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"Not to know what happened before we were born is to remain 

always a child. For what were the life of man did we not combine 

present events with the recollection of past ages?" 

— Cicero. 





From Its Earliest Settlement to the 
Present Time 




Also Biographical Sketches of Alany Representative 
Citizens of the County. 


milford, ohio. 

The Hobart Publishing Company 








A comprehensive count}- history must, of necessity, be a 
compilation of materials gleaned from various sources and 
assembled in the form of a literary mosaic, the design of which 
is S3mmetrical — but not always apparent. 

The first and only exhaustive history of the county hereto- 
fore «vritten was published by ^^^ H. Beers & Co., in 1880, 
from material compiled and arranged largely by Judge John 
Wharry of Greenville and by one Prof. W. H. Mcintosh. This 
volume contained about 250 octavo pages of closely printed 
matter relating to the history of the county, besides about 
200 pages of general introductory material and about 300 
pages of biographical sketches. On account of its priority and 
the mass of historical data which it contains, this book must 
form the basis of any authentic history hereafter written. Per- 
haps the most apparent fault in this excellent first history is 
the lack of an adequate index and the irregular arrangement 
of topics — a condition which the writer has endeavored to 
overcome in a measure in this work. 

A second work entitled "A Pictorial Outline History of 
Darke County," was published by Geo. W. Wolfe in 1890. 
This work was largely biographical but contained some excel- 
lent introductory matter and a few good topical sketches. 

An excellent Biographical History was published in 1900 
by the Lewis Publishing Company of Chicago, which con- 
tained many well-written biographical sketches, but not much 
purely historical data. To all of these works the compiler of 
the present volume freely acknowledges his indebtedness for 
original material, realizing that without them the task of writ- 
ing an authentic pioneer history would be practically impos- 

Further acknowledgment is made to x-\ttorney Geo. A. 
Katzenberger, who compiled and wrote the excellent chapters 
on "Miltia Organizations." and "Bench and Bar;" and to Geo. 


W. Calderwood. the "Darke County Boy," whose writings 
made possible the chapter entitled "Random Sketches." 

Others who have assisted materially in making this work 
possible are mentioned in the body of this book. 

The military campaigns of .St. Clair and Wayne are treated 
somewhat exhaustively inasmuch as they led up to the great 
treaty of Greene Ville, which is one of the landmarks of state 
and national history. 

Aluch space has also been devoted to the interesting geo- 
logical and archeological features of the county, which have 
been given scant treatment in former works. 

An attempt has been made to give a brief history of every 
religious denomination having a fair constituency in the 
county and thereby preserve a permanent record of the found- 
ing of each for convenient reference. 

The writing of a county history covering the numerous 
phases of political, social, religious and material progress is a 
large but interesting task, and it is the hope of the author of 
this work that the careful perusal of its pages will stimulate 
greater interest in local history than has been manifested 
heretofore and be a source of delight to many. 

Probably the greatest difficulty encountered in the present 
work has been the matter of the arrangement of the vast 
amount of miscellaneous material collected. This has been 
overcome, in a measure, by considering the relation of each 
subject to the history of the county as a whole rather than to 
a restricted locality. 

An entire chapter is given to "Xotable Events" as it is 
deemed desirable to portray these significant historical hap- 
penings for the instruction and entertainment of future gen- 

The recent introduction of the study of local history in our 
public schools is a commendable step and will, no doubt, re- 
sult in a widespread interest in and enthusiasm for pioneer 
lore, so that the records of the past will be more eagerly per- 
used and the memory of early events more sacredly cherished 
b}' coming generations. Instead of contempt for the past we 
may expect appreciation, and look for a more vivid realization 
of the fact that the things of the past play an important part 
in the life of the present. 

Some one has aptly said : "The average American is con- 
tent to let history begin with himself," exhibiting thereby an 
ignorance and indifference unworthy of citizenship in a repub- 


lie bought with blood and sacrifice. Such persons should read 
and ponder on these beautiful lines by Cora Greenleaf : 

There is No Past. 

'"They are not dead, those happy days gone by, 
They brought that much of life to us. And I 
Know no part of our life can ever die. 

We lived them, so each joy or grief fraught day 
Is curs, henceforth, forever and for aye, 
There is no dead, unknowing yesterday. 

Our memory the casket that shall hold 
Experiences worth far more than gold 
And jewels to the longing soul they mold. 

I like to drift and dream of times called past, 

Past days are present long as memories last, 

Within the brain's firm mold they're poured and cast — 

Shaped in an instant by our heedless will. 

To last forevermore, for good or ill. 

Until this very universe grows chill." 

It will be noticed that this work appears in two volumes, 
the first of which is historical and is compiled by the author, 
while the second is biographical and is the work of the pub- 
lishers to whom credit is due for its excellent and comprehen- 
sive character. 


Greenville, Ohio, Alay 20, 1914. 




Early Records — Niagara Limestone — Later Formations — Glacial 
Invasion — The Laurentide Glacier — Terminal Moraine— Local 
Glacial Phenomena: (1) Surface Boulders. (2) Glacial Till, 
(3) Kames— Local Moraines: (1) Miami Moraine, (2) Union 
Moraine, (3) Mississinawa Moraine — Extinct Animals— Peat 


The Mound Builders — Local Phenomena — Indian Camp Sites and 
Vilages — Flint Caches — Work Shops — Stone Pipes and Imple- 
ments. Topography: Forests — Game. 


Early Indian Tribes — Early French Explorations — Colonial Ex- 
pansion — French and Indian War — Anglo-Saxon Ascendency — 
Clark's Expedition — Retreat of the Tribes — Raids and Retalia- 
tions — Ordinance of 1787 — Settlements North of the Ohio. 


St. Clair Appointed Governor — Government Instituted — Har- 
mar's, Scott's and Wilkinson's Expeditions — Confederation of the 
Tribes — St. Clair's Expedition and Defeat. 


Overtures of Peace — Council of the Tribes — Wayne Succeeds St. 
Clair — Army Reorganized — Wayne Advances and Builds Fort 
Greenville — Fort Recovery Attacked — Army Advances to the 
Maumee — Battle of "Fallen Timbers." 


British Encourage Indians — Peace Overtures — Tribes Assemble 
at Greenville — Preliminary Negotiations — Smoking the Pipe of 
Peace — The treaty of Greene Ville. 


Settlement at Prophetstown — Teaching and Conniving — Visit of 
the Shakers — Hanging of Blue Jacket — Departure for Tippecanoe. 

MENTS 139 

The Herdman Family — The French Trader — Azor Scribner — 
Samuel C. Boyd — Abraham Studabaker — John Devor and Others 
—War of 1812— Murder of Andrew Rush, The Wilson Children, 
Elliott and Stoner — Harrison's Treaty — Early Land Purchases — 
Renewal of Emigration — Local Settlements. 


Early Trails and Roads — Early Neighborhood Settlements — 
Early Business Enterprises — Early Taverns — Early Mills — Early 


Tesuit Missionaries— Army Chaplains— Rev. Morgan J. Rhys— 
The Denominations: Christian. Methodist. Presbyterian. Epis- 
copal. Baptist. Catholic, United Brethren. Lutheran, German 
Baptists, Church of the Brethren. Evangelical, Universalist, Re- 
formed, Church of Christ— Other Denominations— County Sun- 
day School Association. 


Social Life: Winter Sports. Singing School. Dancing, Circus 
Lore, Rowdyism, Children's Pastimes, Sunday Observance, 
Games, Drinking, The Old Band, Early Fairs— Domestic Life: 
Early Mothers, Clothing and Fashions, Household Equiptnents, 
Early Notables, Early Superstitions, Obsolete Trades, Etc. 
Events of 1856— Ancient Landmarks: "Kentucky Point," "Arm- 
strong's Commons," "Spayde's Woods," "Goosepasture and Bun- 
ker Hill," "Wayne Avenue and Wayne's Treaty," "Old Court 
House," "Indian Trail," "Beech Grove" and "Matchett's Corner." 

WAR 293 

Local Patriotism — Preparation for the Conflict — Early Enlist- 
ments — Departure for the Front — Ohio Regiments Represented: 
11th Regiment. 34th Regiment. 40th Regiment, 44th Regiment, 
8th Ohio Cavalry, 69th Regiment, 94th Regiment. 110th Regiment, 
152d Regiment, 187th Regiment, and Others. 


Harrison's Treaty 1814 — Washington's Centenary Celebration, 
1832 — Departure of the Tribes, 1832 — Hard Cider Campaign of 
1840 — Burial of Patsey and Anna Wilson, 1871 — Dedication of 
Court House. 1874 — Wayne Treaty Centennial. 1895 — LTnveiling 
of the Wayne Treaty Memorial. 1906 — Dedication of the Fort 
Jefferson Memorial. 1907. 


Major George Adams — Azor Scribner — Abraham Studabaker — 
Edward B. Taylor — Dr. I. N. Gard — D. K. Swisher — Enoch B. 
Seitz — Barney Collins — "Annie Oakley," and Others. 


Early Political Conditions — "Ante Bellum" Days — After the 
War — State Senators — Legislators — County Officials : Commis- 
sioners. Treasurer, Recorder, Auditor, Surveyor. 


Infirmary — Children's Home — Carnegie Library — Public Museum 
— Henry St. Clair Memorial Hall. 


Early Means of Transportation — Railways in Darke County: 
The Dayton and Union, The Pennsylvania, The C, C, C. & St. L.. 
The Peoria and Eastern, The Cincinnati Northern, The C. H. 
& D.. The Ohio Electric. 


Influence of the Press — Early Illiteracy — First Newspapers— 
The Journal — The Democrat — The Courier — The Tribune; Daily, 
V/eekly — The Advocate; Daily, Weekly — German Newspaper — 
Temperance I'apers— The Versailles Policy— The Versailles 
Leader — The Arcanum Enterprise — The Arcanum Times — The 
Ansonia Herald— The Bradford Sentinel — The New Madison 
Herald — The Hollansburg News — Others. 


Banks — Development of the Banking System — Early Scarcity of 
Money — Early Money Lenders — The Farmer's National Bank — 
The Greenville National Bank — The Second National Bank — The 
Citizens Bank — Banks at \'ersailles. New Madison, Ansonia. 
Arcanum, Gettysburg, Pittsburg and Rossburg — Building and 
Loan Associations: Greenville Building Company. Citizen's 
Loan and Saving Association, Arcanum, Versailles and New 
Madison Loan Associations. 

CIETY 415 

Agricultural Prominence of Darke County — Demand for a Fair — 
The First Fair, 1853— Growth of the Fair— Notable Fairs— Pur- 
chase and Englargement of Grounds — Present Equipment — Com- 
prehensive Policy — Present Tendencies — Present Board. 


Jobes Post, G. A. R.— Complete Roster of Jobes Post— W .R. C. 
— S. of V. — W. C. T. U. — Pioneer Association — Historical So- 
ciety — Medical Association. 

CHAPTER XXII— BENCH AND BAR. by George A. Katzenber- 

ger, Attornej'-at-Law 449 

First Courts — Place and Manner of Convening — Early Jurispru- 
dence — First Recorded Trial — First Justices of the Peace — First 
Jails and Court Houses — First Associate Judges — Constitution 
of 1851 — Development of the Circuit, Common Pleas and Pro- 
bate Court System — Biographical Sketches of Common Pleas 
Judges, Probate Judges and Prosecuting Attorneys — List of 
Sheriffs and Clerks of the Court from the Organization of the 
County — Biographical Sketches of Early Attorneys — The Pres- 
ent Bar. 


Lieutenant George A. Katzenberger ^ 503 

General Remarks — Military System of Ohio — Early Military 
Officers and Organizations — Maj. George Adams — Brig.-Gen. 
William Emerson — Maj. -Gen. Hiram Bell — Gen. J. H. Hostetter 
— Capt. Jonathan Crainor — The Greenville Guards — The Green- 
ville Jaegers — Captain Beers — Company C, 3d Regiment — De- 
tailed History of Company M, 3d Regiment. 
of Military System. 


Advantageous Location — Directory of 1857 — Development of the 
Town in 1857 — Development by Decades — Notable Buildings — 
Public Utilities : Water Works. Electric Light, Home Tele- 
phone, Fire Department, Post Office, Cemetery. Public Schools, 
Lodges, Societies and Clubs — City Officials. 


Arrangement of the Townships — Treatment by Tiers in the 
Following Order: Mississinawa. Jackson, Washington, German. 
Harrison. Allen, Brown, Greenville, Neave, Butler. Wabash, 
York, Richland, VanBuren, Twin. Patterson, Wayne, Adams, 
Franklin, Monroe, 


Darke county owes its name to Lieut. Col. William Darke, who was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1736. At the age of five years he removed 
to the neighborhood of Shepherdstown, Virginia. He served with 
the Virginia provincial troops at Braddock's defeat. During the 
Revolution he served with distinction, being taken prisoner at Ger- 
mantown and commanding as colonel two Virginia regiments at the 
siege of York, He was a member of the Virginia legislature for 
several successive terms. At St. Clair's defeat in 1791, he led the 
final charge that cleared the way for a successful retreat of the 
remnant of the army. He died November 20, 1801, and his remains 
are buried in the old Presbyterian burying ground near Shenandoah 
Junction, Berkeley county. West Virginia. The remains of his only 
son. Captain Joseph Darke, who died from wounds received at St. 
Clair's defeat, lie buried near by. Colonel Darke was a farmer by 
occupation, and is described as having a large, strong, well-knit 
frame, rough manners, and being frank and fearless in disposition. 




Early Records. 

The earliest records of Darke county, Ohio, are not writ- 
ten upon parchment or perishable writing material, but in the 
face of the underlying Niagara limestone. The encased fossil 
crinoids and the sedimentary character of this rock plainly 
indicate that it once formed the bed of an ancient ocean. The 
extent of this formation and the slight westerly inclination of 
the rock toward the basin of the Mississippi river suggest that 
this ocean was an extension of the Gulf of Mexico, spreading 
from the Appalachian to the Rocky Mountains, and from the 
gulf to the rocky heights of Canada. This is the verdict of 
scientists, who have made careful and exhaustive researches 
in this field, and we humbly accept their verdict. It is useless 
to speculate on the eons of time that have elapsed since this 
rock finally emerged from tiie ancient sea to form the landed 
area of the Ohio valley, and we can do no better than to ac- 
cept the simple but pregnant statement of the inspired writer 
— "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." 

Niagara Limestone. 

The rock strata which generally appear nearest the surface 
here, as well as in northern and western Ohio, and the states 
immediately adjoining on the north and west, are a part of 
one of the great limestone formations of our continent. This 
rock underlies most of the upper Mississippi valley — the most 
fertile continuous section of the United States. In this lo- 
cality the rock is covered with glacial till, debris and loam to 


an average depth of probably one hundred feet. Although 
hing for the most part in an approximately horizontal posi- 
tion some faults have been discovered where the rock appears 
to be entirely missing. Such faults have been detected south- 
east of the intersection of the Pennsylvania and Dayton and 
Union railways within the corporate limits of Greenville, at 
the county infirmary and at the Pennsylvania water tank some 
two miles south of Greenville in the Mud Creek valley. They 
may be simply pre-glacial gorges. 

Local Exposures. 

Limestone exposures occur to a limited extent in at least 
five places within the county, as follows : On the Stillwater at 
Webster, in the southwest quarter of section thirty-two (32), 
Wayne township, where the rock is hard but unfit for quarry- 
ing on account of its irregular and massive condition ; near 
Baer's (Cromer's) mill on Greenville creek, about four and 
one-half miles east of Greenville, in the southwest quarter of 
section twenty-seven (27), Adams township, where the rock 
forms the bed of the creek for some distance. Quarries were 
once operated by Bierley, Rosser and Hershey in the bottom 
of the valley where the rocks are covered with about two feet 
of red clay or loam, intermingled with decomposed lime rock, 
and strewn with heaps of granite drift boulders. The upper 
section is of a buff color and is soft and fragile, while below 
many fossil crinoids appear and the rock is darker and harder. 

Two exposures of rock occur in the Mud creek valley: one 
on the southwest side of the prairie, about a mile from Green- 
ville, in the southeast quarter of section thirty-three (33), 
Greenville township ; the other near Weaver's Station in the 
southeast quarter of section twenty-nine (29), Neave town- 
ship. At the former place, known as Card's quarries, the 
rocks are found folded with an inclination to the south and 
east. Here the rocks are similar to those at Baer's mill and 
contain many fossils. Near Weaver's Station the creek f^ows 
over a horizontal bed of limestone for about a hundred and 
fifty yards. This stone is not hard enough for building pur- 
poses and seems to contain no fossils. A section of rock is ex- 
posed in the southwest quarter of section twenty-four (24), 
Harrison township, about a mile south of New Madison, near 
the headwaters of the east fork of the Whitewater river, 
where a limekiln was formerly operated by one C. B. North- 


rup. Careful calculations indicate that the rocks at Card's 
kiln and near Baer's mill have an elevation from se\enty-five 
to ninety feet abo\'e the corresponding strata underlying the 
city of Greenville, which appears to be built on an immense 
glacial drift, deposited in a preglacial valley. In the pioneer 
days, limerock was quarried at Baer's, Card's and Weaver's 
Station, burned in kilns and used extensively for plastering, 
bricklaying, whitewashing, etc. The quality of lime produced 
was of a very high grade, but on account of the limited areas 
of outcrop and the obstacles encountered in getting the rock 
out, these quarries have been abandoned for several years. 
Building rock is now secured at the more extensive and easily 
quarried outcrops in Miami, Montgomery and Preble 

The geological formation of this section was -well shown 
while prospecting for natural gas in this vicinity in 1886-1887. 
The first well bored on the site of the old fair-ground (Oak- 
view) made the following exhibit : 

"Rock was reached at a depth of 89 feet, thus showing the 
thickness of the drift formation. The Niagara limestone ex- 
tended from this point to a depth of 260 feet when the Niagara 
shale was reached. At a depth of 140 feet this limestone was 
mixed with flint, and at a depth of 153 feet, dark shale, or 
drab limestone, predominated; but at a depth of 175 feet this 
limestone was quite white and pure and much resembled 
marble. The Niagara shale is of light gray color and might 
be mistaken for the Niagara clay, and as it came from the well 
was quite pliable, being easily made into balls, the material 
becoming hard when dry and containing a great deal of grit. 

"From this point to 1134 feet, the drill passed through con- 
tinuous shale of the Huron formation, but sometimes so dark 
that it might be classified with the Utica shale. This forma- 
tion was not uniform in texture, but sometimes was quite 
compact and hard; at other times .soft and porous, enabling 
the drill to make rapid progress. 

"At 1134 feet the formation changed to a lighter color, 
more compact, and contained much limestone. The first 
Trenton rock was reached at a depth of 1136 feet. The rock 
was darker than ordinary, quite compact, and with no flow 
of gas, though a little was found while passing through the 
shale. At 1148 feet the hardness seemed to increase, and at 
1195 feet the limestone became whiter, but as hard and com- 
pact as before. At 1210 feet it much resembled in appearance 


the formation at 140 feet, though finer in texture and entirely 
destitute of the flinty formation. At 1570 feet it seemed, if 
possible, to be harder than before, with a bluish cast of color; 
while at a depth of 1610 feet coarse, dark shale in loose layers 
again prevailed, accompanied by a very small portion of the 
limestone. At 1700 feet the limestone changed to its original 
white color and compact form, accompanied with sulphur ; 
and at a depth of 1737 feet bitter water and brine were found, 
the water being blue in color and unpleasant in taste and odor ; 
but after being exposed to the air for some time it became 
clear, the unpleasant smell disappeared and the saline or salty- 
taste alone remained. 

"We notice that the Trenton was reached at 1136 feet. 
The surface at this point is about 1055 feet above sea level, so 
that the Trenton rock was here reached at a depth of 81 feet 
below salt water. This places it much higher than at other 
points in this part of the state where wells have been sunk 
and gas obtained ; and this fact, with the compactness of the 
rock, will show that gas can not be obtained here. We know 
of no other point outside the county where wells have been 
sunk that the formations are the same as here." 

Later Formations. 

After the formation of the Xiagara limestone, for some 
reason, probably the cooling and contracting of the earth's 
crust, the bed of the ocean in which it had been deposited was 
partially elevated and added to the continental area. This 
occurred in the upper Mississippi valley and the region of 
northern and western Ohio as above noted. In the fluctuat- 
ing shallows of the sedgy sargasso sea, which fringed this 
newly elevated limestone plateau on the east and south, a 
rank vegetation flourished on the carbon freighted vapors of 
the succeeding era. During uncounted millenniums forest suc- 
ceeded forest, adding its rich deposit of carboniferous ma- 
terial to be covered and compacted by the waters and sedi- 
mentary deposits of many recurring oceans into the strata of 
coal now found in southeastern Ohio and vicinity. Finally 
the moist air was purged of its superabundant carbon dioxide 
and mephitic vapors and a new age dawned, during which 
bulky and teeming monsters lunged through theluxuriant 
brakes and teeming jungles of a constantly enlarging land. 
The vast ocean gradually retreated, foothills were added to 


the primeval mountain ranges, plateaus swelled into shape 
and a new continent was formed. Thus is explained the pres- 
ence of the beds of coal and the immense stratified deposits of 
sandstone, limestone, slate and shale overlying the Niagara 
limestone in eastern Ohio, and thus geologists arrive at the 
conclusion that a period estimated at hundreds of centuries 
intervened between the appearance of "dry land" in western 
Ohio and eastern Ohio. 

Glacial Invasion. 

While eastern Ohio was in process of formation the vast 
Niagara limestone plateau to the west was being deeply 
eroded by the active chemical agents and the frequent terri- 
fic storms of that far-oft", changing age. The smoothing touch 
of a might}' force was needed to fill the yawning chasms and 
deep ravines and prepare the surface of this ancient continent 
to be the fit abode of imperial man and his subject creatures. 
Such a force was soon to become operative. Evidence has 
been adduced by prominent geologists and special students 
of glacial action to show that part of the deep soil of north- 
ern and western Ohio and the contiguous territory has actu- 
ally been transported from the region north of the Great 
Lakes by the action of glacial ice, and deposited in its present 
location upon the melting and retreat of the immense frozen 
mass. Ice, snow and glacial debris probabl}- covered this 
part of Ohio to a depth of several hundred feet during this 
frigid era. Startling as this statement may at first seem it 
has been arrived at after a careful scientific observation and 
study of the active glaciers of Greenland, Alaska, Norway and 

The Laurentide Glacier. 

The center of accumulation and dispersion of this glacial 
ice was probably the Laurentian plateau or ledge of primi- 
tive igneous and granitic rock lying north of the Great Lake- 
and St. Lawrence river. During the Tertiar}' period, just 
preceding the formation of this great glacier, a temperature 
similar to that of southern Virginia prevailed in the polar 
regions. In course of time the northern part of the North 
American Continent probably became somewhat elevated 
while the central part became correspondingly depressed. 
The snows of years and centuries accumulated on this ele- 
vated region, consolidated into glacial ice, pushed slowh- 


southward along the lin^of least resistance, filled up the de- 
pressions occupied by the Great Lakes, and then moved on 
over the divide until arrested and counteracted by the in- 
creasing heat of lower latitudes. As in the case of modern 
glaciers, this vast sheet advanced and retreated in obedience 
to meterologic agencies, carrying on its surface or within its 
mass broken fragments and debris from its native granite 
ledges, scraping and pushing forward immense quantities of 
the eroded surface of the limestone rock over which it moved, 
grinding, mixing, kneading, rubbing, polishing, sorting and 
finally depositing this material where it is now found. 

Terminal Moraine. 

The southern boundary of this great ice sheet has been 
carefully traced from the New England states, across New 
York, Pennsylvania, the northern Ohio Valley states, and 
the states north of the Missouri river. Roughly speaking, 
this glacial boundary line, in its central and western por- 
tion, parallels the Ohio and ■Missouri ribers. It enters east- 
ern Ohio in Columbia county, continues in a westerly 
direction to Canton in Stark county, and thence a few 
miles beyond Millersburg in Holmes county ; here it 
turns abruptly southward through Knox, Licking and Fair- 
field counties and into Ross county ; thence it bears south- 
westward through Chillicothe to southeastern Highland 
county and northwestern Adams county, reaching the Ohio 
river near Ripley in Clermont county. Following the north 
bank of the river to Cincinnati, it here crosses over into 
Boone county, Kentucky, makes a short circular loop and re- 
crosses the Ohio river into southeastern Indiana, near Ris- 
ing Sun. It now follows approximately the north bank of 
the Ohio to the neighborhood of Louisville, Ky., where it 
turns northward to Martinsville, in Morgan county, in the 
south-central part of the state. Here it turns west and south 
and crosses the Wabash river near New Harmony. It con- 
tinues this course to near the center of the extreme southern 
part of Illinois, then bends in a northwesterly direction and 
crosses the iMississippi just south of St. Louis, JMo. The 
most productive soil lies north of this line and within the gla- 
ciated area. 


Local Glacial Phenomena. 

(1) Surface Boulders. 

Striking evidence oi glacial action is found in Darke coun- 
ty in the rounded and sub-angular granitic boulders that were 
encountered in large numbers, scattered over the surface in 
certain well defined sections of the county, and still encoun- 
tered within a few feet of the surface when making shallow 

A very noticeable streak of these boulders, three or four 
hundred yards in width, formerly extended from the northern 
part of Van Buren township in a southwesterly direction, 
crossed the D. & U. railway a few miles south of Jaysville, 
then turned to the southeast through Twin township near 
Ithaca, and followed along Millers Fork of Twin creek into 
Preble county Boulders from eight to twelve feet in diam- 
eter were encountered in the northern part of this ridge. 
Most of these have been blasted and the smaller ones picked 
up and used in constructing foundation walls for houses and 
barns or to fill ravines and depressions, so that only slight 
traces now remain of this distinct moraine. The underly- 
ing tract of land is now under active cultivation and pro- 
duces fair crops. 

These boulders, as well as those found in other localities, 
are largely colored granites, greenstones, quartzites and con- 
glomerates, are quite distinct in color, texture, etc.. from the 
Niagara limestone and are not found in ledges above the sur- 
face within a radius of several hundred miles. 

In the museum of Oberlin College the writer once saw 
fragments of various colored rocks from the ancient Lauren- 
tian and Huronian ledges, beyond Lake Nipissing and Geor- 
gian Bay. matched with corresponding fragments of various 
surface boulders found in Lorain county, Ohio. These frag- 
ments consisted of granites, gneisses, metamorphic and trap 
rocks, similar to those found in Darke county, and bore in- 
disputable evidence of glacial transportation. 

(2) Glacial Till. 

Another source of striking evidence is the immense de- 
posits of unstratified clay and sand, intermingled with 
scratched stones and worn rock fragments. In the days when 
wells were dug in Greenville careful observations were made 


of the various deposits encountered before reaching bed rock 
and the following very interesting table was prepared to in- 
dicate an average section from many wells : 

Inches to feet 

Sod or loam 6 H 

Red clay 4 

Yellow clay 12 15 

Yellow sand or gravel 6 20 

Blue sand or gravel 8 30 

Blue clay with pebbles 3 18 

Fine compact blue clay H 

Hard pan alternating with blue 

clay -- 10 20 

Blue clay 3 9 

Boulder clay 10 20 

A well at the corner of Fourth and Broadway, Greenville, 
O., passed through ninety-five feet, and one near the P. C. 
C. & St. L. passenger station through about one hundred 
and thirt}' feet of this glacial till. Such deposits are best 
accounted for as the result of glaciation. 

(3) Karnes. 

Glacial phenomena of a distinct and unusual character ap- 
pear along the prairie stretching from the mouth of Mud 
Creek at Greenville for about ten miles in a southwesterly 
direction toward New Madison. Near Greenville one first 
notices isolated conical knolls containing stratified deposits 
of sand and gravel appearing above the surface of the sur- 
rounding prairie. One of these, known as Bunker Hill, for- 
merl}' appeared about a mile southwest of Greenville near 
the tracks of the C. N. R. R. It was once about forty feet 
high but has since been almost entirel}' removed. A section 
of this hill showed the following phenomena : red clay three 
(3) feet; fine yellow sand, four (4) feet; unassorted gravel, 
twenty-four (24) to thirt,y (30) feet. About four miles fur- 
ther south along the east side of the prairie, in the vicinity of 
Fort Jefferson, a series of elongated knolls, with axes running 
generally northwest and southeast, are encountered. They 
were formerly covered with a beautiful growth of large tim- 
ber, mostly oak, and were known as the Hills of Judea. 
Gravel pits were opened in these hills about thirty years 
ago by the C. N. R. R. and vast quantities of material re- 


moved to ballast the tracks and improve the pikes of the 
counties in northwestern Ohio. The Greenville Gravel Com- 
pany commenced operations here in 1905 and have removed 
probably more than fifty thousand carloads of sand, gravel 
and boulders in that time. It is estimated that some twenty 
million cubic yards of gravel, etc., are still available from 
these hills. An analysis of some of these deposits shows 
about sixty per cent of granitic material, thirty per cent, of 
lime, and eight per cent, of trap. The sand and gravel ex- 
posed in these vast pits appear in well defined but irregular 
shaped strata, which bear evidence of the action of running 
water. Quite a number of granitic boulders, mostly from 
six to eight inches in diameter, and similar in color and va- 
riety to those found on the surface, are scattered in these 
deposits. Such elongated gravel hills are a rare phenomenon 
in Ohio, and are known as kames. Careful observation indi- 
cates that they were formed upon the melting of the ancient 
glaciers and mark lines of drainage, which commenced under 
the vast ice mass and continued until an opening had been 
made through the upper surface. In this manner the ma- 
terial enclosed within the ice mass would be sorted and de- 
posited as it is now found. The trend of the knolls indi- 
cates the probable direction in which the subglacial stream 
discharged, viz : to the southeast. 

A fine specimen of black diorite boulder about four feet 
in height and weighing some seventy-six hundred pounds was 
found in the bed of a rivulet on the Meeker farm, just north 
of Greenville creek, and has been used by the Greenville His- 
torical Society in marking the site of the Wa3nne's Treaty in 

Moranic Belts. 

(1) Miami Moraine. 

