgrowth of 
the past, and we must always go back to understand and 
decide present issues. Life has deep roots, and we are 
what we are to-day because of what we did yesterday." 

In the progress of the history of the University there was 
naturally here and there a bit of discord or controversy 
which has not been included here. The foregoing state- 
ment is perhaps an adequate record of it, since there is no 
lack of better and more useful material. The difficulty 



PREFACE 9 

has been to include all the useful and more important 
facts. The author has endeavored, however, to keep in 
mind the main facts in the institution's history, the se- 
cret of its power and growth, its leading spirits, its con- 
tribution in character, culture, and service, and the mis- 
sion which it aims to fulfill in the future. 

In the text, credit has been given to most of the au- 
thorities quoted. It would be impossible in a limited space 
to mention all. The writer acknowledges here his indebt- 
edness to all sources not mentioned by name. Various 
libraries have been consulted, and special thanks are due to 
the librarians of the Tennessee State Library and of the 
Carnegie Library, of Nashville. Many files of news- 
papers have been examined, and a file of the University 
catalogue from 1845 to 193 5 has been extensively used; 
also certain manuscripts bearing on the early history of 
the institution. Permission has been granted for using a 
few quotations from Theodore Roosevelt's Winning of the 
West. 

Special thanks are due to those who have read the 
manuscript and made suggestions for the improvement of 
the same. For these services gratitude is expressed to 
President E. L. Stockton; Alfred A. Adams, Sr., Trustee; 
Prof. Walter B. Posey, Ph.D., Birmingham-Southern Col- 
lege; Dr. James E. Clarke, Nashville; and Dr. James H. 
Miller, Lebanon. 

WiNSTEAD Paine Bone 

Lebanon, Tennessee, 
September 1, 1935. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. The Land and the People 1 J 

II. Cumberland University Established 36 

III. President Franceway Ranna Cossitt, 1842-1844. ... 55 

IV. President Thomas C. Anderson, 1844-1866 66 

V. President Anderson's Closing Years 87 

Teachers in the College of Arts, 1842-1866 

VI. President Benjamin \V. McDonnold, 1866-1873 103 

VII. Chancellor Nathan Green, Jr., 1873-1902 112 

VIII. Teachers in the College of Arts, 1873-1914 125 

IX. President David Earle Mitchell, 1902-1906 135 

Acting President Nathan Green, Jr., 1906-1909 

X. President Winstead Paine Bone, 1909-1914 141 

XI. President Samuel Andrew Coile, 1914-1916 148 

Acting President Homer Allin Hill, 1916-1917 

XII. President Edward Powell Childs, 1917-1920 152 

Acting President Andrew Blake Buchanan, 1920- 
1922 

XIII. President John Royal Harris, 1922-1926 156 

XIV. President Ernest Looney Stockton, 1926- 163 

XV. The Law School, 1847-193 5 18 5 

XVL Teachers in the Law School, 1847-1935 191 

XVIL The Theological School, 18 54-1909 203 

XVIIL Teachers in the Theological School, 1854-1909. ... 227 

XIX. The Other Schools 242 

XX. The Student Body 252 

XXI. Extending Aid to Students 263 

XXII. The Alumni 266 

XXIII. Cumberland's Notable Record 274 

XXIV. Cumberland, To-day and To-morrow 279 

Appendices 289 

Index 299 

(11) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
Robert L. Caruthers, LL.D Frontispiece 

Facing 
Page 

Franceway Ranna Cossitt, D.D 48 

Thomas C. Anderson, D.D 64 

C. G. McPherson, D.D., N. Lawrence Lindsley, LL.D., Gen- 
eral A. P. Stewart, LL.D., J. M. SaflFord, Ph.D 72 

Andrew Hays Buchanan, LL.D 72 

Benjamin W. McDonnold, LL.D 80 

Nathan Green, Jr., LL.D 96 

Edward Ewing Beard, LL.D 104 

William Duncan McLaughlin, LL.D 104 

Robert Verrell Foster, LL.D 112 

Andrew Bennett Martin, LL.D 128 

Dean J. I. D. Hinds, LL.D., Professor E. E. Weir, Principal 

W. J. Grannis, Dean J. R, Henry 136 

David Earle Mitchell 136 

Winstead Paine Bone, LL.D 144 

Samuel Andrew Coile, D.D. 160 

Edward Powell Childs, A.M 168 

Andrew Blake Buchanan, D.D 168 

Dayton A. Dobbs, LL.D 176 

John Royal Harris, D.D 192 

Abram Caruthers, LL.D 200 

Nathan Green, Sr., LL.D 200 

Richard Beard, D.D., S. G. Burney, LL.D., J. D. Kirkpatrick, 

D.D., C. H. Bell, D.D 232 

James Monroe Hubbert, D.D., John Vant Stephens, D.D., 

Finis King Farr, D.D., Robert G. Pearson, D.D 232 

(13) 



14 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Facing 
Page 

Ernest Looney Stockton, LL.D. 240 

W. F. Hereford, D.D., Mrs. Hereford, Grace Hereford, 

Nannie Hereford 256 

Cordell Hull, LL.D 264 

Grafton Green, LL.D 264 

First University Building (burned in 1863) 272-273 

Divinity Hall 272-273 

Corona Hall 272-273 

Caruthers Hall 272-273 

Memorial Hall 272-273 

Campus and Memorial Hall 272-273 

Men's Dormitory 272-273 

The University Band, 1934-1935 272-273 

Winning the Game 272-273 

Three Residences , 272-273 



Chapter I 
THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 

Cumberland University, organized in 1842 at Leb- 
anon, Tennessee, was appropriately named, for the coun- 
try in which is was estabHshed was known in the earUer 
days of its history as the Cumberland Country, a terri- 
tory lying partly in Tennessee and partly in Kentucky. 
The Cumberland College of Princeton, Kentucky, which 
began its existence in March, 1826, had this name; and it 
was at first supposed this institution would be removed to 
Lebanon, but the removal did not take place. Lebanon is 
in the heart of the Cumberland Country. It is situated 
six miles from the Cumberland River. A few miles to 
the east are the Cumberland Mountains, which are a part of 
the Appalachian system and extend from West Virginia 
along the border of Virginia and Kentucky across Ten- 
nessee into Alabama. The ridges of the Cumberland 
Mountains are more or less a level country, forty or fifty 
miles wide and from 1,500 to 2,000 feet in height. It is 
said that the mountains and river were named for the 
famous Duke of Cumberland, "William Augustus, the 
third son of George II, and the hero of the history- 
making battle of Culloden. 

In his History of the Mississippi Valley, John W. Mo- 
nette throws some light on the use of the word Cumber- 
land: 

"As early as 1748, Dr. (Thomas) Walker, of Virginia, 
in company with Colonels Woods, Patton, and Buchanan, 

(15) 



16 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Captain Charles Campbell, and a number of hunters, made 
an exploring tour upon the western waters. Passing Pow- 
ell's Valley, he gave the name 'Cumberland' to the lofty 
range of mountains on the west. Tracing this range in a 
southwestern direction, he came to a remarkable depression 
in the chain; through this he passed, calling it 'Cumber- 
land Gap.' To the western side of the range he found a 
beautiful mountain stream which he named 'Cumberland 
River,' all in honor of the Duke of Cumberland." ^ This 
version of the origin of the name of the mountains and the 
river is accepted by Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey in his Annals of 
Tennessee, and by Theodore Roosevelt in his Winning of 
the West? 

Before bringing into this narrative what is known as the 
"Cumberland Settlement," it may be well to mention two 
others which it followed in time, and with which it was 
closely connected. In 1769 the famous "Watauga Settle- 
ment was made on the Watauga River, one of the head- 
waters of the Holston and Tennessee. Three years later 
the "Watauga Association" was formed by John Sevier, 
James Robertson, and others, this being the "first written 
constitution made by native Americans." In 1775 in 
Central Kentucky, after the victorious and significant bat- 
tle of the Great Kanawha had been fought against a large 

^ Vol. I, p. 314, footnote. John W. Monette's valuable history was printed 
by Harper Brothers in 1846. On the statement quoted, he cites these au- 
thorities: "Winterbotham's America, Vol. Ill, pp. 25, 26; Marshall's History 
of Kentucky, Vol. I, p. 6; Hall's Sketches of the West, Vol. I, pp. 239, 240. 
See also Phelan's History of Tennessee, pp. 13, 14. 

^ The quotation from Monette is found in Ramsey's Annals of Tennessee, 
pp. 65, 66. Roosevelt's Winning of the West, Vol. I, p. 174, says: "One ex- 
plorer found and named the Cumberland river and mountains, and the great 
pass called Cumberland Gap." In a footnote he states that the explorer was 
Dr. Thomas Walker, of Virginia, a "genuine explorer." 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 17 

and combined force of Indians, and Daniel Boone had 
marked out the Wilderness Road, the Transylvania Colony 
was formed. In 1780 James Robertson, John Donelson, 
their families, and other pioneers from the Watauga Set- 
tlement and elsewhere found a new home on the banks of 
the Cumberland. The site of this new home (first known 
as French Lick, or the Bluff, where M. Charleville, a 
French trader from New Orleans, had a store among the 
Shawnee Indians as far back as 1714) was called Nash- 
borough, later Nashville, the present capital of the State, 
thirty miles west of Lebanon. The settlement was known 
as the "Cumberland Settlement," and the independent 
government which they set up was called the "Cumber- 
land Compact." ^ 

It was natural enough to give the name of the new coun- 
try to some educational institution. In 1824 a noted edu- 
cator, Dr. Philip Lindsley, of Princeton, New Jersey, after 
declining the presidency of the College of New Jersey, 
came to Nashville, Tennessee, to accept the presidency of 
Cumberland College in that city. That institution was 
chartered as Cumberland College in 1806, but on Novem- 
ber 27, 1826, its legal name was changed to that of the 
University of Nashville.^ 

The Scotch-Irish Settlers 

From the very beginning in 1780 to the present time, 
the population of the Cumberland Country and of the 

Ramsey's Annals of Tcnnenee, p. 45; Hamer's Tennessee — A History, 
p. 105; Matthews' James Robertson, pp. 182-195; West's History of the 
American People, pp. 302, 303. 

' Goodspeed's History of Tennessee, p. 442; Theological Medium, October, 
1876, p. 390. 



18 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

larger Southwest has been prevailingly Scotch-Irish. On 
the meaning of the term "Scotch-Irish," Dr. T. C. An- 
derson, the second President of Cumberland University, 
in his Life of George Donnell (18 58), says: 

"About the year 1610 the emigration from Scotland to 
Ireland commenced. All the northern and central parts 
of Ulster were settled by Scotch immigrants. Some Eng- 
lishmen settled the southern part, and built Londonderry, 
Coleraine, and Hillsborough. The colonists, in order to 
distinguish themselves from the Scots, on the one hand, 
and the native Irish, on the other, called themselves Scotch- 
Irish. And this appellation they brought with them when 
they immigrated to America. Taken in the limited sense, 
the term applies only to the descendants of the Scotch 
immigrants. ... In its comprehensive sense, the term in- 
cludes all the Protestant Irish whose ancestors were Brit- 
ons, whether English or Scotch, whether resident in Ireland 
or America." ^ 

It may be well to add that some of the above mentioned 
emigrants from Scotland were really Englishmen who had 
resided in Scotland for a century or more. William Mason 
West, speaking of the Scotch-Irish immigration to Amer- 
ica, says: 

"The volume of this immigration to America increased 
rapidly, and it has been estimated that between 1720 and 
1750 it amounted to an average of 12,000 a year. . . . 
The Scotch-Irish cam.e mainly through the ports of Phila- 
delphia in the north and Charleston in the south. Many 
stopped in the settled areas; but a steady stream passed on 
directly to the mountains and over them. Reaching the 

^ Life of George Donnell, pp. 30, 31. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 19 

Appalachian valleys in the far north and south, the two 
currents drifted toward each other, until they met in the 
Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia. And thence, just 
before the American Revolution, under leaders like Boone 
and Robertson, they began to break through the western 
wall, to make a fourth frontier at the western foothills and 
farther west, in what we now call Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. Until about 18 50, the Scotch-Irish were the typical 
American frontiersmen, especially in the great middle 
"West and Southwest. They showed a marvellous power to 
assimilate other elements that mingled with them, — Ger- 
man, French, Welsh, and even the real Irish and real 
Scotch, when these came, in small numbers, just before the 
Revolution. They have furnished, too, many leaders to 
our national life, — such as Andrew Jackson and Stonewall 
Jackson, Horace Greeley, Jefferson Davis, Patrick Henry, 
William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson." ^ 

In the Proceedings of the Congress of the Scotch-Irish 
in America, Columbia, Tennessee, May 8-11, 1889, ad- 
dresses were delivered by Ex-Governor Proctor Knott, Pro- 
fessor George Macloskie, Rev. John Hall, D.D., Hon. Wil- 
liam Wirt Henry, Rev. David C. Kelley, D.D., Colonel 
A. K. McClure, Hon. Benton McMillin, Rev. John S. Mac- 
intosh, and Hon. W. S. Fleming. This volume contains a 
mine of information about the Scotch-Irish in America, 
especially in the Southwest. A notable list of men of na- 
tional reputation was given, statesmen, orators, poets, jur- 
ists, divines, inventors, and soldiers. Dr. Kelley said: 
"The Scotch-Irish have contributed more to constitutional 
liberty than any other people. . . . We have the indomitable, 

^West's History of the American People, pp. 144, 145. 



20 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

prudent, calculating, metaphysical, God-fearing, tyrant- 
hating Scotch brought by marriage into blood relationship 
with the brave, reckless, emotional, intuitive, God-loving, 
liberty-adoring Irish" (p. 144). People like these pro- 
duced the Mechlenburg Declaration (p. 147). The Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church was called the Scotch-Irish 
Church (172). 

President Anderson also in his Life of Donnell gives a 
long list of Scotch-Irish names of people who settled in the 
Cumberland country. 

Some of these went first from Virginia to North Caro- 
lina before going to Kentucky and Tennessee. There 
were among them some Germans and some French Hugue- 
nots. John Sevier, a "Watauga settler, a hero of King's 
Mountain, and the first Governor of Tennessee, was of 
Huguenot descent. 

It was quite appropriate that a Scotch-Irish Congress 
should be held in Middle Tennessee, the very heart of the 
Scotch-Irish settlements in the Great Southwest. Dr. Kel- 
ley was a graduate of the College of Arts of Cumberland 
University, and Dr. John Hall was the eloquent pastor of 
the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City. 
The purpose was to celebrate the achievements of the 
Scotch-Irish who came to America. From the North Ire- 
land Country they had come to Virginia, North Carolina, 
and South Carolina, and thence over the mountains to 
Tennessee and the bordering states. They were a hardy, 
self-reliant people, with the true pioneer spirit within them, 
and they rapidly settled the new wilderness country. 

This new wilderness, especially that part of it known 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 21 

as the Cumberland Country, was regarded as the "Ca- 
naan of the West," or the "Eden of the Red Man"; for it 
was the common hunting ground of four tribes of In- 
dians — the Creeks, the Chickasaws, the Cherokees, and 
the Shawnees. The time here referred to was a httle more 
than one hundred and fifty years ago. 

Nevertheless, we cannot understand so well our people 
and their problems today without some reference to their 
historical background. We must know something of the 
men — backwoodsmen they were, mostly Presbyterian 
Scotch-Irish — who settled this Cumberland Country. 
Some of their forefathers had followed Oliver Cromwell. 
They were the Puritans of the Southern colonies, some- 
what different from populations elsewhere in hereditary 
traits, and splendid material they were out of which to 
make patriotic citizens and devout followers of the Man 
of Galilee. 

Only a few references to this history can be given here. 
Much more information can be gathered from the va- 
rious histories of Tennessee by such historians as Monette, 
Ramsey, Putnam, Haywood, Phelan, Garrett, and McGee; 
and also from The Safeguards of American Liberty, by 
William Bentley Swaney, an alumnus of Cumberland Uni- 
versity. One of the ablest and one of the most satisfactory 
books on the subject is Theodore Roosevelt's Winning of 
the West (1905). Almost as good for our purpose is the 
very interesting and splendidly written Life of George 
Donnell, by Dr. T. C. Anderson. 

Theodore Roosevelt, referring to the Scotch-Irish as "a 
peculiar and characteristically American people," and as 



22 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

the "backwoodsmen" of the Alleghanies and the Cumber- 
land Settlement, says: 

"The backwoodsmen were Americans by birth and 
parentage, and of mixed race; but the dominant strain 
in their blood was that of the Presbyterian Irish — the 
Scotch-Irish as they were called. Full credit has been 
awarded the Roundhead and the Cavalier for their leader- 
ship in our history; but it is doubtful if we have wholly 
realized the importance of the part played by that stern 
and virile people, the Irish whose preachers taught the 
creed of Knox and Calvin. These Irish representatives of 
the Covenanters were in the west almost what the Puritans 
were in the northeast, and more than the Cavaliers in the 
south. Mingled with the descendants of many other 
races, they nevertheless formed the kernel of the distinc- 
tively and intensely American stock who were the pio- 
neers of our people in their march westward, the van- 
guard of the fighting settlers, who with axe and rifle 
won their way from the Alleghanies to the Rio Grande 
and the Pacific. 

"Among the dozen or so most prominent backwoods- 
men of the west and southwest, the men who were lead- 
ers in exploring and settling lands, and in fighting the 
Indians, British and Mexicans, the Presbyterian Irish stock 
furnished Andrew Jackson, Samuel Houston, David 
Crockett, James Robertson; Lewis, the leader of the back- 
woods hosts in their first great victory over the north- 
western Indians; and Campbell, their commander in their 
great victory over the British. The other pioneers who 
stood beside the above were such men as Sevier, a Shenan- 
doah Huguenot; Shelby, of Welsh blood; and Boone and 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 23 

Clark, both of English stock, the former from Pennsyl- 
vania, the latter from Virginia. 

"That these Irish Presbyterians were a bold and hardy 
race is proved by their at once pushing past the settled 
regions and plunging into the wilderness as the leaders of 
the white advance. They were the first and the last set 
of immigrants to do this; all others have merely followed 
in the wake of their predecessors. But, indeed, they were 
fitted to be Americans from the very start; they were 
kinsfolk of the Covenanters; they deemed it a religious 
duty to interpret their own Bible, and held for a divine 
right the election of their own clergy. For generations 
their whole ecclesiastic and scholastic systems had been 
fundamentally democratic. In the hard life of the frontier 
they lost much of their religion, and they had but scant 
opportunity to give their children the schooling in which 
they believed; but what few meeting-houses and school- 
houses there were on the border were theirs. . . . More 
than any others they impressed the stamp of their peculiar 
character on the pioneer civilization of the west and south- 
west. A single generation passed under the hard condi- 
tions of life in the wilderness was enough to weld together 
into one people the representatives of these numerous and 
widely different races . . . one in speech, thought, and char- 
acter. . . . They had lost all sympathy with Europe and 
things European; they had become as emphatically prod- 
ucts native to the soil as were the tough and supple 
hickories out of which they fashioned the handles of their 
long, light axes. Their grim, hard, narrow lives were yet 
strangely fascinating and full of adventurous toil and 
danger; none but natures as strong, as freedom loving. 



24 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

as full of bold defiance as theirs could have endured ex- 
istence on the terms which these men found pleasurable. 
. . . Thus the backwoodsmen lived on the clearings they had 
hewed out of the everlasting forests; a grim, stern people 
. . . the love of freedom rooted in their very heart's core. 
. . . They were also upright, resolute, and fearless, loyal to 
their friends, and devoted to their country. In spite of 
their many failings, they were of all men best fitted to 
conquer the wilderness and hold it against all comers." '^ 

In his Life of George Donnell, Dr. T. C. Anderson de- 
votes several interesting chapters to the history of the 
Scotch-Irish — their life in North Ireland, their coming to 
America, their thrilling experiences in North Carolina, 
and their achievements in the Cumberland Country of 
Tennessee. From this writer one may learn that Rev. 
George Donnell's father, George Donnell, Sr., was a ruling 
elder in the Alamance Presbyterian Church in North Caro- 
lina. Dr. David Caldwell was the able and broad-minded 
pastor of this church. The colonial governor, William 
Tryon, and his tyrannical and insolent tax collectors, un- 
dertook to collect fraudulent taxes from the Scotch-Irish, 
who protested in public meetings against the corrupt 
officers, adopted resolutions to the effect that they would 
pay no more taxes except in accordance with law, and, 
further, that they would pay no more taxes than the law 
allows. Governor Tryon then came with his army to 
quell those protesting, now called the Regulators. In 1771 
a battle was fought at Alamance Creek. Nine of the 
Regulators and twenty-seven of the Royalist party were 
killed, and the Regulators were defeated. Thus "Almance 

^ Winning of the West, pp. 134, 138, 139, 141, 170. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 25 

was baptized with the first blood of the Revolution." On 
May 20, 1775, the Scotch-Irish, though defeated at Ala- 
mance, met in Charlotte and adopted a ''Declaration of 
Independence," the first on American soil, since it was 
adopted more than a year before the Declaration by the 
Continental Congress, Philadelphia, July 4, 1776. Two 
of the resolutions taken from the Mechlenburg Declara- 
tion are as follows: 

"Resolved, that we, the citizens of Mechlenburg coun- 
ty, do hereby dissolve the political bonds which have con- 
nected us with the mother country, and hereby absolve 
ourselves from all allegiance to the British crown, and ab- 
jure all political connection, contract, or association with 
that nation, who have wantonly trampled upon our rights 
and liberties, and inhumanly shed the blood of American 
patriots at Lexington. 

"Resolved, that we do hereby declare ourselves a free 
and independent people; are, and of right ought to be, a 
sovereign and self-governing association, under the con- 
trol of no power, other than that of our God and the 
General Congress; to the maintenance of which inde- 
pendence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual 
co-operation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most sacred 
honor." " 

This was a great document, and one which immortal- 
ized its makers. This was no sounding of a retreat. These 
men did not turn their backs, but, as Robert Browning 
would say, marched "breast forward." They "never 
dreamed, though right were worsted, wrong would tri- 
umph." When the Revolution of 1776 came, they were 

"Life of Donnell, pp. 43-48; McGee's History of Tennessee, pp. 39, 40. 



26 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

in "the thickest of the fight." Vast throngs of these 
people, who immigrated into Tennessee, carried this spirit 
with them. Those who were reHgious prized the Bible, 
the Iiymn book, and the catechism. "They feared God. 
but nothing else." 

After the close of the Revolutionary "War, and as late 
as 1794, the Creek and Cherokee Indians continued their 
depredations against the Cumberland Settlements. Dr. 
T. C. Anderson, in his Life of George Donnell, and Dr. 
Richard Beard, in his Biographical Sketches, tell how Col- 
onel Joseph Brown, who later became a Cumberland 
Presbyterian minister and a staunch friend of Cumber- 
land University, led a body of soldiers, including the 
young and gallant Andrew Jackson, against the Indians 
occupying the Nickajack towns twenty miles below Chat- 
tanooga, on the south side of the Tennessee River, and 
drove them out of the country. Then an immense tide of 
immigration from East Tennessee, North Carolina, and 
Virginia flowed into the valleys of the Cumberland River.*^ 

In 1796 Tennessee, with 76,000 inhabitants and John 
Sevier as the first governor, was formally admitted as a 
state into the Union. In 1783 Martin Academy, Dr. Sam- 
uel Doak's School, was incorporated by North Carolina. 
In 1795 the territorial legislature chartered Martin Acad- 
emy as Washington College. In 1794 Greene College, 
with Rev. Hezekiah Balch as president, was founded at 
Greeneville, Tennessee. Blount College (later the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee) was founded at Knoxville in 1796 

^ See Anderson's Life of Donnell, p. 84, and Beard's Sketches, pp. 217-239. 
President Anderson uses the spelling, Nickajack. So does Ramsey in his 
Annals. Judge T. E. Matthews in his fames Robertson, 1934, pp. 36J-369, 
prefers Nickojack. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 27 

with Rev. Samuel Carrick as president. One of our his- 
torians says this was "probably the first non-sectarian 
college chartered in the United States." 

When Tennessee was admitted into the Union in 1796, 
there were only three counties in Middle Tennessee — 
Davidson, Sumner, and Tennessee (Montgomery). "Until 
1799, when the first wagon road was opened from Knox- 
ville to Nashville, the country had been approached by a 
solitary Indian trail, or path, through the dense forest 
and the interminable cane-break, barely wide enough to 
admit a single pack horse." Canebreaks covered that sec- 
tion of the country which in 1799 was organized into 
Wilson County, and in which is located Cumberland Uni- 
versity. The Presbyterians were the first to bring the 
gospel to the Cumberland Country. The gospel was un- 
doubtedly needed, for many of the pioneers had their 
minds centered on material possessions, and so forgot God. 
Atheism was quite common and was easily spread. 

In the fall of 1799 Rev. William McGee, a Presbyterian 
minister, preached the first sermon heard in Wilson Coun- 
ty. It was delivered in the residence of William McClain. 
Mr. McClain was the father of the first male child born in 
the county, Josiah S. McClain, who for a long period was 
a Trustee of Cumberland University, and the grandfather 
of Grafton Green, the present Chief Justice of the Ten- 
nessee Supreme Court. The first church in Wilson County 
was the Spring Creek Presbyterian Church, organized near 
Lebanon in 1800. It was organized by Dr. James Hall, a 
noted Presbyterian minister of North Carolina; and Rev. 
Samuel Donnell, from the famous Alamance Church in 
North Carolina, was the first pastor. Rev. George Don- 



28 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

nell, who had much to do in the founding of Cumber- 
land University, was for a time a member of that church, 
and his father was a ruHng elder in it.^° 

To further emphasize the important role played by the 
Scotch-Irish in the history of the United States it may be 
stated that, even if we include only the paternal ancestry, 
six of our Presidents were of Scotch-Irish descent: Andrew 
Jackson, James K. Polk, James Buchanan, Chester Alan 
Arthur, William McKinley, and Woodrow Wilson. 

The Great Revival of 1800 

The men who established Cumberland University came 
out of the "Great Revival of 1800," which had its origin 
in the Cumberland Country. This history-making re- 
vival, which burned so brightly and whose light shone so 
far down the stream of time, was lighted at Presbyterian 
altar fires. The church of Scotland was born in a great 
awakening under John Knox and others like him. "Near 
the close of the sixteenth century," says Dr. Edwin F. 
Hatfield, "under the ministry of such divines as Wishart, 
Cooper, and Welsh, all Scotland was visited by an ex- 
traordinary effusion of the Holy Spirit. So mightily were 
men affected, that the whole General Assembly, four hun- 
dred ministers and elders, while renewing their solemn 
league and covenant, with sighs and groans and tears, 
were swayed by the Spirit as the leaves of the forest by 
the mighty rushing wind of the driving tempest." In 
the notable work begun in 1630 under the preaching of 
Bruce and Livingston as many as five hundred citizens of 

^"Anderson's Donnell, p. 85; Goodspeed's History of Tennessee, Wilson 
County, pp. 841, 860. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 29 

Scotland were converted in a day. Again in 1638, when 
the covenant was signed, and the whole country was 
moved, in one day Livingston saw one thousand men and 
women, with the tears falling down their faces, giving 
themselves to God.^^ 

A century later another remarkable revival swept over 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, under the leadership of 
Wesley and Whitefield; and this great work was per- 
petuated in America, under the powerful preaching of 
Edwards, Bellamy, and the Tennents. In 1800 the same 
work was continued in Kentucky and Tennessee by such 
men as James McGready, William McGee, and Finis Ewing. 
This was a successful and widespread movement, and one 
which had a profound, uplifting, and permanent effect 
upon the people who came under its influence. The meet- 
ing held by James McGready at Gasper, in Logan County, 
Kentucky, in July, 1800, is said to have been "the first 
camp-meeting ever held in Christendom." Revivals of 
religion are to be judged by the fruit they bear. They 
bear good fruit when, to use the language of the De- 
sign of the Princeton Theological Seminary, they enable 
men "to possess a portion of the spirit of the original 
propagators of the faith, prepared to make every sacrifice, 
to endure every hardship, and to render every service 
which the promotion of pure and undefiled religion may 
require." 

^^ Article on Revivals in the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, pp. 2039-2040, 
by Dr. Edwin Francis Hatfield, Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America, 1883. See also Cossitt's Life of Ewhig and Mc- 
Donnold's Church History. In W. B. Posey's Development of Methodism in 
the Old Southwest, 1783-1824, there is a chapter on revivals, pp. 17-34. 



30 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

The Movement for Education 

As other great spirits east of the Cumberland Moun- 
tains, in the oldest communities of Tennessee, these men 
of the Cumberland Country believed in education and in 
a teaching church, and hence in training intelligent lead- 
ers, whether ministers or laymen. The need was very 
great, and it was recognized as such. 

Says William Mason West: 

"The Southwest, we have seen, was a self-developed 
section. Except for Henderson's futile project [his land 
scheme in Kentucky and Tennessee], there was no pater- 
nalism. No statesman planned its settlements; no general 
directed the conquest of territory; no older government. 
State or federal, fostered development. The land was won 
from savage man and savage nature by little bands of self- 
associated backwoodsmen, piece by piece, from the Wa- 
taugua to the Rio Grande, in countless bloody but isolated 
skirmishes, generation after generation. Settlem.ent pre- 
ceded governmental organization." ^^ 

Even New England had scarcely made a start in ele- 
mentary public school education in 1830. Massachusetts, 
led by Horace Mann, created its first State Board of Edu- 
cation in 1837. It was not until this period that there 
came to be a more or less general demand for free educa- 
tion. Private academies and colleges, backed by various 
Christian denominations, came first. To the churches 
must be given the credit for leading the way in American 
education, a fact forgotten by many. The people of 
New England and the tidewater States had the best start 
and the decided advantage in the field of the higher edu- 

^" West's History of the American People, p. 257. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 3 1 

cation. They had Harvard, Yale, King's College, the Col- 
lege of New Jersey, William and Mary, and numerous 
other institutions of higher learning. The wealth of the 
country was concentrated in those centers. The flowering 
of American literature had its origin in those communi- 
ties. They had the printing presses, the newspapers, the 
books, and the public libraries. It is said that the credit 
for having the first public library is to be given to Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. The Atlantic States and the North- 
east had the orators, the writers, the historians, and the 
scientists. They had Noah and Daniel Webster, Calhoun, 
Irving, Bryant, Edward Everett, Joseph Worcester, Emer- 
son, Hawthorne, Holmes, Longfellow, Lowell, Poe, Whit- 
tier, Bancroft, Prescott, Agassiz, Dana, Gray, Kent, and 
Story. 

The South and Southwest had a later start, and the least 
developed resources with which to make adequate provi- 
sion for education, whether public or private. Then, 
after the Civil War, when nearly all was swept away, an 
entirely new beginning had to be made. The recovery 
has been a slow process, and the progress has been im- 
peded by many unforeseen difficulties. 

The movement for education in the Cumberland Coun- 
try began in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1806, or even earlier. 
This effort, as we have seen, flowered into the old Univer- 
sity of Nashville, now a part of the George Peabody Col- 
lege for Teachers. By 1830 the Cumberland Country had 
rapidly extended its boundaries, so to speak, until it in- 
cluded Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, and 
some territory west of the Mississippi River. At any rate 



32 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

the problems of church extension and education covered 
all this area and more.^^ 

The church needed an educated ministry, and there 
were young people in rapidly growing numbers to be edu- 
cated. But the educators were few. It was not until 
during Governor Neill S. Brown's administration (1847- 
49) that the Tennessee Legislature was induced to levy a 
tax for the support of public schools, and this provision 
was only poorly carried out. The office of State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction in Tennessee was created in 
1835, abolished in 1843, re-created in 1865, provided for 
in the constitution of 1870, and again created in 1873, dur- 
ing the administration of Governor John C. Brown. But 
the church has had, and still has, its own field and its own 
task, especially in the matter of Christian education. It 
would be unwise to delegate this task to any other agen- 
cy, even if it desired to do so. Its ministerial and mis- 
sionary recruits and other workers specially trained for 
Christian service always have, and always will, come, as a 
rule, from the Christian college. In some way the stu- 
dents from these colleges get a good start in education, as 
is proved by their usual high standing in the graduate 
schools throughout the nation. 

But Christian colleges in the Cumberland Country could 
never have been established without the self-denial, devo- 
tion, heroism, and courage of the men who founded them. 
Nor could it be said that they were founded when not 
needed. These colleges were founded when society could 

^'^ Goodspeed's History of Tennessee, p. 442; Peabody Reflector and Alum- 
ni News, October, 1933, article by J. E. Windrow, Alumni Secretary, on 
"George Peabody College and the Lindsley Family." Also Theological Me- 
dium, October, 1876, article by Dr. J. B. Lindsley, p. 390. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 33 

not do without them, and society should be glad to ac- 
knowledge its indebtedness. Adequate buildings, equip- 
ment, endowment, libraries, and laboratories were not yet 
provided. The resources for supplying these needs were 
purely local and very meager. There were neither Boards 
nor Foundations. There were no philanthropists to whom 
appeal could be made. Educational enterprises like these 
must of necessity begin with nothing except hunger and 
thirst, faith and resolution, consecration and industry. 
Nevertheless, the capacity for self-help, expenditure of 
self and the finest form of altruism, was not absent. 

The first effort of some of these pioneers west of the 
Cumberland Mountains was to establish Cumberland Col- 
lege at Princeton, Kentucky, in 1826. The promoters 
were agitating this movement in 1825 and even some 
years earlier. They began with a preparatory school and 
a college in log houses. The enterprise was not very pre- 
tentious, but it was theirs. They had recently bought 
from Mercer "Wadlington, for six thousand dollars, a farm 
of several hundred acres near Princeton, on which they 
might build a liberal arts college; a farm school it was, 
where young men (it was not co-educational) could earn 
something to help pay their way. Rev. Franceway Ranna 
Cossitt, D.D., a graduate of Middlebury College, Vermont, 
was the first president. Prof. C. G. McPherson and Dr. 
T. C. Anderson were among the teachers. There were 
five presidents of the College from 1826 to 1861, one of 
whom was Dr. Richard Beard, who later did his greatest 
work in Cumberland University. 

Many distinguished men were graduated from this 
school, a few of whom may be mentioned here: Rev. 



34 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

A. J. Baird, D.D., an eloquent and able pastor of the First 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Nashville and a theo- 
logical lecturer in Cumberland University; Dr. B. W. Mc- 
Donnold, the third president of Cumberland University; 
Rev. William A. Scott, D.D., of a San Francisco theo- 
logical seminary, and a leading Presbyterian on the Pacific 
Coast; Judge R. C. Ewing, at one time Professor of Law 
in Trinity University; Rev. Herschel S. Porter, D.D., the 
eloquent minister who held pastorates in Philadelphia, 
Pittsburgh, and Memphis; and Dr. Stanford G. Burney, 
Professor of Systematic Theology in Cumberland Univer- 
sity. But there were insurmountable difficulties in the way 
of the success of the school in Princeton. The principal 
one was the lack of money. ^^ 

A little prior to 1842, such men as Robert Donnell, one 
of the foremost preachers of his day, began to think of 
another location. This idea was opposed by the trustees 
and some of the friends of the Princeton institution, such 
men as Dr. Richard Beard, Dr. Milton Bird, and Rev. Joel 
Lambert. Nevertheless, in March, 18 54, twelve years later, 
Dr. Richard Beard rem.oved to Lebanon to become a theo- 
logical professor in Cumberland University. To do so, he 
resigned as president of Cumberland College. This he did 
in February, 18 54. Cumberland College continued its 
work in some form until 1861, so one may glean from a 
sketch of the college written in 1876 by Dr. Richard 
Beard, above mentioned. No part of the material assets 
of that institution ever came to Lebanon; however, four 
of its most valuable men came, Prof. C. G. McPherson, 

^^ Dr. Richard Beard's "History of Cumberland College," Theological 
Medium, April, 1876, pp. 13 0-172. 



THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 3 5 

Dr. F. R. Cossitt, Dr. T. C. Anderson, and Dr. Richard 
Beard. 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Macon A. Leiper, Libra- 
rian of the Kentucky Collection at the Western Kentucky 
State Teachers' College, Bowling Green, Kentucky, the 
author has permission to use a quotation from an intimate, 
family letter written by Dr. F. R. Cossitt to his brother, 
Ambrose Cossitt, Claremont, New Hampshire, November 
22, 1828. The letter is true to the facts, although it seems 
to be in violation of his usual modesty. The reference is 
to Cumberland College, while Dr. Cossitt was its presi- 
dent: 

"This college owes its existence to me. This is ac- 
knowledged by all. I proposed the plan, the Synod adopt- 
ed it. I have had a great share in its location, organiza- 
tion and progress. I look upon it with the eye of a parent, 
and, as its first President, my interests are identified with 
it. It receives abundant patronage from most of the 
Western States. We have students from Indiana, Illinois, 
Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, 
Louisiana, and Georgia. This College is far surpassing the 
older Colleges of the West, and has now a greater number 
of students, it is said, than any other. The labouring plan 
suits the wealthy planters. They have seen the evil of 
raising their children without labour. . . . The rich and 
the learned universally approve of this plan. Some rea- 
sons have led me to believe that this plan of a College will 
eventually become universal. They are introducing our 
system into several other Colleges." 



Chapter II 
CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 

At its meeting in May, 1842, the General Assembly of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church appointed a com- 
mittee, with Rev. Robert Donnell as its chairman, to re- 
ceive bids for the location of a college. On July 1, 1842, 
this committee met in Nashville, Tennessee, "to select a 
suitable location for the establishment of a new institu- 
tion," to use the words in the brief history by Dr. J. Ber- 
rien Lindsley. Due notice had been given to the public 
before the meeting of the committee. The committee 
received and deliberated upon bids from several commu- 
nities. It decided that the best bid was made by a delega- 
tion of citizens from Lebanon, Tennessee. Their offer, to 
secure the location, was $10,000 in cash for the erection of 
a college building. It is to be understood that this was 
the first unit of the building, and did not include the 
two wings, which were not erected until 18 58-59. 

The committee immediately appointed a Board of Trus- 
tees. On July 9 the Board of Trustees met and went into 
a permanent organization, with Robert L. Caruthers as 
President and Josiah S. McClain as Secretary. Steps were 
taken also in the selection of a faculty. F. R. Cossitt, 
D.D., was selected as President; Rev. C. G. McPherson, as 
Professor of Mathematics; and Dr. T. C. Anderson, as 
Professor of Languages. There was as yet no charter, and 
hence no legal name for the institution. At the same 
meeting a committee on preliminary matters was appoint- 

(36) 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 37 

ed. On July 29 the Board had another meeting at which 
the previously appointed committee reported that fifty 
students could get boarding in Lebanon at two dollars 
per week, including washing, fuel, and lights. At this 
meeting, also, the salary of the president was fixed at 
twelve hundred dollars and that of the professors at one 
thousand dollars, with a proviso that no buildings or other 
property of the institution should be responsible for said 
salaries; and it was also provided that the trustees in- 
dividually should incur no liabilities for the payment of 
said salaries — any deficiency in salary to be paid at any 
future time when funds, properly set aside for salaries, 
shall have sufficient surplus, after meeting current ex- 
penses.^ 

The Trustees, for the most part, were members of the 
local church, of which Rev. George Donnell was the pas- 
tor.- Practically all of the $ 1 0,000, which had been pledged 
to secure the location, came from the Trustees. Robert 
L. Caruthers, the President of the Board, was the chief 
donor. The entire amount promised was paid into the 
treasury at once, and the contract was let for the erection 
of the building on South College Street. This building 
was first occupied in February, 1844. In the meantime 
the classes were taught in the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, now an old church building on North Cumber- 
land Street. 

The new building when completed, and especially after 
the two wings were added in 18 58-59, was one of the 

^Theological Medium, October, 1876, pp. 386, 387, 388. 

"On January 10, 1844, the Trustees adopted a resolution to the effect that 
a majority of the members of the Board should be members of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church. 



38 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

handsomest college buildings in the entire South. Such 
was the opinion expressed to the present writer by the 
late Dr. D. K. Pearsons, a philanthropist of Chicago, who 
visited Lebanon and Cumberland University not long 
after the completion of the building. The Trustees were 
proud of their achievement in the erection of this building, 
judging by expressions in the catalogue and by the ap- 
proval of the friends of the institution in various parts 
of the country. At the time, 1859, it was adequate for 
the housing of the College of Arts, the Law School, the 
Theological School, and for dormitory purposes. 

Without hesitation one can say that Cumberland Uni- 
versity was founded by men of the highest type. They 
were all leading citizens and churchmen. In the first 
place, much was due to the church in Lebanon, founded 
by Rev. George Donnell, the great-grandfather of the 
present Dean of the College of Arts of Cumberland Uni- 
versity, William Donnell Young. Here, in Lebanon, was 
organized in 1845 the first Board of Missions of the 
Church. Here originated the plan for the organization 
of the Woman's Board of Missions; here were the men 
who were chiefly responsible for calling into being the 
Theological School of the University; and here was pub- 
lished one of the earliest church papers.'^ 

Lebanon was a suitable place for the location of a Chris- 
tian institution of learning. The town was founded in 
1802 by liberty-loving Americans, nearly all of Scotch- 
Irish descent. Some of them were in the Revolutionary 

^ The General Assembly of the Church which met in Lebanon in 1845 
provided for the organization of a Board of Education, or Educational So- 
ciety. The publication of the Banner of Peace, the church paper, was begun 
in Lebanon in 1844. 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 39 

War. Lebanon has been always noted for its people of 
culture. It has had in its citizenship many men of promi- 
nence, both in the State and in the Church. It has fur- 
nished four Governors of Tennessee: James C. Jones, 1841- 
45; William B. Campbell, 1851-53; and Robert L. 
Caruthers, 1863, who did not serve, owing to the Civil 
War going on at that time. The noted Sam Houston, the 
hero of Texas Independence, was a resident of Lebanon 
for one year, 1818-19, and during this period rose rapidly 
as a practicing lawyer. He, too, was Governor of Ten- 
nessee, that is, from 1827 to the time of his strange and 
untimely resignation in April, 1829. Also, Lebanon has 
had five congressmen: Samuel Hogg, 1815-17; Robert L. 
Caruthers, 1841-43; William B. Campbell, 1865-67; Ed- 
ward I. Golladay, 1871-73; and Haywood Y. Riddle, 
1875-79. Samuel Hogg was one of Lebanon's first town 
commissioners (1807-09). James C. Jones, Robert L. 
Caruthers, Edward I. Golladay, and Haywood Y. Riddle 
were all Trustees of Cumberland University. James C. 
Jones was United States Senator from 1851-57. Henry 
Cooper, a professor of law in Cumberland University for 
two years, 1866-68, was elected to the United States Sen- 
ate over ex-President Andrew Johnson. 

For nearly a century Lebanon has been a center for 
meetings of the presbytery, the synod or the General As- 
sembly of the Church. Lebanon has had the honor and 
privilege of entertaining the General Assembly four times 
—in 1838, 1845, 1855, 1878. The historical importance 
of all these gatherings, and of many others akin to them, 
was due in no small measure to the influence and leader- 



40 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ship of the heroic and stalwart men connected with Cum- 
berland University. 

The First Trustees 

In the summer of 1842 the committee which selected 
Lebanon as the site of the new institution also appointed 
the following leading citizens of Lebanon to serve as a 
Board of Trustees: James C. Jones, Zachariah Tolliver, 
Thompson Anderson, Nathan Cartmel, M. A. Price, Jo- 
siah S. McClain, Miles McCorkle, Andrew Allison, "William 
L. Martin, Jordan Stokes, Benjamin R. Owen, Thomas J. 
Munford, and Robert L. Caruthers. These men secured a 
charter for the institution from the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee on December 30, 1843. As was the case with the 
charter of Washington and Jefferson College, this charter 
made no reference to any particular denomination of 
Christians. All but two of the Trustees, however, were 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The 
loyalty of the institution to the welfare of the Church, 
under whose patronage it was, and with which it was 
closely affiliated, has not been easy to excel.^ 

The shortest term of service of the first Trustees was 
that of Thomas Anderson, who ceased to be a member of 

* The list of Trustees, as originally appointed by the Assembly Committee, 
did not include two names given here: James C. Jones and M. A. Price, but 
included Robert M. Burton and Joseph W. Allen (Minutes of the Board, 
July 9, 1842). Robert L. Caruthers and Joseph W. Allen were not present at 
this first meeting. Nor were they present at meetings of the Board July 16, 
July 23, July 29, July 3 0. Joseph W. Allen was present on August 9 and 
August 15. Robert L. Caruthers was present for the first time May 1, 1843. 
He was a member of Congress. The list of Trustees as given above is the 
list as it appears in the original charter, secured December 3 0, 1843: For 
some reason Robert M. Burton and Joseph W. Allen did not continue to 
serve. There is no mention of the charter in the Minutes of the Board until 
January 12, 1844, the time of "the first meeting of the Board under the 
charter of incorporation," the Minutes say. 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 41 

the Board January 3, 1846. Robert Looney Caruthers 
served as president until his death in 1882. His succes- 
sor, Dr. Andrew B. Martin, served as president of the 
Board from 1882 until his death in May, 1920. Dr. 
Martin's successor was Dr. Dayton A. Dobbs, who is still 
the president of the Board. 

The Founder of the University 

Judge Robert Looney Caruthers had more to do with 
the founding of Cumberland University than any other 
person. He was born near Carthage, Tennessee, July 31, 
1800, and studied at Washington College, in East Ten- 
nessee. According to Dr. A. B. Martin, and the Biograph- 
ical Directory of Congress, 1928, he was also a student of 
Greeneville College, Greeneville, Tennessee. He read law 
under Judge Samuel Powell, Greeneville, and he began the 
practice of it in Carthage. He was Clerk in the House of 
Representatives, Tennessee Legislature, in 1823; was ap- 
pointed by Governor Sam Houston Attorney General in 
his district in 1827; and was commissioned Brigadier Gen- 
eral of the Militia in 1834. He served in the State Legis- 
lature in 1 8 3 5 ; in the United States Congress, 1841-43; and 
in the Congress of the Confederate States, 1861-63." 

Many were the calls which he had to public service. He 
was a presidential elector in 1841; succeeded John Bell in 
Congress in 1841, for a term of two years; was presiden- 
tial elector in 1844; was appointed by Gov. W. B. Camp- 
bell a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court in 18 52, suc- 
ceeding Nathan Green, Sr., and served until the Civil 

" See Dr. A. B. Martin's Address on the Lite and Character of Judge 
Robert L. Caruthers, June 6, 1883 (printed in catalogue, 1883, and in pam- 
phlet form). 



42 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

War; was re-elected by the legislature in 18 53, and, on a 
change in the constitution, by the people in 18 54. He 
was a member of the Peace Congress in Washington in 
1861, joining Robert Hatton and others in doing every- 
thing possible to avert war. He was elected Governor of 
Tennessee in 1863, but did not serve, owing to the terrible 
war that was raging. 

From the very beginning, Judge Caruthers was a staunch 
supporter of the University, in all its departments. He 
was made Professor of Law in the University in 1868, 
which position he held until his death. He was a ruling 
elder in the Lebanon congregation, and was a frequent 
member of the presbytery, synod, and General Assembly. 
Abram Caruthers, the first professor of law in Cumber- 
land University, was his brother. Caruthers Hall, built in 
1877, was named for him. The Caruthers Literary Society 
also takes his name. "His influence for good was wide- 
spread, deep and permanent." In 1845, when a great fire 
swept through Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Judge Caruthers 
contributed a thousand dollars to the sufferers. 

At the time of the revival of religion which was held 
under the leadership of Rev. George Donnell in the Leban- 
on Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1831, two of the 
nieces of the wife of President Andrew Jackson united 
with this church. One of these nieces was the wife of 
Col. Robert M. Burton and the other, the wife of Judge 
Robert L. Caruthers, who became a member of the church 
before her husband did. In a letter written to Colonel 
Burton by Andrew Jackson from Washington, D. C, 
November 24, 1831, the President says that he is gratified 
to learn that his nieces have joined the church. He only 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 43 

wishes their two husbands would follow their example. 
He rejoices, however, with his nieces on their happy 
change. He closes his letter by saying: "There is no real 
content and happiness in this world, except the consola- 
tions of religion derived from the promises contained in 
the Scriptures. Have my little namesake (Andrew Jack- 
son Burton) presented to the Church in baptism." '' 

This religion of Jesus Christ, referred to by President 
Jackson, had much to do with the shaping of the life of 
Robert L. Caruthers, who in some real sense may be called 
the Founder of Cumberland University. 

The death of Judge Robert L. Caruthers occurred in 
October, 1882, and he was buried in Lebanon. At the 
request of the Trutsees and Faculty, Dr. A. B. Martin, 
Professor of Law in Cumberland University, and the then 
recently elected President of the Board of Trustees, de- 
livered, in Caruthers Hall on June 6, 1883, an address on 
the Life and Character of Judge Caruthers. This ad- 
dress was printed in the catalogue of 1883, and also in 
pamphlet form. Among other things Dr. Martin said: 
"In professional life, Judge Caruthers represented the high- 
est type of lawyer in this country. He was laborious and 
conscientious in the discharge of his professional engage- 
ments. The high moral standard by which he measured 
all his actions, controlled his relation with Court, Clerk 
and brother Lawyer." 

The closing tribute to Judge Caruthers is taken from the 
Bench and Bar of Tennessee, written in 1898 by the late 
Joshua W. Caldwell, an able lawyer of Knoxville, an 

President Jackson's entire letter appears in President Anderson's Life of 
Doniiell, pp. 2 30, 231. 



44 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

alumnus of another institution. Making a slight change 
by way of abbreviation, his statement is as follows: 

"His character was marked by an extraordinary purity. 
The moral faculties were always dominant. He was sin- 
cerely pious, genuinely benevolent without ostentation, 
and the sure supporter of every well-considered work of 
temperance, morality, or religion. He was a man of firm- 
ness and decision, and therefore not only well inclined, but 
also efficient in well doing. His mental gifts were large 
and various. 

"Albert D. Marks and A. B. Martin rank him high as 
an advocate. Marks declared he was the best advocate 
Tennessee ever had. He is not said to have been an orator 
or declaimer, but an irresistible reasoner, controlling courts 
and juries by the force of logic and of a strong, command- 
ing personality. Everything that has been written of him 
is commendatory. Such faults as he may have had have 
been entirely obscured from public view by his many ex- 
cellent qualities. He was one of the good and able men 
who, toward the end of the first half of this century, gave 
to the little town of Lebanon and to its schools, the unique 
and enviable reputation which they have had and which 
they still retain. 

"The names of Green, Caruthers, Stokes, Martin and 
others remind us invariably of Lebanon and Cumberland 
University, and the Law School. To these men largely, 
Lebanon is indebted for the fact that for fifty years it 
has been one of the chief centers of education and religious 
life in the South. Its influence, always good, has extended 
into all the States of the South and Southwest. It has been 
a conservative, sound, orthodox and beneficent influence. 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 45 

All honor to the little town and its admirable University 
for the good they have done and the good they are doing. 
May they continue to prosper and remain steadfast in up- 
holding the standards of culture and faith." ^ 

On January 30, 1883, Congressman James D. Richard- 
son, of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, delivered an address on 
the Life of Judge R. L. Caruthers before the Tennessee 
Grand Lodge, in Nashville. Judge Caruthers, he said, was 
twenty-five years of age and present in the Grand Lodge, 
April 25, 1825, when Andrew Jackson formally presented 
to his brothers in Masonry General Lafayette, the French 
soldier and statesman, so much loved by the American 
people. The church life of Judge Caruthers was perhaps 
the main feature emphasized in Congressman Richardson's 
address. Judge Caruthers was often, he said, a member 
of the General Assembly of his Church, beginning in 
1835: 

"At this session (1835) he was made Chairman of the 
Committee to draft rules for the regulation of that body, 
which he did, and the rules as reported by him were adopt- 
ed. He was on the committee to report upon the establish- 
ing of a denominational paper. On his motion, a commit- 
tee was appointed to compile the statistics of the Church. 
A resolution, offered by him, was adopted, looking to a 
friendly correspondence between the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church and other Churches, which was the first 
step taken by this Church in that direction. Subsequent 
to 183 5 he was a member of the following General Assem- 
blies: 1945, '50, '52, '54, '58, '60, '67, '71, '74, 
'76, '77, '78, '80, '81. In all these bodies he took a 

^Caldwell's Bench and Bar of Tennessee, pp. 145, 146. 



46 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

prominent part, leading in many important questions, en- 
gaging in the most interesting discussions, and acting upon 
the m.ost prominent committees. Without entering into 
details, the following m.ay be mentioned as items of spe- 
cial interest: In 1845 he was a member of Com_mittee on 
Correspondence, which had under consideration for the 
first time the subject of the organic union of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church with another denomination. In 
1850 he was the author of the resolution adopted to elect 
a fraternal delegate to attend the General Assem.bly of 
the New School Presbyterian Church. This was the in- 
auguration of the system of exchange of fraternal dele- 
gates by the General Assembly of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. At this session he was the author of the 
following resolution: 'That this General Assembly looks 
with concern and disapprobation upon attem.pts from any 
quarter to dissolve the union, and would regard the suc- 
cess of any such movement as exceedingly hazardous to 
the cause of religion, as well as to civil liberty; and this 
General Assembly would strongly recommend to all Chris- 
tians to make it a subject of prayer to Almighty God to 
avert from our beloved country a catastrophe so direful 
and disastrous." He procured the unanimous adoption of 
this resolution, which he deemed necessary in that era of 
political excitement. 

"He took an active and prominent part in the discussion 
in 18 54 of the proposition to revise the Confession of 
Faith, and contributed materially to the defeat of the 
measure as then presented believing such a step at that 
time was im.practicable. In 18 58 he was a member of the 
committee to report upon the plan proposed for con- 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 47 

ducting the business of publishing books for the use of 
the Church. At the session of 1867, he was appointed on 
the committee to submit a revised Form of Government 
for the church. A report from this committee was sub- 
sequently submitted, but the matter, after undergoing 
various changes and amendments, finally failed of adop- 
tion, mainly because the proposed changes were not as ex- 
tensive as desired by the Church. In the Assemblies of 
1874, '7G, '77, '78, and '80 he was Chairman of the Judi- 
ciary Committee. In this position he was thoroughly at 
home; for it he was, by his legal ability and judicial at- 
tainments, pre-eminently qualified. His reports as chair- 
man were exceptionally able, settling many very important 
and vexed questions, and these reports are now accepted 
as standards of authority by the Church. At the session 
of 1881, he was made one of a com.m.ittee appointed to 
review the preparation of a thorough and complete re- 
vision of the Confession of Faith and Government of the 
Church. Upon this work he spent much time and 
thought, contributing valuable aid, especially upon the 
portion devoted to the Constitution and Rules of Gov- 
ernment. The report of this committee was submitted to 
the General Assembly of 1882, and after amendments, 
was approved and submitted for the action of the Pres- 
byteries, without which no amendment or revision can 
become binding. A sufficient number of Presbyteries have 
already approved to justify the statement that the re- 
vision will be the organic law of the Church. This, it is 
believed, is the first instance in the history of a Christian 
denomination where the standard of doctrines has been 
re-stated without schism and division, a high compliment 



48 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

to him and his associate committee-men. This work was 
the last he did for his church, for which he had labored 
so long and accomplished so much. 

