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Cuyahoga County 

Soldiers' and Sailors* 







Published by the Monument Commissioners, 

Cleveland, O. 



Copyrighted 1S94, 



All rights reserved. 

The Cleveland Printing & Publishing Co. 




cuyahoga county 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 


WM. J. GLEASON, President. 

LEVI F. BAUDER, Secretary. 







WM. J. GLEASON, Chairman. 



LEVI F. BAUDER, Secretary. 

LEVI T. SCOFIELD, Architect and Sculptor. 

The Perpetual Commission, 

Elected July iSth, 1894: 

WILLIAM J. GLEASON, ------ President. 




WILLIAM J. GLEASON, - Chairman. 




The Author Frontispiece. 


Northeast View of Monument 13 

Statue of Liberty 23 

Bronze Infantry Group, " The Color Guard" 34 

Bronze Artillery Group, " At Short Range " 44 

Bronze Cavalry Group, " The Advance Guard " 54 

Bronze Navy Group, " Mortar Practice " 67 

Bronze Panel in Face of Pedestal — Infantry Group 74 

" " — Artillery Group 84 

" " " — Cavalry Group 96 

" " " — Navy Group 113 

Bronze Capital to Shaft 120 

Infantry Emblem in Capital 130 

Artillery " " 142 

Cavalry " " 152 

Navy " " 162 

Quartermaster " " 17 2 

Signal Service " " 182 

Engineer " " 19 2 

Ordnance " " 202 

Bronze Doors, North and South Entrances 212 

" The Beginning of the War, in Ohio " 218 

" The Emancipation of the Slave " 228 

" The End of the War ; or, The Peace - Makers at City Point " . 238 

Bust of Brigadier - General James Barnett 248 

Captain W. J. Woodward 258 

Colonel W. R. Creighton 268 

Captain William Smith 279 

" Captain Levi T. Scofield 288 

" Captain W. W. Hutchinson 3 01 



Bust of Lieutenant - Colonel Mervine Clark 308 

" Major J. B. Hampson 31S 

Medallion of Major - General James B. McPhersou 328 

" Surgeon Charles A. Hartman 338 

" Brigadier- General J. J. Elwell 351 

View of Monument from Southwest 355 

Medallion of Major - General A. C. Voris 362 

Major - General Emerson Opdycke 372 

" Brigadier - General J. S. Casement 382 

Major - General Alex. McD. McCook 395 

Major - General \V. B. Hazen 400 

Hon. Edwin M. Stanton 408 

Major - General J. B. Steedman 416 

Major - General M. F. Force 424 

Brigadier - General George W. Morgan 432 

Panel Commemorating Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society 

and Sanitary Commission 43S 

Lucy Webb Hayes in Field Hospital at Frederick, Md., after 

Battle of Antietam, 1862 462 

Governor William McKinley 494 

Ex - Governor Joseph B. Foraker 505 

Major William J. Gleason 556 

Captain Levi F. Bauder 563 

Captain Joseph B. Molyneaux 564 

Captain Edward H. Bohm 568 

Captain Levi T. Scofield 572 

Colonel Emory W. Force 576 

General James Barnett 581 

General J. J. Elwell 582 

Colonel Charles C. Dewstoe 5S6 

Sergeant James Hayr 5QI 

Dr. R. W. Walters 5g2 

General M. D. Leggett 597 

Northwest View of Monument 6ri 


THE Memorial structure to perpetuate the memory 
of the Union Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga 
County is now a reality. It is also and equally a 
Monument to the patriotic citizens who were obliged 
to remain at home, and made great sacrifices to furnish 
the ways and means and moral support, without 
which the War could not have been sustained nor 
the country saved. It is a Monument to patriotism at 
home and in the field. It is an object lesson of vast 
importance in nationality, personal courage, and sacri- 
fice, for coming generations of American youth. It will 
speak to the unborn millions who will not have seen 
one of the participants of the War it commemorates, 
and who will people this goodly land, of the noble work 
done by their patriotic ancestors when the Republic in 
its infancy was in great danger. The child will ask the 
meaning of the Monument, and will be told the story of 
Lincoln and Grant, of Sherman and Sheridan, of Meade 
and Thomas, of Hancock and Custer, of Farragut and 
Porter, of Hayes and Garfield, and of the brave men 
who followed and fought with them for their country 
and its liberties. This is the lesson of the Monument, 
and fully justifies its erection by the patriotic people of 
Cuyahoga County to whom it belongs. 

If at times we have faltered in our fifteen years of 
wearisome work because of great obstacles which ob- 
structed our way, after all it must be remembered that 
it has always been so with work of this kind. It may 
be said that while no people have higher appreciation 
and respect for important national events and for pure 


and noble manhood than the Americans, no people on 
the face of the earth are so backward in building mon- 
mnents of the character of onrs. They are proud and 
delighted with them when finished, but very slow in 
their construction. 

Monuments can neither add to reputation nor insure 
immortality. Good works alone have immunity from 
death and forgetfulness. Right action, noble deeds, 
heroic conduct are immortal without monuments made 
by human hands. Words and names alone, though cut 
in stone and engraved in bronze, mean nothing if they 
tell not the story of "well done, good and faithful serv- 
ants." Lincoln said in his immortal speech at Gettys- 
burg: "The world will little note nor long remember 
what we say here, but it will never forget what these 
Soldiers did here." The many monuments on the 
battlefield of Gettysburg add nothing to the fame of 
the men who died there for their country. They only 
tell where, when, and why they died. The magnificent 
Cleveland Monument, so laboriously and patiently con- 
structed, rescues nobody personally from obscurity nor 
ultimately from that oblivion which surely awaits the 
builders and all those whose names are inscribed on its 
walls. It is only a record of their deeds. 

"The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, 
And all that beaut}-, all that wealth e'er gave, 

Await alike the inevitable hour, 

The path of glory leads but to the grave." 

Incidental to the accomplishment of our undertaking, 
it became necessary to engage in a few legal battles to 
carry our mission to success. When we were ready to 
commence the construction of the Memorial, we were 
compelled to meet our Bull Run in the lower Courts. 
After a brief rest, and the re-forming of our lines, a test 
of strength and authority before the Supreme Court of 
the State brought about our Gettysburg. A final 


appeal to the United States Court resulted in the com- 
plete and unconditional surrender of our opponents. 
Appomattox had been fought and won. 

The Memorial is strikingly original in its character 
and design. It is not alone a Monument to the valor 
and heroism of the gallant Union Soldiers and Sailors of 
our County and to the noble services of the Women's 
Aid Society of Northern Ohio, but it is a National Memo- 
rial of the War of the Rebellion as well. Every feature 
in it is strictly American, and vividly portravs the 
scenes and incidents of the most destructive conflict of 
ancient and modern times. It is highly creditable to 
the genius and brilliant skill of the Architect and 
Sculptor, who gave his time and splendid ability during 
the entire accomplishment of the work without any 
reward except the appreciation of the Commission and 
the gratitude of his comrades and fellow-citizens. 

The superb Memorial was appropriately dedicated on 
the anniversary of the Nation's Independence — July 
4th, 1894. Most impressive exercises marked this 
crowning event. Hundreds of thousands of people 
turned out in gala attire to honor the occasion. The 
day was made memorable by scholarly addresses from 
America's most noted statesmen and orators ; by patri- 
otic songs rendered by the future patriots and citizens 
of our Republic — the children of our public schools ; 
by the prayer and benediction of noted divines, and 
by the spirited rendition of intensely patriotic poetry. 
Amidst the reading of the immortal Declaration of 
Independence, the booming of cannon, under a canopy 
of myriads of the glorious flag of freedom, in the pres- 
ence of thousands of the brave survivors of the Civil 
War bearing their battle-scarred flags, together with 
the finest procession of citizen soldiers, civic societies, 
trade and manufacturing representations, with our 
lovely city lavishly decorated as never before in its 


history, that, all combined, made tip the most notable 
demonstration ever held in the great State of Ohio, the 
handsomest tribute to patriotism in the world was for- 
mally turned over to the free use, benefit and admira- 
tion of present and future generations. 

Now that the people may freely view the exquisite 
Memorial in all its historic accuracy and architectural 
grandeur, the slight temporary opposition to the struct- 
ure and its unrivaled site has happily ceased. The 
peerless work of the Designer and of the Commission 
meets with the unqualified and hearty approval of 
all of our citizens, as attested by the earnest words of 
sincere commendation heard upon every side from the 
thousands who daily visit the Memorial — our own peo- 
ple as well as strangers — to admire its manifold beauties : 
the interior and exterior, the lovely surroundings — all 
true to the events and time it commemorates. 

Notwithstanding all that the Commission have had 
to contend with, we console ourselves with the pleasing 
reflection that others have had similar difficulties, with- 
out our corresponding triumph. We have been remark- 
ably fortunate in successfully finishing the loving work 
committed to our care within our lifetime, and by the 
same men who originated the enterprise. 

We are glad to be able to say that our task is com- 
pleted. With gratitude and thanks to God for life and 
success, we gladly surrender to those who come after us 
the trust we have tried faithfully to carry out, conscious 
of having discharged our stewardship to the best of our 
ability. To our successors in office we sav, guard 
sacredly this grand and beautiful Memorial, which has 
been to us a work of love and patriotism. 

William J. Gleason, 

President Monument Commission. 
Cleveland, O., July 15th, 1894. 


Levi T. Scofield, Architect and Sculptor. 

View from Northeast.' 


IN the War of the Revolution, Ohio was unknown, 
being then but a wilderness of forest, uninhabited 
by civilized man. A generation later there existed the 
pioneer settler and patriotic white man, who served in 
the defense of the Nation in the second war with Eng- 
land and shared in the triumphs of Lundy's Lane and 
the Naval victory of Lake Erie. Thirty-three years 
later the sons of the Buckeye State bore a conspicuous 
part in the gallant victories of the Mexican War. But 
fifteen years after that memorable event it was reserved 
to the patriot Soldiers of Ohio, in common with all 
others of the Northern States, to participate in the 
mighty struggle for the preservation of the Union, in 
the fiercest and most sanguinary Civil War known in 
the history of the world. The grateful memory of the 
people everywhere has prompted the erection of endur- 
ing monuments and engraved tablets that shall tell the 
marvelous story and perpetuate the name and fame of 
the deserving soldier and the heroic dead. 

The idea of erecting a Monument to commemorate 
the valor and patriotism of the Union Soldiers and 
Sailors of Cuyahoga County, State of Ohio, in the War 
of the Rebellion, from 1861 to 1865, was first proposed 
by Comrade Wm. J. Gleason, at a meeting of Camp 
Barnett, Soldiers' and Sailors' Society, held in the 
Crocker Block, Cleveland, Ohio, on the evening of 
October 22nd, 1879. The original resolution introduced 
by Comrade Gleason was as follows: 

" Resolved, That the President of the Society be and he is hereby 
directed to appoint a Committee of three, whose duty it will be to 


formulate a plan for the erection of a suitable Monument or 
Memorial to commemorate the Union Soldiers and Sailors of Cuya- 
hoga County." 

After an agreeable discussion among the Comrades oi 
the Society, the project was unanimously and enthusi- 
astically approved ; whereupon President Charles C. 
Dewstoe appointed Comrades Wm. J. Gleason, Edward 
H. Bohm and Joseph B. Molyneaux as the Committee. 

At this time arrangements were being perfected for a 
grand reunion of all ex-Soldiers and Sailors of Cuya- 
hoga County, to be held in Case Hall, Cleveland, Ohio, 
October 30th, 1879. The Committee named were re- 
quested to report to this meeting the feasibility of the 
undertaking and a plan for carrying it out. The Com- 
mittee held a meeting, discussed several modes of pro- 
cedure, and finally adopted the plan proposed by 
Comrade Gleason. His colleagues requested him to 
reduce it to writing and report the same to the General 
Reunion for action, the plan being as follows: 
"To the Union Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County. 

"Comrades: — The undersigned Committee, appointed by a meet- 
ing of ex-Soldiers and Sailors held in the City of Cleveland, Wednes- 
day evening, October 22nd, 1S79, to take into consideration the 
feasibility of the erection of a Monument and a plan for carrying it 
out, submit the following report : 

" For the purpose of perpetuating the memory of the men of 
Cuyahoga County who responded to the call of patriotism in the 
War of the Rebellion, we favor the erection of a Memorial Monument. 
Believing that the people of this county appreciate the gallantry 
and heroism of the Soldiers and Sailors who represented them in the 
Union Army and Navy in the years of the Rebellion, and feeling 
that the record made at that time by the men who went from their 
midst redounds to the glory and is the common heritage of the 
people of this county, we favor the building of a Monument by the 
entire people of Cuyahoga County. To accomplish this result, we 
recommend that our Senator and Representatives in the General 
Assembly of Ohio draft a bill, and use their influence in its passage 
by the Legislature, authorizing the levying of a tax on all of the 
property of the count)', amounting to three-tenths of a mill on the 
dollar, to be paid in three equal annual installments, said money, 


when so raised, to be placed in a special fund, to be known and 
designated as the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Fund; said fund to be applied to the erection of a suitable 
Monument that will stand for ages as a memorial to our county, and 
be a perpetual reminder to the present and future generations of 
the sentiment entertained by all loyal people for the volunteer 
Soldiers and Sailors who risked their lives in defense of a free, 
united country. We further recommend that the Convention of ex- 
Soldiers and Sailors appoint a Committee of seven ex-Soldiers, who 
will have all plans submitted to them, and also have sole charge of 
the erection of the Monument. 

"We would earnestly recommend that the Monument be located 
in the center of Monumental Park, in the City of Cleveland. 

"Respectfully submitted, 
[Signed.] "Wm. J. Gleason, 

" Edward H. Bohm, 
"J. B. Molvneaux, 
"Committee Camp Barnett, Soldiers' and Sailors' Society. 
"Cleveland, O., October 30th, 1879." 

The General Convention, held in Case Hall, October 
30th, 1879, at which more than twelve hundred ex- 
Soldiers and Sailors were registered as being in attend- 
ance, unanimously adopted the plan proposed by the 
foregoing Committee. The Convention thereupon 
elected Comrades Wm. J. Gleason, Edward H. Bohm, 
Emory W. Force, W. F. Goodspeed, E. H. Eggleston, 
Levi T. Scofield and Edwin Andrews a permanent 
Committee on the erection of the Cuyahoga County 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. 

This Convention was presided over by Comrade 
James Barnett. The principal speakers on the occasion 
were Comrades James A. Garfield, James B. Steadman 
and William H. Gibson. 

Subsequently, at the request of the Monument Com- 
mittee, State Senator and Comrade Thomas J. Carran 
drafted and introduced the following bill in the Ohio 
Senate : 


"[Senate Bill No. 126.] 

" To authorize the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga Count}- to 
build a Monument or Memorial Tablet, commemorative of the 
deceased Soldiers and Sailors of said county, and to purchase a 
site therefor. 

" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County be 
and they are hereby authorized to levy a tax upon all the taxable 
property of said county, not exceeding three-tenths of one mill, not 
more than one-tenth of which shall be levied and collected an- 
nually, for the purpose of erecting a Monument or Memorial Tablet 
commemorative of the bravery and valor of all the Soldiers and 
Sailors from said county, who were killed in any of the battles 
fought in the service of the Republic of the United States, or who 
died from wounds or disease received or contracted in such service, 
and purchase a suitable site therefor. 

" Sec. 2. All plans and specifications for such Monument or 
Tablet, and the site thereof, together with the contract for the erec- 
tion of which, shall be approved by the Commissioners and the 
Committee on Monument of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Association 
of said county ; but the building thereof shall be supervised by, and 
the expense thereof paid upon vouchers approved by said Com- 
missioners ; provided, however, that the cost and expense of such 
Monument or tablet and site shall not exceed the amount of said 

" SEC. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage. .< Thos a Cowgii ^ 

" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
" R. G. Richards, 
" President pro tem. of the Senate. 
" Passed April 2, r88o." 

It will be noticed that Senator Carran's bill added 
the County Commissioners to the Monument Com- 
mittee, requiring their approval of the plans and speci- 
fications, and that the building of the Monument should 
be under their supervision. When the tax was about 
to be levied for 1881, County Auditor and Comrade 
Levi F. Bander discovered a clerical error in Senator 
Carran's bill, whereby the tax therein provided for 
would require thirty years for its collection, instead of 


three years, as intended. To correct this error, Senator 
Carran introduced the following amended bill early in 
the session of 1881 : 

" [Senate Bill No. 247.] 

" To amend section one of an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument 
or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and 
Sailors of said county, and to purchase a site therefor.' 
" Section i. Be it enacted by the Genera/ Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That section one of said act be so amended as to read as 
follows : 

" Section r. That the Count}- Commissioners of Cuyahoga County 
be and they are hereby authorized to levy a tax upon all the taxable 
property of said County, not exceeding three-tenths of one mill, not 
more than one-third of which shall be levied and collected annually, 
for the purpose of erecting a Monument or Memorial Tablet, com- 
memorative of the bravery and valor of all the Soldiers and Sailors 
from said county, who were killed in any of the battles fought in 
the service of the Republic of the United States, or who died from 
wounds or disease received or contracted in such service, and 
purchase a suitable site therefor. 

"SEC. 2. Original section one is hereby repealed. 

"SEC. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 

its passage. 

"Thos. A. Cowgili., 
" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

"R. G. Richards, 
" President pro tern, of the Senate. 
" Passed February 4. 1881." 


THE Monument Committee reported progress at the 
Annual Reunion of the Soldiers and Sailors of 
the county, and were, by resolutions adopted thereat, 
continued in their work. From the formation of the 
Committee its meetings were held in the office of County 
Auditor and Comrade Levi F. Bauder, on his invitation. 
He represented the County Commissioners as their 
Clerk, and was, on regular motion, chosen Secretary 
at the joint meetings of the Committee and Commis- 
sioners. At the Reunion held June 17th, 1882, his 
term as County Auditor having nearly expired, he was 
elected a regular member of the Monument Committee. 
Subsequently, he was elected its permanent Secretary. 

Comrade Edwin Andrews, of Rockport Township, a 
member of the original Committee of seven, died in 
1883, sincerely regretted by all of his associates. 

At the Annual Reunion held in Chagrin Falls, June 
20th, 1884, Comrades James Barnett and Charles C. 
Dewstoe were, by resolution of Comrade J. J. Elwell, 
added to the Committee. On the same date, by resolu- 
tion of Comrade Dewstoe, Comrades J. J. Elwell, Joseph 
B. Molyneaux, James Hayr and R. W. Walters were 
added to the Committee. The original Committee, to- 
gether with the additions thereto, were continued at 
each Annual Reunion ; reports of progress being regu- 
larly submitted and approved. 

A number of meetings were held by the Committee 
in the Fall of 1884 and in the Spring of 1885. The 
most important one took place February 28th, 1885. 
At this meeting the Chairman of the Committee pro- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 19 

posed the propriety and necessity of requesting the 
Legislature to give authority to raise an additional levy 
of five-tenths of a mill on the taxable property of the 
county, so that a suitable Monument might be erected. 
His views met with the hearty approval of all of the 
members of the Committee. Comrade Dewstoe offered 
a resolution to carry out the Chairman's recommenda- 
tion, which was unanimously adopted. At this meeting, 
on resolution of Comrade Elwell, a Subcommittee of 
five was appointed on legislation, with instructions to 
prepare a bill for raising the additional tax levy, said 
Subcommittee to report to the General Committee 
March 28th, 1885. The Legislative Committee, consist- 
ing of the Chairman and Comrades Elwell, Bander, 
Dewstoe and County Commissioner B. F. Phinney, 
carried out the duty assigned them. The bill, as drafted, 
was approved by the General Committee. It was trans- 
mitted to Senator and Comrade A. J. Williams, by 
whom it was promptly introduced and passed into law. 
The bill was as follows: 

" [Senate Bill No. 446.] 


" To amend section one of an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monu- 
ment or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers 
and Sailors of said county, and to purchase a site therefor,' 
passed April 2, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended February 4, 1881 
(vol. 78, p. 316), and to amend section two of said original act. 

" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That section one of an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument 
or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and 
Sailors of said county, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed 
April 2, 1880, as amended February 4, 1881, be amended so as to read 
as follows: 

"Section 1. That the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga 
County be and they are hereby authorized to levy a tax upon all the 
taxable property of said county, not exceeding five- tenths of one 


mill on the dollar of the valuation of said property, in addition to 
any tax heretofore levied under said act, not more than one-fifth of 
which shall be levied and collected annually, for the purpose of 
erecting a suitable structure commemorative of the services, 
patriotism and valor of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Union Army 
and Navy in the War of the Rebellion, who enlisted from Cuyahoga 
County, and either were killed, died of wounds or of disease con- 
tracted in said service, or subsequently died residents of said 
county, and to purchase a suitable site therefor, and the funds 
heretofore collected under said act shall be applied, together with 
that raised under and pursuant to this act, to the purpose aforesaid. 

" Sec. 2. That section two of said act, passed April 2, 1880, be 
amended so as to read as follows : 

" Section 2. All plans and specifications for said structure, and 
the site therefor, together with all contracts for the construction of 
the same, shall be submitted to and approved by the Commissioners 
of said county, as well as by the Committee on Monument of 
Soldiers and Sailors of said county, and the building of said struct- 
ure shall be supervised by, and the bills of expense for the same 
paid upon vouchers approved by said Commissioners. Provided, 
however, that the entire cost and expense of such structure, includ- 
ing the site therefor, shall not exceed the levy heretofore made 
when increased by the lev} - authorized by this act. 

" SEC. 3. Said original section two and said original section one, 
as amended February 4, 1881, are herein- repealed. 

" Sec. 4. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage. 

"A. D. Marsh, 
" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
"John G. Warwick, 
" President of the Senate. 

"Passed April 22, 1885." 

Senator Williams was subsequently tendered a unan- 
imous vote of thanks, on behalf of the three thousand 
Soldiers of the county, for his prompt action and per- 
sonal attention given to the request of the Committee. 

Copyright by the Sculptor, 1S90. 



TOURING the years 1885 and 1886, there was a 
-L' spirited but amicable controversy among the ex- 
Soldiers and Sailors of the county as to the style of the 
Memorial. Some favored a monument, or shaft; others 
a memorial hall. For the purpose of giving general 
satisfaction, the Monument Committee held the matter 
open for a year, and gave notice to all ex-Soldiers that 
the question would be decided by ballot at the reunion 
to be held in Bedford on June 17th, 1886. This reunion 
was largely attended. Lively and interesting speeches 
were made by a number of Comrades, and, after a full 
and free discussion, the vote resulted in a very decisive 
majority in favor of a Memorial Monument, with a 
towering shaft. 

Pending the slow, but sure, accumulation of the 
money raised by the collection of the tax levy for the 
Monument Fund, the site originally recommended and 
desired for the location of the structure was lost to the 
Committee. The intention was to round off the four 
corners of the different sections of the Public Square, 
and erect the Monument in the center, at the junction 
of Superior and Ontario Streets. The street railroad 
corporations, however, were active in the scheme of 
obtaining all of the best streets in the city for the pur- 
pose of occupying the same with their tracks ; and, 
before the Committee were ready to proceed with the 
work of construction, they gained control of Superior 
and Ontario Streets through the Square, thus depriving 
the Monument of the best location in the county. 

Several meetings were held by the Committee, late 


in 1886 and early in 1887. On January 29th, 1S87, tne 
Chairman of the Committee and Comrades Levi F. 
Bauder, C. C. Dewstoe, J. B. Molyneanx and James 
Hayr, and County Commissioner George A. Schlatter- 
beck, were appointed a Subcommittee to select and 
report a suitable site for the Monument. This Com- 
mittee met, and made a personal tour in examination 
of the different points thought of or suggested to them. 
After carefully taking into consideration the merits of 
the several places inspected on the East, West, and 
South Sides of the City, and Lake View Park on the 
north, the Committee named unanimously reported in 
favor of locating the Monument on the southeast sec- 
tion of the Public Square. The General Committee 
approved and adopted said report without a dissenting 
voice. At this meeting, also, the General Committee 
appointed Comrades James Barnett, J. J. Elwell, J. B. 
Molyneaux, Levi T. Scofield, Levi F. Bauder, and the 
Chairman a Subcommittee to prepare or procure a 
design for the Monument. 

A resolution offered by Comrade Molyneaux, sec- 
onded by Comrade Elwell, was introduced, as follows: 

"Resolved, That Captain Levi T. Scofield be requested to submit 
to the Committee a plan for a Soldiers' Monument, to be subject to 
such suggestions or alterations as may be agreed upon by the Com- 
mittee ; it being understood, however, that nothing in this resolu- 
tion shall be construed as to, in any way, commit or bind this Com- 
mittee to the acceptance or adoption of such design or plan." 

The resolution was adopted. 

Comrade Scofield proceeded to comply with the 
resolution, and, in due time, prepared and presented a 
design for the proposed Monument. Important changes 
in the same were suggested from time to time, as are 
shown in the description of the Monument herein pub- 
lished. When the work was properly advanced to begin 
the erection of the structure, the Subcommittee on site 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 25 

called upon the Park Commissioners of the City, and 
informed them, officially, of the location selected. The 
meeting at which this action was taken was held on the 
17th day of May, 1887. Several meetings of the Park 
Commissioners and Monument Committee ensued. On 
June 14th of the same year, the following communica- 
tion was received : 

"City of Cleveland, O., "} 

" Office of the Park Commissioners, } 
"June 14th, 1887. J 
" To W. J. Gleason, Chairman of the Soldiers' Monument Com- 

" Dear Sir : — The Commissioners, having had your proposition 
and request under consideration, find some objections to the site 
selected, and, while these objections may not be insuperable, we are 
averse to giving your Commission a final answer until further con- 
sideration can be given to the question. These objections apply 
only to the quarter of the Square selected by your Commission. 
Should either of the other quarters be determined upon, the Com- 
missioners would not hesitate in giving a ready consent; or should 
the intersection of Superior and Ontario Streets be selected, the 
Commissioners would consent to such changes as might be neces- 
sary to widen the roadways around the Monument.® 
" By order of the Commissioners, 

"W. H. Eckman, Secretary." 

Several subsequent meetings were held with the 
Park Commissioners, but no definite conclusion was 

Let it be borne in mind that, from the commence- 
ment of the Monument project up to this time, the only 
objections to the site selected came from the Park 
Commissioners, as stated in their communication, and 
from Judge Samuel E. Williamson, a property owner 

* [At this date, the street railroad corporations had their rails 
laid through the streets named, by virtue of a City ordinance and 
the consent of the Park Commissioners, giving them a free franchise 
for twenty-five years; hence the offer of the Commissioners, made 
in the latter clause of their communication, could not be carried out 
by them.— W. J. G.] 


on the corner of Euclid Avenue and the Public Square. 
On the 3d of October, of the same year, the latter filed 
the following letter with the Park Commissioners : 

" Law Office of 
" Williamson, Beach & Cushing, j 
" Merchants Bank Building, 
" Cleveland, O., October 3rd, 1887. J 

"A. H. Stone, Esq., President of Park Commissioners, City. 

"Dear Sir: — Information has reached me that some gentlemen 
especially interested in the matter of the Monument to the Soldiers 
and Sailors seriously propose to have the Monument erected upon 
the southeast corner of the Public Square, and the}- are likely to ask 
the consent of your Board to this location. 

"I must very earnestly protest against such use of the Public 
Square. I may as well say frankly, at the outset, that my father's 
family own property upon the corner of Euclid Avenue and the Park ; 
and as such a structure as is proposed will substantially occupy all 
that part of the Park lying east of Ontario Street and south of 
Superior Street, it will substantially convert what is now a front 
upon the Park into a mere front upon a street, and thus very ma- 
terially impair the value of the property in which we are interested. 
I should therefore be compelled to avail myself of such legal rights 
as I may have, if you should give your consent to the location. 

"I am confident, however, that when the matter is thoroughly 
understood, you will not consent to have the Monument placed in 
the Public Square ; and that the gentlemen who have made the ap- 
plication will not press it. The fact that it will completely close the 
view from Euclid Avenue across the Square ought to be a sufficient 
reason for refusing the application ; but there are other reasons still 
more weighty. It will close the walk across that part of the Square, 
which is a great convenience to thousands of citizens, and was never 
thoroughly appreciated until the Square was fenced in, some years 
ago. It would dwarf the Monument itself, which is to be of such 
proportions that it ought to be placed on a much larger tract of 
land; but most of all, it would substantially reduce by one-fourth 
the dimensions of a park which probably gives more enjoyment and 
comfort to the people of this city than any other one thing in it; 
and zvould probably be the commencement of a change which would 
result in the use of the whole of the Park for buildings. 

" But, even if it were expedient, in view of all the circumstances, 
to use the Park in the manner proposed, I believe that you have no 
right to do so. To introduce a few statues for ornamentation is 
doubtless within }-our powers, but it is, at least, doubtful whether 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 27 

you would have the right to permit the erection of a Court House or 
City Hall, or any other building for purely public purposes; and, in 
my judgment, it is entirely clear that you have not the right to 
permit the erection of a building not to be under your control, and 
not to be used for a strictly public purpose. 

" I have stated my views of the matter very briefly, but, perhaps, 
sufficiently to bring them to your attention. If, however, you should 
conclude that it is expedient to allow the erection of the Monument, 
as is proposed, and have doubts as to your legal rights in the matter, 
I shall be very glad to be heard upon that subject before you come 
to final decision. 

" Very respectfully yours, 


In the several conferences with the Park Commis- 
sioners the latter body never flatly objected to the site 
selected ; never absolutely refused their consent. They 
simply withheld their permission, and, with excuse after 
excuse, kept putting the Committee off, invariably ex- 
pressing the hope and desire that the Monument Com- 
mittee would take and occupy either of the other three 
sections of the Public Square. 

Every meeting of the Committee was open to the 
public. The reporters of the city newspapers were 
present. All of its proceedings were published. Not 
one nezvspapcr objected to the site selected. Not one 
citizen objected, either orally or in writing, in private 
or public, so far as the Monument Committee ever 
heard or learned. On the other hand, the monument 
project and the site selected were universally approved 
by all of the newspapers and the people of the city and 

The genuine objection to the site, as recognized by 
the Monument Committee, and subsequently by the 
Commission, was frankly stated by Hon. J. H. Wade, 
President of the Board of Park Commissioners, at one 
of the early meetings with the Committee when the 
question of location was still in controversy. He said, 
in substance : " That in his opinion, Cleveland was 


destined to be a great and populous city ; the down-town 
streets would be so crowded by people that more room 
would be required ; the increase of street car travel 
would be so large that the cars would need more out- 
lets. So far as he was personally concerned, he strongly 
favored the extension of Euclid Avenue througli the south- 
east section of the Public Square, joining with Superior 
Street, so that the street cars would have a direct route." 
All future events clearly demonstrated that the feeling 
thus emphatically expressed was the real power behind 
the throne, even though the object was endeavored to 
be disguised by interested parties, so far as the general 
public were concerned. 

During the prolonged and numerous conferences with 
the Park Commissioners, all conducted in the seem- 
ingly most friendly spirit, no determination was reached. 
Sincerely feeling that the location selected was the best 
and most desirable one to be had in the county, the 
Committee concluded that the time had arrived to pro- 
ceed on business principles, so that we might accom- 
plish the object for which we were selected. 

Early in 1888, the Committee was deprived of the 
further services of two of its original and esteemed 
members, Comrades W. F. Goodspeed and E. H. Eg- 
gleston. The former gave up his residence in the 
county, having moved with his family to Columbus, O., 
to go into business there ; the latter, owing to pressing 
engagements and ill health, did not have the necessary 
time to give attention to the duties of his position. 
The resignations tendered by these Comrades were re- 
ceived with regret. Their valuable aid in the prelimi- 
nary work of the Committee was earnest and cordial, 
and, as the project advanced in future years, their per- 
sonal interest and influence never ceased. 


SLIGHT differences of opinion had also arisen be- 
tween the County Commissioners and the Com- 
mittee in relation to authority or separate jurisdiction, 
under the law, in connection with the manner of pro- 
curing plans for the Monument. To obviate any 
further dispute with the Park Commissioners or the 
County Commissioners, the Committee requested Com- 
rade Allen T. Brinsmade, then City Solicitor, to draft a 
bill setting aside the southeast section of the Public 
Square as the location for the Monument, excluding 
the County Commissioners from future jurisdiction, and 
creating the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument Commission, giving them full power to pre- 
pare plans and proceed with the construction of the Mon- 
ument. Fully realizing the importance of the measure, 
and desiring to have it perfect, Comrade Brinsmade 
called to his aid Judge Rufus P. Ranney and Judge 
Seneca O. Griswold. These eminent lawyers were 
ardent friends of the Monument Committee and of the 
site selected by them, and freely gave their brilliant 
services in the preparation of the bill. The result of 
the high order of talent engaged in the work success- 
fully withstood all assaults subsequently brought 
against it in the several courts through which it passed. 
When the bill was completed, it was transmitted to 
Representative and Comrade William T. Clark, by 
whom it was presented and passed through the House. 
Senator and Comrade Vincent A. Taylor took charge of 
it in the Senate, and had it made law on the 16th day 
of April, 1888, as follows : 


"[House Bill No. 462.] 


" Supplementary to an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the County 
Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument or Me- 
morial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and Sailors 
of said county, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed April 
2d, 1S80 (vol. 77, p. 36S), as amended April 22d, 18S5 (vol. 82, p. 
368), and to repeal section two (2) of said last mentioned act. 
" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That there be and hereby is created a Board of Commis- 
sioners, to be called the Monumental Commissioners of Cuyahoga 
County, to be composed of twelve persons, who shall be resident 
electors of said county, and members of the present Monumental 
Committee of the Cuvahoga Count}' Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, 
to be appointed by the Governor of the State of Ohio, by and with 
the consent of the Senate, and shall hold their term for five years, 
or until the Monument or structure herein provided for shall be 
completed, and shall perform the duties and exercise the powers 
prescribed by this act; and any vacancy occurring in said Board 
shall, at the next annual meeting thereafter of the Cuyahoga County 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, be filled by such union selecting a 
member having the qualifications herein prescribed, who shall take 
an oath as prescribed in the next succeeding section. 

" SECTION 2. That upon the appointment and confirmation of 
said Commissioners, they shall each take an oath to well and truly 
perforrii the duties imposed upon them by this act, and shall organ- 
ize by selecting one of their number as President, another as Secre- 
tary, and an Executive Committee of five, of whom the President of 
said Board shall be one, and ex officio Chairman. 

"Section 3. Said Board of Monument Commissioners, when duly 
organized, shall have full power to select a place for the proposed 
Monument, and shall have the exclusive control of the building of 
said Monument, and the plan for the same, and are empowered to 
have designs and models prepared, and are hereby authorized, if 
they so determine, to locate the site of such Monument on the 
southeast side of the " Public Square " so called, at the junction of 
Superior and Ontario Streets in the City of Cleveland, and in case 
thev so determine, the Park Commissioners of said City are hereby 
authorized and required on demand in writing by said Commission- 
ers, at the expense of said City, to remove the monument of Com- 
modore Perry, now in said southeast corner of said Square, to some 
other square or public park in said City, and all other obstructions 
therein ; but if the said Board of Monument Commissioners do not 
determine to locate the site for said Monument in said southeast 

soldiers' and sailors' MONUMENT. 3t 

square of said Public Square, they are authorized to purchase or 
procure any other site for the same within said county. 

"Section 4. Said Board of Monument Commissioners having 
determined upon a site for said structure as herein authorized, shall 
determine upon a plan for such monument or structure, and are 
authorized to contract with the lowest and best responsible bidder, 
for either the whole or any part of the work, or they may, in their 
discretion, contract for the same by the day's work or piece ; pro- 
vided, however, the entire cost of the same and any expense of the 
Commissioners shall not exceed the amount already authorized by 
this act to be levied for the same, and provided further, that said 
Board of Monument Commissioners are authorized to receive dona- 
tions in money and materials for said structure, or time or services 
of any person or persons, the amount and value of which shall not 
be computed in the amount of the total cost hereinbefore provided, 
nor any interest that may be received, but shall be in addition 

" Section 5. The said Board of Monument Commissioners are 
also hereby authorized to appropriate for temporary use, at the 
commencement of and during the progress of their work, any pub- 
lic property of the County of Cuyahoga or of the City of Cleveland, 
which may at the time be vacant, and to erect temporary structures 
thereon in which work for the Monument can be prepared, and to 
have heat and light furnished free upon application of said Board 
of Commissioners, from any public building of either the said 
county or city, in ample quantity for such temporary structure 
which may be contiguous to such public building. 

" SECTION 6. The County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County 
are hereby authorized and directed, upon the passage of this act, to 
loan out to the various banks of the City of Cleveland, on approved 
security and at a rate of interest not less than three per centum per 
annum, the money collected for the purposes herein mentioned, 
and to be collected under the levy authorized by this act, and the 
interest thereon shall be placed to the credit of the fund to be used 
for the building of said structure, and the Auditor of Cuyahoga 
County is authorized and required to draw a warrant on the Treas- 
urer of said County from time to time for the money by said Treas- 
urer collected for the purpose herein stated, in order that the said 
Commissioners may invest the same as herein provided; such inter- 
est as may be received from such investment shall not be charged 
to said Commissioners as a part of said original fund, but shall be 
an additional fund to that received under the several levies as pro- 
vided by law, and shall be used in the building of the structure 
herein contemplated, and such entire fund shall be subject to the 
drafts of said Board of Monument Commissioners. 


"Section 7. The Board of Monument Commissioners shall have 
power and are hereby authorized as the work on the Monument or 
structure by them determined upon progresses, to make drafts upon 
the Auditor of said County, to pay for such work done and materials 
furnished uuder their direction, such drafts to be signed by a ma- 
jority of the Executive Committee of said Board, countersigned by 
its Secretary, and upon receiving such drafts said Auditor shall 
draw his warrant upon the Treasurer of Cuyahoga County for the 
amount of such drafts; and the said County Commissioners are 
hereby authorized and required to withdraw any portion of the 
money invested by them as herein provided, as the work on such 
structure progresses, and place the same in the County Treasury to 
the credit of the Monument Fund; and the Secretary of said Board 
of Monument Commissioners is hereby required to give said 
County Commissioners reasonable notice in writing of the inten- 
tion of said Monument Commissioners to make drafts on the 
County Auditor for money for such work or material. Upon the 
completion of the Monument or structure, the said Board of Monu- 
ment Commissioners shall turn the same over to the Park Commis- 
sioners of said City or other properly constituted authorities per- 
forming like duties, who shall thereafter care for the same and the 
grounds surrounding, and who shall be empowered to employ an 
ex-Soldier as an attendant and guardian of such Monument at a rea- 
sonable compensation, and such attendant shall be vested with the 
ordinary powers of a policeman ; and upon the completion of such 
Monument or structure, and after the same shall have been turned 
over as herein provided, the duties and powers of said Board of 
Monument Commissioners shall cease, and all balances of the 
Monument Fund unexpended after the Monument is completed and 
dedicated shall be turned over to the General Fund of Cuyahoga 

" Section S. That section two, as amended April 22d, 1885 
(vol. 82, O. L., pp. 368 and 369), be and the same is hereby 

" SECTION 9. This act shall take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage. 

" Elbert D. Lampson, 
" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
" Theo. F. Davis, 
" President pro tern, of the Senate. 

" Passed April 16, 1888." 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 33 

Pursuant to this act of the General Assembly of Ohio, 
Comrade and Governor Joseph B. Foraker appointed 
the following Comrades as the Board of Monument 
Commissioners of Cuyahoga County : 



THE Board of Monument Commissioners, having 
received their commissions from the Governor of 
the State, held their first meeting in the office of the 
Board of Elections, City of Cleveland, on May 16th, 1888. 
Their term of enlistment was for five years, or ("during 
the war ") until the completion of the Monument. We 
clip the proceedings of the initial meeting from the 
Leader of May 17th : 

" The first meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
Monumental Commission was held yesterday afternoon 
in the rooms of the Board of Elections. The Commis- 
sion was appointed under an act of the Legislature, 
passed on April 16th, 1888. Those present were Major 
W. J. Gleason, Captain E. H. Bohm, Emory W. Force, 
Captain Levi T. Scofield, General James Barnett, Gen- 
eral J. J. Elwell, Captain Levi F. Bauder, James 
Hayr, C. C. Dewstoe, Captain J. B. Molyneaux and 
General M. D. Leggett. The only absentee was Dr. R. 
W. Walters, of Chagrin Falls. 

" A temporary organization was formed yesterday 
afternoon by making Major W. J. Gleason Chairman, 
and Captain Levi F. Bauder Secretary. The bill creat- 
ing the Commission was read, and the Commissioners 
were given the oath of office by Mr. Bauder, he in turn 
being sworn in by Captain Bohm. Acting upon the 
suggestion of Mr. Emory Force, the Commission pro- 
ceeded to a permanent organization. Major W. J. 
Gleason was nominated for Chairman, and was unani- 
mously elected. He made a few remarks in which he 
said it would be his highest ambition to hasten the 

soldiers' and sailors 1 monument. 37 

completion of the Monument. He thought that a shaft 
should be erected which would be a pride to every 
man, woman and child in the county, and a fitting 
tribute to the memory of the boys of the Rebellion. 
Levi F. Bauder was elected as permanent Secretary, 
and the following Executive Committee, of which the 
President is a member, was elected : General James 
Barnett, James Hayr, Captain J. B. Molyneaux and 
Captain Levi T. Scofield. Captain Bauder was subse- 
quently chosen Secretary of the Committee. Captain 
Boh m thought it would be the proper thing to inform 
the County Commissioners that the Commission had or- 
ganized, so that necessarv arrangements could be made. 

" General Barnett said that it was the sense of the 
Commission that the Monument should be erected in 
the southeast corner of the Public Square, where the 
Perry Monument now stands, and the Park Commis- 
sioners will be so notified. 

" The general plan of the Monument was discussed, 
and it was the general impression of the members that 
the design of Captain Scofield was the best that could 
be obtained. The Captain does not claim the design as 
his own, it being made from suggestions of the mem- 
bers, and he will accept no compensation for it. The 
question of advertising for designs was discussed and 
then dropped. 

" Captain Bohin offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

" That the Secretary of this Commission be instructed to inform 
the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County of the fact that 
the Monumental Commission of Cuyahoga County, created by act 
of General Assembly of the State of Ohio, passed April 16th, 1888, 
has been duly organized in accordance with the provisions of that act ; 
that the Monument Commission respectfully desires the County 
Commissioners to advise, as early as possible, the Monument Com- 
mission of the exact amount of funds now in the hands of the 
County Treasurer to the credit of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
Monument, and that the Monument Commission requests the 


County Commissioners to deposit said funds to the credit of said 
Monumental Commission, on interest, as required by said act, at 
their earliest convenience. 

" After a great deal of discussion, the following reso- 
lution by E. H. Bohm was adopted : 

" Resolved, That Commissioner Levi T. Scofield be requested to 
present to this Commission, at his earliest convenience, his develop- 
ment of the suggestions heretofore made as to plan and model of 
the proposed Cuyahoga County Soldiers' Monument, without cost 
to the Commission. 

" The Commission then adjourned to meet at the call 
of the Chairman. The meeting was a long one, and 
much enthusiasm was displayed." 

The Monument Commission, having its duties clearly 
denned, proceeded to systematic work. Recognizing 
their rights and responsibilities under the law creating 
them, they nevertheless desired to work in harmony 
with the City authorities. Agreeable thereto they made 
a written request to the Honorable City Council of the 
City of Cleveland, asking consent from that body, as 
representing the City, to locate the Monument on the 
site selected by them, viz., the southeast section of the 
Public Square. On June 29th, 1888, the records show 
that the following resolution was introduced in the City 
Council : 

" By Mr. Robert S. Avery : 

"Whereas, The Monument Commission of Cuyahoga County, 
authorized by the General Assembly of the State to have full charge 
of the erection of a Monument commemorative of the Soldiers 
and Sailors of Cuyahoga County, have selected in accordance with 
the provisions of the law the southeast section of the Public 
Square as a suitable site for such Monument ; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That the consent of the Common Council of the 
City of Cleveland be and it is hereby granted to such Commission 
to erect such Monument on the site so selected." 

The resolution was adopted without a dissenting 
voice. The Common Council was composed of the 
members of the Council and Board of Aldermen, and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 39 

their combined action was highly pleasing and satis- 
factory to the Commission. 

Following this consent the Commission asked and 
received permission from the Board of Improvements 
of the City to occupy a portion of the ground in the 
rear of the City Hall, on which to erect a studio, 
wherein might be commenced the practical work of the 
Monument. The Commission were largely encouraged 
and aided in their preliminary work by Hon. Brenton 
D. Babcock, then Mayor of the city. The studio was 
promptly built, and, immediately thereafter, artists, 
sculptors and modelers were employed. The grand 
undertaking of the Commission, thus auspiciously be- 
gun, was prosecuted with vigor. 

At the reunion of Cuyahoga County Soldiers and 
Sailors, held in 1889, the Secretary rendered a report of 
the work performed by the Commission up to that time. 
At this reunion the President demonstrated the neces- 
sity of providing more funds for the Monument. A 
resolution was unanimously adopted approving his 
recommendation. Agreeable thereto, one of the first 
bills introduced in the Ohio Legislature, at its session 
in January, 1890, was the following by Representative 
and Comrade W. D. Pudney, through whose zeal and 
influence it was at once made into law : 

"[House Bill No. 87. ] 

" To amend section one of an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monu- 
ment or a Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Sol- 
diers and Sailors of said County, and to purchase a site therefor,' 
passed April 2d, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended Feb. 4th, i88r 
(vol. 78, p. 316), as amended April 22d, 1SS5 (vol. 82, p. 368). 
" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That section one of an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument 
or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and 


Sailors of said County, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed April 
2d, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended February 4th, 1881 (vol. 78, p. 
316), as amended April 22d, 1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), be so amended as 
to read as follows : 

" Sec. 1. That the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County 
be and they are hereby authorized to levy a tax upon all the taxable 
property of said County, not exceeding three-tenths of one mill on 
the dollar of the valuation of said property, in addition to any tax 
heretofore levied under said act, not more than one-third of which 
shall be levied and collected annually, for the purpose of erecting 
a suitable structure commemorative of the services, patriotism and 
valor of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Union Army and Navv in 
the War of the Rebellion, who enlisted from Cuyahoga County and 
either were killed, died of wounds or disease contracted in said 
service, or subsequently died residents of said County, and to pur- 
chase a suitable site therefor ; and the funds heretofore collected 
under said act shall be applied, together with that raised under and 
pursuant to this act, to the purpose aforesaid. 

" Section 2. That said section one (1), as amended April 22d, 
1885, is hereby repealed. 

" Section 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage. 


" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

" Elbert L. Uampson, 

" President of the Senate. 
" Passed January 30th, 1S90." 


DURING the Spring and Summer of 1890, the 
Executive Committee held several meetings, 
approving bills and carefully watching the progress of 
the work. Artists, models and modelers were con- 
tinually employed. When the result of their work was 
ready, bids for casting it into bronze were advertised 
for. Proposals were received from the best known 
bronze companies in New York, Massachusetts, Penn- 
sylvania and Illinois, and contracts were let, at satis- 
factory figures. 

In the meantime, the great task of obtaining the 
name, regiment, company and rank of each and all of 
the Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County during the 
War was going steadily forward. This was the solid 
foundation on which was to be erected the splendid 
Memorial that would hand down to future generations 
the names of the boys in blue who represented our 
county in the long and trying days when the union of 
our States was endeavored to be sundered by foes from 
within, encouraged and aided by hereditary foes in 
other lands. The names were to be chiseled on endur- 
ing marble, suitably arranged around the walls of the 
Memorial building, and surrounded by emblematic 
scenes and actual incidents that occurred while the 
boys of '61 to '65 were engaged in the patriotic work 
of doing their share to protect the Constitution, pre- 
serve the Union, and make our people what by right 
they should be, in fact as well as in name — free, equal, 
and united. 

In the Winter of 1888, Mrs. Levi T. Scofield compiled 


a preliminary list of names, carefully going over all of 
the records available at that time. There was no 
printed roster in the State of Comrades who had 
enlisted in the first three months' service, the Regulars, 
the Navy, or of those who were temporarily absent 
from the county and volunteered from other States. 
She procured and arranged about six thousand names. 
The compilation comprised a large amount of intelli- 
gent, painstaking work, which was cheerfully and 
gratuitously done. It served a very useful purpose, 
ten thousand copies of it being printed in pamphlet 
form and circulated throughout the Grand Army Posts 
of the County, State and Nation. It was thus an 
indispensable medium for obtaining as nearly a correct 
record of the Soldiers and Sailors of our county as has 
been possible. The pamphlets were issued on May 
15th, 1889, and corrections and additions to same were 
held open till May 15th, 1891. The revision of the 
roster was performed by the President and Secretary, 
pursuant to a resolution of the Commission. Their 
work entailed a large volume of correspondence, run- 
ning along through two years, five thousand letters and 
requests being freely answered. More than six thou- 
sand corrections, erasures and additions were made. 
There may possibly be a few errors in the spelling of 
names, or in omissions, but the Roll of Honor of 
the Cuyahoga County Soldiers and Sailors is as nearly 
perfect as the Commission have been able to make it, 
with the information at hand. Every surviving Com- 
rade in Cuyahoga County, and the relatives and friends 
of dead or living Comrades, have had ample opportunity 
and time for furnishing names and making proper cor- 
rections. If any errors or omissions still exist, it is 
certainly not through any lack of perseverance, zeal or 
industry on the part of the Commission. 

In a large number of instances, Comrades served at 



different times with different commands. It has been 
the intention of the Commission, however, that in the 
Roll of Honor, and on the marble slabs in the Monu- 
ment, each Comrade's name appear but once. His 
name is recorded with the command, and given the 
proper rank in said command that he is entitled to, for 
which he or his family have expressed a preference. A 
carefnl reading of the names will demonstrate that 
nearly every one of the old families in Cleveland and 
the townships in Cuyahoga County had one or more 
representatives in the Civil War. To illustrate: The 
population of Cuyahoga County from 1861 to 1865 was 
about 60,000. The Roll of Honor contains, by actual 
count, nearly nine thousand names, representing the 
Infantry, Artillery, Cavalry, and Naval branches of 
service, also staff appointments, and the Women's Aid 
Society. This extraordinarily large list of volunteers 
strongly exhibits the universal spirit of loyalty and 
patriotism that pervaded the people of our County in 
the dark and trying days of the Rebellion. The Roll 
of Honor, as it appears in the Memorial room of the 
Monument, will be found in an appropriate place in 
this volume. 

As soon as the obtaining of the names was com- 
pleted, and the additions made and errors corrected, a 
contract was entered into to place them on marble 
tablets. The contract was finished and delivered in the 
latter part of 1891. 

The bronze groups were completed, as was also the 
material for the granite shaft, and the time for com- 
mencing the erection of the main structure had arrived. 
In order to proceed in a dignified and business-like 
manner, and to prevent any further vacillating delay 
on the part of the Park Commissioners, the Commission 
ordered the following- communication to be sent them: 


" Headquarters Cuyahoga County 
" Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission, [ 
" Room 20, City Hall, 
"Cleveland, O., September 1st, 1890. J 

"To the Honorable, the Board of Park Commissioners of Cleve- 
land, O. 

"Gentlemen: — Pursuant to an act of the Legislature of Ohio, 
and the request of this Commission, the Common Council of Cleve- 
land has set apart the southeast section of the Public Square of 
Cleveland as a site for the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 

"As the Commission expects to break ground on the selected 

site on or before the 1st day of March, 1891, your Honorable Board 

is respectfully requested to remove the statue of Commodore Perry, 

and other things of use or ornament now occupying said site, to 

enable the Commission to begin work by the above mentioned date. 

" Very respectfull\% 

" The Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 

Monument Commission, 

"Wm. J. Gleason, President. 
"Levi F. Bauder, Secretary." 

This letter not being immediately answered, an 
amended communication was transmitted, in which 
the word "demanded" was substituted for the word 
"requested," as the law technically required. The only 
result accomplished was the repeatedly expressed wish 
of the Park Commissioners " that the Commission 
would take and occupy either of the three other sec- 
tions of the Public Square as a suitable site." Each of 
said sections being of exactly similar dimensions, the 
Commission could not see the sense or propriety of 
giving up what the law entitled them to, and what was 
considered by them to be by far the most desirable site. 

Then the Park Commissioners made a novel and 
purely original proposition : In the sweet bye and bye 
— very remote bye and bye — they would provide a 
grand boulevard to encircle the city. On said proposed 
boulevard they would locate a system of small parks. 
On one of said parks, to be established at the corner of 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 47 

Woodland Avenue and Woodland Hills Avenue, to con- 
tain fifteen acres, they would set aside a plat for the 
Soldiers' Monument ! Happy thought ! Great heads 
had these Park Commissioners ! Their generous offer 
was promptly declined, without thanks. 

Following along in rapid succession, the schemes of 
the different street railroad corporations began to 
unfold. The East Cleveland Company, through its 
attorney and stockholders, argued for Wade Park ; the 
West Side Company for the abandoned sand hill known 
formerly as the Water Works Reservoir; the South 
Side Company for the "old camp ground," Pelton 
Park; the Superior Street Company for Payne's Com- 
mons. Still, they all pretended to be disinterested; but 
the Commission knew their schemes, and baffled them. 
The street railroad corporations gained possession of all 
of the leading streets in the city, without the payment of 
a dollar for the privilege ; but they could not, and did 
not, gobble the best site left in the county for the 
Monument. Neither did thev succeed in establishing- 
the location of the Monument, so that all who visited it 
would be compelled to pay them tribute. 

From April, 1889, to April, 1891, Hon. George W. 
Gardner was Mayor of the city. During his administra- 
tion, he aided the Commission in every way possible, 
frequently visiting the artists' studio, and commending 
the work accomplished. Mayor Gardner, like his 
predecessor, Mayor Babcock, was an old and respected 
resident of the city; hence he took an active and per- 
sonal interest in the Soldiers' Memorial that was 
destined to beautify and render attractive and historic 
his old home. We very much regret that we cannot 
truthfully compliment his successor in the same 

Work was continually progressing on the Monument. 
To carrv out the elaborate scale on which it was to be 


erected, more funds were required. On request of the 
Commission, Comrade and Representative W. D. 
Pudney introduced the following bill in the Ohio 
Legislature, early in the session of 1891. His col- 
leagues generously co-operated with him in securing its 
passage into law: 

" [House Bill No. 1609.] 

" Supplementary and amendatory to an act to amend section one of 

an act entitled, 'An act to authorize the County Commissioners of 

Cuyahoga County to build a Monument or a Memorial Tablet 

commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and Sailors of said 

County, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed April 2nd, 1880 

(vol. 77, p. 368), as amended February 4th, 1881 (vol. 78, p. 316), as 

amended April 22nd, 1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), as amended April 16th, 

1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), as amended January 30th, 1890 (vol. 87, p. 

391), be so supplemented and amended as to read as follows: 

" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 

of Ohio, That section one of an act entitled ' An act to authorize the 

County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument 

or Memorial tablet, commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and 

Sailors of said County, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed April 

2nd, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended February 4th, 1881 (vol. 78, p. 

316), as amended April 22nd, 1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), as amended 

April 16th, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), as amended January 30th, 1890 

(vol. 87, p. 391), be so supplemented and amended as to read as 

follows : 

"Sec. 1. That the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County 
be and they are hereb)' authorized to levy a tax upon all the taxable 
property of said County, not exceeding six-tenths of a mill on the 
dollar of the valuation of said property in addition to any tax here- 
tofore levied under said acts, to be levied and collected as follows : 
For the year 1891, one-tenth of a mill; for the year 1892, one-tenth 
of a mill ; for the year 1893, two-tenths of a mill ; for the year 1894, 
two-tenths of a mill ; which amounts shall be levied and collected 
annually, as aforesaid, for the purpose of erecting a suitable struct- 
ure commemorative of the services, patriotism and valor of the 
Soldiers and Sailors of the Union Army and Navy in the War of the 
Rebellion, who enlisted from Cuyahoga County, and either were 
killed, died of wounds or disease contracted in said service, or sub- 
sequently died residents of said County, and to purchase a suitable 
site therefor ; and the funds heretofore collected under said act 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 49 

shall be applied, together with that raised under and pursuant to 
this act, to the purpose aforesaid. 

" Section 2. That, for the purpose of anticipating the collection 
of said tax, the County Commissioners of said County be and are 
hereby authorized and directed to issue bonds or notes, payable at 
such times and in such amounts as will be, as near as practicable, 
equal. to the annual or semi-annual collection of taxes levied for that 
purpose, which bonds or notes shall bear interest at a rate not to 
exceed six per cent, per annum, which bonds or notes may be de- 
livered to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission of said 
County, to be sold by them, or by the said County Commissioners, 
for money, at not less than their par value, but none of said bonds 
shall run more than five years from their date. 

"Section 3. That as soon as said bonds or notes shall be con- 
verted into money, as provided for in Section 2, in this act, the 
same shall be placed at the disposal of said Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument Commission, as is now provided for by the several acts 
to which this act is supplementary and amendatory. 

" Section 4. That said Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Com- 
mission be and they are hereby authorized to direct the Count}' 
Commissioners of said County to supply the said Monument with 
steam heat and lights from the County Court House. 

" Section 5. This act shall take effect on its passage. 

" Nial R. Hysell, 

'' Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
" Perry M. Adams, 
" President pro tern, of the Senate. 
"Passed April 2, 1891." 

The enactment of the foregoing law rendered the 
speedy completion of the Monument a certainty, pro- 
vided the few recently developed intermeddlers and 
interested parties would cease their senseless, unlawful 
opposition. But, unfortunately for the taxpayers of the 
county and for the Commission, such was not to be the 


WHILE in the height of the controversy, a few 
ward politicians succeeded, through the not 
uncommon accident of indifference and lack of interest 
on the part of the majority of good citizens, in electing 
to the Council a misguided opponent of the Monument 
site already granted by statute and confirmed by a 
former Council. This new member signalized his 
advent by introducing at the first meeting of the new 
Council, held on April 7, 1891, the following resolution: 

"That the resolution passed by the Common Council of the City 
of Cleveland, June 20, 18SS, giving consent to the Board of Monu- 
ment Commissioners to erect a Monument on the southeast side of 
the Public Square, be and the same is hereby rescinded." 

The author of the resolution supported it by his 
maiden speech, in the delivery of which he felt encour- 
aged by the audible smiles on the countenances of all 
the members. A few remarks were made by others, 
touching the status of the whole matter and the 
impropriety of the resolution. On a vote, there being 
forty members of the Council, it was practically 
unanimously rejected, the only member voting in its 
favor being the introducer. Thus again was the voice 
of the representatives of the citizens of Cleveland 
emphatically pronounced in favor of the laws of the 
State, and in approval of the work of the Commission. 

Agreeable to the communication sent to the Park 
Commissioners on Sept. 1st, 1890, "that ground would 
be broken on the selected site in March, 1891," a load 
of lumber was procured and conveyed to the southeast 
section of the Public Square, said lumber being 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 51 

intended for a fence, preparatory to proceeding with 
the erection of the structure. This event took place on 
April 10th, 1 89 1. Commissioners Scofield and Hayr 
had charge of the lumber, and proceeded to unload it 
on the ground where its use was intended. When they 
commenced the work, for which they volunteered, they 
were peremptorily ordered to discontinue by the park 
policeman. On failure to stop, he informed them that 
he had orders from the Park Commissioners to place 
them under arrest. Our representatives continued their 
work, whereupon the park policeman rang up the 
patrol wagon, and Commissioners Hayr and Scofield 
were given an unwilling ride to the Police Station. 
Thus was the first gun in the municipal war of the 
rebellion against the statutes of Ohio, supplemented by 
the action of two City Councils, fired off by the Park 
Commissioners. We quote this overt act from The 
World of April 10th, 189 1 : 

" The Soldiers' Monument Commission fight started 
in real earnest Friday morning, but it looks as though 
the Park Commissioners had made a bad bull of their 
case at the outset. 

" Late Thursday evening, an order was sent to Woods, 
Jenks & Co., lumber dealers, by James Hayr, one of the 
Commission, to send a load of palings and posts to Con- 
tractor Slatmeyer's office on Bright street, Friday morn- 
ing. At 9 A. M., the teamster drove up with his load 
and was met by Commissioner Hayr. He ordered the 
driver to proceed to the Public Square, where Architect 
Levi T. Scofield joined the procession. 

" Hayr and Scofield held a consultation and decided 
that the best place to start building the fence which 
will surround the new Monument would be at a point 
south of Perry's Monument. Accordingly, Scofield 
seized the horses by the bits and led them over the 
sidewalk and upon the grass. 


"Just at this point, Park Policeman Terry Boylan 
appeared on the scene and said : 

" ' Gentlemen, I am instructed to arrest anybody who 
attempts to unload lumber in the Square.' 

" Architect Scofield drew out his commission as a 
member of the Monument Commission and read it from 
top to bottom. Boylan still remonstrated, but Scofield 
and Hayr mounted the wagon and began throwing off 
logs. Boylan reached up and grasped Hayr by the arm, 
but that individual jerked away from him and kept on 
working. Boylan hesitated, and then going over to the 
other end of the wagon he repeated the same act on 

" The park policeman didn't know what to do, but in 
a few minutes he disappeared. The load was getting 
smaller all the time and Hayr descended to the ground. 
Boylan again hove in view, and placing his hand upon 
Hayr's shoulder, placed him under arrest. 

" Scofield stopped work and the officer also grasped 
him by the arm. All this time the latter was protest- 
ing that he was a State Officer, and was engaged in 
the performance of his duty, under the law. 

" Hayr jerked away before the corner of Ontario Street 
was reached and walked over to the point where the 
teamster was standing. Just at this time there was a 
clanging of bells and the police patrol drove up. 

" Sergeant Denzer and Patrolman Walker demanded 
the cause of the trouble. Boylan told them and Denzer 
explained to Scofield and Hayr that he would be obliged 
to take them to the Central Station. 

" Scofield didn't relish the idea at all, and said that 
he would rather walk down. Hayr didn't care, and 
after a moment's hesitation, both stepped into the wagon 
and were driven to the Central. 

" At the Police Station, Architect Scofield braced up 
to Lieut. Burns' desk and protested against his arrest. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 53 

" ' I want this officer taken in charge for assault 
and battery upon Mr. Hayr and myself. In the per- 
formance of our duty as State Officers he laid hands 
upon us.' 

" Boylan explained the case to the lieutenant, and the 
latter refused to take any action until Police Prosecutor 
Estep was consulted. The trio then ascended to the 
top floor, where Estep was found in his office. 

" ' I want a warrant for this policeman's arrest,' said 
Scofield immediately. 

" ' I arrested them on view,' said Boylan, ' and I want 
my warrants first.' 

" After the case was explained to Estep, he prepared 
a warrant charging Boylan with assault and then start- 
ed to look up the law in the case against the Monu- 
mental Commissioners. The statutes provided against 
the erection of poles, posts, fences, bill-boards and the 
like, but nothing could be found in the law-books or 
rules of the Park Commissioners which made it an of- 
fense to dump lumber in the Public Square. 

" Estep racked his brain for a charge that could be 
placed against the two men, but to no avail. He then 
informed the three men that he would do nothing in the 
case until Friday afternoon. Mr. Scofield demanded 
that the warrant be issued for Boylan, but Mr. Estep 
refused the request. 

" After this conversation, Boylan and Messrs. Scofield 
and Hayr returned to the Lieutenant's office. Mr. Sco- 
field made another demand for the park policeman's 
arrest, but Lieut. Burns explained that it would be im- 
possible to comply with it. Boylan then asked that his 
prisoners be registered. Lieut. Burns asked for the 
warrants and refused to take the responsibility of form- 
ally arresting the men without those very necessary 

" Prosecutor Estep was called down, and after a 


lengthy discussion, the Prosecutor told the Lieutenant 
to docket Scofield and Hayr the same as other prisoners 
who are arrested on view. This was done. Mr. Scofield 
gave his residence at 338 Erie Street, and Mr. Hayr at 
376 Franklin Avenue. 

u Lieutenant Burns accompanied Hayr to the Clerk's 
office, where he was informed that he would be released 
upon signing his own bond. This Mr. Hayr did and he 
departed. When Mr. Scofield's turn arrived to be taken 
to the Clerk's office, he refused to sign a bond. 

"'If I am under arrest,' said he, 'I demand to be 
locked up in the prison, because I will not sign a bail 

" Again was Prosecutor Estep called in and this time 
he came out flatly against the arrest. 

" ' It was an outrage,' said he, 'to arrest these men 
and lug them down to the Central Station. If they have 
no rights in the Public Square, the Park Commissioners 
should have enjoined them. There is a State law 
granting them the right to build the Monument in the 
southeastern portion of the Public Square, and the City 
Council has given them the necessary permission. The 
latest park ordinance that I can find makes this arrest 
illegal. You had better let them go, Lieutenant.' 

" His advice was taken and the Monument Commis- 
sioners left the Station. 

" Mr. Scofield was determined that the work he had 
started would be completed, and returning to the 
Square, where the wagon, half unloaded, w r as standing, 
surrounded by a big crowd, Scofield ascended it, and in 
a few minutes the lumber was lying in a pile on the 

" In the meantime, Park Policeman Boylan had noti- 
fied members Stone and Hill, of the Park Commission, 
and they hustled down to the City Hall. It was decided 
to stop the unloading of any more lumber, and telephone 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 57 

messages were sent to the employes at Wade Park, 
Lakeview Park, Pelton Park, Clinton Park and Miles 
Park, instructing them to report post haste at the office 
in the City Hall. Ten men quickly responded and un- 
der the command of Policeman Boylan they were placed 
at the disputed point in the Public Square with instruc- 
tions to stop any more wagons from crossing into the 

" Upon their arrival the teamster unhitched his horses 
from the wagon and drove them away. The wagon 
was then pushed out upon the pavement, and the work- 
men loaded the lumber back upon it. 

" Members Hill and Stone met with Solicitor Burns 
and the situation was discussed. The Solicitor said he 
thought the Courts would decide that the Monument 
Commission had no right to occupy the southeast por- 
tion of the Public Square, and the Commission con- 
cluded that as it would be impossible to do anything in 
Police Court, it would be best to commence injunction 

" Solicitor Burns started immediately upon the prep- 
aration of the papers, which will be filed in the Com- 
mon Pleas Court before Friday night. 

" Architect Scofield told a World reporter that this 
was just what the Monument Commission desired and 
he believed that a gross mistake had been made in 
causing the arrest of Hayr and himself. 

" In the meantime, the Park Commission will keep 
guards on duty in the Public Square, to prevent any 
further attempt to unload lumber." 

The Park Commissioners, humiliated at the result of 
their premature discharge, were too timid to proceed on 
the line they so ingloriously commenced. No charges 
were preferred against Commissioners Scofield and 
Hayr. When the question was closely investigated, it 
was found that they were engaged purely in their line 


of duty, hence they were not locked behind prison bars, 
but were told by the sensible police officials to go their 
way in peace. The fact was brought to light at this 
time that the Park Commissioners, who had frequently 
expressed so much sympathy with the work of the Com- 
mission, had guards posted around the Square and 
Perry's statue for weeks, expecting a midnight attack 
from the members of the Commission on the site given to 
them in trust by the laws of Ohio for the occupancy of 
the Monument. From the close of the Civil War up to 
1888, the Soldiers of Cuyahoga County, among them 
some of the members of the Commission, had volun- 
tarily and gladly decorated the Commodore Perry statue 
with beautiful flowers and wreaths every recurring Me- 
morial Day. In the latter year the Park Commissioners 
ordered that kindly remembrance to be stopped, giving 
as a reason therefor " that the flowers and wreaths soiled 
and streaked the statue ! " There was no danger of the 
Park Commissioners ever ''soiling" the statue of Com- 
modore Perry, for they were never known to place a 
flower upon it, or in any other way decorate it. They 
did, however, remove the statue from the center of the 
Square, where the gallant Commodore defiantly faced 
a foreign shore, with his stalwart right hand pointing 
to Lake Erie, the scene of his grand victory over the 
British. They gave the original and most suitable site 
for his statue to the use and benefit of their friends, the 
Street Railroad Corporations. When their predecessors 
located him on the southeast section of the Public 
Square, instead of in Lake View Park, where an appro- 
priate site had been reserved for him, they negligently 
and ignorantly faced him looking toward the Old Court 
House, with his right hand pointing directly to a 
tumble-down fish market. Remarkable, how these 
amiable gentlemen, the Park Commissioners, did revere 
the memory of Commodore Perrv ! 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 59 

The utter neglect of the Public Square for years was 
the cause of frequent comment in all of the newspapers 
of the city, as well as the subject of complaints by 
citizens. On one section was a pond used as a recep- 
tacle for decayed vegetables and a bathing place for 
mangy curs ; on another, an auditorium, or sort of 
Roman forum, " fearfully and wonderfully made," and 
utilized principally as a lounging place ; on a third one 
an ancient fountain that did not " play; " while on the 
surrounding streets and gutters were stacked filthy, 
foul-smelling manure heaps ; Superior Street, through 
the Square, being allowed to be itsed as a scrap-iron 
yard by the Street Railroad Companies. 

The outcome of the indiscreet arrest of Commission- 
ers Scofield and Hayr convinced the Park Commissioners 
that the Monument Commissioners knew their rights 
and were determined to maintain them. On April 13th, 
1891, a meeting of the Commission was held to take 
action on the ungentlemanly treatment, not to say gross 
insult, of the Park Commissioners in ordering the arrest 
of Commissioners Scofield and Hayr while in the dis- 
charge of their duty. The following resolutions, by 
Commissioner Dewstoe, were adopted : 

" Whereas, Published statements have been made to the effect 
that the Board of Park Commissioners have had extra guards and 
pickets placed in the Public Square with a view of protecting the 
statue of Commodore Perry from violence and the Square from 
forcible occupancy by the Soldiers' Monument Commission ; there- 

" Resolved, That this attempt to prejudice public sentiment is a 
gratuitous insult, not only to the gentlemen of the Commission, 
but to the thousands of ex-Soldiers they represent ; 

" Resolved, That we extend to the Park Commissioners, and the 
public generally, our assurance that all our actions in the future, as 
in the past, will be open, moderate, and in accordance with the laws 
and ordinances under which we were organized and are operating, 
and that we denounce all attempts to influence the public mind and 
to convey the impression that we propose violent or revolutionary 
proceedings as false, unjust and malicious." 


Commissioner Hayr remarked that he had not en- 
gaged in any underhand work. He had told the Park 
Commissioners that the lumber was to be taken on the 
Park. " Men," said he, " who faced the enemy for four 
years have too much manhood and too much respect 
for the citizens of Cleveland to do any underhand busi- 
ness ; " that if he could not go into the Square in the 
broad daylight, he did not desire to go at all. 

" The way Gen. Elwell dressed down the Park Com- 
missioners was soul-thrilling. He said the saintly Park 
Commissioners never did anything except to tear up the 
turf, build houses for the sparrows, erect a dilapidated 
cow shed for public meetings and permit the Square to 
be used as a scrap-iron yard, while Commodore Perry 
could point forever without ever being dusted or having 
his face washed or his many injuries attended to. He 
denounced the Park Commissioners for spreading 
abroad the report that the Soldiers' Monument would 
be of such dimensions as to obscure the canopy of 

" Gen. Elwell opened the meeting by stating that the 
object of the gathering was to take action upon the 
course of the Park Commissioners in putting a picket 
guard about the Square. 

" ' I was surprised to learn that we have been placed 
under surveillance for the past two weeks by having 
the Square picketed and having sentinels pacing back 
and forth before the Monument as though we intended 
to despoil the old Commodore like thieves in the dark,' 
said he. ' It is an insult to treat us like burglars. It 
was bad enough to take Capt. Scofield to the Central 
Station in a patrol wagon, but that is nothing to being 
dogged and watched. What have these Commissioners 
done for the old Soldier? Nothing. They are capital 
at building sparrow houses in the Square, at tearing up 
the turf and making gravel beds out of it, at cutting 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 6i 

down the finest buckeye trees in the Square, but what 
have they done for the old warrior ? They have not 
even washed or cleaned his face. He is going to decay, 
but they do not care. I am pleased to announce that 
several prominent attorneys have volunteered their 
services. Mr. Prentiss, wdio is well versed in municipal 
law, was one of the first to volunteer and is here to-day. 
Ex-Solicitor Brinsmade wrote me a letter telling us 
not to hesitate to call upon him. He suggests that 
the Commission have all the County Grand Army 
Posts adopt resolutions indorsing us. I see an after- 
noon paper has the audacity to challenge this pro- 
ceeding, as though the old Soldiers would not stand 
by us.' 

" Gen. Elwell spoke with considerable warmth and 
said that the course of the Park Commissioners was un- 
warranted and insolent.'" 

Commissioner Elwell, Comrade A. T. Brinsmade, and 
Loren Prentiss, Esq., were delegated to confer with 
City Solicitor Burns, to arrange for a speedy settlement 
of the case. The position of the contractor who made 
the lowest bid for the work was considered. He had 
refused other contracts, and he said that if the Monu- 
ment was not begun at once he would suffer serious 
loss. Under the circumstances, however, the Commis- 
sion could not see their way clear to proceed with the 

After the meeting a conference was held with City 
Solicitor Burns. He agreed to prepare the application 
of the Park Commissioners for an injunction without 

He filed the petition in the Court of Common Pleas 
on April 15th, 1891. 

The papers read : 


" The City of Cleveland, plaintiff, vs. William J. Gleason, Levi F. 
Bauder, J. B. Molyneaux, Edward H. Bohni, Levi T. Scofield, Emory 
W. Force, James Barnett, J. J. Elwell, Charles C. Dewstoe, James 
Hayr, R. W. Walters and M. D. Leggett, defendants. 

" In the Court of Common Pleas, Cuyahoga County, O. Petition. 

" Plaintiff, the City of Cleveland, is a Municipal Corporation or- 
ganized under the laws of Ohio, and as such is a city of the second 
grade and of the first class, and is situated within this county. 
Within the limits of said city is situated a certain tract of land of 
about ten acres in area, square in form and divided into four nearly 
equal squares, by two certain public streets of said city, to wit : 
Superior Street and Ontario Street, passing through the same from 
east to west and from north to south respectively and intersecting 
near the center of said tract of land, which said land is known as the 
Central Park and Public Square of said city. At a remote date, to 
wit, about the year 1796, the said land was duly dedicated to public 
use by the then owners thereof, to wit, The Connecticut Land Com- 
pany, to be used and enjoyed by the residents of the vicinity and 
the public as public ground, as a public park, and the same has ever 
since so remained and been so used and enjoyed. And ever since 
the organization of said Municipal Corporation, to wit, in the year 
1796, the said land has been under the charge and control of said 
Corporation, and still is preserved and maintained by it, as a public 
park, with public walks or highways for foot passengers, for the use 
of its citizens and the public. Said city has during said time ex- 
pended large sums of money in so preserving and maintaining the 
said land as such park, and the improvement and embellishment of 
the same. And besides other improvements, two certain public 
walks of said kind and for said purpose have been laid out and im- 
proved by said city diagonally across the southeast section of said 
Public Square so cut off and separated by said public streets ; the 
said walks extending from the four corners of said section diagonal- 
ly across the same and forming public highways for foot passengers 
passing to and fro in said city, and the same are in constant use for 
said purpose by the citizens of said city and the public generally, 
and the same have been so kept and maintained by the said city, and 
have been so used and enjoyed by said citizens and the public for a 
long period of time, to wit, about 100 years. And, by and under 
the direction and control of said city there has been placed upon 
said section of said Square, near the center thereof, a large stone 
statuary monument, known as the statue of Commodore O. H. Perry, 
which said monument still stands at said place and is a part of said 
Park, and is of great use and value as such to said city, its citizens 
and the public. The following persons, A. H. Stone, H. E. Hill, and 
H. M. Claflen, are the duly appointed, qualified and acting Park 


Commissioners of said city, and as such are in charge of the said 
Public Square and Park, as well as the other Parks of said city. The 
defendants have organized themselves together as a commission or 
body for the purpose of erecting within said city a large Monument 
in memory of the Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County engaged 
in the late War, and claim to have been duly appointed for said pur- 
pose by the Governor of this State and under its laws. The defend- 
ants as such Commission have selected as a site on which to erect 
such Monument said southeast section of said Public Square and 
without the consent and against the objection and protest of said 
Park Commissioners and without any warrant or authority of law- 
whatever threaten to, and unless restrained therefrom, will appro- 
priate a large portion of said section of said Public Square for said 
purpose and will take down and remove from said place said Monu- 
ment of Commodore Perry and will build up and occupy for said 
purpose a portion of said section of said Square about ninety-five 
feet square to a height of about five feet above its present level and 
above part of the surrounding ground, and about ten feet above the 
level of the remainder thereof, and will erect thereon a large stone 
building forty-six feet square and about thirty feet in height and 
will build upon and above the said building a tall stone shaft about 
100 feet high, said entire construction to be and remain a permanent 
Monument and occupy said ground as such, and said defendants 
will immediately inclose the said section of said Square with a high 
board fence and exclude the citizens of said city and the public from 
the use of the same as such Park, and from the use of the said 
walks as highways for the travel of foot passengers during the 
entire time of erecting said Monument, to wit, about one year. 
Said Monument, if erected in said place, will completely and 
permanently obstruct said public walks across said section of 
said Public Square to the great inconvenience of the citizens of 
said city and the public, and will practically destroy said entire 
section of said Square for any other use than such site for such 
Monument, and as well, will materially injure the remainder of said 
Public Square and Park for Park purposes, and the said structure 
will materially obstruct the view in all directions about the same. 
Plaintiff says, that if the said things or any of the same are per- 
mitted to be done, it will result in irreparable injury to plaintiff, its 
citizens, and the public. Wherefore, plaintiff prays that pending 
final hearing hereof, each of said defendants be restrained from 
fencing in, or inclosing any part of said section of the Public 
Square, from in any manner interfering with said Perry Monument, 
and from doing anything in the way of erecting said Monument 
upon said section of said Square, and from interfering in any way 
with said portion of said Park, and that upon final hearing the said 


defendants may each be perpetually enjoined in said particulars, 
and for such other and further relief as plaintiff may be entitled to. 

" Burns & Reynolds, 
" Gilbert & Hills, 

" Plaintiff's Attorneys. 

" State of Ohio, Cuyahoga County, ss. — A. M. Burns, being duly 
sworn, on his oath says that the plaintiff is a Municipal Corporation 
of the State of Ohio ; that he is its duly appointed, qualified and 
acting Solicitor, and that the matters and facts set forth in the fore- 
going petition are true. " A. M. Burns. 

" The City of Cleveland, plaintiff, vs. William J. Gleason, Levi F. 
Bauder, J. B. Molyneaux, Edward H. Bohm, Levi T. Scofield, Emory 
W. Force, James Barnett, J. J. Elwell, Charles C. Dewstoe, James 
Hayr, R. W. Walters and M. D. Leggett, defendants. 

" In the Court of Common Pleas, Cuyahoga County, O. Precipe." 

The action of the Park Commissioners illustrated 
their frequently expressed friendship for the Monument. 
The law then invoked proved. an expensive experiment 
to the people of the city and county, for at the end the 
people had to pay all taxable costs of court and the 
largely increased cost in. the construction of the Monu- 
ment. The final outcome thus far and ultimately be- 
ing the judicial defeat alike of the several meddlesome 
persons and a few interested and honorable property 
owners on the ancient Public Square, who conceived an 
imaginary detriment to their inheritance, and therefore 
honestly opposed the selected site. The final result in 
all the unhappy and retarding litigation was alike grati- 
fying to the Commission, to the old Soldiers and Sailors 
of the County, and to the patriotic £ax-paying citizens 
who nobly stood by them, the Monument, and its 
chosen site. 


ON the day the first suit was entered, the Plain 
Dealer said : 

" The Soldiers' Commission charge the Park Com- 
mission with adopting the most aggravating course, 
with treating them as criminals and as suspicious people 
in general. The Commission claims to be acting under 
the authority of the State of Ohio and Council of Cleve- 
land, and bases its right to locate in the Public Square 
upon the hypothesis that the Square is not a Park but 
is, in fact, a Public Square, an enlargement of the street 
area of the city. The Commission laughs at the idea of 
the land reverting to the original grantors. What stirred 
the blood of the Soldiers was the action of the Park 
Commissioners in ordering a police guard for the 
marble Commodore. The Soldiers indignantly resent 
the imputation that they have violent designs upon 
the Commodore. 

" ' We are honorable men,' said Major W. J. Gleason, 
hotly, yesterday. ' We do not do things in the dark. 
When we make a move it will be in the broad daylight. 
We are neither criminals nor suspicious characters.' 

" There is no help for it now. The case will have to 
go into Court. The Park Commissioners might gain 
some sympathy in their stand were they opposed to the 
Public Square. But they are not. They are merely 
opposed to locating the Monument in that particular 
section. The other three sections are open for choice. 
The Soldiers' Commission charge that the Park Com- 
missioners individually have distorted and misrepre- 
sented things, especially the size of the Monument." 


Judge Samuel E. Williamson joined with the Park 
Commissioners, on the claim that the property he in- 
herited, at the corner of Euclid Avenue and the Public 
Square, would be depreciated by the erection of the 
Monument on the contemplated site. His attorneys 
were Judge W. W. Boynton, Director and Attorney of 
the East Cleveland Street Railway Corporation, and 
Messrs. Estep, Dickey, Carr & Goff. 

The filing of the petition on April 15th, 1891, was de- 
scribed in manner following by the Plain Dealer : 

" Bright and early Tuesday morning, City Solicitor 
Burns, with Attorneys Reynolds, Gilbert and Hills, 
appeared before Judge Stoue of the Court of Common 
Pleas with the petition to enjoin the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment Commission from fooling with the southeast 
corner of the Public Square. As soon as the City Solic- 
itor could get the attention of the Court he read him 
the essential part of the petition and asked that a tem- 
porary restraining order be granted. 

" The Soldiers' Monument Commission was represent- 
ed by Col. Allen T. Brinsmade, Mr. Loren Prentiss, Gen. 
J. J. Elwell and Gen. M. D. Leggett. Col. Brinsmade in- 
timated that a restraining order would be unnecessary, 
the gentlemen of the Monument Commission would 
not take any steps in the matter while it was in Court. 

" Attorney Gilbert said that at a meeting between 
the City Solicitor and counsel for the Monument Com- 
mission it was agreed that in consideration of the 
speedy filing of a petition and hearing of the issues, a 
temporary restraining order would be acceded to. 

" Attorney Prentiss replied that he had not so under- 
stood it. The Monument Commission had in no way 
solicited the filing of the petition ; it had desired a 
speedy hearing since one was to be filed. No restrain- 
ing order ought to be necessary with gentlemen of such 
reputation as the Monument Commission. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 69 

" Mr. Gilbert said that if the agreement was not to 
be adhered to, the petition would not be filed. 

" Mr. Prentiss again began to explain, when Jndge 
Stone cut him short by saying that if no petition was 
to be filed, there was nothing before the Court. 

" Attorney Gilbert explained to a Plain Dealer re- 
porter that if there was to be no restraining order, the 
issnes involved would be better presented in a petition 
filed by property owners than by the City and that it 
would be unfair to Judge Williamson and other counsel 
to depart from the arrangement. 

" Mr. Prentiss said that he had recognized no ar- 
rangement that there should be a temporary restrain- 
ing order. ' You suggested it,' he said to City Solicit- 
or Burns, ' and I rather discouraged it.' 

" ' I did not hear you,' said Major Burns, ' and I sup- 
posed you assented to it.' 

" Gen. Elwell said : ' This is like your action all 
along ; like your picketing the Square. You are afraid 
we will do something.' 

" ' I'll tell you what I'll do,' said Major Burns. ' Pre- 
pare a stipulation in writing that you will let the Square 
alone and it will be all right.' 

"The stipulation was prepared and filed with the pe- 
tition. It was as follows : 

" The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission 
of Cuyahoga County hereby agree to and with the at- 
torneys for the City of Cleveland that pending the pre- 
liminary hearing in the Court of Common Pleas of a 
case to be this day filed in the Court of Common Pleas, 
in which the City of Cleveland is plaintiff and Levi T. 
Scofield and other members of said Commission are 
defendants, and in which an injunction will be prayed 
for, that no steps will be taken for the erection of a 
Monument upon the Square of said City, nor for the 
removal of the Perry statue, nor shall any material 


be placed upon said Square for such purpose by said 
Commission, nor by anyone acting under or for them. 
This condition and agreement is based upon the fact 
that such petition is this day filed. 

" L. Prentiss, 
" Allen T. Brinsmade, 
" M. D. Leggett, 
"J. J. Elwell, 
" Attorneys for said Commission." 

Pending the hearing of the suit, the Monument Com- 
mission strictly carried out the agreement made by its 
attorneys, and matters remained in statu quo. 

The preliminary trial was heard by Judge Carlos M. 
Stone, on May nth, 1891, in the Cuyahoga Court of 
Common Pleas. The argument for the Commission, 
made by Comrade A. T. Brinsmade, so clearly and ably 
sets forth all of the salient points in the case that we take 
much pleasure in reproducing a synopsis of it, copied 
from the Cleveland World of May 15th : 

" For many years, the Soldiers of Cuyahoga County 
have contemplated the erection of a Monument in com- 
memoration of the Soldiers of the Union Army who 
enlisted or were appointed from this county. 

" This is only in keeping with what a grateful people 
of countries the world over, and for ages of time, have 
done in commemoration of their Soldiers and their 
heroes of memorable wars. 

" No wars have been more memorable than the War 
of the Rebellion, and no Soldiers are more entitled to 
recognition by a grateful people than those of this 
country, who fought for the preservation of the Union. 

" Rather than raise the money by subscription from 
the citizens of the county, who would readily have 
■contributed to such a purpose, it was deemed proper 
and more equitable that all should contribute, and that 
a trifling assessment should be imposed for a series of 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 71 

years upon all property owners of the county for this 
laudable purpose ; the assessment running for several 
years, so that it would not be burdensome. 

"The members of the Legislature from this county 
coincided with the views of the Commission of Soldiers, 
and accordingly laws have been passed, and money 
raised by assessment upon the people of the entire 
county for this purpose. 

" The assessment so made was cheerfully acquiesced 
in by the people of the county, and a sufficient amount 
of money has been raised to warrant the commence- 
ment of the structure proposed and its speedy comple- 

" In point of fact, very much of the work has been 
done and is stored in suitable places, and it is confi- 
dently hoped that unless checked or frustrated by 
delays in the Court, that this splendid Monument can 
be completed and dedicated during the Fall of the pres- 
ent year. 

" When it was substantially determined that a Monu- 
ment should be erected, the Monument Commissioners 
took counsel of the Soldiers of the county, who were 
the most immediately interested in its erection, and 
after full and free discussion, the Soldiers of the city 
and county were practically unanimous that the Monu- 
ment should be erected in the southeast section of the 

"The Monument Commission (these defendants) 
were unanimous in their opinion, possibly with one 
exception, that all things being considered, such loca- 
tion was the very best, and so they decided. 

" They desired, however, before proceeding with the 
plans for the Monument and its surroundings, that 
everything should be done lawfully and properly, with- 
out haste, with all care and precaution, and with a due 
regard as to the responsibilities placed upon them. 


Further, that all possible authority should be obtained ; 
therefore it was that in April, 1888, the Legislature of 
the State passed an act, authorizing the appointment 
by the Governor of twelve persons, who should consti- 
tute the Monument Commission. 

" Under the authority of such act, the Governor 
appointed the following named gentlemen as such 
Commission, and these gentlemen, thus far, have faith- 
fully and zealously performed all the work assigned to 
them : William J. Gleason, Levi F. Bauder, J. B. Moly- 
neaux, Edward H. Bohm, Levi T. Scofield, Emory W. 
Force, James Barnett, J. J. Elwell, Charles C. Dewstoe, 
James Hayr, R. W. Walters, M. D. Leggett. 

" The plans for the Monument, and all details and 
specifications for it, have been by them patiently and 
carefully examined, and the work of Levi T. Scofield, 
architect — a man not of local only, but of national rep- 
utation — was the designer of the Monument and the 
artistic features of it, receiving, of course, suggestions 
from various members of the Commission in regard to 
it ; the result of which will be, that if this Monument 
is erected in its proposed location, it will be one of the 
most beautiful and artistic monuments to be found in 
the world. 

"There has been some misapprehension on the part 
of the people, and, no doubt, of these plaintiffs in these 
cases, as to the character of this proposed structure, 
and of its character and detail I will mention hereafter. 

"Section 3 of the act to which I have referred is as 
follows : 

" Said Board of Monument Commissioners, when duly organ- 
ized, shall have full power to select a place for the proposed Monu- 
ment, and shall have the exclusive control of the building of said 
Monument, and the plan for the same, and are empowered to have 
designs and models prepared, and are hereby authorized, if they so 
determine, to locate the site of such Monument on the southeast 
side of the ' Public Square ' so called, at the junction of Superior 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 73 

and Ontario Streets, in the City of Cleveland ; and in case they so 
determine, the Park Commissioners of said City are hereby author- 
ized and required, on demand in writing by said Commissioners, at 
the expense of said City, to remove the monument of Commodore 
Perry, now in said southeast corner of said Square, to some other 
square or public park in said city, and all other obstructions there- 
in ; but if the said Board of Monument Commissioners do not de- 
termine to locate the site for said Monument in said southeast 
square of said Public Square, they are authorized to purchase or 
procure any other site for the same within said county. 

" The Commission deemed the act of the General 
Assembly sufficient to give them full power in the prem- 
ises as to the selection of the site for the Monument, 
yet desirous of proceeding in full harmony and accord 
with the Legislative department of this City government, 
the City Council^was respectfully requested to take such 
action in the premises as it might deem proper, and 
accordingly this preamble and resolution was adopted 
by that body June 29, 1888 : 

"Whereas, The Monument Commission of Cuyahoga County, 
authorized by the General Assembly of the State to have full charge 
of the erection of a Monument commemorative of the Soldiers and 
Sailors of Cuyahoga County, have selected, in accordance with the 
provisions of law, the southeast section of the Public Square as a 
suitable site for such Monument; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the consent of the Common Council of the City 
of Cleveland be and it is hereby granted to such Commission to 
erect such Monument on the site so selected. 

" Having thus obtained the necessary permission 
from every possible authority, from that time to the 
present all plans and specifications for the Monument 
have been made with reference to its location in the 
section of the Square thus selected. 

" Right here it must be remembered that the Park 
Commissioners, at whose instance the suit by the City 
was brought against these defendants, made no objec- 
tion to the occupation of the other sections of the 
Square, for in their communication to the Chairman of 
the Commission they say that while they find some 


objection to the site selected, and while such objections 
may not be insuperable, such objections apply only to 
the quarter of the Square selected by the Soldiers' Com- 
mission ; should either of the other quarters be deter- 
mined upon, the Commissioners would not hesitate in 
giving a ready consent. 

" Why this objection to the southeast section of the 
Square on the part of the Park Commissioners ? 

" The answer is known to many, that it was a cher- 
ished idea, or the plan of at least one of the Commis- 
sioners, that Euclid Avenue should be extended through 
this section, and a portion of the southwest section of 
the Square, until it intersected Superior Street. In 
such case, the East Cleveland Street Railroad Company 
could run its cars diagonally through the Park, and 
thereby save two curves. 

" By the directions of the Park Commissioners, this 
suit was brought by the City Solicitor to enjoin the 
Commission from the occupancy of the southeast sec- 
tion of the Square. 

" This seems to be rather an irregular way of pro- 
cedure, as I will show : 

" First. We have authority from the Legislature to 
place the Monument there, and of the power of the 
Legislature in this regard I shall refer hereafter. 

" Second. The authority of the Legislative Munici- 
pal body. Hence it is that I claim that the City has 
not, nor should it have any standing in Court in this 
case irrespective of other legal, valid and substantial 

" Judge Sherwood, in the case of Barris vs. The Cleve- 
land City Cable Railway Company, decided September 
1 6, 1890, referring to Section 2640 of the Revised Stat- 
utes, wherein it provides that the Council shall have 
the care and supervision of public highways and pub- 
lic grounds, says : ' If the park is to be classed as pub- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. JJ 

lie grounds, then there is jurisdiction and control in the 

"Further, he says: 'The City Council has the 
authority under the statute to determine what improve- 
ments shall be made there.' 

" And in this connection, I refer the Court to Section 
1692 of the Revised Statutes, paragraph 32 ; also to 
Section 2640. 

" And yet in the petition of the City in this case, it is 
said that the Commission ' without any warrant or 
authority of law whatever, threaten to, and, unless re- 
strained therefrom, will appropriate a large portion of 
said section ' for the Monument. 

"Again, under Sections 1774 and 1777, I claim that 
the City Solicitor had no right or authority to bring 
this suit without the authority of a resolution or ordi- 
nance of the City Council. 

" There is no allegation in the petition that the City 
has abused its corporate powers in granting to the Com- 
mission the right to place the Monument in the Square. 

" Furthermore, I claim that when the City Council 
granted such authority to the Monument Commission, 
that such grant was a contract by and between the City 
and the Commission, and that the City is thereby 
estopped from interfering in any manner whatsoever 
with such contract, unless such contract is being evaded 
or violated, and certainly that cannot be claimed, for 
the Commission are endeavoring to live up to it faith- 

" Waiving, however, for the present, the question of 
the right of the City to bring this case, it is an estab- 
lished rule of law that when the rights of the complain- 
ants are doubtful, an injunction will not be allowed ; 
and I submit that neither for the City nor the complain- 
ants in the other case is there legal or tenable grounds 
upon which either can stand for a moment and ask 


that an injunction be granted restraining these Com- 
missioners from progressing with their work. 

" The placing of the Monument upon the Public 
Square is a legitimate use of the Square, and so far as 
the complaints in either of the cases are concerned, it 
is not a taking of private property for public use within 
the constitutional provision, and I refer your Honor to 
27th N. Y., pages 203, 213 and 214; 31st N. Y., pages 
183 and 193 ; 36th Pa., 104. 

" There can be no doubt of this proposition that the 
use is perfectly legitimate ; however, should such use 
be doubtful, and no irreparable injury is inflicted by the 
construction of a Monument, then this is not a proper 
case for an injunction, and I apprehend that it would 
be rather an arduous task for my friends to obtain affi- 
davits of reputable persons who would claim that the 
erection of the Monument on the section of the Square 
proposed would damage their property one iota. 

" On the contrary, nine-tenths of the people of the 
city would say that it would be a great benefit to the 
property of these plaintiffs to have a Monument erected 
in the proposed section. 

" The Court, perhaps, is familiar with the location of 
the Probasco Fountain in the City of Cincinnati. The 
fountain and esplanade or plaza were erected on a for- 
mer market space. The buildings surrounding such 
market space were of an inferior character. Since the 
placing of the fountain in that locality, magnificent 
buildings have been built all around it. It is a popular 
attraction and ornament to the place, and the business 
in that locality has increased tenfold. 

" There is a misapprehension on the part of many as 
to the nature and extent of the dedication of the Pub- 
lic Square, and a brief history of it will not be out of 
place at this time. 

u The Connecticut Land Company were the original 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 79 

owners of the land which is now embraced within the 
City of Cleveland, and this company, in 1796, caused a 
survey and town plat to be made of what was then des- 
ignated as the City of Cleveland, the name Cleveland 
being given it from the name of Gen. Moses Cleaveland, 
whose statue now stands in the southwest section of 
the Square. 

" The original surveying was done under the direc- 
tion of August Porter, assisted by Seth Pease and Amos 
SpafFord as principal surveyors. 

" By the provisions of an act of the Territorial Legis- 
lature that town plats should be recorded, the minutes 
of the survey of 1796 were retaken by Amos SpafFord, 
and so we find a record with the Pease notes and rec- 
ords, describing certain streets, as follows : 

" Superior Street, beginning at the west end where it connects 
with Water Street, 20 chains to the Square ; thence keeping the 
same course across the Square to a corner post on the other side of 
the Square. 

" Ontario Street east side, from Huron Street to the Square, is 
14 chains; from the Square to Lake Street is 16 chains; from 
Maiden Lane to the Square is 6 chains 70 links ; from the Square to 
Lake Street is 16 chains. 

" The Square is not described in the Pease minutes 
other than in the description of Superior and Ontario 
Streets. However, in Spafford's minutes, the Square is 
described : 

" The Square is laid out at the intersection of Superior Street 
and Ontario Street, and contains ten acres. The center of the junc- 
tion of the two roads is the exact center of the Square. 

" This is all there is to the so-called dedication. Yet 
it was a good dedication for a Square, from the fact of 
the surveys, the laying out of lots bounding on the 
Square, their adoption by the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany, the subsequent sale of such lots by the company, 
and its use by the public. 

" Though there was no municipality at the time of 


such dedication, yet it is well settled that in cases ot 
dedication the law does not require any specific guaran- 
tee in esse at the time, to whom the fee could be 
granted, or in whom the title could vest. 

"If there was none capable of taking at the time of 
such dedication, the fee would remain in abeyance 
until there was a grantee capable of taking, as was de- 
cided in Sixth Peters. 

" It will be seen, therefore, that there was no qualifi- 
cation in the dedication of the so-called Square, and I 
claim that when land is dedicated as a public square 
without other qualifications, and such dedication ac- 
cepted, the particular use to which it is directed is with 
the municipality. 

" In Dillon's work on Municipal incorporations, para- 
graph 645, the learned author says : 

" Where the words 'public square ' are used on a plat, this is au 
unrestricted dedication to public use, and the use varies according 
to circumstances, to be judged of and directed by the proper local 
authorities or corporate guardian, subject to the control of the laws 
and the courts. 

' Therefore, where there is an unrestricted dedica- 
tion, as in the case at bar, the use to which the Square 
may be put is necessarily left to the sound discretion of 
the Legislative Municipal body, and no wanton acts by 
that body can be presumed. 

" It is a well settled principle of equity jurisprudence 
that a Court of Equity will not sit in review of proceed- 
ings of Municipal tribunals where matters are left to 
the discretion of such bodies. The exercise of such 
discretion in good faith is conclusive, and will not be 
disturbed in the absence of fraud or flagrant abuse of 
such discretion. And it is also well settled that when 
a private party seeks to restrain the action of such 
tribunals, he must show some special and peculiar 
injury sustained by himself independent of and distinct 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 8i 

from the common and general injury shared by the 
public alike, in default of which equity will not in- 

" I come now to the discussion of the question as to 
whether the erection of this work of art in the Public 
Square comes within the appropriate use and object to 
which the Square was dedicated. 

" It must be remembered, in this connection, that for 
years there stood upon the southwest section of the 
Square the County Court House, occupying a larger 
tract of ground than that proposed for the Monument, 
and I claim such was an appropriate and legitimate 
one, and in this assumption I am squarely borne out by 
the decision of the Supreme Court of Ohio, in the case 
of Langley vs. Trustees of the Town of Gallipolis, Sec- 
ond Ohio State, from which I quote : 

" Many decisions may be found in the courts of the several States 
with reference to the use and occupancy of squares and parks, 
especially parks, but as this Court has heretofore held, ' parks are 
much more limited in the use and purpose to which they may be 
devoted than squares.' 

" We need go no further than the Supreme Court of 
our own State for authority upon this subject, for 
the Court says in the case I have just cited : k But 
the use or beneficial purpose of a public square or 
common in a city or village, where no special limi- 
tation or use is prescribed by the dedication, is such 
that it may be improved and ornamented for recrea- 
tion and health, or for the public buildings, or as a 
place for the transaction of public business of the peo- 
ple of the city or village, or both for the purposes of 
pleasure and business, at the discretion of the Munic- 
ipal authorities.' 

" Some of the definitions, as given by the courts, of 
squares and parks, are: 'A public square is not de- 
signed for a highway or a thoroughfare for all sorts of 


conveyances, but is intended as an ornament of a town 
— a place of recreation and amusement.' 

" Again, ' a park is, in a strict sense, a piece of ground 
enclosed for the purposes of pleasure, exercise, amuse- 
ment or ornament.' 

" ' A park is an enclosed space in a city or village set 
apart for ornament.' ' The square was intended for 
beauty and adornment, and for the health and recrea- 
tion of the public' 

" ' The word ' square ' as a term of dedication indi- 
cated a public use, either for purposes of free passage 
or to be ornamented for grounds of pleasure, amuse- 
ment or recreation.' 

" I ask the Court, then, is the use of this Square for 
the Monument inconsistent with its use under the defi- 
nitions here given ? 

" And as to the intention of the Municipal authorities 
in this matter way back in the sixties, it may be 
remarked in passing, that by an ordinance they gave 
the name of Monumental Square to this ten acres of 
ground situated in the heart of the city. 

"The Supreme Court in the case of Baker vs. John- 
son, Twenty-first Michigan, 342, says: 'Where land has 
simply been designated as a public square, it did not 
necessarily mean more than that it was for public uses, 
without showing what uses were intended. The space 
may have been destined for commons, or schools, or 
county buildings, or burial places, or any other use 
which could be legitimately regarded as public, and 
nothing but extrinsic evidence or subsequent agreement 
could remove the ambiguity.' 

"Further along in the same case the Court says: 
'The plat shows that it was to be kept as a block, sep- 
arate from the adjacent streets and bounded by their 
exterior lines. It was meant for some other passage 
than a passageway. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 83 

"In the case at bar, here was a block or square with 
lots laid out abutting upon it, separated from the adja- 
cent streets, and hence it is, under the last decision re- 
ferred to, that these sections were meant for some other 
purpose than a mere use for cross-walks. 

" And no one will dispute the authority of the City to 
close all of these cross-walks, and to devote the space 
occupied by them for any other legitimate purpose for 
which a square or park is intended. 

" However, the walks in that section will not be de- 
stroyed, nor will it practically destroy that section of the 
Square for any other use, as is alleged in the petition 
of the City, for it is the design, and so the plans show, 
and so we affirm the fact to be, that there are still to be 
diagonal walks, and only a few more steps will be nec- 
essary for one who desires to cross the Square diagonally 
in that direction. 

" On account of the fountain in the northwest section 
of the Square, a few more steps are required of the pe- 
destrian, but no one has ever wished to displace the 
fountain on that account. 

" Is there any great irreparable injury inflicted 
upon the public by such a trifling matter? Certainly 

" Now the City claims in its petition that these cross- 
walks in the southeast section, by reason of the erection 
of the Monument there, will be destroyed, and that the 
view from Euclid Avenue will be obstructed, and that 
great and irreparable injury is occasioned thereby, and 
this, as I will show you from their petition, is substan- 
tially the only grounds upon which they base their 
claims for an injunction. Obstruct the view of the Park ? 
A single glance, your Honor, at the style of the Monu- 
ment as it appears on the plans before you sufficiently 
refutes such an allegation. Yet, the Corporation Coun- 
sel says in argument, that the City has full authority to 


place upon that or either section of the Square — public 

"So we find, therefore, that this Soldiers' Commission 
have no right to occupy this section of the Square 
with a beautiful public Monument, a public recognition 
of the ' boys in blue,' because, forsooth, it interferes 
with a cross-walk and obstructs the view from Euclid 
Avenue ; yet the City can place an immense building 
there, which would certainly destroy all the cross-walks 
and materially obstruct the view of the Park, with 
irreparable injury to no one. Such, you know, is the 
position of the City. 

" There is some, but very little opposition to the mov- 
ing of the statue of Commodore Perry, which now stands 
in the southeast section of the Square, but this opposi- 
tion arises from the simple fact of its having been 
already once moved. My idea is that one more removal 
would be about the correct thing, and that removal 
should be to Lake View Park, say at the foot of Ontario 
Street. Then, instead of pointing back to a fish market 
as he now is, he would stand on the bank of the lake 
facing toward the city, and would be pointing to the 
beautiful lake where he won his great victory. 

" However, the removal of the statue has very little 
to do with this case, and I only mention it for the rea- 
son that the City says in its petition ' that there has 
been placed upon said section of said Square, near the 
center thereof, a large stone statuary monument known 
as the statue of Commodore O. H. Perry, and that such 
monument is of great use and value to said City, its 
citizens and the public' 

" And yet the City says in its petition that if this 
magnificent Monument, costing over $200,000, is erected 
in that section, that ' it will result in irreparable injury 
to the citizens and the people.' 

"Consistency, thou art a jewel. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 87 

" I claim that the use of this section of the Square for 
the Monument is perfectly consistent with the use for 
which it was intended. 

''We find in the public squares, public commons and 
parks the world over, monuments are erected. We find 
monuments in Union and Madison Squares in New 
York, t Soldiers' Monument in the Public Commons of 
Boston. In Philadelphia, Gen. Reynolds' Monument in 
front of the Public Building. In Baltimore, Washing- 
ton Monument, Battle Monument, and other large 
monuments in the most important parts of the public 
streets and squares in the heart of the city. In Wash- 
ington, at all the principal parks and streets, here and 
there you will find beautiful monuments, notably, the 
statue of Gen. Thomas, right in the center where five 
or six streets radiate. In Richmond, the Washington 
Monument, a very stately one immediately in front of 
the State House. Buffalo Soldiers' Monument occupies 
the most prominent place in the heart of the city. In 
Detroit, Soldiers' Monument directly in front of the 
City Hall. 

" In Trafalgar Square, London, which is spoken of as 
one of the finest open places in London, and a great 
center of attraction, you find a monument dedicated to 
Lord Nelson, commemorating his glorious death at the 
battle of Trafalgar in 1805. This is a massive granite 
column 145 feet in height ; is crowned with the statue 
of Nelson, 17 feet in height, with four colossal bronze 
lions, modeled by Sir Edwin Landseer, couched upon 
pedestals running out from the column in the form of a 

" This monument cost over $200,000, yet I venture 
the assertion that our proposed Monument will be more 
beautiful and more grand than that. In this same 
square you will find two fountains, a statue of Sir Henry 
Havelock, the deliverer of Lucknow — a statue of Sir 


Charles James Napier, the conqueror of Scinde. Also 
in another corner of the square is an equestrian statue 
of George IV., in bronze. 

" All of the other squares in the heart of this great 
City of London are filled with monuments. 

" In Edinburg, in one of the principal streets, is the 
magnificent, lofty monument of Sir Walter Scott, 200 
feet high. In Paris, in Place de la Bastile, is the column 
of July, 154 feet high ; Column Vendome, 135 feet high. 
Port St. Dennis, Port St. Marten, all the principal 
places in the heart of the City of Paris are filled with 
magnificent monuments, fountains and triumphal 
arches, and so likewise in all the principal cities of 
France. In Brussels, the National Monument of God- 
frey de Bouillon. In Berlin, the monument of Fred- 
erick the Great is in the principal street. Unter den 
Linden and other public monuments and arches are in 
the principal thoroughfares. 

" Vienna and Stuttgart have numerous monuments 
and fountains and lofty columns in the central places in 
the citv. And so the Arne fountain at Nuremberg-, 
Christopher Columbus' Monument at Genoa, Gutenberg 
Monument at Frankfort, King Ludwig's Monument at 
Munich, Napoleon I. at Rouen, the Column of Victoria 
at Naples. In all prominent cities in the public squares, 
and commons, and streets, these monuments are placed, 
and so in our own country. Indianapolis, Painesville, 
Geneva and numerous other places — in fact, nearly all 
the prominent monuments of the large cities of the 
world are placed in central locations, where the public 
and strangers from without the city can see them at all 

" And yet the Williamsons, plaintiffs in one of these 
cases, say that this magnificent work of art — this Mon- 
ument in the Square — would spoil the view from Euclid 
Avenue. As my friend, Capt. Scofield, very aptly re- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 89 

marks, ' It would be a tough looking monument that 
would spoil any view in the business part of Cleveland.' 

" The Commission are eleven to one in favor of such 
site ; that one, I suppose, is like the obstinate juror who 
characterized the other jurors as ' eleven fools.' 

" It is not a private building or a private scheme, but 
a Monument with a Memorial Room, to be erected with 
the public funds — to be erected from the entire public 
— to be forever free to the public, and under the 
law, to be forever controlled by the Municipal author- 
ities of this city. Yet it is said we are to erect a private 
building, and this statement comes from the parties who 
are the owners of land on which stands a building from 
which a considerable income is derived, solely by reason 
of the encroachments of five feet upon the street fronting 
upon this very Square, using the public street for their 
own private purposes, and the City permitting this unlaw- 
ful and continuing nuisance. 