The geological survey made by the U. S. government in- 
dicates three distinctively defined moraines crossing Darke 
county. The southernmost moraine crosses the southwest- 
ern section of the count}' and is a part of the Miami lobe of 
the main moranic system of the late Wisconsin stage of 
glaciation. This lobe, which is practically continuous be- 
tween Lynn and Richmond, Indiana, divides into three mem- 
bers near the state line. These three members run south- 
easterly in parallel lines to the Miami Valley, then tend to 


unite and turn northeasterly and continue between the Mad 
river and the headwaters of the great Miami. Traces of this 
moraine may be seen near Troy, Harrisburg, Pyrmont, Air 
Hill, West Sonora, Fort Jefferson and New Madison. The 
ridge of boulders formerly noted as running through Van 
Buren and Twin townships seems also to be a part of this 
system as well as the isolated gravel hills in the Mud creek 
prairie, and the remarkable ridges at Fort Jefferson, which 
formerly rose from fifty to sixty feet above the prairie. The 
surface of the country to the eastward of this belt is more level 
than to the west. Just east of Fort Jefferson this moranic 
belt turns abruptly southward and follows the valley of 
Miller's Fork of Twin creek, passing near Ithaca. West 
Sonora and Euphemia. At Arcanum, near the inner border 
of this moraine, the glacial drift is about fifty feet deep and in 
the valley near New Madison, on the outward border, the 
debris is as much as seventy-five feet in depth. 

(2) Union Moraine. 

A distinct moraine crosses the central part of Darke 
county and is described as a part of the Maumee-Miami lobe 
of the late Wisconsin stage of glaciation. It is a minor 
moraine and has been traced from near Muncie, Indiana, to 
the headwaters of the Great Miami river, near Lewistown, 
Ohio. It enters Darke county at Union City, follows the 
north side of Greenville creek in a southeasterly direction to 
Greenville and thence runs eastward to Bradford. Its high- 
est points are near Union City, where it reaches an altitude 
of 1,125 to 1,150 feet above tide. Its lowest point is between 
Greenville and the Miami river, where it descends to about 
1,000 feet. This deposit is known as the Union Moraine, and 
it appears in Darke county as a bow shaped ridge with a 
gently undulating surface. The presence of this ridge ac- 
counts for the fact that there are no important branches en- 
tering Greenville creek from the north and suggests that 
this stream has been forced to seek a channel to the south 
of its original bed by these immense glacial deposits. The 
thickness of drift along this moraine is seldom more than 
fifty feet and some rock exposures occur along its outer bor- 
der in the neighborhood of Baer's Mill. However, a depth of 
165 feet to rock is reported near the Union City pike just 
west of the township line in Washington township, and 117 



feet on the Ben Chenoweth farm one mile west of this point. 
At the Children's Home, on the north side of this moraine, 
the drift is about 110 feet deep. Along the south side of 
Greenville creek for a distance of about three miles east of 
Greenville, are knolls which contain much assorted material 
and some till. These probably belong with the drift of the 
main moranic system. From these hills eastward to the 
county line small and well rounded boulders were formerly 
found in large number, while many large angular boulders 
are scattered over the plains to the south through Poplar 
Ridge, as before mentioned. 

"Greenville creek has a narrow gorge up to Greenville Falls, 
about one-half mile above its mouth. Its bed above the falls 
is mainly in the drift and its valley is less restricted and 
varies considerably in width. A gravel plain extends up the 
creek two miles or more and remnants of glacial gravel are 
found almost the entire length of the creek, but they are less 
conspicuous than the gravel plain near its mouth. The phe- 
nomena seem to indicate that the creek adapted its course 
along the outer border of the moraine because of a valley 
opened b}' glacial waters." 

(3) Alississinawa Aloraine. 

A third moranic belt enters Darke county at the northwest 
angle, trends south of east to the vicinity of Versailles, and 
then turns northeasterly into Shelby county. In Indiana 
this moraine follows the north bank of the Mississinawa river 
for the greater part of its length and, therefore, is called the 
Mississinawa moraine. It also belongs to the Maumee- 
JNIiami lobe, before mentioned. This ridge is about six miles 
wide where it enters the northwest corner of the county. At 
the headwaters of Stillwater creek, near Lightsville, a broad 
swampy plain skirts the southern border of this moraine. 
The Stillwater follows the southern border of this ridge for 
several miles to the neighborhood of Beamsville. Low grav- 
elly knolls mark its outer border. Just north of Versailles a 
gravelly plain extends southward along Swamp creek from 
this point and passes through Versailles. This plain is about 
half a mile wide and stands about twenty-five feet above 
the level of the creek. Borings at Versailles show this gravel 
bed to be about thirty-four feet through and the distance 
to rock, through gravel and till, from 120 to 1-K) feet. At 


Yorkshire the drift is less than one hundred feet in depth. 
The tract of land lying between this moraine and the Union 
moraine consists mainly of a smooth surfaced till plain on 
which the drift has nearly as great a thickness as on the 
latter moraine, in which it merges on the south. The isolated 
gravel cairns, before mentioned, are sometimes accounted for 
on the theory that at the period of greatest depression during 
the ice age the water shed itself was submerged and great 
icebergs from the north became stranded on the southern 
slope. Here they melted and deposited their loads of debris 
in the interlocking wedge shaped layers of sand, gravel and 
yellow clay. 

Preglacial erosion of the ancient limestone left a very un- 
even surface with gorges here and there of very great depth. 
A noticeable efTect of glacial action was the leveling up of 
the area which it covered. The vast deposits of clay, sand 
and gravel just noted filled up the old valleys and in many 
cases formed new drainage basins, some of which were quite 
distinct from the ancient systems. The erosion of new chan- 
nels through these deposits has taken a long time, roughh- 
estimated at six or seven thousand years, on the basis of the 
size and velocity of the eroding streams and the amount of 
material removed. The finding of roughly chipped argillitic 
implements beneath gravel river terraces near Trenton, N. 
J., and near Cincinnati, Ohio, have led some to the conclu- 
sion that man lived before and during the glacial period. One 
might readily conceive that a type of man similar to the 
modern Eskimo could have lived in some degree of comfort 
during that far ofif age. Perhaps he had as his companion 
those massive animals of the elephant type known respec- 
tively as the mammoth and mastodon. 

Extinct Animals. 

Remains of these huge animals have been found in Darke 
county from time to time, mostly in the muck or peat de- 
posits near the headwaters of small streams. A tooth of a 
mammoth and parts of several mastodons are exhibited in the 
museum in the basement of the Carnegie library at Green- 
ville. One huge mastodon jaw measuring 33 inches in great- 
est length was found near the headwaters of Mud creek in 
Harrison township. Mr. Calvin Young describes the ex- 
cavation of the remains of a mastodon in a peat bog on the 



farm then belonging to Absalom Shade along Crout creek 
on the site of a former lakelet in the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion thirty-four, Washington township, in 1883. Some of 
the bones were spread out on the original gravel bed of the 
pre-historic lake and covered with about four and a half feet 
of peat and blue mud. The lower jaw contained the full set 
of teeth, which, when first exposed to view, were glistening 
white, but soon became dark. Almost a complete skeleton of 
mastodon was found in Neave township on the Delaplaine 
farm near the head of Bridge creek. The remains were well 
preserved and are now on exhibition in the public museum. 
The femur of this animal measures forty inches in length and 
has a circumference of thirty-two inches at the knee and 
seventeen inches between the knee and hip ball. The hu- 
merus is thirty-two inches long and thirty-four inches around 
the largest joint. Some of the bones of another well-pre- 
served specimen were found on the farm of Hezekiah Woods, 
on the northwest corner of section nine, Brown township, near 
the upper Stillwater. 

The mammoth is descrilDed as having been a third taller 
and nearly twice as heavy as the modern elephant. He was 
covered with long shaggy hair and had a thick mane extend- 
ing along his neck and back. His coat of hair comprised coarse 
black bristles about eighteen inches long and shorter under 
coats of finer hair and woo! of a fawn and reddish color which 
fitted him for residence in cold climates. No doubt he ranged 
northern Europe and Asia as well as America in large herds 
for his frozen carcass has been found in Siberia near the 
Artie ocean and large quantities of his curved ivory tusks 
have been gathered and sold by the natives of Alaska. His 
molar teeth sometimes had an extreme grinding surface of 
four by twelve or thirteen inches with corrugations enabling 
him to masticate the branches and foliage of northern ever- 
green trees, birches, willows, etc. 

The mastodon was even larger than the mammoth, at- 
taining a height of twelve to thirteen feet, and an extreme 
length, including his huge tusks, of twenty-four to twenty- 
five feet. His tusks curved downward and forward while 
those of the mammoth curved upward in a circle. His hair 
was of a dun brown color and probably half as long as that 
of the mammoth. His teeth were rectangular in form, with a 
grinding surface of large conical orojections, which enabled 


him to feed on the twigs of trees and coarse vegetable 

In hunting such food he was often tempted into marshy 
places where he became mired, and was unable to extricate 
his ponderous body, as evidenced by the attitude in which 
remains are sometimes found. The mastodon seems to have 
become extinct near the close of the glacial period, while the 
mammoth lingered into post glacial times. The remains of 
-a giant beaver were found in the Dismal Swamp at the head 
of Dismal creek, the most western branch of Greenville 
creek, about seven miles southeast of Winchester, Randolph 
county, Indiana, and only a few miles from the Darke coun- 
ty line. This animal was about seven feet in length and the 
remains are now on exhibition in the museum of Earlham 
College, Richmond, Indiana. This animal has been long ex- 
tinct and its remains are rare. The proximity of this locality 
suggest that the giant beaver frequented the streams of 
Darke and adjoining counties at an early date. 

Peat Bogs. 

Peat bogs are found in various localities in Darke county. 
The Mud creek prairie was, no doubt, at one time submerged 
from the source of the creek near New Madison to its junc- 
tion with Greenville creek at Greenville, forming a shallow 
lake. Peat beds of considerable size were formed in this 
marsh, notably near the C. N. station at Fort Jefiferson and 
near the crossing of the C. N. and P. C. C. & St. L. R. R., 
some two miles southwest of Greenville. These deposits run 
about two or three feet in depth and in dry seasons have been 
known to catch afire and burn several days. Shortly after 
the C. C. C. & St. L. R. R. was built and operated a con- 
siderable section of track disappeared in Brown township 
some distance west of the crossing of the Fort Recovery pike. 
A small branch of the Stillwater drains this district and a 
peat bog had formed in the marsh over which the railway 
made a fill of loam and gravel. The weight of this material 
broke through the crust of peat and revealed a lakelet, which 
had been filled with logs, aquatic plants, etc., and finally cov- 
ered with a deposit of peat formed from the rank vegetable 
growths of long years. Similar deposits are found along 
Bridge creek, southeast of Greenville, and small areas are 
found near the headwaters of small streams in various parts 


of the count}-. Some of these peat bogs have probably been 
formed in wliat are known by glacial students as "kettle- 
holes" resulting from the gradual melting of great masses of 
ice which had been kept almost intact for a long time by the 
thick covering of glacial debris. Other bogs may have been 
formed in shallow lakelets which had been caused by the ob- 
struction of shallow drainage lines by glacial deposits. 



It is always interesting to tlie local archeologist and his- 
torian to know when man made his first appearance in his 
locality. Thus far we have no evidence that he appeared in 
Darke county before the ice age. The earliest indications of 
his appearance are the few small mounds, the vast quanti- 
ties of finished and unfinished stone implements, and the 
spawls scattered profusely over the surface of the county. 
Scientists now incline to the view that the ancient American, 
commonly called the Mound Builder, was the ancestor of the 
copper colored Indian, who greeted the first European explor- 
ers of our continent, and whose descendants are still with us. 
The coarse black hair, the high cheek bones, the swarthy 
complexion, the general facial expression, the cunning handi- 
craft and the nomadic habits of the Indian combine to indicate 
a close relationship with the Mongoloid tribes of northern 
Asia, and lend color to the conviction that America was peo- 
pled across Behring Strait at a remote date. The Mound 
Builder made his home in the Mississippi valley and con- 
structed some of his most remarkable works within the limits 
of the present state of Ohio, especially in the southern part. 
The most noted of these are the Serpent Mounds in Adams 
and Warren counties ; Fort Ancient on the Little Miami river 
in Warren county ; large conical mound near Miamisburg and 
geometrical earth works at Chillicothe, Marietta and New- 
ark. It will be noted that, with the exception of the Ser- 
pent ^founds, which seems to have been secluded sites of 
ancient worship, these works are located along the principal 
northern tributary streams of \he Ohio. In the valley of the 
Great Miami we find a great profusion of geometrical works 
in Butler county, and isolated mounds and burial sites near 
Franklin, Miamisburg. Dayton and Piqua. As we ascend to 
the headwaters of the tributary streams the works diminish 
in number and size and are confined largely to isolated altar 
mounds, camp sites and burial places. This was probably 
due largely to the swampv and inaccessible condition of the 


country near such small streams, and we are, therefore, not 
surprised that few mounds or earth works of consequence 
appear in Darke county. The ruthless plow of the settler and 
pioneer have practically obliterated even these few and for 
the limited knowledge that we have of them we are largely 
indebted to such men as Mr. Robert M. Dalrymple (de- 
ceased) of Baker's store, and to Air. Calvin Young, of Wash- 
ington township. Several years ago Air. Young opened a 
mound on his farm, about a mile west of Nashville, and found 
a few spears, arrows and slate implements but no pipes. Just 
east of Nashville, in the isolated gravel cairns on the Cable 
and Crick farms, several skeletons and implements have been 
found, also a Queen conch shell which had been buried a 
depth of some sixteen feet. On the Martin farm, just west 
of Greenville, two conical elevations, about twelve feet high, 
resembling mounds, formerly appeared, but have been oblit- 
erated by the plow and gravel excavations. Near New Madi- 
son an altar mound, originalh^ about twenty feet high, was 
found. This was opened at the center in earh^ days and re- 
vealed a hard, baked clay altar, on the surface of which were 
found bone needles, ivory beads, slate relics, etc., with traces 
of iron rust. This mound has also been leveled by the plow 
which still turns over ashes when passing over this place. It 
is situated near an ancient burial ground and on the extrem- 
ity of a ridge overlooking a prairie. In this connection we 
herewith quote from the pen of R. M. Dalrymple, who wrote 
several interesting articles on local archeologj' for the 
Greenville Journal several years ago. 

"The ancient Americans believed in a future state of exist- 
ence, also that the character of the life beyond the grave 
was very much like the life they had led here, so when the}' 
buried their dead the implements, ornaments, etc., possessed 
by the deceased in life were buried with them, and the cere- 
monies preceding burial were, doubtless, more or less elab- 
orate, according to the rank of the dead. 

"The Mound Builders, as a general rule, buried their dead 
in the gravel banks throughout the country, in graves which 
were generally three feet deep, but in some cases much 
deeper. Their remains have generally been found either in a 
sitting or standing position. 

"Near North Star years ago was a hill composed of a fine 
quality of gravel. In making the pikes in that ci~iuntrv this 
hill was all hauled awaj-. A large number of human bones 


were found in the hill and were hauled out on the road, 
where they lay for several years until crushed and ground 
to atoms by traveling vehicles, no one paying any attention 
to collecting and preserving these ancient remains, ^^'e 
think that no relics were found in this cemetery. 

"At Bishop's crossing, near Greenville, in building the 
pikes, several graves, either Indian or Mound Builder, were 
discovered. With the bones were found pipes of stone, spear- 
heads and other relics. An old gentleman, who helped to do 
this work, said that the graves wete^ny^ minierous, and 
about all of them contained relics. A tTXi^oZlf 

"It is likely that some of these graves were those of In- 
dians. It was the custom in this locality when the Indians 
buried their dead, if a chief, to kill his pony and bury it with 
him besides the implements used by him while alive ; then 
to build a pen of logs around the small mound to keep out 
wild animals, which might dig up the remains if not protected 
in this manner. A chief by the name of Blue Jacket was 
buried in Greenville township in the manner described, ^^'e 
are not able to tell just the exact difference between a Mound 
Builder's and an Indian's grave, but if the bones of a ponj- 
are found with the human skeleton it w-ould be safe to call 
it an Indian's grave. 

"There is a grave! hill in the prairie on the farm of George 
Reigle, near Fort Jefferson, in which a single skeleton was 
found but no relics or other bones. Near Clark's Station is 
an ancient graveyard in a gravel ridge also. Gravel is liauled 
out on the road every year and as it is caved skeletons aie 
often unearthed which were buried in a standing position. 

"The locality in and around Nashville, German township, 
furnishes some interesting information. One or two mounds 
have been opened yielding a lot of relics, skeletons, etc. Two 
large shells, native of the Pacific coast, were taken from one 
of the mounds. The inside had beeen cut out of them leav- 
ing a large cavity capable of holding about one gallon, and 
making a very beautiful addition to the kitchen furniture 
of the ancient people of the stone age. 

"Northwest of New IVIadison, close to a mound, is another 
of the ancient cemeteries. It is situated on the southern end 
of a ridge while the mound is on the northern end. The last 
rites were, most likely, performed at the altar mound and the 
dead then carried to where thev are found. Several skeletons 


have been found in this place but they soon crumble on ex- 
posure to the air. 

"One of the most interesting burial spots was discovered 
on the farm of Jesse Woods in German township. In digging 
the cellar under the house where he lives. Mr. Woods dis- 
covered a skeleton in a sitting posture. It was covered with 
plates of mica and was the central figure in a group of other 
skeletons arranged in a circle around it. The skeletons in 
the circle were lying at full length. Mr. Woods regrets very 
much that he did not preserve the mica as they were the only 
relics found in the grave. This grave we consider the most 
interesting yet discovered in Darke county, but many more 
graves of the ancient Americans may yet be found in the 
county as it becomes more thickly settled. 

"Near the \\'est Branch church, in Xeave township, a 
skeleton was dug out in the caving walls of a gravel pit. The 
body had been buried in a sitting position. The bones were 
in a state of decay. No relics were found. 

"About half a mile northwest of Fort Jefferson was found a 
skeleton buried in a sitting position with knees drawn up. 
In the grave was a burned clay pipe with bowl and stem in 
one piece. The bowl was fluted inside. An old settler in 
the vicinity said that he had made many a pipe just like it. 
.A. stone ax was also in the grave. 

"^^'e have found that in selecting a site for burial tiie an- 
cient savage generally made use of an elevated spot of 
ground, mostly a natural ridge, in about the same location as 
for a camp or village. A large number are sometimes buried 
in one place while in other instances but a single grave is 

It should be noted that the conch shells mentioned by this 
writer were probably from the Pacific coast, and the sheets 
of mica from the rare deposits of this material in the moun- 
tains of North Carolina and Tennessee. 

Indian Camp Sites and Villages. 

Camp sites occur at many places within the county as evi- 
denced by the large number of spawls of chert and flint aad 
the broken and unfinished stone implements turned up bv 'he 
plow. They are usually located near running springs. The 
upper valleys of Mud creek. West Branch and Crout creek 
were inhabited by the early Americans who have left distinct 


traces of their early residence along these branch streams. 
Sections thirteen, fourteen, twenty-three and twenty-four in 
German township, near the head of West Branch, have been 
especially prolific in relics of the stone age. Perhaps the 
largest camp site in Darke county was situated on the Garst 
farm, in section thirteen, and on the Ross farm adjoining it 
on the south, in section twenty-four. This site covers sev- 
eral acres and is on a gravel hill which terminates in a steep 
bank on the north and west sides. It follows the course of 
the stream and made a level, elevated and ideal camping place. 
A large number of hammers, axes, spear and arrowheads have 
been found here and flint chips are plentiful. On the Metzcar 
farm, just south of the Ross place, a pile of burned bricks 
were found by the first white settlers, who came here in 1817. 
These bricks were larger than the standard size and the up- 
per layer was somewhat disintegrated and covered with con- 
siderable leaf mold, indicating that many years had elapsed 
since the}- had been placed in position. Perhaps they had 
been burned on the spot to form the foundation of a Jesuit 
missionary station, late in the seventeenth or early in the 
eighteenth century ; or they might have supported the cabin 
of an early French trader who established himself here in a 
settlement of friendly Indians. Just east of the Metzcar 
farm, on the Wagner farm, Mr. Dalrymple explored a camp 
site covering about seven acres. Near the head of Crout 
creek, in sections three, ten and fifteen of German township. 
and in sections thirty-three, thirty-four and thirty-five of 
Washington township, numerous evidences of early cccu- 
pancy have been found. Skeletons, beads and various imple- 
ments were found in a gravel cairn on the Norman Teaford 
farm. The decayed remains of numerous bark wigwams were 
encountered on the Ross farm, in the southeast corner of sec- 
tion nine, German township, by the early settlers. On the 
Bickel and Neff farms, near the mouth of Crout creek, re- 
mains of an encampment were found, besides numerous stone 
implements. In fact, there seems to have been a string of 
villages along the entire course of this creek and the pioneers 
saw Indians in this locality as late as 1831 or 1832, when the 
upper Miami valley tribes emigrated beyond the Mississippi 
river. On the Coapstick farm, just south of Nashville, a 
sugar camp had apparently been operated by the Indians as 
the trees showed marks made in tapping when examined by 
the pioneers. Many stone hammers were found near this 


place, indicating that it had been a camp site. The Young 
mound and the gravel cairns on the Cable farm, above men- 
tioned, were in this neighborhood. 

Along the east side of Mud creek prairie, between Green- 
ville and Fort Jefferson, several camp sites have been discov- 
ered. On the Benj. Kerst farm and on the Lamb farm in 
section fifteen, Neave township, adjoining some fine springs 
and overlooking the prairie, numerous unfinished implements 
and large quantities of spawls have been found, indicating 
long occupancy by the natives. 

The site of the city of Greenville itself was probably one 
of the largest and most popular camping grounds in the 
county on account of its extensive elevated grounds, over- 
looking the Mud creek prairie and the valley of Greenville 
creek. It is known that Indian trails radiated from this site 
in various directions. 

Strong indications of a camp site were found on the Wright 
farm in the northwest corner of section thirty-one, Green- 
ville township, on the north bluff of Greenville creek. 

Xo doubt villages were located on the upper waters of the 
Whitewater in Harrison township and in various pavts of 
the county, as evidenced by the large number of stone relics 
which have been picked up from time to time. The .^ites 
mentioned have been most carefully explored and serve to in- 
dicate what further careful investigation may reveal. It has 
been noticed that village sites have almost invariably been 
found near springs, and on the ridges or bluffs bordering 
streams or prairies. They were located here, no doubt, for 
convenience, for accessibility and also on account of the im- 
passable and unsanitary condition of the extensive swamps 
A\hich characterized primitive Darlce county. 

Flint Caches. 

The ancient Americans obtained flint blocks and fragments 
at an extensive and well known outcrop of this material, 
southeast of Newark in Licking county, Ohio, where signs 
of extensive quarrying appear. The flint was taken out some 
distance below the surface where it was found to be more 
easily chipped and worked out. The material secured here 
was often carried several hundred miles to some camp site. 
probabl}^ by some nomadic tribe of traders, where it was 
chipped off and worked into the desired implements. If not 


needed at the time the leaves or flakes or flint were buried 
a few inches beneath the surface for safe deposit and probably 
to keep them damp and in condition for working when 
needed. Such burials are known as "caches" and have been en- 
countered in various parts of the county. A few typical finds 
will be noted, all of which occured near streams. A cache 
was found in German township near the upper West Branch 
on the farm of Ivens Parent and consisted of about a peck 
of light lead colored chips of chert, ranging from an inch and 
a half to two inches in width and from two to three inches in 
length. The uniform color, texture and cleavage of these 
specimens showed clearly that they were all of the same ma- 
terial. A cache, comprising about three pecks of gray flakes, 
was revealed upon the uprooting of a large tree by the wind 
some forty years ago on the farm now owned by J. W. Ross, 
in the southeast quarter of section twenty-two, Washington 
township, near Crout creek. A cache comprising probably 
fifty specimens of a uniform light brown color was found by 
Washington Hunt, about twenty years ago, on the Jos. Kat- 
zenberger farm near Weimer's Mill, in section twenty, Green- 
ville township, just north of Greenville creek. On the north 
side of the same creek on the Judy tract, section thirty-six 
Greenville tovN^nship, just east of Greenville, a very large 
cache was found in early days which contained probably four 
hundred specimens. Other instances of this kind might be 
cited but these suffice. It is unfortunate that the specimens 
thus found have been scattered far and wide and it is the 
writer's hope that the next large cache will find its way into 
the public museum in Greenville, where it may be safely 
kept and exhibited for its educational value. 


Mention is made of an ancient camp site and workshop on 
the farm of Robert Downing, in section nine, Harrison town- 
ship, near the head of West Branch. Here, it seems, a spe- 
cialty was made of manufacturing stone axes, large numbers 
of which have been found in a partly finished condition. At 
this place an immense quantity of spawls and broken stone 
is encountered when turning up the soil, and a fine spring- 
is near at hand. On the north bluflf of Greenville creek, 
about a mile and a half east of Gettysburg, in section twent}'- 
nine, Adams township, was apparently located a workshop 


where stone pestles were once made. Large numbers of 
small granitic, glacial boulders are found in this locality and 
the ancient craftsmen of the stone age had evidently used 
these to good purpose as shown by the quantity of pestles, 
finished and unfinished, which have been found here. In the 
opinion of Mr. Young the finding of such a large number of 
one kind of implement on a definite site would tend to indi- 
cate that the artist who located his workshop there was a 
specialist in the shaping and manufacturing of that particular 
tool or weapon, thereby becoming an expert in his line. The 
Indians had small, portable stone mortars in which to pul- 
verize and mix the pigments for decorating their bodies and 
others for grinding grain. They also used large stationary 
boulders for the latter purpose. One of these formerly stood 
on the old Rush farm, now belonging to R. E. O'Brien, in 
section three, just north of the site of Bunker Hill, formerly 
mentioned. This old stone mill has been badly defaced but 
is still exhibited by Mr. O'Brien. A skeleton was exhumed 
in the sand pit near this stone, which seems to have been 
located along an old trail leading diagonally across the prairie 
and joining the main trail near Oakwood. Another stone 
mill formerly stood near Beech Grove, and a third on the 
Jenkinson farm south of Fort Jefferson. 

Fine specimens of pipes have been found in the following 
localities : 

Stone Pipes and Implements. 

A catlinite pipe was found on the south bank of Greenville 
creek, in section seventeen, Washington township, on the farm 
now owned by H. M. Oswalt. This is now in the Katzenber- 
ger collection. Another catlinite pipe was found in section 
five, German township, on the Clemens land at the head of 
Carnahan branch of Greenville creek. (Now in the collection 
of E. M. Thresher, Dayton, Ohio.) A dark bluish green pol- 
ished steatite pipe was found on the Wm. Rentz farm in 
section twenty-two, Greenville township. (Now in the pos- 
session of H. C. Shetrone, Columbus, Ohio.) A pipe carved 
after the form of a sitting man with a human face cut in the 
bowl was found in a mound. A carved stone tortoise was 
picked up near Fort Jefferson. It was about four inches long, 
three inches wide, and two inches high, and was of a pecu- 
liar rock, mottled yellow and black. Effigy pipes, record 
pipes and common pipes have also been found in limited 



numbers. The list of implements and ornaments found at 
various times scattered over the county is a large one and 
includes flint and chert knives, spears, arrow heads, drills, 
slate stone discs, badges, gorges, axes, calling tubes, scrapers, 
record tablets, thread shapers, rubbing stones, granite mor- 
tars, pestles, celts, hammers, axes, balls, etc. Large numbers 
of these were secured in early days by Dr. Gabriel Miesse, 
and by Anthony and Charles Katzenberger, and many are 
now on exhibition in the public museum in Greenville. 


The surface of Darke county presents but few marked fea- 
tures. As before suggested it is known as a glacial plain and 
is crossed by three moraine belts slightly elevated above the 
adjoining lands. The great watershed, or summit ridge, di- 
viding the basins of the Wabash and Great Miami enters the 
northeastern part of the county in Patterson township and 
trends in a southwesterly direction, passing through the south- 
ern part of Wabash and Allen townships, and reaching the 
state line near the middle of the western line of Jackson 
township. The land slopes mostly in a southeasterly direc- 
tion from this ridge toward the Great Miami. The ridge 
itself presents a broad, rounded and comparatively regular 
outline. At a remote date it was probably somewhat higher 
and much more uneven, but the natural elements have eroded 
its original surface and the streams have carried down this 
loosened glacial material and mixed it with the black vege- 
table loam of the upper basins of the Mississinawa, Wabash 
and Stillwater streams, thus greatly enriching these bottom 
lands and reducing the rugged contour of the ridge. In the 
neighborhood of Rosehill the ridge reaches a height of eleven 
hundred feet above sea level while in its eastern lobe it is 
about a hundred feet lower. 

The highest altitude in the county, 1,225 feet, is in Harri- 
son township near School No. 7 on the ridge separating the 
basin of the Whitewater from that of the West Branch. 

The following figures from the topographic survey of Ohio 
show the relative height at various points in the count3\ It 
will be noted that the difiference between the highest and 
lowest points enumerated, viz. : Yankeetown, in Harrison 
township, and Versailles, in ^^'^ayne township, is two hundred 


and twenty-four feet, and that the elevation of the county 
seat is about ten hundred and fifty feet : 

Yankeetovvn 1,192 Elroy 1.031 

New Madison 1,113 Ithaca 1,032 

Savona 1,106 Rossburg 1,030 

Palestine 1,104 Pitsburg 1,028 

Clark's Station 1,095 Woodington 1,023 

Nashville 1,093 Dawn 1,022 

Castine 1,079 New ^^'eston 1,014 

Near Rose Hill 1,078 North Star 1,006 

Jaysville 1,064 Aiisonia 1,005 

Arcanum 1,053 New Harrison 987 

Greenville 1,050 Yorkshire 987 

Brock 1,048 Versailles 968 

Streams and Drainage Systems. 

The upper Stillwater rises in Jackson township, skirts the 
southern slope of the dividing ridge near Lightsville, and 
flows southeasterly in a shallow valley toward the Great 
]\Iiami. It drains the plain lying between the Mississinawa 
and the Union moraines formerly noted. 