"It is a fact, and his brethren will not say I state it too 
strongly that his place cannot now be filled in his Church. 
It was a source of comfort to him to see his denomination 
increase from a few thousand, when he became a member, 
to over one hundred thousand at the date of his death, 
and to see it extended from the local districts in Tennes- 
see and Kentucky, where it was then confined, to nearly 
all the sections of the Union. He was a man of excellent 
piety, and unaffected devotion, and did not use religion 
as a cloak to cover up or keep himself warm. As stated, 
he was in early life imbued with religious fervor, and 
throughout his long career was a sincere and serious Chris- 
tian. Such a churchman commands our profoundest ad- 
miration." '^ 

James Chamberlain Jones, another one of the original 
Trustees, was a statesman of no mean ability. For a pe- 
riod of nine years, he was a member of the Board of Trus- 
tees, and, being an ardent friend of the University, did 
what he could to promote its interests. He was born in 
Davidson County, Tennessee, near the "Hermitage," the 
home of Andrew Jackson, April 20, 1809, and died in 
Memphis, October 20, 18 59. He was a citizen of Lebanon 
from 1830 to 1850; a member of the Legislature two 
terms, 1837-41; and a presidential elector on the Harrison 
and Tyler ticket in 1840. Twice (in 1841 and in 1843) 
he was elected Governor of Tennessee over his distin- 
guished opponent, Hon. James K. Polk, who, in 1844, 

*C. p. Quarterly, pp. 261, 263. 




FRANCEWAY RANNA COSSITT, D.D. 
President, 1842-1844 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 49 

was elected President of the United States. It was in 1843 
that Governor Jones and the Legislature made Nashville 
the permanent capital and established at Nashville a school 
for the blind and at Knoxville a school for deaf mutes. 
Phelan, in his History of Tennessee, says that Jones was a 
figure of national importance and that he was frequently 
mentioned as a suitable candidate for the presidency by 
leading papers in other states as well as in his own. He 
was regarded as being a national hero and was known as 
the "Ajax of the Whigs." He threw all his strength to 
Henry Clay, the Whig candidate, in 1848. Later, he 
became a Democrat, and supported James Buchanan in 
18 56. In 18 50 he removed to Memphis and became the 
president of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. In 
1851 he was elected to the United States Senate, where he 
served for a period of six years.*^ 

Josiah Scott McClain was a Trustee from the beginning 
in 1842 to the time of his death, April 6, 1876, a period 
of thirty-four years, lacking six years of serving as long 
as Judge R. L. Caruthers. He was born January 1, 1799, 
being the first male child born in Wilson County. He 
was the son of W. A. McClain, one of the first two settlers 
in the county. Josiah McClain began his public life as 
a school teacher. He was county court clerk for a period 
of forty years, president of the First National Bank, a di- 
rector of the Tennessee and Pacific Railroad, a member of 
the Church Board of Missions, and a ruling elder in the 
local Cumberland Presbyterian Church. "He was a man 
of steady perserverancc, unwavering integrity, quiet, 

" Phelan's History of Tennessee, p. 412; McGec's History of Tennessee, 
pp. 159-164; Hamer's Tennessee, pp. 301-303; Theoloiiical Medium, October, 
1876, pp. 399-401. 



50 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

modest, unostentatious." One of his daughters became the 
wife of the late Chancellor N. Green, fourth head of the 
University.^ ^ 

Jordan Stokes, Sr., was a Trustee from 1842 to August 
24, 1866, a period of twenty-four years. He was a lawyer 
of ability, a man of unusual culture, and one of the fore- 
most citizens of Lebanon. He came to this university 
town in 1841 and formed a law partnership with Samuel 
Caruthers, who was later a member of Congress from 
Missouri. He was a member of the Tennessee Legislature, 
1851-52, and was the Speaker of the House. He was op- 
posed to secession and remained a Union man throughout 
the Civil War. He was regarded as a great orator. One 
of his greatest addresses was delivered at VanderbUt Uni- 
versity on the Centenary of American Methodism. 

Rev. Robert Donnell was a Trustee from 1847 to 1851. 
He had much to do in locating Cumberland University 
in Lebanon, and, on a number of occasions, contributed 
liberally to the financial support of the institution. He 
was a member of the Board of Visitors to the University, 
1845-46; a lecturer of divinity to young men in the Uni- 
versity preparing for the ministry, 1846-48; and pastor of 
the local church for the same period. His Scotch-Irish 
ancestors settled in North Ireland prior to 1688. They 
were all Presbyterians, and participated in the conflict be- 
tween James II and William of Orange. He was born in 
Guilford County, North Carolina, in April, 1784, being 
the son of William and Mary (Bell) Donnell. His father 
was an elder in the famous Almanac Church, of which 
Dr. David Caldwell was the pastor; a participant in the 

^° Theological Medium, October, 1876, p. 401. 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 51 

battle of Guilford Court House; and was also in the army 
which drove Cornwallis out of North CaroHna, during 
the Revolutionary War. His mother was the daughter of 
Samuel Bell, the great-grandfather of John Bell, the Con- 
stitutional candidate for the presidency in 1860 and one of 
Tennessee's most famous citizens. His parents removed 
from North Carolina to Hendersonville, Tennessee, in 
1790, and two years later to Spring Creek, eight miles 
from Lebanon. Here he spent his boyhood, and was for 
many years a member of the Spring Creek Presbyterian 
Church, of which Samuel Donnell was the pastor. This 
promising young man became an ordained minister in 
1811, and, throughout his useful career, was one of the 
ablest and most eloquent ministers in his denomination. 
He was moderator of the General Assembly of his church 
in 1837." 

Many men looked to him as a guide at all times, one 
who was fair-minded and generous, one who could see all 
sides of a question, and one who sought the best interests 
of all parties in a controversy. 

This great leader and friend of humanity died at his 
home in Athens, Alabama, May 24, 1855. On the monu- 
ment erected to his memory, are these well-chosen words: 
"Self-made, of gigantic mind and commanding person, 
social in feelings, fervent in devotion, chaste in style, 
graceful in attitude, eloquent in manner, logical in argu- 
ment, urbane in deportment, uniform in piety, consecrated 
in his calling, his praise is in all the churches." 

In all the ninety-three years of Cumberland's history, 

" Dr. David Lowry's Life of Robert Donnell; Beard's Biogiapbical Sketches, 
pp. 101-119; McDonnold's History. 



52 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

about fifty former students (nearly all graduates) of 
Cumberland University have served as Trustees. Nathan 
Green, Jr., 1845 A.B., 1848 LL.B., was the first to serve 
in this capacity. He was a Trustee from 1850 to 1855. 
His election as a Trustee was the first to be confirmed by 
the General Assembly of the Church. 

The second alumnus to serve as a Trustee was Robert 
Hatton, 1847 A.B., 1851 LL.B., one of the foremost citi- 
zens in the history of Lebanon. He was born in Youngs- 
town, Ohio, November 2, 1826, of English and Hugue- 
not descent, and was well-trained religiously. His father 
was a Methodist minister. A part of his boyhood was 
spent in Wheeling, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania. He began the practice of law in Lebanon, Tenn- 
essee, in partnership with Jordan Stokes, Sr., 1850-52, 
and was later a partner of Nathan Green, Jr., 1852-55. 
He was a tutor in the University one year, 1847-48, and 
a Trustee from November 13, 18 54, to the time of his 
death. May 31, 1862. From 185 5 to 18 57 he was a mem- 
ber of the Tennessee House of Representatives, at the end 
of which time he was the unsuccessful candidate for Gov- 
ernor. He was elected in August, 18 59, to the Thirty- 
sixth Congress. He was generally regarded as one of the 
ablest members of that Congress. 

Early in 1860, the Neiu York Times said of him: 
"Robert Hatton, of Tennessee, then obtained the floor 
for a set speech, and at once commanded attention. . . . 
Decidedly Mr. Hatton has more of the studied graces of 
an orator than any member yet seen on the floor. His 
features are full, round, and appropriate, seldom violent, 
never grotesque, but always emphatic, and with an inclina- 



CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY ESTABLISHED 5 3 

tion to the florid order. . . . His voice is musical and full 
of the church-organ tone; and he speaks with the deliber- 
ativeness of a man determined to say nothing in support of 
which he is not willing to stand a pistol shot." 

Robert Hatton, Judge Robert L. Caruthers, Judge 
Abram Caruthers, Judge Nathan Green, Sr., Judge Nathan 
Green, Jr., and others who might be mentioned, were op- 
posed to secession, and did what they could to prevent the 
war. On February 8, 1861, Robert Hatton, while yet in 
Congress, made a strong, eloquent and notable plea for 
peace and the preservation of the Union. In his letter of 
January 13, 1861, to Dr. N. Lawrence Lindsley, his for- 
mer teacher in Cumberland University, he said that in- 
judicious leaders on both sides in the great conflict were 
"leading the people to a common ruin," and that "rea- 
son and patriotism are overrun by passion and selfish- 
ness." He indicated, however, in this letter the course 
he would finally pursue, if the worst came (the war 
which he loathed). And so, in accordance with that, 
soon after his return home, he enlisted as a soldier, 
and was made a Colonel of the Seventh Tennessee Regi- 
ment. He was not the kind of man who could be coerced, 
by any means whatsoever, in a matter like this, and he 
was held in high esteem by men who had different political 
views. 

This striking and heroic figure was made a Brigadier- 
General in the Confederate Army, May 23, 1862, on the 
recommendation of Generals Anderson, Smith, and Jo- 
seph E. Johnston, and was assigned to the command of 
the Fifth Brigade (First, Seventh, and Fourteenth Ten- 
nessee Regiments), First Division, First Corps, Army of 



54 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Virginia. He was killed in the battle of Seven Pines, near 
Richmond, Virginia, May 31, 1862. The line of his troops 
were formed on that day under the eyes of Generals Jo- 
seph E. Johnston and Robert E. Lee. General Hatton's 
body was buried in Lebanon, March 24, 1866, having been 
removed for that purpose from the burial ground in Vir- 
ginia. His death was universally mourned, and his mem- 
ory is kept green to this day. His monument stands today 
on the public square. The high character of his Chris- 
tian life was very much like that of Jackson and Lee. The 
history of Cumberland University has received much of 
its significance from the type of men who created it and 
left their impress upon it for the good of the great throng 
of students who have come under its beneficent influence 
from time to time.^^ 

'^" Life of General Robert Hatfon, by James Vaulx Drake, Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, 1867. 



Chapter III 
DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 

1842-44 

It is with much satisfaction that one can look back to 
Cumberland University's first president, Franceway Ranna 
Cossitt, D.D. He was a man of unquestioned scholarship, 
and a courtly gentleman of great dignity of character. 
He was refined in his manners, gentle in his disposition, 
yet firm in his convictions and a fine disciplinarian. He 
belonged to the classical school of educators. He was not 
untried when he came to Cumberland, for he had served a 
little more than sixteen years (March, 1826, to June, 1842) 
as the president of the college at Princeton, Kentucky. 
He showed there what he could do. It is not strange that 
he had the confidence of a great host of the friends of 
Christian education.^ 

This fine and gifted friend of our people, regarded on 
every hand as one of nature's noblemen, was from far- 
away New England. He was born in Claremont, New 
Hampshire, April 24, 1790, of English descent. His an- 
cestors took the side of Charles I in the conflict with Crom- 
well and the Parliament. But the descendants of the two 
sides worked together admirably in Cumberland Univer- 
sity. In 1813 he received the A.B. degree from Middle- 
bury College, in Vermont. He received his theological 
education at the General Episcopal Seminary, New Haven, 

' Chancellor Green's Echoes from Caruthers Hall, pp. 204-206, Dr. Richard 
Beard's Biogral}h/cal Sketches, pp. 154-191; Theological Medium, 1876, p. 388. 

(55) 



56 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Connecticut, an institution which was later transferred 
to New York City. He received his Hcensure to preach 
at the hands of Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut. In 1839 
he received from his alma mater the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity; and also, at about the same time, he received the 
same degree from Cumberland College, in Kentucky. Of 
all those who came from New England to the South and 
Southwest, there was no worthier representative than he. 
In 1821, he was a young minister of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, teaching school at a little place called New 
York, near Clarksville, Tennessee. He had previously 
taught in Morristown, New Jersey, and in the Vine Hill 
Academy, in North Carolina. In 1822, he decided to be- 
come a minister in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
and he continued as such to the day of his death in 1863. 
He was the first Stated Clerk which the General Assem- 
bly of that church ever had, and continued as such from 
1829 to 1834. He was made Moderator of the Assembly 
in 1834. 

The first president of the University was one of the 
foremost advocates in favor of establishing a college in 
the Cumberland Country, which was, as has been already 
indicated, poorly supplied with educational facilities. The 
leaders of this movement were Finis Ewing, Samuel King, 
Robert Donnell, F. R. Cossitt, John and William Barnett 
and Ephraim Ewing. The college which they wished to 
establish (and which was established at Princeton, Ken- 
tucky, in 1826) had four objectives: (1) A system of edu- 
cation adapted to young men of slender means, but who 
had energy enough to unite manual labor with their stud- 
ies. (2) Cheapness. (3) Regard for health in the midst 



DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 57 

of intellectual pursuits. (4) The education of young men 
preparing for the ministry. Dr. Cossitt advocated all four 
of these objectives, especially the fourth. 

It was an easy matter then for the Trustees of Cumber- 
land University to unite in calling Dr. Cossitt, with his 
equipment and experience, to the presidency of the insti- 
tution. As we have already seen, the date of this action 
was July 9, 1842. At the same time, the Trustees appoint- 
ed Cornelius G. McPherson, A.B., Professor of Mathe- 
matics, and Thomas C. Anderson, D.D., Professor of Lan- 
guages. Dr. Cossitt did not assume the active duties of 
the presidency until February, 1843, at the beginning of 
the second term. The duty of opening the school was laid 
upon Professor McPherson. The opening took place in 
September, 1842, but there is no record which shows the 
exact day. 

There were forty-five students the first year. The late 
Chancellor Nathan Green was one of them. "While the 
number of students was small, and evidently less than there 
was good reason to expect, yet those inaugurating the en- 
terprise were not discouraged. There was not yet a dollar 
of endowment on hand, nor had any been pledged when 
the work was begun. It was an enterprise of faith; but 
the Trustees stood solidly behind it and would not will- 
ingly allow it to fail. As early as the fall of 1842, Rev. 
Herschel S. Porter (a young man who later became one 
of the distinguished ministers of his church) was employed 
as a general agent to secure permanent endowment; but 
he labored only a few months in this work, securing only 
about four thousand dollars in interest bearing notes. The 
beginning, as one can see, was small. It was like the mus- 



5 8 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

tard seed in the parable; and one may confidently believe 
that the history of Cumberland has had in it some of the 
power of the kingdom of heaven mentioned in the parable. 

Cumberland University had its beginning in a church 
house. There was no other place to go. There is indeed 
something beautiful in the fact that Cumberland had its 
beginning in a house of prayer. The Lebanon Church, of 
which George Donnell was the pastor, did a beautiful 
thing when it showed its willingness to give the infant in- 
stitution its first shelter. That church house is still stand- 
ing today on North Cumberland Street. It is here that 
the classes were taught from September, 1842, to Febru- 
ary, 1844, when the removal was made to the new college 
building erected on the large and beautiful campus on 
South College and Spring Streets. It was then, as Dr. T. 
C. Anderson tells us, that the college classes were more 
regularly organized. Dr. Cossitt gave himself at once to 
the regular work of teaching as well as to that of adminis- 
tration. 

Both Dr. Cossitt and Professor McPherson were schol- 
ars of no mean ability; and both were teachers of experi- 
ence, thoroughly conversant with the college standards and 
requirements of that period. Most of their students were 
college students; the others were not quite ready for col- 
lege. There was no catalogue for the first two years, and 
hence the prescribed course of study is not now available. 
But one may be certain that it was not less than the one 
Dr. Cossitt and Mr. McPherson used at Princeton, Ken- 
tucky. It must have been about the same as the one print- 
ed in the catalogue of 1845-46. In the year just men- 
tioned, the catalogue gives the four-year course for the 



DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 59 

College of Arts and also a four-year course for the Pre- 
paratory School. 

Both Dr. Cossitt and Professor McPherson were excel- 
lent disciplinarians. One would readily infer as much from 
one of the several accounts handed down to us. Apparently 
the first publication ever issued by the University made its 
appearance early in 1843, two years before the publication 
of the first catalogue. It was a book of rules — twenty-one 
mortal pages of them. These were rules for the Faculty, 
rules concerning admission and graduation, rules about the 
"Location of Students," "Damages," "Dismissions," and 
other things besides. On January 14, 1843, a committee of 
three Trustees — McClain, Stokes, Owen — was appointed to 
draft these By-laws, after consulting with Dr. Cossitt and 
Professor McPherson. One may well believe that Dr. Cos- 
sitt was really the author of the By-laws, although he did 
not formally take charge of the work of his office until 
February, 1843. At any rate they were in force during his 
administration. Some of them seem quaint to-day. There 
were at least fourteen chapters of them. A few selections 
will suffice. 

"Chapter VII. — Of Punishment, Crimes and Misde- 
meanors. 

"Section 5. If any student shall break open the door of 
another, or privately pick his lock with any instrument, 
he shall be admonished or expelled, as the nature of the 
ofFense may deserve. 

"Section 7. The President, a Professor or a Tutor, shall 
have authority to break open and enter any College cham- 
ber or study at all times, at discretion. 

"Section 8. If any student shall play at hand or foot- 



60 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ball in the College building, or in the College yard, or 
throw anything in which the College buildings may be in 
danger of damage, he shall be admonished, sent home or 
dismissed. 

"Section 10. If any student shall ring the College bell, 
except by order of the President, a Professor or a Tutor, 
he shall be punished at the discretion of the Faculty. 

"Section 26. No student shall, without permission, go 
to a greater distance than two miles from the College, at 
any time during the continuance of the session. 

"Section 27. No student shall keep, for his use or pleas- 
ure, any horse, carriage, dog or servant; except when his 
parents or guardian shall, with the approbation of the Fac- 
ulty, allow him a horse for the purpose of healthful exer- 
cise." 

"Chapter XIV. — Oi Religious Exercises and the Sab- 
bath. 

"Section 8. Every student boarding within the town 
corporation, or within three-quarters of a mile of the Col- 
lege building, shall attend morning prayers in the College 
chapel at sunrising." 

Yet, on page 13 of the yellow old pamphlet one may 
read, "Whereas, the laws of the College are few and gen- 
eral." 

In a letter received July 5, 1935, from Mrs. Macon A. 
Leiper, Librarian, Kentucky Collection in the Teachers' 
College, Bowling Green, Kentucky, some light is thrown on 
the probable authorship of the "By-Laws of Cumberland 
University." In the Collection just mentioned is a pam- 
phlet with the following title: "Laws of Cumberland Col- 
lege at Princeton, Kentucky. Enacted by the Board of 



DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 61 

Trustees, December 24, 1827." This book of Laws for 
Cumberland College has thirteen chapters and 110 sec- 
tions. In the headings of the chapters are the following 
subjects: Trustees, Faculty, Manager of Farm, Steward, 
Admission to College and Courses of Study, Conduct of 
Students, Honorary Degrees, Commencements and Exami- 
nations, Vacation, Library, Corresponding Secretary, Clerk, 
and Religious Exercises. Dr. Cossitt was the President at 
the time. 

One of the primary aims in the establishment of the 
University was the education of candidates for the min- 
istry, so one may learn from several different sources, espe- 
cially from the brief history by Dr. T. C. Anderson. By 
an act of the Board of Trustees all candidates for the min- 
istry of all denominations were exempted from the pay- 
ment of tuition. There is no record of the number of 
such students attending the first year. In 1843-44 there 
were 76 students, of whom 21 were candidates for the 
ministry; in 1844-45 there were 82 students, of whom 16 
were candidates; in 1845-46 there were 98 students, of 
whom 2 5 were candidates; in 1846-47 there were 148 stu- 
dents, of whom 30 were candidates. This tuition was 
paid neither by the students nor by friends on the out- 
side; it was a gift gladly made by the institution (through 
its professors) to the students, or, we may say, to the 
Church. And a spirit such as this has always prevailed 
in Cumberland University. 

In September, 1843, the organization of the Faculty 
was completed for the time being by the inauguration of 
Dr. T. C. Anderson as Professor of Ancient Languages, 
and Dr. N. Lawrence Lindsley, as Professor of Modern 



62 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Languages. More extended reference to these two men 
is made elsewhere. It is sufficient to say that the addition 
of these men to the Faculty added much to its efficiency 
and strength. Cumberland now had four of the best 
teachers in the country in its College of Arts. There were 
also tutors who acted as instructors of those not ready for 
college. 

A charter for the institution was not secured until De- 
cember 30, 1843. It was secured from the Legislature of 
Tennessee on that date. Some have erroneously said that 
it was secured in 1844. The charter name of the institu- 
tion is "Cumberland University." It may be that the 
trustees always intended to call it by that name. By some, 
however, it was called Cumberland College during the first 
year. The Commencement Program of 1843 calls it Cum- 
berland College.^ 

If the college at Princeton, Kentucky, had been removed 
to Lebanon, as was at first contemplated, it might have 
been so called. But the removal did not take place, a num- 
ber of careless statements to the contrary notwithstanding. 
There would have been serious objections to having two 
different institutions with the same name. In the second 
place the Trustees had the idea from the beginning of se- 
curing a university organization according to the plan of 
other American institutions of establishing a group of 
professional schools around a College of Arts as a central 
unit. This was the main reason why our predecessors 
called it a university. 

The preamble of the charter of 1843 recites that "an 

" The original printed program is in the possession of the University. In 
the minutes of several of the meetings of the Trustees in 1842, the institution 
is referred to as "Cumberland College." 



DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 63 

association of the citizens of Lebanon, Wilson County, has 
been voluntarily formed for the erection of a Literary 
Institution near said town," and that funds have been se- 
cured by contribution for that purpose. Also, that the 
Board of Trustees have purchased a site and erected build- 
ings thereon. This is followed by the name of the insti- 
tution, the names of the Trustees, the definition of their 
powers, and the degrees that may be conferred. The char- 
ter of 1843 also provided that "any person or society, or 
the Board of Trustees, may found a professorship of Agri- 
culture by endowing the same," and also that "any evan- 
gelical church, or any number of members of the same, 
may establish a Theological professorship in said Institu- 
tion, by endowing the same with the consent of the Board 
of Trustees." 

In January, 1844, the Trustees themselves contributed 
one thousand dollars for the purchase of laboratory ap- 
paratus, and a few months later Foster G. Crutcher gave 
to the institution a large bell. The movement was also 
begun for a college library. From the beginning in 1842, 
when Rev. H. S. Porter was appointed endowment agent, 
the Trustees were convinced that endowment was indis- 
pensable if permanence was to be secured. In the fall of 
1843, Rev. S. G. Burney and John McPherson were ap- 
pointed endowment agents. They labored for a short 
time, with little success. 

In April, 1844, Dr. T. C. Anderson, on account of de- 
clining health, resigned as professor of Ancient Languages. 
The Board declined to accept his resignation, but supplied 
the place to the end of the term by the temporary appoint- 
ment of Dr. N. Lawrence Lindslcy. The appointment was 



64 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

made permanent in the following September. Dr. Ander- 
son renewed his resignation September 1, and at this time 
it was accepted. On September 30, 1844, President Cossitt 
and Professor McPherson both tendered their resignations, 
and at that time retired from their work in the Univer- 
sity. Their retirement was regretted on all sides, and it 
laid a great burden upon the institution at a critical time 
in its history. Although Dr. Anderson was still in feeble 
health (and continued so until his death in 1882), yet 
because of his outstanding ability and fitness he was pre- 
vailed upon by the Board of Trustees to accept the presi- 
dency, at least temporarily. 

Dr. Cossitt did not leave Lebanon, but made it his home 
until his death in 1863. He felt that the duties in connec- 
tion with the university were too much for him. He pre- 
ferred the work of the editorial chair, and so became for 
a number of years the editor of the leading church paper, 
The Banner of Peace. He was a chaste and vigorous writ- 
er, as is clearly shown in his newspaper articles and in his 
excellent biography of Finis Ewing. He was interested 
also in the work of Foreign Missions. The Board of Home 
and Foreign Missions was organized in Lebanon in 1845. 
Dr. Cossitt was the second President of this Board. It was 
through his influence that the church began its work in 
Japan rather than in China. 

While Dr. Cossitt served Cumberland University only 
a comparatively brief time as its president, he gave the 
institution all the benefit of his experience and all the 
weight of his influence, both of which meant much to the 
University just beginning its career. Dignified, circum- 
spect and modest, he always made himself a whole-hearted 




THOMAS C. ANDERSON. D.D. 
President, 1844-1866 



DR. F. R. COSSITT, THE FIRST PRESIDENT 65 

companion with his newly made friends. He was respect- 
ed and admired and honored by all. His residence on 
West Main Street was a two-story colonial brick building, 
which was torn away recently to make room for a gram- 
mar school building. Congressman Edward I. Golladay, 
a Trustee of the University, was his son-in-law; and a 
granddaughter was for many years a much beloved resi- 
dent of Lebanon. Dr. Cossitt died in Lebanon, February 
3, 1863. 

In the sketches of his life by Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley and 
the late Chancellor Green, he is referred to as "the inde- 
fatigable, high spirited, indomitable, and yet unobtrusive 
and meek Cossitt." It is further very truthfully said of 
him: "No man can go through the long record of his edi- 
torial and educational labors without forming the highest 
opinion of his intellectual and moral worth; and also with- 
out astonishment at his patience and heroism. Indeed 
there were giants in those days. Cumberland University 
may well take an honest pride in its first president." ^ 

' Theological Medium, October, 1876, p. 388. Echoes from Caruthers 
Hall, pp. 204, 20 5. 



Chapter IV 
THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 

1844-66 

Thomas C. Anderson, D.D., became President Sep- 
tember 30, 1844, and retired from this position, which he 
had so much honored, August, 24, 1866. He was emi- 
nently fitted for the work to which he was called. His 
administration, which extended over a period of twenty- 
two years, was both able and successful. He had the con- 
fidence of the friends of the University, and under his 
wise and tactful leadership the institution enjoyed great 
prosperity. He was quiet and unassuming; a man of fine 
culture and classical scholarship; and a leader with the 
highest Christian ideals. Through his splendid efforts, 
the University was placed in the front rank of southern 
institutions. 

The second President of the University was born Octo- 
ber 21, 1801, near Gallatin, Tennessee, being the youngest 
son of Rev. Alexander Anderson, a brilliant young minis- 
ter of his day whose career was all too brief. Samuel 
Thomas Anderson, '51 A.B., D.D., Moderator of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of his church in 1869, also a missionary to 
the Island of Trinidad, at a later time the Acting Presi- 
dent"^^ of Trinity University (1882-83), and in 1881 ap- 
pointed a theological professor in Cumberland, was a 
grandson of Rev. Alexander Anderson, and a nephew of 
President T. C. Anderson. President Anderson was three 
years of age when his father died. During his boyhood 

(66) 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. 1. C. ANDERSON dl 

his greatest religious impression, aside from the influence 
of his mother, was received from the preaching of Rev. 
James McG ready, and yet he remained for several years 
under the impression that morality was all there was of 
religion. From a sketch of his life written in 1882 by 
Dr. M. B. Dewitt, of Nashville, we learn that rather early 
in his career he "became a successful teacher, having en- 
joyed the instruction of several fine classical teachers." ^ 

In 1830 he was employed by Dr. F. R. Cossitt as a tutor 
in Cumberland College in Kentucky, while com-pleting the 
requirements for the A.B. degree, which he secured in 
June, 1831. He then served as a regular professor in the 
College for one year, when he resigned to enter the minis- 
try. In 1836 he labored as an evangelist with Rev, J. M. 
McMurry in Missouri and Illinois, and later, with Rev. 
Matthew Houston Bone and Rev. Hugh Bone Hill, in 
Ohio. He laid the foundation for churches in Covington 
and Piqua, Ohio. 

In the summer of 1842 he had accepted the call of the 
Trustees to become the Professor of Ancient Languages. 
He was at the time (1838-42) the pastor of the church of 
his denomination in "Winchester, Tennessee. One has it 
on his own authority that this pastorate was the happiest 
period of his life. He had in his church an unusually 
fine board of elders, led by Nathan Green, Sr., who later 
became a professor of law in Cumberland University. 
While engaged in a camp meeting near Winchester just 
before the time to take up his duties as a professor, Dr. 
Anderson was stricken with a heart disease, which made 

^Cumberland Presbyterian, June 1, 1882. C. P. Quarterly Review, Octo- 
ber, 1882. 



68 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

him an invalid for life. Not long after this he removed 
to Lebanon, but because of poor health could not enter 
upon his duties as a professor before September, 1843. 
As has been previously stated, he retired from teaching 
work in April, 1844, owing to feeble health. And yet 
about a month after the board had accepted his resigna- 
tion as a professor, he reluctantly and with much trem- 
bhng of heart accepted the presidency. 

To indicate further his feelings in the matter, it seems 
best to quote his own words: "Thus when I thought my- 
self free from further responsibility, and I was busily ma- 
turing plans for a quiet, retired life, I found myself un- 
expectedly elevated to the presidency of an institution 
without funds, apparatus, library, or cabinet; an institu- 
tion to which I knew the majority of the Church were 
looking as their last fond hope for an educated ministry. 
My position was embarrassing in the extreme. I would 
have most gladly shrunk from the responsibility, but the 
responsibility was laid upon me, and I resolved at once to 
devote the shattered remnant of my life to the work as- 
signed me." 

"With all the vigor at his command. President Anderson 
took up the burden laid upon him by the Trustees, and 
began in a commendable and effective way the execution 
of his task. Dr. N. Lawrence Lindsley, the Professor of 
Modern Languages, was offered the chair of Mathematics, 
made vacant by the resignation of Professor McPherson. 
He declined the offer, but agreed to supply the department 
temporarily, while the "labor of the department of Lan- 
guages was divided between him and President Anderson." 
On January 22, 1845, Lieutenant A. P. Stewart, Assistant 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 69 

Professor of Mathematics in the MiHtary Academy at 
West Point, was elected by the Trustees as the Professor of 
Mathematics in the University. He accepted the appoint- 
ment, but did not begin his work in the department until 
May, 1845. From February until May, Louis A. Lowry, 
A.B., was the teacher of mathematics. On February 22, 
1845, J. H. Sharp, M.D., was elected to the Department of 
Natural Science, which position he held until September 
4, 1847. With this Faculty of four strong men, the Col- 
lege of Arts began its work in September, 1845. The 
catalogue of 1845-46 announces Judge Abram Caruthers 
simply as Professor of Law. But, as a matter of fact, this 
professor delayed his coming, and his work as a teacher 
of law did not begin until October 1, 1847. 

On February 27, 1845, the Board of Trustees appointed 
Nathan Green, Sr., as Professor of International Law and 
Political Economy. At that time he was, and had been 
since 1831, a member of the Tennessee Supreme Court, but 
for this reason felt that he could not accept the offer of 
the University. On May 27, of the same year. Honorable 
Abram Caruthers, a judge of the Circuit Court, was elect- 
ed to this professorship. He agreed to accept it, but, as 
heretofore stated, delayed his coming. As a matter of fact, 
the Trustees had not yet established a Law Department in 
the University, although they had doubtless contemplated 
doing so. 

At the close of the school year, 1844-45, the first cata- 
logue was published. From the catalogue of 1846-47, we 
learn that the Preparatory School had been entirely reor- 
ganized, with a four-year course, and that the College of 
Arts also had a four-year course. The course in the Pre- 



70 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

paratory School had three years of Latin, three of Greek, 
and an introductory course in Algebra. There was an 
English course for those not preparing for college. In the 
College of Arts the Freshman year included Sallust, Cicero 
(Orations) , and two courses from Xenophon. Horace and 
Homer were studied in the Sophomore year; Cicero (De 
Oratore) and Graeca Majora, in the Junior year; and 
Circero (De Officiis) and Sophocles, or Euripides, or 
Aeschylus, in the Senior year. These were some, but not 
all, of the studies in the Classical Department. There was 
also, for all college students, a Department of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy. The studies in this department 
included College Algebra, Plain and Spherical Geometry, 
Trigonometry, Descriptive and Analytical Geometry, Dif- 
ferential and Integral Calculus, Surveying, Mechanics, 
Hydrostatics, Optics, Electricity, Magnetism, and Astron- 
omy. The Rhetorical and Ethical Departments included 
Natural Philosophy, Rhetoric, Logic, International Law, 
Political Economy, Natural Theology, Geology, Mental 
and Moral Philosophy, and Evidences of Christianity. 

One finds the catalogue of 1845 saying: "Although the 
circumstances that surrounded the University at its estab- 
lishment were dark and somewhat gloomy, we congratu- 
late its friends and patrons on the success that has attend- 
ed it thus far, and the bright and brightening prospects 
that are beginning to dawn upon our infant institution." 
On May 29, 1845, the University Treasurer was ordered 
to invest all endowment moneys on hand in Lebanon and 
Nashville turnpike stock. On January 27, 1845, the 
Trustees began the accumulation of a library fund, "the 
faculty to have the power to exclude unsuitable books." 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 71 

The first time a student was ever expelled from the insti- 
tution was on November 1, 1845. 

The first three agents for endowment were not very suc- 
cessful. But in 1845 Rev. J. M. McMurry, of Lebanon, a 
brother-in-law of President Anderson, was employed to 
solicit gifts for the permanent endowment fund. He 
raised seven thousand dollars during the first three months, 
which encouraged him to go on with the work. By the 
spring of 18 52, the fund had reached through his efforts 
the sum of sixty thousand dollars, the greater part of 
which was in notes (potential endowment), given by in- 
dividuals, the interest to be paid annually, the principal to 
be paid at the death of the donor. The gathering of these 
funds was a slow and arduous process. Most of the gifts 
were in small sums, and represented real sacrifice on the 
part of the givers. There were no large givers, for it was a 
land of meager resources. But the number of students 
grew all the while, and the institution was rapidly gaining 
in prestige. 

In 1846 the Eductlonal Committee of the General As- 
sembly of the Church said In its report on Cumberland 
University: 

"It has a fine, large college edifice, a president, four pro- 
fessors, two tutors, and seventy-six students; twenty-one 
of whom are ordained ministers, licentiates and candidates 
for the ministry." 

In 1847 the Assembly said: 

"Cumberland University now ranks among the first 
institutions of the country. . . . There are at present and 
have been during the collegiate year about 120 students, 
about 80 of whom are professors of religion, and almost 



72 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

all are distinguished for industry and orderly deportment. 
The Rev. Robert Donnell and the President deliver weekly 
lectures on Theology and Ecclesiastical History to a class 
of 28 young men who are preparing for the ministry. 
More than $25,000 has been secured toward the endow- 
ment." 

The catalogue of 1846 says: 

"No church judicatory has any control over this insti- 
tution or any connection with it, but as it is under the 
influence and voluntary patronage of Cumberland Presby- 
terians, it is gratifying to the Trustees to find that their 
highest judicatory, at its annual sessions, takes such favor- 
able notice of its progress." 

This same catalogue further says: 

"The Trustees disavow any wish or intention to control 
or improperly influence the religious opinions of its stu- 
dents; they would with one voice rebuke any attempt to 
abridge in the smallest degree the freedom of conscience. 
Religious bigotry and intolerance, together with every 
species of sectarian exclusiveness, are carefully avoided, 
and can find no advocacy either with the Faculty or Board 
of Trustees. Morality and respect for the claims of re- 
ligion will ever be urged on the student, as objects of his 
first and highest regard; still no effort has been, or will be, 
made to shackle the conscience, or influence the mind by 
sectarian prejudice." 

Those conducting the affairs of the institutions at the 
time also declare that it has been one of their chief aims 
to select a Faculty with superior qualifications. That they 
succeeded was not questioned then nor is it questioned 
now. 




PROFESSOR C. C. McPHERSON 



N. LAWRENCE LINDSLEY, LL.D. 




GENERAL A. P. STEWART, LL.D. JAMES M. SAFFORD, Ph.D. 

Professors in the College of Arts 




ANDREW HAYS BUCHANAN, LL.D. 
Professor of Mathemafics, 1853-1911 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 73 

In the catalogue of 1846-47 one sees that the college 
year began October 1, and ended on July 28. August and 
September were the vacation months. Several familiar 
names are found in the list of students, including T. C. 
Blake, W. E. Beeson, J. C. Bowdon, E. I. Golladay, D. M. 
Grissom, and W. M. Reed. Dr. T. C. Blake became a pro- 
fessor in Cumberland, a Trustee in the same, and a Mod- 
erator, and later Stated Clerk, of the General Assembly; 
Dr. W. E. Beeson, president of Trinity University; Dr. 
J. C. Bowdon, president of Lincoln University; E. I. Golla- 
day, a Trustee and a congressman; D. M. Grissom, a noted 
newspaper editor in St. Louis; and Rev. Wiley M. Reed, a 
much loved pastor in Nashville. 

For eleven years, 1845-5 5, the annual catalogue con- 
tained a list of about twenty men of distinction as a Board 
of Visitors. This was not a charter requirement, but sim- 
ply an appointment of the University authorities that the 
men appointed might inspect the work of the institution, 
give counsel to those in charge, and take a wider interest 
in the institution. A few changes were made in the list 
from year to year, but some were members of this board 
during the eleven years. Some of the more familiar names 
were as follows: A. O. P. Nicholson, Rev. Carson P. Reed, 
Governor W. B. Campbell, Governor Aaron V. Brown, 
Nathan Green, Sr., Dr. S. G. Burney, Dr. F. R. Cossitt, 
Robert Donnell, Dr. James W. Hoggatt, Finis E. McLean, 
Joseph W. Allen, Gov. James C. Jones, Howell E. Cobb, 
Dr. Reuben Burrow, Gen. William Smarct, Hon. Jesse 
J. Finley, Judge J. M. Howry, and Hon. Alexander Alli- 
son. Hon. A. O. P. Nicholson was offered, but did not 
accept, places in the cabinets of Presidents Polk and Pierce, 



74 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

yet later became a United States Senator; at one time was 
associated with Judge Caruthers in bringing out a "Digest 
of Tennessee Statutes"; and later became the Chief Jus- 
tice of the Tennessee Supreme Court. The distinguished 
ministers, Reed, Burney, Cossitt, Donnell, and Burrow, 
were moderators of the General Assembly of their church. 
Judge Cobb was a member of the Supreme Court of Geor- 
gia. Governor Brown was Postmaster General under 
President James Buchanan. 

On January 5, 1847, the Trustees appointed a commit- 
tee of its members to consider the advisability of estab- 
lishing a Law Department. The committee reported fa- 
vorably on February 22, when definite action was taken 
to establish the Department. The first step in the organi- 
zation was the election on the date mentioned of Judge 
Abram Caruthers as the first professor, with a salary of 
$1,500. In his brief sketch of the University, President 
Anderson says: "This was the first attempt toward the 
establishment of a Law School in Tennessee or in the 
Southwest." Within five to ten years it was regarded 
as being in the first rank among the law schools of the 
United States, both in attendance and in the quality of 
work done. 

The announcement of the Law Department and its 
course of study was printed in the catalogue of 1846-47. 
It was announced that the course of study would require 
two years for its completion. The course for the Junior 
year would include: The Law of Nations, the Science of 
Government, Constitutional Law, and Municipal Law. 
The textbooks would be Vattel's Law of Nations, the Fed- 
eralist, Story on the Constitution of the United States, 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 75 

Commentaries of Blackstone and Kent. The textbooks 
for the Senior year would be: Coke on Littleton, Stephens 
on Pleading, Greenleaf on Evidence, Chitty on Contracts, 
Story (three volumes) and Russell on Crimes. In addi- 
tion it was said: "The Bible will be studied by every stu- 
dent and regarded as a textbook in both Classes," but, as 
was indicated, without sectarian teaching. 

In April, 1847, the Trustees ordered, for democratic and 
not military reasons, that students should wear suits that 
were uniform. On November 6, 1847, more land was 
bought adjoining the University buildings. 

In January, 1848, Professor N. L. Lindsley's health 
failed, for which reason he tendered his resignation. But 
the Trustees declined to accept it, permitting him, how- 
ever, to retire for a season until his health could be re- 
gained. He had suffered from an almost fatal attack of 
bronchitis. But his health was gradually re-established, 
and he continued his connection with the University until 
October 13, 1849. When Professor Lindsley's health 
failed, the Trustees elected Professor William Mariner, 
A.M., of West Tennessee University, Assistant Professor 
of Languages, who remained with the University until 
1860. On June 27, 1848, Professor J. H. Sharp, Profes- 
sor of Natural Science, having resigned his position, the 
Trustees elected Professor James Merrill Safford, Ph.D., 
Professor of Chemistry and Geology. Dr. Safford was to 
begin with a salary of $600, and this was to be increased 
later to $1,000. He had received much of his training in 
science at Yale, and came with the highest recommenda- 
tions from the Science Department there. He remained 
with Cumberland until 1873. 



76 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

The institution's gain in prestige is clearly indicated in 
a bit of praise which came from Hon. Aaron V. Brown, 
Governor of Tennessee. In one of his official messages to 
the Legislature, October 6, 1848 (Senate Journal, p. 25) 
he says: 

"Our Universities and Colleges are, in a general way, 
meeting the just expectation of their friends. Some new 
ones have been recently established in the State, founded 
chiefly if not entirely on the enlightened liberality of in- 
dividuals, which promise soon to rival their older predeces- 
sors in the diffusion of sound and wholesome intelligence 
among the people. Among these it may not be consid- 
ered invidious to mention the one in Lebanon, whose rising 
reputation gives fine promise of its future usefulness to the 
State." 

On July 4, 1849, a cholera epidemic made its appearance 
in Lebanon, and was not checked before the middle of 
September. As soon as the epidemic appeared, most of 
the students went to their homes, three weeks before the 
close of the term. All this seriously interfered with the 
Commencement, July 31, 1849. The student body was 
not so large in 1849-50. Yet the catalogue of 1850 shows 
153 students. The gloom overhanging the institution in 
October, 1849, was greatly increased by the resignation 
of Professor A. P. Stewart, who accepted a position in the 
University of Nashville for one year, at the end of which 
period he resumed his labors in the University. 

On January 16, 18 50, the Legislature of Tennessee 
granted an amendment to the charter which recited that 
all vacancies in the Board of Trustees shall be submitted 
for confirmation or rejection to the General Assembly, or 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 77 

the Synod in which said institution is located, of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church. The provision for con- 
firmation or rejection by either the Assembly or the Synod 
was tentative on the face of it, and had to be amended 
later. This was done in the charter amendment of 18 58, 
providing for the confirmation or rejection by the Assem- 
bly. In 18 50 the Assembly confirmed the election of a 
Trustee for the first time. The Trustee was Nathan 
Green, Jr. 

In the Charter of 1843 and in the amendment of 18 50 
there was no mention of any provision for a Law Depart- 
ment or for a Theological Department. The charter pro- 
vision for these two Departments or Schools was delayed 
until the charter was amended March 2, 18 58, by the 
Legislature. In the amendment of 18 58 it was provided 
that the number of Trustees should be reduced from thir- 
teen to nine as soon as there were sufficient vacancies by 
death or resignation. Certain other necessary changes 
were made to meet the new conditions, but the essential 
features in previous charters were preserved. The amend- 
ed charter of 18 58 gave to the General Assembly of the 
Church the veto power in the election of Trustees, but 
did not grant to the General Assembly the power to ap- 
point either an entirely new board of trustees for the 
University or a new board to receive any funds collected 
by the University for any of its departments. There was 
never any legal authority for calling the Law Department 
the "Lebanon Law School," nor was there ever any legal 
authority for calling the Theological Department the 
"Lebanon Theological Seminary." 

Judge Robert L. Caruthers, Rev. Robert Donnell, Dr. 



78 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

F. R. Cossitt, Dr. Richard Beard, and President Anderson 
were among the first to really desire and plan for the es- 
tablishment of a Theological School, President Anderson 
in his historical sketch, Theological Medium, Decem.ber, 
18 58, says: "While there were usually from thirty to forty 
young men in the college preparing for the ministry, it 
was a source of deep regret that they were receiving no 
theological instruction." And in view of the urgent need 
of such instruction, President Anderson was induced, as 
early as March, 1846, to commence a course of weekly lec- 
tures for the benefit of students in the college who were 
preparing for the ministry. The principal subjects em- 
braced in these lectures were: Preparation for the Pulpit, 
the Manner of Preaching, Pastoral Duties, Management 
of Revivals, Church Polity, Ecclesiastical History, and 
Expositions of Prophecy. The pastor of the church in 
Lebanon — at first, Rev. Robert Donnell, and subsequently, 
Rev. David Lowry — delivered lectures to the class upon 
Systematic Theology, and various practical subjects. 
President Anderson, in his historical sketch, also said: 
"As early as 1849, a plan for the establishment of a 
Theological School was discussed in the General Assembly; 
but no definite action was taken until 1852, when the As- 
sembly adopted a resolution favoring the establishment of 
a Theological Department in the Cumberland University. 
On March 13, 18 54, Rev. Richard Beard, D.D., was in- 
augurated Professor of Systematic Theology, and entered 
immediately upon the duties of his office. At this date 
no endowment for the department had been created, but 
members of the Board of Trustees, and citizens of Leba- 
non, became responsible to the professor for a moderate 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 79 

salary. Rev. W. D. Chadick was appointed general agent 
for the endowment of the department; and, in eight 
months, he succeeded in raising about nineteen thousand 
dollars. But having received a call to the pastoral charge 
of the church in Huntsville, Alabama, he retired from the 
agency. No further effort was made to increase the en- 
dowment until 18 56, when the Rev. "W. E. "Ward accepted 
an agency for that purpose; and, during the year, he 
raised about nine thousand dollars, when he resigned to 
take charge of the Banner of Peace." 

Dr. William E. Ward, here referred to, received the 
A.B. degree from the College of Arts in 1851, and later 
was a student in the Law School (1851-52) and in the 
Theological School (1854-56). He was one of the most 
loyal friends of the institution — one of its strongest sup- 
porters — and never deserted it in a critical hour. He was 
the founder and for many years the president of Ward 
Seminary, Nashville, an institution which is a constituent 
part of Ward-Belmont College today. 

Until 1850 the Preparatory School was taught by tutors 
selected from the higher classes in the College of Arts. In 
February, 18 50, R. P. Decherd, A.B., was made Principal 
of the Preparatory School, and he was assisted by W. J. 
Grannis, A.M., who had recently arrived from New York 
State. Professor Decherd continued with the School un- 
til 18 54; the latter, until 1902. 

The School of Engineering was established in 18 52, with 
Professor A. P. Stewart as its head. The course included 
studies in Mathematics, Surveying, and Civil Engineering, 
requiring three years for completion. A certificate was 
granted at the end of the course if successfully completed. 



80 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Professor Stewart was assisted at times by Professor An- 
drew Hays Buchanan, who became Professor of Engineer- 
ing in 185 5. 

In 18 54, Professor J. M. Saflford was appointed State 
Geologist, the work of that office requiring him to be ab- 
sent from the University during the summer months. 
For this reason Benjamin C. Jilson, Ph.B., was appointed 
Associate Professor of Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Geol- 
ogy, and he continued as such for two years, 18 54-56. 

Professor A. P. Stewart resigned again in 18 54 to go 
to the University of Nashville. Rev. T. C. Blake, '51 A.B., 
was elected to take his place as Professor of Mathematics, 
in which position he labored two years, 1854-56. 

The growing reputation of the University secured a 
steady increase of patronage, both to the College and the 
Law School. In 18 54 the College of Arts numbered 222 
students, and The Law School, 87; in 1855, the total num- 
ber was 329; in 1856, 393; in 1857, 455. As early as 
18 52, Judge Nathan Green, Sr., resigned his position as 
Chief Justice of the State Supreme Court, and devoted his 
whole time to the Law School. The increase of patronage 
was such that, in 1856, Nathan Green, Jr., a graduate of 
the College and Law School, who had been for several 
years in successful practice, was elected Professor of Law. 

President Anderson, in his historical sketch of 1858, 
says: 

"In consequence of the multiplication of departments, 
and the constant increase of students, the want of addi- 
tional buildings becam_e the source of great inconvenience 
and perpetual annoyance. So urgent was the necessity 
that, in July, 1856, Professor Blake resigned the Chair of 




BENJAMIN W. McDONNOLD, LL.D. 
President, 1866-1873 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 81 

Mathematics, for an agency to collect funds for the exten- 
sion of the University buildings; and Professor Stewart 
was again called to that department. Professor Blake had 
been in the field nine months, and had succeeded in raising 
about $12,000, when he was called to take the pastoral 
charge of the church in Lebanon. 

"The Board of Trustees, in July last (18 58), resolved to 
add two spacious wings to the present buildings. The 
work has been commenced, and will be prosecuted to com- 
pletion. When completed, the buildings will be sufiScient- 
ly ample for the accommodation of six hundred students. 
And should the increase continue in the future, as it has 
in the past, it will reach that number within two years. 
The prosperity of the institution has no parallel in the 
history of the institutions of this country." 

The larger part of the money raised for the purpose 
of adding the two large wings to the University building 
was contributed by the citizens of Lebanon. Throughout 
the history of the University the citizens of Lebanon have 
made the main contribution to the erection of buildings. 
The money raised in the field (in Lebanon and elsewhere) 
by Dr. T. C. Blake, above referred to, was secured largely 
through the sale of current scholarships of $500 each, to 
be paid for in tuition, which in the last analysis was paid 
by the professors of the institution. 

Prior to the Civil War, the largest attendance of stu- 
dents was in 18 5 8. The attendance in the various de- 
partments was as follows: In the College of Arts, 165; 
Preparatory School, 117; Theological School (exclusively), 
5; Engineering School, 6; Law School, 188. Total attend- 
ance for the year, 481. There were thirty-three students 



82 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

taking courses in both the Theological School and the Col- 
lege of Arts. The students in the College of Arts were 
distributed as follows: Freshmen, 41; Sophomores, 52; 
Juniors, 42; and Seniors, 30. It was during this same 
year (18 58) that the Theological School had its first grad- 
uating class, which was four in number. Cumberland 
University conferred upon them the degree of Bachelor 
of Divinity. The endowment of the Theological School 
consisted of subscriptions and notes, many of which were 
never paid, and the rest were swept away by the Civil 
War. 

Cumberland University was in the path of the devastat- 
ing armies of the Civil "War. Buildings, endowment, li- 
braries, apparatus, and other equipment were all swept 
away. Those who loved the institution most were made 
painfully aware of the meaning of war, although they 
had taken what steps they could to prevent it. They did 
not all fight on the same side. As a rule, however, they 
respected each other. The Christian denomination with 
which the institution was connected was not rent asunder 
by the four years of terrible strife as were most other 
religious bodies, a fact which brings some comfort and 
satisfaction to those who are espousing the cause of Cum- 
berland University today. 

When the Civil War began in April, 1861, the work 
of the Law School was at once discontinued, and most of 
the law students enlisted in one army or the other, going 
generally with the states from which they came to Cum- 
berland. Some of them became distinguished leaders. The 
College of Arts continued its work in a more or less 
crippled condition until the fall of Fort Donelson, about 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 83 

the last of February, 1862. The College classes were 
taught by President Anderson, Dr. Richard Beard, and 
Professor Andrew Hays Buchanan. During the rest of 
the period of the Civil War, or at least a part of it. Dr. 
Anderson taught a private school. 

One of the students in the College of Arts from Sep- 
tember, 1861, to March 1, 1862, was John WiUiam Bur- 
gess, whose father was a planter near Pulaski, Tennessee. 
This young man espoused the Union cause, and became 
a soldier and an officer in the Federal Army, spending 
much of the time of the war in Nashville. He later be- 
came a graduate of Amherst College; a Professor in Knox 
College; a student in the University of Gottingen and Ber- 
lin, in Germany; a professor of history in Amherst; a 
dean of the School of Political Science in Columbia Uni- 
versity; a visiting professor in a university in Austria. 
In the February and March, 1933, numbers of the Atlan- 
tic, two articles were published on "A Civil War Boyhood" 
from the pen of Professor Burgess, who died early in 1931. 
From the first one of these articles a few sentences are 
quoted here which will illustrate, from one point of view, 
the period which we are here considering: 

"It was in the midst of such a topsy-turvy period that I 
entered college. The institution to which I was sent was 
Cumberland University at Lebanon, Wilson County, Ten- 
nessee. The University consisted then of a Preparatory 
School, a College of Arts and Letters, a Law School, and a 
Divinity School. 

"Sometime in early September of 1861, I was fitted out 
with a trunk of clothing, a box of books, a box of tallow 
candles, and a Negro boy, and started from my home in 



84 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Giles County to the University at Lebanon, some eighty 
miles away. A lumbering family coach, drawn by two 
stout horses and guided by a Negro driver, conveyed me 
and my boy, together with all my other paraphernalia, to 
my destination. I was accompanied by a man named "Wil- 
liam Lewis, who was acquainted with the route and with 
a number of people residing along it at whose houses we 
might find lodging, for it was a three-day journey by the 
means of travel at my command. It was a monotonous 
and uneventful ride through the county towns of Lewis- 
burg, Shelbyville, and Murfreesboro, and in the evening 
of the third day we arrived at our destination. 

"Lebanon was at that time one of the prettiest of Ten- 
nessee's county towns, situated in a rolling limestone re- 
gion with, consequently, snow-white roads and evergreen 
forests, and built regularly around a square, in the center 
stood the Courthouse. The business houses, law offices, 
doctors' offices, and hotel occupied the four sides of the 
square, and the dwellings faced the streets radiating there- 
from. The University stood upon an eminence in the 
southern portion of the town, and consisted of a large 
brick building devoted entirely to the purposes of instruc- 
tion. There were no dormitories; the students boarded 
with the families in the town. . . . 

"The institution was presided over at that time by the 
Reverend Thomas Anderson, who in the absence of the 
Professor of Latin, taught that subject. . . . The Reverend 
Dr. Beard, professor in the Divinity School, taught Greek 
in the absence of the Professor of Greek, and the noted 
Professor of Mathematics, Mr. Buchanan, was still at his 
post. The School of Law had suspended operations, since 



THE SECOND PRESIDENT, DR. T. C. ANDERSON 8 5 

most of the students in this school had already enlisted in 
the Confederate Army. President Anderson taught logic, 
rhetoric, and philosophy. These subjects composed the 
entire curriculum of the college [at that time]. 

"I soon made acquaintances among the leading families 
of the town — the Cahals, the Caruthers', the Greens, the 
Stokes', the McDonnolds, the Hattons, and others. It was 
a very cultivated society of old Whig families, and, while 
yielding to the Secessionist majority and government, was 
Unionist in spirit. The jurists — Cahal, Caruthers, and 
Green — were old men, and this fact somewhat removed 
them from the political arena and sheltered them from 
attack. 

"My period of study at Cumberland University was 
profitable, and my life in Lebanon was all too short. It 
extended only from the beginning of September, 1861, 
to the end of February, 1862. On the last Sunday evening 
of this latter month, I was sitting in the Prebyterian 
Church listening to a sermon from the pastor. Dr. Mc- 
Donnold, when the clatter of horses' hoofs was heard out- 
side, and a moment afterward the rider appeared, spurred 
and booted, in the aisle of the church and strode up to 
the pulpit. He handed the pastor a slip of paper and then 
retired. With ashen cheeks and trembling lips the pastor 
read the contents of the message to the waiting and ex- 
pectant congregation. 'Mill Springs is lost. Fort Donel- 
son has fallen. The remainder of Crittenden's army is re- 
treating toward Lebanon, and the Bowling Green forces 
are retiring upon Nashville.' This meant that the first 
line of the Confederate armies in the west had been driven 



86 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

back on both flanks, and that the center was rapidly re- 
treating in order to save itself from capture." 