" We hold, therefore, that these defendants, the Mon- 
ument Commission, have absolute authority from the 
Legislature of the State to place the Monument upon 
the section designated. We hold that the City, acting 
within its powers and exercising a reasonable discretion, 
has given its full and free consent to its occupancy. 
We hold that the placing of the Monument in that sec- 
tion is but in furtherance of the use to which the Square 
may properly be put to by law, by usage and by custom. 

" We confidently assert that there is no valid and 
legal objection to the use of the Square as contemplated, 
and, therefore, that no restraining order should be 
allowed in this case. 

" And, your Honor, when this Monument shall be 
erected in this most appropriate and public place, and 
shall there stand, grand and beautiful, we will be 
reminded of the words of the poet Whittier, when he 
wrote relative to the Washington Monument : ' Surely 


it will not have been reared in vain if, on the day of its 
dedication, its mighty shaft shall serve to lift heaven- 
ward the voice of a united people, that the principles 
for which the fathers toiled and suffered shall be main- 
tained inviolate to their children.'" 

Upon the conclusion of the hearing, the Jndge took 
the case under advisement, promising to give a decision 
as soon as he had an opportunity of looking into its 
merits. The result of his deliberation was made known 
on June ist, 1891, and was published in the Leader of 
the following date, as follows: 

" The controversy over the location of the Soldiers 1 
and Sailors' Monument was brought to a close vesterday 
afternoon so far as the Court of Common Pleas is con- 
cerned, by Judge Stone deciding adversely to the Com- 
mission. At the appointed hour, the attorneys for the 
various parties to the well-known injunction suits met 
in room 1, and anxiously awaited the result. The Mon- 
ument Commission was well represented, and upon the 
brow of each member was settled a look of hopeful 
confidence. At a few minutes before 2 o'clock, Judge 
Stone took his seat and read his decision from manu- 
script. As he proceeded, a blank expression overspread 
the faces of the Commissioners, and at the turning point 
broad smiles played over the features of Judge William- 
son and the attorneys of the City. 

" Judge Stone commenced by giving a careful resume 
of the famous cases, stating the facts accepted by both 
sides, and concisely reviewing the points at issue. He 
gave the history of the Public Square from the time it 
was owned by the Connecticut Land Company, and 
called attention to the various changes that it had 
undergone. He quoted the acts of the General Assemblv 
and the ordinances of the Councils of Cleveland bearing 
upon the case, and reviewed the controversv between 
the Monument and Park Commissioners. 


" Coming to the law in the matter, Judge Stone first 
considered the rights of the plaintiffs in both cases to 
bring suit. In the Williamson case, it was shown by 
the citation of authorities that individual owners of 
adjacent lots may proceed in equity to enjoin the appro- 
priation of a Square dedicated to public purposes. It 
was the opinion of the Court, that upon general equit- 
able principles the plaintiffs in the Williamson case had 
a right to maintain the action if it was found that the 
uses contemplated to be made of the Public Square 
were not within the terms of its dedication. The tech- 
nical objections to the City of Cleveland being a plain- 
tiff were not insisted upon during the trial, and the case 
was considered and decided upon its merits. It was 
held by the attorneys for the Monument Commission, 
that the City, by its resolution of consent to the use of 
the Square for the Monument and its subsequent silence, 
was estopped from making any objection. The Court 
held, that if the use of the Square that was proposed 
was not a lawful one, the City had no right to give con- 
sent, and the case was as though a resolution of consent 
had never been passed. The case was found to ulti- 
mately depend upon the lawfulness of the contemplated 
use. With reference to the status of the Monumental 
Commissioners, it was held that they were the agents of 
the County, employed for local and temporary purposes, 
and were not officers within the meaning of the Consti- 
tution. The proposition of the plaintiffs, that the act 
of the General Assembly in 1888, authorizing the Com- 
mission to locate the Monument in the southeast corner 
of the Public Square, was inoperative, the Court held 
to be well taken. Such a provision of law directed the 
use of the Square for a Monument, the Court said, 
regardless of the will or rights of the City of Cleveland. 
The proposition of the attorneys for the Monument 
Commission that neither the consent of the Citv Council 


nor of the Park Commission was necessary, and that 
the will and direction of the Legislature was all-suffi- 
cient, the Court held to be untenable. A Municipal 
corporation had a twofold nature, one governmental, 
and the other </ //^/-private. In the latter capacity and 
not in the former, the City held the Square in trust for 
the purposes for which it was dedicated, and the State 
could not interfere with its control, nor could it direct 
as to its use or method of adornment. The statute was 
held to be inoperative, unauthorized, and void, as far as 
it would serve to be compulsory on the City, and it cre- 
ated no obligation or duty upon the municipality either 
to give its consent to the irse of the Square, as proposed, 
or to remove the Perry Monument from its present site. 

" We are now brought to the most important question 
of the case," continued Judge Stone. "Is the use that 
is proposed within the terms of the dedication ? We 
have then two propositions established. The Square is 
a place to be kept open and unobstructed, for the pur- 
poses of free passage, for pleasure grounds and amuse- 
ments, for recreation and health ; it may be beautified 
and ornamented — or it may be used for the public 
buildings for the transaction of the public business. It 
cannot be lawfully used for any other purpose than that 
named, expressed, or intended by the dedicator. 

" Is this Monument within the uses intended? It is 
transparently clear that it is to be permanent in its 
character, and not a place for the transaction of the 
public business. If then, it may be properly placed in 
the Square, it is because it is suitable by way of orna- 
menting, beautifying, or adorning it and in harmony 
and keeping with its use for pleasure grounds for recre- 
ation or health. The space now composing the south- 
east quarter of the Square within the sidewalk sur- 
rounding it is 184 feet square (33,856 square feet). The 
Monument is to be 95 feet square, located in the center 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 93 

(covering 9,025 square feet). If the Monument is 
placed there, it is apparent that one-quarter of the 
Square is thus devoted permanently and practically for 
all time to this object. It can, in the nature of the 
case, contain nothing else, since it will cover some- 
thing more than one-fourth of the space described. 
The Memorial or Tablet Room is 40 or 46 feet square, 
and 20 feet high and something more than that, in- 
cluding ornamentation. This section of the Square 
would certainly no longer be open and suitable for 
pleasure ground and for the purposes of unobstructed 
passage. Does this constitute so important a part of 
the whole Square as to make the use proposed an 
abridgment of the rights and uses for which the Square 
was intended? We think it does, and that the erection 
of so large and permanent a structure is not within the 
lawful, contemplated, and intended uses of the grant. 
We are not unmindful that in all civilized countries 
these public places or squares in cities and towns have 
ever been regarded as appropriate and suitable places 
for the erection of monuments, commemorative of great 
national or local events, and statues in honor of the 
world's heroes and eminent men. We have no doubt 
that within certain lines this Square may be so used, 
and be consistent with the dedication, but we venture 
the opinion that the structures must be such as shall 
not, in any appreciable degree, interfere with the free, 
open, and unobstructed use of the Square by the public, 
but shall be incident to its use and more complete en- 
joyment. This Monument, magnificent and beautiful 
in its proportions, if erected on the site proposed, 
will not be an incident to that section of the Square, 
but that section will have become an incident to it. If 
this structure may be erected upon one section, by the 
same token, for reasons and purposes equally meritori- 
ous, may there not be another structure, still larger in 


size, erected on the northwest quarter, and still another 
on the southwest quarter? There is still left another 
quarter upon which to erect a building for the transac- 
tion of the public business. When this is all done the 
city may thereby be greatly beautified and adorned, but 
we inquire, what has become of the Public Square ? 
The place is beautified and adorned, but the Square 
has disappeared ; it is no longer open, unobstructed for 
the free use and enjoyment of the people. It is no 
longer open, where great masses of our people may as- 
semble to listen to public discussion, or take part in 
public celebrations, or witness great military or civic 
demonstrations. It is no longer an open breathing 
place in the heart of a great city. The case supposed, 
of a large structure on each quarter of the Square, is of 
course extreme and improbable, 'but sometimes to sup- 
pose an extreme case is the best method of demonstrat- 
ing the danger of false doctrines.' But we affirm that 
under this dedication, no section or quarter of the 
Square can be lawfully used as a site for a large and 
permanent structure (saving possibly and only a build- 
ing for the transaction of the public business) that in 
effect would amount to the permanent appropriation of 
such section. And such, we think, would be the prac- 
tical result in this case, if the Monument be placed where 
proposed. It is urged that the plans and design for this 
Monument were made with special reference to this site, 
and that the Monument is not adapted to any other. 
The facts, we think, do not warrant this claim. The 
affidavit of Mr. Scofield, the artist and designer of the 
Monument, is to the effect that ' said Monument was 
designed and planned in March, 1887, and was of the 
same size as the present plans of the same, including 
the esplanade, the building for the Memorial Tablet 
room, the shaft, and every other part of the Monument,' 
etc. This was more than a year before the law was 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 95 

passed authorizing the use of the Square as a site, and 
a year and a quarter before the City Council adopted 
its resolution giving consent. In March, 1887, no law 
or resolution had been passed, so far as the proof shows, 
indicating the Square as a site, but all the State legis- 
lation on the subject authorized the ' purchase of a site 

" We have sought to examine and determine these 
cases along purely legal lines and upon legal principles, 
wholly apart from sentiment ; and the conclusions 
reached are not born out of any desire we have to see 
this beautiful Monument, in which all our people will 
take great pride, kept out of the Public Square ; and 
should the views held by this Court be sustained, the 
gentlemen composing this Commission, in whose wis- 
dom, judgment and fidelity the public have great con- 
fidence, we doubt not will find and secure a site for this 
Monument that will meet with public approval. For 
the reasons already expressed, perpetual injunctions 
are awarded." 

" The attorneys of the Commission immediately gave 
notice of an appeal of the case, under a bond of $200." 

Thus we had met our Bull Run ! Subsequent pro- 
ceedings in the higher Courts clearly demonstrated that 
the learned Judge erred. 

" To err is human, to forgive divine." 

The preliminary judicial opinion of Judge Stone 
did not eventually stand in law, but it served the pur- 
pose of interested and misguided individuals, and the 
few honest opponents of the selected site. It goes with- 
out saying, that the Monument Commissioners were 
disappointed, but they were not disheartened. Re- 
pulsed in the first skirmish, they re-formed their lines 
and moved forward, knowing their cause was just and 
would ultimatelv end in victory. 


TO continue the historical sequence of events, we here 
record that with the advent of the new City gov- 
ernment which came into power on the third Monday 
of April, 1 891, pursuant to the new Municipal law, the 
board of Park Commissioners became officially extinct. 
They left behind them the memory of work undone, 
of achievements long cherished but unaccomplished. 
Nevertheless the Parks will be extended, and better 
cared for in the future, and the Soldiers' Monument will 
adorn and grace the southeast section of the Public 
Square. City Solicitor Burns, who had faithfully served 
the Park Commissioners, shared the fate of the son of 
Jacob, when there arose a new king which knew not 

The new form of Municipal government was originally 
contemplated and represented to be an imitation of the 
plan of the Federal government, conducted with indi- 
vidually responsible heads of departments, their official 
designation being Directors. In practical administra- 
tion, however, it is but a slight apology for its assumed 
original pattern ; the Mayor, and the Directors, face- 
tiously called the Mayor's "Cabinet", being therein 
unfortunately constituted a Board of Control, with 
practically legislative, as well as executive functions, 
thus depriving the system of individual responsibility 
and efficiency, as contemplated by its honest and earnest 
originators. It has been with the two most important 
members of the " Cabinet" the Monument Commission 
has been necessitated officially to deal — the Directors 
of Law and of Public Works. 


At the first election under the Federal Plan Municipal 
law, in xA.pril, 1891, Hon. William G. Rose succeeded to 
the mayoralty. He appointed R. R. Herrick Director of 
Public Works, and General Edward S. Meyer Director 
of Law ; the former succeeded to the duties of the old 
Board of Park Commissioners. These three officials 
went into office as the supposed friends of the Soldiers' 
Monument and the members of the Commission. A lit- 
tle experience with them, however, forcibly reminded us 
that this is truly a world of disappointment. We had 
confidently expected that the "amicable" lawsuit that 
had been commenced by the late Park Commissioners 
would be at once withdrawn by the Director of Law. 
As a private citizen, he was our professed friend, and, if 
need be, a volunteer defender of our rights ; but as an 
official, he was compelled to follow the instructions of 
" his chief," the Mayor. As time went on, however, 
his former professed friendship seemed gradually to lose 
its ardor. We soon observed the changed condition, but 
went serenely on our way, feeling that time at last 
would set all things right. 

Work was continued in the studio on the several 
groups of the Monument during the Summer of 1891, 
but no work was done on the site, pending the appeal 
to the Circuit Court. 

At the Fall term of the Court the case came up for 
hearing. The City's interests were in charge of General 
Meyer, who showed by his grave solemnity the weighty 
responsibilities that were thrust upon him by his chief. 
Judge Boynton, of the East Cleveland Street Railroad 
Company, was on deck for Judge Williamson's inherit- 
ance. The Circuit Court rendered its opinion on De- 
cember 3d, 1 891, its decision being published in the 
Leader of the following date, as follows : 

" The Soldiers' Monument will not be erected in the 
Public Square, unless the Supreme Court of the State 

k m ^t * ■% /T» t^L U^lL^m. . 


reverses the decision of the Circuit Court rendered 
Friday morning. The decision which was delivered by- 
Judge Caldwell was a very lengthy one, and covered 
all the points involved. After reciting the course of 
events which led to the application by the City and the 
Messrs. Williamson for an injunction restraining the 
Monument Commission from erecting the Monument 
in the Public Square, Judge Caldwell proceeded as 
follows : ' The issues before us are these : First, it is 
contended that the Commission is not a legal one, for 
the reason that it was not constitutionally appointed, 
as there was no number of persons to select from, but 
it was necessary to appoint all the members of the 
Soldiers' Committee. There is no dispute as to the 
facts regarding this point. The Commission consisted 
of the same number of persons as did the old Commit- 
tee, and it was provided in the act that they should be 
named as Commissioners, thus allowing no room for 
selection. The Commission was therefore illegally ap- 
pointed. The second point in dispute is as to the 
character of the proposed Monument, and the effect it 
would have upon that section of the Square, and, further, 
whether or not the property of the Williamsons would 
be injured by its location at that point.' 

" The base of the Monument, as proposed, is of such 
a size, continued the Court, that it would be necessary 
to divert the straight walks now across that section of 
the Square, and make them pass around the Monument. 
This would necessitate the formation of two grades — 
one from Euclid Avenue to the Monument, and the 
other from the Monument to the corner of Ontario and 
Superior Streets. These grades would have to be at 
least one and one-half inches to the foot, and would be 
altogether too steep for the safety of pedestrians in wet 
or icy weather. The course of travel would therefore 
be diverted from that section of the Square, and conse- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. ioi 

quently the number of persons passing the Williamson 
property would be diminished, and its value for rental 
purposes would undoubtedly fall. There was, therefore, 
no question that the Monument would cause injury to 
the Williamson property. It was contended by the 
Commission that the Williamsons could not complain 
of any improvements placed in the Park, as long as 
such improvements were within the purposes for which 
the land was originally given. The City would have 
an undoubted right, said Judge Caldwell, to entirely 
enclose the sections of the Square for the purpose of 
ornamentation, but the walks as now arranged are of 
such convenience that they have almost become a public 
necessity, and the public would demand that they be 
retained in such terms that the representatives of the 
public would hardly dare close them up. 

" The attorneys for the Commission relied to a great 
extent upon the resolution passed by the Council au- 
thorizing the Commission to place the Monument in the 
Square, but the City contended that the ordinance was 
illegal, because it was passed on the same night on 
which it was introduced, and without the necessary 
suspension of the rules. The Court upheld the latter 
contention, and said the Council's action was null and 
void. But the Commission contended that even if the 
Council's action was illegal, such action was not neces- 
sary, as the Legislature had the right to take the Square 
for county purposes, as the Monument was for the ben- 
efit of Cuyahoga County, and not of the City alone. 
This was met by the contention on the part of the 
plaintiff, that the State had no jurisdiction to undertake 
the ornamentation of the Square. The whole matter 
could, therefore, be resolved into three questions, con- 
tinued Judge Caldwell. First, has a Municipal corpora- 
tion two natures, one public, the other private? Second, 
if the Square comes under the private nature of the 


Municipal corporation, has the State the right to step in 
and dictate how the City shall ornament the Square ? 
Thirdly, does the action taken by the State fall under 
the private business of the corporation, or under its 
public business ? 

11 The Court held that the Municipal corporation has 
two distinct functions. As to the second proposition, it 
was held that while the State has authority to say what 
officers shall exercise authority over the private affairs of 
a corporation, it has no right to prescribe the mode and 
manner in which those affairs shall be carried out. As 
to the third proposition, the Court held that the care of 
the Square was part of the City's private business, and 
that the State had, therefore, no right to interfere with 
it. The City has a right to enclose the Square, but it 
has no right to enclose any street, because every citizen 
of the State has an interest in the public highways. 
Continuing, Judge Caldwell asked : ' How much con- 
cern is it to the people of other counties how the Public 
Square in this City shall be ornamented ? It is perfectly 
inconsistent to presume that the State can say to this 
City, ' you must put a flower-bed here, and plant a tree 
there, and build a mound over yonder.' Who has 
asked that Perry's Monument be removed? Have any cit- 
izens of Cleveland requested its removal ? Who's going 
to pay for the work of removing it ? The money would 
certainly come out of the pockets of the citizens of Cleve- 
land, and the Legislature has no right to say to the citi- 
zens, 'you must go to this expense, although you haven't 
asked to be allowed to do so.' The Legislature has no 
right to dictate to the City of Cleveland how its Parks 
shall be ornamented. The assent of the City was not 
obtained to this disposition of that part of the Square, 
and the Legislature had no authority to order the Mon- 
ument to be placed there. The injunction restraining 
its erection at that point is therefore made perpetual.' ' 


Well, well ! Bull Run continued ! Again repulsed ! 
Quite a strong decision, that ! While we had hoped 
for a different result, we were now speedily becoming 
convinced that judicial judgments and decrees are alike 
subject to error, as the opinion of common humanity. 
Knowing, however, that our opponents had no reserve to 
bring up, or fall back upon, we felt that, in the general 
engagement soon to follow, we would win the field. 

Loren Prentiss, Esq., in behalf of the Commission, 
excepted to the Circuit Court's decision, and the case 
was carried to the Supreme Court. 


THE Winter of our discontent and disappointment 
was made glorious Summer by the receipt of the 
decision of the Supreme Court, handed down June 21st, 
1892. The Plain Dealer, of June 22d, describes our 
feeling : 

" The happiest people in town yesterday were the 
members of the Soldiers' Monument Commission, when 
the news was received that the Supreme Court had over- 
ruled the decisions of the Common Pleas and Circuit 
Courts and decided that the Soldiers' Monument might 
be placed in the Public Square. Major Gleason's face was 
beaming with joy, and Gen. Barnett shook hands with 
everybody. Major Gleason said he thought there soon 
would be a meeting to arrange for beginning work on 
the foundation. 

" The Common Pleas Court granted an injunction 
more than a year ago, on the petitions of the City 
and of Judge S. E. Williamson and his two broth- 
ers, who own a business block on the Square. The 
Court held that the placing of the big Monument on 
the Square would be to divert it from the public 
purposes for which it was intended and dedicated. 
The Circuit Court of this judicial district sustained 
that decision. The Supreme Court reverses both 
lower Courts." 

The full text of the decision of the Supreme Court 
is as follows : 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 105 

"[Copied from the 49th volume Ohio State Reports, pages 431 

to 437-] 


" GlEason et al. v. Cleveland. 

" Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Cuyahoga County : Act of the 
General Assembly, passed April 16, 1888, (85 Ohio Laws, 564,) 
authorizing the selection of the southeast quarter of the Public 
Square in Cleveland as the site for its erection, held constitu- 

" (Decided June 21, 1892.) 


" The plaintiff in error, defendants below, were appointed by the 
Governor of the State, Commissioners, under the act passed April 
16, 1888, (85 Ohio Laws, 564,) for the erection of a Monument to the 
Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County in the late War ; and, in 
pursuance of the power conferred on them by that Act, have se- 
lected the southeast corner of the Public Square in the City of 
Cleveland, as the site for the Monument, and propose to build the 
same thereon. The City of Cleveland objects, and claims that, 
without its consent, which has not been given, the site selected 
cannot be appropriated to that use; and furthermore, that the act 
of the Legislature is unconstitutional. The case having been de- 
termined in the Common Pleas, was appealed to the Circuit Court, 
where, upon the trial, the Court stated its conclusions of fact and 
of law separately, and rendered judgment for the plaintiff. The 
findings are as follows:" 

(Parts deemed immaterial being omitted.) 

" 1. That the Connecticut Land Company was in 1796, and for 
some time prior thereto, the owner in fee simple of all the lands 
now comprised within the limits of the City of Cleveland. 

"2. That on or about the first day of October, 1796, the Connect- 
icut Land Company caused a survey and plat and allotment of what 
was then intended by said company to be the City of Cleveland to 
be made, designating as shown upon said plat the location of streets, 
alleys and public places, and the boundaries and number of lots ; 
that said survey and map were made for the purpose of selling lots 
designated and numbered as aforesaid with reference to said plat 
and allotment, and to dedicate to the public the streets, public 
highways and public places as shown by said allotment, survey and 
map — a copy of which map is attached to plaintiff's petition and 
made a part of these findings of fact. 

"That afterwards, on the 6th day of November, 1801, the Connect- 
icut Land Company, being still the owner of said lands, caused a 


resurvey of all the lauds included in the first plat and survey to be 
made, differing in no essential particular from the first survey and 
plat, and recorded in the office of the Recorder of Trumbull County, 
the premises at that time being within the limits of that county. 

"This resurvey and record were made in compliance and in con- 
formity with the act of the Territorial Legislature of December 6, 
1800. (1st Chase's Statutes, 291-292.) That said last map, minutes 
and survey were subsequently recorded in the records of Cuyahoga 
County, on the 22d day of November, 1814, Cuyahoga County having 
been organized in 1810. 

" That upon the said map and by said survey and resurvey, there 
is marked and designated a square space at the intersection of Supe- 
rior and Ontario Streets, and in said survey the following language 
is used as to each square space : 'The Square is laid out on the in- 
tersection of Superior Street aud Ontario Street, and contains ten 
acres. The center of the junction of the two roads is the exact cen- 
ter of the Square.' There is no other provision in reference to said 
Square on said map or on said survey. 

"3. When this original allotment was made, no streets extended 
into the Square except Superior and Ontario Streets, which two 
streets extended through its center, or nearly so, at right angles. 
In 1816, when the village of Cleveland was incorporated, Euclid 
Road was extended where Euclid Avenue now is, from its intersec- 
tion with Huron Street to the southeast corner of said square space 
known as the Public Square. 

" For many years after this allotment was made, the Public Square 
was kept or permitted to be an open space, and free to the public to 
walk or drive upon, and to cross it as they saw fit. 

"A traveled roadway existed across the southeast quarter of the 
Square, and teams and stage coaches to and from Buffalo to Cleve- 
land, coming along the Euclid Road, passed diagonally across this 
section of the Square into Superior Street near the center of the 
Square, and this roadway was so used until about 1838, when the 
four sections of the Square were enclosed with fences, leaving a 
roadway around, and Superior and Ontario Streets extending 
through the Square. This condition continued until about 1857, 
when fences were placed across Ontario and Superior Streets, and 
around the whole space known as the Square, except so much 
thereof on the four sides of the same as was necessary for the pur- 
pose of streets ; and about ten years later, on order of the Court of 
Common Pleas of this county, the City of Cleveland was ordered to 
remove so much of the fences as interfered with the use of Superior 
and Ontario Streets as public streets through the Square. 

" From the year 1812 to 1830 there was a County Court House 
upon the northwest corner of the Square, used as a Court House and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 107 

Jail ; and in the year 1828 a two-story brick Court House was erected 
by the County on the southwest quarter of the Square, about the 
center thereof, which remained until 1S58 or i860, when it was taken 
down and removed. During the War of the Rebellion, temporary 
'Sanitary Fair' buildings were erected on those portions of the 
Square now designated as Superior and Ontario Streets, and re- 
mained about a year, when they were taken down and removed. 
These are the only buildings ever erected upon the Public Square, 
and ever since the removal of the Court House in 1858 or i860, this 
space has been wholly under the control of the City of Cleveland, 
used as a public ground and improved and beautified after the man- 
ner of a park, having a rostrum or speaker's stand in the northeast 
quarter, and latterly the 'Moses Cleaveland Statue;' and the 'Com- 
modore Perry Monument," erected in the center of the Square in 
i860, by direction of the City Council, but subsequently removed to 
its present site on the southeast quarter of the Square, where it has 
remained for man}- years and still remains. 

" For many years past, public walks have been maintained diago- 
nally across the southeast section, as well as the other sections of 
the Square, excepting that there is no diagonal walk from the south- 
west corner of the southwest quarter. 

" That said walks diagonally across the southeast section of the 
Public Square are daily used to a great extent by a great many peo- 
ple ; and in the northwest quarter of the Square the walk goes 
around the fountain 48 feet in diameter. For ten years and more 
prior to Februarv 26, 1891, the Park Commissioners of the City have 
had charge of the beautifying and improving of the parks of said 
City, and of the parks themselves, including this open space or 
Square, and that such Park Commissioners were duly appointed 
and constituted, and continued in office from the time of their ap- 
pointment until the reorganization of the City of Cleveland under 
the act passed March 16, 1891, and the charge and control of said 
citv parks were devolved upon said Park Commissioners by ordi- 
nances of the City in addition to such control as was conferred upon 
them by statute, in the following language: 'Said Commissioners 
shall take charge, and have the entire management, control and reg- 
ulation of all public grounds and parks belonging to the City, sub- 
ject to the city ordinances, and shall lay out such grounds and parks, 
with avenues, walks and paths, and make such other improvements 
and embellishments therein as they may deem proper, and shall pro- 
tect and preserve the same.' 

"4. That the defendants, the Board of Monument Commis- 
sioners, were appointed by the Governor, with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate, and qualified and organized and entered upon 
the performance of their duties. That at the time of said appoint- 


meat, and at the time of the passage of the act of April 16, 18S8, 
under which they were appointed, the Monumental Committee of 
the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union consisted of only 
twelve members, eleven of whom only were appointed by the Gov- 
ernor as members of the said Board of Monumental Commissioners, 
the membership of which also consisted of but twelve, who were not 
all residents of Cleveland. The Court further find that said Monu- 
mental Commissioners so composed selected the southeast corner 
of the Square as the site for the proposed Monument. 

" That the amount of money provided by the said tax levies is 
sufficient only for the erection and completion of the Monument as 
designed by the Commissioners on said site, without any expendi- 
tures for a site. 

" 7. The Court further find that the Park Commissioners of the 
City of Cleveland never gave any consent or authority to said Monu- 
mental Commission to occupy this section of the Public Square for 
the purpose of erecting said Monument, but upon application 
therefor refused their consent. 

" That the Monument would be of a public character and of a 
highly ornamental and worthy character as such and as a work 
of art. 

"That in the forepart of April, 1S91, but prior to the reorganiza- 
tion of the City Government under said act of March 16, 1891, the 
said Monument Commissioners were forcibly prevented by the Park 
Commissioners of said City from taking possession of said section 
of the Square for the purpose of erecting thereon said Monument, 
and that the reorganization of the said City Government under said 
act took place on the 21st day of April, i89i,and some time after the 
commencement of this action." 

The Court thereupon also states its conclusions of law 
as follows : 

" 1. That said survey and map, made and recorded as aforesaid, 
operate as a dedication of the said Square to the public, for the uses 
contemplated and intended by the donors at the time of the dedi- 

" 2. That upon the incorporation and organization of the City of 
Cleveland, the said Public Square became subject to the exclusive 
control of the proper City authorities for the purposes so intended, 
and to be used for such purposes. 

"3. That the City has not conferred upon said Monument Com- 
mission any right to occupy said section of said Square for the pur- 
pose of erecting said Monument thereon. 

"4. That upon the facts above found, the said Monument cannot 
legally be placed on said section of the Public Square. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 109 

"5. That the clause in the Act of the Legislature of April 16, 
18S8, attempting to confer upon the Monument Commissioners the 
right to select the southeast quarter of the Square as the place for 
such Monument, would not confer such right without the consent 
of the City of Cleveland. 

"And thereupon rendered judgment perpetually enjoining the 
defendants from constructing the Monument on the site selected. 

"The plaintiff in error alleges that there is error in the conclu- 
sions of law and the judgment of the Circuit Court, and asks that 
its judgment be reversed. 

"L. Prentiss, J. M. Jones and A. T. Brinsmade, for plaintiffs in 

"Edward S. Meyer, Corporation Counsel, Boynton, Hale & Horr, 
and Estep, Dickey, Carr & Goff, for defendant in error. 


"The donation of the " Public Square" in the City of Cleveland by 
the Connecticut Land Company was not made to the City of Cleve- 
land, but to the public generally ; and the Court erred in so hold- 
ing. It was, therefore, competent to the Legislature to authorize 
the erection of a Soldiers' Monument upon this Square without the 
consent of the City, as done by the act passed April 16, 1888. (85 
Laws, 564.) 

" The objection that the persons composing the Commission 
created for the erection of the Monument are officers virtually 
appointed by the Legislature, and that the act is therefore uncon- 
stitutional, is, we think, untenable. If they are officers, within the 
meaning of the Constitution, the direction for their appointment by 
the Governor from 'the present Monumental Committee of the 
Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union' is impersonal, and 
does not require the appointment of specific persons ; whoever at 
the time the appointment is made compose that Committee may 
be appointed by the Governor, whether they were such members at 
the passage of the act or not. 

"But it also seems clear from the previous decisions of this Court 
that the members composing this Commission are not officers 
within the meaning of Sec. 27, Art. 2, of the Constitution, denying 
to the Legislature the power of appointment to office. Walker vs. 
Cincinnati, 21 Ohio St., 14, 50. 

"They are created for the accomplishment of a particular purpose 
— the erection of a monument, and their functions end with the 
accomplishment of that purpose. It was held in the case just cited, 
that persons clothed with such temporary functions are not re- 
garded as officers within the meaning of the Constitution. 

"Judgment reversed, and petition of the plaintiff below dis- 


The turning-point had arrived. Our Gettysburg 
had been fought and won ! The faith and confidence 
of the Monument Commission in the justice and merits 
of their cause had been judicially confirmed. Their 
able counsel, Loren Prentiss, Esq., Judge James M. 
Jones, and Comrade Allen T. Brinsmade, were congrat- 
ulated on every side on the result of their careful prep- 
aration and forcible and effective argument of the case. 
Unawed by public clamor, unmoved by local prejudice, 
purely on its legal merits, the Supreme Judicial tribu- 
nal of the State pronounced its judgment and decree. 
Would the opponents of the Monument site abide the 
result ? We shall presently see. 















THE changing panorama of events now begins to 
move so swiftly on that the pen — and scissors — 
of the historian find it difficult to keep step to the 
music of the procession. 

A meeting of the Commission was held July 6, at 
which action was taken as follows: 

"Resolved, That the President and Secretary be and they are 
hereby authorized and instructed to officially notify the City Coun- 
cil and Board of Control that the time has come for the removal of 
the Perry statue, the water pipes and all other obstructions from 
the southeast section of the Public Square, so that ground may 
be broken at once for the erection of the Monument." 

The resolution was adopted, and the officers desig- 
nated carried out their duty. 

On July 9th, the Mayor materialized long enough to 
be interviewed in the newspapers as follows : 

" Mayor Rose, although opposed to the occupancy ot 
the Square or any part of it by the Soldiers' or any other 
big monument, said Saturday morning that he knew of 
no way by which the Commissioners could be prevented 
from erecting their Monument on the proposed site. 
'The decision of the Supreme Court, as I understand 
it,' said the Mayor, ' relieves the Commission from the 
necessity of even obtaining the Councirs permission to 
occupy the Square. Further, it compels the City to 
remove all obstructions, and if it refuses to do this the 
Commissioners can compel the removal by mandamus 
proceedings. Under the Supreme Court decision, such 
proceedings could be maintained. The Monument 
should not go there, but I guess there is- no way of pre- 
venting; it.' " 


The City Council took action on the Commission's 

request at its meeting held on July nth, as follows: 

" Resolved, That it is the sense of this Council that the proposed 
Soldiers' Monument should not be placed upon the Public Square 
of this city ; that said Square is not a suitable place for said Monu- 
ment ; that the statue of Commodore Perry, now occupying a part 
of the southeast section of said Square, ought not to be removed 
therefrom ; that this Council will not, unless compelled thereto by 
order of Court, authorize or require the removal of said statue 
therefrom, nor appropriate any public money to meet the expense 
of such removal ; and that the resolution heretofore adopted by the 
Council of this city assenting to the erection of said proposed Mon- 
ument upon said southeast section of said Square be and that the 
same is hereby rescinded and such assent withheld." 

This resolution was adopted. 

On the same date, a special meeting of the Board of 
Control was held. The Director of Law, General Meyer, 
submitted the request of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Commission that the City clear the southeast sec- 
tion of the Public Square for the Monument. Attached 
to the request was a copy of the Supreme Court decision 
giving the Commission authority to place the Monu- 
ment in the Public Square. General Meyer said that 
the Court had not passed upon the question of the 
validity of the Board except in an indirect manner. He 
could not bring himself to believe that the Supreme 
Court would decide that the Commission was legally 
appointed. As the Court did not pass upon that ques- 
tion, it could be made the subject of another suit if the 
City so desired. He was prepared to take any action 
recommended by the Board or the City Council. So far 
as his personal views were concerned, he did not believe 
that the Square was the proper site for the Monument. 
The documents were sent to the Council. 

Immediately after the action of the City Council be- 
came known, supplemented by the report of General 
Meyer to the Board of Control, a meeting of the Com- 
mission was called. It was held on the 12th of July, at 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 115 

which the following action was taken — introduced by 
Commissioner Elwell, seconded by Commissioner Hayr, 
and unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved, That whereas the Supreme Court has decided that the 
statute of April 16, 1888, is coustitutional and valid, and that the 
Board of Monument Commissioners is a legal and valid board under 
the statute to locate and erect the proposed Monument in the south- 
east section of the Public Square, the Executive Committee is hereby 
directed to take the proper steps to commence and prosecute the 
work of the erection of the Monument, and as preliminary to such 
work to have the necessary fence erected around the site. 

"That in the prosecution of the work, such portion of the work 
as will not interfere with the Perry statue or water main be first 
done, giving the City time to procure funds for that purpose as 
directed by law." 

On the evening of July 13th another meeting of the 
Commission was held, which was reported in the Plain 
Dealer of the following date as follows : 

"An intensely interesting meeting of the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Monument Commission was held in Major 
Gleason's office in the City Hall last evening. Attorney 
Loren Prentiss talked in strong terms to the members. 
He advised them of their legal rights in the matter, told 
them that the case could not well be appealed to the 
United States Supreme Court, gave it as his opinion 
that the City was playing a big game of bluff, and urged 
them to go ahead, as no legal obstacle stood in their 
way. The Commission thereupon decided to build a 
fence around the Square on Friday morning, and if not 
then on Monday morning. They will have a large force 
of men on hand to build the fence — 1,000 old Soldiers, 
if necessary, taking part in the work — and it will be 
erected by sheer force. Words will not stop them ; fee- 
ble physical resistance will not stop them ; they will 
only desist when it becomes apparent that the fence 
cannot be erected without bodily injury to someone. 
Policemen will be thrust aside and treated as ordinary 
citizens, unless they display warrants. If the Commis- 


sioners are forcibly withheld from building a fence, 
they will appeal to the Court to restrain the City from 

"In the beginning, the Commission discussed the 
matter informally. Mr. Dewstoe said that a Council- 
man had admitted to him that its action on Monday 
night in rescinding permission to occupy the Square 
was of no legal effect. 

"'After that Monument is located in the Square,' 
said Dewstoe, ' you will not be able to find a man who 
opposed it. 1 

" ' I will guarantee that the Monument will be no ob- 
struction to travel,' said Capt. Scofield. ' People have 
a mistaken notion of the size.' 

"Attorney Loren Prentiss was questioned closely as 
to the Commission's right in the case, and particularly 
as to whether the other side intended appealing to the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 

" 'I have received no information that Judge William- 
son intends going to the Supreme Court,' said he. 'I 
have looked over the entire ground, and I cannot see 
upon what ground they can base an appeal. I under- 
stand that Judge Williamson intends to re-appeal to the 
Supreme Court of Ohio in September, but that will not 
deter our acting at once.' 

"'That's what I want, 1 said Mr. Hayr. 'I want to 
act at once/ 

" ' In my opinion,' said Mr. Prentiss, ' I think the City 
is playing a big game of bluff and nothing more. Their 
policy is purely delay until the Legislature meets, when 
a big effort will be made to rescind all former legisla- 
tion on the subject.' 

"'Mr. Herrick says that there is nothing in the law 
which authorizes us to build a fence,' said Capt. Moly- 
neaux. ' Is there anything in that? 1 

' ' Nothing at all,' said Mr. Prentiss, ' the fence is 

soldiers' and sailors 1 monument. 117 

merely incidental to the actual construction of the 
Monument. ' 

u 'What course would you advise?' asked Mr. Dew- 

" ' I would advise you to go right ahead,' said Mr. 
Prentiss, ' and build the Monument. You have the 
authority. If anyone attempts to stop you, go right on 
until you are compelled to desist through sheer force. 
You have the right to brush a person aside if he is in 
your way. What I mean is, that they must use actual 
force before you stop. Then there are several remedies 
for you. You ca"n have them arrested for assault and 
battery, or you can apply to the Common Pleas Court 
for an injunction to restrain them from interfering 
with you.' 

" ' I don't want to arrest a poor policeman who is 
urged on by someone in the City Hall,' said Mr. Havr. 
' I had rather get out an injunction.' 

"'So would I,' said Mr. Dewstoe. 

"'As a lawyer, Mr. Prentiss, do you think that that 
injunction could be denied?' asked Mr. Havr. 

" ' I think it would be a judicial outrage if it was,' re- 
plied Mr. Prentiss. 

"'Well, then,' said Capt. Scofield, 'the best thing to 
do is to have Mr. Prentiss draw up a paper to-night ad- 
vising the City that we propose to go to the Square on 
Friday morning and begin work. They certainly can- 
not claim that we are trying to steal a march on them.' 

" 'That is a good idea,' said Mr. Prentiss; 'we want 
to brush aside all technicalities. I will prepare that 
notice to-morrow morning.' 

" ' Wouldn't it be a good idea to have the Police 
Prosecutor notified, too?' asked Mr. Dewstoe. 

"'An excellent idea,' said Mr. Prentiss. l It is well 
that he should be acquainted with the facts in the 


" Attorney Prentiss was then instructed to notify Gen. 
Meyer, Mr. Herrick, Col. Gibbons, the Police Prose- 
cutor, and the officers at the Central Station that the 
Commission would build a fence about the Square. 

" 'Can you have from forty to fifty of your cool-headed 
friends in the Square when you begin operations? 1 asked 
Mr. Prentiss. 

"'A thousand, if necessary,' answered Capt. Scofield. 

" 'You can use all possible means, except actual vio- 
lence, to keep those policemen out of the Square,' said 
Mr. Prentiss. ' They have no right to interfere with you.' 

"'We, of course,' said Capt. Scofield, 'would rather 
use peaceable means. We are not outlaws, as the City 
Officials are.' 

"'If a man displays a warrant,' said Mr. Prentiss, 'it 
is your duty to stop at once; but yoii need not pay any 
attention to an ordinary patrolman. Have a sufficient 
number of your friends on hand to show that you are 
not alone in the movement.' 

" 'We will have them,' said Mr. Hayr ; 'we will have 
1,000 old Soldiers building that fence. 

" 'That's it,' said Mr. Prentiss; 'put the fence up by 
force, but don't use violence. Thrust people aside. 
Those policemen are nothing to you. You are not only 
justified in building the fence and using force, without 
injury, but I think you ought to show some soldierly 
courage in prosecuting the work.' 

" Major Gleason favored deferring action upon the 
construction of the fence until Monday, but Capt. Sco- 
field was eager to start work on Friday morning. 

" ' Mr. Prentiss can issue all the notices Thursday 
morning,' said he. 

" Mr. Force was also opposed to beginning work on 
Friday morning, and Mr. Prentiss was instructed to 
issue the notices specifying the time of building the 
fence to be ' within a dav or two.' " 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 119 

The Leader of the 14th said: 

" ' We will now move on the enemy with brass bands,' 
said Major W. J. Gleason at the close of the meeting of 
the Soldiers' and Sailors 1 Monument Commission last 
evening. By 'the enemy' the Major referred to the City 
Officials. He declared that the battle would take place 
within a very few days. There will be less havoc than 
that which occurred on the bloody field of Gettysburg. 
In place of the artillery there will be several wagon 
loads of lumber. Instead of regiments of infantry and 
cavalry there will be a small force of carpenters. The 
staff of officers will be composed of members of the 
Commission. On the other side there will be the police 
force under able management. The City will have the 
advantage of some artillery in the battle, however, if 
they care to make use of the big naval gun in the 
Square, captured by Commodore Perry from the British, 
and its companion, the field-piece brought back from 
the Rebellion by General Barnett. Both sides are 
ready for the struggle, and it is awaited with intense 

The Leader reporter got in his work as follows on the 
same date : 

"A candid exchange of private sentiments between 
General Ed. S. Meyer, the Director of Law, and Major 
W. J. Gleason, President of the Soldiers' Monument 
Commission, caused a sensation at the City Hall yester- 
day. According to the rumors, there was everything 
but bloodshed in the meeting, and the language was 
mainly plain, sturdy Anglo-Saxon. The courtly con- 
struction peculiar to diplomatic intercourse was not in 
demand and was not used, and when the meeting ad- 
journed everybody knew exactly what everybody else 
thought of the topics under discussion. The meeting 
was largely accidental. 

''General Meyer and Major Gleason both have their 


offices in the third story of the City Hall. Major Glea- 
son's abiding place is between General Meyer's office 
and the ele\-ator. As the Major is President of the 
Monument Commission, he is naturally not pleased 
with the course of the City in refusing to prepare a part 
of the Public Square as a site for the Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument. When he alighted from the City Hall 
eleYator on the third floor, yesterday, he met a news- 
paper reporter and proceeded to tell him a few things. 
These things included some reference to General 

" ' He has not been treating us fairly,' said the Major, 
in effect. ' For double back action in landing on both 
sides of a question, he beats anything I ever saw. Be- 
fore he was hired by the City he Yolunteered to act as 
Attorney for the Commission, and said he was in favor 
of having the Monument placed in the Square. When 
he was made Corporation Counsel he, of course, took 
the other side. After the Supreme Court decided in 
our favor, a few weeks ago, I met him on Ontario Street. 
He shook hands, and said he was not sorry that the 
Supreme Court had held in our favor. He said that he 
was still ' with the boys ' and would place no further 
obstructions in our way. Why, while we were talking, 
Mooney, one of his assistants, was on his way to Coun- 
cilman O'Brien's store with a resolution to repeal the 
one giving us the right to use the Square. Mr. O'Brien 
refused to introduce the resolution.' 

"During the latter part of the Major's talk, General 
Mover arrived via the elevator, and when he heard his 
name mentioned in an uncomplimentary manner he 
stopped. The hallway was dark, and the Major's back 
was turned to the elevator. In a very few moments the 
General took his turn at the bat. He called the Major 
to account for having said on Tuesday in an interview 
that General Meyer was running' an opposition Supreme 

Copyright by the Sculptor, 1890. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 123 

Court to the one in Columbus, or something to that 

" ' You should not pay any attention to anything in 
the newspapers purporting to quote what I have said,' 
remarked the General. ' If you want to know my opin- 
ions, come to my office.' 

" ' Well, how do you know then that I said anything 
about you?' asked the Major. 

" ' Why, I read it in the newspapers.' 

" ' What right have you to presume that I made those 
statements if you know that the newspapers don't quote 
you correctly, and you do not want people to pay any 
attention to what you are reported as saying? I give 
the newspapers credit for not always getting things 
wrong. I was correctly quoted.' 

" ' I want to warn you not to carry it too far,' said 
General Meyer. 

" ' Oh, I don't care anything for your threats,' re- 
sponded the Major. ' I have said, and I repeat, that 
you have a pretty small peg to hang a new case on when 
you attempt to base it on the claim that one member of 
the Monument Commission was not legally appointed.' 

" General Meyer denied that he had advised the arrest 
of anyone attempting to take building material upon the 
Square, but said the police had been ordered to prevent 
trespassing. He offered to go down stairs and prove it 
by Director Gibbons. ' That was very amusing, and I 
laughed at the idea,' said Major Gleason afterwards. 'I 
told him that Colonel Gibbons' veracity was sorely in 
doubt yesterday, according to the newspapers, and that 
it was hardly right to put it to test twice in one week. 
He denied that Mooney had taken the resolution to 
Councilman O'Brien, and claimed that Mooney had 
been away on a vacation for ten days. I told him I did 
not care how long Mooney had been on a vacation, as I 
had Mr. O'Brien's word for the resolution storv.' ' 


The following interview with Commissioner Elwell 
was had by the Leader on the 14th : 

" General Elwell, a member of the Board of Monu- 
ment Commissioners, and who, with General Leggett, 
has charge of its legal matters, was asked by a reporter 
yesterday what effect an appeal of the Williamson case 
to the United States Court would have upon the action 
of the Commission. 

" ' It will tie everything up indefinitely,' he said. 
'The great work upon which fourteen years have 
already been spent will probably have to be completed 
by our successors in office when we are forgotten. At 
the time of our action yesterday we supposed that we 
had only to deal with the City Hall strikers and our 
State Courts, and as we thought that they would hardly 
use Winchesters as the Homestead men have done, we 
expected, if they interfered with onr work by police or 
otherwise, to whip them in Court, as we have done in 
the past. As the case stood before the Williamsons' 
appeal, any interference on the part of our City Officials 
we believe would be simply contempt of Court, and we 
would hand them over to Judge Solders. We may 
make mistakes in the future, but to the present time 
we have made none. Our title deeds to the southeast- 
ern quarter of the Public Square are from the Supreme 
Court of Ohio, to which tribunal we were sent by the 
City and Mr. Williamson.' 

" ' How about the tax ; are you weak on that point?' 

" ' Xot at all. We have the same assurance from our 
attorneys that it is strictly legal, that we had in regard 
to the site. The same line of cases that sustains the 
one sustains the other. From the beginning we have 
moved carefully, acting under the best legal counsel. 
Judge Ranney was our consulting lawyer. He helped 
ns much, and would not accept compensation. Judge 
Griswold and Colonel Brinsmade drew all our bills, and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 125 

the latter gentleman guided and looked after the Mu- 
nicipal legislation. All the laws which they drafted 
have been sustained by the Court.' 

" ' It is said that your Board is illegal — that General 
Leggett was not a member of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Union, from which the Governor was required to make 
the appointment?' 

" 'I know it is so said, but the Court says that the 
Board is legal. We say that General Leggett was a 
member of the Union, having always acted with it, and 
considered himself a 'member. The record may be a 
little imperfect, but he was a member. If he was not, 
it would not invalidate the Commission, of which he is 
one of the most efficient members. General Leggett 
may not have paid his twenty-live cents admission fee, 
but if he did owe, the record fails to show it. I cannot 
agree with General Meyer, if the papers report him 
correctly, that the Supreme Court could not have 
contemplated this fact and decided as they did. The 
Court, in the general proposition which they lay 
down, affirming our entire right to the Square, 
covers all the minor points involved. To sum 
up the whole matter, the Commission has simply 
tried to faithfully execute the will and orders of the 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, comprising many thous- 
ands of members. After thorough investigation, they 
say, and we think, that nineteen-twentieths of the 
people of the county say, ' put the Monument on the 
Square, where it can be seen without money or time, 
and not out in the suburbs, for the benefit of railroads 
and land speculators.' If we could have got sufficient 
land near the center of the city at a moderate cost — at 
a price which we could pay — we should have been glad 
to have secured such a site. Captain Scofield did not 
accept the Square until We had completely failed else- 
where. I am curious to see the report of Mr. Michael's 


committee, now in search of a site for the new City 
Hall. We had jnst such a committee, and they worked 
faithfully for several months, trying to find a site out- 
side of the Square. They totally failed, and Mr. Michael 
will find that it will take half a million dollars to buy 
such a site as the people will approve, and he will come 
back, as we did, to the Public vSquare for a site. The 
people will never pay a fabulous sum of money for a 
site for a City Hall when the Square belongs to them 
for this very purpose. Right here is the secret of the 
appearance of Mr. Williamson. He is fighting not so 
much the Monument, but the public buildings, from 
"being placed there. We are fighting the battle of the 
City and County in this matter. I am surprised that 
our Municipal authorities should join him in this fight 
against the public use of the Public Square.' '' 
The following correspondence explains itself: 

" City of Cleveland, O., 

" Department of Police, 
"July 14, 1892. 
" Gen. Ed. S. Meyer, Director of Law. 

" Dear Sir : — It is rumored that the Monument Commission in- 
tends to take possession of the southeast section of the Monumental 
Park and erect a fence around the same. Upon consultation with 
His Honor Mayor Rose he referred me to your department for legal 
advice as to the action of the Police Department. 

" Respectfully, 

"John W. Gibbons, 

" Director of Police." 

Gen. Meyer's reply was : 

" City of Cleveland, ~) 

"Department of Law, 

"July 14, 1892. ) 
" Col. John W. Gibbons, Director of Police. 

"Dear Sir: — I am in receipt of your communication of this date, 
in which I am informed that ' it is rumored that the Monument 
Commission intends to take possession of the southeast section of 
tin- Monumental Park and erect a fence around the same,' and that 
upon consultation with His Honor Mayor Rose he has referred you 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 127 

to this department for legal advice as to the action of the depart- 
ment of police. 

"In reply, you are respectfully informed that the Board of Monu- 
ment Commissioners, when duly organized, is clothed with such 
power and authority as are conferred by the provisions of Section 
3 of the act of April 16, 1888 (O. L. vol. 85, p. 565), and are therein 
set forth in the following terms : 

" ' Section 3. Said Board of Monument Commissioners, when 
duly organized, shall have full power to select a place for the pro- 
posed Monument, and shall have the exclusive control of the build- 
ing of said Monument, and the place for the same, and are empow- 
ered to have designs and models prepared, and are hereby author- 
ized if they so determine, to locate the site of such Monument on 
the southeast side of the ' Public Square,' so-called, at the junction 
of Superior and Ontario Streets, in the City of Cleveland, and in 
case they so determine, the Park Commissioners of said City are 
hereby authorized and required, on demand in writing by said 
Commissioners, at the expense of said City, to remove the monu- 
ment of Commodore Perry, now in said southeast corner of said 
Square, to some other square or public park in said City, and 
all other obstructions therein.' 

" The Board of Monumental Commissioners, therefore, is not em- 
powered to at any time enclose or erect a fence of any kind around 
the said southeast section of the Public Square. Your department 
has full power to prevent, and is charged with the duty of prevent- 
ing such action on the part of said Board or any other organization 
or persons. 

" Until the Director of Public Works, as the successor of the 
Board of Park Commissioners, shall have removed the said 
' monument of Commodore Perry ' and ' all other- obstructions 
now upon said section of the Square,' as provided in said act, 
the said Board of Monument Commissioners has no power to take 
possession of, or in any manner disturb or interfere with any 
part of section of said Square, for any purpose whatever, and 
your department has full power to prevent and is charged with the 
duty of preventing any attempt on the part of said Board or of any 
persons whomsoever to take possession of, or to disturb or interfere 
with any part thereof. 

" Should any resistance be offered the officers of your department 
while in the lawful discharge of the duties above mentioned and 
set forth, the persons so offending should be promptly arrested and 
held to answer the charge of disorderly conduct. 

" If the Board of Monument Commissioners is dissatisfied with the 
course pursued by the Director of Public Works, its remedy lies in 
an application to the proper court for a writ of mandamus to com- 


pel the said Director to remove the monument of Commodore 
Perrv, and other obstructions on said section of the Square, and 
not in a resort to a breach of the peace." 
" Very respectfully, 

" Ed. S. Meyer, Corporation Counsel." 

Mayor Rose, as well as Director Herrick, asserted at 
this time that there was nothing in the law which per- 
mitted the Commission to erect the fence. When the 
attention of the Mayor was called to the fact that the 
fence was only preliminary to the actual construction 
of the Monument, and that the building law provides 
that property must be fenced in before the construction 
of buildings is undertaken, he admitted that the general 
law did specify buildings, but was silent on the subject 
of monuments. This, of course, is a nice distinction. 

The Mayor expressed some surprise when he learned 
the true dimensions of the Monument. He thought the 
structure much bigger than it really is. Though hav- 
ing ample opportunity, he never cared, enough to inform 


THE Fourteenth Annual Reunion of the Cuyahoga 
County Soldiers' and Sailors 1 Union was held at 
Forest City Park, on July 14th. This association em- 
braced in its membership representatives of all the ex- 
Army and Navy organizations in the county. We clip 
the following report of the proceedings from the Leader 
of the 15th: 

"The blue coats and gold-braided hats of the veteran 
Soldiers were very numerous at Forest City Park, yes- 
terday. The occasion was the Fourteenth Annual Re- 
union of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Union, and it was the success that the gatherings of 
veterans always are. Early in the forenoon, the 'boys' 
began to assemble with their wives and children, and 
at 11 o'clock, when the 'assembly' was sounded, several 
hundred people were at the park, and others arrived 
as the day wore on, until by the middle of the afternoon 
a very large crowd was present. The day was perfectly 
adapted for an outing, and the surroundings were made 
the most of. Weather-beaten and bullet-scarred vet- 
erans tumbled over each other in their efforts to crowd 
into the cars of the roller coaster, and yelled with 
delight as the swiftly-moving little vehicles carried 
them in a spiral curve from a level with the tree-tops to 
solid ground. There was also a circular arrangement 
called a swing, the motion of which was very suggest- 
ive of that which a skiff encounters in a heavy sea. 
The swing was better patronized by old Sailors than 
old Soldiers. A landsman ran bie chances of being: 


made seasick by merely looking at the swingers in their 
see-saw perambulations. 

"Old Comrades stood in groups, and fought their 
battles over again, and many a yarn was spun of 
skirmish and siege, of rebel prison and daring escape. 
Then came dinner, and the well-filled baskets provided 
by wives and daughters were quickly emptied. After 
dinner there was speech-making, and plenty of it, 
and, of course, the Monument was the only topic 
upon which the speakers talked. The Union placed 
itself on record as unalterably in favor of the Square 
as the proper site for the Monument. Several of the 
speeches were decidedly personal in their trend, and 
plentiful doses of hot shot were bestowed upon the 
opponents of the Commissioners' plans. After the 
business meeting and the speeches came the games, 
and it was dusk when the veterans took up their 
homeward march, well pleased with themselves and 
their holiday. 

" Promptly at 2:30 o'clock, the bugle for the second 
time sounded the ' assembly,' and the members of the 
Union gathered in the open pavilion to hold their 
annual business meeting. President Pudney called the 
meeting to order. The minutes of last year's session 
were read and approved. 

"The President delivered the opening address, in 
which he said : 

"'Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: I desire to 
return sincere thanks for the honor of presiding over 
this Union during the past year. Fourteen years ago, 
1,300 of us met in Case Hall, with no other object in 
view except that of forming an organization that should 
unite the old Soldiers and Sailors. We represented 
every State in the Union north of Mason and Dixon's 
line, and some of the States south. We have met 
every year since that time. The Soldiers' and Sailors' 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 133 

Union of these United States is no sort of false organ- 
ization. We have had drafted from onr ranks five 
Presidents, in whom we have added to the roll of fame 
as grand men as the world ever saw. We, as Soldiers, 
have no reason to be ashamed of the record we have 
made. Before we sprang into existence as soldiers, we 
heard it said that there were no Soldiers like those 
trained men who fought at Austerlitz, Waterloo, and 
Balaklava. But at every field, from Bull Run to 
Appomattox, the deeds of those men sunk into insig- 
nificance as compared with what the Volunteer Soldiers 
of America did. The State of Ohio and Cuyahoga 
County had something to do and something to say in 
every battle. Let us, as Soldiers and citizens, continue 
to meet and perform our duties, and lawfully do those 
things that are right, and thus continue to win a record 
of which America may be proud.' 

" Captain Levi F. Bauder was then introduced, and 
read the report of the Monument Commission. 

"'The tax levies provided for by law will produce 
funds to complete the Monument according to the 
designs. That the Memorial is not now entirely com- 
pleted and dedicated, is wholly owing to litigation. 
The City of Cleveland and the Williamson estate 
brought suits to enjoin the Commission from erecting 
the Monument on the site selected. The injunction 
was granted by the Court of Common Pleas, and 
the findings of that Court were affirmed by the Cir- 
cuit Court. The matter was then carried to the Su- 
preme Court, and the judgment of the lower Court 
was reversed, the Commission winning a complete 

" Then followed the gist of the decision of the Su- 
preme Court. Continuing, the report went on as 
follows: 'This apparently disposes of the entire sub- 
ject, so far as the rights of the Commission to select 


and occupy the site selected, the southeast quarter of 
the Public Square, are concerned. The Commission 
naturally expected prompt and cheerful acquiescence 
in the decision of the court of last resort in the State, 
but it finds itself confronted with hostilities on every 
hand. A demand upon the City to remove the statue 
of Commodore Perry and a twenty-inch water pipe 
which traverses the site was met by the Council with 
a refusal to appropriate the necessary funds, and to 
emphasize the act, it rescinded its permission to erect 
the Monument on the Public Square. The Commission 
thereupon held a meeting, and authorized the Executive 
Committee to proceed with the actual work of erecting 
a fence around the site, preliminary to excavating for 
the foundations. We must act soon, because we have 
$125,000 worth of material on hand. We have heard 
intimations that the Commissioners would be prevented 
by the police, by force, from erecting a fence around 
the proposed excavation. The effort to build a fence 
will be made in a few days, and if blood should be 
spilled, we shudder to think of the consequences if 
Colonel Gibbons, of the militia, should be ordered by 
the Governor to charge bayonets on Director Gibbons, 
of the police.' 

" The reference to Colonel Gibbons' chances of ap- 
pearing in a dual role met with much applause and 
laughter. The report was unanimously adopted and 
ordered spread upon the minutes. Captain Shields 
immediately moved the appointment of a committee on 
resolutions to express the Union's sentiments in regard 
to the Monument question. The motion was adopted, 
and Messrs. Shields, Phillips, Hubbard, Whittaker, 
Armstrong, Fairbanks and Rrainard were appointed as 
such committee. They retired to draft resolutions, and 
the President then called for five-minute speeches from 
members of the Union. Nearly all the speeches which 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 135 

followed were of more than the allotted length, but the 
orators were given full swing, and talked as long as 
they had anything to say. 

" Colonel C. C. Dewstoe was the first to rise to his 
feet. He said that the fact that the Monument had not 
been already erected was not the fault of the Com- 
mission. 'As far back as October 30, 1879, at a meet- 
ing held in Case Hall,' he continued, 'it was recom- 
mended that the proposed Monument be erected in the 
Public Square, and yet we have been lately accused of 
springing that site on the public. Well, if it was 
sprung, thirteen hundred people did the springing.' 
Captain Dewstoe further said that the late Judge 
Ranney, in giving his opinion of the right of the Com- 
mission to build the Monument on the Square, used 
these words: 'I have no more doubt of your right to 
occupy the Square than I have of my right to occupy 
the home I live in.' ' I never saw such pitiable, small, 
narrow-minded pettifoggery as has been evidenced by 
the City authorities in this matter,' continued Colonel 
Dewstoe. ' The Director of Public Works says we may 
have the right to build the Monument in the Square, 
but we mustn't build a fence. The building laws say 
we mustn't make an excavation without putting a 
fence around it. A certain newspaper in this city has 
decried the design of the Monument. I don't claim to 
be an artist, or to be a judge of art, but I know that 
Professor C. F. Olney, who is a critic above par, said 
that he had never seen so beautiful a design, or one so 
thoroughly correct, from an artist's standpoint, as that 
of the Monument. I consider his opinion fully equal to 
that of the artistic editor of the paper in question. 
There has been a great deal of false sentiment created 
against this Commission. Let the soldier element 
make sentiment as well as those on the other side. I, 
for one, believe the Monument should stand in the 


Square. I believe it will stand there, and I believe we 
will dedicate it next Spring.' 

" Major W. J. Gleason was loudly called for. He 
said that he wanted the talking to be done by members 
of the Union outside of the Commission. l The Com- 
mission have done a great deal of talking lately,' he 
continued; 'but all our talk and all our work have been 
fully and solely for the Soldiers and Sailors of this 
county. We have no personal ends to serve. We are 
doing a labor of love. We went along peacefully and 
quietly for eleven years, and then, when we were ready 
to build, we were stopped. It is well known that 
Soldiers are law-abiding citizens. We therefore sub- 
mitted to the law, and the law has sustained us. Now 
we find a City Government that is doing all in its power 
to evade the law. General Meyer was with us until he 
got his $5,000 job from Mayor Rose. Since then he 
has been the worst enemy we have had in the whole 
business, and now, when he has been fairly whipped, 
he tells Director Gibbons to arrest any one who goes on 
with the work. You all know the truth about the 
picayune newspaper that is trying to create sentiment 
against the Commission. As an old journalist said : 

'They're raising to sell a few papers.' If General 

Meyer said that five-sixths of the Soldiers of the county 
are not in favor of placing the Monument on the 
Square, I don't believe he told the truth. I know he 
hasn't told the truth in other instances. We have 
representatives here to-day from all over the county. If 
you will back us up, we'll do our duty, and carry out 
the work with which we have been entrusted, despite 
all of General Meyer's efforts.' 

"There were calls for W. B. Higby when Major 
Gleason concluded. ' The man who said that five-sixths 
of the Soldiers don't want the Monument on the Square,' 
said Mr. Higbv, ' never knew one-sixth as much as the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 137 

men of his own regiment knew on anyone subject. He 
never had anything in common with his men.' The 
speaker said that there were ' two colored gentlemen in 
the woodpile,' as far as the City Government was con- 
cerned. One was the street railroad interest, which 
wanted the Monument put where it would cost money 
to reach. The other was another branch of the street 
railroad interest, which, sooner or later, according to 
the speaker, intended to ask the City for permission to 
run its cars diagonally across the Square. 'Don't 
bother about the newspapers,' continued the orator. 

' They always give us more than they do news. I 

want to say that I'm with the Commission now, hence- 
forth, and forever, amen.' 

"The tall form of George A. Groot, Esq., was next 
recognized by the Chairman. Mr. Groot's remarks were 
chiefly directed against the City Government. ' If the 
City authorities undertake to prevent the Commission 
from occupying the Square,' he said, ' they will be 
flying in the face of the law, and will be no better than 
rioters. The resolution passed by the Council, the 
other day, isn't worth the paper it was written on. I 
want to say, here and now, that if this Commission is 
made of the material I think it is, the Monument will 

go in the Square in spite of , or, in other words, of 

the City Government. [Applause.] Go on and remove 
Perry's statue and the water pipe ; put them where they 
ought to be, and sue the City for the bill. Then vou 
will stand on the neck of the City of Cleveland. Go 
forward ! If a policeman dares lay his hand on you, the 
City will be responsible for damages for his unlawful 

"Hon. J. Dwight Palmer was the next speaker. 
'What is insurrection,' he said, 'if it isn't opposition to 
the action of our Courts? The honorable position 
taken by the Commission crowns its success with the 


almost unanimous sympathy of the people of Cuyahoga 
County. I hope no further interruption will impede the 
rapid growth of this structure, and that by next Spring 
it will stand on the Square in all its grandeur and 

"At this stage, the Committee on Resolutions pre- 
sented their report, which was read by Mr. Phillips. It 
was as follows: 

"First. \Ye hail with satisfaction the decision of the Supreme 
Court of our State, affirming in unmistakable language, in our 
favor, all the various points involved in the erection and location of 
our Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, thus effectually and forever 
closing the discussion as to the location of said Monument. 

" Second. We heartily approve and endorse the quiet, manlv, 
law-abiding, and patient course of our Monument Commission, in 
carrying out our wishes and desires on this, to us, momentous 
question, and promise them our united support in their conscien- 
tious efforts to proceed upon the impregnable position accorded 

" Third. We view with apprehension and indignation the attitude 
of the present Government of the City of Cleveland, in its undigni- 
fied attempt to nullify the plain decree of the highest tribunal of 
our State. 

" Fourth. We insist as law-abiding citizens, who in the past 
years freely and willingly risked their health, their limbs, and their 
lives for the purpose of upholding the Constitution and laws and 
their expounders, that this attempt to frustrate the dictates of the 
law, to jeopardize all the work done, and all the money expended, 
cease forthwith, believing in the doctrine that such a creation of 
the law as a City Corporation should be the first to zealously uphold 
laws and courts, its creators and preservers." 

" The ayes and noes were called for on the adoption 
of the resolutions. There was a mighty shout in favor 
of their adoption, and one stentorian voice shouted 
'no.' The resolutions were declared unanimously 
carried. " 

An occasional assertion was made in public and pri- 
vate, by those opposed to the Monument site, that the 
Soldiers of the county were divided in their sentiment. 
To prove this to be utterly false, action was taken by 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 139 

every Grand Army Post and every other Soldier organ- 
ization in Cuyahoga County. The result was a univers- 
al and unanimous approval of the site selected, and a 
vigorous endorsement of the work of the Commission. 
This action effectually spiked the strongest battery ot 
the opposition. 

On July 18th, the Leader published the following : 
" The necessary preparations for the advance on the 
Public Square have been completed by the Soldiers' 
Monument Commission. Since the City shows a dispo- 
sition to leave the statue of Commodore Perry undis- 
turbed, the Commissioners have said that they will 
attend to its removal. In anticipation of such action 
on the part of the Commissioners, the City has stationed 
a policeman on the Square with orders to prevent en- 
croachment on the public domain. It has been decided 
by the Commissioners to send a notice to the City au- 
thorities announcing that they are about to proceed 
with the erection of the Monument, and then begin the 
work without further ceremony. The notice is awaited 
with great interest by the City officials, as it is expected 
to mark the beginning of actual hostilities. It has been 
arranged that the notice shall be served to-day and 
about the time it is delivered lumber will probably be 
hauled to the Square. Then there will be an appeal to 
the Courts and the judges will decide whether the City 
can be required to remove the Perry statue and the 
water main extending through the Square. 

" Mr. Loren Prentiss, and Judge J. M. Jones, attorneys 
for the Monument Commission, have prepared the no- 
tice. Mr. Prentiss yesterday gave a reporter a copy of 
the following legal opinion, drawn at the request of the 
Commission, which will be submitted to the City au- 
thorities with the notice : 

" First. The Supreme Court having held the act of April 16, 1888, 
constitutional and valid, and the Board of Monument Commissioners 


appointed under it a legal and valid Board ; and also, as hereinafter 
shown, that the Board, as such, have the right to locate and erect 
the Monument upon the southeast section of the Square, without 
the consent of the City, the Board have now the full right to take 
possession of that site and proceed with the work of erecting a 
Monument. Having such right, neither the Mayor, Director of 
Public Works, nor of Law, nor of Police, nor any part of the police 
force of the City, has any right or authority to forcibly interfere 
with the Board, or any of its employes or contractors, to hinder, de- 
lay, or prevent the doing of the work ; and anyone so interfering, 
or advising, aiding or abetting the same, will be civilly and crimi- 
nally liable, the same in all respects as any private person would be 
under the same circumstances. They would have no official author- 
ity or character in such a case, and would simply unlawfully array 
themselves against the State and its laws, as private individuals, as 
interpreted by the Supreme Court. In this we have assumed that 
the parties were not acting under a warrant issued by any proper 
Court ; and no such warrant could be legally issued without a 
proper affidavit containing such statement of facts as would, if true, 
constitute a criminal offense. 

" If any such Court should be applied to for a warrant, it would 
be bound to take notice of the statute under which the Commis- 
sioners are acting, and also the decision of the Supreme Court con- 
firming the rights and powers to so locate and erect the Monument, 
and an affidavit which should ignore these facts, and charge those 
acting under the Commissioners as wrong-doers, would be both 
false and illegal. 

" Second. Should there be any such forcible interference with- 
out a writ, the Board and those employed under them would have 
full right to use so much force as may be necessary to remove all 
persons so interfering from the place where the work is being done. 

" Third. The fact that a motion has been filed for a rehearing in 
one of the cases in no way affects the rights and powers of the 
Board, or anyone acting under them. Nor does the misapprehen- 
sion, if any, of the Court, in its opinion, as to whether one member 
of the Commission was or was not a member of the old Committee, 
affect the rights of the Board or those acting under them. The 
reasons of the Court for its decisiou are no part of the record, and 
do not change or lessen its force and effect. The Court may give a 
part or all of its reasons for a judgment rendered, or simply render 
the proper judgment without giving any reason, as is done in the 
Supreme Court in a large number of cases every year. 

" The judgment, however, in all cases is supported by all the 
reasons which may be gathered from the record, and all the pre- 
sumptions are in its favor, and all questions actually involved and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 141 

decided in the case, and also all points or questions necessary to 
the judgment rendered, are conclusively settled and adjudicated 
and cannot again be called in question between the same parties or 
those claiming under them. 

" Fourth. Some of the points and questions, among others, so con- 
clusively settled in these cases are the constitutionality and validity of 
the statute, the legal validity of the Board of Commissioners, and their 
right and power to so locate and erect the Monument on the south- 
east section of the Square. All these points and questions were ex- 
pressly made in the case, and were necessary to a judgment in favor 
of the Commissioners. It was averred by the City and admitted by 
the Commissioners that unless restrained by the injunction of the 
Court they would take possession of that section of the Square, and 
remove the Perry statue and erect the Monument there ; and the 
vital question was whether they had the right and power to do so. 
If they had not, the City was entitled to the permanent injunction 
asked; but if they had such right, the judgment would be in their 
favor and against the City, as it was in the Supreme Court, and this 
decision, therefore, settles the law that the Commissioners have the 
right to remove the Perry statue as one of the essential steps to- 
wards the erection of the Monument. All this appears from the 
record. But the power to remove the Perry statue, as well as any 
other obstruction, is plainly conferred upon the Commissioners by 
the statute, for it gives them full general power to so locate and 
erect the Monument, and it is a fundamental principle that 'When- 
ever the provision of the statute is general, everything which is 
necessary to make such provision effectual is supplied by common 
law or implication.' South. Stat. Con. Sec. 337. 

" The power of the Monument Commissioners to remove the 
Perry statue does not, therefore, depend upon the provision giving 
them the right to require the City to remove it; but, on the con- 
trary, the right to require the City to do it in no way lessens but, on 
the contrary, recognizes the power of the Commissioners to remove 
it; nor does their right to remove it in any way interfere with the 
right of the City to place it in such new location as the City may see 
fit. In short, the City having brought suit against the Monument 
Commissioners denying their right to remove the Perry statue and 
erect the Monument, and having been defeated in the Supreme 
Court, cannot legally disregard the judgment by forcibly preventing 
the doing of the work. 

" Fifth. The talk about taking the cases to the Supreme Court 
of the United States is entirely groundless. It cannot be taken 
there without the allowance of a citation by some judge of that 
Court, nor would it then interfere with work on the Monument un- 
less a supersedeas bond should be given to cover all damages from 


delay in case the suit should be dismissed. Besides, a motion to 
dismiss could be filed at once, and we doubt not but that it would 
be promptly dismissed on motion, for the reason that there is no 
possible ground in the record for jurisdiction by the Supreme 
Court. " L. Prentiss, 

"J. M. Jones, 


The Leader of the 19th published as follows : 

" The ultimatum of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Commission was sent to the City officials yester- 
day. Timely notice was given that an advance on the 
Public Square would be made at 9 o'clock this morn- 
ing. Since the question has arisen whether they have 
the right to enclose the section of the Square to be de- 
voted to the Monument, the Commissioners have decided 
upon other tactics. Unless a change is made at the 
last moment, no lumber wagons will cut a figure in the 
ranks of the advancing hosts. They will attempt to 
assert their authority to the Square by having an en- 
gineer survey the ground. An interesting feature of 
the program is a call for a meeting of the Commis- 
sioners to be held on the Square at 9:30 o'clock this 
morning. The idea is that if arrests are made the pris- 
oners should include all the Commissioners. 

" Director Gibbons has notified the police to arrest 
all persons trespassing on the Square. 

" The line of action has therefore been fully deter- 
mined by each side and it only remains to carry out the 

" The following is a copy of the notice sent to the 

Citv officials : „ - T . „ 

" Ci/eveeand, July 18, 1892. 

11 To the Mayor, Director 0/ Public Works, of Law, and of Police of 
the City of Cleveland. 

" The Board of Monument Commissioners have been informed 
that you have advised and propose to interfere with and prevent by 
force the commencement of the work for the erection of the pro- 
posed Monument by them as such Commissioners on the southeast 
section of the Public Square, and you are hereby furnished with a 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 145 

copy of the legal opinion of their attorneys on the subject, denying 
your right to thus interfere ; and they earnestly protest against any 
such interference. To avoid any excuse for any such interference, 
and to give you ample time for any legal action in the premises, you 
are hereby notified that such work will be commenced on said south- 
east section of the said Square by the direction and authority of the 
Board of Monument Commissioners, at 9 o'clock A. M., to-morrow, 
Tuesday, by Levi T. Scofield, W. J. Gleason, E. H. Bohm, James 
Hayr, L. F. Bauder, C. C. Dewstoe, E. W. Force and J. J. Elwell. 
" The Board of Monument Commissioners, 
" By L. Prentiss and J. M. Jones, 
" Their Attorneys. 

" The call for the meeting of the Commissioners is as 
follows : 

" The Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Com- 
mission will meet on the southeast section of the Public Square at 
9:30 A. M., July 19, 1892. By order of 

"\Y. J. GLEASON, President. 

''Levi F. Bauder, Secretary. 

"The members of the City Council lined up in battle 
array last evening and determined to fight for the Public 
Square to the end. No quarter (not even the southeast 
one) is to be given, and the fight is to be waged, if nec- 
essary, with all the resources of the City. At last even- 
ing's meeting of the Council, Air. Wilhelm submitted a 
declaration in behalf of the City, in the form of a resolu- 
tion, which read as follows : 

"Resolved, That the Corporation Counsel be and he is hereby 
authorized and directed to institute and prosecute such proceedings 
at law or in equity in the proper court or courts, as shall, or in his 
judgment may, prevent the occupation of the southeast section of 
the Public Square as a site for the proposed Soldiers' Monument, 
and to prevent any interference with the water main or the statue 
of Commodore Perry, now located and remaining therein, until such 
time as the said water main and statue shall have been removed 
therefrom by the Director of Public Works in due course of law. 
Nothing, however, in this resolution contained shall be held to au- 
thorize the Director of Police to permit any interference with the 
said southeast section of the Public Square, or the placing of any 
obstructions whatever thereon until the said Director of Public 
Works shall have so removed the said water main and statue there- 


" Dr. Beeman was on his feet at once. ' The Coun- 
cil,' he said, ' has no business to interfere with the erec- 
tion of the Soldiers' Monument, and the Supreme Court 
has said so. It is buncombe, and I fail to see why we 
should give it any attention.' 

" Mr. Wilhelm — l It is not buncombe. We are threat- 
ened with an invasion of the Public Square, and it is 
our duty to resist it.' 

" Mr. Straus — ' I am, and have been, opposed to plac- 
ing the Monument in the Square, and I favored the 
appeal to the Supreme Court. The Court has passed 
upon the case, and I do not believe that we are taking 
the part of good citizens or representatives of good citi- 
zens in now opposing that decision. We were not long 
ago decrying the acts of strikers in disregarding the 
law, and now we are strikers against the law of the 

" Mr. Herbert — ' Is the City in a position to legally 
keep the Monument off the Square?' 

" General Meyer — ' The Supreme Court, in deciding 
the case, says that the Legislature has the right, inde- 
pendent of the City, to authorize the placing of the 
Monument on the Public Square. The statute author- 
izes the use of the Square, and says that on the written 
demand of the Monument Commissioners, when duly 
organized, on the Board of Park Commissioners, whose 
authority has passed to the Director of Public Works, 
the statue of Commodore Perry and all other obstruc- 
tions shall be removed from the southeast section of the 
Square. No authority is given for the removal of the 
Perry statue or other obstructions by the Monument 
Commissioners or anyone else except the Director of 
Public Works. The excavation for the Monument will 
require a shutting off of the water main, thus depriving 
a large number of people of their water supply and sub- 
jecting the most valuable part of the City to destruction 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 147 

by fire. Since the Monument Commission was created, 
the Legislature has passed a law making it a penal 
offense for a City Director to expend any money except 
for the purpose for which it was expressly appropriated. 
Before the Director of Public Works can remove the 
statue it will be necessary for the Council to provide 
money for that purpose. It rests with the Council to 
say what shall be done in that regard. It is the duty 
of the Directors of Public Works and of Law to protect 
and maintain the Perry statue until, by due process of 
law, it can be removed from the Public Square. It cer- 
tainly was never contemplated that the safety of this 
City should be jeopardized by the hasty action of the 
Monument Commission. If the Council sees fit to re- 
scind the action of last week and orders the Director of 
Police to withdraw police protection- from the Square, 
I have nothing to say. I have given my professional 
opinion and am ready to make it good.' 

" Dr. Beeman — 'According to General Meyer's opin- 
ion, there is nothing for us to do except to appropriate 
money to remove the obstructions in the Square. I can- 
not see what this resolution has to do with it.' 

" Mr. Herbert — ' I voted for the resolution to keep the 
Soldiers' Monument off the Public Square with my eyes 
wide open. I do not believe that the Monument could 
be shown there to good advantage. I believe that 
General Meyer should be authorized to keep the Monu- 
ment off the Square.' 

" Mr. Straus — ' I would like to hear from the Director 
of Public Works about the removal of the water main.' 

" Director Herrick — ' Hasty action on the part of the 
Monument Commissioners might seriously discommode 
a large number of people. The removal of water mains 
is attended with danger, and this one has been in the 
ground since 1857. The lowest amount for which we 
can remove the main, provided the Monument Commis- 


sioners permit us to use part of the southeast quarter of 
the Square, will be $2,000. If we haYe to take it around 
Bond Street the cost will be $7,000. It will require at 
least five weeks to do the work. Unless care is taken 
there may be serious results.' 

" Clerk Burgess read the notice of the Commissioners 
that they would occupy the Square at 9 o'clock this 

" Mr. Wilhelm — 'And it was to prevent them that this 
resolution was presented.' 

" A vote was taken on the resolution and it was 
adopted. Yeas, 12 ; nays, 7." 

We call particular attention here to the statement of 
Director Herrick as to the difficulty and cost of remov- 
ing the water main, and the time it would take. We 
shall truthfullv show later on that he was throwing sand 
in the eyes of the members of the Council, or he was 
prevaricating, and further, that he did not know what 
he was talking about. The members of the City Coun- 
cil and Board of Control, pursuant to law, took an oath 
"to support the Constitution and Laws of the United 
States and of the State of Ohio," but they seemed to 
forget or ignore that fact when they were acting on the 
Statutes of Ohio as to the rights, under the law, of the 
Monument Commission. 

We reproduce a Cleveland World editorial of July 
17th, clearly condemning the illegal proceedings of the 
City officials: 

'The by-play between the City authorities on one 
side and the Soldiers' Monument Commission on the 
other is interesting as a spectacle, but its result is 
worry and bitterness, without any corresponding gain. 

' The City granted the use of the Square to the Com- 
mission once, and objection to such use was not raised 
until too late to amount to anything. The City has no 
legal right to interfere after the Supreme Court has de- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 149 

cided in favor of the Commission, nor has it ethical 
right to withdraw the permission given years ago, and 
under which a great amount of money has been ex- 
pended. The City administration has been beaten in 
this, as in nearly everything else which it has under- 
taken, and its attempt to blind the public eye to the 
fact can only result in making the defeat more ap- 

"Under the Supreme Court's decision, it appears that 
the City has no jurisdiction over the Square, which was 
given to the general public by the original owners for 
public purposes. The general public was not consulted 
except through its representatives in the Legislature 
when the site was given to the Monument Commission. 
No protest was made at the time of the passage of the 
act by the Legislature, and the general public thus lost 
its right to object for all time." 

After a few days' rest, the contest was again renewed. 
We quote from the Plain Dealer of Jul}- 20th : 

" The warriors invaded the sanctified southeast section 
of the Public Square at 9:30 o'clock, Tuesday morning, 
and daringly trampled all over Mr. Herrick's green 
grass and scornfully brushed against his lovely flower 
beds. They boldly surveyed the section — actually meas- 
ured its length and breadth and depth before the eyes 
of fifty paralyzed policemen — and drove one stake in 
the sod, but like the king of France, who, with 40,000 
men marched up a hill and then inarched down again, 
they immediately pulled it up again, for at that moment 
Attorney Loren Prentiss appeared upon the scene and 
announced that Gen. Meyer had applied to the Court 
for a restraining order, and added that by mutual con- 
sent hostilities would cease until Thursday morning, 
when a hearing will be had. 

" All night policemen had guarded the Square in 
order not to be taken by surprise. At 9:00 o'clock, 


Capt. Henry Hoehn arrived from the City Armory with 
thirty policemen and placed them under the direct 
charge of Lieuts. Koch, Bradley and Wagner. Shortly 
thereafter Col. Gibbons strode upon the Square. He 
was a regular Pooh Bah, for he was present in his mani- 
fold capacity as Director of the Police Force, Chief of 
the Health Department and Colonel of the Fifth Regi- 
ment. Personally he claimed to be serving in the 
health branch of the City with special regard to the 
physical welfare of the warriors. Promptly at 9:30 
o'clock, Capt. Levi T. Scofield, Major W. J. Gleason, 
Gen. James Barnett, Capt. E. H. Bohm, Gen. Elwell, 
C. C. Dewstoe; James Hayr, E. W. Force and L. F. 
Bander appeared and assumed a commanding attitude 
upon the green patch directly north of the Perry Monu- 
ment. Capt. Scofield unrolled a large parchment, ex- 
hibiting the ground plan of the Monument. The eyes 
of the policemen bulged out and the massive chest of 
Col. Gibbons heaved like the billows of the ocean. 
Frank Merchant and C. C. Merchant, two surveyors, 
stuck their transits in the ground and prepared to take 
measurements. A light, glittering line of tape was run 
along the northerly section of the Square, then the 
westerly and then the southerly ends. Still Col. Gibbons 
remained passive, though the Commissioners were walk- 
ing all over the section with twenty newspaper men at 
their heels. By this time an immense throng had 
gathered and lined the diagonal and circumferential 
sidewalks of the section. The police could do nothing 
with the Commissioners, so they resolved to exercise 
their authority upon the people. The mandate became 
' Move 011/ The people moved — a slow, lethargic, 
phlegmatic sort of a move— but the crowd increased 
rather than diminished, and it was soon apparent that 
they were moving around and through the section and 
not away from it. This merry go round kept up steadily 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 151 

until the war was over. The police were powerless to 
help it. They could order the people to move, but they 
could not direct which way they should move. Around 
and around they went, laughing, talking and gesticulat- 
ing. After the ground had been most boldly and fear- 
lessly measured by the warriors, the surveyors prepared 
to drive a stake adjoining the outside sidewalk directly 
south of the Perry Monument. The purpose of this 
stake was merely to guide the workmen in their meas- 
urements. It was then proposed that some chalk be 
procured and the site for the esplanade and Memorial 
structure be marked upon the sod. When Col. Gibbons 
heard that the warriors proposed to draw a horrible 
chalk line upon the grass and thus disfigure its beauty, 
he realized that the time for action had come. 

" ' Order the people off the grass, 1 said he. 

" ' Get off the grass,' said Capt. Hoehn, but his voice 
was almost inaudible and the Commission did not hear it. 

" Park Tender J. H. Wahn approached the resolute 
warriors, who were huddled in a heap holding a con- 
clave, and ordered them away. They bravely stood 
their ground. He repeated his demand, but the war- 
riors calmly continued their deliberations and did not 
budge. Then Wahn, being single-handed, retired from 
the field. By this time the crowd, impatient that the 
scrap had been so tame and bloodless, left the Square 
in disgust and declared that the show was not worth 
the price of admission. 

" Before the chalk could be secured, Attorney Loren 
Prentiss came over from the Court House and an- 
nounced that Gen. Meyer had applied for a temporary 
restraining order. The order had not been granted, 
but Mr. Prentiss said that he had agreed that the Com- 
mission would postpone action until a hearing was had. 
The Commission instantly resolved to vacate the Square 
until Thursdav morning. It was at this interesting 


stage that the surveyor was espied busily driving the 
preliminary stake adjoining the southerly sidewalk of 
the section. The policemen stared at him in wonder. 
Capt. Scofield bade him take it out again, which he did, 
and everyone then left the Square. 

" Major W. J. Gleason and Mr. R. R. Herrick had 
an impromptu talk during the exodus. Mr. Herrick 
boasted that the Commission had done nothing, and 
Major Gleason replied that the Commission had de- 
monstrated its right to occupy the Square. Mr. Herrick 
laughed. Major Gleason smiled. Mr. Herrick said 
that he had read in the morning papers that all the old 
vSoldiers had been ordered out. 

u< That is not so,' said Major Gleason. ' The notice 
was to the Monument Commission only. 1 

"Corporation Counsel Meyer arose on Thursday 
morning before the traditional lark and let himself in 
his office in the grey of the dawning. Before ordinary 
people had got to work he had drafted a petition to en- 
join the Monument Commissioners from removing Com- 
modore Perry or in any way starting upon the work of 
erecting the Soldiers' Monument upon the southeast 
corner of the Public Square. This clone, he called 
Judge Noble by telephone just as that jurist was sitting 
down to breakfast, and asked him if he could be in 
court earlier in the morning than usual. Judge Noble 
replied over the wire that he would be on hand at 9:00 
o'clock, one hour earlier than usual, and instructed 
Gen. Meyer to notify the other side to be present also. 

il When Judge Noble reached his court room, he found 
Mr. Loren Prentiss for the Monument Commission and 
Gen. Meyer for the City both present. Without more 
ado Gen. Meyer proceeded to the reading of his petition. 

" The title of the petition was: The City of Cleveland, 
plaintiff, vs. Levi T. Scofield, James Hayr, William J. 
Gleason, Levi F. Bauder, J. B. Molyneaux, Edward H. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 155 

Bohm, Emory W. Force, Charles C. Dewstoe, R. W. 
Walters, J. J. Elwell, M. D. Leggett and James Barnett, 
defendants. In effect, its provisions were as follows: 

" The plaintiff, the City of Cleveland, says that it is 
a Municipal Corporation duly incorporated and organ- 
ized under the laws of the State of Ohio, and as such 
is a City of the second grade of the first class, and is 
situated within said Cuyahoga County. That within 
the corporate limits of said City is situated a certain 
tract of land about ten acres in area, square in form, 
and divided into four nearly equal sections by two 
streets of said City known as Superior and Ontario 
Streets, passing through the same from east to west and 
north to south respectively, and intersecting near the 
center of said tract of land. That said tract of land 
was, at a remote date, to-wit, about the first day of Octo- 
ber, 1796, duly dedicated to public use as a Public 
Square by the then owners thereof, the Connecticut 
Land Company, and the same is now and has ever since 
said remote date been used and enjoyed by the inhabit- 
ants of said City and the public as such Public Square. 
That ever since the incorporation and organization of 
said municipal corporation as a village in 1816, and 
which under the provisions of law later became such 
City of the second grade of the first class, said land has 
been under the charge and control of said corporation 
and has continuously been and still is being preserved 
and maintained by it through its duly constituted 
authorities for said purpose as a Public Square, with 
public walks and highways for foot passengers for the 
use of its citizens and the public, and has expended 
large sums of money in its maintenance and preserva- 
tion and has greatly beautified and embellished the 
same. Besides other improvements, walks, some fifteen 
feet in width, traverse the southeast section of the 
Square, diagonally from northwest to southeast and 


from northeast to southwest, which are used daily by 
many thousands of people in passing over said Square, 
and have been so used for nearly a century. That in 
said southeast section of said Public Square there is, 
and for more than ten years has been located and main- 
tained by the said City, a large water main pipe, twenty 
inches in diameter, which traverses the said section 
from said northwesterly corner to the southeasterly cor- 
ner thereof, which is, and for many years has been, 
continually used by said City to supply water to its 
citizens and for fire extinguishing and other purposes, 
and that a very large part of the said City and residents 
thereof are wholly dependent for their water supply 
upon said main pipe. That R. R. Herrick, at the time 
of the commencement of this action, was and is the duly 
appointed, qualified, and acting Director of Public 
Works of said City, and as such then was and is in 
charge of said Public Square and all other Parks of said 
City. That said defendants claim to have organized 
themselves as a Commission or body for the purpose of 
erecting a large stone Monument in said City in mem- 
ory of the Soldiers and Sailors of said County who 
were engaged in the late Civil War, and claim to have 
been appointed for said purpose by the Governor of said 
State, under the laws thereof. That the defendants 
have selected as a site on which to erect said Monument 
said southeast section of said Square without the con- 
sent and against the protest of said plaintiff, and now 
threaten to and unless restrained therefrom by this 
Court will seize and by force and without warrant of 
law at once erect upon said southeast section of said 
Public Square said Monument, and in excavating for 
the foundations thereof, destroy the said water main 
and thereby cut off the water supply and subject the 
said large part of said City to great danger of destruc- 
tion by fire. That said proposed Monument will oc- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 157 

cupy about ninety-five feet square of said section as an 
esplanade raised some five feet or more above its present 
level and above part of the surrounding ground, and 
about ten feet above the remainder thereof; on said 
esplanade will be erected a granite building forty-six 
feet square and about twenty-six feet in height, and in 
the center of said building will be erected a granite 
shaft 128 feet in height and twelve feet in diameter at 
the base. Upon the four sides of said esplanade will be 
constructed and erected heavy stone pedestals, each 
eighteen feet in length, seven feet in width, and ten feet 
in height, and upon each a group of figures in bronze 
of heroic size. That on said section of said Public 
Square there has long since been erected at great cost 
a stone statue of the late Commodore Perry, which is 
mounted upon large stone pedestals, the dimensions of 
which are at the base 11 8-10 feet by ten feet, and in- 
clusive of the said statue some twenty-three feet in 
height, all of which said structure now occupies a part 
of the site selected as aforesaid by said defendants for 
said proposed Monument, and will, unless defendants 
are restrained by this Court as hereinafter prayed, be 
removed by force by said defendants. 

" Plaintiff further says that by the provisions of the 
statute under which said defendants claim to act, the 
Governor of said State was authorized and required to 
appoint twelve persons, to be selected by him from the 
members of the Monumental Committee of the Cuya- 
hoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union ; that but 
eleven of the defendants were members of said Com- 
mittee at the time of their appointment by the said 
Governor, and that one of said defendants, the said 
M. D. Leggett, was not at the time of his appointment 
by said Governor as a member of said Monument Com- 
mission or at any time a member of said Commission. 
Plaintiff says that said Commission is not now and has 


at no time been lawfully appointed by said Governor, 
or in any manner lawfully appointed, organized, or 
qualified, and is wholly without lawful power or 
authority to act as, or discharge the duties imposed 
upon said Commission by law. Plaintiff further says 
that by the terms of said statute the said Director of 
Public Works of said City is authorized and required, 
upon demand in writing by the Monument Commission 
created thereby, to remove from said southeast section 
of said Square the said monument of Commodore Pern-, 
and all other obstructions now in said section, and is 
ready and willing to cause such removal whenever such 
lawful demand shall be made upon him by a duly ap- 
pointed and organized Monument Commission as pro- 
vided in said statute ; but plaintiff avers that no such 
lawful demand has ever been made by such Commission. 

" Plaintiff further avers that it will require a number 
of weeks to remove said monument of Commodore 
Perry, and said water main from said section, and that 
before the said water main can be so removed without 
irreparable loss and injury to said City and the inhabit- 
ants thereof it will be necessary to open up said 
Superior Street and lay a water main of similar size 
around said section to the southeast corner thereof and 
to Euclid Avenue in said City, and that unless this 
Court shall restrain the defendants from so doing said 
defendants will at once take forcible possession of said 
section and unlawfully remove said statue of said Com- 
modore Perry, and injure, remove and destroy said 
water main now in said section, to the irreparable in- 
jury and damage of said plaintiff, its inhabitants, and 
the public, and have so threatened, and still threaten so 
to do, and that plaintiff is wholly without adequate 
remedy at law. 

11 Wherefore plaintiff prays that pending the final 
hearing hereof each of the said defendants be restrained 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 159 

from taking possession of or in any manner interfer- 
ing with or obstructing any part of said southeast sec- 
tion of said Public Square ; from in any manner remov- 
ing or interfering with the said monument or statue of 
Commodore Perry or the pedestal upon which said 
statue stands; and from in any manner interfering with 
or removing the said water main or any part thereof in 
said section of said Public Square; and that upon final 
hearing the said defendants may each be perpetually 
enjoined in said particulars and for such other and 
further relief as the plaintiff may be entitled to. 

" Edward S. Mever, 
" Corporation Counsel, Attorney for Plaintiff." 

"Having made his points and read his petition, Gen. 
Meyer was about to proceed to argue for a temporary 
restraining order. Mr. Prentiss stated that he would 
obviate the necessity of doing this at that time by prom- 
ising that the Commission would do nothing more till 
the motion for a restraining order could be heard. 
Meanwhile he wanted time to prepare and file an an- 

" Gen. Meyer was perfectly satisfied with this prom- 
ise and by agreement the hearing was set for Thursday 
morning, at 10 o'clock. Mr. Prentiss at once repaired 
to the Public Square and notified all hands to stop pro- 

The scenes in the Court Room next day were graph- 
ically written up in the same journal as follows : 

" Thursday morning was the appointed hour when 
the legal hosts of the City and the Monument Commis- 
sioners were to meet in Judge Noble's Court and battle 
for the possession of the Public Square. 

" The first to appear were Gen. J. J. Elwell and Capt. 
E. H. Bohm, the latter loaded down with law books. 
Soon afterwards, Judge J. M. Jones, one of the Com- 
missioners' counsel, came, and shortly afterwards his 


colleague, Mr. Loren Prentiss, came also. About that 
time Judge Noble appeared and after several other 
members of the Commission had arrived, Gen. Meyer 
and his colleague, Mr. H. A. Kelley, entered and made 
up the proper quota for the hearing. 

"Judge Noble said: 

" ' Gentlemen, are you ready to proceed with the case 
of the City against Gleason and others ? ' 

" 'We are, your honor,' said Mr. Prentiss. 

" ' We are not, may it please the Court,' said Gen. 
Meyer. ' The defendants herein filed an answer and a 
cross-petition yesterday afternoon asking that we be en- 
joined from interfering with them, and a copy of the 
answer and cross-petition was furnished us at about 4 
o'clock yesterday afternoon. That cross-petition con- 
tains averments that will require some research and 
preparation on our part to meet. Moreover, informa- 
tion came to me last evening — I state it professionally — 
that will necessitate adding further causes of action to 
the petition. As to the averment that Gen. Leggett 
was properly appointed a member of the Monument 
Commission, it may be necessary to have Gen. Leggett 
here as a witness ; possibly not, but it may be. Gen. 
Leggett is not in the city. I cannot proceed to this 
hearing with any justice to the City, at this time.' 

,l Mr. Prentiss took the floor and at some length argued 
that the decision of the Supreme Court in the former 
case was a plea in bar in this. He said that no new 
points were made in this petition except perhaps that 
of the water main, and that that also might be considered 
as covered under the general question of obstructions 
in the former suit. In conclusion, Mr. Prentiss said : 

" 'The City is merely asking this continuance as it is 
fighting this thing all along, simply to put matters off 
until by crook or hook it can ultimately and forever 
prevent our going on the Square with that Monument, 


and defeat the purpose and order of the Supreme 

"'Mr. Prentiss' statement,' said Gen. Meyer, 'that 
the City is striving- to prevent this Commission from 
ever placing that Monument in the Square is true. The 
City is trying through lawfully constituted channels, the 
Courts, to prevent the unlawful use of that Square. As 
to their plea in bar, your honor can readily see that in 
the proper presentation of that subject alone to the 
Court, the City should have ample opportunity for prep- 
aration. Were that the only question in the case that 
should be so.' 

"Mr. Prentiss: 'Didn't you know when you filed 
your petition that you would have to meet the Supreme 
Court record ? ' 

" ' I am addressing the Court, and not answering 
questions,' said Gen. Meyer. ' With your permission, I 
will continue making my observations to the bench. I 
do not know what you intended doing. Last night I 
heard what you had done. I know this, that I must 
support the allegations to my petition.' 

" Judge Jones : ' Allegations all covered in your 
former petition, and therefore you must have known 
that you had to meet a plea in bar.' 

" At this point several attorneys began to talk at 
once, and Judge Noble rapped on the bench with his 
pencil and said : ' One at a time, if you please, gentle- 

" 'I want to state,' said Gen. Meyer, 'what I learned 
last night. There are still four installments of taxes to 
be levied for the purpose of constructing this Monu- 
ment. These gentlemen have gone ahead and made 
contracts for work on the Monument on which there is 
due and payable the sum of about $17,000. And there 
is on hand less than $13,000 to pay this with.' 

" Mr. Prentiss objected to Gen. Meyer going so deep 


into the contro\-ersy on an application to continue. 
Judge Noble overruled him and Gen. Meyer continued, 
saying that the County Commissioners had not a right 
to levy tax except for police purposes. He said that 
because the City had, under the special Soldiers' Monu- 
ment statute, to accept the Monument when completed 
and pay a man to take care of it, that was no reason 
why it should be fenced out of the Public Square for 
four years because the Monument was incomplete on 
account of lack of funds to complete it.' 

" Mr. Prentiss said that the case at bar was for in- 
junction and not intended to bring the Commission to 
an account as to how it handled its funds. i\ny suit to 
enjoin the tax levy for Monument purposes would have 
to be directed against the County Commissioners. Mr. 
Prentiss was satisfied the tax was valid and the point 
was only a new technicality, one of which the City 
seemed able to find every day. 

' ' Gen. Meyer has traveled outside the record,' said 
Mr. Prentiss, ' and I want to travel outside of it also in 
replying to him. The City made its preparations to 
treat us as criminals and even threatened the arrest of 
any member of the Commission who should venture to 
go upon the Public Square, even to survey ; and this 
right in the face of the Supreme Court decision. It 
doesn't sound very well for the gentleman to get up 
and talk about what we are doing after what he and his 
colleagues have been doing, and besides which, it's not 
true and we deny every word of it. No doubt his peti- 
tion was hastily drawn. He had been preparing to treat 
us as rowdies and lawless persons and consequently 
when we served notice on him what we intended to do 
he had to get up in the middle of the night to change 
his tactics and hastily draw a petition.' 

" Gen. Meyer : ' He has neither changed his plans 
nor his orders.' 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 165 

'"The trouble with you people is that you can't prop- 
erly make the County Commissioners parties to this 
suit,' said Prentiss. 'The attorneys in the office of the 
City Solicitor get to think that whatever they say is 
law, must be law.' 

" Gen. Meyer : ' As a matter of course, I don't intend 
making the County Commissioners parties to this ac- 
tion. I merely want to set forth the facts I stated and 
adduce them as a reason why the defendants should 
not be permitted to go upon that part of the Square.' 

"Mr. Prentiss: 'And in justice to my clients I want 
to say that your statement with reference to our finances 
is very largely erroneous.' 

" Gen. Meyer (sarcastically) : ' Very largely.' 

"Mr. Prentiss: 'We have $28,000 in the treasury, 

" Judge Noble said he thought the showing justified 
a short continuance. Gen. Meyer asked that it be till 
a week from Monday. Judge Jones objected to any- 
thing like so long a continuance, saying : 

" 'No anarchistic tendency should be tolerated. We 
are at the end of a successful law suit and there should 
be no effort to fly in the face of the Supreme Court. 1 

" Gen. Meyer : ' I think you are at the beginning of 
a law suit.' 

"Judge Jones: 'We are at the end of one. The 
spectacle of an attempted nullification of the Supreme 
Court should be put an end to.' 

" Finally the hearing was continued till next Thurs- 
day morning at 10 o'clock. The question was raised as 
to whether the Monument Commissioners would still 
agree to do nothing on the Square and save the neces- 
sity of the Court making an order. Capt. Scofield ob- 
jected and Judge Jones, in arguing with him, said sotto 
voce : ' You don't understand.' 

" ' I understand that man well enough,' said Capt. 


Scofield, red and trembling with rage and pointing at 
Gen. Meyer. 

" ' A few days will make no difference,' expostulated 
Judge Jones. 

" ' Yes, it will. We had better look up this matter of 
contempt a little,' quoth Scofield. 

" Finally an agreement was made and nothing more 
will be done on the Square for a week." 

One of our ablest lawyers paid his respects to the 
City Government in The World of July 26th, as follows : 

" Judge Seneca O. Griswold, an old resident of Cleve- 
land, who is visiting in the city at the present time, 
thinks the opposition to putting the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment in the Public Square is one of the most singular 
and at the same time outrageous things he ever heard 
of. He says that Trafalgar Square, in London, is not 
nearly so large as our Public Square, yet through it pass 
more people in one day than pass through our Square 
in a week and a large part of that square is occupied by 
the Wellington Monument. The opposition of the City 
Government to the construction of the Monument in 
the face of a plain statute of the Legislature and the 
decision of the Supreme Court, Judge Griswold says, is 
absolutely immoral and ought to subject those who thus 
contest the carrying out of plain statute law to impeach- 
ment proceedings." 


WE proceed with our history. The hearing of the 
case before Judge Noble was resumed on July 
27th. The many mysterious movements of the City 
authorities were at last brought to the surface. The 
sly joker that Director Meyer had so long carefully hid- 
den up his sleeve was taken out and exposed to the full 
view of the Court. We let the Plain Dealer, of July 
28th, describe the playing of Gen. Meyer's trump card : 

" The hearing in the matter of the application of the 
City for an injunction against the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument Commission was continued before Judge No- 
ble Thursday morning. Gen. Meyer asked for another 
delay, and at times during the proceeding the counsel 
on both sides indulged in some pretty strong language, 
Judge Jones being especially fiery in his remarks as to 
the methods of the representatives of the City. When 
Court convened, Gen. Meyer read the amended petition 
of the City, setting forth the grounds on which they 
asked the injunction. He was followed by Attorney 
Prentiss, who read the answer and cross-petition of the 
Commission. When he had finished, Gen. Meyer asked 
for further delay in the matter. He claimed that for one 
reason they had not been given a chance to prepare an 
answer to the cross-petition, and further, that for the 
Court to properly pass upon the matter, it would be 
necessary to first hear the case of the City against the 
County Commissioners, the County Treasurer, the 
County Auditor and Capt. Levi T. Scofield, and the 
other members of the Monument Commission. 

"This is the document that was filed at 6:10 o'clock 


Wednesday evening by Michael P. Mooney, second as- 
sistant Corporation Counsel, and is brought to enjoin 
the further levy and collection of the tax and the pay- 
ment to the Monument Commission of the balance now 
in the treasury, and the issuing of any county bonds in 
anticipation of the collection of such a tax. 

" With this case pending, Gen. Meyer held that 
it was impossible to come to a decision in the first 
case and he asked the Court to allow the hearing of 
that case first. 

"Judge Jones most emphatically objected to any 
further postponement and insisted that the hearing of 
the first case be continued. ' We have had enough of 
this delay,' he said. ' We have been struggling for 
twelve years to put up this Monument. There is not a 
single thing in this petition that has not been adjudi- 
cated. They have constantly shifted their position. 
They told your honor that they were going to make a 
strong point against Leggett, knowing that that point 
had been worn threadbare. After begging, almost on 
their knees, to have this hearing postponed in order to 
give them time to bring in testimony, they now come 
here without any testimony and seek to present entirely 
different grounds for action. This is a nice way to 
fight a battle ; to be constantly shifting their position 
in the face of the enemy. We have had enough of this 
delay and nothing to warrant it. The only thing that 
has not been litigated in the Supreme Court is the mat- 
ter of the water pipes, and they were there when the 
first suit was begun. Then was their time to mention 
them, and not now. 

' 'To-day they abandon all this and bring forward en- 
tirely different grounds. They say that they have one 
ground. ' You have not a great deal of money, and we 
are going to stop your getting any more.' You ask 
that this hearing be stopped because you are going to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 169 

stop our money. You want the cover of darkness to 
keep you away from fighting this case. Does he mean 
to say that this can not go forward because another 
suit has been brought forward ? They have been try- 
ing to bring some John Smith forward to try the legality 
of the tax. Why not let us proceed? They began 
the suit and it was carried to the Supreme Court and 
decided against them, and in face of that they seek to 
try it all over again. 

" You (to Gen. Meyer) abandoned your position to ar- 
rest these venerable men, and well for you that you 
did. It has not got to such a point where any Director 
of Public Works or any satellite of the Board of Direct- 
ors dare defy the Supreme Court. I hope never again 
to see such another defiance of the Supreme Court. If 
the Court dissolves this injunction, I will go out with 
my gun to resist the arrest by the police of anyone 
working at the Monument. 

" Gen. Meyer here remarked to the Judge that he was 
not responsible for the remarks he was making. 

" ' I am responsible,' said Judge Jones, ' for what I 
say, and will meet you on any battlefield and will put a 
hole through you, too, and the City will have to have a 
new City Solicitor.' 

" ' They want to beat us by hook or by crook,' said 
Judge Jones. ' They have already invented two 
schemes since the last hearing, and if it is postponed 
again they will have another. I hope they will be 
compelled to come forward and make their defense. 
The law forbids his bringing this suit. We think we 
ought to be allowed to, go forward.' 

" The reasons for asking for a delay were again stated 
by Gen. Meyer and Mr. Kelley. If the case was to go 
on, they wished time to prepare an answer to the cross- 

" Judge Noble finally granted them until Friday 


morning to prepare their answer and gather their 

" Gen. Meyer, then in behalf of the City, asked for a 
temporary restraining order in the injunction against 
the county officers and Monument Commission. The 
Court held that as all the defendants had not been 
served with notices, he could not grant such order. 
They were given until 2 o'clock, and at that time the 
hearing was postponed and will be heard in connection 
with the other case Friday morning." 

A private conference was held by the attorneys at 
the residence of Commissioner Barnett, and is herewith 
given, simply to show how anxious the City authorities 
were to compromise. Attorney Prentiss communicated 
the following to the Leader on August 1st. 

" To the Editor of the Leader : 

" Your paper of Saturday contains the version of Gen. Meyer or 
Director Herrick of an interview at Gen. Barnett's house, among 
these three gentlemen, at which I was present. I attended the con- 
ference at the instance of Gen. Meyer, and expressly stated that I 
had no authority to represent the Monument Commission in that 
matter, and could attend simply as an individual, with the under- 
standing that if anything practical should be suggested by him and 
Mr. Herrick on the subject of the location of the Monument, Gen. 
Barnett would call the attention of the Commission to it. I do not 
know whether he regarded the suggestions made such as to make it 
worth while to call the attention of the Monument Commission to 
it or not. I mentioned the fact of the interview to the President of 
the Board, and explained the substance of what was proposed by 
the Directors of Law and Public Works. They proposed that a vote 
of the County should be taken at the November election simply for 
and against the Square, and that if the majority favored that site all 
opposition should be withdrawn, but if against it, that the Monu- 
ment should not be placed there, and that the City would, in that 
event, bind itself to provide a satisfactory site. I replied that such 
a vote, if adverse to the present site, would leave the Commission 
entirely at sea; and furthermore that, on such a vote, everybody 
who wanted it on the West Side, or South Side, or East Side, or out 
in the country, would vote against the present site. That, if any- 
thing were to be submitted to a vote, it should be between some 
two sites to be agreed upon for that purpose, so that the vote would 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 171 

finally decide the location ; for instance, between two different sec- 
tions of the Square. Gen. Meyer had suggested the location at the 
foot of Ontario Street, between Lake and Summit Streets, and 
stated that, if that would be a satisfactory location, the City would 
appropriate about one hundred and fifty feet of land on each side of 
Ontario Street, between Lake and Summit Streets, and vacate 
Ontario Street between those two streets so that the Monument 
could be placed in the vacated part of the street. Gen. Baruett and 
myself expressed the opinion individually that, while we regarded 
the Square as the best location, that would be the next best ; but I 
insisted that as Ontario Street was laid out in the original allotment, 
it could not be changed from its use as a street, and that a good 
title could not be made ; and, besides that, I did not believe the peo- 
ple would be willing to be taxed for the expense of a site. Gen. 
Meyer claimed that a good title could be made, and that a binding 
agreement could be made with the City for it, and it could be paid 
for out of the sinking fund, as it would be an addition to Lake View 
Park, and within the original seven wards. Gen. Meyer asked what 
other section of the Square would be next in desirability, and Gen. 
Barnett and I both expressed the opinion that the southwest sec- 
tion would be the next best location. 