Greenville creek, the largest stream in the county, arises 
in the Wabash divide a few miles across the state line south- 
west of Union City and flows in a southeastern direction along 
the Union moraine to Greenville and thence easterly to its 
junction with Stillwater at Covington, in JNIiami county. Its 
principal branches. Dismal creek, Crout creek, West Branch, 
^lud creek and Bridge creek, are received from the south and 
west. It drains a large part of the county lying between the 
Union moraine and the moraine passing through the southern 
part of the county. The Union moraine on the north and 
the glacial cairns along the central course break the monotony 
and give a romantic touch to its scenic effect. These two 
streams drain the most of the county, but are supplemented 
by other valuable water courses. The upper waters of the 
Mississinawa and the Wabash rise within about a mile of 
each other on the northern slope of the divide in the north- 
western part of the county. The former drains most of 
Mississinawa township and the western part of Jackson town- 
ship. The latter runs southeasterly into central Allen town- 
ship and thence northeasterly through the northwest corner 
of Wabash and into Mercer county. After continuina: east- 


ward it takes a circuitous course and returns westward in 
Mercer county, so that when it arrives at Fort Recovery after 
traveling about sixty miles it is only about four miles from 
its source. Painter creek and Ludlow creek rise in what used 
to be known as the swamp ash slashes in the southeastern 
part of the county and drain the rich level country now com- 
prised mostly in Franklin and Monroe townships, together 
with parts of Van Buren and Twin townships. Twin creek 
rises in the northern part of Butler township in what was 
formerly known as Maple Swamp, flows east of south and 
forms the main drainage system of that township. Miller's 
Fork of Twin creek reaches up into Twin township and drains 
its western and southern portion. The East Fork of White 
Water drains the southwestern corner of the county. It 
reaches to the neighborhood of New Madison where its head- 
waters approach within half a mile of the source of Mud 
creek, forming a remarkable continuous prairie which has 
been utilized by the Panhandle railway from Greenville to 
Richmond to good effect. The main head of the White ^^'a- 
ter is in western German township within a mile of the head 
of Grout creek. This stream flows almost west of south, 
passing west of Hollansburg and crossing the state line al)out 
two miles below this place. 

Thus it will be seen that Darke county is covered with a 
veritable network of streams radiating in various directions 
and belonging mostly to the Miami and Wabash drainage 
basins. There is not a single township without an adequate 
drainage system. These streams and brooks are fed by 
numberless springs bubbling from the loamy soil, and 
furnishing refreshment to man and beast. Probably the fin- 
est springs are found in the southwestern part of the county, 
where they bubble up from the underlying limestone freighted 
with carbonate of lime and magnesia and having properties 
similar to the famous Cedar Springs in the adjoining section 
of Preble county. On account of the extensive drainage op- 
erations and the destruction of the forest in the county most 
of the surface springs have disappeared from sight and water 
is supplied by wells obtained from the sand and gravel de- 
posits overlying the glacial clays at a depth of from twenty 
to fifty feet below the surface. !Many wells have been drilled 
deep in the underlying limestone and prove an unfailing 
source of fine drinking water. On the Tillman farm in sec- 
tion 20. Brown township, water was encountered at a depth 


of about 180 feet while drilling for oil or gas in 1899. Water 
has continued to pour from this hole ever since, making one 
of the finest artesian wells in the county. Some fine surface 
springs are found in this same neighborhood which feed the 
upper Stillwater. 

This abundant supply of good water and excellent drainage 
system have contributed materially to the rapid development 
of the county, making it one of the most desirable places of 
residence within the state. ^ 


This abundance of moisture explains, also, the presence of 
the grand forests which covered primitive Darke county. 
Rooted in a naturally rich soil the trees were fed by an un- 
failing supply of moisture from the springs and streams. 
Judging from the accounts of the pioneers and from the groves 
of timber still standing one would be inclined to the opinion 
that the primeval forest of old Darke county was one of the 
finest encountered in temperate climes in variety of species, 
development of body, beauty of foliage and commercial value. 
It seems that there were few natural meadows or prairies and 
that an almost unbroken forest stretched over the entire face 
of the county. Sometimes one encountered beautiful groves 
of fine oaks, as along the ridges skirting the Alud Creek 
prairie. In level wet places soft maple perhaps prevailed as 
in the extensive maple swamp in Butler township. Again the 
hard sugar maple predominated to the delight of the Indian and 
the pioneer as in the Hiller settlement. Beech groves were 
found in a few places, mostly in the southern and western part 
of the county, and on the ridge in the northern part. Along 
the streams grew the white boled sycamore, the stately 
American elm, the graceful linden and the verdant willow. 
For the most part, however, the predominating trees were 
interspersed with others scarcely less common and a remark- 
able variety was encountered on a comparatively small tract 
of land. Besides those mentioned, the ash, shagbark, hickory 
and black walnut were quite common. While the following 
variety were encountered with more or less frequenc}- : yellow 
poplar, buckeye, locust, cottonwood, slippery elm, butternut, 
black cherry, mulberry, coffee berry, silver maple. While 
among the smaller varieties were noted the dogwood, red bud, 
black-haw, red-haw, sassafras, wild crab, wild plum, persim- 
mon, papaw and a large variety of ornamental and flowering 


shrubbery which often made an almost impenetrable growth 
of underbrush, such as the spice bush, wahoo, sumac, hazel- 
nut, blackberry, raspberry. 

It should be noted also that the predominating trees were 
found in large variety. For instance, the oak which appeared 
in black, red, white, burr and pin. Individual specimens at- 
tained a remarkable size as shown by the following notable 
instances mentioned by Mr. Calvin Young. "In the year 1883 
there was cut down in German township an oak that had a 
history. It measured over six feet across the stump, contain- 
ing over five hundred annual rings of growth. It was in its 
most thrifty condition between two and three hundred years 
of age, from the fact of those annual growths were much larger 
and faster of growth than it was at the heart or bark of the 
tree. It was tall and symmetrical, with a broad and branch- 
ing top. ***!(; -^^-as one hundred and nine years old 
when Columbus discovered America. It was three hundred 
and ninety-three years old when our fathers signed the Dec- 
laration of Independence. * * *" 

"On Thursday, January 16, 1902, at one o'clock p. m., one of 
the largest poplar trees in western Ohio fell to the ground. 
It was bought by E. L. Fields, of Union City, Ind., for which 
he paid $160, also $11 more for extra timber to place under 
the same to prevent it from splitting or breaking in falling 
to the ground. It belonged to Jacob Ware, section 10, Ger- 
man township, Darke county, Ohio. It stood about two hun- 
dred yards east of Crout creek, which is a branch of Green- 
ville creek, noted by Judge Wharry in his early surveys as 
one of the finest and most fertile tracts of land from its source 
to its mouth to be found in Darke county. The tree was six 
feet across the stump, 18 feet in circumference, 74 feet to the 
first limb, attained a height of about 144 feet. By a careful 
count of the annual rings it was found to be over 400 years 

A large and rare specimen of the coffee berry tree formerly 
stood below Fort Jefferson on the farm now owned by C. D. 
Folkerth, northwest part of section 34, Neave township. For 
years it was a notable landmark standing at the fork of the 
old trails — St. Clair's trace and the one leading to Fort Black 
(New Madison). The top was finally shattered by the winds 
and the dismantled trunk was cut down a few years ago by 
Mr. Folkerth. It is said that the bole of this tree was about 
four feet across and that it was the largest specimen of this 


variety in the United States. In its full maturity it was 
photographed by representatives of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Washington, D. C, and furnished an illustration in one 
of the institution's reports. It attracted wide attention among 
botanists and was viewed by many admirers. The berries, or 
beans, were dark brown, about the size of a coffee-berry, with 
extremely flinty shells and were carried in pods six or eight 
inches long resembling the pods of the honey locust tree. 

A white oak tree was felled on the Kerst farm in the north- 
ern part of section 18, Neave township, one-half mile east of 
Baker's store, some sixty years ago, which measured about 
seven feet in diameter. 

A burr oak about seven feet in diameter was felled in early 
days in Twin township. Such trees were encountered, most 
probably, in nearly every section of the county, and cause a 
shade of regret to pass o\'er the face of the old settlers still 
living as they recite the remarkable instances and think of 
the marketable value of such timber today — one such tree 
being worth an acre or two of fine farm land at the high prices 
of today. Where has all this fine timber gone? To answer 
this question one needs only to think of the settler's cabin, 
the big log burnings, the worm rail fence, the back log of the 
old fireplace, the corduroy road, the wooden bridge, the rail- 
way tie, the spoke, stave and head factory, the wagon factor}-, 
the saw mill and the foreign shipment. The time has come 
when the headwaters and bottoms of our streams as well as 
those all over the state might be reforested for the general 
welfare and we look forward to the time when communities 
will be forced to do by legal enactment what they have failed 
to do by private initiative. 

Denizens of the Forest. 

In such a wilderness as covered primitive Darke county. 
one would expect to find a great variety and quantity of wild 
animal life. The testimony of an early settler shows the 
character of the game and other animals of the forest : "There 
was always an abundance of deer, bear, wild turkeys, pheas- 
ants and squirrels, the latter too plentiful, as they would eat 
up much of the new corn in the fields. Of animals unclean, 
and such as were not used for food, there was an abundance, 
such as panthers, catamounts, wolves — the latter of which 
were very annoying to the settlers from their propensitv to 


steal calves, pigs and sheep. Ground-hogs, opossums, por- 
cupines and wildcats abounded. Of the fur-bearing animals 
there were beaver, otter, mink, muskrats and raccoons. These 
fur animals were trapped and caught in great abundance, and 
were the only source from which the settlers got their cash. 
These furs could always be sold for money, and were largely 
used at the time in the manufacture of hats and caps. 

"Besides these there were great flocks of wild geese, wild 
ducks and wild pigeons almost constantly to be seen during 
the summer season. From such abundance the settlers could 
always keep their tables well supplied with a variety of the 
choicest meats." 


The early history of Darke county is so closely interwoven 
with that of the Ohio valley that it is impossible to get a satis- 
factory knowledge of the one without a brief survey of the 

Between Ft. Pitt, the strongest American outpost, and De- 
troit, the British capital of the old northwest, hostile demon- 
strations were enacted which disturbed the peace and threat- 
ened the stability of the early American government. Raids 
were constantly made on the new settlements south of the 
Ohio river, only shortly to be followed by retaliatory expe- 
ditions by the hardy backwoodsmen. 

After the Revolution ended in the east it was found neces- 
sary to subdue the haughty red man, who had been exploited 
and encouraged by the British agents of the north since the 
end of the French war in 1763. Clark. Harmar, \\'ilkinson, 
St. Clair and Wayne were successively sent against them 
with varying fortunes, but final success. 

Thus was enacted a drama of conquest, whose early scenes 
are laid in the valley of the Ohio and the region of the lower 
lakes, but whose final scenes appear in the valleys of the 
Maumee and Miami. We have noted the unmistakable signs 
of the early and extensive appearance of the red man in 
Darke county, and will now consider his character, his ethnic 
relations and note the eft'ect of his contact with the rapidly 
advancing pioneer American settlements. 

How long the various families and tribes of the North 
American Indians had occupied the tracts of land respectively 
claimed by them at the advent of the white man. it is impos- 
sible to say in the absence of any written records or authentic 
history. The legends of the tribes but add to the confusion 
of the historian and give little encouragement to the hope 
that a true account of their past wanderings and experiences 
shall ever be constructed. It is known, however, that some 
of the tribes made extensive migrations soon after the discov- 
ery of the continent bv European explorers. 


It has ever been difficult for the staid and cultured Anglo- 
Saxon to understand and delineate the true character of the 
North American Indian. Some writers depict him as the red 
aristocrat of the forest, possessed of true virtue, chivalry and 
valor, while others would make him appear a fiend incarnate, 
delighting in rapine and brutal slaughter. Like all savage 
peoples his character was unsymmetrical, and manifested 
many crude and violent inconsistencies. Being children of 
nature, they reflected nature's changing moods ; now dwell- 
ing peaceably in skin tepees or frail bark huts in their se- 
cluded forest homes ; again making the wilderness ring with 
their hideous yells, as they danced in frenzied glee at the pros- 
pect of the fearful slaughter of their foes. To them the natural 
world was an enchanted fairyland whose spirits they wor- 
shipped or cajoled, according to their changing whims, and 
disease was an evil spirit to be driven out of the body by the 
weird maneuvers of the Medicine Man. Easily elated by suc- 
cess, they were just as readily dejected by defeat, causing 
them to waver in their various alliances as prompted by ex- 
pediency. As a nieans of personal decoration they loved to 
smear their sinewy bodies with colored clays or tint them with 
the juice of berries, and wear jangling trinkets and colored 
beads. Living a rude and simple life they knew no law but 
necessity, and no government save expediency. Their meat 
was the flesh of the deer, the bufifalo and the wild game which 
they chased with craft and glee through the primeval forest. 
For a diversified diet they cultivated small areas of corn, 
beans, melons, etc., and gathered the nuts and wild fruits of 
the wood. The wife, or squaw, together with the children, 
cultivated the fields and did the drudgery incident to the care 
of the camp or village, while the brave or warrior roamed 
the forest in quest of game, warred with hostile tribes, con- 
structed the tepee, or hut, the swift gliding canoe, and the 
various implements of war and the chase. When not on the 
chase or fighting his hereditary foes, he loved to idle about 
the camp and engage in racing, wrestling, gambling, chant- 
ing and dancing, while incited by the frenzied yells of his fel- 
low abettors. In feasting, smoking, jesting and repartee he 
was a past master. 

Lavish in hospitality and faithful to friends, he was, never- 
theless, the implacable persecutor of real or fancied enemies. 
Two remarkable traits seemed to lift him above the level of 
common savagerv ; his stoicism, which made him insensible 


to suffering-, fatigue and physical exposure ; and his eloquence, 
which, aided by a well trained memory and keen intellect, 
was a marvel to the whites who met him in council. Freedom 
from conventional restraints and the beauty of his natural 
haunts contributed, no doubt, to the dex'elopment of his ora- 
torical powers. 

Belonging to one ethnic group th.e North American Indians, 
ne\ ertheless, manifested distinct characteristics and were sep- 
arated into well-defined families and tribes, having distinct 
dialects, traditions and definite places of abode. Two great 
families occupied the basin of the Great Lakes and the valle_\' 
of the Ohio river at the advent of the whites. The Algonquin 
family were the more numerous, and were represented b_\- the 
larger number of tribes, the more prominent being the Otta- 
was, Chippewas and Pottawatomies in the upper lake region ; 
the ancient and powerful Aliamis, with subject and related 
tribes, along the JMaumee, the ^^'abash and the upper Miami 
river valleys ; the active and warlike Shawanese in the valley 
of the Scioto and neighboring territory; the Delawares in the 
valley of the Muskingum and upper Ohio. The wandering 
disposition of some of these tribes is shown by their various 

The Shawanese had recently emigrated from the valleys of 
the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, from which they had 
probably been driven by the hostility of the neighboring 
southern tribes. They were active, egotistic, restless and 
warlike and were destined to become more frequently en- 
gaged with the advancing frontiersmen than any other of the 
Ohio tribes. 

The Delawares had emigrated from the Delaware and Sus- 
quehanna river region, on account of the encroachment of 
the whites and the hostility of their northern neighbors, the 
Five Nations, and are especially prominent in colonial his- 
torjr because of their treaty with William Penn. Their peace- 
able disposition won for them the contempt of some of the 
more warlike tribes, who called them "women." Their con- 
duct in the Ohio country, however, proved them to be war- 
riors worthy of respect. 

The Miamis had lived "from time immemorial" in their 
secluded abode, and their title to the lands claimed by them 
was probably more valid than that of any of the northwestern 
tribes. With their relatives, the Tawas, the Weas, the Piank- 
eshaws.and Eel river Indians, they formed a powerful nation. 


Their central and established location, together with intelli- 
gent leadership, gave them a decided prestige among their 

All of these prominent tribes had, no doubt, absorbed the 
scattered remnants of the Xew England and coast tribes 
which otherwise would have been exterminated. 

The other great family of Indians, identified with the ter- 
ritory under consideration, was the Iroquoian. This family 
occupied the lands between the Ottawa river and the lower 
lakes, and a portion of the region below the latter. Their in- 
fluence, however, extended from Lake Champlain to the Mis- 
sissippi, and from the Ottawa to the Ohio. Several of the 
smaller tribes of this powerful family roamed over the Ohii 
country and made some large settlements. Five of the most 
powerful stationary neighboring tribes, the Senecas, Cayugas, 
Onondagas, Oneidas and ]\Iohawks, formed a confederacy 
known originally as the Five Nations, and later, after being 
augmented by the Tuscaroras tribe from the Carolinas. the 
Six Nations. This confederation lived mainly in central New 
York from the Hudson river to the region south of Lake On- 
tario, having several palisaded towns of bark huts and con- 
siderable orchards and cultivated lands. 

\\'ithin historic times they had practically exterminated the 
Fries, who dwelt westward along the southern shore cf Lake 
Erie, and the Andastes, who lived to the south in the resion 
of the Susquehanna, both belonging to the same family. 
They had also driven their brother tribe, the Huron ^^'yan- 
dots, from their ancient abode below the Ottawa river,- caus- 
ing them to retire to the southwestern shore of Lake Eric. 
The Wyandots, however, ultimately became the leading m- 
tion among the Indians beyond the Ohio and were addressed 
as "uncle" by the other tribes. In their keeping Avas placed the 
Grand Calumet, or peace pipe, which entitled them to assem- 
ble the tribes in general council and open all deliberations. 

The Five Nations came into contact with the Dutch and 
English traders at an early date and were supplied with fire- 
arms, which they used to advantage in awing and subduing 
the western tribes. Although their population probablv never 
exceeded twenty-five thousand, they were intelligent, aggres- 
sive, eloquent and powerful, and continually waged war on 
the northwestern tribes, whose lands they claimed by right 
of conquest. But for the timely appearance of the Euro- 
peans, they would probably have subdued or exterminated the 



separate and poorly organized tribes of the wandering Algon- 
quins, and thus have formed a powerful savage nation. It 
seems improbable, however, that they would ever have es- 
tablished a permanent and prosperous nation, worthy the re- 
spect of civilized peoples. 

While these children of the forest dwelt in this delightful 
land of virgin rivers, lakes, prairies and woods, unmolested 
save by their own kindred, the white man planted settle- 
ments along the Atlantic seaboard and commenced a cam- 
paign of conquest and expansion that was not to cease until 
practically the whole continent had come into his possession. 

Centuries of civilization had prepared the Anglo-Saxon for 
a new abode where he might have sufficient room and re- 
sources to work out the destinies of a new and mightier na- 
tion than the world had ever known. His conquest was to 
be not merely a matter of might, Init of fitness and greater 
service to the expanding race of man. \\niere a few wander- 
ing tribes had long made a precarious living, millions of a 
civlized people were soon to subdue the forces of primitive 
nature, establish the institutions of a higher life and raise 
a new standard for all the races of the world. 

In the carrying out of this great enterprise two powerful 
nations, who had met on many a field of battle in their home 
land, were to try their strength on new fields, in rough places. 
and prove which was to be chosen for the high and responsi- 
ble destiny of leading and shaping a mighty nation, yet un- 

The circumstances which caused the English to settle on 
the James river in 1607 and on Cape Cod Bay in 1620. and the 
French on the St. Lawrence in 1608. scarcely seemed to fore- 
shadow the tremendous results that were to follow in less than 
two centuries. Thus two active forces were located on con- 
verging lines, and were to meet and come in deadly conflict 
beyond the apparent barrier of the Alleghan}' mountains. The 
hardy English, inheriting the vigor of their northern ances- 
tors and inured to the rigors of the British Isles, settled the 
coast from Maine to the Carolinas, laid the foundations of 
an enduring civilization and depended largely upon the labor 
of their own hands for subsistence. They subdued the red 
man or drove him awa3^ and gradually advanced the frontier 
westward. Desiring to extend the Catholic church and the 
domain of France, the French took possession of the valley 
of the St. Lawrence, establishing a strong base on the rock of 


Quebec. From this advantageous center their missionaries, 
fired with zeal to convert the savages, and their explorers, 
anxious to find new lands, followed up the watercourses of 
the St. Lawrence, crossed the upper lakes in their birch-bark 
canoes and passed over the divide by easy portages to the 
headwaters of the branches of the Ohio and ^Mississippi, and 
finally reached the Father of Waters. 

The most direct route from Quebec to the northern lakes 
was by way of the Ottawa river and Lake Nipissing to Geor- 
gian bay. This fact, together with the hostility of the Iro- 
quois, who dwelt along the lower lakes, led the French to 
establish posts at Kaskaskia, Vincennes and other remote 
western points, several years before Cadillac fortified De- 
troit, the most strategic point on the lakes, in 1701. For the 
same reason the territory now comprised in Ohio, with the 
exception of the ]\Iaumee valley and some lake points, was 
the last explored by the French. 

The early enmity of the Iroquois, incurred by Champlain, 
was later taken advantage of by the British through the of- 
fices of their invaluable agent, Sir Wm. Johnson, and became 
a powerful factor in directing the fortune of the contending 
whites in the Ohio country. On account of location and for- 
tuitous circumstances, the northwestern tribes were destined 
to align themselves largely with the French in opposing the 
expansion of the English settlements beyond the Alleghany 

The early water routes explored by the French were sin> 
ply those which the northwestern Indians had used from time 
immemorial. They led from the Great La'.^es to the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio rivers hv the most direct and convenient tribu- 
tary streams and were traveled b}' means of canoes made of 
birch-bark, the skins of animals, or some light wn(id. These 
canoes were carried by the voyagers across the shortest port- 
ages between the headwaters of the approaching streams and 
launched at well-known landing-places, thus providing the 
simplest, swiftest and most effective means of travel known 
to primitive man. 

By gaining the friendship of the northwestern tribes the 
French explorers soon learned their best routes and were en- 
abled to make rough maps of their country to be kept for fu- 
ture reference and to support their later claims of discoverv. 

The more prominent routes established were: From Lake 
^Michigan to the ^Mississippi, (1) by way of Green Bay. the 



Fox and Wisconsin rivers; (2) by the Des Plaines and Illi- 
nois rivers; and (3) by the St. Joseph's and Kankakee; from 
Lake Michigan to the Ohio by way of tht St. Joseph's and 
Wabash rivers; and from Lake Erie to the Ohio by way of 
the Alaumee and Wabash rivers. Other well-known routes 
connected the Maumee and Great JNIiami, the Sandusky and 
Scioto, and the Cuyahoga and Muskingum. For these early 
and important explorations we are indebted to the zealous 
and intrepid Catholic missionaries and daring French adven- 
turers, such as LaSalle, IMarquette, Joliet, Nicollet, Henne- 
pin, Brule, and others who faithfully served their country and 
their cause and left a record that shall long add luster to their 

The Indian mind seems peculiarly susceptible to the elabor- 
ate forms and ceremonies of the Catholic church, which ever 
appeal forcibly to the outward senses and objectify the 
teachings intended to be inculcated. Thus the spiritual labors 
of the missionaries were not in vain from the standpoint of 
the church and. in addition, helped to cultivate a friendly dis- 
position toward the French traders who soon followed. 

The Frenchman is naturally volatile, versatile and viva- 
cious, making him responsive to change and excitement or ad- 
^'enture. The wild, free, and changeable life of the savage 
appealed forcibly to the trader, who snon learned his dialects, 
married his women, adopted his customs, and finally won his 
affection and confidence. The influence exercised b)- this class 
is indicated by the freedom with which they penetrated to 
the western plains and planted a chain of trading posts reach- 
ing from the region of the Hudson Bay to the far south. They 
supplied the natives with the things which they desired in the 
way of fancy blankets, coarse, iDright cloths, guns, ammuni- 
tion, knives, hatchets, kettles, beads, tobacco, intoxicating 
liquors, etc. AMiatever may have been France's ulterior mo- 
tive in searching out these lands, her early representatives 
seemed content to establish posts on small tracts and live 
peaceably among the natives, caring onl}' for the profit to be 
derived from their extensive trade. 

In due course of time, however, the French established 
fortified posts at Frontenac on the northeast shore of Lake 
Ontario, at Niagara, at Presque Isle (Erie, Pa.), at Detroit, 
at Mackinac, and at Sault Ste. ^ilarie, thus guarding the en- 
trances to the Great Lakes and strengthening their prestige in 
the vast lake region. They also established palisaded trading 


posts on the St. Joseph's of Lake [Michigan, at Ouiatanon on 
the ^^■ abast, at the Miami villages on the Maumee ( Ft. 
jMiamis) at Saudusky, and at other advantageous centers. 

The English and Dutch also tried to plant posts on the 
upper lakes, but with small success. They impressed the In- 
dians as being cold, unsympathetic, and avaricious, with an 
ill-concealed and excessive lust for their diminishing lands. 
However, the Anglo-Saxon possessed a stubborn determina- 
tion, industrious and conservative habits, and a system of fair 
and business-like dealing which were finally to turn the tide 
of savage sentiment in his favor and win respect and alliance. 

The question of bouTidaries between the French and Eng- 
lish in America had not been definitely settled at the close of 
King George's War in 1748. 

The colonial frontiersmen, however, were steadily ad- 
vancing westward and were climbing the eastern slopes of the 
.A.lleghanies and looking wistfully at the fertile lands beyond. 
They were largely the hardy Scotch-Irish whose ancestors 
had come over early in the seventeenth century, settled the 
Alleghany mountain ranges and were now pushing forward 
and making considerable settlements southwest of the moun- 
tains. They were extremely hardy, aggressive, thrifty and 
prolific and formed an effective barrier between the eastern 
white settlers and the retreating Red Man. The country 
south of the Ohio was now being explored and the Ohio 
company was formed to traffic with the Indians. 

In 1749 the French Governor of Canada sent Celeron de 
Bienville to take formal possession of the country drained by 
the upper Ohio river. With a motley following of some two 
hundred French officers and Canadian woodsmen he crossed 
Lake Ontario, skirted the southern shore of Lake Erie, crossed 
tlie portage to Lake Chautauqua, and followed the Indian 
path to the headwaters of the Alleghany. Here their birch 
bark canoes were launched again and the party proceeded on 
its spectacular journey down the Alleghany and the Ohio as 
far as the mouth of the Great Miami, thence up that stream 
and across the well worn carrying place to the St. Mary's 
branch of the Miami of the Lakes (Maumee), and thus on to 
Lake Erie and back to Quebec, 

English traders were found at several of the prominent In- 
dian villages along the route. These were admonished to dis- 
continue trespassing on territory claimed by the French, and 
the Indians who showed partiality to the English were 


tlireatened with summary treatment shculd they continue to 
trade with hem. 

Thus was completed the eastern end of the great circuit 
which comprised the valley of the St. Lawrence, the lake re- 
gion, the upper Mississippi, and the Ohio basins and gave 
tangible form to the extensive claims of the French to this im- 
mense territory. 

The outposts of the English colonists were already being 
firmly established within striking distance of the coveted and 
disputed lands beyond the Ohio and the hardy backwoodsmen 
chafed at the prospect of being arbitrarily prohibited from 
settling in this fertile country. 

In the fall of 1750 the Ohio Company sent Christopher Gist. 
an experienced explorer, from the Yadkin country of Xorth 
Carolina, to explore the lands along the Ohio as far as the 
falls (Louisville). At the Indian village at the mouth of the 
Musldngum he was joined by Gorge Crnghan. the veteran 
trader, and Andrew Montour, an interpreter. Early in 1751 
these intrepid woodsmen proceeded to the Delaware and 
Shawanese villages of the Scioto, and, finding them well dis- 
posed, made arrangements for a friendly conference at Logs- 
town (on the north bank of the Ohio, seventeen miles below 
the present site of Pittsburg, Pa.) in the spring. The explor- 
ing party now struck across country to the upper waters of 
the Great ]\Iiami. At the mouth of the Pickawillany (Loramie 
Creek) where they arrived February 17th, they found an ex- 
tensive settlement of Miami Indians under chief Old Britain, 
who had recently moved from the Wabash in order to get in 
touch with the English traders. A strong stockade had been 
erected here in the previous fall and considerable business was 
being transacted by the fifty or sixty white traders who had 
cabins here. A friendh^ council was held at this place and 
numerous valuable presents were given to the Indians, who 
thereupon promised to favor the English in the way of trade. 
Gist and his party then returned to the Scioto and proceeded 
down the Ohio to their destination, returning homeward 
through the beautiful Kentucky country in the spring. 

The French became jealous of the rising favor shown to 
the English traders by their former friends and in June. 1752. 
Charles Langdale. a Frenchman from Michilimackinac, led a 
band of some two hundred and fifty Chippewa and Ottawa 
Indians against the trading station at Pickawillany. This 
party rowed past Detroit, crossed the western end of Lake 


Erie, turned up the Maumee and continued up the St. i\Iary's 
branch to the old Indian portage. They appeared suddenly 
and unexpectedly on the morning of June 21st before the 
stockade at Pickawillany. The warriors were absent on 
their summer hunt, leaving only the chief and twenty men and 
boys with eight white traders who could be depended upon 
to defend the place. As a special mark of disfavor these 
northern savages boiled and ate Old Britain who had shown 
marked preference for the Frenchman's foe. When the IMiami 
chiefs returned, it is said they retaliated by eating ten French- 
men and two of their negroes. 

By some historians this is regarded as the opening engage- 
ment of the French and Indian war, inasmuch as the parties 
engaged represented the opposing nations, contending on dis- 
puted soil and kindling a conflict which was destined to 
scourge the frontier with blood and fire for over forty j^ears. 

The time was ripe to fortif_v the forks of the Ohio. This 
important step was delayed, however, on account of the con- 
tending claims of jurisdiction over this territorv by the gov- 
ernors of Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1733, while these 
disputes were in progress, the French Governor of Canada 
sent a mixed force to seize and hold the upper branches of 
the Ohio. This was the signal for decisive action and Gover- 
nor Dinwiddle of Virginia sent Major George Washington to 
remonstrate against this move. Washington was courteously 
received by the French commander, but his message was re- 
ferred to the Governor-General of Canada and the new posts 
established were held awaiting the action of the latter official. 

On July 3, 1754, '\\'ashington, while moving towards the 
forks of the Ohio with a force of some three hundred men, 
was intercepted by a force of French and Indians three or four 
times as large at Great Meadows. An engagement followed 
which lasted from noon till dark, when Washington capitu- 
lated on favorable terms. The French now built Fort Du 
Quesne at the forks of the Ohio and prepared to actively resist 
the English. The Indians, having a natural love for war and 
realizing their dangerous position, soon allied themselves ac- 
cording to inclination and fancied interest. The Northwestern 
tribes mostly joined their interests with the French, while the 
six nations favored the English, 

From a frontier skirmish the conflict developed into an in- 
ternational war. England sent General Braddock over with a 
large armv of regulars, drilled and disciDlined in the field tac- 


tics of Europe, but practically ignorant of the mode of war- 
fare of the American savage and unwilling to take the advice 
of the frontier soldiers, who alone knew the nature of their 
foe. This magnificent army was reinforced with troops from 
Virginia and proceeded against Fort Du Quesne. When near 
this post the army was suddenly attacked from ambush by a 
mixed force of Canadian French and Indians on July 9, 1755. 
An obstinate fight followed with success long in doubt, but 
the British were finally forced to give after great slaughter 
and the loss of their commander. Colonel Washington was 
aide to Braddock on this campaign and rendered valuable 
services. Had his advice been followed perhaps the day might 
have been saved and the war shortened. 