When Burgess was a student in Cumberland, the court 
house was on the south side of the public square. One of 
his Fraternity brothers was R. L. C. White, who wrote sev- 
eral interesting letters during the Civil War to another 
Fraternity brother, Frank Pate, of Concord, Tennessee, but 
who was then a soldier in the Southern army. These letters 
are printed in the Beta Theta Pi magazine, February, 1935. 
To indicate White's feelings at the time, a few sentences 
may be quoted from the letters: 

"The mournful tidings of the fall of Fort Henry, which 
burst upon us like a thunder-clap from a clear sky, are fol- 
lowed, as I write [February 9, 1862], by the painful rumor 
of the capture of Florence and Tuscumbia, Alabama. But 
the triumph of the enemy can be but temporary. We know 
the God of justice and right, the great Captain-General of 
the Universe sides with the Stars and Bars; we know our 
soldiers are 'true and tried,' and our generals are brave and 
skilful; we know we are in the right. . . . And we know, 
finally, that we are battling in the cause of truth, while our 
foes are the blind and infatuated worshippers of the most 
stupendous 'Error' of this or any age." In another letter, 
March 17, 1862, he says: "Although the Feds, have been in 
possession of Nashville and Gallatin for three weeks, we 
Lebanonians have not yet been molested. We 'are expect- 
ing every minute to be our next,' however. . . . 'Cumb. 
Univ.' has 'played out,' finally. The Prep, still continues 
under Grannis and Old Tom." Later, R. L. C. White 
became the Supreme Keeper of Records and Seal, Knights 
of Pythias of the World. 



Chapter V 
PRESIDENT ANDERSON'S CLOSING YEARS 

Cumberland University was one of the chief suffer- 
ers from the havoc made by the Civil War. From Dr. J. 
Berrien Lindsley, of Nashville, from Dr. B. W. McDon- 
nold, the third President of the University, and from 
others, a few facts have been gathered together here. For 
the most part the language is that of the persons men- 
tioned. 

When the survivors of the war got back to Lebanon, 
the town was a picture of desolation. The fences were 
gone, the shade-trees had been cut down, houses had been 
burned, and the people were impoverished and heart- 
broken. The outlook for starting the work of the Uni- 
versity again was somewhat gloomy. Some of the Trus- 
tees and other friends said the situation was hopeless. The 
University, which had enjoyed considerable prosperity be- 
fore the dreadful conflict, had less than nothing left. One 
of the best educational buildings in the entire South, with 
all its contents, had been burned to the ground in 1863, 
the blame for which rests on soldiers of both armies. Four 
years before this disaster, the two spacious wings had been 
added to the building. The building of 1844 was 110 
feet long and 40 feet wide, and three stories high. The 
additions of 18 59 included, besides the wings, a tower and 
a colonnade in front; and the completed building was more 

(87) 



88 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

than three times as large as the building first erected. A 
part of the building was used as a dormitory. There was 
a large chapel on the first floor. The chapel was used for 
student assemblies and commencement occasions. There 
are those still living who attended commencement recep- 
tions in this building; a building which Dr. Anderson 
says was large enough to accommodate 600 students. The 
classes of the College of Arts, the Law School, and the 
Theological School were taught here, and in this building 
were also the library, the laboratories and the museum. 
The loss of this structure, so well adapted to educational 
uses, was a great blow to the life of the institution. 

A large part of the money used in the construction of 
the building had been secured on the scholarship plan. 
For example, five hundred dollars entitled the donor to a 
fifteen-year tuition scholarship. The calculation was that 
the rent of the rooms in the dormitory section would pay 
the expense incurred in granting tuition to the users of the 
scholarships. The money rent would seem to be the same 
as interest on endowment. But when the building was 
burned, this source of revenue was lost. The same must 
be said, however, concerning all endowment notes and 
other investments, about $150,000 in all, which were like- 
wise swept away by the war. To make matters worse, 
some of the scholarships hung over the institution after 
the war. 

There were other debts, too, of a more pressing char- 
acter. The roof on the burned building was still not paid 
for. Old claims, whose names were legion, began to come 
to hand the very moment the attempt was made to re- 
organize. These all amounted to several thousand dollars. 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 89 

All of tliem were paid off finally. The funds for this pur- 
pose were obtained chiefly by dividing the beautiful cam- 
pus into building lots and selling them. 

Nearly all the institution had after the war was its name 
and its debts. In the fall of 1865, in less than six months 
after the close of the war, President T. C. Anderson and 
Dr. Richard Beard reopened the work of the College of 
Arts in a rented hall, which was bare and dreary. The 
number of students is not now known, but there were not 
many. No catalogue was printed in that year. The two 
law professors, Nathan Green, Sr., and his son, Nathan 
Green, Jr., met one day in the summer of 1865 to con- 
sider the advisability of reopening the Law School. The 
father doubted the wisdom of it. The son was anxious to 
make the effort. The decision was in favor of reopening 
the school. Judge Nathan Green, Sr., passed away March 
30, 1866. There were only twenty students in the Law 
School the first session, and forty-three for the year. Their 
names are printed in the catalogue of 1866-67. Most of 
them had seen service in the late war. The tragedy of the 
situation must have been seen when the number was com- 
pared with 188, the number of law students in 18 5 8. 

President T. C. Anderson, feeling that he should give 
way to a younger man, resigned August 24, 1866. A 
few months later, Rev. B. W. McDonnold, D.D., was 
called to take the place so ably filled by Dr. Anderson. 
During the twenty-two years in which Dr. Anderson 
served as president, he also served as professor of Belles 
Lettres and Mental and Moral Philosophy. 

Dr. B. W. McDonnold had a profound regard for his 
predecessor. It was a worthy tribute which he paid: 



90 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

"President Anderson's administration was long and pros- 
perous. A man of deep piety whose heart was set far 
more on the kingdom of Christ than on any Hterary fame 
or interest, he struggled nobly to train up a cultivated 
army of Christian soldiers. Broken down in health before 
he became connected with the institution and continuing 
an invalid during all the remainder of his life, he yet man- 
aged to do a noble service for his church in the long 
years he spent as President of the University." 

Dr. Stanford G. Burney, a professor in the University 
from 1877 to 1893, and who was well acquainted with 
President Anderson for a period of forty years, said at 
the time of his death in 1882: 

"President Anderson was a man of positive character, 
of bold and striking mental qualities. His conceptions 
were clear and well defined, his convictions strong, and his 
feelings correspondingly deep. . . . What he believed to 
be his duty was his rule of conduct. ... As a consequence 
of his clear convictions and deep feeling, he displayed great 
energy in every department of labor. His will power was 
very great. . . . He did not readily yield to discouragements 
or unfavorable circumstances. Obstacles only prompted 
to more vigorous eflFort." 

Dr. M. B. Dewitt, a prominent minister and editor of 
the church and father of Judge John H. Dewitt, of the 
Tennessee Court of Appeals, was a student under Presi- 
dent Anderson, and paid him this tribute in 1882: 

"President Anderson was strong in faith, firm and clear 
in purpose, broad and liberal in views, fixed and resolute 
in will, and finely adapted in qualities of character and 
culture for the high and responsible station to which he 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 91 

was called. His administrative power was remarkable, as 
the experiment proved; and under his genial, paternal and 
dignified, yet wise and steady exercise of authority, the 
institution soon assumed and maintained with ever increas- 
ing volume a tone of real life which gave it in a few years 
a commanding place among the great schools of the coun- 
try. He had the fortunate faculty of creating due respect 
and inspiring sincere love in the hearts of the youth who 
flocked in enlarging numbers to the halls of the University. 
His insight into human nature was something very unus- 
ual. He read men's characters almost by intuition, and was 
rarely mistaken in his judgment. His common sense was 
a distinguishing characteristic in every department of life, 
and as an adviser he was without a superior. He knew 
how to stir the better elements in a boy's soul and to de- 
velop the finer features of manhood. As a rule, if he 
could not reach and help a difficult case, it was useless for 
his associates to try." Dr. Dewitt spoke of President An- 
derson as "the father of the Theological School." 

Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, of NashviUe, and brother of 
Dr. N. Lawrence Lindsley (for several years a professor 
in Cumberland University), wrote in 1876 the following 
tribute to President Anderson: 

"His course was distinguished by a genial, magnani- 
mous, liberal and Christian view of his great responsi- 
bilities and duties. He was pre-eminently noted for prac- 
tical wisdom in dealing with all the interests of the Uni- 
versity, and common sense was one of his peculiar char- 
acteristics in all matters of counsel, whether public or 
private. True to the highest ideal of Christian princi- 
ple, he never deviated from a conscientious discharge of 



92 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

duty on all occasions, but the nobility of his nature kept 
him far above the narrowness of bigotry, or the petty 
prejudices of party. Tennessee never gave birth to a no- 
bler son, Cumberland University never had a more faith- 
ful servant. His domestic life was as beautiful in its sim- 
plicity and easy dignity, as real and firm in its purity of 
character, as consistent in its Christianity, as his public ca- 
reer was honorable in its conduct and commanding in its 
influence." 

After his retirement as President of the University, he 
was made Secretary of the Board of Missions, still located in 
Lebanon. He remained in this position until the Board 
was removed to St. Louis, where it was consolidated with 
two other boards of like character. He remained in Leb- 
anon until his death, which occurred February 3, 1882. 
His daughter, Miss Amanda Anderson, was a woman of 
education and culture, and a much beloved teacher in 
Lebanon for forty years or more. 

On May 31, 1882, in Caruthers Hall, several addresses 
were delivered as a tribute to Dr. Anderson's memory. 
The speakers were his former students, as were many of 
the alumni who were present in the large audience of citi- 
zens and University people, in whose esteem Dr. Anderson 
held such a large place.^ 

Dr. J. C. Provine, for many years President of the 
Board of Publication, Nashville, said: 

"He studied logic with Paul, rhetoric with David, his- 
tory with Moses and the evangelists, prophecy with Isaiah, 
the Christian graces with the beloved disciple, and the art 
of preaching with Him who spake as a man never did. . . . 

^ C. p. Quarterly Review, pp. 234-250. 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 93 

In his mind originated a plan for the first effort in his 
Church for a theological school. He introduced the im- 
portant enterprise by voluntarily, without compensation, 
delivering lectures on pastoral theology, continuing them 
through a series of years, until a regular theological de- 
partment was established. It was my privilege to attend 
his lectures for two years or more, and I can truthfully 
say, for sound logic and practical usefulness I have never 
heard them excelled, either in the schools of our own or any 
other Church." 

Dr. C. H. Bell, President of the Board of Missions, St. 
Louis, regarded him as a genius: 

"With an aggressive mind and large amount of com- 
mon sense. President Anderson possessed admirable ad- 
ministrative qualities, becoming the chief officer of a young 
university struggling against many adverse influences. . . . 
We fondly cherish his memory, because he honored and 
made all the more honorable, through his genius and mag- 
nanimity, the grand old institution so dear to our hearts." 

Dr. J. M. Gill, President of the Assembly Board of 
Trustees, Elkton, Kentucky, remembered much to admire: 

"He impressed me as a man of great firmness and 
strength of will. ... In his firm, care-worn face there was 
always an expression of benevolence and good will. . . . 
As an instructor he had few equals." 

Dr. A. H. Buchanan, Professor of Mathematics, Cum- 
berland University, regarded him as a great leader: 

"As President of Cumberland University, he was uni- 
versally beloved by the faithful and diligent, the wayward 
and wild; and no student, long associated with him, could 
fail to receive impressions for good to last with his life. 



94 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Very few of us, perhaps, who were his students, will ever 
know how much of the little good that may be in our 
characters is due to his influence. In his daily contact with 
the student, the man's religion made you feel its reality; 
his interest in your success made you look to him as a 
father; his kindness made you suspect you were his favor- 
ite. Always rejoicing in your success, sympathizing in 
your difficulties and discouragements, and grieving for 
your waywardness, he had such a hold upon the hearts of 
all that they rarely ever saw any fault in him. . . . 

"No man ever did or perhaps ever will do more for his 
beloved institution, and the basis of that devotion to its 
interest was that it afforded him such a wide field of use- 
fulness in his Master's vineyard." 

President T. C. Anderson's efforts were much strength- 
ened by the able and distinguished members of his Facul- 
ty to whom references have been already made. A more 
detailed account of some of these is given here. 

Nathaniel Lawrence Lindsley, A.M., LL.D., friend and 
valued correspondent of Joseph E. Worcester, the lexicog- 
rapher, and of Edward Everett, the great orator, became 
Professor of Greek and Latin in Cumberland University, 
September 21, 1844, and served in this capacity until Oc- 
tober 13, 1849. He was born in Princeton, New Jersey, 
Septem.ber 11, 1816, being the son of a distinguished fa- 
ther, Philip Lindsley, D.D. Through the influence of 
President Andrew Jackson, a warm personal friend, young 
N. L. Lindsley received an appointment to the West Point 
Military Academy where he remained two years until his 
health failed. He was graduated from the University of 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 95 

Nashville with the A.B. degree in 1836, in the most bril- 
liant period of his father's career. 

In 1841 Dr. Lindsley married the daughter of Moses B. 
Stevens, and settled on a large estate near Lebanon, Ten- 
nessee. His greatest work was done for eager students in 
Cumberland University. The late Chancellor Green said 
of him: 

"He was in a marked degree without guile, bold, fear- 
less, determined." He was a devout and consistent church 
member, also a ruling elder, and was widely known 
through his highly prized articles in the leading church 
papers. He was also the founder of a noted school for 
young women, known as Greenwood Seminary, four miles 
east of Lebanon. In the standard work. Resources of Ten- 
nessee, Dr. Lindsley is referred to as one long recognized 
throughout the country as "Tennessee's great educator and 
scholar." 

During the school year, January 22, 1845, Lieutenant 
Alexander Peter Stewart, Assistant Professor of Mathe- 
matics in the Military Academy at "West Point, was elect- 
ed Professor of Mathematics and continued as such until 
October 1, 1849, when he resigned. He served in this 
capacity again from April 3, 18 50, to August 2, 18 54, and 
from June 28, 18 56, to September 2, 1869. He was of- 
fered on one or more occasions the presidency of the Uni- 
versity. In 1869 he went into business in St. Louis. In 
1874 he became the President of the University of Missis- 
sippi. He was one of the generals of the Southern Con- 
federacy, one of the ablest under Joseph E. Johnston, so 
the latter said. He was a ruling elder, an active church 
worker, and a man of the deepest piety. Prior to the Civil 



96 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

"War, in 1856, according to good authority, he organized 
in Cumberland University what has been called "the first 
College Y. M. C. A.," and he was the first president of 
the same. 

Alexander Peter Stewart was born October 2, 1821, at 
Rogersville, Tennessee. His first schooling was received 
from a revolutionary soldier, a Mr. Crawford, in the 
mountains of East Tennessee; in a classical school in Rog- 
ersville, Tennessee; in a school at Winchester, Tennessee; 
and at West Point. 

General Stewart entered the West Point Military Acad- 
emy in 183 8 as a cadet from Winchester, Tennessee. He 
was graduated in 1842 in the same class with Generals 
Rosecrans, Pope, and Longstreet. During the Civil War he 
was made Brigadier General, November 8, 1861; Major 
General, June 2, 1863; and Lieutenant General, June 23, 
1864. In 1890 the United States Congress passed an act 
to make a National Park of the battlefields around Chatta- 
nooga and Chickamauga. General Stewart was one of the 
commissioners appointed to take charge of this work, 
which position he held until his death in 1908. 

During his connection with Cumberland University, 
General Stewart had a wonderful hold upon his students. 
His influence was always positive, good and lasting. He 
was a model to his students in industry, thoroughness, sys- 
tem, wisdom, and piety. General Stewart and Dr. N. L. 
Lindsley, two of the most distinguished teachers which 
the College of Arts ever had, led the way in giving Cum- 
berland University a recognition which few Southern in- 
stitutions could claim. 

Professor William Mariner, A.M., became Assistant Pro- 




NATHAN GREEN, JR., LL.D. 

Chancellor, 1873-1902 

Law Professor, 1856-1919 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 97 

fessor of Languages, December 31, 1847, and continued in 
the department until October 1, 1849, when he accepted 
the Chair of Mathematics, a position which he held until 
July 12, 18 50. On this last date he became Professor of 
Ancient Langauges, in which department he did the great- 
est work of his life. The present writer's teacher of Greek 
in Trinity University, Dr. S. T. Anderson, always said 
Professor Mariner was one of the greatest teachers he ever 
had and that this really great teacher extended wide the 
fame of Cumberland University. Professor Mariner was 
born in Portland, Maine; was educated in the public 
schools of Boston and in Harvard University; and later 
studied in Paris, France. He taught thirteen years in 
Cumberland University. From 1869 to 1873 he was one 
of the editors of the leading church paper. In 1876 he 
became Professor of Latin in Lincoln University, Lincoln, 
Illinois. He was a wonderful classical scholar, a great 
teacher, and an unusually industrious worker. He was an 
earnest Christian, and for many years taught a large class 
of young men in the Sunday School, besides being an elder 
in the church. 

James Merrill SaflFord, M.D., Ph.D., was the Professor 
of Chemistry and Geology in Cumberland University from 
1848 to 1873. He received this appointment on the strong 
recommendation of the famous scientist, Benjamin Silli- 
man. Dr. Safford was educated at Ohio University, under 
President William Holmes McGuffey, and at Yale College, 

Dr. Safford became State Geologist of Tennessee in 18 54 
and filled this oflEce for six years. His vacations only were 
devoted to this work. His "Geology of Tennessee," pub- 
lished by the State in 1869, received high praise from 



9S A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Dana, Hall, and others in this country and Europe, includ- 
ing F. H. Bradley and General E. Kirby Smith. In 1873 
he became a teacher in Ward Seminary and also in the 
University of Nashville, In 1875 he became a Professor 
of Mineralogy and Geology in Vanderbilt University. He 
married the widow of Dr. Benjamin R. Owen, one of 
Cumberland's original Trustees. He was an elder in the 
local church.^ 

Thaddeus C. Blake, D.D., was the Professor of Mathe- 
matics in Cumberland University from August 2, 18 54, 
to June 28, 1856. It was in 1846 that he became a stu- 
dent in the College of Arts, registering as a student from 
Fayetteville, Tennessee, In 1851 he received the A.B. de- 
gree, in a college class of eight, including "W. E. "Ward, 
H. B. Buckner, and S. T. Anderson. In his senior year he 
served as a tutor, and was regarded as one of the most bril- 
liant young men attending the institution during this pe- 
riod. When he came to Cumberland, he was a young man 
without means, and he let it be known that he was wilHng 
to work in order to pay his way through school. 

Judge Robert L. Caruthers became very much interest- 
ed in him, and took him into his own home. This kind- 
ness was never forgotten by the young man, as he often 
expressed his gratitude for this timely assistance. One of 
his books was dedicated to Judge Caruthers. From 1857 
to 1867 Dr. Blake was a member of the Board of Trustees, 
of which Board Judge Caruthers was the president. Also, 
Dr. Blake was Judge Caruthers' pastor at one time. Few 
men loved Cumberland University more than did Dr. 
Blake and Judge Caruthers. Both before and after the 

^ See Speer's Prominent Temtes^eanz, pp. 483-485. 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 99 

Civil War, Dr. Blake was quite successful in raising money 
for the institution; in 18 58, for the completion of the im- 
posing University building; after the Civil War, for build- 
ings, endowment, and current expenses. 

In 1874, Dr. Blake was made Moderator of the General 
Assembly of his Church. He was Stated Clerk of the 
same from 1883 to 1896. As a teacher of Mathematics, 
his methods were similar to those of General A. P. Stew- 
art, who preceded and followed him. His intellectual abil- 
ity and his high Christian character made him a much re- 
spected leader among men. His articles often appeared in 
the newspapers, and several books of a denominational 
character were written by him. He was born in Lincoln 
County, Tennessee, March 17, 1825, and died at his home 
in Nashville, February 9, 1896. 

One of his lifelong friends, Mr. Joseph W. Allen, of 
Nashville, a successful business man who lived formerly 
in New Orleans and in Lebanon, wrote a fine tribute of 
him soon after Dr. Blake's death. He said Dr. Blake never 
tired of telling of the beneficent influence of Judge Ca- 
ruthers and his wise counsels, and that his interests and 
love for Cumberland University were very great. Mr. 
Allen added: 

"If he had been a business man he would have been 
eminently successful, and would have accumulated a large 
fortune. His good judgment, his intuitive knowledge of 
men, his energy, industry, absolute honesty and sacred re- 
gard for truth, would have led to success in any occupa- 
tion. His courtesy and kind manners made friends wher- 
eever he went." 

An interesting letter from Daniel M. Grissom: 



100 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

"God bless the brave old University and all connected 
with it." This is the last sentence in a letter written to 
the present writer (at that time Alumni Secretary), Octo- 
ber 15, 1928, by Cumberland University's oldest former 
student at that time, Daniel Morrison Grissom, '50 College 
of Arts, Kirkwood, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. Mr. 
Grissom was born January 26, 1830, at Owensboro, Ken- 
tucky. Not long ago he passed way, being more than 
one hundred years of age. 

The greater part of his life, Mr. Grissom was a news- 
paper reporter or editor. He was first connected with the 
St. Louis Evening News, and later with the St. Louis Re- 
publican, the latter being a paper which was absorbed 
by the St. Louis Globe-Democrat. He v/as a student in 
Cumberland University, 1846-48. A few years ago there 
was a feature article about him filling a page in several 
of the great dailies of the country, in which he first gives 
a graphic account of the report which he made of the fa- 
mous Douglas and Lincoln Debate in Alton, Illinois, in 
1858, and then refers to his days in Cumberland Univer- 
sity as the happiest of his life. He remembers General A. 
P. Stewart, who was his teacher of Mathematics; Dr. F. R. 
Cossitt, a former president of the University; Governor 
James C. Jones and others whom he met in Lebanon. 

In the letter, above referred to, Mr. Grissom says: 
"When your letter of October 2 was brought to me, I 
glanced at it and saw the postmark 'Lebanon.' I cannot 
describe the thrill of mixed marvel, delight, and wonder 
that swept through me. After leaving college, without 
graduating, I kept up a correspondence for several years 
through several friends and Professor Stewart, who sent 



PRESIDENT Anderson's closing years 101 

me the catalogues for a time. But this stopped finally, 
and the brave and dear old town became all but forgotten. 
The most delightful path I have ever trod was that from 
Dr. Cossitt's residence, past Josiah McClain's, past General 
Robert L. Caruthers', and up to the college. Among 
those whom I was glad to meet every day, going and com- 
ing, were Robert Hatton, that brave and conscientious 
soldier who met his death in a Virginia battle in our Civil 
War; Benjamin and R. P. Decherd, Robert Green, and 
his brother, Nathan. . . . God bless the brave old Univer- 
sity and all connected with it." 

Vivid memories of a Los Angeles Alumnus: 
In a letter to Judge E. E. Beard in 1921, Mr. John Hyde 
Braly, '57 A.B., '74 A.M., Los Angeles, said: "I have be- 
fore me the Cumberland Alumnus of April, 1921. Yes- 
terday I looked through it again, and became much in- 
terested in the publication, and especially in the article 
entitled, 'Men Who Helped to Make Cumberland Univer- 
sity Famous,' by W. P. Bone. Nearly all the names men- 
tioned in that article are very familiar to me. I have seen, 
talked with, and was quite familiar with most of the men 
mentioned — David Lowry, Dr. Cossitt, Dr. T. C. Ander- 
son, and others. I spent one year in the family of Dr. An- 
derson, and one in the home of Professor Mariner. The 
faces and names are passing in review before my mind 
now; Abram and Robert Caruthers, the Greens, General 
Stewart, Professor SajSFord, and Professor Grannis. Henry 
Bone, who recently died in Texas, was one of my class- 
mates. He and I were rather particular friends. Nathan 
Green was a young law professor in those early days. I 
knew him quite well, and in recent years I corresponded 



102 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

with him. He was a marvelous man. His father, the 
dear old Judge Green, I regarded as one of the greatest men 
I ever had the pleasure of knowing. He was the type of 
Abraham Lincoln, fully as tall, but very much finer look- 
ing.' 



Chapter VI 
DR. B. W. McDONNOLD, THE THIRD PRESIDENT 

1866-73 

Benjamin W. McDonnold, D.D., LL.D., was elected 
President of the University near the close of the year, 
1866. Owing to ill health and the greatness of the task 
before him, President Anderson had resigned on August 
24, 1866, and the Board had accepted the resignation. 
The presidency was then offered to General A. P. Stewart, 
but this offer was declined by him, because he felt that his 
usefulness would be greater if his labors were devoted to 
some other task. 

In the summer of 1866, Dr. McDonnold, who in 1860 
was made Professor of Pastoral Theology in Cumberland 
University and who was during the early period of the 
Civil War pastor of the local Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, was recalled to Lebanon to teach mathematics in 
the College of Arts. So, when Dr. Anderson resigned, Dr. 
Richard Beard, Dr. McDonnold, and Julius Blau were left 
to carry on the work of the College of Arts. The Trus- 
tees, however, had recently employed Dr. T. C. Blake to 
raise a building fund, and he had been pushing that work 
with much energy and success. He was kind and generous 
enough to give Dr. McDonnold much assistance in ad- 
vertising the schools, in interesting fathers and mothers in 
the matter of sending their sons to Cumberland, and in 
providing the proper facihties for those students who 
came. These two devoted men worked long and late, and 

(103) 



104 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

were tireless in their labors. Dr. McDonnold ad- 
vanced his own money in order to get things done, and 
earned the gratitude of students and friends of the Uni- 
versity. The College of Arts matriculated one hundred 
and twenty students during that year. Much of this work 
was done before Dr. McDonnold became President, and 
when the institution was without a head. 

The friends of the University felt that Dr. McDonnold 
had come upon the scene for such a time as this, the period 
which came almost immediately after the ravages of the 
Civil War. He was born on a farm March 24, 1827, in 
Overton County, Tennessee, less than a hundred miles east 
of Lebanon. When six years of age he could repeat the 
Church Catechism; he began to prepare for the ministry 
in his twelfth year; became a candidate under the care of 
the presbytery when he was sixteen; and memorized the 
entire New Testament when he was seventeen. He studied 
by the light of the pine-knot, or while following the plow. 
After studying under Thomas Calhoun, of Wilson Coun- 
ty, and under David Cochrane, a distinguished classical 
teacher of West Tennessee, he became a student in Cum- 
berland College, Princeton, Kentucky, where he received 
the A.B. degree in 1849, seven years after the establish- 
ment of Cumberland University. After teaching mathe- 
matics in Bethel Seminary a year, he succeeded Dr. 
Herschel S. Porter as a pastor in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he remained only a short time. In 1852, he 
went back to Bethel and taught there again for several 
years. His work in Lebanon in 1860 and 1861 has al- 
ready been mentioned. During a part of the Civil War 
he served as a chaplain in the army. 




EDWARD EWINC BEARD, LL.D. 

Treasurer, 1873-1923 

Professor of Law, 1913-1923 




WILLIAM DUNCAN McLAUCHLIN, LL.D. 
Professor, Latin and Creek, 1870-1914 



DR. B. W. MCDONNOLD, THIRD PRESIDENT 105 

When Dr. McDonnold was recalled to Lebanon in the 
summer of 1866, he was thought of at first as a teacher 
only. But finally, after weeks of fruitless effort in the 
search for a president, the Trustees turned to Dr. McDon- 
nold, who was not only teaching in the College but was 
also serving as pastor of the local Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian Church. The pastoral relations continuing, the 
church paid the greater part of his salary. The Trustees 
were able to pay only about four hundred dollars for his 
services as President. "There was no endowment, and 
there was no money belonging to the institution," so one 
said who knew the facts. The Trustees, teachers, and 
other friends of the University were almost filled with de- 
spair. Some one, in writing too strongly of them, says: 
"They were stunned and bewildered, heartbroken and 
without hope." It is true all endowment and other money, 
all buildings, with their contents, and all real estate, were 
gone. Only debts remained. But the institution still 
lived in the hearts of men, and evidence of that is given 
here. 

It was about this time, that Dr. W. E. Ward, an alum- 
nus of the College of Arts, and later President of Ward 
Seminary, of Nashville, visited the ruins of the buildings de- 
stroyed by fire in 1863 and wrote on one of the columns still 
standing at the time the word ^'Kesurgam" (I will arise). 
He was voicing the faith in his own heart, and the incident 
gave birth to the watchword, "E Cineribus Resurgo" (I 
arise from the ashes). This Latin motto, coupled with a 
figure of the phoenix, the bird of immortality, was placed 
upon the seal of the University, where it still remains. 



106 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ever reminding the students who go out from the insti- 
tution of the immortal influence of their alma mater. 

While at first the situation was most discouraging and 
enough to try the heart of the strongest man, yet Presi- 
dent McDonnold and others cooperating with him, shared 
the hopeful spirit of Dr. W. E. Ward. The President did 
not eat idle bread, nor did he wait for someone else to pre- 
pare an easy place for him. He worked as a man of faith 
who had heard the call of God; enlisted the aid and coop- 
eration of a great many pastors and churches; and culti- 
vated the friendship of a great many people in a wide ter- 
ritory. Through his wise and energetic activities, the par- 
ents of many young men to be educated had their eyes 
turned toward Cumberland University. In the midst of 
the after-the-war confusion and desolation. Dr. T. C. 
Blake, '54 A.B., went out into the field and secured $30,- 
000 in notes and cash. 

But Dr. McDonnold had much more than a will to 
work. Men were attracted to him as soon as they heard 
him speak. He had a clear voice and very distinct enun- 
ciation. One easily understood and remembered what he 
said. His convictions easily became his hearers' convic- 
tions, so clear was the impression made, the late Chancel- 
lor Green tells us. Then, too, Dr. McDonnold was a man 
of extensive learning and a speaker of ability and persua- 
sive power. He sought in every way to qualify himself 
for his responsibility as an educator and for the office he 
occupied. He was satisfied with nothing less than the 
best in methods of education and in gathering funds for 
the institution. 

Chancellor Green once said that perhaps no one ever 



DR. B. W. MCDONNOLD, THIRD PRESIDENT 1 07 

connected with the University labored for its prosperity 
more than did Dr. McDonnold. He collected cash for 
running expenses; provided buildings for all departments; 
and put the entire institution in working order. In 1870- 
71, there were 33 5 students in attendance, and there was 
a good attendance also in the other years. In other ways 
also the institution was making substantial gains. 

The year 1866-67 was one of the most difficult years 
for the University as well as for the new president. It 
was more difficult than 1842, the year of the beginning, 
when it was much easier to secure gifts for salaries and 
building purposes. As to the Faculty for 1866-67, the 
catalogue shows that the President was also Professor of 
Mental and Moral Sciences; Dr. Richard Beard, Professor 
of Latin and Greek; Julius Blau, Professor of Modern 
Languages; A. H. Buchanan, Professor of Mathematics; 
Eli G. Burney, Assistant Professor of Latin and Greek; 
H. S. Kennedy, Principal of the Preparatory School; New- 
ton Jefferson Finney, teacher in the Preparatory School; 
T. M. Thurman, tutor. N. Green, Jr. and Henry Cooper 
were Professors in the Law School. Dr. Richard Beard 
taught the six students in the Theological School. Profes- 
sor A. H. Buchanan evidently declined to serve, for, after 
the close of the war, he was teaching in Arkansas until 
1869. After the printing of the catalogue of 1866-67, 
a printed slip was inserted to the effect that General A. P. 
Stewart had been added to the Faculty, and would teach 
Mathematics, and also that Professor J, M. Safford would 
teach the Natural Sciences. Professor Stewart remained 
with the Faculty for two years, or until the summer of 
1869, when Professor A. H. Buchanan came back to the 



108 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

University to become Professor of Mathematics. Judge 
R. L. Caruthers, who was always ready to help in the time 
of need, guaranteed the payment of Professor Buchanan's 
salary. General Stewart, on retirement from the work of 
the University, went to St. Louis to live. Later, he be- 
came the President of the University of Mississippi. 

In President McDonnold's administration, no printed 
code of by-laws was used, such as had been used previously. 
The students were required, however, to be gentlemen and 
prepared to recite. When a student was not doing well, 
the parent was advised to withdraw him from the institu- 
tion. 

The necessity of securing permanent endowment was 
not forgotten. Some gifts for this purpose were secured. 
But they were not many, nor were they ever very large. 
The largest gift was from the Finley estate in 1869 and 
amounting to about $15,000. In 1858 Judge Ephraim 
Ewing, of Russellville, Kentucky, made a donation of a 
piece of property in Chicago to the University for the 
Theological School. It was a dead expense to the Univer- 
sity until it was sold during President McDonnold's ad- 
ministration. The proceeds of the sale amounted to $12,- 
000. When the property was first donated, the Ewing 
Professorship was established in the Theological School. 

About the time when Dr. McDonnold became president, 
the Trustees decided to buy, for $16,000, the Abram 
Caruthers property (later known as Divinity Hall) con- 
sisting of a large brick residence and sixty acres. They 
made a first payment, using a part of the building fund 
raised by Dr. T. C. Blake. This created some dissatisfac- 
tion, for the College of Arts was still without a permanent 



DR. B. W. MCDONNOLD, THIRD PRESIDENT 109 

home. The Trustees then turned the property over to the 
College of Arts for its use. But there was still a mortgage 
on the property; and when it was about to be sold for 
$8,760, the balance due, the property was bought for the 
Theological School with $8,760 of the money received for 
the sale of the Ewing property in Chicago. The building, 
known as Divinity Hall, was used by the Theological 
School until 1896. 

Besides the subscriptions made in Lebanon for the cur- 
rent expenses of the University, President McDonnold 
raised $2,000 or more each year by a plan called by him 
"Cash Endowment," which was nothing more than annual 
subscriptions for current expenses. It was only a tem- 
porary measure, but was nevertheless a m.eans of carrying 
the institution through a difficult period. It was during 
this period that the University was hurt by an insurance 
scheme, known as the "Ball Endowment," a plan of life 
insurance, taken for the benefit of the University, a total 
of $169,000, to be paid in ten years. By this plan some of 
the good friends of the University, one hundred and fifty, 
or more, lost some of their money, through the insolvency 
of an insurance company. The plan was opposed by 
President McDonnold, and also by Judge Nathan Green, 
Jr., who became his successor. 

In 1869 Dr. George Tucker Stainback, a friend of the 
University and a pastor at Columbus, Mississippi, visited 
one of his parishioners. Col, Abram Murdock, and se- 
cured his promise to donate to the University the library of 
his father. Dr. James Murdock, formerly a Professor of 
Oriental Languages in Yale College. It was a library of 
two thousand volumes, and some of them were of ancient 



110 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

date and rare value. The gift was made through the 
General Assembly of the Church, and the Theological 
School of the University established the Murdock Profes- 
sorship of Church History in recognition of the gift. In 
fact, the gift was made on the condition that the pro- 
fessorship be established. It was in this period also that 
the libraries of Dr. A. M, Bryan, Dr. G. L. Winchester, 
and Dr. J. C. Bowdon were presented to the institution. 
In the meantime, Dr. L. C. Ransom, of Memphis, Tennes- 
see, and Dr. J, S. Grider, of Kentucky, were doing some 
effective work in securing funds for the University. 

In July, 1871, the Medical College of Memphis, which 
had been operating under its original charter for nineteen 
years, at this time in a building of its own, donated by the 
City of Memphis, became the Medical Department of 
Cumberland University. It had been reorganized in 1868, 
after some interruptions made by the Civil War. When 
it became a Department of Cumberland, it had only a 
contractual relation with the University. It had a faculty 
of nine professors, with Alexander Erskine, M.D., as Dean. 
It had a separate Board of Trustees, twelve in number, 
with Hon. Henry G. Smith as President. In 1871-72 
there were twenty-six students, from the six states of 
Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and 
Virginia, with ten graduates for the year. The connec- 
tion of this Medical School with Cumberland University 
continued for two years, 1871-73, when it was terminated 
by mutual consent. 

After the Civil War, it was more difficult than ever for 
candidates for the ministry to secure sufficient means to at- 
tend either the College of Arts or the Theological School. 



DR. B. W. MCDONNOLD, THIRD PRESIDENT 111 

Concerning this difficulty and how it was met, President 
McDonnold said: 

"The citizens of Lebanon were no longer able to give 
free board to candidates for the ministry. Dr. T. C. 
Blake suggested the establishment of a camp for them 
similar to the quarters or barracks occupied by soldiers. 
Provisions were solicited from the surrounding churches. 
As many of the probationers had been soldiers in the war, 
this plan was the more readily adopted. A former board- 
ing house, with several small buildings surrounding it, was 
purchased for $5,000 and named Camp Blake. The money 
to pay for this property was secured, and an ample supply 
of provisions was also obtained." 

This arrangement continued for a period of five years, 
and each year there were from fifty to seventy young men 
who were provided for in this way. It had the general 
supervision of Nathan Green, Jr., whose sympathy for such 
young men was unfailing. 

The physical strength of President McDonnold was not 
equal to the strain he was under for seven years of arduous 
toil. Breaking in health, he resigned his office in 1873, but 
continued to reside in Lebanon. After a period of rest He 
gave himself to evangelistic work in Texas, California, and 
Pennsylvania. The present writer, during his student 
days, 1884-86, heard him preach and lecture on several 
occasions. By his contemporaries he was looked upon as a 
distinguished scholar, educator, preacher, evangelist, and 
writer. At the request of the Church Board of Publication 
he accepted the task of writing a History of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church. He died at his home on North 
Cumberland Street in Lebanon February 27, 1889. 



Chapter VII 

THE FOURTH HEAD OF THE UNIVERSITY, 
CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 

1873-1902 

On August 20, 1873, the Trustees, having accepted the 
resignation of President B. W. McDonnold, elected Judge 
Nathan Green, Jr., a Professor in the Law School, as the 
fourth head of the University. The distinguished gentle- 
man who so ably held this place for thirty years or more 
possessed rare qualities of leadership. He had a command- 
ing presence and was much revered for his princely Chris- 
tian character. His faith, courage, and high purpose in- 
spired men with confidence, called forth the best in others, 
and helped to mold diverse elements into a splendid unity. 
It was with a new outlook for the University that the Trus- 
tees elected him to his position. By way of recognizing 
this fact, they took ofl&cial action, and called him Chan- 
cellor rather than President. From the beginning in 1842 
he had been connected with the University, in one way or 
another. At the time of his death, February 18, 1919, it 
was remembered that he had been connected with the Uni- 
versity, as student, trustee, professor, or Chancellor, for 
seventy-seven years. One could well say that he lived his 
whole life for Cumberland.^ 

Chancellor Green, son of Nathan and Mary Green, was 
born at "Winchester, Tennessee, February 19, 1827. He 
registered as a student from Winchester in 1842; received 
the A.B. degree in 1845 and the LL.B. degree in 1849. 

^ See Speer's Prominent Tennesseans, pp. 435-437. 

(112) 




ROBERT VERRELL FOSTER, LL.D. 
Professor of Theology, 1877-1909 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 113 

From 1850 to 1856 he served as Trustee. In 18 56 he was 
made a Professor of Law, which position he occupied until 
the day of his death. At the latter date he was referred to 
as the oldest alumnus. His term of service as Chancellor 
extended from 1873 to 1902, at which time he resigned 
that oflfice. He acted as President, however, three years 
more, 1906-09. For twenty years he served as Dean of the 
Law School, and for twenty years as President of the 
Alumni Association. While Chancellor he added much 
strength to the University in all its departments, especially 
in the Theological School, which perhaps attained its 
greatest development during his administration. 

When Chancellor Green assumed his oflSce in September, 
1873, the Faculty of the College of Arts was as follows: 
A. H. Buchanan, A.M., Professor of Mathematics; William 
H. Darnell, A.M., Professor of Belles-Lettres and Mental 
and Moral Science; William Duncan McLaughlin, A.M., 
Professor of Latin and Greek; John I. D. Hinds, A.M., 
Professor of Physical Science, French, and German. The 
Law Professors were Nathan Green, Jr., and Robert L. 
Caruthers. The Theological Professors were Richard 
Beard, D.D., Systematic Theology, and Rev. William H. 
Darnall, A.M., Church History. William J. Grannis, 
A.M., was the Principal of the Preparatory School. The 
Business College and Telegraph Institute, organized in 
September, 1873, had the following teachers: Rev. Thomas 
Toney, A.M.; J. D. Cunningham, M.Acct.; W. Howard 
Sutton, M.Acct.; Frank Goodman, M.Acct.; and Lizzie A. 
Schaut. Dr. J. M. Safford's place in the College of Arts 
had been taken by J. I. D. Hinds. D. S. Bodenhamer and 
H. T. Norman had retired from the Preparatory Faculty, 



114 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

and William J. Grannis had returned to the place he had 
occupied before the Civil War. The Medical Department 
had been discontinued (1873). 

The Trustees at this time were: Robert L. Caruthers, 
President; Joseph S. McClain, Secretary; Andrew B. Mar- 
tin, Treasurer; Judge William H. Williamson, Edward I. 
Golladay, William H. Darnall, and Haywood Y. Riddle. 
James H. Britton was the Faculty Treasurer, and J. I. D. 
Hinds was the Librarian. There were students as follows: 
Freshmen, 16; Sophomores, 39; Juniors, 21; Seniors, 18; 
Preparatory, 70; Law, 87; Engineering, 1; Theological, 
12; Business College, 96. Total, 360. There were forty- 
seven candidates for the ministry. At the close of the 
year. May 30, 1874, S. P. Chestnut, D.D., of Nashville, 
preached the Commencement sermon; on Wednesday eve- 
ning, June 3, Major (later. Chief Justice) W. D. Beard, of 
Memphis, delivered the Commencement address; and on 
the evening of June 4, Judge W. H. Williamson, of Leb- 
anon, delivered the address to the Alumni Society. It may 
be observed that this is almost the first mention of an 
alumni organization. It existed chiefly in name only. 

Not all the work of a modern executive of a college or 
university was undertaken by Chancellor Green. His 
salary as an executive was small. Nothing was allowed to 
interfere with his duties or efficiency as a Professor of Law. 
On the other hand, he was the presiding officer always, 
and his supervision was over all the departments. His in- 
fluence was felt on all sides: in the Faculty m.eetings, which 
were comparatively frequent; in the meetings of the 
Board of Trustees, where his counsel was highly valued; 
and before the public, which always revered him. In the 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 115 

clearest and most charming English he could interpret the 
University to any company anywhere who might come 
under the sound of his voice. If the University ever need- 
ed legal counsel, it had the ablest that could be secured: 
Chancellor Green, Judge Robert L. Caruthers, Dr. Andrew 
B. Martin, and Judge Edward Ewing Beard. 

All the Departments of the University had in him an 
influential friend. The Theological School grew most of 
all. Prior to the Civil War, and for a few years after it, 
the attendance in that School was small and the outlook 
was discouraging, according to the annual statements in 
the catalogues and in Dr. Richard Beard's account in his 
"Fifty Years as a Teacher." In 1873 Dr. William H. 
Darnall, pastor of a local church, was made Acting Pro- 
fessor of Church History. On September 30, 1877, Dr. 
S. G. Burney, R. V. Foster, A.M., and W. H. Darnall, 
A.M., were inaugurated as Professors in the Theological 
School. Dr. Darnall resigned his position at the end of 
one year, 1877-78. Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick, the pastor of a 
church in Nashville, was elected in 1880 to take his place. 
In 1893 Dr. J. M. Hubbert, another Nashville pastor, was 
elected Dean and Professor of Pastoral Theology. Three 
additional professors were added in 1894. 

In 1893 the following Deans were elected: Dr. J. M. 
Hubbert, Dean of the Theological School; Dr. J. I. D. 
Hinds, Dean of the College of Arts; and Judge Nathan 
Green, Dean of the Law School. Courses in all Depart- 
ments were revised and strengthened. It will thus be seen 
that Chancellor Green had able assistance in carrying on 
the work of the University. Prof. Andrew Hays Buch- 
anan was gaining great fame as one of the leading mathe- 



116 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

maticians of the entire country, and especially in his work 
in the Geodetic Survey of Tennessee. Dr. Jesse S. Grider, 
a former student, Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick, and Rev. E. J. 
McCroskey, also a former student, did some valiant service 
in raising funds for the University in its time of need. 
Nor should it be forgotten that in 1873, soon after Judge 
Green became Chancellor, Judge Robert L. Caruthers, the 
University's friend in every time of need, bought for 
$10,000 the Corona Institute property on West Main Street, 
and presented it to the University for the use of the Col- 
lege of Arts. This building had been the home of a col- 
lege for young women, of which institution Dr. David C. 
Kelley, '52 A.B., was the president. This building was the 
home of the College of Arts from 1873 to 1896, when 
this College was removed to the Memorial Hall, on the 
main campus. 

Following in the footsteps of his illustrious father. 
Chancellor Green made the religion of the Man of Galilee 
a matter of the first importance in his life. He was a 
ruling elder in the local church for sixty-five years and a 
man of the highest integrity, always maintaining an un- 
blemished character. Only a short time before his death 
he delivered his two most famous lectures. One was on 
the "Bible" and the other on "There Are Others." The 
latter was based on the Sermon on the Mount and other 
social teachings of Jesus and the apostles. His own life 
had much to do with shaping the lives of the students of 
the University, whether in the Law School, the Theological 
School, or the College of Arts. For thirty years or more 
he was the leader of the choir in the Presbyterian Church. 
He was a man of dignity and much culture, had fine 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 117 

musical tastes, and was always a regular attendant at 
church, Sunday school, and prayer meeting. During all 
his public life he was a teacher in the Sunday school. His 
voice was frequently heard in prayer meetings, board meet- 
ings, and other church meetings. It was not a mere for- 
mality, but a conscientious habit, to attend two church 
services on Sunday. The sick were never forgotten by 
him. An ardent friend was he of ministers of religion of 
all churches, and always one of the most liberal supporters 
of the church and worthy causes. Hundreds of students 
were known to say that the greatest contribution to their 
lives came from the notable example of Chancellor Green 
in his religious life. 

As a teacher of the law, he had no superior on American 
soil. His father before him was a great lawyer, a great 
teacher of law, and for twenty years a Judge of the Ten- 
nessee Supreme Court. His son, Grafton Green, '91 A.B., 
'92 LL.B., is the present Chief Justice of the Tennessee 
Supreme Court. But neither one stands in any need of 
luster from the names of the other two. Nathan Green, 
Jr., the subject of this account, probably taught more 
lawyers than any other law teacher in the United States. 
Only a few years before Judge Green's death. United 
States Senator Joseph W. Bailey, a great constitutional 
lawyer, said to the present writer, "I regard him as the 
ablest teacher of law in America." He always spoke clear- 
ly, concisely, and in the purest English. His statements 
were arguments. His illustrations were always remem- 
bered. His teachings were burned into the consciousness 
of his students. Students who could not get interested in 
their work in other law schools "found themselves" under 



118 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Judge Green and learned the law. Every recitation was 
conducted on a high plane. It was a serious business. The 
teacher's flushed face, the fire in his eyes, and the indomit- 
able purpose all indicated that. 

Some of this teacher's time was given to writing — not 
to the writing of law books, as was the case with Abram 
Caruthers and Dr. A. B. Martin. As a popular writer he 
reminded one of his famous contemporary, Dr. Theodore 
L. Cuyler, for he charmed his readers in very much the 
same way. His first important effort was a book entitled 
The Tall Man of Winton, in which the hero, Nat Grafton, 
was none other than Chancellor Green's illustrious father, 
Nathan Green, Sr., so long a Professor of Law in Cumber- 
land University. Although it was a small volume, it 
gripped the attention of every reader. Another book was 
his Sparks fro7n a Backlog ( 1891 ) , known far and wide as 
a popular and interesting book, which set forth the prac- 
tical philosophy of Judge Green's life. It was a collection 
of articles written for newspapers under his pen name, 
"Over Forty." 

Chancellor Green was also the editor of another popu- 
lar book, Echoes from Caruthers Hall, 1889. This was a 
collection of scholarly lectures delivered by members of 
the University Faculty in Caruthers Hall, 1884-86. The 
editor of these lectures concludes the book with eight 
sketches written by himself on "The Old Guard." These 
sketches are of persons who were formerly connected with 
the Faculty, none of whom was then living, except Dr. 
McDonnold. The list includes the following: Robert 
Looney Caruthers, Franceway Ranna Cossitt, Thomas C. 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 119 

Anderson, Benjamin W. McDonnold, Nathaniel Lawrence 
Lindsley, Richard Beard, and Nathan Green, Sr. 

Cumberland University undoubtedly gained in pres- 
tige through the administration of Chancellor Green. He 
was a tower of strength in all the deliberations for the 
welfare of the University, Few men had greater insight 
or moved among his fellows with more tact. It was his 
personal influence that held all the working forces so well 
together in the after-the-war period. There were other 
great souls, however, who helped the Chancellor in his 
wonderful work. First of all there was Robert L. Caruth- 
ers, with whom were associated Dr. A. B. Martin and Judge 
E. E. Beard. In the group also was Dr. A. H. Buchanan, 
for a long period the mainstay of the College of Arts. 
With Dr. Buchanan, mention should be made of Dr. 
J. I. D. Hinds, Dr. W. D. McLaughlin, and Prof. E. E. 
Weir. Along with Dr. Richard Beard, of the Theological 
School, may be mentioned also Dr. W. H. Darnall, Dr. 
S. G. Burney, Dr. R. V. Foster, Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick, 
and Dr. J. M. Hubbert. 

No great effort was put forth to get students. Such a 
procedure was perhaps considered somewhat undignified. 
The students came because of the reputation and merit of 
the teachers. The money for current expenses was always 
limited. But a great and creditable work was being done 
all the while notwithstanding the limited resources. 

From 1873 to 1878, the law classes were taught in 
Corona Hall. The growth in attendance was such as to 
make more adequate quarters imperative. In 1877 Judge 
Robert L. Caruthers gave to the University a deed to the 
lot on which Caruthers Hall now stands. In addition he 



120 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

gave $10,000 for the erection of a suitable building which 
was to contain recitation rooms for the Law School, a large 
room for a library, and an auditorium which was to be 
used for University exercises and for other public pur- 
poses. The leading spirit in raising the additional $25,000 
or more for the building was Judge E. E. Beard, the 
Treasurer of the Board of Trustees. To him the credit is 
to be given for carrying the project through. Excepting a 
liberal gift from Mrs. James W. Hoggatt, of Clover Bot- 
tom Farm, Donelson, Tennessee, all the money was raised 
in Lebanon, mostly from the immediate friends of the 
University. 

Another wonderful enterprise carried through during 
Chancellor Green's administration was the building of 
Memorial Hall, which has a present-day value of $200,000. 
First a campus of fifty-five acres was secured on the south- 
western border of the town. This was in 1892, and the 
corner stone for the new building was laid in that year. 
The occasion was regarded by all as a very important one. 
The University was soon to begin its work on a new 
campus, in a new building, and on a larger scale. A great 
throng was present, and an interesting program, consisting 
of addresses and music, was carried out. The main address 
of the occasion was made by Baxter P. FuUerton, D.D., 
LL.D., pastor of the Lucas Avenue Church, St. Louis, 
Missouri. 

The plan of the building was drawn by Dr. J. I. D. 
Hinds, Professor of Chemistry, who gave much time to 
the carrying forward of the entire enterprise. The archi- 
tect was Col. W. C. Smith, well-known citizen of Nash- 
ville, and a friend of the University. The construction of 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 121 

the building was held up from time to time because of a 
lack of funds. 

The Treasurer believed in the policy of "paying as you 
go," a policy which he could not quite adhere to toward the 
end. Not a great while after the completion of the build- 
ing it was announced that the sum of twenty thousand 
dollars or more was due the contractors. The greater part 
of the money previously used in the construction of the 
building had been raised in Lebanon, and Lebanon had 
been apparently drained dry. In a small way a crisis had 
been reached. The remainder of the money must of ne- 
cessity be raised by a certain time. It was simply a ques- 
tion of getting $20,000 more from people who thought 
they had already done their utmost. 

Those present at a meeting called to consider the situa- 
tion included nine Trustees, six members of the Theolog- 
ical Faculty, six or eight members of the College Faculty, 
two members of the Law Faculty, two members of the 
Preparatory School Faculty, and the financial agent. At 
the beginning of the discussion there were only four pres- 
ent who believed the amount could be raised. Judge E. E. 
Beard, the Treasurer, believed it could be done. He made 
a great appeal to that effect. It deeply stirred and con- 
vinced all present. The entire company was finally unani- 
mous in saying, "We can raise the money, and we 'W'ill." 
In a few minutes $10,000 or more was subscribed. The 
financial agent. Rev. E. J. McCroskey, went into the field 
and soon found ten persons who gave $1,000 each in cash. 
In a short time the whole amount due on the building was 
paid. The sky was opened and the light shone through. 
On other occasions as well the same thing has happened. 



122 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Men of faith, grit, and industry can carry the load of a 
great cause with God's help and blessing. 

Memorial Hall was first occupied in September, 1896. 
The College of Arts had the whole of the first floor, the 
Theological School, the second. The third floor was left 
in an unfinished condition until several years later, when 
it was finished, gradually as the needs arose, at a cost of 
$10,000 or more. At first it was heated by stoves, but 
several years later it was heated by steam and lighted by 
electricity. Mrs. E. J. Hale, of Morristown, Tennessee, 
gave $1,000 for furniture and other equipment for the 
Theological library. For that reason it was named the Hale 
Library. Mr. D. E. Mitchell gave $3,000 to the Reference 
Library of the College of Arts, and this was called the 
Mitchell Library. The University offices and the Chem- 
istry Laboratory were on the first floor. Later, the Chem- 
istry Laboratory was moved to the third floor, where it is 
at present. The College Chapel was built in chapel form, 
but not as a separate building. It was an extension of the 
central section, western side, of Memorial Hall. The ac- 
coustic properties of the chapel proved to be bad, and for 
this reason it was later converted to gymnasium purposes. 
The Athletic Field was located at first (1896) on the 
northwestern section of the campus. Later (1922) it was 
moved to the southwestern section. 

In 1896 Mrs. R. J. (Angelina) McDaniel, of Hopkins- 
ville, Kentucky, left a bequest of $20,000 to the Theo- 
logical School. Mrs. Sarah Blakey, also of Hopkinsville, 
Kentucky, made a gift of $14,000 to the endowment of 
the College of Arts. The College of Arts also received the 
sum of $12,000 from the estate of Mrs. Margaret Cham- 



CHANCELLOR NATHAN GREEN, JR. 123 

bers, of Missouri. Mrs. James W. Hoggatt, Donelson, 
Tennessee, had earlier in Chancellor Green's administra- 
tion made generous gifts to the University, besides the 
gift previously mentioned. 

It was during Chancellor Green's administration that 
Judge E. E. Beard presented to the University the library 
of his father, Dr. Richard Beard, who for twenty-eight 
years had been Professor of Systematic Theology. Later, 
the library of Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick, for fifteen years Pro- 
fessor of Church History, was presented by his widow. 

In 1886 the Lebanon College of Young Ladies was or- 
ganized, with Prof. Benjamin S. Foster, a brother of Dr. 
R. V. Foster, as its president. This institution had no con- 
nection with Cumberland University until 1894, when it 
became the Cumberland University Annex. The two 
schools were still under separate charters and management, 
but had a contractual relation with each other. The rela- 
tion continued until 1898, when it was, by mutual con- 
sent, dissolved. 

Cumberland University itself was a school for young 
men exclusively until 1897, when it became co-educa- 
tional. Since Cumberland took that step, one has scarcely 
ever heard an objection. Many of the best institutions in 
the country had already become co-educational. Oberlin 
College was the first to become so (1830). The young 
women have held as many first places in scholarship as the 
young men. 

The catalogue material for all departments and schools 
have had their place in the University catalogue from the 
dates of their organizations. The Law School also printed 
a separate catalogue from 1848 to 1860, in 1868, and from 



124 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

1898 to the present time. The Theological School printed 
a separate catalogue from 1895 to 1909. 

Chancellor Green did not believe in a multiplicity of 
rules. He laid down general principles and expected every 
young man to be a gentleman. In the catalogue of 1881, 
the College Code, as it was called, was printed as follows: 
Semper praesens, semper paratus. From 1881 to 1917, this 
statement, or one like it, appeared in the catalogue each 
year. 

Ex-Chancellor Green again became associated with the 
University in an administrative capacity. In 1906 he was 
elected as Acting President, and served three years. 