" During the conversation, I stated that the Monument Commis- 
sion believed that the main opposition to the southeast section of 
the Square for the Monument arose from the fact that very many of 
the property owners on Euclid Avenue and the East Cleveland Street 
Railway Company wanted Euclid Avenue continued diagonally 
through that section of the Square, which the Monument would de- 
feat if erected there, and that Director Herrick was reported a few 
days ago in a morning newspaper as saying that the City might 
some time want to run Euclid Avenue down through that section of 
the Square. He replied that he did say that the City might want 
to do so some time, but did not use the language reported in the 
paper. Both he and Gen. Meyer stated that personally they were 
not in favor of doing that. I did not ask Gen. Meyer to postpone 
filing his amended petition. That was his suggestion and not 
mine, and I simply assented, as I had a copy of it to prepare our 
answer and notified him to file it as soon as I have prepared the 

" After the interview, Gen. Meyer walked with me up to Sterling 
Avenue, Mr. Herrick going in the other direction, and he then 
stated that if the Monument Commission would be willing to take 
the southwest section of the Square, he thought that Mr. Herrick 
could be induced to consent to it, and that they could have it, and 
that this could be done without a vote of the people. This is the 
substance of the conversation, and considering that Gen. Meyer 


now insists that the City will not consent to the placing of the 
Monument on any section of the Square, nor to any vote on any 
other basis than the one he suggested, the friends of the Monument 
can judge whether there is any want of a fair and conciliatory dispo- 
sition on the part of the Monument Commission or anything relia- 
ble or practicable in the clamor inspired by the gentlemen on the 
other side about compromise and harmony. 

" The Monument Commissioners were empowered and charged 
with the dutv of selecting the site, and the Supreme Court decided 
that the law is constitutional and valid, and that they had the right 
to enter upon the site and erect the Monument ; and, in our view, 
the Directors of Law and Public Works are simply trying to find 
some ground or pretext for evading or nullifying the judgment of 
the Supreme Court, and are making all the trouble there is made 
about it. On the one side is simply acquiescence in the final judg- 
ment of the Supreme Court, and on the other an endless diversity 
of opinion as to location, and a large amount of taxation for 
another site if one could be agreed upon. l( ^ p RENTISS » 

When the trial was resumed it was heard by Judge 
William E. Sherwood. The Plain Dealer, of August 
i st, reported it as follows : 

" The Soldiers' Monument war was waged again, in 
Judge Sherwood's Court, Monday morning. On Friday, 
when Court adjourned, it was decided that on Monday 
morning the hearing should proceed upon affidavits un- 
less the City, being unable to prepare its affidavits, 
would be given further time. 

"When Court opened, Gen. Meyer announced that he 
was still in arrears by two affidavits, but intimated that 
if he could put those affidavits in during the hearing, 
he would proceed. After some cross-talk and wrang- 
ling, the hearing proceeded. Gen. Meyer read his 
amended petition once again in full, probably because 
there was a new judge on the bench. 

,l Mr. Prentiss read the cross-petition, commenting as 
he read. He said that the true animus of the opposi- 
tion to the southeast corner of the Square in contra- 
distinction to its other sections was the wish of the 
Euclid Avenue property owners and the East Cleveland 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 175 

Railroad Company to extend the avenue through the 
southeast section straight down town. 

" Gen. Meyer: ' Do you mean to say that I am the 
tool of the street railway company ? ' 

" Mr. Prentiss : ' No, I don't ; I merely state the 

" Judge Jones : ' We only say that you are doing 
the work of the railroad company for nothing.' 

"Gen. Meyer (to Mr. Prentiss): 'Counsel for the 
railroad company is your associate ' (indicating Judge 

" Mr. Prentiss continued his reading and when he 
had concluded, Mr. Kain read the petition to enjoin 
the tax. 

"It was after 12 o'clock when the reading of the 
affidavits was begun. The first one to be read was that 
of Col. John W. Gibbons, the Director of Police. Col. 
Gibbons made affidavit as to the notice that had been 
served upon him by the Commission, that it was about 
to begin construction work in the Square. Another 
affidavit was by Squire Bander, the only one of the 
twelve Commissioners opposed to the selected site. Its 
principal point was to demonstrate that when Gen. M. 
D. Leggett was appointed a Monument Commissioner 
he had not been by any act of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Union constituted a member of the Monument Com- 
mittee of that organization. 

" After dinner, the first affidavit read was that of Eben 
L. Pardee, the Recording Secretary of the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Union. Mr. Pardee produced the record 
showing the confirmation of Gen. Leggett as a Monu- 
ment Commissioner in June, 1887, at a date later than 
the passage of the act constituting the Commission. 
Secretary Kingsley of the Waterworks Department fur- 
nished an affidavit relative to the water pipe running 
through the southeast section of the Square and the 


difficulty, expense and time involved in moving the 
same. Director Herrick also swore to one showing the 
difficulties attending the removal of Perry and the re- 
construction of the water main. 

"Gen. Meyer introduced in evidence the special 
statutes relating to the Monument Commission and 
fund and the decision of the Supreme Court in the 
former case ; a decision in favor of the Commission. 
He stated that as soon as he could get the figures he 
would offer the tax duplicate of the County for 1891 
and 1892. 

"With the understanding that the City could intro- 
duce further affidavits when access could be had to the 
plans and specifications of the Monument Commission, 
Col. A. T. Brinsmade then proceeded to the reading of 
defendant's affidavits. These affidavits were two, sworn 
to by W. J. Gleason, and a number of others furnished 
by various members of the Commission." 

The closing arguments in the case were given as 
follows in the Leader of August 3d : 

" The Monument case was submitted to Judge' Sher- 
wood at 5 o'clock last evening. The Judge will spend 
to-day in considering it, and will not hold court. Per- 
haps a decision will not be rendered for several days. 
There is much speculation as to the probable outcome 
of the case. Those who have expressed themselves 
most freely have been friends of the Monument Com- 
missioners, and they boldly asserted that the City had 
lost their case. It was the general opinion, however, 
that both sides had made a strong showing, and that 
every possible argument had been resorted to by each 
of the contestants. 

" The arguments proceeded quietly and attracted but 
little attention. The attorneys were content to submit 
the case to the Court upon the merits of the affidavits 
and by simply calling attention to the points of law 


and fact involved. They went into detail, however, 
and argued at length upon every possible point to be 
considered. There was a slight misunderstanding as 
to which side should have the opening speech, on Tues- 
day morning. George S. Kain, Esq., Assistant Cor- 
poration Counsel, was finally accorded that privilege 
and he spoke until about 11:30 o'clock. He was fol- 
lowed by Loren Prentiss. Esq., for the Monument Com- 

"Mr. Prentiss spoke for an hour and a half, and was 
followed by Judge Jones. He commenced his argument 
at 2:30 o'clock. More interest was shown while Judge 
Jones was speaking than at any other time during the 
case. He became greatly excited at times, and used 
the strongest invective in denouncing the City authori- 
ties for what he called defiance of the Supreme Court. 
He said it was the most amazing thing he had ever 
seen in a court of justice. He said it was no wonder 
that common men took the law into their own hands, 
when the heads of the City Government and their 
satraps defied law and order. He said that it was the 
duty of the City authorities to surrender cheerfully 
when they were beaten. The public looked to them to 
obey the law as well as to execute it. Judge Jones 
was followed by Director of Law Meyer, who made 
the closing argument. 

" During his speech, General Meyer referred to the 
utterances of Judge Jones concerning himself, when 
the hearing was commenced before Judge Noble last 
week. He said : ' Suppose a man has what he thinks 
is a lawful claim to a piece of property occupied by 
another. Is he justified in using force and violence in 
defiance of law and the public peace to maintain that 
claim ? Yet hear the counsel on the other side urging 
the* use of force and violence.' Turning towards Judge 
Jones, he continued : l One of them went so far as to 


say across the table the other day that he would shoul- 
der his gun and go into the Square and put a bullet 
through me.' General Meyer also spoke of insinuations 
which he said had been made against him by other 
attorneys as to his working in the interest of the street 
railway companies and the Euclid Avenue property 
owners under the pretense of looking after the City's 
interests. The General said that such charges against 
an officer of the City coming from men who stood as the 
embodiment of honor and Christian gentility were base 
and contemptible and showed the character of the men 
who made them. 

"Judge Sherwood informed the attorneys that he 
would not pay the slightest attention to their opinions 
of each other in deciding the merits of the case, and he 
asked General Meyer to proceed. The remainder of his 
speech was upon the points at issue." 

Judge Sherwood rendered his decision on August 9th, 
the full text of which we copy from the Leader of the 
following date : 

" Judge Sherwood announced his decision in the Sol- 
diers' Monument cases Tuesday morning in the presence 
of an audience that completely filled his court room. 
He refused the City's application for an injunction to 
restrain the Monument Commission from erecting the 
Monument in the Square, but granted the City's appli- 
cation to enjoin a portion of the tax levied for the Mon- 
ument. The effect of the decision is to enjoin the 
collection of a tax of 1-10 of a mill, amounting, it is 
said, to $13,000. General Meyer, for the City, filed 
notice of appeal in both cases, and the appeal bond of 
$200 was given in each case. 

''The first case decided was that of the City against 
the Monument Commissioners, to restrain them from 
interfering with or obstructing any part of the south- 
east section of the Public Square, from moving or inter- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 179 

fering with the statue of Commodore Perrv, from moving- 
or interfering with the water main and from expending 
any public funds for purposes other than the purchase 
of a suitable site for the proposed Monument. 

" The Court reviewed the pleadings and the proof 
disclosed by them, and the previous case which was 
decided against the City by the Supreme Court. 

"Judge Sherwood stated that the Monument Commis- 
sioners insisted that the decision of the Supreme Court 
constituted a complete bar to the present action and 
was conclusive between the parties. On the other hand, 
the City claimed that the former action was not a bar, 
for the reason that the relief sought and the grounds 
upon which it was predicated were different. 

" He said the Supreme Court had decided that when 
a judgment or decree was relied upon by way of evi- 
dence, as conclusive per se, between the parties in a 
subsequent suit, that the particular controversy sought 
to be precluded was therein necessarily tried and 

" ' Our inquiry then is,' he stated, ' first, what is the 
particular controversy in this case? Second, was such 
controversy necessarily tried and determined in the 
former case ? The controversy now before us is as to 
the right of the Commissioners at this time to enter 
upon the southeast section of the Square, remove ob- 
structions, and erect the Soldiers' Monument thereon, 
and use certain money now in the Monument fund for 
that purpose. From doing these things the City seeks 
to enjoin them. Was this controversy involved in the 
former suit ? The relief prayed for in this action differs 
from that sought in the former only in the additional 
request to enjoin the use of Monument funds for any 
other purpose than that of purchasing a site. In the 
other respects the relief sought, as determined by the 
prayers of the petitions in the two cases, is to all intents 


the same. The City contends, however, that the object 
of the present suit is to enjoin the occupation of the 
Square until such time as sufficient funds may be 
accumulated to enable the erection of the Monument 
without unreasonable delay, whereas the object of the 
former suit was to secure an injunction against the use 
of the Square at any time for the location of the Monu- 
ment. This distinction, however, is one made in argu- 
ment and does not appear on the face of the papers, 
nor does such temporary relief any more flow from the 
nature of the opposition in the one case than in the other. 
" ' It is true that certain allegations are made in the pe- 
tition and proof offered which, it is claimed, show that 
there is not sufficient money on hand to enable the 
Commissioners to prosecute the work to completion 
without unnecessary delay, and that such funds cannot 
be procured for several years. But all the facts upon 
which such allegations are predicated existed at the 
time of the beginning of the former suit and were then 
equally available and might have been introduced to 
secure the same relief. The grounds or reasons urged 
in the former suit were not in all respects the same as 
those urged in the present case. A number of addi- 
tional grounds for relief are now presented, but so far as 
I have been able to observe there are none which might 
not have been presented in the former action, except 
the grounds that a motion for a rehearing in the former 
case is pending, and that the City has instituted a suit 
to have the tax levies made for the purpose of raising 
funds for the erection of the Monument declared illegal 
and void. It is specifically declared by our Supreme 
Court that when a matter is finally determined in an 
action between the same parties it is considered at an 
end, not only as to what was determined, but also as to 
every other question which the parties might have liti- 
gated in the case, and that a subsequent suit cannot be 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 181 

maintained between the same parties for reasons exist- 
ing at the time and not stated in the former action. 

" ' The points here raised not actually presented in 
the former suit are : First, that a water pipe exists be- 
neath the south-east section of the Square ; (a) that pipe 
has been there for thirty years and might have been 
made a ground for complaint in the prior suit. They 
did not interpose the removal of Perry's statue as 
a ground. Second, that the acts authorizing levies are 
invalid and hence they have no money, (a) The acts 
were all passed at the time of the other suit, and were 
as invalid then as now. Third, the taxes authorized by 
the act of 1891 cannot be collected in full until 1895. 
Fourth, by section of an act of 1888 cannot expend more 
than 8-10 of a mill for construction and erection of Mon- 
ument, the balance for a site. Fifth, motion for re- 
argument pending (a) not good ground. Sixth, proper 
notice not given. Seventh, suit pending to enjoin col- 
lection of the taxes under acts referred to. 
" ' The application for injunction is denied.' 
" The second case was the City of Cleveland against 
W. H. King and others. This action was brought by 
the City to enjoin the County Commissioners from levy- 
ing any further taxes under certain acts of the Legisla- 
ture, and from issuing any bonds or notes in anticipa- 
tion of the collection of any such taxes, and from 
delivering such bonds or notes to the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument Commission ; also to enjoin the 
County Auditor from drawing his- warrant upon the 
Treasurer for any drafts drawn upon him by the Monu- 
ment Commissioners ; and from placing on the duplicate 
any tax portended to be authorized by any of the 
legislative acts ; also to enjoin the Count}- Treas- 
urer from paying out any money now in his hands 
or that may come into his hands or under his con- 
trol bv virtue of any of the acts. The Court said : 


' The relief sought by the City is predicated upon the 
claimed unconstitutionality of the laws purporting to 
authorize the levying of the taxes which it asks to have 
enjoined. The defenses interposed are : First, a denial 
of the unconstitutionality of the acts, and second, that 
the case has already been decided. The adjudication 
which is plead in bar is the suit heretofore mentioned 
of the City of Cleveland against William J. Gleason and 
others, in which the City sought to restrain the Monu- 
ment Commissioners from entering into and erecting a 
Soldiers' Monument upon the southeast quarter or sec- 
tion of the Public Square. Upon this point it is suffi- 
cient to say that we do not think the ' particular 
controversy ' involved in the case was 4 necessarily tried 
and determined ' in the other. For first, the parties are 
not the same. In that case the action was against the 
Monument Commissioners. In this it is against the 
County Commissioners, Auditor and Treasurer. True, 
the Monument Commissioners are made parties in this 
case with the County Commissioners, Auditor and Treas- 
urer, but no relief whatever is asked as to them. Second, 
the relief sought is different in that case. An injunction 
was prayed for restraining the Monument Commission 
from taking possession of the Public Square and erect- 
ing a Monument thereon. In this case the tax for 
Monument purposes is sought to be enjoined, and the 
appropriation for such purpose and of money raised 
under former levies prevented. While the invalidity ot 
the tax laws might be assigned as one of the reasons or 
grounds for the relief asked for in the former case, the 
same as in the suit against Scofield and others now 
before us, still we apprehend that the determination of 
it was not essential in passing upon the question of the 
right of the Monument Commissioners to enter upon 
and use the Park for Monument purposes, for the rea- 
son that such right does not depend upon the validity 



of the acts, or portions of the acts, authorizing the taxes. 
This is evident from the fact that even if the right to 
levy the tax were denied, the Monument Commission 
might proceed to erect the Monument on the Square 
with money derived from donations, which they are 
authorized to receive, or from any other source. Hence, 
we say in the absence of any disclosure in the record 
that the question was actually before the Court and 
passed upon by it, that the validity of the acts purport- 
ing to confer authority upon the County Commissioners 
to levy this tax was not necessarily tried and deter- 
mined by the Court in coming to the conclusion that it 

" ' We come, therefore, directly to the question as to 
the unconstitutionality of the laws authorizing the levy 
of the taxes complained of. The first act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly to which reference is made was passed 
April 2, 1880, and is entitled, ' An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a 
Monument or Memorial Tablet in commemoration of the 
deceased Soldiers and Sailors of said county, and to 
purchase a site therefor.' By this act the County Com- 
missioners were authorized to levy three-tenths of a 
mill upon the property of the county, not more than 
one-tenth of which should be collected annually for the 
purpose of erecting a Monument or Memorial Tablet 
commemorative of the bravery and valor of all the Sol- 
diers and Sailors from said county who were killed in 
any of the battles fought in the service of the Republic 
of the United States, or who died from wounds received 
or contracted in such service, and to purchase a site 
therefor. Section No. 2 provided that ' all plans and 
specifications for such Monument or Tablet, and the site 
thereof, together with the contract for the erection of 
which, shall be approved by the Commissioners and the 
Committee on Monument of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 


Association of said county, but the building thereof shall 
be supervised by and the expenses paid upon vouchers 
approved by said Commissioners, provided, however, 
that the cost and expense of such Monument or Tablet 
and site shall not exceed the amount of the levy. 

" ' Bv this act it will be observed the Legislature un- 
dertook to authorize the County Commissioners both to 
levy a tax for and build a monument. There does not 
appear to be anything imperative about it. So far as 
the language of the act is concerned, it seems simply 
to vest power or authority coupled with a discretion to 
exercise it or not. This and the succeeding acts to 
which reference will be made are claimed by the City 
to be unconstitutional, invalid and void for two reasons: 
First, because the purposes for which the tax is au- 
thorized to be levied are not such public purposes as 
are permitted by the constitution of the State. Second, 
because they contravene sections No. 5 and No. 7 of 
article Xo. 12 of the Constitution. Upon the first 
ground we are inclined to hold with the Superior Court 
of Cincinnati, where the question was as to the uncon- 
stitutionality of an act authorizing the levy of a tax for 
the erection of a monument to William Henry Harri- 
son. The Court said : ' We are of opinion that the pur- 
pose for which the tax under the act is to be levied is a 
public purpose. The erection of a monument in honor 
of a man who has rendered valuable service to his 
country is an enduring acknowledgment of the country's 
gratitude, which will be a strong incentive to patriotic 
service by other citizens.' 

' ' Section 7, article 10, of the Constitution, provides 
that the Commissioners shall have such power of local 
taxation for police purposes as may be prescribed by 
law. The legislative acts in question are said to con- 
travene this section, for the reason that they seek to in- 
vest the County Commissioners with the power of local 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 187 

taxation for other than police purposes ; the erection of 
a Soldiers' Monument not being a police purpose. The 
Commissioners intend, first, that the purposes of the 
levy are police purposes within the contemplation of 
this section of the Constitution ; second, that the Legis- 
lature may authorize under the general taxing power 
the County Commissioners to levy the tax independent 
of section 7, article 10 ; third, that these acts, especially 
the later ones made, particularly involved in this case, 
vest no discretion whatever in the County Commis- 
sioners, but are mandatory in their character and con- 
stitute the Commissioners agents or instruments of the 
Legislature in carrying out a clearly constitutional 

" ' We consider the original act first, as all the subse- 
quent ones are either amendatory or supplementary to 
it and may be more or less affected by it. 

" ' Our first inquiry then is : Does the erection of a 
Soldiers' Monument come within the police purposes 
for which County Commissioners as such may levy 
taxes under section 7, article 10, of the Constitution? 

" ' By police purposes, as here used, we understand are 
meant such purposes as are legitimate and proper to be 
provided for under the police powers of the State. This 
police power looks to the regulation of relative rights, 
privileges and duties as between individuals, to the con- 
servation of order in the political society, to the encour- 
agement of industry, and the discouragement of perni- 
cious employment. 

" ' This section of the Constitution was obviously in- 
tended to limit the power of the Legislature in delegat- 
ing the power of local taxation to County Commissioners. 

" ' There must be purposes for which taxation may 
be had, public in their nature, and yet not included 
among police purposes. The erection of a monument 
to the memory of those who have fallen in our country's 


cause is a patriotic public object most commendable 
in its character, but intended to express a sentiment 
rather than to promote the health, convenience or wel- 
fare of a community. We think the tax cannot be sus- 
tained as being authorized for police purposes. 

" ' May the Legislature under the general taxing 
power vested in it authorize the County Commissioners 
to levy the tax regardless of section 7, article 10, of the 
Constitution ? 

" ' We are of the opinion that the General Assembly 
might use the County Commissioners as an instrument 
for levying and collecting this tax, notwithstanding the 
provisions of the Constitution. Having itself the power 
to impose that tax, and having determined to impose it, 
it might require the levy and collection thereof by the 
County Commissioners as its representative. But it 
cannot delegate to the Commissioners the power to de- 
termine whether or not there should be a tax for the 
purpose named, and to levy it or not at their discretion. 
By simply authorizing but not requiring them to levy a 
tax for monument purposes, it seeks to vest them with 
the power of local taxation for other than police pur- 
poses, and so contravenes section 7, article 10. Such 
we understand to be the import of the holding of the 
Superior Court of Cincinnati in the case before referred 
to. By the second section of the act the Commissioners 
of Hamilton County were authorized to levy a tax to 
defray the expenses for the monument. The language 
was in substance identical with that of the act before 
us. The third section, however, required that before 
the tax was levied the question of making the levy 
should be submitted to the vote of the qualified electors 
of the county. 

" ' The act before us of April 2, 1886, clearly vested a 
discretion in the County Commissioners not only as to 
levying the tax, but as to constructing the Monument 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 189 

as well. The Commissioners were under no obliga- 
tions to proceed in the matter at all unless they saw fit. 
We can see no escape from the conclusion that this act 
was unconstitutional and void. The amendatory acts 
of February 4, 1881, and April 22, 1885, made no 
such modifications as to relief against this objec- 
tionable feature. By the latter act an additional levy 
of five-tenths of a mill was authorized, and together 
with the three-tenths of a mill authorized by the orig- 
inal act, has been collected. On the 16th day of April, 
1888, an act was passed supplementary to the original 
and amendatory acts, by which all the power and au- 
thority over the Monument theretofore vested in the 
County Commissioners, except the authority to levy the 
taxes, was taken from them and vested in a board called 
the ' Monumental Commissioners,' to be appointed by 
the Governor. This Board was by this act to have full 
power to select a site for the proposed Monument, to have 
exclusive control of the plans and building of the same, 
to locate the same in the southeast quarter or section 
of the Public Square if they saw fit, or if not, to pur- 
chase or procure any other site within the county. 
They were authorized to contract for the whole or any 
part of the work, or within discretion, to contract for the 
same by days' work or piece. With the law in this con- 
dition, the County Commissioners continued to levy or 
collect the taxes therefor authorized, receiving the last 
installment with the general taxes of 1889. The Board 
of Monument Commissioners took charge of all othei 
matters pertaining to the Monument, and proceeded 
with their labors, selected a site, secured plans and de- 
signs for the Monument, and expended a considerable 
portion of the fund for the construction of different parts 

" ' On January 30, 1890, an act was passed amending 
section 1 of the original and amendatory acts, and an- 


thorizing the County Commissioners to levy an addi- 
tional tax of not exceeding three-tenths of a mill for 
the same purpose. This was again amended April 2, 
1891, so as to authorize a levy of not exceeding six- 
tenths of a mill in addition to any tax theretofore levied 
for the same purpose. The first installment of the tax 
authorized by the act of 1890 has been collected. The 
second installment has been levied, also the first install- 
ment of that authorized by the act of 1891, but neither 
of the last two has been collected. The City contends, 
first, that both of these acts are obnoxious to the same 
constitutional objection ; second, that if not, then the 
power to levy granted by the act of 1890 was repealed 
by the act of 1891 as to so much of the tax as had not 
been levied prior to the passage of the latter act. This 
would affect the last two installments. As to the act of 

1890, we see no reason why it is not open to the same 
constitutional objection as the preceding acts. But 
whether so or not, it seems clear that all unexecuted 
power therein conferred was withdrawn by the act of 

1 891. The latter act was both amendatory and supple- 
mental to the former, and upon its passage entirely sup- 
planted and wiped it out. It was not necessary that the 
act of 1890 should be repealed in terms, for by the very 
terms and nature of the amendatory act it takes the 
place of and is to be read and construed as if it had so 
existed from the beginning. The act of 1891, however, 
presents much difference in its phraseology. The first 
section reads as follows : ' Be it enacted * * * that 
the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County be and 
they are hereby authorized to levy a tax upon all the 
taxable property in said county, not exceeding six- 
tenths of a mill on the dollar of the valuation of said 
property, in addition to any tax heretofore levied under 
said acts, to be levied and collected as follows : For the 
year 1891, one-tenth of a mill ; for the year 1892, one- 


tenth of a mill ; for the year 1893, two-tenths of a mill ; 
and for the year 1894, two-tenths of a mill; which 
amounts shall be levied and collected annually as afore- 
said.' By section 2 the Commissioners are authorized 
and directed to issue bonds and notes in anticipation of 
the collection of the tax, and by section 3 are required 
to place the proceeds of the sale of the bonds at the dis- 
posal of the Monument Commissioners. We see in this 
act, therefore, not only authority given the County Com- 
missioners to levy the tax, but imperative words requir- 
ing specific amounts to be levied and collected in 
certain years ; the language is, ' which amounts shall 
be levied and collected annually as aforesaid.' There 
appears in this act no discretion left to the County 
Commissioners in the matter of levying the tax, and 
hence under the rule heretofore referred to as the cri- 
terion for determining the character of the act, we con- 
clude that it constitutes the County Commissioners in- 
struments of the Legislature for the exercise of the 
broad favor of taxation placed by the Constitution in 
that body. 

" ' As to the taxes already collected under the acts 
by us deemed invalid, we are not disposed to interfere 
with their use for the purposes for which they have been 
levied and voluntarily paid by the City and other tax- 
payers of the county. 

" ' The City may take a decree enjoining the further 
levy and collection of taxes under all acts authorizing 
such levy for monument purposes, except the act of 
April 2, 1891.' " 

The clear and able decision of Judge Sherwood on 
all legal questions involved was received with delight 
by the Monument Commissioners, by the Soldiers of 
the county and all of their friends. The prevention of 
the collection of one-tenth of a mill of the tax, equal 
to about $13,000, could be easily and legally supplied 


bv future action of the Legislature. It was through no 
fault of Director Meyer, Mayor Rose or Director Her- 
rick that all of the remainder of the tax levies provided 
for the Monument Fund was not knocked out. The 
facts herein set forth clearly exhibit their purposes and 
desires. They were not satisfied with their attempt to 
deprive the Soldiers and Sailors of the county of the 
best and most appropriate site for the Monument, but 
they would, if they could, utterly destroy the Memorial. 
Their words were loud, but their actions were louder. 
After the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars had been paid into the treasury by the patriotic 
people of the county, and had been expended by the 
Commission for the work so far done on the Monument, 
the dastardly attempt to enjoin the further collection of 
taxes would have the effect, if successful, of completely 
destroying and preventing the erection of the Monu- 
ment. This action was hinted at, and threatened for 
some time, as a dernier ressort. But the threats, like the 
attempt, proved abortive. Still, Director Meyer, Mayor 
Rose and Director Herrick were " friends" of the Mon- 
ument. How some schemers in this world imagine they 
can cover up their deception! The Commission, however, 
were "onto the pitching" of the curves of the City's 
hired men, and could easily bat it all over the Square ! 

A World editorial of August ioth scores the City 
authorities' foolishness in the following vigorous man- 
ner : 

" By the carefully worded and duly considered decision 
of Judge Sherwood in regard to the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment case, the City again suffers a serious defeat. 

" This result was inevitable. The Monument Com- 
mission was acting under a plain statute of the State. 
The Legislature that passed this law created the City 
government. The attempt to set aside this law was 
that of the creature to become greater than its creator. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 195 

" In addition to the plain statute there was a decision 
of the Supreme Court on this matter for the guidance of 
Judge Sherwood. 

" The fact of the matter is, the City authorities are 
not disingenuous in this attempt to set aside the law. 
Their only idea is to get the matter into court and pro : 
long it till the meeting of the Legislature next Winter, 
and then try and get some legislation annulling what 
has already been done. Such proceedings could hardly 
result otherwise than in defeat/ 1 


THE Leader of the nth chronicled the further action 
of the City : 

" The next move in the Soldiers' Monument case will 
be made by the City. Next Monday, General Meyer 
will appear in the Circuit Court to ask for an injunction 
restraining the Commissioners from proceeding with the 
erection of the Monument, until the case can be tried on 
its merits in the Circuit Court. Attorney Loren Prentiss 
and Judge Jones will be on hand to fight the injunc- 
tion. When the decision of the Court has been rend- 
ered, the case will be appealed to the Supreme Court. 

" Mr. Prentiss was asked, yesterday, how much time 
would probably be required to finally end the proceed- 
ings, and he said : ' We have arranged for a hearing ot 
the case on its merits, before two of the Circuit Court 
judges next week. It will then be appealed to the 
Supreme Court. A constitutional question is involved, 
and the Supreme Court will, therefore, take up the case 
out of its order. We should, therefore, be able to get 
a final decision in October.' 

" ' Will it be possible for the City to delay the consid- 
eration of the case in the Supreme Court ? ' was asked. 
' No, the case will be taken up on motion of either 
of the parties,' replied Mr. Prentiss. ' It is the policy 
of the City to delay matters as much as possible, with 
the hope that the Legislature may amend the Monu- 
ment law next Winter. Judge Sherwood has granted 
us an injunction, restraining the City from interfering 
with the Commissioners.' 

" On behalf of the City, it was said, yesterday, that 
only the application for a temporary injunction would 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 197 

be heard in the Circuit Court next week. It was stated 
that the hearing on the merits of the case would take 
place during the regular term of the Court in the Fall." 

Quiet reigned for a few days, awaiting the decision of 
the Circuit Court. The application for a temporary in- 
junction by the City was decided by the Judges of said 
Court on August 19th. The Plain Dealer, referring to 
it, said : 

" Again the Monument Commission are on top. 

" Judge C. C. Baldwin, of the Cuyahoga Circuit Court, 
in Chambers, Judge H. J. Caldwell, concurring, decided 
the Soldiers' Monument cases Friday afternoon. 

" Judge Baldwin first said he would be very brief, so 
as to handicap himself as little as possible when the 
case should be finally heard. Then he said : 

" ' In the matter of the Monument, it is claimed that 
substantially the same matter has been heretofore de- 
cided by both this and the Supreme Court. There are 
two cases here, both begun by the City ; the one to en- 
join the work of putting the Monument on the Square, 
at all events for the present, and the other to prevent 
the County Commissioners from levying a tax provided 
for in the act passed in 1891 authorizing a tax for 
Monument purposes. 

" 'As to the first case, every one of the facts urged ex- 
isted when we heard the case before, and with the excep- 
tion of the water main they were all set up in the former 
case. The Supreme Court overruled us in the former 
case and gave assent to the erection of the Monument. 
To say that a new injunction may issue after the 
Supreme Court has spoken finally, merely because par- 
ties try again to do what has been determined they can 
do, is to say in the boldest way that a thing can be liti- 
gated again and again. Since the Supreme Court has 
said the Monument can go there, we cannot presume be- 
forehand to sav that this is not the time for them to gfo 


there, or that the Monument Commissioners will do the 
thing improperly and wrongly. We do not think that 
by refusing to remove the statue of Commodore Perry 
the City can prevent the act. The Commissioners can 
do it, providing it is done in a proper way and manner.' 

"Judge Baldwin then held as to the tax enjoined by 
Judge Sherwood, under the act of 1890 and previous 
acts, that no application having been made to him to 
modify that injunction he would not disturb it. This 
enjoins the one- tenth of a mill still to be levied under 
the act of 1890, and leaves the matter just where Judge 
Sherwood left it. 

"The act of 1891 was mandatory, and left no discre- 
tion with the County Commissioners. Judge Baldwin 
declined to enjoin the tax of six-tenths of a mill under 
it. He denied the temporary injunction. His decision 
leaves both parties just where Judge Sherwood left 
them, till October 18th, which is the earliest date at 
which the Circuit Court can hear the case on its merits. 

" So far as is apparent there is nothing to prevent 
the Commissioners from going right ahead with their 
work on the Public Square." 

The effect of the decision on Director Meyer was 
given as follows in the Plain Dealer of the 21st: 

" ' The Monument Commissioners can trample all 
over the Square,' said General Meyer smilingly, yester- 
day afternoon. ' They can plow up the sod. They can 
tear up the trees by the roots. They can pluck all the 
flowers ; they can do anything they please, and the City 
is powerless to prevent. They can take the Perry 
statue and dump it into the lake for all we can do. 
Until the October term of the Circuit Court, the City 
is without power to resist.' 

" That is how General Meyer talked after the decision 
of the Circuit Court. He was asked whether he pro- 
posed to appeal the case to the Supreme Court. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 199 

" ' I cannot appeal at present,' said he. ' Understand 
that the Circuit Court is not now in session, and is with- 
out power of jurisdiction until its October term. The 
Common Pleas Court recently enjoined the City from 
interfering with the Monument Commission and like- 
wise enjoined the County Commissioners from levying 
a tax of some $13,000 for the Commission. Both these 
injunctions were lifted bodily into the Circuit Court. 
The Circuit Court is not now in session, but the law 
provides that two of the judges may at their discretion 
act temporarily during vacation. I asked for a suspen- 
sion of the restraining order until the October term. 
This the judges have refused to grant. They took no 
action upon the injunction relating to the levy. Now, 
I cannot appeal the case, because it is still in the Cir- 
cuit Court and will be heard upon its merits at the 
October term. The Court has agreed to advance it up- 
on the docket. Xow, if the Monument Commission 
decides to take possession of the Square between now 
and October we are powerless to prevent it. It can 
tear down the Perry Monument and begin the construc- 
tion of its own, and the City will not say anything, for 
it is law abiding and will obey the injunction. But if 
the Circuit Court finally decides against the Commis- 
sion, all the work that it may have clone on the Square 
will have to come out. In such an event, I suppose 
the Commission will appeal to the Supreme Court. If 
the case goes against us we certainly shall appeal to 
the Supreme Court.' 

" l If the Commission invade the Square, will you 
make any further resistance ? ' was asked. 

'' ' None, whatever,' replied the General." 

A meeting of the Commission was held on August 
22d, at which action was taken to provide for the pay- 
ment of outstanding bills. This action was rendered 
necessary, owing to the fact that the Law Director had 


scared the county officers by saying to them that it 
would be u at their peril if any further drafts of the 
Monument Commission were honored." Commissioners 
Elwell and Gleason, with Attorney Prentiss, were ap- 
pointed a Committee to confer with the county author- 
ities to bring about an amicable understanding. Their 
work was successful, as the following action indicates : 

« t> tt ™ „,.~ .. x? "August 22, 1892. 

" T. K. DlSSETTE, Esq. ' y 

" Dear Sir: — We have had presented to us this morning, various 
bills for payment amounting to $3,750.50, against the Monument 
Fund. The City has renewed its order as before the hearing of the 
Soldiers' Monument case in the Circuit Court. Are there, in your 
opinion, any legal obligations to the payment of the same, under 
the present situation of the case, or any liabilities that the Auditor 
and Treasurer are liable to incur by said payment ? 
" Respectfully submitted, 
" A. E. Akins, 

" Auditor Cuyahoga County." 

"A. E. Akins, Esq. "August 23,1892. 

" Dear Sir : — Yours of August 22 before me, referring to the 
various bills presented to you for payment against the Soldiers' 
Monument Fund, and asking whether since the hearing of the 
Soldiers' Monument case in the Circuit Court, there are any legal 
objections to the payment of the same, under the present situation 
of the case, or any liabilities that the Auditor and Treasurer are 
liable to incur by said payment. 

" In reply, allow me to say that there is no order of Court re- 
straining the County Auditor from drawing his warrants, or the 
County Treasurer from paying any claims against the Soldiers' 
Monument Fund, when vouched for agreeably to the provisions of 
the statute. The Common Pleas and Circuit Courts have each re- 
fused to make such an order after a pretty full hearing. I see no 
legal objection to the payment of said claims. 

" The application for an injunction, however, is still pending in 
the Circuit Court, and there is a very remote possibility that when 
the case is heard upon its merits the Court may grant such an in- 
junction. "Very respectfully, 

" T. K. DlSSETTE, 

"Assistant Prosecuting Attorney." 

" ' On the strength of this,' said Mr. Akins shortly 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 201 

afterwards, ' I shall draw my warrant unless Capt. 
Shields tells me he will not honor it. If he does so say, 
I shall refuse to issue my warrant, because, if they are 
going to begin proceedings in mandamus against him, 
they might as well proceed against me, also, and have 
the Court determine both our rights.' 

" There is no disposition on the part of either officer 
to withhold payment, except as a measure of self-pro- 
tection. There is plenty of money in the Soldiers' 
Monument Fund. 

" All thought that the opinion of Capt. Dissette 
ought to contain a final answer to the question asked. 
After a lengthy discourse, Capt. Dissette consented to 
insert the sentence, ' I see no legal objection to the 
payment of said claims.' 

" This settled it, Mr. Akins said when asked, that he 
would draw a warrant in all probability on application. 

" When Capt. Shields was asked about it, he said : 

" ' I sha'n't pay till I get a warrant.' 

" 'And if you get a warrant ?' 

" ' If Mr. Akins draws a warrant, I shall undoubtedly 
pay it. I am not going to assume to pass on matters 
that have already been passed upon.' " 

The Committee subsequently reported the result of 
their labors to the Commission, by whom the action of 
the County officials was warmly commended. Secretary 
Bauder renewed the motion he made two months prior, 
" that the County Commissioners be required to issue 
bonds or notes in anticipation of the collection of the 
tax." The motion was adopted. 

The further result of the meeting is given from the 
Leader of the 25th : 

" The Monument Commissioners have at last taken 
possession of the Public Square, and, after nearly two 
years' delay, active work has been commenced towards 
putting up the Memorial to the Soldiers and Sailors of 


Cuyahoga County. On Wednesday morning, half a 
hundred cedar posts were unloaded from wagons and 
placed in heaps on the sod in the southeast section of 
the Public Square, near the statue of Commodore Perry. 
A short time afterwards, men commenced to place the 
posts in position for the construction of a fence. A 
police sergeant who stood watching the proceedings 
said that inasmuch as the Court had granted the Com- 
missioners the right to occupy the Square, they were 
at perfect liberty to proceed. 

" The Monument Commissioners were in a happy 
frame of mind. They got together in Captain Levi T. 
Scofield's office and laid plans for future action. The 
decision of the County officers to honor their drafts was 
regarded as the final admission of the legal authorities 
that all litigation was at an end. When one of their 
number reported that Auditor Akins had signed the 
warrants, and that Treasurer Shields had paid them, 
they got immediately down to business. They resolved 
first, to go to work immediately, and put up the Monu- 
ment without delay. Secondly, they resolved to request 
the City authorities to remove the Perry statue and the 
water main. This resolution will be presented to the 
Mayor, the Director of Public Works, the Board ot 
Control, and the City Council. They further resolved, 
that if the City will not have removed the obstructions 
by the time they will be ready to put in the foundation, 
they will remove them of their own accord. They then 
resolved to hold an executive session at Captain Sco- 
field's office, Wednesday evening, and to spend more 
money. Contractor Grant wanted a bonus, and was 
not ready to proceed further without it. He had lost 
a great deal by the delay caused by litigation, and his 
bid was several thousand dollars lower than any other. 
It was urged that there be a full attendance at the 
secret meeting, Wednesday evening. Several members 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 205 

of the Commission thought that there was no necessity 
for a full meeting, and suggested that the Executive 
Committee attend to what business was necessary. 
Finally it was decided to make the meeting one for the 
Executive Committee only. 

" Count} - Commissioners Mattison and King took 
under consideration, Wednesday, the demand of the 
Monument Commissioners to issue bonds in anticipa- 
tion of the tax for Monument purposes. They took no 
action, however. They desired to have legal advice be- 
fore proceeding. They were in doubt as to the manda- 
tory character of the act of the Legislature which au- 
thorizes them to issue bonds. The act states that they 
are ' authorized and directed to issue bonds.' The Com- 
missioners stated that they were in no hurry to take 
any action and did not think it necessary to comply 
with the demand of the Monument Commissioners at 
once, as they had already about $23,000 to spend in 
putting up the Monument. 

" One of the Monument Commissioners stated, on 
Wednesday, that only a portion of the southeast section 
of the Square will be fenced in at present, and that a 
board walk will be placed over the sod as an exten- 
sion from Euclid Avenue, so that pedestrians will not 
be compelled to walk around the entire section. He 
said that the contractor will occupy the Square at 
once with the granite for the esplanade, and stones for 
the foundation, and commence excavating immediatelv. 
Considerable work can be done, he said, before the 
removal of the Perry statue and the water main. 

" The Executive Committee held a long meeting in 
Commissioner W. J. Gleason's office, in the City Hall, 
last night. It was chiefly for the purpose of inducing 
Contractor John Grant, who was the lowest bidder for 
the building of the Monument, to sign a contract, as he 
agreed to do on March 28, 1891. The Commissioners 


at that time opened the bids and awarded the contract 
to Grant for $64,867. Mr. Grant gave a bond for $7,500 
at the time as a guaranty that he would enter into a 
contract. More than a year has elapsed and Mr. Grant 
is not now willing to bind himself to do the work for 
the amount mentioned above. He wants damages for 
the delay and the work he has lost on account of the 
time he has spent in preparing to do the monumental 
work. He thinks $3,500 added to the $64,867 will en- 
able him to erect the Monument at a profit to himself, 
and to the satisfaction of the Commission. All these 
facts and claims he presented to the Commissioners, and 
a long discussion ensued. The Commissioners offered 
to give him an additional $1,000 because the wages of 
mortar mixers, hod carriers and cranemen are from 
twenty-five to fifty cents a day higher than they were a 
year ago. The Commissioners very emphatically de- 
clared that they could not pay damages that could not 
be plainly shown to have been sustained. The object 
of the meeting, so far as Mr. Grant's contract is con- 
cerned, was not accomplished, but the Commissioners 
believe that the contractor will see fit to sign the agree- 
ment before they are ready for him. If he does not, 
they will probably make a contract with the next lowest 
bidder. Secretary Bauder reported that he had notified 
the City to remove the statue of Commodore Perry and 
the water main, as he was ordered to do." 

The Leader of the following date said : 

" The southeast section of the Public Square was al- 
most thoroughly surrounded Thursday afternoon by the 
fence which the Monument Commissioners are con- 
structing. The only portion which will not be enclosed 
is a small part of the northeast corner of the section. 
The public walks have not yet been closed, but will be 
fenced in as soon as the workmen begin to haul the 
material for the Monument. There was verv little in- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 207 

terest in the proceedings Thursday, and the workmen 
were in no way molested. Several of the [Monument 
Commissioners watched the fence building at various 
times during the day. 

" With regard to the general situation, Major Gleason 
said: 'I have not heard a single person complain of the 
fence. All this talk about inconvenience to people is a 
bugbear rigged up for the occasion. The diagonal walk 
through that section of the Square leads nowhere from 
Euclid Avenue. It lands you in the center of the 
Square and you have to follow a straight line thence 
to your destination. A man who desires to reach the 
Forest City House corner can just as easily walk to the 
southwest quarter of the Square and use the diagonal 
walk there. If he wishes to reach the Stone Church or 
the Society for Savings, it is just as near for him to walk 
down the east line of the Square to the postoffice cor- 
ner and cut through the northeast section which con- 
tains the auditorium. If the crosswalk at Euclid 
Avenue were laid across the roadway to the Square in a 
direct line with the sidewalk, the distance to the center 
would be shorter than it is now. But the claim that 
the Monument would inconvenience pedestrians fur- 
nished something to talk about and of course the most 
was made of the opportunity.' 

" Director Herrick was asked yesterday whether he 
would proceed to remove the Perry Statue. 'No, noth- 
ing has been decided upon yet,' answered Mr. Herrick. 
' I have received a notice of the Monument Commis- 
sioners saying that they will remove the 'obstructions,' 
as they call the statue and the water main. If they go 
ahead and do the work there, we will be relieved of that 
duty. I believe that the case is still in Court, however, 
and I cannot say what will be done by the City.' 

" Another City official expressed the opinion that the 
fence would be pulled down between two days. 


" 'By whom?' was asked. 

'"Why, by indignant citizens. I do not believe 
the people will be satisfied to walk around that section 
of the Square. After they have suffered from the 
nuisance for a while I think there will be a quiet 
gathering in the Square some night and then, good-bye 

"The Executive Committee of the Monument Com- 
mission held another meeting in Commissioner Gleason's 
office last night. The contract question is still un- 
settled, and it was stated after the meeting that no 
definite action would be taken until General Barnett, 
who is a member of the committee, returns to the city. 
At Wednesday night's session, Contractor Grant declined 
to proceed with the building of the Monument unless 
he was given a bonus of $3,500 in addition to the con- 
tract price of $64,867. The committee offered him 
$1,000 extra, but he said that was not enough. The 
next lowest bidders at the time the contract was let 
were McAllister & Dall, and their bid was about $10,000 
more than Grant's. A representative of that firm was 
present at the meeting last evening. The gathering 
took place behind closed doors, but Secretary Bauder 
said after it adjourned that it was never called to order 
and was entirely informal. It is possible that McAllister 
& Dall will reduce their bid somewhat, and if a reduc- 
tion is made they will be given the contract. But, as 
before stated, the matter will be left in abeyance until 
General Barnett's return." 

Commissioner Elwell communicated the following to 
the Leader on August 27th: 
" To the Editor of the Leader : 

"The Monument Commission has no fault to find with the 
Leader. It has treated the Board fairly. Its columns have been 
open to all sides and the questions involved have been discussed in 
every possible aspect. The Commission has never appeared in 
print or in the Courts except in self-defense. Its doings have all 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 209 

been open and above board. At this late day, when the work on the 
Monument is so nearly completed and the questions involved all 
settled judicially, it is difficult to see what is to be gained by further 
discussion, either in the newspapers or elsewhere. The Leader 
seemed to take this view of the case a day or tw r o ago. To-day, 
however, it says it is suggested to hold a public meeting for further 
discussion, as if the press for the last two years had not said every- 
thing that can be said for and against the site selected, reiterating 
what it has said before that a majority of the people were against 
the present site. The Leader is probably mistaken about the side 
the majority is on. The Commission, on the other hand, has no 
doubt, from all the information that comes to it from all quarters, 
that the large majority of the people are in favor of the site selected. 
They think so, first, because the people's representatives in the 
Legislature, representing every ward and township in the County, 
right from the people, gave this site to the Commission. It is no 
answer to this fact that the question was not submitted to the 
people. Nobody asked to have it submitted — there was no objection 
from any quarter. The Representatives and Senators do represent 
the people on all questions that are not specially excepted. The 
Representatives said: 'Take the Square if you cannot find a better 
site.' Two or three Legislatures have said this — Republicans and 
Democrats alike. Second, Mayors Babcock and Gardner favored the 
Square and do so yet so far as anything has appeared to the con- 
trary. These officers were positive men and did all they could 
officially and individually to help and encourage -us, appearing 
sometimes at our meetings, making suggestions, encouraging and 
approving what we did. Third, the Board of Aldermen and the 
Council unanimously said : ' Take the Square for your Monument.' 
Fourth, the Park Commissioners said: 'Take any section of the 
Square but the southeast one ; that w'e will hold under advise- 
ment for the present. You can have the center, and we will change 
the roads around it and widen the grounds.' Fifth, the Commission 
was appointed primarily by the Soldiers' and Sailors' Union of the 
Count}', comprising all the active Soldiers and Sailors of the County. 
The Commission is their agent and does their bidding, and reports 
regularly to the Union. The Union said: 'Take the southeast sec- 
tion of the Square.' At the last full meeting in June the Union 
approved all the Commissioners had done, especially as to site, said 
go ahead and build the Monument on the Square, and complete it 
as speedily as possible. Sixth, leading citizens say to us daily, 
' Don't be driven from the Square by the clamor. It is the proper 
site.' Prominent citizens on Euclid Avenue and Prospect Street 
say this. Seventh, not a Soldier, so far as the writer knows, objects 
to the site, unless he has a pet project, though one or two have 


found fault with this or that in the construction of the Monument. 
There may be Soldiers who prefer another site, but they have not 
pressed the matter. 

"The Commission think, therefore, that the}' are representing the 
people. They think the battle having been fought and won on this 
blood\- field, that they have a right to bivouac on this ground and 
hold it, and they intend to do so. J. J. Ei/WEUv." 

A joint meeting of the Commissioners and City 
officials was held on Angnst 30th, the proceedings of 
which we cop}' from the Plain Dealer of the 31st : 

" A joint meeting of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Commission and the City officials was held in 
Director Herrick's private office yesterday afternoon to 
discuss the Monument project. Mayor Rose and 
Director Herrick represented the City and there were 
present on behalf of the Commission, Gen. M. D. Leg- 
gett, Gen. James Barnett, Gen. J. J. Elwell, Maj. W. 
J. Gleason, Col. E. W. Force, Capt. J. B. Molyneaux, 
Capt. E. H. Bohm, Capt. C. C. Dewstoe and Capt. 
L. F. Bauder. 

" The meeting almost broke up in a row at the very 
start off. Nothing was accomplished. The City offi- 
cials thought the meeting was called to harmonize on 
another site and the Commission insisted that the meet- 
ing was called to co-operate in the removal of the Perry 
statue. The City materially weakened its case by 
suggesting that the Commission take one of the other 
three sections of the Square. Everyone supposed that 
the opposition was to the Square. Gen. Barnett was 
elected to preside. He stated that the object of the 
meeting was to confer with the City officials and secure 
their hearty co-operation in the removal of the Perry 
statue and the water main. 

" 'May I ask,' asked Mayor Rose, 'whether the Com- 
mission is determined to have the Public Square or 
whether it would be content to have some other loca- 
tion if offered ? ' 


" ' No tender of any site has ever been made,' replied 
Gen. Barnett. 

l "I am satisfied,' continned Mayor Rose, 'that a large 
majority of the people are opposed to the Public Square 
as a site. Of course, no one is opposed to the Monu- 
ment. I would be in favor of continuing the tax for a 
number of years longer and I am sure the greater pro- 
portion of our citizens would. It would not delay the 
Monument very long.' 

" Capt. Bohm declared with some warmth that the 
controversy between the City and the Commission had 
resulted in the formation of an opinion, frequently ex- 
pressed, that the old Soldiers might go to h — 1. 

" ' < )h, no, no ! ' said Mayor Rose. ' In no city is the 
Soldier so respected as in Cleveland. The City is not 
responsible for individual expressions.' 

" Major Gleason said that it was patent to the Com- 
mission that the present City administration had not 
given the Monument the attention it deserves. Major 
Gleason then gave a clear and concise account of the 
progress of the Monument movement and the various 
sites that have been offered or suggested. 

" ' The old Park Commission offered us either the 
center of the Square or any one of the three sections, 
excluding the particular section we wanted,' said Major 
Gleason. ' What was its objection to the southeast 
section? There was no secret made about it. Both J. 
H. Wade and J. M. Curtiss said that the purpose was to 
extend Euclid Avenue through the Square, and eventu- 
ally the street railways would run through it.' 

" Major Gleason said that Gen. Meyer, before he was 
made Director of Law, had volunteered his services as 
counsel to the Commission and had added that the City 
had no case in court. He closed an extensive and well di- 
rected argument with the assertion that the Commission 
had not been treated in just the correct way by the City. 


'" Have you absolutely concluded to take the Public 
Square ? ' asked Mayor Rose. ' If you have, there is no 
use arguing' with you.' 

" The Commission again reiterated that the adminis- 
tration had never offered any other site. 

" Mr. Herrick replied that the Commission had never 
asked for any other site. 

" ' I want to say right now,' said Mr. Herrick, ' that 
the Commission can have any other site in the other 

" ' And permit me to say,' said Capt. Bohm, ' that I 
do not believe the City has a clear title to Wade Park. 
Now Pelton Park was dedicated for park purposes only. 
And as to the West Side Reservoir ' 

" ' What is the matter with the Reservoir property? ' 
asked Mr. Herrick, ' isn't it on one of the finest resi- 
dence streets in the city?' 

' ' You may as well put the Monument in a Euclid 
Avenue back yard as on the Reservoir property,' said 
Capt. Bohm. 

" ' I supposed the question of site was all settled,' 
said Gen. Elwell. ' I don't see what this talk is all 
about. We have let our contracts to build the Monu- 
ment and came here this afternoon to see if the City 
would kindly remove the Perry statue and the water 

' ' I understood the call was to harmonize on some 
other site,' said Mr. Herrick. 

" Capt. Dewstoe argued that if the City would co- 
operate with the Commission, all opposition on the 
part of the people would cease. 

' ' On the contrary, I think the opposition would be 
inflamed,' said Mayor Rose. 

" Major Gleason declared that the present location of 
the statue of Commodore Perry was inappropriate and 
that the Commodore, instead of pointing to the lake, 

Copyright by the Sculptoi 



soldiers' and sailors' monument. 215 

where he won his victories, was pointing to a fish 

" ( 5-en. Elwell insisted that the best place for Commo- 
dore Perry was Eakeview Park. 

" ' I should be governed by the action of onr represent- 
atives,' said Mr. Herrick. ' The Council is a large part 
of the administration. The Board of Control is merely 
executive. The Council has refused to make an appro- 
priation for the removal of Commodore Perry and I 
have no authority to remove it.' 

" ' Is your objection to removing it merely because 
you have no money?' asked Gen. Elwell. 

" Mr. Herrick did not reply and the General repeated 
the question. 

" ' Is that not sufficient? ' answered Mr. Herrick. 

" Mr. Herrick a moment later said that as an indi- 
vidual he would be very sorry to put his hands upon 
Commodore Perry. 

"'Would you object to us removing him?' asked 
Gen. Elwell. 

" Mr. Herrick had nothing to say. 

" ' We came here to-day in a friendly spirit,' explained 
Gen. Elwell. ' We have selected a site and I under- 
stand ground is to be broken at eight o'clock to-morrow 
morning. Will you kindly remove the Perry statue ? ' 

" ' If anyone's hands are to be laid upon Commodore 
Perry,' said Mr. Herrick, ' I had rather the Commission 
do it than I.' 

" ' We have a more sacred regard for that statue than 
you have,' retorted Gen. Elwell hotly. 

"Col. E. W. Force asked whether any other section 
would be more satisfactory to the City, but no one ap- 
parently noticed the question. 

" ' Wont the Monument be a more glorious object,' 
said Major Gleason, ' than the old rookery in one sec- 
tion, the fountain that squirts half the year in the other 


section, and the rustic bridge with two dirty ponds filled 
with banana peels in the third section ? ' 

" ' If you would consent to take one of the other sec- 
tions,' said Mr. Herrick, ' I think something would 
grow out of it. 

" ' Eitlicv one of the other three sections,' interposed 
Mayor Rose. 

" Gen. Elwell emphatically declared that the Com- 
mission would not take any other section. 

"'Well,' said Mr. Herrick, 'if you are determined to 
build there, let the blood be upon your own skirts.' 

" Here the meeting ended with no conclusion 

The World printed the following sensible editorial 
on September ist: 

" At this late day, after the matter has been fought 
through the Legislature and litigated through the 
Courts, and the whole matter fairly and honorably 
settled that the Soldiers' Monument should go into the 
southeast corner of the Public Square and the work 
upon construction has begun, an attempt is being made 
to rouse public sentiment by public meetings and to beg 
of the Monument Commission to place the Monument 

" It seems to us that all this sort of thing is out of 

" It should have been done ten years ago, if at all. 

li After the Commission has been subjected to the 
annoyance and expense of lawsuits, and has been en- 
tirely victorious, it seems very late to enter into the 
business of supplicating. 

" It is indeed strange that people can never awake to 
the seriousness of a situation until it is too late. 

" As a matter of fact, we do not believe that there 
would have been any special objection raised to the 
erection of the Monument on the proposed site had it 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 217 

not been for the constant agitation of a certain news- 
paper that is simply hostile to the whole Monument 
scheme and feels that the more it can annoy the Com- 
missioners the greater point it will make. 

" Whether the northeast corner of the Square is a 
good or bad place for the Monument, it does seem that 
it is now too late to kick successfully about locating 
it there." 

Mark well the proposition of the City government. 
They would readily consent to the occupancy of either 
of the other three sections of the Square. The object 
of the Commission was accomplished. They had 
smoked out the City officials, and planted them just 
where the defunct Park Commissioners stood. There 
would be space enough for the Monument on any of the 
other sections of the Square, the structure would be 
suitable, but the objection was to the particular section 
desired. As an actual fact, all of the sections are of ex- 
actly similar dimensions. The puny actions of the City 
officials were as utterly devoid of consistency as they 
were of fair dealing. They were easily caught in the 
trap set for them by the Commission, to test their 
motive and sinceritv. 


ANEW " Richmond," fiercely booted and spurred, 
rushes madly into the fray ! It will be nicely 
tamed by the time its wisdom teeth are cut ! 

The small squad of cranks now began to get in their 
work. The fence around the southeast section of the 
Square caused a few " influential citizens" a slight 
temporary inconvenience. In their perambulations to 
and from lunch, at the Union Club on Euclid Avenue, 
they were compelled to walk a few feet more than 
formerly. This had a depressing effect on these 
methodical gentlemen, resulting in giving them a bad 
case of dyspepsia. The fact that a fence had hitherto 
been built around the foundation of everv new down- 
town business block, agreeable to a City Ordinance 
made and provided for such purpose, seemed to be 
completely forgotten. That particular fence around the 
foundation of the Soldiers' Monument was " an outrage, 
and must come down ! " The poor dyspeptics felt 
terrifically disgruntled, and they rose right up on their 
dignity and protested. 

As one of their butterfly dudes expressed himself: 
" Weally, dontcherno, the deah boys wouldn't stawnd 
it! Us fellahs mus'n't be twi fled with ! Our pawths 
must not be obstwucted ! That blawsted fence must 
come down, dontcherno." 

Notwithstanding the acrimonious protests of a few 
unhappy gentlemen, the Monument Commission were 
necessitated to go right on in the line of their duty to 
the accomplishment of their work. So straightway the 
club'diners and luncheon squad sought to plant a new 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 221 

battery against the incipient Monument, which would 
cause the Commissioners to immediately capitulate. 
Their mighty Krupp gun bore upon its breech the sig- 
nificant and captivating legend — " Board of Trade." 

Neatly printed circulars were gotten out, couriers 
were sent hither and yon to collect sufficient recruits to 
man the battery. The newspapers were pressed into 
the service; glaring headlines, stirring editorials, local 
squibs, knowing winks, earnest entreaties, hearty hand- 
shakes, and all the preliminaries and paraphernalia 
incident to the siege of a castle were brought into 
requisition, supplemented and sustained by the muni- 
tions and resources of the vast commerce of the inland 
seas and the prosperous industries of a beautiful and 
expanding city. The Monument Commissioners were 
to be annihilated. The promoters of the " Monster 
Mass Meeting" started off with the self-satisfied and 
martial airs of a new country brass band on its first 
public appearance. However, by the time the curtain 
dropped on their grand drama of the Board of Trade, 
the orchestra could not pump wind enough to fill a 
mouth organ. 

The old Board of Trade, before its recent reconstruc- 
tion, expansion and modern commercial spirit, was in 
its infancy but an humble institution with a sonorous 
name. Its membership — on paper — was eminently 
respectable. The list of members was " long " on the 
books, " short " at meetings. Annual fees and dues 
were promptly paid — when called or sent for. On 
ordinary, everyday occasions, sometimes as many as six 
business men and the Secretary came together. Occa- 
sionally a huge transaction took place on 'Change, such 
as the selling or buying of a full car load of potatoes. 
Then again a few crates of eggs would change hands, as 
well as the oats in which the eggs were packed. The 
dingy headquarters attained to the dignity of being 


supplied with a ticker, which reeled off quotations with 
the fascinating interest of base-ball scores, horse-racing 
results, and other like important public events. 

At last the auspicious occasion had arisen when the 
fast decaying Board of Trade would assume a new life, 
when they would make one last grand rally in defense 
of the Street Railroad Corporations, or perish in the 
attempt. Of course this " Monster Mass Meeting of 
the Representative Business Men of Cleveland" would 
strike terror to the hearts of the Monument Commission, 
would cause them to unconditionally surrender the fruits 
of the victory for which they had been battling the past 
thirteen years ! The fateful day of the conflict at last 
arrived. The clans began to gather from the " three 
quarters " of the City. The bare floor and unpainted 
walls of the rented headquarters of the Board of Trade 
began to echo with the tramp, tramp, tramp, and the 
voices of as many as three hundred and fifty brave 
business men, their aiders, abettors and advisers. The 
Monument Commissioners, too, were there; uninvited 
and unbidden, meek and humble, in the presence of " so 
much influence ! " As the meeting proceeded, pande- 
monium reigned supreme. Parliamentary usages were 
cast to the winds. Freedom of speech was a lost pre- 
rogative, especially as applied to several members of 
the Commission. The balky assemblage paid little, if 
any, attention to the bell of Col. William Edwards, the 
genial starter. After many trials, and frequent " scor- 
ing," the word "go" was given, only to result in the 
President's unruly horses running away with him. At 
last a semblance of order was brought out of chaos, and 
the meeting went on. We publish extracts from the 
Leader of September 2nd, giving a report of it : 

" There was a lively citizens' meeting at the Board of 
Trade rooms, Thursday morning, in reference to the 
Soldiers' Monument question, but it cannot be said that 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 223 

very much was accomplished. There were several elo- 
quent speeches on both sides of the controversy, and 
resolutions of no uncertain sound were adopted. A 
committee on conference, whose duty it would be to 
confer with the Monument Commissioners as to the 
matter of a suitable site for the Monument other than 
the chosen location, was also appointed, but as the 
Commissioners refused to meet the Committee, it is 
hard to see what benefit will result from their appoint- 
ment. The meeting was an extremely lively one, and 
while, on the whole, good feeling prevailed, there were 
a few personalities which had been better left unsaid. 
The citizens were somewhat late in arriving at the 
Board of Trade, and at 11 o'clock, the hour set for the 
gathering, the prospects for a large meeting looked 
rather dim. Five minutes later, the people began to 
arrive in droves and they kept coming until when the 
meeting was called to order, standing room was at a 
premium, and the last comers had to be content with 
accommodations in the passage or gallery. All told, 
there were over 350 persons present, and among them 
were the most representative and influential citizens of 
Cleveland. The Monument Commission was repre- 
sented by Generals Leggett and Elwell, Captain Sco- 
field, Colonel Dewstoe, Major Gleason, Captain Bohm 
and James Hayr. 

" After rapping for order, President Edwards said a 
few words explanatory of the object of the meeting. 
He said the question of placing the Monument in the 
Square had never been properly discussed by the cit- 
izens at large. He paid a glowing tribute to the services 
performed by the ex-Soldiers, and said that in no city 
of the United States was their memory more revered 
than in Cleveland. Still there was a very strong senti- 
ment against placing the Soldiers' Monument in the 
Square, and it was to discuss that question that the 


meeting had been called. President Edwards then said 
that the meeting would like to hear from General M. 
D. Leggett. The suggestion was loudly applauded, 
and General Leggett was given a hearty round of ap- 
plause as he left his seat in the gallery and stepped for- 
ward to the President's desk. 

" ' I believe the first thing for me to do is to apolo- 
gize for being here,' said the venerable ex-Soldier. 
' The invitation I received was for those who desired to 
protest against placing the Monument in the Square, 
and I don't belong to that class.'' 

" There was a volley of applause at this assertion, and 
the fact became apparent that the Monument Commis- 
sion had plenty of friends in the room. ' I have been 
a member of the Commission since its organization,' 
continued General Leggett, ' and I submit that I know 
something about the Monument. There is an old 
adage common to us lawyers — I think Lord Coke was 
the author of it — to the effect that if a man neglects to 
speak when he ought to speak, he should be prohibited 
from speaking when he wants to speak. [Applause.] 
That adage is applicable on this occasion. This site 
was chosen twelve years ago, and it was known to every- 
body, but there has been no protest until now.' Gen- 
eral Leggett said the southeast section of the Square 
is the only section that is adapted to the Monument. 
The tablet room is to be forty feet square and twenty 
feet high, he continued, and it would look altogether 
too squatty and unsightly on any other section of the 
Square, in each of which the ground is much lower. 
' If the citizens have kept still until we have expended 
$150,000 and contracted for more expenditures,' the 
General went on, 4 1 think it is almost unconscionable 
for them to meet at this late day and protest against 
the chosen site. We don't want to fly in the face of the 
community, but we honestlv believe we are right in the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 225 

matter. The Monument will not be standing thirty 
days before nine out of every ten of the people who are 
objecting to the site will say the Monument is a beauti- 
ful thing and just exactly in the right place. It is not 
possible for us to do anything else than we are doing. 
No other door is open to us.' 

1 T. M. Heard said he had only a few words to say, 
and he proceeded to say them, despite considerable in- 
terruption. He said he was originally opposed to the 
Square as a site for the Monument, but since the Courts 
had decided that that was the proper place for it, he had 
withdrawn his opposition, and thought everybody else 
ought to acquiesce also. Then Mr. Heard went on to 
tell a story about a parrot which had acquired the habit 
of swearing, but the audience didn't want to hear the 
story and the speaker was obliged to desist. 

"Colonel Dewstoe moved that Captain Scofield be 
invited to submit and explain the plans for the Monu- 
ment. The speaker said that a majority of those 
present had never seen the plans and should not oppose 
the Monument until thev knew what thev were talking 
about. The motion was carried, and Captain Scofield 
came forward carrying a big roll of parchment. Pres- 
ident Edwards asked him to be as brief as possible. 
' It wont take very long,' said the Captain. 

' Well, then, I'll give you five minutes,' said the 
presiding officer. 

' I wouldn't think of attempting to explain the plans 
in that short time, and if that is all I can have I decline 
to say anything,' replied Captain Scofield, and he went 
back to his seat. 

Hon. R. C. Parsons was called for and went forward. 
His speech was a very eloquent one. He began by re- 
ferring to a meeting of citizens which he attended 
thirty years ago, when recruits were being sent for- 
ward to the seat of war. ' People came forward in 


crowds to pay money to help our boys,' he continued, 
' and I thought at that time that I had never known a 
more loyal or devoted community than Cleveland was. 
And when I read in the papers the other day that a 
member of this Commission declared that Cleveland 
cared nothing for the Soldiers 1 Monument and wished 
it was in hell, I thought the man must be blind. Why, 
Cleveland was the incarnation of loyalty during the war, 
and it was here that the cradle of freedom was rocked.' 
Then the speaker told of several touching incidents of 
kindness to the returning Soldiers at Washington at the 
close of the war, and continuing, he said : ' This was 
truly God's country, and Cleveland was one of its 
brightest jewels. Never let me hear that Cleveland 
doesn't love her Soldiers. Never let me see an old Sol- 
dier who is worthy of respect walk along our streets 
without any one who calls himself a man being ready 
to take off his hat. It is true that no one objected to 
this site for the Monument until lately. The reason 
was that we did not know what the Monument was to 
be like. Now we find that the Square and the Monu- 
ment are no more suited to each other than the big hat 
of a man is suited to the head of a little boy. The 
Public Square is sacred to our people, and it is none too 
sacred for a Monument to our Soldiers. But when you 
come to take away a monument that is already fitted 
both by associations and size to that place, and put in 
its stead a structure that is forty feet square and a 
hundred feet high, you make a great mistake. It has 
been said that the Commission have a perfect right to 
go ahead. Legally, that is so; morally, it is not so. The 
great mass of our citizens are opposed to that location. 
The Monument is owned by the people, and ought not 
to be placed on any site that the mass of the people are 
opposed to. The people are perfectly willing to pay 
another $100,000 if the Monument is put elsewhere.' 

soldiers' and sailors 1 monument. 227 

" Rev. Dr. C. S. Bates was asked to say a few words 
and he was listened to with marked interest. ' I had 
something to do with the army, 1 he began, 'and from 
the bottom of my heart I sympathize with the honor of 
our citizen soldiery. I am opposed to placing the Mon- 
ument on the Square. The question is : Is there not, in 
fairness, already established a prior claim to this 
ground ? Ought we to set aside a monument in mem- 
ory of the achievements of eighty years ago to make 
room for one in commemoration of those of thirty years 
ago? I know the Commission do not think so, but it 
will certainly be regarded as a slight to the memory of 
Commodore Perry if his statue is removed to make 
way for the new Monument. Only once in human his- 
tory did an American fleet meet the mistress of the 
waves and demonstrate that on some waters, at least, 
Britannia does not rule the waves. Perry's Monument 
is unique in that it commemorates the victory of an 
American fleet over a British fleet, and we ought to call 
the place where it stands consecrated ground. 

" ' The members of this Commission are all noble men 
and fit to stand with the most princely men in the 
world,' continued Dr. Bates, ' but they do not represent 
our citizens properly in this matter. I want our Soldiers 
to be honored by the love of their countrymen, and no 
monument that may be erected should stand as an 
odium or reproach, but as voicing the acclaims of the 
whole people. If the Commission will feel that although 
they have won a victory in the Courts, they may rise to 
a grander height by losing something of their personal 
preference, I believe that for all that they thus lose, they 
will find in the honor that will come to them ample 
recompense. They say it is too late. It is never too 
late for anybody to try and cultivate the good- will of 
the community. Suppose that this meeting would ap- 
point a Committee on Conference, and that committee 


should say to you, ' we can secure a better site for the 
Monument, acceptable alike to you and the people,' is 
there not a possibility of adjustment along that line?' 

" Dr. Bates' suggestion for a Conference Committee 
was loudly applauded and bore fruit later in the pro- 

" Mr. John B. Cofhnberry was recognized as Dr. Bates 
sat down, and he made a speech that caused a great 
deal of amusement. ' Two days ago,' he said, ' the 
people of the West Side were relegated to a position of 
obscurity by a person who is a Justice of the Peace, and 
from whose decision there can therefore be no appeal. 
Despite that gentleman's utterances, howeYer, I firmly 
belieYe that there are half a dozen suitable sites for the 
Monument other than the Public Square, and one of 
these sites may be found on the West Side.' 

" Captain Scofield said that the people who had not 
seen the plans could not comprehend what the Monu- 
ment was to be. ' There is no man in the city who 
thinks more of Perry's statue than I do,' he added, 
' but I belieYe the proper place for him is on the bank 
of the lake.' 

" At this point, Mr. J. H. McBride moved that the 
chair appoint a committee of five on resolutions. The 
motion was adopted, and President Edwards named the 
following gentlemen as the committee: J. H. McBride, 
Hon. M. A. Hanna, S. M. Strong, G. W. Short and W. 
H. Corning. They retired to the Secretary's office 
to prepare their report. As the door closed behind them, 
Col. A. T. Van Tassel said : 1 1 would like to ask Cap- 
tain Scofield if the Commission shouldn't spend the 
people's money in the way the people say.' 

' We were appointed to perform a special duty, and 
we haYe been laboring for five or six years to accom- 
plish that duty,' replied Captain Scofield. ' We have 
spent nearly fourteen years trying to find out the sense 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 231 

of the people, and I firmly believe that the largest pro- 
portion of the people of Cuyahoga Comity want the 
Monument to go on the Square.' 

" Major W. J. Gleason, in response to numerous calls, 
walked to the front of the room and made an address. 
' I am glad that at last something has arisen that is 
sufficient to fill this room,' he said, sarcastically. ' It 
is a very unusual thing for a meeting of the Board of 
Trade to fill this room. Once a year, on the occasion 
of the annual free lunch, there is a large crowd here, 
but as a rule the attendance is very slim.' The Major's 
words were smothered by shouts of protest at the na- 
ture of his remarks. For a minute he could not make 
himself heard, but finally shouted: 'I've heard geese 
before, and these few geese don't bother me a bit.' He 
went on to say that Perry's statue was not now placed 
right or ' pointed ' right. ' We as a Commission,' he 
said, ' wanted to know the sentiment of the people as 
regards a site for the Monument, but where have you 
been for the past thirteen years ? The people of 
this county are not represented here. There are 400,- 
000 people in Cuyahoga county, and this meeting can't 
presume to speak for the whole county. We are willing 
to put the question to a vote, but where do a majority 
of the people want the Monument ? Some want it 
on the W 7 est Side, some want it on the South Side, 
some want it in W T ade Park. They wont all agree 
on any one site. From October 30, 1S79, until two 
days ago, you have said, 'put it on the Square,' and 
that is the place where a majority of the people of the 
county want it.' 

" N. A. Gilbert, Esq., said he was opposed to placing 
the Monument on the Square, yet he wanted to say that 
he had seldom heard more manly words than those 
spoken by Major Gleason. ' He puts the question 
fairly,' continued Mr. Gilbert. ' Where do you want the 


Monument ? The Commission are not to be treated as 
men violating the law. They are honest gentlemen 
and are doing what they believe to be right. They 
have moved on and performed their duty and it is only 
now that the people have become awake and concluded 
that they don't want the Monument on the Square. 
Now is the time and now the place to apply the good 
common sense of a committee who shall act as buffers 
between the litigants. I heartily approve Dr. Bates' 
suggestion that a Conference Committee be appointed.' 

" Captain M. B. Gary made an earnest plea for har- 
mony, and was followed by Colonel C. C. Dewstoe. The 
latter said there was one phase of the controversy which 
he could not understand, and that was, why it would 
be a sacrilege to move Perry's statue now, when not a 
word of that sort of sentiment was breathed when his 
statue was removed from its original location to that 
now occupied. 'This talk about sacrilege is only an 
artificial objection,' continued Colonel Dewstoe. ' Most 
of you really think that the lake front is the proper 
place for Perry, and the truth of the matter is that you 
want to extend Euclid Avenue through the Square. 
I'll wager that if such a project as that was started 
there would be no talk about the sacrilege of moving 

"The Committee on Resolutions returned to the room. 
Their report was presented and it recommended the 
adoption of the following : 

" Resolved, That we cordially approve the erection, at the cost of 
the taxpayers of Cuyahoga County, of a suitable Monument to the 
memory of the brave Soldiers and Sailors who served with patriotic 
zeal in the late Civil War. 

" Resolved, That such Monument, paid for by the voluntary tax- 
ation of the people themselves, is public property, and its character 
and location should meet the approval and convenience, as far as 
possible, of the general public. 

" Resolved, That in our judgment the selection of the southeast 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 233 

corner of the Public Square, in the City of Cleveland, as the site for 
said Monument, is prejudicial to the convenience and comfort of 
our citizens, because the laud is absolutely necessary to the daily 
needs of the people and is wholly unsuitable for the Monument 
itself. If the Monument should be built there, it will, so long as it 
remains, prove an object of public disapprobation and irritation. 
We protest against such location as unnecessary, unwise and im- 

" Resolved, That we recommend the purchase by the City of a 
suitable plot of land for the Monument and that the Legislature be 
asked for all necessary authority to pay for the same. 

" Resolved, That a committee of five members of this meeting be 
appointed by the chair to consult with the Monument Commis- 
sioners upon the propriety of selecting a new site for the Soldiers' 

" Chairman Edwards appointed J. H. McBride, Hon. 
M. A. Hanna, Hon. George H. Ely, Col. R. C. Parsons, 
and S. M. Strong as the Committee on Conference. It 
was then moved and seconded that the Commission be 
requested to suspend operations until the Conference 
Committee could meet with them. The motion was 
carried. There were cries of ' we wont,' in which 
James Hayr's voice was recognized." 

The result of the Board of Trade fiasco added fuel 
to the flame. The mouthings and writings of the 
cranks began to assume a threatening attitude. A few 
misguided people were worked up to take sides with 
the opposition. The effect of their work is republished 
from the Leader of September 3d : 

" The first attempt to tear down the fence which en- 
closes the southeast section of the Public Square was 
made shortly after 1 o'clock on Friday afternoon. At that 
hour quite a large crowd of men assembled at the gate 
which opens on Superior Street diagonally across from 
the postoffice. There was some talk, and then the gate 
was forced open, and the crowd rushed inside the en- 
closure, where a force of men were at work excavating 
for the Soldiers' Monument. They hooted at the work- 
men, and then marched toward the gate at the Ontario 


Street entrance. They threatened to tear down that 
gate also, and the excitement for the time being ran 
high. The leader of the crowd who was inciting them 
on to action was John R. McGrevey, who lives at No. 
24 Lyons Street. The police were notified, and Mc- 
Grevey was placed under arrest. The crowd was then 
driven out of the enclosure by the police, and the gate 
was again placed in position. McGrevey is about thirty 
years of age. A warrant was secured in the Police 
Prosecutor's office charging him with malicious destruc- 
tion of property. 

" Just previous to the storming of the gate there was 
a speech to the crowd outside by a large man, well 
dressed, and who was somewhat excited. He said that 
he honored the Soldiers for their deeds of valor, and 
that a Monument should be erected to their memory. 
He thought that Commodore Perry was entitled to 
credit also, for he was the only American who ever 
whipped a British fleet. The Commodore had a dear 
spot in their affections, he said, and the Monument 
erected to his memory should not be disturbed. He 
added that the Square was public property, and that 
the public had a right to it. 

" Somebody said something about tearing down the 
fence. The crowd, which was composed to a large ex- 
tent ot bootblacks, newsboys, and loiterers, needed no 
further incentive. Voluntarily a rush was made for the 
big pine gate, and down it went in a few seconds. The 
crowd pressed inside. Men came running from every 
direction. Passengers on street cars left their seats and 
ran to the scene. It was the hour when the streets 
were full of people returning from luncheon. Business 
and professional men ran to see the fun and in a few 
moments' time the enclosure was nearly filled with 

" The onlv member of the Monument Commission 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 235 

who was on the scene was Gen. Elwell, who arrived 
soon after the fence was stormed. He was very much 
agitated. He had just been discussing the subject with 
a citizen, and had been asking why it was that so many 
people were opposed to placing the Monument in the 
Square when those who knew what it was to be knew 
that it was the finest work of art of the kind in the 
world, and that there was nothing in all Europe which 
compared with it. The General's indignation got the 
better of him for a moment, and he shouted to Patrol- 
man Dangler to arrest the men. Several bystanders 
pointed to young McGrevey, who was in custody of Pa- 
trolman Dangler, and said that he was the leader of the 
mob. There was intense excitement as the patrolman 
started to the Central Police Station with the young 
man. The crowd followed and jeered. McGrevey de- 
nied that he led the crowd, and said that the gate was 
down when he appeared on the scene. The crowd had 
been persuaded to leave the enclosure and stood on the 
outside. When Patrolman Dangler appeared through 
the Ontario Street gate with young McGrevey the 
crowd followed them to the station-house. 

" In the meantime the crowd talked about renewing 
the work of destroying the fence. Two stalwart men 
were placed on guard at the gate to keep intruders out, 
and to open it for the workmen who passed out and in 
with their wheelbarrows. There was considerable 
angry talk and several excited men besought every pa- 
triotic citizen to turn out at 10 o'clock at night and tear 
down the fence. Several persons wrote on the fence in 
big black letters, ' Wanted, 10,000 men to assemble in 
the Square at 10 o'clock to-night, to tear down the 

" The workmen were not molested after the first rush, 
and the crowd soon dispersed. 

"After the crowd was excluded, Capt. Scofield re- 


mained inside the stockade and directed the workmen. 
The crowd peered through the cracks in the fence, and 
occasionally hooted at the workmen, and uttered de- 
risive cries. 

" When Patrolman Dangler and McGrevey entered 
the station, they were followed by a number of the lat- 
ter's sympathizers and a good deal of loud talking was 
indulged in on all sides. McGrevey became eloquent 
in defending himself and made use of strong language 
in maintaining his position. He said : ' This placing 
me under arrest does not injure the cause in the least. 
The whole city is behind my back, and there are 
enough others to carry on the work. Let them build 
up the fence, it will be all torn down before long.' 

" There was some indecision among the officials as to 
what course to piirsue in regard to the arrest. Lieut. 
Burns refused to have the arrest entered on the blotter 
until the charge upon which McGrevey should be tried 
was decided upon. Gen. Elwell then went up stairs to 
the Prosecutor's office and a warrant was issued by 
Prosecutor Fiedler charging McGrevev with malic- 
iously injuring property. Gen. Elwell put up $10 for 
costs. The warrant was served upon McGrevey and his 
name was then entered upon the books. He was regis- 
tered as John R. McGrevey, a riveter, thirty years of 
age, living at No. 24 Lyons Street. After his first dis- 
play of anger, the prisoner relapsed into moody silence, 
and refused to speak at all. Attorney F. E. Dellen- 
baugh entered the station with a number of other 
men at about the time the registry was made. He at 
once caused a bail bond to be made out for $100, and 
as he affixed his name to it he remarked that nothing 
he had done in a year made him feel any better. The 
bond was also signed by L. B. Whitney, F. V. Faul- 
haber, S. M. Wolcott, Jr., and A. J. Scribner. 

l> Mr. Dellenbaugh remarked to a party of gentlemen 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 237 

who stood with him discussing the assault that he 
would like to bail out a man every minute who was ar- 
rested upon such a charge. Gen. Elwell said to him : 

'" What ! do you mean that you would countenance 
such conduct as that ? ' 

" ' Yes, I would like to bail a man out every minute. 
The people are speaking, and I have always recognized 
the voice of the people as the voice of God.' Mr. Del- 
lenbaugh said later that he hoped there would be a 
large attendance at the taxpayers' meeting in the Square 
Saturday night to discuss the question as to where the 
Soldiers' Monument should be placed. 

" ' Will they tear down the fence?' asked a bystander. 

" ' You can't control a lot of angry men,' he replied. 
1 You can't tell what will happen.' 

" A meeting of the Monument Commissioners and 
the Board of Trade Committee, appointed to confer 
with them, will be held at the rooms of the Board of 
Control at 11 o'clock this morning. There were all 
sorts of rumors last night that a compromise site for 
the Monument would be agreed upon, but there was 
nothing authentic to give rise to the hope that the war- 
fare is closed. 

" A meeting will be held in the Public Square, north- 
east section, to-night. Conservative citizens who have 
spoken at all on the subject deplore the attempt to hold 
a meeting, believing that no good can come if a mis- 
cellaneous crowd assembles in the Square, as most 
likely will be the case, for the purpose of witnessing 

" One week from to-day will be the seventy-ninth an- 
niversary of Commodore Perry's victory, near Put-in- 
Bay, over the British naval fleet, under Commodore 
Barclay. It was after this battle that the following fa- 
mous letter was sent to Gen. William Henry Harrison : 


" U. S. Brig Niagara, off Western Sisters, September 10th, 1813, 
4 P. M. 

" We have met the enemy, and they are ours. 

TI TT ,, " Oliver H. Perry. 

" Gen. Wieeiam H. Harrison." 

" It has been suggested, and was a current topic of 
conversation on the streets yesterday, that all demon- 
strations in honor of the anniversary should be post- 
poned until next Saturday. At that time, it was stated, 
the proper thing to do would be to have a celebration 
that would be fitting to the occasion. The fact that 
this is the Columbian year ; that an interest is being 
taken in American history such as has never been 
taken before, and that Commodore Perry's name is a 
household word at present, were all used in arguments 
in favor of appropriate exercises in honor of his mem- 
ory. From the tenor of the suggestions made by a 
number of citizens who talked about the matter, it is 
safe to say that a call will be issued soon, from some 
place, that such a meeting be held. 

" ' It is our duty to prevent disturbance, and we must 
of course insist on an observance of the law," said 
Mayor Rose when informed of the arrest of the fence 
breaker yesterday. ' While nearly all citizens object to 
the fence in the Square, we can not allow them to tear 
it down in violation of law. If a mob of four or 
five thousand undertook the task they would probably 
have the fence down before the police could be mus- 
tered, but it will not be done if we can prevent it.' 
[Rather suggestive that, coming from the Mayor of the 
city. But the cowardly mob did not act on the hint. — 
W.' J. G.] 

" Mr. J. H. McBride, Hon. M. A. Hanna, Hon. R. C. 
Parsons, Hon. Geo. H. Ely and Mr. S. M. Strong, the 
Committee appointed at the Citizens' meeting in the 
Board of Trade rooms on Thursday to confer with the 
Soldiers' Monument Commission, met yesterday at the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 241 

office of Mr. M. A. Hanna, in the Perry-Payne building. 
A communication was sent to Major Gleason, President 
of the Monument Commission, asking when and where 
they could meet the Commission. The Major replied 
that a conference might be held in the Board of 
Control room in the City Hall at 11 o'clock this 

" In speaking of the conference to a reporter, Major 
Gleason said : ' It will be interesting to see with what 
sort of a proposition the Committee will come to the 
conference. As business men, they should not ask. us 
to abandon the Square without offering us another site 
just as good. There are plenty of good sites in the 
city, but I know of no desirable one except the one in 
the Square that is available for the Monument. I sup- 
pose that they will take up the subject where the Board 
of Trade meeting left off, and that there will be a lot 
of discussion. I understand that they are going to fire 
at us the Council resolution giving General Meyer au- 
thority to bring proceedings to keep us off the Square. 
That resolution was about twelve years behind the 
times and should be stowed away with the other an- 
cient rubbish.' " 

A conference of the Board of Trade Committee and 
the Monument Commissioners was held on Sept. 3d, a 
report of which we clip from the Leader of the follow- 
ing date : 

''A score of gentlemen gathered in the Board of Con- 
trol rooms, Saturday morning, to discuss the Soldiers' 
Monument question. They were members of the Monu- 
ment Commission and of the Conference Committee 
appointed at the Board of Trade meeting. Before the 
meeting was called to order the gentlemen considered 
the matter in an informal way. 

"'Were there a number of competitive designs?' 
asked Mr. M. A. Hanna. 


" 'No; we took Captain Scofield's design, and added 
to it from time to time,' responded Major Gleason. 

" Mr. Hanna called attention to the fact that every 
law providing for an increase in the tax levy included 
the provision that it should be used for the construction 
of the Monument and the purchase of a site. He took 
that as an indication that the Commission had some 
other site than the Square in view as a contingency. It 
hardly bore out the claim of the Commission that the 
Monument was designed for the Public Square and 
could not be placed anywhere else. 

" 'When was work on the Monument begun?' asked 
Mr. Hanna. 

" 'In 1885,' responded Major Gleason. 

" 'When did you get authority to use the Square?' 

" ' In 1888, but from the first we figured on placing it 

"'There has been some talk about this being an 
eleventh-hour 'kick,' said Mr. Hanna. 'I believe that 
no objection has been made heretofore because people 
had no conception of the character of the Monument. 
I, for one, supposed that its base would be two or three 
times as large as that of the Perry statue, but now I find 
that it is to be a house. It will fill the entire section of 
the Square, and will be a serious obstruction there. 
There is not a person in Cleveland who is opposed to 
the Monument, but a majority of the people do believe 
that a better site than the Square can be selected.' 

" General James Barnett was made Chairman and 
Mr. M. A. Hanna Secretary. General Barnett suggested 
that the discussion should be conducted without acri- 
mony and ill-feeling. ' The Committee are not here to 
oppose the Monument,' said Mr. J. H. McBride, 'but to 
represent a large class of people who do not think it 
should be placed in the Square.' 

"General Barnett — 'This Commission have had onlv 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 243 

one site available and the work has gone on with refer- 
ence to that. If a mistake has been made it should 
be pointed out and a remedy suggested. Have the 
Committee a definite proposition to make as to any 
other site?' 

" Mr. Hanna — 'I do not understand that we have. We 
spent a good deal of time yesterday discussing various 
sites, and we have several men getting information. 
We hope to impress the Commission with the fact that 
a large majority of the people are opposed to the Square 
as a site. If the Square will ever be good for anything 
it will be to relieve the congested state of affairs that 
will arise with the increase of population. This Com- 
mittee were appointed for conference and have not come 
with any proposition. If a mistake has been made as 
to the site, another should be selected.' 

"General Barnett — ' It is to be regretted that nothing 
was said during the past thirteen years. The Commis- 
sioners have always been willing to meet any citizen 
who had a suggestion to make, and it is late now to 
bring up this subject. But it may not be too late.' 

" Hon. R. C. Parsons asked the Commissioners 
whether they would be willing to place the Monument 
at the foot of Ontario Street, at the foot of Erie Street 
opposite Lakeside Hospital, in Wade Park, at the corner 
of Euclid and Huron Street, in Eake View Cemetery, 
or the northeast section of tlie Public . Square. He 
praised the Monument from an artistic standpoint, and 
said that it could not be shown to proper advantage 
in the Public Square. He said that he had seen all the 
National Monuments of note in the civilized world, and 
they all had better sites than was proposed for the 
Soldiers' Monument. He asked whether the Commis- 
sioners would submit the question to a vote of the peo- 
ple. He believed that nine out of ten people were 
opposed to the obstruction of the Square. He referred 


to Attorney Frank E. Dellenbaugh. James Hayr inter- 
rupted with the exclamation : 

" ' Mr. Dellenbaugh's remarks are not appreciated 
here ; his uncle is President of the East CleYeland 
Railroad Company.' 

" ' I would rather have the Monument stand forever 
on the Square,' said Colonel Parsons, ' than have the 
street railroad run through the Square. I represent no 
corporation but the people, and I do represent the 

" Mr. Hayr explained that he did not wish to inti- 
mate that Colonel Parsons represented a corporation. 

"Another reference was made to Lake View Ceme- 
tery, and General Barnett said : 

" ' I think that site may as well be eliminated from 
the discussion. I do not believe the people would want 
the Monument placed in a graveyard.' 

"Colonel Parsons — 'You remember, General, that it 
was proposed to place the Garfield Monument in the 
Public Square. It would have been a monstrosity on 
that site. If the Commissioners are satisfied that the 
people favor the Square, why not submit it to a vote?' 

" He also asked the Commission to name some other 
site than the Square that would meet with their ap- 
proval, and if its cost was within the bounds of reason 
it would be purchased for them. 

" Major Gleason declared that the Committee had not 
obtained accurate information concerning the Monu- 
ment. He gave figures to prove that it would be less 
of an obstruction than was claimed by the Committee. 
Next to the Public Square he favored Wade Park. 

' We will purchase the reserved section in the cen- 
ter of Wade Park,' said Colonel Parsons. 

'Well, we should like to see in writing any proposi- 
tion that may be made,' resumed Major Gleason. 'Dur- 
ing the past thirteen years we have been going ahead 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 245 

and the people have been with us. Your Committee 
represents a very enterprising Board — where were you 
all these years? The Park Commissioners offered us 
any quarter of the Square except this southeast section. 
Mr. Wade said that it might be wanted some day for an 
extension of Euclid Avenue. The site at the corner of 
Erie and Summit Streets would cost $200,000.' 

" 'Why not place it in Lake View Park opposite On- 
tario Street?' asked Hon. Geo. H. Ely. 

" ' It would be practically impossible to get a founda- 
tion there,' answered a Commissioner. ' Besides, Onta- 
rio Street is laid out through the Park, and cannot be 
legally diverted from public purposes.' 

"Colonel C. C. Dewstoe said the only objection that 
could be urged against the southeast section of the 
Square as a site was the fact that it might be needed 
for an extension of Euclid Avenue. He considered it 
strange that the Commissioners were offered any other 
section of the Square. He said that if the Monument 
were placed in the Square it should be in the southeast 
section. The Commissioners have no idea of doing any- 
thing to inconvenience the people. 

" ' What is the basis of all this opposition if the peo- 
ple favor the Square as a site?' asked Mr. Hanna. 

" 'There is a false sentiment that is being worked up 
about Perry,' said Colonel Dewstoe. ' The moving of 
his statue would not involve any disrespect to his mem- 
ory. No one objected when the statue was moved to 
its present position. A number of Euclid Avenue prop- 
erty owners are very anxious now to have the street 
extended. The attorney of the East Cleveland Railroad 
Company offered to bail out a hundred disturbers in the 
Public Square. He offered encouragement to persons 
who were attempting to coerce us by mob law. The 
City Administration has acted in a very peculiar man- 
ner, and the newspapers like to favor the public offi- 


cials. They receive printing and other favors. If you 
gentlemen know of any better site, I would be very 
glad to hear it.' 1 

"Major Gleason explained that no member of the 
Commission, including the designer, received a cent of 
money. ' Statuary was modeled in this city for $250,' he 
said, ' that would have cost $1,000 if the work had been 
done by contract. We handle no money. When com- 
pleted, it will be the grandest Monument in the country.' 

" 'General Leggett says that it will be the finest in 
the world,' said General Elwell. 

" ' It has been reported that it will cost the City 
$3,000 per year to care for the Monument,' said Mr. S. 
M. Strong. 

" ' It will not cost the city a cent, if the city will let 
the old Soldiers have charge of the Monument,' said 
Major Gleason. 

" Mr. Bauder suggested that the site at Bond, Lake 
and Summit Streets was a good one if it could be se- 
cured. If the Commission was to turn back, however, 
it must be an honorable retreat. 

" Mr. Ely proposed the appointment of a joint com- 
mittee to consider another site. General Barnett ex- 
plained that a contract for the work had been awarded, 
and that operations were being prosecuted with vigor. 

" Mr. Hanna expressed the opinion that Colonel Mc- 
Allister, the contractor, would not put in a claim for 
damages if the work were to be stopped. ' Yes, but he 
has been called to New Orleans on a great public occa- 
sion,' explained Colonel Dewstoe, 'and it will be some 
days before he returns to the city.' 

" General Elwell was gratified by the spirit mani- 
fested by the Committee, but he said he was discour- 
aged by the bitter and almost vindictive spirit displayed 
at the Board of Trade meeting. 

"Colonel Parsons moved that a joint committee of 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 247 

three Commissioners and three members of the Board 
of Trade Committee be appointed to consider the ques- 
tion of selecting another site. 

" Mr. Hayr said he was willing to do anything that 
was reasonable. He wondered at the sudden change of 
sentiment in men who were until recently in favor of 
the Square. 

" General Elwell expressed confidence that the true 
sentiment of the people was with the Commission. 

" Colonel E. W. Force believed that the Monument 
should be kept on the Square and that S2oo,ooo more 
should not be spent. He did not believe that the tax- 
payers would be willing to pay $200,000 more for a site. 

" Mr. Henry W. S. Wood insisted that the Monument 
should go in the Square. ' Throughout Europe,' said 
he, ' the monuments are placed in the squares and not 
in the suburbs. The West Side people want the Monu- 
ment kept in the central part of the city.'' 

"The following resolution, offered by Mr Ely, was 
adopted : 

" Resolved, That a committee of five members of the Commis- 
sion, of whom the Chairman shall be one, be appointed for confer- 
ence and co-operation with the Committee appointed by the Board 
of Trade in an endeavor to procure a site other than that selected 
by the Commission, which shall harmonize the present existing 
views on the subject. 

" The meeting adjourned, subject to the call of Gen- 
eral Barnett, the Chairman." 


THE cranks had at last succeeded in carrying out 
their fond desire. They, too, held a "mass meet- 
ing," the principal ingredients of which were noise, 
personal abuse, and fury. It took place on the evening 
of September 3d, and was reported in the Leader of next 
day as follows: 

" The northeast section of the Public Square was 
black with people for two hours last night, and the fate 
of the fence around the opposite section, where Perry 
still stands in silent majesty, was a matter of conjecture 
at several stages of the meeting. If some of the speak- 
ers could have swayed the crowd, an attempt would 
have been made to demolish the fence. Whether such 
attempt could have been successful or not is very doubt- 
ful, for forty guardians of the peace in the form of the 
most stalwart members of the police force kept watch 
and ward outside the enclosure, and it would not have 
gone down without an accompaniment of broken heads 
and bruised bodies. Fortunately, three-fourths of the 
assembly were law-abiding citizens, and the other 
fourth had nearly all the fight talked out of them by 
the time General Meyer and other speakers had said 
what they wanted to say. The meeting did one thing ; 
they resolved to hold a celebration of Perry's victory 
next Saturday, the proposed program involving the 
decoration of the Commodore's statue. The first ratifi- 
cation of last night's meeting was given by means of a 
piece of black chalk in the hand of one of the moving 
spirits in the Franklin Club. Invitations to gather in 
the Square were scrawled in black and white on the 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 251 

obnoxious fence in sundry places. Many of those who 
read the invitation were straightway moved to write 
something presumably appropriate themselves, and the 
consequence was that by yesterday afternoon there was 
a choice aggregation of notices on the outer wall. 

" The outside of the big pine fence was literally cov- 
ered with a large assortment of inscriptions and notices. 
They were written and printed with lead pencils, chalk 
of varied colors, and carbon pencils, although the vari- 
ety in penmanship and lettering was more marked than 
the assortment of ideas. The most conspicuous of the 
inscriptions were notices written in a large hand in 
many places, reading as follows: 'Mass meeting in the 
Square to-night to protest against the removal of Perry's 
Monument. Come, everybody/ Near the big gate 
which was torn down the other day was written: 
'Wanted — 10,000 men to assemble in the Square, at 10 
o'clock to-night, to tear down this fence.' In big blue 
letters on the fence was written : ' Come prepared for 
action to the mass meeting. Bring axes, crow-bars, 
picks and sledges.' 

"There were not less than 2,000 people on the Square 
when Dr. L. B. Tuckerman called them to order last 
evening. The Doctor briefly announced the object of 
the meeting, and asked that a chairman be appointed. 
Thomas G. Fitzsimmons was selected without delay, and 
he made a capable presiding officer. Edmund G. Vail 
was the first man introduced to the assemblage. He 
said the old Soldiers were being 'played for chumps by 
the dozen men who were trying to run the Soldiers' 
Monument.' 'Why don't some of these champions, 
with marks on their faces that they got in slaughter- 
houses and not on the battle-field, devote some of their 
energies to getting pensions for deserving living old 
Soldiers, instead of putting up a Monument to dead 
ones where the people don't want it?' demanded Mr. 


Vail. ' We don't want to have any ill feeling with the 
South to-day, 1 he continued. 'The war has been over 
for twenty-seven years.' 

" ' Well, we don't want any condemnation of the old 
Soldiers. Don't give us any more of that sort of talk,' 
shouted one of his auditors, and the words were greeted 
with a ringing cheer. 

" 'I'm not condemning the old Soldiers,' replied Mr. 
Vail. My father and brother were good Soldiers — bet- 
ter Soldiers than these men who have so much to say 
about the war now. The men who are doing most of 
the talking in favor of the old Soldiers are the men who 
fought with their mouths thirty years ago. I don't 
want you to pull down the fence. [Cries of 'pull it 
down.'] The Commissioners put it up ; let them pay 
for taking it down. Anyone who advocates pulling 
down the fence is an Anarchist.' 

'Who's he calling an Anarchist?' demanded a man, 
who, if appearance counts for anything, was certainly 
entitled to the appellation. As he asked the question, 
the man elbowed his way toward the rostrum and shook 
his fist at Vail. The question was repeated in louder 
tones. The man's friends hustled him back to the edge 
of the crowd. Mr. Vail continued his speech, but ever 
and anon could be heard the inquiry, 'Who's an An- 

" The next speaker was W T illiam Heisley, Esq., who 
began by saying that he was opposed to moving Perry's 
Monument. He did not see much use for building a 
Soldiers' Monument anywhere. ' If the men who were 
building it must have their names recorded, let them 
place it where the people want it,' he continued. 
There were several shouts of 'Where do the people 
want it?' 'I don't care where they want it. They cer- 
tainly don't want it on the Square,' was the answer. ' I 
don't question the legal right of the Commission to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 253 

place the Monument in the Square,' continued the ora- 
tor, 'but it's mighty bad taste in them to go against the 
wishes of the citizens. One thing is certain, they had 
no right to place that fence there, and it can be demol- 
ished by any man, and they can't punish him for it, 
either.' This statement was enthusiastically received. 
' The City authorities ought to remove the fence,' the 
speaker went on, and he continued in the same strain, 
berating the Mayor and General Meyer for what he 
termed dereliction of duty. ' If General Meyer had told 
the Mayor the fence had no right there, as he ought to 
have told him, it would have been taken down in short 
order,' was his concluding utterance. 

" It happened that General Meyer was listening to 
Mr. Heisley's speech, and when that ancient Democrat 
retired the Director of Law stepped upon the rostrum 
and forced his way through the crowd toward the front 
of the stand. ' I am surprised to hear such utterances 
from my old friend Heisley,' said General Meyer. ' He 
knows, and you know, that for sixteen months I have 
been using every means that could lawfully be used to 
prevent the removal of Perry's monument, and yet I 
heard him say that if I told the Mayor that fence should 
come down, it would be taken down at once. Judge 
Sherwood has issued an injunction restraining any offi- 
cer or employe of the City, or any citizen, from inter- 
fering with the fence. That being the case, what is the 
duty of the Mayor and other officers of the City ? Is it 
not our duty to set an example of respect to the Court 
and wait until time shall bring about a remedy for the 
wrong we complain of? He who counsels violence or 
urges that a single chip of that fence be removed while 
the injunction of the Court is in force is a public enemy. 
[Applause.] I believe the fence has no right there, and 
I would rather lose my right arm than see Perry's statue 
taken down, but I, with all other citizens, must abide 


bv the decree of the Court. Do not, by reason of bad 
advice, forget your duty as American citizens. Do not 
tarnish the honor of this fair city by saying to the world 
that Cleveland knows no law and respects no authority. 
These Commissioners who have been maligned here 
to-night are honorable, patriotic American citizens. Do 
not, I beg of you, cast a slur or reflection on the honor 
and courage and patriotism of a single one of them. 
They are wrong in their action. Protest against that 
wrong. Protest that they must not go on with the , 
work. They will hear your voice and respect your 
wishes.' [Applause.] 

" F. E. Dellenbaugh, Esq., followed General Meyer 
in an earnest speech, counseling respect for the Court's 
injunction. ' The voice of the law is higher than the 
voice of the people as long as the law remains on the 
statute books, 1 he said. ' Do not resort to violence, but 
let time cure this evil. The law that authorized the 
placing of this Monument in the Square can be re- 
pealed, if need be.' 

" Dr. R. A. Vance reached the rostrum at this point 
in the proceedings. He made an eloquent speech in 
behalf of law and order. ' Wait until the Legislature 
meets, and seek redress from the body that made the 
law and rendered it possible for the present state of 
affairs to exist,' he concluded. 

" The following resolution was handed to the Chair- 
man, who read it as soon as Dr. Vance retired : 

"Resolved, We, as citizens of Cleveland, in mass meeting assem- 
bled, most earnestly protest against the removal of Perry's monu- 
ment from its place on the Square, for any purpose whatsoever. 

" The resolution was adopted with a shout that was 
heard a mile away. Colonel Van Tassel then moved 
that the Monument Commissioners be requested to 
resign, ' so that a new Commission can be appointed 
who would carry out the wishes of the people.' There 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 255 

was another shout of approval when the motion was 
put. The noes were called for, and a considerable 
number of people responded. ' You're not in it,' said 
the Chairman. ' The motion is adopted.' An individ- 
ual, with one eye in mourning, who was under the influ- 
ence of liquor, here wanted to know if the Chairman 
'was a goin' to appoint a detail to. pull down the fence.' 
Some of the kindred spirits in the audience applauded 
the questioner, but no notice was taken of him by the 
majority of the people. Peter Witt was on the rostrum. 
He told the Chairman he would like to say a few w r ords, 
and was accordingly introduced. He made the most 
incendiary speech of the evening. ' General Meyer and 
Mr. Dellenbaugh have been telling von to obev the law,' 
he began, ' but I say we've had too much law already. 
It's nothing but law, law, law. If it hadn't been for so 
much law, the fence wouldn't be there. The people 
have a right to decide where the Monument should go, 
and not a score of blacklegs, like the Monument Com- 
mission. Most of you are afraid to say what you really 
think about this matter, but I'm not afraid to speak my 
mind. I'm not an ofhce-seeker, or a pap-sucker either, 
and I speak as my heart directs. The old Soldiers that 
people make so much fuss about only did what you or 
I would do to-morrow if our services were needed. 
They did nothing more nor less than their duty as Amer- 
ican citizens. As long as the people are willing to pay 
pensions to the old Soldiers, the people should have the 
say as to where any monuments that they may be given 
in addition to the pensions should go.' The Chairman 
and others on the rostrum called Witt to order, and he 
retired. Some of the crowd were not satisfied, however, 
and, like Oliver Twist, called for 'more.' Dr. Tucker- 
man said a few soothing words and urged that there be 
no disorder. ' Let us wait the motion of the Courts,' he 
added, 'and if the Courts don't move we can move the 


Legislature. The Commission can be legislated out of 
office if they don't do the will of the people.' The 
Doctor concluded by making a motion that there be a 
grand celebration of Perry's victory next Saturday night 
in the Square, and that Perry be decorated if he should 
still stand, and if he was down by that time the pieces 
could be decorated. There were several shouts of 'How 
are we going to get in?' and these were greeted with 

" 'That's not the motion,' said the Chairman. 'The 
motion only contemplates a mass meeting and the 
decoration of the statue.' The man with the discol- 
ored eye said he knew a way to get inside the fence. 
Nobody contradicted him. The motion for a celebra- 
tion was carried unanimously. It was then moved that 
the Commission be requested to open the gates of the 
fence next Saturday night so that the statue can be 
decorated. That motion also prevailed. 

" Dr. Elroy M. Avery, who was standing near the 
rostrum, was called on to speak. He said a few words 
in condemnation of Witt's utterances. ' I have no sym- 
pathy with men who refer to the Monument Commis- 
sioners as blacklegs,' he said, 'and such language should 
not be tolerated by this audience. I don't blame you 
for wanting to pull down the fence, but I do blame you 
if you try to pull it down. If Almighty God, in his 
wrath and indignation, should strike the fence with 
lightning and it should be burned up, I for one would 
fold my hands and say, 'Thy will be done,' but we 
can't interfere if God doesn't. Let General Meyer 
take care of our interests. He and the other authori- 
ties of the City will do all they can do legally to pre- 
serve our rights.' 

" David Rankin made a short speech in which Peo- 
ple's party doctrines bobbed to the surface. He said if 
the people had exhibited as much anxiety in regard to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 257 

the street car monopolies as they were showing in re- 
gard to Perry's monument, they might have owned all 
the street car lines in the city long ago. The meeting 
was declared adjourned, and five minutes later the 
Square was empty of all save the usual number of 

That was a cheerful gathering ! It forcibly illus- 
trated what an unbridled mob would have done, unless 
restrained by men of courage and discretion. 