During the opening years of the conflict the French and 
their allies won victory after victory, and thus attracted the 
wavering alliance of many tribes. Even some of the Iroquois 
deserted the British as they saw them defeated time after 
time, but when the scales finally turned thev resumed their 
old alliance. 

In 1758 the British gained the ascendency, taking Louis- 
burg, and Fort Du Quesne, two of the most cherished strong- 
holds of the enemy. In 1759 AA'olfe, by a bold and hazardous 
stroke, reduced Quebec, the backbone of Canada and seat of 
government of the French. This was the climax of the 
struggle on the American continent that won for the Anglo- 
Saxon the supremacy in the new world and deprived France 
of her American possessions. Measured bv results, it has 
proven to be one of the most decisive struggles in recent his- 
tory. The valley of the Ohio was not destined to be governed 
from Quebec, neither were the language, laws, customs and 
religion of a Latin race to be engrafted on the hardy stock of 
the virile pioneers and mould the destiny of a budding nation. 
In 1760 the surrender of ^Montreal virtually ended the war on 
the continent but the conflict continued two or three years on 
the ocean. A treaty of peace was signed at Paris in 1763, and 
nearly all the French possessions east of the ^Mississippi 
passed into the hands of the British. At this time the AIo- 
hawk Valley in New York and the Susquehanna Valley in 
Pennsylvania formed the outskirts of connected English set- 
tlements. Beyond were the scattered homes of the hardy, 
reckless, and venturesome bordermen, always exposed to 
savage caprice, but forming a protective fringe to the older 


Fearing the encroachments of the English, the destruction 
of their fur trade, and the curtailment of their supplies of food 
and firearms, the savages formed a confederacy under the 
leadership of Pontiac, a crafty Ottawa chief,- and planned the 
simultaneous capture and destruction of all their forts west of 
the Alleghany mountains. The eloquence of this resourceful 
chief stirred the latent resentment of the northern tribes and 
fanned their savage fury against the English invaders to a 
white heat. The friendship and active co-operation of the 
French were counted upon in this desperate coup but the sav- 
ages soon realized that they too divided their allegiance. 
Although acknowledged subjects of the English by recent 
treaty, they still deceived the Indians with the hope that the 
Great French King would surely send them aid. The plot 
against Detroit was revealed, but before the middle of the 
summer of 1763, all the posts except Niagara, Fort Pitt and 
Detroit had been taken. Early in 1764 Pontiac again laid 
siege to Detroit, but the handful of stubborn English held out 
against great odds and finally wore out the patience of the 
Great Chief, who now sought peace and withdrew his dispir- 
ited warriors. While Pontiac was conducting his campaign 
in the lake region, the Delawares and Shawanese furiously 
assaulted the scattered frontier settlements in western Penn- 
sylvania. Fort Pitt was attacked and the defenseless border 
settlers were forced to flee or be butchered by their infuriated 
foes. In order to counteract these movements, subjugate the 
Indians and force them to acknowledge the sovereignty of 
England, General Gage of the Colonial army sent Colonel 
Bradstreet with a large force against the lower lake tribes of 
Ottawas, Chippewas and Wyandots, and Colonel Bouquet 
against the Delawares and Shawanese near the forks of the 
Muskingum. Bradstreet proceeded toward Sandusk}- and met 
with indififerent success. Ijut Bouquet,, l^y decisi\e action, 
caused the tribes against whom he had been sent to deliver 
up a large number of prisoners and make arrangements for 

England now attempted a new policy in reference to her 
newly acquired western and northern lands, with a view of 
retaining them for the benefit of the crown and thereby ex- 
cluding the American colonists from settling them. Peaceful 
relations with the Indians, the extension of the fur trade and 
the safety of the colonies were the reasons assigned for this 
policy. To Sir William Johnson was entrusted the task of 


carrying out this policy of conciliation. In the spring of 1764 
he kindled the council fire at Niagara and induced the tribes 
to make peace separately, thus accomplishing the disruption 
of the great confederation formed by Pontiac. 

By a treaty at Easton, Pennsylvania, the English had en- 
gaged not to settle west of the mountains. Colonel Bouquet 
at Fort Pitt endeavored to enforce the provisions of this 
treaty, but Colonel Michael Cresap and the agents of the Ohio 
Company eagerly tried to trade with the Indians and to es- 
tablish the settlements planned before the war. The eager 
frontiersmen were not to be easily restrained, however, and 
soon began to cross the mountains and irritate the Indians. 
In order to conciliate the latter, Colonel Johnson, the British 
Indian agent, held a treaty with them at Fort Stanwix 
(Rome, New York) in 1768, at which ail the country south of 
the Ohio to which the Iroquois had any claim was transferred 
to the British for $6,000 in money and goods. It was further 
stipulated here that the Ohio river should be the boundary 
betwen the red and white man. This region was being 
explored but it was twenty years before the lines of emigra- 
tion were directed north of the Ohio. 

The opening of the Revolution in the east soon attracted 
attention in that direction. The west was also the scene of 
conflicts of momentous import. The hardy Scotch-Irish moun- 
taineers of the border states pressed into Kentucky, and the 
region from Pittsburg to the southwest was the scene of great 
activity. Boone, Harrod, Logan and other pioneers built for- 
tified stations near the upper Kentucky river and the romantic 
days of old Kentucky were ushered in. The Ohio Indians did 
not consider themselves bound by the treaty of Fort Stanwix 
and were not disposed to allow this valuable portion of their 
ancient domain to be quietly taken from them. When they 
.saw the white emigrants floating down the Ohio in constantly 
increasing numbers they decided to dispute their advance. 
The murder of the relatives of Logan, a prominent Mingo 
chief, hastened hostilities. 

Matters soon assumed such a serious turn that the Earl of 
Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, called out the mili- 
tia, and raised an army to check the hostile demonstrations in 
territory claimed by that colony. The troops were finally 
collected in two divisions, one of some fifteen hundred men 
under Dunmore. the other of some eleven hundred men under 
General Andrew Lewis. The former collected at Wheeline, 


proceeded down the Ohio and crossed to the Scioto plains. 
Lewis' division, composed of \'irginia backwoodsmen, pro- 
ceeded along the Great Kanawha, intending to cross the Ohio 
and join Dunmore. On October 10, 1774, however, Lewis 
was intercepted at the mouth of the Kanawha by the com- 
bined Indian forces under Cornstalk, the famous Shawanese 
chief. A spirited all-day battle ensued, in which the back- 
woodsmen adopted the tactics of the savages, flitting from 
tree to tree and fighting hand to hand. The Indians were 
aljout equal in numbers to the whites and had among them 
some of their best chiefs and warriors. They had found their 
superiors in the "Longknives,"' however, and were forced tu 
retreat across the Ohio at dusk, taking their dead and 
wounded with them. 

This was probabl}- the most severe whipping ever admin- 
istered to the Red Men at the hands of the whites. A treaty 
was soon consummated in which the Shav.-anese agreed to 
surrender all prisoners ever taken in war, and to cease hunting- 
south of the Ohio. Besides driving them back to their re- 
treats and causing them to sue for peace, this engagement 
showed the temper of the Americans, and, no doubt, deterred 
the Indians from harassing the hardy and adventurous pio- 
neers who held the land beyond the mountains during the 

Considering the encouragement given to the Indians from 
the British in the north and the failure of Dunmore to take 
part in this engagement, along with the magnificent conduct 
of the backswoodsmen, this might be regarded the opening 
conflict of the great contest between the mother country and 
her colonies. No doubt it nerved many a patriot for the great 
battles in the south during the Revolution and will always 
be looked to with patriotic pride by coming generations of 

In 1774 the Quebec Act, establishing civil government in the 
northwest, was passed by Parliament. By its provisions De- 
troit, then a place of some fifteen hundred inhabitants, was 
made the capital of this immense territory, north and west of 
the Ohio river, and Henry Hamilton was appointed lieuten- 
ant-general with civil and militar}^ powers. Upon assuming 
office in 1775 he proceeded to use heroic measures in dealing 
with the Americans, emplo}-ed the notorious renegades, 
Simon Girty, Alexander McKee and Mathew Elliott, and sent 
war parties against the border. To check these incursions. 


George Rogers Clark, a dashing young surveyor, who had 
been appointed commander of Kentucky militia by Governor 
Patrick Henry of Virginia, was sent on a secret expedition 
against Kaskaskia. With some one hundred and seventy-five 
men he proceeded from the Falls of the Ohio to a point oppo- 
site the mouth of the Tennessee river and followed the trail 
tu Kaskaskia, which place he took by a bold stroke on July 
4. 1778. He then proceeded to subdue the neighboring tribes 
and sent Captain Helm with a guard to hold Vincennes. Gov- 
ernor Hamilton then advanced from Detroit by the Maumee 
and Wabash, with a mixed force, enlisted some savages, pro- 
ceeded to Vincennes and, with their assistance, dislodged 
Helm on December 17th. Early in February, 1779, Clark left 
Kaskaskia with about one hundred and sixty men, made a 
hazardous forced march across the frozen and inundated plains 
of the Illinois country, and. after great hardships, appeared 
before Vincennes. \\ ith his brave and determined men he 
invested the town on the night of February 23d. and forced 
Hamilton to surrender on the 24th. 

The whole country along the Mississippi and \Vabash was 
now in the possession of Virginia. This state anticipated the 
results of Clark's expedition by creating the county of Illinois 
in C^ctober, 1778, and now claimed by conquest what she had 
formerly claimed by virtue of her colonial charter. This con- 
quest was the death blow to British ambition in the country 
between the mountains and the Mississippi. Hamilton was 
planning to lead the united western and southern trilaes and, 
with the assistance of the terrible Iroquois, drive the Ameri- 
cans beyond the Ohio, thus making that beautiful and well- 
known stream the ultimate boundary between Canada and the 
United States. Especially does the significance of this con- 
quest appear when viewed in the light of the Quebec Act, 
which aimed to establish interior colonies dependent upon a 
government on the St. Lawrence, instead of on the Atlantic 
coast. This act also deprived the colonies of their charter 
lands in the west and was one of the causes of the Revolu- 
tion. During the years 1777 and 1778 the Indians attacked 
the new Kentucky stations established by Boone, Harrod and 

In the fall of 1778, Brigadier-General Mcintosh of the Con- 
tinental Army built Ft. Mcintosh (Beaver, Pa.), some 
thirty miles below Fort Pitt. He then proceeded with a force 
of one thousand men to attack Sandusky, but stopped upon 


reaching the Tuscarawas and built Fort Laurens (near Bol- 
ivar, Ohio). Both of these posts were afterwards abandoned, 
owing to frequent attacks, the severity of the ensuing winter, 
and the extreme difficulty of maintaining a sufficient garrison, 
leaving no American defenses in the west except Fort Pitt. 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes. 

Late in ]\Iay, 1779, Colonel John Bowman led an expedition 
of some three hundred Iventucky volunteers against the 
Shawanese village o: Chillicothe on the Little Miami (near 
Xenia, Ohio). The Indians were surprised early on the morn- 
ing of the 30th, their town was burned and sacked and a large 
amount of plunder secured. The Americans lost eight men 
and secured one hundred and sixty horses. The aggressive- 
ness of the hardy pioneers, who had settled south and east 
of the Ohio, had gradually driven the Indians toward the 
northwest, so that by 1779 they had retreated in large num- 
bers to the headwaters of the Scioto, the two Miamis, and the 
watershed between these, streams and the Maumee. This was 
a beautiful tract of land, with fine timber and rich meadows, 
affording ideal hunting grounds and fertile fields for the rem- 
nants of the dwindling tribes. ]\Iany of the discouraged 
Shawanese retreated across the Mississippi. 

The principal seat of the ancient Aliamis was at the junc- 
tion of the St, Joseph and St. jMary's, and from this important 
center trails radiated in many directions. It was well located 
with reference to the lake region and the headwaters of the 
Wabash and Miamis. Important villages were also located 
along the !Maumee, on the headwaters of the Auglaize and 
the Great Miami, and on the portages between these streams. 
The ^^'eas and Piankeshaws dwelt along the Wabash and 
were in intimate relation with the mother nation on the 

In the summer of 1780, Colonel Byrd, of .Detroit, invaded 
Kentucky, by way of the Miami and Licking rivers, with a 
mixed force of Canadians and Indians. He attacked and took 
^Martin's and Ruddle's stations but soon abandoned the in- 
vasion. In order to retaliate for this raid, Colonel Clark raised 
a large force of frontiersmen, including Boone, Kenton and 
some of the most noted Kentucky fighters, crossed the Ohio 
and proceded against the Indians of the upper Miami valley. 
He destroyed the old Shawanese town of Piqua, the bovhood 
home of Tecumseh, on Mad river, and several other villages, 
together with considerable standing corn. This raid greatly 


discouraged the Indians and their British abettors at Detroit 
and brought security to the Kentuckians until the following 
year, when attacks on the exposed pioneer stations were re- 
newed. In April, 1781, Colonel Brodhead of Fort Pitt led an 
expedition against the Delaware tribes on the Muskingum, 
destroyed several villages, and killed and captured a few In- 
dians. In August, Colonel Lochry with a force of one hun- 
dred and seventy mounted Pennsylvanians, was surprised by 
a large body of Indians near the mouth of the Miami, while 
on his way to aid Clark in the west. Several of his men were 
killed and the balance captured. 

The Moravians, a Christian sect of marked missionary zeal, 
who had followed the Delaware Indians from their former 
home in Pennsylvania, settled in the valleys of the Tuscar- 
awas and Muskingum rivers in 1768. Here they purchased 
small tracts from the natives, cultivated a portion of them, 
founded four substantial villages, and established places of 
worship under the leadership of Zeisberger and Heckewelder. 
They were peaceable and industrious, being opposed to war 
and aggression. Many of the neighboring Indians of various 
tribes were converted to their doctrines. Being on important 
Indian trails, leading from Fort Pitt and the frontier settle- 
ments to Sandusky and the northwest, their position became 
more hazardous as the American settlements advanced, on 
account of the opposing war parties which passed through 
their villages. Trying to be hospitable to all, they naturally 
incurred the suspicion of the turbulent frontiersmen. In 1781 
Colonel Brodhead urged these Christian Indians to move to 
Fort Pitt in order to be under the protection of the Ameri- 
cans. This they refused to do, but later in the same year were 
forced to settle near Upper Sandusky by orders from the Brit- 
ish authorities of Detroit. The winter of 1781-82 was a hard 
one on the exiled Moravians and earlv in the spring a party 
of them returned to the towns of Ghadenhutten and Salem to 
harvest the corn left ungathered the previous fall. While 
engaged in this work, a band of some eighty or ninety militia- 
men under Colonel David Williamson stealthily captured and 
deliberately murdered ninety-six men, women and children, 
thus perpetrating one of the most pitiable and atrocious crimes 
of frontier history. Williamson's party was composed largely 
of the brutal and rufifianh' frontier bordermen and their atro- 
cious deed caused a storm of protests from the better class 
along the border. 


On May 25, 1782, an expedition of some five hundred Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia volunteers set out from the ^lingo Bot- 
toms (near Steubenville, Ohio), under the leadership of Col- 
onel William Crawford to chastise the Indians of the San- 
dusky plaints (near Upper Sandusky. Ohio), who had been 
harassing the borders. On account of its location on one of 
the most traveled routes leading from Lake Erie to the Upper 
Ohio, and the ease of access from Detroit, this was a strategic 
center and a favorite rendezvous of the savages friendly with 
the British. Hearing of this move, the commandant of 
Detroit sent Captain Caldwell with a troop of Rangers, and 
Colonel McKee with some Canadians to intercept the Ameri- 
cans. The Indians, comprising many doughty warriors of the 
Delawares, \\'yandots and Shavvanese. met the Americans in 
a grove near Upper Sandusky on June 4th. Crawford dis- 
lodged the advance party from the timber. The Indians then 
took a sheltered position in the low, grassy ground, which 
surrounded the grove and were reinforced on the 5th by other 
tribes and the Rangers. The fight was continued and the 
Americans held their position throughout the day but were 
forced to retreat under cover of the night with a loss in killed, 
wounded and captured of some one hundred and fifty men. 
Colonel Crawford was captured, and on the following day Col- 
onel Williamson drove back the pursuing savages in a rain 
storm. The Indians, still smarting under the cowardly and 
inhuman massacre of their Moravian brethren, wreaked ven- 
gence on Colonel Crawford in lieu of Williamson, the real 
oft'ender, by burning him at the stake. Simon Girty was with 
the savages and witnessed this, one of the most revolting tor- 
tures in the annals of Indian warfare. Partly because of its 
spectacular and revolting features, this was probabh^ the most 
noted Revolutionary engagement within the territory later 
comprising Ohio. Crawford was an intimate friend and com- 
patriot of Washington during the Revolution and was highly 
esteemed by his people. 

In August, 1782, Simon Girty was sent from Detroit with 
Cald\vell and a party of Indians and British Rangers against 
Bryant's station near the upper Kentucky river. Failing to 
take this place they were pursued by a force of Kentuckians 
under Boone and other noted backwoodsmen, whom they de- 
feated in a hard fight at the Blue Licks. The Americans 
lost seventy men in this engagement and the Canadians only 
seven. Aroused at this raid, a thousand Kentucky riflemen 


assembled under Clark at the mouth of the Licking, crossed 
the Ohio and desolated the Miami valley. They destro_yed an 
Indian town on the present site of Piqua, Ohio, also Upper 
Piqua(Pickawillany), three miles above, and burned Loramie's 
store, fifteen miles beyond at the head of the portage leading 
to the St. Mary's river. This punishment cooled the ardor of 
the savages who now began to realize the growing numbers 
and strength of the Americans. The frontiers of Pennsyl- 
vania and western ^'^irginia were still harassed somev^'hat, but 
the close of the Revolution soon caused these incursions to 

After Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the 
Colonies she still retained possession of the principal lake 
posts, including Mackinac, Detroit, Niagara, Presque Isle, and 
those on the Sandusky and Maumee rivers, contrary to the 
express specifications of the treaty of 1783. To justify this 
policy, she pointed out that the United States had violated 
certain articles of this treaty referring to the payment of debts 
due British subjects and had even permitted the confiscation 
of many of her subjects' estates. The Americans contended 
that they had done all that they had promised in enforcing 
these provisions but that difficulty had arisen in trying to get 
the various states to change their laws to conform to the order 
recently inaugurated. 

In the eyes of the mother countrv the new government was 
considered somewhat of an experiment and was to be con- 
fined, if possible, between the Alleghanies and the Atlantic. 
The great struggle had bound the colonies together in a com- 
mon cause, but that being over, the}^ were loosely held by the 
Articles of Confederation until the adoption of the constitu- 
tion in 1787. Moreover, the lake posts were the receiving sta- 
tions for the very valuable fur trade and decided points of 
vantage for equipping the Indians and influencing them 
against the Americans. 

The French had concerned themselves mostly with trade 
and religious propagandism during their ascendency and had 
purchased only small tracts about their posts from the natives. 
At the peace of 1763 these had been transferred to Great Bri- 
tain and finally, in 1783, to the United States. Congress, how- 
ever, regarded all the lands north of the Ohio as forfeited on 
account of hostilities during the Revolution and by virtue of 
the British cession. Peace was accordingly granted to the 


Indians aiul their bounds fixed without further purchase of 

In October, 1784, the Six Nations held a treaty with the 
United States at Fort Stanvvix (Rome, Xew York). These 
powerful tribes had aided the British materially during the 
recent war but had been somewhat weakened by the expedi- 
tion of General John Sullivan against them in 1779. Oliver 
^^'olcott, Richard Butler and Arthur Lee represented the new 
government in the negotiations, while Cornplanter and Red 
Jacket took the chief part on behalf of the Indians. The latter 
desired to have a general council in which the principal tribes 
living northwest of the Ohio might participate but the govern- 
ment desired to deal directly with the Six Nations who had 
most actively aided the British in the late war. Red Jacket 
urged the assembled tribes with great spirit and eloquence to 
continue to fight the Americans. The saner counsel of the 
older chiefs finally prevailed, however, and a treaty was signed 
establishing peace with the hostile nations and securing them 
in the possession of the lands then actually occupied by them 
in return for the release of all prisoners then in their posses- 
sion and the relinquishment of all claim to the country west 
of an irregular line beginning near Niagara, extending to the 
intersection of the western boundary of Pensylvania by the 
Ohio river, thence down that river. 

Red Jacket was dissatisfied with the terms of this compact 
and continued to spread disaffection among his tribesmen. 
Chief Brant, who was absent in Canada at the time of the 
treaty, was highly displeased when he heard some of its pro- 
visions. This courageous chief cherished the plan of forming 
a grand confederacy of all the prominent northwestern tribes, 
together with the Six Nations, probably expecting to be made 
the great chief of the united tribes. For this purpose he now 
went here and there in the upper lake region and held coun- 
cils with the tribes. Late in 1785 he made a trip to England, 
partly with the purpose, no doubt, of sounding that govern- 
ment concerning its attitude in case of a general uprising of 
the confederated tribes. Fie bore a captain's commission in 
the British army, and being intelligent, tactful and refined 
was received with marked favor by the people whose govern- 
ment he had so zealously served. From this time until the 
end of the Indian wars he played an important part in leading 
and influencing his people. 

In Tanuarv, 1785. a treatv was held at Fort Mcintosh 


(Beaver, Pennsylvania), with the Wyandot, Delaware, Chip- 
pewa and Ottawa nations, at which these Indians agreed to 
relinquish their claim to lands lying east of the Cuyahoga river 
and south of a line running near the fortieth parallel to Lora- 
mie's store on the headwaters of the Miami, together with 
small tracts about Detroit and Michilimackinac, some 
30,000,000 acres in all. These tribes, however, were to retain 
their right of hunting as far south as the Ohio river. With 
some modifications this treaty was the basis of later negotia- 
tions with the new government. 

At Fort Finney (mouth of the Great ]\Iiami), the United 
States held a treaty with the Shawanese, Delawares and 
Wyandots in January, 1786. The Shawanese agreed to con- 
fine themselves between the Great j\Iiami and Wabash, but 
paid small attention to carrying out its provisions. A very 
bad spirit was manifested at this treaty and the Wabash 
tribes, whose presence was especially desired, absented them- 
selves, probably being influenced by the British agents. The 
remoter Indians, however, did not cease their depredations. 
Two expeditions were accordingly sent against them ; one in 
command of General Clark against the towns of the Wabash ; 
the other, under Colonel Logan, against the Shawanese be- 
tween the Miami and Scioto rivers. On account of the delay 
in the arrival of provisions, the discontent of the soldiers, and 
the desertion of a large body of troops, Clark's expedition 
was abandoned. Logan, however, destroyed several towns 
(in Logan county, Ohio), a lot of corn, and killed and cap- 
tured some of the enemy. 

In December, 1786, a grand council of the tribes was held 
near the mouth of the Detroit river. Together they formu- 
lated an address to Congress expressing surprise that they 
had not been considered in the treaty of peace with Great 
Britain ; stated their desire for continued peace provided the 
United States did not encroach upon their lands beyond the 
Ohio : and recommended that the government make no 
treaties with separate Indian tribes or nations, but with the 
Confederation alone. This was the grand ultimatum delivered 
to the LTnited States by the Confederated Tribes prior to the 
general war that came later and it shows the true points of 
contention between the Indians and the new government. 
Great Britain, through her Indian agent. Sir William Johnson, 
kept in close touch with the movements of her former allies 
and took advantage of ever}' rupture with the new govern- 


ment to show lier continued friendly attitude toward them. 

During the course of the RevoUition, Congress offered 
grants of land to volunteers in the American service, but Vir- 
ginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut claimed por- 
tions of the west by virtue of their old colonial charters, 
and purchase from the Indians. 

After the close of the war and the reawakened interest in 
the western country. Congress decided to open up these west- 
ern lands for settlement, but was confronted by the conflicting 
claims of these states. The old colonial charters, given when 
the extent of North America was unknown, extended the 
grants of land "from sea to sea." The crown, however, 
claimed the country between the Alleghanies and Mississippi 
after the French and Indian War, and the United States after 
the Revolution, by virtue of conquest. Maryland, and other 
states having no western claims, contended that all such 
claims should be ceded to the United States government for 
the general welfare. A lengthy controversy ensued which 
threatened the stability of the Confederation, but the whole 
matter was settled satisfactorily in 1786 when Connecticut 
followed the example of the other states interested and com- 
pleted the cession of these western claims, excepting a tract 
between the forty-first parallel and Lake Erie, reserved by 
this state, and one between the Scioto and the Little Miami 
rivers, reserved by \'irginia for her soldiers, together with a 
small tract at the falls of the Ohio. 

In 1787, while the last Congress under the articles of con- 
federation was in session, a petition was presented b}- Dr. 
^lanasseh Cutler in behalf of a company of New Englanders, 
organized to purchase lands and make a settlement north and 
west of the Ohio. In the meantime the famous "Ordinance 
of 1787," one of the wisest and farthest reaching charters ever 
given to anj^ people, was passed. It provided for the organiza- 
tion and government of the "Territory Northwest of the River 
Ohio." Among its wise provisions were: the prohibition of 
slavery; the promotion of education, morality and religion; 
and the formation of not less than three, nor more than five 
states, as conditions suggested. 

The grant of land asked for was made to the New England 
Company, and soon afterward John Cleves Symmes negoti- 
ated for the purchase of land between the Little and Great 
!Miami rivers. In 1788. a company of emigrants, including 
many distinguished Revolutionarv soldiers, floated down the 


Ohio from Pittsburg to the mouth of the Muskingum and 
founded Alarietta, which became the capital of the new coun- 
try. Thus the initial step was taken and from this time a 
steady flow of emigration set in. In a few years Gallipolis, 
^Manchester, Columbia and Fort Washington (Cincinnati) 
dotted the northern shore of the Ohio, and the soldiers of the 
Revolution, whose fortunes had been lost in the struggle for 
freedom, found a new home. 

Thus was inaugurated a new era in the old northwest, 
Xew forces were being set in motion which were destined to 
change the current of the ancient order and set up in the 
matchless forests and sacred hunting grounds of this western 
country a new and better civilization. With Fort Washing- 
ton as a base, the new government was about to engage in a 
series of hazardous conflicts with a savage foe, goaded on and 
assisted by the subtle agents of the British at Detroit. 

Only time could tell whether the Anglo-Saxon settlers were 
to be confined east of the mountains or spread indefinitely to 
the far west. The great White Chief AA^ashington desired 
peace, but was schooled in the art of war, and directed a free, 
hardy and vigorous constituency who would brook no inter- 
ference from a vanquished adversary without severe and pro- 
tracted resistance. The battlefields of the Revolution had 
schooled a host of warriors who knew how to reckon with a 
stalwart foe and these were to show their mettle on many a 
new field of conflict. 




Arthur St. Clair was appointed governor of the new North- 
west Territory. Juh' 13, 1788, and immediately became ac- 
tively engaged in the great work entrusted to him. A Scotch- 
man by birth, he had emigrated to North America in 1755 and 
rendered valuable service with the British during the French 
and Indian war. Settling in Pennsylvania, he espoused the 
cause of the colonies during the course of the Revolution and 
was prominently engaged at Three Rivers, Trenton. Prince- 
ton, Hubbardstown and Ticonderoga. Washington and 
Lafayette were his warm friends and a large and prominent 
circle enjoyed his polished attainments. His adopted country 
appreciated his loyal service and distinguished talents, and in 
1786 he was elected president of Congress. Thus equipped, 
he was soon to receive even greater honors and direct the ener- 
gies of an expanding people. On January 9, 1789, Governor 
St. Clair concluded two separate treaties of confirmation, one 
with the Five Nations, the Mohawks excepted ; the other with 
the Wyandots. Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawat- 
tomies and Sacs, at Fort Harmar, opposite Marietta, thus 
counteracting the formation of a grand Indian confederacy 
which had been agitated by some of the far-seeing chiefs of 
the various tribes. At the grand council of the northwestern 
tribes, held on the Maumee in the previous fall, the general 
sentiment was for peace. The Miamis, Shawanese, and tribes 
of the Wabash, however, failed to concur and desired to make 
the Ohio river the final boundary separating them from the 
Anglo-Saxon invaders. This sentiment was especially strong 
among the younger warriors who could scarcely be restrained 
by the wise counsels of the older chiefs. Many successful war 
parties were sent against the exposed settlements or waylaid 
the immigrants floating in open boats or upon rafts down the 
Ohio. The brutal atrocities committed by the Indians and 
the retaliatory raids of the rough settlers during this period 
are recited in the romantic and patriotic tales of the back- 
woodsmen, many of whom experienced extended captivity. 


Early in 1790, Governor St. Clair went to Fort Washington, 
Vincennes and Kaskaskia to set in motion the new govern- 
ment. This was the signal to the British and Indians to co- 
operate in opposing the advance of the frontier settlements, 
and attacks were accordingly commenced. At this time the 
northwest tribes could probably rally some fifteen thousand 
effective warriors, about one-third of whom were openly hos- 
tile to the new government. They no longer depended upon 
the bow and arrow and other crude implements of earlier sav- 
age warfare, but had become expert in the use of firearms 
through association with the French and British in the recent 
wars. Their courage, discipline and power of endurance were 
good oflfsets to the intelligence and strength of the Americans. 
The Wabash tribes became especially aggressive and Major 
Hamtramck, of Vincennes, tried to pacify them, but in vain. 
Hearing of these movements, St. Clair hastened to Fort 
Washington, in July, consulted with General Josiah Harmar, 
a Revolutionary soldier, commanding the United States In- 
fantry, and decided to send an expedition against the hostile 
tribes. He requested the militia of western Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky to co-operate with the federal forces and 
notified the British commandant at Detroit that the proposed 
expedition was not directed against any British post but in- 
tended solely to punish the Indians who had been attacking 
the frontiers. A mixed force was assembled at Fort Wash- 
ington, which, when ready to move, was composed of three 
battalions of Kentucky militia, under Majors Hall, McMullen 
and Ray, with Lieutenant-Colonel Trotter in command : one 
battalion of Pennsylvania militia under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Truby and Major Paul ; one battalion of mounted riflemen, 
commanded by -\Iaj. James Fontaine, together with two bat- 
talions of regulars under ]\Iajors P. Wyllys and John Doughty, 
and a company of artillery commanded by Captain William 
Ferguson. The entire force numbered fourteen hundred and 
fifty-three, including many boys and infirm men who had been 
sent as substitutes and were unfit for the hard service before 
them. This army, being hastily assembled, was necessarily 
poorly equipped and disciplined, and, as usual where mixed 
troops are employed, jealousy soon arose betwen the militia 
and regulars. The season being late, it was impossible to 
properly drill and discipline the awkward and insubordinate 
troops — thus increasing the hazard of the projected campaign. 
Harmar, who had served with merit in the Revolution, was 


first in command, and Colonel John Hardin led the militia, 
subject to his orders. Alajor Ebenezer Denny was appointed 
aide-de-camp to Harmar : Mr. Stephen Ormsby, brigadier- 
major to the militia ; and ^h. John Bellie, quartermaster. 