Chapter VIII 
TEACHERS IN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS 

1873-1909 

The College of Arts was the oldest part of the Uni- 
versity, and around it as a center each of the other depart- 
ments took its place. It will be appropriate here to give 
some account of the leading teachers in the College of Arts 
during Chancellor Green's administration of nearly thirty 
years. 

Cumberland's greatest mathematician, and one of its 
chief pillars of strength, was Andrew Hays Buchanan, 
LL.D., who received the A.B. degree from the University 
in 18 53. He was elected August 2, 18 54, during the ad- 
ministration of President Anderson, to the chair of Civil 
Engineering, and remained in this position until the early 
spring of 1862. From 1862 to 1865 he was topographical 
engineer of Generals Braxton Bragg and Joseph E. John- 
ston, in which field he did distinguished service. From 
1866 to 1869 he taught school in Arkansas. He was born 
in Boonsboro, Arkansas, June 28, 1828, and died in Leb- 
anon, Tennessee, August 11, 1914.^ 

In 1869 during the administration of President Mc- 
Donnold he was again made Professor of Mathematics and 
Engineering, in which position he remained until June 3, 
1911. It will be seen that his actual teaching experience 
in connection with the University extended over a period 
of about fifty years, the greater part of which was during 
the administration of Chancellor Green. 

' See Speer's Prominent Tennesseam, pp. 148, 149. 

(125) 



126 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

During a period of twenty years, 1876-96, under the 
direction of the Superintendent of the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, he spent each year the four months' 
vacation season in the triangulation of Tennessee. It is 
said that the accuracy and satisfactoriness of this work 
was not excelled in any other state in the Union. It is also 
said that on account of the high regard for him through- 
out the country, Professor Buchanan had flattering calls 
to some of the larger institutions. But none of these calls 
could tempt him away from Cumberland, so great was his 
loyalty to his own institution. Cumberland was never able 
to pay more than a small salary, but he worked on and on 
faithfully, never losing faith in the enterprise with which 
he was connected and always feeling that his principal re- 
ward was in the splendid lives he was helping to mold in 
Cumberland for service in the Kingdom of God and our 
great country. 

In 1902-03 Professor Buchanan was again employed by 
the Government, this time to establish the line between 
the States of Virginia and Tennessee, a work which fur- 
ther enhanced his reputation. His reports were never 
questioned. He was the author of a textbook on Plane and 
Spherical Trigonometry. 

Professor Buchanan put truth and accuracy and moral 
conviction above everything else. With Henry Clay 
Trumbull, Robert E. Speer, Thomas H. Huxley, and 
others, he believed that a lie, when properly defined, was 
never justifiable. His faithfulness in his church life has 
been scarcely ever excelled. He was a ruling elder and a 
Sunday-school teacher for fifty years. He had a great 
mind and only the loftiest aims in life. Included in the 



TEACHERS IN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS 127 

many honors heaped upon him was the LL.D. degree be- 
stowed by Lincoln University, Lincoln, Illinois. 

In the list of Cumberland's most famous teachers was 
Wilham Duncan McLaughlin, A.B., of the Class of 1868. 
Throughout his life he was a tireless and brilliant student, 
and it was not long until his studies led to the A.M. and 
Ph.D. degrees, which he received from Cumberland. He 
became Adjunct Professor of Latin and Greek in Cumber- 
land University, July 22, 1870, and continued in this posi- 
tion until August 17, 1872, on which date he was made 
full Professor of these languages. In this department he 
labored without interruption until June 3, 1914, when he 
retired, to reside with relatives in Birmingham, Alabama. 
In 1920 he returned to the University and taught one year 
more. He was born in Bessemer, Alabama, March 11, 
1847, and died in Birmingham, December 25, 1934. His 
body was buried in the city cemetery, Lebanon, Tennessee. 

In June, 1923, he received from Cumberland Univer- 
sity the degree of Doctor of Laws, of which honor he was 
eminently worthy. He was a general favorite with col- 
lege students, and unusually successful in inspiring his 
students to become lovers of the ancient classics, in the 
atmosphere of which he revelled. In June, 188 5, and in 
June, 1893, Professor McLaughlin's classes in Greek re- 
produced quite successfully plays written by classic Greek 
authors, using the original text. He was an elder in the 
church, a Sunday-school teacher, and a much beloved 
citizen. 

Dr. John Iredell Dillard Hinds, as an educator, chemist, 
author, and college administrator, added much to the in- 
fluence and fame of Cumberland University. He was one 



128 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

of the best-known and most influential Presbyterian lay- 
men in the South. The many students who once sat in his 
classes and honored his attainments and character are scat- 
tered far and wide over the nation. 

This eminent and scholarly teacher was born in Guil- 
ford County, North Carolina, December 17, 1847, and 
died March 4, 1921, in Nashville. From Piney Grove, 
Arkansas, he came to Cumberland University in 1871. 
From this institution he received the A.B. degree in 1873, 
and the LL.D. degree in 1903. The Ph.D. degree was 
received from Lincoln University, Illinois. He was a 
graduate student in the University of Berlin in 1880-81, 
and a graduate student in Harvard in 1882. 

Dr. Hinds was Professor of Chemistry and Biology in 
Cumberland University, 1873-99; the Dean of the Col- 
lege of Arts of Cumberland University, 1894-99; Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in the University of Nashville, and 
Peabody College for Teachers, 1899-1911; and Dean of 
the Peabody College for Teachers, 1907-11. During the 
last year of this period he was the Acting President of that 
institution. He returned to Cumberland University in 
1911 and served as Professor of Chemistry until June 3, 
1914. From 1914 to 1917 he taught the science subjects 
in the Castle Heights School. After that time he served 
as the metallurgist of the Southland Exploration Company 
and as the Chemist for the State of Tennessee. In 1921 
he became a resident of Nashville. 

Quite numerous were his religious, educational, and 
scientific interests. He was a member of the International 
Sunday School Lesson Committee, 1884-1902; the Super- 
intendent of Platform for the Monteagle (Tennessee) As- 




ANDREW BENNETT MARTIN, LL.D. 
President of Board, 1882-1920 
Professor of Law, 1878-1920 



TEACHERS IN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS 129 

sembly, 1891-1902; a Fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science; a member of the Amer- 
ican Chemical Society; a member of the Deutche Chem- 
ische Gesellschaft; a member of the World's Congress of 
Applied Chemistry; a member of the Advisory Council 
of the Simplified Spelling Board; a member of the Simpli- 
fied Spelling Society of Great Britain; and a member of the 
Author's League of America. 

While in Cumberland he was too busy to write much. 
He went to Peabody that he might write more. He was 
the author of The American System of Education, 1884; 
The Use of Tobacco, 1900; Charles Darwin, 1900; In- 
organic Chemistry, 1902; Chemistry by Experiment, 1902; 
Qualitative Analysis, 1910. Dr. Hinds was also a frequent 
contributor to scientific and literary journals, including 
the Journal of the Am-erican Chemistry Society and the 
London Chemistry News. 

It will be seen that Dr. Hinds' studies and labors cov- 
ered a wide range. His learning was extensive In char- 
acter, and yet exact and profound. Those who knew him 
remember him for the simplicity of his life, the quietness 
of his demeanor, his great and untiring Industry, and for 
the many good traits and the sterling qualities of his char- 
acter. He was an elder In the local church, and for many 
years the superintendent of the Sunday school. 

Edward Ellis Weir, '77 A.B., became the Professor of 
English and Philosophy in 1880. Later, in 1893, he be- 
came the Professor of Philosophy, which position he re- 
tained until his resignation in 1909. He was born in 
Ashbysburg, Kentucky, October 15, 18 54. Two of his 
brothers, so favorably known to the student body, were 



130 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

merchants in Lebanon, and one of his sons is a teacher in 
Berea College. Few men were better qualified than Pro- 
fessor Weir. He had a wide acquaintance in the fields of 
ancient and modern philosophy. Although a diligent 
student always, he had unusual devotion to his pupils. 
He was an elder in the local church and a teacher in the 
Sunday school. In 1909 he removed with his family to 
Oklahoma City, where he died September 21, 1917. His 
death was due to a street car accident. 

Prof. Isaac W. P. Buchanan, Ph.D., son of Dr. A. H. 
Buchanan, became Professor of Pure Mathematics in 1893. 
He resigned his position in 1902 to become the Head- 
master of the newly established Castle Heights School, 
which he aided in founding. He was born in Cane Hill, 
Arkansas, April 18, 1866. The greater part of his life has 
been spent in Lebanon. From Cumberland University, 
which to a wonderful extent is linked with his father's 
name, he received the A.B. degree in 1885 and the Ph.D. 
degree in 1 892. For one year he was head of a boys' school 
in Gallatin, Tennessee, 1888-89; the Professor of Mathe- 
matics, Lincoln University, Illinois, 1889-91; and Princi- 
pal of Fort Worth High School, 1891-93. Later he studied 
in Harvard University a year. 

As a teacher, he was eminently qualified and popular 
with his students. In the field of Civil Engineering he 
showed considerable talent. For many years he assisted 
his noted father in the Geodetic Survey of Tennessee. In 
the field of invention he had considerable success. He is a 
musician, a choir leader, a church oflEicer, and has been for a 
long period a teacher in the Sunday school. He resides in 



TEACHERS IN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS 131 

Lebanon, and is a teacher in the Castle Heights Military 
Academy. 

Laban Lacy Rice, A.M., Ph.D., became Professor of 
English Language and Literature in 1894. From Cumber- 
land he received the A.B. degree in 1891 and the Ph.D. 
degree in 1894. He was the son of L. M. Rice, a tobacco 
merchant of Louisville, Kentucky. He was born in Dixon, 
Kentucky, October 14, 1870. In 1897 he became asso- 
ciate editor of the church paper in Nashville. Two years 
later he returned to the Professorship of English Lan- 
guage and Literature in Cumberland, which work he pur- 
sued with ability and vigor until June, 1906, when he be- 
came Headmaster of Castle Heights School. 

Professor Rice showed much ability and insight in the 
field of Enghsh Literature. In 1904 he was Professor of 
English in the Peabody Summer School. In later years he 
published several interesting and well-written books. In 
1902 he was the editor of TJoe Ciunberland Presbyterian 
Quarterly, a magazine of Religion, Philosophy, Science, 
and Literature. In his student days, he and his brother, 
Cale Young Rice, were Cumberland's star athletes. For 
many years he was president of the Cumberland Athletic 
Association. He was always interested in Y. M. C. A. 
work. For several years he was a member of State Y. M. 
C. A. Executive Committee. For a number of years, too, 
he served as an elder in the church and as the superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school. He owns a summer camp 
for girls, and has his residence, in Mayland, Tennessee. 

James Smartt Waterhouse, A.M., became Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Biology in 1898, which position he occupied two 
years. In 1900 he became Professor of Chemistry and 



132 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Biology, in which work he continued until his untimely 
death in 1909. Although one of the youngest members 
of the Faculty, he was entrusted to a large extent with the 
direction of the affairs of the College of Arts. He was one 
of the choicest spirits ever connected with the University. 

This comparatively young educator was discreet, tactful, 
alert, and untiring in his industry; and was an indispensable 
factor, so it seemed to many, in the ongoing of the College. 
He was loved, honored, and willingly followed by all. 
They knew that he would always be on guard if any vital 
interest was at stake. Much did he have to do with the 
successful direction of athletics and with the religious work 
carried on by the student body. The church, too, had in 
him an ardent worker. His taking away at the time of his 
highest usefulness was an irreparable loss to the Univer- 
sity. 

Cale Young Rice, A.M., was Professor of English Lan- 
guage and Literature in Cumberland University two years, 
1896-98. He received the A.B. degree from Cumberland 
University with the Class of 1893, and later, 1896, re- 
ceived the A.M. degree from Harvard University. He was 
one of Cumberland's most famous athletes. Since leaving 
Cumberland he has devoted himself to literary pursuits. 
He has published several volumes of poems, and has taken 
a position in the front rank of Southern writers. He re- 
sides in Louisville, Kentucky. 

The following is an incomplete list of his books of 
poems: From Dusk to Dusk, 1898; With Omar, 1900; Song 
Surf, 1900; Nirvana Days, 1908; Many Gods, 1910; 
Charles di Tocca (poetic drama), 1903; David (poetic 
drama), 1904; also plays and lyrics, including, Yolanda of 



TEACHERS IN THE COLLEGE OF ARTS 133 

Cyprus, 1906; A Night in Avignon, 1907 \ The Immortal 
Lure, 1911; Porzia, 1913. The author is a member of the 
Poetry Society of America and also a member of the Na- 
tional Institute of Social Sciences. 

Clara Earle, A.B., A.M. (Arkansas), received her college 
and university education before coming to Cumberland in 
1902 to be the head of the Department of Modern Lan- 
guages. She received the A.B. degree from the Univer- 
sity of Arkansas; spent some time in study in Paris, France; 
and was well equipped for her work. She is the daughter 
of a famous father, the late F. R. Earle, D.D., of Cane 
Hill College, Arkansas. During her connection with 
Cumberland she was the Dean of Women, and was a use- 
ful member of the College Faculty. Her work with 
Cumberland was continued until June, 1914. Since that 
time she has been connected with the College of the 
Ozarks, Clarksville, Arkansas. 

Charles Hulin Kimbrough, A.M., Ph.D., was a talented 
and eflScient worker for the University. From 1904 to 
1914 he was the Professor of English Language and Litera- 
ture in the College of Arts. Besides his assistance in carry- 
ing on the work of the College was invaluable. He was a 
native of Alabama, but he came to Cumberland as a stu- 
dent from Texas. From Cumberland University he re- 
ceived the A.B. degree in 1903; the A.M. degree in 1905; 
and the Ph.D. degree in 1911. In 1903-04 he was a stu- 
dent in the Theological School of the University. Not 
many have excelled him as an instructor. He made a 
wonderful impression upon his students, whether in the 
classroom or out of it. After leaving Cumberland he be- 



134 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

came a Professor of English Literature in the University 
of Tulsa, and also the Dean of the College of Arts. 

Kate Adelle Hinds, daughter of the late Dr. J. I. D. 
Hinds, was the Professor of Chemistry and Biology in 
Cumberland University from 1909 to 1911. She received 
from Cumberland the A.B. degree in 1904; the A.M. de- 
gree in 1906; and the Ph.D. degree in 1910. She is Mrs. 
Willard H. Steele. Her husband is one of the chief sur- 
geons of Chattanooga. At the time of this writing (1933) 
she is the Regent for Tennessee of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 



Chapter IX 
DAVID EARLE MITCHELL, THE FIFTH PRESIDENT 

1902-06 

David Earle Mitchell, the fifth head of the Univer- 
sity, became President in the summer of 1902, soon after 
receiving the A.B. degree from the University. Out of 
deference to his predecessor, he asked to be called President 
instead of Chancellor. The Trustees, accordingly, changed 
the title of the office. The new President was a Pennsyl- 
vanian, having been born in Monongahela City, February 
7, 1876. In 1893 he was graduated from the State Normal 
at CaHfornia, and was then principal of the high school at 
Roscoe. From 1895 to 1900 he was editor of a paper in 
Uniontown and an extensive dealer in coal and iron prop- 
erties. He came to Cumberland as a business man of 
considerable experience. His young wife came with him, 
and both were valuable additions to the church, school, 
and community. 

Mr. Mitchell was the youngest man the Trustees had 
ever honored with the presidency of the University. 
Nevertheless, they believed in him and in his business 
ability. A business man such as he and one who had al- 
ready established friendly relations with men of influence 
in the business world would most likely prove to be a 
suitable leader at this time. Even before his graduation 
from the University in 1902, Mr. Mitchell placed a $3,000 
heating plant in Memorial Hall and $3,000 worth of new 
books and furnishings in the Reference Library of the Col- 

(135) 



136 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

lege of Arts. In 1903 he gave a similar amount for the 
interior of the unfinished College Chapel. The General 
Assembly of the Church which was meeting that year in 
Nashville came out to Lebanon to be present at the dedica- 
tion of this Chapel. 

In 1903 Dr. Mitchell led the way also in the erection, 
at a cost of $50,000, of the Men's Dormitory. Of this 
amount, $8,000 was his own contribution. All told, his 
contributions to the University in money have amounted 
to about $50,000, besides his own salary. For four years 
he paid from his own purse the salary of the Dean of the 
Theological School, and for a year or two paid the princi- 
pal part of the salary of a professor in the College of Arts. 
For two years, 1902-04, he paid the salary of the Regis- 
trar, Paris Marion Simms, '99 A.B., '02 B.D. The Uni- 
versity Office was furnished with much better equipment, 
and much work was done in promoting the welfare of the 
University. 

The Registrar carried on an extensive correspondence 
for two years with alumni, gathering up much material 
for an alumni office which was not yet in existence. All of 
this work was inspired by President Mitchell. He believed 
in keeping in touch with the alumni, in order to enlist 
their interest in the University, to secure their co-operation 
in the upbuilding of the institution, and also to let them 
know that the institution wishes to render a valuable service 
to them. He was always devising plans by which needy 
and promising students could get an education. As much 
as any other this leader seemed to understand and to be in 
sympathy with the young people whose history and asso- 
ciations led them to choose Cumberland University as their 




DEAN J. I. D. HINDS, Ph.D. 




PROFESSOR E. E. WEIR 





PRINCIPAL W. J. CRANNIS 



DEAN J. R. HENRY, D.D. 




DAVID EARLE MITCHELL 
President, 1902-1906 



DAVID EARLE MITCHELL, FIFTH PRESIDENT 137 

alma mater. Seeing these young people, he was impressed 
all the more with the need for supporting and extending 
the work of the institution. 

President Mitchell was interested in all departments of 
the University. He neglected no one of them in his think- 
ing or in his plans. It was chiefly through him that Dr. 
J. R. Henry came to the Theological School as Dean and 
Professor of Practical Theology. The same interest was 
shown in the coming of Dr. R. G. Pearson as Professor of 
English Bible in the Theological School. He took the lead 
in establishing a School of Music in the University, with 
Prof. Eugene Feuchtinger and his assistants in charge. 
Much of the equipment for this department was supplied 
by him. 

It was during his administration that athletics occu- 
pied a much larger place in the student activities and that 
Cumberland had its most famous football team, the one 
which defeated the teams of the foremost institutions of 
learning in the South. 

The church, the Sunday school, the Y. M. C. A., and 
other religious organizations had an earnest supporter in 
President Mitchell. He became the teacher of the largest 
Men's Bible Class the Lebanon Presbyterian Church ever 
had. The class was named for him. He led the way in 
sending a missionary to Japan and another to China. His 
interest was shown in the daily College Chapel service. 
The Church Union consummated in 1906 was ardently 
supported by him. 

The work of President Mitchell was more than one man 
could carry. Being much absorbed in business, he was 
away from the institution much of the time. His work at 



138 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

home was so arranged that much of it could be carried on 
by others. In 1906 he resigned his position as the head of 
the University. But, for a number of years thereafter, 
he continued his labors for it. In 1911 he paid for the in- 
side work of the present College Chapel. Much work for 
the Alumni Association was done by him. He was the 
president of it for a number of years, 1914 to 1922. Much 
credit is due him for suggestions and help in starting the 
Cumberland AlMmmis, the alumni magazine. All told, he 
gave about $1,200 for the support of this magazine. It is 
that kind of help and co-operation that makes history, 
and it is the kind that Cumberland needs to supply better 
facilities for the eager and promising students of to-day 
and to-morrow. Since leaving Cumberland, Mr. Mitchell 
has devoted himself to business pursuits. 

ACTING PRESIDENT GREEN 

1906-09 

President Mitchell was followed by the highly honored 
and respected former Chancellor Green, who was now 
called upon to act as President. This he kindly consented 
to do, although his duties in the Law School had come to 
be more arduous. For three years, 1906-09, he continued 
to be the presiding officer, conferred all the degrees, and 
kept administrative matters going in the right direction, 
to the delight of all. 

This untiring servant of the University kept up his 
connection with it to the day of his death, February 18, 
1919. On the morning of that day he met his class in 
Real Property. His mental powers continued unabated to 
the end. His students continued under the spell of his 



DAVID EARLE MITCHELL, FIFTH PRESIDENT 139 

eloquence as long as he taught. On the evening of the day 
just referred to, after pleasant conversation with his son 
and others, he lay down quietly to sleep, and so passed 
away. His taking away was universally mourned. A 
great throng gathered at his burial, and many tributes 
were paid. The length of his service for the University 
has not been equaled by any other who ever served the in- 
stitution. The Green Memorial Fund was established in 
his honor. 

His lifelong colleague, Dr. A. B. Martin, for nearly 
forty years President of the Board, paid him this tribute: 
"By the faith of one man only, Judge Robert L. Caruthers, 
the University, in its three main departments, was estab- 
lished. And by the faith of one many only (Judge Nathan 
Green, Jr. ) , it survived the wreck of four years of bloody 
strife. It is the faith in the souls of such men that holds 
the world up and moves it forward. I remember those 
dark days of doubt. I cannot forget his heroic struggles 
and his determination to set the University in all its de- 
partments upon its feet again." 

Dr. Martin, in his tribute, called attention to Chan- 
cellor Green's rugged character, to the resemblance to his 
noted father, and to his delicacy of feeling, gentleness of 
speech, and esthetic taste. He was a peacemaker, a com- 
forter of the sorrowing, a lover of music and flowers. A 
man of wide learning was he, a profound lawyer, upright, 
wise in counsel, pure-minded, loving, and beloved. His 
life of seventy-seven years in Lebanon left its impress for 
good. "He was the noblest Roman of them all." 

The Nashville Banner said: "Judge Green was about the 
grandest and most extraordinary old man Tennessee ever 



140 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

produced, and no institution in the State has done more 
for its credit than the Law School of Cumberland Univer- 
sity. Judge Green's memory deserves the highest honor at 
the hands of Tennessee and such a historic, widely known 
institution over which he so long presided is an asset to 
the State which its people should take care to preserve. His 
continuance in active work was longer than that of Glad- 
stone, 'the grand old man of history.' " 

On account of the Church Union, which took place in 
1906, the charter was amended in 1907 so as to give the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America the right to confirm or reject the elec- 
tion of trustees, with the requirement added that three- 
fourths of the trustees shall be members of that Church. 



Chapter X 
WINSTEAD PAINE BONE, THE SIXTH PRESIDENT 

1909-14 

On June 3, 1909, Dr. W. P. Bone, who had filled the 
chair of New Testament Greek and Interpretation in the 
Theological School from 1894 to 1909, and had served as 
Dean of the same from 1906 to 1909, became the sixth 
President of the University. He served in this position 
from June, 1909, to June, 1914. 

Dr. Bone had been offered this position in April, 1909, 
not long after the adverse decision given by the Tennessee 
Supreme Court, April 3, 1909, on the validity of the union 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States of America consum- 
mated in May, 1906. This was an unexpected decision. 
All the other State Supreme Courts, twelve or more, and 
the United States Supreme Court decided the Church 
Union was valid. Some of the ablest lawyers in the coun- 
try had assured the two Church Committees on Union that 
the civil courts would sustain them. In entire good faith 
on both sides the Church Union had been consummated. 
It was a serious step to take, and much was involved in it. 
It was a matter of some moment in the history of both 
churches. 

In the important case referred to, Cumberland Univer- 
sity was not a litigant, but it later proved to be true that 
the institution was destined to be the chief sufferer from 
the adverse decision. One cannot easily calculate the hurt 

(141) 



142 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

and injury which immediately came to the University, and 
the harm has continued to this day. No other institution 
in the group to which it belonged was crippled as much or 
in the same way. The situation was without a parallel else- 
where. It was a time when "Good Samaritan" friends had 
the opportunity of performing a great service. 

Without much delay three lawsuits involving the title j:o 
all the property of the University were brought against it, 
and they were quietly left hanging over the institution for 
four years. Two suits were brought in the state courts 
and one in the Federal Court to test the title to the prop- 
erty. They were brought by the opponents of the Church 
Union. The long wait made all the work of the institu- 
tion more difficult. The President of the University was 
compelled to spend much of his time for several years con- 
vincing the alumni, friends, and the general public that 
the institution could and must be maintained. 

The suits against the University were never brought to 
trial. The litigants who brought the suits made several 
proposals for a settlement. They finally came with a 
proposal to release all claim to the property of the Univer- 
sity or any Department of it on the condition that the 
Trustees of the University pay $37,500 to the legal repre- 
sentatives of those claiming to be the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. The Trustees, feeling that the University 
had been hurt too much already by the delay, reluctantly 
agreed to accept the proposition when ratified by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of those claiming to be the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, meeting in May, 1913. The result of 
the proposal and ratification, on the terms mentioned, was 



WINSTEAD PAINE BONE, SIXTH PRESIDENT 143 

an agreed decree in the Chancery Court, Lebanon, Ten- 
nessee, July 9, 1913. 

This settlement came something more than ten years 
after the official launching of the Union Movement and 
more than seven years after the consummation of the 
Union itself. This long period of waiting, during which 
little or nothing could be done to increase the financial 
strength of the institution, was a supreme test of the loy- 
alty and devotion of those connected with the University. 
Nevertheless, they did not waver at any time, but toiled 
on, and made progress. 

But the cloud had undoubtedly a golden lining. First 
of all the Trustees proved faithful to their trust, and were 
more determined than ever to further in every way pos- 
sible the work of the institution. They had unwavering 
faith in a great cause and the altruistic spirit of the teach- 
ings of the Master in their hearts. There were many others 
also who gave whole-hearted co-operation. Baptists, 
Methodists, and others gave hearty assurance of their will- 
ingness to help. This offer was not in words only, but was 
also expressed in deeds which were highly appreciated. 

Then, too, the President had great faith in the Church 
which the Union made. He had been a member of the 
Church Union Committee, 1905-06. He had been per- 
sonally assured by members of the two Committees that the 
Union would prove a great blessing to Cumberland Uni- 
versity. Dr. Edgar A. Elmore, of Chattanooga, who was a 
speaker at the Synod of Tennessee in 1906, said it was now 
possible for Cumberland to be abundantly provided for. 
Then Dr. Robert Mackenzie, the genial Secretary of the 
College Board of the Presbyterian Church in the United 



144 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

States of America, in his New York oflSce and on other 
occasions, assured the President of the University that 
Cumberland would in a substantial way come into its own. 
He said the alumni should be organized and preparation 
made for a better day, and this was done. The response 
to these eflforts was good enough to convince those in 
charge of the institution that their labors would not be 
in vain. 

Owing to the inability of the Theological School to se- 
cure adequate funds for conducting its work, it was dis- 
continued by action of the Trustees in 1909. It was 
surrounded by conditions for which the Trustees were not 
responsible. If funds were available, that School could be 
set up again. Not counting the theological students in the 
catalogue of 1909, there were 249 students in the Uni- 
versity that year. In the catalogue of 1914, five years 
later, there were 392 students, a gain of 143. 

When Dr. Bone became President in June, 1909, there 
was a deficit of $1,500 in the College of Arts and a deficit 
of $500 in the Theological School at the time it was dis- 
continued; and these amounts were added to the budget 
to be raised. 

While the salaries in the College of Arts were small, 
they were all increased in 1909, and they were guaranteed 
for the first time in the history of the University. The 
President asked the Board of Trustees that this be done, 
and that the salaries of additional persons be added to the 
budget. 

During this period the President had the wise counsel 
of members of the Board, and especially of the Board's 
Treasurer, Judge Edward Ewing Beard. A conservative 




WINSTEAD PAINE BONE, LL.D. 
President, 1909-1914 



WINSTEAD PAINE BONE, SIXTH PRESIDENT 145 

course was pursued. The tuition and other fees and in- 
terest on endowment went as far as possible toward paying 
current expenses, and the President raised the rest, with 
the exception of the timely aid from the Church Board of 
Education. The Board of Trustees borrowed no money 
during the five-year period. All attorneys' fees due be- 
cause of the litigation on account of the Church Union 
and all salaries and all other expenses were paid; also, the 
$2,000 in the form of a previous deficit above referred to. 
The institution owed nothing on June 3, 1914. There 
was some money left in the treasury on that date for the 
next administration, some of which was used in improving 
the Athletic Field. 

During the five-year period referred to, some gifts were 
made to the University. Two gifts amounting to $5,600 
were added to the endowment. One was a gift of $5,000 
from Mrs. D. Willis James, of New York City. The other 
was a gift of $600 from an estate in Texas. In addition to 
this, Mrs. I. H. Goodnight, Franklin, Kentucky, deeded a 
piece of land to the University which was later sold for 
$4,200. During this period also the University received 
from the United States Court of Claims at Washington, 
D. C, the sum of $8,000 as damages for the occupancy 
of the University buildings by Federal soldiers in 1863. 
The President was instrumental in securing a gift of $30,- 
000 from Mr. J. C. Biles, a Presbyterian elder of McMinn- 
ville, Tennessee. This sum was written into his will, but 
was not turned over until his death several years later. It 
is very apparent that it would have been unwise to solicit 
immediate gifts of endowment during the first four years 
of Dr. Bone's administration, while the title to all the 



146 A HISTORY OF CUMBERXAND UNIVERSITY 

property of the institution was being contested. He was 
instructed by the Trustees not to do so. 

From 1909 to 1914, the Law School had a larger num- 
ber of students than it had had during any previous period 
in its history. While this much could not be said of the 
other departments, there was a good increase in them also. 
From 1907 to 1913, the University successfully enter- 
tained each year a splendid Bible Conference, the greatness 
of which is remembered still. As a rule about one hundred 
and fifty persons outside of Lebanon attended the con- 
ference. 

During this period two valuable teachers were added to 
the Faculty of the College of Arts. One of them was 
Professor "Walter Hugh Drane, A.M., formerly Dean of the 
College of Engineering, University of Mississippi. He 
came as the successor of Professor A. H. Buchanan, who 
resigned in June, 1911. He remained with Cumberland 
as the Professor of Mathematics from September, 1911, to 
June, 1924. Professor Drane was eminently qualified for 
his work, and was always a popular teacher. He was well 
acquainted with the methods of school administration and 
had a good conception of the objectives of education. His 
counsel was valuable in Faculty meetings and in the ef- 
forts to improve the college curriculum. He was a Pres- 
byterian elder. In 1923 he resigned to take a professor- 
ship in Austin College, Texas, and to become Dean of the 
College there. 

The other teacher was Homer Allin Hill, A.M., Professor 
of Biology, who began his work in Cumberland in 1912 
and continued until June, 1918. Professor Hill later be- 



WINSTEAD PAINE BONE, SIXTH PRESIDENT 147 

came Acting President, and further reference will be made 
to him. 

After June 3, 1914, when Dr. Bone's term as President 
ended, he became Professor of Bible, Philosophy, and Ethics 
in the College of Arts, in which position he still continues 
to labor. 



Chapter XI 

PRESIDENT 

SAMUEL ANDREW COILE, THE SEVENTH 

1914-16 

In February, 1914, the Board of Trustees acted on the 
resignation of President W. P. Bone, the resignation to 
take effect on June 3, 1914. At the same meeting of the 
Board, Samuel Andrew Coile, D.D., became the President- 
elect, his term of office to begin June 3, 1914. It was on 
this date that Dr. Coile's inauguration took place. 

Dr. Coile had been the pastor of the Lebanon Presby- 
terian Church for seven years, 1907-14, and had been dur- 
ing this period one of the popular and effective leaders in 
church work in the State, giving special attention to the 
promotion of Foreign Mission work. "When the local con- 
gregation lost its church house through the adverse deci- 
sion of the Tennessee Supreme Court on the Church Union, 
Dr. Coile proved to be a strong and effective leader in 
the erection, at a cost of $40,000, of the new church build- 
ing on West Main Street. 

From 1901 to 1907 Dr. Coile had served as President of 
Tusculum College, an institution situated about 250 miles 
east of Lebanon. He had been successful in interesting 
persons of wealth in Tusculum College so as to secure sev- 
eral large gifts for that institution. Dr. Coile was a good 
speaker, a clear thinker, and was much interested in reli- 
gious and educational work. One of the first steps taken 
by President Coile was to ask the Board of Trustees to 

(148) 



SAMUEL ANDREW COILE, SEVENTH PRESIDENT 149 

have the charter of the University changed so that the 
membership in the Board might be increased from nine to 
fifteen. This change was duly made in 1914. Some 
changes were made also in the Faculty list. 

Oscar Newton Smith, A.M. (Princeton), a teacher of 
Modern Languages and one of the Headmasters at the 
Castle Heights School, was made Professor of Latin Lan- 
guage and Literature and Dean of the College of Arts. 
Peyton Ward Williams, A.M. (Alabama), was made Pro- 
fessor of English Language and Literature. After serving 
one year, he was followed by Professor E. L. Stockton, 
A.M., who remained in this position until his election to 
the presidency. 

Dr. W. P. Bone, A.M., was made Professor of Biblical 
Literature and Greek. Herman F. Schnirel, A.M., be- 
came the Professor of Modern Languages. Professor 
Schnirel was followed in 1915 b)' W. Patton Graham, a 
graduate of Emory and Henry, who had received the A.M. 
degree from the University of Virginia. He had studied 
at the University of Grenoble in France, and at Chicago 
University. He remained two years with the University, 
1915-17. James Otto Graham, B.S. (Clemson), M.S. 
(University S. C), became Professor of Chemistry, re- 
maining with the University four years, 1914-18. 

President Coile added a department of Home Economics 
with Anna Augusta Weigel, A.M. (Tennessee), in charge. 
This proved for a time to be a popular department. Rooms 
in Memorial Hall were supplied with good equipment for 
this work. Miss Weigel served only one year and was 
followed by Mildred Hungerford for one year. 

During President Coile's administration the net attend- 



150 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ance of students was increased from 392 to 416. Some 
improvements were made in the department of athletics. A 
new grandstand was built on the athletic field. The pres- 
byteries and synods were visited, and their co-operation 
asked. All student activities had the President's sympathy 
and watchful oversight. The religious welfare of the stu- 
dents was not neglected. All students who were having a 
struggle to get an education found a warm friend and 
practical helper in Dr. Coile. 

President Coile resigned his position in the University 
near the close of his second year. Homer Allin Hill, A.M., 
Professor of Biology, was then made temporarily the Chair- 
man of the Faculty of the College of Arts, and Dr. W. P. 
Bone was asked by the Board of Trustees to devote a por- 
tion of his time to soliciting endowment. 

Oscar Newton Smith was Professor of Latin Language 
and Literature from 1914 to 1918. He had been teaching 
Latin and Modern Languages at Castle Heights School, 
Lebanon, from 1903 to 1914. When he came to his posi- 
tion in Cumberland he was made Dean of the College of 
Arts. He was quite popular as a Dean and also as a Pro- 
fessor. He had a dynamic personality and took great in- 
terest in his subjects, his work, and the student body. 
Those fond of athletics found in him an ardent supporter 
of every game that was played. 

Professor Smith received the A.B. degree from "Westfield 
College in Illinois in 1887, and was later Professor of Latin 
in Sweetwater College. He received the A.M. degree from 
Princeton University, taught in Pennington Seminary, New 
Jersey, and also in the Princeton Summer School. 

In 1917 he was sent with the American army to serve as 



SAMUEL ANDREW COILE, SEVENTH PRESIDENT 151 

a Y. M. C, A. Secretary in France, where he remained until 
the Armistice was signed. After that time he became a 
field worker for the University of Tennessee. His death 
occurred June 1, 1932, at his home in Lebanon, Tennessee. 

ACTING PRESIDENT HILL 

1916-17 

A few weeks after Professor Hill had been made Chair- 
man of the Faculty of the College of Arts, it became evi- 
dent to the Board and others that the University must 
have at least an Acting President. The result was that 
Professor Hill was appointed Acting President, the duties 
of which position he creditably performed until April 9, 

1917, when the new President, Dr. E. P. Childs, appeared 
and at once took charge. Acting President Hill had re- 
ceived the A.B. degree from Park College in 1897, and the 
A.M. degree from the University of Missouri in 1902. Ad- 
ditional graduate work was done in the University of Chi- 
cago. From 1904 to 1911 he had taught science in St. 
John's Military Academy. 

Acting President Hill made a good administrator and 
was prudent in the management of all matters connected 
with his offices. A close watch was maintained over the 
University budget in order to prevent a deficit. As a re- 
sult, no debt was hanging over the institution in April, 
1917. 

His interest in his work, in the University, in the alum- 
ni, in the student body, in Lebanon, and in the church 
was well maintained. He was a Presbyterian elder, a Sun- 
day school teacher, a member of the Glee Club, and of the 
church choir. He resigned as Professor of Biology in June, 

1918. He resides in Huron, South Dakota. 



Chapter XII 

EDWARD POWELL CHILDS, THE EIGHTH 
PRESIDENT 

1917-20 

The eighth President of the University was Edward 
Powell Childs, an educator of considerable experience. He 
was a Presbyterian elder and a leader in church work. He 
assumed his duties as President on April 9, 1917, in a 
vigorous and business-like manner. In this capacity he 
labored for more than three years, resigning his position on 
June 10, 1920. 

After his coming some changes were made in the courses 
of study. President Childs laid less stress than some on 
the study of Latin and Greek and the Social Sciences. 
Doubtless this was partly due to his education and train- 
ing. In 1894 he had received the B.S. degree from Denison 
University, and in 1917 the A.M. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

His previous teaching and administrative experience was 
as follows: Professor of Mathematics in Fargo College, 
North Dakota, 1891-93; Instructor in Mathematics in 
Denison University, 1894-95; Professor of Mathematics 
and Dean of the Faculty of the College of Arts, Univer- 
sity of New Mexico, 1899-1901; President of the Normal 
and Collegiate Institute, Asheville, North Carolina, 1907- 
16; Assistant in the Department of Education, University 
of Wisconsin, 1916-17. 

When President Childs assumed his duties in Cumber- 

(152) 



EDWARD POWELL CHILDS, EIGHTH PRESIDENT 15 3 

land he made no special changes in the Faculty. George 
B. Hussey, Ph.D., was made the Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in the place of Professor W. P. Graham, who had 
been called to the University of Virginia. Daisy Allen, 
from Agnes Scott College, became instructor in the De- 
partment of Home Economics. 

The period here under consideration was a difficult one. 
President Childs had before him many of the educational 
problems occasioned by the World War. In 1918-19 quite 
a number of young men became students of the Univer- 
sity to receive training preparatory to going to military 
camps, if needed by the Government. Complying with 
the regulations of the Government involved a multitude 
of details. After the declaration of war in 1917 many of 
the older young men were called to the war zone, from 
which some of them never returned. Dean Smith got 
leave of absence to go to France as a Y. M. C. A. Secre- 
tary. Professor E. L. Stockton became a Y. M. C. A. Sec- 
retary at one of the military camps in this country. 

Madame Louise Eppinger was Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages for two years, 1918-20, taking the place which had 
been held by Dr. Hussey. H. E. Beierly, A.M., LL.D., 
was the Professor of Biology and Physics for the year 1918- 
19; James Oscar Baird, A.M., became the Professor of 
Chemistry in 1918 and has continued in this capacity ever 
since, except one year, 1925-26. Professor C. C. Lemon, 
A.M., was Professor of Biology and Education two years, 
1919-21. 

During the period here under consideration, the Uni- 
versity lost its two great law professors, Judge Nathan 



154 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Green, Jr., who died February 18, 1919, and Dr. Andrew 
B. Martin, who died May 19, 1920. 

In January, 1920, Dr. W. P. Bone was elected Alumni 
Secretary by the Board of Trustees, "to keep," as they ex- 
pressed it, "the rolls of the alumni." He was already serv- 
ing as Alumni Secretary by appointment of the Alumni 
Association. In 1919 Dr. Bone had given the entire sum- 
mer vacation to work on the alumni rolls. In February, 
1920, the work of the Alumni Association was better or- 
ganized, and was expanded and made more definite. An 
Alumni Board was appointed and Dr. W. P. Bone was 
elected the editor of the Alumni magazine, the Cumber- 
land Alumnus, which made its first appearance in April, 
1920. 

Near the beginning of President Child's administration, 
George H. Rossman, Master of Accounts, was appointed 
Business Manager. Later the Trustees elected Mr. Ross- 
man Assistant Treasurer. President Childs continued as 
the head of the University until June 20, 1920. During 
the summer he accepted a place in the Faculty of Trinity 
University, Texas. He became also the Dean of the 
College of Arts in that institution. 

Acting President Andrew Blake Buchanan 

1920-22 

On April 12, 1920, Andrew Blake Buchanan, D.D., was 
made Vice-President of the University. This was a matter 
of much interest to the alumni and friends of Cumberland, 
and the announcement was well received. While this 
was a new step to take on the part of the University, it 
was recognized that Dr. Buchanan was in every way 
worthy and that his election would be well received. 



EDWARD POWELL CHILDS, EIGHTH PRESIDENT 1 5 5 

Dr. Buchanan was an alumnus of the institution, hav- 
ing received the A.B. degree in 1879 and the B.D. degree 
in 1883. Later he spent two years in Union Theological 
Seminary in New York City. The next thirty years he 
spent in the pastorate in Illinois and Texas. The new Vice- 
President, a son of Professor A. H. Buchanan, was 
made Acting President on the retirement of President 
Childs. Dr. Buchanan was a man of ripe experience and 
scholarship and eminently qualified to represent the grow- 
ing interests of the University. 

In 1920 a change was made from a relationship with 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America to one with three synods of the 
same Church. The charter was amended so as to give the 
three Synods of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama the 
right to nominate the Trustees of the University. 

In 1921 a purchase was made of the Hinds residence on 
West Main Street as a hall of residence for young women 
students. Mr. D. E. Mitchell paid a part of the cost of 
the same. About the same time, Mr. Mitchell bought the 
residence and lot east of the Men's Dormitory and pre- 
sented it to the University. 

Acting President Buchanan's fine spirit and superior 
wisdom did much for the institution. After two years, 
that is, on April 1, 1922, he chose to go back to the pas- 
torate. During the last year of his administration, the 
total attendance of students was 500, the largest number 
in the history of the University up to that time. This sur- 
passed the record of 18 58, which was 481, the highest 
number prior to 1922. Dr. Buchanan resides at Goose 
Creek, an oil town, in Texas. 



Chapter XIII 
JOHN ROYAL HARRIS, THE NINTH PRESIDENT 

1922-26 

On June 7, 1922, John Royal Harris, D.D., of Nash- 
ville, became the ninth President. He was inaugurated un- 
der the most favorable circumstances. There were con- 
gratulations and manifestations of good will on all sides. 
The Faculty, alumni, and the general public were unani- 
mous in approval. The enrollment for the preceding year 
was the largest in the history of the institution. 

President Harris was an alumnus of the University, 
having received from it the B.D. degree in 1894. Not 
many people knew the institution better than he. He was 
devoted to it in a whole-hearted way, revered its tradi- 
tions, honored its history, and adhered to its Christian 
ideals. 

President Harris was favorably and nationally known. 
In all his life he had been a fighter in a good cause; and 
had touched life on many sides. Men of the State knew 
him as well as men of the church. He had many friends 
and acquaintances in other denominations. Men of the 
business community knew him and had confidence in him. 
He could plead a cause eloquently, being gifted on the plat- 
form. His chief gift was in administrative leadership. 
He had organizing ability; was possessed of a high Chris- 
tian character; and was industrious as well as capable, al- 
ways giving attention and energy to the duties of his 
office. Difficulties did not discourage him, and a disaster 

(156) 



JOHN ROYAL HARRIS, NINTH PRESIDENT 157 

like the burning of the Men's Dormitory did not appall 
him. Large demands were made by him on the alumni 
and friends of the institution. The response to this de- 
mand was encouraging to the new leader. 

President Harris was born near Murfreesboro, Tennes- 
see, March 7, 1869, a descendant of General John Coffee. 
After his graduation from Cumberland, he was pastor of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church at Lewisburg, Ten- 
nessee, nine years, 1894-1903, and then pastor of the 
Shady Avenue Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, four- 
teen years, 1903-17. At the end of this period he was 
Superintendent of the Dry Federation of Pennsylvania for 
two years. He then became a lecturer for the National 
Reform Association three years, two years of that time 
having his headquarters at Nashville, 1920-22. 

This does not include all the activities. For three years 
he was Superintendent of the Tennessee Anti-Saloon 
League, 1900-03; a member of the Pennsylvania Reserve 
Militia, and a member of the Pennsylvania National Guard; 
Chaplain of the Confederate Veterans; and a member of 
the Board of Temperance of the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States of America. 

At the time of his coming to Cumberland as President, 
Dr. James E. Clarke, editor of the Presbyterian Advance, 
said of him: 

'Tt is a profound satisfaction to be able to announce 
that Dr. John Royal Harris has accepted the Presidency 
of Cumberland University, and is to be inaugurated in 
June. A Tennessean by birth and long one of the State's 
fearless leaders in every good work. Dr. Harris brings to 
his Alma Mater, one of Tennessee's historic institutions, 



158 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

the rich experience of a vigorous Christian life devoted in 
large measure to successful administrative leadership." 

Dr. Harris had a genial word for every one, yet he was 
courageous and fearless in fighting for a great cause. As 
some one has said, "He knew where to set the smiling win- 
dows of humor in the structure of his addresses," but this 
same humor was used frequently against the iniquities of 
the day. On many a day he went forth in his campaign 
in behalf of American patriotism, industrial justice, and 
the application of Christian principles to the relations of 
men. His voice always rang true against the supremacy 
of might or money over righteousness. 

Under President Harris' leadership, the attendance at 
the University had an encouraging increase. The net total 
of students during the four years of his administration 
was as follows: 512 in 1922-23; 660 in 1923-24; 750 in 
1924-25; and 650 in 1925-26. 

A School of Commerce was added, and also a School of 
Journalism. In 1922 Andrew P. "Whitlock, B.S., was ap- 
pointed Business Manager, and served in this capacity for 
two years. It was his duty to look after the business de- 
tails of the administration, to act as Superintendent of 
Buildings and Grounds, and as an agent in financial mat- 
ters. He was followed by Jeff Castleman, who became the 
Bursar. His duties were such as the name indicated. Mr. 
Castleman was Bursar until March, 1926. 

In 1922 a plan was put into operation in accordance with 
which alumni and friends made subscriptions for a five- 
year period to the running expenses of the University. 
The subscription was called an Equivalent Endowment 
Bond. There was no stipulation to pay the amount on the 



JOHN ROYAL HARRIS, NINTH PRESIDENT 159 

face of the bond. Only the annual interest on the amount 
was to be paid. Ten or fifteen thousand dollars were col- 
lected each year in this way. The Goodnight land in Nash- 
ville, the gift of Mrs. I. H. Goodnight, Franklin, Ken- 
tucky, was sold for $4,250. The $30,000 bequest from 
the estate of Mr. J. C. Biles, of McMinnville, was received. 
Other sums were added to the endowment. Additions were 
made to the library of the College of Arts. Extensive pur- 
chases of new books were made to the library of the Law 
School. One of the outstanding events during President 
Harris' administration was the rebuilding of the Men's 
Dormitory, a handsome brick building, finished in stone. 
The dining-room and kitchen had been on the fourth 
floor, which was only about two-thirds the length of the 
other floors. The burning of that building put consterna- 
tion into the hearts of Faculty and friends; but before the 
ending of that day, President Harris had begun plans for 
rebuilding. 

The fire occurred on March 3, 192 5. On September 9, 
six months later, the new building was ready for occupan- 
cy. The foundation and a part of the walls survived the 
fire. Mr. A. W. Hooker and Mr. C. D. Fakes furnished 
the materials for rebuilding, without charging any com- 
mission. About seventy individuals gave $100 each for 
refurnishing the rooms. Mr. T. B. Moreland, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, gave $2,000 toward the rebuilding of the 
Dormitory. The kitchen and dining-room were brought 
to the first floor. The new building has four full stories. 
Nine new rooms were added. The new building was in 
every way more satisfactory than the old one, which was 
built in 1903. Besides all this, President Harris did much 



160 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

to interest alumni and new as well as old friends in the 
welfare of the University. 

But early in the summer of 1926, Dr. Harris was taken 
with a fatal illness. He was taken to the best surgeons for 
an operation. There was no hope for recovery. On Sep- 
tember 12, 1926, he was taken from us. While his voice 
is heard no more, his spirit inspires those who are carrying 
on the work of the University. The announcement of his 
death brought a large number of telegrams and letters to 
the University and the family. The body lies in the same 
cemetery with those of Cossitt, Anderson, McDonnold, 
Abram and Robert Caruthers, Nathan Green, Sr., and 
Nathan Green, Jr., Burney, Kirkpatrick, Foster, Buchanan, 
Martin, Hinds, and others. 

On the occasion of his death, the Nashville Banner said: 

"With his passing there came to an end the career of a 
man who had labored faithfully and accomplished much 
for the advancement of education, religion and civic right- 
eousness. ... As a teacher, a pastor, and a crusader for 
temperance he won more than ordinary success and ren- 
dered more than ordinary service. . . . Under Dr. Harris' 
guidance Cumberland has grown and prospered, and its 
bright prospects for the future and its excellent achieve- 
ments of the last four years are monuments to Dr. Harris' 
ability and devotion." 

The executive committee of the Tennessee College As- 
sociation expressed sorrow at the loss of one of its mem- 
bers from the fellowship and councils of the committee, 
and from the chairmanship of the Association's Committee 
on Publicity. 

In the summer of 1923, George Frank Burns was called 




SAMUEL A. 
President, 



COILE, D.D. 
1914-1916 



JOHN ROYAL HARRIS, NINTH PRESIDENT 161 

to the Professorship of Latin and Greek in the College of 
Arts, which position he creditably filled to the day of his 
death, December 29, 1928. He was born in Lamar, Ar- 
kansas, March 27, 1883. As a student in Cumberland he 
registered from Chattanooga; received from Cumberland 
the A.B. degree in 1911, and the M.A. degree in 1913. 

During the time of his connection with Cumberland 
University as a student, 1907-11, and as a teacher in the 
Preparatory School, 1910-13, he was a leader in athletics 
and in Christian work. He was President of the Y. M. 
C. A. and editor of the Cumberland Weekly, the students' 
paper. From 1913 to 1916 he was a student in Lane 
Theological Seminary, being at the same time a tutor in 
New Testament Greek. After his graduation from Lane, 
he was pastor of churches in Dyer, Milan, and Nashville, 
Tennessee, and in Jacksonville, Texas. 

From the day of graduation from Cumberland, he was 
a loyal alumnus, always working for the University's good 
and expressing in some way his devotion to it. Many of his 
articles were printed in the Cumberland Alumnus, and in 
other papers and magazines, and including one on "The 
Return of Classical Studies," not long before his death. 
Since his death a book of his poems has been published. 

Having been a star athlete himself, he always had a 
place on the Athletic Committee, and he was the Faculty 
Supervisor of the Christian activities of the student body. 
By all he was regarded as a valuable teacher and a choice 
spirit. 

The University Secretary 

In March, 1926, during the last months of President 
Harris' administration, Andrew Jackson Cash, a college 



162 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

and university accountant, of Nashville, Tennessee, was 
appointed University Secretary. The office was created by 
the Board of Trustees, their object being to give the busi- 
ness executive of the University a more definite task and 
one with a wider field of activity. As outlined by them, the 
University Secretary is to be the chief business officer of the 
University and the chief executive head of all departments, 
officers, and employees of the University not attached to 
the instructional staff. He is to see that the rules and 
regulations of the Board of Trustees with reference to the 
management of all property, funds, lands, buildings, and 
contracts are faithfully carried out. 

The University Secretary is to supervise the collecting 
and receiving of all moneys arising from gifts, bequests, 
or otherwise for the benefit of the institution, and of all 
fees and any money from any source due to the Univer- 
sity or to any of its departments. He is to keep proper 
books of account, fully setting forth the financial condi- 
tion and transactions of the University, and be able when 
required to do so to give a full report on all receipts and 
disbursements, and to show correctly the financial condi- 
tion of the University or any of its departments. And 
the Secretary shall furnish a surety bond to the Univer- 
sity for the faithful performance of his duties. 



Chapter XIV 
ERNEST LOONEY STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 

1926— 

On the death of President Harris, Dean Ernest Looney 
Stockton, who was also Professor of EngHsh Literature, 
was appointed by the Trustees as Acting President. He 
seemed to be the logical man to take up the work. 

Professor Stockton was born in Newbern, Tennessee, 
September 1, 1888. He received the following degrees 
from Cumberland University: A.B., 1914; A.M., 1915; 
LL.B., 1916. Additional courses were taken in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and in the George Peabody College for 
Teachers. In 1915 he was elected to the chair of English. 
The Summer School in the University had him as its first 
Director. The local Presbyterian Church made him an 
elder. For eight years he served as teacher of the Men's 
Bible Class. He was a Y. M. C. A. worker during the 
World War; Dean of the College of Arts from 1917 to 
1926, and a candidate for Congress in 1924. 

Professor Stockton ably sustained himself as head of the 
English Department. He has eyes to see the beautiful in 
literature, and easily catches its spirit. He goes back to 
God in everything, placing all on a rocklike basis; knows 
well the value of the imagination in the study of history 
and literature; has an abundance of color and melody in 
his speech, and crowns it all with the faith of a Christian. 

Acting President Stockton made no serious changes in 

(163) 



164 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

President Harris' policies. Some changes were made in the 
curriculum. Though a layman, the new leader attended 
the church courts, where he pleaded the University's 
cause; and he has been frequently asked to supply pulpits 
and deliver commencement addresses. It was also to his 
credit that he zealously guarded the standards of the Uni- 
versity. 

On May 31, 1927, Ernest Looney Stockton, of the class 
of 1914, who was becoming rapidly and favorably known 
in the educational field as Acting President of Cumberland 
University, was now unanimously elected President. Dur- 
ing the preceding year he had shown tact and industry in 
handling the affairs of the institution, moving forward in 
his work with the confidence and good will of the Faculty 
and student body. It was not surprising that the an- 
nouncement of his election by the Board had the ap- 
proval of the University family, the alumni, and the gen- 
eral public. The new President, the tenth in the history 
of the University, received congratulations from all sides. 

The new leader is almost entirely a product of the Uni- 
versity. He has been connected with, and hence is thor- 
oughly acquainted with, almost every phase of life and 
activity in Cumberland, thoroughly understanding its 
spirit and aims; and his loyalty to it is unquestioned. He 
knows full well the struggles through which his Alma 
Mater has passed, knows, too, what its merits are, is thor- 
oughly convinced of its strategic importance to a vast 
number of young people who need its help, and has a 
strong faith in its future. 

Without any large financial help at any time in its his- 
tory, Cumberland has made substantial progress in the 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 165 

things worth while. Through the loyalty of the Faculty 
and its spirit of sacrifice and co-operation results have been 
achieved which have not been attained by scores of institu- 
tions with ten or twenty times the financial strength. 
President Stockton has had some share in the University's 
growth and prosperity. 

Not only has he demonstrated his loyalty in many ways; 
he gives evidence that he desires to perpetuate in a whole- 
hearted way the institution's history and Christian ideals. 
President Stockton has been indefatigable. His mind 
works unceasingly on plans for a larger and better Cumber- 
land, and he is not easily discouraged in presenting his 
cause. 

Early in the new administration, in June, 1927, the 
Trustees and officers of the University adopted plans for an 
expansion program which called for the projection of a 
campaign with an ultimate objective of a million dollars. 
The campaign was projected so as to cover a period of 
years, and it was to be under the leadership of a selected 
group of men. The beginning was made on the campus 
with the officers of administration, Faculty, and student 
body. The sum of $22,000 was subscribed. A larger 
amount was subscribed by the citizens of Lebanon. It 
was reported that the total amount subscribed was $200,- 
000. The campaign was interrupted by the low financial 
state of the country. 

The uses to which the million dollars, when raised, would 
be applied were stated to be as follows: Permanent En- 
dowment, $500,000; Dormitory for Women, $100,000; 
Heating Plant, $50,000; Gymnasium, $75,000; Library, 
$75,000; other needs, $200,000. 