To show how public sentiment was working, we re- 
produce an editorial from the Leader of September 4th : 

" The meeting of the ■Monument Commission and the 
Citizens' Committee yesterday was characterized by a 
friendly spirit and disposition on- both sides to arrive at 
an amicable settlement of the differences on the site 
question. General Barnett, in behalf of the Commis- 
sion, asked the Committee what mistake, if any, had 
been made, and to propose a remedy for it. Both sides 
of the controversy were set forth clearly and forcibly. 
It remains to be seen whether the impression made 
upon the members of the Commission will lead them 
to change their plans. The matter ought to be settled 
without any further hard words. The Monument Com- 
mission is composed of well known and reputable 
citizens, all of whom served in the Union Armies. Thus 
far they have done nothing that the law did not au- 
thorize them to do. They are engaged in a patriotic 
work, and well deserve the gratitude of our people. 
There should be no difference of opinion among Cleve- 
landers concerning their efforts to erect a fitting me- 
morial to the men who went forth from this county to 
battle for the Union. What they have done has been 
done for nothing, without expectation of any reward 
other than the satisfaction of having aided in appro- 
priately commemorating the valor and patriotism of the 
men who went with them to the front. They are, 


therefore, entitled to the most respectful consideration 
of the people of Cleveland. 

" Members of the Monument Commission have stated 
that if their present plans are carried out they will, if 
thought advisable, leave the Perry statue in the same 
section of the Square where it now stands. This 
should put an end to all the sentimental talk about 
removing the statue of the Commodore. Its location 
has been changed once and it would show no lack of 
respect to the hero to move it a few feet from where 
it now stands. Members of the Commission also offer 
to refund to the county every cent of money thus far 
expended on the Memorial, to restore the Square to its 
former condition, and to sell the Monument to some 
other city. This proposition should not be entertained 
for a moment. It sounds like bluff, but no man who 
knows the history and character of General Elwell will 
accuse him of bluffing. The Monument must be erected 
in this city. It will be an ornament to the city, an at- 
traction to the people living within a hundred miles of 
Cleveland, an effective lesson in history, and an inspi- 
ration of patriotism to future generations. The adjust- 
ment of the controversy should be left entirely in the 
hands of the Committee and the Commission and the 
City officials, and any intemperate talk on the subject 
will not mend matters in the least. We feel confident 
that the matter can and will be amicably adjusted 
within a few days. The contending parties have almost 
reached an agreement already. When Mayor Rose and 
Directors Herrick and Gardner met the Monument 
Commission last week, it was proposed on the part of 
the City that the site should be changed to the north- 
east corner of the Square. Yesterday, Colonel R. C. 
Parsons made the same suggestion. Now, let the Com- 
mission accept this. If the Board of Control will agree 
to this proposition, the Leader believes the Commis- 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 261 

sioners will meet them. The Council should then 
rescind the resolution directing the law officer of the 
City to institute the suit against the Commission, and 
the controversy would be settled by slight concessions 
on each side." 

The following heartfelt communication from Commis- 
sioner Elwell was contributed to the Leader of Septem- 
ber 5th : 

" To the Editor of the Leader : 

" Witnessing, as I did, at the Board of Trade meeting, the strong 
and intense feeling of opposition by those present, calling them- 
selves the people, and the business men of the City, to the location 
of the Monument on the Square, most of whom have never taken 
enough interest in the work to visit us, or make a suggestion for or 
against work or site or anything else, I felt completely discouraged 
and wished myself at an end of the enterprise, and I am frank to 
say I have no heart for further work. 

" When I heard the pathetic and earnest, and, I may say, tearful 
words of General Leggett, every word of which represented the 
feelings of the Commission, pleading for a candid investigation of 
our work and for peace, fall to the ground amid derisive laughter, I 
thought we must give up. Here was an old Soldier bearing five 
wounds and some lead in his body, having had shot under him four 
horses, stauding as it were on one leg, defending the action of the 
Commission and begging for peace without effect, unless we gave up 
our site. He said the Commission believed that they had the great 
mass of the people of the county behind them and were doing their 
work as the people wanted it done, and as every Soldiers' organiza- 
tion in the county had directed it to be done ; and as the county 
representatives in three Legislatures, the County Commissioners 
and the^City Councils had unanimously approved the site, and said 
go ahead and erect the Monument without delay. That all these 
thirteen years the Board of Trade had not made a suggestion with 
regard to site or anything else. He said that the Commission had 
tried for three years to find a site elsewhere and failed ; that the 
Square was not quite satisfactory to Captain Scofield and some of 
the Commission, but they could do no better and took it, and have 
made all their plans to correspond with that site. He said no mem- 
ber of the Commission had received, or would receive, directly or 
indirectly, a cent for what they had done, not even Captain Scofield, 
who had given seven years almost entirely to the work. That the 
tax had been spread over fifteen years that it might not be burden- 


some to the people. That the man who paid one hundred dollars 
taxes only paid one-half cent every six months. That artists, the 
best to be had in Rome, Paris and New York, had been hired by the 
dav, and that no fancy prices had been paid. He had just returned 
from Europe, and there was nothing that would compare with this 
work for originality, grandeur and beauty. It was designed by a 
Soldier who had seen what he had brought out in bronze. Captain 
Scofield had followed Sherman from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and 
had been one hundred and nineteen consecutive days under fire, 
besides being in many other battles. He had put what he had seen 
into bronze ; forty heroic figures in action. He said after the peo- 
ple had seen the work completed twenty-four hours they would 
glory in the work as the finest adornment in this or any other city. 
He pleaded for peace and wanted no contention. All this kind of 
talk of General Leggett made no impression upon the Board of 
Trade meeting whatever. It gave to him a patient hearing, but 
howled down Captain Scofield, whom General Leggett asked to 
show his plans for the Monument. The assault upon the action of 
the Commission in selecting a site continued long and loud. After 
the meeting I heard Mr. Dellenbaugh, who spoke two or three times 
in the meeting, and said it would be better to have a railroad there 
than a Monument, say that fence must come down. 

" General Leggett pleaded for peace. We are all tired of this 
bitter feeling over a work of this kind, and it must stop. If the 
Monument is erected, it will leave a sting and bitterness behind, 
when nothing should remain but joy and beaut)-. Old friends and 
neighbors are being alienated, and all satisfaction to the Commis- 
sion in pursuing the work is destroyed. I have no angry words of 
denunciation for anybody, though I am sure the City government, 
in suddenly reversing the action of its three predecessors — Farley, 
Babcock and Gardner — as soon as it came into power, and the Board 
of Trade in wholly neglecting this great work for the adornment 
and patriotism of the City, in which the Board pretends to be par- 
ticularly interested, to the last minute, have not treated the Com- 
missioners fairly. 

" I see but one way out of this trouble and wrangle among old 
friends and neighbors. The site cannot be changed. There is no 
other available. The Commission has done the best it could, hon- 
estly and patiently. Its work is not satisfactory. The Commission 
believes that it has done the right thing, and that the people ap- 
prove the work as done, and that it has not done an illegal act in all 
these years of toil and anxiety — the Courts say this. 

" After consulting with my associates, I am prepared to say that 
the Commissioners are ready and able to pay back to the county 
every dollar the Monument has cost, and take it off the hands of the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 263 

county, and put the Square in its original condition. The statuary 
is wanted elsewhere. 

" General Leggett pleaded for peace. So do we all. ' Blessed are 
the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.' Let 
us have peace. We are getting old ; our time is short. The Com- 
missioners hoped to see this Monument completed. It has become 
as the apple of the eye. But there is little hope of that, except in 
bitterness between friends and neighbors. In the words of Cleve- 
land's poet-statesman, who has told the story in matchless language 
of the greatest American : 

" We meet and greet in closing ranks, 

In time's declining sun, 
When the bugles of God shall sound recall, 

And the battle of life is won. 

J. J. Evweli,." 

The clouds are breaking. A new proposition is made 
to the Commission. The City officials, like Satan upon 
the mountain, were very prolific in promises. They 
would give the Commission almost any place for a site 
(at the same time having no place really to give), pro- 
viding the Commission would fall down and worship 
them. We were not, however, worshiping self-consti- 
tuted gods just at that time, hence their proposition 
was let into one ear of the Commission, and out the 
other. But we met and talked it over, as is shown in 
the annexed article from the Leader of September 7th : 

"A meeting which may result in a happy solution of 
the vexed Monument site question was held in the 
office of Captain Levi T. Scofield, on Tuesday morning. 
It was a joint meeting of the committees appointed by 
the Board of Trade and the Monument Commission to 
decide upon a suitable location for the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument. Those present were : J. H. Mc- 
Bride, Hon. George H. Ely, M. A. Hanna, Colonel R. 
C. Parsons and S. M. Strong, of the Board of Trade, and 
General James Barnett, General M. D. Leggett, Captain 
Levi F. Bauder, Major W. J. Gleason and Captain Levi 
T. Scofield, of the Monument Commission. General 


James Barnett presided. The meeting was called for 
the purpose of familiarizing the members of the joint 
committee with the various sites which have been pre- 
pared for the Monument. There was a general inter- 
change of opinion, and the result was that the members 
of the committee got closer together than ever before. 
Some of the members of the Commission said they were 
perfectly willing to abandon the Public Sqitare if a site 
equally suitable could be decided upon. Hon. Geo. H. 
Ely made an earnest plea in favor of placing the Monu- 
ment overlooking the lake front. He referred especially 
to the site bounded by Erie, Lake and Summit Streets, 
if it could be obtained. Mr. Ely said that the United 
States Government would eventually transfer all the 
Marine Hospital service of the lakes to Cleveland, and 
that undoubtedly adequate buildings would be erected. 
This, with the Lakeside Hospital building, would add 
much to the beauty of the lake front. There was more 
talk along the same line, and then Captain Bander of- 
fered the following resolution, which was supported by 
Mr. J. H. McBride: 

" We agree that the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Mon- 
ument is a beautiful and appropriate structure for the purpose, and 
should be erected at the earliest practical da}-, on the best possible 

" We agree that the Monument should not be built at all unless 
it shall be worthy of and receive the commendation of the people. 

" We agree that if the Monument be not built upon the Public 
Square, that we recommend the site bounded by Erie, Lake and 
Summit Streets, if obtainable. 

' This proposition met with general favor and it was 
unanimously adopted. 

'' Captain Bauder was congratulated on what ap- 
peared to all the answer of the question which has 
caused so much comment of late. After the meeting, 
he said : ' The problem has now been reduced clown to 
just two points. The Monument will be erected on the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 265 

Public Square, or on the site suggested by the resolu- 
tion. I am sure that the latter location, if it can be ob- 
tained, will be satisfactory to all concerned. I have all 
along looked for a peaceable settlement of the matter, 
and I feel confident that the meeting to-day will do 
much to secure it. What we want more than anything 
else in matters of this kind is calm, quiet reasoning.' 

" During the session of the Board of Control, in the 
City Hall, shortly afterward, Hon. R. C. Parsons and 
Mr. J. H. McBride entered the room and had a brief 
consultation with Director Meyer. A few minutes later 
the Director of Law addressed the Board. He said he 
had been informed by Colonel Parsons that the Monu- 
ment Commission had intimated that they would accept 
a site at the southwest corner of Erie and Summit 
Streets as the location for the Monument. The land 
and buildings could be appropriated at a cost not ex- 
ceeding $120,000, Director Meyer said. ' The question 
is,' he continued, ' whether, for the purpose of saving 
the southeast section of the Square, the City will under- 
take to expend $120,000 for the purchase of another 
site. If the Council decides to proceed in the latter di- 
rection, the first steps will be to provide for the sub- 
mission of the question to a vote of the electors. It 
will require a majority vote of the electors of the city 
— not merely of the votes cast — before the appropriation 
can be made. If there is any way of saving the south- 
east section of the Square, that way should be taken, 
but I for one am entirely opposed to making any prop- 
osition while the Commission persist in going on with 
the work.' 

li Mayor Rose suggested that a resolution along the 
line of General Meyer's remarks be submitted to the 
Board, and the following resolution was therefore drawn 
up and passed unanimously : 


" Resolved, That the Board of Control recommend to the Honor- 
able Council of the City of Cleveland the passage of such legislation 
as shall provide for the submission to the electors of the City at the 
ensuing November Election a proposition to appropriate for Park 
purposes as a site for the proposed Soldiers' Monument the laud 
bounded on the east by Erie Street, on the west by an alley, 270 feet 
west of Erie Street, on the south by the north line of Lake Street, 
and on the north by the south line of Summit Street. Upon condi- 
tion, however, that the Monument Commission immediately desist 
from further work on the Public Square of the City, and at once 
remove, or permit the City authorities to remove, the fence now 
surrounding the southeast section of the Square. 

" Early in the Council meeting last night the reso- 
lution of the Board of Control recommending that steps 
be taken to appropriate land bounded by Lake, Sum- 
mit, and Erie Streets for the Soldiers 1 Monument was 
received and filed. Similar action was taken in regard 
to a communication sent by the Monument Commission 
and containing formal notice that the Commission in- 
tended to begin work on the Square. The notice was 
sent two weeks ago, but there was no meeting of the 
Council last week. Later in the evening, Mr. Jackson 
submitted a resolution instructing the Director of Law 
to draw up an ordinance providing for a vote of the 
people at the November Election upon the question of 
appropriating the Summit Street property for the Monu- 
ment. In answer to Mr. Malloy, Gen. Meyer said he 
was informed that the Monument Commissioners had 
promised to cease work on the Square and give it back 
into the City's custody. The resolution was passed 
without further comment. 

" There was no sign of the proposed cessation of 
work late yesterday afternoon. A large force of men 
were engaged within the fence and they were working 
as if they were being paid by the piece instead of by the 
day. The opinion among the Councilmen seemed to be 
that the Commission intended to keep at work in the 
Square. ' I don't see how they can do otherwise,' said 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 267 

one member. ' Supposing the Summit Street site is 

submitted to a vote : it may be knocked out on election 

day, and in that case if the Commission should cease 

work now and restore the Square to its former state they 

would have all their work to do over again.' ' 

At a meeting of the Commission, held on September 

9th, they threw out the following "bait" to the City 

officials : 

" Cleveland, O., September 9, 1892. 

" To the Honorable Board of Control and City Council of Cleveland. 

"GENTLEMEN: — At a meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Monument Commission held this day, the communica- 
tion of this date from the Board of Control, relative to Monument 
site, was received, and in response thereto the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted : 

"Resolved, That if the City Council at its next meeting take 
favorable action towards giving the Monument Commission the 
northeast section of the Public Square as a site for the Monument 
as contemplated in the proposition submitted by the Board of 
Control, we will recommend that work be suspended within the 
enclosure of the southeast section of the Public Square until the 
matter can be considered by the entire Commission, and the meeting 
of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, to be called 
next week, with a view of securing their acceptance of the change. 
"Very respectfully, 

"William J. Gleason, 

" Levi F. Bauder, , " President. 

" Secretary." 

Subsequent developments will show that the City 
Government swallowed the " bait," hook, line and 

In the meantime the Board of Trade Committee and 
the City officials were trotting tandem. They were 
striving to provide another site. We concluded that it 
might be well enough to let them trot around for awhile, 
just to keep their blood in healthy circulation. They 
continued to offer suggestions and advice, and, when 
they got through, they had nothing new to offer. If 
the Commission would only give up the site set aside 


for the Monument by the Legislature of Ohio and 
former City administrations, approved by all of the 
Courts, and of which they held actual and legal 
possession, then the Business Men's Committee and the 
City officials would try to provide another site. But 
the Commission saw through their game of cheap "bluff," 
and "called them." When they were compelled to 
show down their hand it was seen that they held a 
bob-tail flush against a royal flush ! Our opponents 
were nearly " broke," and the indications were that, 
after one or two more "deals," they would be com- 
pelled to give up their places in their weakly played 

The Plain Dealer of the 9th said : 

11 The Monument Case may be satisfactorily adjusted, 
after all. Both sides were inclined to be decent Friday 
morning. Realizing how near the matter had reached 
a compromise on Thursday, the Board of Trade Com- 
mittee set out Friday to bring both the City and Com- 
mission together. Col. Richard C. Parsons, Hon. M. A. 
Hanna, Hon J. H. McBride, Hon. George H. Ely and 
Hon. S. M. Strong called upon the Monument Commis- 
sion and urged a compromise on sites, but were met 
with the rebuff that the City had offered no other site 
that was within the pale of reason. The Commission 
hinted that a reasonable site would be the northeastern 
section of the Square. The Committee then set out to 
secure a written offer of the northeastern section from 
the City. A special meeting of the Board of Control 
was called at noon in the Mayor's office. There were 
present Mayor Rose and Directors Meyer, Herrick, 
Gibbons, Gardner, Morison and Bangs. President 
Davidson of the Council was an interested spectator. 
Gen. Meyer presented a resolution and prefaced it with 
the following remarks : 

' ' We have been advised bv the Board of Trade 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 2/1 

Committee that if the northeast section of the Square 
is offered, the Commission will consider it.' 

" Gen. Meyer thereupon offered the following resolu- 

" Resolved, That with a view to securing a compromise of the con- 
troversy over the use of the southeast section of the Public Square 
as a site for the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and to prevent the 
removal of the monument of Commodore Perry now upon said site, 
that the Board of Control hereby submit to the Monumental Com- 
missioners the following proposal, viz : 

" That if the Monumental Commissioners will undertake to 
suspend work on the southeast section of the Public Square, and 
promptly remove the fence therefrom, and relinquish all claims 
thereto, the Board hereby agrees and undertakes to at once recom- 
mend to this Council the adoption of a resolution giving and renew- 
ing the consent of the City to said Commissioners to take, use and 
occupy the northeast section of said Square as a site for said Monu- 
ment, and upon the acceptance by said Commissioners of said last 
named section as such site to withdraw and dismiss all pending 
litigation instituted by the City to prevent the location of said 
Monument on the southeast section of said Square and will heartily 
co-operate with said Commissioners in the erection and preservation 
of the Monument. 

" ' The City has at all times,' said Gen. Meyer, ' been 
ready to confer with the Commissioners upon a com- 
promise on site. The City has never approved the proj- 
ect but has been somewhat opposed to the selection of 
the southeast portion of the Square for the Monument.' 

" The resolution was then adopted unanimously. 

" Col. Parsons and Mr. Ely returned to the Commis- 
sion with the resolution. Gen. Leggett was favorably 
impressed with it, and a joint meeting was called for at 
four o'clock in the Board of Control rooms. 

" A joint meeting of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Commission with the Board of Trade Committee 
was held in the rooms of the Board of Control yesterday 
afternoon. There were present on behalf of the Com- 
mission Maj. W. J. Gleason, Gen. M. D. Leggett, Gen. 
James Barnett, Col. C. C. Dewstoe, Col. E. W. Force, 


Capt. Levi F. Bauder and Capt. James Hayr, and in 
behalf of the Board of Trade Committee Messrs. M. A. 
Hanna, R. C. Parsons, J. H. McBride, S. M. Strong and 
George H. Ely. Maj. Gleason read the resolution 
adopted by the Board of Control in the morning, offer- 
ing the northeast section of the Square if the Commis- 
sion would relinquish the southeast section. 

" ' This is the first direct proposition we have had 
from the City,' said Major Gleason. ' It is clear and 
concise. 1 

" ' Are we to stop work now ? ' asked Mr. Hayr. 

" ' Not at all,' said Mr. Parsons. ' It is now Friday 
and the Council will meet on Monday.' 

" ' It seems to me,' said Col. Dewstoe, ' that the policy 
of the Administration is delay.' 

u ' How does this proposition suit the Board of 
Trade?' asked Gen. Leggett. 

u 'The Committee can heartily endorse the proposi- 
tion,' said Mr. Hanna. 

'"I think that it will allay public sentiment,' said 
Mr. McBride." 

The Leader of the 9th details the breaking away 
from our entangling alliances, as follows: 

"The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commis- 
sioners will not listen to any further discussion concern- 
ing a site for the Monument until the City or a company 
of private citizens offers one equally as good as the 
southeast section of the Public Square, free from all 
expense or litigation that will cause delay. This decis- 
ion was reached yesterday afternoon at a meeting of 
the Commission in Captain Levi T. Scofield's office. 
The Commissioners present were Major Gleason, Col. 
C. C. Dewstoe, Capt. Levi Bauder, Col. E. W. Force, 
Gen. M. D. Leggett, James Hayr, Capt. J. B. Molyneaux, 
Gen. James Barnett and Capt. Scofield. Loren Pren- 
tiss, Esq., the legal adviser of the Commissioners, and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 273 

Maj. Theodore Voges, formerly a Park Commissioner, 
but now a resident of Canton, were present. Capt. 
Scofield asked Mr. Prentiss to state the substance of a 
conversation they had had concerning what the City 
should do if it is anxious to have the Monument kept 
off the southeast section of the Public Square. Mr. 
Prentiss stated briefly that the City should first agree to 
withdraw all the litigation now in the courts and guar- 
antee the immediate and peaceful occupation of any site 
agreed upon. In the event that the question should be 
submitted to a vote of the people, the City should 
guarantee the use of one of two sites. These precau- 
tions Mr. Prentiss held necessary so as to make the 
voting simply a choice by the people between two sites. 
' All this opposition to the occupation of the southeast 
section of the Square,' he said, 'grows out of the hos- 
tility of the Street Railroad Companies who will want 
to run their tracks through it as soon as they have been 
consolidated. If any street needs relief, it is Ontario 
and not Euclid Avenue.' 

'"If the occupation of the Square by the Monument 
will prevent its use by the Street Railroad Companies, 
that is a sufficient reason for my desire to have it there,' 
said General Leggett. 

"The proposed site near Lakeside Hospital was men- 
tioned and Mr. Hayf imparted some information. 'A 
man came to me only a short time ago,' he said, 'and 
offered to divide profits with me if I would notify him 
in time to buy up the land in case the Commission 
should decide to put the Monument there.' 

" Mr. Gleason said that Mr. Wade, five years before, 
had the opinion that Euclid Avenue would be extended. 

"'Yes,' said Mr. Prentiss, 'and Mr. Herrick says now 
that such a time is coming and all objections originated 
originally with the Railroad Companies.' 

" ' If you use the northwest section, the Perkins 


estate will object, and if you use the northeast section, 
the Society for Savings will fight,' interposed Mr. 

"Col. Dewstoe then read the resolutions adopted by 
Memorial Post Wednesday night and the accompany- 
ing letter of explanation, signed by G. J. McKnight, 
John F. Weh and S. P. Mount. The resolutions are as 
follows : 

"Whereas, The Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County have 
annually since the inception of the Monument project confirmed 
the choice of site on the southeastern section of the Square, and, 

"Whereas, The Commission was created and the present site 
chosen by them, and, 

"Whereas, The Commissioners were especially appointed to 
represent their wishes, and of late they have publicly acknowledged 
themselves as the representatives of the Cuyahoga Count}- Veterans, 
now therefore, be it 

" Resolved, By Memorial Post No. 141, Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, that in all fairness we protest against the Commissioners chang- 
ing from the present site without first obtaining a full expression 
of the wishes and feelings of all the Soldiers and Sailors in the 

" Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to bring this 
matter to the immediate attention of our comrades, and to respect- 
fully ask the Commission that they delay action as to making any 
contemplated changes until the voice of the Cuyahoga County Vet- 
erans can be heard. 

" They were received and made a part of the record 
of the meeting. Colonel Dewstoe said that he felt 
morally bound to listen to the request of the Veterans 
with regard to the site, although he said that the duty 
of the Commission was to the whole people and not 
solely to the county organization of Veterans. 

" After considerable discussion, Colonel Dewstoe 
claimed that the Commission could, with honor and re- 
spect, change the site only with the expressed wish of 
a majority of the originators of the Monument plans ; 
therefore, he thought it would be advisable to have a 
meeting of the County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 275 

soon. General Leggett voted ' no ' because he is 
strongly opposed to giving up the southeast section 
since the Courts have said that the Commission are 
right, and especially as the opponents of the site have 
waited so long before acting. 

" ' Let us stay where we are,' said Colonel Force. ' I 
have no faith in the City or its propositions. Two Coun- 
cils have given us the right to occupy, and another has 

" This emphatic expression of opinion met with 
smiles and ejaculations, ' that's it,' by General Leggett, 
Mr. Hayr and Captain Scofield. 

" A letter was received from General Elwell, who is 
sick at Lakewood. He advised cool-headed action, and 
said that he would abide by Captain Scofield's decision 
as to the fitness of any site. 

" Major Voges was called upon to say something, and 
in behalf of a number of ex-soldiers of Cuyahoga County 
who now live in Canton, he said that the Monument 
should go in the southeast section of the Square. ' Why, 
a good many people at Canton have taken sides in the 
controversy,' he said. 'They read the Leader and form 
their own opinions. Twenty years ago, when I was a 
Park Commissioner, we prepared a place in Lake View 
Park for Perry's monument, and we would have moved 
it there if we had had the money then. That's the 
place for it, and the talk of General Meyer about pre- 
ferring to lose his right arm rather than see the monu- 
ment moved sounds very strange and foolish to me.' 

" ' I've got another resolution to offer,' said General 
Leggett, with a smile, as he looked up from a piece of 
paper on which he had been writing during Major 
Voges' speech. As the General has the reputation of 
being the most prolific resolution writer on the Board, 
several other Commissioners smiled. The resolution 
offered by the General reads as follows : 


Resolved, That as no practicable site other than the one the law 
and the Courts have given us has been offered to us up to this time, 
we decline further discussion on this point, and will proceed as rap- 
idly as possible to erect the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument on the 
southeast section of the Public Square. 

" General Leggett's resolution was put upon its adop- 
tion by Mr. Hayr's motion. Se\ T eral members suggested 
in an interrogative manner that the resolution would 
forever stop any further discussion, and some contended 
that the subject would be open again if a practicable 
site were offered. 

" ' It stops all further consideration,' insisted Major 

" 'That's what it is intended to do, and if it doesn't, 
I'll re-write it,' said the General. After his declaration 
as to the intent of the resolution, there was no further 
discussion. The resolution was adopted, Secretary 
Bander alone voting in the negative. The Commission 
then adjourned to meet at the call of the President. 

" It is quite probable that Captain J. C. Shields, the 
President of the County Union, will call a meeting of 
that organization in a few days to get an expression of 
opinion on the actions of the Commission." 



THE enemy massed their forces for a vigorous attack. 
We were closely pressed on front and flank, with 
the ever ready guerillas and bush-whackers harrassing 
our rear. While we knew that final victory would be 
won, we felt that the time had come to sound the bugle 
for the grand rally of our forces on our always faithful 
and reliable reserve. So the following general order 

was issued: 

Headquarters Cuyahoga County 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, 

Cleveland, O., September ioth, 1892. J 

A meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union 
will be held Tuesday, September 13, at 2 o'clock P. M., at Army and 
Navy Hall, 426 Superior Street. This meeting is called for the 
purpose of ascertaining the views and desires of the comrades of 
Cuyahoga County regarding the site of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument. A full attendance is earnestly desired. 

By order, 

J. C. Shields, President. 
E. L. Pardee, Secretary. 

The ioth of September proceedings were described 
in the Leader as follows : 

" Seventy-nine years ago Commodore Oliver Hazard 
Perry, with his fleet of wooden ships, unmercifully 
walloped the British fleet in the only battle that ever 
occurred on the great lakes, and yesterday, for the first 
time in many years, citizens of Cleveland, in honor of 
the anniversary, decorated his monument in the Public 
Square with garlands, wreaths, flags, bunting and crape. 
Yesterday's demonstration was caused by the proposal 
of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission to 


remove the Perry monument to some other place. Dr. 
L. B. Tuckerman, at 7 o'clock in the morning, appeared 
before the gates of the enclosure. He procured a step- 
ladder with which he climbed to the top of the fence. 
Then drawing the ladder after him he descended to the 
ground on the other side in safety. He had only crape 
to place on the marble statue. 

" Shortly after the Doctor's visit, the Monument Com- 
mission, at present in possession of the section of the 
Square upon which the statue stands, opened the gates 
at the northeast and southwest corners and practically 
threw the enclosure open to the public. Work on the 
foundations for the Soldiers' Monument was temporarily 
suspended. Early in the day citizens began to decorate 
the Perry pedestal with pots of cut flowers, and before 
noon the base was nearly covered. About 1 o'clock, 
Frank Dellenbaugh, Esq., with several assistants, 
draped the Commodore's figure with a large American 
flag, with black entwined in graceful folds. The flag 
was the contribution of William Taylor, Son & Co. 
Hower & Higbee contributed a quantity of bunting 
and placed their store at the disposal of the Decorating 
Committee. Several small flags added to the deco- 
rations. A large floral wreath was thrown about the 
Commodore and flowers were placed in profusion at 
every place available. 

" The letter of Secretary Bauder, of the Monument 
Commission, to contractor McAllister, directing him to 
open the enclosure to the public, was posted on the 

" Mr. James Hayr was the only member of the 
Monument Commission who was seen about as the 
decorations were in progress. He heartily endorsed the 
work. He said he had been decorating Perry for twenty 
years himself and was glad to see others taking up the 
work. He had placed a wreath about the Commodore's 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 281 

head every year, he said, until he was forbidden to do 
so because the evergreen injured the marble. 

" Many spectators watched the committee arranging 
the decorations. The flags on the Square and on the 
City Hall floated from the mastheads in honor of the day. 

"The second demonstration in the form of a mass 
meeting was held in the northeast section of the Square. 
It had been widely advertised, but still at 8 : 30 o'clock 
there were only about 200 persons present. The meeting 
was not very demonstrative, and the cheers given were 
requested by persons on the rostrum. A young man 
with a cornet played 'The Star Spangled Banner,' 
which evoked applause. Mr. Thomas G. Fitzsimmons, 
the Chairman of the adjourned mass meeting, called the 
meeting to order and remarked that he believed ' The 
Star Spangled Banner ' was sung with a good deal of 
fervor on the occasion of the victory at Put-in-Bay. 
This was cheered, although the patriotic song was not 
written until a year and four or five days after Perry's 
victory. Mr. Fitzsimmons also expressed the belief 
that the Monument Commission will not move the 
Perry statue because they fear the people. 

"Frank Dellenbaugh, Esq., was the next speaker, 
although he said he had not prepared himself for the 
occasion, like General Meyer, who would later address 
them. He said that whatever came from him came 
from a loyal heart. ' Something has been said about 
my connection with a street railway corporation as an 
attorney,' he said. ' That is true, but, thank God, not 
one hair of my head is owned by a street car company, 
and I hope Almighty God will strike off both my hands 
and pluck my tongue out by the roots if ever I do or 
say anything that will enable any street railway com- 
pany to take a teaspoonful of earth from the Public 
Square. Perry did more than any man, with possibly 
the exception of a Sherman, a Grant or a Thomas, to 


preserve this Union, and his statue should not be dis- 
placed. Who are these Commissioners ? They are the 
servants of the people, and should obey them. You pay 
for this Monument, and you have a right to say where it 
shall be placed. Have matters come to a pass that the 
servants will not obey ? Shall one of the greatest men, 
much greater than any latter day saint [cheers] be re- 
moved to give place to one of these modern patriots? 
The Perry monument is a National memorial, while 
this new Monument is simply to commemorate the serv- 
ices of one of eighty-eight counties of this Buckeye 
State. [Derisive cheers.] Should such a Monument 
displace Perry ? No, no, never ! Don't touch a board 
of that obnoxious fence, I beg of you — I would not ad- 
vise you to touch it. Let us continue to be patient. 
We have been patient enough, God knows, but the last 
straw has not been laid on the camel's back. Don't 
touch a single board of that fence.' 

'" Who's going to touch it?' asked a man in the au- 
dience. Mr. Dellenbaugh did not answer. 

" ' Perry signified his disapproval,' continued the 
speaker, ' this morning when the artillery on high 
thundered out a protest. I can remember the thunder 
of the cannon when this monument was unveiled.' A 
man asked Mr. Dellenbaugh about General Leggett. 
Mr. Dellenbaugh replied that he respected Generals 
Barnett, Leggett and other members of the Commission 
and had no hard words for them. 

" W. S. Kerruish, Esq., was the next speaker. His 
address was very temperate and deprecatory of any stir- 
ring up of ill feeling. He delighted to honor the mem- 
ory of Commodore Perry, and he had come for that pur- 
pose and not to keep up a wrangle. He had supposed 
that this impromptu meeting was for the purpose of 
commemorating the valorous deeds of the Commodore, 
and not of exciting animosities. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 283 

" Nothing was so inappropriate on an occasion like 
this. ' Personally,' he said, ' I do not think Commodore 
Perry should be removed, but when I read in the Cleve- 
land Leader a few days ago General Elwell's appeal for 
peace, I felt as if the old Soldiers should be allowed to 
have their way about it if they have set their hearts on 
the Square. Levi Bauder told me this afternoon that 
the Commission will not remove the Perry statue, and 
I hope that is true. If the Monument must be put there, 
let us abide by the decision honorably and patriotically.' 

" Mr. D. B. Jones, the cornetist, played and Dr. 
Tuckerman led the singing for 'The Red, White and 
Blue,' after which Vernon Burke, Esq., William Heis- 
ley, Dr. Knowlton and Dr. Tuckerman made short 
speeches. Resolutions protesting against the use of 
the Square by street railroad companies, the removal of 
the Perry statue, and to meet again one year hence, 
were adopted. The resolution concerning the street 
cars was adopted with unanimity, but the Perry resolu- 
tion met with a decided negative. A letter from Gen- 
eral Meyer was read in which he said that hay fever 
prevented him from making a speech. ' Perry's monu- 
ment will not be removed from the Square,' was the 
concluding sentence of the letter. The meeting then 
adjourned to the southeast section to still further deco- 
rate the monument." 

Comment on these proceedings is scarcely necessary. 
We can truthfully add, however, that this was the first 
and last time these patriotic citizens ever decorated 
Perry's monument since it was unveiled, September 
10th, i860. They did not meet again in 1893, as they 
had resolved ; the Perry statue has been removed, not- 
withstanding General Meyer's positive statement to the 
contrary ; the street railroads are not running through 
the southeast section of the Square ; the Soldiers' 
Monument occupies the chosen site ; the Government 


at Washington still lives, and General Meyer's hay- 
fever has ceased its burning rage. 

We take pleasure in inserting here the ably written 
document of our senior counsel, Loren Prentiss, Esq., 
in reply to the objections raised to the location of the 
Monument, clipped from the Leader of the 12th of Sep- 

" To the Editor of the Leader : 

" Being Attorney for the Monument Commissioners, I will not 
ask any one to give any more weight to what I may say as to the 
location on the southeast section of the Square than the reasons 
which I may give will clearly command, although I am not repre- 
senting the Monument Commissioners, but simply my own views, 
in what I now say. 

"That the Monument is within the purposes of the dedication of 
the Square to public uses has been fully settled by the Supreme 
Court by a careful and unanimous decision, sustained by an over- 
whelming weight of authority, after full argument and exhaustive 
briefs; and, therefore, no legal rights are violated by its location in 
that section of the Square. 

" But it is said that there are reasons against the present location 
which would prevent any arrangement which contemplates its use r 
however reasonable otherwise. So far the objections urged have 
consisted almost entirely of assertions to the effect that the Monu- 
ment is too large for that section of the Square; that it would ob- 
struct and divert the walk to and from Euclid Avenue and make it 
much longer than now; that it would involve the moving of the 
Perry statue from that section of the Square, and that this would be 
a disparagement to his memory and honor; that it will obstruct the 
light and air, and that the great majority of the people are opposed 
to that site. Some people sum up their opposition in the blind and 
unmeaning statement that it would be an outrage to place the 
Monument in that section of the Square. People and newspapers- 
using only such language are like the crude and excitable sort by 
whom everything is classed as either ' perfectly awful ' or ' perfectly 
splendid'; or like the preacher who preferred to preach from texts- 
he did not understand because it gave such free scope to his imag- 
ination. Of course, there is no argument in such assertions, for the 
reason that no facts are given to support them. I have studied the 
facts and practical questions as to the location of the Monument as- 
thoroughly as I have the law of the cases in Court, and in my judg- 
ment none of these objections are well founded. 

"First. Too large for that section. The esplanade or platform — 


ninety-five feet square and five feet high— will not affect anything 
besides the walks, and it requires the statement of only a single 
mathematical fact to remove the objection as to the walk to and 
from Euclid Avenue, and that fact is, that by running the crosswalk 
from the Williamson block diagonally so as to strike the side of the 
Square about sixty feet below the southeast corner and continue on 
that line to the walk around the esplanade, the distance from and to 
Euclid Avenue through that section of the Square will be less than 
it is now. This, I think, entirely disposes of the objections as to 
the walks. The view of the Monument will be ample. The dis- 
tance from the memorial room, 40 feet square and 25 feet high, to 
the buildings on the east and south sides of that section of the 
Square is 137 feet, and to the curbstone 67 feet— affording ample 
room for the viewing of the Monument, besides the longer view 
from Euclid Avenue, while on the other sides all the rest of the 
Square affords the most ample opportunities for viewing the Monu- 
ment at any distance desired. So far from the Monument filling up 
that section of the Square, there would be room enough around the 
Monument and on the esplanade to accommodate 4,000 to 5,000 peo- 
ple at one time, and the rest of the Square could accommodate four 
or five times as many more. The walks could be made thirty feet 
wide, if necessary, to accommodate people passing as well as those 
viewing the Monument. The idea that the aesthetic and imagina- 
tive taste should govern in the location of the Monument in some 
outside location I think is a mistake. It is built by the people and 
for the people, and should be where the people come and go— where 
the lines of the street railways converge — where the people ' do 
most congregate,' for the most important mission of the Monument 
is to teach lessons of disinterested patriotism and courage. The 
location should, therefore, be central, and not on the East, the West, 
or the South Side. The Monument would be benefited rather than 
prejudiced by fine buildings around the Square ; for, standing on 
the highest ground, with its shaft 125 feet high, its splendid groups 
in heroic size and its highly artistic character give it a character by 
itself at once impressive and inspiring. 

"The Monument, with its granite and bronze, would not be 
affected seriously by the smoke nuisance— not half as much as the 
Perry statue is ; and, besides, the smoke nuisance can, and therefore 
will, be abated in the near future. 

"The obstructing of light and air is another objection. Well, 
this needs no argument, for there is simply nothing in it ; and peo- 
ple making this objection are like the old lady in Puritan times who 
objected to having a stove to warm the church in winter, and fainted 
away on a cold winter day because of the stove, but was quite sur- 
prised afterwards to learn that there was no fire in it. 


" Second. As to the removal of the Perry statue, it need not be 
removed at all from that section of the Square. The Monument 
Commissioners have so decided, and propose that he shall stand on 
the south side near the naval group on the Monument and be asso- 
ciated with it, blending the earlier and later glories of American 
naval achievements. 

" If the City authorities should prefer to remove it to some other 
location on the Square, or to Lake View Park at the foot of Ontario 
Street, it could not possibly imply any disrespect to his memory. 
The statue has been removed once, and the fact that he has so many 
new friends now, clearly shows that the removal of his statue does 
not, and cannot, lessen the glory of his achievements, or the affec- 
tion with which his memory is cherished. 

" Third. It is said that the majority of the people are opposed to 
that location ; but, manifestly, that is a matter of opinion, for none 
of those expressing it have ever talked with one-tenth of the people 
on that subject, and, besides, the groundlessness of the objections 
made, as I have pointed out, shows that these opinions have been 
formed without investigation or knowledge of the real facts. Much 
of what has appeared in a large part of the city press has been of 
the same character. It has been in a large measure like the cry of 
'mad dog.' One person expresses an opinion in language of denun- 
ciation, and another, and another, and so on take it up and repeat 
it, and thus an injurious and unjust public sentiment is created. 
This is very much like the tactics sometimes used to stampede 
political conventions. The great mass of the people are intelligent 
and thoughtful, and will not be blindly led on this subject, and cer- 
tainly so great a matter as this cannot be determined by mere asser- 
tions or denunciation. 

" Fourth. But, it may be asked, have none of those who so vio- 
lently opposed that location any reasons for so doing? Yes, they 
have reasons, but they are not brought to the front. One class ob- 
jects simply because they think the Square should be kept entirely 
open and free from any structure, aside from here and there a 
statue ; but the Supreme Court has exploded that theory, both as to 
monuments and purely public buildings. 

" The Square has the appearance of belonging simply to a coun- 
try village. In fact, many country villages have much better monu- 
ments than the Perry statue, though none could commemorate more 
splendid braver}- than does his. 

" The Square has not a single metropolitan feature in the wav of 
ornament or artistic character, and yet the city, no longer a village, 
is destined soon to become the metropolitan city of the State. The 
Monument would supply that need, and give the Square a character 
suited to the growth and wealth of the city. Another class object to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 287 

the location because, as they claim, it may be necessary at some 
future time to run Euclid Avenue, with the street railway, down 
through that section of the Square to the west side of the Square, 
and cutting off a corner of the southwest section. The entire street 
railway interest, as well as the property owners on Euclid Avenue, 
are directly interested in that project, for the street railway compa- 
nies are preparing to combine. 

"These two powerful interests have had a large share in the agi- 
tation against that location ; and it has even been said, that with 
such powerful interests, the Monument, even if erected there, might 
be removed at some future time to carry out that plan, and yet 
many of the same people are denouncing the idea of removing the 
Perrv statue, even to another location on the same section of the 

" I do not believe the time will ever come when it will be neces- 
sary to run Euclid Avenue through the Square. It has two outlets 
— one direct to Superior and the other round the Square, either of 
which is equal to the capacity of Euclid Avenue itself; and the 
street cars can carry as many passengers on the present line as they 
could if run through the Square. I doubt very much if a street, and 
especially a street railway, can legally be run through any section of 
the Square, but I will not discuss that here. 

" But I am perfectly clear that if any street is to be run through 
any section of the Square, it should be through the southwest sec- 
tion, so as to relieve and accommodate Ontario Street as well 
as Euclid Avenue, which needs it much more than does that 
avenue. With Superior and Ontario Streets and the streets around 
the Square, I am confident the public will never need a street 
through any section of the Square; and, in any point of view, 
neither the interests of property holders on Euclid Avenue nor the 
private interests of street railways should be allowed to stand in the 
way of the location of this splendid Monument on the southeast 
section of the Square. The majority of the people do their own 
thinking, and when they understand this matter, they will, I believe, 
decide with no uncertain voice in favor of the present site. 

" Fifth. Since writing the above, it is said that the City authori- 
ties and the Board of Trade Committee are willing that the Monu- 
ment should be located on the northeast section, and the question 
is, therefore, narrowed down to the comparative merits of the two 
locations. There are legal points, however, to be carefully consid- 
ered before any final action can safely be taken by the Monument 
Commissioners, if a change of sites should be deemed advisable. 
One City Council unanimously gave consent to the present site, but 
after a little more than four years, through the influence of a new 
administration, that consent was withdrawn. The right of the 


Monument Commission to the present site is fully settled and 
established under direct grant from the Legislature, with which the 
City cannot interfere, and a certainty should not be changed for an 
uncertainty. As to the merits of the two locations, they are both of 
the same size, which clearly disposes of the objection as to the 
Monument being too large for the present site. It may be that 
there are not as many people passing through the northeast as the 
southeast section, but the opportunity to make the distance from 
Euclid Avenue shorter than it is now by the diagonal walk as those 
explained does not exist as to the northeast section, and it is not, 
therefore, true that the Monument would be more in the way in the 
southeast than in the northeast section. The walks and spaces 
around the Monument can be made as broad and convenient in the 
southeast as in the northeast section. Why, then, this persistent 
objection to the present site ? Is there anything substantial left of 
it except the supposed, but to my mind mistaken, interest of Euclid 
Avenue property owners and the large private interest of the street 
railway companies? 

"It is said the public prejudice against the present site, whether 
well founded or unfounded, should decide in favor of the new site 
proposed ; but a mistaken or unfounded public sentiment might in 
the near future be changed into a permanent public regret. We 
are, therefore, brought to the final, the one decisive question, which 
is the best site ? 

" The objections to the northeast section are : 

"First. It is merely a corner — shut in with comparatively no 
view from the east. 

" Second. It is low, and the Society for Savings building is 
higher than the shaft of the Monument, and the large new building 
opposite the Postoffice may be nearly as high. 

" Third. The moving wagons standing around there might move 
over on to the other side of the street, next to the Postoffice, and 
remain under the generous leniency of the Postoffice and Custom 
House officials. 

" I know that Mr. Scofield's opinion is decidedly against that 
location, and his views are entitled to great weight. He has photo- 
graphs or pictures of all the principal Monuments, both in Europe 
and this country, with their locations aud surroundings, and has 
made the subject a careful study for a great many years, and no man 
is more interested and devoted to the interests of the Monument, 
now and in the future, than he. Such experience and judgment are 
of the highest value, aud should not be disregarded without the 
most clear and satisfactory reasons. 

" The defects in the proposed site which I have pointed out 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 291 

clearly show by contrast the superior advantages of the present 
location : 

"First. It is not shut in, but has a splendid view from Euclid 
Avenue on the east. 

" Second. It is high and sightly, which will give it an important 
advantage in relation to buildings around the Square. 

" Third. A large amount of work has already been done on the 
present site, and, as 1 have shown, the objections to it are not 
founded on facts or valid reasons. 

" Fourth. It is the best site for the Monument, and the Monu- 
ment shoidd have the best site. 

" L. Prentiss." 

Action was taken by the City Council, at its meeting 
held on September 12th, relative to the "bait" cast 
before them by the Commission on September 9th, as 
follows : 

" The City Council last evening decided, by a vote 
of fourteen to five, that the northeast section of tlie Public 
Square may be used as a site for the Soldiers' Monument. 
Last week an intimation was given that the Monument 
Commissioners might agree to change from the south- 
east to the northeast section if the Council would con- 
sent. In order that there might be nothing to interfere 
with a change of site if the Monument Commissioners 
would agree to it, the following resolution was intro- 
duced last evening : 

"Whereas, The Monumental Commissioners of Cuyahoga 
Count}' have notified this Council under date of September 9, 1892, 
that said Commissioners did, on said last mentioned date, unani- 
mously adopt the following resolution : 

"Resolved, That if the City Council at its next meeting should 
take favorable action towards giving the Monument Commission 
the northeast section of the Public Square as a site for the Monu- 
ment, as contemplated in the proposition submitted by the Board of 
Control, we will recommend that work be suspended within the 
enclosure of the southeast section of the Public Square until the 
matter can be considered by the entire Commission, and the meet- 
ing of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, to be 
called next week, with a view of securing their acceptance of the 
change. Now, therefore, for the purpose of securing a settlement 
by compromise of the existing controversy in regard to the use of 


the southeast section of the Public Square of this city as a site for 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, and to prevent the removal of 
the monument of Commodore Perry now upon said site, be it 
resolved by this Council that the consent of the City be and it is 
hereby given to said Commissioners to take, use, and occupy the 
northeast section of the Public Square as a site for said Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Monument upon condition that the said Commissioners 
shall suspend all work on said southeast section of said Public 
Square, remove the fence therefrom, and relinquish all claims 
thereto, and shall file in the office of the City Clerk within five days 
from and after the adoption hereof their written acceptance of said 
last stated site upon the terms and conditions of this resolution ; 
and that upon the filing in the office of the City Clerk by the said 
Commissioners of their acceptance, as herein provided, the Corpora- 
tion Counsel be and he is hereby authorized and instructed to with- 
draw and dismiss all pending proceedings instituted by the City 
to prevent the location of said Monument on the southeast section 
of said Square ; and that thereupon this Council will heartily co- 
operate with said Commissioners in the erection and preserving of 
said Monument. 

" There was no discussion upon the resolution until 
the roll was being called. Mr. Angell led off by voting 
against the resolution. Mr. McKenney, in explaining 
his vote, said : 

" ' I am not in favor of the Public Square as a site for 
the Monument, and I therefore vote no.' 

" ' Neither am I in favor of the Public Square,' said 
Mr. Bole. 

" ' 1 cannot see any difference between sections,' said 
Mr. Wilhelm. ' I have been told that the vacation of 
the southeast section is in favor of the street railways, 
but I do not know that that is so.' 

" Mr. O'Brien could not see what earthly use there 
was in passing a resolution granting the Commission 
the right to occupy the northeast section of the Square 
when the Supreme Court had decided that the City has 
no authority over the Square. He, however, voted for 
the resolution. The measure was adopted by a vote of 
fourteen ayes against five nays, Messrs. Angell, McKen- 
ney, Bole, Wilhelm and Skyrm voting no." 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 293 

Backward, turn backward, oh Time, in your flight, 
The Council is anxious to give up the fight ; 

" providing the Commissioners will stop work, remove 
the fence, relinquish all claims to the southeast section 
of the Square, accept the northeast section," ad nauseam. 
Back again to the original proposition of the defunct 
Park Commissioners. These latter day City officials 
would give the Monument Commission any place — with 
a string to it — except the place they desired and were 
entitled to. The brazen effrontery of these City officials 
was only equalled by their imbecility. They were soon 
to have an emphatic answer. 

The "reserves" were ordered up, and right gallantly 
they advanced to the front. Their timely appearance 
on the field of action completely demoralized the enemy. 
The decisive charge of the reserves was reported in the 
Leader of September 13th, as follows: 

" There will be no more delay or parley about the 
location of the Soldiers' Monument — at least such was 
the decision of the ex-Soldiers and Sailors and the 
Monument Commission yesterday. A special meeting 
of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Associa- 
tion was held in Army and Navy Hall yesterday after- 
noon. Captain J. C. Shields, President of the Associa- 
tion, called the meeting to order, but as he was unable 
to remain, Hon. W. D. Pudney was called to the chair. 
Mr. Pudney stated the object of the meeting to be the 
discussion of the Monument site. Over five years ago, 
he said, the Soldiers and Sailors of the county had 
chosen the southe-ast corner of the Square. Now it was 
desired to ascertain whether the Veterans had changed 
their minds. G. J. McKnight moved that the meeting 
reaffirm their decision that the southeast section of the 
Square be used. It was decided to limit speeches on 
this motion to five minutes each. 

" The first speaker was Joseph Evans. He said the 


recent meetings on the Public Square were disgusting, 
and that the sentiments there expressed were not those 
of the people but of a howling mob. He thought that 
if the Square could be given up as a storage place for 
cable machinery it could be used for a Monument. 

'' Henrv Wood next spoke, and he said that while he 
was no orator he was a Soldier from the word go. He 
said that now, as in 1862, he favored no compromise 
with the copperheads. 

"Captain M. B. Gary asked if a communication from 
the City Council and the Board of Control was not to be 
presented to the meeting. In reply, Major Gleason 
read the Council resolution, passed Monday evening, 
offering the northeast section of the Square as a com- 
promise site. Major Gleason went on to say that the 
members of the Commission were present to hear the 
will of the Soldiers of the county. 

" Dr. W. A. Knowlton, who has all along been op- 
posed to the present site, offered a set of resolutions, 
which met with an icy reception and were defeated 
with a shout. The Doctor said that for a long time the 
people were with this plan ; they furnished money and 
aided the project. But of late opposition had grown 
up, and the Soldiers must respect the wishes of the 
great public as soon as they were expressed. His reso- 
lutions were intended to submit the matter to a vote at 
the coming election, and to have the City and the Com- 
mission abide by the decision thus made. It was moved 
to refer the resolutions to a committee, but not a single 
" aye' 1 was heard, so the motion was lost, and the Doc- 
tor's resolutions were not even received. 

" Colonel C. C. Dewstoe said that he was a member 
of the Commission, and had not attended the meeting 
for the purpose of saying anything but to listen. 

"At this point the opinion of the counsel for the 
Commission, Judge J. M. Jones, Loren Prentiss and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 295 

Colonel Allan T. Brinsmade, was read. Two questions 
had been submitted to them — first, whether or not, if 
the present site were given up and another section of 
the Square taken, the judicial decisions already given 
would apply, and whether new complications might 
arise ; and, second, if the present site were given up for 
the northeast section, and then that be found unten- 
able, the southeast section could be reclaimed. The 
attorneys said that not only might all the questions now 
decided be raised, but new ones might arise in case of a 
change. They also said that if the present site should 
be given up it could not be reclaimed. They went on 
to say that title was now held under the act of the Leg- 
islature, but another section would be held by sanction 
of the City Council alone and subject to their pleasure. 
This statement from the attorneys practically settled 
the question of compromise. 

" After the reading of the attorneys' decision, Captain 
M. B. Gary took the floor and made a vigorous speech 
against the occupation of the southeast section. He 
said : ' I think that the responsibility resting now on 
the Soldiers and Sailors of the county is a very serious 
one. The people of this county are our friends, and no 
people ever treated Soldiers better than we have been 

" ' I deny that ! I deny that ! ' shouted James Hayr, 
jumping to his feet, and a chorus of ' Sit down,' ' Shut 
up,' greeted Captain Gary. 

" Chairman Pudney succeeded in quieting all but Mr. 
Hayr, who said that he would not be quiet as long as 
' slurs were being cast.' At last, order was restored and 
Captain Gary continued : ' If we would stand by our 
friends, the people, the copperheads would not dare say 
a word.' 

" A strong speech in favor of the present site was 
made by John F. Weh. He said that as ' All roads lead 


to Rome,' so all roads in this county lead to the Public. 
Square. Therefore, he thought it was the best place 
for the Monument. George A. Groot introduced sub- 
stitute resolutions, and Mr. McKnight withdrew his. 
The substitute called upon the Monument Commission 
to stand steadfast in their work, and emphatically pro- 
tested against any change of location. 

" The next speaker, L. B. Fish, expressed the hope 
that the people could be educated to see that the Square 
is the best place for the Monument. He was much 
afraid that the present agitation and excitement would 
lead to trouble, and he said that he ' would rather see 
the Monument broken to pieces or cast into the lake 
than to have a drop of blood shed.' 

" Major Gleason said it was clear that the Monument 
was a desirable thing, since citizens of all parts of the 
city were clamoring for its location in their vicinity. 
In the Public Square it would benefit all, and the desire 
to have it there was not prompted by persons or corpora- 
tions with axes to grind. He opposed the City's propo- 
sition to compromise, and said it was not a fair or a 
manly one. 

" George A. Groot said : 'In the words of Perry, 
' Don't give up the ship.' We are standing on land 
wrested from the enemy, and we should not give up an 
inch. A mob has been stirred up by the editor of a 
local paper, but we shall not yield a particle. The 
people who are doing the objecting have been imported 
from Europe, and Tuckerman is a sample.' 

" Rev. Dr. John Mitchell said he was proud of the 
Soldiers, and proud to see how they stood under the fire 
of adverse criticism. He said that he attended the 
meeting of the Board of Trade when the matter was 
discussed there, and went away disgusted. Instead of 
its being a meeting of business men, he thought it was 
that of a hired crowd of men. ' I only want to say,' he 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 297 

continued, ' if you give up your rights and accept an- 
other section of the Square, the Monument will never 
go in the Public Square at all. If you take the other 
section of the Square, you will deprive the people of 
their only public meeting place, and will jump from the 
frying-pan into the fire.' 

" The question was then put upon the adoption of 
the resolutions and they were carried with enthusiasm. 

" The meeting adjourned with three rousing cheers 
for the Monument." 

A meeting of the Commission was at once called in 
Captain Scofield's office. Eleven members were pres- 
ent, the absent one being Dr. Walters. The proposi- 
tion from the City for a compromise on the northeast 
section of the Square was presented. The action of 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Union was also communicated. 
The opinions of the Commission's counsel were also 
read. General Leggett then offered a resolution which 
recited that in view of the action of the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Union, and acting upon the advice of their at- 
torneys, the Commission must and would respectfully 
decline to entertain the compromise. The resolution 
stated that in the opinion of the Commission the peo- 
ple were in favor of the present site, and that further 
discussion of the matter be dispensed with. It was 
also advised to push the work as rapidly as possible. 
The resolution was adopted unanimously. It was or- 
dered to send copies of the following resolution to the 
City Council, the Board of Control and the Board of 
Trade Committee : 

" Gentlemen : Whereas, The City of Cleveland has by reso- 
lution of its Council and the action of its other officials refused to 
remove the Perry statue, or change the water main, or remove other 
obstructions from the southeast section of the Public Square, prepar- 
atory to the erection of the Monument thereon, which is provided 
for by the act of April 16th, 1888, and the acts supplementary and 
amendatory thereto, it is hereby 


" Resolved, That the Executive Committee of this Board is here- 
by authorized, on behalf of this Board, to take all necessary steps, 
and make all necessary contracts, for the removal of the said Perry 
statue and other obstructions, and to change the water main so as 
not in any way to interfere with the erection of the Monument, at 
the expense of this Board, and to accomplish the work of such 
removal and change at as early a time as practicable, and that the 
Committee confer with the proper City officials, with the view of' 
securing their friendly co-operation in this matter. Adopted." 

The Commission then adjourned, subject to the call 
of the President. 

The truce was ended. The battle must now be 
fought to a finish. 

The Cleveland World, of the 15th, had the following : 

" Major Gleason said Wednesday that the Monument 
Commission will consider no further proposals to com- 
promise on any other site than the southeast corner. 

' The Soldiers of the county have declared them- 
selves,' said he, ' and we now propose to abide by their 
decision. The members of the Commission, with the 
exception of two or three, have left the citY. 1 

" Mayor Rose said he was surprised at the action of 
the County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union. The case, so 
far as the City was concerned, was entirely' in General 
Meyer's hands, he continued. 

" The Law Director stated emphatically that he did 
not intend to let the matter drop. 

' We shall prosecute the case in Court to the end,' 
said he. ' When the Circuit Court opens in October we 
will be there, and if the decision is against us, it will 
be carried to the Supreme Court of the State.' " 

Brave words, wordy General. Great Caesar's ghost ! 
He will see us again; aye, at Philippi ! "The Ides of 
October" have come and gone, and the grim General is 
still in hiding:. 



FOR some time past hints had been frequently made 
that Judge Williamson would appeal his case to 
the United States Court. It was several times alleged, 
in print, that this action would be taken, the wish be- 
ing father to the thought. These fairy tales did not at 
all frighten the Commission. When these rumors were 
first set afloat, the junior counsel of Judge Williamson, 
William F. Carr, Esq., met the President of the Com- 
mission and said to him : 

" You may quietly say to the Monument Commission 
that we have got through. The Supreme Court decis- 
ion settled our case. We know when we are whipped. 
The old Soldiers have knocked us out, and we sur- 
render. The decision is correct, the site is settled, and 
we gracefully bow to the law laid down by the highest 
tribunal in the State. The outcome will eventually be 
a blessing in disguise." 

The Commission, knowing this, did not borrow any 
trouble from that source, but the kickers continued to 
fondly hug their delusion. 

It now looked like fairly clear sailing for the Com- 
mission, but soon the clouds began to gather. Judge 
W. W. Boynton, attorney, stockholder and director of 
the East Cleveland Street Railroad Corporation, who 
went into a trance after the Supreme Court decision, 
again " bobbed up serenely." The objections of every 
interested and disinterested citizen had been met and 
overcome. A happy thought now entered the mind of 
the street railroad attorney. Way down East, nestled 
amidst the granite hills of New Hampshire, lived a 

3° 2 


pair of descendants of early Clevelanders whose sun- 
light might be obscured and whose breathing space 
might be contracted by the erection of the Soldiers' 
Monument in the southeast section of the Public 
Square. They must be " seen," and made to go to law 
about it. What a flimsy pretext ! Whipped and ut- 
terly routed in all of the local Courts and the State 
Supreme Court, the United States Court was now held 
as a coup de grace. This Napoleonic strategy of the 
street railway corporations, engineered by Judge Boyn- 
ton, in which he was urged on by the City officials and 
the organ of the cranks was to be a coup de maitre. 
Now, verily, the Monument Commission would quake, 
swap sites, throw up the sponge, or do anything asked 
of them to stop further proceedings. Our "friends" 
Mayor Rose, Director Herrick, Law Director Meyer, 
the " Constitutionalists," the cranks, were falling on 
each other's necks in their ecstatic bliss. 

We let the Leader, of September 15th, show the 
"line up " for the last part of the desperate game : 

" At 2 o'clock, Wednesday afternoon, application was 
made to Judge A. J. Ricks, of the United States Circuit 
Court, for a federal injunction against the Monument 

" The controversy over the location of the Soldiers' 
Monument was taken into the United States Court by 
Mrs. Emma A. Hoyt, and William D. Hoyt, her hus- 
band, residing in Manchester, New Hampshire, who 
own the property on the Public Square occupied by the 
Forest City House. They filed a bill of complaint 
against the Monument Commissioners and McAllister 
& Dall, the contractors who are engaged in laying the 
foundations for the Monument. They asked for an in- 
junction restraining them from taking possession of the 
Square, from enclosing any portion of it, from removing 
the statue of Commodore Perry, and from proceeding 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 303 

to erect the proposed Monument on an}' portion of the 
Square. They claim that the Square was originally 
deeded to the public by the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany, and that their property was deeded from the 
Connecticut Land Company, with the understanding 
that no building or structures of any kind were to be 
placed upon the Square. The suit is practically upon 
the same ground as the original suit brought in the 
Court of Common Pleas and which went to the Su- 
preme Court and was there decided in favor of the 
Monument Commissioners. Judge Boynton, one of the 
attorneys for Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt, said that there was 
practically no difference between the present suit and 
the one which was decided by the Supreme Court, and 
that precisely the same questions were involved. He 
said that they believed that the Federal Courts would 
look at the matter in a different light from the State 
Courts, however. 

"Among those present when the arguments were 
commenced were General Leggett, of the Monument 
Commission ; General Ed. S. Meyer, Judge Boynton, 
his associate, J. H. Webster, for the complainants ; 
Judge Jones, Loren Prentiss, Esq., and several inter- 
ested listeners, besides the government officials. By 
general consent Mr. Prentiss was allowed the first 
speech in opposing the application for an injunction. 
He objected to the proceedings on the ground that the 
points involved had already been decided by other 
Courts. He said that the City had investigated the 
matter very thoroughly ; that it had looked into every 
point and had taken advantage of every possible ques- 
tion that could be brought up in opposing the location 
of the Monument in the Square. He thought that the 
same rule applied in the United States Court as in the 
State Court as to the right of action and right of in- 
junction, and that inasmuch as all these questions had 


been decided, the action could not be continued. Mr. 
Prentiss spoke for a great part of the afternoon in re- 
viewing the questions and taking issue with the aver- 
ments in the bill of complaint, and insisted that the 
parties had no standing in the United States Courts 
upon those questions. 

"Mr. Prentiss was succeeded by Judge Boynton, who 
spoke in favor of the application for an injunction. He 
stated that the action was brought for the purpose of 
showing to the Court that there were many points in 
the decision of the Supreme Court in the Williamson 
suit which were wrong. He insisted that the decision 
of the Supreme Court of Ohio was no bar to the action 
in the Federal Courts, even if the same questions were 
involved. Judge Ricks stopped the arguments and 
stated that he would grant a temporary restraining or- 
der until such time as he could hear the full arguments. 
He stated that Judge Taft, of Cincinnati, would be 
here in a few days and would sit with him in the case. 
It is probable that the case will come up for hearing 
next Monday, and possibly earlier than then if Judge 
Taft arrives this week. The bond of the complainants 
was fixed at $1,000. It was furnished by Lee McBride 
and R. M. Cobb. In the meantime all work on the 
Monument foundation has been suspended by order of 
the Court." 

Thus again was the advance of the Commission 
temporarily checked. Safely entrenched, we patiently 
awaited this, the last and most desperate charge of the 
very light brigade. We were not long kept in suspense. 
The United States Government, through its Courts, as 
well as through its armies, moved with a dash and cer- 
tainty that completely annihilated the enemy. The 
corporations, the cranks, the real estate jobbers were 
knocked down and pounded beyond all recognition. 
Law, order and justice prevailed. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 305 

The case was argued before Judges Ricks and Taft, 
at Cincinnati, the latter part of September. The de- 
cision was rendered by Judge Ricks, in Cleveland, on 
October 9th, 1892. We copy from the World, of Octo- 
ber 10th : 

" It looks very much as if the Soldiers' Monument 
would be erected in the Public Square. 

" Once again the opposition to the site chosen by the 
Monument Commission gets a black eye. 

" Judge A. J. Ricks, in the United States Circuit 
Court, Tuesday morning, denied the application of 
Emma J. Hoyt, one of the owners of the Forest City 
House, for a temporary injunction restraining the Com- 
missioners from proceeding with their work. 

" The room was crowded with interested spectators. 
Major Gleason, President of the Commission, was there, 
smiling and confident. Close to the Judge's bench sat 
Director Meyer, Judge J. M. Jones, Gen. Elwell, At- 
torney Loren Prentiss, Capt. James Hayr, Capt. Levi 
T. Scofield, Capt. E. H. Bohm, Capt. Dewstoe, Gen. 
M. D. Leggett, Capt. Molyneaux, Justice Bander, and 
many other notables. 

" When Judge Ricks ascended his bench, silence 
quickly prevailed. His decision in full was as follows : 

" The complainant as a tenant in common owns a part of the 
property known as the Forest City House, which abuts upon the 
Public Square in the City of Cleveland. She has filed a bill and 
seeks as such property owner to enjoin the defendants from erect- 
ing in the southeast quarter of the Public Square a monument or 
mausoleum to commemorate the services of the Soldiers from Cuy- 
ahoga County who died in the army during the late Civil War. She 
avers that the Public Square when the City thereafter to be incor- 
porated was platted was dedicated by the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany, the original owners in fee of the land, as a common for the 
enjoyment, use and benefit of the public of the City when duly or- 

" She avers that the dedication gave to her as a joint owner of 
property abutting said Square by mesne conveyance from said 
original grantor and dedicator a vested right to have said common 


or Public Square forever applied for such public uses as the people 
of the City to be organized thereafter might determine, providing 
such uses were within the terms of the dedication. She further 
avers that the defendants who are organized tinder the Statutes of 
Ohio as a Board of Monument Commissioners, propose to erect upon 
said quarter of the Public Square a structure called a Soldiers' 
Monument, which is in fact a stone building 44 feet square and 20 
feet high, constructed upon an elevated stone esplanade about 100 
feet square, out of which a stone shaft arises 125 feet high, and that 
this structure is of such proportions and shape as to monopolize 
the greater portion of that quarter of the Square, and is to have 
such rules and regulations as to its control when completed, as to 
limit and curtail the public in their right to its use and enjoyment, 
and therefore the said Public Square is to be applied to a use not a 
public one within the spirit and scope of the dedication. 

" She avers that the City has never legally given said defendants 
any authority to occupy said Square for the purposes named and 
that the sole power to grant the use of any part of the Square for 
public purposes is vested in the Park Commissioners, who are a 
branch of the Municipal Government, and that said Commissioners 
have repeatedly refused to allow the Square to be occupied or used 
by the defendants for said Monument. 

" This misapplication of the use to which said common was dedi- 
cated by the legislative enactment authorizing said Monument 
Commissioners to occupy it for the purposes named, and their at- 
tempted use of the same for such purposes, the complainant avers 
is in violation of her contract and vested rights by State authority, 
and is therefore in contravention of the Constitution of the United 

" The defendants answer that they are acting under the authority 
conferred by the legislative enactment of April 16, 1S88, and that 
the power to determine the public uses to which the Public Square 
in Cleveland is to be applied is vested in the State Legislature, 
which is the creator of Municipal Corporations in Ohio, and vested 
with the power to define the limit of their municipal powers. The 
validity of the act under which they were appointed and are now 
exercising their powers has been affirmed by the Supreme Court in 
a suit involving substantially the same issue now presented for our 
consideration. It is contended that the decision of the Supreme 
Court construing the scope and validity of this act of the Legisla- 
ture is the voice of the highest judicial tribunal of the State, affirm- 
ing the authority of the Legislature to prescribe the public uses to 
which the Public Square of a city may be applied, and that the 
Court sitting within the State of Ohio to administer the laws of the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 307 

State when not in conflict with the Constitution and Laws of the 
United States, must follow such decision. 

" The principle claimed is undoubtedly correct. The Supreme 
Court of the United States, in repeated decisions, has well defined 
the class of cases in which the Courts of the United States may con- 
strue the law for themselves, and in as many decisions has as clearly 
held that as to the scope and application of State laws, when not in 
conflict with the Constitution and Laws of the United States, the 
construction given to them by the highest Courts of the State is 
binding upon us. 

" It is, therefore, important to determine how far the rights of 
the complainant in this case are fixed and controlled by the statutes 
of Ohio. At the time the dedication of the common, or Public 
Square, was made, in 1796, the City of Cleveland was not yet created. 
The fee to the Public Square so set apart for public uses was held 
in abeyance until the act of Dec. 6, 1840, when it was vested in the 
Count)- in which the land was then located. ' In trust to and for the 
purposes therein named, expressed or intended, and for no other use 
or purpose whatever.' (First Chase Statutes, 211.) There was 
nothing upon the map or plat defining the use intended, except 
that the space denoting the present Public Square and streets about 
it was to be used as a ' common.' This was the word used in the 
statute. The dedication was for the City of Cleveland, to be there- 
after organized under the authority of the Legislature, and for its 
inhabitants. But to what uses was this dedication made ? If the 
grantors had made the nature of their grant specific in written 
terms, there is no doubt that the City of Cleveland (or even the 
Legislature of Ohio if vested with supreme authority over the trust, 
as claimed) would be held by the Courts to strictly apply the com- 
mon to the uses defined and to no other. 

" But no such written terms were stated. The grant was made 
as a common or Public Square and the uses to which it was dedicat- 
ed are the uses to which the Courts have held that property similar- 
ly dedicated in other cities in Ohio can be applied. We have then 
a dedication of the Public Square to public use, with the people of 
the City of Cleveland claiming to be sole trustee to determine in 
what manner and to what public use it should be applied. If we 
grant that the complainant has a vested right as an abutting owner 
of valuable property on the Square to have it applied to the uses in- 
tended by the grantors, what is the nature and extent of this vested 
right? It cannot be to her or her grantors the right to say what 
shall constitute a public use of the Square. Her grantors, as the 
original donors of the Square, did not see fit to clearly define the 
extent and character of the uses to which it should be applied, as 
they might have done if they intended or expected the uses to be 


limited or specific. They simply set apart an open space on the 
plat and marked it ' common.' This leaves the nature and extent 
of the uses to which the common may be applied to be determined 
by the trustees under proper legal principles, provided such uses 
are public uses. What are ' public uses ' within the meaning of a 
dedication so made, is well settled by repeated decisions in Ohio, 
beginning with the earliest reports of the Supreme Court and fol- 
lowing down to the latest. It has been held that a Court House 
was a public use to which such space or common might be applied. 

" In the case of Langley vs. Gallipolis, 20 S., the Supreme Court 
has said : ' Such a place (a common) thus dedicated to the public 
may be improved and ornamented for pleasure grounds and amuse- 
ments, for recreation or health, or it may be used for the public 
buildings and place for the transaction of public business of the 
people of the village or city, or it may be used for purposes both of 
pleasure and of business.' 

" It appears from the stipulation as to facts filed in this case that 
two Court Houses were once placed on this Square, one on the 
northwest quarter and one on the southwest quarter. These public 
buildings have been removed, and the Square, with streets running 
through it, has for years been open and unobstructed. 

"We think it fairly established, then, by the decision of the Su- 
preme Court of Ohio and other States, that a public Monument 
may properly be erected on a Public Square, and that such appro- 
priation of public ground is a public use for public purposes. The 
size of the Monument, its artistic merit, as well as the judgment ex- 
ercised in the selection of the site, are not matters for the consider- 
ation of this Court. 

" They are within the discretion of public authority, to whom by 
law the control of the Public Square is entrusted. In this case no 
dedicated public street is to be obstructed by the Monument. The 
diagonal paths through the southeast quarter of the Square are not 
highways, in which the public has acquired a vested right, but they 
are like the walks of a park, subject to change at will of the lawful 
authorities in control. The access to complainant's property will 
not be interfered with in the slightest degree. 

"We, therefore, conclude that the use proposed is within the uses 
to which the Square was dedicated. As before stated, the Supreme 
Court of Ohio has decided that the Soldiers' Monument Commission 
is a public authority lawfully constituted by act of the Legislature 
to control the public uses of the Public Square to the extent of 
erecting thereon the Soldiers' Monument. This decision deter- 
mines finally the right of the Legislature of Ohio, so far as the 
limitations imposed by the State Constitution are concerned, to 
provide for the appointment of the Commission, and to confer on 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 311 

it the powers given in the act. That decision is final as to the va- 
lidity of that statute. The only question, therefore, left to us upon 
which we can exercise an independent judgment is, as before stated, 
whether the act of the Legislature under which the defendants are 
about to proceed, violates the Federal Constitution by impairing 
the obligation of the contract of dedication from which the com- 
plainant has derived rights in the Public Square as an abutting 
property owner. The claim that the contract is impaired by an im- 
proper use of the Square, not within the scope of the original pur- 
pose, we have already found to be untenable. It remains only to 
consider the second claim, i. e., was the City of Cleveland, by the 
contract of dedication, made the irremovable trustee to manage and 
control the uses of the Public Square, so that an attempt by the 
Legislature to substitute another trustee is a breach of contract ? 

" The dedication was made originally in 1796, and by subsequent 
records in 1S01, by town plot recorded under the territorial statute, 
in what was then Trumbull County, and in 1814, by record in the 
present Cuyahoga County. The plat was designated on its face as 
the plat of the City of Cleveland. By virtueof the statute the pub- 
lic ground marked on the plat was vested in fee in the County for 
the uses therein specified and none other. The present Public 
Square, as shown on the face of the plat, bears no name or descrip- 
tive title, but is described in the survey recorded with the plat as 
'the Square.' 

"It may be conceded that this constituted a dedication of the 
land as a Public Square to the public uses of the inhabitants of the 
future City of Cleveland and the neighborhood, i. e., to the uses of 
the local public as distinguished from those of the State at large. 
Rut from this no implication arises that the future Corporation of 
Cleveland was to be the sole and irremovable trustee. The grant 
was not to the City of Cleveland. The fee was in the County and 
is probably there still. After Cleveland was incorporated in [826, 
control over the Square was vested in the Common Council. The 
City would never have acquired any control over the Square but 
for an act of the Legislature subsequent to the dedication. If so, 
may not the Legislature of the State again change that control?' 
The dedication was made before there was a State Constitution, a 
State Legislature, or an incorporated City. The dedicators must 
be held to have known that the whole people of Ohio had it in their 
power to impose such systems of local government as they saw fit 
upon any part of the State, including that part where it was intend- 
ed the City of Cleveland should be. 

" The presumption is not to be indulged, therefore, that they 
intended in their dedication to limit anything but the public uses- 
to which the Square should be put. They did not attempt to name 


the public authority which should control the Square or common 
within those uses. Even if they had they would have done this 
with the knowledge that the power of such public authority might 
be taken away and another substituted at the will of the Legisla- 
ture and would be presumed to have contemplated a possible change 
of trustee. As it was, no trustee was named; and it must be in- 
ferred that the whole question as to who shall be the trustee of the 
uses was left to the sovereign power of the State. 

" We conclude, therefore, that it was no impairment of the origi- 
nal contract of dedication for the State by act of the Legislature to 
substitute as trustee another local authority in the place of the City 
to control the special use to which this particular section of the 
Square might be applied. The Monument Commissioners, in se- 
lecting this site, are therefore acting within the power lawfully 
conferred and have a right to proceed with the work already begun. 

" The temporary restraining order heretofore allowed will be set 
aside and the application for a preliminary injunction be denied. 

" The conclusion we have reached is in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of law involved, as we understand them after patient examina- 
tion. Our personal views as to whether the location chosen is the 
best have not in the least influenced us. Those are considerations 
not presented in the record and upon them we have no right to ex- 
press an opinion. 

" It is with the law of the case alone that we have dealt." 

The utter rout of the enemy was complete and over- 
whelming. APPOMATTOX had been fought, and 
won ! There may be a subsequent dash of a bush- 
whacker, here and there, but the backbone of the 
enemy is broken into fragments. 

Local comment by the Leader relative to the decis- 
ion was : 

" The decision of the Court seemed to give entire 
satisfaction. No criticism was heard even from the op- 
ponents of the Square as the proper site. Several 
attorneys who were favorable to any location but the 
Square stated that the decision of the Federal Judges 
was the most able that has yet been passed upon the 
question. Soon after the temporary injunction was 
•dissolved the contractors were at work within the en- 
closure with a few men eettine in readiness for active 


operations at constructing the Monument. It is said 
that they will operate at night by electric light as well 
as in daylight, and push the work to completion as far 
as possible this Fall." 

We reprint an editorial from the Leader of October 

" The refusal of the United States Circuit Court to 
grant an injunction against the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument Commission leaves that body with full leo-al 
authority to proceed with the erection of the Monument 
in the southeast corner of the Public Square, where 
work has already been begun. The attempt made by 
persons owning an interest in the Forest City House 
property to secure the intervention of the Federal au- 
thority is plainly an utter and final failure, and the 
control of the Public Square is left wholly with the 
Legislature and Courts of Ohio. Such being the case, 
the decision of the Supreme Court of the State will 
stand, and it is clearly impossible to prevent the erec- 
tion of the Monument on the site already chosen, ex- 
cept by act of the General Assembly. Nothing can be 
done in the Legislature until January, and by that time 
work upon the Monument is likely to be well advanced. 

" Under all the circumstances, we believe that the 
time has come to acquiesce as gracefully as may be in 
the decision of the Monument Commission, upheld as 
it has been by the Courts. From an artistic standpoint, 
the Memorial to the Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga 
County might as well be in the southeast corner of the 
Square as any other part of that small space. Indeed, 
it will look better there than in any other section. If, 
then, the only choice possible is between the site orig- 
inally chosen and some other portion of the Public 
Square, there is no good reason why a bitter and un- 
seemly contention should be prolonged, even if it were 
possible now to prevent the Commissioners from goino- 


ahead with their plans. In view of the equally futile 
and violent opposition which has been encountered by 
the Monument Commission, that body will probably do 
all that it can to so clinch its victory before the begin- 
ning of the next session of the Legislature that inter- 
ference with the completion of the Monument would 
seem a great waste of money and labor. 

'' It is useless to fight against the inevitable, and the 
Monument question might as well be considered closed. 
The objections to the site chosen have been much ex- 
aggerated in some quarters, and the completed struct- 
ure will prove much less of an obstruction to persons 
passing through the Square than the present enclosure. 
It is quite possible that public opposition, the edge of 
which has already worn off, will largely die away before 
the completion of the Monument and that the structure 
will be less objectionable in all respects than it has 
been generally considered. The Leader has never 
deemed any part of the Public Square the best place to 
erect such a great work of art. We are of the same 
opinion now. It seems, however, impossible to secure 
the adoption of anything like an ideal site. Considera- 
tions of expense, location, etc., have ruled out all but 
those among which there can be but a choice of evils, 
and hence we feel that it is time to end all bickering 
and make the best of the erection of a great Monument 
to the Union Veterans of Cuyahoga County in the south- 
east corner of the Public Square." 

To illustrate the lightning-like rapidity of the changes 
of that fickle jade, " public opinion," in this case clearly 
manufactured for a purpose : — when we were down our 
necks were vigorously jumped upon ; when we were 
neither up nor down, " public opinion " was roosting on 
the fence ; but now, when we are on top, why, you see, 
" public opinion " is different, you know ; the southeast 
section of the Public Square is the proper place for the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 315 

Monument. Apropos, we copy the following graceful 
editorial from the Leader of October 12th, 1892 : 

" No good can follow any further litigation on the 
Monument site question. The Commission has won at 
every point, and the opposition might as well accept 
the inevitable. It will be no disrespect to the memory 
of the Commodore to remove his marble form a few 
feet to the right or left, or to another section of the 
Square. It presented a most imposing spectacle some 
years ago when it stood in the center of the Square, 
where the streets now cross. Xo noisy hullabaloo was 
heard when it was removed to its present location to 
make way for travel and street railroads. One objection 
urged to the location of the new Monument on the 
southeast corner of the Square is that sometime it will 
be surrounded and dwarfed by high buildings. On the 
other hand, the Commission contends that the view 
from the other three sections of the Square and down 
the avenue afford a perspective that will set off the 
Monument to full advantage. Their judgment on this 
matter is certainly entitled to very respectful consider- 
ation, as they have given a great deal of careful and 
thoughtful attention to the subject. The Monument 
will certainly be an honor to this city. A critical study 
of the design will convince any competent judge that it 
will be one of the most beautiful and appropriate me- 
morials ever erected in any country. It is going up on 
the Square. The people might as well make up their 
minds to that and gracefully acquiesce in the decisions 
of the Courts and the wishes of the Monument Commis- 

In the memorable and exciting game of foot-ball, 
now drawing to a close in our Courts, the Monument 
Commission team was invincible. We had met all 
kinds and classes of opponents, and easily vanquished 
them. In the preliminary practice, the enemy made a 


respectable showing, but failed to make a touch-down. 
In the regular games we had a clean score : 4 touch- 
downs and 4 goals kicked. Judge Ricks' decision was 
an additional goal, kicked from the field. At the end 
of each contest the members of the opposing team 
were carried off the gridiron on stretchers. A full 
knowledge of the enemy's " signals," and earnest team 
work brought victory to the Commission. In all dis- 
putes we captured the umpire. Our center, guards, 
tackles, ends and backs — especially our backs — were 
strong, and knew their business. Our team played for 
the patriotic glory of the final result. The players on 
the opposing teams were a weak lot of professional 
stiffs, out of training, lacking head and good team 
work, and apparently objectless save the high salaries 
thev received ; therefore, they were scarcely ever in 
it at any stage of the game. 


AND now, at the close of this legal struggle to se- 
cure the Monument site, it becomes the charita- 
ble duty of the historian to dispose of our friends, the 
enemy, the dramatis personcc of the five act Monumental 
drama, decently and in order. Here the last shall be 
first, with a kindly advice to Judge Boynton, the ac- 
complished advocate of the street railroad company ; 
an able lawyer unfortunately retained in an already lost 
cause, and destined to meet the fate of his legal pred- 
ecessors, the amiable Corporation Counsel, Major 
Burns, and the later Director of Law, General Edward 
S. Meyer. The Supreme Court of Ohio and the United 
States Circuit Court strewed alike the flowers of his 
rhetoric, the logic of his legal lore and the mythical 
claim of his New Hampshire clients, on the sea of ob- 
livion, and thus finally and forever established and 
confirmed to the Monument Commissioners the site se- 
lected by them and granted by the Legislature, and 
now adorned and beautified by the long delayed but 
noble Monument. 

The gentlemen of the Board of Trade retired from 
the contest and gracefully submitted to the decisions of 
the State Supreme and Federal Courts in the matter of 
title of the selected site. Even noisy mass meetings 
ceased to assemble in the Public Square to denounce 
the protecting fence around the site of the contemplated 
Monumental structure. 

We resume our line of narrative in this strange, 
eventful legal history, now narrowed down to a few side 
issues and diminutive technicalities involved in the last 


of the City's legal proceedings still pending in the 
local Circuit Court. 

In the last interview the Commission had with Mayor 
Rose, he was officially non-committal, only deigning to 
say, " The case of the City is entirely in General Meyer's 
hands." The Director of Law said : " When the Cir- 
cuit Court opens in October, we will be there, and if the 
decision is against us, it will be carried to the Supreme 
Court of the State." 

Notwithstanding the Damoclean sword of the Director 
of Law was suspended over the heads of the Commis- 
sioners with his prophetic admonition that it would de- 
scend upon them in October, they nevertheless had 
progressed so far with the foundation that the removal 
of the Perry statue had become an absolute necessity. 
The failure of the City authorities to comply with the 
law in that respect, as expressly provided, rendered it 
necessary for the Commission to perform the work. 
The task was completed December 3d, 1892. The 
Leader of the following date described the event, which 
we reproduce : 

" The removal of the Perry monument from its place 
in the southeastern section of the Public Square was 
undertaken yesterday morning, and the statue of the 
brave Commodore was successfully lowered from the 
pedestal shortly after 3 o'clock in the afternoon. The 
removal is rendered absolutely necessary by the fact 
that the heavy stones for the Soldiers' Monument could 
not be taken to the spot from which they will be 
hoisted to their places, without great danger to the 
base of the Perry monument. Besides that there would 
be danger of stones or heavy tools falling on the statue. 
Elijah Smith, who moved the Commodore from the in- 
tersection of Superior and Ontario Streets twenty years 
ago, is again entrusted with the delicate task, but he 
left the active work to his son, with Captain Levi T. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 321 

Scofield, the designer of the new Monument, to over- 
see the operation. It is an interesting fact that Cap- 
tain Scofield helped in the building of the Perry Monu- 

" All of yesterday morning was spent in erecting a 
derrick and placing a scaffold around the statue of the 
Commodore. At about 2 o'clock, the head and breast 
of the figure were swathed in coffee bagging and excel- 
sior, so that the ropes would not damage the marble. 
Shortly after 3 o'clock the statue was hoisted in mid air, 
where it dangled for some time before it could be low- 
ered to a skid which had been built to receive it. This 
couch was softened with a great quantity of excelsior 
and braces were placed under the massive shoulders of 
the figure so that after it is boxed up the moving of the 
receptacle will do no damage. 

" In lowering the statue it was not injured in the 
least. A rough rope touched the Commodore's whisk- 
ers on the left side and the marble was so much 
crumbled that the friction rubbed the surface off and 
made it look white. 

" While the preparations for all this were going on, a 
photographer with a big camera came into the enclos- 
ure. He adjusted the instrument to photograph the 
figure of the midshipman on the west side of the 
monument. The middy was photographed, and for a 
purpose. The fact is that the figure was already muti- 
lated and the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Com- 
mission desire to have a photograph to show that it 
was there before the removal. The thumb and little 
finger of the midshipman are broken off, probablv by 
snowballs thrown by boys. His left trouser leg is 
frayed out, two or three inches of the flowing panta- 
loon being broken off. The flap of the boy's right 
trousers pocket is also gone and the same is true of the 
right lapel of his jacket. These mutilations are not 


noticed by the ordinary passer-by, but a close inspec- 
tion reveals them. The Commission wish to be able to 
demonstrate that when they deliver the Perry monu- 
ment to the City officials its condition is the same as it 
was before the removal. The midshipmen and the 
pedestal will probably be taken apart to-day. In pre- 
paring to lower the statue of Perry it was discovered 
that the sword hilt was made detachable, and it was 
taken off. 

" The condition of the Perry monument is such that 
something must be done to arrest the decaying of the 
marble and repair the mutilation if it is to be preserved. 
The entire surface of the statue, which was once 
smooth, is serrated and as rough as sandstone. The 
profile of the Commodore's nose is jagged and looks as 
though it had been nicked and chipped. Where the 
surface has been at all protected it is smooth and gives 
forth that glow which characterizes polished Carrara 
marble. The Commodore's brow is creased with ver- 
tical furrows, worn by the elements, while the natural 
markings have been entirely obliterated by time. The 
north side of the statue is in a worse condition than 
the south side, presumably because the vapor-charged 
winds come chiefly from the north. The destructive- 
ness of Nature's forces is especially marked on the 
brave old mariner's coat. The buttons were designed 
by Captain Scofield, and he remembers how distinct 
were the anchors and stars upon them, thirty odd years 
ago. At present, on many of the buttons the anchor is 
nearly worn off and the stars have in some instances 
entirely disappeared. The buttons on the right leg of 
the west midshipman's pantaloons are nearly obliter- 
ated, while those on the other leg, which has a southern 
exposure, are in a much better state of preservation. 

" The Commission are not authorized to again erect 
the Perrv monument after the work on the new Memor- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 323 

ial is completed, but in times past in discussing the 
matter the Commissioners have all expressed them- 
selves willing to put it up again in as suitable a place 
as can be found in the southeastern section of the 
Square, they having authority only there. It is ex- 
pected, however, that the City will place the monument 
in Lake View Park. 

"The original design of the Perry monument did not 
provide for the core base upon which it now rests. As 
the monument stood at the intersection of Superior and 
Ontario Streets, upon a grassy mound, the base was 
formed by two immense blocks of pink Westerly gran- 
ite, which had been given by the State of Rhode 
Island. When the streets were cut through the Square, 
the grassy mound was taken away, exposing the un- 
hewn stones of the foundation. In order to hide their 
ugly surfaces some one conceived the idea of veneering 
them with a cored base of inferior granite and that 
veneer now forms the base, the pink granite being the 
second tier of stone in the pedestal. Artists and monu- 
ment builders have severely criticised the base because 
its cored surface, terminating almost in a feather edge, 
gives it the appearance of weakness. This veneer, 
which hides the foundation stones, is now slightly out 
of place. The weight of the blocks of granite above it 
has forced open the joints, and if nothing had been 
done, in a few years the monument might have fallen 
of its own weight. At one place the core veneering 
does not come within an inch of making a perfect 

" The statuary had been carefully removed and 
boxed. The statuary is in a safe place, safer than it 
has been for thirty years or more, for the rigorous 
winter weather will not aid in the further disintegration 
of the delicate Italian marble. Not until the City again 
erects the monument will the destruction be resumed. 


The immense blocks of granite forming the pedestal 
were easily moved and drawn out of the way. They 
were not boxed, for the weather will do them no harm. 
After the core veneer had been removed the rough 
foundation was revealed. It consisted of small sand- 
stones cemented with ordinary mortar. Wonder was 
no longer expressed that the insubstantial base had 
been forced apart at the joints when the character of 
the foundation above ground was revealed. The 
foundation was removed with pickaxes and shovels, 
as it was not worth preserving. 

" Major W. J. Gleason, President of the Soldiers' 
Monument Commission, expects, now that the Perry 
statue has been taken down, that it will be taken in 
charge by the City. He said that the greatest draw- 
back to the removal of the statue was the disinclination 
of the City authorities to take it from the pedestal in 
the Public Square. ' Now that the statue has been 
taken down, we await the pleasure of the City,' said 
Major Gleason. ' I expect that the Council will pass a 
resolution requesting Director Herrick to remove the 
statue to Lake View Park. There is a circular plot on 
a line with Ontario Street that would make a splendid 
site. In the meantime we shall take the best of care 
of the statue. It will be boxed up and fully protected 
from the weather. If the City desire to have the 
statue erected in the Square again we can provide a 
good site for it between the Monument and Superior 

" ' What would be the cost of removal to Lake View 
Park?' was asked. 

" ' It would not exceed $500 and might not be more 
than $300. The statue could be loaded on a wagon and 
taken to the park in twenty minutes. The cost of 
taking up the foundation in the Square and removing 
it to the park would also be small. At the latter place 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 325 

the foundation would not need to be placed deep 
enough to encounter the quicksand.' 

" Now that the Perry monument has been removed, 
the erection of the shaft of the Soldiers' Memorial can 
be begun this week. The scaffold is finished and the 
sandstone base for the shaft is about completed. The 
Perry monument was removed so that the wagons, 
upon which the blocks of granite for the shaft are to 
be hauled to the Square, can be run upon a platform 
under the scaffold. The blocks will then be lifted by 
a steam derrick and placed in position with only one 
handling, which means a saving of time, labor, and ex- 
pense. Across the top of the scaffold the fifteen-inch 
steel beams will be placed, and upon these a small 
tramway will be constructed. Upon the tramway the 
•carriage of the steam derrick will move backward and 
forward in carrying the blocks to their places." 

As the City authorities claimed they had no monev 
with which to take down the Perry statue, the Com- 
mission paid the expense for the same, amounting to 
only the paltry sum of eighty-nine dollars. We are 
pleased to be able to quote the heroic expression of 
General Meyer, at the meeting held on the Public 
Square, September 2d, 1892, to- wit : U I would rather 
lose my right arm than see Perry's statue taken down." 
He was not present at the time it was necessary to take 
down the statue, hence he did not " see " it done. So 
the General's good right arm still clings to him. At 
which we all rejoice, for privately and personally, we 
sincerely wish our last legal opponent good health, hap- 
piness and prosperity, with a perfect body. 

On the evening of December 5th, 1892, the City 
Council took the following action : 

" By Mr. Caswell — That the President of this Council be requested 
to appoint a committee of three members of the Council to act 
with the Director of Public Works in the selection of a site for the 
Monument of Commodore Perry, and that the Director of Public 


Works be and he is hereby authorized and directed to cause the re- 
moval of said monument to the site thus selected, the expense of 
said removal, together with the erection and construction of an 
appropriate base and foundations, to be paid from the general fund, 
after the money is appropriated for this purpose. 

" Adopted. 

" The chair appointed as above Committee Messrs. Caswell, Spil- 
ker and Malloy." 

The Committee reported on December 12th, 1892, as 
follows, quoted from the original document : 

" Cleveland, O., December 12th, 1892. 
" To the Council. 

" Gentlemen : — Your Committee appointed to select a suitable 
site for the monument of Commodore Perry submit the following 
report : Feeling sure that the majority of the people of our city 
would favor some point on the Lake front, your Committee visited 
Lake View and Gordon Parks only. In the latter we found many 
beautiful sites which had some advantages over those in Lake View 
Park, being further removed from the railroad tracks and freer 
from the smoke and dust of the city, and having larger park sur- 
roundings. After visiting Lake View Park, however, the Commit- 
tee were unanimous that the site at the foot of Ontario Street 
would be more satisfactory to the majority of our citizens. The 
monument, if erected there, can be seen from the Public Square, 
and by thousands who reach the city by rail or by boats on the 
lake. It is the sense of the Committee that the people who have 
become accustomed to seeing the monument in the center of the 
city would not favor its removal to a suburban park ; therefore, it is 
the unanimous opinion of this Committee that the Monument be 
placed in Lake View Park, at the foot of Ontario Street, facing up 
the lake toward the scene of the victory it commemorates. 

" [Signed.] " D. O. Caswell, 

"W. A. Spilker, 
" M. C. Malloy, 
" R. R. Herrick. 
" Report received and its provisions adopted by the Council. 

" Howard H. Burgess, City Clerk." 

It will be noticed that the foregoing report of the 
City Council Committee, unanimously approved by the 
Council, is also signed by Director Herrick. From this 
it might be inferred that prompt action would be taken 
by the City authorities. Nothing, however, was done. 

soldiers' and sailors 7 monument. 327" 

When Director Herrick was asked why he did not com- 
ply with the action of the legislative branch of the City 
Government, his reply was that the City had no funds 
for the purpose. A financial statement, published at 
the time, showed $1,500,000 to the credit of the City! 
Still the gallant Commodore was allowed to rest in 
quiet repose " till other times and other men would rise- 
and do justice to his memory." 

Owing to the condition of the Perry statue, caused by 
" Time's effacing' finger " and the destructive force of 
natural elements, recently largely added to by having 
the delicate marble scrubbed with acids, under the 
ignorant orders of the Director of Public Works, the 
Commission recommended to the City authorities that 
the figures be duplicated in enduring bronze. If this 
would be done, the Commission would gladly re-erect 
the Perry statue with the Soldiers' Monument, on the 
southeast section of the Public Square. Failing in 
this, the Commission suggested that the statue be put 
in bronze and placed on the plat laid out for it in 1879, 
in Lake View Park, at the foot of Ontario Street, over- 
looking the scene on which Perry achieved his ever- 
memorable victory over the British. The Commission 
would gladly do this work, but they had no legal, 
authority, nor were they granted permission so to do. 


THE cold, wintry days of December were upon us, 
therefore the Commission could not proceed very 
rapidly with work. The failure of the Director of Pub- 
lic Works to remove the water main caused consider- 
able trouble and expense. This difficulty could have 
been readily overcome, had the Commission been al- 
lowed to remove the pipes, but the City officials would 
not give them permission to do so. Captain Scofield 
temporarily solved the problem by building strong 
arches of cement over the pipes. This was a waste of 
time, material and money, but it was the only thing to 
do under the circumstances. The increased cost of 
material, the higher prices demanded by contractors, 
the loss of one-tenth of a mill revenue through Judge 
Sherwood's decision, the several lawsuits against the 
work of the Commission, the setting aside of contracts 
owing to delay and consequent uncertainty, and the in- 
creased expense generally, caused by the evasive and 
procrastinating conduct of the City officials and selfish 
schemes of interested parties, rendered it necessary to 
again go to the Legislature for relief. Comrade and 
Representative W. D. Pudney introduced the required 
bill, at the request of the Commission. With the gen- 
erous aid of his colleagues and of all of the members of 
the House and Senate, the bill was unanimously made 
law. When the session laws were subsequently pub- 
lished, it was found that the bill was not passed as pre- 
pared. The objectionable interpolations were, however, 
.amended out of the statutes by the succeeding General 
Assemblv. The law as enacted is as follows : 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 331 

" To amend section one of an act entitled ' An act supplementary 
and amendatory to an act to amend section one of an act entitled 
an act to authorize the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga 
County to build a Monument or Memorial Tablet commemorative 
of the deceased Soldiers and Sailors of said county, and to pur- 
chase a site therefor, passed April 2, 1880, (vol. 77, p. 368), as 
amended February 4, 1881 (vol. 78, p. 316), as amended April 22, 
1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), as amended April 16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), as 
amended January 30, 1890 (vol. 87, p. 391),' and as amended April 
2, 1891 (vol. 88, p. 786), and also to amend section seven of said 
amendatory act of April 16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564). 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That section one of an act entitled ' An act to authorize the 
Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument or Me- 
morial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and Sailors 
of Cuyahoga County, and to purchase a site therefor,' passed April 
2, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended February 4, 1881 (vol. 78, p. 316), 
as amended April 22, 1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), as amended April 16, 18S8 
(vol. 85, p. 564), as amended January 30, 1890 (vol. 87, p. 391), as 
amended April 2, 1891 (vol. 88, p. 786), and section seven of said act 
of April 16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), be amended so as to read as follows : 

" Sec. 1. That the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County 
be and are hereb}- authorized and directed to levy a tax upon all the 
taxable property of said county, of seven-tenths of a mill on the 
dollar of the valuation of said property, in addition to any tax here- 
tofore levied under said acts, which said seven-tenths shall be levied 
and collected as follows : For the year 1893, two-tenths of a mill ; 
for the year 1894, two-tenths of a mill ; for the year 1895, three- 
tenths of a mill ; which shall be levied and collected annually as 
aforesaid, for the purpose of erecting a suitable structure commem- 
orative of the services, patriotism and valor of the Soldiers and 
Sailors of the Union Army and Navy in the war of the Rebellion, 
who enlisted from Cuyahoga county, and putting in proper condi- 
tion, and improving the grounds in said southeast section of said 
Square around said Monument, and the funds arising from levies 
heretofore made shall be applied, together with that to be raised in 
pursuance of this amendatory act, to the purpose aforesaid, together 
with the necessary expenses connected therewith ; and said County 
Commissioners are hereby authorized and directed to issue bonds or 
notes, at such times as they may be requested so to do by said Mon- 
umental Commissioners, for the amount of the said three-tenths ad- 
ditional levy to be made in the year 1895, and such bonds or notes to 


be made payable in such amounts and at such times as will make 
them come due, as near as practicable, at the times when the money 
will be collected and received from such levy. 

" Sec. 7. The Board of Monument Commissioners shall have 
power, and are hereby authorized, as the work on the Monument or 
structure by them determined upon progresses, to make drafts upon 
the Auditor of said county to pay for such work done and materials 
furnished under their direction, such drafts to be signed by a ma- 
jority of the Executive Committee of said Board, countersigned by 
its Secretary, and upon receiving such drafts said Auditor shall 
draw his warrant upon the Treasurer of Cuyahoga County for the 
amount of such drafts ; and the said County Commissioners are 
hereby authorized and required to withdraw any portion of the 
money invested by them as herein provided, as the' work on such 
structure progresses, and place the same in the county treasury to 
the credit of the Monument fund, and the Secretary of said Board 
of Monument Commissioners is hereby required to give said County 
Commissioners reasonable notice, in writing, of the intention or 
said Monument Commissioners to make drafts on the County Audi- 
tor for money for such work or material. Upon the completion 
and dedication of the Monument or structure, the said Board of 
Monument Commissioners shall turn the Monument over to a Board 
of three Commissioners selected by them, none of whom shall be one 
of their number, which said Commissioners shall be ex-Soldiers or 
Sailors, and said Board shall be perpetual, with power of succession, 
and such Commissioners so selected shall have power and be re- 
quired, within ten days after occurrence of a vacancy, to fill the 
same by selecting an ex-Soldier or Sailor, or a member or descend- 
ant of members of either of the Army organizations known as the 
Grand Army of the Republic, Union Veterans' Union, or a member of 
the first class in good standing of the military order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States, which said Board shall serve without 
compensation. Said Commissioners and their successors shall take 
an oath to faithfully perform their duties in caring for the Monu- 
ment and grounds surrounding the same, and shall be empowered 
to employ an ex-Soldier of the War of the Rebellion or the Regular 
Army, as attendant and guardian of such Monument and grounds, 
at a reasonable compensation, to be paid out of the general fund of 
the county, upon a voucher of the President and Secretary of the 
Monument Commission, and such attendant shall be vested with the 
ordinary powers of a policeman. Said Board shall also be authorized 
to employ such assistance as may be required by the attendant, to 
take care of the Monument and grounds, and to make such 
necessary expenditure as in their judgment will be required 
to make repairs to the Monument or improvements to the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 333 

grounds, to be paid out of the general fund of said county 
in the manner hereinbefore provided. Said Board is author- 
ized to prepare books, photographs, engravings, pamphlets 
and other souvenirs and through the attendant sell them, the 
proceeds of which shall be turned over to the county general 
fund. Said Board shall not be allowed at any time to in any manner 
charge for admission to said Monument, but shall be required under 
their own proper regulations to keep the tablet room open to the free 
use of the public. Upon the completion and dedication of such 
Monument or structure, and after the same shall have been turned 
over as herein provided, the duties and powers of the present Board 
of Monument Commissioners shall cease, and all balances of the 
Monument fund unexpended after the Monument is completed 
and dedicated shall be turned over to the general fund of Cuyahoga 
County. The Commissioners of Cuyahoga County shall provide the 
necessary steam heating and lighting supply in the county buildings 
and permit the Monument Commissioners to connect with same 
for the purpose of properly and sufficiently heating and lighting 
said tablet room and Monument, and said present Board of Monu- 
ment Commissioners are hereby authorized to perform said work 
and lay the necessary pipes and conduits through the public 
grounds and streets for such purpose, the expense therefor to be 
paid from the Monument fund. 

" Section 2. That said section 1 as amended April 2, 1891 (vol. 
88, p. 786), and said section 7 of said act of April 16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 
564), be and the same are hereby repealed. 

" Section 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and 

after its passage. 

" Lewis C. Laylin, 

" Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
" Andrew L. Harris, 

" President of the Senate. 
" Passed March 27, 1893." 

Pending the enactment of said law, the Commission 
went into Winter quarters for 1892-93. After its passage, 
we knew our resources and carefully mapped out our 
future plan of campaign. As soon as the weather per- 
mitted in the early Spring of 1893, the contractors em- 
ployed a large force of men and work on the structure 
was vigorously pushed. While all this was going on, 
the Law Director's gleaming Circuit Court blade still 
hung dangling over our heads, but subsequent events 
proved that the weapon was harmless. 


The curtain is now about to descend on our " live 
characters. 1 ' We will let them pass gently away, with 
slow music and muffled drums. The triumvirate offi- 
cially dead, and the City of Cleveland still lives, grows 
and prospers. Miracles will happen — even in the close 
of this, the enlightened Nineteenth Century. 

As their lovely official bodies were laid out on the 
cold marble slabs of the morgue, for public inspection, 
a French mourner, from Dublin, was heard to exclaim : 
"Aich of 'em made as dacent and purty a corpse as one 
would like to gaze upon. Omnibus invideas, Rose, 
Herrick, Meyer, nemo libi! Sic transit gloria mwidi ! 
Nabocklish ! ! " 

We are gratified to bid a fond farewell to our "heroes." 
Among them were men of pronounced ability, which 
was in large part overshadowed by their misdirected 
judgment. The splendid opportunity had by them to 
make a glorious record was shattered and broken by 
their lack of healthy discrimination. We finally part 
with them, more in sorrow than in anger ; with a pro- 
found feeling of regret o'ertopped by gladness, indulg- 
ing the hope that they will find that peace, content- 
ment and happiness in private life that they tried so 
earnestly to prevent the Monument Commission from 
enjoying. Good bye ! 

Rira bien, qui rira 1c dernier ! 



" Ring out the old, ring in the new." 

AT last we may exclaim, " Gloria in Excelsis; peace 
on earth and good-will to men." The long and 
hindering litigation is substantially over and congratu- 
lations are now in order. We are swiftly approaching 
the time for the grand review. The white dove of 
peace has descended upon us, and official interference 
or legal proceedings in the Courts- no longer disturb the 
even tenor of our way. Our long night of darkness and 
doubt has been succeeded by certainty and genial 

Happily for the Commission, the friends of the 
Monument and its chosen site, there was a change in 
the Municipal Administration in April, 1893, Hon. 
Robert Blee becoming Mayor. He appointed John H. 
Farley Director of Public Works, and Hon. James 
Lawrence Director of Law. It was especially with these 
three officials the Commission had principally to deal, 
as had been their unhappy fate under the late admin- 
istration. The new Mayor was a gentleman of sobriety 
and an unassuming citizen, a man of few words, but 
prompt action. The two Directors were imbued with 
the same liberal spirit that characterized the Mayor. 
Their advent was a welcome change from their vacilla- 
ting and procrastinating predecessors. Friendly to the 
Monument, to its site, and to the work of the Com- 
mission, they practically demonstrated their good-will 
by deeds as well as words. 

Soon after Director Farley assumed the duties of his 
position, he had the old water main removed from the 


southeast section of the Public Square, as provided by 
law and requested by the Commission, and a new main 
laid in such place and manner as was necessary to 
render the site occupied by the Monument perfectly 
safe. For the information of the public we insert the 
following official correspondence : 

" Headquarters Cuyahoga County 
"Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission, 
" Cleveland, O., January 4th, 1894. 

" Mr. John H. Farley, Director of Public Works. 

" Dear Sir: — Kindly favor the Monument Commission by reply- 
ing to the following questions : 

" 1st. How much was the cost of removing the water main on 
the southeast section of the Public Square ? 

" 2nd. How long did it take to perform the work ? 

"3rd. For what length of time was the water shut off, pending 
the removal of said water main ? 

" A prompt answer will oblige, 

" Very respectfully yours, 

" Wm. J. Gleason, President." 

" Cleveland, January 6, 1894. 
"Mr. Wm. J. Gleason, Pres. Monument Commission, City. 

" Dear Sir : — In reply to yours of the 4th inst. wherein you ask : 

" 1st. How much was the cost of removing the water main on 
the southeast section of the Public Square ? 

" 2nd. How long did it take to perform the work ? 

"3rd. For what length of time was the water shut off, pending 
the removal of said water main ? 

"Will say that cost of relaying is $1,248.68. 

"Commenced the work May 24th, 1893, finished May 29th; 6 days. 

" Water was shut off on Sunday, May 28th, from about 8 A. M. to 
5 P. M. — 9 hours. 

" Yours truly, 

"J. H. Farley, Director of Public Works." 

Under date of July 19th, 1892, it may be observed 
that the late Director of Public Works officially reported 
to the City Council that "the removal of the water main 
is attended with danger; unless care is taken there may 
be serious results. The lowest amount for which we 
can remove the main will be $2,000. If we have to take 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 337 

it around Bond Street the cost will be $7,000. // will 
require at least five weeks to do the work." 

The actual facts show that there was no danger in 
removing the water main ; that care was taken in the 
performance of this work — as there is in all work done 
by sensible officials. The cost was $1,248.68, not $2,000 
or $7,000 as above officially estimated and asserted. 
The work was completed in six days, not five weeks, as 
the "old public functionary " alleged, and the water was 
shut off nine hours, on Sunday, so that no one was 
injured or discommoded. 

This statement of the late Director of Public Works 
is a sample of the ostentatious and arbitrary assump- 
tions, adverse and annoying to the Monument Commis- 
sion and deceptive to the public, indulged in by some 
officials of the late defunct Municipal Administration 
and endured of necessity by the individual personality 
of the Commissioners. This remarkable "estimate" of 
the late Director is impressively suggestive of the 
absolute certainty either of indiscreet dissimulation or 
total deficiency of practical knowledge. 

The new Director of Daw, James Lawrence, immedi- 
ately upon the Session of the Circuit Court, dismissed 
the suits therein long pending against the Commission, 
at the City's cost. 

In the course of a brief time the new City Adminis- 
tration took charge of the Commodore Perry statue 
and moved it to Wade Park. They erected it there in 
a lovely spot ; not in as appropriate a place, by any 
means, as Dake View Park would have been, but never- 
theless it is in quite a pleasing location. To satisfy 
curiosity, we add that it cost the City for removal and 
resetting the sum of one hundred and seventy-five 
dollars. Ex-Director Herrick, however, could not, or 
did not, raise that amount — simply for the reason that 
he did not desire to. 