The militia advanced up the Mill Creek valley on September 
26th, and the main army followed on the 30th. The forces 
were united on the 3d of October and took the trace made by 
George R. Clark up the Little Miami valley, passing near the 
present sites of Lebanon and Xenia, Ohio; crossing Mad river 
at old Piqua town (between Dayton and Springfield, Ohio) ; 
proceeding northwesterly and crossing the Great Miami above 
the present site of Piqua, Ohio ; thence to the site of Loramie's 
store (Berlin, Ohio), across the old Indian and French port- 
age to the St. Hilary's river(near St. Mary's, Ohio), and on 
toward the Miami villages (Fort ^^'ayne, Ind.). These towns 
comprised a large number of wigwams of the Miamis, Shaw- 
anese and Delawares, and some log huts formerly occupied by 
British traders. This was the center from which the hostile and 
renegade Lidians had sent many war parties to harass the 
borders. The St. Joseph and St. Mary's branches meet here to 
form the Maumee river and along their banks v.-ere several 
small villages and the capital town of the confederacy sur- 
rounded by gardens, orchards and extensive cornfields which 
indicated long continued occupancy. 

Learning of the approach of a large army the Indians hast- 
ened to desert these villages. General Harmar was apprised 
of their movements by a captive and accordingly sent forward 
a detachment of six hundred light troops under Colonel Har- 
din on the 14th to surprise the stragglers, which he failed to 
do. The main army arrived at the deserted villages about 
noon on the 17th having accomplished a march of nearly one 
hundred and seventy miles from Fort A\''ashington. On the 
18th Harmar sent Colonel Trotter with three hundred men, 
including militia and regulars, to reconnoiter the country and 
ascertain the location of the enemy. This detachment 
marched a few miles but soon returned, reporting the slaying 
of two Indians. Colonel Hardin, displeased with Trotter's 
failure to accomplish his orders, was next dispatched with the 
same detachment. The men were given two days' provisions 
and marched on the 19th with great reluctance. About a third 
of the militia deserted before attaining three miles and re- 
turned to camp. Some ten miles out the balance of the troops 
were surprised by a party of about one hundred of the enemy 


under the celebrated [Miami chief, Little Turtle. The Indians 
commenced firing at a distance of about a hundred and fifty 
years and advanced, steadily driving the panic-stricken militia 
before them. Some few of the latter with about thirty of the 
regulars, however, stood firm and were cut to pieces. 

The main army advanced from the Miami village to Chilli- 
cothe, a Shawanese town two miles east, and proceeded to 
burn all property in sight, including corn, beans, hay, cabins, 
etc. Five villages and the capital town, besides some twenty 
thousand bushels of corn in ears having been destroyed, the 
army took up an orderly retreat for Fort Washington on the 
21st and marched eight miles. Thinking that the enemy 
would immediately return to the site of their destroyed vil- 
lages, Harmar sent back Major Wyllys with four hundred 
picked men, including sixty regulars, to surprise them. This 
detachment was in three divisions under Wyllys, Hall and 
McMullen. Major Hall was sent with part of the militia by 
a circuitous route to gain the enemy's rear, while the other 
troops were to engage them in front. On account of the im- 
prudence of some of Hall's men, this plan failed. The other 
militia now began the attack before the arrival of the regu- 
lars. Little Turtle, grasping the opportunity, threw his en- 
tire force first against the militia and then against the regu- 
lars with disastrous results. Most of the regulars were slain 
and the brunt of the fight fell on the remaining militia, who 
now fought desperately but were soon scattered and forced to 
retreat. The savages had lost heavily and did not pursue the 
retreating troops. When the main encampment was reached 
Hardin requested Harmar to send back the main army in order 
to finish the work on the site of the village. Harmar, it 
seems, had lost confidence in the militia, and, in view of the 
lack of forage and proper transportation facilities, refused this 
request. The Americans lost one hundred and eighty-three 
men including brave Major Wyllys and several valuable ofifi- 
cers on this expedition. 

The shattered and dispirited army resumed its dreary re- 
treat toward Fort Washington on the 23d. Bad feeling de- 
veloped between Harmar and Hardin on account of the unsat- 
isfactory action of the troops. Both were court-martialed 
later and acquitted, but Harmar soon resigned his commission 
in the army and retired to private life. 

The government seeing the inefficienc}^ of its first attempt 
in dealing with the Indians, adopted stronger measures. It 


was decided to offer peace to the western Indians; to organize 
expedieitions in the west against the villages of the ]\liamis, 
Shawanese and \\'eas, should they refuse to make peace; and 
to send a large force to build forts and take possession of the 
enemy's land. The British, who now seemed disposed to a 
peaceful settlement, urged Joseph Brant, the intelligent chief 
of the Mohawks and moving spirit of the Six Nations, to use 
his influence among his people for peace, thinking that the 
United States would allow the tribes to retain their posses- 
sions along the Maumee. 

On the night of January 2, 1791, a l)and of savages stealthily 
massacred a number of friendly New England settlers at Big 
Bottom blockhouse on the Muskingum, forty-six miles above 

The government still hoped for peace, however, and in 
]\Iarch sent Col. Thomas Proctor to placate the Senecas and 
proceed with their friendly chief, Cornplanter, to the council 
of the Mianiis on the Maumee. In April, Col. Timothy Pick- 
ering was also sent to the Senecas on a like mission. 

Soon after Harmar's expedition the frontier settlements of 
western Pennsylvania and along the Ohio river were again 
attacked and terror spread among the people south of the 
river. It is estimated that the population of the west at this 
time was between one hundred and fifty and two hundred 
thousand, scattered in groups ; one in southwestern Pennsyl- 
vania : two in western \"irginia, about Wheeling and the 
mouth of the Ivanawha ; and one in Kentucky, below the Lick- 
ing river. These settlers had poured in from the eastern 
states as well as from several European countries since the 
close of the Revolution, being attracted largely by the great 
fertility of the land and the exceptional business opportunities, 
For the most part they had floated down the Ohio in crude 
flat boats, but many had come overland b}' Boone's celebrated 
wilderness road. To the hardships of their life in a new and 
exceedingly rough country were added the terrors of Indian 
attacks, inspired by the killing, wounding, and capturing of 
more than fifteen hundred men, women and children in Ken- 
tucky and vicinity, since the peace of 1783. 

Delegates from several of the exposed counties of Virginia 
petitioned the governor, and the legislature of that state 
authorized him to make temporary provision for the protec- 
tion of the frontier until the United States government should 
take proper steps in the same direction. Charles Scott, who 


had served in the Revokition, was appointed brigadier-general 
of the militia of Kentucky, then a part of Virginia, and was 
ordered to raise a volunteer force to co-operate with several 
companies of rangers from the western counties, and proceed 
against the Wea villages on the Wabash (near Lafayette, 
Ind.). Scott chose two Revolutionary compatriots to accom- 
pany him on this raid — Col. James \A'ilkinson being placed 
second in command and Col. John Hardin in charge of the 
advance guard. The expedition was delayed until Alay 2i, 
1791, awaiting the return of Proctor, but, hearing nothing 
from him by that time, Scott crossed the Ohio at the mouth 
of the Kentucky with some eight hundred mounted men and 
arri\ed at Ouiatenon (Lafayette, Ind.), June 1st. Here he 
found a village of some se\'enty houses with a number ot 
French inhabitants living in a state of civilizatinn. The vil- 
lage was burned and a large quantity of corn and household 
goods destroyed. A detachment was sent on foot against Tip- 
pecanoe, the most important village, which it also destroyed. 
The army returned with several prisoners, reaching the Ohio 
in twelve days with the loss of only two men. 

On August 1, 1791, Colonel AA'ilkinson was sent against the 
Indians of the Eel v'xyqv with a command of five hundred and 
twenty-five mounted men. He encountered much difficulty 
in his march from Fort ^^'ashington on account of the 
boggy land. Arriving at the mouth of the Eel river he 
attacked the village located there, killed a few Indians and 
captured others. Proceeding to Tippecanoe and Ouiatenon, 
the army destroyed the corn which had been planted since 
Scott's raid. The army reached the rapids of the Ohio on 
the 21st, having marched some four hundred and fift}^ miles. 

The results accomplished by these desultory raids were 
similar to those of Harmar's expedition and left the savages 
in an enraged state of mind ready for the 'intrigues of the 
British agents of Canada and the lake posts. Colonel Johnson 
of the British Indian service, especially encouraged the In- 
dians in the idea that the Americans had no valid claim to any 
of their lands beyond the line established at the treat}' of Fort 
Stanwix after the French and Indian war. The actions of the 
Americans in assembling councils in various places for the 
apparent purpose of making peace and at the same time in- 
viting the Six Nations to espouse their cause against the west- 
ern tribes added to the confusion and gave the British agents 
a pretext to renew friendly relations with their old allies. 


The American peace commissioners who had been sent out 
in the spring carried on negotiations with the Six Nations. 
Colonel Pickering held a successful council with all except the 
Mohawks in June, 1791. Colonel Proctor and Cornplanter had 
tried to promote friendly relations with them in the spring, 
but Brant and Col. John Butler, of the British Indian service, 
had previously warned t.hem against the American agents. A 
long conference was held at Buffalo, but Brant had been sent 
on to the council of the JNIiamis in the meantime and the In- 
dians would do nothing definite in his absence, inasmuch as 
the sentiment of their people was much divided. The British 
commandant at Fort Niagara refused to allow the use of a 
schooner to carry Proctor. Cornplanter and some friendly 
warriors across Lake Erie to Sandusky thus defeating the 
purpose of their mission. While Brant was inflaming the 
Miamis, Proctor returned to Fort Washington without hav- 
ing reached them with his message of peace. 

Little Turtle, chief of the ]\Iiamis, a warrior of great intelli- 
gence, craft and courage, who led the attack against Harmar 
and who had great influence among the western tribes, to- 
gether with Blue Jacket, the great chief of the Shawanese, 
and Buckongehelas, chief of the Delawares, formed a confed- 
eracy of the northwestern savages to drive the white settlers 
be}-ond the Ohio. These chiefs, with the assistance of Simon 
Girty, Alexander McKee and Matthew Elliot, the renegades, 
headed a band of warriors whose discipline has probably 
never been equaled in Indian warfare. Nothing but a decisive 
blow Ijy a large and w^ell disciplined force could quell the up- 
rising being stirred up by these leaders. What the border 
states had attempted to do in a crude and spasmodic way the 
new government now decided to essav in an orderlv and or- 
ganized manner. Accordingly Governor St. Clair, who had 
been appointed a major-general in the L''^. S. army March 4. 
1791, and placed in chief command of the forces to be employed 
against the Indians was instructed to speedily assemble his 
forces. The object of the main expedition planned by the 
government was to establish a post at Ke-ki-on-gay, the 
Miami (Maumee) village (Fort Wayne) for the purpose of 
awing and curbing the Indians in that region, and preventing 
future hostilities. This village had been the seat of the pow- 
erful Miami nation from time immemorial and it was called 
by Little Turtle at the treaty of Greenville in 1795, "That 
glorious gate through which all the good words of our chiefs 


had to pass from the north to the south and from the east to 
the west." The troops were to consist of two small regiments 
of regular infantry, two regiments of levies and three hun- 
dred or four hundred Kentucky militia. "The mounted men 
were to receive two-thirds of a dollar per day and to be under 
command of their own officers, while footmen were to receive 
three dollars per month and be subject to military law." It 
proved a difficult task to preserve harmony among the regu- 
lars and volunteers, as the latter would scarcely submit either 
to the discipline of the army, or to the slow movements which 
one having a road to cut every step he advanced, and forts to 
build was necessarily subjected to — neither would they labor. 
St. Clair found himself confronted by the same problems that 
had vexed poor Harmar. The small pay and unattractive 
conditions of service filled the ranks of the regulars with 
many weak, diseased and unfit men from the streets of the 
Eastern cities. The best of the troops were trained only 
in regulation mass movements which were totally inadequate 
for fighting a stealthy savage foe concealed in the fastness 
of a dense forest. The experienced backwoodsmen with the 
militia were better trained for meeting the Indians on their 
own ground, but they were in the minority. The Indians 
on the other hand were unencumbered with baggage, free, 
stealthy and elastic in their movements, were thoroughly 
acquainted with the shadowy recesses of the forest and in- 
ured to hardship and deprivations. 

Preparations for the expedition were now pushed vigor- 
ousl}- but at a great disadvantage. The Secretary of War 
was just getting initiated in a newly created office and suf- 
fared for want of adequate equipment. I\Iaj.-Gen. Richard 
Butler, an officer of the Pennsylvania line in the Revolution 
who had served in Harmar's expedition, had been placed 
second in command with orders to remain in Pennsylvania 
to recruit and forward troops. Two thousand levies were 
to be raised, marched to Fort Pitt (Pittsburg) in companies 
as soon as collected ; and there receive orders from St. Clair. 
They could be safely sent in small companies, but were held 
back by Butler to protect the frontiers according to orders 
from the ^^'ar Department, much to the annoyance of St. 
Clair, who kept urging that they be sent to Fort Washington 
'Sir. Samuel Hogdon had been appointed Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral of the army and, although zealous, seems to have been 
totally unfit for the responsibilities of the position. The 


delay in forwarding troops was also partly due to his failure 
in furnishing horses, supplies, provisions, and the necessary 
boats for transportation. St. Clair arrived at Fort Wash- 
ington on the 15th of May after passing through Lexington 
to arrange for the forwarding of the Kentucky militia. Here 
he found a garrison of but eighty-five men fit for duty. The 
arms and accoutrements left from Harmar's expedition were 
in bad condition and the supplies forwarded later by the 
quartermaster from time to time were deficient both in quan- 
tity and quality. Xew gun carriages had to be made ; the 
deficiencies of the camp equipage supplied ; nearly all ot 
the ammunition had to be made up and a laboratory equipped 
for this purpose. Alusket shells, artillery cartridges, and 
shells for the howitzers had to be filled — a tedious and labor- 
ious business. Not only ammunition for the campaign but 
also for the garrison of 1,200 or more for the projected post 
at the Maumee and intermediate posts must be prepared. 
Workshops and an armorj^ had to be built and tools con- 
structed. In his report the general said : "A great number 
of axes, camp kettles, knapsacks, kegs for the musket cart- 
ridges, and spare cannon ball, and boxes of ammunition had 
to be made ; and cordage of various kinds, and the cartridge 
boxes to be repaired. Splints for the wounded were to be 
made of half-jacked leather prepared on the spot. In short, 
almost every art was going forward, and Fort \\'ashington 
had as much the appearance of a large manufactory on the 
inside, as it had of a military post on the outside." To per 
form all this labor smiths, carpenters, harnessmakers, col- 
liers, wheelwrights, etc., had to be drafted from all that could 
be found among the troops as they slowly arrived. Consid- 
erable cattle and horses for the use of the army had to be 
cared for and, on August 7th, the country near the fort being 
eaten ofT, all the troops that had arrived, except the artificers 
and a small garrison, advanced about six miles northward to 
Ludlow's station. On the 1st of September the Secretary of 
War wrote to St. Clair: "The President enjoins you by ev- 
ery principle that is sacred to stimulate your operations in 
the highest degree, and to move as rapidly as the lateness of 
the season and the nature of the case will possibly admit. '" 
The balance of the troops, however, had not yet arrived at 
the above date, but soon came on and joining those at Lud- 
low's station, moved northward on the 17th toward the cross- 
ing of the Great Miami river about twentv miles distant. 


where a fort was built to command the river crossing, to 
serve as a place for depositing provisions, and to form the 
first link in the chain of forts projected between Ft. Wash- 
ington and the Indian village on the ^tlaumee. St. Clair de- 
scribed this post in the following very interesting manner: 
"A stockade fifty yards square, with four good bastions, and 
platforms for cannon in two of them, with barracks for about 
two hundred men, with some good storehouses, etc." "The 
circuit of that fort is about one thousand feet, through the 
whole extent of which a trench about three feet deep was dug 
to set the picquets in, of which it required more than two 
thousand to enclose it ; and it is not trees, taken promis- 
cuously, that will answer for picquets ; they must be tall 
and straight and from nine to twelve inches in diameter (for 
those of a larger size are too unmanageable). Of course few 
trees that are proper are to be found without going over 
a considerable space of woodland. \\'hen fmmd they are 
felled, cleared of their branches, and cut into lengths of 
about twenty feet. They were then carried to the ground 
and butted, that they might be placed firm and upright in 
the trench, with the axe or cross-cut saw ; some hewing 
upon them was also necessary, for there are few trees so 
straight that the sides of them will come in contact when 
set upright. A thin piece of timber, called a ribband, is run 
round the whole near the top of the picquets. to which every 
one of them is pinned with a strong pin, without which they 
would decline from the perpendicular with every blast of 
the wind, some hanging outward, and some inward, which 
would render them in a great measure useless. The earth 
thrown out of the trench is then returned and strongly 
rammed to keep the picquets firmly in their places, and a 
shallower trench is dug outside about three feet distant, to 
carrj' off the water and prevent their beiiig moved bv the 
rains ; about two thousand picquets are set up inside, one 
between every two others : the work is then inclosed. But 
previously the ground for the site of the fort had to be cleared 
and two or three hundred yards round it, which was very 
thickly wooded and was a work of time and labor. (The 
ground where this fort stands is on the east side of the Miami 
river, on the first bank; but there is a second bank consid- 
erably elevated, within point blank shot, which rendered it 
necessary to make the quicquets, particularly along the land 
side, of a height sufficient to prevent an enemy seeing into 


the area, and taking the river in reverse, and a high platform 
was raised in one of the bastions on the land side to scour 
the second bank with artillery. Another made with the 
trunks of trees, and covered with plank, as that was, was 
raised in one of the bastions toward the river, in order to 
command the ford, and the river for some distance up and 
down. Plank was sawed for the platform and the gate, and 
barracks for one hundred men ; a guardroom, two storehouses 
for provisions, and barracks for the officers were constructed 
within it, and all this was done in abijut fourteen da}-s, al- 
most entirely by the labor of the men ; though some use was 
made of oxen in drawing timber ; the woods were so thick 
and encumbered with underwood, it was found to be the most 
expeditious method to carry it.)" 'This post was named Fort 

The main part of the amy, consisting of two small regi- 
ments of regular infantry, and the levies, about two thou- 
sand in all, left this place October 4, and were followed on 
the 5th b}' some three hundred and fifty Kentucky militia. 
Many of the regulars had rendered distinguished service 
during the Revolution and the militia included a number of 
the hardy pioneers who had engaged in the recent raids and 
expeditions of the exposed border. St. Clair, in describing 
the marching order of the troops, observes : "When the 
army was in march, it was preceded by a small party of rifle- 
men, with the surveyor, to mark the course of the road ; for 
we had no guides, not a single person being found in the 
country who had ever been through i.t, and both the geog- 
raphy and the topography were utterly unknown ; the march 
was, therefore, made up on a compass course, conjectural in- 
deed, but which proved to be suificientlv correct, as it 
brought us into a large path leading to the Miami towns about 
twenty miles from them ; from that party scouts were sent out 
to scour the country every way. Then followed the road cut- 
ters with a party to cover them ; then the advanced guard, and 
after them the army in two columns, with one piece of artillery 
in front, one in the center, and one in the rear of each. In the 
space betwen the two columns marched the remaining artil- 
lery, destined for the fort at the ]\Iiami towns ; then the horses 
with the tents and provisions, and then the cattle with their 
proper guard, who were to remove them in case of the enemy 
appearing. '\\^ithout the columns, at a distance of about one 
hundred vards, march the cavalrv in file, and without them at 


the same distance, a party of riflemen, and scouts without 
them ; then followed the rear guard at a proper distance." 
Roads for the artillery had to be cut through the thick tim- 
ber nearly all the waj^ and some considerable bridges built. 

Progress was necessarily very slow and by the evening of 
the 9th the army had advanced but twenty miles from Ft. 
Hamilton through a level, well watered and fertile country. 
On the 10th an open beech country was reached (near Eaton, 
Ohio) and about eight miles made. Progress continued fair 
until the following afternoon when the army was forced to 
encamp on the margin of an extensive wet prairie (Maple 
Swamp), at the headwaters of Twin creek (near Castine, 
Ohio), some thirty-eight miles in advance of Ft. Hamilton. 
Two parties were sent out to reconnoiter on the morning of 
the 12th, one to the westward under iMajor Denny, the other 
eastward under Maj. Butler. It was ascertained that the 
arm}' could not continue on its regular course west of north 
without constructing a causeway of about a thousand feet. A 
suitable passage was found around the swamp to the eastward 
which soon led into a well worn Indian path leading through 
and avoiding the wet places. Bv following this the army 
advanced some six miles and encamped in an excellent, well- 
watered spot. 

On the morning of the 13th. St. Clair reconnoitered the 
country and selected a site for a fort of deposit a mile in 
advance of camp on one of the gravel knolls of this beautiful 
rolling region. (Hills of Judea.) A fort one hundred feet 
square with four good bastions was soon laid out and the 
work of building commenced. The weather now became cold 
and wet and the work progressed slowly. Provisions for 
the army were inadequate, the terms of enlistment of many of 
the levies expired, and great discontent developed. Some of 
the levies were discharged, and several of the militia deserted. 
Two artillery men were hanged for desertion and one of the 
levies for shooting a comrade. 

At this critical time Gen. Butler, who was second in com- 
mand, proposed to St. Clair that he be allowed to take one 
thousand picked men and go to the Maumee villages, and 
there establish the projected post, leaving the commander-in- 
chief to finish the fort and follow at his leisure. The season 
was late, and as St. Clair was advanced in 3'ears and very 
much indisposed at times by attacks of the gout, this was pro- 
posed ostensibly to relieve him and hasten the consummation 



of the campaign. The general, however, was very disagree- 
ably surprised by the proposition and refused the proli'er. 
Butler seems to have taken offense at the rebuff' and grown 
more reserved in his relations with St. Clair, although the 
latter thought that his own action was a proper exercise of 
his power as head of the army. After much delay the little 
log fort was completed, garrisoned with a small detachment, 
equipped with two pieces of artillery and named Fort Jeffer- 

On the 24th the army took up the line of march northward 
following the Indian trail along the high ground on the east 
side of the prairie. A fine country with rich soil and beauti- 
ful oak woods was now encountered. After proceeding some 
five miles an excellent elevated camp site with a wide Lreek 
in front and a large prairie on the left was discovered. Here 
(Greenville, Ohio) the army halted a week, grazing the 
horses, awaiting tlie delayed supplies and preparing for the 

Gen. St. Clair continued ill, the weather inclement and dis- 
content prevailed among the troops. On the 29th. a bridge 
was thrown across the creek, and a corps of road-cutters sent 
forward under a strong guard of militia. The friendly chief 
Piomingo, with nineteen warriors, and Capt. Sparks, with 
four riflemen, were sent oitt to ascertain the location and 
strength of the enemj^ The army broke camp on the 30th 
and proceeded on a course twenty-five degrees west of north, 
^^'ith much difficulty seven miles were gained this day and 
the troops were forced to encamp in a very thick woods. 
(Probably in section 20, Brown township, Darke county.) 
During the night a heavy storm arose, precipitating much 
timber in the camp and causing considerable confusion. While 
the troops remained encamped here awaiting provisions sixty 
of the disgruntled militia marched off threatening to plunder 
the second convoy of provisions which was then thought to 
be within twenty miles on the trail. In order to save ihe 
supplies, which were necessary for the sustenance of the 
army, and to prevent further desertions, the whole of the 
First regiment of regulars, the flower of the army, was de- 
tached and sent back. The quartermaster had failed to start 
the convoy at the appointed time, however, and this regiment 
became separated from the main body by a greater distance 
than anticipated, thus reducing the effective fighting force 
to about 1,400 men. The first convoy of some two hundred 


horses loaded with flour arrived in the evening of the olst. 
The road cutters advanced on Nov. 1st, and the army followed 
on the 2d, after depositing the heavy and superfluous baggage. 
The troops now labored through the flat, marshy country, 
near the "spreads of Stillwater," which creek they crossed 
about noon. In the afternoon their trail was joined by an- 
other Indian path, indicating that the right course was being 
followed. The direction this day was north, twenty-five de- 
grees east and the army encamped after gaining eight miles. 
On the 3d the troops broke camp at nine o'clock and gained 
nine miles on a course thirty degrees west of north. The 
first four miles continued very flat and wet but at noon the 
ridge which divides the waters of the Ohio from those of 
Lake Erie was passed over and descent made to a small creek 
three miles further on. A few Indians had been observed 
hanging about the flanks of the army and on the 3d a larger 
number than usual were noticed. After a hard march through 
the cold on short rations the army arrived about sunset on 
that day at a small stream about 60 feet wide flowing south- 
ward, which was supposed to be the St. Mary's branch of the 
]\Iaumee, but was in fact a branch of the east fork of the 
A\'abash. Here an encampment was made in two lines on a 
slightly elevated piece of timbered ground, barely large 
enough to accommodate the army. To the north and east 
the view was obstructed by the thick forest. On the south a 
prairie bordered by a fringe of low marshy ground, thickly 
studded with trees and low brush skirted the camp. Along 
the west side or front of the camp, the east bank of the Wa- 
bash was some twenty-five feet above the river, which was 
probabh' thirty or forty feet wide and knee deep at this place. 

The blufif was also thickly set with forest trees and under- 
brush. Across the stream to the west the bottom land par- 
took of the nature of a low, wet prairie about sixty rods wide, 
covered with tall, rank grass, and clumps of willow and spice 

The first line of the encampment was composed of Butler's, 
Clark's and Patterson's battalions of levies, and commanded 
by Gen. Butler. The second consisted of Bedinger's and 
Gaither's battalions and the Second regiment of regulars com- 
manded by Lieut-Col. Darke, and was about 200 feet to the 
rear of and parallel with the first. The right flank was pro- 
tected by the creek : the left by a steep bank, Faulknor's corps 
and some of the infantrv. The militia advanced about a 


fourth of a mile across the creek bottom and camped on high 
ground. It had been a hard day"s march and it was near 8 
o'clock before the scanty mess was cooked. The soldiers, 
tired and worn, were soon sleeping heavily. Capt. Slough of 
the First battalion of levies was sent out with some thirty 
picked men with instructions to advance one, two or three 
miles along the trail in search of Indians. About midnight 
they returned, with the report that they had fired on a party 
of six or seven savages, killing one, and had been passed by 
a much larger party later going toward the camp. The re- 
port, according to Capt. Slough's testimony, was made to 
Maj.-Gen. Butler, w'ho then dismissed him for the night with- 
out instructions to inform St. Clair. Col. Oldham of the 
militia also predicted an attack in the morning. Gen. St. 
Clair had observed on the afternoon previous that he did not 
expect an attack yet and in the evening concerted plans with 
Major Ferguson of the artillery for throwing up a small earth- 
work, wherein to have deposited the knapsacks and heavj- 
luggage. He then intended to make a forced march to the 
Maumee village, which he thought to be about fifteen miles, 
but which was, in fact, some fifty miles distant, as soon as 
the First regiment came up. He was permitted to do neither, 
for on the 4th about sunrise, just after the regular morning- 
parade, and while the soldiers were preparing breakfast, the 
swarming savages, who had been camping but a short dis- 
tance beyond the militia, made a sudden attack on the pickets 
of the militia across the creek. A few shots were exchanged, 
but fear seized the Kentuckians, and thev rushed pell mell 
into the main camp, pursued by a large party of Indians, 
whooping and yelling fiercely. A volley from the artillery in 
the front drove the latter back to cover but they soon renewed 
their fire and gradually encircled the encampment, conceal- 
ing themselves behind trees, brush and logs and pouring in 
a galling fire. The soldiers were cramped for room and ex- 
posed because of the nature of the ground on which they were 
encamped and made an easy target for the savages, who were 
expert marksmen. The main fire was directed against the 
men at the guns in the center of the encampment and they 
were driven away again and again with great slaughter. This 
was kept up for perhaps an hour and a half until nearlv every 
officer of the artillery had been killed or wounded and all the 
guns silenced. The roar of the artillery and rattle of the 
muskets of the regulars may have tended to awe the savages. 


but much ammunition was wasted by the random shooting 
of the untrained troops. Alen were falling in great numbers 
in all parts of the camp, confusion was spreading, and the 
Indians, becoming emboldened, swarmed forward to seize the 
guns. Previously they had flitted from cover to cover under 
the pall of smoke, but now they became more exposed at close 
quarters. A spirited charge was made against them under 
Col. Darke and they were driven back across the creek at the 
point of the bayonet. For want of a sufficient number of 
riflemen to follow up this charge, they were forced to return 
and were gradually followed by the Indians, who pressed for- 
ward from tree to tree and soon came into camp on the left 
flank. Here they were met by a spirited charge from the Sec- 
ond regiment, Butler's and Clark's battalions, and pushed 
back. Again and again this was repeated, but with great loss, 
especially of the officers, who had to expose themselves to rally 
the raw and undisciplined troops. Early in these charges 
Major Butler was dangerously wounded and all the officers 
of the Second regiment fell except three. Both St. Clair and 
Butler exhibited great bravery throughout, the latter, al- 
though indisposed, having Ijeen mortally wounded, continued 
to give orders while propped up in the center of the camp. 
In spite of his advanced age and enfeebled condition, St. Clair 
rode up and down the lines attempting to rally and reassure 
the fearful troops. The fire was continued nearly three 
hours on front and flank until the majority of the officers and 
half of the army were either killed or wounded. The terri- 
fied soldiers now crowded to the center of the camp, where 
the wounded had previously been taken for safety, being 
pressed gradually closer from all sides by the exulting sav- 
ages. The remnant of the army became stupefied and be- 
wildered and it became necessary to order a retreat. Accord- 
ingly, about 9 o'clock Col. Darke was ordered to make a 
charge and with a'number of the best men made a feint, driv- 
ing the Indians beyond the road and thus making an opening 
through which the balance of the troops hurried pell mell 
with the militia in front. The Indians had been thrown into 
confusion by the charge, but, discovering its object, soon 
pursued the straggling army along the trail and harassed the 
rear for four or five miles. Attracted by the rich booty, how- 
ever, they soon returned to plunder the camp and mutilate, 
torture and kill those of the wounded who had been left on 
the field. Here a sickening sight presented itself. Huddled 



in a comparatively small space were piles of the slain on the 
frozen ground, the silent cannon, the deserted tents and val- 
uable camp equipments all abandoned in the flight for life. 
\\'hile the Indians were carousing, securing their plunder, 
scalping and disfiguring the slain, and gloating over their 
victims, the routed army continued its retreat and kept throw- 
ing away arms and equipments in the panic of fear. Nearly 
all the horses had been taken or killed and St. Clair, mounted 
on a slow pack-horse, was unable to reach the front himself 
and the other officers found it impossible to establish order 
and check the flight. The rout continued along the rude trail 
to Fort Jefferson, a distance of about thirty miles through 
the dense wilderness, where the men arrived just after sun- 
set. Here the First regiment, which had been sent back to 
intercept the deserters, was met, but in view of the broken 
condition of the troops, the lack of provisions in the fort, and 
the strength of the enemy, it was decided to leave the wound- 
ed here and continue the march toward Fort Washington. 
-Accordingly the advance troops set out about ten o'clock, 
marched until nearly daylight of the 5th, and halted until the 
rear came up. The army moved on about 9 o'clock and soon 
met the convoy, arrived at Fort Hamilton on afternoon of 
6th. and at Fort Washington in afternoon of 8th. 