166 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

It was a definite conviction of the authorities that 
Cumberland must meet the need for buildings, equipment, 
and endowment if it is to measure up to the required serv- 
ice of to-day and to assure future academic effectiveness 
to young men and women of the country whose financial 
resources are limited, but whose very Kves are teeming 
with ambition for education that they may be adequately 
equipped to serve worthily and effectively their State and 
nation. 

The inauguration of President Stockton took place on 
January 20, 1928, when many noted educators and col- 
lege officials were present. The exercises of the day began 
with an address on Education just before the noon hour 
by Dr. James S. Thomas, of the University of Alabama, 
and closed with the evening reception to delegates, alumni, 
Trustees, Faculty, students, and friends. There were six 
other addresses: "Education and Citizenship," by Dr. 
James E. Clarke, editor of the Presbyterian Advance; "The 
Training of Christian Leaders," by Dr. F. E. Stockwell, 
College Secretary, Board of Christian Education, Presby- 
terian Church, U. S. A.; "Values of a College Education," 
by Dr. H. M. Edmonds, Independent Presbyterian Church, 
Birmingham, Alabama; "Our Presbyterian Colleges," by 
President S. T. Wilson, Maryville College; "Standards of a 
Liberal Arts College," by Dr. Shelton J. Phelps, George 
Peabody College for Teachers; and the Inaugural Address 
on "Cumberland in a New Era of Education," by President 
Stockton. 

President Wilson was unable to be present in person. 
His admirable address on "Presbyterian Colleges" was read 
by his representative, Professor Edwin Ray Hunter. Presi- 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 1 G7 

dent Wilson, reciting the story of the Presbyterian Col- 
leges (including Cumberland) said: 

"All this creditable story of the service rendered the 
State in the way of education even when the State itself 
was rendering no service in that line arouses the well- 
warranted pride of Presbyterians and stimulates the cour- 
age and zeal of those who are building up such noble foun- 
dations. 

"You will be encouraged and stimulated in your efforts 
to attain at Cumberland the highest standards of scholar- 
ship by the knowledge that long before the present general 
elevation of standards, our fathers made incalulable sacri- 
fices in their efforts to reach the very highest standards 
then attainable of endeavor and scholarship. 

"And another worthy inheritance that you have re- 
ceived from our educational leaders of other days has been 
an eager desire to help worthy and needy young people. 

"You are beginning the defense of your Verdun. In 
the face of all possible evils that would impair your work, 
you can have but one battle cry, 'They shall not pass.' 

"But it does not rest with you alone — this winning of 
success for Cumberland. Besides a president, a college 
must have an army behind the president, an army of loyal, 
self-sacrificing, wide-awake trustees, faculty, alumni, old 
students, friends of the institution, who will fight whole- 
heartedly and enthusiastically for the financial, educational 
and moral success of the school." 

President Stockton delivered the following Inaugural 
Address: 

"Cumberland needs neither apology nor eulogy. She 
has a long and enviable record of eighty-five years of ef- 



168 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

fective service in the training of men and women for 
leadership in missions, business, teaching, the ministry, the 
law, the judiciary, and eminent statesmanship. She served 
in an age when the South, especially this particular section, 
needed tragically higher educational institutions. Cumber- 
land was one of the 3 9 colleges founded in the South before 
1845, and was one of the first six colleges founded in Ten- 
nessee before 1850, others being the University of Nash- 
ville (1785), Tusculum (1794), University of Tennessee 
(1794), Washington College (1795) and Maryville 
(1819). During two and one-half centuries (1636 to 
1900) the South founded 61 colleges and universities out 
of the national total of 472. 

"These were conditions in the old era of our history. 
They lead us logically to a consideration of our so-called 
new era. The achievements of the institutions without 
adequate material equipment and productive endowment 
have been nothing less than miraculous, but such miracles 
will not permit us to drift along in an age of progressive 
movements. We must endeavor to meet the new demands 
and to make necessary changes. 

"The small college should be careful not to over- 
emphasize research and specialization, because research is 
not the predominant aim of the college; however, the im- 
parting of what is known and the giving of training in the 
methods and spirit of research to those who are to be re- 
searchers is one of the aims of the college. We should be 
certain that specialization is that particular preparation 
which will result in practical applications to life-tasks, and 
which will be used thereby in the advancement and im- 
provement of conditions in human society. The attempt 




EDWARD P. CHILDS, A.M. 
President, 1917-1920 




ANDREW B. BUCHANAN, D.D, 
Acting Preident, 1920-1922 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 169 

to perform such functions forces colleges to provide more 
adequate facilities and income. Colleges must have build- 
ings, books, and modern equipment. These mere things 
are elemental necessities for a standard college. To meet 
such increased demands, the administration of Cumberland 
is promoting successfully an expansion fund campaign for 
a million dollars, part of which will be used to increase 
the permanent endowment, the remainder to be used to 
erect much needed buildings and to supply modern equip- 
ment for libraries and laboratories. Hence our great ob- 
jectives — endowment and support for standardization and 
membership in the Southern Association. We hope to suc- 
ceed in order that we may perpetuate the significant serv- 
ices of this institution. 

"A rather unusual occurrence in our history was the 
almost unprecedented recovery of the institution after the 
Civil War. Another interesting fact is the persistence of 
the fixed curriculum and the time required for gradua- 
tion. Legal education, like all other types of professional 
education, has been modified as the direct outcome of in- 
creasing wealth, of the ability to pay for expert services, 
and of the increasing complexity of modern life. Our 
international relations and the rise of corporations and of 
great industrial establishments have affected our schools 
of law and business. 

"Neverthless, law schools have responded to the move- 
ment for standardization more slowly than medical schools. 
There are good reasons for this slowness: First, medical 
science is more exact, uniform, and international; second, 
our early common law, statutory laws, and former ma- 
chinery for the administration of justice were derived from 



170 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

England where no similar scholastic organization existed; 
third, the state and other associations have been unable to 
command as much co-operation as the medical associations. 
In government and law, America has been forced to work 
out her own peculiar experiments and standards. A. Z. 
Reed shows the diversified requirements of law schools in 
the time spent in study, time devoted in school to study, 
and in the preparation before beginning professional study. 
Not until 1905 did the American Association of Law 
Schools require three years of resident study. Within a 
period of twenty-five years or less the requirements for 
graduation have become practically uniform to the extent 
that 159 of the 167 law schools require three years of 
study, seven require two years and one requires one year. 
In 1910 only four of the 140 medical schools allowed 
students to devote part time to their study, but 60 of the 
124 law schools allowed part time or mixed study. There 
was, however, better agreement between the medical and 
law schools in their requirements for preparation before 
beginning professional study; 112 of the 136 medical 
schools required high school education or less, while 31 of 
the 43 full-time law schools (there were 81 part-time and 
mixed law schools) required the same. Since 1910 the 
medical and law schools have made uniform and fixed 
pre-professional requirements. Emphasis upon fixed 
standards of administration has caused a decrease in the 
number of medical schools, but an increase in the number 
of law schools. 

"According to this good authority, therefore, we may be 
justified in our own slowness to make too radical changes; 
we are not opposed, however, to needed and constructive 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 171 

Standardization. One of our greatest problems will be, in 
some future day, and in some way, to raise the standards of 
the law school. The law school is an integral and essen- 
tial part of the institution which the founders of Cumber- 
land have conceived and dedicated to the service of our 
country. It is a complement to the College of Arts and 
Science as that college is a prerequisite to it. Both are 
needed to meet the demands made upon the generation 
now under instruction." 

President Stockton, like President Harris and others, has 
been eager to let friends everywhere know of the merits 
of Cumberland and its desire to serve. The advantages, 
aims, and strategic importance of Cumberland have found 
in him an eloquent spokesman, and many have listened. 
One man made a $100,000 subscription, and has paid 
$10,000. In 1932 Mr. Thomas W. Martin, of Birming- 
ham, gave $12,000 to be used as a scholarship fund. Num- 
bers of smaller gifts have been made. Other gifts have 
been pledged. 

In 1928 the charter was amended so as to increase the 
membership of the Board of Trustees from fifteen to 
twenty-seven, and give the Alumni Association the right 
to nominate three alumni for membership on the Board. 
The first Alumni Trustees elected were: John J. Hooker, 
Lebanon, for one year; M. M. Morelock, Haynesville, La., 
for two years; and Dr. R. B. Gaston, Lebanon, for three 
years. Following, in order, were these: A. S. Maddox, 
Washington, D. C; John J. Hooker, Nashville; Benjamin 
H. Littleton, Washington, D. C; Thaddeus A. Cox, John- 
son City. 

In January, 1929, Cumberland University was elected 



172 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

to membership in the Am^erican College Association. 
Cumberland is also on the list of southern institutions ap- 
proved by the Southern Association of Colleges and Sec- 
ondary Schools. President Stockton and his co-laborers 
at Cumberland have zealously guarded the standards of the 
institution. The rules and regulations of the Southern As- 
sociation have been in nearly every instance rigidly fol- 
lowed. The curriculum has been from time to time 
strengthened. The library for the College of Arts and 
Science and the library for the Law School have been im- 
proved. The qualifications for the members of the Faculty 
have not been overlooked. 

The following teachers have been added to the Faculty 
of the College of Arts during the administration of Presi- 
dent Stockton. J. Albert Beam, A.M. (Wooster), M.D. 
(Illinois), of Tiffin, Ohio, for a number of years a medical 
missionary in China, was Professor of Biology three years, 
1927-30. Mrs. Y. P. Wooten, A.M., who had been Prin- 
cipal of the Preparatory School seven years, 1920-27, a na- 
tive of Tennessee, a resident of Lebanon, and a post- 
graduate student of the George Peabody School for Teach- 
ers, was made Acting Professor of Education in 1927. 

Joseph Couley Reagan, Ph.D., was made Professor of 
Economics in 1927 and served as such until 1929. He 
was born in Texas, a nephew of the Congressman, John H. 
Reagan, of Texas, obtained his literary education in George 
Washington University, and received the Ph.D. degree 
from Chicago University in 1921. 

Juanita Helm Floyd, A.M., Ph.D., of Evansville, In- 
diana, who received the Ph.D. degree from Columbia Uni- 
versity, studied in Paris, France, was editor of the writings 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 173 

of Balzac, and had taught in the Woman's College, "Win- 
ston-Salem, North Carolina, was made Professor of Ro- 
mance Languages in 1928, and served one year. Floyd 
Revell Williams, A.M. (Princeton), who had received the 
A.B. degree from Cumberland, became Professor of Greek 
and Latin in 1929, served two years, and then resigned to 
study for the Ph.D. degree. Ralph Tinsley Donnell, A.M. 
(Tennessee), a native Tennessean, who received his col- 
lege training in Cumberland, became Professor of Mathe- 
matics in 1929. Eudora Orr, A.B. (William and Mary), 
was Professor of French and Dean of Women from 1929 
to 1931. 

Laurence Major Dickerson, Ph.D., who was born in 
Cadiz, Ohio, June 26, 1899, received the B.S. degree from 
William and Mary College in 1924 and from the Univer- 
sity of Virginia the M.S. degree in 1929 and the Ph.D. 
degree in 1930, was made Professor of Biology in 1930 and 
served until December, 1934. E. George Saverio, Ph.D., 
became Professor of Modern Languages in 1930, and served 
until December, 1934. Fie was born in Vienna, Austria, 
studied music in that city, received the A.B. degree in 1913 
and the A.M. degree in 1914 from the College of Montana, 
and the Ph.D. degree in 1924 from the University of Tex- 
as. Robert James Wherry, Ph.D., who was born in Mid- 
dletown, Ohio, May 16, 1904, received three degrees from 
Ohio State University, B.S. in 1925, M.A. in 1927, and 
Ph.D. in 1929. He became Professor of Psychology and 
Economics in 1929. 

Graves H. Thompson, Ph.D., of Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia, was appointed Professor of Latin and Greek in 1930. 
He received the A.B. degree from Hampden-Sydney Col- 



174 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

lege and the A.M. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard Uni- 
versity. Virginia Adams, of Lebanon, who received the 
A.B. degree from Hollins College, was made Assistant in 
French in 1932, and served two years. Edd Winfield Parks, 
A.B. (Harvard), M.A. and Ph.D. (Vanderbilt), of Obion, 
Tennessee, was appointed Professor of English in June, 
1933, and served until December, 1934. 

In June, 1931, President Stockton received the LL.D. 
degree from Centre College. In October, 1931, he was 
elected Moderator of the Synod of Tennessee. The action 
was appropriate because of the educational importance of 
the meeting at that time. The meeting of the Synod a 
year later, October, 1932, was held in Lebanon, and, al- 
though a layman, President Stockton preached the opening 
sermon. 

On November 14, 1931, President Stockton made an 
address on the Liberal Arts College Movement. It was a 
part of a national campaign in the interest of this move- 
ment. President Stockton was the broadcasting speaker 
for Tennessee. Among other things he said: 

"The leading issue in American higher education is this: 
Shall educational gigantism prevail or shall the policy pre- 
vail of a wide distribution of educational opportunity and 
inspiration for our youth? Shall Mainstreetism overtake 
us, or shall the colleges scattered here and there redeem 
America? ... It is evident that our best leaders fear that a 
national worship of wealth, pleasure, knowledge, and pow- 
er during the last decade of infatuation with things will 
influence our people to believe that the Liberal Arts Col- 
lege has lost its place in the educational program of the 
nation. 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 175 

"The purpose of the Liberal Arts College Movement, 
reaching its climax to-night in a national broadcast, is not 
to defend the four-year arts college. It needs no defense. 
Its record of production and achievement throughout the 
history of our nation stands unimpeachable. The Liberal 
Arts College is older than our national government. . . . 

"Disproportionate emphasis on research, on technical 
and vocational processes in higher education, should not 
tempt us to forget indispensable and stable foundations. 
We should not make the mistake of building our educa- 
tional structure on sand. The superstructure may be varied 
and gorgeous, but unless the base rests upon solid rock 
of lasting fundamentals we will face failure in our efforts 
to produce men and women who are to be the living 
embodiments of the moral soundness and culture upon 
which the beauty and welfare of society depend. After 
all, education on the higher levels of research and profes- 
sional training must have as its essential materials men and 
women whose personalities are characterized by moral ex- 
cellence, intellectual superiority, and spiritual purpose." 

The Ninetieth Anniversary 

Thursday and Friday, October 13 and 14, 1932, were 
two of the most interesting days in the history of the 
University. It was the occasion of the Ninetieth An- 
niversary, celebrating Cumberland's fruitful and distin- 
guished service to the world between the years 1842 and 
1932. For this significant occasion a great program had 
been prepared, and it was wonderfully executed, the credit 
for the same going to President Stockton and those co- 
operating. The substance of the account given here is 



176 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

taken from the columns of the Cumberland, AlumnMs, 
October, 1932, Robert W. Adams, editor. 

At the exercises of the first day and a part of the sec- 
ond, the Synod of Tennessee was in session and partici- 
pating. Many alumni and other friends were present. 
The opening sermon was preached by an alumnus, Dr. 
Ernest M. Bryant, of Humboldt, Tennessee, his subject 
being, "The Relation of the Christian College to Human 
Progress." In the last analysis, he said, "the success of our 
colleges must be m.easured by the fidelity, the truthfulness, 
purity, courage, and self-sacrifice in the lives of those com- 
ing out from them. Judged by this standard, the Chris- 
tian college takes first place." 

Rev. Herman L. Turner, of Atlanta, presided at the 
first luncheon. Dr. Henry M. Edmonds, of Birmingham, 
and Dean James D. Hoskins, of the University of Ten- 
nessee, made striking addresses on Education, paid tribute 
to Cumberland's record and achievements, and spoke of 
the University's obligations to the future. The late Dr. 
Frederick E. Stockwell, of the Board of Christian Educa- 
tion of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, delivered an address on "The Congenial Impera- 
tive," saying: "The congenial imperative is within our- 
selves. Thinkers are the need of the hour and the day. 
. . . The chief part of our task as educated men and women 
is to create adequate ideals." 

The Symposium for Christian Leaders was presided over 
by Dr. Howard I. Kerr, of the Hillsboro Presbyterian 
Church, Nashville. Mr. Hugh R. Munro, president of the 
First National Bank, Montclair, New Jersey, delivered an 
address on "Adequate Educational Objectives," which, he 




DAYTON A. DOBBS, LL.D. 
President of the Board, 1920 — 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 177 

urged, were Culture and Character. He said: "The cul- 
tural person is one who, through the pursuit of knowledge 
by orderly processes of thought, through moral discipline 
and the cultivation of the higher avenues of taste and judg- 
ment, has reached a maturity, poise and breadth of vision 
corresponding to the highest capacities of his nature. . . . 
The Christian church has not only taken the leading part 
in extending higher education, but has been the most po- 
tent influence in behalf of intellectual progress." 

Weaver Keith Eubank, '16 A.B., '31 D.D., a loyal alum- 
nus, and pastor of the Ninth Presbyterian Church, Phila- 
delphia, was the second speaker on Christian Leader- 
ship. "The trouble is," he said, "we have been devoting 
all our time to the study of creation and have practically 
repudiated the Creator. What I mean is, we have pushed 
Christ out to the circumference and we have made the 
possession of knowledge of the universe the center. . . . 
Christ and his teachings are to be kept at the center of 
things." 

Mrs. Mary Forrest Bradley, of Memphis, the third speak- 
er. President of the Tennessee Synodical and granddaughter 
of General Nathan Bedford Forrest, brought greetings 
from the Christian women of Tennessee. 

John J. Hooker, '23 A.B., '24 LL.B., alumni Trustee, and 
practicing attorney of Nashville, presided at the Anniver- 
sary Dinner. Dr. O. Bell Close, pastor of the Fewsmith 
Memorial Church, Belleville, New Jersey, made a plea for 
the Christian college, and praised Cumberland's record of 
service. "While the great State and public universities," 
he said, "are turning out men and women trained for high- 
ly technical work, we must look to schools with Cumber- 



178 A HISTORY OF CUMBERXAND UNIVERSITY 

land's background and ideals to produce leaders. . . . O 
Cumberland, mother of great men, give us another gen- 
eration of great leaders!" He was convinced, he said, that 
the American public and Christian education have some 
interest in Cumberland University. J. Ridley Mitchell, 
'04 LL.B., a member of Congress from Tennessee, placed 
Cumberland with the best of Southern institutions, and 
found the miracle of it all in what had been given rather 
than in what had been received. 

After the dinner, there was a great meeting at which 
Dr. J. E. Clarke, editor of the Presbyterian Advance, pre- 
sided. The topic of the evening was Religion and Educa- 
tion. Dr. Floyd Poe, '01 A.B., '04 B.D., pastor of the 
City Temple, Dallas, Texas, was the speaker. His topic 
was "The Remarriage of Religion and Education." His 
address was in part a review of his life as a student in the 
University, where, as he said, religion and education were 
joined together in the lives and teachings of those under 
whom he studied. "The race is on," he said, "between 
education and disaster. We are fighting for our lives. In 
the early history of our country, education was running 
to catch up with religion, but religion is now running to 
catch up with education. . . . We cannot have education 
in one age and religion in another." 

The Academic Procession, consisting of visiting dele- 
gates, oflScers, and alumni, five hundred in number, was 
formed at Memorial Hall and proceeded to the Presby- 
terian Church for the Anniversary Exercises, with Presi- 
dent Stockton and the speaker. Dr. Robert L. Kelly, lead- 
ing. President Stockton presided, and Dr. Dayton A. 
Dobbs, of Nashville, President of the Board of Trustees, 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 179 

gave the welcoming address, speaking of Cumberland's 
three obligations, as to the heritage of the past, the needs 
of the present, and the youth of the future. Dr. Guy E. 
Snavely, President of Birmingham-Southern College and 
Secretary of the Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools of the Southern States, made the response for the 
visitors. "An institution that has weathered the storms 
and survived the struggles of ninety years not only merits 
congratulations, but is deserving of veneration. ... I have 
become well acquainted with Dr. Ernest L. Stockton, the 
present presiding genius of this institution. His record as 
an inspiring college teacher, forceful and friendful dean, 
and successful president is a notable one." Dean William 
D. Young, of the College of Arts, then presented the dele- 
gates present from forty-two colleges and universities; and 
each one responded with some word of congratulation and 
good wishes. In extending official greetings, President 
Alex Guerry, of the University of Chattanooga, repre- 
sented the Tennessee College Association; President Charles 
A. Anderson, of Tusculum College, represented the Pres- 
byterian College Union; and Dr. A. L. Crabbe, of the 
George Peabody College for Teachers, represented Dr. 
Joseph Roemer, President of the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

The Anniversary Address was delivered by Dr. Robert 
L. Kelly, Executive Secretary of American Colleges, New 
York City. His subject was, "The Development of the 
American College," and he traced the development through 
three periods, the reign of law, the era of liberty, and the 
era of liberty under law. "The era of liberty under law," 
he said, "attempts to guarantee safety in the college for 



180 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Student interest, provided that interest shows signs of per- 
manency and is supported by demonstrated student ca- 
pacity; it stands for trust in discipline, freedom in thought, 
co-operation in action, boldness in experimentation, and 
encourages the free play of the creative impulse. . . . The 
call is for men of social and moral insight and intelli- 
gence. There must not only be insight and intelligence, 
but the will to distinguish between one's personal welfare 
and the welfare of his fellow-man. It is a fight for the 
life of civilization." 

At the close of this address the degree of Doctor of 
Letters was conferred on two guests of honor. Dean James 

D. Hoskins, University of Tennessee, and President Guy 

E. Snavely, Birmingham-Southern College; and the degree 
of Doctor of Laws on six others: Hugh R. Munro, Mont- 
clair, New Jersey; W. W. Faw, Tennessee Court of Ap- 
peals; Floyd Poe, City Temple, Dallas, Texas; John Caruth- 
ers, Okmulgee, Oklahoma; Charles M. A. Stine, Dupont 
Company, Wilmington, Delaware; Winstead Paine Bone, 
Professor of Biblical Literature and Philosophy, Cumber- 
land University. 

At the second luncheon. Judge A. B. Neil, of the Law 
School, presided. The subject was Cumberland's Con- 
tribution. Dr. E. L. Orr, '07 B.D., said: "To have set 
young people forward on the path toward their particular 
achievement and to have followed them with sympathetic 
support until they became shining lights bv hundreds and 
thousands in industry, statesmanship, the ministry, educa- 
tion, law, commerce, agriculture, manhood, womanhood, 
brotherhood, sensing always the finest human relationships 
— that is Cumberland's contribution to Culture." Gor- 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 181 

don Browning, '15 LL.B., a member of Congress from 
Tennessee, spoke of Cumberland's contributions to Law 
and Politics, maintaining that Cumberland's greatness lies 
not so much in the notable record of her alumni as in her 
contribution through them to the true American spirit. 
Dr. William Pearson Lockwood, '13 A.B., '31 D.D., speak- 
ing of his school days in Cumberland, in an appealing 
address, said: "Cumberland has given her tithe, for at 
least one-tenth of her graduates have gone into full-time 
Christian service." Dr. James E. Clarke, of Nashville, 
speaking on "To-Morrow," suggested three things essen- 
tial to greater service, "The preservation of a noble herit- 
age, adaptation to the needs of to-day, and constancy to 
the Christian ideal of life." 

Judge John H. DeWitt, of the Tennessee Court of Ap- 
peals, presided at the Symposium for Lawyers. Chief 
Justice Grafton Green, of the Tennessee Supreme Court, 
spoke on "The Relation of State and Federal Courts," 
stating that it is not good practice to transfer State cases 
to Federal Courts, when and if the State afforded ample 
protection. Judge John A. Pitts, '71 LL.B., spoke on "The 
Passing of Legal Technicalities," affirming that the rules 
of legal procedure have become more simple and direct, 
giving way to sound reason in the protection of human 
rights. 

Byrd Douglas, '17 LL.B., a practicing attorney of Nash- 
ville and a former instructor in Cumberland, presided at 
the Symposium for Scientists and Industrialists. Dr. 
Charles M. A. Stine, Vice-President and Chemical Director 
of the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, of Wil- 
mington, Delaware, delivered an inspiring and instruc- 



182 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

tive address on "Chemistry and Our Industrial Frontiers." 
"All effort, whether scientific or otherwise, fails in its 
purpose," he said, "if it does not react to the benefit of 
mankind. We stand to-day on new industrial frontiers. 
Nitrogen from the air, motor fuels and oil from coal; 
building materials from annual crops; rubber from coal, 
limestone, and salt; solvents and synthetic resins from coal, 
water, and air; the air conditioning of ordinary homes by 
economical chemical refrigeration processes; swifter eco- 
nomical transportation; more efficient methods of the pres- 
ervation and distribution of foodstuffs appear on the hori- 
zon. This expansion of our industrial frontiers has 
undoubtedly added to the health and happiness of the 
American people. ... As scientific knowledge has become 
more profound, it has come to reinstate an omniscient God 
in His rightful place. Science has become aware of a 
spiritual world and the greatest scientists of the day do 
reverence before this God." 

With these significant words, the exercises of the Nine- 
tieth Anniversary came to a beautiful close; many felt the 
power of it all and looked forward to the coming of a new 
day. Some remembered the words of John Oxenham: 

"God grant wisdom in these coming days, 
And eyes unsealed that we clear visions see 
Of that new world that He would have us build, 
To Life's ennoblement, and His high ministry." 

The leading editorial of the Nashville Banner, October 
12, 1932, was concerning the Ninetieth Anniversary of 
Cumberland University. One of the distinguished visitors 
at the celebration pronounced it the best editorial he had 



ERNEST L. STOCKTON, TENTH PRESIDENT 183 

ever read in a daily newspaper about one of the Christian 
colleges. A few quotations froin the editorial are given 
here: 

"The memorial celebration, with a two-day program, 
beginning to-morrow, of the ninetieth anniversary of the 
establishment of Cumberland University will be a notable 
event. It is an institution which has both made history 
and seen it made. . . . Robert L. Caruthers and the small 
group of courageous spirits establishing at Lebanon in 
1842 in Cumberland University an institution which was 
to make State and nation debtors for a service through the 
passing decades of immeasurable value — these men were 
empire builders in as true a sense as were Sevier, Blount, 
Robertson, and Jackson. Few institutions in the land can 
point to a record of equal achievements to those of 
Cumberland University. 

"It is fitting, indeed, that the celebration of the Nine- 
tieth Anniversary should be the impressive event which is 
assured. Cumberland has kept abreast of the times, but it 
has never surrendered its ideals to a spirit of materialism. 
It has builded character as the surest foundation for in- 
dividual growth and power and for the social structure. 
. . . The adoption several years ago by the Trustees and 
administrative officers of an expansion program which 
called for the projection of a campaign with an ultimate 
objective of $1,000,000 was timely and wise. The need 
of buildings, equipment, and endowment was too clearly 
realized to be ignored without permitting this great con- 
structive force in the life of the state and nation, with 
students from three-fourths of the states now enrolled, to 



184 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

falter in its advance, to fail to meet demands constantly 
increasing." 

The year 1932-33 was one of the best in the history of 
the institution. The net student attendance at Cumber- 
land in all departments since 1921 has been as follows: 
500 in 1921-22; 512 in 1922-23; 662 in 1923-24; 750 in 
1924-25; 734 in 1925-26; 729 in 1926-27; 650 in 1927- 
28; 620 in 1928-29; 613 in 1929-30; 603 in 1930-31; 614 
in 1931-32; and 681 in 1932-33. The Commencement in 
1933 was one of the most notable. The Nashville Banner, 
May, 1933, said of it: 

"Cumberland University to-day is observing its ninety- 
first Commencement, and it is gratifying to Tennesseans 
that this institution, whose history reaches back to the 
golden days of the State, will graduate this year the largest 
class in its history. 

"Lying behind the present Cumberland is a past rich in 
achievement, achievement measured in the lives of men 
who have gone from the University halls into the world 
beyond. Cordell Hull, premier in the Cabinet of one of 
the most notable administrations the country has known, 
is but one of many Cumberland University alumni who 
have accomplished notable successes in national fields of 
usefulness. 

"In this year's graduating class, thirty-four of the forty- 
eight States are represented, as are fifty-three of Tennes- 
see's ninety-five counties. Nashville's representatives num- 
ber twelve. 

"Though Cumberland University is approaching the 
century mark ... its usefulness is growing with its added 
years." 



Chapter XV 
THE LAW SCHOOL 

1847-1935 

On February 27, 1845, the Board of Trustees embodied 
the idea of estabhshing a law professorship in the Univer- 
sity in the following resolution: "Resolved, That Hon. N. 
Green be appointed Professor of Law and Political Econ- 
omy in Cumberland University." This was the father of 
Chancellor Nathan Green, Jr. On May 27, 1845, the min- 
utes of the Board record the fact that Hon. N. Green, Sr., 
then a member of the Tennessee Supreme Court, declined to 
accept the appointment, owing to circumstances over which 
he had no control. At this meeting. May 27, Hon. Abram 
Caruthers, then a judge of the circuit court, was elected to 
this professorship, which he agreed to accept. Neverthe- 
less, he found later that he could not enter upon the pro- 
fessorship at that time. The proper financial arrange- 
ments and guarantees were yet lacking. 

On January 9, 1847, nearly two years later, the Board 
of Trustees appointed Jordan Stokes, William L. Martin, 
and Robert L. Caruthers a committee to "take into con- 
sideration the propriety and practicability of establishing 
a Law Department in the University." On February 22, 
1847, this committee made the following recommendations: 
"1. That a Department of Law be now established in the 
University, and that it be opened to the reception of stu- 
dents the first Monday in October following, if fifteen 
pupils can be obtained." There were other recommenda- 

(185) 



186 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

tions made, among which there was this one, "that pro- 
fessors of established reputation shall be elected; and to 
secure for the office competent talents and qualifications, 
they do now fix the salaries of professors at $1,500." The 
Trustees adopted immediately the recommendations of the 
committee, and thus the Department of Law was estab- 
lished on February 22, 1847. 

The Trustees immediately proceeded, upon the nomina- 
tion of Hon. Jordan Stokes, to the election of Judge Abram 
Caruthers as the first Professor of Law. The minutes of 
the Board show that on August 30, 1847, Judge Robert 
L. Caruthers, his generous brother, guaranteed the salary 
of the Professor of Law for the first three years. The ac- 
count of the matter shows, however, that the tuition fees 
were practically sufficient to pay the salary. Judge Abram 
Caruthers delivered his inaugural address in July, 1847. 
This address was printed at the time in the New York 
Legal Journal. It attracted much favorable attention, 
since it advocated the textbook, rather than the lecture, 
method of teaching law. 

On October 1, 1847, the Law School was opened as had 
been planned. The first recitation was held in the law 
office of Judge Robert L. Caruthers. The law office was a 
brick structure and stood in the yard of the Caruthers' 
residence on West Main Street. It was removed recently 
to make room for a new side street. Seven students were 
present the first day. It was just at this time that Judge 
Abram Caruthers was getting out the first edition of his 
History of a Lawsuit, which has been a textbook in the 
Law School from that time until the present. It has 
undergone several revisions and is a good-sized volume. 



THE LAW SCHOOL 187 

It was almost entirely re-written by Dr. Andrew B. Mar- 
tin, who was a Professor of Law from 1878 to 1920. The 
late Chancellor Green was one of the seven students who 
were present on the first day. There were twenty-five 
students during the first year, and the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws was conferred upon Henry R. Owen, "William C. 
Pollock, and Paine P. Prim at the annual commencement, 
July 28, 1848. Paine B. Prim was later a member of the 
Supreme Court of Oregon for many years, and also the 
Chief Justice. At one time, prior to the Civil War, 
Cumberland's Law School was the largest in the United 
States. There were 181 students in 1857-58. 

In the SotUhern Magazine, February, 1935, Laura Vir- 
ginia Hale says: 

"The South was the pioneer in legal education, William 
and Mary having established a chair of municipal law be- 
fore any other American institution had deemed one neces- 
sary or expedient. From that time law schools multiplied 
rapidly, and legal education, as provided for the young men 
of the ante-bellum South was more extensive, thorough, 
and liberal than that offered in any other section. The Uni- 
versity of Virginia, Transylvania, and Cumberland were 
particularly famous for their law schools, Cumberland's 
being in 18 58 the largest and most effective in the coun- 
try." 

In 1848 Judge Nathan Green, Sr., was elected part-time 
Professor of Law. He was still a member of the Tennes- 
see Supreme Court, and had been since 1831. He resigned 
his position as a member of this court in 18 52, and was 
then full professor until the time of his death. Judge 
Bromfield L. Ridley, one of the chancellors of the state, 



188 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

was also elected in 1848 as a Professor of Law, and served 
until 1852. In 1856 Nathan Green, Jr., was added to the 
Law Faculty. He continued in this position for a period 
of sixty-three years. John Cartwright Carter, '58 LL.B., 
became a Professor of Law in 1859, and served one year. 

After the Civil War, on the first Monday in September, 
1865, the Law School was reopened in the Campbell 
Academy building with twenty students and two profes- 
sors, Nathan Green, Sr., and Nathan Green, Jr. The for- 
mer died on March 30, 1866. Henry Cooper, a young 
man of forty years and a Judge of the Circuit Court, was 
then appointed a Law Professor. After teaching two years 
he resigned. The number of students during the year 
1865-66 was 43. The following year it was 77. 

In 1868 Robert L. Caruthers was elected Professor of 
Law, which position he held until near the time of his 
death in 1882. In 1870 Judge Nathan Green, Jr., taught 
his classes in the Baptist Seminary building in the East 
Main Street section. Judge Caruthers, being feeble, used 
the library room in his residence on West Main Street. 
From 1873 to 1878 the law classes were taught in the 
Corona Institute building. 

Dr. Andrew B. Martin was a Law Professor from 1878 
to 1920. Judge Edward Ewing Beard was a Law Pro- 
fessor from September, 1912, to July, 1923. Judge Wil- 
liam R. Chambers was elected Law Professor in the sum- 
mer of 1920, and served until the last of December, 1934. 
Judge Albert Williams was appointed Law Professor in the 
summer of 1923, and served two years, when he resigned. 
He served again as Professor of Law from January, 1933, 
to December, 1934. Julian Kenneth Faxon, Jur.D. (Chi- 



THE LAW SCHOOL 189 

cago), was made a Professor of Law in the summer of 
1925. He resigned in June, 1930. Judge Albert B. Neil, 
of Nashville, was elected to take the place made by the va- 
cancy. Sinclair Daniel, LL.B., President of Martin Col- 
lege, was a member of the Faculty from January to June, 
1932. In June, 1932, Samuel Burnham Gilreath, LL.B., 
was elected Professor of Law. Currell Vance, A.B., LL.B., 
was added to the Law Faculty in January, 1935. 

From 1847 to 18 53, a period of six years, the course of 
study required two years for its completion. In 1853 
a reduction was made from two years to fifteen months. 
This arrangement covered a period of eighteen years, in- 
cluding the Civil War period. In 1871 the course was 
further reduced so that the course might be completed in 
one year, or two semesters. Three reasons were assigned 
at the time for making the change: (1) Most Law Schools 
in the United States had shortened the time. (2) Owing 
to the conditions after the Civil War, most young men 
were limited in their means. (3) With better textbooks 
and better methods of teaching law, it was believed sat- 
isfactory results could be obtained in one year. 

Pursuant to an action of the Faculty and Trustees, the 
catalogue of 1932-33 announced that at an early date the 
course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws would 
extend over a period of two years, and that the present 
one-year course, with some changes, would be continued. 

As will be seen by reading the foregoing paragraphs, the 
Law School has been, from the first day, a constituent part 
of the University. Every law degree that was ever con- 
ferred in Lebanon, prior to 1932, was conferred under the 
charter, and by the Faculty and Trustees of the same. 



190 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Since the summer of 1895, there has been a summer 
session of the Law School. At that time, Dr. Andrew B. 
Martin began to give courses in business and commercial 
law, domestic relations, and similar subjects, but in such a 
way that they were not a duplication of the regular 
courses given during the school year. He continued to 
give these courses for a period of twenty-five years, or 
through the summer of 1919, the last before his death in 
May, 1920. This work was carried on by Judge W. R. 
Chambers from 1920 to 1934. In June, 193 5, Professor 
Samuel Gilreath began his work as the teacher of the 
summer session. 



Chapter XVI 
TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 

Judge Abram Caruthers, LL.D., was born near 
Hartsville, Tennessee, January 14, 1803, and died in Ma- 
rietta, Georgia, May 5, 1862. He received his first educa- 
tion, along with his brother Robert, at Washington Col- 
lege in East Tennessee. While yet a youth he was thrown 
on his own resources and had to struggle with poverty. 
It was clear to all that he had an iron will and plenty of 
moral fiber, and that he was an earnest, patient, and un- 
tiring student, noted for thoroughness. He began the 
practice of law in Columbia, Tennessee, and was appointed 
Circuit Judge by Governor Carroll in 1833. His decisions 
were clear and vigorous, and the Supreme Court regarded 
him as the best judge in the State. 

This eminent teacher began his work as Professor of Law 
in Cumberland University in 1847. The first thing he did 
was to write a book, American Latv, an introduction to the 
study of law. Next he wrote the History of a Laiu Suit, 
a condensed treatise on pleading. His plan of teaching was 
new and original. In less than one year he was accepted 
as the standard authority on Tennessee practice. He 
taught all his successors in the Law School how to teach 
law. It was his originality, accuracy, clearness, and 
strength that made the Law School one of the most famous 
in the United States. He made a probably larger con- 
tribution to legal science than any other man who ever 
lived in Tennessee. He was an earnest Christian, a ruling 

(191) 



192 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

elder, and a man whose influence was only for the good of 
his fellow-men. 

Congressman John M. Bright, of Tennessee, paid him 
this tribute: "Modest as he was meritorious, consistent as 
he was conscientious, useful as he was laborious, exalted 
in principle as he was liberal in spirit, profound as he was 
accurate, sound as a lawyer, able as a jurist, popular as a 
professor, successful as an author, irreproachable as a citi- 
zen, exemplary as a Christian, and the founder of the Law 
Department of Cumberland University. Such was Abram 
Caruthers." 

The second Professor in the Law School was Nathan 
Green, Sr., LL.D. He was born in Amelia County, Vir- 
ginia, May 16, 1792, and died in Lebanon, March 30, 
1866. He studied law and began the practice of it in his 
native State. Not long after this he settled in Winchester, 
Tennessee, where he lost a fortune in games of chance. 
Later he became an ardent Christian and an elder 
in the Church. In 1826 he became a member of the 
Senate of Tennessee. In 1831 he was made a member of the 
Tennessee Supreme Court, where he was associated with 
Catron, Reese, Turley, and McKinney. In 1848 he began 
to assist Judge Abram Caruthers in the Law School. In 
1852 he retired altogether from the Supreme Court and 
gave his whole time to teaching in the Law School, in 
which work he remained until his death. 

Young men in large numbers came to Cumberland 
University to get instruction in law from Caruthers and 
Green, two of the greatest law teachers in the entire na- 
tion. Judge Green was in the fulness of his intellectual 
manhood. He had already done much to build up the 




JOHN ROYAL HARRIS, D.D. 
President, 1922-1926 



TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 193 

judicial system of the State. Besides, he had a wonderful 
and magnetic personahty, was tall, imposing in person, 
had a deep-toned and impressive voice, earnest and dig- 
nified manner, and other characteristics which would at- 
tract attention anywhere. 

Nathan Green, Sr., was a soldier in the War of 1812; he 
was patriotic, always advocating law and order; and he did 
all that he did with all his might. He was a profound 
student of the Bible, was no mean theologian, loved his 
church, was a ruling elder, frequently attended the church 
courts, and frequently conducted religious exercises at the 
church and at camp meetings. As one of his biographers 
states, his reasoning was "irresistibly eloquent." 

Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley said this of him: 

"He was a teacher of righteousness whose voice was 
heard, felt, and remembered throughout the State. He 
was indeed the Sir Matthew Hale of Tennessee. Then, in 
after life, his influence upon the crowds of ingenuous, 
eager youth, assembled at Lebanon, was most attractive 
and benign. It was most magnetic and elevating. With- 
out underestimating the great toils and worth of others, 
it may be safely said that no one of Judge Green's con- 
temporaries, lay or clerical, was gifted with greater facul- 
ties for Christian usefulness, or favored with a wider field 
of service, or blest with a richer or more lasting harvest." 

Judge Bromfield Ridley, one of the Chancellors of the 
State, was made a Professor of Law in the University in 
1848, and served until 18 52. He and Judge Nathan 
Green, Sr., began their work in Cumberland University 
at the same time. Judge Ridley was born in Granville 
County, North Carolina, was educated in the University 



194 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, and, later, practiced 
law in Tennessee. For twenty years he was a judge of the 
Chancery Court. He devoted much labor and learning 
to Equity Jurisprudence. A man of unblemished char- 
acter, of much talent, and of unusual legal attainments, 
he was the soul of honor. As a churchman he was widely 
revered and honored. He was a frequent representative in 
the highest church courts; and was a member of the Com- 
mittee of the General Assembly of his Church which in 
1849 advised the establishment of a Theological Depart- 
ment in Cumberland University under ''the patronage of 
the General Assembly." He died in Murfreesboro, Ten- 
nessee, August 10, 1869. 

John Cartwright Carter, of Waynesboro, Georgia, be- 
came a Professor in the Law School in 18 59, and served 
one year. He had received the LL.B. degree from the 
University, with the Class of 18 58. This class had more 
brilliant men in it than any other prior to the Civil War. 
Soon after the beginning of hostilities in 1861, Professor 
Carter entered the Southern army. On account of his 
ability and merit, he soon rose to distinction. On July 7, 
1864, he was made a Brigadier General. At the battle of 
Franklin, Tennessee, November 10, 1864, he was mortally 
wounded and died shortly afterward. He was noted for 
his wonderful endurance, energy, courage, and faithful- 
ness in the discharge of duty. 

Owing to the death of Nathan Green, Sr., in 1866, 
Judge Henry Cooper was elected to take his place in the 
Law School. This he did with distinction. He was born 
in Columbia, Tennessee, August 22, 1827. He studied 
law in Shelbyville. In 18 53 and 18 57 he represented his 



TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 195 

county in the Legislature. During the Civil War he was 
made a judge of the Circuit Court. He was a Professor 
in the Law School two years, 1866-68, and then became a 
State Senator. In 1869 he was elected over Ex-President 
Andrew Johnson to the United States Senate. He was an 
elder in the Presbyterian Church. After one term in the 
United States Senate, he engaged in the mining business 
in Mexico. On February 3, 1884, he was killed by Mexi- 
can bandits in Tierra Blanca. 

Andrew Bennett Martin, Professor of Law forty-two 
years, 1878-1920, was a man of marked ability. Possess- 
ing a strong personality, throughout a long and useful 
life he was a leader of men. And yet he was unselfish 
and generous and always seemed glad to see honors and 
preferments coming to other men. 

This eminent teacher was a self-made man; and yet he 
was a man of varied and accurate learning, having a great 
thirst for knowledge, and being an earnest student of the 
best books and of the great movements of the times in 
which he lived. And he was gifted with the grace and 
power of charming and elegant and eloquent speech. 

His master passion was the teaching of law, and he never 
allowed anything to interfere with that. Moreover he 
had a profund admiration for the legal profession and 
did much toward lifting it to a higher plane. He was the 
soul of honor itself and a Christian gentleman. His con- 
stant endeavor was to create in his students a love for their 
great work in life, coupled with a high regard for the 
law of the land and a reverence for high moral principle. 
But he was not merely a law professor, for he was a public 
spirited citizen as well. The welfare of his community, 



196 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

his State and the nation was always on his heart. More 
than all and best of all he was a friend of Cumberland 
University. This institution never had a more ardent sup- 
porter. His loyalty to it never wavered. He was its prin- 
cipal stay in many a dark hour, and always believed there 
was a great future for it. 

Dr. Martin was born near Gordonsville, Tennessee, De- 
cember 9, 1836. When about fifteen years of age he 
came to Lebanon, and found employment in a drugstore, 
where he earned the money to pay for his tuition in school. 
He was talented, had a bright disposition, and early at- 
tracted the attention of such men as Robert and Abram 
Caruthers, N. Green, Sr., and N. Green, Jr. He won his 
way by his own efforts. 

This promising young man was graduated from Cum- 
berland University with the LL.B. degree in 1858. In his 
class were such men as Leroy B. Valiant, later of the Su- 
preme Court of Missouri; E. S. Hammond, who became a 
Federal Judge; B. B. Battle, later a member of the Supreme 
Court of Arkansas; John C. Carter; and N. N. Cox, of 
Franklin, who became a Congressman. 

Soon after his graduation, young Martin entered upon 
the practice of law in Lebanon in partnership with Judge 
W. H. Williamson, '52 A.B., '54 LL.B., a Trustee of the 
University. "When the Civil War began, he entered the 
Southern army, serving for a time as a major on General 
Robert Hatton's staff; then on the staff of General Dibrell; 
and finally as a member of the staflf of General Joseph 
Wheeler. After the Civil War, he entered again upon the 
practice of law. Several times he served as special judge. 
From 1871 to 1873 he was a member of the Legislature. 



TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 197 

In 1880 he was a presidential elector on the Hancock 
ticket. 

This great leader became a member of the Board of 
Trustees in 1866, and was President of this Board from 
1882 to the time of his death. Judge Green and Dr. 
Martin did not engage in the practice of law while teach- 
ing in the University. 

Dr. Martin was frequently called upon, however, to 
serve in other capacities. He was a member of the Board 
of Commissioners of Lebanon for ten years prior to his 
death. He was a ruling elder in the local Presbyterian 
Church for more than fifty years, being one of the most 
useful officers the church ever had, always liberal with his 
money and much looked to for his wise counsels. He was 
for fifty years a teacher in the Sunday School and on a 
few occasions represented his presbytery in the General 
Assembly. In 1878 he received the LL.D. degree from 
Lincoln University in Illinois. Caruthers' "History of a 
Law Suit" was revised and almost entirely re-written by 
him. His death occurred in Lebanon, May 19, 1920. 

The Board of Trustees said: 

"In his death the nation has lost a servant of preeminent 
ability as a law teacher and writer; the community one 
of the most valuable and distinguished citizens that ever 
adorned it; Cumberland University a friend who never 
wavered in his loyalty and devotion nor grew tired in his 
unselfish services; and the Board of Trustees a leader who, 
for fifty-four years as a member and thirty-eight years 
as chairman, performed his duties with an ability and 
faithfulness that established him in the confidence of his 
associates." 



198 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Mr. John E. Edgerton, President of the National Manu- 
facturers' Association, a former student in the College of 
Arts, 1897-98, and at the time a Trustee of the Univer- 
sity, said: 

"When he went, Lebanon lost its most distinguished 
citizen, Tennessee its most famous law teacher, and the 
nation one of its greatest men. Never did Cumberland 
University have a more devoted friend or zealous servant 
than Dr. Martin. He had a large part in giving to its 
Law School a reputation second to none on the American 
continent. As a law teacher and writer his name will rank 
among the most illustrious in the country. ... In all 
these years there never was a moment when his interest 
relaxed or when his abilities were not equal to the task. 
. . . To him all men were honest except those who had 
proved themselves to be otherwise. The movement of his 
mind was quick, and he reached his conclusions with ex- 
traordinary alacrity; yet his position with reference to any 
question was never so fixed as to scorn argument; and he 
would abandon as gracefully as he had reached it a con- 
clusion that had not the virtue of moral conviction." 

Judge Edward Ewing Beard, Law Professor, was an able, 
conscientious and well-informed lawyer. He kept many a 
client out of the court house, and always advised justice 
and fair play. Many a lawyer went to Judge Beard as to 
a Cyclopedia of the Law. He was a constant reader of the 
law, and was rarely ever caught napping as to the latest 
Supreme Court decisions. He was for many years a legal 
adviser of the University. 

A man of his mold would naturally be a public spirited 
citizen. He was mayor of Lebanon two or three terms, 



TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 199 

and had the confidence of all classes. The ability to see 
both sides of a question gave him strength with the people. 
He was quiet and unostentatious. Following in his noted 
father's footsteps, he was an outstanding and influential 
churchman. Besides being a faithful ruling elder, he was 
a lifetime teacher of a Sunday-school Class; the Moderator 
of the General Assembly of his Church, May, 1891; a 
member of the Church Union Committee from 1903 to 
1906; a member of the Union Committee of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in the United States of America from 1906 
to a short time before his death. For a long period he was 
a director of the American Bible Society. 

Judge Beard was also a widely-read student of art, his- 
tory, politics, and books of travel. Fie kept in touch with 
the things going on in the world. By means of travel he 
knew for himself most of the territory of the United 
States and most of the countries of Europe. 

This valuable friend of Cumberland University was 
born in Princeton, Kentucky, August 27, 18 50, being the 
son of Dr. Richard Beard, the theologian. The late W. D. 
Beard, Chief Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court, and 
the late Richard Beard, '59 A.B., a leading lawyer of Mur- 
freesboro, were his brothers. 

One of the finest things in the life of Judge Beard was 
his devotion to the University. Unstintedly he gave to it 
his best efforts. From it he received the A.B. degree in 
1870, the LL.B. degree in 1874, and the LL.D. degree in 
1923. He was made a Trustee soon after his graduation, 
and, at about the same time, the Treasurer of the Board, 
both of which positions he held until near the time of his 
death. At his life's close, it was said: "The spirit of Leba- 



200 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

non and of Cumberland was nowhere better manifested 
than in his Hfe and labors." 

Owing to the Law School's growth, Judge Beard became 
a Professor in the Law School in the year, 1911-12, Dean 
in 1920, and continued in these positions until his death, 
June 18, 1924. Thus it was that Edward Ewing Beard, 
one of nature's noblemen, a great and lovable man in every 
way, patient, faithful, untiring, lofty in purpose, too big 
to be ungenerous, passed seventy years of a fine and un- 
sullied life in Lebanon and in connection with Cumber- 
land University, an institution which he loved next to his 
own family and his own life. He was the last of the Olifl 
Guard, Cumberland's Immortals. 

The vacancy in the Law Faculty, created by the death 
of Dr. Andrew B. Martin in May, 1920, was filled by the 
election of Judge William Richard Chambers, of Lebanon, 
Tennessee. He began his work as Professor of Law in Sep- 
tember of that year, and continued these labors until De- 
cember 22, 1934. In the summer of 1924, he succeeded 
Judge Beard as Dean of the Law School; and continued 
to serve as Dean until May 31, 1933. He was accurate in 
his scholarship and painstaking in his work. 

Judge Chambers was born August 9, 18 59, near Leba- 
non. He received the A.B. degree from Cumberland as 
of the Class of 1877, and the LL.B. degree from Vander- 
bilt University in 1881. Cumberland University honored 
him with the LL.D. degree in 1925. From 1897 to 1899 
he was a Representative in the Tennessee Legislature, and 
from 1899 to 1901, a member of the State Senate. Gov- 
ernor Robert L. Taylor appointed him a special judge of 




If- 




Abk/-,(vi cAkUrHtRS, LL.D. 
Professor of Law, 1S47-1862 




NATHAN GREEN, SR., LL.D. 
Law Professor, 1848-1866 



TEACHERS IN THE LAW SCHOOL 201 

the Court of Appeals in 1898. He has practiced law since 
1881, and now resides in Lebanon. 

Judge Albert Williams was a Professor in the Law School 
from 1923 to 1925. He was born in Nashville, May 30, 
1899. His college education was received at Vanderbilt 
University. In 1917 he received the LL.B. degree from 
Cumberland University. He was the State High School 
Inspector for Tennessee, 1917-18, and State Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, 1919-21. Governor Austin 
Peay appointed him Judge of the Criminal Court of the 
Fifth Tennessee Judicial District, April, 192 5, and at the 
expiration of the term was elected to the same position. 
He was the editor of the Nashville Teunessean, 1923-24; 
and Commissioner of Finance and Taxation for Tennessee, 
1927-29. Since that date he has been a practicing attor- 
ney in Nashville. In January, 1933, he again became a 
member of the Law Faculty of the University, and acting 
Dean, after May 31, 1933. He resigned both positions 
near the close of December, 1934. 

In 1925, Julian Kenneth Faxon of Chicago, was elected 
as a Professor in the Law School. He was a native of 
Illinois. From the University of Chicago he received the 
following degrees: Ph.B., A.M., and J.D. The last men- 
tioned degree was received for work done in the Chicago 
University School of Law. Having been instructed in 
the case method, he introduced some of its features into 
his teachings in Cumberland. In 1930 he resigned to go 
into business in Texas. 

Judge Albert Bramlette Neil, of Nashville, was made 
a Professor in the Law School in September, 1930, and 
is still in this position. He was appointed Judge of the 



202 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Criminal Court of the Tenth Judicial District of Davidson 
County in 1910, and served in that position for seven 
years. In 1918 he was elected Circuit Judge, and has con- 
tinued as such until this date. He was born in Lewisburg, 
Tennessee, in 1874. His college education was received 
at the Winchester Normal. From Cumberland University 
he received the LL.B. degree in 1896. After practicing 
law in Lewisburg six years, he practiced law in Nashville 
several years, in partnership with another Cumberland 
graduate, the late Judge M. H. Meeks. Judge Neil's abil- 
ity as a teacher of law is unquestioned. His learning and 
wide experience give him much prestige in his work in the 
Law School. He was made Dean of the Law School in 
January, 193 5. 

Samuel Burnham Gilreath, of Etowah, Tennessee, was 
elected Professor in the Law School in June, 1932. He was 
born in Cartersville, Georgia, being the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Lemuel Gilreath, and a grandson of Judge James 
Burnham, of Fayetteville, Tennessee. He was educated 
in the schools of Cartersville and at Cumberland Univer- 
sity. From Cumberland he received the LL.B. degree in 
1925, after which he practiced law in his section of the 
State until he came to his present position. He is a dili- 
gent student and well versed in law as well as in the re- 
lated subjects. 

Currell Vance, a practicing attorney of Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, was elected Professor in the Law School in Janu- 
ary, 193 5. He received the A.B. degree from Prince- 
ton University and the LL.B. degree from Vanderbilt 
University. He is the son of a distinguished clergyman. 
Dr. James L Vance, of Nashville. 



Chapter XVII 
THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 

1854-1909 

One of the chief early aims of Cumberland Univer- 
sity was the literary and theological education of candi- 
dates for the ministry. During the greater part of the life 
of the institution, candidates for the ministry have re- 
ceived free tuition regardless of the Christian denomina- 
tions to which they belonged. Many of the best families in 
Lebanon have given to students of this character all or 
a part of their board and lodging. Members of the Fac- 
ulty of the College of Arts, of the Law School, and of the 
Theological School have many times helped them liberally 
in a financial way. Of course, many of these students re- 
ceived help also from outside friends and from the Church 
Board of Education. 

The foremost advocates of theological education in the 
denomination with which the institution was affiliated 
were the men in connection with Cumberland University. 
Rev. Robert Donnell was the chairman of the committee 
which located the institution at Lebanon. He was the first 
man thought of as a theological professor in the institu- 
tion. Robert Donnell, President F. R. Cossitt, President 
T. C, Anderson, Dr. Richard Beard, Judge Robert L. 
Caruthers, Nathan Green, Sr., Dr. David Lowry, and 
others in Lebanon were the men who had the most to 
do with the matter of getting others interested enough to 
establish a Theological School. They were the men who 

(203) 



204 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Stood back of the movement and kept it going. Robert 
Donnell became pastor of the Lebanon Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church in the early summer of 1846. Before Mr. 
Donnell's coming to Lebanon, but after he had accepted 
the call to the church, Judge Robert L. Caruthers, one of 
the elders of the church and President of the Board of 
Trustees of the University, wrote to him as follows: 

"It would be very desirable to see some brother of 
wealth endow a Professorship of Theology in our Univer- 
sity, and you the first Professor. We hope the Lord will 
put it into the heart of some one blessed with the means 
to perform that great and good deed before many years. 
But before this is done, we deem it important to have a 
pastor here able to instruct candidates for the ministry." 
Even before Robert Donnell came, President Anderson had 
been already giving theological lectures to the ministerial 
students. He was now ably assisted by "Father" Donnell, 
as he was known. Dr. J. C. Provine, father of Dr. W. A. 
Provine, at present a Trustee of the University, had the 
following to say about him: "It was my good fortune to 
be a student in Cumberland University during the time 
Father Donnell was pastor. . . . His regular lectures to the 
theological students were very interesting and impressive. 
His manner was plain and familiar, characterized by af- 
fectionate tenderness and sympathy, as well as with ear- 
nestness and warmth." E. D. Pearson, later President of 
the Board of Trustees of Missouri Valley College, while a 
student in the University, was converted under "Father" 
Donnell's ministry, and soon entered the ministry him- 
self. 