Thus was completely wiped out the last Yestige ot 
the petty spite and rank nonsense of the defunct City 

Work was resumed on the structure early in the 
Spring of 1893, and vigorously carried forward during 
the entire year. In order that the Monument and its 
surroundings might be finished as originally designed, 
an additional sum of money was required. Hence the 
following bill was prepared and given to the Cuyahoga 
County Delegation to the General Assembly. It was 
taken charge of by our ardent friend, Comrade and 
Representative J. Dwight Palmer, upon whose motion 
the rules were unanimously suspended in the House 
and the measure promptly passed that branch of the 
Assembly. Comrade and Senator William T. Clark had 
similar action taken in the Senate, after an earnest and 
patriotic speech. The Bill, which was made law on 
March 6th, 1894, is as follows: 


" Supplementary to and amendatory of an act entitled, ' An act to 
amend section one of an act entitled 'An act supplementary and 
amendatory to an act to amend section one of an act entitled 'An 
act to authorize the County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to 
build a Monument or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the 
deceased Soldiers and Sailors of said County, and to purchase a 
site therefor, passed April 2, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368); as amended 
February 4, 1S81 (vol. 78, p. 316); as amended April 22, 1885 (vol. 
82, p. 368) ; as amended April 16, 1890 (vol. 87, p. 391) ; and as 
amended April 2, 1891 (vol. S8, p. 786), and also to amend section 
seven of said amendatory act of April 16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), 
passed March 27, 1893.' 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, That in addition to the taxes anthorized to be levied by the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County, for the purpose of 
erecting a suitable structure commemorative of the services, patri- 
otism and valor of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Union Army and 
Navy in the War of the Rebellion who enlisted from Cuyahoga 
County, which authority is vested in said Commissioners by the act 
to which this is supplementary and amendatory, the County Com- 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 341 

missioners of said county are authorized and directed to levy a 
further additional tax upon all the taxable property of said county 
of three-tenths of a mill, for the year 1896; and said County Com- 
missioners are hereby authorized and directed to issue bonds or 
notes, at such times as they may be requested so to do by the 
Monumental Commissioners of said County, for the amount of said 
three-tenths additional levy to be made in the year 1896; such 
bonds or notes to be made payable in such amounts, and at such 
times, as will make them come due, as near as practicable, at the 
time when the money will be collected and received from such levy. 

"Section 2. All moneys raised by such additional levy so far 
as the same may be necessary shall be expended by said Monu- 
mental Commissioners, as provided in the act to which this is 
supplementary and amendatory; should there be a surplus of money 
after such Monument is fully completed and the grounds surround- 
ing the same in the southeast section of the Square placed in 
proper condition, such surplus shall be turned over to the County 
Commissioners of said county, to be by them placed in the general 
fund of said county. 

"Section 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage. 

"Passed March 6th, 1894." 

For the purpose of striking from the statutes the 
unjust discrimination against the members of the Mon- 
ument Commission, surreptitiously injected into the law 
of March 27th, 1893, and to carefully provide for the 
future proper care of the Monument and grounds sur- 
rounding it, the following supplemental bill was pre- 
pared. It was passed through the House by Represent- 
ative and Comrade J. D wight Palmer, and was made 
law in the Senate by Senator and Comrade William 
T. Clark on the 14th day of May, 1894, the act being 
as follows : 


" Supplementary to an act entitled ' An act supplementary to and 
amendatory of an act entitled 'An act to amend section 1, of 
an act entitled ' An act supplementary and amendatory to an act 
to amend section 1, of an act entitled 'An act to authorize the 
County Commissioners of Cuyahoga County to build a Monument 
or Memorial Tablet commemorative of the deceased Soldiers and 
Sailors of said county, and to purchase a site therefor, passed 


April 2, 1880 (vol. 77, p. 368), as amended Feb. 4, 1S81 (vol. 78, p. 
316), as amended April 22, 1885 (vol. 82, p. 368), as amended April 
16, 1890 (vol. 87, p. 391), and as amended April 2, 1S91 (vol. 88, p. 
786), and also to amend Section 7, of said amendatory act of April 
16, 1888 (vol. 85, p. 564), passed March 27, 1S93, as amended March 
6, 1894.' 

" Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State 
of Ohio, that upon the completion and dedication of the Cuyahoga 
Countv Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, the Board of Monumental 
Commissioners shall select and appoint a Board of five Commission- 
ers, to be known and designated as ' The Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Monument Commissioners.' 

" Said Board shall be Union ex-Soldiers or Sailors of the War 
of the Rebellion, or a member or a descendant of members of either 
of the Army organizations known as the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, Union Veterans' Union, or a member of the first-class in 
good standing of the military order of the Loyal Legion of the 
United States, and residents of Cuyahoga County, and shall meet 
and organize within ten days after their appointment ; by the elec- 
tion from their members of a President and Secretary, and shall 
serve without pay. Such Board shall be perpetual, and the members 
thereof shall have power, and be required within ten days after oc- 
currence, to fill vacancies, by selecting and appointing a Union ex- 
Soldier or Sailor of the War of the Rebellion, or a descendant of 
same, residing in Cuyahoga County. 

" The members of such Board, and their successors shall take an 
oath to faithfully perform their duties in caring for the Monument, 
and the grounds surrounding it. Said Board shall be empowered to 
make such rules and regulations for their government, and for the 
care of the Monument and grounds surrounding the same, as in 
their judgment is required, and shall have the power to employ a 
suitable Union ex-Soldier or Sailor of the War of the Rebellion, or 
of the regular army of the United States or descendant of either, as 
attendant and custodian of such Monument and grounds, at a rea- 
sonable compensation, to be paid from the general fund of the 
county, upon a voucher of the President and Secretary of the 
Monument Commissioners. Such attendant and custodian shall be 
invested with the ordinary powers and authority of a policeman. 

" Section 2. Said Monumental Commissioners, and the Board 
herein provided for, shall have such control of the grounds of the 
southeast section of the Public Square, including the streets, lawns, 
and sidewalks surrounding the same, as will enable them to properly 
perform their duties as Commissioners, and for no other purpose, and 
shall have the authority to direct the manner of curbing the streets 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 343 

on the south and east sides of the said southeast section of the 
Square, also the laying of the cross-walks therein. Such Commis- 
sioners, or the attendant and custodian of the Monument, shall 
have full authority to remove and restrict express wagons, moving 
vans, drays, public hacks, street railroad transfer stations, hucksters' 
wagons, advertising devices, or decorations and all other obstruc- 
tions from making their stands within the curbing, or in the streets 
adjoining and contiguous to the curbing around said southeast sec- 
tion of the Public Square. Any violation of this restriction is hereby 
declared unlawful, and offenders upon conviction of such violation 
may be punished as for disorderly conduct. 

" Section 3. Said Board of Monument Commissioners are author- 
ized to employ such assistants as may be required to take care of the 
Monument and grounds, and from time to time to make necessary 
repairs and improvements to the Monument and grounds, also to 
provide for electric heating and lighting; payments to be made 
therefor as is provided for the payment to the attendant and custo- 
dian. The City of Cleveland shall furnish a sufficient supply of 
water for use in and about the Monument, and the grounds sur- 
rounding the same free of charge. 

" Section 4. Said Board of Monument Commissioners shall 
have the authority to place the tools, hose, ladders, and implements 
required for use in the tool house used by the Park Commissioners 
of the City of Cleveland, located on the Public Square, or in the 
basement of the Court House as said Board may direct, without any 
cost for storage. 

" Section 5. Any person defacing or injuring the Monument, or 
the flowers, plants, or sidewalks surrounding the same, shall upon 
conviction thereof before the Police Court of the City of Cleveland 
be fined not more than one hundred dollars, nor less than five dol- 
lars, or imprisoned not more than sixty days, or both. And all 
fines collected shall be paid into the general fund of Cuyahoga 

" Section 6. All acts and parts of acts so far as the same conflict 
with the provisions of this act be and the same are hereby repealed. 
" Section 7. This act shall take effect and be in force from and 
after its passage. 

" Leonidas H. Southard, 
"Speaker pro tem. of the House of Representatives. 
"Andrew L. Harris, 

" President of the Senate. 
" Passed May 14, 1894." 

Thus was provided all of the funds required for the 
completion of the historic structure that graces our 


county, as well as the necessary legislation for its unre- 
mitting care and protection. 

In this connection, we desire to testify our earnest ap- 
preciation of the valuable services of Comrade A. T. 
Brinsmade, who freelv gave his time and ability to our 
Legislative Committee, consisting of Comrades Elwell, 
Leggett and Bohm, in the preparation of the several 
laws required for the erection of the Monument. 
Throughout the numerous lawsuits brought against the 
Commission, he also tendered his brilliant services with- 
out any pecuniary consideration. 


OUR trials and tribulations are happily at an end. 
Our triumph is complete and overwhelming. The 
Soldiers of the county, their patriotic supporters and 
the members of the Commission have been magnifi- 
cently vindicated. This being true, we gladly consign 
all of the bitterness and misunderstandings of the dead 
past to the tomb of oblivion. Our enemies, such as 
they were, are forgotten and forgiven. Errors of the 
head, of judgment, malicious or personally interested 
actions, are relegated to the rear. Life is too brief to 
treasure up enmity or ill feeling ; the brotherhood of 
man is too human, and comradeship too sacred for 
lasting hate ; so in this, our time of glorious victory, all 
the harsh, unsavory heart-burnings of the past are 
blotted out of sweet memory. " All is well that ends 
well." Our future is bright and cheering, with not a 
cloud to obsGure our hope or joy. Our enemies of the 
past are our friends of the present and our co-workers 
of the future. No more trials, troubles, disputes or 
harsh feeling among old comrades, friends and neigh- 
bors. All is harmony and blessed peace. 

As a fitting end to the successful accomplishment of 
our many years of labor — no officer or member of the 
Commission, including the designer, having received 
any pecuniary reward, our services being gladly given 
for love of the object — let us take a brief glance at the 
grandest memorial to patriotism that the world has yet 

The beautiful granite shaft, surmounted by the ex- 
quisitely proportioned and commanding figure of Lib- 
erty, towers heavenward. The characteristic massive 


stone and granite walls have assumed pleasing shape ; 
our country's proud bird of freedom, the Eagle, with 
wings extended, stands guard over the portals ; the 
realistic scenes of the War, in the different branches of 
the service, reproduced in heroic bronze groups, are in 
place ; the old army corps badges, gracefully carved in 
stone, entwined in laurel wreaths, adorn each of the 
four sides of the memorial room ; the Nation's beautiful 
emblem of liberty and justice, the glorious Stars and 
Stripes, floats majestically in the breeze from handsome 
flag staffs on the four corners of the structure ; while 
between the finely constructed walks and the Monu- 
ment are beds of lovely flowers, arranged in form and 
color representing the corps badges of the different di- 
visions of the Army and the badges of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, Loyal Legion, Women's Relief Corps, 
Union Veterans' Union and the Sons of Veterans, bor- 
dered with wreaths of immortelles and forget-me-nots, 
surrounded by pretty grass plats. 

A visit to the interior is prolific of surprise and delight. 
On entering at the south, the first object to attract and 
hold attention is the solid and artistic bronze doors. 
Then disclosed to the eye is the panel commemorating 
the loyal women, in portrait group, who composed the 
Executive Committee of the Aid Society of Northern 
Ohio. The earnest work and many sacrifices of this 
noble band of women are thus fittingly recognized, and 
will ever be treasured in fond remembrance by the boys 
who wore the blue. Also embraced therein is a modest, 
sweet-faced Sister of Charity, binding up the wounds 
of a stricken Soldier, a loving reminder of the unselfish 
devotion of these angels of mercy and kindness, whose 
tender and gentle ministrations were exhibited on every 
battle field of the War, in the hospital and camp, regard- 
less of rank, creed, nationality or color, purely for love 
of humanitv and in obedience to the will of the Divine 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 347 

Master. On the east side of the shaft, the panel rep- 
resenting the conference at City Point of President 
Lincoln with Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Meade, Leg- 
gett, Custer and other leading Generals, the result of 
which led on to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, and 
the final complete success of the Union forces, is ad- 
mired. Passing around on the north side of the shaft, 
is strikingly exhibited the carrying out of the President's 
Emancipation Proclamation — the immortal Lincoln 
striking the shackles from the slave and putting a mus- 
ket in his hands to go forth and do his part in the 
truism that " he who would be free must himself strike 
the blow." This scene in the panel is flanked by por- 
traits of Chase and Sherman, the Nation's financiers, 
and Wade and Giddings, Ohio's uncompromising anti- 
slavery champions. On the west panel are represented 
the War Governors of Ohio, Dennison, Tod and Brough, 
with life-size figures of Generals McClellan, Cox, 
Hayes, Garfield, Rosecrans and Gilmore. Glancing up 
can be seen, in niches and imbedded in the shaft, fine 
bronze busts and medallions of a few of our many local 
heroes. The visitor's attention is then attracted by the 
handsomely colored marble walls, soffits, ceiling and 
fasces ; the satin-finished emblematic stained glass 
windows ; the finely designed carved floor. Completely 
encircling the four sides of the Memorial Room, cut in 
appropriate marble slabs, appear in numerical order, 
alphabetically arranged, the regiment, name and rank 
of each and all of Cuyahoga's gallant defenders of the 
Union ; this Roll of Honor being supplemented by the 
names of the women of the Soldiers' Aid Society. 
Bronze radiators furnish heat to the room, while a profu- 
sion of soft, incandescent lights, peering forth from the 
bronze electrolier, and suspended from the graceful 
chandeliers, aid in displaying the richness of colors and 
the soliditv of the interior. 


The appropriateness, the fidelity, the grandeur of 
Cuyahoga's noble tribute to the memory of her Union 
Soldiers and Sailors stand before the people in all of 
their lofty and inspiring lessons of patriotism. The 
entire design is worthy of careful study, and exhibits a 
combination of fitness and splendor that will continue 
a joy forever. 

The Monument now speaks for itself. Criticism is 
disarmed. Commendation, unstinted praise is heard on 
every tongue. Our former opponents have willingly 
become our warmest admirers. The energy, the per- 
severance, the marvelous skill, the untiring industry, 
the wonderful conception of the artist receives its justly 
merited reward. The design is what was desired and 
intended — purely original. It is strikingly military in 
every one of its features, and true in detail to all the 
branches and accouterments of the service. The spirit 
and dash of every element of the Civil War is repro- 
duced and perpetuated with the minutest fidelity ; the 
architecture and sculpture is thoroughly American ; 
the lessons of history and patriotism it teaches will 
demonstrate to present and future generations the price- 
less heritage of freedom and union. 

The coinage of the fertile and brilliant brain of Com- 
rade Levi T. Scofield has given to Cuyahoga County 
an artistic and imposing monument, to our country a 
national memorial, and to the world a matchless struct- 
ure that will for all time reflect credit on his genius, 
bring renown and fame to our lovely city, and redound 
to the everlasting glory and patriotism of the liberal 
people of our county. 

The object for which we were chosen is accomplished. 
Our work is finished. We approach the dedication 
with feelings of unalloyed satisfaction and supreme 
happiness. We heartily thank the good people of Cuy- 
ahoga County for their encouragement, loyalty and 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 351 

earnest co-operation. We bow with gratitude and pro- 
found thanks to the Giver of all good, to our Heavenly 
Father, for His unceasing care and protection ; for His 
preservation of every member of the Commission during 
our many years of close companionship while engaged 
in our devoted labor of love. 






THE Memorial stands forth in all its beauty, a joy 
forever, a finished structure. It is at once recog- 
nized as a supreme credit to the generous people who 
erected it ; to the memory of those whom it perpetuates, 
and to the untiring energy of the Monument Com- 

An 'enthusiastic meeting of representative citizens 
was held in the Board of Control rooms, City Hall, on 
May ist, 1894, t0 take the preliminary steps for a fitting 
dedication of the elegant Memorial. Committees were 
present representing the Monument Commission, the 
City Council, the Board of Control, the Chamber of 
Commerce, and the Sons and Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution. On motion of Major W. J. Gleason, 
Hon. Robert Blee, Mayor, was chosen to preside ; Com- 
missioner Charles C. Dewstoe was appointed Secretary. 
There was some discussion had relative to the demon- 
stration in view which was merely a matter of detail. 
We quote the result of the meeting from the Plain 
Dealer : 

" Major Gleason, who had been sitting quietly by 
while the discussion was in progress, pointedly observed 
the talk was wholly foreign to the subject at hand, as 
it had not yet been decided to have a celebration on the 
Fourth. He followed this up with a motion that it be 
the sense of the meeting that there be a proper observ- 
ance of the Fourth of July, and that the dedication of 
the Soldiers' Monument should be the central feature. 
The motion was at once carried. He then named a 
number of features of the day which should be in the 
hands of committees, and moved that a chairman be 


appointed for each by a committee of five, to be ap- 
pointed by the Chair. 

" On his motion, the Chairman appointed a sub-com- 
mittee of five, whose duty it should be to select chair- 
men of the necessary committees to carry out the cele- 
bration. The committee selected by the Mayor for this 
work consisted of Major W, J. Gleason, of the Monu- 
ment Commission ; L. E. Holden, of the Sons of the 
American Revolution ; W. J. Akers, of the Chamber 
of Commerce ; Director W. A. Madison, of the Board of 
Control ; and Councilman J. V. McGorray." 

We continue the report of the meeting from the 
Leader : 

" Mr. W. J. Akers spoke of the importance of getting 
the pupils of the public schools interested, and said that 
they should be given ample time to drill and prepare 
for the event. In his opinion, the sub-committees 
should be appointed as soon as possible, so that they 
might get to work. 

" Major Gleason then outlined a program which had 
been talked over by the members of the Monument 
Commission. He said that the Sons of the American 
Revolution had suggested a special feature which they 
would carry out. This would be the firing of a salute 
at sunrise and sunset, and the reading of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. ' That is a good idea,' said the 
Major, ' and we should all bend our energies to make 
the day as grand a one as possible. We should have a 
monster parade of old Soldiers, school children and 
others. Then we should have an address by some ora- 
tor of national reputation. In the afternoon, a grand 
naval display could be given on the lake, under the di- 
rection of Commodore Gardner, which would add much 
to the interest of the occasion. The day could then be 
rounded up with a grand display of fireworks and a 
concert. The Monument which is to be dedicated is 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 357 

the finest in the country, and is an honor not only to 
the City of Cleveland, but to the State of Ohio.' " 

The Mayor's Secretary, James Hossack, Esq., was 
chosen Secretary of the General Committee. 

The preparations for the dedicatory exercises, thus 
auspiciously begun, were carried forward to the end 
with the most complete harmony and good feeling. 

The sub-committee appointed to select chairmen of 
the several committees reported the following: 

Committee of Arrangements. — Hon. Robert Blee, 
Mayor, Chairman. James Hossack, Esq., Secretary. 

Program. — Major William J. Gleason, Chairman. 

Invitation and Speakers. — General J. J. Elwell, 

Reception. — Hon. L. E. Holden, Chairman. 

Finance. — Hon. L. E. Holden, Chairman. 

Military. — Gen. James Barnett, Chairman. 

Veteran Cuyahoga County Soldiers. — Capt. 
James Hayr, Chairman. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — Capt. G. C. Barnes, 

Sons of Veterans. — Capt. Henry Frazee, Chairman. 
Civic Societies. — Col. Charles C. Dewstoe, Chair- 

Music. — Prof. Charles F. Olney, Chairman. 

Printing and Press. — Hon. John C. Covert, Chair- 

Merchants and Manufacturers. — Hon. Luther 
Allen, Chairman. 

Schools and Colleges. — Hon. H. Q. Sargent, 

Transportation. — Hon. William J. Akers, Chair- 


Decoration. — Col. L. N. Weber, Chairman. 

Carriages. — Hon. J. V. McGorray, Chairman. 

Loyal Women's Aid Society. — Mrs. Lena Spring- 
steen, Chairman. 

Daughters of the American Revolution. — Mrs. 
Dr. E. M. Avery, Chairman. 

Sons of the American Revolution. — Dr. E. M. 
Avery, Chairman. 

Naval Display. — Commodore Percy W. Rice, Chair- 
man. . 

Salutes and Fireworks. — Col. A. T. Van Tassel, 

Early Settlers' Association. — Hon. A. J. Will- 
iams, Chairman. 

Municipal Bodies. — Hon.C. A. Davidson, Chair- 

Police. — Hon. M. J. Herbert, Chairman. 

On the members of said General Committee rested 
the responsibility of making the celebration a success. 
The result showed that they were equal to the occasion, 
the brilliant demonstration being freely acknowledged 
by the press and public as the most fitting and grand 
ever held, not alone in our fair city, but in the great 
State of Ohio. On this particular Fourth of July, 
Cleveland's celebration surpassed all others held in 

After getting down to work, the General Committee 
held a regular meeting every week, besides frequent 
special meetings. In a brief time the machinery glided 
along smoothly, and each chairman announced the 
names of his associates, the entire list being as fol- 
lows : 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 



Major William J. Gleason, Chairman. 
Captain J. B. Molyneanx, Secretary. 

Captain Levi F. Bauder, Captain L. W. Day, 
Captain Edward H. Bohm, Captain J. C. Roland, 
Captain Levi T. Scofield, Captain D. G. Nesbitt, 

Colonel E. W. Force, 
Dr. R. W. Walters, 
General James Barnett, 
General J. J. Elwell, 
Col. C. C. Dewstoe, 
Captain James Hayr, 
General M. D. Leggett, 
L. E. Holden, 
George A. Robertson, 
Captain G. C. Barnes, 
Hon. W. T. Clark, 
Hon. J. Dwight Palmer, 
Hon. W. D. Pndney, 
Hon. Elroy M. Avery, 
Hon. George W. Gardner, 
Captain H. Q. Sargent, 
W. J. Akers7 
H. H. Hyman, 
M. J. Herbert, 
J. H. McBride, 
Captain Henry Frazee, 
Professor C. F. Olney, 
Colonel John Dunn, 
Hon. J. J. Sullivan, 
Ryerson Ritchie, 
Colonel A. T. Van Tassel, 
Jacob Mandelbaum, 
B. Mahler, 
Kaufman Hays, 

W. M. Bayne. 
Charles P. Salen, 
Captain Percy W. Rice, 
Captain E. M. Hessler, 
Sheriff W. R. Ryan, 
Colonel Conrad Beck, 
Captain L. W T . Bailey, 
Captain T. W. Brainard, 
H. P. Mcintosh, 
Colonel Frank Dowd, 
C. C. Schellentrager, 
Captain Patrick Smith, 
Robert Bandlow, 
Colonel A. T. Brinsmade, 
Captain Hugh Buckley, 
Colonel L. Smithnight, 
Captain E. J. Kenned} - , 
J. B. Morrow. 
C. A. Davidson, 
Captain J. C. Shields, 
Captain Levi E. Meacham r 
Fred. Saal, 
James McHenry, 
James Lavan, 
Hon. C. C. Burnett, 
Colonel C. L Alderson T 
H. H. Burgess, 
C. J. Manix, 
John Yevera. 

3 6 ° 



General J. J. Elwell, Chairman. 
Captain Levi F. Bander, Secretary. 

Hon. Lee McBride, 
Major W. J. Gleason, 
Hon. R. C. Parsons, 
Captain J. B. Molyneaux, 
George S. Russell, 
Hon. A. J. Ricks, 
C W. Bingham, 
Hon. W. W. Armstrong, 

J. B. Morrow, 
Frank Rockefeller, 
Dan P. Eells, 
Capt. George A. McKay, 
Gen. J. S. Casement, 
Gen. A. C. Voris, 
Hon. A. J. Williams, 
T. M. Irvine. 


L. E. Holden, Chairman. 

General M. D. Leggett, A. Wiener, 

Hon. Henry B. Payne, Hon. O. J Hodge, 

Colonel William Edwards, Alfred Whitaker, 

Hon. M. A. Hanna, 
Hon. R. C. Parsons, 
Hon. Charles A. Otis, 
Lee McBride, 
Hon. W. W. Armstrong, 
Hon. M. A. Foran, 
Charles F. Brush, 
John Tod, 
George W. Howe, 
William J. Akers, 
Judge J. M. Jones, 
Hon. B. D. Babcock, 
William Bingham, 
Major Fayette Brown, 
Hon. Stephen Buhrer, 
H. R. Hatch, 
Samuel L. Mather, 
Hon. T. E. Burton, 

J. B. Zerbe, 

E. R. Perkins, 

Hon. G. T. Chapman, 

Henry D. Coffinberry, 

Hon. W. J. McKinnie, 

Hon. vStevenson Burke, 

Charles Wesley, 

H. C. Ranney, Esq., 

Judge J. D. Cleveland, 

S. T. Everett, 

Hon. George W. Gardner, 

S. W. Sessions, 

Hon. C. B. Lockwood, 

Hon. D. A. Dangler, 

Hon. C. C. Burnett, 

W. F. Dutton, 

J. S. Dickie, 

C. H. Bulklev, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 


E. C. Higbee, 
I. P. Lamson, 

Colonel Myron T. Herrick, 
Col. Horace. E. Andrews, 

F. De H. Robison, 
Professor C. F. Olney, 
Hon. William Monaghan, 
Hon. Tom. L. Johnson, 
William Greif, 

John Meckes, 
Hon. Joseph Black, 
C. A. Grasselli, 
Hon. E. M: Avery, 
Luther Allen, 
Bolivar Butts, 
Judge A. S. Draper, 
Judge J. C. Hutchins, 
Judge C. W. Noble, 
Judge W. C. Ong, 
Judge E. T. Hamilton, 
Judge A. W. Lamson, 
Judge H. C. White, 
Hon. W. J. White, 
Major William J. Gleason, 
S. D. Dodge, Esq., 
August Zehring, Esq., 
A. T. Anderson, 
General James Barnett, 
Hon. S. E. Williamson, 
Hon. Amos Townsend, 
Hon. A. J. Williams, 
Hon. V. A. Taylor, 
Hon. H. M. Chapman, 
Hon. John P. Green, 
Hon. H. C. Smith, 
Hon. Martin Dodge, 

Hon. J. W. S. Webb, 
Hon. J. H. Breck, 
Hon. E. W. Doty, 
Hon. W. H. Clifford, 
Hon. O. D. Miller, 
Hon. W. R. Coates, 
Hon. M. Gallagher, 
Hon. J. P. Haley, 
Hon. A. G. Harbaugh r 
Hon. C. M. Le Blond, 
Hon. J. M. Williams, 
Hon. E. S. Flint, 
Hon. F. H. Eggers, 
Hon. T. P. Handy, 
Hon. J. J. Stranahan, 
Hon. J. C. Bloch, 
Hon. David Morison, 
L. A. Russell, Esq., 
Dan. P. Eells, 
Judge C. C. Baldwin, 
Judge W. B. Sanders, 
Judge M. R. Dickey, 
Judge George B. Solders,. 
Judge G. M. Barber, 
Judge F. H. Kelly, 
Judge J. T. Logue, 
Judge J. E. Ingersoll, 
Mgr. T. P. Thorpe, 
Rev. George W. Pepper, 
Rev. John Mitchell, 
Rev. G. A. Hubbard, 
Rev. C. S. Bates, D. D., 
Rev. Levi Gilbert, D. D., 
Rev. S. P. Sprecher, D. D.,. 
Rev. H.C. Applegarth,D.D. 
Rev. M. A. Scanlon, 



Rev. William McMahon, 
Rev. M. Machol, 
Rev. Moses J. Gries, 
Rev. D. H. Muller, D. D., 
Rev. D. O. Mears, 
Rev. H. C. Haydn, D. D., 
Rev. C. S. Pomeroy, D. D., 
Rev. Charles Townsend, 
Rev. Charles Kohler, 
Captain J. C. Keffer, 
Captain T. K. Dissette, 
Colonel E. S. Coe, 
Colonel E. Sowers, 
General H. H. Poppleton, 
Major Charles H. Smith, 
Captain Frank Wilson, 
Captain L. W. Bailey, 
-Captain W. J. Morgan, 

Major Willard Abbott, 

Major D. W. Johns, 
•Captain George P. McKay, 

Dr. G. C. E. Weber, 

Dr. H. J. Herrick, 

Dr. T. A. Burke, 

Dr. John Dickenson, 

Dr. George O. Butler, 

Dr. B. W. Holliday, 

Dr. John Perrier, 

Dr. E. D. Burton, 

Dr. J. A. Gilbert, 

Dr. Rollin Horton, 

Dr. X. C. Scott, 

Dr. Z. T. Dellenbaugh, 

Dr. W. P. Horton, 

Dr. G. J. Jones, 

Dr. W.J. Scott, 

Professor Cady Staley, 
Prof. Edward L. Harris, 
Professor T. H. Johnston, 
Professor Alfred Arthur, 
W. S. Kerruish, Esq., 
Virgil P. Kline, Esq.. 
J. H. Wade, Jr., 
George Hoyt, 
N. P. Bowler, 
Thomas Maher, 
Charles A. Brayton, 
Charles F. Brush, 
S. M. Carpenter, 
W. C. Scofield, 
Luke Brennan, 

L. H. Severance, 

Daniel E. Leslie, 

F. B. Squire, 

E. H. Perdue, 

T. H. Graham, 

Isaac Reynolds, 

S. H. Curtiss, 

A. C. Hord, 

J. H. A. Bone, 

W. S. Chamberlain, 

W. G. Andrews, 

N. O. Stone, 

E. W. Oglebay, 

W. R. Austin, 

J. H. Van Dorn, 

A. G. Hutchinson, 

A. E. Akins, 

W. S. Tyler, 

Thomas Rodgers, 

Gustav Schmidt, 

J. F. Gallagher, 





*v ; 


W r^ 


Hs#^ ■ I 

, Ik /;;? 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 

3 6 5 

Frank Randel, 
J. Wageman, 
F. Strauss, 
Jacob Steinfeld, 
J. H. Bradner, 

D. B. Wick, 
Chris. Grover, 
W. B. Hale, 
James Parmelee, 
William Monaghan, 

B. D. Anne wait, 
J. H. McArthur, 
W. B. Davis, 
Arthur Adams, 
Eckstein Case, 
Thomas J. Rose, 
J. Carabelli, 
George A. Groot, 
J. A. Smith, 

P. E. Mulcahy, 
J. P. Madigan, 
Joseph Goodhart, 
Richard O'Rourke, 

E. R. Walker, 

J. P. McKinstry, 

T. W. Hill, 

J. C. Weideman, 

R. A. Butler, 

J. D. Clary, 

P. H. Babcock, 

L. S. Fish, 

George J. McKnight, 

J. M. Henderson, 

C. W. Burrows, 
W. M. Day, 
Alfred Gayton, 

N. A. Gilbert, 
Thomas Reilley, 
M. G. Watterson, 
T. M. Irvine, 

A. J. Michael, 
John F. Weh, 
E. D. Sawyer, 
W. F. Walworth, 
W. H. Brett, 

B. F. Phinney, 
T. M. Bates, 
James Moriarty, 
Conrad Mizer, 
W. C. Rudd, 

J. W. Conger, 
Thomas H. White, 
George A. McArthur, 
H. Trenkamp, 
Webb C. Ball, 
Harry L. Vail, 
W. S. Dodge, 
H. W. S. Wood, 
A. T. Hubbard, 
George Cooper, 

E. H. Hopkins, 
J. P. Dawley, 
W. J. Watterson, 

F. H. Glidden, 
A. F. Hartz, 
M. F. Powers, 
E. B. Bander, 

R. H. Fetterman, 
J. B. Mooney, 
J. G. W. Cowles, 
Andrew Squire, 
Sam Briggs, 

3 66 


P. C. O'Brien, 
Daniel Connelly, 
J. V. Kennedy, 
Dr. E. E. Beeman, 
A. H. McGraw, 
Daniel Myers, 
Daniel Bailey, 
J. V. Painter, 
A. L. Moses, 
H. W. Mnnhall, 
J. C. Forman, 
John M. Tyler, 
T. F. Newman, 
W. R. Gerrard, 
W. H. H. Peck, 
D. Perkins, 
H. W. Power, 
Owen Quigley, 
R. R. Rhodes, 
W. H. Quinby, 
J. A. Beidler, 
J. A. Richardson, 
C. J. Hills, 
C. A. Selzer, 
T. A. Selover, 
V. C. Taylor, 
John B. Smith, 
A. P. Winslow, 
M. B. Stevens, 
M. B. Clark, 
George J. Warden, 
John G. White, 
N. P. Whelan, 
Horace W. Whitney, 
C. W. Collister, 
L. H. Winch, 

B. E. Helman, 

B. L. Pennington, 
Henry C. Miller, 
James S. Cockett, 
H. P. Card, 

C. B. Beach, 
W. W. Hazzard, 
John C. Compton, 
J. W. Walton, 

J. S. M. Hill, 
John H. Farley, 
J. T. Kilfoyl, 
J. B. Savage, 
F. A. Arter, 
H. A. Tidd, 
C. C. Shanklin, 
Charles W. Chase, 
John T. McKee, 
William Fnrst, 
Charles G. Hickox, 
William Becker, 
William Southwell, 
R. T. Denison, 

E. G. Barkwill, 
H. B. Corner, 
John F. Whitelaw, 
P. M. Spencer, 
Charles A. Post, 

F. S. Sanford, 
J. A. Melcher, 
Calvary Morris, 
H. S. Whittlesey, 
Belden Seymour, 
C. W. Whitmarsh, 
S. M. Strong, 

A. I. Truesdell, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 


George Gloyd, 

H. W. Luetkemeyer, 

J. Krauss, 

Sol. Sloss, 

J. H. Shaw, 

George P. Welch, 

E. Heyse, 
Ithiel Stone, 

F. F. Stranahan, 
Henry H. Stair, 
William Likly, 
W. S. Ranney, 
Benjamin Rose, 
Charles C. Hills, 
Richard Bacon, 

B. F. Horner, 

C. L. Kimball, 

C. L. Hotze, 
Carl Clanssen, 
Martin House, 
William R. Huntington, 
H. E. Foote, 

A. G. Hopkinson, 
George A. Ingersoll, 
Emil Joseph, 
P. H. Kaiser, 

G. W. Kinney, 
Theodore Kundtz, 
Charles A. Kuzel, 
William A. Lamprecht, 
Theodore Bury, 

T. M. W T arner, 

D. H. Tilden, 
William Bowler, 
J. C. Murphy, 
Thomas Manning, 

J. M. Mnlrooney, 

A. J. Marvin, 

Joseph E. Farrell, 

J. W. Bntler, 

Charles H. Tucker, 

Henry Koebel, 

H. W. Hnbbard, 

George S. Wright, 

Alfred Eyears, 

Theodore F. McConnell, 

S. S. Ford, 

M. R. Daykin, 

J. S. Goldenbogen, 

George A. Meyers, 

L. Schlather, 

Charles Fries, 

James Gibbons, 

W. A. Thieme, 

L. O. Rawson, 

Levi Wherry, 

H. L. Taylor, 

C. H. Beardslee, 

J. H. Morley, 

J. F. Walsh, 

P. J. Brady, 

J. L. Rice, 

T. M. Kennedy, 

J. D. Connelly, 

J. M. Nowak, 

John Vanek, 

F. B. Skeels, 

John Walker, 

John B. Lang, 

John R. Ouinn, 

Peter Forsythe, 

J. F. Kilby, 

3 68 


J. K. Mealier, 
William Manning, 

0. P. Mcllrath, 
Frank B. Many, 
Z. M. Hnbbell, 
F. C. Friend, 
Frank Harris, 
Henry Lewis, 
Jacob Striebinger, 
M. Bnchmann, 
George W. Common, 
William A. McKinstry, 
D. H. Kimberley, 
Peter Daly, 

J. M. Booth, 
Charles E. Wyman, 
William H. Gabriel, 
James Walker, 
Joseph Colwell, 
T. S. Knight, 
P. B. Smith, 
George E. Hartnell, 
L. C. Heckman, 
Owen Kane, 
A. K. Barstow, 
Herman Weber, 

1. T. Bowman, 
Charles Sheffield, 
L. A. Bailey, 
James Caldwell, 
Harvey Brown, 
S. E. Brooks, 
Harry C. Bunts, 
J. H. Mellen, 

D. J. Callaghan, 
John E. Crew, 

Thomas Guiton, 
L. M. Coe, 
John Colahan, 
James Corrigan, 
L. Dautel, 
J. F. Ryder, 
Amos Denison, Esq., 
N. Weidenkopf, 
W. M. Pattison, 
James Collins, 
M. A. Bradley, 
J. H. Schneider, 
H. S. Blossom, 
H. T. Eubanks, 
R. E. Burdick, 
J. P. Shengle, 

F. Buettner, 
M. J. Caton, 
E. H. Bourne, 
L. Prentiss, 
E. Decker, 

J. H. Ryder, 
Henry Dreher, 

G. E. Herrick, 
J. L. Athey, 
Charles A. Dolan, 
Al. Baehr, 

E. S. Grauel, 
William Downie, 
Thomas Boutall, 
J. W. Roof, 
C. W. Bingham, 
A. B. Foster, 
Ben. Killam, 
Charles A. Willard, 
S. H. Benedict, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 369 

N. P. McKean, W. B. Neff, 

M. Halle, A. T. Osborn, 

J. E. Benson, G. E. Benedict, 

F. H. Biermann, M. S. Hogan, 

John Brown, Ira Reynolds, 

R. T. Holden, O. G. Kent. 


L. E. Holden, Chairman. 

Col. Arthur McAllister, Vice-Chairman. 

J. B. Savage, Vice- Chairman. 

C. H. Beardslee, Secretary. 

E. W. Moore, Treasurer. 
James Parmelee, Gen. James Barnett, 

Kaufman Hays, John Tod, 

Wilson M. Day, Myron T. Herrick. 

M. A. Hanna, 


General James Barnett, Chairman. 

Captain J. M. Carrington, Secretary. 
General M. D. Leggett, Col. W. H. Hayward, 
Colonel G. A. Garretson, Captain M. B. Gary, 
Colonel J. A. Smith, Colonel J. J. Smith, 

Colonel L. Smithnight, Colonel James Pickands, 
Colonel J. N. Frazee, Colonel A. McAllister, 

Capt. F.A.Kendall, U.S.A. Capt. J. H. Munson, U.S.A. 


Sergeant James Hayr, Chairman. 
Captain George A. McKay and Lieutenant Charles A. 
Willard, Secretaries. 
General James Barnett, Major William J. Gleason, 
Colonel C. C. Dewstoe, William Southwell, 
Captain J. B. Molyneaux, T. W. Brainard, 
Dr. R. W. Walters, A. L. Knauff, 

O. P. Latimer, J. L. Smith, 


Wilbur Sloat, Colonel E. W. Force, 

W. D. Pudney, General J. J. El well, 

Captain Levi F. Bauder, General M. D. Leggett, 
Captain E. H. Bohm, R. Horton, 

Captain Levi T. Scofield, Alexander Stewart. 
First Ohio Infantry, W. C. Cowin and J. N. Frazee. 
Seventh, Charles Preble and L. R. Davis. 
Eighth, J. K. O'Reilly and R. O'Rourke. 
Eleventh, J. P. Dawley. 
Twelfth, W. A. Ludlum. 

Fourteenth, John Teel and Henry G. Bigelow. 
Fifteenth, Major A. M. Burns. 
Nineteenth, H. W. Kitchen. 
Twenty-third, Ed. A. Abbott and Ben. Killam. 
Twenty-seventh, Chas. Smith and Matthew Madigan. 
Twenty-ninth, Wilbur Sloat and J. H. Se Cheverell. 
Thirty-second, Herman Meyer and Rev. Dr. John 

Thirty-fourth, John Miller. 
Thirty-sixth, Dr. John Dickenson. 
Thirty-seventh, Joseph Kaestle and George Jansen. 
Thirty-eighth, C. D. Harrington and M. Ostermeyer. 
Forty-first, James McMahon and W. J. Morgan. 
Forty-second, B. F. Phinney and E. D. Sawyer. 
Forty-third, Major Howe and Thomas Pankhurst. 
Fifty-first, David Fish and Dr. Charles Gentsch. 
Fifty-fourth, J. D. Willis and J. P. McCarty. 
Fifty-eighth, A. J. Symes and W T illiam Schwardt. 
Sixtieth, W. J. Farrand and R. D. Mahoney. 
Sixty-fifth, E. G. Powell. 

Sixty-seventh, George L. Childs and Quincy Miller. 
Seventy-sixth, Daniel S. Fisher. 
Seventy-eighth, J. A. Mcintosh. 
Seventy-ninth, William McKinnan. 
Eighty-fifth, William H. Gaylord. 
Eighty-seventh, Peter Keary. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 371 

Ninety-first, C. L. Richmond. 

One Hundred and Third, General "Jack" Casement. 

One Hundred and Fifth, O. P. Latimer. 

One Hundred and Seventh, Joseph Rothgery and A. 
G. Stohlman. 

One Hundred and Fifteenth, D. G. Nesbitt and 
John B. Lang. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fourth, Colonel James 
Pickands and J. M. Bowman. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth, Thomas Fay and 
Morris Griffin. 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, W. H. Warner. 

One Hundred and Twenty-ninth, C. H. Tuttle. 

One Hundred and Fiftieth, Major J. D. Palmer and 
William Nevins. 

One Hundred and Seventy-seventh, Hon. V. A. Tay- 
lor and Thomas Gilbert. 

One Hundred and Eighty-second, W. A. Heinsohn. 

One Hundred and Eighty-eighth, J. C. Palmer. 

Second Ohio Cavalry, Henry Gordon and W. R. 

Third, Frank Reiley and Fred Hoffman. 

Sixth, A. W T . Fenton and L. Bonesteel. 

Ninth, J. F. Oviatt and C. C. Shankliu. 

Tenth, Henry Koehler and Thomas H. Farrell. 

Twelfth, J. F. Herrick and B. C. Carpenter. 

First Ohio Light Artillery, William H. Hayward. 

Battery A, W. F. Goodspeed. 

Battery B, N. A. Baldwin and William T. Quilliams. 

Battery C, T. S. Knight. 

Battery D, C. Linehan and Charles H. Stearns. 

Battery E, De Witt Eldred. 

Battery G, Joseph Speddy and John Crable. 

Battery I, Hugh Buckley and Morris Porter. 

Ninth Independent Battery, M. A. Lander. 

Fifteenth, Daniel Hogan. 


Nineteenth, J. C. Shields. 

Twentieth, William Neracher and Henry Hoehn. 

Mexican War Veterans, Hon. O. J. Hodge. 

Union Veterans' Union, William T. Clark. 

Loyal Legion, Captain F. A. Kendall. 

Navy, B. A. Woodard and James Dwyer. 


G. C. Barnes, Chairman. 
John C. Roland, Secretary. 

J. C. Shields, C. D. Harrington, 

J. S. Hobbs, R. S. Goss, 

M. A. Lander, E. L. Patterson, 

Chas. W. Sanborn, E. M. Hessler, 

W. H. Hayward, E. W. Force, 

S. E. Gordon, J. F. Herrick, 

J. B. Swartwood, D. A. Kimball, 

O. P. Latimer, J. C. Walton, 

W. C. Cowin, E. S. Libbey, 

C. E. Griswold, O. L. Neff. 


Captain Henry Frazee, Chairman. 

H. C. Mason, F. O. Tuttle, 

C. H. A. Palmer, H. C. Lund, 

R. S. Smith. 


Colonel C. C. Dewstoe, Chairman. 
Colonel John O. Winship, Secretary. 

Colonel John W. Gibbons, Colonel Robert Kegg, 
H. P. Mcintosh, Colonel George A. Myers, 

Colonel T. W. Minshall, C. J. Manix. 
Colonel C. L. Alderson, 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 375 

committee on music. 
Professor C. F. Olney, Chairman. 
Professor Alfred Arthur, Professor J. T. Wamelinky 
Professor N. Coe Stewart, A. D. Coe. 
Professor Emil Ring, 

Hon. John C. Covert, Chairman. 
L. E. Holden, E. W. Osborn, 

J. E. Mueller, Carl Claussen, 

George A. Robertson, H. A. Griffin. 


Hon. Luther Allen, Chairman. 


George K. Ross, Chairman. 

George W. Williams, Vice-Chairman. 

Harry R. Edwards, Secretary. 
L. A. Bailey, Lucien B. Hall, 

Webb C. Ball, George W. Kinney, 

W. H. Beaumont, George T. Mcintosh, 

H. B. Burrows, James Moriarty, 

George H. Chandler, F. P. Root, 

J. D. Connolly, George P. Welch, 

George Deming, Howard W. White, 

Henry Dreher, Otto Seidel, 

J. S. Dickie, John Meckes, 

W. F. Dutton, D. E. McLean, 

R. H. Fetterman, J. P. Brogan, 

W. H. Garlock, C. L. F. Wieber. 


W. J. Morgan, Chairman. 

X. X. Crum, Vice-Chairman. 

F. F. Prentiss, Secretary. 
Charles F. Adams, W. A. Babcock, 

Harry W. Avery, H. J. Boggis, 



Sylvanus Bourne, 
R. F. Burdick, 
W. P. Champney, 
L. M. Coe, 
Hon. D. A. Dangler, 
C. A. Davidson, 
Herman Frasch, 
William Greif, 
S. B. Harrison, 
Webb C. Hayes, 

Z. M. Hubbell, 
H. W. King, 
G. C. Kuhlman, 
C. E. Lowman, 
George W. Lewis, 
Charles Bausch, 
C. W. Scofield, 
Sol. Sloss, 
C. S. Van Wagoner, 
Robert Wallace. 


Hon. H. Q. Sargent, Chairman. 

Martin House, 

C. F. Olney, 

N. Coe Stewart, 

E. F. Moulton, 

S. S. Ford, 

William Downie, 

M. R. Daykin, 

E. L. Harris, 

Theodore H. Johnston, 

Thomas Boutall, 

W. D. Buss, 
William Backus, Jr., 
Joseph Krug, 
G. L. Hechler, 
Dr. C. F. Dutton, 
Miss Ellen G. Reveley, 
Miss Harriet L. Keeler, 
Miss Lemira W. Hughes, 
Miss Jennie D. Pullen, 
Mrs. Elroy M. iVvery. 


Hon. William J. Akers, Chairman. 
B. W. Jackson, Charles L. Kimball, 

H. F. Roesser, Charles Fuller. 


Colonel Louis N. Weber, Chairman. 
Colonel Conrad Mizer, Secretary. 

W. I. Thompson, 
Frank Aborn, 
Will. V. W. Wamelink, 
C. W. Wason, 
David Charlesworth, 

F. C. Bate, 
E. P. Fenton, 
Henry J. Wamelink, 
W. H. Beaumont, 
A. T. Anderson. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 



Hon. J. V. McGorray, Chairman. 
Hon. Charles P. Salen, Secretary. 


Mrs. Lena Springsteen, Chairman. 
Mesdames Alice W. Fuller, L. W. Bailey, 

Nellie Willard, 
Florence H. White, 
E. R. Walker, 
T. W. Brainard, 
M. B. Gary, 
W. H. Hay ward, 
R. C. White, 
P. H. Kaiser, 
E. L. Patterson, 
W. R. Austin, 
H. W. Osborn, 
L. Smithnight, 
Thomas Rodgers, 
Mattie Barrett, 
Winnie B. Rogers,. 
Dora Brush, 
Emma Seymour, 
Alice Slack, 
Nettie Freeman, 
Eva Loomis, 
G. C. Barnes, 
Mary Erwin, 
Mary Werner, 
H. Barnes, 
Gertrude Cary, 
Kate K. Dorner, 
M. J. Fisk, 
Eunice Brown, 
Ellen R. Caulkins, 

Lois M. Knauff, 
E. Knight, 
Mary Gressmuck, 
Mary Clifford, 
Sarah Mitten, 
Carrie McReynolds, 
Catherine McQuiston, 
Mary Seymour, 
Lenora Cunningham, 
Mary E. Myers, 
Thankful Prestage, 
Lois Craft, 
Clarissa Hubbard, 
Rose Mayo, 
Jerusha C. Bicknell, 
Amelia Ames, 
Emma Smith, 
Elizabeth Smith, 
John Dickenson, 
E. M. Hessler, 
Miriam Gillis, 
Lucy Killam, 
Nettie Molyneaux, 
Elizabeth Dunn, 
Martha Wherry, 
A. E. Brockett, 
C. J. Sullivan, 
Willard Abbott, 
James McMahon, 



W. R. Creighton, 

C. C. Dewstoe, 
W. J. Gleason, 
James Barnett, 
Martha L. Hayr, 
Levi F. Bauder, 
Levi T. Scofield, 
M. D. Leggett, 
J. O. Winship, 
J. W. Gibbons, 
N. Coe Stewart, 

D. H. Kimberley, 
L. W. Day, 
Louise M. Roland, 
G. E. Frazer, 
Susie Worcester, 
J. C. Covert, 

J. G. W. Cowles, 
L. S. Fish, 
J. M. Gasser, 
Byron Pope, 
Hannah Shepherd, 
Sarah A. Lane, 
Florence Armstrong, 
Ida Williams, 
M. J. Sloat, 
Sue Shengle, 
W. F. Walworth, 
Mary F. Claflin, 
C. F. Olney, 
E. L. Harris, 
A. C. Hyer, 
G. Peterson. 


Mrs. Elroy M. Avery, Chairman. 

Mrs. B. D. Babcock, Mrs. M. D. Williams, 

Mrs. A. T. Perry, Mrs. T. D. Crocker, 

Mrs. Homer W. Osborn, Mrs. Cyrus Merrill. 


Hon. Elroy M. Avery, Chairman. 

L. E. Holden, 
General James Barnett, 
Professor C. F. Olney, 
J. M. Richardson, 
H. H. Ward, 
H. A. Kelley, 

James H. Hoyt, 

R. C. Parsons, 

N. P. Bowler, 

Pres. Charles F. Thwing, 

President Cady Staley, 

E. H. Baker. ' 


Commodore Percv W. Rice, Chairman. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 



Colonel A. T. Van Tassel, Chairman. 
Capt. J. F. McCauley, Secretary. 

A. A. Dittrich, 
A. B. Honeeker, 
Charles P. Salen, 
J. S. Dickie, 
Albert Johnson, 
Ed. Benham. 
H. H. Burgess, 
C. A. Selden, 

Hon. A. J. Williams, Chairman. 
H. C. Hawkins, Secretarv. 

George G. Mnlhern, 
Daniel R. Hanna, 
L. Smithnight, 
Jacob Waldeck, 
Ralph Williams, 
E. S. Wright, 
E. W. Bowers. 

H. M. Addison, 
Solon Bnrgess, 
Darins Adams, 
Judge Frank H. Kelly. 

Hon. R. C. Parsons, 
Geo. F. Marshall, 
R. T. Lyon, 
Bolivar Butts, 
Wilson S. Dodge, 


C. A. Davidson, Chairman. 
Director J. H. Farley, Director M.J. Herbert, 

Dan. O. Caswell, 
Supt. Henry Hoehn, 
John Willi elm, 
P. J. McKenney, 
W. I. Thompson, 
F. Hesoun, Jr., 

Director H. H. Hyman, 

Dan P. Reynolds, Esq., 

H. H. Burgess, 

Chief James Dickinson, 

B. W r . Jackson, 

R. E. McKisson, Esq., 

Director W. J. McKinnie, J. V. McGorray. 

Director W. A. Madison, 


Hon. M. J. Herbert, Chairman. 

Supt. Henry Hoehn, Captain Michael English, 

Captain James McMahon, Captain E. K. Hutchinson, 

Captain M. F. Madigan, Captain A. S. Gates. 


The committees thus fully organized proceeded with 
their work with a vim and vigor that was bound to be 

The question of Orator of the Day was raised. It was- 
thought advisable to select one as early as possible. 
General J. J. El well moved that ex-Governor Joseph 

B. Foraker be the Orator. It was so decided unani- 

As President of the Monument Commission, it was 
Major Gleason's privilege and honor to preside at the 
dedication, if he so wished. In order, however, that 
National significance might be given that great event,, 
he named Governor William McKinley as President of 
the Day. His voluntary act was enthusiastically re- 

At the meeting held May 12, this action was taken : 

" Hon A. J. Williams submitted the following state- 
ment and resolutions which, on motion of General J. J. 
Elwell, were unanimously adopted : 

"First to challenge the attention of the visitor as he enters the 
imposing Monument erected to the memory of Cuyahoga's volun- 
teers in the late War is the bronze representation of a group of 
women. ' Who are they ? ' he inquires. The answer comes : ' They 
are the noble patriotic ladies who were most prominent in woman's 
great work in contributing to the cheer and comfort of the heroes 
whose names adorn these walls.' Of that group but three survive, 
and as they who know them look upon that picture they at once 
exclaim : ' There is Mrs. Josiah A. Harris, now the venerable and 
honored Vice President of the Early Settlers' Association ; and 
there is Mrs. Peter Thatcher, both living in Cleveland ; and there 
is Miss Ellen F. Terry, now Mrs. C. F. Johnson, at present a resi- 
dent of Hartford, Conn.' 

" How fitting and proper it is that these only living members of 
that group should be accorded deserved prominence at the dedica- 
tion of the Monument ; therefore it is 

" Resolved, That Mrs. J. A. Harris, Mrs. Peter Thatcher, and Mrs. 

C. F. Johnson be most cordially requested to be present at the cere- 
monies of the dedication, and that the Committee on Reception be 
instructed to provide them with proper accommodations. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 381 

" Resolved, That the Committee on Invitations be instructed to 
forward a copy of the foregoing to each of the persons named." 

A letter which was addressed to L. H. Williams, 
Department Commander, and the delegates to the 
Twenty-eighth Annual Encampment of the Department 
of Ohio, Grand Army of the Republic, requested their 
presence at the dedication of the Soldiers' Monument. 
The committee approved the letter and ordered that it 
be forwarded to the Encampment. 

Mr. Luther Allen, President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, made an announcement which was received by 
the committee with regret. Mr. Allen was appointed 
as the Chairman of the Committee on Merchants and 
Manufacturers, and he said that on account of his 
numerous business engagements it would be impossible 
for him to give the subject the attention which it would 
require, and for this reason he desired to tender his 
resignation. Major Gleason said he hoped Mr. Allen 
would reconsider his determination, as he was eminently 
fitted for the head of the committee for which he had 
been chosen. He said the merchants and manufactur- 
ers' division could be made a great feature of the 
parade. Mr. Allen said he fully appreciated the im- 
portance of the subject, and finally said he would remain 
as chairman of the committee for another week at 
least, and in the meantime would appoint the remaining 

Of the meeting held May 19th, the Leader said : 

" There is no longer any doubt that the Fourth of 
July celebration in connection with the dedication of 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument will be the grand- 
est of the kind ever witnessed in Cleveland. Almost 
all the committees are actively at work, and they are 
assured of success. A meeting of the General Commit- 
tee in charge of the demonstration met in the rooms of 
the Board of Control, yesterday, and there was quite a 
large attendance. 


" Mr. Luther Allen, Chairman of the Committee on 
Merchants and Manufacturers, made an encouraging 
report. He said that he had been somewhat handi- 
capped in his work for the reason that many of the men 
whom he wanted to see and interest in the work were 
out of the city. He said that his idea was to divide 
his committee into two subcommittees, one to be 
known as the Merchants' Committee, and the other the 
Manufacturers' Committee. The field he said was too 
large for one committee, and much better results could 
be obtained by the division. He intended to appoint a 
chairman and a vice chairman for each committee. 
Mr. Allen said that he had already secured the consent 
of one gentleman to act as the Chairman of the Subcom- 
mittee on Merchants, and a gentleman who had been 
selected as the Chairman on Manufacturers had prom- 
ised to give his decision on Monday. He said that he 
would be able to announce his committees, and make 
a full report to the meeting of the General Committee 
on next Saturday afternoon. The General Committee 
was much encouraged by Mr. Allen's report. 

" Professor Olney suggested, and the other members of 
the committee agreed with him, that a pleasant feature 
of the day would be to have the chorus which will sing 
on Memorial Day render patriotic airs during the time 
of the dedication of the Monument. The feasibility of 
building a platform in the Public Square for this pur- 
pose was discussed. It was the general opinion that 
the children should have some part in the exercises ot 
the day on account of the lesson of patriotism which 
it will teach. 

" Captain James Hayr, the Chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Old Soldiers who are not attached to any Soldiers' 
organization, announced that he was meeting with 
much better success than he hoped for. He said that 
he was in correspondence with Comrades in many 

; f^\ 

B^ £\ -^^v 




.soldiers' and sailors' monument. 385 

States, and he hoped to have every unattached Soldier 
now living whose name is in the Soldiers' Monument 
in the parade. He has already heard from fifty-seven 
regimental associations, and every one of them will be 
headed by their battle flag. The custodian of the flag 
room in the State Capitol at Columbus will bring all 
the old battle flags to the city for the occasion, and will 
be responsible for their safe return. This report was 
received with much favor, as the carrying of the blood- 
stained battle flags will be a prominent feature of the 
parade.' 1 

Considerable headway had been made by the several 
committees previous to the meeting held June 2d, of 
which the Leader spoke : 

" The General Committee having charge of the ar- 
rangements for the Fourth of July demonstration was 
well represented at the meeting held in the rooms of 
the Board of Control, in the City Hall, yesterday after- 
noon. The meeting was the most business-like and 
interesting of any yet held by the committee. The 
program is well under way, and if the people of 
Cleveland are as generous as they haye been in times 
past on occasions of the kind, the demonstration on the 
Fourth will be the grandest ever witnessed in the State. 
When the meeting had been called to order, and the 
routine business transacted, reports from the various 
subcommittees were called for. The first to respond 
was General J. J. Elwell, of the Committee on Invita- 
tions. He said that the committee had held a meeting 
with a full attendance before the General Committee 
had convened. It was resolved that the chairman of 
the committee should invite the following distinguished 
persons to attend the celebration : President Grover 
Cleveland and Cabinet, Vice President Adlai E. Stev- 
enson, Major General John M. Schofield, General O. O. 
Howard, General Nelson A. Miles, General Nathan A. 


Kimball, General Dan E. Sickles, General Lew Wallace, 
ex-President Harrison, Hon. James E. Campbell, Gen- 
eral A. V. Rice, General W. H. Gibson, Major E. M. 
Hayes, General Aqnilla Wiley, Hon. A. B. Kennedy, 
Hon. E. P. Scammon, Hon. J. D. Cox, Hon. J. C. 
Cowan, the Garfield family, Speaker Charles E. Crisp, 
Hon. Franklin J. Dickman, Hon. A. G. Riddle, Hon. 
S. O. Griswold, Hon. John Sherman, Hon. Calvin P. 
Brice, Hon. Allen G. Thurman, Hon. George E. 
Hoadley, General Thomas Ewing, Hon. Whitelaw Reid, 
Colonel John A. Cockerell, General I. H. Sherwood, 
Colonel William Perry Fogg, Hon. Joseph R. Hawley, 
General Russell A. Alger, General W. H. Powell, trie 
Judges of the Supreme Court of Ohio, the surviving 
members of the Northern Ohio Sanitary Commission, 
and the members of the Ohio Senate and House of 

" Major W. J. Gleason reported for the Committee on 
Program. He said that his committee had mapped 
out a partial program, but many details remained to 
be completed. He said that the committee would be 
able to present a magnificent program. 

"The military part of the program was answered 
for by General James Barnett. He said that he had 
assurances that all the military companies in the city 
and county would be in line in the procession. 

"The next committee to report was the Committee on 
Grand Army of the Republic, for which Captain G. C. 
Barnes responded. He said that a letter had been pre- 
pared, and it would be sent to all the Grand Army posts 
in Cuyahoga and adjoining counties, requesting them 
to participate in the parade. Captain Barnes said that 
if satisfactory railway rates could be obtained he was 
sure that there would be a large attendance of Grand 
Army men from outside the city. 

" For the Sons of Veterans, Captain Henry Frazee 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 387 

said that he had sent letters of invitation to all the 
camps in the county, and he was satisfied that there 
would be a large attendance. 

" Colonel C. C. Dewstoe responded for the Civic 
Societies. He said that his committee was making 
good progress. He said that he had a list of all the 
uniformed societies in the city, and they were all anx- 
ious to turn out and make a creditable division of the 
parade. The committee was given power to invite all 
the civic societies in the city to participate in the parade. 

" Mr. W. J. Akers reported that the Committee on 
Transportation had met with the various passenger 
agents of the city, and they had agreed to recommend 
to the traffic association that tickets be sold from all 
points in Ohio, and also from Detroit and Buffalo, at 
one fare for the round trip, and that tickets be good 
from July 2 to July 7, inclusive. 

" A report from the Committee on Music was made 
by Professor Charles F. Olney. He stated that it would 
be difficult to determine what the Committee on Music 
would do until it was known whether a platform would 
be erected, and how large it would be. ' If a platform 
is erected,' he said, ' which will hold 4,000 people, we 
can have a large chorus of school children, which would 
be a pleasing feature. If we know definitely about the 
platform, we can proceed understandingly.' 

" 1 1 hope that enough interest will be aroused to erect 
a platform,' said Mr. W. J. Akers. 'We should get the 
school children out and instill patriotism into them. 
This is a celebration in which they should participate, 
and I want to hear them sing. ' 

" ' We want the children,' said General Elwell. ' It 
will be an object lesson for the rising generation, even 
if it is not for us old fellows. I want this committee to 
tell Professor Olney to go ahead and prepare for a 
chorus of school children.' 


ijor Gleason offered a resolution, which was 
adopted, providing that Professor Olney should call on 
Director Sargent and request him to co-operate in the 
movement to secure a chorus of school children to sing 
during the dedication of the Monument. 

" Captain James Hayr reported for the Committee on 
Unattached Soldiers. He said that he already had as- 
surances that sixty-two commands would be in line 
with their old battle flags. He expected to have fully 
one hundred different commands represented in the 
parade. He would also have a number of Marines in 
his division, and it was possible that they would have 
a float representing the Monitor. 

" Mr. L. N. Weber reported for the Committee on 
Decorations. He said that his committee had held 
several meetings and had discussed various plans for 
decorating the down town portions of the city. ' We 
would like,' he said, ' to build an elaborate arch, and 
to decorate the Public Square profusely with flags, 
bunting, and mottoes. Evening decorations have also 
been discussed by the committee. It has been sug- 
gested that we have Chinese lanterns hung about the 
Square, and that red, white and blue electric lights be 
suspended from the wires over the streets.' 

" Mr. McGorray suggested that the committees had 
progressed very satisfactorily, and that the time had 
arrived when the Grand Marshal of the day should be 
chosen. Professor Olney moved that the selection of the 
Marshal be left to General Barnett, General Elwell, and 
Major Gleason, and Mr. McGorray favored that mode 
of procedure. Major Gleason offered as an amendment 
that General James Barnett be unanimously chosen 
as the Grand Marshal of the day. General Barnett 
attempted to utter a protest, but his voice was 
drowned in the applause which followed Major Gleason's 
amendment. Colonel Dewstoe said that he had rode 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 389 

with General Barnett when he had said that it was 
positively his last appearance and he wanted to do so 
again. General Barnett was then declared the Marshal 
of the day, but he said that he would have to positively 

" Major Gleason then eulogized the General. He 
said that he had commanded the largest parades ever 
held in Cleveland and that he wanted to see him in the 
front again. ' General Barnett led the first troops from 
Ohio into the enemy's country,' said Captain Hayr, 
'and he ought to lead us in our final triumph — the 
dedication of our Monument.' 

" ' I regret,' said General Barnett, ' that I was the 
marshal of the parades at the funerals of two Presidents 
in this city. I was in charge of the parade when Gar- 
field was buried, and later had the honor to be Chief 
Marshal on the occasion of the dedication of Garfield's 
Memorial, and I expected and desired that it would be 
the last one which I should ever head. I am now at 
the time of life when the younger men should take 
charge. I understand your kindness, and appreciate 
the honor, but you must excuse me.' 

" It was finally decided to lay the choosing of a 
marshal over to the next meeting." 

At the next meeting, held on June 16th, General 
Barnett respectfully urged that he be excused, his dec- 
lination being received with regret. 

General M. D. Leggett was thereupon unanimously 
selected as Grand Marshal, and given power to appoint 
bis assistants. 

General James Barnett presided at the meeting in 
the absence of Mayor Blee, and called for reports 
from committees. A report for the Committee 011 Pro- 
gram was made by Major W. J. Gleason. He said 
that the committee suggested a salute at sunrise, a 
yacht race on the lake at 9 o'clock, and the dedicatory 


exercises at the Monument to be commenced at 10 
o'clock sharp. The procession he thought should form 
at 1:30 o'clock, and move at 2 o'clock. There will be 
a salute at sunset, and the streets down town will be 
illuminated after dark, as will also the yachts on the 
lake front. Major Gleason said it was the desire of the 
committee that there would be a general decoration of 
the dwellings and business houses of the city with flags 
and tricolored bunting. 

Mrs. Lena Springsteen, representing the Loyal Wom- 
en's Aid Committee, said that her committee had held 
a meeting and decided that they wished to do some- 
thing to add to the celebration. Mrs. Springsteen said 
the ladies had decided to furnish two large baskets ot 
flowers for the speakers' stand, and each Relief Corps 
will furnish five hundred or more button-hole bouquets 
for the old Soldiers. When Mrs. Springsteen announced 
that this would be clone without calling on the General 
Committee for money, she was applauded. 

The following letter, received by General J. J. 
Elwell, the Chairman of the Committee on Invitation, 
from Mr. James F. Rhodes, the historian, who formerly 
lived in this city, but who is now located at Cambridge, 
Mass., was read at the meeting : 

Regretting that it will be impossible for me to be present at 
the dedication of your fine Monument, I feel highly gratified at the 
receipt of your invitation ; for although I have left Cleveland in 
order to have better facilities for the prosecution of my historical 
work, my fondest associations cluster around my native city. What 
pregnant and glorious memories are called up by the dedication of 
your tribute to the patriotism of the Soldiers and Sailors of the Civil 
War, on the Fourth of July ! For you bring to mind the greatness 
of the men who declared and achieved our independence and ihe 
wisdom of those who framed the Constitution, whose work, after 
fully recognizing the valuable lessons and experience they had de- 
rived from England, still remains a wonder to students of political 
science; and you revive still more vividly the recollections of those 
four years crowned with events which began with the firing on Fort 
Sumter. No nation ever had richer memories. Writing the story 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 391 

of the Civil War, and living in imagination in 1861 and 1862, I feel 
keenly the meed of admiration dne to the volunteers of those }-ears r 
who forsook home and comfort and apparent advancement in life 
to risk their health and their lives for what they thought, and what 
the world now thinks, was a noble course. For the meaning of the 
war, and what gives it a place among the historic events of the 
ages, is that the Northern people, although not avowedly at first, 
grappled with an evil which they must destroy, or it would destroy 
the republic. A brilliant English writer has fitly called it the War 
of Liberation. And it would seem as if posterity could not know it 
by a better name, for what a liberation it was, not only of the 
blacks, but of the white men of both the South and the North, from 
association with an evil condemned by the rest of the enlightened 
world. Lincoln's leadership in the movement against slavery will 
eventually make him the hero of the whole country, as is Washing- 
ton now ; and it has already given him a place among the great 
benefactors of the world. With the blue and the gray mingling in 
fraternal union on the noted battle fields of the War, with the recol- 
lection of Joseph E. Johnson as a pall-bearer at both Grant's and 
Sherman's funerals, the dedication of such a monument as yours is 
not a revival, but rather a burial of sectional discord and hate. For 
while the judgment of history will undoubtedly be that the men of 
the South were mistaken, the muse will not fail to express her ad- 
miration for their manly virtues of heroism and self-sacrifice which 
the Soldiers of the North, who met them in bloody contest, have 
always been ready to recognize. 

At the meeting held on June 28th, the chairman re- 
ported the program, which was adopted, and eventu- 
ally carried out, as follows: 

The day will be ushered in by the booming of cannon, ringing of 
all the church and fire bells in the city, blowing of steam whistles 
and a general hurrah. 

At Sunrise, a Federal Salute will be fired in the East End. 
A Prize Yacht Race will be held on Lake Erie, off Lakeview Park, 
the boats starting at 9 o'clock. 

The Dedicatory Exercises will be opened in the amphitheater on 
the Public Square, commencing at 9 o'clock, by a Grand Concert 
given by the Great Western Band, under the direction of Prof. F. H. 
Hruby, as follows : 

1. Ohio Festival March, composed for the occasion and dedi- 

cated to the City of Cleveland by Anthony Machan. 

2. March Cleveland Grays, F. H. Hruby. 

3. Overture — Tancredi, Rossini. 


4. Grand March— From Taunhauser, R. Wagner. 

5. Waltz — Heart and Hand, Faust. 

6. American Overture, R. X. Cat/in. 

Prayer— Rev. John Mitchell, D. D. 
Song — Columbia, Columbia — Words by Mrs. N. Coe Stewart; music 

by N. Coe Stewart, School Children's Chorus. 

Introductory Address, Gov.Wm. McKinley, President of the Day. 
Music — American Flag Song — Znndel, School Children's Chorus. 
Reading of the Declaration of Independence, 

Virgil P. Kline, Esq. 
Song — The Red, White and Blue, . . School Children's Chorus. 
Oration — The Soldiers' Monument and the Lessons of Patriotism 

it Teaches, Hon. Joseph B. Foraker. 

Song— The Star Spangled Banner . . School Children's Chorus. 
Reading of an Original Poem, . - Rev. Dr. Levi Gilbert. 

Song— America School Children's Chorus. 

Benediction— Monsignor T. P. Thorpe. 
National Salute of Forty-four Guns on Armory Grounds, cor. 

Bond and Lake Streets, at mid-day. 
Forming of Procession — Under direction of Grand Marshal Gen. 

M. D. LEGGETT, at 1:30 P. M. Procession moves promptly at 

2:00 P. M. 
Naval Salute at sunset on the West Side, foot of Duane Street. 
Grand Illumination of ships and yachts in Lake Erie, off Lake 

View Park, at sunset. 
After Sunset, a brilliant display of electricity, and various colored 

lights on the Public Square and all the down-town districts, 

commencing at S:oo P. M. 
Grand Concert, commencing at 8:00 P. M., in the amphitheater, 

Public Square. 
The City will be gorgeously decorated and lighted up until mid- 




EVERYTHING is ready for the long-looked-for 
event. The preparations are complete, the slight- 
est detail not being neglected. 

Independence Day has arrived. First ot all, and 
above and superior to all, the Kind Ruler of the Uni- 
verse has smiled upon and blessed the work of His 
people. Our Heavenly Father has given us a day made 
to order ; the Monument Commission, the active mem- 
bers of the various committees, the distinguished speak- 
ers, the patriotic school children, the hundreds of thou- 
sands of people will do the rest. The newspapers, 
without exception, have nobly done their part to bring 
about a triumphant success. The issues of each and 
all of them on the morning of Independence Day were 
an agreeable surprise. Never before did Cleveland wit- 
ness such commendable enterprise among its journals. 
No labor or expense was spared in their make-up. The 
typographical appearance, the presswork, the elegant 
style of the engravings, the graphic scenes and events 
in connection with the erection of the Memorial, and its 
finished appearance, together with the portraits printed, 
were truly worthy of the best metropolitan journals in 
the country. 

The shrewd and able chief editors, the brainy and 
skillful city editors, the intelligent, industrious, omni- 
present reporters, all vied with each other in making 
their journals eminently worthy of the glorious event 
celebrated. Their laudable efforts proved an unquali- 
fied success. The souvenir editions of the Plain Dealer 


and Leader were especially marvels of the art preserva- 
tive, a positive delight, a revelation to Cleveland jour- 

The work of the historian in connection with the ded- 
icatory exercises is made comparatively light, owing to 
the complete and enterprising manner in which all 
details were covered by the hustling reporters of the 
newspapers named. In the matter following we are 
largely indebted to the valuable research of the report- 
ers of the Leader and Plain Dealer, who skillfully sought 
out every conceivable point in connection with the 
dedication : the historical reminiscences, the well writ- 
ten biographies, the glowing descriptions, the beautiful 
word-paintings and the many striking features and 
notable incidents that, all combined, show the demon- 
stration to have been the grandest and most memorable 
one in the history of our lovely city. 

All the newspapers availed themselves of the privi- 
lege of publishing copious extracts from the advance 
sheets of the History of the Memorial, gladly furnished 
by the author. 

The day and the occasion were spoken of by the tal- 
ented editor of the Leader in the following stirring 
style : 

" No day in Cleveland's history is more glorious than 
this. The splendid Monument which has been erected 
by Cuyahoga County upon the Public Square in honor 
of her Soldiers and her Sailors will be dedicated with 
imposing ceremonies. No more fitting day could be 
chosen — the Fourth of July — the birthday of that Union 
for whose integrity nearly 10,000 of her sons went forth 
to battle. It will be an occasion of patriotism such as 
Cleveland has never known. Multitudes will turn from 
the pursuits in which they are engrossed, will gather 
from near and from far, to give a day to the past and to 
the future ; to feel more deeply than before how blessed 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 397 

is the heritage of free government and how great was 
the price which was paid for it ; and to hear more 
clearly than before the voice of their responsibility call- 
ing them to be equal to every troublous hour which 
shall press upon it. No bride will be lovelier in her 
wedding garments than Cleveland in her dress of ban- 
ners. Thousands of children will lift their glad voices 
in the hymns of the Republic. Gray-haired veterans 
will once more stand shoulder to shoulder as they stood 
when they faced the storm of battle. Dignitaries of the 
State and the Nation will grace the occasion with their 
presence. Yachts will test the speed of their white 
wings on the blue waters of the lake. A great proces- 
sion will wind its splendid length along the principal 
thoroughfares ; and, when night shall fall, patriotism 
will write its enthusiasm upon the darkness in letters 
of fire. 

" The Monument to be dedicated is one of the grand- 
est which remembrance ever reared to valor. All things 
considered, it has no counterpart upon the continent. 
As a work of art, in originality of conception and beauty 
of execution, no city on earth has a fairer ornament. 
It unites what is best in various forms of architecture, 
crowning the union with the magnetism of its own in- 
dividuality. But it is not what things are in them- 
selves, but what they signify, which makes them truly 
glorious. It is not the sculptor's work, but what the 
sculptor's work suggests, which stirs the heart and dis- 
tills the unbidden tear. It is what the eye cannot see 
which enriches and illumines what it can see. It is not 
the Monument, but the meaning of the Monument — 
that which it embodies — which makes of it a public 
blessing, the measure of which cannot be taken, and 
stamps those whose energy and genius brought it to 
pass as benefactors of their kind. By virtue of this 
meaning, it shall stand as a perpetual exhortation to 


love of country. Louder than the bustle of the mate- 
rial activities which encompass it shall be heard the 
truth which it speaks. In the very midst of the strife 
for self it shall teach the lesson of unselfishness. In 
the fruitful soil of countless hearts it shall sow the seeds 
of new sacrifices ; and in the day of peril the Union 
shall find no children more devoted than in the sylvan 
city of the inland sea." 

The gifted editor of the Plain Dealer graced his col- 
umns with this handsome compliment: 

" On this the natal day of the Nation, the Plain 
Dealer- presents to its readers a souvenir edition com- 
memorative of the dedication of the Soldiers' and Sail- 
ors' Monument. The souvenir is presented because it 
is timely and because the Plain Dealer feels that its 
readers should have the best of everything. The issue 
contains a full description of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument from its inception to its completion, together 
with a recital of the stirring scenes which occurred in 
Cleveland at the outbreak of the War and the noble 
work of the women of the city upon the Sanitary Com- 
mission. Not only did the men dedicate their lives, but 
the women of the city as well sacrificed much that the 
Union might live. No tribute, however great, can suf- 
ficiently commemorate the labor they performed. 

" Infinite pains have been taken to make the history 
and description of the Monument as thorough as possi- 
ble. The account is not merely historic ; it is an enter- 
taining romance as well, for the scenes surrounding the 
placing of the Monument upon the Public Square were 
exciting and dramatic in the extreme. The recital em- 
braces all. Obstacle after obstacle was encountered 
and overcome. The fixedness of purpose and continu- 
ity of effort of the Monument Commission, viewed in 
the cold light of history, is admirable. The past is 
dead ; the Monument is a reality, and thousands upon 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 399 

thousands will meet to-day to dedicate the structure 
without a tinge of bitterness. 

"The greatest care was taken to bring out in the 
illustrations in this souvenir edition the infinite deco- 
rative detail of the Monument. There is much of curi- 
ous interest about the Monument which would never be 
seen by a casual observer unless his attention was par- 
ticularly directed to it. For instance, the eight em- 
blems about the base of the capital figure have been 
reproduced. A glance at them will show that they are 
beautiful and full of the most delicate relief work. Yet 
one needs an opera-glass to thoroughly study them 
upon the Monument. In like manner the entire struct- 
ure is carefully inlaid with the various accouterments 
of war." 

We were certain that as time went on, and the com- 
pleted work of the Commission could be viewed by the 
people from an unprejudiced standpoint, the warm sen- 
timents of approval expressed would be universally 
held. It is none the less gratifying, however, to pub- 
lish the foregoing generous and truly refreshing com- 
pliments of the leading molders of public opinion. In 
the exuberance of our joy and natural pride we can 
afford to draw a veil over the past, only adding that, in 
our undertaking, as in all other worthy and successful 
projects, hearty commendation is the final reward. The 
complete vindication of our work, of our energy and 
perseverance, in the face of many trying obstacles, is 
highly satisfactory. " Peace hath its victories no less 
renowned than war." 

The ubiquitous reporter of the Plain Dealer took in 
the event and its surrounding scenes in the following 
graphic manner : 

" To-day is likely to be the greatest day in the his- 
tory of the city. 

" Never before in its history did the Square appear to 


better advantage than in its holiday garb of yesterday. 
Of course, it was not quite up to the high standard of 
beauty it will be to-day, but it had attained a sufficient 
approach to completeness to attract the admiration of 
thousands of people. 

" All day long busy hands were engaged in festoon- 
ing the various buildings, and one by one each came 
out in a new garb as proud looking as a boy with a new 
suit of clothes. 

" It was as though each building was vieing with its 
neighbor to woo public favor, and, as one after another 
of the long streams of color shot out from the top of the 
tall light mast in the center, they might have been 
taken for as many giants attempting a May-pole dance 
on a Brobdignagian scale. 

" Never was such a rioting of color witnessed in 
Cleveland, and when, at 10 o'clock in the morning, the 
3,000 school children took their places on the grand 
stand in the auditorium corner of the quadrangle, it was 
as though some great flower bed had tilted up on edge 
for public admiration. Never had the beauty of child- 
hood been displayed to better advantage. It was an 
exemplification of the beauty of divine example when 
the Great Teacher ' took a little child and set it in the 
midst of them and said : Of such is the kingdom ot 
heaven,' and it is safe to say of all the pageantry to be 
exhibited to-day, of all the display of military pomp 
and civic greatness, of all the booming of cannon and 
shrieking of rockets, no spectacle will prove half so im- 
pressive, no sound will have half the melody, as will the 
sight and voices of these 'little children' whom the 
managers of to-day's celebration have wisely ' set in the 
midst of the people. 

" But as to the decorations. Beginning at the county 
buildings, the outburst of color was harmonious and im- 
pressive throughout. The old Court House was arrayed 



soldiers' and sailors' monument. 403 

as it never had been in its history. There were festoons 
of flags, broad bands of red, white and blue bunting, 
with an immense portrait of General Grant, and shields 
containing American eagles and the head of the God- 
dess of Liberty. 

"The Wick building, adjoining, was equally prolific 
in decorations, while the tall, castlelike home of the 
Society for Savings, from the flag-staff above to the en- 
trance ways on the sidewalk, was brilliant with every 
color of the rainbow. Festoons of American flags, 
streamers and rosettes graced every open space and 
made a veritable kaleidoscope of color on every hand. 

"The modern Cuyahoga building lent itself readily 
to the decorative art, and most tastefully had that art 
been employed. From every window floated the Na- 
tional emblem, while broad ribbons of red, white and 
blue floated from cornice to basement, completely ob- 
scuring- everv- foot of the original material. 

" Over on Euclid Avenue, William Taylor, Son & Co., 
Crow & Whitmarsh, Fetterman, and other business 
houses were tastefully adorned with American flags, 
while the motto ' Greater Cleveland ' stood out in 
bold relief over Taylor's entrance. 

"The Forest City House, the Odd Fellows' building, 
in the southwest portion of the Square, were all blazing 
with color, while the northwest side, from Richards, 
McKean & Co.'s to the Superior Street corner, was a 
perfect mass of flags. 

" Beautiful as these buildings were, they were after 
all only the frame work for the charming picture formed 
by the Square itself. Like an emerald set in rubies 
the four great quarters of the Park glittered in the July 
sunlight and shone forth under the many-colored elec- 
tric lights at night. The tall Monument, with its quad- 
rilateral set of stories, the gayly decked stands, the 
rippliug fountains, the overhanging bower of fluttering 


flags and rows of overhanging lanterns made it a verita- 
ble fairy land of beauty. All day large crowds of peo- 
ple loitered about it as if loath to leave a spot where for 
once at least they could forget their troubles and feast 
their eyes on something of the brightness and beauty of 
the world about them. 

" The Fourth came in at midnight with a fanfaronade 
of firecrackers, torpedoes and other explosives that 
seemed to echo everything from Bunker Hill to Vicks- 
burg, and must have made the life-like figures about the 
big Monument in the Square almost ache to join in the 
hubbub that their mute muskets could commemorate 
but in which they could not participate. 

"It was Bunker Hill and Vicksburg over again, sure 
enough, and if the engagement began with a few desul- 
tory discharges of make-believe firearms it was only the 
preliminary skirmish for the real rattle and roar of artil- 
lery that announced the breaking of day. Then, with 
an explosion that must have warmed the hearts of 
every veteran in the county, one piece after another 
rolled out its deep-toned note of jubilee for a Nation 
' conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition 
that all men are born free and equal.' " 

The Leader said of the appearance of the city : 

" Flags were never so abundant, and the city never 
looked so glorious as in the festal attire donned for the 
celebration to-day. The scene on every business street 
was a patriotic inspiration. American freedom, and the 
victory which crowned the Union arms, are the causes 
of the celebration, and the spirit of national pride is 
manifested in the decorations. Small flags by the thou- 
sand flutter overhead and on every side. They adorn 
the stays of the trolley wires, and appear in the win- 
dows of every block, from the storeroom on the ground 
floor to the highest peak of the cornice or the lofty pin- 
nacle of the tower. The Public Square never looked 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 405 

halt so pretty, and advantage has been taken of oppor- 
tunities for decoration which most people never dreamed 
of. Streamers of small flags extend from the sides of 
the Square to the top of the high electric light in the 
center of the Square. Across the street the big city flag 
floats from a staff over one hundred feet high. The 
Square is walled with decorations. All the buildings 
are elaborately adorned with the national colors. The 
amphitheater, capable of seating 4,000 persons, is bor- 
dered with bright-colored bunting. In front of it is the 
speakers' stand, having a canopy of the stars and 
stripes. Avenues of flags on the wires of the street 
railway companies lead under the festoons extending to 
the top of the mast, and lines of Chinese lanterns are 
strung among the trees. On every side the eye is 
greeted with the colors loyal men like to see. 

" This evening, the electric illumination will give a 
beautiful effect. Arc lights with colored globes will 
appear among the trees, and there will be hundreds of 
tiny lanterns such as served to convert the Wooded Isle 
into a fairyland at the World's Fair. The mellow glow 
of the Chinese lanterns will be seen through tissue 
paper of many colors. Merchants have vied with each 
other in the decorations of their places of business. 
Artistic displays in the show windows supplement the 
gorgeous flags and buntings on the outer walls. ' Old 
Glory ' will wave to-day over every big building in the 
city, and will be notice to ail that Cleveland is cele- 
brating the Fourth." 

The bright Leader reporter gave the following pen 
picture of the Memorial : 

" Situated on what is probably the most commanding 
spot in the city, in an open space traversed every day 
by thousands of people, surrounded by public buildings 
and great business blocks from whose offices a fine view 
of the structure can be obtained, the Soldiers' and 


Sailors' Monument demands and receives much atten- 
tion. From the colossal pile at the base, with its wide 
esplanade and great bronze groups, to the towering 
shaft, whose top, surmounted with a heroic figure 
representing Liberty, overlooks all the other structures 
in the vicinity, the Monument is full of interest. Un- 
like other works intended to commemorate great things, 
this one does not follow what are called classic or con- 
ventional forms, but has an originality and personality 
all its own. Instead of the usual abstract decorations 
and ornaments, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument is 
made up entirely of emblematic designs, all relating to 
military and naval service of the United States and all 
intended to commemorate the titanic struggle of the 
Civil War. The whole of the great structure is covered 
with emblematic designs, and there is no part of the 
Monument but has features in its decoration that recall 
the War. The design, as a whole, is essentially military. 
The main features proclaim this without a second 
glance, but a closer inspection brings unending dis- 
coveries in this line in detail of adornment upon each 
other at every point. Here are miniature cannons. 
Here a rammer, or a gun wheel. There a piece of rope 
shows itself by the side of an anchor or a capstan. A 
saber, a pistol, a musket, or another portion of the 
equipment of a soldier is seen here and there and all 
about. Even at the extreme top of the tall shaft, where 
the large statue of Liberty stands overlooking the Square, 
the base of the pedestal represents warlike objects. 
The beautiful stained-glass windows, through which 
the bright sunlight streams into the interior of the 
tablet room and illuminates the bronzes and marble 
tablets there, were made to carry out the central idea. 
There the stars and stripes in all the glory of translucent 
colors, brilliant, yet soft and pleasing to the eye, are 
shown in company with cannon and knapsacks and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 407 

projectiles. The great bronze doors, which turn noise- 
lessly on pivots let into the solid walls of the structure, 
are set in relief with Army and Navy designs. And, 
finally, the lawn surrounding the whole has its beds of 
bright flowers, each one a representation of a badge 
designating one of the great corps into which the Union 
Army was divided. From the Union flag that drapes 
the bronze Liberty on the top of the shaft to the cover- 
ing of Nature on the earth below, everything is military, 
and all tends to direct the mind to the gallant men who 
fought for the Union. 

" The feature of the Monument which at once im- 
presses itself the strongest upon the beholder is its re- 
alism. In the bronze groups on the outside and in the 
panels and medallions in the tablet room the persons 
depicted are shown exactly as they appeared during the 
War. The ladies of the Sanitary Commission are 
dressed in war-time costume and are shown at the age 
they were then. So with all the others. Lincoln, 
Grant, Sherman, Ohio's War Governors, and the Sailors 
and Soldiers shown in action appear exactly as they 
looked during the great conflict, with no attempt to 
soften roughness or change lines in order to get ideal 

"A description of the Monument in its entirety would 
require much more space than can be devoted to the 
purpose. The structure does not in any essential 
respect follow the design of the conventional soldiers' 
monument, but it is in every way emblematical of the 
Army and Navy of the Civil War. To this end, con- 
ventionality was thrown to the winds, and the architect 
and his band of advisers went forward with plans for a 
structure which should, in all its details, be commemo- 
rative of the great War of the Rebellion, and the heroic 
part that the citizens of Cuyahoga County took in it. 
It was well understood at the time this decision was 


made that the art critics of the country would fail to 
.see the beauty of such a monument, and that there 
would be an endless amount of criticism of the design. 
That such criticism was made, is well known. How- 
ever, the work went on with rapidity and dispatch, and 
the finished Monument, entirely unique and unusual in 
style and appearance, is to-day, with one exception, the 
largest and most comprehensive memorial of Union 
Soldiers in the country. Nothing that at all compares 
with it exists anywhere except at Indianapolis, where a 
whole State has united and spent a half million of 
dollars on a monument to the Union Soldiers. 

" Seen at a distance, the Monument presents the 
appearance of a massive shaft, reaching high into the 
air, and expanding into a square structure at the base. 
The lower part of the Monument, which is built of 
black Quincy granite, is surrounded by an esplanade of 
polished stone, one hundred feet square and five feet 
above grade. Leading to this are curving steps of the 
same material, which, but for a space on each of the 
four sides, would extend entirely around the base. The 
steps and esplanade are made of red Medina sandstone. 
At each side of the Monument, resting upon the top of 
a massive pedestal of Amherst stone which, in turn, 
stands upon the sweep of the esplanade, is a bronze 
group, of heroic size, representing one of the four main 
branches of the army service. Surmounting the top of 
the shaft, which is composed of great blocks of shining 
granite, is an Amazonian figure of Liberty, fifteen feet 
high. The lawn surrounding the whole is adorned 
with upwards of thirty large flower beds, in colors and 
designs to represent the different army corps badges 
and the badges of well-known ex-soldiers' societies." 

The Plain Dealer describes the floral emblems, re- 
producing the army corps and society badges, as 
follows : 


Secretary of War. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 411 

• The smooth green lawns and the beautiful beds of 
plants of various colored leaves about the Monument 
are not the least points of attractiveness. In order to 
carry out the general design and purpose of the Monu- 
ment, and thus continue to the greatest degree the 
harmony of parts, it was determined that the beds of 
flowers should represent badges worn by different army 
organizations. The plan has been fulfilled in a way 
that demonstrates that artistic gardening may be carried 
to a high degree. The colors of the badges are made 
to appear by the bunching of small plants. These 
colors may be clearly distinguished as red, white or 
blue, these effects being produced by the leaves rather 
than by the flowers. 

On the Superior Street side are five badges. The 
Grand Army of the Republic badge is seen in the cen- 
ter. It consists of an eagle and crossed cannons, 
suspended from these a United States flag, and under 
this a five-pointed star. 

To the right of this is the Loyal Legion badge, 
composed of a gold bar with red, white and blue ribbon 
and a maltese cross hanging therefrom. 

To the left of the center is the Women's Relief 
Corps badge — a red, white and blue ribbon with maltese 
cross hanging to it. 

At the west end of this section is the badge of the 
Union Veterans' Union, consisting of swords crossed 
under a circle, inclosing the letters U. V. U., and 
pendent therefrom a red, white and blue ribbon, from 
which hangs a circle with crossed guns and an anchor 
over it. 

At the east end is the Sons of Veterans' badge. 
From a bar of metal, bearing the words 'Sons of 
Veterans,' hangs a shield composed of red, white and 
blue ribbon. Under this hangs an eagle, and a cross 
with the initials of the order upon it. 


The remaining gardens, twenty-four in all, or eight on 
each side of the Monument, represent the badges of all 
the Army Corps and the Signal Service. The number 
of each Army Corps, together with a description of its 
badge, follows. The badge of the First Corps is found 
at the northwest corner and continue southward and 
around the Monument in regular numerical order. 

First Corps — A circle. 

Second — Clover leaf. 

Third — Diamond. 

Fourth — Triangle. 

Fifth — Maltese cross. 

Sixth — Greek cross. 

Seventh — Star and crescent. 

Eighth — Six pointed star. 

Ninth — Shield, with anchor and cannon across it. 

Tenth — Bastioned fort. 

Eleventh — Crescent. 

Twelfth — Five pointed star. 

Thirteenth — No badge. 

Fourteenth — Acorn. 

Fifteenth — Knapsack and cartridge box, with words 
"40 rounds." 

Sixteenth — Circular cross. 

Seventeenth — Arrow. 

Eighteenth — Trefoil cross. 

Nineteenth — Square Maltese cross. 

Twentieth — Five-pointed star. 

Twenty-first — No badge. 

Twenty-second — Five-armed cross. 

Twenty-third— Shield. 

Twenty-fourth — Heart. 

Twenty-fifth — Square. 

Signal Service — Two crossed flags and a torch. 

The anchor and cannon in the Ninth Corps badge 
is accounted for on the ground that Gen. Burnside, the- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 413, 

commander, had both Marines and Artillery in his corps. 
The Eleventh and Twelfth Corps were consolidated and 
made the Twentieth, with Gen. Hooker in command. 
The badge of the Twelfth was adopted for the new 

So plain are the designs of the various badges that 
the visitor will be entertained in examining the beds, 
this description held in hand for reference. 

Capt. Levi T. Scofield told the Plain Dealer reporter 
the following interesting incidents of the construction 
of the Monument: 

" It required years of study and research," he said,. 
"in order to plan a structure that should be correct in 
all its details. It was necessary for me to study the 
entire accouterments of the Soldiers, including dress, 
equipage, trappings, ornaments and such trifling things 
as pouches, belts, buttons and other small things. I 
read books, I interviewed men connected with various 
branches of the Army, I made research through army 
records, especially in the War Department at Washing- 
ton, and finally I went to New York and bought a full 
set of accouterments at a store where nothing is sold 
but army relics. As a result of this work, the figures 
and emblems of the Monument represent such as might 
actually have been seen during the War. In some parts 
of the country where soldiers' monuments have been 
built, the architects have gone to the nearest armory 
and borrowed equipment to use as models. This 
modern equipment is totally different from that used in 
the War, and such a monument would not represent 
the period from 1861 to 1865. In order to show how 
careful we were in all details, I will mention the trouble 
we had with such a trivial thing as a confederate 
officer's belt plate. In one of the groups is a confederate 
officer. I did not know the design for his belt plate and 
could find no one in the city who did know. Finally I 


happened upon a friend in Cincinnati who had a copy 
of the confederate army regulations. In this it was 
stated that the design on the officer's belt plate should 
be the seal of the confederate states. The next under- 
taking was to find a copy of that seal. I learned that 
the War Department had one at Washington as a relic, 
but I found through correspondence that under no con- 
sideration could it be removed. The correspondence 
was discouraging, but I insisted that I must have it, and 
finallv prevailed upon them to make a drawing of it. 
From this we made the design, and then I presented 
the drawing to the Historical Society, at whose rooms 
it may now be seen. 

" In the construction of a mortar in the naval group 
we worked from an actual set of working drawings and 
plans. They were made for us by the designers in the 
War Department at Washington, but as all the work 
had to be done after regular hours, we were obliged to 
give them double pay. This one feature of the Monu- 
ment cost a good round sum. 

" I think that I am right in saying that there is not a 
detail in the entire Monument that is not correct. 

" A great deal of criticism has been offered against 
the statue of Liberty. Two things have been ridiculed 
— the extended foot of the figure, which is said to be 
too big, and the army overcoat in which she is arrayed. 
Now, without any bitterness, I must say that if the 
critics had studied the figure and had known whereof 
thev were talking, they would not have criticised these 
points. Six months of hard work were put upon that 
figure in my studio. Ever}- effort was made to preserve 
correct proportions and make a beautiful figure. The 
foot is not out of proportion. In standing on a level 
with the figure that fact is evident. The picture of the 
figure, taken before it was raised to its high position, 
shows a well-proportioned foot. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 415 

"The feature of the army overcoat is not original 
with me, but is copied after a famous French artist, who 
made a female figure to represent Paris and clothed it 
in a full army uniform. The coat that my figure wears 
was recut and made to fit her by a tailor who came to 
the studio for that purpose. I fail to see any difference 
between it and the coats that the ladies wear in Winter. 
Both have long skirts and capes. The coat looked well 
upon her. 

"Architects from all parts of the country have called 
upon me or sent letters speaking in praise of the 
Monument. They do not find features to criticise, but 
rather express commendation of the plan and the 
manner in which it has been executed." 


Of the breaking out of the War, the part our county 
took in it, and brief sketches of the heroes immortalized 
in bronze busts, the Leader wrote : 

" Cleveland began to fight the War of the Rebellion 
long before the flag was fired upon at Fort Sumter. 
The storm cloud in the South made an earl)' impression 
on the minds of the Cleveland people, and the year 
1861 had hardly commenced when active preparations 
for the expected struggle were begun. The files of the 
morning Leader of that time are full of the war spirit 
and the war preparations which were characteristic of 
that period. The first public meeting of any conse- 
quence in this connection was held at the Atheneum, 
on Wednesday evening, January 9, 1861, when several 
hundred persons were present, and the crisis felt to be 
at hand discussed at length. Addresses were made by 
F. T. Backus, A. G. Riddle, and others, and a set of 
resolutions was adopted calling upon the State Legisla- 
ture to take such steps as were necessary to at once 


place the militia of the State in proper condition so that 
whenever their services were needed they would be 
ready to go into the field in defense of the country. 
The resolutions were as follows : 

"Resolved, That we are inclined to listen with respect to the 
complaints of the slave-holding States and to exercise moderation 
and conciliation, but we are not prepared to change the Constitution 
at the dictation of traitors. 

" Resolved, That when legal and peaceful means are exhausted, 
we are prepared, not in the spirit of aggression or haste, but under 
constituted authority, to repel all attacks upon the capital, the reve- 
nue, and the public property. 

" Resolved, That we call upon the Legislature, now in session at 
Columbus, to pass the laws necessary to completely and thoroughly 
organize the militia of the State, so that whenever occasion may 
call for it, they may be called speedily into service to protect the 
interests of the State and maintain the integrity of the law. 

" A day or so previous to this meeting, a gathering of 
German citizens occurred when sixty-two signed their 
names to an agreement to place their services at the 
command of their adopted country in case it became 
necessary to defend the Republic. In order to properly 
achieve the result aimed at, the signers formed a rifle 
company and pledged themselves to unite with the first 
regiment of volunteers that was mustered into service 
in the State. 

" From this time until the news came that Sumter 
had been forced to surrender, the city was fully alive to 
the situation, and the constantly-shifting events made 
the war feeling increase with the days. The journey 
of President-elect Lincoln through the city on Febru- 
ary 16, 1S61, on the way to inauguration, was the occa- 
sion for a demonstration which gave all an opportunity 
of showing how they felt about the great crisis. The 
excitement caused by the firing on Fort Sumter was in- 
tense. From the time the first news was received until 
late the same night, the office of the Leader was sur- 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 419 

rounded with an excited crowd, almost wild to know all 
that could be told with reference to the event. The 
halls, stairs, and sidewalks were filled with an eager, 
inquiring mass of people. On the day following the 
publication of the news, an appeal published in the 
editorial columns of the Leader served to rouse to the 
highest pitch the fighting blood of the Forest City. It 
was as follows : 

" ' To Arms ! Men of Ohio ! The flag of our country, 
the flag that has never yet lowered to a foreign foe ; the 
flag that has for eighty years been the ensign to which 
the oppressed and downtrodden of earth have looked 
with eager and wistful eye ; the flag that tells of heroic 
struggles and noble deeds of valor on many a hard- 
fought field, and many a staunch old ship ; the flag to 
which many a dying Soldier has turned his glazing eye 
and thanked his God that it still floated upon the breeze 
that kissed his gory brow ; the flag that your fathers 
baptized in holy consecration with their blood — this flag 
has been torn down from its standard and left to trail 
in the dust beneath the banner of a rebellious host ! 
Shall it remain there ? or will you rescue it from its 
degradation and once again give it to the breeze, proud- 
ly defiant of native or foreign foes? This is a question 
which you must have a voice in deciding. You must 
share in the glory or the infamy of the conflict. You 
can be idle spectators no longer. Ohio must be in the 
van of the battle. When the call comes for volunteers, 
fifty thousand men must be ready to shoulder the mus- 
ket and march to the scene of war. The fiery impulse 
of youth and the cool discretion of manhood will alike 
be wanted. There are no political lines to be drawn 
here. 'Are you a true American? ' and ' Have you a 
heart, hand, and foot ready to keep step with the music 
of the Union ? ' are all that need to be asked. All who 
can answer yes to these may strike hands in the com- 


mon cause and march shoulder to shoulder where duty 
leads the way.' 

" The formation of volunteer companies began at 
once and went forward with remarkable speed. The 
Cleveland Grays, who had been in existence for a num- 
ber of years at that time, were among the first to offer 
their services to the Government, and they were at once 
notified to report at Columbus at the earliest possible 
moment. Their departure from the city on Thursday 
afternoon, April 18, was made the occasion of a grand 
outburst of patriotic feeling, when an immense crowd 
of people saw them off. Previous to the departure of 
the Grays, a mass-meeting was held in the Public 
Square, attended by the Grays and a large portion of 
the population of the city. Addresses were made by a 
number of prominent citizens, and some of the officers 
of the company also spoke. Other military organiza- 
tions than the Grays were present, as follows : Five com- 
panies of the Cleveland Light Artillery, under Colonel 
Barnett, the Dragoons, the Zouave Light Guards, under 
command of Captain Robinson, the Sprague Cadets, 
under Sergeant Sanford, in the absence of Major 
De Villiers, the commanding officer. The Grays were 
in command of Lieutenant Ensworth, Captain Paddock 
being in New York. After the exercises in the Square, 
the line of march was taken to the depot, where a train 
on the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad 
was to convey the troops to Columbus. The scenes 
at the depot were most affecting, and the departure of 
the first company stirred up the war spirit to a high 

" New companies were formed almost daily, and soon 
there were a dozen or more of them soliciting volunteer 
members. On the Sunday following the departure of 
the Grays for Columbus, special services were held in 
the churches of the city, when the crisis that had come 


upon the country was referred to in sermons that 
hreathed the fire of patriotism. A meeting for the pur- 
pose of organizing a Home Guard was held, and plans 
for the proper formation of the companies were adopted. 
The object of the -Home Guard was stated to be the 
promotion of the enlistment of trained men into the 
service of the country, but no member of the Guard 
was thereby exempted from more active service when- 
ever the emergency should arise. Among the military 
companies which were either fully formed or in process 
of organization at this time were the Light Artillery 
Companies, five in number, the Cleveland Rifle Grena- 
diers, the Cleveland Light Guards, the Buckeye 
Rifles, the Continental Rifles, the German Rifles, 
the Hibernian Guards, the Zouave Light Guard, the 
Tod Artillery, the West Side Eagles, the Perry Light 
Infantry, and the Light Guards, Junior, of the West 

" During this time the excitement was not confined 
to Cleveland by any means. All the smaller towns and 
villages about the city were full of the spirit of patriot- 
ism and companies were being formed in all of them. 
Within a week after the departure of the Grays, volun- 
teers from the surrounding country began pouring into 
the city, and Camp Taylor, which was the first receiv- 
ing station here, was soon well populated. Upwards of 
5,000 Soldiers were stationed at Camp Taylor within 
two weeks after the fall of Sumter. The volunteer 
Soldiers did not remain there long, but were directed to 
report nearer the front without delay, and thus there 
was a constant stream of the new companies coming in 
and passing out of the city. The towns of Olmsted, 
Strongsville, Chagrin Falls, Bellevue, Richmond Cen- 
ter, Painesville, Elyria, Bedford, and others all did their 
duty. The needs of the Soldiers were more at first 
than the Government could supply and there were 


many calls for blankets and other articles from time to 
time. These calls were responded to with generosity 
by the citizens and women of Cleveland. 

" Incidents increasing the excitement began to occnr. 
A young man arrived in the city from Memphis. He 
had been ordered to leave that city or take the alterna- 
tive of joining the rebel army. He managed to escape 
just in time and his arrival added fuel to the flame, 
which even then burned at white heat. The war feel- 
ing showed itself in the presentation of innumerable 
things needed by Soldiers, the recipients being usually 
men who had in some manner won the especial respect 
of the donors. Captain W. R. Creighton, who later be- 
came a colonel and won great renown as a fighter, was, 
on April 28, presented with a fine silver-mounted re- 
volver, by the compositors of the Leader office. Other 
presentations of various articles were being made all the 
time, and the articles varied from stands of colors to 
weapons and wearing apparel. The children of the 
public schools were soon possessed of the prevailing 
spirit, and flags soon waved over the school buildings. 
One was raised at the Rockwell School on the last day 
of April, with accompanying exercises of a patriotic na- 
ture. The Hudson Street School and other schools in 
the City soon had their flags, and the children were 
early interested in the cause of patriotism. 

" One of the interesting events of the first year of the 
War in Cleveland was the discussion of the question of 
whether the Fourth of July should be celebrated as 
usual or not. There was a variety of opinions on this 
subject, some thinking that the times demanded other 
things of the people. The general opinion, however, 
was that no time could be better for the proper celebra- 
tion of the Nation's birthday, when the need of rousing 
patriotic feeling was the greatest. This view of the 
case prevailed and the committee on the celebration 


arranged plans which were as complete and patriotic as 
the times would allow. 

" Cuyahoga County's part in the struggle of the Union 
was an important one. It furnished some of the first 
Soldiers that went to the front and a constant supply 
thereafter during the War. It sent many brave men 
into battle, and the record made by the county during 
the great struggle is one to be proud of." 


" In Woodland Cemetery is a tall monument familiar 
to many of the people of Cleveland, commemorative of 
the bravery and fate of the fallen members of the regi- 

" The reputation of the " Fighting Seventh " is in- 
separably connected with that of Colonel William R. 
Creighton. He fell at the bloody battle of Ringgold, 
Ga., after he had led his command up a rocky hill in 
the face of almost certain annihilation, and had been 
compelled at last to order them back to a place of safe- 
ty. His death was a shock that at first seemed likely 
to disorganize the command, and honors uncounted 
were showered upon his cold clay at the funeral in this 
city. His is one of the bronze busts which adorn the 
niches in the walls of the tablet room of the Monument. 

" Colonel Creighton was born at Pittsburg, in June, 
1837. He removed to Cleveland when he was seven- 
teen years of age, and at the time of the outbreak of 
the War was a compositor in the Herald office. 

" At the time, being a Lieutenant in the Cleveland 
Light Guards, he organized a company with that organ- 
ization as a nucleus and soon had so many applications 
for membership that another company and then a third 
was recruited. This was the beginning of the Seventh 
Regiment. The Regiment, when its full quota of men 
had been obtained, marched down the streets of the 


city on the way to the train on a beautiful Sabbath 
morning in May, 1861. It was the first full regiment 
that left the city and the town turned out in full force 
to bid the men good-bye. The regiment went to Camp 
Dennison, near Cincinnati, and was there when the call 
for three-years' troops came. With few exceptions the 
members of the regiment volunteered for the three- 
years' time service, and Colonel Tyler, the commander 
of the regiment, preceded the organization to West Vir- 
ginia, where it had been ordered, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Creighton took the men to Clarksburg. After 
the battle of Cross Lanes and the pursuit of the rebel 
General Floyd, Colonel Tyler was promoted and Creigh- 
ton became the commander of the regiment. Colonel 
Creighton led his regiment, which was the first in the 
famous charge of the third brigade at the battle of 
Winchester, and after losing his horse by having it shot 
from under him, he took a musket and fought with his 
men on foot. He led the regiment in five desperate 
charges at the battle of Fort Republic and in the battle 
•of Cedar Mountain he handled his men with notable 
b>ravery and skill. He was severely wounded in this 
engagement, and was compelled to leave the field. He 
returned home to await the healing of his wound, but 
reported to the regiment while his arm was still in a 
sling. He participated in the battles of Dumfries, 
Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, and 
Mission Ridge, everywhere leading his men with re- 
markable skill and bravery. After the last-named bat- 
tle, the pursuit of Bragg and the terrible encounter at 
Ringgold came. Bragg's rear guard was posted on the 
summit of Taylor's Ridge, a naked eminence, where it 
was folly to attempt to climb in the face of shot and 
shell without the use of artillery to cover the assault. 
But in the excitement of the moment the command was 
given and then Creighton made a speech to his men. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 427 

' Boys,' he said, ' we are ordered to take that hill. I 
want to see you walk right up it.' The advance was 
made with valorous fury, but it was soon seen to be im- 
possible to reach the top in the face of the hot fire kept 
up by the rebels. Creighton led his men into a ravine 
in the hope of reaching a more protected spot, and 
while leaning against a fence, watching until thev 
should reach the opposite side, he was stricken with a 
bullet in his body. He fell and expired almost im- 
mediately. This was on November 27, 1863, when he 
was but twenty-six years of age. 