The number of Indians, Canadians and half breeds in this 
engagement has been variously estimated at from 700 to 2,500 
or 3,000, but 1.000 or 1,500 is considered a conservative figure, 
and the amount of government property either lost or de- 
stroyed is put at about $34,000. The principal tribes engaged 
were the Delawares, Shawanese, Wyandots, Miamis, Otta- 
was. Chippewas and Pottawatomies. Litte Turtle, chief of 
the JMiamis, was their leader, and was ably assisted by Blue 
Jacket, Bukongehelas, Black Eagle, and the renegades Simon 
Girty and Blackstaffe. The warriors had poured in from the 
Wabash and the far north ; and it is even asserted that Captain 
Brant with one hundred and fifty select Mohawk warriors 
took part in this rem.arkable engagem.ent. 

Their loss was estimated at about 150 killed and several 
wounded, but because of their custom of carrying away or 
concealing the slain it is difficult to ascertain their exact num- 
ber. The Americans had thirty-nine officers killed and twen- 
ty-one wounded, and their entire loss was estimated at 677 
killed, including thirty or more women, and 271 wounded, a 
loss probably as great as any suiTered in a single battle of 


the Revolution. The remarkable number of officers killed 
bears unmistakable testimony to the braver)- and patriotic 
devotion of these men. The list is as follows: Gen. Rich- 
ard Butler, Col. Oldham, of the militia; Majors Ferguson, 
Hart and Clark ; Captains Bradford, Phelan, Kirkwood, Price, 
Van Swearingen, Tipton, Purdy, Smith, Piatt, Gaither, Crebbs 
and Newman; Lieutenants Spear, Warren, Boyd, McMath, 
Burgess, Kelso, Read, Little, Hopper and Likens ; Ensigns 
Cobb, Balch, Chase, Wilson, Brooks, Beatty and Purdy, be- 
sides two quartermasters and two adjutants. Among the 
wounded were: Col. Sargent (the Adj.-General) ; Lieut-Col. 
Gibson (who died later at Ft. Jefferson) ; Major Thomas But- 
ler and Viscount ]\Ialartie, volunteer aide-de-camp to St. 
Ciair. It was Maj. Denny's opinion that Gen. Butler might 
ha\e been saved if he could have been gotten off the field, but 
his size precluded this action. On account of the indispo- 
sition of both general officers the brunt of the campaign had 
fallen on the Adjutant-General. Col. Sargent, who assumed 
this difficult and serious task with alacrity. General Har- 
mar had predicted defeat before the army set out because of 
the poor material which composed the buk of the army, the 
inexperience of the officers in fighting Indians, and the haste 
in preparation. The ignorance of the presence of a large body 
of the enemy also contributed materially to the result. Add- 
ed to this was the Indian's advantage of fighting on his own 
ground and in his own way. 

The new government was experimenting in Indian war- 
fare and had much to learn. Washington recalled Braddock's 
defeat and had warned St. Clair before departing. The latter 
sent his aide, Maj. Ebenezer Denny, with the news of the de- 
feat to the President at Philadelphia. On account of high 
waters and ice in the Ohio river and the .bad condition of 
roads it took twenty days to reach \Anieeling from Fort Wash- 
ington and ten more to reach Philadelphia. President Wash- 
ington received the dispatch while eating dinner, but contin- 
ued his meal and acted as usual until all the company had 
gone and his wife had left the room, leaving no one but him- 
self and Secretary, Col. Lear. He now commenced to walk 
back and forth in silence and after some moments sat down 
on a sofa. His manner now showed emotion and he ex- 
claimed suddenly : "St. Clair's defeated — routed ; the offi- 
cers nearly all killed, the men by wholesale, the rout com- 
plete! Too shocking to think of — a surprise in the bargain." 


Pausing again, rising from the sofa, and walking back and 
forth, he stopped short and again broke out with great vehe- 
mence : "Yes ! here on this very spot I took leave of him ; 
I wished him success and honor. You have j-our instruc- 
tions,' I said, 'from the Secretary of War. I had a strict e3"e 
to them, and will add but one word, beware of a surprise ! 
You know how the Indians fight us !" He went off with that 
as my last solemn warning thrown into his ears. And yet, 
to suft'er that army to be cut to pieces — hacked by a surprise, 
the very thing I guarded against! O God! he's worse than 
a murderer. * * *'' The President again sat down on the 
sofa and his anger subsided. At length he said: "This must 
not go beyond this room." After a while he again spoke in 
a lower tone: "General St. Clair shall have justice. I looked 
hastily through the dispatches, saw the whole disaster, but 
not all the particulars. I will hear him without prejudice: 
he shall have full justice." A committee of the House of 
Representatives investigated the cause of St. Clair's defeat 
and acquitted him with honor because of the stupendous ob- 
stacles encountered in forwarding the expedition and the 
marked courage shown bj' St. Clair and the ofificers during 
the terrible engagement. St. Clair retained the confidence of 
AVashington to the last and continued to serve as Governor 
of the new territory until the admission of Ohio as a state in 
1803. He served his country well at his own personal loss 
and died at Greensburg, Pa., in 1818 at an advanced age and 
in comparative poverty, having seen the final overthrow of 
the hostile tribes and the permanent founding of civilization 
in this matchless region of the northwest. It has been pro- 
posed by the Ohio State Historical Society to erect a suitable 
memorial to his memory in the state house grounds at Colum- 
bus, and such action deserves the hearty co-operation and 
approval of all patriotic .Americans. 


The defeat of St. Clair cast a gloom over the frontiers of 
Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky and along the Ohio, 
causing immigration to the northwest territory to cease ab- 
ruptly. The tribes did not seem immediately disposed to 
make a united stand, but predatory bands lurked about the 
stations and attacked the scattered settlements north of the 
Ohio. It was even found diiificult to hold and supply the 
chain of army posts established by St. Clair because of the 
marauding bands of savages, constantly interfering with the 
operations of the few regular American troops stationed at 
Fort Washington. The shock of defeat was also felt in the 
new nation at large and the Eastern people were especially 
conservative on the question of financing and equipping an 
army to fight the Indians of the western border. The fron- 
tier men naturally resented this indifl^erent policy and harassed 
the federal authorities. 

President Washington, however, sincerely desired peace, 
and early in 1792 made overtures and took proper steps to 
make the friendly disposition of his government known to the 
sulking savages. In response to his urgent invitation fifty 
warriors, representing the Six Nations, came to Philadelphia, 
the new capital, early in March. The President and Com- 
missioner Pickering addressed them, setting forth the just and 
humane disposition of the Americans and urging them to use 
their potent influence with the western tribes in order to con- 
ciliate them and bring about peace without resort to arms. 
This they promised to do, but did not set out for the of- 
fended tribes until September. 

Major Alexander Truman, of the First United States reg- 
ulars, and Col. John Hardin, of the Kentucky Horse, were 
dispatched to the Miami village (Fort Wayne) by way of 
Fort Washington. Captain Hendrick, a Stockbridge Indian, 
and Captain Brant, of the Mohawks, Avere urged to attend the 
grand council of the tribes, to be held during the summer on 
the Maumee, and make known the friendly attitude of the 
new government with a view to peaceful negotiations. 


Brigadier-General Rtifus Putnam was sent to the ^^'abash 
tribe with an exceptional commission. He was given copies 
of all the treaties which the new government had consum- 
mated with various tribes and nations and instructed to con- 
vince the Indians that peace is desired, all unjust land claims 
renounced, to urge the treaty of Fort Harmar as a fair basis 
of negotiations, insist on the safety of the outposts, and in- 
sure the just, liberal and humane co-operation of the govern- 
ment in all matters pertaining to their welfare. Captain 
Feter Pond and William Steedman were sent as secret spies, 
with instructions to mingle with the tribes on the ]\Iaumee 
and Wabash in the guise of traders, ascertain their views and 
intentions, and, if practicable, openly announce the peaceable 
and benevolent intentions of the Great Father at Philadelphia. 

The well laid plans of the new goverrnnent were doomed to 
miscarry. The spies were intercepted at Niagara ; Truman 
and tiardin were treacherously murdered. Brant arrived at 
his destination after the council had broken up, and Hendrick 
yielded to the wiles of the British agent, McKee, and failed 
to attend the council. 

Putnam, however, proceeded to Fort Washington, where 
he met the Commandant, Brigadier-General James ^^'ilkinson, 
who reported that a band of Indians had made an attack upon 
a body of men near Fort Jefi'erson, capturing and killing six- 
teen of the latter. This advanced post was closely watched 
by the Indians who continually harassed its small garrison. 
The murder of four other whites was reported and Putnam 
hastened to Vincennes accompanied by Heckewelder, the 
^Moravian missionarj'. Here he concluded a treaty with the 
Wabash and Illinois tribes on September 27th, which, how- 
ever, was not ratified by the Senate because it provided that 
the tribes should retain all the lands to which they had a just 
claim. It probably restrained the restless elements in these 
tribes from engaging in the opening histilities. 

In October, 1792, a grand council was held at Grand Glaize 
(Defiance, Ohio). It was attended by the chiefs of all the 
northwestern tribes, about fifty chiefs of the Six Nations, be- 
sides many from remoter tribes. .\s usual, the Shawanese 
chiefs clamored for war and then requested an explanation 
of the instructions of Congress. Red Jacket, on behalf of the 
Six Nations, plead for peace and reminded the Shawanese 
that the Indians had sold all of their lands lying east o' the 
Ohio to the British, and that they had assisted the latter 


during the Revolution, at the termination of which the States 
took possession of all the lands which the English had for- 
merly taken from the French. The Shawanese then recalled 
St. Clair's expedition and defeat; stated that peace messen- 
gers, who had been treacherously killed on the way, had been 
sent by this bloody road, and that, consecjuently, the voice of 
peace must now pass through the Six Nations. They consent- 
ed to treat with the President early in the following spring 
and to lay aside the tomahawk until they should hear from 
him through the Six Nations. The latter promptly informed 
the President of these proceedings and urged him to send 
suitable men to the coming council and to forward a mes- 
sage to the western tribes without delay. 

The armistice agreed upon was not kept, for at dawn, on 
November 6th, 1792, a large party of Indians furiously at- 
tacked a detachment of mounted Kentucky volunteers under 
-Major John Adair, encamping near Fort St. Clair (Eaton, 
Ohio), a post recently established between Forts Hamilton 
and Jefferson, to assist in the transportation of forage and sup- 
plies to the latter post. A desperate conflict followed in 
which the Indians were severely punished and the Americans 
lost ten men, six being killed and four missing, besides five 
wounded. Adair's riflemen sought shelter in the fort and the 
Indians retreated, carrying oS most of the horses belonging 
to the detachment. 

In spite of these hostile demonstrations the government still 
confidently hoped to establish peace, and for this purpose sent 
three distinguished commissioners. General Benjamin Lin- 
coln, Beverly Randolph and Timothy Pickering, to meet the 
tribes at the Maumee rapids early next spring. They were 
instructed to insist on the provisions of the treaty of Fort, demand the relinquishment of certain posts estab- 
lished beyond the stated boundary, and agree to pay to the 
several tribes proportionately the sum of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, besides ten thousand dollars annually forever in case 
an amicable agreement should be reached. 

Proceeding to Niagara in May, 1793, the commissioners 
were detained until late in June, when they embarked for the 
Detroit river to await the meeting of the Indians. They were 
again detained at Erie b}' contrary winds, and on July 5th 
Col. Butler, of the British Indian service, and Captain Brant, 
with some fifty Indians, arrived from the !Maumee. The lat- 
ter had been deputized by the assembled tribes to confer with 


the commissioners in the presence of the Governor of Upper 
Canada. Brant stated that the tribes had not assembled at 
the time and place appointed because of their distrust of the 
warlike movements of the United States and asked an ex- 
planation of the same. He also inquired if the commission- 
ers were properly authorized to establish a new boundary line 
between the Americans and the Indians. 

The commissioners replied that all hostilities had been for- 
bidden until the result of the proposed treaty at Sandusky 
should be known ; that peace was desired and that they were 
authorized to establish boundaries. They further assured the 
British agents that they would promptly inform the President 
of the proceedings and request him to restrain the military 
commanders, w'ho were at that time actively engaged in 
strengthening and supplying the frcmtier posts and preparing 
for contingent hostilities. 

Being assured by the statements of the commissioners. 
Brant agreed to deliver their peaceful message to the chiefs 
in council on the ^lanmee and then accompanied them across 
Lake Erie to the mouth of the Detroit river. From this place 
the commissioners communicated with the assembled tribes 
and patiently awaited their reply. 

The Indians were suspicious of the Vvarlike preparations of 
the Americans, of which they kept well informed by runners 
and spies, and, after much serious deliberation and spirited 
debate, delivered their grand ultimatum through Elliott and 
Simon Girty, asserting that the tribes had not been properly 
represented at former treaties, and insisting that the Ohio 
river must be the final boundary line separating them from 
the whites, as provided by the treaty of Fort Stanwix. 

In answer the commissioners called their attention to the 
inconsistency of their position in insisting on the first treaty 
of Fort Stanwix as a basis of final adjustment, inas- 
much as several treaties had been held since, at which large 
tracts of land had been purchased in good faith and later 
opened for settlement. Thev stated further that the treaty 
with Great Britain in 1783 made the boundary run through 
the center of the Great Lakes, instead of down the Ohio, but 
that in spite of this fact the Americans were willing to make 
reasonable concessions in boimdaries. give liberal hunting 
privileges, and deliver annually large quantities of valuable 
goods suited to the needs of the Indians, provided that the 
terms could be arranged in a proper!}^ called general council. 


After much delay, due to the divided sentiment of the 
tribes, and, no doubt, to the machinations of ^NIcKee, Elliott, 
Girty and the British agents, acting under the inspiration of 
the Governor-General of Canada, the Indians finally replied 
that the recent treaties had been held with a few irresponsi- 
ble chiefs, representing only part of the tribes, and were, 
therefore, not binding on the great confederacy ; that the 
money offered did not appeal to them, but should be given to 
the poor whites who had settled north of the Ohio to make 
their homes on the Indians" lands ; that Great Britain had no 
right to cede their lands to the Americans ; that they had al- 
ready retreated to the last ditch : and that no agreement could 
be reached unless the Ohio river was made the final boundary 
between themselves and the United States, and all the whites 
now settled north of that river moved south of it. 

The commissioners replied that it was impossible to con- 
cede this unreasonable demand and thus put an end to the 
negotiations, which had occupied over three months of very 
precious time. 

From the standpoint of the Americans, the second treaty 
of Fort Stanwix, in 1784. and those that followed at Forts 
Mcintosh, Finney and Harmar, were xaUd and binding, and. 
talcen in connection with the offer of further negotiations, 
seemed reasonable ground for the procedure which followed. 

With the exception oi the ^^'_vandots, Shawanese, jNIiamis 
and Delawares, the tribes seemed mostly disposed toward 
peace, and it seems very probable that a mutually satisfac- 
tory treaty might have been made, but for the continued pres- 
sure exerted on the savages by the scheming and aggressive 
British agents from Detroit and Canada. 

All hope of agreement being ended the commissioners re- 
turned to Erie and dispatched messengers to the Secretary 
of W'ar and the new commander of the American forces, in- 
forming them concerning the results of their negotiations 
with the northwestern tribes. 

In order to understand the fears and the final decision of 
the tribes, it is necessary to take note of the movements 
of the Americans just prior to and during the peace nego- 
tiations. Upon withdrawal of St. Clair after the defeat, the 
President recommended Maj.-Gen. Anthony Wavne, of 
Pennsylvania, to succeed him, and Congress confirmed the 
selection. As usual in such cases the appointment caused some 
dissatisfaction and disgust, especiallv in Virginia, among the 


friends of Lee, ]\lorgan, Scott and Darke, who seem to have 
figured as possible appointees. The sequel of the appoint- 
ment, however, proved the sagacity of Washington, who had 
profited by his association and experience with these various 
officers during the course of the Revolution. 

Wayne at the time of his appointment was about forty- 
seven years of age. He came of old fighting stock and was 
naturally bold, dashing and courageous. In build he was of 
medium height, with an inclination to stoutness. His fore- 
head was high and finely formed, his nose slightly aquiline, 
his face well proportioned, his hair was dark, his eyes were 
dark hazel, bright, keen and expressive, giving him, on the 
whole, a fine and animated expression. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution Wayne raised the Fourth 
Pennsylvania regiment and was commissioned colonel. Dur- 
ing the course of war he attained the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, and at its close was brevetted I\Iajor-General. He 
served his country well at Three Rivers, Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown, Valley Forge, Green Springs, Monmouth and York- 
town. His most popular service, however, was at Stony 
Point, a rocky promontory on the Hudson, commanding an 
important crossing place. On the night of July 15th, 1779, 
he surprised this place and forced his way into the citadel 
by a bold bayonet charge, for which he was afterward famil- 
iarly called "Alad Anthony." This was one of the most bril- 
liant exploits of the war and won for Waj'ne eminent and 
lasting distinction as a soldier. His experience in fighting 
Indians was confined to a successful campaign again;t the 
Creeks in Georgia after the Revolution. 

At about the time of Wayne's appointment Congress de- 
cided to thoroughly reorganize the military establishment, 
increasing the army enlistment to some five thousand men. 
The organization, when completed, was to consist of one 
squadron of cavalry, of four troops ; one battalion of e,rtillery, 
organized on the same plan, and five regiments of infantry, 
each of three battalions, as above, with one regiment com- 
posed entirely of riflemen. In addition provision was made 
for the employment of mounted militia and scouts. 

Xo doubt President Washington had a lengthy conference 
with Wayne before the latter left Philadelphia, in which the 
peculiar methods of Indian warfare and the exigencies which 
might arise in fighting in the western forests, were thorough- 
Iv discussed. 


rroceeding to Pitlsburg in June, 1792, Wayne promptly 
began to organize his army with a number of the survivors 
of St. Clair's unfortunate troops as a nucleus. Raw recruits 
were rapidly enlisted from Pennsylvania, Mrginia, New Jer- 
sey and Maryland, and in the winter, these forces were col- 
lected near Fort Mcintosh (Beaver, Pa.), some twenty-seven 
miles down the Ohio. Here the troops were thoroughly and 
rigorously drilled, organized into a "legion" and prepared 
for the hardships incident to savage warfare. 

By spring the new commander had a well organized army 
of some twenty-five hundred troops. Descending the Ohio 
late in April, 1793, the infantry and artillery encamped be- 
tween Fort Washington and Mill Creek, which place was 
selected on account of the high stage of the water and was 
appropriately called "Hobson's Choice." The cavalry, com- 
posed of one company each of sorrels, grays, bays and chest- 
nuts, found a more suitable camp for their purpose south of 
the river, where they practiced throughout the summer for 
the coming campaign. 

From Fort Washington a military road was cut through 
the dense wilderness to a tributary of the Stillwater branch 
of the Great Aliami (site of Greenville, O.), some six miles 
in advance of Fort Jefferson ; the intermediate posts, Hamil- 
ton, St. Clair and Jefferson, were supplied with large c^uanti- 
ties of provisions, and herds of horses and cattle were gath- 
ered beyond the advanced post under protection of troops. 

When Wayne received news of the failure of the negotia- 
tions of the commissioners, about September 1st, 1793, he 
repaired to Fort Washington with the balance of his troops. 
The quiet condition of the frontier convinced him that the 
Indians were at that time gahering ni force to oppose his 
advance to the Alaumee. Accordingly he took time by the 
forelock and decided to advance with the troops then avail- 
able and fortify the strong position beyond Fort Jefferson, 
hoping thereby to keep the Indians in check until he might 
strike with greater assurance of success. 

Breaking camp at Fort Washington Wayne marched north- 
waid on the seventh of October with a force of twenty-six 
hundred regulars, thirty-six guides and spies and three hun- 
dred and sixty mounted militia. The army advanced in par- 
allel lines with a strong front guard in addition to the usual 
sentinels, and was arranged in such a manner that a fighting 
line might be readily formed without confusion. This proved 


to be an excellent arrangement, and was adopted by Gen. 
\Vm. Harrison in his later expeditions against the north- 
western tribes with much success. 

The rate of advancement was about twice that of St. Clair's 
undisciplined army and the camp was duly fortified each 
evening to forestall a surprise. On the thirteenth of October 
a beautiful high plain on the south bank of the southwest 
branch of Stillwater (Greenville creek) was reached (Green- 
ville, O.), the army now being some eighty miles in advance 
of Fort Washington and about six miles beyond the advanced 
post. Fort Jefiferson. This was the same spot where St. Clair 
had camped two years previously while awaiting the arrival 
of supplies. For a similar purpose Wayne decided to halt 
and encamp on this opportune site where the council fires 
of two important treaties were later to be kindled, and where 
Teciimseh and his brother "The Prophet" were to inflame 
the northwest tribes for a second attempt to drive the whites 
beyond the Ohio. From this place he wrote the Secretary of 
War complaining of the difificulty experienced in furnishing 
a sufficient escort to guard the provision and supply trains 
from sudden assaults, and, at the same time, keeping a suf- 
ficiert force in camp to properly sustain his advanced position. 
He then related the unfortunate experience of one of the 
convoys, consisting of twenty wagons of grain and one of 
supplies, which was attacked on the morning of October 17th, 
at a place known as "The Forty Foot Leap," about seven 
n iles in advance of Fort St. Clair ("Eaton, O.). The escort 
was in charge of Lieutenant Lowery, of the Second sub- 
legion, and Ensign Boyd, of the First, and consisted of some 
nmety men. The attacking savages, far outnumbering the 
escort, soon drove the latter from the field, with the excep- 
tion of a small party who offered an obstinate resistance. As 
the result of this engagement the commanding officers, to- 
gether with thirteen non-commissioned officers and privates, 
were killed and some seventy pack horses either killed or 
carried ofif. The wagons and supplies were left standing in 
the road and were later brought to camp with small loss. 

This incident caused Wayne to increase and strengthen the 
escort recently sent out under Col. Hamtramck and fore- 
warned him, no doubt, of the constant danger which menaced 
his further progress at that time. 

The season being well advanced, and a large number of 
men on the sick list, Wavne dismissed the Kentuckv militia 

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u'.itil the following spring, and prepared to go into -.vinter 
quarters at the place of his encampment. Accordingly a 
large fortification was constructed overlooking the extensive 
prairie to the southwest and the creek in front, and was 
iiamed Greene Ville, in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, a fel- 
low officer of Wayne in the Revolution. This post covered 
some fifty acres and was fortified to resist any attack that the 
savages and their allies might make against it. The soldiers 
were quartered in commodious log huts, each sheltering six 
men, and extensive provisions were made for the convenience 
and comfort of the entire army. Storehouses, artificers' 
shops, mess rooms, officers' headquarters, and a magazine 
were also erected at suitable places. 

Late in December Wayne sent a strong detachment to the 
site of St. Clair's defeat, twenty-three miles, on which they 
built Fort Recovery. The detachment arrived on the 23d and 
soon collected and interred some 600 skulls and skeletons of 
St. Clair's unfortunate soldiers. Tradition says that all but 
one of St. Clair's cannon, which were found hidden under 
logs, were recovered and mounted in the new fort. The oth- 
er cannon was found about 1830 and came into possession of 
an artillery company in Cincinnati, O. This post was soon 
completed, garrisoned and placed in charge of Captain Ale.x 
Gibson. Early in 1794 painted scouts and spies were sent 
among the savages and kept informed of their movements and 
designs. Some twenty or thirty of these were attached to 
the army and included such noted characters as Wm. \^^ells, 
Wm. Miller, Robt. McClellan and a few southern Indians. 
The road-cutters were also working in various directions. 
leaving the Indians in doubt as to the route to be followed in 
the advance march, because of which they called Wayne 
"The Black Snake." Early in Tune it was reported by some 
Indians captured on the Maumee that probably two thousand 
warriors of the Chippewas, Wyandots, Shawanese, Tawas, 
Delawares and Miamis were then collected on the Maumee, 
and if joined by the Pottawatomies the numbers would be 
augmented to over three thousand; also, that the British to 
the number of 400, besides the Detroit militia, were at the 
foot of the Maumee Rapids on their way against the Ameri- 
cans. Gov. Simcoe of Canada, had recently built Fort ]\Iiami, 
at the rapids, on American soil and from this base was aiding 
and inciting the tribes. Later it was ascertained that the 
warriors of seven nations were assembled at Grand Glaize 


(Defiance) with the chiefs in council, and that war or peace 
depended upon the conduct of the British assembled at the 
rapids. These reports were soon credited, for on June 30tli 
an escort of ninety riflemen and fifty dragoons, commanded 
by the redoubtable Major McMahon, and encamped just 
without the walls of Fort Recovery, was attacked by a very 
numerous body of the above Indians. The escort was about 
to return to Fort Greenville from which post it had brought 
a brigade of laden pack horses on the day previous. On ac- 
count of the superior number of the savages and their sudden 
onslaught the men were soon driven into the Fort and the 
horses captured. This successful attack was followed by a 
general assault upon the post and garrison in every direc- 
tion. The savages, however, were soon repulsed with great 
slaughter, but renewed the attack and kept up a heavy and 
constant fire, at a good distance, for the remainder of the 
day. They again renewed the attack with vigor on the fol- 
lowing day, but were finally compelled to retreat with dis- 
grace from the same field where they had formerly gained 
such a signal victory over unfortunate St. Clair. Wayne es- 
timated the number of savages in this engagement at from 
1,500 to 2,000. The Americans lost twenty-two men and had 
thirty wounded, including Major ]\IcMahon, Capt. Hartshorn 
and Lieut. Craig. The Indian loss was much heavier, and 
was greatly deplored by the chiefs who mentioned it with re- 
gret at the treaty of Greenville in the following year. 

Major-General Scott, of Kentucky, arrived at Greenville 
on July 26th with 1,600 mounted volunteers. William Lewis 
and Meriwether Clark, who explored the far west in 1804, 
were with Scott. The army commenced to advance on the 
28th, marching some twelve miles per day. Wayne wished 
to deceive the enerny and had previously made such demon- 
strations as would induce the savages to expect his advance 
by the route of the Miami villages to the left or toward the 
rapids of the Maumee by the right. Instead he took a cir- 
cuitous route in a central direction, while their attention was 
directed to the above points. 

On the thirtieth Beaver Swamp (near Coldwater, O.) was 
reached and two days were spent for construction of a sev- 
enty foot bridge of logs over this swale. On August 1st the 
army arrived at the St. Mary's river, twenty-four miles be- 
yond Recovery, where a small fort was erected, provisioned, 
garrisoned and named Fort Adams (near Rockford, O.). 


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Crossing that stream the march was directed toward the 
northeast, and on the 7th the "Oglaize Town," on the Au- 
glaize river, was reached. The army reached the junction 
of that stream with the Alaumee on the Sth, some sevent}-- 
seven miles beyond Recovery. 

Referring to this spot in his report to the Secretarj- of 
War, Wayne says : "Thus, sir, we have gained possession 
of the grand emporium of the west, without loss of blood. 
The very extensive and highly cultivated fields and gardens 
show the work of many hands, the margins of these beauti- 
ful rivers, the Miamis of the lake, and Auglaize, appear like 
one continued village for a number of miles, both above and 
below this place ; nor have I ever before beheld such immense 
fields of corn in any part of America, from Canada to Florida." 

Here a strong garrison was established and called Fort 
Defiance. A last o^•erture of peace was now made to the 
assembled Indians, who thereupon sent word that they would 
decide for peace or war if the Americans would wait ten days 
at Grand Glaize (Defiance). Impatient of delay, Wayne 
nio\'ed forward and on August 20th arrived in sight of Fort 
[Miami, the British garrison at the rapids of the Alaumee. 150 
miles from Greenville, having previously deposited all the 
heavy baggage and prepared for light action. The enemy 
nere encamped behind the thick, bushy wood and the British 
fort. Advancing about five miles down the west bank of 
the river, the front guard of mounted volunteers under Major 
Price were suddenly fired upon by the enemy at about 11 
o'clock and put to confusion, retreating through the front 
guard of the regulars. A stand was soon made, however, and 
the position held until joined by a battalion of riflemen about 
fifteen minutes later. The Americans immediately formed in 
two lines, principally in a close thick wood of fallen timber, 
where the Indians had sought refuge, hoping to find shelter 
for fighting after their usual manner. The savages were 
formed in three lines within supporting distance of each other 
and extending for nearly two miles at right angles with the 
river. They made a strong attack on the front of the Ameri- 
cans and were endeavoring to turn their left. Seeing their 
purpose Wayne, realizing the insufficiency of a cavalry 
charge or a standing fire, ordered a charge made by the front 
line with trailed arms, to rouse the enemy from their coverts. 
This was to be followed by a well directed fire on the backs 
of the enemy when aroused, and a brisk charge so as not to 


give them time to reload. The second line was ordered to 
support the first; the mounted volunteers under Major-Gen- 
eral Scott on the left flank were directed to turn the enemy's 
right by a circuitous route; and the cavalry under Capt. 
Campbell, were ordered to advance along the river to turn 
the left. These orders were obeyed with spirit and prompt- 
ness and with such impetuosity that the first line drove the 
Indians and Canadians from their positions so quickly that 
the second line could scarcely get up to participate in the 
action, the enemy being driven in one hour more than two 
miles through the high grass and thick woods by half their 
numbers. The savages with their Canadian allies fled and 
dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving the victorious 
Americans in full and quiet possession of the field of battle. 
In this engagement the official loss of the Americans was 
thirty-three officers and privates killed and 104 wounded. 
The enemy, who were estimated at from 1,500 to 2,000. prob- 
ably lost twice the number. The American troops actually 
engaged in this decisive battle were less tlian nine hundred. 