Some of the early catalogues, as far back as 1847, an- 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 205 

nounced lectures on theology by Robert Donnell, T. C. 
Anderson, and David Lowry, who followed Mr. Donnell 
as pastor of the local church. When the General Assem- 
bly of the Church met in 18 52 it voted that a Theological 
School should be established as a department in Cum- 
berland University. As a first step the Board of Trus- 
tees of the University elected Dr. F. R. Cossitt as a Pro- 
fessor of Systematic Theology. He declined, however, 
to serve, "in consideration of his age and increasing in- 
firmities"; and Dr. Richard Beard, President of Cumber- 
land College, Princeton, Kentucky, was on April 22, 18 53, 
elected by the Trustees to this position, but did not begin 
his work until March 13, 1954. 

On May 4, 18 53, Dr. Beard sent to Josiah S. McClain, 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees of Cumberland Uni- 
versity, a letter of conditional acceptance of the position 
offered him by the Board. The essential parts of the let- 
ter are given here: 

"I have not replied before this for the reason that I 
wished a meeting of our Board of Directory previous to 
my doing so, and have not been able to secure a meeting 
until last evening. I regret very much that Dr. Cossitt 
did not accept the nomination. But as the matter is now 
before me, I hasten to make the following response: 

"First. I have never desired the nomination, and do 
not now desire the appointment. I involuntarily shrink 
from it. I am certainly somewhat aware of the respon- 
sibility which he incurs who takes the position. I would 
have preferred its being assumed by another. 

"Secondly. I will find it difficult to disengage myself 
here. The subject was distinctly presented to the Board 



206 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

last evening. The Board seem very unwilling to give me 
up. I hope further reflection will lead them to juster views 
of the question than they seem at present to entertain. 
But it would be a great trial to me to leave here under 
circumstances which would be likely to endanger the vital 
interests of this institution; and certainly I might be ex- 
pected to consider such a question presented in such as- 
pects as a question of duty. 

"Thirdly. I do not feel at liberty, however, yet to de- 
cline the nomination. The way before me is dark. I am 
willing to let the nomination come before the Assembly. 
Of course, the spirit manifested by that body would con- 
tribute very much towards inclining or disinclining me to 
a final acceptance of the situation. I make this statement 
in view of the probability of the Assembly's confirming 
the the nomination. ... I would consider it my duty to 
make trial of the situation which you propose, in the event 
of the nomination being confirmed." 

The charter of the University, procured in 1843, au- 
thorized the establishment of a theological professorship by 
"any evangelical church" or any person or persons, by 
endowing the same. But no professorship was endowed 
under this provision. The election of Dr. Richard Beard 
was reported by the Trustees to the General Assembly of 
the Church, and the election was confirmed by that body. 
The Trustees followed this rule of reporting the election 
of professors until the Theological School was discontinued 
in 1909. From an early date, 18 50, to 1920, a period of 
seventy years, the election of all Trustees was submitted 
to the General Assembly of the Church for confirmation 
or rejection. No one of them was ever rejected. (Since 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 207 

1920, because of a change in the charter at that time, the 
Trustees have reported to the three Synods of Tennessee, 
Mississippi, and Alabama, Presbyterian Church, in the 
United States of America.) 

On March 13, 18 54, Dr. Richard Beard was inaugurated 
as Professor of Systematic Theology in Cumberland Uni- 
versity. The subject of his inaugural address was, "Theol- 
ogy in its Scientific, Experimental and Practical Aspects." 
This address was printed in the Theological Medium, Au- 
gust, 18 54. So also was the Charge by Dr. F. R. Cossitt. 
By direction of the Board of Trustees, Dr. Cossitt asked 
two formal questions, involving the adoption of the Con- 
fession of Faith and the assumption of certain duties as 
a professor in the institution. A notable charge was given 
to the new professor, who is referred to by Dr. Cossitt as 
his "former student." Turning then to the Trustees 
present Dr. Cossitt said: 

"From the very beginning the University has enjoyed a 
high degree of public favor, and students from all quar- 
ters have assembled here to enjoy its advantages. Learned 
and able instructors as well as wise and salutary regula- 
tions have constituted the groundwork of your success. 
. . . The growth of the institution encouraged you to en- 
large its sphere of usefulness by the addition of a depart- 
ment of Law — the first known in Tennessee. The voice 
of the church called on you to establish a Department of 
Theology; and we this day induct the first Professor into 
his important office. . . . When the walls of that edifice 
which now overlooks our town, shall have crumbled and 
given place to another ten times as large and a hundred 
times as splendid . . . posterity will rejoice in the wisdom. 



208 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

foresight, labors, and sacrifices of their ancestors, and 
thank God for the blessings which they so richly enjoy. 
Your names, gentlemen and brethren, will not be forgot- 
ten, nor will your services be unappreciated. Go on then 
with your noble work; and your children will rise up after 
you and call you blessed." 

The way in which the Theological School was started 
was a wonderful example of faith, consecration, and al- 
truism. Writing of this feature, Dr. B. W. McDonnold, 
the third President of the University, says: "As this de- 
partment had at first no endowment, Dr. Beard's salary 
was at first secured by private contributions from the citi- 
zens of Lebanon." "With this statement Dr. J. B. Lindsley, 
of the old University of Nashville, practically agrees when 
he says: "Members of the Board of Trustees and citizens of 
Lebanon became responsible to the Professor for his sal- 
ary." This is a (Quotation from the statement made by 
President T. C. Anderson {Theological Medium, 1858). 
Furthermore, the catalogue of 1854 says, "Rev. David 
Lowry and President Anderson still continue their lec- 
tures on other subjects embraced in the course." Dr. Da- 
vid Lowry was the pastor of the local Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church. The two lecturers gave their services 
without remuneration. This was a noble and generous 
thing to do, and was regarded by them as a great privi- 
lege. 

From 1854 to 1858, the number of strictly theological 
students, as the catalogues indicate, ranged each year from 
four to seven. These, added to the candidates for the 
ministry who were pursuing their studies in the College 
of Arts and attending some of the theological lectures also, 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 209 

made a total of 37 in 1854-55; 45 in 1855-56; 34 in 1856- 
57; and 33 in 1857-58. The catalogues for these years 
indicate that the lack of financial support gave much con- 
cern to the Trustees. Dr. Richard Beard also was much 
discouraged, so he says, in an article, "Fifty Years as a 
Teacher," printed in the Theological Medium, 1879, pp. 
1-27. 

In 18 58 the charter of the University was changed so 
as to give the General Assembly of the Church the exclu- 
sive right to veto the election of Trustees. The charter 
amendment in 18 50 did not definitely do this. The 
amendment of 1850 said: 

"Appointments by the Board of Trutees to fill vacancies 
in their own body shall be submitted to the General As- 
sembly, or the Synod in which said institution is situated, 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at their next ses- 
sion, after such appointment, for confirmation or rejec- 
tion. 

The charter as amended in 18 58 was the first to show 
the erection of a Theological Department. Some dona- 
tions, chiefly in personal notes, were made to the endow- 
ment of the Theological School prior to the Civil War, 
all of which were swept away by that unhappy conflict. 
Prior to the burning of the University building in 1863, 
the classes of the Theological School were taught in that 
structure. After the war, the Abram Caruthers proper- 
ty on West Main Street, consisting of a large residence 
and one or two other buildings, with sixty acres of land, 
was bought for $8,760. This money was a part of the 
$12,000 received for the sale of the Judge Ephraim Ewing 
property in Chicago. The Caruthers property just re- 



210 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ferred to and afterwards known as Divinity Hall, was the 
home of the Theological School until 1896, when a re- 
moval was made to Memorial Hall on the main campus of 
the University. 

In 1859 Dr. B. W. McDonnold was appointed Profes- 
sor of Pastoral Theology and Sacred Rhetoric, and con- 
tinued his service as Professor until 1861. In 1873 Dr. 
William H. Darnall was appointed to serve temporarily 
as Professor of Church History. In 1877 three men were 
inaugurated as Professors in the Theological School: Dr. 
W. H. Darnall, Church History; Dr. S. G. Burney, BiWi- 
cal Literature; and Dr. R. V. Foster, Hebrew and New 
Testament Greek. 

The following account of this installation was printed in 
the Theological Medium, October, 1877: 

On September 30, 1877, exercises of a very interesting 
and impressive character were had in the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian church, Lebanon, Tennessee, on the occasion of the 
inauguration of the Rev. S. G. Burney, D.D., Rev. W. H. 
Darnall, and Rev. R. V. Foster, as professors in the Theo- 
logical Department of Cumberland University. Dr. Bur- 
ney became Professor of Biblical Literature; Dr. Darnall, 
who has for some time been acting Professor of Ecclesiasti- 
cal History, was formally inducted into the chair, and Mr. 
Foster was inaugurated Professor of Hebrew and Greek. 
. . . There were present the professors and students of the 
various departments of the University, many citizens of the 
town, and members of the congregation usually worshiping 
there. Dr. Darnall is the pastor of the church, and having 
been, for some years, teaching in the Theological Depart- 
ment, he did not deliver an address. Professor Burney 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 211 

and Foster delivered admirable addresses. . . . Rev. Richard 
Beard, D.D., Professor of Systematic Theology, who pre- 
sided on the occasion by request of the Board of Trustees, 
placed the three new professors under the obligations of a 
solemn covenant, into which they entered standing, in the 
presence of the audience, before the venerable and honored 
senior instructor. 

In 1880 Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick was made Professor of 
Church History to take the place of Dr. Darnall, who 
resigned in 1878. Dr. Claiborne H. Bell, Lecturer on 
Missions, 1880-84, was appointed Professor of Missions and 
Comparative Religion in 1884. For many years he had been 
President of the Church Board of Missions in St. Louis. 
In 1876 Dr. A. J. Baird, of Nashville, became a Lecturer 
on Pastoral Theology, and continued his lectures until 
1884, when Dr. W. J. Darby, of Evansville, was appointed 
in the place of Dr. Baird, and Dr. J. M. Hubbert, of 
Lincoln, 111., was appointed Lecturer on Preaching. In 
1881 Dr. S. T. Anderson, of Trinity University, Texas, 
was elected Professor of Biblical Literature, but declined to 
serve. In 1888, Dr. W. J. Darby, of Evansville, Indiana, 
was elected Professor of Practical Theology, but declined 
to serve. 

In 1893 James Monroe Hubbert, D.D., at that time pas- 
tor of the First Church in Nashville, was called to be Dean 
and Professor of Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, which 
positions he accepted. Dr. Hubbert served also as pastor 
of the Lebanon Church, and, after three years, as Stated 
Clerk of the General Assembly of the Church. He was a 
man of fine intellectual attainments, quite prominent in 
church circles, and one who administered the duties of his 



212 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

office with ability. In 1893 owing to the death of Dr. S. 
G. Burney, Dr. A. D. Hail, a missionary in Osaka, Japan, 
was elected Professor of Systematic Theology, but declined 
to leave his position in the mission field. 

Late in 1893, Rev. W. P. Bone, Pastor of the First 
Church, later the City Temple, in Dallas, Texas, was called 
to be Professor of New Testament Interpretation in the 
Theological School. He spent nearly a year in further 
preparation in Chicago University before assuming his du- 
ties in September, 1894. At the same time John Vant Ste- 
phens, D.D., of Bowling Green, Kentucky, began his work 
as a Professor of Biblical History and Church Law. A 
year later, owing to the death of Dr. J. D. Kirkpatrick in 
the summer of 1895, Dr. Stephens was transferred to the 
Professorship of Church History. In April, 1894, Rev. 
Finis King Farr was elected to the chair of Hebrew and 
Old Testament Interpretation, but pursued his studies 
more than a year in Chicago University before assuming 
his duties in September, 1895. 

In May, 1902, Dr. J. M. Hubbert retired as Dean and 
Professor in the Theological School. During his adminis- 
tration the institution made rapid strides in its effective- 
ness and as a power in the church. Nearly all the stu- 
dents were college graduates. The time for completing 
the course was changed in 1895 from two years of nine 
months each (Assembly Plan of 1852) to three years of 
seven months each. The courses of study and the work 
done by the Faculty came up to a high standard, and were 
a credit to the cause of Theological Education. 

On the retirement of Dr. Hubbert, Rev. James Robert 
Henry, pastor of the Shady Avenue Church, Pittsburgh, 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 213 

Pennsylvania, was called to take his place as Dean and 
Professor of Practical Theology. Dean Henry had previ- 
ously served as the Secretary of the Church Board of Edu- 
cation, which had its headquarters in Nashville. Dean 
Henry's period of service continued four years, 1902-06. 
At no other time did the Theological School have a larger 
attendance. 

In 1903, Robert Gamaliel Pearson, D.D., of Starkville, 
Miss., who had received the B.D. degree from Cumberland 
in 1876, was added to the Faculty as Professor of English 
Bible. Dr. Pearson served in this capacity, and very suc- 
cessfully, from 1903 to 1909. He was well known 
throughout the South, and even in other parts of the 
country, as a remarkable evangelist. 

When Dr. J. R. Henry resigned as Dean and Professor 
in 1906, Dr. W. P. Bone, the Professor of New Testament 
Interpretation, was made Dean. This was the year of the 
Church Union and the beginning of a relation with a 
wider church program. A library of more than 3,000 
well selected volumes had been procured in the years be- 
tween 1896 and 1906. The selection of books had been 
carefully made and each of the six departments in the 
Theological School got its share. 

Every year, beginning in 1894, the students were fa- 
vored with a course of from four to six lectures by some 
man of ability who had expert knowledge of such sub- 
jects as "The Pastoral Office," "Foreign Missions," or "Sun- 
day School Work." Among these lecturers were President 
A. B. Miller, D.D., LL.D., Waynesburg College; Dr. W. 
H. Darnall, Alabama; President James D. Moffatt, Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College; Dr. H. H. Hamill, Nash- 



214 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ville; Dr. A. J. Worden, Secretary, Sunday School Work, 
Philadelphia; Morris Ferguson, Philadelphia; J. Beveridge 
Lee, Philadelphia; Charles G. Turnbull, Editor, Stmday 
School Times; Dr. John Balcom Shaw, Chicago; Samuel 
J. Nicolls, D.D., LL.D., St. Louis; B. P. Fullerton, D.D., 
LL.D., St. Louis; A. D. Hail, D.D., Japan; J. B. Hail, 
D.D., Japan; President W. H. Black, D.D., LL.D., Mis- 
souri Valley College; W. J. Darby, D.D., LL.D., Evans- 
ville; President A. R. Taylor, LL.D., James Milliken Uni- 
versity; Marion Lawrence, Secretary, International Sunday 
School Association; Scott F. Hershey, D.D., Newcastle, 
Pennsylvania; Howard W. Pope, D.D., New Haven, Con- 
necticut; A. H. McKinney, Ph.D., Philadelphia; E. G. 
McLean, D.D., Chattanooga. 

From 1906 to 1909, the first three years after the 
Church Union, Dr. "W. P. Bone, the Dean of the Theologi- 
cal School, had as one of his tasks the work of raising 
three or four thousand dollars each year from outside 
friends to supplement the funds on hand for the mainte- 
nance of the institution. The scholarship funds were very 
limited and the endowment was small. 

It seem.ed, however, that about $100,000 was in sight 
for the additional endowment of the Theological School. 
Doubtless this sum would have been secured, except for 
an adverse decision, on the validity of the union of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church and the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States of America, given by the Ten- 
nessee Supreme Court on April 3, 1909. 

The disastrous effects of this decision practically equalled 
those of the Civil War; and were as much to be regretted 
and as diflEcult to understand. "With much reluctance and 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 215 

certainly against the wishes the Trustees decided to dis- 
continue the Theological School, which had had for fifty- 
five years a wonderfully useful existence. It seemed finan- 
cially impossible to continue this Department, especially 
since the funds were tied up by three lawsuits brought by 
the opponents of the Church Union. After the discon- 
tinuance, the new and independently established "Presby- 
terian Seminary of the South" (Assembly Minutes, 1909, 
pp. 82, 83), with a different charter and in no wise con- 
nected with the University or any of its Departments, 
carried on its work in Memorial Hall of Cumberland 
University for one year without rental charge until its re- 
moval to Cincinnati, to become affiliated with the Lane 
Theological Seminary. The Theological School of Cum- 
berland University was not the institution that was re- 
moved to Cincinnati or elsewhere, although the public, 
to the detriment of the University, received that impres- 
sion. 

All bachelor of divinity degrees ever conferred in Leba- 
non prior to 1910 were conferred by the authority of the 
Trustees of Cumberland University, in accordance with 
the provisions of the University charter. The total num- 
ber of students receiving the Bachelor of Divinity degree 
from Cumberland University was 430. About 300 others 
took English and other partial courses, but did not re- 
ceive degrees. The main work of the Church was done 
by these men. Many of them occupied prominent pul- 
pits. Quite a number of them became moderators of the 
General Assembly of the Church, and others became board 
secretaries, home or foreign missionaries, college presi- 
dents or college professors. 



216 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

The Plan of 1852 and the University Charters, 
1843-1903 

In 1848 the General Assembly of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church appointed a Committee to take into 
consideration the advisability of establishing a Theological 
School (Assembly Minutes, 1848, p. 22). 

At this same Assembly (1848) the Committee on Edu- 
cation reported the following item concerning Cumber- 
land University: "The completion of a room for a Theo- 
logical Department has been ordered by the Trustees, and 
will soon be accomplished; and some measures have been 
taken to raise means for a Theological Library {Assembly 
Mimites, 1848; Cumberland University catalogue, 1848, 
p. 25). The University catalogues of 1847 and 1848 show 
that Robert Donnell and President Anderson are giving 
Lectures in Theology and Church History, and that the 
Trustees are hoping to get endowment for a "Theological 
Department." 

In 1849 the Assembly Committee, appointed in 1848, 
made a report in which they introduced a resolution to 
the effect that such an institution be established in Cum- 
berland College, Princeton, Kentucky, and another in 
Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, "each school 
to be, and forever remain, under the entire control and 
management of the Assembly." The form of this resolu- 
tion was the subject of much debate {Assembly Minutes, 
1849). Four days later, and after much discussion, the 
Assembly passed a substitute resolution permitting and 
requesting the two institutions mentioned "to create an 
endowment fund for the establishment of such schools, 
under the patronage of this General Assembly {Assembly 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 217 

Minutes, 1849, pp. 30-3 3; Stephen's Digest, p. 519). 
The words, "entire control and management of the As- 
sembly," were ehminated, a fact not mentioned in accessi- 
ble documents later than the Assembly Minutes of 1849. 

The Trustees approved of the action of the Assembly of 
1849 with reference to a "Theological Department" {As- 
sembly MimUes, 18 50, p. 42). On January 16, 18 50, the 
Trustees of the University secured an amendment to the 
Charter of 1843 (Charter of 1843 printed in Asse^nbJy 
Minutes, 1901, p. 87), and reported the same to the As- 
sembly of 18 50 (amendment of 18 50 printed in Assem- 
bly Minutes, 1901, p. 88). Referring to the amendment, 
they said that it "requires all appointments of Trustees 
of this institution hereafter to be made, to be submitted 
to the General Assembly for approval or rejection, with 
power to fill the vacancies when the appointments made by 
the Trustees are not ratified" {Assembly Minutes, 18 50, 
p. 42). The Assembly of 18 50, acting on this report, 
adopted, after accepting an amendment by Rev. L. R. 
Woods, the following significant resolution: "That the 
General Assembly approve of the amended charter of 
Cumberland University, giving her the right of confirm- 
ing or rejecting the nominations for Trustees of said Uni- 
versity, and we will hereafter accept that right" {Assem- 
bly Minutes, 18 50, p. 13). The right to fill vacancies 
when the appointments made by the Trustees are not 
ratified, was not accepted by the Assembly (and hence 
the Trustees withdrew that ofifer in the amended Charter 
of 1858). 

In 18 50 the General Assembly adopted a resolution of- 
fered by Dr. T. C. Anderson to the effect that a commit- 



218 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

tee of seven be appointed by the Assembly "to mature a 
plan for the establishment of theological departments" in 
Cumberland College and in Cumberland University. The 
following committee was appointed: Dr. Richard Beard, 
Dr. T. C. Anderson, Dr. Milton Bird, Hon. Nathan Green, 
Professor Azel Freeman, Dr. David Lowry, and R. R. 
Lansden (Assembly Minutes, 18 50, p. 17). Dr. Beard was 
at that time President of Cumberland College, but in 
18 54 became the first Professor of Theology in Cumber- 
land University; Dr. Anderson was the President of Cum- 
berland University; Dr. Bird was five times Moderator of 
the General Assembly; Nathan Green, Sr., was Professor 
of Law in Cumberland University; Dr. Freeman, a profes- 
sor in Cumberland College, became the first president of 
Lincoln University; and Dr. David Lowry was the pastor 
of the Lebanon Church. 

At the Assembly of 1852 the Committee reported the 
plan which they had been appointed by the Assembly to 
"mature." It is known as the Plan of 1852. It covers 
nearly five pages in the Assembly Minutes, and contains 
seven articles and forty-one sections {Assembly Minutes, 
1852, pp. 37-42). The Committee was not appointed to 
prepare more than "plan"; and a plan is what it was. Dr. 
B. W. McDonnold in his History of the Church (p. 519) 
calls it a "charter." But it did not have the form of a 
charter, nor was it accepted as a charter by either the Leg- 
islature, or the Assembly, or the Trustees. It had some 
uncertainties in it, and there was something yet to be done. 
As yet no Theological Department, or Departments, had 
been located. As adopted, the Plan was tentative, as was 
the amendment to the charter of 1850. The Plan was 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 219 

never reduced to a final form by either the Assembly or 
the Trustees. But after the adoption of the Plan, "The 
Assembly proceeded to locate the institution provided for 
in said report, which resulted in the election of Lebanon, 
Tennessee" {Assembly Mimites, 1852, p. 18). After 
adopting the Plan and locating the Department, the As- 
sembly said nothing more than this on the subject. On 
June 15, 18 52, the Board spread on its Minutes a formal 
acceptance of the Plan of 1852. In this declaration of 
acceptance, they spoke of it as a "plan." This formal 
acceptance, however, was not recorded in the Minutes 
of the next Assembly, as one would expect. On May 11, 
1853, however, the Trustees adopted a report which was 
sent to the Assembly of 18 53, and which was recorded in 
the Minutes of that Assembly, pp. 40, 41. The Trustees 
recited in this report their efforts to raise endowment for 
the Theological Department, and asked for the confirma- 
tion of Dr. Richard Beard as a professor in the Depart- 
ment. 

On March 2, 1858, the Trustees secured from the Legis- 
lature an amendment to the University charter (printed 
in Assembly Minutes, 1901, pp. 89, 90). It is mentioned 
in the Minutes of the Legislature as an "amendment." On 
February 19, 18 58, E. I. Golladay, the representative from 
Wilson County, and the son-in-law of Dr. F. R. Cossit, 
offered an amendment to Senate Bill 79, "in order to 
amend the charter of Cumberland University" (House 
Journal, 1857-58, p. 613). The amendment provided that 
the number of Trustees (names not given) should be re- 
duced from thirteen to nine as soon as there were sufficient 
vacancies by death or resignation. This was a definite 



220 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

and vital amendment to the charter of 1843, and certainly- 
had the approval of the Board, twelve of whom were liv- 
ing at the time: Robert L. Caruthers, Jordan Stokes, Rob- 
ert Hatton, W. H. Williamson, Miles McCorkle, Andrew 
Allison, Nathan Cartmell, Josiah S. McClain, Zachariah 
Tolliver, David C. Hibbitts, O. G. Finley, and John W. 
White (Catalogue, 18 58). The first four were lawyers; 
and all the members of the Board were noted for integ- 
rity of character. Robert L. Caruthers was President of 
the Board (1842-1882), and a member of the Tennessee 
Supreme Court (1852-1861). 

The record of the charter is made in the Public Acts 
of Tennessee, 1858, Chapter 95. The title of the Act 
was: 

"An Act to incorporate Spring Hill Academy, in the 
County of White, and for other purposes" (Assembly 
Minutes, 1901, p. 89). 

It was held by some that this very title excited suspicion. 
The truth is, several charters were included in the Act. 
Nearly the same language had been used by the Legisla- 
ture when an amendment was made to the charter of 1843 
in 1850 (referred to above) : 

"An Act to incorporate Farmers' Academy, in Wilson 
County, and for other purposes" {Assembly Minutes, 
1901, p. 88). 

There was nothing suspicious in the title in either 1850 
or 1858. 

The Trustees had nothing to do with these captions or 
titles. 

The amended charter of 18 5 8 gave to the General As- 
sembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church the ex- 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 221 

elusive right to confirm or reject the nomination of Trus- 
tees. The amended charter of 18 50 did not do this, but 
on the other hand made it possible for this to be done by 
either the Assembly or the Synod in which the University 
was located (Assembly Minutes, 1901, pp. 88, 89). This 
fact shows that the amendment of 18 58 was absolutely 
necessary in order to make the charter agree with the ac- 
tions of the Assembly of 18 50 {Assembly MimUes, 1850, 
p. 13). 

In the charter of 1843 and in the amendment of 18 50 
there was nothing to show the erection of either a Law 
School or a Theological School. The provision for these 
two Departments in the amended charter of 18 5 8 was in 
accordance with the facts in the case and in thorough 
agreement with the Plan of 1852, which called for the 
erection of a Theological Department. There was never 
any legal right in any University charter for calling the 
Law Department the "Lebanon Law School." The fact 
that some did this, however, was a more or less bad custom 
which later caused the University some trouble. Nor 
was there any authority in the Plan of 18 52 or in any of 
the University charters for calling the Theological Depart- 
ment the "Lebanon Theological Seminary," or even the 
"Theological Seminary." This custom was misleading, 
and, in later years, gave rise to much confusion and mis- 
understanding, leading to an occasional denial that it was 
a Department at all. 

In 1873 the Assembly said it would be better to have 
"a separate Board of Trustees for the control of the 
funds, appointment of professors, etc.," of the Theologi- 
cal School, but took no action {Assembly Minutes, 1873, 



222 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

p. 29). In 1894 the Assembly asked the Trustees to con- 
sider the advisabihty of placing "the Literary School under 
the Synods of Kentucky, Tennessee, Albama, and Mis- 
sissippi," and report to the Assembly, if there be "legal 
barriers preventing separation between the Literary and 
Theological Departments" {Assembly Minutes, 1894, pp. 
3 5, 36). But there was no provision like this in the Plan 
of 1852. In 1895 the Trustees reported to the Assembly 
that there were "serious and insuperable legal barriers in the 
way." They were unable, they said, to see "how the 
Church would receive greater benefits," or how the Theo- 
logical School could "be any more the School of the Church 
than it is now" {Assembly Minutes, 1895, pp. 129, 130). 
The Assembly of 1895 concurred in this answer, adopting 
the language of the Committee's report, which said: "... 
relative to the advisability and legality of placing the 
Theological School under a separate Board of Managers, 
and as a matter of expediency and law the Committee rec- 
ommend that the General Assembly concur in said an- 
swer of the Board of Trustees" {Assembly Minutes, 1895, 
p. 40). 

In 1895 the Assembly appointed a Permanent Commit- 
tee, to be a Board of Visitors to the Theological School, 
with five defined powers. The Assembly of 1897 modified 
these instructions, and in the modification said the advice 
of the Visitors to the Theological School "ought not to 
be mandatory." Thus that part of the instructions given 
in 1895 was, in the language of the Assembly, "rescinded" 
{Assembly Minutes, 1897, p. 60). 

In 1901 the Assembly adopted a "Historical Statement" 
as to the relation of the Theological School to Cumber- 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 223 

land University, and appointed a Committee of seven to 
confer with the Trustees of the University {Assembly 
Minutes, 1901, pp. 74-90). The Committee conferred 
with the Trustees, March 19, 20, 1902. All communica- 
tions were in writing, and are found in the Assembly 
Minutes, 1902, pp. 68a-88a. The Trustees went to great 
lengths, so they thought, in what they offered to do in the 
way of making charter amendments. The Committee 
found no fault with the Trustees as to their management 
of the Theological School. They reported also to the As- 
sembly of 1902 that "all negotiations with the Board of 
Trustees were conducted with the utmost courtesy, and 
that due consideration was shown your Committee by the 
Board of Trustees" {Assembly Minutes, 1901, 90a, 91a). 
The Committee of seven members made two reports. Six 
made a majority report, and one, a minority report. 

In their effort to come to an agreement with the ma- 
jority Committee, the Trustees said: "It is further agreed 
that the charter shall be amended so that the endowment 
now held or that may hereafter be held by the Trustees 
of Cumberland University for the benefit of the Theologi- 
cal School or Department shall be subject to the control 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Provided that 
said control shall be consistent with the trusts attaching to 
said fund, and shall be exercised alone through the Board 
of Trustees of said University, and provided, further, that 
the possession and legal title of all of said fund shall for- 
ever remain in the said Trustees of Cumberland University 
for the use and benefit of the said school as a department 
of said institution, and that no part thereof shall ever be 
removed to any other place or be transferred to any other 



224 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

person or corporation or diverted to any other use than 
that of said Theological School or Department of said 
University at Lebanon, Tennessee. And, provided further, 
that investments of the said endowment shall be made as 
heretofore {Assembly Minutes, 1901, p. 77a). 

The minority Committee was in favor of accepting these 
proposals. He took the view that the Trustees had always 
acted in "strict conformity" with the provisions of the 
Plan of 18 52; that the Board of Trustees serving at the 
time the amendment to the charter of 18 5 8 was secured, 
were men of honor, Christian men above reproach; that 
"direct control" of the Theological School was in conflict 
with the Plan of 18 52 and the will of the Church as ex- 
pressed in previous Assemblies; and that documents bind- 
ing on the Trustees are equally binding on the Assembly. 

The Assembly of 1901 and the report of the majority 
committee to the Assembly of 1902 made certain observa- 
tion as to the amended charter of 1858: 

1. That the charter of 1843 provides that a church may 
establish a theological professorship, by endowing the same; 
that it may also appoint the professor; and that the char- 
ter of 18 58 does not so provide. 

2. That the amended charter of 1850 gives to the As- 
sembly the power to appoint the Trustees; and that the 
charter of 18 5 8 does not so provide. 

3. That the charter of 18 58 gives to the Trustees the 
power, in the event any department is discontinued, to 
use its funds in the support of some other department of 
the University. 

4. That the Assembly had no notice of the procurement 
of the charter of 18 58. 



THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 225 

5. That this charter does not hmit the terms of service 
of members of the Board of Trustees. 

The Trustees, in their report to the Assembly of 1902, 
repHed to these observations as follows: 

1. That the Assembly of 18 52 asked the Trustees to ap- 
point theological professors. 

2. That while the Trustees offered in 18 50 to give to 
the Assembly the right to appoint Trustees, the Assem- 
bly did not choose to accept that offer, but accepted only 
the right to confirm or reject the nominations of Trustees. 

3. That the Plan of 18 52 does not anticipate the dis- 
continuance of the Theological School; that if the Trus- 
tees made, in the church papers, any pledge based on that 
contingency, only the funds raised under the pledge would 
be affected; that there are no such funds in the hands of 
the Board; and that this voluntary offer, to make a re- 
fund, in case of a discontinuance, could be withdrawn, 
and was withdrawn in the amendment of 18 58. 

4. That there is no sure evidence that the Trustees failed 
to report the amended charter of 1858 to the Assembly 
of 1858; that the Assembly Minutes show that the Trus- 
tees made a report, also that this report was not recorded 
by the Assembly (Assembly Minutes, 1858, pp. 12, 68); 
and that the knowledge of the amendment would not and 
could not be withheld from the Assembly. Their view 
was that the charter of 18 58 was in harmony with agree- 
ments of the Assemblies of 1849, 18 50, and 18 52. 

5. The Trustees offered to change the charter so as to 
limit the terms of service of members of the Board. (This 
proposed action was not required of the Board in the Plan 
of 1852 or in any of the University charters.) 



226 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

On October 2, 1902, a second Committee, one appointed 
by the Assembly of 1902, and the Board of Trustees en- 
tered into an agreement. The Assembly of 1903 ratified 
this agreement (Assembly Minutes, 1903, pp. 7, 97, 59a, 
60a). In conformity with this agreement, the Trustees, 
on September 1, 1903, procured another amendment to the 
charter, limiting the terms of service of members of the 
Board, and dealing with the method of electing and dis- 
missing theological professors (Record of Charters, 1903, 
State Capitol, Nashville, Tennessee). 

The Assembly of 1901 made the following declaration: 
"... also, that the Assembly hereby declare its unqualified 
approbation of the loyal and self-sacrificing service ren- 
dered by the members of the Board of Trustees of Cum- 
berland University (Assembly Minutes, 1901, p. 92). 



Chapter XVIII 
TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 

Richard Beard, D.D., the first professor in the Theol- 
ogical School, was a scholar of ability, a learned theologian, 
a princely gentleman, and one highly esteemed for the 
dignity, purity, and gentleness of his character. He was 
born near Gallatin, Tennessee, November 27, 1799, and 
died in Lebanon, December 2, 1880, revered by all. One 
of his biographers spoke of him as "the old man eloquent." 

Having received the A.B. degree from Cumberland Col- 
lege, Princeton, Kentucky, in 1832, he was immediately 
made Professor of Greek and Latin in that institution, and 
occupied this Chair until 1838, a period of six years, at the 
end of which time he was made Professor of Greek and 
Latin in Sharon College in Mississippi. From September, 
1843, to February, 18 54, he served very eflSciently as Presi- 
dent of Cumberland College, his alma mater. His inaug- 
uration as Professor of Systematic Theology in Cumber- 
land University took place on March 13, 18 54. His teach- 
ing work began at once, or as soon as his classes could be 
organized, and continued until the time of his death. 

Dr. Beard was a great scholar, very methodical, and ex- 
ceedingly painstaking in his work. Among the products 
of his labors, besides his many newspaper and magazine 
articles, were three large volumes on Systematic Theology, 
two volumes of Biographical Sketches, a volume of Ser- 
mons and Essays, and a volume on the work of his Church. 

(227) 



228 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

He was always courteous, considerate of others, and ever 
ready to help any one in need. It is said of him that no 
corrupt communication ever proceeded from his mouth. 
For sixty years he was a man of prominence and influence, 
and his useful labors were carried on almost without inter- 
ruption. A few weeks after his death, his successor. Dr. 
S. G. Burney, said of him: "As a teacher he was earnest, 
faithful, and conscientious. His instruction was clear and 
thorough, and his manner in the class-room was dignified 
and impressive." He was twice (1845 and 1866) made 
Moderator of the General Assembly of his Church. One 
of his sons, Richard Beard, was a lawyer of prominence in 
Murfreesboro. Another, "W. D. Beard, of Memphis, was 
Chief Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court. A third, 
Edward Ewing Beard, was a Trustee of the University, the 
Treasurer of its Board, and a professor in the Law School. 
Stanford Guthrie Burney, D.D., LL.D., born near Mur- 
freesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, April 16, 1814, 
was the able successor of Dr. Richard Beard as Professor of 
Systematic Theology. From Cumberland College, Prince- 
ton, Kentucky, he received the A.B. degree in 1841. Dur- 
ing 1844 he acted as an agent of the University. In 1877, 
he came to Cumberland University as Professor of Biblical 
Literature in the Theological School. For a number of 
years he had been Professor of Philosophy in the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, and was widely known as an able teacher 
and writer, and as an eloquent preacher. Dr. Burney was 
a pastor in Nashville a year and a half, beginning in 1841; 
in December, 1844, he became the pastor of the First 
Church in Memphis; in 1850 he became pastor in Oxford, 
Mississippi, and preached there for twenty -five years. In 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 229 

1852 he founded the College for Women in Oxford, and 
was its president until 1860. He was a great logician, an 
acute thinker, a metaphysician of the first rank, and had 
a wonderful capacity to get other men to think. From 
his facile pen came the following books: Soteriology, 
Atonement and Laiv, Psychology, and Moral Science. In 
1860 he was made Moderator of the General Assembly of 
his Church. Ripe in years and having made a profound 
impression upon his fellows, he quietly passed away on 
March 1, 1893.^ 

Robert Verrell Foster, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Syste- 
matic Theology from 1893 to 1909, was one of the great- 
est scholars and teachers ever connected with the Univer- 
sity. He was born near Lebanon, August 12, 1845. From 
Cumberland University he received the A.B. degree in 
1870 and the B.D. degree in 1876. Later he spent a year 
in Union Theological Seminary, New York City. In 
1884 he was honored with the D.D. degree by Trinity 
University, and in 1906 with the LL.D. degree by Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College. From 1877 to 1893 he was 
Professor of Hebrew and New Testament Greek in the 
Theological School, and then for sixteen years, Professor 
of Systematic Theology. In 1909 he became Professor of 
Systematic Theology for one year in the Presbyterian 
Seminary of the South. In 1910 he was appointed Profes- 
sor of Philosophy and Ethics in the College of Arts, and 
remained in this position until his death, January 27, 1914. 

One of the greatest things about him was his capacity 
for friendship. In his quiet, solid, well-regulated, courte- 
ous, thoroughly Christian life, there was a real and sufii- 

' See Speer's Prominent Teiniesseaiis, pp. 15 8, 160. 



230 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

cient basis for friendship. He was a friend the first day 
one met him or sat under him in the classroom. 

Quite a large number of those who knew him, and espe- 
cially his students, found in him a wise counsellor. Young 
men loved and trusted him because of his practical wis- 
dom which he possessed to an unusual degree. His fitness 
for giving counsel was quite generally accepted. His 
standards of education were high; his theological views 
were characterized by sanity, clearness, and breadth; his 
position on church questions were cautious and conserva- 
tive; and his attitude toward others was inoffensive and 
considerate. 

Another reason for his great hold on men was the vast 
extent of his learning and the accuracy of his scholar- 
ship. He was always a laborious student and knew how to 
scientifically classify what he had learned. In his earlier 
years as a teacher he gave much of his time to the prob- 
lems of mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy. In addi- 
tion he had a marvellous acquaintance with the great 
things in literature and had himself a considerable power 
in the art of literary expression. His poetic temperament 
enabled him to catch the true spirit of poetry and to con- 
vey its message to others. He was well-informed on many 
subjects, and was scholarly and thorough in his investiga- 
tions. No mere reader was he, no mere purveyor of the 
thoughts of others. He himself was a member of the noble 
order of thinkers. 

His first great work was in the field of biblical scholar- 
ships. As a teacher of the Bible in the original languages 
and in his mother tongue he was outstanding. As a theo- 
logian he easily occupied a place in the front rank. It was 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 231 

in the field of Systematic Theology that he excelled most 
of all. His study of church history or any of the theologi- 
cal sciences was not in vain. He knew where the pitfalls 
were. Knowing the fields of theology and philosophy as 
he did, he was able to think his system through. The 
great center of his philosophy was "God." A personal and 
loving God was the explanation of all. It was the idea of 
God that fired all his eloquence in the classroom. An 
evangelical position was more reasonable to him than any 
other, and in this he found the greatest freedom of the 
spirit. 

Furthermore he was a prolific and accomplished writer. 
He wrote on biblical and theological themes and on topics 
of the day, always saying something worth-while. The 
Nashville afternoon paper frequently published his essays, 
and these interesting papers added not a little to his popu- 
larity and fame. He wrote several books, including these: 
Old Testament Sttidies, Introduction to the Study of The- 
ology, and A Commentary on Romans. But his greatest 
work was his Systematic Theology, the crown of his liter- 
ary and theological activity. 

It should be added that his throne was in the classroom. 
It was there that he poured out his soul to his pupils. 
They regarded him as a great teacher, one who knew his 
subjects well, who had the power to define, classify, eluci- 
date, unfold, and inspire. It was here that he was in his 
happiest vein, and made his pupils friends, disciples, de- 
fenders. With him there was not so much freedom in the 
pulpit. He would scarcely venture a sermon without a 
manuscript, a device, however, which sometimes added to 
his power. 



232 A HISTORY OF CUMBEPvLAND UNIVERSITY 

The fact that he was a Christian gentleman was the 
chief element in his greatness. The Christianity of Christ 
made him great, softened his nature, made him gentle, 
made his words ring true, made him willing to lay down 
his life as a sacrifice for others. 

John Dillard Kirkpatrick, D.D., was born near Leba- 
non, Wilson County, Tennessee, July 8, 1836, of Scotch- 
Irish descent. He died August 2, 1895, and his death was 
regarded as a calamity to the University. Throughout the 
Civil War he was a gallant soldier, and rose to the rank of 
colonel. At one time he was the chaplain of his regiment, 
and, at another time, on the staff of General John H. Mor- 
gan. After the war, he was pastor of a church in Good- 
lettsville four years, 1865-09, and then pastor of the Sec- 
ond Church in Nashville six years, 1869-75. In 1875 he 
became Financial Agent of the University. In 1880 he 
was appointed Murdock Professor of Church History in 
the Theological School, in which work he continued until 
his death fifteen years later. When the end of his useful 
life came, Chancellor Green paid him this tribute: "Soldier, 
scholar, Christian gentleman, friend of the students, loved 
by all." 

For twenty years the Faculty and Trustees looked to 
Dr. Kirkpatrick as their leader in the financial aflFairs of 
the institution. When friends made gifts to the Univer- 
sity, he was the one consulted. Such confidence did peo- 
ple have in him that they were more inclined to give when 
he presented the need, whether the money needed was for 
students, buildings, or endowment. During his last ill- 
ness, his chief thought and last wish were the completion 
of Memorial Hall, which could hardly have been built 




lMt» 





RICHARD BEARD, D.D. 



S. C. BURNEY, LL.D. 




^ 



^) 



f; 




J. D. KIRKPATRICK, D.D. C. H. BELL, D.D. 

Professors in the Theological School 




DEAN J. M. HUBBERT, D.D. 



JOHN VANT STEPHENS, D.D. 





FINIS KING FARR, D.D. R. c. PEARSON, D.D. 

Professors in the Theological School 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 233 

without his aid. It was a pleasing coincidence that the last 
brick that was to go into the building was laid on the day 
of his death. 

As to church management and the practical details of 
a minister's life, Dr. Kirkpatrick was the student's best 
adviser. His private library was a good one, and it finally 
came into the University's possession. His activities were 
varied. During the greater part of his teaching activity, 
he taught Biblical Introduction as well as Church History. 
He was well acquainted with the history of his own de- 
nomination and its leading men. From 1880 to 1884 he 
was the Managing editor of the Church's Theological 
Quarterly. It was by his fine and noble life, by his won- 
derful sympathy and unselfish friendship, by his distin- 
guished labors for the Church and the University, and by 
all his heroic services for the public good that he came to 
have such a large place in the public esteem. 

Dr. Kirkpatrick was a very religious man. As Tenny- 
son would say, he had in him "the passion of the second 
life." He was a man who could "hear in his bosom the 
drumbeat of eternity." As Dr. R. V. Foster, his intimate 
colleague, said, "He heard the soldier's sunset gun, and 
went to rest." 

"A whiter soul, a fairer mind, 
A life with purer course and aim, 
A gentler eye, a voice more kind 
We may not look on earth to find, 
The love that lingers o'er his name 
Is more than fame." 

It may be said that Dr. Kirkpatrick could make more 



234 A HISTORY OF CUMBEPvLAND UNIVERSITY 

friends for the University than any other man during his 
connection with it. Every day he himself Kved according 
to the Golden Rule. His chief characteristic was unselfish- 
ness. His chief passion was to help others, especially stu- 
dents in their struggles. No one else was altogether like 
him in this respect. 

"The regal pride was not driven from its throne, 
But chastened to a high humility; 
The opulent, sweet, worldly wisdom blent 
With such clear innocence of worldly guile." 

Claiborne H. Bell, D.D., a native of Mississippi and a 
son of Rev. Robert Bell, a missionary to the Indians, was 
appointed Professor of Missions and Comparative Reli- 
gion in the Theological School in 1884, and served ably 
in this capacity for twenty-five years. His death occurred 
in Lebanon, November 15, 1909. He received the A.B. 
degree from Cumberland University in 18 53. Later he 
received the A.M. and D.D. degrees. Immediately after 
the Civil War he became the President of the College for 
Young Women in Oxford, Mississippi. The college was 
in a flourishing condition when he resigned his position 
there in 1873. 

For several years before taking up his work in Cumber- 
land University, he was pastor in St. Louis, Missouri, and 
later the distinguished President of the Church's Board 
of Missions, which had its headquarters in that city. 

This much revered teacher was a profound student of 
his subjects. Foreign Missions, Apologetics and Compara- 
tive Religion. He made those subjects live in the class- 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 23 5 

room. One would not soon forget his forceful, ringing 
words. It was a benediction to see and hear him. 

Dr. Bell and his good wife were chiefly instrumental 
in fitting up a Mission Museum in the University. They 
had the generous assistance of Rev. J. M. Van Horn, an 
alumnus and his wife, missionaries in Japan; and also 
the assistance of Rev. John T. Molloy and his wife, both 
graduates of the Theological School, and missionaries in 
Yucatan, Mexico. 

James Monroe Hubbert, D.D., Dean of the Theological 
School and Professor of Practical Theology, was born in 
Cassville, Missouri, June 15, 18 50. His work in Lebanon 
and in the Theological School is referred to elsewhere. 
He received the following degrees from Cumberland: A.B. 
in 1875; B.D. in 1876; and D.D. in 1884. He was grad- 
uated from Union Theological Seminary, New York City, 
in 1879. 

Dr. Hubbert had two pastorates before coming to Leba- 
non. One was in Lincoln, lUinois, 1879-87; the other. 
First Cumberland Presbyterian Church, Nashville, Ten- 
nessee, 1888-93. For nine years he was Dean of the Theol- 
ogical School, Professor of Practical Theology, and pastor 
of the local church, 1893-02; Stated Clerk, General Assem- 
bly, Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 1896-1906; and 
Assistant Clerk, General Assembly, Presbyterian Church, 
United States of America, for several years, beginning 
in 1907. He was the Moderator, General Assembly, Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church, 1889. He attended the 
meetings of the Pan-Presbyterian Council, Belfast, Ireland, 
1884; Washington, D. C, 1889; Liverpool, England, 1904. 
Two famous lectures were delivered by him, "What a 



236 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Backwoodsman Saw in London," and "The Model Wom- 
an." He resided in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1907 
to October 6, 1934, the time of his death, which was caused 
by an automobile accident. 

Winstead Paine Bone, D.D., was Professor of New Tes- 
tament Interpretation in the Theological School from 1894 
to 1909, and Dean of the same from 1906 to 1909. Dr. 
Bone was born in Douglas, Texas, November 23, 1861. 
He received from Trinity University, Texas, the following 
degrees: A.B. in 1883; A.M. in 1894; and D.D. in 1907. 
He received from Cumberland University the B.D. degree 
in 1886 and the LL.D. degree at the Ninetieth Anniversary 
of the University in October, 1932. He spent seven years 
in the pastorate; was graduated from Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City, in 18 88; was a student in the 
University of Berlin one year, 1889-90; and nearly a year 
a student in the University of Chicago (1894). He was 
a student under Philip Schaff and others in New York; 
under Bernhard Weiss and Adolph Harnack and others 
in Berlin; and under W. R. Harper, Ira M. Price, and 
others in Chicago. 

Dr. Bone spent two years of ten months each in Cum- 
berland under Drs. Burney, Foster, Bell, and Kirkpatrick. 
He has been a Professor or has occupied some ofl&cial ca- 
pacity in Cumberland for the past forty-one years. He 
wrote comments on the Sunday School Lessons for twelve 
years, and has been a frequent contributor to religious 
papers and magazines. For one year, 1905-06, he was a 
member of the Church Union Committee. From 1909 
to 1929 he was the Secretary of the Cumberland Univer- 
sity Alumni Association, and from 1920 to 1929, the editor 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 237 

of the Cumberland Alumnus. From 1909 to 1914 he was 
the President of the University. Since that time he has 
been Professor of Bibhcal Literature, Ethics and Philosophy. 

John Vant Stephens, D.D., Professor of Church History 
in the Theological School of Cumberland University from 
1894 to 1909, v/as born near St. Louis, Missouri, Septem- 
ber 16, 1857. In his twenty-third year he entered col- 
lege, and received the A.B. degree from Lincoln Univer- 
sity, Illinois, in 1884. After completing his college course 
he spent a year in Union Theological Seminary, New York 
City. He then came to Lebanon, where he completed his 
theological course in the Theological School of Cumber- 
land University, being a member of the class of 1886, and 
receiving the B.D. degree. 

After graduation he was settled over a mission church 
in Knoxville, Tennessee. His success in this field led the 
Oak Street Church in Chattanooga to call him there, which 
call he accepted. Later he served as Secretary of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Board of Missions, with headquarters 
in St. Louis. While engaged in this service he was the 
editor of the Missionary Record, improving it and making 
it a standard publication. His last pastorate, before com- 
ing to Lebanon, was at Bowling Green, Ky. 

In 1909-10 Dr. Stephens taught in the Presbyterian 
Seminary of the South, and was its President. In 1910 
he became Professor of Church History in Lane Seminary, 
Cincinnati, which service he continued until May, 1932, 
when he retired, rounding out thirty-eight years of con- 
tinous service as a theological teacher. He resides in Cin- 
cinnati. 

The following books were written by him: Infant 



238 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Church Membership, The Causes, The Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Digest, The Evolution of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Co7ifession of Faith, Presbyterian Governnient, 
The Presbyterian Churches, and The Providential Purpose 
of Our Country. For four years he was the editor of the 
Teacher's Monthly Sunday School Magazine. Some years 
ago he was a member of the Committee which prepared 
the Intermediate Catechism of the Presbyterian Church. 
In 193 5 he pubHshed a small but attractive volume, Ctcm- 
berland University Theological School. 

Finis King Farr, D.D., was Professor of Hebrew and 
Old Testament Interpretation in the Theological School 
from September, 1895, to May, 1909. He was one of 
Cumberland's best products and filled a large place in the 
history of the institution in which he taught. His student 
days, filled as they were with worthy achievement, are re- 
membered still. His fourteen years as a Professor, with 
his unusual teaching ability, his keenness of insight and 
power of lucid statement, made the pursuit of knowledge 
under his direction worth while. 

This gifted teacher was born in College Mound, Mis- 
souri, November 11, 1870, being the son of a noted fa- 
ther, William Benton Farr, D.D. He entered Cumberland 
University as a student in 1887, and became a graduate 
of the Department of Engineering in 1889. After his 
graduation he spent three years as a civil engineer, and then 
decided to enter the ministry. In September, 1892, he en- 
tered the Theological School of Cumberland University, 
and was graduated with the B.D. degree in June, 1894. 
Later he received the A.B. degree as of the class of 1889. 
In April, 1894, he was elected Professor in the Theological 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 239 

School, with the understanding that he was to spend a year 
or more in postgraduate study in the Divinity School of 
the University of Chicago. This course he pursued, taking 
his principal work under such men as William Rainey Har- 
per and Ira M. Price. His work in Chicago had to do 
chiefly with biblical Hebrew and other Old Testament 
studies, and it was to these subjects he was assigned when 
he took up his work in Cumberland University. 

After beginning his work in Cumberland, Dr. Farr 
spent several summer quarters in study at Chicago Univer- 
sity, from which he received the A.M. degree in 1911. 
Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Missouri, conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1906. It 
was regarded as a privilege to hear him in the classroom 
or elsewhere. 

In the year, 1909-10, he was a teacher in the Presbyte- 
rian Seminary in the South. In 1910 he became a Profes- 
sor in Lane Theological Seminary, in which institution he 
labored until his death, July 29, 1929. 

James Robert Henry, D.D., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylva- 
nia, succeeded Dr. J. M. Hubbert as Dean and Professor 
of Practical Theology. He entered upon this work in 
September, 1902, and retired from it in 1906, when he 
returned to the pastorate. 

Dr. Henry was born in Cohutta, Georgia, and was the 
son of a noted minister, Rev. Samuel Henry. His literary 
education was received in the schools of Georgia. From 
Cumberland University he received the B.D. degree in 
1886. He was a member of a class of nineteen, three of 
whom became Professors in the Theological School. For 
three years after graduation he was pastor at Cleveland, 



240 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Tennessee. At the end of this period, in 1889, he became 
the Secretary of the Church's Educational Society, or 
Board of Education, with headquarters in Nashville. 
After two years or more in this work, he resigned and 
spent a year in Oxford University, England, and in Euro- 
pean travel. On his return to the United States, he be- 
came the pastor of the Shady Avenue Presbyterian Church 
in Pittsburgh. 

During the four years of his administration as Dean, 
the Theological School was quite prosperous. The atend- 
ance for the four years was 56, 7(), 67, and 54, the largest 
in its history. Dr. R. G. Pearson was added to the Faculty. 
During this period a larger number than usual of promi- 
nent men from the outside delivered courses of lectures 
to the student body. After leaving his work in Lebanon, 
Dr. Henry had three pastorates: Bridgewater, Pennsyl- 
vania; Anna, lUinois; and Fort Myers, Florida, where his 
death occurred February 24, 1930. 

For a period of six years, Robert Gamaliel Pearson, D.D., 
an eminent evangelist and Bible scholar, was Professor of 
English Bible and Evangelistic Methods in the Theological 
School. He began this work in 1903 and continued until 
May, 1909. 

Dr. Pearson was born in Mississippi, June 9, 1847. His 
Quaker parents had come to that State a short time before 
from North Carolina. His literary education was received 
for the m.ost part at Cooper Institute, in Mississippi. He 
received the B.D. degree from Cumberland University in 
1876. Then followed two pastorates, one in Tupelo, Mis- 
sissippi, the other, in Columbia, Tennessee. After this, 
for one year, he was co-pastor with Dr. A. J. Baird, of 




ERNEST LOONEY STOCKTON, LL.D. 
President, 1926 — 



TEACHERS IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 241 

the First Church in Nashville. Then for a number of 
years he gave himself to evangelistic work, in which he 
had much success and on account of which he became na- 
tionally known. His health failing, he and Mrs. Pearson 
spent a year abroad, the time being given to travel in 
France, Greece, Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, and Italy. 

Dr. Pearson's stay in Lebanon is described by one of his 
colleagues, Dr. F. K. Farr, whose words are quoted by Mrs. 
Pearson in a sketch of her husband's life. Among other 
things. Dr. Farr says: "It was a source of great satisfaction 
to the Faculty and all the friends of the Theological De- 
partment of Cumberland University, when, in 1903, Dr. 
R. G. Pearson consented to take up the work of the Chair 
of English Bible and Evangelistic Methods. It was almost 
entirely a labor of love on Dr. Pearson's part; the institu- 
tion, with its limited income, was not able to promise him 
an adequate salary. Dr. Pearson's rich experience was free- 
ly placed at the service of his students. Flis methods and 
outlines of classroom work were original with himself and 
their merit was proved by the results. In the difficult task 
of Faculty criticism at 'rhetoricals,' Dr. Pearson led his 
colleagues." 

During three summers, 1910 to 1912, Dr. Pearson gave 
Bible lectures at the Montreat Assembly in North Caro- 
lina. He died in Columbia, South Carolina, in March, 
1913. He was a Professor in the Columbia Theological 
Seminary at the time of his death. In 1890, a volume of 
his sermons was published in Nashville under the title, 
Truth Applied. A second volume of his sermons, edited 
by Mrs. Pearson, was published in Richmond, Virginia, 
in 1913. 