" One of the bravest officers who took part in the War 
of the Rebellion was Colonel Mervine Clark, of the One 
Hundred and Eighty-third Regiment. He is described 
as an effeminate-looking boy, who had never a sug- 
gestion of a beard upon his face, and he was only 
twenty-one years old when he was killed. At this early 
period he had alr-eady advanced in military experience 
until, on the day of his death, he was in command of 
the regiment to which he belonged. His bravery was 
unquestioned. It was said he was an example to all in 
the army who saw him. He was killed upon the top ot 
the parapet at the battle of Franklin, Tenn. The men 
of his regiment were young, as was he, and when 
Hood's army came upon them with the powerful onset 
of veteran troops, they were unable to withstand their 
first baptism of fire. Clark had been a Captain in the 
Seventh Regiment during all the period of its bloody 
history, and he was so chagrined and mortified to see 
his men give way before the foe that he snatched a flag 
and sprang upon the parapet. He held the banner over 
his head, and implored the men to return and face the 
enemy. While calling to the troops, he was shot in the 
back, and, falling into the hands of the Colonel of 


another regiment, who was standing near, he died 
almost instantly. His likeness is preserved in the 
Monument in the form of a bust. 


"A brave young man, who was stricken when he had 
just commenced to show to the world the true worth of 
his soldierly character, was Captain Wallace Woodward,, 
of the Twenty-third Ohio. He enlisted in Cleveland at 
the opening of the War, and was shortly afterward 
elected First Lieutenant of Company A. He was soon 
appointed Adjutant of the regiment, and in July of 1861 
he was made Captain of Company G. At the battle of 
Carnifax Ferry, on September 10, 1861, he acquitted 
himself with distinguished gallantry, and won many 
expressions of admiration. During the retreat of Floyd 
to Sewell Mountain, the command was exposed three 
days to severe rain. Captain Woodward was taken 
with typhoid fever, and died at Camp Ewing, not long 
after. He was regarded as a manly and fearless Soldier, 
and those who knew him looked forward to seeing him 
carry off high honors, but his untimely end cut short 
their hopes. His bust is one of those about the Monu- 
ment shaft. 


"An officer who smiled and appeared unconcerned, 
even in the hottest battles, and who showed no fear, 
even when caught in the deadliest of situations, was. 
Major James B. Hampson, who was killed at Pickett's 
Mill, Ga. W T hen the war cloud burst, he was a printer 
in the Plain Dealer office of this city, and at the 
time of his death was an inspecting officer on General 
Wood's staff. The shot that ended his life came as he 
was engaged in forming a new line with a portion of 
General W T ood's command. He was seen by other 
Cleveland officers a few moments before he was shot r 

soldiers' axd sailors' monument. 429 

and of them he asked the direction of the troops he had 
been sent to reform. He then galloped away down the 
lines, and the next that was heard from him he was in 
the hospital. He is spoken of as a gallant officer, and 
as brave as possible for a man to be while in action. 
His bust is in the Monument. 


" The features of Captain W. W. Hutchinson, of the One 
Hundred and Third Ohio Regiment, have been repro- 
duced in the bronze of one of the busts which adorn the 
walls of the tablet room. He lost his life at the battle 
of Resaca, Ga., where the fighting was severe and dis- 
astrous. He was the only member of the regiment, ot 
which at the time he had command, who was standing, 
the others being concealed among the bushes of the 
abattis. He was passing up and down the line just 
previous to the final charge, cheering the men to make 
the onset. He walked along, unmindful of the bullets, 
talking to the men, and as he walked he swung his 
sword and cut at the weeds which stood by his path. A 
Rebel bullet struck him in the head, and he died at 
once. He was a brave officer, greatly respected by his 


" Captain William Smith, of the Second Ohio Cavalry, 
is another officer whose bust stands in one of the niches 
in the Monument. He did not die on the field, but his 
death occurred a few years ago in consequence of the 
injuries he suffered during the War. No greater testi- 
monial to his virtues as a Soldier can be given than that 
he was chosen by the cavalry officers of the city to be 
immortalized in the tablet room of the Monument. As 
a citizen, an enterprising business man, and an earnest 
friend, he was esteemed by all who knew him." 

The Leader sketches the subjects of the medallions 
in manner following: 


" Twelve prominent men — men who fonght for the 
Union during the War, and added to the fair fame ot 
the Buckeye State — are honored by portrait representa- 
tions in the interior of the Monument. Their features 
have been reproduced in lasting bronze, and stand in 
one continuous row about the solid foundation upon 
which rests the towering shaft of the structure. In the 
selection of the men who were to be honored in this 
manner, the Commissioners did not restrict themselves 
to Cuvahoga County, but selected representative men 
of prominence from all portions of the State. 


" One of them is Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, 
who was appointed to that position by President Lincoln 
in 1862. Previous to that time he had been a reporter 
of the decisions of the Ohio State Supreme Court, and 
Attorney-General under President Buchanan. He was 
born in Steubenville, in December, 1815, and received 
his education in the public schools of that place and in 
Kenyon College. Throughout the administration of 
President Lincoln, his influence was all-powerful. 

" He was strong-willed, and often succeeded in secur- 
ing action desired by him against the heaviest opposi- 
tion. The war triumphs won under the administration 
of President Lincoln are inseparably connected with his 


" General James B. McPherson, who was the highest 
ranking officer from Ohio that (ell in the War, has a 
medallion next to that of Secretary Stanton. In the 
service of his country he was gallant and able, as well 
as lovable to such a degree that he was regarded with 
feelings of warm friendship by those who knew him. 
He fell just on the eve of triumphs that were sure to 
have given him prestige and honor beyond any he had 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 431 

received. In the minds of those who were familiar 
with his history, he ranks high among those who fell 
martyrs to the eanse of the Union. He was born in 
Clyde, November 14, 1828. He entered West Point, 
and graduated at the head of his class, being assigned 
to the Department of Engineers. He was recalled to 
the academy, and for a year taught in that institution. 
During the War he served as Chief of Engineers under 
Grant, and was promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General. His death occurred before Atlanta, when he 
was engaged in seeing to the formation of the Union 
lines previous to the battle. In appearance he is spoken 
of as extremely prepossessing, being six feet in height, 
well formed, and graceful. 


" The features of General William B. Hazen look 
down from a medallion at the side of that of General 
McPherson. This officer, who was born in Vermont in 
1830, and who came to Ohio with his parents three 
years later, made an enviable record on the field as a 
Soldier. He was a brave fighter, and made few mis- 
takes. He rose to the command of the Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and he made his organization efficient through 
his method of careful instruction of his officers and the 
great care which he took in making his plans. He was 
educated at West Point, graduating from the academy 
in 1855. 


" General James B. Steedman, who was one of the 
famous Ohio officers during the War, was living at 
Toledo when the War began. He was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1S1S, and previous to the War he had filled 
various positions of public trust. Two days after the 
call for volunteers, he telegraphed to Governor Den- 
nison, offering a regiment of troops, and three days 


after he was appointed Colonel the regiment was ready 
to take the field. The regiment, after a time spent in 
Camp Taylor, passed through many engagements, and 
in July, 1862, he was appointed a Brigadier-General. 
His service during the War was distinguished and 
highly honorable, and was regarded as most valuable. 
He was bold and energetic, and his troops possessed 
unbounded confidence in him. 


" Major-General Manning F. Force was born in the 
District of Columbia in 1824. He passed through the 
law college of Harvard University, and then removed 
to Cincinnati, where he practiced law. When the Re- 
bellion broke out, he at once began to prepare for the 
crisis, and in July, 1861, he was appointed Major of the 
Twentieth Ohio Infantry. His regiment was mainly 
used at first for the guarding of prisoners on the way to 
the North, but during 1862 and 1863 he was a partici- 
pant in a number of hard-fought battles. He was pro- 
moted to Colonel soon after the battle of Pittsburg 
Landing, and in August, 1862, he was made a Brigadier- 
General for gallant service at the siege of Yicksburg. 
He was wounded in the face by a bullet in front of 
Atlanta. At the close of the War he was brevetted 


"Another of the medallions is in honor of Major- 
General Emerson Opdycke, who enlisted in the Army 
as a private and rose to the high rank given him at the 
close of the War, through his gallantry and ability as 
an officer. He was born in Trumbull County in 1830. 
Within a month after his enlistment, which was in the 
Forty-first Ohio, he was made First Lieutenant, and the 
success that attended his efforts soon after eave him the 



rank of Captain. He commanded a regiment of the 
' Squirrel Hunters,' the minute men who inarched to 
the defense of Cincinnati when it was threatened by the 
Rebels under Kirby Smith, and while home from the 
War at that time, he organized the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Infantry. At the battle of Mission Ridge 
he commanded five regiments, and made several large 
captures. He was a fierce fighter, and did not hesitate 
to leave his horse and fight on foot when the occasion 
demanded. He received the highest commendation 
from General George H. Thomas when promoted to 
Major-General. He is now the Manager of the Soldiers' 
Home at Sandusky. 


"General George W. Morgan had just returned from 
acting as Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal when the 
War opened. He was born in Pennsylvania, and he 
passed several years in the Military Academy at West 
Point, although he did not graduate. He served in the 
war with Mexico, receiving the rank of Colonel, and was 
later appointed a Colonel of the Fourteenth Regular 
Infantry. He served until the close of the Mexican 
War with distinction, and when the Rebellion broke 
out he was made a Brigadier-General of Volunteers. He 
was a man of military appearance, polished manners, 
and was every inch an officer. 


"Another of the Ohioans who received a West Point 
education, and rose to prominence in the War of the 
Rebellion, was Major-General Alexander McDowell 
McCook, a native of Columbiana County. He was 
graduated from the academy in 1852, and afterward 
engaged in the campaign against the Apache Indians. 
In the Civil War, he participated in the battles of 


Vienna and Bull Run, and was made in December, 
1861, a Brigadier-General of Volunteers. He organized 
and equipped the Second Division of the Army of Ohio, 
but met with many reverses in the latter part of the 
War, and was relieved from his command. He received 
many brevet appointments for meritorious services, 
however, and retaining his rank in the Regular Army, 
he rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 


"The features of Dr. C. A. Hartman, who was killed 
at the battle of Chancellorsville, are molded in one of 
the bronze medallions which ornament the shaft. Dr. 
Hartman was a practicing physician in this city at the 
time the War broke out, and the recognition of him in 
this manner is due largely to the uncommon occurrence 
of a surgeon being killed in battle. The Fifth Ohio, to 
which he was attached, had just completed the march 
to Chancellorsville when it was surprised by a large 
force of the Rebel troops. The men were at rest, their 
arms were stacked and not in readiness for use, and the 
surprise resulted most disastrously for the Union force. 
In the heat of the surprise, when some of the men were 
rushing for their guns and others were trying to get 
away as fast as they could, the surgeon, sword in hand, 
rushed into the fight. He held aloft the colors and 
endeavored to rally the men around him, when he was 
struck by a Rebel bullet and killed. 


" General J.J. El well, whose features are shown in 
one of the medallions, is a member of the Monument 
Commission, and his biography is referred to elsewhere. 


"A dashing fighter and a brave man is General J. S. 
Casement, who is a resident of Painesville. He entered 


the service May 7, 1861, as Major in the Seventh Ohio 
Infantry. When the regiment was reorganized for the 
three years' service, he retained the same rank, and in 
1862 he resigned. In August of the same year he was 
appointed Colonel of the One Hundred and Third 
Infantry, and he was awarded the rank of Brevet-Briga- 
dier-General January 25, 1865. He was a commanding 
officer who was not feared, but was much loved and re- 
spected by the men under him. When he called upon 
them to follow him into the conflict, they were not 
backward in doing so, and he always led them. 

"major-general a. c. voris. 
" General A. C. Yoris, of Akron, was one of the prompt 
and ever ready Soldiers of the War, and for his services 
in the great conflict he received high commendation 
from his superior officers. He was born in Stark 
County in 1827. When the Rebellion commenced, he 
was a member of the Ohio Legislature, and in Septem- 
ber, 1861, he enlisted in the Twenty-ninth Ohio In- 
fantry. Without solicitation on his part, he was ap- 
pointed a Second Lieutenant for the recruiting service, 
and soon afterwards he became the Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the Sixty-seventh Regiment. Just preceding the 
battle of Winchester, his command took part in the 
only engagement where Stonewall Jackson was beaten 
by the Union troops, and he was shortly afterward pro- 
moted to be a Colonel. He took part in a large number 
of engagements, and was successively promoted to 
Brigadier-General and Major-General, and at the close 
of the W T ar he was placed in command of the Military 
District of South Anna, Ya., where he was for six 
months absolute ruler. His men were full of admira- 
tion for him, and at the close of the War they presented 
him with a magnificent sword and trappings as a token 
of their esteem. He is a lawyer of large practice, and 
is also interested in politics." 



We have very much pleasure in recognizing the 
noble and telling work performed by the women of the 
Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society and their auxil- 
iaries during the entire period of the War, and gladly 
devote a part of our volume to the achievements of that 
organization, and to a brief sketch of its principal 

Agreeable to our earnest request and cordial invita- 
tion, this part of our volume was written by an accom- 
plished and gifted native of Cleveland, a lady who is 
held in the highest esteem by hundreds of the old 
families of this city for her modesty and patriotic 
worth; one who is capable and familiar with her sub- 
ject. We present the valuable contribution of Miss 
Ellen F. Terry, now Mrs. Charles F. Johnson, of 
Hartford, Conn.: 

The Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society was organ- 
ized April 20th, 1861, five days after President Lincoln's 
first call for troops, and somewhat earlier than any 
other relief association. 

Its first efforts were directed towards supplying com- 
forts to the Soldiers at Camp Cleveland, and relieving 
the wants of the families of enlisted men. Like the 
government and people of the Union, they struggled 
blindly towards the best, learning what that best was 
only after repeated experiment. Out of not infrequent 
failure was at length evolved systematic plans and 
methods of operation. 

On July 1st, 1861, No. 95 Bank Street, Cleveland, 
was rented for the uses of office and store-room — as the 
serious nature of the national struggle became apparent 
and the hopes first entertained of its temporary charac- 
ter faded. Impressed by the magnitude of the task be- 
fore it, and convinced that individual effort must always 
be less efficacious than concerted action, the society,. 





















October 1st, 1861, became auxiliary to the U. S. 
Sanitary Commission, as its Cleveland Branch ; thence- 
forth directing its contributions chiefly through the 
Commission's channels, taking advantage of its agents,, 
and availing itself of the privileges granted that body 
by the general Government. One of the most impor- 
tant advantages gained by this connection was the con- 
stant advice and assistance of the Western Secretary of 
the Sanitary Commission, Dr. J. S. Newberry, a most dis- 
tinguished and patriotic citizen of Cleveland, whose serv- 
ices were ever after invaluable to the Cleveland Branch. 

From April 20th, 1861, to the close of the Free Claim 
Agency, in 1868, the Soldiers' Aid Society continued 
its existence as the exponent of the patriotic sentiment 
of the people of Northern Ohio. The systematic ar- 
rangement of its supply and relief work rendered its 
operations regular and important and, it is believed, in 
the direction of the greatest utility. Drawing its sup- 
plies from a comparatively small area — not greater in 
extent than one-eighth part of the State of Ohio — the 
results of the society's efforts, thus systematized, showed, 
when summed up at the close of the War, a total dis- 
bursement of hospital stores, not only far greater, pro- 
portionally, than that of any other branch of the Sani- 
tary Commission, but actually, in certain respects, in 
excess of that of societies which received contributions 
from states, not counties. 

By gradual accretion, the number of societies in 
Northern Ohio whose combination formed the Cleveland 
Branch Sanitary Commission was five hundred and 
twenty-five. The connection between these branches 
and the central office was a close one, and in time the 
contributions of each toward the general cause became 
as regular as the operations of a business house, and to 
stimulate and encourage this systematic activity was 
the duty of the parent society at Cleveland. Corre- 


spondence-with each branch was regular and frequent, 
not only by personal letters but through the Cleveland 
press, and by means of circulars and bulletins. Thus 
an interchange of interests was made possible ; all re- 
ports of agents in the field were promptly communi- 
cated, and suggestions and information conveyed from 
the central office to each branch. Through its greater 
opportunities, the Cleveland office was able to extend 
temporary help to its auxiliaries. When the funds in 
the local treasuries were low, hospital garments, cut out 
and prepared, were sent them to make, or material for 
such sold them at reduced rates, to tide over pass- 
ing difficulties. Through these close relations, the 
central society gained its knowledge of the innumera- 
ble instances of self-sacrifice, unconscious and unre- 
corded, which made possible the great work done by the 
people of Northern Ohio. To deny themselves comfort 
and luxury, and to know no pause in earnest effort and 
generous giving was, till the end of the War, the 
privilege of the women who formed the Northern Ohio 
Soldiers' Aid Society. 

At the central office, at 95 Bank Street, Cleveland, all 
hospital stores received were examined, assorted and 
classified, being also repacked, according to such classi- 
fication, in specially prepared boxes to insure safety in 
transportation, and to facilitate shipments to definite 
points. For regular, unfailing work in this direction 
the society depended upon its Cleveland members, many 
of whom were in attendance at stated periods from the 
beginning to the end of the War. Others, who could 
not give regular service, would render assistance when- 
ever required, and on many occasions a call through the 
daily papers for help in filling some unexpected de- 
mand from camp or hospital has secured the manufac- 
ture of several hundreds of hospital garments in twenty- 
four hours' time. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 443 

To facilitate frequent communication with branches, 
a printing office was established, when the society's re- 
moval in 1864 to No. 89 Bank Street gave it enlarged 
quarters. In this office were set up and worked off the 
labels required for the various hospital stores, the cir- 
culars to auxiliary societies, letters from agents in the 
field and the association's monthly reports. 

Another story of the building was used for the stor- 
ing of material and the cutting out of hospital sheets, 
pillow cases and clothing which were issued to the 
branches, or made up in Cleveland. 

The shipment of hospital supplies was chiefly 
to the Western depot of the Sanitary Commission at 
Louisville, Ky., whence they were forwarded, through 
the Commission's transportation facilities, to the hos- 
pitals in the South and Southwest, to the various 
Soldiers' Homes along the rivers, and for the use of the 
hospital trains and steamers. There were over one 
hundred and fifty of these objective points in Ohio, 
Tennessee, Virginia, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Army of the Potomac, Maryland, Georgia, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and to 
most of these camps, hospitals and homes, repeated 
contributions were made. 

To the issue of hospital stores was added a new feat- 
ure in 1863. The Army of the Cumberland was seri- 
ously threatened with scurvy, a disaster only averted 
by the prompt action of the U. S. Sanitary Commission. 
A steamer-load of fresh vegetables was at once for- 
warded to Nashville and issued to the men in camp, 
while a hundred barrels of potatoes and onions were 
shipped to Gen. Thomas every day during the Summer. 
Of these shipments, the contribution weekly of a car- 
load of fresh vegetables from the Northern Ohio Sol- 
diers' Aid Society formed a part. The auxiliary so- 
cieties planted gardens, to aid in the " vegetable raid;" 


one small neighborhood sending sixty barrels of potatoes, 
and a little cross-road settlement twenty-eight barrels 
at single installments. The great quantity of dried 
fruit shipped during the War by the last-named small 
society was explained by the fact that the entire product 
of the neighborhood was reserved for use of the sick 
Soldiers. The systematic methods employed in collect- 
ing and shipping fresh vegetables enabled the Sanitary 
Commission to supply the Army of the Tennessee with 
potatoes and onions until, as it was said, " they captured 
Yicksburg." In one shipment to this point, the Sol- 
diers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio sent five hundred 
boxes of hospital supplies. To accomplish such im- 
portant results, even with unflagging individual support, 
would have been impossible but for the assistance 
which the various corporate bodies tendered the Cleve- 
land Branch throughout the War. The contributions 
of the railroad companies were unparalleled in magni- 
tude. Not only were favors in transportation for 
Soldiers and their families freely granted to the request 
of the officers of the Soldiers 1 Aid Society, and freight 
charges often remitted on goods consigned to the Cleve- 
land office, but all shipments of hospital stores to the 
front were carried free of expense by the Cleveland & 
Pittsburg, the Cleveland & Toledo, the Lake Shore and 
the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati railroad com- 
panies. The extent of the Sanitary Commission's obli- 
gation to the Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Rail- 
road Co. may be inferred from the fact that the North- 
ern Ohio Aid Society was allowed the use of a car on 
the passenger trains once every week, and cars on 
freight trains as many and as often as desired. To 
these favors was added the personal kindness of the 
officers of the companies. 

Other corporations — though less heavily taxed — con- 
tributed as freely. The Western Union Telegraph Co. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 445 

sent the Aid Society's dispatches free ; the Omnibus 
Co. gave passes to the officers, after the establishment 
of the Soldiers' Home ; the frank of the society was 
for three years recognized by the Post Office Department, 
which made possible the vast circulation of documents 
containing information and issued from its office, amount- 
ing to one hundred and twenty-five thousand. To 
the Cleveland daily papers the indebtedness of the Aid 
Society was very great. The columns of all were open 
to the bulletins and reports of the sanitary work, and a 
large space in the Cleveland Herald and Cleveland 
Leader was weekly occupied by material prepared at the 
Bank Street office. From the United States and Ameri- 
can express companies, innumerable favors were re- 
ceived, as also from the Cleveland gas and water com- 
panies. It is, of course, impossible to record within 
the present limits the great obligation of the Soldiers' 
Aid Society to individuals. 

To acquaint themselves with the method of distribut- 
ing hospital stores, and to obtain specific information as 
to supplies most urgently needed, the officers of the Aid 
Society from time to time visited the front, inspected 
the Commission's depots and its Soldiers' Homes and 
went to Pittsburg Landing on the hospital steamers. 
The reports rendered of these inspections did much to 
encourage and stimulate the Soldiers' Aid Society and 
its branches, since not only was the efficiency of the 
Sanitary Commission's system confirmed, but the need 
of further effort established. 

The hospital steamer Lancaster No. 2, which carried 
down cargoes of sanitary stores and brought up the 
wounded from the South to the hospitals along the 
Ohio River, was, from the first, very largely fitted out 
and supplied on every trip by the Cleveland Branch. 

One of the most important departments of the sani- 
tary work was called the Special Relief Service. From 


the first days of the War, cases where personal aid could 
be given were numerous, and a small room in the 
Union Depot was occupied in April, 1862, for the ac- 
commodation of invalid Soldiers in transit. The occa- 
sional services of a nurse were secured, and the patients 
fed from the depot restaurant. These limited quarters 
proved inadequate, when the two years men, returning 
from the lower Mississippi, brought with them so great 
a number of sick and wounded. By the favor of the 
railroad companies, a site was secured upon the wharf, 
parallel with the Union Depot, and a building put up 
for the purposes of a Soldiers' Home. This building, 
which was on several subsequent occasions enlarged, was 
opened on December 12th, 1863. During its existence, 
nearly fifty-eight thousand Soldiers received aid and 
comfort within its walls. This number comprised men 
in transit, who if able to proceed upon their journey, 
received only food, lodging or clothing; sick and 
wounded men unequal to further travel who remained 
under skilled treatment until convalescent ; patients 
consigned to Camp Cleveland and awaiting transfer to 
that hospital ; regiments en route for other States, upon 
their discharge, who were fed and had their sick cared 
for ; the sick of those Ohio troops who were entertained 
upon their return by the City of Cleveland ; and dis- 
charged and disabled Soldiers, awaiting the settlement 
of claims for pension and bounty, or out of work and 
seeking employment. The number of cases where in- 
dividual relief was required made serious demands upon 
the sympathy and attention of members of the Soldiers' 
Aid Society, and no branch of the general work excited 
more interest. In October, 1865, the furniture and out- 
fit of the Soldiers 1 Home, as well as the patients therein 
resident, were transferred to the Home at Columbus, 
O., which was maintained by the State until the general 
Government could make permanent provision for its 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 447 

pensioners. Two rooms in the Cleveland institution were 
kept open nntil 1866, for nse in occasional cases and as a 
point from which patients conld be sent to Columbus. 
In June, 1866, it was finally closed and the building 

The Aid Rooms were from the first a center of inquiry 
regarding Soldiers in the field or in hospital, and the 
society early availed itself of the Sauitary Commission's 
Hospital Directory service. This record of Soldiers in 
hospital in the Western Department, daily posted, 
enabled the friends of a patient to obtain reliable infor- 
mation regarding his condition. Through the field- 
agents of the Commission, also, the graves of Union 
Soldiers could be often identified and their bodies sent 
home, in the care of the Cleveland office. 

Another department of the Soldiers' Aid Society's 
work was its employment agency, whereby occupation 
was secured for disabled Soldiers which was suited to 
their physical capacity. Out of three hundred applica- 
tions made to this agency, situations for two hundred 
and six men were obtained — an unexpected result 
under the limitations of the applicants. 

At the close of the War, the Cleveland Branch as- 
sumed a work which the General Sanitary Commission 
then laid down. The society established an agency 
for the collection of pension and bounty claims, free of 
charge to the Soldiers. This business was put in charge 
of Jasper E. Williams, a brilliant young lawyer, whose 
subsequent illness threw upon the secretary and treas- 
urer of the society the conduct of the agency until it 
became apparent that the work must go into other 
hands. i\bout two thousand Soldiers' claims were filed, 
through this agencv, and all valid ones collected with- 
out charge to the applicants. 

The number of Soldiers and their families relieved 
through the different departments of the special relief 


work reached sixty thousand five hundred and ninety- 
eight ; many of these received aid through long peri- 
ods, and often to a considerable amount. No statistics 
can give the true record of what was asked and granted 
in individual cases. The Soldiers' Home, which was 
the chief channel of special relief, was conducted upon 
a broad principle which allowed always of favorable 
doubt in temporary cases. Its general government 
rested exclusively with the Soldiers' Aid Society, either 
the secretary or treasurer being in attendance every 
morning at the Home office. 

The financial support of the Soldiers' Aid Society 
was, as a whole, purely voluntary. Contributions were 
obtained by means of frequent public presentation of 
the necessity for the relief work, and of the success at- 
tending its operations, rather than upon direct solicita- 
tion. An exception was made when for a certain period 
the society asked and obtained monthly membership 
fees, whereby a small but fixed income was secured. 
The Soldiers' Home was also built by funds solicited 
for the purpose. The general revenue of the society 
was derived from the free-will gifts of the people of 
Northern Ohio, either directly contributed, or received 
through the frequent successful amateur entertainments. 
A portion of California's grand contribution to the San- 
itary Commission came to its Cleveland branch, but the 
society's great work subsequent to 1864 — when several 
carloads of hospital supplies were sent weekly to the 
front, when the hospital steamers and trains were sup- 
ported, and fifty-seven thousand five hundred and 
ninety-two Soldiers were individually relieved — was 
only made possible through the results of the Northern 
Ohio Sanitary Fair which was opened Feb. 22, 1864. 
By means of this fair, the Soldiers' Aid Society was 
enabled to show at the close of its operations a grand 
total of supplies disbursed amounting in value to $982,- 

soldiers' axd sailors' monument. 449 

481.25. To this should be added the amount in cash 
paid for the special relief service $36,636.33, and $5,000 
contributed to the State Soldiers' Home at Colum- 
bus. The whole amount expended in the purchase of 
material and vegetables and the shipping of the same 
amounted to $59,993.09. The total of cash contribu- 
tions received from every source during the War was 
$119,938.26, advances to societies or Soldiers which were 
repaid, or commissions to be executed for U. S. Sani- 
tary Commission not being of course included. The 
whole amount expended to 1869 was Si 15,751.28, ex- 
clusive of the above commissions. The balance of cash 
on hand was employed for the benefit of individual 
Soldiers in the Columbus Home or in Northern Ohio, 
and what remained was, in October, 1884, turned over 
to the Grand Army of the Republic, in Cleveland. 

The Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society contribut- 
ing towns were as follows : 

Ashland Co., 11 towns. Kelley's Island, 1 town. 

Ashtabula Co., 33 towns. Lake Co., 8 towns. 
Carroll Co., 4 towns. Lawrence Co., Pa., 1 town. 

Chautauqua Co., N. V., 1 Livingston Co., N. Y., 2 

town. towns. 

Columbiana Co., 15 towns. Lorain Co., 24 towns. 
Crawford Co., Pa., 3 towns. Mahoning Co., 12 towns. 
Cuyahoga Co., 26 towns. Medina Co., 18 towns. 
DeerCreekCo., Pa., 1 town. Monroe Co., N. Y., 1 town. 
Erie Co., 7 towns. Oakland Co., Mich., 1 town. 

Erie Co., Pa., 14 towns. Olivesburgh Co., 1 town. 
Geauga Co., 19 towns. Ottawa Co., 4 towns. 

Hardin Co., 1 town. Portage Co., 22 towns. 

Harrison Co., 1 town. Richland Co., 2 towns. 

Holmes Co., 9 towns. Sandusky Co., 2 towns. 

Huron Co., 18 towns. Seneca Co., 5 towns. 

Jackson Co., Mich., 1 town. Stark Co., 20 towns. 
Jefferson Co., 3 towns. Summit Co., 25 towns. 


Trumbull Co., 28 towns. Wayne Co., 6 towns. 
Tuscarawas Co., 4 towns. Williams Co., 1 town. 
Warren Co., Pa., 2 towns. Wood Co., 1 town. 



Mrs. B. Rouse. 

Vice- Preside n ts . 

Mrs. Wm. Melhinch, Mrs. Lewis Burton, 

Mrs. John Shelley, Mrs. J. A. Harris. 

Miss Mary Clark Brayton. 
Miss Ellen F. Terry. 
Office Assistants. 
Miss Sara Mahan, Miss Carrie P. Younglove, 

Mrs. Emma L. Miller. 
Mrs. Geo. A. Benedict, Mrs. Dr. Isom, 

Mrs. S. Belden, Mrs. H. Iddings, 

Mrs. T. Burnham, Mrs. J. Lyman, 

Mrs. L. Alcott, Mrs. Joseph Lyman, 

Mrs. D. Chittenden, Mrs. C. W. Lepper, 

Mrs. John Coon, Mrs. Wm. Mittleberger, 

Mrs. J. H. Chase, Mrs. H. Newberry, 

Mrs. Wm. Collins, Mrs. Stanley Noble, 

Mrs. Bolivar Butts, Mrs. Joseph Perkins, 

Mrs. Hiram Griswold, Mrs. J. M. Richards, 

Mrs. C. M. Giddings, Mrs. O. B. Skinner, 

Mrs. Charles Hickox, Mrs. South worth, 

Mrs. D. Howe, Mrs. W. T. Smith, 

Mrs. L. M. Hubby, Mrs. W. E. Standart, 

Mrs. J. Hay ward, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, 

Mrs. W. H. Hayward, Mrs. Philo Scovill, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 

45 1 

Mrs. C. A. Tracy, Mrs. S. Williamson, 

Mrs. Peter Thatcher, Mrs. J. H. Wade, 

Mrs. M. C. Younglove. 


Mrs. H. G. Abbey, 
Mrs. Dr. Arter, 
Mrs. T. Bolton, 
Mrs. W. J. Boardman, 
Miss Bixby, 
Mrs. James Barnett, 
Miss Annette Barnett, 
Mrs. Beverlin, 
Mrs. John Crowell, 
Mrs. Win. B. Castle, 
Mrs. Bradford, 
Mrs. S. W. Crittenden, 
Mrs. Geo. B. Ely, 
Mrs. A. Fuller, 
Mrs. E. F. Gaylord, 
Mrs. H. B. Hnrlbnt, 
Mrs. vS. O. Griswold, 
Mrs. Dr. Hopkins, 
Mrs. G. A. Hyde, 

Mrs. Hunt, 
Mrs. A. M. Harman, 
Mrs. A. Foote, 
Mrs. T. M. Kelley, 
Misses Kellogg, 
Mrs. S. A. Jewett, 
Mrs. R. Landerdale, 
Mrs. H. H. Little, 
Mrs. Dr. Long, 
Mrs. Merritt, 
Miss Mahan, 
Miss Pickands, 
Mrs. J. T. Stevens, 
Mrs. A. B. Stone, 
Mrs. L. Severance, 
Mrs. E. Thayer, 
Mrs. Dr. Thayer, 
Mrs. Whitman, 
Mrs. R. C. Yates. 

Document Clerks. 

Miss Annie Carter, 
Miss Belle Carter, 
Miss Annie Baldwin, 
Miss Nettie Brayton, 
Miss Carrie Grant, 
Miss Georgia Gordon, 
Miss Helen Lester, 
Mrs. Geo. Mvgatt, 

Mrs. F. W. Parsons, 
Miss Nellie Rnssell, 
Miss Mary Shelley, 
Miss Sterling, 
Miss Stewart, 
Miss Lily Walton, 
Miss Clara Woolson, 
Mrs. Willey, 

Miss Yaughan. 




T. P. Handy. 


Mary Clark Bray ton, 


Dr. J. S. Newberry, 
Joseph Perkins, 
George B. Senter, 
Samnel L. Mather, 
Mrs. B. Rouse, 
Mrs. Wm. Melhinch, 
Mrs. Lewis Burton, 
Mrs. J. A. Harris, 
Mrs. John Shelley, 

H. M. Chapin, 
F. Terry. 

Peter Thatcher, Jr., 
Amasa Stone, Jr., 
Stillman Witt, 
Wm. B. Castle, 
Mrs. Chas. A. Terry, 
Mrs. Geo. A. Benedict, 
Mrs. S. Williamson, 
Mrs. L. M. Hubby, 
Mrs. Wm. B. Castle, 


Peter Thatcher, 
I. U. Masters, 
T. N. Bond, 
J. G. Hussey, 
M. C. Younglove, 
Wm. Bingham, 
J. V. N. Yates, 
H. F. Brayton, 
John N. Frazee, 
Mrs. Fayette Brown, 
Mrs. A. G. Colwell, 

William Edwards, 
Wm. J. Boardman, 
T. P. Handy, 
George Willev, 
D. P. Eells, 
John F. Warner, 
A. W. Fairbanks, 
Col. W. H. Hay ward, 
Mrs. Dr. E. Sterling, 
Mrs. M. C. Younglove, 
Mrs. T. Burnham. 


Rebecca Cromwell was born in Salem, Mass., Oct. 30, 
1799. She married Benjamin Rouse in Boston, Aug. 
12, 182 1, and, after living a few years in New York City, 
removed in 1830 to Cleveland, Ohio, to engage in mis- 
sionary work under the auspices of the American 
Sunday School Union. The early years of Mr. and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 453 

Mrs. Rouse in Cleveland were devoted to unremitting, 
•earnest work in the cause of religion, and in visiting 
the sick and poor. Mrs. Rouse early showed those 
qualities which distinguished her after-life. She was 
identified with the various charitable organizations in 
Cleveland — the Dorcas Society, the charities connected 
with the First Baptist Church, and the Cleveland Or- 
phan Asylum, whose president she continued for many 
years to be. 

Mrs. Rouse was elected president of the Northern 
Ohio Soldiers' Aid Society in April, 1861, and held this 
office till the close of its operations. Gifted with a re- 
markable degree of native eloquence, Mrs. Rouse was 
able to stimulate the audiences whom she addressed in 
the interests of the Sanitary Commission to a point 
hardly to be reached by the most practiced orator. Her 
own loyal convictions and fervent sympathies were trans- 
lated into simple yet forcible language, intelligible to 
all who heard her. 

She visited Wheeling, Ya., in 1S61, Louisville and 
Perry ville, Ky., in 1862. In the latter year, she went 
with some other members of the society to Pittsburg 
Landing, on the second trip of the hospital steamer 
Lancaster, No. 2. The information she gathered dur- 
ing these journeys was communicated on her return to 
the societies of eager workers in Northern Ohio. 

Mrs. Rouse's personality was undoubtedly a powerful 
element in the success of the Soldiers' Aid Society. 
With her small, erect figure and shrewd, kindly coun- 
tenance, she conveyed the impression of quick intelli- 
gence and decision of character to all with whom she 
came in contact. Her nature was possessed of great 
strength, patience and endurance, which her delicate 
physical constitution hardly foretold. 

With the close of the Sanitary Commission operations, 
Mrs. Rouse's connection with public charities ceased, 


save that she continued as its president her active in- 
terest in the Orphan Asylum. She died Dec. 23, 1887, 
peacefully, in the fullness of years, leaving behind her 
the record of a long life, worthily spent. 


Mrs. William Melhinch, whose maiden name was 
Rosamond Spooner Dexter, was a native of Ogdens- 
burgh, New York, and came to Cleveland to live in 
1850, Mr. Melhinch being a commission merchant in 
this city. She was elected vice-president of the Sol- 
diers' Aid Society at its inauguration and continued in 
office throughout the War. Her special work lay in the 
superintendence of the hospital stores — in their recep- 
tion and repacking — and the influence of her joyous, 
sunny nature was felt not only by her associates, but by 
the soldier-visitors to the Aid Rooms to whose wants 
she ministered. Mrs. Melhinch died in Cleveland in 
1888, after many years of grief and suffering. Her 
memory is honored by those friends who survive her 
for the loving nature and patient courage which she 
manifested under all circumstances of personal trial. 
She was the last to realize her own worth, or to believe 
herself entitled to commendation. 


Clarinda Russell was born in Adams, N. Y.,Juue 7th, 
1820, and was married to Mr. John Shelley, of Cleve- 
land, January 17th, 1840. Actively engaged from her 
early connection with Trinity Church, Cleveland, in the 
charities of that parish, she was known as a woman of 
ability in affairs and possessed of excellent judgment. 
In April, 1861, she was elected vice-president of the 
Soldiers' Aid Society, which office she held until early 
in 1S63, when she tendered her resignation, upon 
her temporary removal from Cleveland. During her 


connection with the society, she gave it her time and 
the benefit of her practical knowledge in executive 
matters. In the direction of the work room, and in the 
councils of the office, she was always to be depended 
upon for calm, reasonable judgment, and unswerving 
devotion to the interests of the society. Mrs. Shelley 
died in Cleveland, August 27, 1877. 


Mrs. Lewis Burton, wife of Rev. Lewis Burton, Rector 
of St. John's Church, of Cleveland, West Side, succeeded 
Mrs. Shelley as vice-president. Mrs. Burton's term of 
office extended to November 1, 1864, when she resigned 
the position. Her services were most valuable to the 
Soldiers' Aid Society as representing its interests to 
members who living at a somewhat greater distance 
from the central office were yet among the most constant 
contributors to its stores. Mrs. Burton was very faithful 
in the duties of her position, and her withdrawal was 
greatly regretted by her associates. 


Mrs. Harris was born in Egremont, Mass., in 18 10,. 
and removed at an early age to Ridgeville, Ohio, with 
her parents. On her marriage in 1830 to Mr. J. A. 
Harris, she came to Cleveland, where she has since 
lived. Mr. Harris was connected with the Cleveland 
Herald during almost his entire life in this city and 
was distinguished by his literary appreciation and quick 
sympathies. Mrs. Harris has been connected with many 
forms of charitable work since her marriage, and has 
seen the growth of the city of Cleveland from its feeble 
beginnings to its present development. On the organi- 
zation of the Soldiers' Aid Society, she became one of 
its most active and valuable members, present almost 
every day at the store-room, engaged in the business 
of the special committee of which she was chairman, 


and also in attendance at the Soldiers' Home, when 
regiments were to be entertained, or an increased num- 
ber of sick Soldiers required care. On the retirement 
of Mrs. Lewis Burton, Mrs. Harris was elected vice- 
president, November 1, 1864, an office for which her long 
familiarity with the work of the society and her devo- 
tion to its interests had peculiarly fitted her. Mrs. 
Harris is still living in Cleveland, and in full sympathy 
with the charities with which her life has been asso- 


None who ever knew Mary Clark Bray ton could fail 
to be impressed with the strength and individuality of 
her character. Strong to bear, as she was quick to feel 
and prompt to act, her nature was marked by a depth 
and breadth which disclosed no symptom of over- 
growth, or partial development. This conscious power 
enabled her to assume and bear the burdens of lives in 
close association with her own, to hold them in sacred 
trust, so long as her ability to serve should last. 

At the outbreak of the War, her mind found in the 
Sanitary Commission work a field for the exercise of 
powers whose activity had been hitherto comparatively 
limited. It had noble work to engage her matured in- 
tellect, arousing its resources and bringing into play her 
remarkable executive abilities, while touching the 
springs of passionate enthusiasm. Of the officers of the 
Soldiers' Aid Society, elected in April, 1861, to direct 
its work, none save Mrs. Rouse, the president, had 
been accustomed to public service, or, indeed, to trained 
work of any kind. As secretary of the Cleveland 
branch of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, Miss Brayton 
met the demands of an unprecedented and comprehen- 
sive office with quick resource and inexhaustible energy. 
Her correspondence with the five or six hundred soci- 
eties which coniDosed the Northern Ohio Soldiers' Aid 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 457 

Society exemplifies — perhaps more than any one thing — 
her intellectual resources. She maintained constant 
intercourse with each of them throughout the War, 
explaining to them the Sanitary Commission system, 
aiding in the solution of local difficulties, stimulating 
them with information from the seat of war, always en- 
couraging them with her own belief in the efficacy of 
the relief work. There are twenty-one volumes pre- 
served of the letters from these auxiliary societies, but 
the collection is incomplete without those of the secre- 
tary of the central office. 

In the interests of the supply work, Miss Brayton 
visited Washington in 1861, at the time of the first 
battle of Bull Run, and again in 1S62, when the great 
rotunda was filled with empty beds waiting for the 
wounded from the battle of Antietam, and the city 
hospitals were overflowing with patients. In April, 
1862, Miss Brayton visited Nashville, where, on the fall 
of Fort Donaldson, a depot of supplies was established, 
and on the news of the battle of Shiloh, went down to 
Pittsburg Landing on the first steamer which carried 
relief to the wounded. In October, 1862, she visited, 
with Mrs. Rouse, the hospitals at Perryville, and in 
May, 1863, accompanied Dr. Read, Sanitary Com- 
mission Inspector, to Louisville, Nashville and Mur- 

The history of the supply work Miss Brayton has 
herself recorded, with the operations of the Sanitary 
Fair. She was not less interested in the special relief 
service. With the close of the operations of the 
Soldiers' Aid Society, and the issuing of its final report 
in 1869, Miss Brayton's public service ceased; her na- 
ture, too deeply drawn upon, on its intellectual and 
emotional sides, needed temporary repose. That her 
subsequent life was clouded by illness and was all too 
brief, seems now but a tale that is told, since what she 


hoped for has at last been realized, in God's own time 
and way. 

Measured by time and in the light of human seeing, 
the life of Mary Clark Brayton seems sadly short, for 
she died in 1879; but measured by energy and work ac- 
complished, who can call it incomplete? 


Ellen Frances Terry was born in Cleveland, Ohio, on 
December 26, 1837, and was the daughter of Charles 
Augustus Terry, M. D., and Julia E. Woodbridge, his 

On the organization of the Soldiers' Aid Society in 
1861, she was elected its treasurer, which office she held 
throughout the society's existence. Her duties com- 
prised not only those specially appertaining to her 
office, but the keeping of the records of receipts and 
disbursements of hospital stores. Her warmest interest 
lay in the special relief work, especially in the Soldiers' 
Home, built through the efforts of Mrs. Win. Melhinch 
and herself, and to which a large part of her time was 
devoted. The history of the special relief service in 
the final report of the society, with the accompanying 
detailed tables and the statistics of disbursements of 
stores, are Miss Terry's work. 

In 1872, Miss Terry left Cleveland upon the death of 
her parents, and in 18S1 accepted the office of general 
secretary of the State Charities Aid Association, of New 
York City. This position she held for two years, re- 
signing it, upon her marriage, in 1883, to Charles Fred- 
erick Johnson, M. A., Professor of English Literature 
in Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 


Sara Mahan was the daughter of the Rev. Asa Mahan, 
first President of Oberlin College. She was born May 
4th, 1840, and early adopted the profession of a teacher, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 459 

in which her success was very remarkable. She entered 
the office of the Soldiers' Aid Society, August, 1862, 
with an unusual equipment of methodical training and 
business experience. In the rush of impetuous fervor 
which, with its passion of generous giving, at times 
severely tried the resources of the Aid Society, such 
qualities as Miss Mahan possessed were most valuable. 
In the printing office, where she acted as forewoman in 
charge of the amateur corps, she rendered most efficient 
service, as well as in the clerical work, which was her 
chief employment. 

The strain of these duties was severe, and from their 
effects Miss Mahan never entirely recovered. At the 
close of the War she took up other occupations, which 
her failing health compelled her to lay aside, one after 
another. But neither illness nor the sure decay of 
her physical nature could conquer the resolute will 
and indomitable courage. The end was long delayed, but 
came at last, on the twenty-second day of January, 1875. 

Associated with Miss Mahan in her sanitary work, 
and in close friendship, was 


whose connection with the Society extended from April, 
1864, to October, 1865, when, at the strong recommenda- 
tion of the Cleveland Branch Sanitary Commission, she 
was appointed to the position of matron of the State 
Soldiers' Home at Columbus, Ohio. On the establish- 
ment of the National Home for Disabled Soldiers at 
Dayton, Ohio, she received the commission of matron, 
and has since that period performed the important and 
comprehensive duties of the office with the same energy, 
wisdom and executive ability that was indicated in the 
Sanitary Commission days. 


Associated with the Soldiers' Aid Society through 


almost its entire history, Miss Younglove, though not 
officially connected with it, must always be identified 
with its work. In the little Aid Room office, overseeing 
the body of youthful document clerks, setting up type 
at the forms in the third story of 89 Bank Street, she 
was constant to whatever duties for the time engaged 
her, and brought into all her own personal enthusiasm. 
It was Miss Younglove who, by her personal efforts, 
aided in the establishment of the Sanitary Commission 
gardens in Tennessee, and who, visiting them a year 
later, when in successful operation, wrote from Chatta- 
nooga such charming accounts of the results. Miss 
Younglove accompanied the Sanitary Inspector, in 1863, 
on an extended tour of the hospitals in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and her letters from various points visited 
are remarkable for their vivid descriptions and general 
literary merit. She married Major Willard Abbott, of 
Rochester, N. Y., and now lives in Cleveland. 


Mrs. Thatcher was born in Arlington, Mass., January 
20th, 1820. She came to Cleveland in 1S50 with her 
husband, Peter Thatcher, a noted engineer and bridge 
builder. Mrs. Thatcher was one of the first volunteers 
in the Sanitary Commission service, and the last to be 
mustered out at the close of the War. Unfailing in her 
attendance at the Aid Rooms, her important duties 
upon the Committee on Fruit and Groceries were 
scrupulously performed so long as the necessity for 
such services lasted. No picture of the old store-room 
at 95 Bank Street, in the minds of the survivors of that 
busy corps of workers, would be complete without the 
figure of Mrs. Thatcher. Quick, alert, cheerful, inde- 
fatigable, she was also as ready for service at the 
Soldiers' Home when occasion required. Her husband 
always remained the Soldiers' Aid Society's firm friend 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 461 

and counsellor. Since his death, Mrs. Thatcher has 
continued to live in Cleveland, and is still interested in 
the local charities, with which she has been long con- 
nected — the Dorcas and Humane Societies and the 
Woman's College and Hospital. 

It has fallen to the only survivor of the office corps of 
the Soldiers' Aid Society to commemorate its work, and 
to prepare this memorial sketch of her associates. 
Those whose figures the panel has preserved do but 
typify the patriotism of the women of Northern Ohio in 
the War, and personal eulogy would do their memory 
wrong. This they neither desired nor felt it deserved, 
believing the cause they served worthy even the great 
price that was paid for it. To find their work worthy 
of record beside that of the Soldiers of the Union is all 

that they would claim. 

Ellen Terrv Johnson. 


In the memorial panel devoted to the recognition of 
the valuable aid of the patriotic women of our county, 
the architect and sculptor fittingly includes and im- 
mortalizes a representative of the Order of the Sisters 
of Charity, whose work was for the whole country. In 
the midst of battle, wherever there was death or suf- 
fering, the kindly Sister was always to be found. 
With many of the women of the War, more or less of 
personal interest was mingled with patriotic fervor. 
Their love for the general cause was deeper because in- 
terpreted to them by individual sympathy for its de- 
fenders. In the hospital work of the Sisters of Charity 
this element was entirely wanting. Love for man as 
the creation of (rod's hand — not as brother, father, or 
husband — inspired them, and filled them with a divine 
compassion which had no root in personal feeling. 
Their work on battlefield and in hospital is too well 


known to need recapitulation. Their name has become 
a synonym for devotion to the sick and wounded, irre- 
spective of flag, creed, or race — of calm, unshrinking 
courage and limitless self-sacrifice. -They represent on 
the Soldiers' Aid Society panel another side of the same 
o-reat principle which animated home and cloister in 
those strenuous days. The devoted work .of the Sisters 
of Charity during the War created for that band of 
heroic women the respect and admiration of every loyal 


In this, the first memorial erected to the women of 
the War days, the thoughtful sculptor recognizes a 
daughter of Ohio, whose gracious womanhood may 
well be claimed by all its citizens. 

We are pleased to be able to give a full sketch of one 
of America's noblest and gentlest women : 

Lucy Webb Hayes was the only daughter of Dr. 
James Webb and Maria Cook, and was born at 
Chillicothe, Ohio, August 28, 1831. Both of her grand- 
fathers, three of her great-grandfathers, and two of her 
great-great-grandfathers served in the Revolutionary 
War in regiments of the Connecticut and Virginia Line. 
Awards of land made them in return for military 
service lead to the ultimate transfer of the family resi- 
dence to Kentucky and Ohio. 

Her father, Dr. James Webb, when quite young, 
served in the War of 181 2 as a member of the 
Kentucky Mounted Riflemen, and was a member of 
Ball's Squadron, which had several engagements with 
the Indians just south of Lower Sandusky, now Fre- 
mont, Ohio, prior to the memorable defense of Ft. 
Stephenson by Major Croghan on the 2nd of August, 
1813. Dr. Webb died while at Lexington, Kentucky, 
whither he had gone from Ohio to arrange for manu- 



soldiers' and sailors' monument. 465 

mitting the slaves of his inheritance, with the intention 
of sending them to Liberia. This trip occurred during 
the cholera scourge of 1833, and, being a physician, he 
lingered among his old-time friends with a loyalty unto 
death, giving them care and medical attendance until 
he himself was stricken fatally by the disease. 

Most of the years of Mrs. Hayes' childhood were 
passed with her mother at Chillicothe, and at the home 
of her grandfather, Judge Isaac Cook, who had served 
through the Revolutionary War in the regiment of his 
father, Col. Isaac Cook, of Connecticut, and had re- 
moved to Chillicothe, the first capital of Ohio, in 1791, 
and who for fifty years was one of the foremost men of 
his time, serving the State in legislative and judicial 
positions for more than thirty years. After the death ot 
her husband, Mrs. Webb removed to Delaware, in order 
to be near the Ohio Wesleyan University, where her sons 
were being educated. Her estate was sufficient to give 
her children a careful education. Lucy studied with 
her brothers and recited to the college professors. When 
her brothers began their studies in the medical college, 
she entered Wesleyan Female College at Cincinnati, 
the first chartered college for young women in America, 
and was graduated in the class of 1851, being then in 
her nineteenth year. While living in Delaware, she 
had met young Rutherford B. Hayes, who was on a 
visit to the place of his birth. In a little over a year 
after the close of her school days, she joined hands, 
hearts and fortunes with the young lawyer who had 
also settled in Cincinnati, and on the 30th of December, 
1852, she became his bride. 

At the breaking out of the W 7 ar of the Rebellion, her 
family consisted of her husband, her mother, two 
brothers and her four little boys. Her husband and 
both of her brothers immediately entered the Army, 
and from that time until the close of the War her home 


was a refuge for wounded, sick and furloughed Soldiers 
going to or returning from the front. She spent two 
Winters in camp with her husband, while he was 
colonel of the 23rd Ohio. The members of the 23rd 
first saw her at the camp of instruction at Columbus in 
June and July, 1861, saw her as they inarched to take 
the cars for their first campaign in West Virginia. From 
that da}' until the dedication of the regimental monu- 
ment in Woodland Cemetery in 1865, they were 
conscious of her unremitting efforts for their comfort 
and their benefit. They well remember her numerous 
visits to the camps in Virginia, the light that accom- 
panied her, the cheery, joyous nature which softened 
every heart, the happy effect of the glowing face and 
sweet rich voice by the side of the wounded or the 
homesick boy. She was the ideal Mother; so when 
her baby boy died in camp, the whole regiment 
mourned with her, and provided a guard to carry the 
remains lovingly to Ohio for interment. 

She was at home during the bloody Antietam Cam- 
paign in 1862, in which the 23rd suffered so severely, 
her own husband being among the wounded. With 
what promptitude she made her way to the scene of 
action, with what energy she prosecuted her search for 
days through the various hospitals for her husband, and 
then, when he w r as found, how unselfishly were her 
ministrations bestowed upon all who suffered. She 
remained until the other wounded members of the 
regiment were able to be moved to Ohio ; then, after 
the farewell visit to the battlefield, she started for 
Ohio with the convalescing officers and men of the 
regiment, accompanied by one assistant, and succeeded 
in placing them in their homes after a memorable trip. 
She afterwards spent the Winters of 62-63 and 63-64 
with the regiment in camp, only leaving after the 
regiment had started on the memorable Sheridan Cam- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 467 

paign of 1864, when with the sick, wounded and non- 
combatants she returned to Ohio, the regiment being 
cheered by the farewell in her own rich tones, which 
was wafted to them as they ascended the mountains of 
Virginia. And at the close, when the plaudits of a 
grateful people greeted the returning veterans in the 
capital — the capital of a Nation indeed — she was there 
witnessing the bearing of her own brave boys, in the 
glowing pride of a true mother. 

The soldiers were all great favorites of hers, and as 
an illustration of their love, nothing more beautiful can 
show it than the silver plate presented to her by the 
members of the 23rd Regiment, O. V. I., at the time of 
her silver wedding, which was celebrated at the White 
House in 1877. At the top of the plate is a representa- 
tion of the tattered regimental flags and the dates 1852- 
1S77. Under the inscription is a log cabin, a representa- 
tion of the one Col. and Mrs. Hayes occupied while 
they spent the winter in Western Virginia. Just below 
the flags, in a semi-circle, is inscribed : 

To the Mother op Ours. 
From the 23rd O. V. I. 
To thee, " Our Mother," on thy silver troth, 
We bring this token of our love, thy " boys" 
(rive greeting unto thee with brimming hearts. 
Take it, for it is made of beaten coin, 
Drawn from the hoarded treasures of thy speech. 
Kind words and gentle, when a gentle word 
Was worth the surgery of an hundred schools, 
To heal sick thought, and make our bruises whole. 
Take it, " Our Mother," 'tis but some small part 
Of thy rare bounty we give back to thee. 
And while love speaks in silver from our hearts, 
We'll bribe old Father Time to spare his gift. 

After the close of the War she accompanied her hus- 
band to Washington, while he was a member of Con- 
gress, and was one of the originators of the Ohio 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, at Xenia, Ohio, 


and on its Board of Directors prior to its adoption by 
the State. Upon the election of her husband as Gov- 
ernor of Ohio, she removed to Columbus, and during his 
three terms as Governor took an active interest in the 
charitable institutions of the State, particularly in the 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home. 

In 1877, she accompanied her husband to Washing- 
ton, and, at his inauguration as President of the United 
States, is thus described by Mary Clemmer : "Meanwhile, 
on this man, of whom every one in the Nation is this 
moment thinking, a fair woman between two little 
children looks down. She has a singularly gentle and 
winning face. It looks out from the bands of smooth 
dark hair with that tender light in the eyes which we 
have come to associate always with the Madonna. I 
have never seen such a face reign in the White House. 
I wonder what the world of Vanity Fair will do with it? 
Will it friz that hair? powder that face? draw those 
sweet, fine lines away with pride? bare those shoulders? 
shorten those sleeves? hide John Wesley's discipline 
out of sight, as it poses and minces before the first lady 
of the land? What will she do with it, this woman of 
the hearth and home? Strong as she is fair, will she 
have the grace to use it as not abusing it; to be in it, 
yet not of it; priestess of a religion pure and undefiled, 
holding the white lamp of her womanhood, unshaken 
and unsullied, high above the heated crowd that fawns, 
flatters and soils? The Lord in Heaven knows. All 
that I know is that Mr. and Mrs. Hayes are the finest 
looking type of man and woman that I have seen take 
up their abode in the White House." 

Mrs. Hayes' well known earnestness of conviction 
on the subject of temperance was inherited from her 
grandfather, Judge Cook, and from her mother, who was 
a woman of unusual strength of character and deep 
religious convictions. The inherent feeling was fostered 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 469 

throughout her school-girl days. To her deep and in- 
born conviction it was her nature to be true through all 
the circumstances of her life. This high loyalty, shaped 
simply and naturally, and therefore consistently, was 
followed through all her years, in the ways of her home 
life, the manner of her hospitalities and her custom in 
society, as she moved through them, the wife of a pri- 
vate citizen, and during the twenty years of her hus- 
band's public life as a Union General, Member of Con- 
gress, a Governor of her native State, and the President 
of the greatest Nation of the world. At the time of her 
death, the Star of Washington contained the following, 
with reference to her life in that city: "She was a 
woman of education and refinement. She understood 
the art of entertaining better than most women even in 
high social position do. She knew how to make the 
greater and the less alike feel perfectly at home and 
enjoy themselves when at her house. Few women would 
have attempted what she did successfully, to entertain 
entirely without the use of wines at table. It was well 
known to her that she must make up in some way for 
the absence of wine at diplomatic dinners, or must so 
arrange these occasions as not to make its absence in- 
appropriate. In her efforts to dispense with the use of 
wine she had the support of her husband, but the very 
active opposition of the Secretary of State. It was a 
struggle between the Premier and the President's wife, 
and the latter, of course, won. But the scheme Mrs. 
Hayes devised to meet the difficulty was at once original 
and very clever. When the time arrived for the diplo- 
matic dinner, instead of the small assemblage of deco- 
rated diplomats in the state dining-room, she struck 
upon the idea of a large reception. 

"Tables were spread in the ordinary and the state 
dining-room, and in the offices and lobbies up-stairs, 
where one might sit or stand, as she or he preferred. 


A magnificent dinner was served, an abundance of 
everything that goes to make the finest banquet com- 
plete, except the wine. The impropriety of serving 
wine to such an assemblage was considered by Mrs. 
Haves as excuse enough for not having it ; but she 
made up for its absence by the quality of the dinner. 
No expense was spared. This was the style of her 
diplomatic dinners during the whole four years." 

And the Post of Washington as follows: "Long be- 
fore she became first lady of the land was laid the 
foundation of a deep and sincere admiration. As the 
wife of a young lawyer, the Soldier, General, and the 
Governor of Ohio, she fulfilled her part, stood as help- 
meet and co-laborer with the same sweetness and grace 
that made hers one of the most memorable of White 
House reigns. Her success at the White House was 
marvelous, and was due to a combination of qualities, 
rare as it is delightful. A striking, brilliant face, a keen 
mentality and a gentle heart, made up a personality 
that weighed against political prejudices. It was this 
magnetic personality that conducted her safely, and 
with honor to herself and the Nation, through all the 
diplomatic and social pitfalls of her high position ; a 
kindly, cordial nature, of an unfailing sweetness and 
ready sympathy which transcend all the acquired 
graces of earth and grapple friendship with 'hooks of 
steel.' " 

After leaving Washington, the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union presented her full-length portrait to 
be hung in the White House. Mrs. Hayes returned to 
her dearly loved home, Spiegel Grove, at the expiration 
of General Hayes' term as President in 1881, and re- 
sumed her active interest in her home and church. In 
her early childhood, she had joined the Methodist 
Church and remained a consistent member up to the 
day of her death. She was elected the first pres- 


ident of the Woman's Home Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Church and gave much time to the duties 
of the office, attending the many meetings of the 
society in the different cities of the Union. She accom- 
panied her husband on his numerous trips to attend the 
meetings of the many educational, reformatory and 
charitable societies and associations with which he was 
connected, and was a regular attendant at the Annual 
Reunion of the old 23rd Regiment and of the Army of 
West Virginia. She was an honorary member of the 
Society of the Army of West Virginia, of the 23rd 
Regiment Association and a member of the Women's 
Relief Corps, whose badge was presented to her by the 
Department of Ohio, "in loving recognition of her 
distinguished services in behalf of the Union Veteran 
and his children. April 18, l888." 

She died at Spiegel Grove, June 25, 18S9, while 
around her bedside were gathered her husband, her 
daughter and four sons. Her sons and nephews bore 
her body to the grave, and in accordance with her 
expressed wish the members of the Old Twenty-Third 
acted as the Guard of Honor, while the local Grand 
Army Post preceded the funeral cortege. 

The Sabbath succeeding the death of Mrs. Hayes, 
the eloquent Rev. George W T . Pepper paid her memory 
the following touching and beautiful tribute in a ser- 
mon delivered by him in the Methodist Church at Ash- 
land, Ohio, before a crowded audience : 

"The last knell has tolled — the last psalm has been 
sung, the curfew of a noble life has sounded. The 
church she loved so well has breathed its sacred bene- 
dictions over her grave ! A beautiful Christian life has 
become immortal. Her soul was like one of the grand 
cathedrals of the ages of faith, where you go from one 
shrine to another — each more beautiful than the last, 
each dedicated to some new virtue, until you reach the 


innermost shrine, and there are concealed the most 
sacred relics. We have seen this church draped in 
mourning when the strength of manhood was struck 
down ! We have beheld the brightness and the beauty 
of yonth with the Summer dawning upon its brow, 
checked in its flood — bnt never before have we felt so 
keenly the loss of one of the noblest of American 
women ! For her life was a grand illustration of Amer- 
ican practical wisdom, American hospitality, American 
womanhood and American patriotism. 

"'The age of chivalry is past,' exclaimed the philo- 
sophic Edmund Burke, in one of those great passages 
of his eloquence — eloquence which recalls the great im- 
mortals of the past — when his own noble nature flashed 
out in sacred indignation at the insult which France 
had offered to a beautiful woman. He was mistaken! 
Who that ever heard these Soldiers tell with quivering 
lips and cheeks wet with tears of the thousand generous 
and enthusiastic acts of kindness of the noble and 
gifted lady whom we have lost, rendered to them in the 
dark and the somber hours of war in the hospital, in 
the tent, upon the battlefield, without feeling and 
vividly realizing that the age of chivalry, the chivalry 
of the heart, was not past, but lived and shone resplen- 
dently in the life of Mrs. Hayes. They will tell you 
how she encouraged, cheered and inspired them! How 
her calm and hopeful words brought memories of home! 
How she transformed the bed of torture into one of 

"In the midst of a career of usefulness to the church 
and to the country, with the glowing prospects of life 
before her, she is snatched away from the husband 
whom she adored, and from children whom she loved. 
That gallant heart of her husband, which never quailed 
in battle — now prostrate with indescribable grief! Oh! 
what a tie of conjugal sympathy has burst asunder! 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 473 

what a beautiful vine has fallen ! And now that she 
has gone beyond the cedars and the stars — now that the 
passionate tears of friends are staunched — now that 
private love and public sympathy have shown their 
sorrow — now that the echoes of that winning voice 
upon which scores have hung enraptured will never 
greet mortal ears again, — let us not suppose that the 
splendid mind is crushed, or that the noble heart has 
ceased to beat its benevolent pulsations for the cause of 
humanity which is the cause of Christianity in its best 
and grandest signification.'" 


The Leader reporter, after an exhaustive examination 
of the books and accounts, thus shows how the money 
generously contributed by the tax-payers of the county 
was expended : 

" After the question, ' How much did it cost?' comes 
that of 'Where did the money go?' The funds used in 
the construction of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 
went through a great number of channels and in a di- 
versity of ways. A portion of the work was done by 
contract, but by far the greater portion of it on the day's 
work plan. All of it was under the personal supervision 
of the members of the Commission. Some of them were 
on hand constantly to observe the progress of the con- 
struction, and no move of any consequence was made 
unless by their direction. During the first years of the 
existence of the Commission, little actual construction 
work was done, the preliminaries requiring a great deal 
of attention. When the plans had progressed suffi- 
ciently to permit of definite arrangements being entered 
into, permission was obtained from the Legislature to 
make use of unoccupied city property, and a studio was 
built in the rear of the City Hall for the use of the 
sculptors and architect. 


" The first voucher of the Commission upon the 
County Auditor was issued July 2, 188S, it being for an 
estimate of $185.93, for Andrew Dall, Jr., on brick-work. 
During the period including December 31, of the same 
year, 155 vouchers were issued, involving a total ex- 
penditure of $6,020.97. These covered the wages of 
several sculptors, models, and clay modelers, and sup- 
plies of various sorts for the studio, besides the other 
expenses of the studio work. This part of the work 
paid several comfortable salaries during the first four or 
five years after actual operations began. There were 
three sculptors, assistants to Capt. Levi T. Scofield, who 
made the clay models from which the figures in the 
various groups were formed, two of whom were paid 
$40, and the third $35 per week. A clay modeler, at 
$3.50 per day, was employed for a long time, and in 
addition there were a number of living models, who 
posed for the figures in the various groups and panels. 
These were of both sexes, and were employed as the 
necessity arose, except in the case of one, Timothy 
Fogarty, who has been in the employ of the Commis- 
sion as model and man-of-all-work ever since work was 

" When another year had rolled around, the vouchers 
issued numbered 535, with an expenditure of $22,999.31 
for the year 1889, making a total of $29,020.28. The 
first payment for bronze work was made on May 14, 
1889, when Bureau Bros., bronze founders, of Philadel- 
phia, received the first estimate of $800 on the infantry 
group. On September 17, 1889, an estimate of $4,000 
was approved for Bureau Bros., on the infantry group, 
and another of $2,000 for the Ames Manufacturing Com- 
pany, on the artillery group. The Ames Manufacturing 
Company received a second estimate on November 12, 
1889, of $2,500 on the cavalry group, and Bureau Bros, 
received $3,000 on the infantry group on December 10 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 475 

of the same year. A short time later, Bureau Bros, re- 
ceived $2,000 more on the infantry group, and on May 
10, 1890, that firm received an additional $400 on the 
same contract. 

" The first payment for the marble was on June 27, 
1890, when the Baynes Tracery and Mosaic Company, 
of New York, received $1,947.71 on the marble tablets 
containing the names of the Soldiers. On July 3, of the 
same year, payment of $766.04 was made on the tablets, 
and other vouchers on the same pieces were approved 
in rapid succession for some time, the total cost of the 
tablets being $11,161.98. Bills for stone, bronze and 
marble, and material not contracted for, used in the 
construction of the Monument, flowed in rapidly from 
this time. On December 30, 1890, voucher No. 915 
was approved, and the aggregate then reached $54,- 

" The thousand mark was passed in 1891, and voucher 
No. 1272, for the services of Lewis Morroni, clay mod- 
eler, $21, was approved on December 29. The total 
expenditures of the Commission were now $92,762.13. 
When December 27, 1892, was reached, the final meet- 
ing of the Commission for that year was held, and 
voucher No. 1401 was approved. This brought the ex- 
penses so far incurred up to $136,265.03. 

" Payments on the bronzes had been made with fre- 
quency during the year, and that item of expense was 
well out of the way. The cost of the various pieces was 
as follows : Bureau Bros., the Amazonian statue of Lib- 
erty, the capital of the shaft, and pedestal of the statue, 
seven bronze busts, four trophy panels for the outside 
groups, and four bands to surround the shaft and con- 
tain the names of the principal battles participated in 
by Cuyahoga County Soldiers, $20,000 ; infantry group, 
'The Color Guard,' $11,000; interior panels, $5,500; 
the Ames Manufacturing Company, of Chicopee, Mass., 


the artillery group, $6,000 ; cavalry group, $6,985 ; four 
bronze doors, four grill doors, two eagles, etc., $12,100; 
American Bronze Company, of Chicago, navy group, 
' Mortar Practice, 1 $4,850. 

" Voucher No. 1606 was reached on December 30, 
1893, when the aggregate amount paid out reached 
$238,134.29. The expenditures of the year 1893 were 
the heaviest in the history of the Monument, $101,- 
869.26 being paid out. The total cost of the Monument 
up to June 4, 1894, was $272,835.78, which was divided 
as follows: sculptors, $19,390.85; living models, $2,879; 
plaster modelers, $4,387.79 ; materials and patterns, 
54,464.05; building and incidentals, $19,520.62; bronze, 
$68,872.73; marble, $25,525.16 ; stone, $18,228.17; mis- 
cellaneous, $7,919.81 ; material for construction, $99,- 
969.13; interest, $1,678.47. 

" Among the items of the cost of the Monument, the 
expenses of the litigation with the City and with indi- 
viduals take a comfortable slice. The sum of $2,500 
was required to cover this item alone. There were no 
Court costs to pay, as the Commission won its case, but 
there were attorneys to provide for, and some minor 
bills for printing and clerical work to liquidate. The 
case of the Monument Commission was placed in the 
hands of Judge J. M. Jones and Loren Prentiss, Esq. 
The services of Colonel A. T. Brinsmade were also made 
use of, but the latter refused to receive any compensa- 
tion. Mr. Prentiss entered on the case, intending to 
give his services free, as it was then thought that the 
litigation would be brief. It was soon seen, however, 
that the Commission had a long fight ahead, and Mr. 
Prentiss was properly recompensed for his efforts in 
behalf of occupying the southeast section of the Public 
Square as a site for the Monument. He was paid several 
fees, ranging from $100 to $250 each, the aggregate being 
in the neighborhood of $1,000. Judge Jones was paid for 


his services at one time, receiving $1,239, of which $39 
was for incidental expenses. Another item in the cost 
was that of electrical appliances, the heaters, the elec- 
trolier, and chandeliers, costing $6,000. The granite 
shaft, which weighs in the neighborhood of 140 tons, 
and consists of ten immense blocks, cost $4,250, and 
was furnished by Joseph Carabelli. The platforms and 
steps cost $15,961.45." 

The entire cost of the Memorial and its surroundings, 
including interest on the anticipated collection of taxes, 
aggregate in round figures $280,000. Not a dollar of 
this amount has passed through the hands of the Com- 
mission, all moneys being collected by the Countv 
Treasurer, and paid out by him on warrants drawn bv 
the County xAuditor, when ordered so to do in writing 
by the Monument Executive Committee and it s Secre- 

The sum of 8270,000 was raised by public taxation; 
$7,750 from interest on money in the county treasury 
pending the erection of the Monument, loaned out to 
banks by the Commission ; and $2,250 from advertise- 
ments on the fence surrounding the Memorial during 
its construction. Total, $280,000. 

The erection of the Memorial was handled with con- 
summate skill by our careful and reliable contractors, 
Col. A. McAllister and Mr. Andrew Dall. We are 
deeply gratified to be able to say that from the begin- 
ning of the work until its close, they performed their 
important part so judiciously that not a life or limb was 
lost ; neither was any part of the Memorial broken or 
injured, — another proof that the Lord looked with favor 
on our undertaking, in addition to the fact that master 
builders did highly creditable work. The contractors 
for bronze, granite, marble, tablets, windows, stone and 
all other work did their respective parts to the satisfac- 
tion of the Commission. 





THE Editor of the Plain Dealer was enthusiastic 
over the dedicatory exercises. Here is what 
he said : 

"The morning of the Fourth was delightful, and all 
•day there was a good breeze from the lake. If the day 
had been made to order it could not have been more 

"When the bands struck up in the Square at 9 
o'clock, thousands of people were present to listen to the 
music as it filled the air. It was manifest that all Na- 
ture had conspired with the people to make the day 
memorable for its beauty and the celebration. 

"The school children, in gay attire, with flags in 
their hands, filled the vast amphitheater, and by their 
songs and appearance made a charming feature of the 
day. Mr. Stewart was at his best, and called out much 
praise for the part he did in bringing the children out. 

"It was a grand sight to behold; the thousands of 
children embowered with the red, white and blue flags, 
the old Soldiers standing above them as sentinels, em- 
blems of the past, yet living witnesses of the heroic 
deeds by which the Union was saved; then far out be- 
yond, the upturned faces of the people, who had gath- 
ered by thousands to commemorate this most glorious 
day in the history of this country, while they assisted 
in dedicating the Monument, erected to the memory of 
their kindred who fought to save the Union. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 479 

"The disposition of the people was as cheerful and 
lovely as the day, and when Governor McKinley rose 
to speak, it was soon made manifest that the crowd was 
glad to greet him and hear him. The Governor was at 
his best, and his speech is full of eloquent passages, 
patriotism and sound sense. 

" The reading of the Declaration of Independence by 
Hon. Virgil P. Kline could not have been done better, 
for he believes every word of that great state paper, and 
he made it deeply impressive by his excellent voice and 
his sincerity. 

" The orator of the day, ex-Governor Foraker, never 
appeared to greater advantage or before a grander audi- 
ence. His oration was full of brilliant passages that 
sparkled with keen tact, insight and genius. Read the 
oration and you will be proud of the speaker and the 
State which he honors. If he pricks you politically, it 
will be with a keen blade. 

" Grand as were the speeches, they were equaled by 
the magnificent display of the parade. The citizens of 
Cleveland had an object lesson in the industrial and 
commercial exhibits such as should make them proud 
of their city. Hundreds said, as the great procession 
passed : ' We did not know Cleveland could make such 
a display.' It was but the foretaste of the Greater 

" All honor to the old Soldiers. Words of ours can 
never do them justice. We could but thank God and 
take courage as they inarched through the streets in 
such goodly numbers, setting example to the younger 
companies who bore themselves so well. We cannot 
go into particulars, for every military company deserves 
great credit, as well as the civic societies for giving aid, 
comfort and success to this grand celebration. 

" To the merchants, to the manufacturers, to the old 
Soldiers and the young Soldiers, to the civic societies, 


to the orators of the day, to the Council, to the Board 
of Control, to the School Council, to the children, the 
Mayor and all the people, we extend congratulations 
for what they did to make the celebration of the Fourth 
of July, 1894, the grandest success ever witnessed in 

The Leader editorially expressed its opinion of the 
celebration in manner following: 

"Cleveland's big Fourth of July celebration was all 
that it had been expected to be. The weather, the 
great crowds of sightseers from other places, the happy 
multitudes in the streets, the music, the eloquent ora- 
tions, the impressive exercises in connection with the 
dedication of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, the 
illumination, the decorations of the city, in fact all the 
arrangements for the day, and the execution of the 
plans could hardly have been better. 

" The procession was one of the largest and finest in 
the history of the city, and in the bright sunshine, tem- 
pered by such a lake breeze as few places can boast, 
even the grayest of the old veterans swung along with 
the tread of their warrior days. The floats and deco- 
rated wagons made an impressive demonstration of the 
industrial resources of Cleveland, and the whole line 
moved with admirable order and promptness. 

" Everybody who contributed to make the Independ- 
ence Day which marked the dedication of the war Mon- 
ument of Cuyahoga County a splendid success is to be 
congratulated. A big task was undertaken in the face 
of the disadvantages of industrial depression, and it was 
carried through in a style which will be remembered to 
the credit of the men who bore the heaviest responsi- 
bilities, as well as to the honor of the city." 

The Leader locally said : 

" Cleveland has seen several great days since the Con- 
necticut survevor landed at the mouth of the Cuvahoga 


River, and yesterday was one of them. Realization sur- 
passed anticipation. Fact, for once at least, outstripped 
fancv. Even Nature seemed to have taken an especial 
interest in the occasion, for from her large and well 
selected assortment of summer days, she could hardly 
have chosen one more ideally suited to the patriotic pro- 
gram which had been arranged for it. Nothing was 
lacking to make the dedication of the Cuyahoga County 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, and the celebration of 
Independence Day a great success. Nature not only 
did all that could be asked of her, but those upon whose 
executive talent the success of the several features of the 
day depended also arose to the height of their oppor- 

"Crowds began to gather shortly after the welcoming 
of the sun with the thunder of artillery, and by 9 o'clock, 
when the regular program was opened by the concert 
of the Great Western Band and the yacht race upon the 
unruffled lake, the Square and the entering streets were 
thronged with humanity. At 9:30 o'clock, when 3,000 
school children took their places in the great amphi- 
theater, and lifted their trained voices in patriotic song, 
the scene was inspiring in the highest degree. The 
wilderness of decorations as far as the eye could reach, 
the canopy of fluttering flags, the vast concourse, and 
the chief figure of the scene, the great Monument with 
its silent eloquence, all combined to arouse the most 
ardent emotions. Several songs were sung by the chil- 
dren, and no feature of the day made a more lasting im- 
pression. The introductory address of Governor Will- 
iam McKinley, like all the public utterances of that 
eminent statesman, met every requirement, and both 
his presence and his words called forth the utmost en- 
thusiasm. That other brilliant son of Ohio, ex-Gov- 
ernor Joseph B. Foraker, the orator of the occasion, 
delivered a masterly effort, pointing out in a most im- 


pressive manner the lesson of patriotism taught by the 
Monument. The reading of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, without which a Fourth of July celebration 
would not be complete, was finely done by Virgil P. 
Kline, Esq., while a meritorious poem was presented by 
Rev. Levi Gilbert, D. D. During the progress of the 
dedicatory exercises, as in fact throughout the day, the 
interior of the Monument was visited by many 

"In the presence of a multitude such as has rarely as- 
sembled in the Public Square, with ceremonies most 
impressive, and amid surroundings of the greatest 
beauty, the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument was dedi- 
cated yesterday morning. The section of the Public 
Square across Superior Street from the Monument had 
been chosen as the place for holding the exercises. In 
it had been built an amphitheater and in this was seated 
the chorus of 3,000 school children, and half as many 
special guests, nearly all of them Soldiers and the 
widows of Soldiers. South of the amphitheater, and 
facing the Monument, was a finely decorated stand with 
a red and white canopy. During the exercises this 
stand was occupied by Governor McKinley, ex-Governor 
Foraker, Mayor Blee, Hon. M. A. Hanna, Mr. L- E. 
Holden, Judge S. O. Griswold, of Windsor, Conn., to 
whom is ascribed the distinction of having drafted the 
original law constituting the Soldiers' and Sailors' Mon- 
ument Commission ; Director W.J. McKinnie ; Adju- 
tant General Howe, of Kenton ; General Ebright, of 
Akron ; Colonel J. C. Bomner, of Toledo ; Colonel H. C. 
Sherrard, of Steubenville ; Colonel S. L. Mooney, of 
Woodsford ; Colonel Horace E. Andrews, all members 
of Governor McKinley's staff; Professor Charles F. 
Olney, Judge E. T. Hamilton, Hon. A. J. Williams, 
Rev. Dr. D. H. Muller, Mr. A. P. Winslow, Mr. W. J. 
Akers, Hon. V. A. Taylor, Mr. James McHenry, Mr. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 483 

James Lavan, General J. J. Elwell, General James Bar- 
nett, Judge J. F. Burkett, of Findlay, and Judge F. J. 
Dickman, members of the Supreme Court of the State ; 
Colonel Emory W. Force, Dr. R. W. Walters, Hon. T. 
E. Burton, Mr. P. H. Kaiser, Mr. A. C. Hord, Mr. W. 
M. Day, Treasurer of State W. T. Cope, Secretary of 
State S. M. Taylor, Hon. O. J. Hodge, Hon. John P. 
Green, Major W. W. Armstrong, Sergeant James Hayr, 
Major W. J. Gleason, Captain Levi F. Bauder, Mr. 
Thomas Reilley, Mr. F. C. Bate, Councilman Walter I. 
Thompson, School Councilman Martin House, Mr. H. 
M. Addison, Rev. Dr. Levi Gilbert, Mgr. T. P. Thorpe, 
Hon. Amos Townsend, General Manning F. Force, of 
Sandusky, Superintendent of the Soldiers' Home in that 
city; Mr. Charles T. Caldwell, of Parkersburg, W. Va.; 
Mr. Silas Merchant, Colonel C. C. Dewstoe, General M. 
D. Leggett, Captain J. B. Molyueaux, Captain Edward 
H. Bohm, Mrs. Levi T. Scofield, Mrs. W. J. Gleason, 
the Misses Agnes, Katherine, Alma and Florence 
Gleason, Mrs. Lena Springsteen, Mrs. Lois Knauff, Mrs. 
John Eisenmann, Mrs. Esther M. Harris and Mrs. Sarah 
Adams Estabrook Thatcher. The two last named ladies 
are survivors of the Sanitary Commission, which did 
such noble work for the Soldiers when the Rebellion 
was at its height. When in the course of the exercises 
they were introduced by Governor McKinley, they were 
received with the utmost enthusiasm. Mrs. Thatcher is 
the widow of the late Peter Thatcher, and Mrs. Harris 
is the widow of Josiah A. Harris. As the occupants of 
the speakers' stand appeared they were greeted with 
applause. Mrs. Springsteen and Mrs. Knauff appeared 
with two big baskets of flowers for the two central 
figures of the occasion, the Governor and the ex- 
Governor. The recipients of the floral tributes smiling- 
ly bowed their acknowledgments, and ex-Governor 
Foraker said, ' We thank you, ladies.' 


" Stretching away before the company in the stand 
was one of the largest audiences ever assembled in 
Cleveland. The crowd extended in an almost unbroken 
mass across Superior Street and over the strip of park 
which surrounds the Monument. The Monument ter- 
race was filled and the crowd extended far into Superior 
and Ontario Streets. Every window of the big build- 
ings which surround the Square was filled with specta- 
tors. The decorations were the most beautiful that 
have been seen in the Public Square. Lines of small 
flags extended to the top of the electric light mast in 
the center of the Square, the buildings were a mass of 
decorations and bright colors, and Chinese lanterns were 
strung among the trees. 

" In the dedicating services, there were prayers which 
were impressive, addresses which were inspiring, music 
which was soul-stirring, and an audience patriotic and 
enthusiastic to the last degree." 

The brilliant reporter of the Plain Dealer furnishes 
this word-painting gem : 

" Surrounded by silvery-haired men who had marched 
forth as beardless youths a third of a century ago at the 
Nation's call to arms, in the presence of honored sons 
who, on the field of battle, in the halls of legislation, 
and in the executive chair of the State had proved their 
manly worth, surrounded by troops of merry children to 
whom the story of Gettysburg and Vicksburg were the 
same as Bunker Hill and Valley Forge, lessons of the 
school room and fireside, with the pomp and pageantry 
of military display and the evidences of peaceful occu- 
pations, the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument was formally and gloriously dedicated yes- 

u The event was a notable one in many respects. 
Among the grandest memorials which now commemo- 
rate the deeds of 1861-5 throughout the length and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 485 

breadth of the land, the Cuyahoga Memorial is probably 
the last great monolith to be lifted in honor of the men 
who went forth to battle in that great cause. 

" That time had made many strides since the events 
which this great shaft commemorated was plainly evi- 
denced by the appearance of the men who had taken 
part in that glorious struggle. The grizzled hairof Private 
Joseph Benson Foraker bore little resemblance to the 
raven locks of the gallant message bearer who rode 
with Sherman before Atlanta. Governor William Mc- 
Kinley bore on his strongly developed brow many fur- 
rows which were not there when he shouldered his mus- 
ket in the ranks of that Ohio regiment of which he soon 
became the major. 

" General Barnett, Chaplain Mitchell, General Elwell 
and many others of the distinguished men upon the 
platform on the Square showed only too well what 
years of service in the field and a generation of active 
life since had done, while of the gayly epauletted and 
aiguletted members of the Governor's staff, many were 
children in their teens when Grant was storming Yicks- 
burg and Meade and Hancock were driving Lee and 
Longstreet from Little Round Top and the field of 

" That the lessons of that day were not forgotten, 
that the flag for which these heroes fought had in- 
creased in luster even as its stars had multiplied in 
number, that the hopes and aspirations of the Nation 
were as dear and sacred now as then, no one who wit- 
nessed yesterday's ceremonial can doubt. That the 
Nation that was born 118 years ago and saved from in- 
ternal disruption a third of a century ago is still the 
idol of the people's heart and the object of their great- 
est love was made manifest to all. That alone was 
worth all the trouble, all the sacrifice that the celebration 
cost, and was after all the greatest lesson it had to tell. 


" Never before did a Fourth of July open with greater 
promise and never was that promise of meteorological 
perfection better maintained. 

" From an almost cloiidless sky, the sun arose over a 
city decked forth in holiday attire. A cool and refresh- 
ing breeze swept over it from the lake, setting every 
piece of bunting in the city in a flutter and stretching 
every flag into the appearance of a metal emblem stiff 
against the sky. 

" And what myriads of flags there were ! 

"Never did a city look more joyous. From every 
business house down town, and in front of almost every 
private residence throughout the verdure-clad city, 
there bloomed forth some evidence of loyalty and joy. 
From the top of the Hickox building, down town streets 
seemed fluttering ribbons of color leading toward the 
Square like garlands on a May-pole. 

"It was in the Public Square that all interest cen- 
tered, and here the color scheme reached its climax. 
Every building was emblazoned with national colors 
and made resplendent with many colored flags. Over 
all, like the frame-work of an open canopy, were the 
gay streamers radiating like spokes of a wheel from the 
top of the tall light mast in the center. 

" By 8 o'clock in the morning the crowds had begun 
to gather. The Monument itself, with its fringe of 
variegated plants, never seemed more worthy of admi- 
ration. From the tall goddess, silhouetted against the 
sky, to the life-like group about the base, the great shaft 
attracted the admiration of hundreds of visitors all dur- 
ing the morning. 

"The sun shone forth strong and hot in spite of the 
morning breeze, and the crowds soon sought shelter 
under the protection of the trees and awnings, while 
about the Square a myriad of umbrellas shot up like 
mushrooms after a summer shower. 


"The great amphitheater alone remained unfilled, 
and rose in vivid whiteness above the sea of people that 
swarmed about it. 

" The Committee of Arrangements is busy now in re- 
ceiving snch gnests as are entitled to seats in the all too 
contracted stand in front, and the members of Army 
and Navy Post, each member carrying the guidon of 
the regiment to which he belonged, take places on the 
top of the amphitheater like sentries on a bastion. 

" Twenty thousand people now swarm like bees about 
the Square, while the fluttering flags beat tattoos against 
the staffs around the stand. 

"Every building has its quota of people, and men 
hang about the cornices of the Cuyahoga and Society for 
Savings like beads on a silken cord. Each window 
frames a group of people also, and the bright summer 
costumes of the ladies everywhere impart life and color 
to the scene. 

"Soon Governor McKinley. escorted by Mayor Blee, 
appears, followed by the members of his military staff. 
Adjutant General Howe, with a yellow sash across his 
broad chest, leads them, and Colonel Horace A. An- 
drews makes his appearance with his fellow officers, 
handsomer than ever in his gold-braided uniform. He 
is the youngest member of the staff present, with the 
exception of Colonel Harry Sherrard, the Steubenville 

"Ex-Governor Joseph B. Foraker follows. He has 
no staff, but he is speedily recognized by the crowd, and 
evokes a cheer that neither the little Napoleon nor his 
military attaches can equal. 

" There are members of the Supreme Court, members 
of the Monument Commission, the Chaplain of the Day,. 
the Monsignor of the Roman Catholic Diocese, the 
Mayor and other dignitaries crowded together in a 
lamentably insufficient space, but all objects of interest 


to the sweltering crowds beneath. It is after 9 o'clock 
when the children begin to arrive and take their places 
on the raised tiers of seats provided. Prof. N. Coe 
Stewart is at their head, and they assume their places 
with a precision that calls forth applause on the part of 
the old Soldiers present. The leader puts them through 
.a short drill previous to the opening. 4 Umbrellas closed,' 
he calls from his stand in the foreground, and hundreds 
of parasols are closed, revealing a picture of beauty 
worthy of any stage. The boys are arranged in the 
central division, flanked by the girls like the dark cen- 
tral part of some great flower. 

" It was as though some great floral emblem had been 
tilted up to the view of the audience. No old-fashioned 
garden ever showed a greater variety of color than this. 
And nothing else than a flower garden seemed worthy 
of comparison with it. Like a flash the dark curtain of 
umbrellas was swept away, revealing a mass of bright 
faces in a sea of foaming white gowns with splashes of 
crimson and scarlet and gold. Never had those jewels 
of Cleveland, her school children, looked lovelier, and, 
as under Prof. Stewart's wand they uncovered their 
heads, there was a fluttering of color like the waving of 
a forest in the full grandeur of its Autumnal beauty. 

" The gayly-decked speakers' stand, with its comple- 
ment of noted men and gorgeous uniforms, no longer 
held the public eye. Every face was turned toward the 
display of youthful animation on the amphitheater. 

" Finally the Great Western Band struck up ' Colum- 
bia.'' The conductor waved his baton. Every child 
was up. Another wave and the national air is taken up 
by 3,000 voices and carried far out over the heads of the 
surging mass of people who fill the Square like figs 
in a box. The chorus is repeated again and again in 
response to*the applause, and then someone is seen'ko 
rise in the stand]below and 'the formalities have .begun. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 489 

" Meanwhile the children are waiting for the opening 
prayer to close, and again at the Professor's beck they 
rise and onr ' Bonnie Bine Flag ' bursts forth : 

" ' We will wave our bonnie flag 
And fling it to the breeze, 
Emblem 'tis of liberty 
On land and on the seas.' 

"With this, 3,000 flags, heretofore invisible, flutter 
over 3,000 little heads, and in rhythmic time are wav- 
ing to the music. It was a sight to stir the patriotism 
from the heart of the bronze statue of Liberty on the 
big Monument, and the old Soldiers in the crowd break 
forth in rapturous applause as the cascade of color 
flashes and sparkles in the sunlight. 

" It is many minutes before the applause subsides. 
Governor McKinley is introduced and the ceremonies 
of the day are fairly under way. 


" The speakers' stand was small and quite crowded 
with the speakers, Governor McKinley's staff, the Mon- 
ument Commission, the General Celebration Committee, 
the Reception Committee, and invited guests. A few of 
the Commissioners and guests arrived before 9 o'clock, 
but it was half an hour later before anything occurred 
to stir the attention of those who had been contemplat- 
ing the assembling of the great mass of people in front 
of the stand where McKinley and Foraker were to recall 
the deeds of heroic Soldiers and to renew the patriotism 
of the people. Promptly at 9:30 o'clock the Reception 
Committee escorted Governor McKinley and ex-Gov- 
ernor Foraker and the Governor's military staff. These 
distinguished men approached the forum and ascended 
to it before the people became aware of their presence. 
Governor McKinley appeared at the entrance to the 
stand before the crowd discovered him. Major W. J. 
Gleason, upon behalf of the Commission and Commit- 


tees, received the distinguished party. The Governor 
was closely followed by the ex-Governor, who walked 
proudlv and with an elastic step. As soon as the peo- 
ple caught sight of them a cheering was set up. The 
old Soldiers, members of Army and Navy Post, Grand 
Army of the Republic, who were on guard duty at the 
grand stand, bv invitation of the President of the Com- 
mission, expressed their enthusiasm by waving their 
bannerets and swinging their hats. This Post turned out 
one hundred and twenty strong ; and, with their hand- 
some uniforms and soldierly bearing, made a splendid 
appearance. The school children were not yet in their 
places, but the veterans made their applause heard. 
Governor McKinley bowed and waved his hand in ac- 
knowledgment. When his distinguished companion 
turned to acknowledge the salutation, the applause was 

"A few minutes after the gubernatorial party arrived, 
the immense chorus of school children, under the 
leadership of Prof. N. Coe Stewart and the Great West- 
ern Band, took their places on the grand stand. The 
sight of about 3,000 school children taking their places, 
their beaming faces, the airy garments of the little girls 
and the touches of red, white and blue from the flags 
each child carried and tried to keep out of sight until 
the proper time, was an inspiring picture. While the 
children were arranging themselves, the Band played 
patriotic music. Shortly before 10 o'clock, Prof. Stewart 
got his singers in position, and at a signal, parasols and 
sun umbrellas, which had hidden the little girls from 
view, were closed and put away. The children removed 
their hats while they sang 'Columbia.' Before they 
had finished, the party in the speakers' stand began 
applauding. This was taken up by the people sitting 
in front of the singers, then by those on the Superior 
Street side ; thence it traveled across the street and was 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 491 

taken up by the thousands who stood on and around the 
pile of marble and bronze which all had come to dedicate. 

" ' It is a beautiful sight,' remarked Gov. McKinley, 
whose eyes kindled as he clapped his hands and waved 
the manuscript he held in one of them. There was no 
hesitancy in the singing of the children. The pure 
voices were strong, well controlled and aye, defiant, too, 
on those passages where natural feeling produced it. 
The youthful singers, many of them old enough to 
appreciate the full significance of the occasion, were not 
half-hearted in rendering their part of dutiful service to 
the memory of those who founded the Nation and those 
who fcmght and preserved it before it had been in exist- 
ence a century. While they sang the chorus, the chil- 
dren waved the flags which they had been so careful to 
hide when they came to their places, and this added 
greatly to the effect. The man whose emotions could 
not be stirred by such a scene must indeed be without 
country, without home, without human sympathy and 
without heart, an animal in the form of man, but with- 
out soul. 

" Before the echoes of the applause had died away, 
Mesdames Springsteen and Knauff came with the love- 
ly baskets and cut-flowers and handsome bouquets, 
bearing the best wishes of the mothers, wives, sisters 
and daughters of Soldiers to the ex-Soldiers who were 
to pronounce the words of dedication." 

Ten minutes after the band music and singing by the 
children, the Rev. Dr. John Mitchell, a constant friend 
of the Monument, one of the fighting chaplains of '61, 
now Chaplain of the Fifth Regiment, stepped forward, 
bared his head, stretched forth his hands and called for 
the divine blessing upon the services about to begin. In 
fervid tone he asked for the blessing in the following 
words : 

O Lord, our heavenly Father, almighty and ever- 


lasting God, look down from thy throne and behold thy 
people assembled this day in thy presence. Most 
heartily we beseech thee to look upon us with thy 
gracious favor and to bless us. 

We thank thee for thy goodness to us and to all 
men. We do most heartily confess and repent of all 
our sins, we are sorry that we have not lived to a better 
purpose, therefore blot out all our transgressions and 
remember them no more against us forever. 

We thank thee for this day and its memories, we 
thank thee that thou hast been with this Nation from 
the beginning. Thou hast brought it through trial and 
trouble and guided its affairs with thy own loving hand. 
Continue to watch over it, and greatly bless and prosper 
it. Make this Nation a glorious Nation whose God is 
the Lord. 

We thank thee for the occasion that brings us to- 
gether, — the dedication of this Memorial to the memory 
of brave men living and dead, who in the hour of need 
stood in the heat of battle for the country and the flag 
they loved. 

Remember graciously the surviving veterans. Keep 
them in peace and prosperity ; and ma} - they be en- 
shrined in the hearts of a grateful people, and may the 
glorious deeds wrought by them inspire a spirit of 
patriotism in all hearts. 

Take the widow and orphan into thy own loving 
care, take away the tears from their eyes and the sorrow 
from their hearts. 

Bless him who presides over this Nation, give him 
wisdom to rule in righteousness, and may he seek to 
know and do thy will. 

Remember the Governor of our own State, give him 
wisdom and direct him in all things. 

Let this day be one of joy and gladness, and let 
sorrow come to no heart. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 493 

Guide in all things, and we will give thee all the 
glory through Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour. — 

"Our Bonnie Flag" was sung by the children. In 
singing the chorus, they beat the time of the music 
with flags. The thousands of flags moved in perfect 
unison, a great mass of the national colors, and the 
pretty effect was greeted with cheers and applause. 

In presenting Governor McKinley as the President of 
the day, Mayor Robert Blee, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements, said : 

" Ladies and gentlemen and fellow citizens, in order 
that as many as possible may hear the speeches that are 
to be delivered on this occasion, it is necessary that 
quiet be preserved. I now have the great pleasure of 
introducing to you our own Governor, Hon. William 
McKinley, as President of the day." 

"Our own Governor" was a sentiment which caught 
the crowd, and they lost not a moment in manifesting 
their appreciation of it. Governor McKinley, with his 
suit of somber black, his Prince Albert coat buttoned, 
advanced to the front of the stand, and the crowd 
greeted him with enthusiasm. Three cheers were given 
for him, and they were repeated before he had said a 
dozen words. In a calm and dignified address he spoke 
to the crowd of the significance of the day and the 
Memorial, and his patriotic sentiments found a ready 
response in the hearts of his hearers. 

The Governor's appearance was greeted* with enthu- 
siastic cheers and applause. After bowing his thanks, 
he said: 
Soldiers and Sailors of Ctiyahoga County, my Comrades 

and Fellow Citizens : 

I wish the whole world might have witnessed the 
sight we have just seen and have heard the song we 
have just listened to from the school children of the 


City of Cleveland. With patriotism in our hearts and 
with the flag of our country in our hands, there is no 
danger of anarchy and there is no danger to the American 
Union. [ Applause.] 

The place, the day, and the occasion upon which we 
assemble, fill us with patriotic emotion. They are 
happily and appropriately united. This old Monu- 
mental Square is filled with hallowed memories. This 
day registers the birthday of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. And this Monument that we dedicate to-day 
attests that every promise of that declaration has been 
kept and performed. [ Applause.] Standing in this 
presence, I am reminded that this Public Square has 
witnessed many interesting and memorable events. 
The first I recall was on the ioth day of September, 
i860, when the monument to Commodore Perry was 
unveiled on this Square. It was a deeply interesting 
occasion. An immense crowd thronged this city as it 
throngs it to-day. Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, 
with his staff and State officers, and the members of the 
Legislature of that State, and the Providence Light In- 
fantry, participated in the interesting ceremony. Gov- 
ernor Dennison, the first war Governor Ohio ever had, 
delivered the address of welcome. General J. W. Fitch, 
remembered by the older citizens of Cleveland, was the 
Grand Marshal of the day ; and General Barnett, whose 
distinguished services in the war are yet fresh in the 
memory of the people [applause], and who now partici- 
pates in these ceremonies, was in command of the 
Cleveland Light Artillery Regiment. The great histor- 
ian, George Bancroft, delivered the principal address of 
the day. It was probably, my fellow citizens, the 
greatest celebration that Cuyahoga County had seen up 
to that time. It was on this ground, too, that the Sol- 
diers' and Sailors' Aid Society of Northern Ohio, aye, 
of the whole country, was organized, and some of the 


President of the Dav. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. ' 497 

noble mothers who were at the birth of that organiza- 
tion are seated upon this platform to-day. [Applause.] 
These noble women gave unselfish devotion to the 
country and money from all this section of the State 
poured into the coffers of that association for the relief 
of the men at the front, who were sustaining the flag. 
It was in this Square too that the remains of the mar- 
tyred Lincoln, the great emancipator, rested as they 
journeyed to his Western home. It was on this very 
spot, almost where we stand to-day, that the whole 
population of Northern Ohio viewed for the last time 
him who had been captain of all our armies under the 
Constitution, and whose death was a sacrifice to the 
great cause of freedom and the Union. [ Applause.] 

Here, too, my fellow citizens, on this very spot, the 
remains of the immortal Garfield lay in state, attended 
by the Congress of the United States, by the supreme 
judiciary of the Nation, by the officers of the Army and 
the Navy of the United States, by the Governors and 
Legislators of all the surrounding States. The steady 
tread of a mourning State and Nation was uninterrupted 
through the entire night. It was here that the people 
looked upon his face for the last time forever. 

Interesting, my fellow citizens, and patriotic, as the 
scenes witnessed in the past have been, I venture to say 
that none of them have stirred so many memories or 
quickened such patriotic feeling as the services we per- 
form to-day in the dedication of this beautiful structure 
to the memory of the loyal Soldiers and Sailors who 
contributed their lives to save the Government from 
dissolution. Cuyahoga County can well be proud of 
this great Memorial. It is a fitting tribute to the Sol- 
diers living and the Soldiers dead. Cuyahoga's sons 
were represented in nearly every branch of the military 
service. Almost every Ohio regiment received some 
contribution from Cuyahoga County, whether in the in- 


fantry, cavalry, artillery, on land or on sea. Whether 
among white troops or colored troops Cuyahoga Coun- 
ty's sons were to be found, they were always found at 
the post of greatest danger. [ Applause.] 

Nothing has so impressed me in the program to-day 
as the organization of the old Soldiers, carrying with 
them their tattered flags, which they bore a third of a 
century ago upon the fields of war. More than sixty of 
the old regimental flags will be carried by the survivors 
of their respective regiments, and the flag room at the 
capitol at Columbus could not supply the men of Cuya- 
hoga County all the flags which they are entitled to bear. 
Is it any wonder that these old Soldiers love to carry 
the flags under which they fought and for which their 
brave comrades gave up their lives? 

Is it any wonder that the old Soldier loves the flag 
under whose folds he fought and for which his comrades 
shed so much blood ? He loves it for what it is and 
for what it represents. It embodies the purposes and 
history of the Government itself. It records the 
achievements of its defenders upon land and sea. It 
heralds the heroism and sacrifices of our Revolutionary 
fathers who planted free government on this continent 
and dedicated it to liberty forever. It attests the strug- 
gles of our army and the valor of our citizens in all the 
wars of the republic. It has been sanctified by the 
blood of our best and our bravest. It records the 
achievements of Washington and the martyrdom of 
Lincoln. It has been bathed in the tears of a sorrow- 
ing people. It has been glorified in the hearts of a 
freedom loving people, not only at home but in every 
part of the world. Our flag expresses more than any 
other flag ; it means more than any other national em- 
blem. It expresses the will of a free people and pro- 
claims that they are supreme and that they acknowl- 
edge no earthlv sovereign than themselves. It never 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 499 

was assaulted that thousands did not rise up to smite 
the assailant. Glorious old banner ! 

When the stars and stripes were hauled down on 
Sumter, flags without number were raised above every 
fireside in the land and all the glorious achievements 
which that flag represented with all its hallowed mem- 
ories glowed with burning fervor in the heart of every 
lover of liberty and the Union. The mad assault which 
was made upon the flag at that time aroused its defend- 
ers and kindled a patriotism which could not be 
quenched until it had extingtiished the unholy cause 
which assaulted our holy banner. 

What more beautiful conception than that which 
prompted Abra Kohn, of Chicago, in February, 1861, to 
send to Air. Lincoln, on the eve of his starting to 
Washington to take the office of President, to which he 
had been elected, a flag of our country, bearing upon 
its silken folds these words from the fifth and ninth 
verses of the first chapter of Joshua: "Have I not 
commanded thee, be strong and of good courage ? Be 
not afraid, neither be thou dismayed, for the Lord, our 
God, is with thee, whithersoever thou goest. There 
shall no man be able to stand before thee all the days 
of thy life. As I was with Moses, so shall I be with 
thee. I will not fail thee nor forsake thee." 

Could anything have given Mr. Lincoln more cheer 
or been better calculated to sustain his courage or 
strengthen his faith in the mighty work before him? 
Thus commanded, thus assured, Mr. Lincoln journeyed 
to the capital, where he took the oath of office and reg- 
istered in heaven an oath to save the Union ; and " the 
Lord, our God," was with him and did not fail nor for- 
sake him until every obligation of oath and duty was 
sacredly kept and honored. Not any man was able to 
stand before him. Liberty was enthroned, the L T nion 
was saved and the flag which he carried floated in 


triumph and glory upon every flagstaff of the Re- 

What does this Monument mean ? It means the 
immortal principle of patriotism. It means love of 
country. It means sacrifices for the country we love. 
It means not only love of country but love of liberty ! 
This alone could have inspired over 2,800,000 Union 
Soldiers to leave home and family and to offer to die if 
need be for our imperiled institutions. Love of country 
alone could have inspired 300,000 men to die for the 
Union. Nothing less sacred than this love of country 
could have sustained 175,000 brave men, who suffered 
and starved and died in rebel prisons. Nor could any- 
thing else have given comfort to the 500,000 maimed 
and diseased, who escaped immediate death in siege 
and battle to end in torment the remainder of their 
patriot lives. It is a noble patriotism and it impels you, 
my fellow countrymen, to erect this magnificent Monu- 
ment to their honor and memory. And similar love of 
country will inspire your remotest descendants to do 
homage to their valor and bravery forever. 

This is what the Monument means. The lesson it 
conveys to the present and all future generations. It 
means that the cause in which they died was a righteous 
one, and it means that the cause which triumphed 
through their valor shall be perpetuated for all time. 

Charles Sumner said that President Lincoln was 
put to death by the enemies of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, but, said Sumner, though dead, he would 
always continue to guard that title deed of the human 
race. So that it does seem to me that everv time we 
erect a new monument to the memory of the Union Sol- 
diers and Sailors, we are cementing the very foundations 
of the Government itself. We are doing that which 
will strengthen our devotion to free institutions and in- 
sure their permanency for the remotest posterity. We 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 501 

are not only rendering immortal the fame of the men 
who participated in the War by these magnificent struct- 
ures, but we are doing better than that. We are mak- 
ing immortal the principles for which they contended 
and the union of free men for which they died. [Ap- 

Their erection may be a matter of comparatively 
little importance or concern to the Union Soldiers who 
are still living, but no one can accurately foretell the 
value and importance of their influence upon the young 
men and the young women from whom the Republic 
must draw her future defenders. Every time we erect 
a monument, every time we do honor to the Soldiers of 
the Republic, we reaffirm our devotion to the country, 
to the glorious flag, to the immortal principles of liberty, 
equality, and justice, which have made the United 
States unrivaled among the Nations of the world. The 
union of these States must be perpetual. That is what 
our brave boys died for. That is what this Monument 
must mean ; and such monuments as this are evidences 
that the people intend to take care that the great de- 
crees of the War shall be unquestioned and supreme. 

The unity of the Republic is secure so long as we 
continue to honor the memory of the men who died by 
the tens of thousands to preserve it. The dissolution 
of the Union is impossible so long as we continue to 
inculcate lessons of fraternity, unity, and patriotism, and 
erect monuments to perpetuate these sentiments. 

Such monuments as these have another meaning, 
which is one dear to the hearts of many who stand by 
me. It is, as Mr. Lincoln said at Gettysburg, that the 
dead shall not have died in vain ; that the Nation's later 
birth of freedom and the people's gain of their own 
sovereignty shall not perish from the earth. That is 
what this Monument means. That is the lesson of true 


patriotism ; that what was won in war shall be worn in 

But we must not forget, my fellow countrymen, 
that the Union which these brave men preserved, and 
the liberties which they secured, places upon ns, the 
living, the gravest responsibility. We are the freest 
Government on the face of the earth. Our strength- 
rests in onr patriotism. Anarchy flees before patriotism. 
Peace and order and secnrity and liberty are safe so 
long as love of country burns in the hearts of the peo- 
ple. It should not be forgotten, ho.wever, that liberty 
does not mean lawlessness. Liberty to make onr own 
laws does not give ns license to break them. [ Ap- 
plause.] Liberty to make onr own laws commands a 
duty to observe them ourselves and enforce obedience 
among all others within their jurisdiction. Liberty, 
my fellow citizens, is responsibility, and responsibility 
is duty, and that duty is to preserve the exceptional 
liberty we enjoy within the law and for the law and by 
the law. [ Great applause.] 

The children were heard again in Zundel's " Ameri- 
can Flag Song." At the close of the swelling chorus, 
there was a great roar of applause from the crowd ; 
even over at the Monument. Spectators in the blocks 
cheerily waved handkerchiefs as a mark of their appre- 
ciation of the melody. Blended with the applause 
were three hearty cheers given by the children for the 
flag. Their clear, musical voices, sent forth with all 
the enthusiasm of youth, rang out in three lusty cheers. 
A little fellow in knickerbockers raised a laugh by pro- 
posing, in a piping voice, a " tigah " to supplement the 

Virgil P. Kline had wisely been chosen to read the 
Declaration of Independence. He was dignified, as 
always. His reading of the immortal production of 
our forefathers was done with a fervor and eloquence 

Orator of the Dav. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 505 

that was inspiring. When he had concluded, there were 
shouts of approbation and exclamations of " good, 
good," on all sides, ending with cheers. 

" The Red, White, and Blue " was sung by the 
children. They arose at a signal from the wand of 
Professor Stewart, and to the accompaniment of the 
band the strains of the patriotic song floated out on the 
air. A waving of flags attended the singing, and it 
aroused the unbounded delight of the audience. They 
did not alone applaud, but cheered enthusiastically as 
the orator of the day, Governor McKinley, intro- 
duced ex-Governor Foraker. " The gentlemen of the 
committee having these exercises in charge," said Gov- 
ernor McKinley, " have been successful in many things. 
In nothing have they been more successful than in the 
selection of the orator of the day. I take great pleas- 
ure in introducing to you Hon. Joseph B. Foraker, the 
orator of the day." 