On the night before the battle, it is said, the Indians held 
a council to decide what action should be taken, and Blue 
Jacket, the chief of the Shawanese, because of former suc- 
cesses, spoke in favor of an engagement, liut Little Turtle 
was inclined to peace. The latter is credited with spea'cing 
thus : "We have beaten the enemy twice under separate 
commanders ; we cannot expect the same good fortune al- 
ways to attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief 
who never sleeps; the night and day are alike t(T him. and 
during all the time that he has been marching upon our vil- 
lages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, 
we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. 
There is something whispers me, it would be prudent to listen 
to his ofifers of peace." 

Being reproached for cowardice, which was foreign to his 
nature, he laid aside resentment and took part in the battle, 
but left the leadership to his opponent. The result proved 
his sagacity. 

After the battle the armv encamped near Fort ]\liaini. a 
post built by order of the British Governor of Canada in 1794 
and commanded by Major ^^^ilIiam Campbell, who was or- 
dered to withdraw and remove to the nearest military post 
occupied by the British at the peace of 1783. This he refused 


to do, and Wayne contented himself with burning everything 
within reach of the fort. 

The army returned to Fort Definance on the 27th after 
laying waste the villages and cornfields on both sides of the 
Maumee along the route. 

Referring to this engagement Rufus King said : "The bat- 
tle at the rapids of the Maumee opened the land for the Ordi- 
nance of 1787. Measured by the forces engaged it was not 
a great one, nor was that which had been fought on the heights 
of Quebec. But estimated by the difficulties overcome and 
the consequences which followed, both were momentous. To 
the bold spirit of Pitt, Earl of Chatham, is due presumably 
that the people of the Mississippi valley are not today Cana- 
dian-French. Next in honor with the people of the north- 
west, as among their founders, might well be placed the lion- 
hearted Anthony Wayne, who opened the glorious gates of 
the Ohio to the tide of civilization so long shut ofif from its 
hills and valleys." 

Roosevelt says of the Battle of Fallen Timbers: "It was 
the most complete and important victory ever gained over 
the northwestern Indians during the forty years' warfare 
to which it put an end ; and it was the only considerable 
pitched battle in which they lost more than their foes." 

This expedition has been aptly compared with Caesar's 
campaign against the Gauls on account of the gigantic tasks 
accomplished, the rude condition of the country and the sav- 
age ferocity of the foe. When it is recalled that the field of 
action was some five hundred miles from Fort Pitt by the 
route taken ; and that it was necessary to cut a road for near- 
ly half that distance through howling wilderness, inhabited 
by enraged savages, the stupendous task accomplished is 
faintly realized. 

After the return to Defiance this post was greatly strength- 
ened and a road cut along the Maumee to the Indian villages 
at the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph, forty-seven 
miles distant. The army left Defiance on September 14th 
and arrived at the Miami villages on the 17th, where it en- 
camped until a suitable fort was erected, provisioned, gar- 
risoned and called Fort Wayne. Several weeks were spent 
here during which the troops destroyed the Indian towns, 
cornfields and stores. The term of service of the mounted 
Kentuckians having expired they were dismissed and soon 
left for their homes. 


On October 28th the march for Greenville was taken up, 
by the regulars, and the army arrived at this post November 
2d, saluted with twenty-four rounds from a six pounder. 
Wayne re-established headquarters here and sent out detach- 
ments to build forts at Upper Piqua, Loramie's Store and St. 
Mary's guarding the portage betwen the Great Miami and 
St. Mary's rivers and at the old Tawa towns, at the head of 
navigation on the Auglaize. These posts were established 
(some say in 1794) for the storage of supplies to facilitate 
their transportation by water in proper seasons, and also 
with the view of abandoning the old overland route and 
adopting this one, "as the most economical, sure and certain 
mode of supplying those important posts, at Grand Glaize 
and Miami villages, and to facilitate an eiifective operation 
toward the Detroit and the Sandusky, should that measure 
eventually prove necessary ;" also to "afiford a much better 
chain for the general protection of the frontiers," etc. 


Lieut. Massie's Bastion. 
Lieut Pope's Bastion. 
Capt. Porter's Bastion. 
Capt. Ford's Bastion. 
Park of Artillery. 
Second ti'oop of Dragoons. 
First troop of Dragoons. 
Fourth troop of Dragoons. 

10. Third troop of Dragoons 
11-12. Ciateways. 
13-14. Third Sub Legion. 
15-16. First Sub Legion. 
17-18. Second Sub Legion. 
lH-20. Fourth Sub Legion. 
21 to 28. Picket Guards. 

29. Advance. 

30. Rear Guard. 


(Courtesy C. & N. W. Railway) 



After the battle of the Alaumee the Indians of the north- 
west still hesitated to seek peace. The British agents, Sim- 
coe, McKee and Brant, stimulated them to continued hos- 
tilities. They strengthened Fort Miami, supplied the savages 
from their magazines, called a council and urged them to 
propose a truce or suspension of hostilities until spring, in 
order to deceive the Americans, that the}- might neglect to 
keep sufficient troops to retain their position. They a,dvised 
the savages to convey their land to the king in trust, so as 
to give the British a pretext for assisting them, and, in case 
the Americans refused to abandon all their posts and posses- 
sions on the west side of the Ohio, to make a general attack 
and drive them across the river. Notwithstanding all this 
advice the Indians began to understand their critical condi- 
tion and to lose faith in the British. Some in despair crossed 
the Mississippi, but the humane disposition of the Americans 
finally won their confidence. 

Late in December the chiefs of several tribes manifested 
their desire for peace to the commandant at Fort Wayne. 
Proceeding to Greenville representatives of the Chippewas, 
Ottawas, Sacs, Pottawatomies and JXIiamis entered, together 
with the Shawanese, Delawares and Wyandots, into prelim- 
inary articles with General Wayne, January 24th, 1795. It 
was agreed that all the sachems and war chiefs representing 
the above nations should meet Wayne at Greenville on or 
about June 15th, to consult and conclude such a peace as 
would be for the interest and satisfaction of both parties. 
In the meantime hostilities ceased, prisoners were exchanged 
and the Indians were preparing to meet in June as agreed. 
The first to arrive were a large number of Delawares, Otta- 
was, Pottawatomies and Eel River Indians. On June 16th, 
Wayne met these in general council for the first time. 

Parkman, the historian, says : 

"An Indian council, on solemn occasions, was alwavs op- 
ened with preliminary forms, suflicientlv wearisome and te- 


dious, but made indispensable by immemorial custom ; for 
this people are as much bound by conventional usages as 
most artificial children of civilization. The forms were var- 
ied, to some extent, according to the imagination of the speak- 
er; but in all essential respects they were closely similar, 
throughout the tribes of the Algonquin and Iroquois lineage. 

"An Indian orator was provided with a stock of metaphors, 
which he always made use of for the expression of certain 
ideas. Thus, to make war was to raise the hatchet; to make 
peace was to take hold of the chain of friendship ; to deliber- 
ate was to kindle the council fire ; to cover the bones of the 
dead was to make reparation and gain forgiveness for the act 
of killing them. A state of war and disaster was typified 
by a black cloud ; a state of peace by bright sunshine, or by 
an open path between two nations. 

'"The orator seldom spoke without careful premeditation of 
what he was about to say ; and his memory was refreshed by- 
belts of wampum, which he delivered after every clause in his 
harangue, as a pledge of the sincerity and truth of his words. 
These belts were carefully preserved by the hearers, as a sub- 
stitute for written records ; a use for which they were the bet- 
ter adapted, as they were often in hieroglyphics expressing 
the meaning they were designed to preserve. Thus, at a 
treaty of peace, the principal belt often bore the figure of an 
Indian and a white man holding a chain betwen them." 

Accordingly, when addressing the council on June 16th, 
Wayne first passed around the calumet, to be smoked by the 
assembled chiefs, after which he said : "I have cleared the 
ground of all brush and rubbish, and opened roads to the east, 
to the west, to the north and to the south, that all nations 
may come in safety and ease to meet me. The ground on 
which the council house stands is unstained with blood and 
is as pure as the heart of General Washington, the great chief 
of America and of his great council^as pure as my heart, 
which wishes for nothing so much as peace and brotherly 
love. I have this day kindled the council fire of the United 
States : we will now cover it up and keep it alive until the 
remainder i.^f the dififerent tribes assemble, and form a full 
meeting and representation. I now deliver to each tribe 
present a string of white wampum to serve as record of the 
friendship that is this day commenced between us." 

Owing to the great distance of some of the tribes and the 
difficulty of traveling, also to the interference of the British 


agents, the Indians kept arriving in small bands from their 
homes on the Maumee, the Wabash and the Great Lakes. 
These were the chief men, the scions of many a proud and 
noted tribe. Some had met in former treaties and had fought 
the Americans on many a blood}' field ; many had helped to 
rout the armies of Harmar and St. Clair, and all had been de- 
feated by the troops of Mad Anthony. As they arrived they 
were cordially received and expressed sentiments of peace. 
On the 15th of July, Wayne addressed the council at length, 
explaining his powers and urging the treaty of Fort Har- 
mar as a basis for lasting peace. Time was given for de- 
liberation, and discussion followed on the 18th, relative to the 
merits and force of this treaty, of which some of the chiefs 
pleaded ignorance. 

On the 20th Wayne read to the assembled warriors the 
offer of peace sent to them just before the battle on the Mau- 
mee. He also read and explained the treaty of Fort Har- 
mar and pointed out a number of chiefs who were present 
and had signed both that and the previous treaty at Fort Mc- 
intosh, and asked them to consider seriously what he had 
said and make known their thoughts at their next meeting. 
On the 21st the discussion was continued, several prominent 
warriors took part, and were followed by Me-she-kun-no-quo, 
or Little Turtle, the great chief of the JMiamis, who claimed 
ignorance of the lands ceded along the Wabash and expressed 
surprise that these lands had been ceded by the British to the 
Americans when the former were beaten by and made peace 
with the latter. On Wednesday, the 22d, this tall and crafty 
warrior made a shrewd and eloquent address before the great 
council, setting forth in a touching, forceful and statesman- 
like manner the claims of his offended nation. Let us im- 
agine this tall and swarthy chieftain stepping majestically to 
the center of the assembled council. Thoughts of the past 
power and prestige of his waning nation and the early vic- 
tories over the advancing Americans throng his brain as he 
casts his eagle eyes toward the blazing July sun and then 
turns impressively toward his large and picturesque audience. 
On the one side he beholds the somber, but sympathetic, 
faces of a hundred bronzed warriors who have figured in ev- 
ery raid and engagement of the tribes throughout the border 
wars: on the other side he sees the Great Chief who defeated 
his people on the Maumee, a young aide who will one day 
lead the victorious Americans asfainst the combined British 


and Indian foe and finally sit in Washington's chair, besides 
a motley assembly of ofificers, interpreters and spies required 
to properly conduct the important deliberation of the occa- 

On this interesting occasion he arose with dignity and said ; 
"General Wayne! I hope you will pay attention to what I 
now say to you. I wish to inform you where my younger 
brothers, the Miamis live, and also the Pottawatomies of 
St. Joseph, together with the Wabash Indians. You have 
pointed out to us the boundary line between the Indians and 
the United States: but I now take the liberty to inform you 
that that line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of coun- 
try which has been enjoyed by my forefathers, time imme- 
morial, without molestation or dispute. The prints of my 
ancestor's houses are everywhere to be seen in this portion. 
I was a little astonished at hearing you and my brothers, who 
are now present, telling each other what business you had 
transacted together, heretofore, at Muskingum, concerning 
this country. It is well known that my forefather kindled 
the first fire at Detroit ; from thence he extended his lines to 
the headwaters of the Scioto ; from thence to its mouth ; from 
thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash, and 
from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At this place T 
first saw my elder brothers, the Shawanese. I have now in- 
formed you of the boundaries of the Miami nation, where the 
Great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago and charged 
him not to sell or part with his lands, but to preserve them 
for his posterity. This charge has been handed down to me. 
I was much surprised to hear that my brothers differed so 
much from me on this subject ; for their conduct would lead 
me to suppose that the Great Spirit and their forefathers 
had not given them the same charge that was given me. but 
on the contrary, had directed them to sell their lands to an_v 
white man who wore a hat, as soon as he should ask it of 
them. X'ow, elder brother, your younger brothers, the 
Miamis, have pointed out to you their country and also to 
your brothers present. \\'hen I hear your proposals on this 
subject, I will be ready to give an answer. I came with an 
expectation of hearing you say good things, but I have not 
yet heard what I expected. 

"Brothers, the Indians! I expected, in this council that 
our minds would have been made up. and we should speak 


with one voice. I am sorry to observe that yuu are ratlier 
unsettled and hasty in your conduct." 

After the great chief of the Miamis had spoken, Tar-he, the 
Wyandot, arose and said that the ground belonged to the 
Great Spirit above, and that they had an equal right to it ; 
that he always considered the treaty of Muskingum as found- 
ed upon the fairest of principles, as being binding upon the 
Indians and the United States alike ; and that peace was now 
desired by all. During the following days, discussion con- 
cerning the boundaries and terms were continued and on the 
24th, General \\'ayne arose and spoke in part as follows : 

"Brothers, the Miamis ! I have paid attention to what the 
Little Turtle said, two days since, concerning the lands which 
he claims. He said his father first kindled the fire at De- 
troit and stretched his line from thence to the headwaters 
of the Scioto ; thence down the same to the Ohio ; thence down 
that river to the mouth of the Wabash, and from thence to 
Chicago, on the southwest end of Lake Michigan, and ob- 
served that his forefathers had enjoyed that country undis- 
turbed from time immemorial. 

"Brothers! These boundaries enclose a very large space 
of country indeed ; they embrace, if I mistake not, all the 
lands on which all the nations now present live, as well as 
those which have been ceded to the L^nited States. The lands 
which have been ceded have within these three days been ac- 
knowledged by the Ottawas, Pottawatomies. Wyandots, 
Delawares and Shawanese. The Little Turtle says the prints 
of his forefathers' houses are everywhere to be seen within 
these boundaries. Younger brother! It is true these prints 
are to be observed, but at the same time we discover marks 
of French possessions throughout this country established 
long before we were born. These have since been in pos- 
session of the British, who must, in their turn, relinquish 
them to the United States, when they, the French and the 
Indians, will be all as one people. 

"I will point out to you a few places where I discover 
strong traces of these establishments ; and first of all, I find 
at Detroit, a very strong print, where the fire was first kind- 
led by your forefathers ; next at Vincennes on the Wabash ; 
again at Musquiton on the same river ; a little higher up on 
that stream, they are to be seen at Ouiatenon. I discover 
another strong trace at Chicago, another on the St. Joseph's 
of Lake ^lichigan. I have seen quite distinctly the prints of 


a French and of a British post at the Miami villages, and of 
a British post at the foot of the rapids, now in their posses- 
sion. Prints, very conspicuous, are on the Great !Miami, 
which were possessed by the French forty-five years ago ; 
another trace is very distinctly to be seen at Sandusky. 

"It appears to me that if the Great Spirit, as you say, 
charged your forefathers to preserve their lands entire for 
their posterity, they have paid very little regard to the sacred 
injunction, for I see they have parted with those lands to 
}'our fathers, the French, and the English are now, or have 
been, in possession of them all ; therefore, I think the charge 
urged against the Ottawas, Chippewas and other Indians, 
comes with bad grace indeed, from the very people who, per- 
haps, set them the example. The English and French both 
wore hats ; and yet your forefathers sold them, at various 
times, portions of your lands. However, as I have already 
observed, you shall now receive from the United States fur- 
ther valuable compensation for the lands you have ceded to 
them by former treaties. 

"Younger brothers ! I will now inform you who it was 
who gave us these lands in the first instance ; it was your 
fathers, the British, who did not discover that care for your 
interests which you ought to have experienced. This is the 
treaty of peace, made between the United States of America 
and Great Britain twelve years ago, at the end of a long and 
bloody war, when the Frencli and Americans proved too 
powerful for the British ; on these terms thev obtained peace."' 
Here part of the treaty of 1783 was read. 

"Here you perceive that all the country south of the Great 
Lakes has been given up to America ; but the United States 
never intended to take that advantage of you, which the Brit- 
ish placed in their hands. They wish you to enjoy your just 
rights, without interruption, and to promote your happiness. 
The British stipulated to surrender to us all the posts on this 
side of the boundary agreed on. I told you some time ago 
treaties should ever be sacredly fulfilled by those who make 
them ; but the British on their part did not find it convenient 
to relinquish those posts as soon as they should have done, 
but a precise period is now fixed for their delivery. I have 
now in my hand a copy of a treaty, made eight months since, 
between them and us, of which I will read you a little. (First 
and second articles of Mr. Jay's treaty read.) 

"By this solemn agreement they promise to retire from 


Michilimackinac, Fort St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara and all other 
places on this side of the Lakes in ten moons from this per- 
iod, and leave the same to the full and quiet possession of 
the States. 

"Crothers! All nations present, now listen to me! 

"Having now explained those matters to you and informed 
j-ou of all things I judged necessary for your information, 
we have nothing to do but to bury the hatchet, and draw a 
veil over past misfortunes. As you have buried our dead, 
with the concern of brothers, so I now collect the bones of 
your slain warriors, put them into a deep pit which I have 
dug, and cover them carefully over with this large belt, there 
to remain undisturbed. I also dry the tears from your eyes, 
and wipe the blood from your bodies, with this soft, white 
linen. Xo bloody traces will ever lead to the graves of your 
departed heroes ; with this I wipe all such away. 1 deliver 
it to your uncle, the ^^'yand<Jt, who will send it around 
amongst you. (A large belt with a white string attached. ) 

"1 now take the hatchet out of 3'our hands, and with a 
strong arm throw it into the center of the great ocean, where 
no mortal can ever find it ; and I now deliver to you the wide 
and straight path to the Fifteen Fires, to be used by you and 
your posterity, forever. So long as you continue to follow 
this road, so long will you continue to be happy people. You 
see it is straight and wide, and they will be blind indeed, who 
deviate from it. I place it also in your uncle's hands for j-ou. 
(A large road belt.) 

"I will, the dav after tomorrow, show you the cessions 
which you have made to the United .States, and point out to 
you the lines which may for the future divide your lands from 
theirs : and, as 3'ou will have tnmorrovi- to rest, I will order 
you a double allowance of drink, because we have buried the 
hatchet and performed every necessary ceremony to render 
propitious our renovated friendship. 

Discussion and explanation continued until the 3d of 
August, various noted chiefs acting as sopkesmen for their 
respective tribes. On that day the general read for the third 
time the articles of the proposed new treaty, which was then 
signed by some ninety chiefs and tribal representatives on 
the part of the Indians, by General Wayne, several ofificers, 
his aides-de-camp, interpreters, and guides on behalf of the 
United States. A large number of belts and strings 
of wamptim were passed bv the various tribes during 


the deliberations ; mention being made of road belts, 
mixed belts, a blue helt, a belt with nine white squares, 
a large belt with men and a house designated upon it, a war 
belt, numerous white and blue and white belts and strings of 
wampum. Some of these belts probably contained a 
thousand or more beads of wampum, and, as each bright 
flinty bead is said to have represented a day's labor for these 
primitive people, we readily conclude that they meant more 
than a great sum of money might mean to the whites, and 
were, indeed, a striking pledge of good will. The Indians re- 
mained a few days at Fort Greenville ; speeches were deliv- 
ered and the calumet of peace was fially passed to those who 
had not yet smoked it. Thus was consummated a treaty of 
far-reaching importance, concerning the effectiveness of 
which King, the historian, testifies : "Never after that treaty, 
to their honor be it remembered, did the Indian nations vio- 
late the limits which it established. It was a grand tribute to 
General Wayne that no chief or warrior who gave him the 
hand at Greenville ever after lifted the hatchet against the 
United States. There were malcontents on the Wabash and 
Lake ^lichigan who took sides with Tecumseh and the 
Prophet in the A\^ar of 1812, perhaps for good cause, but the 
tribes and their chiefs sat still." 

The tribes were represented as follows at the treaty: Dela- 
wares. 381; Pottawatomies, 240; Wyandots, 180; Shawanese, 
143; Miamis and Eel Rivers, 72>; Chippewas, 46; Ottawas, 
45; Weas and Piankeshaws, 12; Kickapoos and Kaskaskias, 
10; in all, 1,130. 

The following chiefs and representatives signed the docu- 
ment for the tribes : 


Tar-he (or Crane). 

William Sur (?) 


Ha-re-en-}-ow (or Half King's Son). 



Laye-tah: . , 

Sha-tey-ya-ron-yah (Leather Lips). 




1 > 






Pee-kee-tele-mund for Thomas Adams). 
Kish-ke-pe-kund (or Captain Buffalo). 
Ame-na-he-han (or Captain Crow). 
Oue-shawk-sey (or George Washington). 
Wey-win-quis (or Billy Siscomb). 
Teta-boksh-ke (or Grand Glaize King). 
Le-man-tan-quis (or Black King). 

Magh-pi-way (or Red Feather). 
Kik-tha-we-nund (or Anderson). 
Haw-kin-pum-is-ka (from Sandusky). 
Pey-a-mawk-sey (from Sandusky). 

Six Nations. 

Reyn-two-co f living at Sandusky). 

^lis-qua-coo-na-caw (or Red Pole). ■ 

Cut-the-we-ka-saw (or Black Hoof). 

Kay-se-wa-e-se-kah. , 

Wey-tha-pa-mat-tha. , 


^^'ay-the-ah (or Long Shanks). 

Wey-a-pier-sen-waw (or Blue Jacket). 

Xe-que taugh-aw. 

Hah-goo-see-kaw (or Captain Reed). 


A^a-goh-quan-gogh (or Le Gris). 

Ale-she-kun-nogh-quoh (or Little Turtle). i 

Pee-jee-wa (or Richardville). 

Coch-ke-pogh-fogh. ^ 

Wa-pa-man-gwa (or AVhite Loon). 

She-me-kun-ne-sa (or Soldier) of the Eel river tribe. 

Weas (for Themselves and the Piankeshaws.) 

A-nia-cun-sa (or Little Beaver). 


A-coo-la-tha (or Little Fox). 

Kickapoos and Kaskaskias. 


Ne-nugh-ka (or Reynard). 


Pottawatomies (From the St. Joseph River). 


Naw-ac (for himself and brother Et-si-me-the ). 


Kee-sass (or Sun). 

Ka-ba-ma-saw (for himself and brother Chi-sau-gaii). 


Wap-me-me (\\'hite Pigeon). 

'\^'a-che-ness (for himself and brother Pe-dar-go-shak). 



Me-she-ge-the-nogh (for himself and brother W'a-wal-sek). 






Thaw-me (or Level Plane). 

Gee-que ffor himself and brother She-win-seV 

Pottawatomies (From Huron). 



Na-naw-me (for himself and brother A-gin). 



Che-go-nick-ska (from Sandusky). 

V^f^-^ :Cv^^ "^yUL 


-/- -io/rU^ 

1^ (/r^^^i^!^'^^'^^^ 




(Courtesy Ohio Arch. & Hist. Society) 



Mash-i-pi-nash-i-wi5h (or Bad Bird). 

Xah-sho-ga-she (from Lake Superior). 

Ka-tha-wa-sung. ^ 

Ma-sass. : 

Ne-me-kass (or Little Thunder). 

Pe-shaw-kay (or Young One). 






Among the chief speakers were Blue Jacket, the Shaw- 
anese ; Massas, the Chippewa ; Tarhe, or Crane, the Wyandot, 
and Augoosh-avvay, the Ottawa. Besides the signatures of 
George Washington and Anthony Wayne, the names of Wil- 
liam H. Harrison, aide-de-camp, and several officers, inter- 
preters and scouts appear on the treaty. Among the latter 
were William Wells, Christopher Miller and Isaac Zane. The 
treaty was neatly engrossed in the legible penmanship of the 
day on two pieces of parchment about twenty-six inches 
square, one of which was inscribed on both sides. 

An excellent photographic copy, exact size of the original, 
is today framed and exhibited on the walls of the public mu- 
seum in the basement of the Carnegie Library, Greenville, 

The preamble states the purpose of the treaty "to put an 
end to a destructive war. to settle all controversies and to 
restore harmony and friendly intercourse between the L^nited 
States and Indian tribes." 

The nine articles provide for the cessation of hostilities, 
exchange of prisoners, definite description of boundaries, the 
delivery of $20,000 worth of goods at once to the Indians and 
the promise of $9,500 worth of goods yearly forever there- 

The respective rights and privileges of the Indians and 
Americans within the lands and reservations ceded and the 
penalties for violation are also explicitly set forth. The boun- 
dary line established began at the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
river, ran up that stream to the portage crossing to the Tus- 
carawas across this portage (which was a part of the ancient 
boundarv between the Six Nations and the lands of the North' 


west tribesj, down that stream to Fort Laurens (near Bolivar, 
Ohio), thence westerly to near Loramies (Fort Loramie, 
Ohio), (on a branch of the Miami at the beginning of the port- 
age to the St. Mary's), thence to Fort Recovery and thence 
southwesterly to a point on the Ohio opposite the mouth of 
the Kentucky river, embracing about two^thirds of the pres- 
ent state of Ohio, and a triangular piece of southeastern In- 
diana. Besides this large and valuable tract, numerous small 
but invaluable tracts, mostly from two to twelve miles square, 
were included, among them being the present sites of Defi- 
ance, Ohio, Fort Wayne, Ind., Toledo, Ohio, Fremont, Ohio, 
Detroit, Mich., St. Mary's, Ohio. Sandusky, Ohio, Mackinac, 
Chicago, 111., Peoria, 111., Vincennes, Ind., and 150,000 acres 
above the falls of the Ohio, opposite Louisville, Ky., to Gen- 
eral George R. Clark and his soldiers. The privileges of trad- 
ing between these posts was also granted to the Americans, 
and this proved to be an entering wedge, which was finally to 
help split up the tribal confederacy and counteract its power. 

It is now impossible to estimate the value of these conces- 
sions. At the centennial celebration at Greenville, August 
3, 1895, Governor AVilliani McKinley said, "The day thrills 
with historic interest. It is filled with stirring memories and 
recalls the struggles of the past for peace and the majesty of 
constitutional government. It is most fitting to celebrate 
this anniversary. It marks an epoch in our ci^■ilization. One 
hundred years ago Indian hostilities were suppressed and the 
compact of peace concluded between the government and the 
Indians, which made the northwest the undisputed territory 
of the LTnited States, and what was once a dense wilderness, 
inhabited by barbarous tribes, is now the home of a happv 
and progressive people and the center of as high an iirder of 
civilization as is to be found an}-where in the world." 

The pledge of security given by this treat}- encouraged im- 
migration. A hardy population soon settled in the fertile val- 
leys, and gained a foothold which has never been relinquished, 
and today millions of people live and enjoy the blessings of 
civilized life where, but a short time since, a few untutored 
savages dwelt. A forcible change in stewardship had taken 
place by which the one talent man was supplanted by the ten 
talent man. thus forwarding the cause of humanitv and civ- 

The importance of this peace is not measured simplv by 
the amount of land ceded but comprehends also its effect in 



opening up the Ohio valley for settlement. In fact, viewed 
in one light, it may be considered the end of the Revolution- 
ary war. It is also true that this was not the last treaty with 
the northwestern Indian tribes, but measured by results it 
stands pre-eminent. The fact that Ohio was applying for 
admission to the Union in seven years from this treaty is 
forcible testimony to its significance. 

On August 3, 1906, the Greenville Historical Society un- 
veiled a beautiful bronze tablet with this inscription: "Placed 
to commemorate the Treaty of Greenville, signed August 3, 
1795, by General Anthony Wayne, representing the United 
States government, and the chiefs and agents of the allied 
Indian tribes of the territory northwest of the Ohio river." 

This inscription is enclosed in a circle surrounded by em- 
blems of savage war and peace. The tablet is attached to a 
large diorite boulder standing nearly five feet high, near the 
spot where the treaty was signed. 

The hero of Fallen Timbers lies buried in Pennsylvania. 
After leaving Greenville he returned to that State fatigued 
in mind and body, and was later appointed sole commissioner 
to treat with the Indians of the northwest, and to take posses- 
sion of all the British forts in that territory. In the autumn 
of 1796, after receiving the surrender of Detroit, he embarked 
on Lake Erie for home, but was seized with a severe attack 
of the gout and died at Erie, Pa. Here his remains were in- 
terred, but in 1809 his bones were transferred to the family 
burj'ing ground in the village of Radnor, Pa. Over this grave 
the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati erected a small 
marble monument, which was dedicated with appropriate 
ceremonies, July 4, 1809. 

Thus ended the forty years of war which had scourged the 
frontiers with blood and fire, and reduced the power and pres- 
tige of the brave and war-like tribes of the old northwest, 
opening the flood-gates through which the sons of western 
Europe were to pour into and subdue the mighty unbroken 
forests with ax and plow. Henceforth the remnants of the 
once powerful tribes must seek shelter in the remoter west, 
retreating before the ever advancing whites. As descendant,? 
of the hard}- pioneers who occupied their lands, we ought not 
lightly to forget their heroic traits and the bitter regret with 
which they reluctantly left one of the richest and most beau- 
tiful tracts of land that the sun ever shone upon. Neither 
should we disregard the inestimable services of Clark, 


Harmar, St. Clair, \\'ayne and the host of less prominent 
soldiers, who blazed the way for all that followed. Harmar 
was chagrined by his reverses and soon retired to private 
life, dying in obscurity ; St. Clair was maligned in the east 
and passed the declining years of his life amidst turmoil and 
vituperation and died at an advanced age stinging from the 
poor appreciation of his countrymen ; Wayne passed away in 
the prime of life performing the arduous labors appointed 
by his government. Let us raise suitable memorials to all 
these servants of the state, at the places of their most noted 
labors, that the fire of patriotism be not allowed to go "out in 
the hearts of coming venerations. 