Chapter XIX 

OTHER SCHOOLS 

Cumberland University has had a number of schools 
besides the ones mentioned in the preceding pages. Some 
of them are not now in existence. Nevertheless they must 
be included in the account of the history made. 

The Preparatory School 

1842-1902; 1910-1927 

The Preparatory School and the College of Arts had 
their beginning on the same day in September, 1842. T. 
N. Jarman was the first teacher in the Preparatory School, 
beginning his work on September 9, 1842, and continuing 
for two years. C. L. Price assisted him for five months. 
B. S. Foster taught two years, 1844-46. R. P. Decherd 
began his work in this School on January 3, 1846, and 
continued until August 2, 1854. He was made Principal 
on February 16, 1850. 

The Preparatory School gave its graduates a good prep- 
aration for college. The course as printed in the cata- 
logue of 1848 gave two years of Greek and three of Latin. 
Caesar was given in the third year; Virgil and Cicero's 
Orations, in the fourth year. Elementary Geometry and 
Elementary Algebra were given in the fourth year. 

Students in the Preparatory School were taught by 
tutors from 1842 to 18 50, when the School came to have 
a separate Faculty, in fact as well as in name. The classes 
were taught in a separate building from 1854 to 1902, a 

(242) 



OTHER SCHOOLS 243 

period of forty-eight years. Campbell Academy, which 
was located on the present site of the High School, was 
united with the Preparatory School in 18 54. The Trustees 
at that time leased the Campbell Academy building for a 
period of ninety-nine years, and this building was the 
home of the Prepratory School from 1854 to 1902. The 
Trustees then made a gift of their lease to the Lebanon 
High School. In 1902-03 the old building was torn away 
and a new building was erected there for the High School. 

R. P. Decherd, the first Principal of the Preparatory 
School, and who taught in it from 1846 to 1854, was later 
made a Professor in Trinity University, Texas. Other 
teachers also in the Preparatory School have risen to promi- 
nence. S. T. Anderson later became a professor in Trinity 
University and its Acting Preisdent; E. B. Crisman, Presi- 
dent of Trinity; D. S. Bodenhamer, a Professor in Trinity; 
T. C. Blake, E. G. Burney, N. Green, Jr., G. Frank Burns, 
E. L. Stockton, Icie Kenton, Mrs. Y. P. Wooten, William 
D. Young, Ralph T. Donnell, professors in Cumberland 
University; and John A. Hyden, professor in Vanderbilt 
University. E. L. Stockton became the President of Cum- 
berland University. 

The man who made the Preparatory School such a great 
power in educational circles was Professor William J. 
Grannis, A.M., a native of New York State, born at Mor- 
ristown, April 24, 1823. He was educated in the Jefferson 
Institute, Watertown, New York, and in the New York 
State Normal, at Albany. He was a classical scholar, a 
gifted teacher, a splendid disciplinarian, and a man of 
culture. He had both the A.B. and A.M. degrees. He was 
an elder in the church, and a Christian of the highest order. 



244 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

From 1862 to 1866 he was in the Quartermaster's Depart- 
ment, Union Army, Nashville, Tennessee. Hundreds of 
the finest young men who were graduated from the College 
of Arts of Cumberland University took their first train- 
ing under Professor W. J. Grannis, and his two sons, Her- 
bert W. Grannis, A.M., and Harry N. Grannis. Herbert 
Grannis taught Greek and Latin in the Preparatory School 
for twenty-seven years, 1875-1902. 

Cumberland University had no Preparatory School from 
1902 to 1910. In 1909-10 there was a sub-Freshman class 
of twenty-four students, who lacked a little of being ready 
for college entrance. A class of this character had been 
provided for each year for several years prior thereto. 

To show how the attendance at the Preparatory School 
ran throughout its history, a few instances may be taken 
from the catalogues of the following years: 114 in 1857; 
117 in 1858; 94 in 1859; 104 in 1860; 169 in 1869; 138 
in 1870; 130 in 1871; 74 in 1876; 99 in 1890; 56 in 1895; 
57 in 1898; 60 in 1912; 81 in 1914; 36 in 1918; 94 in 
1921; 104 in 1922; 123 in 1924; 95 in 1926; 66 in 1927; 
when it was discontinued. From 1910 to 1927 the classes 
were taught by a separate Faculty, but in the same building 
with the College of Arts. 

The School of Engineering 

1852-1912 

The catalogue of 1851 offers "Instruction in Engineer- 
ing." It says, "Professor Stewart will give instruction in 
Surveying and Engineering." The object was to prepare 
students for the profession of Engineering. In his histo- 
rical sketch of 1858, Dr. T. C. Anderson says: "In 1852, 
an Engineering School was established as a department of 



OTHER SCHOOLS 245 

the University, and Professor Stewart, a graduate of the 
United States Military Academy, was appointed Professor 
in that department. Some of the graduates of this school 
have already gained distinction in practical engineering. 
At present Professor Buchanan is associated with Profes- 
sor Stewart in the school." 

Professor A. P. Stewart was the head of the department 
from 1852 to 1854, from 1856 to 1861, and from 1867 
to 1869. Professor A. H. Buchanan was the head of this 
school from 1854 to 1856 and from 1869 to 1911. The 
work of the Engineering School was confined almost ex- 
clusively to what is generally called Civil Engineering, 
which prepared young men to survey lands, and build 
highways, railroads, bridges, and do other work of a sim- 
ilar character. A certificate was given for a course of 
two or three years of strictly engineering work. When 
pure mathematics was included, a degree in engineering 
was given on the completion of a four-year course. The 
attendance was never at any time large. The number of 
graduates — those receiving degrees — from 1852 to 1912 
— was 35. The school was discontinued in 1912. 

The Medical Department 

1871-1873 

The Medical School at Memphis, Tennessee, was reor- 
ganized in 1868 under its original charter. This Medical 
College became the Medical Department of Cumberland 
University in July, 1871. It had only a contractual rela- 
tion with Cumberland, and a separate Board of Trustees. 
The Memphis School had a Board of twelve Trustees, with 
Hon. Henry G. Smith as its president. There was a Fac- 
ulty of nine, composed of the leading physicians of Mem- 



246 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

phis, with Alexander Erskine, M.D., as Dean. The twen- 
tieth annual session began on the first Monday in Octo- 
ber, 1872, and closed March 1, 1873. This was the second 
and concluding year as a department of Cumberland Uni- 
versity. The names of the Medical students were printed 
in the catalogue of 1871-72 only. 

The School of Music 

1903-35 

The School of Music was established in 1903, with Herr 
Eugene Feuchtinger as the Director. This was during the 
administration of President D. E. Mitchell, who financially 
and otherwise made possible this new addition to the work 
of Cumberland. Herr Feuchtinger was an accomplished 
musician and set a high standard. He was assisted by 
C. S. Hertzog, teacher of violin, Elise Tanner, voice, Nellie 
Hamilton and Minnie McClain. Professor Feuchtinger 
was born and musically educated in Wurtemberg, Ger- 
many. 

In 1906 Robert Paul Gise succeeded Professor Feuch- 
tinger. He was a native of Ohio, a student in the best 
American schools of music, and also studied under Guil- 
mont in Paris. Professor Gise was an accomplished musi- 
cian and a gentleman of high character. With his assist- 
ants he carried on his work in Cumberland until the time 
of his death, April 9, 1917. He was followed by James 
Isaac Ayers for one year. 

In 1918, Professor W. H. A. Moore, of Vancouver, Can- 
ada, was elected Director. He, too, was an accomplished 
musician, being a graduate of the Conservatory of Music 
in Stuttgart, Germany. Professor C. L. Jaynes, A.B., of 
Ohio Wesleyan, followed Professor Moore in 1921, and 



OTHER SCHOOLS 247 

continued as the head of the School of Music until June, 
1922. In 1922, Professor Moore was again called to take 
charge of the School of Music and he continued until 1927, 
when Professor Frederick S. Mendenhall, A.B., A.M., of 
Ohio Wesleyan, became the Director. Since that time 
there has been no Director. Sue Finley was instructor in 
piano from 1930 to 1933. Mattie Crowe was instructor 
in voice, 1930-31. Since 1931, Theodora Ferrell has been 
the instructor in voice. Eunice Cutler became the instruc- 
tor in piano in 1933. 

The Business College 

A Commercial School was established in 1871 by D. S. 
Bodenhamer, '70 A.B., and H. T. Norman, '60 A.B., and 
was continued as such until June, 1873. There were twen- 
ty-four students the first year, and nineteen, the second. 
It did not propose to confer degrees. In 1873 a Business 
College and Telegraph Institute was organized. It began 
its work on September 1, of that year. The principal of 
this School was Thomas Toney, A.M. It had large success 
from the beginning. It began with three teachers and had 
six the second year. The number of students enrolled the 
first years was 104. Frank Goodman, later the head of a 
business college in Nashville, was one of the teachers. In 
1874-75 the enrollment was 165, and in 1875-76 there 
were 168 enrolled. The Business College was discontinued 
in 1876. It served a temporary purpose and did not pre- 
tend to do more than the name implied. John Frizzell, a 
prominent layman, who later became the Stated Clerk of 
the General Assembly of his Church and who was hon- 



248 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ored by the University with the LL.D. degree, was one 
of the teachers. 

The School of Commerce 

1922-29 

The School of Commerce was organized in 1922 to 
meet what was considered a need in modern business. J. 
Gordon Wooten, B.C.S., was made the Director. He was 
assisted by James N. Bujac, who received his training in 
the Wharton School of Commerce and Finance and in the 
University of Pennsylvania. A four-year course was of- 
fered leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Com- 
merce. This School was continued six years, 1922-28. 
Others who taught in this School were Walter B. Posey, 
A.M., Floy Grace King, B.S., O. P. Nash, B.S., Floyd W. 
McCollum, A.M., and J. C. Reagan, Ph.D. Since 1928, 
there has been only one teacher each year for commercial 
subjects. Agnes Tilley, A.B., taught these subjects two 
years, 1928-30; and Gordon B. Walker, LL.B., has taught 
them since 1930. 

The School of Journalism 

1922-26 

In 1922 a School of Journalism was established, with 
Mary Stahlman Douglas, of Nashville, as Dean. J. Vernol 
Clarke, B.S., of Nashville, was Dean for the year, 1923-24, 
and it was called the Yancey School of Journalism, in 
honor of Richard H. Yancey, '77 LL.B., premier editor of 
the Nashville Banner. Edwin Ray Bentley, A.B. (Texas 
Christian University), was also a teacher in this School, 
1924-25. In 1925 the Schools of Commerce and Journal- 
ism were united. O. P. Nash, B.S., was the teacher. Not 



OTHER SCHOOLS 249 

being in suflScient demand, subjects in Journalism have not 
been taught since 1926. 

The Cumberland University Annex 

The Lebanon College for Young Ladies was established 
in 1886. The founder and first president was Benjamin S. 
Foster, LL.D. This school was continued until 1909, when 
the building which it owned and occupied for twenty- 
three years was totally destroyed by fire. No attempt was 
ever made to rebuild. 

In 1894 the Lebanon College for Young Ladies and 
Cumberland University, each having and retaining a sep- 
arate Board of Trustees, entered into a contractual rela- 
tion with each other, the former institution to be known 
as the Cumberland University Annex. The two insti- 
tutions carried on their work as before, each having a sep- 
arate campus. But the courses leading to the A.B. degree 
and the teachers of these courses were to be practically the 
same, and the names of the students in both institutions 
were printed in the University catalogue. This connection 
of the two schools was continued for a period of four 
years, 1894-98. 

The Military Department 

1894-97 

In the spring of 1894, Lieutenant Charles Gerhardt, of 
the Eighth U. S. Infantry, was detailed to teach Military 
Science and Tactics in the University to such students as 
wished to take such a course. This appointment was made 
through the influence of U. S. Senator W. B. Bate, '57 
LL.B., a staunch friend of the University. A company of 
fifty students was formed the first year, 1894-95, with 



250 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

R. L. Keathley and R. T. Russell as First and Second Lieu- 
tenants. There was nothing very warlike in these opera- 
tions. Regular textbooks were used. A few of the prac- 
tical benefits claimed were: Erect carriage, habits of obe- 
dience, gracefulness, self-control, concentration of mind, 
and crystallized patriotism. All the equipment was sup- 
plied by the Government. 

Lieutenant Gerhardt's selection for this work could not 
have been better made. He was in every way worthy and 
well qualified. He was a man of the best character, being 
a fine Christian gentleman. It was a part of a good edu- 
cation to be under him. At the end of three years, how- 
ever, he was transferred to another station. Charles R. 
Williamson was the First Lieutenant in 1896-97. The 
Company was disbanded in June, 1897, since the students 
manifested little desire for the continuance of the Military 
Department. 

The Summer School 

1923- 

The first summer session which had any connection with 
the College of Arts was held in 1923. There was a demand 
for it on the part of college students who were behind in 
their work. Others took the summer courses so they might 
complete the regular college course at an earlier date, or 
in less than four years. Quite a number of public school 
teachers took certain courses so as to comply with require- 
ments of the State Board of Education. More courses than 
usual in Education were given during the summer session. 

Summer courses are given also in the Law School. Dr. 
A. B. Martin, Law Professor, gave these courses in law 
from 1895 to 1919. From 1920 to 1934 these courses were 



OTHER SCHOOLS 251 

given by Judge W. R. Chambers. He was followed by 
Professor S. B. Gilreath in 1935. 

There were 8 5 summer school students in all depart- 
ments in 1923; 118 in 1924; 134 in 1925; 121 in 1926; 
155 in 1927; 110 in 1928; 123 in 1930; 99 in 1931; 102 
in 1932; 92 in 1933; 92 in 1934. The Deans of the Sum- 
mer School have been as follows: E. L. Stockton, A.M.; 
W. P. Bone, A.M.; H. L. Armstrong, A.M.; and W. D. 
Young, A.M. 



Chapter XX 
THE STUDENT BODY 

THE COLLEGE Y. M. C. A. 

1856-1935 

In 1841 George Williams, a Christian young man, began 
in London, England, a prayer meeting for young men. 
Out of this prayer meeting arose the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. It was established in London in 1 844. 

It has been maintained by some that the first College 
Y. M. C. A. ever organized in any country was established 
in Cumberland University in 18 56 by Professor A. P. 
Stewart, LL.D. The statement as to the date of the or- 
ganization of the Y. M. C. A. in Cumberland is given 
on good authority. The University Annuals, or Year 
Books, of 1902, 1911, 1915, 1925, 1931 give this date of 
the organization on the testimony of Chancellor Nathan 
Green and Dr. A. H. Buchanan, who were members of 
Cumberland's faculty in 1856. Their testimony was 
given prior to 1902. The statement made by them in- 
cluded the additional facts that General Stewart organized 
the Association and was its first President. The Univer- 
sity catalogue of 1858, page 12, has the following para- 
graph and heading in capital letters: 

"YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

"The young men of the University, in connection with 
the young men of the town, have organized a Young 
Men's Christian Association on a plan similar to that of 

(252) 



THE STUDENT BODY 25 3 

the most successful institutions of the kind. Every stu- 
dent should be under the restraining influences of such an 
association." This paragraph is printed also in the cata- 
logue of 18 59. Even the catalogue of 18 58 makes the 
Cumberland Association as old as any other in America. 

Professor (later called General) Stewart was a devout 
Christian and a man who was very active in Christian 
work. In 18 56 he saw a great opportunity to lead the 
young men who were students in the University into a 
deeper Christian experience and into practical forms of 
Christian service. The organization which he effected con- 
tinued in a prosperous way until the Civil War. After the 
War, the organization was kept up with more or less ef- 
ficiency until 1881, when it took on new life and made 
greater progress. It was in a flourishing condition when 
the present writer was a student in the Theological School 
(1884-86). 

During all these years the Y. M. C. A. has been a potent 
force in Cumberland. The membership has come from 
the College of Arts, the Theological School, and the Law 
School. Usually there have been Bible study classes and 
classes for the study of missions. All the usual com- 
mittees were formed. The members were generally active 
in evangelistic meetings, in mission Sunday schools, and in 
out-station work. Representatives were usually sent to 
State and district meetings and to Conferences in Blue 
Ridge and elsewhere. The meetings of the Association 
were held from 1873 to 1896 in Corona Hall, from 1896 
to 1903, in Memorial Hall, and after that in the assembly 
room of the Men's Dormitory. 

For a number of years the students in the Theological 



254 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

School maintained a separate organization, having, as they 
said, three objectives: (1) The development of the devo- 
tional spirit in Bible study. (2) To develop the spirit of 
missions. (3) To keep in touch with world-wide move- 
ments among Christian students. 

The Y. W. C. A. 

1904-35 

It should be remembered that Cumberland University 
did not have co-education until 1897. A Y. W. C. A. 
was not organized until December 11, 1904. Lucy Paul, 
now Mrs. Paul C. Wakefield, of Greeneville, Tennessee, 
was the first President. She was a student in the Theo- 
logical School at the time. The object of this organization 
is to promote Bible study and Christian work among the 
young women of the University. The young women have 
been richly repaid for their efforts, and the University has 
been materially aided by the splendid influence exerted by 
the organization. 

The Bible Circle 

1885-1909 

The Bible Circle was organized in 1885. In its organiza- 
tion, Mrs. C. H. Bell, a wife of one of the professors, was 
assisted by Mrs. George G. Hudson and Mrs. R. T. Phil- 
lips, wives of theological students. The membership was 
composed of the wives of the six theological professors 
and the wives of theological students. Weekly meetings 
were held for Bible study and the discussion of plans for 
active Christian work. There were usually about twenty 
members of this organization. The Circle was discon- 



THE STUDENT BODY 255 

tinued in 1909, having served a noble purpose for twenty- 
four years. 

The Student Volunteer Band 

1886-1935 

The Student Volunteer Band was organized in 1886. Its 
motto was "The evangelization of the world in this gen- 
eration." Those students were eligible for membership 
who signed the following declaration: "It is my purpose, if 
God permits, to become a foreign missionary." The object 
of the organization was: "Fellowship in prayer, aggressive 
mission work, and preparation for life work." Having 
completed the preparation for their work, the following 
members of the Student Volunteer Band became foreign 
missionaries: Bunta Miyoshi, Mr. and Mrs. George G. Hud- 
son, John Hail, Abe Yoshibumi, and Mr. and Mrs. W. F. 
Hereford went to Japan. Gam Sing Quah, T. J. Preston, 
Mrs. Mary A. Hopkins, Mr. and Mrs. Irving G. Boydstun, 
George F. Jenkins, Mr. and Mrs. Ura Brogden, Dr. and 
Mrs. Nelson A. Bryan, and Mrs. Elizabeth Hutchison Rus- 
sell went to China. A. H. Whatley and Mr. and Mrs. 
J. T. Molloy, and C. C. Russell went to Mexico. Gilbert 
S. Henry went to India; J. L. Hooper, to the Philippine 
Islands; E. T. Lawrence and Miss Katherine Childs, to 
Persia. Prior to 1886, Dr. S. T. Anderson went to Trini- 
dad and Bishop W. R. Lambuth to China. 

About forty students of Cumberland have gone to the 
foreign field. In more recent years Mrs. Richard (Golden 
Stockton) Baird has gone to Korea, and Grace and Nannie 
Hereford, a second generation of Herefords, have gone to 
Japan. Not all of the members of the Volunteer Band 
have gone to the foreign field, but all have gone into some 



256 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

form of Christian service. This Band is known at the pres- 
ent as the Life Service Group. 

The Literary Societies 

The Amasagassean Literary Society was organized in 
Cumberland in 1842. A society by this same name was 
organized by Dr. Richard Beard in Cumberland College, 
Princeton, Kentucky, so an early University catalogue 
states. The one organized in Lebanon secured its charter 
from the Legislature of Tennessee in 1848. The motto of 
the Society is "Nos Palma Manet." Its members have 
come chiefly from the College of Arts. Its meetings have 
been nearly always held in the College of Arts building. 

The Philomathean Society was organized in Cumberland 
in 1844, and still has a flourishing existence. The motto 
is "Nihil Sine Lahore." Its charter was secured from the 
Legislature of Tennessee January 31, 1848. Although it 
was organized three and a half years before the Law 
School was established, its membership has come chiefly 
from the Law School. Its meetings since 1877 have been 
always held in Caruthers Hall. From 1844 to 1860 this 
society occasionally elected to honorary membership men 
quite prominent in the nation's affairs. In the University 
archives are autograph letters of acceptance from these 
leaders, such as Washington Irving, John C. Calhoun, 
James Buchanan, John C. Breckinridge, Millard Fillmore, 
Roger B. Taney, Charles Sumner, Andrew Johnson, Robert 
Tombs, Alexander H. Stephens. 

The Heurethelian Society was organized in 1844. Its 
motto was "Know God, Know Thyself," The Greek 
form of this motto was used. For fourteen years, 1880- 




DR. W. F. HEREFORD MRS. HEREFORD 





GRACE HEREFORD NANNIE HEREFORD 

Two Generations of Foreign Missionaries 



THE STUDENT BODY 257 

94, this society published the college paper, known as The 
Student. The membership of the Society was nearly al- 
ways from the Theological School and from among the 
candidates for the ministry in the College of Arts. The 
Society was discontinued in 1909. Its meetings were held 
for many years in Corona Hall, but after 1896, in Memo- 
rial Hall. For a number of years, both before and after 
the Civil War, this Society occasionally elected some noted 
or outstanding clergyman as an honorary member, and 
their autograph letters of acceptance are in the archives 
of the University. 

The Caruthers Society was incorporated in April, 1874. 
Its organization was due to a division in the Philomathean 
Society. Its membership was chiefly from the Law School, 
the Society having been named for Judge R. L. Caruthers. 
But it had some members from the College of Arts and 
the Theological School. Its motto was "Esse Quam Videri 
Malim." Its place of meeting has been always in Caruth- 
ers Hall. 

The Lex Society was organized by law students in 1914 
and continued its activities until 1930. 

The Andrew B. Martin Society was organized by law 
students in 1924, and is still mentioned in the University 
catalogue, but is not active at present. 

Student Publications 

From 1876 to 18 80, the students of the University pub- 
lished a monthly literary magazine, the name of which 
was the Cmuberland University Monthly Magazine. 

From 1880 to 1894, the Heurethelian Society published 
The Student. It was a monthly, and was published in 



258 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

magazine form. The present writer was editor of it in 
1884-85. All the students of the University supported it. 
It was self-sustaining. 

From 1894 to 1914, the students of all departments 
published the Cumberland Weekly, a college paper of four 
columns, and usually of four pages. The cost of publica- 
tion was always paid for by subscriptions and advertise- 
ments. 

The name of this publication was changed in 1914-15 
to The Tattler. But this name was not popular with the 
student body. So, from 1915 to 1922, it was called the 
Cumberland Weekly again. It was self-sustaining. 

From 1922 to 1927 it was called The Kick-Off. This 
name served a temporary purpose, as the name itself 
seemed to indicate. 

Since 1927, the name of the publication has been The 
Collegian, and that is the name it has to-day. Apparently 
the name has come to stay. This publication has been 
quite a credit to the student body, and it has been a loyal 
supporter of the University. 

The Phoenix 

1895-1935 

The first annual, or yearbook, made its appearance in 
1895. It was very appropriately named The Phoenix. 
This name was suggested by the University Seal, on which 
we find the words, E Cineribus Kesurgo, and an image of 
the phoenix bird, the emblem of immortality. 

The first issue of the annual was quite a creditable pro- 
duction, one representing the entire life of the University 
for the year 1894-95, and edited by J. Frank Smith, '95 



THE STUDENT BODY 259 

B.D., and a staff of assistants. Frank Smith was later 
pastor of the City Temple, Dallas, Texas, and the Mod- 
erator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S. A., in 1918. 

Since 1895 The Phoenix has not been issued every year, ^^U.^ 
but in the following years: 1895, 1896, 1897, 1902, 1903, i^o^; 
1904, 1905, 1911, 1915, 1916, 1923, and annually since ,^ ^^^ ■ 
that time. The students have issued this yearbook with 
much interest and care. It is regarded as a valuable way in 
which to keep a record of the varied life of the University. 
As a matter of economy, a smaller, but no less attractive, 
volume was printed in 193 5, under the title. The Cumber- 
land University View Book. 

Athletics 

From the very beginning Cumberland University has 
had some form of athletics. For many years baseball was 
the principal game. The first field day was held in May, 
1894. There were eleven different events, such as run- 
ning, jumping, throwing the hammer, putting the shot, 
and pole vaulting. The first football team was organized 
in 1894. Cumberland has had football, baseball, and 
basketball since that time, except that football was dis- 
continued for a year or two in recent years. Tennis and 
golf have been quite popular games. Cumberland has 
never had a gymnasium building. The large room at the 
rear of Memorial Fiall, originally intended for the College 
Chapel, was found to be unsuitable for that purpose, and 
so it has been used for a gymnasium. Gymnasium equip- 
ment was placed in the room in 1900. Later the room 



260 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

has been used for basketball. Young women as well as 
young men have had basketball teams. 

The first covered grandstand on the athletic field was 
erected in 1914 in the northwestern part of the campus. 
In 1922 the southwestern part of the campus was selected 
for athletic sports. Two thousand dollars was contributed 
by Nashville friends for this field, which was named Kirk 
Field in honor of W. H. Kirkpatrick, of Nashville, who 
contributed one thousand dollars for this purpose. The 
credit for raising this fund is due to Byrd Douglas, '17 
LL.B., of Nashville, who was Athletic Director for 1922- 
23. Under Mr. Douglas' direction Cumberland had a pros- 
perous season for athletics. Each year since 1902 the Uni- 
versity or the Athletic Association has employed a coach or 
athletic director. 

The first stars in baseball were L. L. Rice, as pitcher, and 
his brother, Cale Rice, as catcher. James R. Rash in 1895- 
96, E. D. Kuykendall in 1899-1900, W. L. Seaman in 
1900-01, and J. S. Kuykendall in 1901-02, led the way as 
football coaches. A. L. Phillips, A.B., "Washington and 
Jefferson College, was one of the best coaches the institu- 
tion ever had. During his stay of two years, 1902-04, he 
developed the best football team in the history of Cumber- 
land. He was followed by another good coach, John S. 
Counselman, 1904-05. Byrd Douglas, of Nashville, who 
got his athletic instruction at Princeton, was coach for two 
years, 1917-18 and 1922-23. The second year he was as- 
sisted by Lagrande Guerry and Mims Tyner. James Ruffin, 
from Drury College, Springfield, Missouri, was the coach 
for 1919-20. Later came Frank Wilde, 1924-25; Monte 
McDaniel, 1927-30; Buchanan Loser, 1930-31; John As- 



THE STUDENT BODY 261 

kew, 1931-32; and Gus Morrow, who has been the ath- 
letic leader since the summer of 1932, when he got to- 
gether and trained a splendid football team, composed 
mostly of College Freshmen. There had been no football 
the two preceding years. He deserves much credit for his 
work in 1932-34. Eugene Mcllwain became the Physical 
Director early in 193 5. 

ALMA MATER SONG 

On old Lebanon's western border, 
Reared against the sky, 
Proudly stands our Alma Mater, 
As the years go by. 

CHORUS 

Forward ever be her watchword, 
Conquer and prevail; 
Hail to thee, our Alma Mater, 
Cumberland, all hail! 

Cherished by her sons and daughters. 
Sweeter memories throng 
Around our hearts, our Alma Mater, 
As we sing this song. 

CUMBERLAND, MY CUMBERLAND 

JUDGE NATHAN GREEN 

Old Cumberland is marching on, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 
And many a victory she has won, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 
Her sons are known in all the land, 
Her sons are true, her sons are grand, 
Her sons for God and right do stand, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 



262 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Her noble boys have made a name, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 
And filled the country with their fame, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 

They teach and toil in college walls. 

And speak and vote in senate halls, 

And ever heed their country's calls, 

Cumberland, my Cumberland. 

CUMBERLAND 

FLOYD POE 

O Cumberland, my Cumberland! 
Proud may she ever stand. 
All hail her past, her history! 
All hail her future destiny! 
Her walls, her halls are ever dear. 
Her noble men we will revere; 
Her heart, to our hearts ever near, 
Cumberland, my Cumberland. 



Chapter XXI 
EXTENDING AID TO STUDENTS 

From the very beginning in 1842 it has been Cumber- 
land's definite poHcy to aid needy and worthy students. 
The great majority of Cumberland's students throughout 
its history have had to struggle with the handicap of 
slender means. Many who came with nothing but a 
thirst for knowledge were not allowed to go away, and 
any others could get an education at moderate cost. 
Cumberland has welcomed and honored all, but its 
financial aid has been reserved for needy and struggling 
students. 

As a rule those who have had the management of thd 
affairs of Cumberland have used the funds at their com- 
mand wisely and economically, and the members of the 
Faculty likewise have been glad to do their part in making 
it easier for students to get an education. Owing to econo- 
mies that were necessary, the salaries of the Faculty have 
not been large. Throughout the greater part of the his- 
tory of the institution the budgets have been cut to the 
lowest figure, all in the interest of the students enrolled. 
For these reasons Cumberland has been able to do much on 
a comparatively slender income. 

The cost of an education, to the student, is not always 
to be estimated by what is printed in the catalogue, but 
rather by the total sum taken from the student's purse. 
In most cases, in Cumberland, this has been surprisingly 
small. From 1842 to more recent years the college tuition 

(263) 



264 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

was rarely more than $50 per year. From 1842 to 1876 
more than 800 candidates for the ministry were educated 
without the payment of tuition, the total cost for this tui- 
tion being estimated at between $40,000 and $50,000. Of 
course this burden fell on members of the Faculty, a burden 
which they were more than glad to bear because of their 
wonderful spirit of altruism. Since 1876 this spirit has 
not changed. 

In September, 1868, Camp Blake was established. It 
was the suggestion of Dr. T. C. Blake; and the establish- 
ment was intended to be something similar to barracks 
occupied by soldiers. It was located on North Cumber- 
land and consisted of a former boarding house, with sev- 
eral smaller buildings surrounding it. It was reserved for 
candidates for the ministry. It had fifty-three occupants 
the first year. After that it had each year from sixty to 
seventy. Each one paid an incidental fee of $10. The 
table was furnished by contributions from friends of the 
institution. The whole matter was under the supervision 
of Nathan Green, Jr. Camp Blake was necessary because 
citizens of Lebanon were not able after the Civil War to 
furnish board and lodging without charge, except in a few 
cases. There were examples of this generosity for fifty 
years after the War. 

In 1875 a co-operative boarding club was established at 
Divinity Hall on West Main Street; and here until 1916 
the club continued its useful existence. Board and lodging 
here could be obtained for $60 or $70 a year. The number 
of students who shared in this privilege each year was 
fifty or more, some of them being in the College of Arts 
and some in the Law School. Since 1903, when the Men's 




li 




^^^iK' ^^^^p. 





'':^ii -ite'^^h^ 



CORDELL HULL, LL.D. 
Secretary of State 




GRAFTON CREETsI LL D 
Chief Justice, Tennessee Supreme Court 



EXTENDING AID TO STUDENTS 265 

Dormitory was built, students of all departments could 
get room and boarding in it at a higher rate than that 
which prevailed at Divinity Hall. 

Cumberland has had for many years a self-help depart- 
ment. Young men have acted as care-takers of buildings, 
fired furnaces, waited on tables in boarding departments, 
assisted in laboratories, had charge of bookstores, served as 
tutors and assistant teachers, and have served the Univer- 
sity in various other capacities, for all of which they have 
received remuneration. Young women have served prin- 
cipally as stenographers and clerks, and have assisted in 
libraries. Employment off the campus has been secured 
also for both young men and young women. 

At various times loan funds have been used, and a lim- 
ited number of current and permanent scholarships have 
been made available for students. Scholarships like these 
in large numbers are needed. While Cumberland has no 
hospital, the health of students has been a matter of con- 
cern. In hundreds of ways students have been able to see 
that the University has a vital concern for their welfare, 
both while they are in the institution and after they 
leave it. 



Chapter XXII 
THE ALUMNI 

The first list of the alumni of Cumberland University 
was printed in the catalogue of 18 52, ten years after the 
institution was established. Lists also were published in 
1853, 1854, 1857, and 1859. In these catalogues the lists 
of the graduates of the College of Arts only were given. 
Until 1848 the A.B. degree was the only degree granted. 
There were only two graduates in the class of 1843, and 
both became lawyers. Only one person was graduated in 
1844, and he became a minister. In the class of 1845 
there was only one graduate, Nathan Green, Jr., who later 
became a Law Professor and the fourth head of the Uni- 
versity. 

The catalogue of 1868-69 gave, in addition to the Col- 
lege of Arts list, the names of nineteen theological gradu- 
ates, beginning with the four names in 18 58, I. N. Biddle, 
S. P. Chesnut, F. R. Earle, and R. L. McElree. The regu- 
lar work of the Theological School was begun four years 
earlier, in March, 18 54. The catalogue of 1868-69 gave 
also the names of twelve graduates of the Engineering 
School, and published for the first time the list of the 
alumni of the Law School, beginning with three names of 
the class of 1848, Henry R. Owen, W. C. Pollock, and 
P. P. Prim. 

The catalogue of 1870-71 also gives all the graduates of 
the four Departments of the University. These lists were 
then published a few times between 1871 and 1903, when 

(266) 



THE ALUMNI 267 

a complete list of the alumni of all Departments was 
given, with the addresses of the living in so far as they 
were known. This work of finding out who were living 
and what their addresses were was a great task. It was 
accomplished, or largely so, by the Registrar, Paris Marion 
Simms. 

The Cumberland University Alumni Association had 
only a nominal existence prior to 1920, when with a more 
definite organization, it began to take its place among the 
working Associations of the country. Beginning in 18 56, 
there was at commencement time an address to the alumni. 
There was mention also of an alumni reunion in 18 58. In 
1873 Judge W. H. Williamson addressed the "Alumni So- 
ciety." For several years, beginning in 1897, there was an 
annual "alumni dinner." For twenty years prior to 1920 
Nathan Green, Jr., was President of the Alumni Associa- 
tion. For a number of years J. S. Waterhouse was the 
Secretary. W. P. Bone followed him in 1909, and served 
somewhat nominally for eleven years. In January, 1920, 
W. P. Bone took up the work in a more thorough way. 

In February, 1920, the first Alumni Board was appoint- 
ed, and it was asked to accept the business responsibilities 
of the Association. A popular meeting could not transact 
the business of the year. A Board was needed to make 
contracts and do business with other business concerns. 
The first Alumni Board consisted of the following per- 
sons: E. E. Beard, '70 A.B., '74 LL.B.; D. E. Mitchell, '02 
A.B.; J. H. Miller, '86 B.D.; A. B. Buchanan, '79 A.B., 
'83 B.D.; A. B. Humphreys, '94 A.B., '95 LL.B.; A. B. 
Martin, '58 LL.B.; W. L. Harris, '12 A.B.; A. W. Hooker, 
'87 LL.B.; Julius Williams, '03 LL.B.; E. G. Walker, '08 



268 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

LL.B.; Julian Campbell, '08 LL.B.; Homer Hancock, '02 
Arts; Grafton Green, '91 A.B., '92 LL.B.; E. J. McCroskey, 
'71 A.B.; J. O. Baird, '00 A.B.; E. L. Stockton, '13 A.B., 
'14 LL.B.; R. R. Doak, '93 B.S., '96 LL.B.; W. P. Bone, 
'86 B.D. 

The first issue of the Cumberland Alumnus, the organ 
of the Alumni Association, was published in April, 1920. 
It had twenty-eight pages, nine inches by twelve in size; 
and four thousand copies were printed. This was sent to 
all alumni whose addresses were known, and to many other 
friends of the University. It was a two-column publica- 
tion, with editorials, feature articles with halftone cuts, 
news about the institution, and fresh items concerning the 
alumni and of all the Schools of the University. 

From the start. Dr. W. P. Bone, the Alumni Secretary 
and Editor, made the Alumni Office solely responsible for 
the publication of the magazine. From April, 1920, to 
June 1, 1929, his term of office, the magazine and the 
greater part of the expense of the office were financed by 
the magazine subscriptions, alumni dues, advertisements, 
and extra liberal subscriptions of the alumni. Charles R. 
Williamson, '97 A.B., gave $1,500; D. E. Mitchell, '02 
A.B., $1,165; Dr. John N. Bone, '04 A.B., $300; John 
Hyde Braly, '57 A.B., $150; Roland F. de Fere, '26 LL.B., 
$150. There were other gifts of lesser size. On June 1, 
1929, the Secretary and Editor, on his retirement, an- 
nounced that the Alumni Office, in every department of 
its work, was free from debt. 

In the June Alumnus, 1929, Dr. D. A. Dobbs, President 
of the Board of Trustees, said of Dr. W. P. Bone, the retir- 
ing Secretary and Editor: "He had the happy faculty of 



THE ALUMNI 269 

finding out facts about people. This gift he turned to the 
advantage of Cumberland by gathering data about her 
sons and daughters who are scattered to the ends of the 
earth. As the Secretary he was the Editor of the Cumber- 
land Alumnus, and placed it in high rank among such pub- 
lications. Part of the work necessary was that of securing 
funds to support the activities of his office. This he did so 
well that when he resigned the other day he reported his 
office as free from debt. No one will ever know all it means 
to the University to have had the foundation of the office 
of the Alumni Association so well laid. "With a file of the 
University catalogues, his memory, his energy and equip- 
ment, Dr. Bone started out years ago to compile a list of 
graduates and former students of the institution. The file 
in the Alumni Office to-day stands as a monument to his 
arduous labor." 

Thomas Marbury Logan, '20 A.B., was appointed Alum- 
ni Secretary by the Board of Trustees of the University on 
June 4, 1929. He had acted as Field Secretary since Feb- 
ruary of that year. For the preceding six years he had 
served on the editorial staffs of daily newspapers of Los 
Angeles and San Francisco. Mr. Logan resigned his posi- 
tion October 1, 1929. 

Macey Jones, '27 A.B., who had assisted the first two 
editors for nearly two years, then edited the alumni maga- 
zine and carried on the work of the Alumni Office until 
February, 1930. 

From February, 1930, to June 1, 1933, Robert W. 
Adams, '29 A.B., '30 LL.B., was the Editor and Secretary; 
and his work was done in a very creditable manner. Dur- 
ing the greater part of the time, he labored without the 



270 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

aid of an office assistant, and all the while he gave his 
entire time to the work assigned to him. He began his 
work about the time of the beginning of the economic 
depression, a circumstance which made his task all the 
more difficult. On June 1, 1933, Thomas Earle Bryant, 
'28 A.B., Registrar since 1927, was made Alumni Secre- 
tary and Editor. He resigned these positions in October, 
1934. His successor, at this date, has not been selected. 

The Cumberland Alumnus 

The Cumherland Alumnus has been, since 1920, the 
organ of the Cumberland University Alumni Association. 
Its simple object has been the promotion of the welfare of 
the University and its alumni. It has planned to give the 
news of what is taking place at the institution and of the 
efforts being put forth to bring the University, in all its 
departments, into a larger usefulness. The statistical and 
financial facts are published from time to time. The 
alumni learn what the standards are, and they have a 
right to know the facts. But one of the principal fea- 
tures of this publication is the large amount of alumni 
news given in each issue. It has been a valuable medium 
of communication between the alumni themselves. 

The Alumni Association 

In the Alumni Office, in Memorial Hall, are kept all the 
alumni records. The lists are on cards, kept in alphabetical 
order, by classes, and by states and cities or towns. Bio- 
graphical cards are kept and a record of all the alumni 
activities in connection with the institution. The Alumni 
Office desires to know something of what each alumnus is 



THE ALUMNI 271 

doing for his alma mater, whether it be in the way of 
support for the Alumni Association or the University it- 
self. The Alumni Association aims to be no burden to the 
University, but self-sustaining. It purposes to use every 
dollar that comes into its possession as a genuine contribu- 
tion to the welfare of the institution, as much so as money 
expended from the treasury of the University itself. 

In the work of the Association, former students who are 
not graduates are accorded the same privileges granted 
the graduates, as is the custom in most institutions. All 
former students, graduates and non-graduates, are asked to 
pay to the Association annually the sum of two dollars for 
the support of the Alumni Office and the subscription to 
the Cumberland Alumnus. 

Justin Winsor, formerly the Librarian of Harvard Uni- 
versity, once said to the present writer, "The best way to 
build up an institution of learning is through its alumni." 
But it is also true that the alumni need what the Univer- 
sity can do for them. The Alumni Association dedicates 
itself to the idea of doing something substantial for the 
alumni, such as the promotion of their welfare in all le- 
gitimate ways. 

The alumnus who makes the institution stronger, makes 
his own degree worth more, and benefits every other alum- 
nus to the same extent. No man ever paid all his obliga- 
tions to alma mater when he paid his tuition bills. The 
contention that he does so is an old delusion, which a cen- 
tury of education has not succeeded in killing. A more 
adequate endowment and a well-selected student body 
should be the desire of every loyal alumnus. The Univer- 
sity in its ninety-three years of interesting history has been 



272 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

rich in achievements. But the feeUng of many of the 
alumni is that its work is only fairly begun. To have such 
a vision of the work of the University and to firmly and 
intelligently adhere to it is certain to produce good results. 

It must not be forgotten that the University was found- 
ed by a noble type of Christian men, men of great char- 
acter and of a large mold. Great souls they were, and 
they left a lasting impression on the institution and the 
country at large. Whatever greatness the institution has is 
due not to material equipment or large endowments but to 
the greatness of the men who founded it as well as to the 
courage and ability of those who have upheld it. 

The men of to-day have a large responsibility and a big 
undertaking in completing or rather in carrying farther 
the work so nobly begun. It is necessary not only to make 
the foundations more secure but also to make whatever 
changes are needed for the great region in which the in- 
stitution is located. The higher standards are ever to be 
maintained and the best traditions are to be sacredly kept. 

Cumberland University deserves the best this generation 
can give. More than eight thousand persons have been 
graduated from this institution and thousands more have 
studied within its walls. Its richest inheritance is its alum- 
ni, and in its alumni Cumberland has a pardonable pride. 
And the University can expect its alumni, of all depart- 
ments, to be loyal and generous. But its strength does not 
rest in its alumni alone. It has many friends besides, and 
the love for it has grown with the years. 

The alumni spirit is re-enforced most of all by the rec- 
ognition of the fact that higher institutions of learning are 
in a large sense the gift of society to the student, and that 




DIVINITY HALL 




CORONA HALL 




THE UNIVERSITY BAND, 1934-1935 




•••v.. :>,-..'? 



WINNING THE CAME 




Residence of Robert L. Caruthers 
Residence of President Mitclnell 
Residence of Chancellor Creen 



THE ALUMNI 273 

what the student enjoys is due most of all to the money, 
time, energy, and life's blood given by others. The alumni 
spirit in the true sense can never be fully satisfied with 
anything less than intelligent, well-directed service. It 
always calls for organization and co-operation. It is will- 
ing to work in the harness; is glad to follow as well as to 
lead; and to place the welfare of the institution above per- 
sonal considerations. It calls for higher standards, and is 
willing to spend the money and to make the effort to reach 
them. The alumni spirit is unselfish. It does not ask, 
"What will I get out of it?" It is concerned rather with 
the welfare of others, especially for those who come after 
us. 

Cumberland University is interested in the progress 
and success of its alumni, and wishes to serve them at all 
times. It desires to perform a service for its alumni after 
graduation, urging a deeper interest in education and in- 
tellectual pursuits and in the social welfare. Much satis- 
faction has come from the fact that Cumberland men gen- 
erally take their share of the work and responsibility in the 
world in which they live. But it is also right to say that 
there never was a time in which it behooved them to be 
more wide-awake to the changes and opportunities of this 
era of ours. This is especially true here in the advancing 
South. Well -prepared men of the highest order are called 
for. Men of the best brain are needed. As a rule, the 
sons and daughters of our alumni should come to Cumber- 
land to get their training. To provide adequate facilities 
to put Cumberland on its feet, there must be wide-awake 
alumni. There is more need for wide-awake alumni than 
for money. 



Chapter XXIII 
CUMBERLAND'S NOTABLE RECORD 

In all the history of American colleges and universities, 
the record made by Cumberland University is one of the 
most notable. Its chief distinction is that it has made 
men; for it is known most of all by its product. It has 
made a wonderful contribution in spirit, ideals, and service, 
and has played a distinguished part in the work of the 
world. Indeed, it has played a noble and illustrious part in 
business, public service, administration of justice, civic 
affairs, church life, church leadership, missionary activi- 
ties, Christian activities. Christian education, creative edu- 
cation, literature, statesmanship, social betterment; and has 
served as a center from which its graduates have gone out 
to found and cherish other institutions of a similar char- 
acter, and belonging to the same group. 

In November, 1928, President E. L. Stockton very fitly 
said: 

"In this age we judge the value of the individual or an 
institution by achievements. The fruits of labor are the 
strongest testimony of worth and distinction. We are face 
to face with these questions: "What have you done? and 
"What are you doing now? Cumberland University has no 
fear in submitting her record and product for the closest 
scrutiny; in fact, the more her career and her splendid 
activities are known, the greater is the appreciation of her 
monumental work. She lives and will live forever in the 
character, ideals, and deeds of her sons and daughters, who 

(274) 



Cumberland's notable record 275 

have drunk deeply at her springs of wisdom and love. 
Walk down the streets of Southern cities and towns, in- 
quire about the leading lawyers, ministers, teachers, and 
business men, who have made churches, communities, laws, 
and character. You will find that Cumberland men stand 
in large numbers in the front ranks of leadership and 
service." 

The test of usefulness is indeed the supreme test. In ac- 
counting for the success of Cumberland one must take into 
account its resources, the opposition it has had to meet, the 
hindrances that have impeded progress, the program that 
has been undertaken, and the toil, sacrifices, devotion, loy- 
alty, and heroism of those who would not desert the insti- 
tution's flag when the odds were against them. The con- 
tribution which Cumberland University has made can 
hardly be duplicated by institutions of like character in 
any part of our great country. 

It would be impossible to include all of Cumberland's 
alumni who have attained positions of emience or who have 
rendered distinguished service. An incomplete list re- 
cently made is as follows: College and university presidents, 
47; college and university professors, 106; moderators of 
church national assemblies, 21; Justices, United States Su- 
preme Court, 2; United States Senators, 9; Congressmen, 
66; Federal District Judges, 10; Federal Circuit Judges, 4; 
Federal District Attorneys, 12; Generals, 8; Governors, 
11; State Supreme Judges, 42; Judges, Court of Appeals, 
12; State Attorney Generals, 14; Chancellors, 20; District 
Judges, 65; United States Ministers, 4; Secretary of State, 
1; other high positions, 50. 

Among the alumni who became college or university 



276 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

presidents were: W. E. Beeson, S. T. Anderson, and E. B. 
Crisman, Trinity University; W. H. Black and G. H. 
Mack, Missouri Valley College; N. Green, Jr., Cumberland 
University; J. D. Porter, Peabody College and University 
of Nashville; W. E. Ward, Ward Seminary; and Ira Land- 
rith, Belmont College. 

Among those who were teachers in colleges and univer- 
sities were: John William Burgess, Columbia University; 
Andrew Allison and W. A. Bryan, Vanderbilt University; 
Shegehide Arakawa, Imperial University, Japan; Count 
Heidei Fukuoka, Professor of Law, Japan; A. H. Buch- 
anan, W. D. McLaughlin, J. I. D. Hinds, C. H. Bell, R. V. 
Foster, N. Green, Jr., A. B. Martin, and E. E. Beard, 
Cumberland University; T. W. Galloway, James Milliken 
University; H. M. Somerville, first Professor of Law, Uni- 
versity of Alabama. 

Among the foreign missionaries were: S. T. Anderson, 
*52 A.B., Island of Trinidad, and Bishop W. R. Lambuth, 
'75 Arts, China. The twenty-one moderators of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Church were: S. T. Anderson, E. E. 
Beard, C. H. Bell, H. C. Bird, W. H. Black, T. C. Blake, 
S. H. Buchanan, E. B. Grisman, W. J. Darby, M. B. DeWitt, 
F. R. Earle, B. P. Fullerton, J. M. Gill, N. Green, Jr., A. W. 
Hawkins, J. M. Hubbert, Ira Landrith, E. G. McLean, 
E. E. Morris, J. C. Provine, and J. Frank Smith. 

With S. T. Anderson and W. R. Lambuth should be 
mentioned D. C. Kelley, '52 A.B., a missionary to China. 

The nine United States Senators were: Joseph W. Bailey, 
W. B. Bate, Murphy J. Foster, Thomas P. Gore, Howell E. 
Jackson, W. F. Kirby, James B. McCreary, Park Trammell, 
and Cordell Hull. The limited space wiU not allow the 



CUMBERLAND'S NOTABLE RECORD 277 

mention by name of the Governors, Congressmen of the 
State and Federal Judges. For many years Emory Fisk 
Best was in the United States Interior Department; A. H. 
Buchanan was Director of the United States Coast Survey 
for Tennessee; Hunt Chipley for years has been Vice- 
President and General Counsel for the Southern Bell Tele- 
phone Company; John E. Edgerton, '01 Arts, was for 
many years President of the National Association of Manu- 
facturers; James Davis Porter was United States Envoy to 
Chile; and James D. Tillman was United States Minister to 
Ecuador. In 1932 Cordell Hull was elected United States 
Senator. In 1933 he was made Secretary of State in the 
President's Cabinet, and later was Chairman of the London 
Economic Conference. He was the foremost figure of the 
Montevideo Conference. He is an outstanding figure in 
national and international affairs. In an address delivered 
at Washington, D. C, May 5, 1934, Secretary of State 
Hull, speaking of Cumberland University, said: 

"This school was created at a vital stage of our history 
to meet crying educational needs. Let me here assert with 
all emphasis, however, that urgent and important as those 
needs were at that juncture, the necessity for the educa- 
tional services of Cumberland University is immeasurably 
more important and imperative to-day than it was a hun- 
dred years ago." In another connection, speaking of the 
Law School in particular, he said: "No greater law teach- 
ers than Judge Nathan Green and Dr. Andrew B. Martin 
ever sat before a class of law students in any university in 
this nation." 

In 1933 Edward Albright, LL.B., was appointed United 
States Minister to Finland. 



278 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

In the Beta Theta Pi magazine, February, 193 5, there is 
an account of a banquet given February 9, 1911, by four 
hundred fraternity men in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in 
New York City, to honor four Justices of the United States 
Supreme Court. The late Dwight W. Morrow, United 
States Senator, was the toastmaster. Justice Horace H. 
Lurton, Cumberland 1867, gave reminiscences of his days 
in Lebanon at the close of the Civil War. "In the fall of 
1865," he said, "the college was reopened and the chapter 
was reorganized. New men to the number of twelve or 
fourteen were taken in. With one or two exceptions, they 
were youths just out of the Civil War. The spirit of 
Betaism knew no politics, and was not even biased by the 
bloody and bitter struggle through which we had just 
passed. Two of the new men had worn the blue and the 
rest the gray. It is, I believe, the earliest instance of re- 
union." 

In that fall of 1865, the qualifications for admission into 
the fraternity, Justice Lurton went on to say, were these: 

"First, a man had to be a good fellow and a gentleman 
down to the ground; second, he had to be a good student 
and likely to win college honors. If we found that he was 
in possession of qualities like these, we did not ask what 
flag he had fought under, nor what were the political 
views he entertained." 



Chapter XXIV 
CUMBERLAND, TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 

In the preceding pages a brief history of the first ninety- 
three years of Cumberland has been given. With such a 
background of distinguished and intensely interesting serv- 
ice rendered in the field of Christian and creative educa- 
tion, those who are promoting the welfare of Cumberland 
thank God and take courage in facing the problems and 
fighting the battles of the future. They are not without 
hope that the future also will have its victories. Indeed, 
they are already planning for the next century, and for 
the myriads of young men and young women who would 
be passed by and forgotten, except for the highly valued 
and much-needed ministry of Cumberland University. 

Cumberland has not in all the ninety-three years lost its 
soul. The men of Cumberland take their stand now as al- 
ways for high standards in the field of education, and for 
the transformation of all individual and social programs, 
methods, and attitudes by the all-conquering principles of 
Jesus Christ. All else fails, when the wonderful principle 
in the parable of the Good Samartian is forgotten, or when 
we forget to be our brothers' brother. The University 
was founded by Christian men, on Christian principles, 
and has remained throughout its history true to the Chris- 
tian purpose of its founders. There have been many re- 
ligious awakenings in the University. The teachers from 
the beginning have been for the most part men of positive 
Christian character. The Bible has been the chief text- 
book, and the Christian atmosphere has prevailed. 

(279) 



280 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

The main departments of the University have been the 
College of Arts, the Preparatory School, the Law School, 
and the Theological School. The College of Arts has al- 
ways had a high standard, both for entrance and gradua- 
tion, as a perusal of the catalogues will show. Both before 
and after the Civil War it has stood in the front rank, so 
far as the standards are concerned. The great need of 
Cumberland is money. It meets all the other requirements 
of a standard institution. It lays stress on complete educa- 
tion, which always includes instruction in the Bible and 
training for Christian workers. 

The Theological School during its history of fifty-five 
years graduated 430 men entering the Christian ministry 
and partially trained about 300 more. This includes many, 
but not all, of those who were previously in the College of 
Arts. These were the men who in the main made the 
Church with which the institution was connected. Their 
ministry was carried into the majority of the States of the 
Union, and into a number of foreign countries. The clos- 
ing of the Theological School was a calamity and a great 
misfortune to the Southland. This School is very much 
needed still. 

The Law School has been always worthy to take its 
stand by the other departments. It has been always Chris- 
tian, and its voice has been eloquent for righteousness. As 
is the case with the other departments, its chief glory has 
been that it "makes men." This claim originates for the 
most part outside of the University circle. Not many 
schools can point to finer specimens of manhood and good 
citizenship among its graduates. 

Cumberland University may be called a mother of edu- 



CUMBERLAND TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 281 

cational institutions. The impulse for building Waynes- 
burg College in Pennsylvania; Lincoln University and 
James Milliken University in Illinois; Trinity University 
in Texas; Missouri Valley College in Missouri; the College 
of the Ozarks in Arkansas; Bethel College, Ward Seminary, 
Cumberland College (McMinnville) , and Castle Heights 
School in Tennessee; Oxford College in Mississippi; Agnes 
Scott College in Georgia; and one or more schools in Cali- 
fornia, came from men who were educated in Cumberland 
University, or who had been in some direct way influenced 
by it. To prove this we have only to think of the Cumber- 
land men who have been connected with these schools, 
such as Foster, McKay, Baker, Richards, Bowdon, Good- 
night, Galloway, Dyer, Darby, Hawkins, Beeson, Decherd, 
Anderson, Gillespie, Crisman, Kirkes, Hornbeak, Simms, 
Black, Laughlin, Stewart, Shepherd, Mack, Morris, Hub- 
bert, Crawford, Neal, Hurie, Sherrill, Dickens, Johnson, 
Dishman, Braly, McEuen, Keathley, Ward, Mitchell, Buch- 
anan, Rice, Armstrong, Burney, Bell, Maddox, Gaines, John 
Hyde Braly. 

These and a larger number in addition have taken up 
the burden of building colleges in the states mentioned and 
in others as well. While all this takes from the strength of 
Cumberland, in one sense of the word, it adds to the power 
of an institution whose chief glory has been to give rather 
than to receive. It is bread cast upon the waters, or a kind 
of multiplication of the loaves on the Master's part, as we 
may well believe. This part of Cumberland's history is 
almost without a parallel among Southern institutions. 

The patronage of Cumberland University has always 
come from a rather large territory. The candidates for the 



282 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

ministry have come from Tennessee (all sections), Ken- 
tucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, 
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Students of the 
College of Arts have come from all sections of Tennessee 
and the States just mentioned and New Jersey and New 
York and some foreign countries. Students in the Law 
School have come from most of the States of the Union 
and from several foreign countries. 