Ex-Governor Foraker advanced as his name was 
called and he was given a hearty reception. The sub- 
ject of his oration was, " The Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument and the Lessons of Patriotism It Teaches." 
In an eloquent and forcible manner he reviewed the 
struggle for independence and the great Civil War. An 
occasional sally of wit provoked laughter and his re- 
marks on the present conditions in the country were 
received with great applause. 

" Soldiers and Sailors of Cuyahoga County, Comrades 
and my Fellow Citizens," said the Governor in address- 
ing his hearers, " with patriotism in our hearts and 
with the flag of our country in the hands of our chil- 
dren, there is no danger from anarchy and there will be 
no danger to our Union." This extempore paragraph 
was elicited by the scene presented by the school chil- 
dren. Continuing, the Governor delivered his formal 
address as follows : 

506 history OF THE CUYAHOGA county 


Felloiv-Comrades mid Fellow- Citizens : — 

We meet on the Fourth of July to dedicate a Monu- 
ment to the memory of the heroes of our last War. 
The day and the occasion unite to recall both the Revo- 
lution and the Rebellion. These struggles had a distinct 
relation to each other, and were strikingly similar in 
some respects. 

The last was but the complement of the first. It 
wrought for the black man what the first accomplished 
for the white. 

Both began as rebellions. Both had relation to 
natural, governmental and human rights. There was 
no question of territory, balance of power or inter- 
national statecraft or diplomacy in either. 

Both broadened as they proceeded, until the issues 
finally joined and determined were different, higher and 
better than those involved at the beginning. 

It was not until after Concord, Lexington and Bunker 
Hill that the Colonists resolved to convert a struggle 
that was inaugurated only as an armed resistance to a 
tyrannical Ministry into a war against the Crown for 
national independence. 

As late as the 6th day of July, 1775, the Continental 
Congress formally declared that they had not raised 
armies with the ambitious design of separating from 
Great Britain, and establishing independent States. 

It was not until after Bull Run, Donelson and Shiloh 
that the overruling purpose of a directing Providence 
was recognized, and a war for the suppression of rebell- 
ion was broadened into a war for the liberation of the 

The Colonists were not only subjects of Great 
Britain, but they were loyal subjects. They desired to 
remain such, but He who directs the destiny of all 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 507 

decreed otherwise. The time had come not only for 
the birth of a new Nation, but for a new kind of govern- 
ment. The feudal age had passed away, and the un- 
written constitution of England had been established, 
but the despotic powers of the old Barons had been 
assumed by the monarchy that followed, and the boasted 
rights of Englishmen, although defined by Magna 
Charta and protected by a representative Parliament, 
were, nevertheless, not such as to allow that independ- 
ence of thought and action essential to the highest in- 
tellectual and moral development. 

It was necessary to give a broader recognition than 
had ever been accorded of the rights of man with 
respect to government, not only in England and her 
colonies, but throughout the world. 

America was destined to light the torch of liberty and 
lead the fight for human freedom. It was not of her 
choice, but of God's ordering. She was the chosen 
agency, and it was through aggressions and exaspera- 
tions that ripened into controversy, bitterness and blood, 
with their irresistible teachings and demands, that our 
fathers were finally brought to see both their opportu- 
nity and their duty. Then it was that the Declaration 
of July 6, 1775, gave way to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence of July 4, 1776. 

This document was a state paper worthy of a great 
people. It lent importance and gave dignity and con- 
sequence to the cause of the Colonists. It excited the 
admiration of the whole world, and strengthened and 
encouraged the weak and hesitating. It put into the 
hearts of all aims and purposes that involved the highest 
interests of humanity. From that moment forward the 
fight was not for the redress of wrongs under the British 
Government, but for absolute independence, and a new 
and different government of their own making. What 
that government should be they did not then see or 


comprehend. After more than a century of successful 
experience, our form of government seems to us most 
natural, and as though it would be the first thought of, 
but it was not so with our fathers. They had no such 
light as we enjoy. When they determined to fight for 
independence, it was without any clear idea as to the 
kind of government they would adopt, except only that 
it should be of their own making and subject to their 
own control. They reached final results by slow stages 
in the school of experience. 

British oppression had made them so distrustful of all 
authority superior to their own immediate colonial 
governments, that they were prejudiced against, and 
bitterly hostile to, all propositions that involved the 
establishment of any permanent controlling national 
authority or power. 

The Continental Congress had scarcely more than the 
semblance of authority. There was no constitution, no 
judiciary, no executive, and no power of any kind 
lodged anywhere to compel anybody to do anything. 
But it was the first step toward a centralization that 
could represent the national name and force, and in the 
selection of a Commander-in-chief, the adoption of the 
Declaration of Independence, and by similar acts, 
resolutions and legislation, it familiarized the people 
with the idea of unity of country and interests, a com- 
mon flag and a common destiny. 

The Articles of Confederation followed. They were 
intended to establish a common or National Govern- 
ment and define its powers. They were another step, 
but not a very long one, in the right direction. Ameri- 
cans had not yet accepted the idea of a permanent 
national authority. Therefore, while recognizing the 
necessity for union under a common government, based 
on a written, organic law, they were unwilling to act, 
except as independent States, and would not agree to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 509 

any form of government unless the individual independ- 
ence or autonomy of each State was recognized and 
protected. They were so solicitous upon this point 
that but little else was successfully embodied in that 
document. The government it established had no 
executive, no judiciary, no revenue system, no machin- 
ery, functions or power. All legislative and executive 
action was vested in the Congress, in which the mem- 
bers voted and acted, not as representatives of the 
people, but as delegates of the States; and no proposed 
act of legislation could become a law without the votes 
and consent of a prescribed number of the States. The 
States were everything; the National Government was 
practically nothing. Its inadequacy was manifest from 
the beginning. Dissatisfaction followed and increased 
until all the common people, as well as the great men 
and statesmen of that time, were studying and dis- 
cussing theories of government. The result was a con- 
vention to revise the Articles of Confederation. This 
body was well prepared for its work. Its members had 
lived under and had studied the English constitution 
and common law. They had passed through all the 
exciting experiences of the struggle for independence. 
They had been witnesses to the weakness of the Con- 
tinental Congress and the inefficiency of the Confeder- 
ation. They had been educated by these trials to 
appreciate the fact that no government could be success- 
ful that was not invested with all the necessary powers 
of preservation. They understood that any government 
must prove a failure which was unable to not only 
legislate, but enforce legislation, to raise revenues, 
maintain armies, and do all other things essential to 
sovereignty in its broadest and highest sense. They had 
learned something more from these experiences. They 
had learned that no national government could ever be 
successfullv established and maintained that was a 


creature of the States, or that was a mere compact or 
agreement between States. As to whatever power it 
might have, it should be independent of and supreme 
over States and people alike. When they reached this 
point in their deliberations, they boldly resolved to set 
aside the Articles of Confederation which they had been 
appointed to revise, and discard the theory of a league 
or compact. They recognized that the people of all 
the States were the proper source and origin of all right- 
ful authority, and determined to frame a constitution in 
the name of the people, and for the people, and to sub- 
mit it to the people for their approval and adoption. 
The result was the Constitution of 1787, of which Mr. 
Gladstone has said: "It is the most wonderful work 
ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose 
of man." 

Its general scheme was a Federal Government of 
three co-ordinate, independent departments. Time has 
shown this to be a most happy distribution of power. 
It has met with such universal favor that no one has 
ever thought to change it. 

When they came to details, aside from slavery and 
certain particulars in which it was amended soon after 
adoption, the framers were scarcely less fortunate. 

We are a restless, aggressive and progressive people, 
impatient of all restraint. It is not singular, therefore, 
that there is now and then complaint against some 
provision that may, for the time being, come in contact 
with our desires, but we seldom have to wait long for 
transpiring events and changing conditions to answer 
our objections. 

Just at present the Senate is much criticised, but in- 
vestigation has developed the fact that the trouble is 
with individuals rather than the body, and the people 
can be trusted to make such changes as will enable it 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 511 

to regain its accustomed dignity, efficiency, integrity 
and popularity. 

Of late years we have heard much about election 
disturbances, and to avoid having them too frequently 
it has been proposed, with much show of support at 
times, to change the Presidential term to six years, but 
we have probably heard the last of this demand, for it 
is now pretty generally conceded that four years are 
quite long enough. 

And so it is that the longer it stands the better we 
become satisfied with it. 

But the most important feature of the Constitution, 
for the purposes of this occasion, is found in the follow- 
ing stately declarations of its preamble : 

"We, the people of the United States, in order to 
form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, 
promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of 
liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United States of 

These are golden words. They are worthy of the 
Convention presided over by George Washington. They 
constitute the great, broad foundation-stone upon which 
rest all the governmental institutions of America. 

Upon them Webster stood master in argument. In- 
spired by them Lincoln was immovable in administra- 
tion, and Grant was invincible in war. When we recall 
them, and the history leading up to them, it seems in- 
credible that we should ever have had serious differ- 
ences, let alone war, as to whether or not a State of this 
Union had a constitutional right of secession. 

And yet, incredible as it may seem, such was the fact. 
The trouble was not to understand the language that 
had been employed, for that was unmistakably plain. 
It arose from the fact that we had two kinds of civiliza- 


tion — one freedom, and the other slavery — one estab- 
lished in the Northern States, and the other in the 
Southern States, and the Constitution undertook to 
compromise their differences and protect and perpetuate 
both. That was possible for the time being, but im- 
possible as a permanent provision. Their influences 
were at fatal war with each other. They could not 
peaceably co-exist. What Mr. Seward characterized as 
an irrepressible conflict was inevitable. It came, and it 
was early foreseen that we would have no cessation of 
the contest until we became either all slave or all free. 
The rivalry naturally took the form of a struggle for 
political power. The great question was whether free- 
dom or slavery, the North or the South, should control 
the destinies of the Nation. 

At first, slavery was in the ascendency, but the North 
outgrew the South in population and material develop- 
ment. The South sought to maintain her control by 
regulating the admission of new States, by the acquisi- 
tion of Texas and other territory, and by threats and 
menaces whereby compromises were secured and friend- 
ly legislation was enacted. Despite all these helps she 
steadily lost ground until it soon became apparent that 
it was only a question of time when she could no longer 
control. She was represented by able men. They were 
far-seeing. They professed to believe in slavery, that 
cotton was king, and that there was no safety for them, 
except they should govern. Foreseeing the time when 
they could no longer rule, they deliberately conspired 
to ruin. In this behalf they revived the doctrine of 
State sovereignty, which had been destroyed by the 
abrogation of the Articles of Confederation, and made 
it a cardinal point of their political faith. Their con- 
tention was, when stated in plain language, that each 
State had a constitutional right to destroy the Constitu- 
tion. They insisted that any State could, lawfully and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 513 

constitutionally, withdraw from the Union whenever it 
might see fit to do so. This doctrine was an iniquitous 
heresy. It was opposed to all ideas of stability and 
permanency. It meant weakness, confusion and an- 
archy. It was the end of all our progress and power. 
It meant that this great country should be subdivided 
and Mexicanized. Instead of one mighty Republic, we 
were to have a lot of petty States. Instead of one flag, 
we were to have two, six, a dozen — no man could tell 
how many. If the South could secede, so could the 
East, the West, the Middle States, or any single 

The success of such a doctrine was the end of self- 
government. And what was the purpose? Why was 
such a doctrine espoused? Why were such conse- 
quences invited? What good was to come as a com- 
pensation for all these evils? 

No good whatever. The object sought was worse 
than the doctrine invoked. The sole purpose was to 
protect and perpetuate human slavery. 

And what was human slavery? You get no adequate 
idea of the character of that institution from the mere 
statement that it was the holding of human beings in 

You begin to comprehend its stupendous wickedness 
only when you think of the auction-block and the 
whipping-post, and recall that it was by law made a 
crime to teach the slave the letters of the alphabet, or 
administer to him the ordinances of marriage and bap- 

It not only deprived its victims of liberty and exacted 
from them unrequited toil, but it purposely and by pro- 
visions of law debased and degraded them as nearly as 
it was possible to the ignorance and dependence of ani- 
mal chattels. 

It had another and an equally bad result. It blunted 


the moral sensibilities of those who believed in it, up- 
held, defended and enjoyed it. 

It is a law of our nature that we cannot do conscious 
wrong to others without a corresponding injury to our- 
selves. There is a reflex action which smites the con- 
science and sears it. Slavery inflicted this penalty upon 
its votaries, and thus prepared them to allow the horrors 
and barbarities of Andersonville, Libby and Salisbury. 

It was simply a vile curse, wicked in itself and wicked 
in all its teachings and influences. 

And yet it was for this the doctrine of State sover- 
eignty was invoked. It was for this the doctrine of 
secession was instilled. It was for this the work of 
Georee Washington was to be undone. It was for this 
the flag was to be struck down. It was for this the 
Union was to be dismembered. It was for this the ex- 
ample of America governing herself was to be ended in 
humiliation and shame. It was for this the Potomac 
and Ohio Rivers were to be made boundary lines be- 
tween hostile governments. It was for this we were to 
have at least two countries, two constitutions, two pres- 
idents, two flags and two destinies. 

They argued long and fiercely, but the people decided 
against them. The verdict was rendered at the ballot 
box in i860, when they elected Abraham Lincoln. He 
was chosen to administer according to the Constitution 
and the laws. Under these, slavery was secure wher- 
ever it existed. There was no purpose to interfere with 
it. Mr. Lincoln so announced. The official utterances 
of the political party he represented so declared. Every 
assurance was given that all rights of person and prop- 
erty would be respected. But all in vain. The leaders 
would not abide the result. They would not accept 
guarantees. They were deaf to entreaty. They would 
not listen to either argument or persuasion. The time 
had come against which the conspirators had conspired. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 515 

They could no longer rule ; they proceeded to ruin. 
State after State declared itself out of the Union, joined 
the Southern Confederacy and engaged in preparations 
for war. 

The loyal people of the North were slow to believe 
they intended what they professed. They could not 
think it possible they would take the last fatal step. 
Until the last moment they had confidence there would 
be no blood shed. Their hope was in vain. On the 
12th day of April, 1861, the opening gun was fired. A 
more causeless war never was. No war was ever waged 
on more inexcusable legal and moral grounds. It was 
simply treason and rebellion, without the excuse of bad 
government or oppression of any kind to provoke it, for 
it was war against the best government ever instituted 
among men. It was without the excuse of necessity to 
save from peril any kind of existing interest. It had 
not one single redeeming feature in either its origin, its 
theory, or its purpose. 

This is mentioned with particularity, because with 
some people it seems to have become quite fashionable 
of late years to try to make it appear that after all that 
great struggle was nothing more than a sort of family 
quarrel, in which one side was as much at fault as the 

All such talk should be indignantly resented. It is a 
slander upon the brave men to whose memory we dedi- 
cate this Monument. No braver men ever followed a 
flag than were the Soldiers of the Confederacy. They 
brought to the support of their cause all that valor and 
devotion could bring, but when it comes to the right 
and wrong of that struggle, there is no room for argu- 
ment. The Union side was altogether and absolutely 
right, and the other side was altogether and absolutely 
wrong. It is mistaken sentimentalism, and unwarranted 
misrepresentation to say anything else. This is not sec- 


tionalism, and it is not said in any spirit of unkindness. 
Nobody wants to hurt anybody's feelings, but if we 
must give offense, let it be to those whom the truth will 

It was not until after the Union had been dissolved, 
a hostile government had been organized, armies had 
been raised, war declared and the flag actually fired 
upon, that the Union cause was referred to the sword. 

The people of the North did not want war. They 
were a peaceful people. They were engaged in busi- 
ness. They had no dreams of chivalry. They cared 
nothing for martial glory and distinction. They were 
willing and anxious to make any sacrifice for the sake 
of peace, consistent with their sense of duty and loyalty, 
but they were not willing to let the Union perish, and 
if nothing but war would save it, they were ready for 
the dread alternative. The roar of the guns at Fort 
Sumter had not died away until the challenge to battle 
was accepted. No words can exaggerate the outbursts 
of enthusiasm and the manifestations of patriotism that 
followed. From Maine to California the whole loyal land 
fairly blazed and burned. Flags were everywhere flying, 
drums were everywhere beating, volunteers were every- 
where marching, tears were everywhere streaming. 
Husbands said good-bye to their wives, fathers to their 
children, sons to their mothers, and lovers to their 
sweethearts. From the farms, the workshops, the 
counting-houses, the school-houses ; from every employ- 
ment, vocation and calling of our diversified social and 
business worlds men literally rushed to arms. They 
neither asked for nor thought of rank, pay or position. 
Their only desire of purpose was to suppress rebellion, 
punish treason, maintain the Union and preserve the 
Constitution. They thought only of this great country, 
with its tremendous possibilities for good to all man- 
kind, and of their duty to posterity, as they turned their 


backs upon their homes of peace and happiness, and 
left behind with their ambitions and aspirations all that 
was near and dear, to do and die if need be, that this 
Nation might live. 

History will be searched in vain for the record of 
greater self-sacrifice, a more unselfish patriotism, or a 
more devoted consecration to duty. No army was ever 
more representative of the people from which it sprang, 
more distinctly volunteer, or moved by nobler impulses. 
No bitterness, hatred, revenge, or spirit of conquest was 
in any heart. Of all the millions who rallied around 
the flag, not one wanted to take life, or destroy proper- 
ty, except as stern duty might require. Every man 
knew and appreciated that he was to fight his own 
countrymen, not to destroy, but to save them. Not be- 
cause he hated or despised them, and wanted to drive 
them away from us, but because he loved them, and 
loved their country, and wanted them and their country 
to remain in the Union where our fathers had placed 
them, to go forward with us as one people and one 
country to a common greatness and a common glory. 

Such Soldiers should have been triumphantly suc- 
cessful from the beginning, but for a time they were 
only partially so. The trouble was in the fact that we 
had two questions to deal with when we commenced — 
one legal, and the other moral — one as to how the Con- 
stitution should be interpreted, the other what should 
be done about slavery. The law question was ours ; 
the other was God's question. 

With man's characteristic selfishness we undertook 
to confine the War to the settlement of our own ques- 
tion, and left God's question to shift for itself. 

Mr. Lincoln was careful to announce that he would 
save the Union with slavery if he could — without slav- 
ery if he must. 

Accordingly, for the first eighteen months of the War 


we tried to save the Union with slavery. The effort 
was a failure. It was a failure because we were without 
Divine approbation. The Almighty seemed to act, if 
I may say so without irreverence, as though so long as 
we allowed His question to take care of itself, He 
would allow us to take care of ourselves. He was deaf 
to our prayers. Why should He not be when success 
meant only the preservation and perpetuation of human 
slavery ? 

We were defeated at Bull Run, repulsed at Ball's 
Bluff, and subjected to one kind of disappointment after 
another, with just enough of success now and then in- 
terspersed to keep us from becoming utterly discour- 
aged, until we were finally brought to see that both the 
necessity and the duty of the hour alike required us to 
broaden the issues, and strike for the destruction of the 
institution which was the mother of secession and the 
source and origin of all our troubles. 

When that hour came, Abraham Lincoln said the 
bond should go free. His proclamation was a second 
Declaration of Independence. It rang out like an alarm- 
bell at midnight. It challenged the attention and en- 
listed the sympathy of the right-thinking people of the 
whole world. It exalted and intensified the loyalty of 
all loyal men. It made every sympathizer with treason 
writhe and squirm. It kindled the eye, flushed the 
cheek, nerved the arm and made stouter and braver the 
heart of every Union Soldier and Sailor. 

From that time forward the War meant something 
worth praying for, fighting for and dying for. The tide 
turned. The navy won victory after victory, and the 
army swept on with irresistible power to Vicksburg and 
Gettysburg, Atlanta and the Sea, the Wilderness and 

But, oh ! how bloody the way ! Comparisons show 
there has been nothing equal to it in modern warfare.. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 519* 

At Waterloo, the entire loss of Wellington's army, both 
killed and wounded, was less than twelve per cent. 
Napoleon lost less than fifteen per cent, at Ansterlitz, 
and a still smaller percentage at Morengo, Eylan and 
Wagram, while the average loss on both sides was less 
than thirteen per cent, at Magenta, Solferino, Grave- 
lotte and Sedan. 

In more than one hundred of our battles the losses 
exceeded fifteen per cent., while atShiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Spot- 
sylvania they were over thirty per cent., and in some 
instances more than forty per cent. 

It is impossible on such an occasion as this to tell the 
story of such service. It is too long, too pathetic, too 
heroic and too patriotic to be dealt with except only by- 
history. Suffice it to say the hardships endured, the 
valor displayed, the treasure expended, and the blood 
that was shed, are without a parallel in the annals of 
the world. 

As the years go by we shall forget the different regi- 
ments, brigades, divisions, corps, and, in time, even the 
armies of the Potomac, the Cumberland and the Ten- 
nessee. Only a few great names like those of Grant, 
Sherman, Sheridan and Thomas will continue to enjoy 
individual renown. All the rest of that mighty host 
will become blended into a common rank to be remem- 
bered only as the great Union Army. 

But while individual names and deeds will be for- 
gotten, the results of their achievements will live. 
They are enduring as the Republic itself. Our heroes 
fought not for a day, but for all time ; not for transient 
ideas, but for everlasting principles ; not to subdue a 
few dissatisfied States, but for the integrity of our whole 
great empire ; not for themselves alone, but for their 
enemies as well, and the proudest and most gratifying 
thought any Union Soldier can have must be that 


already the time has come when those who met 
him on the field recognize that his victory was their 
victory as well, and to-day stand pledged to uphold and 
preserve the Government they then sought to destroy. 
Their triumph brought freedom, peace, prosperity, 
power and promise to all the people of every section of 
an undivided and indivisible country. 

Cuyahoga County is justly proud of her part in the 
struggle. Her sons bore a conspicuous part on the 
water and participated among the foremost in every* 
great battle of the War. 

Wherever men were called upon to die, on either 
land or sea, they were there to offer their lives. It is a 
fitting tribute to place here, on this favorite spot, in 
the heart of this great city, this beautiful Monument. 
It shows a just appreciation of sacrifice, heroism and 
fidelity to duty. Silently but eloquently it will teach 
lessons of patriotism to all who shall look upon its tow- 
ering shaft. No true citizen of the Republic can be- 
hold it without a higher and nobler sense of the duties 
and responsibilities of his citizenship. It will point 
every child and student to the most thrilling and inspir- 
ing chapter of our national history, and lift up all alike 
to the highest planes of patriotic purpose. 

And now as we engage in its dedication, let us also 
dedicate ourselves anew to the interests of our country. 
Let no man think he lives under the institutions these 
men saved merely to enjoy them. There will be no 
more slavery to abolish ; no more heresies of secession 
to destroy ; no more such rebellions to suppress ; no 
more wars of any kind between the North and the 
South, but there is other work to do, less heroic, per- 
haps, but scarcely less important. 

No government will execute itself, and no form of 
government will answer human requirements unless it 
foe rightly administered. It is not the business of gov- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 521 

eminent to furnish employment or bread ; neither is it 
the right of government, by imbecility or the applica- 
tion of false theories, to paralyze business, destroy 
prosperity and enforce idleness, with its consequent 
misery and crime. 

With industrial armies marching on Washington, and 
the military of both the States and the United States 
marching on organized labor ; with a coal miners' 
strike that cost the country millions of dollars just 
ended, and a railroad strike that will cost, no one yet 
knows how many millions more, now in progress ; with 
tens of thousands toiling for less than enough to secure 
the necessary comforts of life, and other tens of thou- 
sands in idleness, with unrest and sullen dissatisfaction 
almost universal, we have a condition, not a theory, 
confronting us, that invites and demands immediate 
and serious attention. 

We must not have either hunger or bayonets, and we 
will not have either long. The mills and the factories 
must be started ; the mines must be kept open ; the 
railroads must operate, and all who are willing to work 
must, shall and will have employment, and the whole 
country must and will again enjoy prosperity. But 
this change cannot be brought by violence. It must 
come about in due form and orderly manner, under and 
in accordance with the forms, provisions and require- 
ments of law. 

Let no man take the law into his own hands. It is 
our sovereign rule, and whosoever strikes at it, strikes 
at the only king we have. Every such blow, no matter 
in whose name it is struck, or how it may be disguised, 
is moral, if not legal, treason as rank and foul as was 
the assassin thrust that struck down the President of 
the French Republic. 

If we would perpetuate what our fathers achieved, 
and these Soldiers saved, we must suppress not only as- 


saults upon constituted authority, but also the men who 
make such assaults. We haYe no room, broad as our 
country is, for the anarchist, the communist, the social- 
ist, or the boycotter. They are all of the same ilk. 
They are all un-American. They are all the enemies 
of labor, as well as of capital. Their tyranny is greater 
than that which precipitated the revolution. Their 
success would mean the dissolution of society, and the 
overthrow of the Republic. 

Looking beyond our borders, the time has come for 
the extension of our trade relations. We should not 
only do business with all the world, but our full share 
of it. This is particularly true as to the Western 

The commercial dependencies of England are her 
Greater Britain. They turn the wealth of the world to 
the island that rules them, and make it the creditor and 
financial dictator of all nations. Let us learn from ex- 
ample not to be unduly ambitious, but to be sufficiently 
so to subserve and protect our own best interests. 
Not by violence, but by the moral force of our position 
and relationships we should at least secure our own 
from those who are our natural friends. 

Other great questions are pressing upon us. We can 
not escape them if we would, and we should not if we 
could. In the immediate future we must answer 
whether or not we intend to wait indefinitely upon the 
pleasure of European nations for remonetization of sil- 
ver. Some way must be found to secure their co-oper- 
ation, or some way for us to act in safety without it. 
Glittering generalities and plausible platitudes will no 
longer answer. And how long, think you, will the 
world continue to sail ships around the Horn ? Not 
long. We must either build the Nicaragua Canal and 
control it, or let somebody else do it. Let us not be 
afraid to do it ourselves. Let us claim what belongs to 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 523 

ns. Let us not be afraid to own the Sandwich Islands, 
and every other island that may want to fly the Ameri- 
can flag. Let us not be afraid to be greater than we are. 
We have only to trust ourselves. Bloodless conquests 
with rich rewards are before us. The good of the world, 
as well as our own, commands us to go forward. Let 
us not hesitate, but with broad, patriotic, comprehensive 
statesmanship lay hold upon the peace, happiness, 
power and glory that are within our grasp. Whether 
we are Democrats or Republicans, let us be, first of all, 

The gifted orator was frequently applauded, and, at 
the conclusion of his masterly effort, he was enthusi- 
astically cheered. 

The children then sang "The Star Spangled Banner." 
Governor McKinley suggested to the audience that 
they would be pleased to have presented to them two 
ladies who were all but one of the survivors of the 
women perpetuated in the bronze panel of the Monu- 
ment devoted to the work of the Sanitary Commission 
in this city during the War. Prompt and hearty ex- 
pressions of approval were heard from every side. 
Governor McKinley responded by introducing Mrs. 
Sarah Adams Estabrook Thatcher and Mrs. Esther M. 
Harris, widow of the late J. A. Harris, in the following 
appropriate manner: 

"My Fcllozv-Citizens : — 

"I take the liberty of interrupting the ordered pro- 
gram of the day long enough to give this great audi- 
ence a surprise and a pleasure which I am sure they 
will appreciate. 

"I have been glad to observe that the projectors of 
this Monument have given proper and conspicuous 
recognition to the work of the women in the War. 
They are too often forgotten in our memorials. No 
memorial to perpetuate the lessons and sacrifices of the 


War is just or complete without them. There is 
nothing more deserved — there is nothing more inspiring 
— than the panel in yonder Monument which records the 
work of the women at home and on the field, for the 
country and for the Soldiers who carried its standard 
and fought its battles. There could have been no more 
appropriate — no happier selection than the group of 
figures presented in bronze to typify the services of 
woman in the great struggle for the Union. Side by 
side are those who toiled at home and those who served 
in the hospital ; standing together for the same noble 
cause are those who made the bandages and those who 
applied them to the shattered limb. The Catholic sister 
and the Protestant mother unite in loving ministrations. 
What more beautiful sight to witness than the figure of 
that magnificent American woman, Lucy Webb Hayes, 
whose simple virtues have filled the whole country with 
glowing pride and whose womanly example and lofty 
character have blessed so many lives and homes! And 
that other sweet figure — the Sister of Charity, pursuing 
with unselfish love her noble calling, together tenderly 
ministering to the wounded and dying Soldier. These 
and the other figures familiar to most of you awaken 
the tenderest memories and rekindle our admiration for 
the noble women of the land. Many of the old Soldiers 
here will recall them — their 

' Kind words and gentle, when a gentle word 
Was worth the surgery of an hundred schools, 
To heal sick thought and make our bruises whole/ 
" On this platform are seated two of these noble 
women, whose figures, though in bronze, are yet here 
to speak, whose lives have been spared not only to see 
their country saved, but to witness the dedication of 
this splendid structure to immortalize the men and 
women who helped save it. 

" I have the very great honor to present to you (and 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 525 

it is a pleasure I would not conceal) these patriotic 
mothers, — Mrs. Peter Thatcher, whose work was in the 
hospital, and Mrs. J. A. Harris, who was the Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio. 
God bless them!" 

The appearance of these honored and venerable ladies 
was greeted with much applause. They rose and went 
forward for a few moments, gracefully bowing their 
thanks. While standing, the assemblage gave three 
rousing cheers in their honor. 


Rev. Dr. Levi Gilbert read a poem composed by him 
for the occasion. He was given the high compliment 
of close attention by the audience, even though they 
had stood for two hours in the broiling sun, and was 
frequently greeted with a hearty round of applause. 
Dr. Gilbert's patriotic, spirited and soul-stirring poem 
was as follows : 

Shake out "Old Glory's" folds, each star display, 
And hail it once again — our natal day ! 
We gather glad and, on this fitting date, 
Memorial shrine and pillar dedicate; 
Superb and stately, see it rising here, 
Unique, magnificent, without a peer! 
Revered Commissioners, your care here ends, 
This glorious moment more than makes amends! 
O, Soldier-Artist, toiling undismayed, 
Thv inspiration's proof is here arrayed ; 
Thy broad design — thy splendid, daring dream — 
Evoke applause and merit all esteem ! 

Tell it again how swift the people rose, 
Indignant, flaming, vengeful, t' oppose 
The blow of traitors ; middle-aged and young, 
In office, shop, and field aside they flung 
Their work in haste — enlisted — marched away — 
Enrolling mighty armies in a day ! 


It all comes back — the mother's kiss and sigh, 
The swearing in, the drill, the last good-bye, 
The uniform, the arms, accouterments, 
The sentry's challenge, bugler's call, the tents, 
The long, hard tramp, the skirmish, opening round, 
The hurrying troops, the field guns, quaking ground, 
The bayonets' gleam, the polished muskets' flash, 
The sweating horse, the thundering wheels, the crash 
Of cannon, shrieking grape, the grime, the heat, 
The brandished swords, the shouts, th' attack, retreat, 
The whizzing bullets, bursting bombs, the smoke, 
The dense brigades, the orders, furious stroke, 
The flapping flag, the wounded dripping red, 
The falling, mangled, dying, and the dead, 
The faces ghastly, arms tossed wide, the sob 
Of dirge, the wail of fife, the drum's deep throb! 

O, friends, 'twas this they suffered and endured 
That our sweet liberties might be secured! 
Eternal honor, honor — yet again 
Immortal honor to these matchless men ! 
And these we trust, with never a fear or doubt, 
To put all fawning demagogues to rout — 
To ward corruption off and every wrong, 
To keep our civic life ideal and strong! 

O youth, from country lanes and city streets, 
Be still and hear what speech this shaft repeats ! 
It bids each man be vigilant, be pure ; 
It calls to all in times of fear, " Endure ! ", 
Exhorting each to patriotic mind, 
To leave all thoughts of self and ease behind. 

O column, rising here amidst our streets, 
Where, hot and fierce, the pulse of business beats, 
With tramp of men and horses, rattling tires, 
And rumbling car-wheels driv'n bv lightning fires — 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 527 

Speak out, O pillared bronze, lest we forget 
With all our toil — the daily fume and fret — 
That life is more than meat ; that earth affords 
Some things above our paltry gains and hoards, 
Our worldly hopes and lusts, ignoble strife, 
Our rivalries intense, with rancor rife ! 
Teach us to heed our duty's solemn call, 
To give up home and dear ones — profits — all, 
Meet death itself for high conviction's sake, 
Serene as martyrs at the glowing stake ! 

I stand upon this old historic Square, 
And seem to breathe some bright, diviner air ; 
O Figure, with the shield and unsheathed sword, 
Like thee, in wrath, at one commanding word, 
An outraged North, ferocious, sprang to arms 
And beat the drums and sounded war's alarms ! 

I see yon Cavalry — the blue, the gray — 
With men and horses mixed in deadly fray ; 
And there the gunners, on the battle-ship, 
Are lifting bomb-shells to the mortar's lip ; 
And there artillerymen upon the field — 
Some serve, some fall — they die but never yield ; 
And there a heap of color-bearers slain, 
While others snatch the standard quick again ! 
How life-like war, in all its horrid guise, 
Is pictured here before our awe-struck eyes ! 
But these are bronze, and you were flesh and blood 
As in the carnage, soldiers, stern you stood ! 

Enter these portals, see these bas-reliefs — 
These women brave and tender, pressed with griefs ; 
What ministries in hospital, blockade, 
In camp and field — what gracious care and aid ! 

O rare Relief Corps women, yours to try 
To follow those who set a standard high 


To urge yon on to play a noble part, 

And take the heaviest burdens on your heart ! 

The closing scene was this in that dread war — 
This panel that I stand in thought before : 
The President, the generals, appear 
In sober mood, but glad that peace is near ; 
And when shall Peace her world-wide sway extend,. 
And nation be to nation brother, friend ? 
O God, that wars may cease, that soon the day 
Of love may dawn and concord reign, we pray ! 

Ohio, nurse of heroes, I salute, 
The first in statesmen, soldiers, and repute ! 
Victorious mother — Grant and Sherman, Chase, 
Stanton and Garfield, Sheridan and Hayes — 
Thy jewels these thou mayest proudly wear, — 
But not alone — thy country claims a share — 
And all the nations of thy sons have heard, 
And hearts of freemen everywhere been stirred ! 

Thy grand war governors within stand forth, 
Whose words heroic fired the loyal North ; 
Inflexible each set his stubborn face, 
Each heart as steadfast as this granite base ! 
What laud and laurel shall their mem'ries crown 
Who led the Buckeye State to such renown ? 

O, Black Man — slave no longer — bowing there 
Unshackeled, jubilant, with eyes of prayer 
In rapturous thanks upturned upon his face — 
Th' Emancipator of thy sufF'ring race — 
Spring up and take those arms and nobly fight 
For freedom, manhood, justice, truth and right ! 
Your Father Abraham, on bended knee, 
To God and man proclaims your liberty ; 
The curse is dead — the crime is blotted out — 
The thrall's unbound forever — sing and shout ! 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 529 

Our God had loftier purposes than we 

In our shortsightedness could ever see ; 

We aimed at union, he at union too, 

But union purged from slav'ry through and through ; 

No victories decisive could we gain 

Till, led by Him, we washed away the stain ! 

For all the ships, O Goddess, lift thy flame 
And welcome every land in freedom's name ; 
No more a semblance — -a fictitious creed — 
No more a lie — thank God, we're free indeed ! 
To all a welcome, but lift up thy voice, 
Instructing all who make this land their choice 
That liberty's not license — laws must stand — 
Must be obeyed or ruin wrecks the land ; 
And, most of all, adjure the public school 
To teach the virtues needful to self-rule ! 

Our tears for France who mourns her Carnot slain, 
Remind us sadly of our loss again ; 
A hundred years from now what thoughts shall rise 
Within their hearts who gaze in Lincoln's eyes — 
Those eyes so sunken, sad ; O care-lined face, 
O form ungainly ! yet what sweetness, grace ! 
What length of limb and body, and the whole 
Transfigured by a towering, godlike soul ! 
O fallen form, o'erwhelmed in treason's flood, 
Thy mission signed and sealed with martyr blood, 
What strength and patience thine, what faith and hope — 
What loyalty and courage that could cope 
With dire disasters, unforeseen and new, 
In every task, in every peril true ! 
O break thy silence, lips of bronze, and call 
To patriot-service tho' like thee we fall ! 

Within that sacred tablet room I stood 
Before the Soldiers' names — a multitude 
In marble etched, Cuyahoga's valiant band 


That rose in regiments to save the land ; 

Who would not covet for himself a place 

In such a roster? — who beholds each space 

But envies every man his line and longs 

To win some homage that to fame belongs ? 

While swings the earth let generations spell 

These names to emulate and love them well ! 

What praise, O Vet'rans, for your deed is fit, 

What eulogy or epic, spoke or writ ? 

To sing aright your prowess tasks our powers 

But take, once more, this day, these hearts of ours ! 

We own our debt of gratitude immense, 

We bid our children rise in reverence ! 

O, sons of Vet'rans — what a privilege 
Is yours, what joy, what pride, what heritage — 
What stimulus to deeds of fine acclaim 
Is in a father's never-dying name ! 

Upon this list of battles rest your eye ! 
How wide they fought, how wide their bodies lie ! 
In swamp and mountain, forest, field and brake, 
By creek and river, bayou, gulf and lake ; 
Antietam, Vicksburg — how their names appeal ! — 
Atlanta, Richmond, Gettysburg, Mobile, 
Fort Wagner, Shiloh, Corinth, Cedar Mount— 
O, visions grim with slaughter — read and count ! 

Your Army, Comrades, thin and thinner grows, 
Too soon the last survivor deathward goes ; 
Close up the ranks, give loyal love and large, 

Brothers true in camp and march and charge ! 

Dear land, one land, one people great and free, 
Illustrious now, but greater still to be ; 

1 see thy sixty millions multiplied, 

I see thy sister States, in bonds allied, 

With pride of power and growth, of sons and fame, 


But prouder still of their great Nation's name ! 

I see the South come forth and celebrate 

A Union, bound for aye, inviolate ; 

She bows in thanks to Him whose plans withstood 

Her hate and passion to her untold good ; 

I see a land of bounteousness and peace 

Where feuds and factions evermore shall cease, 

Where law shall hold all anarchy in foil, 

Wnere ample wages shall compensate toil, 

Where capital and labor clash no more, 

Where justice comes to all and plenty's store, 

Where education and religion bless 

A crowming race with truth and righteousness ! 

I see mankind, inspired, in every clime, 

By sight of our democracy sublime, 

Resistless rise to curb the tyrant's power, 

Proclaiming this the people's day and hour ! 

Enfranchised masses break their bars of fate. 

Republics spread and kings on subjects wait ! 

Then I reflect that wide humanity 
Owes all of this to those who kept us free — 
To those who fought to save our flag or died 
For us, our sons, and all the world beside! 

Fair city by the lake enthroned a queen, 
Bedecked with all the forest's living green, 
Accept in trust and guard this treasure here, 
Thy county's off' ring to her victors dear; 

hold it ever thy most precious prize, 
More than all riches valued in thine eyes ! 

1 hear the panting engine's shriek and roar, 
I see the vessels, laden deep with ore, 

I see the chimneys' smoke — the foundries' glare — 
I see the steam expand and fill the air ; 
Thy wealth is great and great thy trade and art, 
Thy homes and streets, thy factories, thy mart — 


But, grander than all other song or boast. 
This proud memorial exalts you most — 
Yea this and Garfield's silent resting place 
Shall be your glory's loftiest crown and grace ! 

Loom on, O Column, while the stars shall shine ! 
Wave on, O Banner, centuries are thine ! 
Move on, O City, to thy future vast ! 
Live on, O Country, while the world shall last ! 

Cheer upon cheer greeted the gifted poet, and, at the 
conclusion of his brilliant effort, he was enthusiastically 

The exercises were now drawing to a close, and it 
was already past the noon hour when the children rose 
again to sing. This time it was " America," the words 
of which cheer the American, and the music of which 
causes our cousins across the border and on the other 
side of the ocean to jump up and crack their heels to- 
gether. The people heartily joined in this, and at the 
conclusion, Monsignor Thorpe pronounced the benedic- 
tion, in the following beautiful and appropriate prayer : 

" Oh, almighty, eternal, all wise and merciful God, 
look down propitiously on Thy children here assembled, 
and bless the purpose and the object of our assembling. 
Bless and consecrate forever to liberty and justice this 
glorious emblem of emancipated humanity, under whose 
starry folds we are come together. Bless this favored 
Nation and perpetuate its freedom and preserve its in- 
comparable Constitution against the machinations of 
the unwise and the illiberal. Bless the memory of those 
immortal heroes whose honored names yonder work of 
human genius and generosity would carry down to in- 
spire the patriotism of future generations. Bless our 
rulers, both state and national, with wisdom and pru- 
dence in the exercise of the powers Thou hast given 
them. Bless this city of our love and this great com- 


monwealth of which we are a part, with a strict adher- 
ence to law in adjusting the difficulties between man 
and man and with peace and plenty for the increase of 
human happiness. Bless those children — the men and 
women of the future — whose young and joyous voices 
have gladdened this historic day, and also the well nigh 
forty thousand to whose ranks they belong. Bless in 
like manner the fifteen thousand other children of this 
municipality, who are not represented, but whose love 
of country is not less pure, intense and fervent than 
that which found expression in those grand old songs so 
dear to every American heart ; that all may dwell to- 
gether in love and harmony. Bless our whole country 
with a devout remembrance ot Thy providence and a 
sense of profound reverence for Thy ever abiding pres- 
ence. And may Thy choicest blessing, O, triune God, 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost, descend upon us all and 
dwell in our hearts now and forevermore. Amen." 

This concluded the ever-memorable dedicatory ex- 

The gorgeous procession and its main features were 
written up by the observing young men of the Leader 
in manner following : 

" What is declared by many to be the greatest pag- 
eant ever seen in Cleveland occurred after the dedica- 
tion of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. In it were 
6,000 men on foot and 400 emblematical floats and dec- 
orated wagons. It was six miles long. The procession 
moved over a line of march more than five miles long, 
and when the platoon of mounted police in the van had 
passed the reviewing stand many of the wagons had not 
yet reached the advertised starting point from their 
places of formation. At 2 o'clock the procession moved 
from the corner of Superior and Water Streets, and it 
was 6:10 o'clock when the last wagon passed the review- 
ing stand at the City Hall. Two hours were required 


in passing that point, despite the fact that, owing to the 
late hour, the latter end of the procession was moved at 
almost a double-quick. t 

" Veterans of the War marched under their old battle- 
flags, but in ranks sadly depleted by the casualties of 
war and the ravages of time. They were received with 
honors due men who had offered their lives on the altar 
of patriotism and endured privation and suffering that 
the Union might be preserved. Then there was the 
military with steady tread and martial bearing, and a 
great display on the part of the vast industrial resources 
of Cleveland. The streets on the line of march were 
handsomely decorated and thronged by one of the larg- 
est crowds that has ever assembled in the city. 

" The streets were cleared in advance of the proces- 
sion by a platoon of mounted police, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Schmunk. They made a fine 
appearance and performed their duty in an efficient 
manner. h.t the head of the procession rode the Mar- 
shal of the Day, General M. D. Leggett, attended by a 
staff comprising Chief of Staff, Colonel Allan T. Brins- 
made ; Adjutant General, Major A. M. Burns; Assist- 
ant Adjutant Generals, Colonel Myron G. Browne, 
Colonel Frederick H. Flick, Colonel W. D. Pudney, 
Captain T. K. Dissette, Captain E. D. Sawyer ; Aides- 
de-Camp (mounted), Colonel H. B. Hannum, Captain 
Peter Hitchcock, Colonel E. S. Coe, Captain H. Q. Sar- 
gent, Captain E. M. Hessler, Lieutenant T. B. Sclmlt- 
zer, Lieutenant Reuben Hitchcock, Lieutenant Harry 
Robinson, Lieutenant J. V. McGorray ; Honorary Aides- 
de-Camp (in carriages), Major W. J. Gleason, President 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Commission ; Captain 
Levi F. Bauder, Secretary Soldiers' and Sailors' Monu- 
ment Commission; Captain J. B. Molyneaux, Captain 
Edward H. Bohm, Captain Levi T. Scofield, Colonel E. 
W. Force, General James Barnett, General J. J. Elwell,. 
Colonel Charles C. Dewstoe, Dr. R. W. Walters. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 535: 

" The place of honor at the head of the line was ac- 
corded to the distinguished visitors, the members of the 
Soldiers 1 and Sailors' Monument Commission and other 
veterans, the City and School officials, two surviving 
members of the Soldiers' Aid Society, and members of 
the Fourth of July Committee. Governor McKinley 
occupied a seat in a carriage with Mayor Blee, and ex- 
Governor Foraker shared a carriage with Major W. J. 
Gleason, President of the Monument Commission. Vet- 
erans of the Mexican War who rode in carriages were : 
Hon. O. J. Hodge, Hon. M. R. Dickey, Charles Childs, 
John O. Jones, and James W. Rhodes, of Cleveland ; A. 
A. Hodge, of Mentor, and D. W. Rouse, of Geneva. 

" Marshal James Hayr was in command of the First 
Division, which was devoted to veterans' regimental or- 
ganizations. The members of his staff were : Chief of 
Staff, Charles A. Willard ; Assistant Adjutant-General, 
George A. McKay ; Quartermaster-General, William- 
Southwell ; Commissary-General, T. W. Brainard ; In- 
spector-General, A. L. Knauff; Surgeon-General, Dr. 
H. W. Kitchen ; Engineer, E. H. Bohm ; Chief Aide- 
de-Camp, Dr. R. Horton ; Aides-de-Camp, J. L. Smith, 
William S. Pay, Alexander Stewart, W. L. Pudney, E. 
L. Pardee, A. H. Glover. 

" The Second Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, commanded 
by Captain A. S. Stratton, of Madison, led the line, with 
48 men. The Sixth Cavalry followed, led by a platoon 
of men carrying fifteen battle flags, the war colors of 
various regiments, which attracted marked attention 
throughout the line of march. There were 65 men in 
line, under the leadership of Captain A. W. Fenton,. 
Captain O. N. Ferry and Lieutenant W. H. Bullard. 
The Third Cavalry had 10 men in line, under the com- 
mand of Captain Frank Rieley ; Tenth Cavalry, Captain 
Charles Selzer, 16 men; Twelfth Cavalry, Colonel J. F. 
Herrick, 15 men ; Tenth Cavalry, Captain W. C. Cowin,, 


9 men ; Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 1 man, R. D. 
McCarter, of Columbus. The Seventh Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry were under Captain W. A. Howe. They wore 
a badge adorned with a rooster, the emblem of the regi- 
ment, and carried four flags. The Eighth Infantry was 
represented by Major J. C. Briggs, of Elyria ; Michael 
O'Connell, Cleveland; A. Baldwin, Lorain, and C. 
Locke, Oberlin, and the Fifteenth Infantry by J. N. 
Walker and M. H. Kline. Eight men of the Nineteenth 
Infantry were commanded by Dr. P. D. Reefy, Elyria ; 
Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantry, Captain R. C. Rowe, 
Elyria, 4 men ; Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, Captain 
Benjamin Killam, 75 ; Twenty-fourth Infantry, J. W. 
Kinney, who carried the regimental flag ; Twenty- 
seventh Infantry, Captain M. F. Madigan, 9 men. 
Major Herman Mayer, who was ' Little Dick ' of the 
Thirty-second Infantry, represented that regiment and 
carried the flag. The Thirty-seventh Infantry was led 
"by Captain F. Siselman and comprised 18 men ; Thirty- 
eighth Infantry, 3 men, C. D. Harrington, Matthew Os- 
termeyer, of Cleveland, and H. Daily, of Fulton County ; 
Forty-first Infantry, Captain W. J. Morgan, 33 ; Forty- 
second Infantry, Captain B. F. Phinney, 20; Forty-third 
Infantry, Captain A. L. Howe, 8 ; Fifty-eighth Infantry, 
A. J. Symes, H. H. Kerr, and Frederick Chandler; Six- 
tieth Infantry, Captain W. H. Farrand, 6; Fifty-first 
Infantry, 6 men. The One Hundred and Third Infantry 
was commanded by General J. S. Casement, of Paines- 
ville. It was headed by the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic Drum Corps, of Elyria, the members of which pre- 
sented a very natty appearance in Zouave uniforms, and 
there were 100 of the veterans in line. General A. C. 
Voris, of the Sixty-seventh Infantry, was in the city, 
but was unable to march on account of indisposition, 
and Colonel G. L. Childs was in command. J. A. Mc- 
intosh was the only representative of the Seventy-eighth 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 537 

Infantry. Major A. Vignos, of Canton, who Lost an 
arm at Gettysburg thirty-one years ago yesterday, led 
75 men of the One Hundred and Seventh Infantry. Dr. 
E. W. Poole was at the head of 40 men of the One Hun- 
dred and Seventy-seventh Infantry. Colonel James 
Pickands was in command of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth Infantry and there were 60 men in line, 
three of the members forming a drum corps. The One 
hundred and Twenty-fifth Infantry, Captain R. C. Rice, 
had 20 men ; One Hundred and Fiftieth Infantry, Colonel 
W. H. Hayward, no men. Major J. Dwight Palmer 
marched in the front rank and led the regiment in sing- 
ing. The First Ohio Volunteer Artillery, Captain N. A. 
Baldwin, Garrettsville, had 120 men in line; Ninth In- 
dependent Battery, Captain H. B. York, 12 men ; Nine- 
teenth Battery, Captain J. C. Shields, 41 men ; Fifteenth 
Battery, Captain T. C. Stokes, Olmsted, 18 ; Sixty-fifth 
Infantry, 3 men ; Twentieth Battery, Captain William 
Backus, Lieutenant William Xeracher, 50 men ; Union 
Veterans' Union and Battery K, First Ohio Artillery,. 
General W. T. Clark, 200 men. 

" Eight of the men of the navy were aboard a hand- 
some launch under the command of Captain J. S. Jones. 
They had served on the gunboats Yantic and Towah 
and the steam ram Monarch. B. F. Benz, of the Sec- 
ond New York Cavalry, and C. Heron, Fifth New York 
Cavalry, were also in the division. Members of the 
Eighth Infantry rode in three carriages. At the head 
of the division marched the Great Western Band. 

"The members of the Grand Army of the Republic 
who did not march with the regimental organizations 
formed the Second Division. They were under the 
command of General E. E. Nutt, Commander of the 
Department of Ohio, G. A. R. The members of his 
staff were: Assistant Adjutant-General,. T. B. Marshall,. 
Sidney, O.; Chief of Staff, D. S. Wilder, Columbus, O. ;.. 


ReY. G. B. Smith, Chaplain ; Member of Committee of 
Administration, J. C. Roland ; Aides, W. H. Snrles, 
Hast Liverpool; A. P. Howard, Wellsville, O.; E. L. 
Patterson, W. C. Cowin, G. C. Barnes, J. S. Hobbs, M. 

A. Lander, C. W. Sanborn, J. B. Swartwood, O. P. Lati- 
mer, C. E. Griswold, C. D. Harrington, R. S. Gross, J. 
F. Herrick, D. A. Kimball, J. C. Walton, E. S. Libby, 

•0. L. Neff ; Orderlies, J. E. Waffle, C. H. A. Palmer, B. 
J. Oviatt, O. H. Matthews, W. V. Molyneanx. 

"The right of the line was held by Memorial Post, 

• 96 strong, under the command of Captain D. G. Nesbitt. 
Army and Navy Post, Captain L. W. Day, had 80 mem- 
bers ; Brooklyn Post, Captain John Sweisel, 24 ; and J. 

B. Steedman Post, Captain J. B. Fay, 20. Forest City 
Post was commanded by Captain I. L. Bnskirk. Cleve- 
land City, O. J. Crane, and Commodore Perry Posts 
were also represented in the line. Thirty members of 
the Sons of Veterans were commanded by Captain J. C. 
Blackburn. A number of invalid veterans rode in a 

" A brilliant feature of the parade was the Military 
Third Division. There was the glint of polished arms 
and the maneuvers of finely trained bodies of men to 
interest the crowd, and the Soldier boys were equal to 
the occasion. They never marched better, and never 
appeared to better advantage. Colonel J. J. Sullivan 
was the Marshal of the Division, and he was assisted in 
the command by Captain J. C. Roland, Chief of Staff ; 

■Captain H. R. Adams, Assistant Adjutant-General; 
Aides, Captain Julius Carrington, Captain D. Z. Norton, 

•Captain J. S. Dickie, Captain J. W. Warwick, Captain 

H. A. Griffin, Captain J. D. Connolly, Captain Charles 

P. Salen, Captain C. E. Sullivan, Captain Eugene Ong. 

" The First Cleveland Troop, under the command of 

Lieutenant H. B. Kingsley, had 40 men in line, and 

'Colonel C. L. Kennan commanded the Fifth Regiment, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 539 

the members of which appeared in fatigue uniforms 
which they wore during their recent campaign in the 
coal regions. The regiment was headed by the Grand 
Army Band of Canton. Colonel Kennan and his staff 
on horseback led the regiment. The regiment was rep- 
resented by Company G, Norwalk, Captain H. L. Stew- 
art ; Company K, Captain D. H. Pond; Company A, 
Captain L. R. Davies ; Company F, Captain C. X. Zim- 
merman ; Company L, Captain A. F. Lawrence ; Com- 
pany B, Captain Fred. Lawrence. There were 250 men 
in line. 

" The Cleveland Light Artillery, Captain G. T. Mc- 
Connell, had 58 men in line ; Association Rifles, Captain 
J. C. Beardsley, 58 ; Cleveland City Guards, Captain W. 
A. Hare, 62 ; Cleveland Scots Guards, Lieutenant P. A. 
McKenzie, 48; Chisholm Scottish Guards, Captain J. 
W. Thompson, 33 ; Gattling Gun Battery, Lieutenant 
D. O. Caswell, 43 ; Cleveland Grays, Captain H. Frazee, 
102 ; and Company A, of the Seventy-fourth New York 
Regiment, Captain W. A. Darner, 38 men. 

" The Fourth Division of the procession was com- 
posed of the uniformed civic and semi-military organi- 
zations. Colonel John W. Gibbons was in command. 
His Chief of Staff was Colonel Martin A. Foran, his 
Assistant Adjutant-General, Major D. W. Johns, and 
his Aides, Captains S. A. Taggart, Morris Porter, N. 
Weidenkopf, A. L. Bryan, and J. Stovering. The First 
Brigade of the division was in charge of Colonel Charles 
A. Davidson, whose Aides were Captains E. H. Towson, 
F. H. Durstine, and George Davis. Colonel John Dunn 
commanded the Second Brigade, his Assistant Adjutant- 
General being Captain John Wilhelm, and his Aides, 
Captains James Rochford, John Vevera, John Malow- 
ski, John Weser, John Fruck. The Sixth Regiment, 
Uniformed Rank Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
led the First Brigade of the division. Colonel C. L. 


Alderson was in command, his staff consisting of Major 
C. E. Benham, Captain R. W. Drackett, Major Philip 
Hyle, Captain A. J. Spencer, and Captain H. G. Sipher. 
The Odd Fellows were 300 in line, exclusive of the Odd 
Fellows' Band of Cleveland, which marched at their 
head and consisted of thirty pieces. The next organi- 
zation in line was the Second Regiment, Uniformed 
Rank, Knights of Pythias. The regiment was com- 
posed of 250 men, and was preceded by the Drum and 
Trumpet Corps of the Second Ohio Regiment, Knights 
of Pythias. Colonel T. W. Minshull commanded, the 
following being his staff: Lieutenant-Colonel G. H. 
Macey, Major A. Petzke, Major F. J. Panek, and Adju- 
tant Tony S. Deisner. Seven companies of the regiment 
were represented. Following the Knights of Pythias 
were Companies A and B, Commandery No. 9, Knights 
of the Golden Eagle. Sixty men were in line, Captain 
Samuel Eaton commanding. Alpha Division No. 1, 
Royal Arcanum, 18 men in line, marched next, Captain 
C. M. Hiles commanding. Next was Anchor Castle, 
Knights of the Golden Eagle, 14 in line, Captain Miller 
commanding. The Middleton Fife and Drum Corps 
preceded the Avery Drill Corps, under the command of 
Captain W. A. McDonald. Forty were in line in the 
drum corps. The Gray Cadets, Captain R. H. Morgan, 
presented a good appearance, and were 70 men strong. 
" Major M. Millard and Adjutant Dudley Wick, Jr., 
were in charge of a battalion of Boys' Brigade, which 
numbered 310 recruits. The companies were as fol- 
lows : Pilgrim Cadets, Captain John Glueck ; Living- 
stone Cadets, Captain F. M. Douttiel ; East Madison 
Avenue Presbyterian Church Brigade, Captain C. L. 
Chalfant ; South Presbyterian Church Brigade, Captain 
McQuillet; Franklin Circle Church of Christ Brigade, 
Captain Clyde Lawrence ; Second Presbyterian Church 
Brigade, Captain Ralph Huntington ; Jennings Avenue 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 541 

Methodist Episcopal Church Brigade, Captain Harry 
Keim ; Music Hall Cadets, Captain Clayton Horning ; 
Euclid Avenue Presbyterian Church, Captain Amos 
Denison ; Willson Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Captain Frank C. Brainard ; Brooklyn Village Method- 
ist Church, Captain E. T. Foote ; Trinity Cathedral 
Knights of Temperance, Captain F. R. Morley. The 
battalion of Boys' Brigade was accompanied by an effi- 
cient drum corps. The Patriotic Sons of America were 
next in line, 25 strong. The company was commanded 
by Captain C. C. Benham. This ended the First Bri- 
gade of the Fourth Division. 

" The Second Brigade was devoted to the Catholic 
societies. First was the Hibernian Rifles, in two com- 
panies, commanded respectively by Captains M. P. Cum- 
mings and John Fleming. Seventy-five men inarched. 
The Cleveland companies of Knights of St. John fol- 
lowed, 446 strong, as follows : Knights of St. George, 
Captain Girard Hip'pler ; Knights of Father Mathew, 
Captain J. T. O'Brian ; Sheridan Commandery, Captain 
C. A. Dainz ; Immaculate Conception Commandery, 
Captain John L. Noonan ; St. Francis' Commandery, 
Captain F. Armbruster ; Washington Commandery, 
Captain P. H. McMahon ; Shields Commandery, Cap- 
tain T. G. Smith ; Lafayette Commandery, Captain 
Joseph Graham ; St. Peter's Commandery, Captain A. 
Besinger ; St. Michael's Commandery, Captain John 
Widerowski ; Washington Cadets, Captain F. M. Finn- 
can ; Knights of St. Wenceslaus, Captain Joseph Dick. 
The Knights of St. Kasimir, 28 in number, came next, 
Captain M. P. Kinola in command, after which the 
Society of St. Wenceslaus, 30 strong, under the com- 
mand of Captain Florian Finkes, marched. The 
Knights of Father Mathew, of St. Malachi's Assembly, 
34 in line, were commanded by Captain Ignatius Long- 
tin. St. Imri's Society, preceded by the Pythian Cadet 


Band, marched 21 in line, under command of Captain 
John Balasc. St. Ladislav Society of St. Elizabeth 
Church turned out to the number of 100, and was com- 
manded by Captains John Weiger and John Nemit. 
St. Peter's Society of St. Prokop's Church, under the 
command of Captain V. Sprosty, was present 100 strong. 
The brigade devoted to the Catholic societies closed 
with two carriages. In one of these rode Rev. George 
Vaney and Rev. Dr. Patrick Farrell, while in the other 
were C. J. Manix, President, W. M. Dillhoefer and J. 
W. Bartunek, Vice Presidents, and George S. Gibbons, 
Secretary, of the Catholic Central Association. 

" The following were the Marshals and Aides in the 
Fifth Division, which was devoted to the exhibits of 
business houses both in manufacturing and mercantile 
lines: Colonel Elroy M. Avery, commanding ; Assistant 
Adjutant General, Captain John J. Dalton ; Aides, Cap- 
tain W. T. Robbins, Captain E. L. Harris, Captain E. 
S. Bullis, Captain W. H. H. Gorham, Captain Arthur A. 
Kuntz, Captain Harry C. Mason, Captain D. W. Shaw, 
Captain Paul Bernhard. First Brigade — Major Charles 
H. Smith, commanding ; Adjutant, R. Marshal Coulton; 
Aides, Captains O. A. Ross, T. W. Hill, Henry E. Morri- 
son, Edward W. Moore, J. L. Smith. Second Brigade — 
Major William M. Bayne, commanding ; /Adjutant, Cap- 
tain L. J. Rowbottom ; Aide, Captain Dr. F. W.Davidson. 
Third Brigade — Major Charles W. Burrows, command- 
ing ; Adjutant, Captain David S. Perkins ; Aide-de- 
Camp, Captain G. W. Kohlmetz. Fourth Brigade — 
Major L. I. Pope, commanding ; Adjutant, Captain E. 
M. Carleton ; Aides, Captain D. W. Davis and Captain 
J. H. Bigelow. 

" The floats and wagons which bore the advertise- 
ments of the business men of Cleveland were of varied 
design and many of them very handsome. First came 
an historical float which was designed bv Cooks Bros. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 543 

The float was typical of Cleveland when it was founded 
in 1796, and contained five figures, one of which repre- 
sented Moses Cleaveland. 

" This was followed by more than three hundred 
handsomely decorated floats and wagons, emblematic 
of the merchants and manufacturers of the city, all 
combined making up such a gorgeous display as was 
never before witnessed in onr prosperous city. 

" The cool shade afforded by the City Hall building 
at the close of yesterday afternoon was greatly appreci- 
ated by the ladies and gentlemen who sat in the large 
stand which had been erected in front of it for review- 
ing the procession. The stand was on the north side 
of the street, and, besides occupying a large portion of 
the sidewalk at that point, it extended some distance 
over the curb. The interior was of ample size for seat- 
ing several hundred persons, and the chairs were ar- 
ranged in tiers rising one above the other. The front 
and sides of the stand were tastefully decorated with 
bunting and flags, and the top was arranged with a 
canvas cover, to be used in case of rain. Fortunately 
this safeguard was not needed. Admission to the stand 
was by card only. 

" The head of the procession was hardly well started 
out Prospect Street when the seats began to be filled, 
about as many ladies as gentlemen being seen. As the 
procession appeared in sight on Superior Street, near 
Erie Street on its return, patrolmen on guard compelled 
the people who were pressing too close to the entrance 
to the stand to make way for the occupants of the car- 
riages, and when the mounted police had passed, the 
vehicles were driven close to the stand, and the passen- 
gers quickly stepped upon it. First appeared Governor 
McKinley with Mayor Blee, the two passing to seats at 
the center of the stand amid the cheers of the specta- 
tors. Following close came the City and County offi- 


cials. Postmaster Anderson, the members of the City 
Council and School Council, the members of the 
Mayor's Cabinet, the members of the [Monument Com- 
mission, and prominent clergymen, attorneys, and busi- 
ness men. The center of the front of the stand was 
occupied by the Governor and the Mayor, who stood 
and received the salutes of the men who passed before 
them. Governor McKinley stood with his hat off, and 
bowed repeatedly as his name was uttered. Occasion- 
ally he spoke in reply. Several times, when the de- 
tachments of the Boys' Brigade and other organizations 
of boys passed the stand, he uttered a commendatory 
word for the steadfastness with which they kept up 
with the procession. It was 4:30 o'clock when the head 
of the parade reached the stand, and the Governor and 
Mayor remained in their places until it had passed, it 
being then after 6 o'clock." 

The appearance of the city and the scenes enacted 
were graphically portrayed by the enterprising Leader 
reporter as follows : 

" The city wore her gayest dress yesterday. A mill- 
ion flags and more fluttered in the breeze. Thousands 
of yards of bunting draped the fronts of the public 
biiildings. Thousands of yards were likewise used on 
the business blocks. The Public Square and the down- 
town streets radiating therefrom were aglow with colors. 
In the brightness of the sunlight they presented a gor- 
geous view. Wherever the eye was turned, flags of the 
Nation appeared. Not only in the business portion of 
the city did patriotism break forth in display, but 
also in hundreds of homes, and the country's Inde- 
pendence Day was marked by brilliant demonstra- 
tion. Flags sprang from lawns and flower beds as 
if by magic. Silken banners waved from mansion 
and cottage alike. Everywhere was the spirit of loyalty 
felt. On the West Side, and on the East Side, on the 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 545 

South Side, and on the lake was its presence made 

" The Public Square was the center of decoration. 
Dotted with countless and multi-colored sunshades, 
summer hats, and dresses, the groundwork was com- 
plete, so far as a Fourth of Juh- crowd was concerned. 
Looking up Superior Street the first feature to attract 
the attention of the observer was the tall electric light 
mast, from the top of which went out long lines of little 
flags, reaching to the buildings at the sides of the 
Square. Like the ribs of a vast umbrella did they 
spread over the crowd. Some of the flags were red, 
others blue, others white, and still others red, white, 
and blue combined. Myriads of brightly-painted paper 
lanterns swung from their fastenings underneath the 
trees. Telegraph poles were wrapped in colors from 
top to bottom and added to the general holiday appear- 
ance. The Soldiers' and Sailors' [Monument, from its 
four flag staffs, presented bright emblems of the Nation, 
which fluttered proudly from their fastenings. Hun- 
dreds of little banners were suspended from the electric 
railway wires above the streets. All around the Square 
the buildings were gayly dressed. On the west side of 
the Park the windows were draped with bunting 
and supplied with flags. From the top of the Old 
Court House a large emblem unfurled its folds. Just 
under the eave was caught another, which formed a 
semi-circle of colors and stars. Similar drapings 
adorned the balcony and windows. At the entrance 
door was placed a large portrait of Grant surrounded 
with flags. On the north side of the Square, the Wick 
block and the Society for Savings building presented a 
lovely sight. Streamers of the national colors crossed 
each other diagonally on the front of the former block 
and formed a square at the top and sides. The general 
effect was augmented bv dozens of little flasrs and 


streamers. From the top of the tall building of the 
Society for Savings waved one of the largest flags in the 
State. Near the end of the staff were fastened two ropes 
reaching to either corner of the roof. To these ropes 
tiny streamers were attached. Over the eaves fell folds 
of bunting. In the middle, near the top, were pinned 
long rows of colors, which spread fan-like toward the 
bottom. ' Liberty ' and ' E Plnribns Unum ' were 
displayed in paintings. Half circles of flags fell from 
the sills of the windows. A bright new banner floated 
from the rooms of the Historical Society. The West 
side of the Government Building was draped in tri- 
colors, with the addition, here and there, of a stripe of 
something else. Long streamers decorated the balcony, 
and many bunches of bunting were swung from the 
windows. Several flags of larger size were raised upon 
the roof. The Cuyahoga Building did much towards 
making the setting of the Square complete. Bright 
new flags were fastened outside every window, and in 
some were arranged, in decorative styles, various sym- 
bols appropriate to the day. The main entrance was 
prettily draped. The other buildings to the east of the 
Square were also adorned. On the south the hand- 
somely decorated dry goods stores attracted attention. 
( hi the Euclid Avenue Block was a large star in colors, 
while on either side was arranged a shield. Bunting; 
spread over the front, falling from the middle to the 
outer walls. On one of the stores was a large sign bear- 
ing the words, ' Greater Cleveland.' The decorations 
of the Forest City House and the adjacent streets were 
nicely arranged. To those who glanced along Ontario 
Street, a glimmer of flags appeared. All of the stores 
were furnished with an abundance. E. R. Hull & Dut- 
ton's store was covered with them. Crossed between 
the windows and fastened in other designs, they 
brightened the scene. A large flag floated from 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 547 

the tower and another was swung from the opposite 

" From the foot of Water Street to Euclid Station on 
Willson Avenue, the line of march of the procession 
was honored with special decorations. Superior Street, 
on both sides, was draped in color. The tall blocks, 
with their many designs, expressed a welcome to the 
Veterans, and the visitors which will long be remem- 
bered. The balconies of the Weddell House and the 
American House were wound about with bunting and 
studded with stars. The big store of J. L. Hudson 
made a special effort. Festoons of cloth almost con- 
cealed the front. Long stretches of solid blue mingled 
with equal lengths of red and white. Across the front, 
midway from the ground, were displayed the words : 
' The Brighter Star — Our Country.' At the main en- 
trance a picture of Lincoln, draped with old Glory, was 
to be seen. Looking down Seneca Street from Supe- 
rior, toward the lake, the front of the New Court House 
loomed up in its dress of bright colors. The statue of 
Justice was enshrouded in a handsome flag. At her 
feet, on the top of an arch, was the head of Liberty, 
from which radiated streamers of bunting. The win- 
dows were neatly festooned. LTpper Superior Street, in 
the vicinity of the City Hall, was viewed with delight 
by the crowd. The Municipal Building itself was hand- 
somely fitted out with flags which jutted from every 
window. Little banners and big banners joined to- 
gether in doing honor to the day. The Hollenden at- 
tracted favorable comment, being adorned in gala attire 
from basement to roof. On Euclid Avenue the large 
blocks were nearly all made radiant with bunting and 
flags. A great deal of originality and no small amount 
of expense were manifest in the display. The Public 
Library and school headquarters building, after almost 
a day's work, was made to look exceedingly beautiful. 


A wide expanse of bunting, converging at the center, 
set off the front. On either side of it were other drap- 
ings of a similar character. Folds of the national colors 
fell from the sills of the windows and the balconies, 
while scores of tiny flags fluttered in the breeze. Over 
the main door was a framed portrait of Garfield, sur- 
rounded on all sides by the colors he loved so well. 
The Stillman was supplied with numerous decorations. 
In the Arcade a great deal of festooning was done. A 
beautiful floral wreath was received yesterday from Mrs. 
C. F. Johnson, formerly Miss Ellen F. Terry, who was 
a member of the Sanitary Commission. It was placed 
in the Monument to decorate the panel representing 
the Commission. Mrs. Johnson was invited to be pres- 
ent at the exercises of the day, but was unable to do so. 
Her home is in Hartford, Conn. The wreath was com- 
posed of white carnations and English hardy doy. At- 
tached to it was a silken band upon which was written, 
' Ave et Vale ' in Latin, meaning 'Hail and farewell.' 
" Never has the Public Square looked so beautiful as 
it did last evening during the illumination in honor of 
the Nation's birthday and the dedication of the Soldiers' 
Monument. Its entire space, hemmed in by towering 
buildings, was a blaze of light of many tints, and it 
seemed as though a chapter out of the experience of 
Aladdin had been thrust into the Nineteenth Century. 
Everything within the enclosure was made to do service 
for the central effect desired. The trees seemed to be 
made of delicate fire with their load of fairy Chinese 
lanterns, which also hung in rows and festoons all about 
the Park. Every color and tint imaginable was shown 
by them, but the national colors were predominant. 
The lanterns were likewise of all shapes and sizes, and 
the appearance of the aggregation, as they shifted their 
position under the influence of the gentle breeze that 
swept through the place, was most quaint and fairy like. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 549 

The entire space in the two western sections of the 
Square was adorned with lines of these frail beacons. 
They hung thickly from the boughs of the trees just 
above the heads of the crowd, and cast a dreamy light 
over the fountains, the flower beds, and the people. 
The amphitheater in the northeast section was also 
thickly set with the lanterns, and thousands of specta- 
tors who witnessed the display of the evening from that 
vantage point looked like a misty vision. Another 
beautiful feature of the illumination was seen over the 
streets leading into the Square. The cross wires sup- 
porting the street car trolley wires were hung with the 
little glass lanterns, which became so famous at the 
World's Fair, on Wooded Island. The tiny cups were 
of the three colors which unite in the Stars and Stripes, 
and they were arranged in regular lines along the 
streets. The effect was, to a spectator at a little dis- 
tance, like that of a ceiling set with brilliant points of 
vari-colored fire. The scene was dazzling in its splen- 
dor. These little lights were on Superior and Ontario 
Streets and Euclid Avenue and the number made use 
of was very large. 

" But the most brilliant effect of all was that pro- 
duced on the electric light mast in the center of the 
Square. The mast had been trimmed and decorated in 
a manner never before attempted. At the top were the 
eight arc lights as usual, but even the light from these 
had undergone a change. Instead of the bright, white 
light that is wont to stream from the high point of the 
mast, the colors of the rays were red, white, and blue, 
as in the other lights round about. But this is not all. 
From the top of the pole to the platform, which stands 
about twenty feet from the ground, there wound in 
spiral form a line of bright incandescent globes which 
fairly filled the center of the enclosure with effulgence. 
The effect of the flashing points was charming and 


most attractive. The globes were varied in color, run- 
ning through the shades of blue, violet, purple, green, 
and finally red and white, and the number of separate 
lamps was so great as to render the combined radiance 
almost too strong for the eye, if the one watching it 
were close to the mast. The gleaming column, with its 
intensely bright spiral, loomed upward like a triumphal 
monument, and the attention that it received from the 
spectators easily exceeded that given any other feature 
of the evening's display. 

" At various other points in the Square were arc 
lamps set in globes of the prevailing colors, giving light 
as well as patriotic inspiration and aiding to flood the 
city's central park with chromatic harmony. The il- 
lumination fell with renewed splendor on the immense 
spread of bunting which decorated the Square. The 
long, radiating lines of flags that stretched from the top 
of the mast and the banners that covered the faces of 
the nearby buildings, were alike thrown into promi- 
nence and they added greatly to the brilliancy of the 

" From the top of the tall building of the Society for 
Savings were turned in various directions the beam-like 
rays of three powerful electric search-lights. These were 
manipulated by expert hands, and under the skillful di- 
rection of the operators the various points of interest in 
the central part of the city were in turn illuminated. 

u Off in the dark sky, rendered doubly dark to the 
eye grown accustomed to the glare of the immediate 
vicinity, there would suddenly appear the outlines of a 
tall building, thrown into prominence by the searching 
reflector. This would pass out of sight as another ob- 
ject appeared. The group of spectators in the park 
watched the strange effect of the light, as it was turned 
for a moment on some of their number and as quickly 
moved in another direction agfain. The Soldiers' and 


Sailors' Monument, standing somber in the half light 
that reached its top, was frequently thrown into strong 
relief against the sky by the light that slowly traveled 
up and down its granite column. First the gigantic 
figure of Liberty at the top would be seen, as plainly as 
in the brightest sunshine, and then the flash would 
move down towards the tablet room and the bronze 
groups that stand about the wide esplanade. Two of 
the lights were covered with glass screens colored a deep 
blue and a bright crimson, and these were turned upon 
various objects in the Square. The immense flag which 
floated from the roof of the Society for Savings build- 
ing was illuminated several times by the combined ef- 
fect of the three lamps. Thereby an exceedingly 
beautiful effect was produced. Each color in the flag 
took on a deeper tint of its own and the red stripes 
were of a red as deep and pure as though all the ver- 
milion and cochineal of a continent had been called 
into use for the producing of that very tint. The blue 
straightway became a royal purple of a richness almost 
impossible and the white served to accent the effect of 
the whole. 

" Off in the distance, in every direction, were sky- 
rockets and Roman candles and Greek fire. The street 
was tinged with all the colors known to man. The 
buildings about the Square were illuminated in every 
room. The tower on the top of the store of E. R. Hull 
& Dutton contained an arc light high on the top and 
rows of incandescent lamps all around. From the roof 
of the Lennox sprang streaks of fire, which, winding 
their way into the bosom of the sky, went out in puffs 
of colored stars. 

" Down on the lake front, in Lake View Park, and on 
the streets leading thereto, were numbers of spectators 
who watched the display, sitting on the grass or walking 
to and fro. The crack yacht, the Say When, came 


in from the home of Hon. W. J. White, wreathed in 
the national colors, which were given ont by the many 
incandescent lights on board. The small boy made the 
occasion a succession of deafening noises and wild 
shrieks of amusement and joy. The cannon cracker 
ended its peaceful existence with an explosion that 
shook the neighborhood. The torpedo and the 
shrieker closed up their accounts together, and the 
country swain and his sweetheart enjoyed the show as 
only the ruralist can enjoy a Fourth of July celebration 
in the city. Slowly the noise and uproar ceased and the 
pleasure-surfeited. public sought home and rest. Finally 
the night obtained control and the lights went out. The 
coming of darkness was the end of one of the greatest 
celebrations of a patriotic nature the Forest City has 
ever had, and the weary ones who had seen it all were 
ready to give assent to the statement." 

The Plain Dealer reporter thus glowingly describes 
the carnival : 

" The Square last evening resembled the scene of a 
brilliant carnival, unparalleled in beauty. From the 
base of the towering electric light staff in the center of 
the Square to its peak it was twined with a spiral of in- 
candescent lights, red, white and blue in color, and on 
the platform around the top were larger globes, all in 
the national colors. Completely encircling the Square 
was a row of Chinese lanterns and these lent a softening 
radiance to the whole effect. The thousand flags con- 
verging at the top of the tall staff fluttered softly, whiz- 
zing rockets sped upward and fell in multi-colored 
brilliance, red and blue lights at intervals cast their 
strong reflection over the surging crowd that gathered 
early in the evening and stayed until late, and on the 
outskirts of the scene the Society for Savings and 
Cuyahoga buildings, with their every window lighted, 
loomed above their surroundings. Three strong search- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 553 

lights on the former building were also used to good 
advantage to enhance the beauty of the scene. 

" And the crowd was a jolly, cosmopolitan assemblage. 
The great grand stand in the northeast corner was 
filled with people and a still larger, constantly changing 
crowd promenaded the Square until midnight. The 
people shouldered and elbowed each other in what 
seemed sometimes an utterly futile attempt to make 
any progress, but a better-natured lot of seething 
humanity was never seen. Everyone realized that 
Cleveland was en fete and wore his or her happiest smile 
to grace the occasion. The city's holiday attire, the 
brilliant lights, the people all combined to make the 
scene one never to be forgotten. 

" Governor McKinley expressed himself as very much 
pleased with the Fourth of July celebration in this city 
in conversation with a Plain Dealer reporter last even- 
ing. He characterized it as a most fitting observance 
of the day and said : 

" ' The program was carried out in an excellent man- 
ner, without jar or collision, and the citizens of Cleve- 
land may well feel proud of the celebration. One of the 
most impressive scenes of the day was the presence of 
the 3,000 school children on the immense amphitheater 
singing patriotic songs. The singing of the l Star 
Spangled Banner ' and the waving of flags above their 
heads was indeed inspiring.' 

" In speaking of the parade, the Governor said that it 
was one of the finest he had ever witnessed and was 
handled in a magnificent manner. ' The troops looked 
splendid and the independent companies presented a 
fine appearance. The large number of the boys who 
wore the blue in line was a very pleasing sight and one 
of the features of the parade. The industrial display 
was great.' 

" The Governor attached a great deal of interest to 


the presence of so many Veterans and felt a personal 
interest in that portion of the parade, as two companies 
of his old regiment were from this locality. 

" ' Another interesting feature,' he said, ' was the 
presence at the morning exercises of Mrs. Harris and 
Mrs. Thatcher, the oldest surviving organizers of the La- 
dies' Aid vSociety, who did such noble work during the 
dark days of the War. Their attendance was an addi- 
tion that made the affair complete in every particular. 
The one other thing that put a finish to the grandeur 
of the day was the decorations, which were profuse and 
elaborate. Particularly was it true of the Square, 
Euclid Avenue and Prospect Street. 

" ' The whole day was a memorable one,' said Gov- 
ernor McKinley in conclusion, ' and an event in which 
I was glad indeed to be able to participate.' 

" Ex-Governor Foraker said last evening that he had 
been most highly gratified with the results of Wednes- 
day's celebration." 



THE companionship of the Commission and the 
work done by them were referred to in the fol- 
lowing pleasant vein by the Leader reporter : 

" There is something not quite in line with this prac- 
tical age, in the idea of a number of men banding them- 
selves together for a purely unselfish object and con- 
tinning in this relation and in the efforts for the accom- 
plishment of the object sought for nearly a score and a 
half of years. Snch has been the case with the Monu- 
ment Commission, the members of which have labored 
together in building the structure dedicated for so long 
that the beginning of the enterprise seems far away. 
For the first few years, the Commission was composed 
of only a few members, others being added from time 
to time, but whether in or out of the organization, the 
twelve present members have always been in sympathy 
with the enterprise and have aided in securing its 
success whenever opportunity offered. The plans that 
have been proposed and the suggestions offered have 
been placed before all the members as they came up, 
and all have had an opportunity of expressing their 
opinions. The dedication of the Monument will take 
from many of them a weight of responsibility which 
has rested somewhat heavily during all the controversy 
and variance of opinion that has characterized the'prog- 
ress of the enterprise." 

The Plain Dealer compliments the Commissioners in 
the following happy style : 

"A better choice of twelve men to serve on the 


Monument Commission could hardly have been made. 
They are all members of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Union, and as such were appointed on the 
Commission by Gov. Joseph B. Foraker. By their 
fellow-citizens they are highly esteemed, not only for 
their bravery in war, but for their records in times of 
peace. There are three generals on the Commission — 
Leggett, Barnett and Elwell. The other men have all 
attained to some rank and have served with distinction. 
In local affairs, several of the men have been honored 
by being elected or appointed to positions of trust and 
honor. The handling of the business connected with 
the building of the Monument has been done in a 
systematic and business-like manner, and their report 
of the finances entrusted to their care will show this." 
A brief biography of each Commissioner will be 
found in the succeeding pages, from the souvenir 
editions of the Leader and Plain Dealer: 


The member of the Monument Commission who, if 
any, has had more to do with the enterprise than the 
others, is Major William J. Gleason, from the first the 
President of the body. Major Gleason introduced the 
resolution that placed the members of Camp Barnett 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Society on record in favor of the 
erection of the Monument. This was as far in the past 
as the year 1879. He had been active previous to that 
time in the agitation of the subject, and in all the years 
that followed he retained his place in the van of the 
workers. He was born in the famous county Clare, 
Ireland, in the year 1846, on June 2d, and within six 
months from that time he was in America. His parents 
settled in Vermont, but after a short time removed to 
Cleveland, where they made their home. The son 
attended the parochial and public schools of the city, 
and at the age of eleven commenced selling newspapers 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 559 

on the street and doing other light work. He received 
his practical education in the printing office and by 
hard study, being a genuine self-made man. He was less 
than fifteen years of age when the War broke out, and he 
had been at that time engaged as printer's devil for six 
months in the composing room of the Plain Dealer. 
With some of his earnings he purchased a drum and 
went out to join the Soldiers at Camp Taylor, which 
was located on the block bounded by Woodland and 
Scovill Avenues and Maple and Linden Streets. He be- 
came a drummer under Captain De Villiers and spent 
three months at the camp. Though at this time only 
fifteen years old, the next year he became eighteen, 
so as to enlist, and he at once did so for three years, or 
till the close of the War. This time he became a mem- 
ber of the vSixtieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under 
Captain P. K. Walsh, and his soldier experience lasted 
just a week. At the expiration of that time, his parents 
sought him out with a writ of habeas corpus, and he 
was led home. He was allowed to enter the National 
Guard, however, and Company E, of the Twenty-ninth 
Regiment, received him as a drummer boy and gradu- 
ated him in 1864 as a full-fledged Soldier, able to carry 
a musket. W T hile a member of the National Guard, he 
was a compositor in the Plain Dealer office. One 
morning, he left home as usual with his dinner basket, 
but he never reached the office. Instead, he enlisted in 
the 150th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under Captain J. B. 
Molyneaux, and the first his parents knew of it they 
received a letter from Washington, where he was en- 
gaged in defending the National Capital. He still 
lacked one month of being eighteen years of age, but 
this time he was not molested, and he remained with 
the regiment until it came home. 

Major Gleason is a printer by trade, a fact of which 
he declares himself proud. 


As he was a private in active service it becomes 
necessary to explain his title of major. His friends 
assert that he was born a major, is a major by nature 
and by habit, and will die a major. It is said that 
strangers at first glance always spot him for a major. 
The spirit of major is thoroughly imbued in him and 
personified by him. But he came to the title honestly, 
for though too young to acquire it in war, he served on 
the staff of the Commander of the Grand Army of the 

After his return from the army, Major Gleason re- 
sumed the printing trade as a compositor. He was 
subsequently a hustling reporter and connected with 
the business department, going through all of the 
grades of newspaper work. Of late years, however, he 
has not continued in this, being engaged in the insur- 
ance business. He has been conspicuous in all things 
relating to the improvement of Cleveland. He organ- 
ized the system under which the Board of Elections is 
working and was its first Secretary. Under the admin- 
istration of Mayor George W. Gardner, he was City 
Comptroller. He has been Secretary of the Library 
Board for three years, and also a member of the Board 
of Equalization. He has held many positions of trust 
and responsibility, nearly all of them without pay, dis- 
charging his every duty with intelligence and ; fidelity. 
He was President of the Irish National League during 
its entire practical existence. In all patriotic objects 
concerning either his native country or the Government 
of the United States, he has been a tireless worker. His 
entire life has been marked by thorough executive 
ability, earnest activity and enterprise. Upon the 
election of the Permanent Commission, he was made a 
member thereof, and was subsequently unanimously 
chosen its President. 

r "-D'-N 




Associated with the Monument enterprise from the 
first and connected with the Commission since its organ- 
ization as its permanent Secretary, Captain Levi F. 
Bauder has been in close touch with all the work that 
has been done. The records of the endeavors of the 
fifteen years that the Commission has been in exist- 
ence, placed in black and white by him, are voluminous 
and complete. The main portion of the history of the 
enterprise is contained within the covers of one huge 
volume, but aside from this there has been an immense 
amount of other clerical work. 

Captain Bauder was born in the Forest City on Janu- 
ary 28, 1840. His early life was uneventful. He 
attended the public schools, and was graduated from 
the Central High School in 1858. Later, he attended 
the academy at Port Royal, Va., and Oberlin College, 
and was engaged as a teacher in Pickaway county when 
the War broke out. He at once returned to Cleveland, 
and enlisted in the Sprague Cadets, two or three days 
after the fall of Fort Sumter. The Sprague Cadets was 
a Cleveland company, and became a part of the Seventh 
Regiment. After a few days spent at Camp Taylor, in 
this city, the company was sent to Camp Dennison, a 
short distance from Cincinnati. This was a camp of 
instruction, and there they remained until June 20, 
when Captain Bauder again enlisted for three years, 
and was returned to the same regiment. The record of 
the Seventh Regiment, the "Bloody Seventh/' as it 
became known in after years, is familiar to all who 
know anything of the history of the Cuyahoga Soldiers. 
Its long marches and bloody conflicts are historical. 
Captain Bauder participated in twelve of the fifteen 
engagements of the regiment, and in three others in 
which the regiment as a whole had no part. He went 
into the service as a private, and passed up through the 


successive grades of duty sergeant, ordnance sergeant 
of division, and first sergeant of company. During the 
trying times around Lookout Mountain, when the 
regiment became so decimated that only a small part of 
the original number remained, he had command of his 
company for four months. Here it was that he gained 
the title of captain, although that rank was never 
officially conferred upon him. The reason for this was 
that the regiment had become so thinned that no more 
officers were thought to be necessary, and Sergeant 
Bauder remained a sergeant, although having command 
of his company. 

After the three years for which Captain Bauder en- 
listed had expired, he returned home with the regiment 
and was mustered out. This was in July, 1864. Later, 
he was offered an adjutancy in a new regiment that was 
being formed, but he refused it, having just married. 
Since then, Captain Bauder held the office of County 
Auditor, from 1877 to 1883, and he was a Justice of the 
Peace from 1886 to 1892. He was several years a mem- 
ber of the Public Library Board, and is one of the 
Curators of the Western Reserve Historical Society. 
He has a more than local reputation as a writer of prose 
and verse, many of his poems being of a high order of 
merit. He is devoted to his profession as an attorney- 
at-law, and is well known throughout the county as a 
quiet, cultured, affable gentleman with hosts of friends. 


Joseph B. Molyneaux was born near Ann Arbor, 
Mich., on January 1, 1840. At the age of four years, 
his mother died, and the father and son removed to 
Elmira, N. Y., where the little fellow was put out with 
farmers until he reached the age of seven. Since that 
time he has been obliged to shift for himself, for his 
father was lost at sea. Until fourteen years old, he 
worked on farm, in hotel, saw-mill, stone quarry; in fact, 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 567- 

any place that offered. He met Prof. Lowe, who at that 
time was traveling as a magician, bnt later became 
famed as an aeronaut. For a year the boy assisted the 
professor to mystify audiences, but quit this business at 
Belleville, O. His next adventure was the study of 
medicine with Dr. Whitcomb. Then he came to Cleve- 
land and learned the printer's trade, working in various 
offices until the beginning of the War. 

He first enlisted as a private in the three-months 
service, but was appointed sergeant. At the reorgani- 
zation of the regiment for three years he was elected 
first lieutenant ; later was appointed adjutant and pro- 
moted to captain. The men under his command were 
mostly young fellows, and so well did he care for them 
that they speak- even now words of endearment and 
devotion for him. At Cedar Mountain, he was wounded 
in the head, shoulder and leg, and had two horses shot 
under him. He was then discharged for disability, but 
when his wounds healed he returned to service as 
captain of Company E, 150th O. V. I., and was assigned 
to command at Fort Thayer, near Washington. Since 
the War he has been engaged in the printing business, 
has been Deputy County Recorder, Assistant Post- 
master, and at present is a member of the Board of 
Equalization and Assessment. 

Capt. Molyneaux's record is a splendid one. On 
several occasions he performed special duties. While a 
sergeant at Camp Dennison, he did duty as a field 
officer. In 1862, he was detailed by Gen. McClellan to 
collect all convalescents of the Army of the Potomac 
and return them to their commands. This was an 
arduous undertaking. When so severely wounded at 
Cedar Mountain, he took command of the regiment,, 
his senior officers being killed. He commanded the 
division that acted as escort at the burial of General 
Lander at Patterson Creek, Va. His company had been 


a part of Lander's division. On the famous raid to 
Bloomery Furnace, where the command captured more 
prisoners than its own men numbered, he had acted as 
aid to the general. The most important battles in 
which he was engaged were Winchester, Port Republic, 
Cedar Mountain and Antietam, though there were a 
host of smaller engagements. 

Capt. Molyneaux has the esteem and respect of his 
fellow-citizens. He was elected a member of the Per- 
manent Commission and was unanimously chosen its 


One of the most influential members of the Monu- 
ment Commission is Captain Edward H. Bohm, who 
has been associated in the Monument enterprise ever 
since its inception. He was born in Alstedt, Saxe- 
Weimar, on February 7, 1837. His father was well 
supplied with the good things of life, being a member 
of the judiciary of the country, and up to the time he 
was fourteen years of age, Captain Bohm remained in 
his native land, in study in a private school. The 
family removed to this country in 1851, arriving in New 
York on August 28, and after a week spent in that city, 
they came West, intending to settle on a Western farm. 
When they arrived in Cleveland, however, young Bohm 
was taken seriously ill and a stop of some time was 
necessitated. When he had recovered sufficiently to go 
on with the journey, his father had found that the cli- 
mate of the Forest City was to his liking and it was de- 
cided to remain in Cleveland. A farm in Newburg 
township was purchased, and there the family took up 
their abode. Young Bohm staid on the farm until 1856, 
when he went to work on the old Cleveland & Toledo 
Railroad. There he was when the War broke out. He 
enlisted in Company K, Seventh Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, r on April 18, 1861, under Captain J. G. Wiseman. 


I.. .. .M 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 571 

A short time was spent in Camp Taylor, and the com- 
pany started for Camp Dennison, in Cincinnati, on the 
first Sunday in May. He remained with the company 
in its career through West Virginia until August 20, 
1 86 1. On that day he was sent out with a reconnoiter- 
ing party of nineteen men in citizen's clothes. Their 
route led them across the Gauley River and into an am- 
bush of two companies of rebel cavalry. Young Bohm 
was a sergeant by this time. The members of the party 
who had escaped the first murderous fire that was 
poured upon them ran for safety. But Sergeant Bohm, 
himself uninjured, staid with his captain, who had re- 
ceived a mortal hurt. He saw his captain pass from 
life, and for his devotion he paid the penalty of being 
captured by the Confederates. For nearly nine months, 
until May 30, 1862, he remained a captive in various 
rebel prisons, being released on the latter date at Little 
Washington, N. C. He at once returned to Cleveland, 
and in January, 1863, was commissioned by Governor 
Tod as second lieutenant in Company D, in his former 
regiment, his commission dating from November 1 of 
the previous year. 

On March 17, he was given command of the com- 
pany, and was at its head during the battles of Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, and Ringgold. In the first- 
named battle his company lost more than any other in 
the regiment. Out of fifty-three men in line, twenty- 
three were lost, four being killed, eleven wounded, and 
the remainder missing. For his valor in that engage- 
ment he was named in general orders. At the battle of 
Gettysburg the only man in the regiment killed was a 
member of his company. Captain Bohm was wounded 
in the fierce charge made by the regiment in the battle 
of Ringgold, when, in less than thirty minutes, of the 
fifteen officers in the regiment, five were killed and the 
remaining ten wounded. After he was cured of his 


wound he remained with the regiment until it was 
mustered out in Cleveland on July 6, 1864. He was 
several times recommended for the rank of major, and 
once the commission was sent to him. He refused the 
rank, however, being on the eve of marriage, and he did 
not re-enter the army, the struggle being nearly over. 
In January, 1865, he was married, and he then opened 
an office for the prosecution of Soldiers' claims against 
the Government. In 1870, he was elected to the Public 
School Board, and while in that capacity introduced 
the resolution which created the present Normal Train- 
ing School. He was County Recorder for six years, be- 
ginning with 1870, and the Anzeiger was founded by 
him as a daily German newspaper while he held that 
position. In four years he succeeded in losing $20,- 
000 in that venture and he then gave up the control of 
the paper. He was president of the North American 
Ssengerbund and the Ssengerfest, in 1874, and in 1876 
he was Presidential elector at large on the Republican 
State ticket. In 1875, he lost his wife and the year fol- 
lowing he married again. He was elected as Justice of 
the Peace in 1885, and he has held that office until the 
present. In all the matters of the Monument Commis- 
sion, he has exerted a strong influence. 


In the presence of the huge work which is formally 
dedicated to the people of Cuyahoga County, in honor 
of the brave men who upheld the Union in its dark- 
est days, something about the designer and architect 
of the structure is of especial interest. It was Cap- 
tain Levi T. Scofield, a member of the Commission, 
who prepared the designs and had personal super- 
vision of the work from the beginning to the pres- 
ent time. Captain Scofield was born in Cleveland 
on November 9, 1842, and has resided here most of his 
life. His father had been an old settler, coming here 


t— « 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 575 

in 1816, and had erected the first house on Walnut 
Street. The lad was brought up in this city, and 
studied engineering and architecture. The year before 
the War he went to Cincinnati to continue his studies, 
but came home when men were needed, and enlisted in 
Company D, First Ohio Light Artillery. He re-enlisted 
in the infantry when his term expired, and was com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant in Company E, One Hun- 
dred and Third Regiment. At intervals he received 
promotions, being made a First Lieutenant in February 
of 1863, and a Captain in November of 1864. 

His time was divided between service in the infantry 
and in the engineer corps. His ability as an engineer 
was recognized and he was often assigned to that duty. 
His early training in that work proved valuable to him. 
The duty of the engineer corps often takes it ahead of 
the lines of the army in its work of laying out roads, 
building bridges or making maps of the country. The 
advanced positions are dangerous in an enemy's country. 
In time of battle the engineers serve on the staff of the 
commanding officer, and are exposed to the fire of the 
enemy and other dangers in carrying orders. 

The company of which Scofield was a member did 
first service in Kentucky. It participated in the pursuit 
of Kirby Smith in 1862, and John Morgan in 1863, and 
many small engagements. It went with Burnside in 
his campaign across the Cumberland Mountains to 
Tennessee. Here Scofield had his first experience in 
army engineering and found it no easy work. He was 
at the siege of Knoxville and the repulse of Longstreet. 
In March of 1864 he was Provost Marshal of the Third 
corps, and soon after was appointed an Aid-de-Camp on 
a commander's staff. 

The troops marched southward to participate in the 
Atlanta campaign. They were engaged at Resaca and 
other engagements in that neighborhood. From June, 


1864, Scofield did continuous work as an engineer. He 
was in the fight at Kenesaw Mountain and took part in 
the siege and capture of Atlanta. Soon afterward came 
the Nashville campaign, in which the Union troops oc- 
cupied the city while Hood invested it. He participated 
in the pursuit of Hood to Tennessee, and did duty in 
North Carolina early in 1865, being present at the cap- 
ture of Raleigh and the surrender of Johnston. 

After the War, Captain Scofield resided in New York 
for a short time, but removed to this city and has re- 
sided here permanently. Since 1867, he has been en- 
gaged in the erection of many public buildings, such 
as the Central High School in this city, Athens and 
Columbus Asylums for the Insane, Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Home at Xenia, Penitentiary at Raleigh, House of Cor- 
rection at Cleveland, Mansfield Reformatory, and he 
designed the Ohio Monument at the World's Fair. 

Colonel Emory W. Force was born at Morrisville, 
Madison County, N. Y., December 25, 1840. He was 
the son of a prominent woolen manufacturer, who re- 
moved to Ohio, settling at Chagrin Falls in 1847. 
When the War broke out, Colonel Force enlisted as a 
private in the Seventh Infantry. He was injured in the 
intrenchments at Sutton, W. Va., and at the end of one 
year's service was discharged for disability. He partici- 
pated in the battles of Cross Lanes and Winchester and 
in Banks' retreat down the Shenandoah. He was the 
first Colonel of the Fifth Regiment, O. N. G., being its 
organizer, and he held the position for eight years. He 
spent five years as Captain in the Fifteenth Regiment, 
O. N. G., and w r hen the latter was mustered out he was 
given a commission by Governor Foster as Major of the 
Fifth Battalion. He removed to Cleveland in 1886, and 
is now teller in the Merchants' Banking and Storage 
Company, and secretary of the Seventh Regiment or- 



soldiers' and sailors' monument. 581 

ganization. He was one of the original members of the 
Committee on Monument, and, as a member of the 
Commission, has been an earnest, active, reliable 


The people of Ohio need no introduction to General 
James Barnett. As a Soldier, a business man, and a 
philanthropist he has ever occupied the front rank of 
citizens, and he is one of the rare men whose achieve- 
ments and honors fail to arouse jealousy in some quar- 
ters. General Barnett has been a member of the Monu- 
ment Commission since June 20, 1884. He bears the 
distinction of having commanded the first artillery 
opened on the Union side in the great Civil War. For 
twenty years previous to the beginning of the War, he 
was a member of an independent artillery company 
known as the Cleveland Light Artillery. When the 
menaces of the rebels began to take on a serious ap- 
pearance, the battery offered its services to the Govern- 
ment. Five days after the fall of Fort Sumter, Colonel 
Barnett was ordered to report at Columbus with his 
battery, and from there he soon went into the heat of 
the conflict. His guns were used at the battle of Phil- 
ippi, at Laurel Hill, and Carrick's Ford, and then the 
battery returned to Cleveland, the period of its enlist- 
ment being over. Colonel Barnett was detailed by 
Governor Dennison to raise a twelve-battery regiment of 
artillery, and this he did, sending the batteries into the 
field as they were organized. With a portion of this 
command he participated in the battle of Pittsburg 
Landing, having charge of the artillery reserve of the 
Army of the Ohio. Later he was ordered to Ohio on 
recruiting service and returning to the army he was as- 
signed for duty on the staff of General C. C. Gilbert. 
At the battle of Perryville he was transferred to the 
staff of General N. McCook, as Chief of Artillery, and 


in the latter part of the year 1862 he was appointed by 
General Rosecrans as Chief of Artillery of the Army of 
the Cumberland. The battles of Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Mission Ridge, and others were participated in 
by his command, and for his conduct in these battles 
he received special commendation from General Rose- 
crans. He was mustered out of the service at Nashville, 
on October 20, 1864. In May, 1865, he was brevetted 
Major-General for "gallant, efficient and meritorious 

Since the War he has been with the same firm as be- 
fore the War and is now president of it. He is a phil- 
anthropic man, and gives much time to charitable work. 
He is president of the Bethel Associated Charities and 
the Humane Society, and a trustee of the Military 
Homes of the United States. He was the first president 
of the Board of Elections, and is engaged in several 
business enterprises, being president of the First 
National Bank. He has the respect of every Soldier to 
whom he is known, and in this community stands high 
as an estimable citizen. In war, our leading Soldier ; in 
peace, our foremost citizen. None know him but to 
love and admire him. 


From " Ohio in the War," " Bench and Bar," and 
other printed sketches is made up the following in re- 
gard to the career of General J.J. El well : 

He was born in Warren, O., June 22, 1820. General 
Elwell is a graduate of the Cleveland Medical College ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1854 and has since been a 
member of the Cleveland bar. He w T as a member of the 
Ohio Legislature from 1853 to 1855, and was editor and 
publisher of the Western Law Monthly ; also a profess- 
or in the Ohio and Union Law College and Cleveland 
Medical College. During- this time he wrote a work on 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 585 

medical jurisprudence, which is a standard work on that 
subject, and has passed through four editions. 

He entered the military service in August, 1861, 
bringing an order from the Secretary of War for the 
raising of the Second Ohio Cavalry on the Western Re- 
serve, which he helped raise and equip and was 1,200 
strong. He also equipped the Third Ohio Cavalry and 
Sherman's Brigade. Early in 1862, he joined General 
David Hunter and proceeded with him to Port Royal, 
S. C, and was promoted to Chief Quartermaster of the 
Department of the South, with the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel. He served in this department two years and 
participated in all the operations against Charleston 
under Hunter, Gillmore and other generals. He took a 
hand in the bloody assault on Fort Wagner on the night 
of July 18, 1862, where the Union troops were repulsed 
with a loss of 1,500 men in an hour. General A. C. 
Voris, who was terribly wounded at the time and carried 
off the field by General Elwell, in " Sketches of the 
War," published by the Loyal Legion of Ohio, says : 
" Colonel J. J. Elwell, a wonderfully brave man, rode 
clear up to Wagner, cheering on the men to hold the 
fort. He did on that occasion what I never saw during 
the War done by a staff officer whose duties did not 
call him to thus expose himself, and lead troops in 
places of the greatest danger, requiring the highest 
degree of courage." 

On many an occasion he was seen in the midst of the 
fray, having for the time abandoned his post as Quarter- 
master-General, and fighting with all the vim and energy 
of the most valorous. It was his habit to go into battle 
with his hat off, and as he rushed forward with his long 
hair flying in the wind, he made a picture of eagerness 
and forgetfulness of self which was an inspiration to 
the other Soldiers. 

General Elwell was brevetted four times during the 


War for great and gallant services. The last two years 
of the War he was in charge of the prison camp at El- 
mira, N. Y., where there were from 12,000 to 15,000 
prisoners of war. He was also connected with the cav- 
alry bureau at Washington at this time. 

His medallion stands in the tablet room of the Monu- 
ment among the distinguished generals of Ohio, having 
been placed there by his associates of the Commission, 
without his knowledge, for distinguished service, espe- 
cially at Fort Wagner. 

A medal was presented to General Elwell by General 
Gillmore, commanding the Department of the South, 
upon which Forts Sumter and Wagner are engraved, 
appreciative of his gallant services in that famous siege 
of two years. 

He was severely injured several times, and narrowly 
escaped death from yellow fever at Port Royal in 1862. 
He is still in good health and active business in this 

He has been a valuable and enthusiastic worker for 
the Monument and its site from the first. He was 
made a member of the Commission June 20, 1884, and 
was re-elected as one of the five Permanent Commis- 


Colonel C. C. Dewstoe is a New Yorker by birth, his 
early days having been spent in Ontario County, in that 
State. He was born on May 10, 1841, and when he was 
six years of age his parents removed to Flint, Mich., 
where he went to school and where he enlisted in the 
Second Michigan Infantry, in May, 1861. After the first 
battle of Bull Run he was ordered transferred to the 
signal service, and he participated in all the battles of 
the Army of the Potomac. He was discharged in June, 
1864, after he had risen to have charge of a detachment 
in the signal corps. Two years afterward he removed 



I'dHt ■ in i lillMhi 


■ ■ 






soldiers' and sailors' monument. 591 

to Cleveland, since which time he has been in business 
in this city. He was a member of the Board of Health 
and was sheriff of Cuyahoga County two years. He has 
been connected with the Monument enterprise ever 
since its inception and has been an earnest worker in 
the Commission. In all affairs pertaining to the wel- 
fare of the Soldier element he is earnest and active. 
He stands in the front rank as a post-prandial speaker, 
possessing many genial traits of character added to a 
fund of wit and clever stories. He is in constant de- 
mand on the occasion of " surprise presentations," army 
re-unions, symposiums and other first-class social gath- 


A foreign country produced. James Hayr, but that 
makes him none the less a brave Soldier. On July 1, 
1838, he was born at Hamilton, Ont. When he was 
nine years old the family removed to Niagara Falls, 
and at thirteen he was apprenticed to a firm of painters. 
He followed this work at Rochester, New York City, 
and later came to Cleveland. 

He enlisted in 1861 in Company B, Zouave Light 
Guards, under command of James P. Mcllrath. When 
the company re-enlisted for three years it was assigned 
to the Twenty-third Regiment, O. I. V., and called 
Company A. The regiment was officered by Col. Rose- 
crans, afterward general ; Lieut. Col. Stanley Matthews 
and Major R. B. Hayes. During the first year of the 
War the regiment was engaged principally in West Vir- 
ginia. The next year operations were extended to Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, and the men were engaged in the 
battles of South Mountain, Antietam and lesser fights. 
During 1863, the command was assigned to scouting and 
raiding expeditions. The next year it assisted in the 
destruction of the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad. In 
the raid on Lynchburg the men were constantly under 


fire for seventy days. Later they participated in the 
famous campaign of Sheridan. At Cedar Creek, Com- 
rade Hayr was severely wounded in the abdomen while 
engaged in getting a gun off the field of battle, and this 
kept him from active service until the next Spring. 

On Independence Day of 1864, he was promoted to 
corporal, and for exceptional bravery in the face of the 
enemy at Fisher Hill he received the appointment of 
sergeant in September. 

He was mustered out August 1st, 1865, at Cumber- 
land, Md., having seen four years, three months and 
twelve days of service. At the close of the War he re- 
turned to this city and renewed his old trade. 

Since the War, Sergeant Hayr has been active in the 
duties of peace which show patriotism. He has been 
closely allied with affairs pertaining to the veterans. 
He was commander of Hampson Post and has held sev- 
eral official positions in the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Union and in the Union Veterans' Union. 
He has been vice-president of the Twenty-third Regi- 
ment Association, and on several occasions has been 
Marshal of Memorial Day parades. 

His record is good, his bravery undoubted and his 
works in behalf of his veteran comrades fully appreci- 
ated. He has been a member of the Monument Com- 
mission since June 20, 1884. 


Dr. R. W. Walters, of Chagrin Falls, was born in 
Russell, Geauga County, on August 22, 1838. Having 
received a good education at high-class seminaries, he 
made choice of the medical profession. He commenced 
the study of medicine early in the year 1861. On 
August 15, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company D, 
Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was promoted 
to Hospital Steward on March 14, 1864. He partici- 
pated in the following battles: Wauketchie, Tenn., 


JH.Df.m fo;,. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 597 

night of October 28 and 29, 1863 ; Lookout Mountain, 
Mission Ridge and Ringgold, November, 1863 ; Rocky 
Face Ridge, Resaca and Dallas, May, 1864 ; Kenesaw 
Mountain, June, 1864 ; Peachtree Creek, July, 1864, and 
siege of Atlanta. 

When the gallant Seventh Ohio was mustered out he, 
with about two hundred others, was transferred to the 
Fifth Regiment, Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, and 
was mustered out of service March 17, 1865, on account 
of being supernumerary, by order of the War Depart- 

On his return from the army he resumed the study of 
medicine and attended the Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia, Pa. He attended his second course of 
lectures at the Cleveland Medical College (now Western 
Reserve University), and graduated from that institu- 
tion. Feeling that he would derive benefit from a 
course of study in a homeopathic college, he entered as 
a student at the Cleveland Homeopathic Hospital Col- 
lege (now the Cleveland University of Medicine and 
Surgery), from which he graduated. He was appointed 
Assistant Surgeon of the Fifteenth Regiment, O. N. G., 
Colonel E. W. Force commanding, by Governor Bishop, 
July 17, 1878. 

He is an ardent believer in religious liberty, and 
is an active member of the Seventh Day Adventist 
Church. He has practiced medicine in Chagrin Falls 
since April, 1867. 

He became a member of the Commission on June 20, 
1884. Though residing in the country, he has been 
prompt in attendance at all meetings, and has ably rep- 
resented the townships. 

An officer high in rank in the Union armies, and as a 
soldier, citizen, and attorney; crowned with a record as 
brilliant as it is stainless, is General Mortimer D. Leg- 


gett. Besides being one of the Monument Commission- 
ers, he has been awarded the honor of directing the 
movements, as Chief Marshal, of the grand body of men 
who composed the dedication procession. During the 
War he was a confidential friend and adviser of General 
Grant, General McClellan, General Sherman, and other 
prominent officers. He was born at Ithaca, N. Y., April 
19, 182 1. His father, a farmer, removed to Montville, 
Geauga County, in 1836, and the son spent several 
years on the farm and in study, leaving home when he 
was eighteen years old to go to the Teachers' Seminary 
in Kirtland. There he remained until he was gradu- 
ated, at the head of his class, and he then became a 
teacher. He soon commenced the study of law, and 
w T as admitted to the bar in 1844, although he did not 
begin active practice until six years later, at Warren. 
He was one of the first in the State to give attention to 
the subject of free public schools conducted on the 
graded plan, and he spent some time in agitating the 
question. Through his efforts, and those of two or 
three other gentlemen, he secured the passage of a spe- 
cial school law for Akron, and later he organized the 
first system of free graded schools west of the Allegha- 
nies in that city. In 1845, he graduated from the 
Willoughby Medical College, and in 1856 he became 
Professor of Pleading and Practice in the Ohio Law 
College. When the War began, he accompanied Gen- 
eral McClellan to West Virginia, and in the latter part 
of 1 86 1 was commissioned by Governor Dennison to raise 
and organize the Seventy-eighth Regiment of Infantry,, 
which he accomplished in a very short time. He en- 
listed in the same organization as a private, his name 
being the first to go on the list, and within forty days 
he was private, Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, 
Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel, and Colonel. He 
took his regiment, which consisted of 1,040 men, to Fort 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 599 

Donelson, where it performed valuable service. Imme- 
diately after this, General Grant attached him to his 
staff, and the young officer went into the battle of Shi- 
loh, where he received his first wound. While com- 
manding an advance upon Corinth, on May 16, 1862, 
one horse he rode was killed under him, and another 
was wounded, he escaping uninjured. As a recognition 
of his service at this time, he was commissioned a Brig- 
adier-General. His next notable service was the battle 
of Middleburg, Tenn., where, with 500 men, he defeated 
Van Dorn, who had 4,000 troops. For this he was com- 
plimented by General Grant, and received a special 
letter of thanks from the Secretary of War. He partici- 
pated in the battle known as " Hell on the Hatchie^' 
the battle of Iuka, and in all the movements against 
Vicksburg, including the running of the blockade, the 
battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion 
Hills, Big Black, and the siege of Vicksburg. At the 
battle of Champion Hills, he received a severe wound 
in his thigh. He was then transferred from the Second 
Brigade of Third Division of the Seventeenth Army 
Corps, which he had been commanding, to the First 
Brigade of the same division, which held the only posi- 
tion in front of Vicksburg where there was thought to 
be a possibility of breaking the rebel line of works by 
assault. Here the rebels had erected a heavy fortifica- 
tion to protect the exposed part. Under this fort Gen- 
eral Leggett's command placed a mine, and when it 
was exploded a large force of picked men, under his 
personal command, rushed into the breach. They were 
inside before the rebels understood what had happened, 
but a fight lasting twenty-three hours was required 
before the Confederates were finally subdued. In this 
engagement General Leggett was wounded in several 
places, but when the negotiations for the surrender of 
Vicksburg had been completed on the morning of the 


following day, General Leggett was assisted on his horse 
and he led the way into the city. When he had par- 
tially recovered from his wounds, he was bre vetted 
Major-General and given another command. He com- 
manded two expeditions, one to Monroeville, La., and 
another to the Yazoo River. In 1864, when Sherman 
conducted his raid to Meridian, he was in command of 
his division, and he participated in all battles of the 
Atlanta campaign, receiving high commendation from 
General Sherman. He captured the mountain to the 
left of the Kenesaw during a severe storm, when the 
thunder completely drowned the noise of battle. He 
was ordered by General McPherson, on the evening of 
July 20, 1864, to capture a hill overlooking Atlanta, 
which was strongly fortified and held by a large force 
of the enemy. This he did on the following morning, 
when, after a fierce battle, he succeeded in capturing 
prisoners almost equal in number to his own whole 
force. The fierce battle of the day following this was 
brought on by the desperate attempts of the rebels to 
recapture this position, when they were repulsed with 
great loss of life on both sides. In this battle, General 
McPherson was killed at the very outset when trying to 
get to General Leggett. For valor shown in this en- 
gagement, General Leggett was made a full Major-Gen- 
eral. He was with General Sherman during the whole 
of the march to the sea, and his last engagement was at 
Pocataligo, S. C, where, after a running fight of twenty 
miles, he captured Fort Pocataligo, in January, 1865, 
releasing the Union forces from Savannah and opening 
the way through the Carolinas. When the War ended 
he was given the highest congratulations on all sides, 
and when Grant became President he was made Com- 
missioner of Patents. There he served four years and 
then removed to Cleveland, where he established him- 
self as a patent lawyer. He is connected with a num- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 6oi 

ber of important business enterprises, and is foremost 
in every work for the good of the city. 

As a citizen, General Leggett is highly esteemed. He 
has been engaged in many philanthropic works, though 
of these he speaks little. Degrees have been conferred. 
on him by Oberlin, Marietta, Columbia, Muskingum, 
Harvard and Cornell Colleges. He was appointed a 
member of the Commission in April, 1888, and elected a 
member of the Permanent Commission upon its organi- 


Our mission is o'er. Our task is completed. Our 
work of love has become a reality, ending in a blaze of 
glory and triumph that has amply compensated every 
member of the Commission for their many years of de- 
voted work. With gratitude and thanks to the Lord, 
to the generous people of our county, to our gallant 
Comrades of the Union Army and Navy, we have only 
to express our fondest wish that the handsomest tribute 
to patriotism in the world will prove a genuine source 
of pride and supreme pleasure to the present and many 
succeeding generations. 

And now, " with charity for all, with malice toward 
none," we confidently submit the result of our labor to 
the test of popular judgment, and commit it to the ten- 
der care and everlasting watchfulness of the patriotic 
people of Cuyahoga County, through whose devotion 
and generosity this truly superb and picturesque Memo- 
rial will forever perpetuate her gallant and heroic 
representatives in the unfortunate but ever memorable 
period of the Civil War. 






THE Commissioners held their final meeting in the 
parlors of the Hollenden Hotel, Cleveland, O., 
on Wednesday evening, July 18th, 1894 ; the President 
in the Chair; Levi F. Bander, Secretary. All of the 
members were present, except Commissioner Walters, 
from whom a letter was read expressing regret for his 
absence. The President stated the object of the meeting 
to be the selection and appointment of a Board of five 
Commissioners, to be known and designated as " The 
Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 
Commissioners," pursuant to an act of the General 
Assembly of the State of Ohio, passed May 14th, 1894. 
(Ohio Laws, vol. 91, p. 741.) 

The following resolution was offered by Commissioner 
Barnett, seconded by Commissioner Bohm : 

Resolved, That the new Board of five Permanent Commissioners, 
to be elected by this Board, be chosen by ballot, the first ballot taken 
to be informal. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted, whereupon 
an informal ballot was held, succeeded by a formal 
ballot, resulting in the election of the following Com- 
rades as 







Immediately thereafter the Commission adjourned, to 
meet again, if necessary, on the call of the President. 


The Chairman announced dinner in waiting in an ad- 
joining parlor, to which the members proceeded and took 
seats around the festive table. And now, after nearly 
fifteen years of labor, planning, worry and innumerable 
meetings, care and responsibility were at last at an end; 
our object was accomplished, and the evening was given 
over to hearty enjoyment. We were the boys, the 
same old boys we were thirty years ago. The President 
assigned Comrade James Barnett to the position of 
toastmaster, a place that he filled with a dignity and 
geniality that is his well known characteristic. Rigid 
formality was set aside; sociability, good cheer pre- 
dominated. Five hours were passed in the most delight- 
ful manner. In response to pertinent toasts, impromptu 
speeches were made by each of the Commissioners. 
What sincere good-fellowship was exhibited, what 
stirring reminiscences were indulged in, what genuine 
appreciation was shown, what glorious incidents were 
recalled, what a supremely happy time we enjoyed only 
those present can ever realize. How our minds and 
hearts will ever bear in vivid remembrance the blissful 
night we passed together! 

Among the many joyful pictures that cluster about 
the memory of the Commissioners none is handsomer 
than the ever-memorable scene of our first banquet. 

As a fitting ending to the charming occasion, the 
President offered a resolution, "That an annual reunion 
of the Commissioners be held, to be kept up so long as 
the Lord would kindly spare our lives," said resolution 
being enthusiastically adopted. 


soldiers' and sailors' monument. 607 

organization of the permanent commission. 

Agreeable to appointment, the members of the Per- 
manent Commission met in the office of the President, 
on Tuesday, July 24th, 1894, at 11 o'clock A. M., for 

The official oath was administered by Comrade 
Edward H. Bohm, Justice of the Peace, who kindly 
volunteered his services. 

On motion of Comrade Elwell, seconded by Comrade 
Molvneanx, Comrade William J. Gleason was elected 
President of the Commission, his election being 

The President-elect expressed his sincere thanks for 
the high honor conferred upon him, and said that in the 
future, as in the past, it would be his earnest ambition 
to carry out his duties so as to merit the approval of the 
Commission, and of the Soldiers and citizens of the 
county. He further expressed the earnest hope that 
the new Commission would live for many years in peace 
and harmony, always watchful of the proper care of the 
beautiful Monument and its surroundings. 

On motion of Comrade Elwell, seconded by Comrade 
Gleason, Comrade Joseph B. Molyneaux was chosen as 
Secretary, his choice being unanimous. 

The Secretary said that, while he was not a candidate 
for the position, now that he was elected, he would 
accept. He expressed his warmest thanks to the Com- 
mission, adding that it would give him pleasure to 
faithfully perform the duties of his office. 

The President, Secretary and Comrade J. J. Elwell 
were elected the Executive Committee, said Committee 
being empowered to draft suitable rules and regulations 
for the Commission, for the guidance of visitors to the 
Memorial, and also to govern the custodian and other 

The officers were authorized to procure the necessary 


books and supplies, and arrangements were perfected 
for regular meetings of the Commission. 

The future care of Cuyahoga's magnificent Memorial 
to her patriotic representatives is in the hands of its 
friends. It will be the pride and glory of the Permanent 
Commission to watch over it, to hand it down to future 
generations in all of its sublime grandeur — an object 
lesson of patriotism to all who may come after us. 






AT a meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Union, held at Bedford, June 17th, 1886, it 
was determined that the time had arrived to commence 
the undertaking, which had for man}' years been con- 
templated by that body, of erecting the Memorial that 
had been authorized by Legislative enactment ; accord- 
ingly a vote was taken as to the character and style of 
the structure, and the result was about an equal division 
as to the desirability of a shaft or a Memorial Hall. 
Capt. J. B. Molyneaux suggested the happy idea of com- 
bining the two plans, by having for a central feature a 
shaft or column and at the base a Memorial or relic 
room, which was afterwards changed to a tablet room. 
This suggestion was enthusiastically adopted and the 
Committee was instructed to proceed with the work 
of preparing plans and construction. In accordance 
with such instructions, the Committee met in the office 
of the County Commissioners in this city, on Jan- 
uary 29th, 1887, President William J. Gleason, pre- 
siding, and Levi F. Bauder, acting as Secretary. Capt. 
Molyneaux introduced a resolution inviting Levi T. 
Scofield to prepare plans and designs for the Monu- 
ment. Mr. Scofield declined to accept employment ; 
and later on, the appointment of Chairman of the 
Committee on Plans ; but finally consented to act with 
the Committee on Plans, on condition that the entire 
Monument Committee would aid in preparing the de- 
signs, he agreeing to put their ideas in shape, when 
furnished, providing they would accept such services 
without compensation. This was agreed to, and the 
Committee at once commenced their task. It was soon 


discovered that the County Commissioners were more 
favorable to contracting with some monument manu- 
facturer, as they were in the habit of doing for a bridge 
or ditch. This occasioned about a year's delay, and the 
Committee decided to proceed without the aid of these 
officials. An act was passed April 16th, 1888, appointing 
a Commission of twelve members to act independently 
of the County Commissioners. The new Board were 
unanimously in favor of departing from the stereotyped 
soldiers' monument design, and instead prepare one 
that would be historical and educational as pertaining 
to events of the War for the preservation of the Union. 
The principal features of the exterior of the Monument 
were to be four realistic groups of bronze statuary, rep- 
resenting in heroic size the four principal branches of 
the service : Infantry, Artillery, Cavalry, and the Navy ; 
not in the stiff and inartistic attitudes of dress parade, 
but in fierce conflict, with worn garments to accord, and 
the supple action of men whose muscles were trained 
by rushing through brush and swamps to capture breast- 
works. With this in view, it was deemed inappropriate 
to have for a background to such scenes a building in 
Classical, Gothic, Romanesque or other popular style ot 
architecture, but instead to substitute a style made up 
entirely of military and naval emblems, realizing oi 
course that such a departure from the conventional 
styles would cause the pencils to be sharpened, in in- 
tended criticism, of those who claim to form the artistic 
opinions of the world, and content to await the approval 
of the public, when, after familiarity with the details, 
they would be educated to understand their meaning. 
The foundation of the column, or shaft proper, is 
twelve feet square, around which is the tablet room, 
whose four walls are lined with the beautifully colored 
marble tablets on which are engraved the names of 
the ten thousand of Cuvahoga's brave sons who were 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 613 

willing to risk their all for their country. To have 
ample space from which to view these tablets necessi- 
tated the planning of a room forty feet square, and, to be 
properly proportioned, twenty feet high. The walls are 
three feet thick. Surrounding the building is an 
esplanade five feet above the grade line and approached 
by circular steps at the four corners. Upon the same 
are built four massive pedestals, each nine by twenty- 
one feet and ten feet high. To secure a proper walking 
and standing space around these pedestals and the nec- 
essary railings, required the building of an esplanade 
one hundred feet square. To the top of the surmount- 
ing figure above the carefully proportioned column and 
building is one hundred and twenty-five feet. 

The steps and massive platforms composing the es- 
planade are of red Medina stone polished to a smooth 
surface. The ramps and pedestals of same are of buff 
Amherst stone. The building is of black Ouincy granite, 
random coursed, with Amherst stone trimmings. The 
roof of this structure is made of slabs of stone twelve 
inches thick, ingeniously fitted together so as to be ab- 
solutely water-tight. Above the roof is a connecting 
pedestal to the die of the column in the form of a bas- 
tioned fort with guns in barbette, the projecting bastions 
forming an outline that blends with the sloping gables 
of the building, making harmonious connections be- 
tween the column and the broad base of the Monument. 

The die of the column is of Amherst stone, represent- 
ing a section of a fortified tower ; is nine feet in diame- 
ter, with projecting moldings twelve feet. The shaft of 
the column is of polished black Quincy granite in ten 
blocks, each weighing about fourteen tons, the lower 
end seven feet in diameter and the upper six and one- 
half feet. At the alternate joints of the shaft are six 
bronze foliated bands, seventeen inches in width, con- 
taining the names of thirty of the most prominent bat- 


ties of the War, commencing alphabetically at the top in. 
the following order : Antietam, Atlanta, Bentonville, 
Cedar Mountain, Chickamanga, Corinth, Donelson, Five 
Forks, Fort Fisher, Franklin, Fredericksburg, Gettys- 
burg, Kennesaw, Knoxville, Mission Ridge, Mobile, 
Monitor-Merrimac, Nashville, New Orleans, Pea Ridge, 
Perryville, Petersburg, Resaca, Richmond, Shiloh, Spot- 
sylvania, Stone's River, Vicksburg, Fort Wagner, Wil- 
derness, and Winchester. The above list was compiled 
after corresponding with some of the most prominent 
historians and generals of the army. 

All that shows above the granite shaft, about forty- 
one feet in height, is of cast bronze, weighing nearly 
thirty thousand pounds. The first member above, or 
neck of the column, is in the form of a gabion. The 
bell of the capital is divided by eight bent fasces, be- 
tween which are the emblems of the eight principal 
branches of the service, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, 
Navy, Engineers, Ordnance, Signal and Quartermaster. 

The volutes of the capital, while properly propor- 
tioned, have a resemblance to pieces of artillery, with 
wheels, muzzles, trails, etc. The abacus is pierced for 
armament and is nearly twelve feet across in its widest 
part. These different members are separated by 
ropes, blockading chains, etc., instead of moldings ; a 
row of cap pouches is substituted for leaf ornaments. 
Above the abacus the pedestal is in the form of a moni- 
tor turret with projecting guns, terminating in a 
member encircled with the stars and stripes, on which 
stands the Amazonian figure of Liberty, fifteen feet in 
height, in the attitude of defense. 

The bronze statuary in the four groups on the pedes- 
tals is made about one-third larger than life, being 
from seven and one-half to eight feet two inches in 
height. The Infantry group, representing "The Color 
Guard," is from an actual incident of the War, and de- 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 615 

picts with vivid truthfulness, as the sculptor saw it, the 
gallant defense of the flag of the 103rd Ohio Infantry, 
at the battle of Resaca, where the lion-hearted sergeant 
Martin Striebler and his gallant guard of eight cor- 
porals stood before the enemy's fire until they were all 
killed or wounded. The Artillery group, u At Short 
Range," represents a piece in action, fully manned, with 
an officer in command. The gun is depressed ; the 
abandoned shell in front shows that canister has been 
substituted. No. 1 has rammed the charge home ere 
the deadly minie-ball pierced his heart, and he clutches 
the rammer rigidly as he throws himself across the gun 
for support. No. 2 has fallen in his position. No. 3, 
the reliable red- whiskered farmer, has left the vent and 
taken the Corporal's place at the trail. No. 4, while 
attaching the lanyard hook to the friction primer, is 
looking down at his fallen comrade. The sturdy 
gunner, with left hand on elevating screw, while notic- 
ing the obstruction on the gun, holds his right hand 
out from the trail, giving notice for the men to be 
steady. The officer, who has been looking with his 
field glass, has not noticed his wounded men, and, 
pointing with his finger says " A little more to the 
right, Corporal." The Cavalry group, " The Advance 
Guard," represents a detachment that has struck the 
line of the enemy. A trooper is still astride his horse 
that has fallen with a bad wound. A venturesome Con- 
federate soldier has noticed his predicament and has 
made a rush for the guidon, but the cavalryman has 
whipped out his revolver, has given " Johnny Reb " one 
in the face, and is prepared for another shot. A fine 
looking Confederate officer has seized the rebel flag 
from the fallen bearer, and is cheering his men to the 
assault. A dismounted trooper in front, on one knee, 
is covering his man with his carbine. The bugler has 
been sent forward from the reserve by his officer to 


see how matters are progressing at the front; finding 
them hard pressed, and stubbornly trying to hold their 
ground, he has dismounted, and is sending back a bugle 
call for assistance. The Confederate soldiers were in- 
troduced in this historical group to show to posterity 
what they and their flag were like. The Navy group, 
" Mortar Practice," represents a scene near Island No. 
10 on the Mississippi River, where an officer and five 
men are loading a mortar, preparatory to shelling the 

As before stated, the character of the building is in 
the order of military and naval emblems. The windows 
represent semi-circular casemate openings, with vertical 
cannons supporting the caps instead of columns. The 
metope spaces in the frieze of the cornice are filled with 
richly carved army corps badges, encircled with laurel 
wreaths planted on shields. The triglyphs separating 
them are in the form of the stars and stripes of our flag. 
The cresting of the cornice is formed of embattlements 
through which show muzzles of guns. At the four 
corners of the cornice are pedestals suggesting capstans, 
on which are supported bronze flag poles. It is the 
intention to have a flag at one pole every day of the 
year, and on holidays at the four corners. 

Instead of the usual reed moldings at the corners of 
pilasters, sponge staff and hand spike emblems have 
been substituted. 

Over the doors at each of the north and south en- 
trances are panels with the dates 1861-T865. Over the 
north entrance is the Ohio State Seal, and over the 
south entrance the United States Seal, flanked by bat- 
tle axes and draped flags. The gables at the east and 
west sides have respectively the badges of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and Loyal Legion, bordered by 
draped flags. In the north and south gables in bold 
letters is engraved "Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument." 


Upon entering the building from Superior Street, the 
visitor is struck with an effective group of life-size 
figures in a cast bronze panel, seven by ten feet, repre- 
senting the Emancipation of the Slave. The central 
figure in full relief is Abraham Lincoln, his right hand 
extended holding the shackles that have been taken 
from the bondsman kneeling at his feet, while with the 
left he hands him the gun and accouterments. This 
feature explains more clearly the law which authorized 
Lincoln to issue the proclamation, and also required 
the government to employ the slave as a soldier. At 
the right of the President stand Salmon P. Chase and 
John Sherman, the financial men of the war period, 
and on the left are Ben. Wade and Joshua R. Gid- 
dings, who were Lincoln's main-stays in the anti-slavery 
movements. In the background, in bas-relief, are rep- 
resented the Army and the Navy. Overhead is the clos- 
ing paragraph of the proclamation, written by Chase and 
adopted by Lincoln, " And upon this act, sincerely be- 
lieved to be an act of justice, warranted by the Consti- 
tution, upon military necessity, I invoke the consider- 
ate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of 
Almighty God. M 

The panel on the west side of the shaft is called 
" The beginning of the war in Ohio." The central 
three figures are the war governors Dennison, Tod and 
Brough, flanked on the right by Generals McClellan, 
Cox and Garfield, and on the left by Generals Rose- 
crans, Hayes and Gilmore. In the background on one 
side is represented the recruiting service and on the other 
the troops marching to the front. The panel on the 
south side represents the Sanitary Commission, the 
Soldiers' Aid Society and the Hospital Service. The 
figures shown are Mrs. Benj. Rouse, President; Miss 
Mary Clarke Brayton, Secretary ; Miss Ellen F. Terry, 
Treasurer ; Miss Sara Mahan, Clerk ; and Vice-Presi- 


dents Mrs. John Shelley, Mrs. Wm. Melhinch and Mrs. 
J. A. Harris. The hospital work is represented by 
Mrs. R. B. Hayes, Mrs. Peter Thatcher, and a Sister of 
Charity dressing the arm of a wounded soldier lying on 
a cot. Under this panel is the official list of names of 
those who were active in assisting the officers of the 
Commission during the war. 

The fourth panel is entitled, " The end of the war, or 
the peace-makers at City Point." The scene is where 
Lincoln left his steamer " River Queen " and went 
ashore to visit Grant's headquarters. Gen. Sherman 
had been invited by Grant to make him a visit for con- 
sultation, as he usually did before making any important 
movement ; he was accompanied by Gen. Leggett. The 
other figures in the group are Robert T. Lincoln, Gen- 
erals Rawlins, Crook, Sheridan, Custer, Meade, Ord, War- 
ren, Humphrey, and Commodore Porter, fourteen in all. 
This conference led to the battle of Five Forks and the 
surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox. These bronze 
hi^orical panels are framed with molded colored mar- 
ble bases, with massive fasces at the four corners, and 
heavv molded caps. Above the panels and extend- 
ing to the ceiling, the shaft is encased by colored 

In each of the four fasces are three large sized bronze 
medallions of prominent Ohio commanders, the officers 
chosen being Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War ; 
Generals J. B. McPherson, James B. Hazen, A. Mc- 
Dowell McCook, Manning F. Force, James B. Steed- 
man, J. S. Casement, A. C. Yoris, J. J. Elwell, George 
W. Morgan, Emerson Opdycke and Surgeon C. A. Hart- 

Between the arches of the windows on the east and 
west walls are six niches in which rest bronze busts of 
officers who were killed in action : Col. W. R. Creigh- 
ton, Lieut. -Col. Mervine Clarke, Maj. J. B. Hampson, 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 619 

Capt. Wm. W. Hutchinson, Capt. William Smith (who 
subsequently died from wounds received in battle), and 
Capt. Wallis J. Woodward. 

By a vote of the Commission, the bronze busts of 
Gen. James Barnett and Capt. Levi T. Scofield were 
ordered placed over the north and south doors, the 
former in honor of his distinguished patriotism during 
the war, he having held the highest rank of any com- 
rade from our county ; the latter in recognition of his 
brilliant services, as architect and sculptor, to the peo- 
ple of the County and to the Commissioners. 

The marble ceiling is composed of heavy slabs of 
light blue color about 6 feet 6 inches square, and the 
molded ribs surrounding same are of a rich green color. 
In the marble work over the entrances are two inscrip- 
tions. Over the north entrance : 

Cuyahoga County's tribute to those who gave, and 
those who offered to give their lives, that the Nation 
might live. 

Written by President William J. Gleason. 

Over the south entrance : 

Break ranks and rest till the last trumpet's call 
Shall sound the fateful reveille for all. 
Written by Secretary Levi F. Bauder. 
On the shaft, above the panel of the Sanitary Com- 
mission, is engraved the following quotation from a 
patriotic Memorial Day address of Henry Ward Beecher : 

" How bright are the honors which await those who, with sacred 
fortitude and patriotic patience, have endured all things that they 
might save their native land from division and from the power of 
corruption. The honored dead ! They that die for a good cause 
are redeemed from death. Their names are gathered and garnered. 
Their memory is precious. Oh, tell me not that they are dead! 
That generous host, that airy army of invisible heroes. They hover 
as a cloud of witnesses above this nation. Are they dead that yet 
speak louder than we can speak, and a more universal language ? 
Are they dead that yet act ? Are they dead that yet move upon so- 


cietv, and inspire the people with nobler motives and more heroic 
patriotism? Till the mountains are worn out, and the rivers forget 
to flow ; till the clouds are weary of replenishing springs, and the 
springs forget to gush, and the rills to sing, shall their names be 
kept fresh with reverent honors which are inscribed upon the book 
of National Remembrance." 

The floor is laid out in emblematic patterns of mar- 
ble mosaic, two feet wide around the shaft and next to 
the outer wall, where a bronze railing is placed to pro- 
tect the tablets and panels. Between the railings is 
the walking space laid with a marquetry of red and 
white Medina stone, about four inches thick, the upper 
surface being polished. 

From the ceiling is suspended a rich cast bronze 
electrolier encircling the shaft midway between same 
and outer wall, with reflectors for both shaft and walls, 
containing 120 incandescent lights. At the four cor- 
ners are suspended handsome combination chandeliers 
for gas and electricity. 

The building is heated by electricity, with forty 
electrical radiators that have been placed around the 
walls, guaranteed to heat the room to 75 in zero 
weather. The radiators are concealed by brass screens 
perforated in the designs of corps and army badges. 
The window openings have bronze frames and sashes 
that are hinged at the bottom and open at the 
top, worked with a chain and gearing to each sepa- 
rate sash. The windows are glazed with stained glass 
in emblematic mosaic patterns. On the side next 
to the Cavalry group, the designs show nearly every- 
thing that is used in the cavalry service — boots and 
saddle, horseshoes, flags, carbines, revolvers, anvils, 
swords, etc. Appropriate emblems are shown on the 
other three sides. Those who served in the different 
branches can pick out in the brilliant colors of opales- 
cent glass everything that was familiar to them, from a 
small screw up to the heaviest ordnance. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument. 621 

The sashes are made double, so that an extra thick- 
ness of Florentine glass, placed on the outside, con- 
ceals the raw colors of the light opalescent glass, which 
otherwise would show on the exterior. 

The bronze doors are of excellent construction, and 
have rich panels with emblematic designs of the four 
branches of service and some of the staff departments. 
There are also cast bronze grilled doors of rich design 
to correspond with the surroundings. All the above 
doors have no hinges, but work with pivots in bronze 
sockets let into the stone-work above and below. The 
locks are of the same construction as used in bank 

The sidewalks and diagonal walks are made of the 
best quality of North River blue stone in slabs of 
large sizes and about four inches thick. The upper sur- 
faces are polished and the flagging work is in every 
way all that could be desired. 

On three sides of the Monument, in the grass plots, 
are set out beautifully colored flowering plants in beds, 
representing the twenty-four corps of the Army ; and, 
on the Superior Street side, large badges of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, Women's Relief Corps, the 
Loyal Legion, the Union Veterans' Union and the 
Sons of Veterans. 



A STUDY of the names on the Roll of Honor clearly 
demonstrates the universal feeling of earnest 
patriotism that pervaded all of our citizens during the 
trying period of the Rebellion. Americans by birth, as 
well as those who first saw the light of day upon the soils 
of Germany, Ireland, France, England, and other foreign 
countries, will be found side by side ; men who gave all 
they held dearest upon earth ; aye, men who gave and 
offered to give their lives that the Union and Constitu- 
tion might be preserved ; men of all the different creeds 
of religion, and men of no creed ; all imbued with one 
object, all banded together in sacred comradeship, 
marching shoulder to shoulder, keeping step to the 
music of the Union, fighting for one common country, 
for the supremacy of law and order, for the preservation 
of the flag of freedom, in defense of the glorious Stars 
and Stripes — the emblem of liberty to the oppressed of 
all nations of the world ; for the perpetuation of the 
grandest Republic the sunlight of heaven shines 

Protestant and Catholic, Jew and Gentile, believer 
and non-believer, all willing to sacrifice their lives as 
comrades on the altar of their country ; no boy or man, 
officer or private, asking his comrade from what clime 
he came, or at what shrine he worshiped. It was suf- 


ficient to know that he wore the Bine, that his heart 
was in the right place, and that he fonght for the 

They knew not race, 

Nor creed, nor politics ; 
They were all for the Union, 
One Country, 
One Flag. 

The Roll of Honor will forever perpetuate the heroic 
memory and deeds of the Union Soldiers and Sailors, 
and the gallant band of noble women who sustained 



jT> ft ■• ft # 

■& P v * v ^ -*> <x 





Hill, James, ist Lieut, and Q 
Collins, Edward J., Q. M. 
Davidson, William A., Q. M. Serg. 
Mabb, Andrew J., Com. Serg. 

Piper, Henry B. 

Carpenter, William M., ist Lieut. 
Varian, Alexander, ist Lieut. 
Prentiss, Willard, 2d Lieut. 
Cowin, William C, Serg. 
Duncan, William, Serg. 
Galloway, Henry W., Serg. 
Merrick, Joseph E., Serg. 
Wherrett, Charles, Serg. 
Wilson, George A., Serg. 
Aldrich, Leverett, Corp. 
Conant, Horace G., Corp. 
Eddy, Marvin L., Corp. 
Farrar, Clement H., Corp. 
Farwell, Franklin A , Corp. 
Farwell, Horace W., Corp. 
Goss, Reuben, Corp. 
Tod, Christopher, Corp. 
DeLand, James B., Mus. 
Mullen, John, Mus. 

Anderton, Charles H. 
Barber, Edwin R. 
Beasly, Samuel M. 
Bennett, Eli 
Burbeck, William 
Cackler, Willard 
Cady, John T. 
Campbell, Charles C. 
Carran, Robert A. 
Coleman, James 
DeLand, William B. 
Dubber, Lawrence 
Hayward, Henry W. 
Isham, William C. 
Jones, Enoch F. 
Kelly, Reuben B. 
Leach, Albert C. 
Pulver, Chester C. 
Roberts, Eugene 
Sarver, Albert 
Scarr, Frederick 
Watterson, Julius C. 
Watterson, Robert F. 

Ensworth, Jeremiah, Capt. 
Paddock, Thomas S., Capt. 
Hampsou, James B., ist Lieut. 
Frazee, John N., 2d Lieut. 
Richards, Joseph M., 2d Lieut. 
Pickands, James, ist Serg. 










1S ^ 

4> ,-*■*** P *"* 




. & 

V * 


G .W 








Daykin, Horace E., Serg. 
Hinman, Frank H., Serg. 
McGrath, Bernard, Serg. 
Tibbitts, George W., Serg. 
Barrett, Arthur H., Corp. 
Masury, George A., Corp. 
Pickands, Henry S., Corp. 
Rutter, Andrew D., Corp. 
Robinson, William F., Fifer. 
Mullen, Edward, Drummer. 


Abbey, Charles H. 
Albrecht, Rudolph 
Armstrong, George W. 
Baldwin, Homer H. 
Baumeister, William H. 
Bell, Ezekiel F. 
Brainard, Henry A. 
Breslin, Patrick H. 
Burger, William R. 
Canfield, Austin 
Carlisle, Andrew 
Carroll, Patrick H. 
Clinton, Alexander M. 
Cole, Chester I. 
Collins, Edward J. 
Converse, Maurice 
Cutter, N. P. 
Cutter, Richard H. 
Davis, Alfred A. 
Dixon, Sylvanus S. 
Duncan, William 
Duroy, Marshall 
Dutton, John B. 
Field, Reuben A. 
Ford, Frank J. 
Fouts, Jacob N. 
Frerichs, John H. 
Gibbons, James 

Gillett, Henry 
Gillett, Omar 
Goodwillie, Thomas 
Habich, Augustus C. 
Heege, Philip 
Hendrix, Charles K. 
Hill, James 
Hoyt, George 
Hunt, Lyman D. 
Hutchinson, William W 
Kretchdorn, Lawrence 
Lester, Sanford 
Lohrer, Jacob J. 
Martin, George N. 
McDowell, Charles J. 
McGinness, James 
McLaughlin, James 
McLeod, H. N. 
Merna, John 
Minor, Charles E. 
Morgan, William 
Murray, William E. 
Nash, Henry F. 
Oakley, John H. 
Phelps, John A. 
Piper, Henry S. 
Prentiss, Willard C. 
Proctor, Harvey E. 
Root, George B. 
Scarry, Michael 
Schwind, Joseph J. 
Severance, Isaac W. 
Shumway, Edwin J. 
Smyth, Charles G. 
Spangler, Basil S. 
Stoller, Lewis 
Taft, Sherman B. 
Taylor, William H. 
Thomas, Frank E. 
Thompson, Alex. E. 







Tocl, James S. 
Turtier, Caleb 
Umlauft, Edward E. 
Waterman, George L. 
Waters, Austin H. 
Watkins, George 
Wheeler, James E. 
Wherritt, Charles 
Whitehead, David S. 
Wight, Albert L. 
Wilbur, Charles J. 
Wilcox, William C. 
Wise, George C. 






Hall, William 

McGee, James 




Keck, Simon 

Welch, Jacob 



Dixon, Sylvanus S., 

1st Lieut, 


Clark, Ebenezer 
Joyce, George A. 
Lowes, Henry 
Moses, Francis 
Worden, Clayton E. 




Harbaugh, John 


Alexander, Henry 
Berger, Albert 
Buchmann, Conrad 
Tetzer, Herman 


Foote, Louis A. 
Halliday, Frank H. 



Creightou, William R., Col. 
Crane, OrrinJ., Lieut. Col. 
Bellows, Curtis J., Sur. 
Cushiug, Henry K., Sur. 
Ferguson, John C, Asst. Sur. 
Baxter, Morris, Adj. 
De Forest, Louis G., Adj. 
Molyneaux, Joseph B., Adj. 
Brown, F. T., Chaplain. 
Wright, Dean C, Chaplain. 
Webb, Joseph P., Serg. Maj. 
Walters, R. W., Hosp. Stew. 


Howe, William A., Capt. 
McKay, George A., Capt. 
Molyneaux, Joseph B., Capt. 
Brown, Dwight H., 1st Lieut. 
Kimball, Dudley A., 2d Lieut. 
Claflin, Jeremiah G, 1st Serg. 
Davis, Zebulon P., Serg. 
Galvin, John H., Serg. 
Holly, Morris J., Serg. 
Lecompte, Theodore, Serg. 


* M * v p <a. -^ * H % ♦ % ■* j 






















Mallory, John H., Serg. 
Sadler, William, Serg. 
Smith, Carlos A., Serg. 
Southwell, William, Serg. 
Williams, Francis, Serg. 
Austin, Alfred, Corp. 
Austin, Lewis, Corp. 
Averill, Stephen, Corp. 
Brown, Henry J., Corp. 
Collett, John C, Corp. 
Craig, John D., Corp. 
Duttcn, Frank, Corp. 
Ewart, Alexander, Corp. 
Forbey, William E., Corp. 
Gillett, Townley, Corp. 
Holmes, Milton D., Corp. 
Kelly, Edward T., Corp. 
Lovett, Aaron C, Corp. 
Ryan, Thomas, Corp. 
Smalley, Herbert L., Corp. 
Sweet, Samuel, Corp. 
Warren, Hiram V., Corp. 
Werz, Francis J., Corp. 
Wright, Edwin L , Corp. 
McClain, Joseph, Bugler. 
Brockway, Marcus, Drummer. 
French, Lafayette, Drummer. 
Mullen, Edward, Drummer. 


Baker, Charles 
Ballou, Charles H. 
Bandle, John 
Barber, Richard L. 
Bennett, Perry 
Bishop, Albert 
Blackwell, Joseph 
Blaiklock, Henry A. 
Bower, John H. 
Bradley, Chester W. 

Brand, Frederick W. 
Brightmore, Joseph T. 
Buchanan, Samuel E. 
Burns, John G. 
Burroughs, Carlos A. 
Burrows, Thomas 
Burt, Theodore 
Burton, John H. 
Campbell, Leander H. 
Caunell, Morrison J. 
Cheeney, Charles H. 
Chelsey, Simon J. 
Clancey, Daniel W. 
Clark, William S. 
Clinton, Alexander M. 
Creque, Ferdinand 
Crippen, Andrew J. 
Cronin, John 
Dowse, Thomas 
Earl, John 
Eckert, Henry C. 
Elwell, Oscar J. 
Eucher, John 
Evans, Evan 
Evans, George W. 

Farrand, Fred. P. 

Forbey, Albert A. 

Fresher, Thomas 

Gable, Jacob H. 

Gardner, H. F. 

Gazely, Jabez C. 

Gear, John 

Gillson, William F. 

Guinter, Abraham 

Hammond, Theo. T. 

Harrington, John W. 

Hart, Edward 

Hatfield, Benjamin 

Heege, Jacob 

Henry, Roswell C. 









Hoffman, Fred. W. 
Holly, Henry H. 
Horn, William 
Houk, Jacob F. 
Hubbell, William N. 
Jackman, Orvis F. 
Johnson, William H. 
Johnston, Robert B. 
Jones, Jeremiah C. 
Kehl, William 
Keller, Charles A. 
Keller, Frederick 
Kelley, Philip 
Knoble, Leonard 
Kreitz, Albert P. 
Lant, John W. 
Lappin, Arthur 
Lawrence, David B. 
Lincoln, Rufus W. 
Lloyd, James J. 
Loomis, Luther W. 
Lucas, William 
Martin, Thomas H. B. 
Maxfield, Isaac 
McCanna, Michael 
McDowell, Fred. G. 
McLaiu, Willis F. 
Meacham, Altnon 
Miller, Joseph 
Mills, Stephen 
Morgan, Alonzo J. 
Neville, John 
Ott, Jacob 
Parsons, John G. 
Powell, Charles W. 
Pratt, Henry A. 
Preble, Charles E. 
Prestage, John H. 
Randall, Adolphus M. 
Randall, Frank 

Ranney, Charles H. 
Rhodes, Frederick 
Richell, Thomas 
Richmond, Edmond 
Rockefeller, Franklin G. 
Ross, Charles E. 
Sadler, Samuel 
Schroeder, Louis 
Seufert, William 
Shepley, Thomas 
Sherwood, James 
Sherwood, Thomas C. 
Shottz, Henry 
Simmons, George W. 
Simmons, Henry 
Smith, Alfred W. 
Smith, Charles W. 
Snider, Adolph 
Spencer, George E. 
Sperrv, Edward A. 
Stafford, Albert J. 
Stein, David G. 
Stern, Charles H. 
Stevenson, Thomas 
St. Lawrence, Edward 
Sumner, Charles 
Swaiue, Edward A. 
Thompson, William N. 
Thurston, William H. 
Towne, Ephraiin N. 
Tyson, Henry 
Vaughn, George E. 
Virgil, Henry J. 
Wacker, Leonard G. 
Watkins, Lewis J. 
Webb, Frank J. 
Whaley, Myron H. 
White, Ford W. 
White, James 
Williams, W. H. B. 

■& ■ «&-*'**"* 















6 <? 






c & 







Wilsdon, Richard L. 
Wood, Charles A. 
Wright, Edwin L. 


Clark, Mervin, Capt. 
Bohm, Edward H., 1st Lieut. 
Eaton, Henry Z., 1st Lieut. 
Sweeney, Thomas T., 1st Lieut. 
Cryne, Joseph, 2 J Lieut. 
Bauder, Levi F., 1st Serg. 
Cutler, Marcus M., Serg. 
Fitch, Asa H., Serg. 
Gaskill, Frankliu R., Serg. 
Schmidt, Gustav, Serg. 
Trotier, Joseph, Serg. 
Walker, Marshall, Serg. 
Whitehead, George W., Serg. 
Brown, Thomas C, Corp. 
Eddy, Nehemiah G., Corp. 
Ezekiel, David L, Corp. 
Gibson, Edward, Corp. 
Gordon, Samuel E., Corp. 
Hardest}-, Jesse, Corp. 
Lamphear, L. K., Corp. 
Marble, Edward L., Corp. 
Marks, Jacob, Corp. 
Smith, William E., Corp. 
Walworth, William, Corp. 
Wilson, Clark L., Corp. 
Stebbins, Edward E., Drummer. 
Cain, Jack, Mus. 


Abrarns, John B. 
Adams, William 
Aley, Lucius 
Armstrong, Jacob C. 
Atloff, Andrew 
Atwell, William B. 





^5ft «3>'ft ■>> 

Austin, Alonzo 
Benuett, Abraham S. 
Bentley, Charles H. 
Bishop, Orrin A. 
Bliss, Harmon H. 
Boyle, Daniel T. 
Brooks, James A. 
Brown, Thomas C. 
Cannell, William H. H. 
Carmody, Martin 
Carroll, James 
Carrows, Jacob W. 
Carson, Jacob W. 
Carter, Sylvester 
Case, Edward 
Chapman, Charles L. 
Clague, William H. 
Clermont, Francis, Jr. 
Clifford, Francis 
Conant, Edward 
Corlett, George 
Coslett, George W. 
Cowan, Charles 
Coyle, John 
Cox, George W. 
Cox, Junior R. 
Creighton, Joshua 
Cullen, John 
Cunningham, Charles 
Davis, John 
Deming, Frederick R. 
Dixon, James 
Drumm, William 
Eckert, Arthur 
Edwards, William E. 
Elliott, Eugene W. 
Ensign, Valentine 
Fagan, Charles 
Felton, Charles 
Foote, Louis A. 



Fowler, William D. 
Gasser, Joseph M. 
Geitz, Leonard 
George, Edward 
Gillson, John T. 
Goodrich, Grant 
Gordon, John F. 
Grimes, Ira 
Guellon, Milton 
Halliday, Frank H. 
Hashfield, Benjamin 
Haylor, John 
Healey, John S. 
Heurickle, Frank 
Hill, Pliney E. 
Hill, William 
Hime, Jacob E. 
Hoffman, Jacob 
Holt, Corwin M. 
Holt, Josiah M. 
Hull, John 
Huson, Leonard 
Jones, Alonzo C. 
Jones, John D. 
Kendall, George 
Kubler, Joseph 
Lamb, Allen C. 
Laetch, William F. 
Large, Henry 
Lemert, Joshua 
Lord, Caius C. 
Marble, Edward L. 
Mathews, Roswell E. 
McCabe, James 
McClaflin, E. M. 
Meacham, Ellridge F. 
Meekins, Edgar G. 
Miller, Henry 
Mulgrew, Bernard 
Nicholas, Martin 

Nichols, Thomas B. 
Oswald, Charles 
Partridge, William 
Peebles, Rensellear R. 
Pollis, Henry W. 
Post, Judson H. 
Quayle, George L. 
Radcliffe, Edward 
Randall, Harrison 
Reese, James M. 
Reid, Duncan 
Reynolds, Lewis H. 
Rice, Stephen W. 
Richards, Julius 
Riddle, Thomas C. 
Robinson, Francis 
Robinson, George C. 
Russell, David 
Russell, Johnson 
Sherrick, George O. 
Smith, James 
Spencer, Frederick 
Stark, Lewis 
Steinberger, George 
Stoddard, Ira 
Stone, John 
Stoppell, Arthur 
St. Johns, Samuel 
Striker, Alfred D. 
St. Onge, Mitchell 
Townsend, Robert J. 
Walterhouse, James P. 
Watrous, Albert W. 
Watrous, Frank E. 
Williams, Benjamin T. 
Williams, Cyrus 
Williams, Daniel T. 
Williams, George W. 
Withers, Albert E. 
Wood, Amos E. 

6 33 

2> * 








•ft ** 










Wood, Geor£ 
Wood, Starr B. 
Wooley, Albert A. 
Worlitzer, Anthony 
Worth, Reginald H. 
Wyatt, James E. 
Young, Edward E. 
Young, Henry L. 
Ziemer, Gustavus 
Zwieker, Ernest A. 


Davis, Llewellyn R., Capt. 
Bowler, Charles P., Serg. 
Hicks, Owen, Serg. 
Dann, Alfred T., Corp. 
Finneran, John, Corp. 
Forbes, Franklin M., Corp. 
Gaffett, Nicholas, Corp. 
Gleason, Silas, Corp. 
Grant, William, Corp. 
Raymond, James W., Corp. 

Baldwin, John, Jr. 
Barnes, William O. 
Cleverton, Joseph S.' 
Grigsby, Philip 
Lowrey, John 
McCarran, Joseph 
Myers, James T. 
Myers, Levi 
Phillips, John B. 
Proctor, William 
Rand, True 
Sevey, Benjamin L. 
Stone, Marvin C. 
Stowe, Joseph M. 
Sweet, Thomas 
Van Ormau, R. C. 

Wall, Charles E. 
Wood, Daniel P. 


Williams, A. J., 2d Lieut. 
Caine, William, Serg. 
Force, Emor}' W., Serg. 
Fisher, Amos C, Corp. 
Norris, Norman L., Corp. 

Bose, Frederick 
Cutler, John A. 
Dawes, John W. 
Franke, John A. 
Green, Edwin 
Henrick, George 
Hobday, Edward 
Hunt, Westel W. 
Hunton, Horace H. 
Hutchinson, Wm. J. 
Lauder, Thomas M. 
Nash, Albert W. 
Norris, Sherman R. 
Pullman, Samuel R. 
Rowe, John 
Rubicon, James A. 
Shively, George 
Smith, Alfred E. 
Smith, John 
Smith, Perry H. 
Smith, Stephen A. 
Trulsen, Hans 
Valleau, George 
Wirts, John B. 

Clark, Joseph F., Serg. 
Davis, Frederick A., Corp. 
Furniss, William, Corp. 

» p *'*niniMKRSfc s 


*;*A -•*- 


& V 


63 = 




Floro, Daniel 
Floro, Jesse 
Green, Henry 
Grinnell, Oliver 
Kennedy, Edward J. 
Steele, Henry R. 


Burgess, Albert C, Capt. 
Hopkins, Marcus S., 1st Lieut. 
Stratton, Isaac, 1st Serg. 
Poor, Williarn H., Corp. 
Winzenried, Ralph, Corp. 


Auxer, James B. 
Bergiu, John 
Camp, Harlow 
Davis, George H. 
Remmel, Lawrence 
Rohr, John 
Stanford, William 
Wintersteen, Shannon R. 

Callow, William T., Serg. 


Clark, George H. 
Dauford, Tunis S. 
Douthitt, Enoch M. 
Featherstone, James 
Flickinger, Ephraim 
Garrison, James A. 
Ohl, John 
Shaw, Stanley A. 
Smith, Franklin J. 
Steedman, Albert 


Nesper, Christian, Capt. 


Bariium, Amnion D. 
Barnum, Samuel H. 
Brobst, Solomon 
Brooks, James C. 
Cavanah, Arthur A. 
Covert, Franklin J. 
Crosby, Edwin C. 
Fox, William H. 
Hardman, Peter M. 
Hunt, James 
Jones, Hugh 
Loveless, James 
Martin, Otis 
Moore, Jonathan 
Olliver, George W. 
Ramalia, Abraham 


Pratt, Theodore W., Corp. 


Burton, Alonzo H. 
Burton, Isaac 
Doran, Thomas B. 
Metcalf, George 
Palmer, Randall B. 
Rice, Charles E. 


Cross, Judson N., Capt. 
Schutte, John F., Capt. 
Nitschelm, C. F., 1st Lieut. 
Butzmau, William, 1st Serg. 
Haltnorth, Fred, 1st Serg. 
Hiukstou, Elmore, 1st Serg. 



■* * 


ft «. 






i * 




Lauterwasser, William, 1st Serg. 
Ludwig, Charles, ist Serg. 
Grebe, James, Serg. 
Haefele, John, Serg. 
Kick, Andrew, Serg. 
Kohlmann, Adolphus, Serg. 
Kurz, Jacob, Serg. 
Rochotte, Henry, Serg. 
Schaub, Hermann, Serg. 
Schiukel, Frederick, Serg. 
Sohl, George T., Serg. 
Straehle, Henry, Serg. 
Voges, William, Serg. 
Denzel, George, Corp. 
Hummell, Jacob, Corp. 
Lehr, William, Corp. 
Reisse, Christian, Corp. 
Schott, John, Corp. 
Sommer, Conrad, Corp. 
Weber, William, Corp. 
Kind, Peter, Mus. 


Ackermau, Henry 
Anthony, Phillip 
Armbruster, Constan. 
Bauer, John 
Bauer, Nicholas 
Beil, Sigmund 
Bock, Frederick 
Bodecker, August 
Bott, John 

Breidenbach, Charles 
Brown, Henry 
Brown, Phillip 
Bruekelmeyer, Fred. 
Buchmanu, Conrad 
Burger, Albert 
Cliff, Edward 
Colbrunn, John E. 

Dehmel, Louis 
Dietrich, Frank 
Dietz, Coney 
Doll, John W. 
Dorr, David F. 
Dunton, Edwin 
Faubel, Henry 
Fenz, Engelbert 
Fetzer, Hermann 
Flabbig, Tobias 
Frank, Henry 
Furst, Jacob 
Geissler, John 
Glaser, Emil 
Graeter, Charles 
Greiner, Charles H. 
Greve, Jacob 
Gruenwald, Gottlieb 
Haebbig, Tobias 
Hahn, Christian 
Hahn, Henry 
Hahn, Sebastian 
Haskel, Charles 
Heege, Jacob H. 
Hoffman, George 
Hoffman, Henry 
Jassaud, Fred. 
Kaestle, Samuel 
Krauss, Christian F. 
Kullmer, Michael 
Kurbacher, Frank 
Lahr, William Henry 
Leininger, John 
Lorenz, Frank 
Luetke, John E. 
Maeder, Vincent 
Malchus, Andrew 
Merkel, Matthias 
Michell, Fred. 
Miller, John G. 


B 41 

» : « 









ti' *-ft Zi -^» 7 ** ?**-'** " 






Miller, Theodore 
Mueller, Frank 
Munz, John 
Nock, Jacob 
Nowak, John 
Oettinger, Christian 
Oswald, Conrad 
Perley, Victor 
Pfahl, William 
Popp, Gottlieb 
Raeber, John 
Raquett, George 
Renz, Solomon 
Rich, Charles 
Rinner, John C. 
Ritchie, William 
Rosel, William 
Rothman, Henry B. 
Rowe, Joseph 
Rueckler, George 
Saiser, Martin 
Schaedler, Franz 
Schlatmeyer, Henry 
Schlegel, Ferdinand 
Schmidt, Fred. H. 
Schmidt, Henry 
Schmitt, Michael 
Schneeberger, Jacob 
Schoembs, John 
Schramm, Adolph F. 
Schuessler, John 
Schwartz, Christian F. 
Schweitzer, Richard 
Schwink, John 
Seelbach, Frederick 
Seipel, John 
Sepling, Martin 
Smith, John 
Sommer Conrad 
Spatholz, John 

Stahl, Charles 
Stegmeyer, John 
Steinbauer, Fred. W. 
Stern, John 
Tezer, Herman 
Tyroler, Sigo 
Voelker, John 
Voelker, John T. 
Vogel, John William 
Walley, Charles 
Walter, Charles 
Wandel, George 
Weber, Franz William 
Weiland, John 
Weissenbach, George H. 
Wenner, Jacob 
Werner, Charles 
Wiegand, John 
Wolf, Julius 
Worm, Jacob 
Zimmerman, Charles 
Zipp, George 
Zahn, John 
Zeidler, Frederick 
Zitzman, Athanasius 



Kenney, William, Capt. 
O'Reilly, James K., Capt. 
Delaney, William, 1st Lieut. 
Galwey, Thomas F., 1st Lieut. 
Lantry, John, 2d Lieut. 
Fairchild, John G., 1st Serg. 
Butler, James J., Serg. 
Conlan, James, Serg. 
Evans, Joseph, Serg. 
Garvey, John, Serg. 
Hannan, Edward, Serg. 

\ ■ 










G a 











Hennessey, John, Serg. 
Hoage, William, Serg. 
Kelle} r , James, Serg. 
Newell, Edward J., Serg. 
O'Leary, Patrick, Serg. 
Tracy, John, Serg. 
Brown, Samuel, Corp. 
Gallagher, James, Corp. 
Lathrop, Chauncey, Corp. 
Malone, John L,., Corp. 
McCarty, Charles, Corp. 
McGrath, Patrick, Corp. 
McGuire, Bernard, Corp. 
Meermans, Peter, Corp. 
Moore, James P. A., Corp. 
O'Kelley, Thomas, Corp. 
O'Rourke, Richard, Corp. 
Reedy, John, Corp. 
Wiley, Charles M., Corp. 
Evans, Richard, Mus. 


Alderman, Wm. H. L. 
Baldwin, Augustus 
Bertrand, Jeremiah J. 
Black, Henry 
Boyle, Thomas 
Brown, James 
Brown, William 
Buckley, Jeremiah M. 
Burk, John 
Burnwich, Michael 
Burton, Joseph 
Bushran, Lewis 
Cable, Augustus 
Callahan, John 
Carnes, William 
Carr, Stephen C. 
Carroll, Michael 
Cashen, Patrick A. 

Champion, William F. 
Chickchester, John E. 
Conlan, Peter 
Connelly, Frederick 
Corns, William 
Cornyn, Michael 
Crawford, William 
Crow, William 
Cummings, Martin 
Dean, John 
Denief, James D. 
Denny, James 
Dumphey, John 
Elwood, Richard 
Fralies, Jacob 
Gaffey, Patrick 
Gaffey, Thomas 
Gallagher, Charles 
Gardner, James 
Gibbons, Edward 
Giddings, James 
Gorman, Edward 
Greer, Edward 
Griffin, Patrick 
Guffles, Walter 
Hagerty, John C. 
Hale, S. V. 
Hall, Henry 
Hardway, James 
Hayes, John 
Higgins, James 
Hogan, John 
Hogan, Simon 
Holden, Frank 
Horgan, James 
Howard, Francis 
Howley, John 
Johnson, William 
Jordan, John 
Joyce, William 

'-V*/ ' 

< ^ «.*-y 

Vjft t> 

■» * 

Keeley, Peter 
Keliher, Jeremiah 
Kelley, Francis 
Kiennan, William 
Larasey, Thomas 
Lathrop, Azor C. 
Lee, Richard H. 
Leeper, James 
Le Fever, Eugene 
Lilley, Albert 
Lloyd, Joseph 
MarkwellJ. N. B. 
McDonald, William 
McDougall, Allen 
McGrath, Michael 
McLean, Alexander 
McNamara, John D. 
McReever, Henry H. 
Meagher, John 
Monson, Thomas 
Montgomery, John 
Mooney, Daniel 
Moonshine, Francis J. 
Moonshine, Joseph 
Moore, James P. A. 
Mullen, John 
Mulvey, Bernard 
Murphy, Hollis 
Murray, James M. C. 
Newell, Edward J. 
Niggle, Peyton 
Noonau, Patrick C. 
Oakes, Gardner 
O'Connell, Michael 
O'Conuer, Cornelius 
O'Hallorau, William 
O'Neil, James 
O'Reilly, David 
Quinn, John 
Ready, John C. 


Reilley, John M. 
Rogers, James E. 
Scully, John 
Sheehan, Patrick 
Shepherd, John 
Sheridan, John 
Smith, Alfred 
Smith, John 
Squires, Thomas 
Upright, George T. 
Varuey, Erwin L. 
Waldson, Martin 
Walsh, Patrick K. 
Warnekey, Charles F. 
Wilson, David 
Wilson, George R. 
Wood, Alpheus 


Dewalt, Joseph 

Bacon, Oscar E., Serg. 

Sawtell, Edward H., Serg. 


Carey, John 
Goulder, Robert F. 



Pletscher, Henry 









Hi ~ 










x F 



is ' 

Knott, John 


Hines, Thomas 
Jones, Francis L. 
Lesson, Henry 

Saper, David, Serg. 

Burton, George 

Parker, Isaac, Corp. 


Barnes, Robert J. 
Condon, Edward 
Stull, Joseph 

Herrick, Henry J., Sur. 

Wood, William J. 


Berbinger, Julian 
McBride, James 
Neville, William 

Scott, Archibald 
Simps, William 
Stark, Henry 
Teeple, Walter H. 
Wetzel, John 
Wilson, James A. 


Ireland, John, Capt. 


Campfield, Thomas 
Hylaud, George 
Radcliff, William 


Fitch, Jabez W.,Q. M. 

Peebles, Peter, Leader. 
Billson, Caleb 
Brown, James 
Heydler, G. 
Heydler, William 
Miller, John 
Segur, Fred. 
Wehrschmidt, Daniel 
Woodworth, John 

2 0th REGIMENT. 
Whittlesey, Charles, Col. 

Mcllrath, James P., Maj. 
Thompson, Harry, Maj. 



*&A 4* A'.?* * * 

*--.4 J ^ 



Seaman, Jerome B., Serg. Maj. 
Thompson, James, Q. M. Serg. 
Chamberlain, Jehiel L., Com. 

Fox, William W., Hosp. Stew. 
Horton, Rollin, Hosp. Stew. 
Brown, Eliel, Principal Mus. 
Cogswell, Frederick V., Mus. 
Mullen, Hugh, Mus. 
Spring, Edward V., Mus. 

Clark, Eugene, Capt. 
Chamberlain, Wm, P., ist Lieut. 
Killam, Benjamin, ist Lieut. 
Wall, Johu F., ist Lieut. 
Willard, Charles A., 2d Lieut. 
McCanna, Hugh, ist Serg. 
Richards, Orville W., ist Serg. 
Hayr, James, Serg. 
Jerome, Alfred A., Serg. 
Kelley, Nathan I., Serg. 
Mather, Cassius L., Serg. 
Mcllrath, Philip C, Serg. 
Mitchell, James S., Serg. 
Palmer, James, Serg. 
Armour, James H., Corp. 
Bircut, Charles, Corp. 
Black, John, Corp. 
Botsford, Eli F., Corp. 
Bull, Sheridau E., Corp. 
Butler, Michael, Corp. 
Doughty, James E., Corp. 
Fox, LuKe, Corp. 
Hartman, Charles, Corp. 
Howe, David I., Corp. 
Lejeune, Stephen, Corp. 
Thurston, George, Corp. 
Vansickle, Asa M., Corp. 
Wise, John K., Corp. 

Benner, John, Mus. 

Moore, Sylvester F., Wagoner. 


Ainger, Brainard D. 
Armstrong, James H. 
Ayers, George S. 
Barker, Andrew S. 
Barnes, Joshua L. 
Bentley, Albert G. 
Bentley, Wilbur 
Berschig, Augustus 
Bircut, John 
Black, Johnson 
Bosworth, William E. 
Bowra, Thomas 
Braddish, Henry L. 
Bruner, John 
Bull, Harmon H. 
Burlingame, Ira 
Burmeister, Henry 
Burrell, Frank W. 
Caldwell, John 
Caldwell, Joseph C. 
Cameron, Hugh 
Campbell, Edwin B. 
Chapman, Charles W. 
Chapman, John S. 
Church, Luther 
Clark, Manville 
Clute, John H. 
Couners, Thomas O. 
Cornwall, Robert C. 
Cragiu, Henry H. 
Crawford, Larkin 
Daniels, Maurice P. 
Deady, Michael 
Dibble, Charles E. 
Dumont, Charles E. 
Dunn, John 

Z 9 







6 V 




Fauver, Lorenzo A. 
Fell, Joseph W. 
Fitch, John 
Fitch, Sanford H. 
Flytin, Thomas 
Giles, Franklin 

Green, Andrew M. 

Greenup, James B. 

Halpin, Francis 

Hanna, Frederick 

Harper, Levi S. 

Harris, Frederick 

Harris, Joseph S. 

Haury, Jacob 

Haury, John 

Hazen, Henry E. 

Henry, Edward E. 

Hewitt, John E. 

Hickox, Charles W. 

Higby, Henry W. 

Hill, James A. 

Hogan, Patrick 

Hoyt, Oren S. 

Hubbell, William H. 

Hunt, Lorenzo D. 

Isler, Arnold 

Ives, Ashley 
Jenkins, George W. 
Joel, Joseph A. 
Johnson, Abram S. 
Jones, Daniel 
Jones, Thomas 
Kalbruner, John 
Kempf, George 
Kimberley, David H. 
Lee, William G. 
Lett, William 
Litch, Washington 
Lufkin, Henry C. 
Lynch, Edward 


Lyons, William 
McGrath, Martin 
Moseley, Oliver R. 
Oles, James 
Palmer, William H. 
Parker, Edwin F. 
Parmelee, Edward A. 
Pettibone, William 
Potter, Henry C. 
Rhoades, Seth I. 
Rice, Alvah A. 
Roscoe, Edward W. 
Ross, Thaddeus A. 
Rudolph, James K. 
Sawyer, William H. 
Schmitz, Bernard 
Schmitz, Samuel 
Seely, Andrew 
Segur, Joseph 
Smith, Asa 
Smith, Charles 
Smith, Charles P. 
Smith, Joseph 
Stephens, Edward Y. 
Stoll, Charles 
Stratton, Franklin H. 
Stuart, Alexander 
Taylor, William H. 
Tegardine, Jacob E. 
Till, William A. 
Tucker, Albert 
Ullman, Isaac 
Wallace, William 
Wenban, Henry S. 
Whigham, Thomas J. 
Whitmore, Robert 
Wise, Henry K. 
Woodruff, Henry S. 
Zeleuka, Joseph 



# ' 

•^ & 



6 43 


G ,<* 

Morgan, Charles H., Capt. 


Jackson, Benjamin W., ist Lieut. 

Kies, Raynor 


Lovejoy, Howard S., Capt. 
Hicks, George W., ist Lieut. 
Ogden, John T., ist Lieut. 
Cameron, Edward, ist Serg. 
Bennett, Clifton A., Serg. 
Chase, Willis, Serg. 
Gilson, Lucius F., Serg. 
Gorman, John, Serg. 
Hanchet, Demi. C, Serg. 
Hardy, William W., Serg. 
Lindley,John H., Serg. 
Taylor, Eliphalet J., Serg. 
Brooks, William E., Corp. 
Goddard, James H., Corp. 
Green, Orrin F., Corp. 
Lowe, Harver K., Corp. 
Price, Edward A., Corp. 
Schirmes, Gottlieb L., Corp. 
Stephens, Ephraim, Corp. 
Tanner, Abraham, Corp. 
Penn, George W., Mus. 

Ager, Henry 
Archer, George A. 
Baker, Daniel 
Barker, Isaac W. 
Bassett, Corydon 
Bidwell, George S. 
Boone, William R. 

Brumley, Joseph 
Clifford, Samuel 
Cogswell, Frederick B. 
Cooley, Jasper 
Crowder, James 
Curtiss, Samson C. 
Dauby, David 
Durkee, Hiram 
Eaton, John 
Eldridge, James F. 
Field, Gilbert G. 
Fisher, Ransom 
Flack, Thomas 
Franks, Milton H. 
Goss, John 
Graeber, William 
Hance, Joel 
Hanson, William D. 
Harris, Theodore 
Hartmau, Jacob 
Hawes, Edwin 
Holcomb, William I. 
Holz worth, Henry M. 
Holzworth, Philip 
Hooker, Frederick 
Hower, Joseph 
Ingersoll, Theodore 
Jones, David 
Jones, George W. 
Jones, Samuel J. 
Jones, William 
Leach, Edgar 
Leach, Sylvester 
Leonard, Allen H. 
Lowensteiu, George 
Manchester, Charles E. 
Marmilstein, Henry 
McCarty, H. W. 
McElroy, Samuel 
McKenny, Meredith 



z pl 




r * 



<r <Jjp. 








G * 



Mills, Anson K. 
Molter, Henry 
Montague, Henry 
Morgan, Charles 
Motrey, Frederick 
O'Beirn, John 
Peterman, David 
Reauuourd, George C. 
Ryan, Martin 
Scott, David E. 
Seaman, Truman S. 
Searl, John R. 
Sims, Edward 
Sipler, Marshall H. 
Squire, Lawrence 
Squire, Warren 
Waldo, James H. 
Ward, Samuel 
Wartmau, James 
Wheeler, Harry 
Wiley, Thomas J. 
Wing, Nelson H. 

Thompson, Frederick, 1st Lieut. 

Chamberlin, Jared S. 
Featherly, Charles 
Holley, Orson 
Huntly, Scott F. 
Little, Horace A. 
Stover, David C. 


Abbott, Edward A., Capt. 
Conant, Charles P., 1st Lieut. 

Kingsbury, Alonzo 
Williams, James 


Haven, Henry M., Capt. 
Hood, Henry G., Capt. 
Woodward, Wallis J., Capt. 

» f 


Barrett, Lewis 


Lane, Leander H., Capt. 
Bartholomew, Hiram, Serg. 
Chamberlain, Martin N., Serg. 
King, Christopher, Serg. 
Mcintosh, William, Serg. 
Miller, Jacob A., Serg. 
Tyler, George E., Serg. 
Donel, John, Corp. 
Eddy, George S., Corp. 
Saunders, William A., Corp. 
Selden, William L., Corp. 
Smith, Francis C, Corp. 
Valeau, Jackson, Corp. 
Hopkins, Orin, Mus. 


Allen, George 
Archer, David 
Bently, Albert 
Bingham, John 
Bottin, Joseph N. 
Brown, Michael A. 
Brown, William H. 
Clow, Ogden M. 
Corbit, Michael 
Cox, Alvin 

Cronenberger, Charles 
Crump, William T. 
Davis, Francis M. 
De Long, Joseph 

j> « 






6 45 

Dille, Charles 
Dixon, Robert A. 
Eddy, Oliver W. 
Fairbanks, Robert 
Fiuley, George F. 
Foote, George 
Fouts, Thomas 
Gage, George S. 
Grant, Safford A. 
Gray, William 
Grayell, Jabez 
Green, Thomas W. 
Greer, William F. 
Gunion, Joseph 
Hadlock, John 
Hammond, Edwin H. 
Harvey, John A. 
Herman, Amos T. 
Hines, Philander J. 
Horn, John 
Jenkins, William 
Jenks, Daniel B. 
Johnson, Orin C. 
Jones, George C. 
Kunsman, Henry W. 
Myers, Elbridge 
Oaks, William H. 
Peck, Clarence M. 
Pierson, Robert P. 
Redmond, Thomas 
Rinkel, Christian 
Rose, William 
Rosenberry, Robert A. 
Rupert, Samuel W. 
Ryan, Michael 
Schneider, Morris 
Scribner, Patrick 
Severance, William 
Shepherd, Absalom G. 
Southworth, Ezra 

Walker, James 
Walker, John 
Waste, William 
Whitney, Sylvester 
Young, Peter 


Hunter, Abraham A., Capt. 

Hurlebaus, Gottlieb F. 
James, James 
Mason, George W. 


Diehl, Jacob, Capt. 
Draeger, August, 1st Lieut. 
Hartman, William, Serg. 
Mackey, William, Serg. 
Schoder, Henry, Serg. 
Weigold, John F., Serg. 
Weiss, Caspar, Serg. 
Fry, John, Corp. 
Graef, Jacob, Corp. 
Hartman, Robert, Corp. 
Hoffman, Peter, Corp. 
Newman, Emanuel, Corp. 
Wehues, John, Corp. 
Seithard, Lewis, Drummer. 


Bernhard, Leonard 
Borgemeister, Chris. 
Borlein, Joseph 
Christian, Frederick 
Deggengier, Simon 
Detombel, Franz 
Dodel, William 
Doyle, John 









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Draeger, Frederick 
Frank, Florin 
Frockleich, William 
Geist, Thomas 
Goebel, Peter 
Graetz, Edward 
Grammes, Daniel 
Grammes, Philip 
Gushing, Charles 
Hartman, John 
Hilbrauer, Andrew 
Hommel, Alexander 
Hoyer, Henry C. 
Hummel, Jacob 
Huss, John 
Kayler, Christoph. 
Keller, William 
Kiuesel, Jacob 
Kling, Beuoit 
Kramer, Christian 
Lehman, Joseph 
McNamara, Patrick 
Meyer, Adam 
Miller, Jacob 
Morrow, John 
O'Neil, John 
Passold, Christopher 
Raw, Abraham 
Reillinger, Theodore 
Roth, George 
Schleicher, Anton 
Schott, Jacob 
Severs, Jacob 
Simmel, Leonard 
Somnierhalter, John 
Stahl, Adam 
Stauffer, John 
Suter, John 
Thode, Frederick 
Weber, Christian 


Williams, Henry, 2d Lieut. 

Meyer, Louis G., Sur. 



Parker, David G. 



Bixler, William 

Lamkin, Alfred A., 2d Lieut. 
2 7th. REGIMENT. 

Lynch, Frank, Lieut. Col. 
Spaulding, Z. S., Lieut. Col. 
Smith, Charles H., Maj. 
Jacobs, G. M., Q. M. Serg. 
Evans, William D., Mus. 
Parmalee, Henry C, Mus. 


Diebolt, Henry W., 1st Lieut. 

Webb, Edward A., Capt. 

Worth, R. Heber, Capt. 

Tucker, James W. 

Tucker, William 




W 3 





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1 fc.^ *4 OF HONOR. 



Gould, Onn B., Capt. 
Gibson, Edward, 1st Lieut. 
Atwell, William B., Serr. 
Brennis, John, Serg. 
Griffith, Chester F., Serg. 
Small, Georg2, Serg. 
Cheek, John R., Corp. 
Plummer, Thomas J., Corp. 
Radway, Asa, Corp. 
Schneider, Michael, Corp. 
Lauey, Lucien B., Mus. 
Lemons, George, Mus. 
Myers, George, Mus. 


Beman, John II. 
Brennis, George 
Burnett, Cleauthius 
Davis, Milton 
Dawson, James B. 
Grunnel, Samviel R. 
Harple, Philip R. 
Hine, James M. 
Johnson, Thomas 
Ladley, James E. 
Lane, Jacob 
Loeder, Jacob 
McPhersou, Jeremiah T. 
Mercer, John W. 
Miller, Sebastian 
Myers, Elbridge 
Neyland, William 
Parker, William 
Rathburn, George W. 
Schuck, John L. 
Schuff, John 
Scott, John W. 
Thomas, James R. 


Madigan, M. F., 1st Lieut. 


Clark, Thomas, Lieut. Col. 
Lord, Caius C, O. M. Serg. 


Benham, Albert II., Corp. 


Gore, Charles F., Corp. 
Walsh, James A., Corp. 


Conley,John C. 
Welton, Charles 



Lee, Morgan 

cfl 3 





Arter.Jasou R., Sur. 
Varney, Royal W., Asst. 

Ahem, John A. 

Higgins, John 














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Egbert, Alonzo 
White, John W. 


Mayer, Herman 

Quaid, George 


Harrington, David 
McGue, Michael 

Schaffner, Nathan 


Libbey, Ellsworth W., Capt. 

36tli REGIMENT. 
Dickenson, John, Asst. Sur. 



Siber, Edward, Col. 
Ankele, Charles, Maj. 
Schenck, Julius C, Sur. 
Billhardt, A. W., Asst. Sur. 

Frey, Franz, Com. Serg. 
Groteurath, Philip, Mus. 
Messner, Franz, Mus. 
Reinhardt, Franz, Mus. 


Quedenfeld, Louis F., Capt. 
Hambrock, C, 2d Lieut. 
Pfahl, Christian, 2d Lieut. 
Votteler, H. J., 2d Lieut. 
Becker, Louis, Serg. 
Haiser, John, Serg. 
Hauser, Paul, Serg. 
Jaite, Ferdinand, Serg. 
Otter, John, Serg. 
Rock, William F., Serg. 
Samstag, Wilhelm, Serg. 
Bellery, Nicholas, Corp. 
Blau, Emil, Corp. 
Eberhard, Carl, Corp. 
Hassmer, John B., Corp. 
Kleinschmidt, J. A., Corp. 
Obacht, George, Corp. 
Saile, Florian, Corp. 
Adansky, Asa, Mus. 
Lay, Friedrich, Mus. 
Sherry, Daniel, Drummer. 


Adler, Joseph 
Baehrhold, Friedrich 
Bauer, Ludwig 
Bellery, Christian 
Berger, Christian 
Dreger, Friedrich 
Fruch, Joseph 
Haupt, Gustav 
Haupt, Wilhelm 
Jaeger, Adolph 
Koener, Jean Pierre 




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6 49 

Kahl, Magnus 
Knapp, Charles 
Leonhardt, Adam 
Loeblin, John 
Manns, Franz 
Meyer, Karl 
PitrofT, John 
Rock, Frederick 
Schaeffer, John 
Schieffterling, Bernhard 
Schmidt, Adam 
Schmidt, Andrew 
Schmidt, Franz 
Schneider, Frederick 
Serdinsky, Leopold 
Stoll, Joseph 
lingerer, Frederick 
Voelker, Peter 
Weber, Christopher 
Wendt, Theodore 


Moritz, Charles, Capt. 
Ambrosius, F., 2d Lieut. 


Krause, George 

Voges, Theodore, Capt. 
Nickenhauer, Wendolin, Corp. 

Brandt, Philip 
Goetz, John 
Millimann, Bernhard 
Renold, Charles 


Rehwinkle, Fred. H., Capt. 
Von Kissinger, Adolph C, Capt. 

Wittrich, Paul, Capt. 
Scheldt, Julius, 2d Lieut. 


Boehm, George, Capt. 
Sebastian, Louis, Capt. 
Vallendar, Anton, Capt. 
Burkhardt, H., 1st Lieut. 
Stoppel, Arthur, 1st Lieut. 
Dorr, Jacob, Serg. 
Junker, Anthony, Serg. 
Lohr, William, Serg. 
Zipp, Jacob, Corp. 
Jausen, George, Jr., Mus. 


Bauer, Albert 
Bergsicker, Henry 
Fehlber, Charles 
Gampellar, Frederick 
Granger, David 
Greb, Christian 
Hopp, Charles 
Lambert, Gustav 
Rothman, Henry 
Schmidt, Henry 
Schmidt, John 
Simon, John 
Vauholz, Anton 
Wicker, Adam 
Zipp, Phillip 

Lambert, Louis E., Capt. 


Mittman, August 
Schmidt, Jacob 



J* <3 

iJ - 












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Messner, Charles, Capt. 
Ritter, Louis, 1st Lieut. 
Spickert, Jacob, Serg. 
Zitzelman, Friederich, Serg. 
Schullian, Gustav, Corp. 


Christian, John 
Detgen, Henry 
Dittman, John 
Eckert, August 
Fassnacht, John 
Flury, Adam 
Heck, Philip 
Heidter, August 
Held, John 
Hoffman, John P. 
Kaestle, Joseph 
Kanel, Christian 
Knecht, Jacob 
Knecht, William 
Kolaetzkowski, Andrew 
Lanbrecher, Theobald 
Lapp, J. H. 
Laubscher, Theobald 
Lehman, Paul 
Lieber, John 
Maryne, Joseph 
Melcher, John 
Meyer, Philip 
Oswald, Conrad 
Rother, John 
Schlee, Charles 
Schutz, John 
Schwanz, Basil 
Schwertle, Matthias 
Sehlke, Henry 
Sehlke, John 

Seiler, Edward 
Spickert, George 
Spies, Philip 
Spohn, John 
Stegkamper, Henry 
Tegto, Ernst 

Frerichs, John H., 1st Lieut. 


Becker, Justus 
Heukle, George 
Schelhas, George 


Eichhorn, George 
Loeb, Alois 
Schneeberger, George 


Holloway, Ephraim S., Col. 

Mygatt, George S., Lieut. Col. 

Wiseman, John J., Lieut. Col. 

Cleveland, Thomas G., Sur. 

Hart, Albert G., Sur. 

Thompson, George J. A., Adj. 

Blvthe, Walter, 1st Lieut, and 

Chamberlain, W. S., Q. M. 

Lyman, Osman A., Chaplain. 

Colvin, Charles, Hosp. Stew. 

Ridg way, George F., Wagon Mas- 


Leland, Jackson M., Leader 
Breymaier, George 


ft •♦ft 

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6 5 I 

Carl, William 
Dickinson, Albert H. 
Dickinson, Charles 
Dickinson, James W. 
Dormeyer, Henry 
Kehres, Jacob 
Lovejoy, William S. 
Messer, John 
Moore, Daniel L. 
Seidel, Julius 
Stickney, Hamilton 


Hills, Charles W., 2d Lieut. 
Cutler, Julius A., Corp. 


Bennett, Daniel 
Bennett, Joseph M. 
Gee, Christopher W. 
Hall, Morgan 
Hills, Augustus T. 
Keesler, Hiram 
McDonald, Frank 
Richmond, W. J. 
Skinner, Archibald 
Worts, Richard, Jr. 


Booth, William E., 1st Lieut. 
Bail, Charles P., Corp. 


Ballard, Luther M. 
Bartlett, David R. 
Bartlett, George S. 
Blakeslee, Charles W. 
Chamberliu, Lewis A. 
Devoice, Henry 
Fisher, Orange 

Foster, James M. 
Goole, John, Jr. 
Gould, Levenigs 
Hammond, Leonard P. 
Harrington, Hubert 
Harrington, Lyman 
Harrington, William 
Kubler, Christopher 
Nease, Shubal 
Sanborn, E. M. 
Smith, Addison 
Smith, Jay C. 
Smith, Guy 



Caswell, H. S. 
Weiker, William 


Cole, James H., Capt. 
Proctor, Harvey E., Capt. 
Hammond, Charles, 1st Lieut. 
Dodge, George C, 2d Lieut. 
Emerson, Arthur, 1st Serg. 
Billings, Henry M., Serg. 
Boughtou, Elon G, Serg. 
Butler, Thomas, Serg. 
Clifford, Edward, Serg. 
Fancher, S. C, Serg. 
Fisher, Burr, Serg. 
Lockwood, Jason, Serg. 
Marshall, William H., Serg. 
Sawyer, Spencer A., Serg. 
Wakefield, John H., Serg. 
Ashburn, James W., Corp. 
Davis, Emory, Corp. 
Deismau, William H., Corp. 
Dunkee, William, Corp. 
Flick, N. Marks, Corp. 











- 1 .to . *«*_-?.£ # ^ a - S to s> «. 




. T 


- «r 







Flick, William H., Corp. 
Herriman, Albert, Corp. 
Hewitt, Johnson C, Corp. 
Jones, Julius, Corp. 
Osborn, Orwin, Corp. 
Richmond, Virgil, Corp. 
Smellie, Emerson W., Corp. 
Trowbridge, Daniel, Corp. 
Ward, Anson B., Corp. 
Roscoe, Abel P., Drummer. 


Atherton, Allen 
Butler, John D. 
Button, Verneuel 
Carr, Asa P. 
Claskey, George H. 
Corkell, Edward F. 
Cowan, John F. 
Cowan, William 
Davidson, Jesse 
Davidson, Joseph 
Dunham, Royal 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas B. 
Flick, Josiah 
Gardner, John 
Gibbons, Francis 
Glasgow, William 
Gregory, Theodore 
Harris, Francis 
Harris, Martin 
Hart, Hugh 
Hist, Joseph 
Hornig, Alexander 
Ives, Erastus P. 
Jones, David M. 
Kellogg, Benoah 
Kelly, Edward W. 
Mathews, Orlo C. 
Mead, Levi 

Mier, John 
Minor, Jonathan 
Needham, Benjamin F. 
Newcomb, James F. 
Pease, Enos 
Pease, James 
Pierce. Thomas 
Powers, William 
Pressing, Leonard 
Rano, Julius 
Rattles, William H. 
Richardson, Luther 
Sampson, Samuel 
Simpson, William 
Slocum, Oliver 
Smellie, William R. 
Smith, Henry W. 
Smith, William E. 
Studer, Thomas 
Tennis, John S. 
Tompkins, Moses 
Trump, Andrew 
Underhill, Daniel R. 
Venoah, Charles 
Wheeler, Zenas 
Wick, William 
Wood, William P. 


Stone, Frai— . E., Capt. 
Cutler, Truman C, 1st Lieut. 
Jones, Harry W., 1st Lieut. 
McKay, Fred. A., 2d Lieut. 
Virgil, Albert E., 1st Serg. 
Wood, Benjamin, 1st Serg. 
Cressinger, Jacob R., Serg. 
Drum, William H., Serg. 
Eckert, Arthur, Serg. 
Lynch, William, Serg. 
Murray, James, Serg. 







Partridge, William R., Serg. 
Simons, Henry, Serg. 
Colby, Samuel, Corp. 
Cullen, John, Corp. 
Edwards, William, Corp. 
Langell, William, Corp. 
Neville, John, Corp. 
Powers, Thomas, Corp. 
Randall, Charles, Corp. 
Williams, Cyrus, Corp. 
Scott, Warren K., Mus. 
Winchester, S. N., Fifer. 


Annis, Seaman 
Arnott, James 
Barber, Caswell 
Barber, Jervis 
Beard, Alexander 
Caldwell, John 
Canfield, John 
Chalk, Michael 
Chapman, Matthew B. 
Chesley, Charles 
Cochran, David 
Conway, Henry 
Conway, Thomas 
Corbit, Dennis 
Corbit, Timothy 
Coykindall, Henry S. 
Davidson, Robert 
Evans, James 
Farrell, Patrick 
Ferrell, William L. 
Fitzpatrick, Edward 
Flannigan, Patrick 
Fluett, George 
Fullweller, Ensign 
Gordon, John F. 
Griffin, Michael 


Halpin, John 
Harvey, Urson 
Hayes, John 
Herling, Charles 
Hiland, William 
Hobart, Oliver 
Hodge, Frederick 
Hogan, Daniel 
Howard, Michael 
Hubbell, Augustus 
Johnson, Edward 
Kane, Michael 
Kepler, John 
Kink, Michael 
Lamb, Robert 
Lanibier, James 
Lobdell, John 
Maroney, James 
Mattison, Andrew 
Miller, Mitchell 
Montreal, Anthony 
Moses, Joseph 
Nally, William 
Nay, Thomas 
Neville, Richard 
O'Reilly, Richard 
Oviatt, William 
Palmer, John 
Partridge, George 
Phillips, David 
Price, John 
Quick, Jesse 
Rawlins, John 
Ritticker, Henry 
Rossiter, R. L. 
Ryan, John 
Singleterry, Cyrus 
Smith, Alva C. 
Spon seller, Samuel 
Stebbins, Nelson 



* a 









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9$m&k» : »*k 





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Striker, Cornelius 
Strock, Abraru 
Such, William 
Sullivan, Daniel 
Tompkins, James 
Treat, Delos 
Treat, Lemmon 
Van Tassel, George 
YVaussen, Cl)de 
Winchester, Milo L. 


Leslie, Daniel S., Capt. 
Beardsley, P. A., 1st Lieut. 
Chapin, John C, 1st Serg. 
Burnham, Job, Serg. 
Cooper, Charles, Serg. 
Engle, Orestes T., Serg. 
Gault, Andrew, Serg. 
Kilgore, Iram, Serg. 
Kilmer, Orlando P., Serg. 
Miller, Alfred, Serg. 
Pennell, John, Serg. 
Renner, Jacob, Serg. 
Ripley, Warren L., Serg. 
Smith, Walter, Jr., Serg. 
Aylesworth, R. H., Corp. 
Braunstetter, Henry A., Corp. 
Bushong, Alexander, Corp. 
Edney, Charles, Corp. 
Flangher, Isaac, Corp. 
Gault, Alexander, Corp. 
Guthrie, William M., Corp. 
Hazel, William T., Corp. 
Maser, Frank, Corp. 
Neidiug, Augustus, Corp. 
Older, Henry, Corp. 
Perkins, James W, Corp. 
Roof, John, Corp. 
Schoemaker, Charles, Corp. 

Webb, George A., Corp. 

Heriff, Henry, Fifer. 

Wilbur, Benjamin F., Drummer. 


Atkinson, Edgar 
Baker, Thomas P. 
Billings, Lyman C. 
Blanden, John M. 
Bouvia, Joseph 
Bridge, George 
Brucker, Frederick 
Clary, James K. 
Darby, Benjamin 
Davis, James 
Duer, Dillon P. 
Duer, Thomas 
Eckenroad, Daniel 
Eckeuroad, John 
Edney, Andrew 
Faber, Albert 
Frederick, Matthias 
Frederick, Peter 
Gibson, James B. 
Goff, Julius L. 
Gornia, Frank 
Green, Charles 
Hageman, Matthias 
Hughes, James 
Iry, William 
Keck, William 
Kidwell, Lovy 
Kreckle, Anthony 
La Fountain, Marshall 
Lee, Joseph 
Lehman, Alexander 
Miller, Adam 
Newbury, Charles 
Newton, Charles 
Parish, Joseph 

G .V 



*£&&3^*&s&£*"'** * 



Petee, John 
Remley, Joseph R. 
Rice, Abraham J. 
Ryan, William 
Sanderson, Henry 
Santeur, Alexander 
Sharkey, James 
Shirley, Frank B. 
Shirley, Jacob 
Shisle'r, Eli 
Shisler, Samuel 
Smith, Charles 
Snider, Benjamin N. 
Spaulding, Homer 
Stauden, John A. 
Stewart, Plimpton 
Waite, John T. 
Weitzell, William 
Wordon, Joseph 


Gault, Robert A., Capt. 
Fisher, Lloyd, 1st Lieut. 
Heriff, Peter, 1st Lieut. 

Alexander, William 
Calkins, Perrin H. 
Gaebeleiu, John 
Henderson, William H. 
Hill, George 
Kickland, Martin 
Kickland, Theodore 
Miller, Albert W. 
Suethen, Benjamin 
Snethen, John 
Varney, Allison 


Morgan, William J., Capt. 
Whittlesey, Albert, 1st Lieut. 


Butsou, George 
Clark, Albert J. 
Clark, George C. 
Clark, John 
Holcomb, William J. 
Hudson, Richard 
Tooze, James 
Tooze, William 
Turner, Levi 
Worcester, Norton T. 


McMahon, James, Capt. 
Fitzgerald, James, Corp. 
Parker, George D., Corp. 
Sanger, George E., Corp. 
Scott, Shepard, Drummer. 


Ackley, Josephus 
Chapman, James E. 
Chapman, William 
Clark, John 
Duvoo, Louis 
Ellsworth, Charles 
Goddard, William 
Gouch, Frederick 
Hadlock, Uriah 
Hall, John W. 
Holmes, Henry 
Kennedy, John 
Such, John 
Warren, George T. 
Wells, Charles 
Zealy, Adam 


Hansard, William, Capt. 
Gaylord, Charles D., 1st Lieut. 
Coon, Henry, 2d Lieut. 








%p * * 





Orr, John, ist Serg. 
Bliss, Albert L., Serg. 
Lovelace, L. M., Serg. 
O'Brien, James M., Serg. 
Dalton, Edward, Corp. 
Price, William, Corp. 


Arnold, Henry 
Babcock, William 
Battles, Newton 
Bradley, Rawson A. 
Brown, Lafayette 
Donaldson, John 
Henry, Darwin 
Kelley, John T. 
McEacham, William 
Miller, Charles 
Miller, Milton 
Pendleton, John 
Rand, Benjamin F. 
Reeves, William N. 
Regan, Daniel 
Rodeck, William P. 
Rusher, Jacob 
Schock, Conrad 
Sexton, Dennis 
Stuart, John 
Synod, Marcus 
Thayer, Asahel 
Thompson, John 
Wagner, Henry 
Wagner, Nicholas 
White, Matthew 

-42c! REGIMENT. 



Rudolph, Joseph 




Wiesemann, Joseph 

Flynu, John F., ist Lieut. 
Loomis, Leonard G., Serg. 
Austin, Bertrand C, Corp. 
Jacques, William H., Corp. 
O'Brien, Charles, Corp. 
Phinney, Benjamin F., Corp. 


Austin, R. W. 
Bates, Harrison H. 
Cousins, Melvin B. 
Drummock, Christopher 
Foote, Asahel P. 
Griffin, John 
Kelley, Charles W. 
Kilby, Martin 
Lilley, Martin 
Phinney, San ford 
Sage, William 
Taylor, David H. 
Taylor, Stephen M. 
Thompson, Benj. F. 
Tuttle, Angelo 
Tuttle, Marius 
Websdale, William H. 
Wilford, Joseph 

Campbell, Edward B., Capt. 
Jewett, Charles P., Capt. 
Henry, James G., ist Lieut. 
Pierce, Calvin, ist Lieut. 
Stone, Andrew J., 2d Lieut. 
Marble, Calvin A., ist Serg. 
Wiggins, Noble B., ist Serg. 

A - 



-9 V .$> * 

^ 1* S * $J s, 

Goodwin, Wheaton, Serg. 
Hofste, John W., Serg. 
Hull, John, Serg. 
Mulvehill, Daniel, Serg. 
Wilder, Dewilton J., Serg. 
Bailey, John R., Corp. 
Brown, John, Corp. 
Caine, Edward, Corp. 
Collins, Henry, Corp. 
Cox, Junior R., Corp. 
Dean, Norman F., Corp. 
Dix, Adelbert A., Corp. 
Farr, George D., Corp. 
Gardner, William, Corp. 
Harris, Egbert E., Corp. 
Morgan, Henry C, Corp. 
Quiggin, John J., Corp. 
Striker, Alfred D., Corp. 
Williams, E. A., Corp. 
Parry, John, Mus. 
Mapes, Thomas, Wagoner. 


Anderson, Charles S. 
Bray ton, John 
Carlin, Peter F. 
Clark, David B. 
Corcoran, Charles 
Corlett, Robert C. 
Corlett, Thomas E. 
Cox, Lorenzo D. 
Deharthy, James 
Farr, Willard M. 
Faulkner, Alfred 
Garfield, Amasa S. 
Gazelly, James 
Haycox, George 
Hays, John M. 
Hays, Patrick 
Huntoon, Rufus C. 


4> <LfS 

James, Jacob 
Kelley, George M. 
McGregor, James 
McGregor, John 
McGuire, James 
McMahon, John 
Moore, Nicholas 
Murphy, Patrick 
O'Brien, Michael 
Phelps, George M. 
Porter, Bela W. 
Rathburn, Warren 
Ruggles, Seymour 
Shattuck, Harold 
Shepard, Wilson 
Shevlin, Michael 
Simloe, William 
Striker, George G. 
Switz, Frederick J. 
Warren, John G. 
Williams, Frank 
Williams, William P. 
Williamson, James 


Bowman, John H., Serg. 
Stanley, Alviu J., Corp. 


Fast, Luther M. 
Warren, John 
Youngblood, Philip 


Hubbell, A. B., 2d Lieut. 

Osgood, Joseph S. 









^ <i * ft - J* ■ -* ™ w ^ - « ^ * ft 

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Hefferan, Patrick 


Akins, Alexander P. 
Arnott, Hugh 
Burk, William 
Campbell, Charles 
Dill, George 
Lawrence, Albert A. 
Mahoney, John 
Pankhurst, Thomas 
Piper, Sanford S. 
Russ, Giles H. 
Schnabel, John 
Scott, Thomas 
Werner, Charles W. 
Wheelan, John 


Manzelman, John 


Moran, John 

45th. REGIMENT. 
Sheldon, J. J., Asst. Sur. 


Carran, John J., Capt. 


Pope, Harlan T. 

Morse, Joel, Sur. 


Pool, Ira H., Capt. 
Schneider, Peter C, Capt. 
Lotz, Henry, 1st Serg. 
Freeman, William, Serg. 
Lanaghan, John, Serg. 
Cogswell, George W., Corp. 
Zopher, Randall, Drummer. 

Buckire, William 
Fish, Deming B. 
Garrison, Joseph M. 
Lockard, William 
Lotz, Augustus 
McKutchen, James 
Moneysmith, James 
Myers, William 
Olds, Thomas 
Risser, Peter 
Seivert, Frederick 
Simmonds, George 
Thompson, Howard F. 
Uhlsenheimer, John M. 
Waddups, Thomas 
Weisgerber, Justus 
Whittern, Charles 

Cutter, John F., Adj. 








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Bandon, Seaman M., 2d Lieut. 


Stillman, Charles, 2d Lieut. 


Richardson, Henry, Capt. 
Browning, George W., 1st Lieut. 
Potter, Silas W., 1st Lieut. 
McGrath, Lyman, Serg. 
Pearsons, Oscar, Serg. 
Seeley, Isaac B., Serg. 
Moncrief, Hugh, Corp. 
Monroe, Felix, Corp. 
Stevens, William, Corp. 
Travis, Isaac, Mus. 


Alexander, William 
Allen, Richard 
Ambrose, Charles 
Bennett, Charles 
Bennett, Samuel 
Berchimer, Jacob 
Brewer, Andrew J. 
Clark, Diodate 
Dalley, Charles 
Devine, John 
French, E. S. 
Gahan, Thomas 
Gale, George F. 
Guinter, Isaac 
Hart, Patrick 
Hoag, George W. 
Hudson, James 
Jago, Alfred L. 
Kenney, John 
Kinkaid, James 

Knapp, Horace 
Lamphear, Hoxie E. 
Lytle, James 
Maloy, William 
Maples, John 
Mead, John 
Mitchell, Reuben 
Nelson, Hugh 
Nelson, John 
Nicola, Frederick 
Olmstead, Charles 
Parmenter, Albert 
Richardson, Joseph B. 
Rixinger, Joseph 
Rixiuger, Lawrence 
Ryan, Roger 
Sandy, John 
Skeene, John 
Smith, Jackson 
Tiernan, John 
Vaughn, William H. 
Wass, Wallace 
Winslow, Jonathan 

55th. REGIMENT. 

Stegman, William, 1st Serg. 


James, John A. 

58th. REGIIvIEISrT. 

Eggiman, Jacob 
Schwandt, William 












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Spaeth, John, Serg. 


Abele, Thomas 
Hammerle, John G. 
Kens, George 
Matthews, August 
Schmidt, John 
Schneider, John 
Schwinghamer, David 
Schwinghamer, Fred. 


Butler, George, Corp. 
Weber, Jacob, Corp. 
McMahon, Charles E., 


Beck, Israel 
Berrick, Thomas 
Cummings, Patrick 
Deharsh, George P. 
Haines, Julius 
Haislet, George 
Heffron, Walter 
Keaver, John 
Klein, Jacob 
Lawless, Matthew 
Lutz, Charles 
Schinkel, Charles 
Wolfkammer, John 
Wurster, John 

Elmer, Jacob, Mus. 

Bauer, John C. 
Cornell, Henry 

Kohner, George J. 
Palmer, Thomas 
Peck, Edward 
Sheehan, William 
Walter, Andrew 


Stoppel, Charles, 1st Lieut. 
Specht, Robert, 2d Lieut. 
Manzelman, Adolph, Serg. 
Stockinger, Henry, Serg. 
Wurtinghauser, H., Mus. 


Baade, Philip 
Bolin, Charles A. 
Chandler, Frederick 
Mus. Dill, Thomas 

Faad, Joseph 
Fathschild, John 
Fradrith, Conrad 
Hart, Hugh 
Holtz, William 
Hugo, Michael 
Lewis, Benjamin 
Mullen, Edward 
Meyer, Gottlieb 
O'Morrow, Michael 
Rentz, Frederich 
Ruth, John 
Schadler, Emanuel 
Spatholz, John 
Symes, Alfred 


Bachmann, Solomon 
Burk, John 
Shepard, William H. 
Simmons, John W. 
Thomas, James 

JfcslSS & 









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Bauerly, Julius 
Bruehler, Frederick 
Eiseuhart, George 
Jung, Casper 
Kramer, Frederick 
Lee, John 
Lehman, Peter 
Leidich, Philip 
Lorch, Philip 
Prell, John 
Rakowsky, John 
Von Langenderff, Emil 
Wagner, August 
Wesche, Charles 


Stearns, William L., Maj. 
Stevens, Henry R., Maj. 
Lechleiter, D., Com. Serg. 
Schoonmaker, J. D., Hosp. Stew. 


Jamison, John 
McGloan, James 


Cress, Edwin, 2d Lieut. 


Finch, Dosson 
Gray, Christopher C. 
Hutchins, John 


Quintrell, A. G., Capt. 
Bullard, Lorenzo D., 1st Lieut. 
Paine, Franklin, Jr., 1st Lieut. 
Taylor, Benjamin F., 1st Serg. 
Ruckle, Philip, Serg. 
Smith, Charles T., Serg. 
Wilson, James A., Serg. 
Beardsley, Frank R., Corp. 
Farrar, Henry B., Corp. 
Gillmore, Robert, Corp. 
Perkis, Arthur J., Corp. 
Pritchard, George B., Corp. 
Rex, Thomas H., Corp. 
Wilson, Joseph, Corp. 
Potter, Gordon H., Mus. 


Bacon, Timothy 
Beatty, William J. 
Brouse, Harvey 
Brouse, Henry O. 
Brouse, James W. 
Carpenter, Isaac K. 
Carpenter, William J. 
Fay, Martin V. 
Gillmore, William G. 
Jarvis, George W. 
Johnston, James 
Marks, Samuel 
McCabe, Peter 
McElhaney, Robert G. 
Morrow, James S. 
Moss, Ephraim W. 
Peffers, Henry R. 
Priest, Francis A. 
Rogers, William S. 
Root, William W. 
Shaw, John R. 










Steveus, Edward C. 
Stevens, Nelson R. 
Treat, Horace C. 
White, Charles A. 
White, Edward N. 


Meacham, Norman D., Capt. 
Haynes, Orlando W., ist Lieut. 
Brainard, Frank E., ist. Serg. 
Wallace, Ira W., ist Serg. 
Willey, Lewis R., ist Serg. 
Kershner, Andrew R., Serg. 
Kershner, George W., Serg. 
Kirkpatrick, H. M., Serg. 
Thompson, Lewis S., Serg. 
Ames, John, Corp. 
Cooper, Henry, Corp. 
Disbro, Edward G., Corp. 
Harrington, S- W., Corp. 
Lee, Solomon H., Corp. 
McReyuolds, J. K., Corp. 
Reubliu, Edgar M., Corp. 
Sarns, William, Corp. 
Weylie, Porter M., Corp. 
Wilder, William W., Corp. 
Aumand, Thomas R., Wagoner. 


Albers, John 
Ames, William 
Curtiss, John H. 
Curtiss, William C. 
Davis, John 
Detchon, Wilbur F. 
Estminger, James R. 
Foster, John 
Fry, Ely 
Gasner, Henry 
Gray, Edward 

Hamilton, Lyman R. 
Herold, Alfred 
Hildreth, Wilbur F. 
Hoffman, Benjamin F. 
Jackson, William E. 
Judkins, William H. 
Lacy, Elmer G. 
Lacy, William H. 
Lewis, Walter 
Lord, Ferdinand 
Miller, Thos. D. 
Peabody, Avery 
Powers, James H. 
Purine, Benjamin F. 
Schopp, John 
Sippey, Hiram 
Sutton, Charles E. 
Vanness, Phineas J. 
Wagner, John 
Wagner, Henry 
Warner, Philip 
Walberry, George H. 
Wright, Sydney E. 
Yarham, Walter 


Miller, John H., ist Serg. 
Bennett, Elmer J., Serg. 
Giberson, Charles D., Serg. 
Hardy, Henry W., Serg. 
Jewell, Orrin, Serg. 
Bond, Richard, Corp. 
Bryan, John, Corp. 
Dunton, William H., Corp. 
Green, Charles J., Corp. 
McAlvey, John B., Corp. 
Pepoon, Lawrence T., Corp. 
Roy, Joseph, Corp. 
Shipmau, Nathan A., Corp. 
Storrs, Horatio, Corp. 

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Taft, Amasa G., Corp. 
Taylor, Andrew J., Corp. 


Babcock, William H. 
Baxter, Rinaldo 
Belden, Warren D. 
Bennett, Harrison 
Bishop, Albert M. 
Canfield, William 
Carpenter, Thos. W. 
Cheflin, Frederick 
Clagne, John A. 
Cowles, George R. 
Doty, George W. 
Durgin, John S. 
Eells, Henry M. 
Ellwell, Isaac 
Green, John W. 
Gregory, James 
Grover, Aden 
Hardy, Emory G. 
Hardy, George M. 
Hardy, James H. 
Jewett, Homer C. 
Langdou, Charles, Jr. 
Leggett, Levi 
Lewis, William 
Manly, Delos E. 
Martin, Peter 
Moore, George 
Norton, Arunah 
Phelps, George W. 
Pooler, Reuben 
Reiner, John 
Rhode, Charles 
Roche, Patrick 
Scheffer, George 
Scott, Charles D. 
Stanhope, Charles W. 

B. S. 

Swartout, John R. 
Thompson, Robert F. 
Truax, William L. 
Tucker, Daniel 
Van Nostrand, Eze 
Waterman, Henry 
Waterman, William G. 
Webster, George H. 
Whipple, Daniel L. 
Wicks, Alexander 
Wood, Ephraim 


Farrand, W. H., 2d Lieut. 
Alstadt, George K., Serg. 


Allen, Milton D. 
Brooks, Samuel H. 
Buckheier, William 
Glick, Muuroe 
Harrington, Patrick 
Hickok, Frank 
Hine, Peter C. 



Bothwell, John D., Capt. 
Newcomb, Edward H., Capt. 
Armstrong, James, 1st Lieut. 
Foster, Charles W., Serg. 
Jenkins, Henry H., Serg. 
Morrison, George, Serg. 
Pell, George M., Serg. 
Savoy, John, Serg. 
Williams, George H., Serg. 
Haller, Jacob, Corp. 
McGuire, Patrick, Corp. 
Mclntyre, John, Corp. 








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Ranney, Ed. G., Corp. 
Williams, A. H., Corp. 
Sprague, Edniond C, Mus. 

Armstrong, Charles C. 
Barrett, George 
Bradford, Philip W. 
Hallas, Squire 
Holley, William H. 
Lambecker, George 
Mains, George W. 
McCue, Edward 
McCullough, Neal 
MeGouldrick, Bernard 
Murphy, Patrick 
Nugent, George W. 
Raimey, Comfort 
Reich, Conrad 
Ritter, William 
Schuerer, Jacob 
Thompson, Alfred G. 
Tryon, Lucas 
Tryon, Smith 
Vogt, George 
White, Albert 
White, John 
White, Ransom 
Wright, Robert 
Wucherer, Charles 

Costello, Thomas 
Higgius, John 
Nolan, Cornelius 
Nolan, Michael 

Jassaud, August Wm. 

Barlow, Augustus C , Surgeon. 



Hinman, Wilbur F., Lieut. Col. 
Whitbeck, Horatio N., Lieut. Col. 
Gill, John C, Asst. Surgeon 
Massey, William H., Adj. 
Powell, Thomas, Chaplain 
Porter, Melville C, Serg. Maj. 
Mills, James P., Q. M. Serg. 


Dickerson, M. W. 
Files, Charles C. 
Gilger, George 


Huckins, George N., 2d Lieut. 
Clague, Thomas, 1st Serg. 
Cooper, John, 1st Serg. 
Atherton, Ansel, Serg. 
Lemon, John H., Serg. 
Nickersou, Charles H.,.Serg. 
Tompkins, Thomas, Serg. 
Clark, William, Corp. 
Clement, George, Corp. 
Doggett, Henry S., Corp. 
Gassner, Peter, Corp. 
Hance, Herman, Corp. 
Hawhurst, W. F., Corp. 
Hepburn, George, Corp. 
Hulet, Wilbur F., Corp. 
Kuss, John F., Corp. 
Perry, Daniel H., Corp. 
Schneider, Louis, Corp. 
Simmons, Oliver, Corp. 



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Thompson, George C, Corp. 
Tierney, Michael, Corp. 


Aldrich, Thomas C. 
Ault, Thomas C. 
Baumbah, John N. 
Cady, Winfield S. 
Canniff, Jeremiah 
CannifF, Jame*s 
Claflin, Alverton 
Crocker, Edwin 
Day, George 
Dibert, Jacob 
Drake, Truman 
Edson, Royal 
Fitzgerald, James 
Hudson, Robert S. 
Johnson, William 
Keeler, Jacob 
Kelley, Thomas 
Killimer, Conrad 
Knowles, Martin V. B. 
Lee, George 
Leffingwell, Julius 

Leinaker, William 

Leinaker, William H. 

Lewis, Charles 

Mansell, John T. 

Mooney, William H. 

Myer, Lawrence 

Need, George W. 

Pogue, James O. 

Pope, Stanley G. 

Pumphrey, William 

Schaub, David D. 

Shreat, Frederick 

Smart, Romanzo 

Stanley, Edward S. 

Stevens, George W. 


Vaughn, Hiram A. 
Walrath, Wallace 
Whitney, George A. 
Williams, William 
Wolfe, Daniel 
Yarham, William J. 

Powell, Edward G., ist Lieut. 

Willsey, Joseph H., Capt. 

Eaton, Lucieu B., Capt. 
Bader, Philip H., ist Serg. 
Bundy, Mark, Serg. 
Cashen, Peter, Corp. 
Emch, Nicholas, Corp. 
Kelley, William, Corp. 
Knapp, Abel, Drummer. 


Allerton, Jacob 
Cameron, Samuel 
Clark, Peter 
Daggett, George 
Desmond, John 
Eaton, Fred. 
Hart, Franklin 
Myers, Cyrus 
O'Halligan, James 
O'Harra, Patrick 
O'Neil, Michael 
Renschkoll, Charles 
Ryder, Henry C. 
Smith, Peter 
Smith, Thomas 
Stevens, Hiram 
Strickland, L. P. 
Valery, Henry 

A ' P 





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Wade, Robert 
Waller, Christopher 
Wisson, Jacob 

67tln REGIMENT. 

Heaton, Grove L., Capt. and Q. M. 
Hathaway, Rodney J., Adj. 
Sorge, William, Serg. Maj. 
Allen, Edward S., Drum Major. 


Sumner, Ebenezer 
Sumner, William 


Childs, Geo. L., Capt. and Bvt 

Lieut. Col. 
Bruce, James E., 2d Lieut. 
Miller, Quincy, Serg. 
Hillman, Edward, Corp. 
Hornsey, Charles, Corp. 
Miller, Samuel, Corp. 
Quigley, William, Corp. 
Russell, Albert, Corp. 
Cornwell, Saunders, Mus. 
Whitehead, Charles, Mus. 


Bennett, Abraham 
Ellis, Charles 
Fox, John 
Galvin, Peter 
Gray, Rinaldo A. 
Hiller, Jacob 
Jenks, Charles A. 
Krieger, Andrew 

Krieger, Peter 
Lovegrove, Joshua 
Rounds, Hiram L. 
Russell, Sanford 
Sherman, Andrew 
Tear, Robert 
Turner, Caleb 
Watson, James 
Watson, William 
Williams, James 
Young, George W. 


Baldwin, Almou R., Serg. 
Hawkins, Edward, Serg.