Cumberland University stands enshrined in the hearts 
of thousands of people of this nation of ours. This love for 
it is not confined to the people of one denominational com- 
munion. Its history, its traditions, and its present power 
and influence constitute a great inheritance for this gen- 
eration. Its value to the alumni, to the church, to our 
rising generation, and to the world at large cannot possibly 
be calculated. L. S. Merriam, in his History of Education 
in Tennessee, says: "Men of scholarship and ability have 
graced the halls of Cumberland University. To their un- 
selfish devotion to the cause of the institution must be 
attributed a large part of its success." 

Cumberland University, in view of its strategic impor- 
tance and its present opportunities for serving a large 
number of young people who could not otherwise be served 
so well, is asking for the support so much needed and which 
it so richly deserves. The men of Cumberland, who to-day 
say these things, are simply desiring to show themselves 
the worthy successors of the men who toiled, prayed, sac- 
rificed, and struggled in other days to promote the cause 
of Christian education and in other ways as well to fit 
their students for a citizenship which helps to make our 



CUMBERLAND TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 283 

nation great in ideals and leadership and to make the 
world a better place in which to live. 

An ideal which would fit Cumberland wonderfully well 
and which the institution has been eager to adopt as its 
own is the one which the late President E. A. Alderman 
gave to his institution when he was the head of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. It is as follows: 

"My ideal for this University is that it should be a place 
where there is always a breath of freedom in the air; where 
a sound and various learning is taught heartily without 
sham and pretense; where the life and teachings of Jesus 
furnish forth the ideal of right living and true manhood; 
where the manners are gentle and courtesies daily multi- 
ply between teacher and taught; where all classes and con- 
ditions and beliefs are welcome; and men may rise in ear- 
nest striving by the might of merit; where wealth is no 
prejudice, and poverty no shame; where honorable, even 
rough, labor of the hands is glorified by high purpose and 
strenuous desire for the clearer air and the larger view; 
where there is a will to serve all high ends of a great state 
struggling up out of ignorance into general power; where 
men are trained to observe closely, to imagine vividly, to 
reason accurately, and to have about them some humility 
and some toleration; where, finally, truth, shining patient- 
ly like a star, bids us advance, and we will not turn aside." 

One could easily say Cumberland is just such a place. 
But close akin is Oberlin's ideal, as expressed by its former 
President, Henry Churchill King: 

"Oberlin seeks the education of the entire man — physi- 
cal, intellectual, aesthetic, moral, and religious. It seeks an 
education looking pre-eminently to the service of the com- 



284 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

munity and nation — the indubitable obligation of the 
privileged. It means to foster the spirit of rational, ethical, 
and Christian democracy. It aims to train its students 
personally to share in the great intellectual and spiritual 
achievements of the race, to think in world terms, to feel 
with all humanity, to cherish world purposes." 

These two ideals constitute a part of Cumberland's 
ideal, and are repeated here for that reason. When the 
present writer was the editor of the Cumberland Alumnus, 
he wrote an editorial on the "Ideal Christian College," and 
it appeared in the issue of September, 1928. It is reprinted 
here without alteration: 

"The ideal Christian college is a place where the Christian 
religion is free, warmly welcomed, and not flouted; where 
young and intelligent spirits may grow to manhood and 
womanhood in a truly Christian atmosphere; and where 
they may have the will and the freedom to live their lives 
according to the principles of Jesus Christ. 

"It is a place where ignorance and superstition cannot 
easily flourish, but where there is a sound and tested learn- 
ing; where the pupils are earnestly taught to subject all 
their beliefs to the rigid tests of logical and accurate think- 
ing; and where progress means the enrichment of life by 
approach to the higher or more spiritual ideals and not its 
impoverization by the reduction of everything to the brutal 
levels. 

"It is a place where the Bible is the greatest textbook; 
where it holds its place securely as a book whose light 
shines as the truth that makes men free and that makes 
men brothers; and it is a place where truth is the only 
touchstone, and where the processes of thinking are not 



CUMBERLAND TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW 285 

turned in the wrong direction by the bHnd acceptance of a 
false world view. 

"There are many Christian colleges which approximate 
the ideal herein set forth. We are inclined to believe that 
Cumberland does this. At any rate, Cumberland is a 
place where we have been always taught that every truth 
in the book of nature is God's truth; that all nature's laws 
are at least included in God's ways of working; that the 
Christian philosophy is the only one which faces all the 
facts; that the religion of Christ does not need to be saved, 
but that men do; and that men need never be afraid that 
error will ever in the long run be the victor in the contest 
with truth." 

Cumberland, revered 

By thy sons thou hast blest 
With love and light; 

Life of thine, may it be 

Victorious, noble, free, 

Beautiful; thy days 
Forever bright. 



THE LIBRARY 

Until 18 63 the books of the Library were in the splendid 
University building erected in 1843 on College Street. From 
1873 to 1878 the Library for all departments was located in 
Corona Hall; and from 1878 to 1896, in Caruthers Hall. In 
1896 the books belonging to the College of Arts and the Theo- 
logical Department were removed to Memorial Hall. The Theo- 
logical Library, known from that date as the Hale Library, had 
two large rooms on the second floor of Memorial Hall. The 
Reference Library for the College of Arts, known as the Mitchell 
Library, was located on the first floor of Memorial Hall. In re- 
cent years these two libraries have been consolidated; and occupy 
three large rooms on the first floor. The front room contains 
books of reference. The privileges of this library are open to all 
students. The rooms are well lighted and heated. 

The Law Library is located in a large and comfortable room in 
Caruthers Hall, and is for the use of law students every day in 
the week, Sundays excepted. It contains more than 6,500 vol- 
umes. Special mention may be made of the National Reporter 
and Digest Systems, Corpus Juris, Ruling Case Law, L. R. A., 
both original and new series, American Law Reports, Federal 
Cases, United States Reports, American Reports, American Deci- 
sions, American State Reports, English Ruling Cases, and British 
Ruling Cases; besides a great collection of other standard law 
books. The Library is kept up to date by the constant addition 
of new books as published. All of the published opinions of the 
courts of last resort of all the states of the Union during the last 
thirty-five years, together with all the inferior Federal Courts 
and the intermediate Appellate Courts of the State of New York, 
are found in the library. 

All the libraries together contain 15,500 volumes. A separate 
and fireproof building is badly needed. 



(287) 



GREEK LETTER FRATERNITIES AT 
CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

Beta Theta Pi 1854-99 

Alpha Delta Phi 1857-61 

Delta Kappa Epsilon 18 57-73 

Delta Psi 1858-61 

Phi Kappa Sigma 1859-61 

Phi Kappa Psi 1860-79 

Sigma Alpha Epsilon 1860 

Chi Phi 1861-61 

Alpha Gamma 1867 

Mystic Seven 1867-73 

Alpha Tau Omega 1868-02 

Phi Gamma Delta 1869-78 

Sigma Chi 1872-80 

Kappa Sigma 1887-17 

Pi Kappa Alpha 1892-08 

Delta Sigma Phi 1912-18 

Lambda Chi Alpha 1918 

Sororities 

Sigma Delta Sigma 1926 

Delta Phi Omega 1926 

Iota Tau Tau 1929 

Clubs 

"C" Club (Athletics) 1928 

Mathematics Club 1934 

English Club 1933 

International Relations Club 1923 

Barristers' Club 1932 

Cumberland Players (Dramatic Art) .... 1934 



(288) 



APPENDIX 

I, GENERAL OFFICIALS, 1842-193 5 

Presidents 

1842-44. Franceway Ranna Cossitt, D.D. 

1844-66. Thomas C. Anderson, D.D. 

1866-73. Benjamin W. McDonnold, D.D., LL.D. 

1873-02. Nathan Green, Jr., LL.D. 

1902-06. David Earle Mitchell, A.B. 

1906-09. Acting President, Nathan Green, Jr., LL.D. 

1909-14. Winstead Paine Bone, A.M., D.D., LL.D. 

1914-16. Samuel Andrew Coile, D.D. 

1916-17. Acting President, Homer Allen Hill, A.M. 

1917-20. Edward Powell Childs, A.M. 

1920-22. Acting President, Andrew Blake Buchanan, D.D. 

1922-26. John Royal Harris, D.D. 

1926-27. Acting President, Ernest Looney Stockton, A.M. 

1927 . Ernest Looney Stockton, A.M., LL.D. 

Presidents of the Board of Trustees 

1842-82. Judge Robert Looney Caruthers, LL.D. 
1882-20. Andrew Bennett Martin, LL.D. 
1920 . Dayton A. Dobbs, D.D., LL.D. 

Deans 

College of Aris 
1894-99. J. I. D. Hinds, Ph.D., LL.D. 
1899-11. A. H. Buchanan, LL.D. 
1914-16. Oscar Newton Smith, A.M. 
1917-26. Ernest Looney Stockton, A.M., LL.D. 
1926-28. Harry L. Armstrong, A.M. 
1928 . William Donnell Young, A.M. 

Theological School 
1893-02. James Monroe Hubbert, D.D. 
1902-06. James Robert Henry, D.D. 
1906-09. Winstead Paine Bone, D.D., LL.D. 

Law School 
1868-82. Robert L. Caruthers, LL.D. 
1882-19. Nathan Green, Jr., LL.D. 
1919-20. Andrew Bennett Martin, LL.D. 
1920-23. Edward Ewing Beard, LL.D. 
1923-33. William R. Chambers, LL.D. 
1933-34. Acting Dean Albert WiUiams, LL.B. 
1935 .'Albert Bramlettc Neil, LL.D. 



(289) 



290 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

II. TRUSTEES, 1842-1935 

1842-51. Governor and United States Senator James Chamberlain Jones, 

Lebanon. 
1842-5 9. Zachariah ToUiver, Lebanon. 
1842-46. Thompson Anderson, Lebanon. 
1842-67. Nathan Cartmell, Lebanon. 
1842-47. M. A. Price, Lebanon. 
1842-76. Josiah S. McClain, Lebanon. 
1842-69. Miles McCorkle, Lebanon. 
1842-56. Andrew Allison, Lebanon. 
1842-5 0. William L. Martin, Lebanon. 
1842-66. Jordan Stokes, Lebanon. 
1842-49. Benjamin R. Owen, Lebanon. 
1842-46. Thomas J. Munford, Lebanon. 
1842-82. Judge Robert Looney Caruthers, Lebanon. 
1846-47. J. R. Ashworth, Jr., Lebanon. 
1846-60. D. C. Hibbitts, Lebanon. 
1847-51. Rev. Robert Donnell, Athens, Alabama. 
1847-49. J. H. Sharp, M.D., Lebanon. 
1849-57. O. G. Finley, Lebanon. 
1849-54. John M. Fakes, Lebanon. 

1850-56. Nathan Green, Jr., '45 A.B., '48 LL.B., LL.D., Lebanon. 
1851-54. John S. Pearson, M.D., Lebanon. 
1851-5 5. ^5/. D. Chadick, D.D., Lebanon. 
18 54-72. John W. "White, Lebanon. 
18 54-62. Congressman and General Robert Hatton, '47 A.B., '51 LL.B., 

Lebanon. 
185 5-57. David Lowry, D.D., Lebanon. 

1856-87. Judge WilHam Henry Williamson, '52 A.B., Lebanon. 
18 57-67. Thaddeus C. Blake, D.D., '51 A.B., Nashville. 
1866-20. Andrew Bennett Martin, '5 8 LL.B., LL.D., Lebanon. 
1867-70. Edward Donoho, Lebanon. 
1867-69. Thomas C. Anderson, D.D., Lebanon. 
1869-72. David Cook, Jr., Lebanon. 

1869-82. Congressman Edward L Golladay, '49 A.B., Lebanon. 
1872-78. William H. Darnall, D.D., Lebanon. 

1876-23. Judge Edward Ewing Beard, '70 A.B., '74 LL.B., LL.D., Lebanon. 
1872-78. Congressman Haywood Y. Riddle, '57 LL.B., Lebanon. 
1879-14. Judge Rufus Porter McClain, '5 9 A.B., "67 LL.B., Lebanon. 
1879-05. A. F. Claywell, D.D.S., Lebanon. 
1882-95. John Dillard Kirkpatrick, D.D., Lebanon. 
1886-91. Joshua W. Fitzgerald, '80 B.D., D.D., Lebanon. 
18 87-10. John A. Lester, Lebanon. 
1887-04. W. R. Shaver, Grant. 

1904-14. William M. Cosby, Birmingham, Alabama. 

1904-17. Supreme Judge Warren E. Settle, LL.D., Frankfort, Kentucky. 
1904-26. Amzi W. Hooker, '87 LL.B., Lebanon. 
1904-08. Hugh W. McDonnold, Arts, Lebanon. 
1906-18. Selden R. Williams, Lebanon. 
1906-20. James L. Weir, Lebanon. 



APPENDIX 291 

1915-16. Judge Frank T. Fanclicr, LL.B., Sparta. 

1915-26. Robert Alexander Cody, '86 B.D., D.D., Meridian, Mississippi. 

1915-29, 193 5 . Walter J. Baird, LL.B., Lebanon. 

1915-26. James R. Harrison, Milan. 
1915-20. John Emmett Edgerton, '01 Arts, Lebanon. 
1916-27. James Hubert Grissim, Arts, Lebanon. 
1916-20. William Bowden Greenlaw, '89 A.B., Columbia. 
1916-20. Hamilton Parks, '68 A.B., Nashville. 
1918-20. Nathan G. Robertson, '89 LL.B., Lebanon. 

1920 . William Alexander Provine, '89 B.D., D.D., Nashville. 

1920-3 3. Judge James Edwin Horton, "97 A.B., "^S LL.B. 

1920-26. Bruce G. Mitchell, '85 B.D., D.D., Greenfield. 

1920-22. Rev. William Bruce Strong, '08 B.D., Athens, Alabama. 

1920-26. Joseph Hardin Mallard, '09 B.D., D.D., Meridian, Mississippi. 

1920-32. Robert Lee Harris, '89 A.B., A.M., Columbia. 

1920-22. Joseph C. Hail, Birmingham, Alabama. 

1920-22. Milton H. Woodard, '02 LL.B., Louisville, Mississippi. 

1920 . Dayton A. Dobbs, D.D., Nashville. 

1921 . Elbert L. Orr, '05 B.D., D.D., Nashville. 

1922- — . Henry M. Edmonds, D.D., LL.D., Birmingham, Alabama. 

1923^ . Thomas H. Johnston, Corinth, Miss. 

1923-26. Joseph W. Caldwell, '86 B.D., D.D., HuntsviUe, Ala. 
1926-31. Charles R. Williamson, '97 A.B., Lebanon. 
1926-29. Rev. S. P. Pryor, Arts, New Market, Alabama. 

1926 . Henry Harrison Weir, '02 LL.B., Meridian, Mississippi. 

1926-30. Rev. L N. Yokeley, '86 B.D., Nesbitt, Mississippi. 

1926 . Ernest M. Bryant, '11 A.B., D.D., Humboldt. 

1927-30. L W. P. Buchanan, '85 A.B., '91 Ph.D., Lebanon. 

1927-30. James E. Clarke, D.D., LL.D., Nashville. 

1927-30. M. M. Morelock, '11 LL.B., Haynesville, Louisiana. 

1927-30. R. F. B. Logan, Hernando, Mississippi. 

1927-30. Rev. Fred L. Hudson, '07 A.B., Leeds, Alabama. 

1927-30. 1931 . John J. Hooker, '23 A.B., '24 LL.B., Nashville. 

1927-32. L. E. Brubaker, '08 B.D., D.D., Ensley, Ala. 

1927-29. C. R. Porter, Shannon, Mississippi. 

1927- — . James D. Burton, Oakdale. 

1927-32. Robert Bernard Gaston, '23 A.M., M.D., Lebanon. 

1927 . Alfred A. Adams, Sr., Lebanon. 

1928-33. John W. Barbee, '10 LL.B., Hernando, Mississippi. 
1928- — . G. M. Brown, Union, Mississippi. 
1928-31. Thomas Terry, HuntsviUe, Alabama. 
1929-32. John R. Denny, Arts, Milan. 

1929 . W. A. McCord, Corinth, Miss. 

1929- — . Sam S. Bone, '2 5 A.B., Lebanon. 

193 0-3 3. A. S. Maddox, Arts, Washington, D. C. 

1930-33. R. E. Fort, Nashville. 

1930 . John Caldwell Myers, '94 LL.B., New York City. 

1930 . H. T. Burnett, '12 LL.B., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

1931 . Van Payne, Springfield. 

1931 . James T. Blair, '92 A.B., '95 LL.B., LL.D., St. Louis, Missouri. 

1932-3 5. Benjamin H. Littleton, '14 LL.B., Washington, D. C. 



292 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

1932 . Thaddeus A. Cox, '91 LL.B., Johnson City. 

1932-35. Orvis Elmer Van Cleave, '12 A.B., Chapel Hill. 

1932 . Robert L. Houston, Leeds, Alabama. 

1932 . John Ridley Mitchell, '04 LL.B., Crossville. 

1933 . James L. Adams, Selmer. 

1933 . James Calvin Orr, '03 A.B., '08 B.D., Rockwood. 

193 5 . George S. GoUaday, '04 LL.B. 

in. TREASURERS OF BOARD, 1842-193 5 

Thompson Anderson, 1842-46; Benjamin R. Owen, M.D., 1846-49; J. M. 
Fakes, 1849-53; R. P. Allison, 1853-66; A. B. Martin, 1866-80; E. E. Beard, 
1880-1920; A. W. Hooker, 1920-25; W. J. Baird, 1925-27; Charles R. 
WilHamson, 1927-31; John J. Hooker, 1931 . 

IV. FINANCIAL AGENTS 

Herschel S. Porter, D.D., 1842-43; S. G. Burney, D.D., 1844-45; Rev. 
John McPherson, 1844-45; Rev. J. M. McMurry, 1845-50; J. C. Bowden, 
D.D., 1852; W. D. Chadick, D.D., 1853-5 5; Rev. David Lowry, 1853; 
W. E. Ward, D.D., 1856; S. P. Chesnut, D.D., 1857; Rev. H. M. Ford, 
1857-58; Rev. Hamilton Parks, 1866-68; Rev. W. W. Suddarth, 1868; Rev. 
B. W. McDonnold, 1872; T. C. Blake, D.D., 1872-73; Rev. T. F. Bates, 1873; 
John D. Kirkpatrick, D.D., 1875-95; J. S. Grider, D.D., 1888-93; Rev. E. J. 
McCroskey, 1896-1900; Rev. George W. Martin, 1900-04. 

V. TEACHERS, 1842-193 5 
1. College of Arts 

Rev. Cornelius G. McPherson, A.B., Mathematics, July 9, 1842, to September 

21, 1844. 
Thomas C. Anderson, A.B., D.D., Ancient Languages, August 3, 1842, to 

September 1, 1844. 
Nathaniel Lawrence -Lindsley, A.B., LL.D., Ancient Languages, September 21, 

1844, to October 13, 1849. 
Alexander Peter Stewart, A.B., LL.D., Mathematics, January 22, 1845, to 

October 1, 1849; April 3, 1850, to August 2, 1854; June 28, 1856, to 

September 2, 1869. 
Louis A. Lowry, A.B., Mathematics, February 27, 1845, to June 1, 1845. 
J. H. Sharp, A.B., M.D., Chemistry, February 27, 1845, to September 4, 1847. 
William Mariner, A.B., A.M., Assistant Ancient Languages, December 31, 

1847, to October 1, 1849; Mathematics, October 1, 1849, to July 12, 1850; 

Ancient Languages, July 12, 18 50, to June, 1860. 
James Merrill Safford, A.B., Ph.D., Chemistry and Geology, June 27, 1848, 

to June, 1873. 
Thaddeus C. Blake, A.B., D.D., Mathematics, August 2, 1854, to June 28, 1856. 
Andrew Hays Buchanan, A.B., C.E., LL.D., Engineering, August 2, 1854, to 

1862; Mathematics and Engineering, September 2, 1869, to June 3, 1911. 
Julius Blau, A.B., Modern Languages, July 11, 1866, to June, 1867. 
E. G. Burney, A.M., Assistant Professor of Latin and Greek, 1867-70. 
William Duncan McLaughlin, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., Assistant Ancient Lan- 
guages, July 22, 1870, to August 17, 1872; Ancient Languages, August 17, 

1872, to June 5, 1914; same, September, 1920, to June, 1921. 



APPENDIX 293 

Oliver Hoben, A.B., Modern Languages, 1867-70. 

Benjamin C. Jilson, A.B., Geology, 1854-1856. 

E. H. Plumacher, Modern Languages, 1870 to 1871. 

John L D. Hinds, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., Chemistry and Biology, 1873-99. 

Same, 1911-14. 
Edward Ellis Weir, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., English and Philosophy, 1880-84; 

Philosophy, 1894-1909. 
Isaac William Pleasant Buchanan, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Mathematics, 1893-1902. 
Laban Lacy Rice, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., English Language and Literature, 1894- 

96; same, 1898-1906. 
James Smartt Waterhouse, A.B., A.M., Chemistry and Biology, 1898-1909. 
Cale Young Rice, '93 A.B., A.M. (Harvard), English and English Literature, 

1896-98. 
W. L. Seaman, B.L., Modern Languages, 1899-1901. 
William H. Scheifley, Modern Languages, 1901-02. 
Clara Earle, A.M. (Arkansas), Modern Languages, 1902-14. 
Frank J. Stowe, M.O., Oratory and History, 1903-04. 
Charles Hulin Kimbrough, A.B., Ph.D., English Languages and Literature, 

1904-14. 
Joseph Clay Walker, '04 A.B., in Europe (Heidelberg) for study, 1904-06; 

Germanic Languages, 1906-07. 
Kate Adelle Hinds (Mrs. Willard Steele), A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Chemistry and 

Biology, 1909-12. 
Walter Hugh Drane, A.B., A.M. (Mississippi), Mathematics and Civil En- 
gineering, 1911. 
Velear L. Minehart, A.B. (Washington and Jefferson), Biology and Geology, 

1911-12. 
Homer Allin Hill, A.B. (Park), A.M. (Missouri), Biology, 1912-18. 
Winstead Paine Bone, A.B., A.M., D.D., LL.D., Bible and Greek, 1914-17; 

Bible, Philosophy, Sociology, Ethics, Logic, 1917 — . 
Oscar Newton Smith, A.B., A.M. (Princeton), Latin Language and Literature, 

1914-20. 
Herman F. Schnirel, A.M., Modern Languages, 1914-15. 

Anna Augusta Weigel, A.B. (Tennessee), Domestic Science and Art, 1914-15. 
James Otto Graham, M.S. (Clemson), Chemistry and Physics, 1914-17. 
Peyton Ward Williams, B.S. (Alabama), English and History, 1914-15. 
Sue Anne Chenoweth, Public Speaking, 1914-15. 

W. Patton Graham, A.M., Ph.D. (Virginia), Modern Languages, 1915-17. 
Ernest Looney Stockton, A.B., A.M., English, 1915-26. 
George B. Hussey, Ph.D., Modern Languages, 1917-18. 
Madame F. Eppinger, Modern Languages, 1918-20. 
James Oscar Baird, A.B., A.M., Chemistry, 1918-1925; 1926—. 
H. E. Beierly, A.M., LL.D., Biology and Physics, 1918-19. 
C. C. Lemon, A.M., Biology and Education, 1919-21. 
J. L. Frank, M.S. (Cornell), Biology and Education, 1921-22. 
Oliver G. J. Schadt, Ph.D., Modern Languages, 1921-22. 
George W. Vanzee, M.S. (Illinois), Biology and Education, 1922-27. 
Abram Rudy, Ph.D., Modern Languages, 1922-2 3. 
Mary Stahlman Douglas, A.B. Journalism, 1922-23. 
Mabel C. Jones, A.B., A.M., English, 1922 — . 
William Donnell Young, A.M., History, 1922 — . 



294 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

George Frank Burns, A.M., Latin and Greek, 1923-29. 

Walter Brownlow Posey, A.M., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt), Economics and Business 

Administration, 1923-25. 
J. Vernol Clarke, B.S. (Vanderbilt), Journalism, 1923-24. 
Jacob E. Boethius, A.M., Modern Languages, 1923-30. 
Edwin Ray Bentley, A.B. (Texas Christian), Journalism, 1924-25. 
Beecher Flannagan, A.B. (Berea), A.M. (Peabody), Mathematics, 1924-2 5. 
Harry L. Armstrong, A. B. (Ohio Wesleyan), A.M., Mathematics, 1924-29. 
Charles Lee Kirkpatrick, A.M., Chemistry, 1925-26; Biology, 1926-27. 
Mrs. B. E. Alward, M.A. (Washington), Education, 192 5-26. 
William Earl Michael, A.B., Spanish, 1925-26. 
J. Louis Adams, A.B., History, 1925-26. 
Floyd L. McCollum, A.B., M.S., Economics, 1926-27. 
J. Albert Beam, A.M. (Wooster), M.D. (Illinois), Biology, 1927-30. 
Mrs. Y. P. Wooten, A.M., Acting Professor of Education, 1927 — . 
Joseph Couley Reagan, Ph.D. (Chicago), Economics, 1927-29. 
Juanita Helm Floyd, A.M., Ph.D. (Columbia), Romance Languages, 1928-29. 
Floyd Revell Williams, A.M. (Princeton), Latin and Greek, 1929-31. 
Ralph Tinsley Donnell, A.M. (Tennessee), Mathematics, 1929 — . 
Robert J. Wherry, A.M., Ph.D. (Ohio State), Psychology and Economics, 

1929 — . 
Eudora B. Orr, A.B. (William and Mary), French and Dean of Women, 

1929-31. 
L. M. Dickerson, M.S., Ph.D. (Virginia), Biology, 1930-34. 
E. George Saverio, A.M. (College of Montana), Ph.D. (Texas), Modern 

Languages, 193 0-34. 
Graves H. Thompson, A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Harvard), Latin and Greek, 

1930 — . 
Virginia Adams, A.B., Assistant in French, 1932-34. 
Edd Winfield Parks, A.B. (Harvard), A.M. and Ph.D. (Vanderbilt), Eng- 

glish, 1933-34. 
Luther Appel Pflueger, A.B. (Muhlenberg), A.M. (Indiana), Ph.D. (Wis- 
consin), 193 5 — . 
James Meadows Sanders, A.B. (WiUiam Jewell), A.M., Ph.D. (Illinois), 

1935 — . 
Walter Scott Mason, A.B. (Cumberland), A.M. (Peabody), 193 5 — . 

2. The Preparatory School 

T. N. Jarman, 1842-44; C. L. Price, 1842-44; B. S. Foster, 1844-46; R. P. 
Decherd, 1846-54; Principal, 1850-54; Wiley M. Reed, 1847-48; Robert 
Hatton, 1847-48; N. J. Fox, 1847-48; J. L. McDowell, 1848; J. C. Provine, 
1850; T. C. Blake, 1850-51; S. T. Anderson, 1851; W. W. Suddarth, 1851; 
E. B. Crisman, 1851-52; T. H. Hardwick, 1851-52; A. H. Alsup, 1852; 
A. H. Merrill, 18 54-5 6; E. G. Burney, Principal, 1866-70; Benjamin Decherd, 
1869-71; D. S. Bodenhamer, 1871-73; H. T. Norman, 1871-73; W. J. 
Grannis, 1852-61; Principal, 1873-1902; H. S. Kennedy, Principal, 1866-71; 
N. J. Finney, 1866-67; T. M. Thurman, 1866-67; Herbert N. Grannis, 
1875-1902; Harry N. Grannis, 1894-98; G. Frank Burns, 1910-13; H. L. 
Anderton, 1910-13; B. B. Lavender, 1910-11; J. W. Holmes, 1910-12; E. T. 
Bozenhard, 1910-12; T. F. Garner, 1911-12; J. Leon Hooper, 1911-12; Laurel 
Garner, 1911-12; Lena Uarda Banks, 1911-12; Nelson Bryan, 1912-13; E. L. 



APPENDIX 295 

Stockton, 1912-16, Principal, 1915-16; Paul Doran, 1912-13; C. R. Endsley, 
Principal, September to December, 1913; A. L. Petty, Principal, January to 
June, 1914; J. B. Havron, 1913-14; Mrs. J. B. Havron, 1913-14; T. M. ^X'ilson, 
Principal, 1914-15; John A. Hyden, 1914-20, Principal, 1916-20; L. A. Hona- 
ker, 1914-16; W. T. Hardison, 1914-15; M. S. McGregor, 1914-16; Paul L. 
HoUister, 1915-17; H. H. Rogers, 1915-16; M. Bliss Rankin, 1915-16; Addie 
F. Oldham, 1916-17; Annie Evertson, 1916-17; Sara Ransom, 1916-17; Icie 
Kenton, 1916-17; John C. Murfree, 1916-17; Will White Colvert, 1916-20; 
Margaret Childs, 1917-20; Mary Bryan, 1917-18; Clara Belle Anderson, 
1918-19; Mrs. H. C. Wilkinson, 1918-19; H. G. Rooker, 1919-20; Mrs. 
Y. P. Wooten, Principal, 1920-27; W. D. Young, 1920-23; J. E. Belcher, 
1920-27; Margaret Campbell, 1920-23; Elizabeth Dill, 1920-21; Alice Wil- 
liamson Bone, 1920-26; Charlene Miller, 1923-27; Bethel Crowe, 1923-24; 
R. T. Donnell, 1924-27; Buford Harris Kirk, 1924-25. 

3. Law School 

Abram Caruthers, LL.D., Professor of Law, 1847-63. 

Nathan Green, Sr., LL.D., Professor of Law, 1852-66. 

Bromfield L. Ridley, A.B. (Univ. of N. C), Professor of Law, 1848-52. 

Nathan Green, Jr., LL.D., Professor of Law, 1856-1919. 

John C. Carter, LL.B., Professor of Law, 1859-60. 

Henry Cooper, A.B., Professor of Law, 1866-68. 

Robert Looney Caruthers, LL.D., Professor of Law, 1868-81. 

Andrew Bennett Martin, LL.B., LL.D., Professor of Law, 1878-1920. 

Edward Ewing Beard, A.B., LL.B., LL.D., Professor of Law, 1912-23. 

William Richard Chambers, A.B., LL.B., LL.D., Professor of Law, 1920-34. 

Albert Williams, LL.B., Professor of Law, 1923-25; 1933-34. 

Julian Kenneth Faxon, A.B., J.D. (Chicago), Professor of Law, 1927-30. 

Albert Bramlett Neil, LL.B., LL.D. Professor of Law, 1930 — . 

Sinclair Daniel, A.B. (Southwestern), LL.B. (Louisville), Professor of Law, 

January-June, 193 2. 
Samuel Burnham Gilreath, LL.B., Professor of Law, 1932 — . 
Currell Vance, A.B. (Princeton), LL.B. (Vanderbilt), 1935—. 

4. Theological School 

Richard Beard, D.D., First Professor Systematic Theology, 1854-82. 

Benjamin W. McDonnold, D.D., LL.D., Practical Theology, 1859-61. 

William H. Darnal, A.M., D.D., Church History, 1873-77. 

Stanford Guthrie Burney, D.D., LL.D., Biblical Literature, 1877-82; Sys- 
tematic Theology, 1882-93. 

John Dillard Kirkpatrick, D.D., Church History, 1880-95. 

Robert Verrell Foster, A.M., D.D., LL.D., Hebrew and New Testament 
Greek, 1880-94; Systematic Theology, 1894-09. 

Claiborne H. Bell, D.D., Missions and Comparative Religion, 1884-1909. 

James Monroe Hubbert, D.D., Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, 1893-1902. 

Winstead Paine Bone, D.D., LL.D., New Testament Interpretation, 1894- 
1909. 

John Vant Stephens, D.D., Church History, 1894-1909. 

Finis King Farr, A.M. (Chicago), D.D., Old Testament Interpretation, 1895- 
1909. 



296 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 

James Robert Henry, D.D., Homiletics and Pastoral Theology, 1902-06. 
Robert Gamaliel Pearson, D.D., English Bible, 1903-09. 

5. School of Music 

Herr Eugene Feuchtinger, A.M., Piano and Voice, 1903-06. 

Carl Showalter Hertzog, B.L., Violin, 1903-04. 

Elise Heinrich Tanner, B.M., Voice, 1903-04. 

Minnie McClain, A.B., B.M., Piano, 1903-04. 

Nellie Hamilton, B.M., Piano, 1903-04. 

Annette Haydon, B.M., Piano, 1903-04; 1911-14. 

Rosa K. Poindexter, B.M., Voice, 1903-04. 

Lucy Shannon, B.M., Voice, 1903-05. 

Mary Grissom, A.B., B.M., Piano, 1903-04. 

Cordelia Kent, Piano and Harmony, 1904-05. 

Sara T. Feuchtinger, Piano, 1904-06. 

Leontine E. Pierrie, Violin, 1904-05. 

Carrie Peyton, Piano, 1904-05. 

Mary Louise Brodeson, Piano, 1904-05. 

Robert Paul Gise, Piano, Voice, Theory, History, 1906-17. 

Edna Beard, Violin, 1906-08; 1909-11. 

Martha Martin Burke, A.B., Violin, 1909-22. 

Lucie Van Valkenburg, Violin, 1910-12. 

James Isaac Ayers, Piano, Voice, 1917-18. 

Lilla Mace, B.M., Piano, 1917-18. 

W. H. A. Moore, Piano, Voice, 1918-21; 1922-27. 

Ethel Beyer, Piano, 1919-23. 

W. J. Keshner, Violin, 1922-23. 

C. L. Jaynes, Piano, Voice, 1921-22. 

Sarah L. Shepherd, Violin, 1923-25. 

Cecil Irene Hodam, B.M., Voice, 1924-2 5. 

Sue Finley, A.B., Piano, 1924-25; 1930 — . 

Carl G. Theman, Voice, 1925-26. 

Sarah Hill Richardson, B.M., Piano, Violin, 192 5-26. 

Paul E. Christen, Voice, 1926-28. 

Lois L. Smith, Violin, 1926-27. 

Frederick S. Mendenhall, A.M., Piano, Voice, 1927-3 0. 

Aline Fentress (Ward-Belmont), Violin, 1927-28. 

Myrtle Long Mendenhall, Piano, 1928-30. 

Mattie Crowe, A.B., A.M. (Peabody), Voice, 1930-31. 

Theodora Ferrell, Voice, 1931 — . 

Eunice Cutler, B.M. (Cornell College, 193 3—. 

6. Department of Home Economics 
Anna Augusta Weigel, A.B. (Tennessee), 1914-15; Mildred Hungerford, 
1915-16; Icie Kenton, A.B., 1916-17; Daisy Allen, 1917-20; Mrs. Joseph 
W. Lovell, A.B., 1920-21; Mary Ward Thompson, 1921-24; Mrs. Robert Ed- 
ward Eskew, 1924-25; Gladys Old, 1925-26; Mrs. Floyd McCollum, 1926- 
27; Edna Lyster, A.M. (Peabody), 1927-29. 



APPENDIX 297 

7. Department of Public Speaking 

Frank J. Stowe, M.O., B.D., 1903-06; Sue Anna Chenoweth, 1915-16; 
Sara Elizabeth Fakes, B.S., 1916-19, 1920-26; Katherine M. Moore, 1926-27; 
Mrs. Lovell Rousseau, 1927 — . 

8. Physical Directors 

James R. Rash, 1895-96; E. D. Kuykendall, A.B., 1899-1900; W. L. 
Seaman, B.L., 1900-01; J. S. Kuykendall, 1901-02; A. L. Phillips, A.B. 
(Washington and Jefferson), 1902-04; John S. Counselman, 1904-05; M. M. 
Morelock, 1910-11; Byrd Douglas, M.A. (Princeton), LL.B., 1917-18, 1922- 
23; Frank Wilde, 1924-25; Monte McDaniel, B.S., 1927-30; Buchanan Loser, 
A.M. (Mercer), 1930-31; John Askew, A.B. (Vanderbilt), 1931-32; Garland 
Augustus Morrow, A.B. (Vanderbilt), 1932-3 5; Eugene Mcllwain, A. B. 
(Cumberland), 193 5 — . 

VI. REGISTRARS 

P. M. Simms, 1902-04; J. S. Waterhouse, 1904-09; C. H. Kimbrough, 1909- 
14; O. N. Smith, 1914-16; H. A. Hill, 1916-17; George H. Rossman, 1917- 
20; W. H. Drane, 1920-24; J. O. Baird, 1924-26; James E. Belcher, 1926-27; 
Thomas E. Bryant, 1927-34. 

VII. DIRECTORS OF THE BOARDING DEPARTMENT 

Mrs. H. T. Norman, 1903-04; Mrs. James Robison, 1904-05; Mrs. Minnie 
Welch, 1905-13; Mrs. George A. McClain, 1913-14, 1916-27; Miss Alice 
Hanger, 1914-16; Mrs. M. L. Hill, 1927-31; Miss Martha B. Mason, B.S., 
1931-33; Mrs. Mary E. Fullilove, 1933-35; Mrs. Mary Owen Holmes, A.B., 
193 5—. 

Vm. LEADERS, EVANGELISTIC AND WEEK OF PRAYER MEETINGS 

Fred P. Flaniken, D.D., 1894; J. V. Stephens, D.D., 1895; J. A. McDonald 
D.D., 1896; W. B. Holmes, D.D., 1897; S. D. Logan, D.D., 1898; T A 
Wiggington, D.D., 1899; R. G. Pearson, D.D., 1900; E. G. McLean, D.D. 
1901; E. E. Hendrick, D.D., 1902; Howard W. Pope, D.D., 1903; J. R 
Henry, D.D., 1904; E. E. Morris, D.D., 1905; E. E. Hendrick, D.D., 1906 
W. T. Rogers, D.D., 1907; G. W. Shelton, D.D., 1908; S. A. Coile, D.D. 
1909; Robert Watson, D.D., 1910; Charles Lee Reynolds, D.D., 1911; S. A 
Coile, D.D., 1912; Frank Kean, D.D., 1913; W. M. Crawford, D.D., 1914 
E. A. Elmore, D.D., 1915; Hubert Lyle, D.D., 1916; J. W. Caldwell, D.D. 
1917; D. A. Dobbs, D.D., 1918; S. D. Logan, D.D., 1919; W. T. Bartlett 
D.D., 1920; George M. Oakley, D.D., 1921; John Royal Harris, D.D., 1922 
J. M. Broady, D.D., 1923; C. W. Welch, D.D., 1924; W. B. Holmes, D.D. 
1925; D. M. Harrison, D.D., 1926; George Edward Hawes, D.D., 1927 
H. M. Edmonds, D.D., 1928; C. W. Welch, D.D., 1929; no meeting, 1930 
G. E. Hawes, D.D., 1931; Guy Green, 1932; H. L. Turner, D.D., 1933 and 
1934; Floyd Poe, D.D., LL.D., 193 5. 



INDEX 



Adams, Robert W., 176, 269. 

Adams, Virginia, 174. 

Albright, Edward, 277. 

Alderman, E. A., 283. 

Allen, Joseph W., 40, 99. 

Alma Mater Song, 261. 

Alumni, 266-273. 

Alumni Association, 270. 

Alumni Board, 267, 268. 

Alumni Lists in Catalogues, 266, 267. 

Alumni Secretary, IJl, 267, 268. 

Alumni Trustees, 171. 

Alii?)iniis, Cumberland, 101, 13 8, 1J4, 

161, 176, 270, 284. 
Amendments to Charters, (185 0) 76, 

(1858) 77, 219, (1903) 226, 

(1907), 140 (1914), 148, 149, 

(1920) 155. 
American College Association, 172. 
Anderson, Alexander, 66. 
Anderson, Dr. S. T., 66. 
Anderson, President Charles A., 179. 
Anderson, Dr. T. C, 18, 26, 33, 35, 

36, 57, 58, 60, 63, 66, 77, 89, 90. 
Assembly Minutes, 215-226. 
Athletics, 259-261. 

Bailey, Senator Joseph W., 117. 

Baird, Dr. A. J., 34. 

Baird, Professor J. O., 15 3, 290. 

Baird, W. J., 288. 

Ball Endowment Plan, 109. 

Banner, Nashville, 139, 160, 182, 184. 

Banner of Peace, 3 8, 64, 79. 

Beam, J. Albert, 172. 

Beard, Judge E. E., 101, 121, 198, 

205. 
Beard, Dr. Richard, 26, 33, 89, 115, 

227. 
Bell, Dr. C. H., 93, 234. 
Bench and Bar of Tennessee, 43. 
Beta Theta Pi magazine, 86, 277. 
Bible Circle, 254. 
Bible, as textbook, 28 5. 
Biles, J. C, 145, 159. 



Biographical Directory of Congress, 41. 

Biographical Sketches, 26, 51, 55. 

Bird, Dr. Milton, 34. 

Blake, Dr. T. C, 80, 98. 

Blakey, Mrs. Sarah E., 122. 

Board of Visitors, 73, 222. 

Bone, Dr. W. P., 141-147, 149, 154, 

180, 212, 213, 236. 
Bowdon, Dr. J. C, 110. 
Braly, J. Hyde, 101. 
Bradley, Mrs. Mary Forrest, 177. 
Brown, Governor A. V., 76. 
Brown, Governor John C, 32. 
Brown, Rev. Joseph, 26. 
Brown, Governor Neill S., 32. 
Browning, Congressman Gordon, 181. 
Bryan, Dr. A. M., 110. 
Bryant, Thomas E., 270. 
Buchanan, Dr. A. B., 154, 15 5. 
Buchanan, Dr. A. H., 82, 93, 107, 

125. 
Buchanan, I. W. P., 130. 
Burgess, John W., 83, 86. 
Burney, Dr. S. G., 34, 63, 90, 228. 
Burns, G. Frank, 160. 
Burton, Robert M., 40, 42. 
Business College, 247. 
By-laws, 59, 60. 

Caldwell, Joshua W., 43. 
Campbell Academy, 188, 243. 
Campbell, Governor W. B., 41. 
Camp Blake, 264. 
Carter, John C, 194. 
Caruthers, Abram, 42, 69, 191. 
Caruthers Hall, 42, 199, 120. 
Caruthers, John, 180. 
Caruthers, Robert L., 36, 37, 41, 43, 
. 98, 108, 188. 
Caruthers Society, 42. 
Castleman, Jeff, 15 8. 
Catalogues, 123, 124. 
Chadick, Dr. W. D., 79. 
Chambers, Mrs. Margaret, 122. 
Chambers, \V. R., 200. 

(299) 



300 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 



Charter, 62, 76, 77, 149, 206, 209, 

216-226. 
Childs, Edward P., 1J1-1J4. 
Church Union, 114, 137, 214. 
Civil War, 82, 83, 96, 103, 110. 
Clarke, Dr. J. E., 157, 166, 177, 181. 
Close, O. Bell, 137. 
Coeducation, 123. 
Coile, Dr. S. A., 148-151. 
College of Arts, 80, 88, 109, 146. 
College of Arts, Teachers in, 94-99, 

125-134. 
College Chapel, 138. 
College Code, 123. 
Collegian, The, 25 8. 
Corona Hall, 119. 
Court decree, 143. 

Court of Claims, United States, 145. 
Cox, Thaddeus A., 171. 
Crabbe, Dr. A. L., 179. 
Cumberland Alumnus, 101, 13 8, 154, 

161, 176, 268, 284. 
Cumberland Annex, 123, 249. 
Cumberland College (Lebanon), 62. 
Cumberland College (Nashville), 17. 
Cumberland College (Princeton), 15, 

33. 
"Cumberland in a New Era of Edu- 
cation," 166. 
Cumberland's Ideals, 284, 285. 
"Cumberland, My Cumberland," 261. 
Cumberland's Notable Record, 274- 

278. 
Cumberland To-Day and To-Morrow, 

279-285. 
Cumberland University Monthly 

Magazine, 257. 
Cumberland University View Book, 

259. 
Cu7nberland Weekly, 25 8. 
Curriculum, 69, 70, 74. 

Darnall, Dr. W. H., 210. 

Deans of College of Arts, 115, 163, 

289. 
Deans of Law School, 115, 200, 201, 

202,289. 
Deans of Theological School, 115, 211, 

213, 202, 289. 
Deans of Summer School, 2 51. 
Decherd, R. P., 79, 242. 



Degrees, 215. 

de Fore, R. F., 268. 

Dewitt, Judge John H., 90, 181. 

Dewitt, Dr. M. B., 67, 90. 

Dickerson, Dr. L. M., 173. 

Divinity Hall, 108, 264. 

Dobbs, Dr. D. A., 41. 178. 

Donnell, Rev. George, 18, 20, 21, 25, 

26, 37, 38, 42, 43. 
Donnell, Ralph Tinsley, 173. 
Donnell, Rev. Robert, 36, 50, 72, 78. 
Donnell, Rev. Samuel, 27, 51. 
Douglas, Byrd, 181. 
Drake, J. V., 54. 
Drane, W. H., 146. 
Duke of Cumberland, 16. 

Earle, Clara, 133. 

"E Cineribus Resurgo," 105, 25 8. 

Edgerton, John E., 198, 277. 

Edmonds, Dr. H. M., 166, 176. 

Education, Movement for, 30. 

Elmore, Dr. E. A., 143. 

Endowment, 57, 63, 71, 82, 89, 145. 

Engineering School, 79, 244. 

Equivalent Endowment Bond, 158. 

Erskine, Dr. Alexander, 110. 

Eubank, Dr.. W. K., 177. 

Ewing, Ephraim, 108. 

Ewing Professorship, 108, 109. 

Expansion Program, 165. 

Faculty, College of Arts, 107, 113, 

172. 
Faculty, Law School, 113, 191-202. 
Faculty, Theological School, 227- 

241. 
Farr, Dr. Finis K., 212, 238. 
Faw, Judge W. W., 180. 
Faxon, Dr. J. K., 201. 
First Field Day, 25 9. 
"Fifty Years a Teacher," 115. 
Finley Bequest, 108. 
Floyd, Juanita, 172. 
Foster, Dr. B. S., 123. 
Foster, Dr. R. V., 210, 229. 
French Lick, 16. 
Fullerton, Dr. B. P., 12 0. 

Gaston, Dr. R. B., 171. 
Geodetic Survey of Tennessee, 116, 
126. 



INDEX 



301 



General Assembly, 39, 45, 46, 47, 

71, 209, 216-226. 
Gerhardt, Lt. Charles, 249. 
Gill, Dr. J. M., 93. 
Gilreath, Samuel B., 202. 
GoUaday, Edward I., 65. 
Goodnight, Mrs. I. H., 145, 159. 
Goodspeed's History of Tennessee, 

17, 32. 
Governors of Tennessee, 39. 
Graham, J. O., 149. 
Graham, W. P., 149. 
Grannis, W. J., 79. 
Green, Chief Justice Grafton, 117. 
Green, Nathan, Sr., 69, 80, 89, 192. 
Green, Nathan, Jr., 5 0, 5 5, 89, 111, 

112, 138. 
Grider, Dr. J. S., 110, 116. 
Grissom, D. M., 99. 

Hail, Dr. A. D., 212, 214. 

Hail, Dr. J. B., 214. 

Hale, Mrs. E. J., 122. 

Hall, Dr. John, 19, 20. 

Hamer's Tennessee — A History, 49, 

117. 
Harris, Dr. John Royal, 156-162. 
Hatfield, Dr. Edwin F., 29. 
Hatton, Life of Robert, 54. 
Hatton, Robert, 42, 52. 
Henry, Dr. J. R., 137, 212, 239. 
Hill, Homer A., 146, 151. 
Piinds, Dr. J. I. D., 120, 127. 
Histories of Tennessee, 21. 
History of a Lawsuit, 186. 
Hoggatt, Mrs. J. W., 123. 
Hooker, John J., 171, 177. 
Hoskins, Dr. James D., 176, 180. 
Hubbert, Dr. J. M., 115, 211, 212, 

289. 
Hull, Cordell, 184, 277. 

Inaugurations, 166, 207, 210. 

Indians, 21, 26. 

Insurance, the Ball Endowment, 109. 

Jackson, Andrew, 26, 42. 
James, Mrs. D. Willis, 145. 
Jones, James Chamberlain, 40, 48. 
Jones, Mabel C, 290. 
Jones, Macey, 269. 



Kelley, Dr. David C, 116, 276. 
Kelly. Dr. Robert L., 178, 179. 
Kerr, Dr. Howard I., 176. 
Kick-off, The, 2 5 8. 
Kimbrough, C. H., 13 3. 
King, Dr. Henry Churchill, 284. 
Kirkpatrick, Dr. John D., 116, 211, 
232. 

Lambuth, Bishop W. R., 276. 

Law School, 44, 74, 88, 146, 185- 

190,280. 
Lebanon, 3 9, 84, 111. 
Lebanon College for Young Ladies, 

123. 
Lectures, 116, 118. 
Libraries, 110. 

Leiper, Mrs. Macon A., 3 5, 60. 
Lemon, C. C, 15 3. 
Liberal Arts College Movement, 174. 
Life Service Group, 256. 
Lindsley, Dr. J. B., 32, 36, 65, 87. 
Lindsley, Dr. N. L., 52, 60, 68, 91, 

94,95. 
Lindsley, Dr. Philip, 17. 
Literary Societies, 25 6. 
Littleton, B. H., 171. 
Lockwood, Dr. W. P., 181. 
Lowry, Dr. David, 51, 78. 
Lurton, Horace H., 278. 

Mackenzie, Dr. Robert, 143. 

Maddux, A. S., 171. 

Mariner, William, 96, 97. 

Martin, Dr. Andrew B., 41, 43, 44, 

139, 188, 195. 
Martin, Thomas W., 171. 
Matthews, Judge T. E., 17, 26. 
McClain, J. S., 27, 36, 49. 
McCroskey, Rev. E. J., 116, 121. 
McDaniel, Mrs. R. J., 122. 
McDonnold, Dr. B. W., 29, 34, 51, 

85, 87, 89, 103, 111. 
McGee, Rev. William, 27. 
McGready, Rev. James, 29, 67. 
McLaughlin, William D., 127. 
McMurry, Rev. J. M., 71. 
Mechlenburg Resolutions, 20, 25. 
Medical Department, 110, 114, 245. 
Memorial Hall, 120. 
Men's Dormitory, 136, 15 9. 



302 A HISTORY OF CUMBERLAND UNIVERSITY 



Meriam, L. S., 282. 
Minutes of Board, 40. 
Mitchell, D. E., 122, 135-140. 
Mitchell Library, 13 5. 
Mitchell, J. Ridley, 178. 
Moderators, 276. 
Moffatt, Dr. James D., 213. 
Monette, John "W., 16. 
Moreland, T. B., 15 9. 
Morelock, M. M., 171. 
Mother of Colleges, 280. 
Munro, Hugh R., 176, 180. 
Middleburg College, 3 3. 
Military Department, 249. 
Murdock, Abram, 109, 110. 
Murdock, Dr. James, 109, 110. 
Music, School of, 246. 

Nashville Banner, 139, 160, 182. 
Neil, Judge A. B., 180. 201. 
New York Times, 52. 
Nickajack Campaign, 26. 
Ninetieth Anniversary, 175. 

Orr, Endora, 173. 
Orr, Dr. E. L., 180. 
Oxenham, John, 182. 

Parks, Dr. Edd Winfield, 174. 
Peace Congress, 42. 
Pearsons, Dr. D. K., 138. 
Pearson, Dr. R. G., 213, 240. 
Phelan, James, 49. 
Phelps, Dr. Shelton J., 166. 
Phillips, A. L., 260. 
Phoenix, The, 25 8. 
Pitts, Judge John A., 181. 
Plan of 1852, 216-226. 
Poe, Dr. Floyd, 178, 180. 
Polk, President James K., 48. 
Porter, Dr. Herschel S., 34, 63. 
Posey, W. B., 29. 
Preparatory School, 240-244. 
Presbyterian Advance, 157, 178. 
Princeton, Kentucky, 15. 
Princeton Seminary, Design of, 29. 
Provine, Dr. J. C, 92, 204. 
Provine, Dr. W. A., 204. 

Ramsey, Dr. J. G. M., 16, 17, 26. 
Ransom, Dr. L. C, 110. 



Reagan, J. C, 172. 

Registrar, 13 6. 

Resources of Tennessee, 95. 

Revival of 1800, 28, 29. 

Rice, Cale Y., 132. 

Rice, L. L., 131. 

Richardson, Congressman James D., 

45-48. 
Ridley, Judge Bromfield L., 193. 
Robertson, James, 16. 
Roemer, Dr. Joseph, 179. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 16, 21. 
Rossman, George H., 154. 

Safford, Dr. James M., 80, 97. 
Saverio, Dr. E. G., 173. 
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, 29. 
Scholarships, 265. 
School of Commerce, 15 8, 248. 
School of Engineering, 244. 
School of Journalism, 15 8, 248. 
School of Music, 246. 
Scotch-Irish Congress, 19, 20. 
Scotch-Irish Presidents, 28. 
Scotch-Irish Settlers, 17-28. 
Scott, Dr. W. A., 34. 
Secretary, University, 161. 
Self-Help Students, 263-265. 
Sevier, Governor John, 20, 22, 26. 
Sharp, Dr. J. H., 69. 
Simms, P. M., 136. 
Smith, Oscar N., 149, 15 0, 151. 
Snavely, Dr. Guy E., 178, 180. 
Southern Association of Colleges, 172. 
Southern Magazine, 187. 
"Sparks from a Backlog," 118. 
Speer, ^X^illiam, 112, 125. 
Stainback, Dr. G. T., 109. 
Steele, Mrs. Willard H., 134. 
Stephens, Dr. J. V., 212, 237. 
Stewart, General A. P., 66, 76, 79, 

80, 95. 
Stine, Charles M. A., 180, 181. 
Stockton, President E. L., 163-184. 
Stockwell, Dr. F. E., 166, 176. 
Stokes, Jordan, 5 0. 
Student Aid, 263-265. 
Student Attendance, 80, 114, 15 8, 

184,209. 
Student Body, 252-262. 
Student Publications, 257-259. 



303 



INDEX 



Student Volunteer Band, 25 J. 
Summer School, 190, 250. 
Supreme Court Decision, 141, 214. 
Swancy, Judge W. B., 21. 

"Tall Man of Winton," 118. 

Taller, The, 2 5 8. 

Tennesseans, Prominent, 112, 12 5. 

Tennessee, State of, 27. 

Theological Lectures, 78, 108, 109, 

204, 213, 214, 216. 
Theological Medium, 3 2, 37, 49, 5 5, 

65. 
Theological School, 78, 88, 113, 114, 

203-218, 280. 
Thomas, Dr. J. S., 166. 
Thompson, Dr. Graves H., 173. 
Trustees, 40, 52, 57, 114. 
Turner, Dr. H. L., 176. 

University of Nashville, 17. 
University Secretary, 161. 

Vance, Currell, 202. 

Van Horn, Rev. G. ^»'., 235. 



Walker, Dr. Thomas, 15, 16. 

War, Civil, 82, 87, 96, 104, 110. 

Ward, Dr. W. E., 79, 98, 105, 106. 

Waterhouse, James S., 131. 

Wautauga, 16. 

Weir, Edward E., 129. 

West, William Mason, 17, 18, 19, 30. 

Wherry, Dr. R. J., 173. 

White, R. L. C, 86. 

Whitlock, A. P., 15 8. 

Williams, Judge Albert, 201. 

Williams, F. R., 173. 

Williamson, Charles R., 268. 

Williamson, Judge W. H., 267. 

Wilson, Dr. S. T., 166. 

Winchester, Dr. G. L., 110. 

Windrow, J. E., 32. 

Winning the West, 16, 21, 24. 

Winsor, Justin, 271. 

Wooten, Mrs. Y. P., 172. 

World War, 153, 163. 

Y. M. C. A., 96, 252-254. 

Y. W. C. A., 2 54. 

Young, Dean William D., 3 8, 179.