About ten 3'ears after Wayne's treaty an attempt was made 
to unite the scattered bands of Shawnee Indians then living 
at the old Tawa towns at the head of the Auglaize river, 
Tecumseh's party on the White Water and another party on 
the ilississinewa. Deputations were sent out from the Tawa 
towns inviting the other bands to join them and live together 
there. Both bands responded promptly to the invitation and 
met at Greenville, the "Big Ford," at which their trails con- 
verged. Through the influence of Tecumseh's twin brother, 
Lau-le-wa-si-kaw, it is said, the Indians were persuaded to 
remain at that place. Accordingly a large council house of 
hewn timbers and a village of huts were erected on the low 
bluflf skirting the west side of the Mud Creek prairie some 
two miles below the site of the old Fort Greenville, on land 
now owned by James Bryson, A. D. Shell and Ida E. Cash- 
man, in section nine, range two east, Greenville township. 
About three miles to the southeast of this site arose the 
gravel knolls about Fort Jefferson, later called the "Hills of 
Judea." To the northeast, at a similar distance, could be seen 
the elevated plain on which the city of Greenville, Ohio, now 
stands. From this point trails radiated in various directions 
through the primitive forest and across the prairie. From the 
first the gifted, crafty and eloquent Tecumseh and his cun- 
ning, cruel and boastful but extremely graceful and eloquent 
brother Lau-le-wa-si-kaw (the "Loud Mouth") were the mov- 
ing spirits. One hundred and forty-three members of the 
Shawnee tribe had signed W'ayne's treaty, but Tecumseh 
never becam.e reconciled to their action and used his influence 
to counteract its effect among his people. The twin brothers 
had brooded long over the degradation and declining power 
of their people and the rapid advance of the white settlements. 
In one of his moods of despondency, it is said, the cruel, 
crafty, egotistical boaster "Loud ]\Iouth" fell in a swoon and 
became quite rigid. Thinking him dead his tribesmen were 
preparing to remove him to his grave when he revived and 


said, "Be not fearful, I have been to the land of the blessed. 
Call the nation together that I may tell them what I have 
seen arid heard. Two beautiful young men were sent by the 
Great Spirit who said : 'The ^Master of Life is angry with 3'ou 
all. He will destroy you unless you refrain from drinking, 
lying, stealing, and witchcraft and turn yourselves to Him." 
Richard McNemar, one of the Shaker missionaries, mentioned 
later in this article, gives this version of Laulewasikaw's pre- 
sumptive call to the prophetic office at this time. He had been 
a doctor, and a very wicked man, and while attending the sick 
among his people at Attawa, in the White river settlement, 
about 1805, was struck with a deep and awful sense of his sin 
and cried mightily to the Good Spirit to show him some means 
of escape. In his distress and confusion he fell into a vision 
in which he appeared to be traveling along a road and came 
at length to where it forked. The road to the right, he was 
advised, led to happiness while that to the left was the way 
to misery. By both of these paths, he said, the Great Spirit 
had led him and finally instructed him to build his fire at the 
"Big Ford" (Greenville, Ohio), and there preach to his 
people what he had seen and heard and instruct all who might 
come to him from the diiiferent tribes. It was a remarkable 
experience, real or assumed, psychological or religious, and 
from this time "Loud Mouth" assumed the name "Tens-kwa- 
ta-wa," meaning "The Open Door," and became known among 
his people as "The Prophet." His sj^stem of religion was a 
jumble of the superstitions and prejudices of his own people 
intermingled with many of the teachings of the Christian mis- 
sionaries with whom he had probably come into contact dur- 
ing his wanderings. In spite of his former disrepute, large 
numbers of his people came from their scattered settlements 
in Ohio and Indiana, and many from distant tribes of other 
Indians, to hear his eloquent, and apparently sincere, plead- 
ing for a return to the simple life of their forefathers. Ap- 
parentl}- there was nothing very objectionable in his system 
of morals and religion and it seemed at first that he had the 
good of his people at heart. In this connection we quote from 
his reputed speech to General Harrison at Vincennes : 

"Father, it is three years since I first began the system of 
religion which I now practice. The white people and some 
of the Indians were against me, but I had no other intention 
but to introduce among the Indians those good principles of 
religion which the white people profess. The Great Spirit 


told me to tell the Indians tliat he made them, and made the 
world, that He had placed them, on it to do good, and not evil. 
I told the redskins that the way the)' were in was not good, 
and they should abandon it ; that we ought to consider our- 
selves as one man, but we ought to live agreeable to our sev- 
eral customs, the red people after their mode and the white 
people after theirs ; particularly that they should not drink 
whisky ; that it was made for the white people, who knew 
how to use it, and that it was the cause of all the mischief the 
Indians sufifer; and that they must listen to Him, as it was 
He who made us. Determine to listen to nothing bad ; do not 
take up the tomahawk, should it be ofi'ered by the British or 
bv the Long Knives ; do not meddle with anything that does 
not belong to you, but mind your own business and cultivate 
the ground, that your women and children may have enough 
to live upon." 

\\"hatever may have been his original motive he seems to 
have departed somewhat from his good intentions and 
allowed his shrewd and talented brother to develop the politi- 
cal side of this semi-moral and religious revival, and mightily 
increase his prestige as chief. This Tecumseh did by urging 
his numerous visitors to lay aside former tribal animosities, 
unite in one great confederacy, on the order of that formed 
by Pontiac, and thus make a united stand against the further 
advance of the whites. 

For some reason, probabl)' in order to keep the secrets of 
their many conferences and connivances from their fellow 
tribesmen, the twin brothers soon left Prophetstown and es- 
tabHshed themselves on a knoll at the junction of Greenville 
and ]\Iud Creeks, just opposite the old fort and fording place, 
now known as Tecumseh's Point. 

The spread of witchcraft and the fear of "The Prophet" 
among the neighboring tribes had such a detrimental influ- 
ence that Governor Harrison sent a special message to the 
Delawares warning them against his false doctrines. Among 
other things he said, "Who is this pretended prophet who 
dares to speak in the name of the Great Creator? Examine 
liim. Is he more wise and virtuous than you are yourselves, 
that he should be selected to convey to you the orders of God. 
Demand of him some proofs at least of his being the mes- 
senger of the Deity. If God has really employed him. He has 
doubtless employed him to perform miracles that he may be 
known and received as a prophet. If he is really a prophet. 


ask of him to cause the sun to stand still, the moon to alter 
its course, the rivers to cease to flow, or the dead to rise, from 
their graves. If he does these things, you may believe that 
he has been sent from God." This challenge came at an un- 
fortunate time. An eclipse of the sun was to occur in 1806, 
and the prophet seems to have heard of this fact from the 
whites. Taking advantage of the ignorance and superstition 
of his people he boldly announced that he would darken the 
sun on the appointed day, and when the event occurred he 
stood in the midst of his affrighted brethren and reminded 
them of his recent prophecy. This stroke convinced the In- 
dians of his supernatural power and greatly increased his 
prestige. In the spring of 1807, it is said, the Prophet had 
gathered some four hundred Indians about him, who were 
greatly stirred by religious fanaticism and liable to carry out 
the instructions of the twin brothers, whatever they might be. 

About this time William Wells, the Indian agent at Fort 
Wayne, dispatched Anthony Shane, a half-blood Shawnee, to 
Tecumseh and the Prophet, requesting them and two of their 
chiefs to visit him that he might read to them a letter which 
he had just received from the Great Father, the President of 
the United States. 

Shane delivered his message to the council, at which Te- 
cumseh arose with characteristic haughtiness and said, "Go 
back to Fort Wayne and tell Captain Wells that my fire is 
kindled on the spot appointed by the Great Spirit above; and 
if he has anything to commimicate to me, he must come here. 
I shall expect him in six days from this time." Shane returned 
with this message but was sent back at the appointed time 
with a copy of the President's letter requesting them to move 
beyond the boundary agreed upon at the treaty of Greenville, 
and promising the assistance of the government in the accom- 
plishment of this enterprise. Because Captain Wells had not 
delivered the message in person, Tecumseh showed great 
indignation and addressed the council in a long, fiery and 
eloquent speech, at the conclusion of which he turned to Shane 
and said : "If my father, the President of the Seventeen Fires, 
has anvthing more to say to me, he must send a man of note 
as his messenger. I will hold no further intercourse with 
Captain Wells." 

Much activity was now manifested among distant tribes 
and the Prophet's headquarters were thronged with visitors. 
Speaking of this time Eggleston says: 


''The stir among the Indians went on increasing and at the 
last of May it was estimated that as man^- as fifteen hundred 
Indians had passed and repassed Fort Wayne on visits to the 
Prophet. Many of these were from remote nations. There 
was a great assembling of councils ; messengers were sent 
from tribe to tribe with pipes and belts of wampum, 
was evident that some uncommon movement was afoot. Eng- 
lish agents were also known to be very active in assisting in 
the excitement while the object was kept entirely secret from 
the Americans and friendly Indian chiefs. It was estimated 
by those familiar with Indian affairs, that in the month of 
August the Prophet and Tecumseh had gained the leadership 
of seven or eight hundred Indians at Fort \\'ayne and Green- 
ville. Many of these were armed with new rifles.'" 

These facts moved the governor of Ohio to send Thomas 
^^'orthington and Duncan JNIacArthur to hold a council with 
Tecumseh and the Prophet that they might ascertain their 
motives in assembling so many Indians on forbidden ground. 
These messengers were courteously received and a great 
council held, at which Stephen Ruddell, who understood the 
Shawnee dialect, acted as interpreter. During the course of 
the deliberation Blue Jacket delivered a conciliatory speech 
and the Prophet endeavored to explain why the Indians had 
settled at Prophetstowm. In this speech he said. "The In- 
dians did not remove to this place because it was a pretty 
place or very valuable, for it was neither, but because it was 
revealed to him that the place was a proper one to establish 
his doctrines." Responding to the governor's request, Te- 
cumseh, the Prophet, Blue Jacket, Round Head and Panther 
went to Chillicothe, then the Capital of the state. Here 
Tecumseh eloquently recited the woes of his people and de- 
nied any secret conspiracy against the whites. In spite of all 
outside interference the influence of the gifted brothers 
seemed to increase and the tribes became more restless at 
this juncture. Governor W. H. Harrison, of Indiana Terri- 
tory, wrote them a letter reminding them of the treaties of 
peace which they had made. Among other things, he said : 
"My children, I have heard bad news. The sacred spot where 
the great council fire was kindled, around which the Seven- 
teen Fires and ten tribes of their children smoked the pipe of 
peace — that very spot where the Great Spirit saw his red and 
white children encircle themselves with the chain of friend- 


ship- — that place has been selected for dark and bloody 

"Aly children, this business must be stopped. You have 
called in a number of men from the most distant tribes to 
listen to a fool, who speaks not the words of the Great Spirit, 
but those of the devil and of the British agents. My children, 
your conduct has much alarmed the white settlers near you. 
They desire that you will send away those people, and if they 
wish to have the impostor with them they can carry him. Let 
him go to the lakes, he can hear the British more distinctly." 

The Prophet answered this letter in a spirit of regret, deny- 
ing the allegations of General Harrison, and insinuating that 
he had been misinformed by evil minded men. However, in 
the spring of 1808 they deserted their village and established 
a new Prophetstown among some kindred spirits on the Tip- 
pecanoe, a branch of the Wabash, in northern Indiana, to 
which place they had been invited by some friendly Kicka- 
poos and Pottawatomies. 

While the Shawnees were living in the Mud Creek settle- 
ment they were visited by a small delegation of Shakers from 
Turtle Creek (later Union village), Warren county, Ohio, 
whose object it was to investigate the feasibility of estab- 
lishing a mission among them. The missionaries, Darrow, 
McNemar and Youngs, arrived at Prophetstown on ^larch 25, 
1807. They afterwards made a detailed report of their ex- 
periences, from which the following interesting extracts are 
taken. "\Mien we came in sight of the village, the first object 
that attracted our view was a large frame house, about 150 
by 34 feet in size, surrounded with fifty or sixty smoking 
cottages. We rode up and saluted some men who were stand- 
ing before the door of a tent, and by a motion of the hand 
were directed to another wigwam where we found one who 
could talk English. We asked him if their feelings were 

A. O, yes, we are all brothers. 

O. Where are your chiefs? We wish to have a talk with 

A. They are about four miles off making sugar. 

O. What are their names? 

A. Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka and Te-kum-tha. 

O. Can any of them talk English. 

A. No : but there is a good interpreter there ; George Blue 
Jacket. He has gone to school, and can read and talk well. 


O. \Miat is that big house for? 

A. To worship the Great Spirit. 

y. How do you worship? 

A. Alostly in speaking. 

Q. Who is your chief speaker? 

A. Our prophet, Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka. He converses with the 
Great Spirit, and tells us how to be good. 

Q. Do all that live here believe in him? 

A. Yes ; we all believe ; he can dream to God. 

Conducted by a pilot, we repaired to the sugar camp, where 
thirty or forty were assembled with the Prophet, who was 
very sick and confined in his tent. We expressed our desire 
of having a talk with him. But George informed us that he 
could not talk to us, that ministers of the white people would 
not believe what he said, but counted it foolish and laughed 
at it. therefore he could not talk ; besides, he had a pain in 
his head, and was very sick. After informing him we were 
not such ministers, he asked: 

Do you believe a person can have true knowledge of the 
Great Spirit, in the heart, without going to school and learn- 
ing to read? 

A. We believe they can ; and that is the best kind of 

After some talk of this kind with George, he went into the 
Prophets's tent, where several chiefs were collected, and after 
continuing their council there about an hour, Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka 
came out and took his seat in a circle of about thirty persons 
who sat round the fire. All were silent — every countenance 
grave and solemn, when he began to speak. His discourse 
continued about half an hour, in which the most pungent elo- 
quence expressed his deep and heartfelt sense of what he 
spoke, but in language which George said he could not cor- 
rectly translate into English. However, the general sense 
he occasionally communicated during our stay. * * * * 

They asked us several questions concerning our people, and 
particularly whether they drank whisk}^ ; and appeared not a 
little rejoiced to learn that there were some among the 
whites so far reclaimed as to lay aside the use of that per- 
nicious liquor. We inquired how they made out for pro- 
visions. They answered they had none. So many people 
came there — eat up all they had raised. 

The only meal we saw them eat was a turkey divided among 


thirty or forty. And the only relief we could afford them 
was ten dollars for the purpose of buying corn. 

After the evening conversation closed we concluded to re- 
turn to the village, with George and several others ; and 
mounted our horses. It was now in the dusk of the evening, 
and the full moon just rising above the horizon, when one 
of their speakers stood up in an alley, between the camps, and 
spoke for about fifteen minutes, with great solemnity, which 
was heightened at every pause, with a loud Seguoy from the 
surrounding assembly. On this occasion our feelings were 
like Jacob's when he cried out, "How dreadful is this place! 
Surely the Lord is in this place!" And the world knew it not. 
\\'ith these impressions we returned to the village, and spent 
the night. 

Next morning, as soon as it was day, one of their speak- 
ers mounted a log, near the southeast corner of the village, 
and began the morning service with a loud voice, in thanks- 
giving to the Great Spirit. He continued his address for 
near an hour. The people were all in their tents, some at 
the distance of fifteen or twenty rods ; yet they could all dis- 
tinctly hear, and gave a solemn and loud assent, which sound- 
ed from tent to tent, at every pause. While we stood in his 
view, at the end of the meeting-house, on rising ground, from 
which we had a prospect of the surrounding wigwams, and 
the vast open plain or prairie, to the south and east, and 
which looks over the big fort, toward the north, for the dis- 
tance of two miles, we felt as if we were among the tribes 
of Israel, on their march to Canaan. Their simplicity and 
unaffected zeal for the increase of the work of the Good Spir- 
it — their ardent desires for the salvation of their unbelieving 
kindred, with that of all mankind — their willingness to un- 
dergo hunger, fatigue, hard labor and sufferings, for the sake 
of those who came to learn the way of righteousness, and the 
high expectations they had, of multitudes flocking down to 
hear the prpohet the ensuing sujnmer, etc., were considera- 
tions truly affecting; while Ske-law-wa hailed the opening 
day with loud aspirations of gratitude to the Good Spirit, and 
encouraged the obedient followers of Divine light to persevere. 

They showed us several letters of friendship from the Gov- 
ernor of Ohio, Gen. Whiteman and others, from which it 
appeared that the Americans believed their dispositions to be 
peaceable and brotherly. Their marks of industry were con- 
siderable, not only in preparing ground for cultivation, but 


also in hewing and preparing timber for more commodious 
buildings. From all we could gatlier, from their account 
of the work, and of their faith and practice, what we heard 
and felt in their evening and morning worship, their peace- 
able dispositions and attention to industry, we were induced 
to believe that God, in very deed, was mightily at work 
among them. And under this impression, we invited three 
or four of them to come down and see us, as soon as they 
found it convenient." 

The stay of the deputation was short, for on March 27 
they returned. The time actually at Greenville is nowhere 
stated, but in all probability it was not more than five days. 

The sugar camp mentioned above was probably either in 
what was later known as the Hiller settlement, or along the 
blufif of Greenville creek a short distance above the present 
site of Weimer's mill, in western Greenville township. It 
is said that some plague, probably smallpox, visited the In- 
dians while at Prophetstown. As noted before a number of 
graves were encountered while constructing the pike at Bish- 
op's crossing adjoining this site which would seem to lend 
color to the above statement. The reputed site of Chief Blue 
Jacket's burial is pointed out in a field just west of the old 
orchard which occupies the site of the Council house on the 
Bryson farm. This also corresponds with the old tradition 
that Blue Jacket was assaulted and hanged on this spot after 
his v>'ife and daughter had been murdered through the treach- 
ery of Tecumseh. Blue Jacket it seems was friendly to the 
whites, and taught his people that their best interests would 
be conserved by living on friendly terms with the latter and 
conforming to the requirements of civilized life. Tecumseh, 
on the other hand, was disturbed by the rapid advance of the 
white settlements and the insidious dififusion of civilized ways 
among his people. He thought that the Indian's only salva- 
tion lay in resisting the whites, and throwing off their in- 
fluence. In this he was probabh^ sincere, consequentlv, we 
can understand the jealousy and enmity which is said to have 
existed between the two warriors, and to have finally caused 
the brutal murder of the older and more peaceable by the 
younger and more unscrupulous. This tradition, however, is 
challenged by the statement that the old chief Blue Jacket 
is buried in Illinois, which makes it appear probable that the 
chief who was buried at Prophetstown was the George Blue 


Jacket, above mentioned, who seems to have been a son or 
a nephew of the old chief. 

Tradition also says that Tecumseh buried twin children on 
the spot of his later machinations and the supposed site ot 
their grave is still pointed out by the ^klorningstar descend- 
ants in the rear of the old Morningstar home on the knoll, 
near the junction of ^lud and Greenville creeks. 

The incidents connected with the reputed tragic death of 
Blue Jacket at Prophetstown throw some interesting side- 
lights on the character of Tecumseh and his associates, and 
make an interesting addition to the traditional lore of this 

Fortunately a local chronicler published an account of this 
tradition which we herewith incorporate because of its his- 
torical value. Although the date and reputed relation with 
the early settlers do not correspond with what has already 
been written, the affair contains enough dramatic and his- 
toric features to justify' a record in this work. 

"The war of 1812 was a new source of trouble and trials to 
the new settlers. Those who had settled here as early as 
1810, found the Indians were alreadv treacherous and steal- 
thy. There were some indeed who preserved friendly rela- 
tions with the settlers, but the great majority of them were 
gruff and insolent. Xot that they were as yet regarded as 
dangerous, but annoying, going into houses and demanding 
something to eat, and refusing to leave until the demand 
was complied with. Tomahawks and butcher knives 
were frequently used to coerce compliance, ^\'hen they had 
eaten at one house they would go to the next and demand in 
the same way, eating six or eight times in less than a day, so 
that they would often become sick from over-gorging. Among 
those who proved particularly friendly to the whites and 
seemed to court good understanding with them, was the old 
prophet Blue Jacket. He seemed to be a really good Indian. 
Bad feeling existed between him and the rival prophet Te- 
cumseh, so that Blue Jacket was to a considerable degree, 
through the influence of Tecumseh, persecuted by his tribe. 
Tecumseh was the shrewdest or more dishonest of the two. 
Had an inveterate hate against the whites, was stirring up 
his tribe to the war paint against them,' while Blue Jacket 
contended with him, that war with the whites only meant 
their decimation and ruin. That the Great Spirit had set his 
face against the red man, and that to prohibit the progress 


of the settlement of the country i)y the white man, was be- 
yond the combined power of all the tril^es, and as for him, 
he was maintaining friendly relations with them. He had 
been with tht whites a good deal and always found them 
friendly disposed, and not averse to living in the country with 
the red man, and he believed the white man's method of liv- 
ing was the best, and that in time the red man could live as 
comfortable as the whites. This reasonable logic took deep 
effect, and for a time the Pottawatomies and Miamis seemed 
to be content with it. Tecumseh was now in some dispute 
with these tribes and being deeply chagrined left the coun- 
try and was no more heard of for several months. He had 
traveled south, west and north and had succeeded in persuad- 
ing many tribes to join in a general war against the whites. 
With this success he now returned to renew his efforts with 
his own tribes. These he found still peaceably disposed and 
mainly under the influence of Blue Jacket. He now openl}'- 
made the charge against him, that he was no true prophet, 
and inaugurated a system of trial by which it should be de- 
termined which of the two was the true one, as holding 
different opinions about the same thing one must surelv be 

To test this matter Tecumseh demanded that ten young 
men should be selected, five from each tribe, as a hunting 
party. That they should go out from the village to hunt ev- 
erv dav for ten days and always return at night with what- 
ever game they had. That each morning he and Blue Jacket 
should prophesy in the presence of three old men, but not in 
the presence of each other, the result of the day's hunt. To 
this Blue Jacket readily agreed. Three old men were se- 
lected who went into a tent to themselves and sent for the 
prophet. Blue Jacket. He soon appeared wrapped in his 
sacred shawl, which was a very bright red, except a blue 
border. He entered the tent, sat down upon a wolf skin, 
drew his shawl over his head, and after a silence of one or 
two minutes spoke in a rough wavering voice, "I see only 
a few turkeys and two or three deer." He arose and retired 
from the tent. In the meantime Tecumseh had employed 
a spy to listen at a crack in the tent, and immediately report 
to him the conduct of Blue Jacket, and what he said. This 
spy performed his duty. Tecumseh was now sent for. He 
repaired to the tent without any marks of humiliation but 
rather in a pompous way, stood erect in the presence of the 


old men, and without hesitation said, "I see six deer and a 
load of turkeys." 

The young men were now armed and equippel ready for 
the hunt. Tecumseh sent his spy with them, .with instruc- 
tions to be sure to get six deer and as many turkeys as they 
could carry. The result of this day's hunt was awaited with 
considerable interest and anxiety. The evening at length 
came, and the hunters began to gather in with their game, 
which was carried to the middle of the village and lain down. 
When the old men came to inspect and count the game, they 
found as the result of the da)^ six deer and eight turkeys. 
The next morning at sunrise the old men had reassembled 
at the tent, and Blue Jacket again sent for. He entered the 
tent with greater humiliation than before, having caused his 
nose to bleed profusely, and his whole face daubed with blood 
and paint, was quite a disgusting object. The old men looked 
at him with pity. He sat down as before, drawing his shawl 
still closer about him. He now gave a long groan and said, 
"I see the young men grappling with the game, five deer and 
seven turkeys, with some other small game." He then arose 
and retired. Tecumseh"s sp}^ was instructed this day to 
bring in no game except one deer, but be sure to have that. 

The hunters again returned at the close of day, the old men 
went to see and count the game, and were astonished to find 
but one deer. The tribes now began to look upon Tecumseh 
with more than usual wonder while poor Blue Jacket was 
almost entirely neglected. This heightened the arrogance of 
Tecumseh, but was quite depressing on Blue Jacket. 

Tecumseh had instructed his spy that if any young men 
should kill any other kind of game such as bear, elk, wolf 
or panther, they should not bring that in till the next day, 
but that he should inform him of the fact. The morning of 
the third day now came. Blue Jacket now entered the tent 
with still greater humiliation and dejection, crawling into 
the presence of the old men on his hands and knees, portions 
of his hair torn from his head, and hanging on his shoulders, 
daubed with blood and dirt, his head covered with his shawl, 
which was also daubed with blood. The old men reviewed 
his condition with more levity than pity, which Blue Jacket 
discovered, and threw himself flat upon the groimd, gave a 
heavy groan, and said : "T see the young men in their wav 
but the game has grown wild and timid — the hunt will not 


be good today, two deer and no other game." He arose 
and left the tent. 

Tecumseh's spy in the meantime had told him that in yes- 
terday's hutit he had seen a bear crawl into a hollow log, and 
had run quickly to the place, and with other logs stopped the 
hole so that he could not get out, that he could easily kill 
and bring him in the next day. He having been informed 
of what Blue Jacket had said now repaired to the tent. 
Standing erect he closed his eyes and said: "It is good to 
understand the ways of the Great Spirit and to be led by 
him. What more evidence of his power can we have than 
this, that he enables us to tell in advance what will happen 
to our benefit in the future? I see four deer, yes, and a bear 
and turkeys. The game runs into the way of our young 
men and stands to be captured. Tecumseh now sat down 
and had a long talk with the old men. telling them of various 
dreams he had, and how they had become true ; that nothing 
affecting the interests of the tribes, even remotely, but that 
he had a premonition of it — that he had a dream last night, in 
which he plainly saw Blue Jacket hanging on a tree, because 
he was a false prophet, a traitor and the friend of the white 
man. This conversation deeply affected the old men, and was 
soon whispered about the camp. The result of this day's 
hunt was still more eagerly looked for, and when the hunt- 
ers came in bearing on a stretcher a black bear, four deer, 
and several turkeys, the excitement was unbounded. It was 
announced that the young men would not hunt on the mor- 
row, but that they would have a feast of bear's meat. The 
old men now gathered Tecumseh upon their shoulders and 
amidst great shouting carried him to his tent. Poor Blue 
Jacket rather skulked than walked away to his tent, unno- 
ticed, except by Tecumseh's spy, who, hopping after him in 
a stooping posture, cried out in a harsh guttural tone, "the 
game is wild toda}% I see but two deer." The conduct of the 
spy being now noticed by others, a great shout of merriment 
and derision was raised and followed Blue Jacket to his very 
tent door. The old prophet crawled into his tent, threw him- 
self down on his buffalo robe, and refused to be consoled 
by his family. He lay till near the hour of midnight when 
he arose, told his wife that he feared some great evil fore- 
boded them : that he had made up his mind to flee to the white 
settlement, and ask them to conceal him for a time. His 
wife now did everything in her power to reconcile him and 


banish his apprehensions, but to no effect. He got up, put 
on his belt, adjusted his tomahawk and butcherknife in it, 
took up his medicine bag, and as the camp by this time had 
become quiet, stealthily walked away. He traveled six or 
seven miles, and as daylight was not yet apparent, and not 
wishing to approach the settlement in the night season, lay 
down behind a log, which was well covered with brush, and 
concealed himself within, having neither ate nor slept much for 
several days, and being worried from travel, he unconsciously 
fell asleep. At an early hour the camp was astir, and some 
having supposed the prophet may not have understood the 
arrangements for the day called at his tent to inform him 
that there would be no hunting that day. But upon making 
inquiry for him found he had left the camp during the night. 
This was soon noised about, and the whole camp was in an 
uproar. Tecumseh now rushed to the middle of the camp, 
and cried with a loud voice to the old men. ■'^^'hat now is my 
dream, is it so soon to be made true?" 

The dream was soon rehearsed by Tecumseh, whereupon 
his spy. with several others, ran to the prophet's tent and 
demanded of his wife where he was. To this she replied 
that she did not know at which answer the spy flew into a 
great rage, and with one blow of his hatchet almost cleft her 
head in two. He now turned to the prophet's daughter, a 
verv fair voung squaw about sixteen years old, and demand- 
ed of her where the prophet was. She answered that he had 
left in the night while she was sleeping, and she did not 
know where he had gone. "Lying creatures, as your parents 
tell me, now this hatchet will also do its work on you. For 
a moment she was silent, then looking imporingly up, she 
said, "I do not know." Quick as lightning the hatchet fell 
on her defenseless head, splitting it to her very ears. 

These atrocities were quickly made known to the camp, and 
a party under the directions of Tecumseh were soon upon 
the track of the prophet. Xor had they much trouble in find- 
ing him, as he did not expect to be pursued, and had taken no 
pains to conceal his trail. He was found still asleep and 
within half a mile of the settlement. This party had been 
instructed by Tecumseh to pursue him into the white settle- 
ments, and if they refused to give him up, not to leave one of 
them alive. It is well the prophet had not gone into the set- 
tlement as the worst of calamity would have befallen them. The 
prophet was dragged from his couch, placed in the midst of 


the party and forced back tu camp. Here a ring was soon 
formed and the prophet placed in the center, three or '"our 
steps from the inner portion of the ring. It was now de- 
manded of him that he should explain his conduct, and prom- 
ised that he might make a short speech. 

He then said: "My conduct is not so bad and so full of 
mi.'-chief as to justify all tiiis sus-)icion. Some e\"ii ^iiirit 
seems to have taken hold of me, and compelled me to lie to 
th.e old men. and rather than lie and deceive I gave up the 
prophesying and to avoid the disgrace left the camp. 

You should have remembered that I have always been a 
good and true man, that my nation has always been dear to 
me, and my life has l^een devoted to it. I had four sons, 
r;ood and true, who brought much provisions to my tent, 
enough for us and much to spare which your children ate. 
Where now are those four sons? Their bodies a prey to 
ivolves and wild beasts, and their bones bleaching on that 
last disastrous battlefield ('^^'ayne's victory on the Maumeej. 
My family are now all taken away from me. \Miat have I 
to live for? You can kill me. as I expect you will, but first 
I demand to know who has killed my defenseless and inno- 
cent wife and daughter. Does no one speak? Are you al- 
ready ashamed of the deed that yoti hide it? Let the cow- 
ardly brute who has performed this perfid'ous deed acknowl- 
edge it. Coward, you dare not say, "I am the man." The 
spy now advanced a few inches, and said, "False prophet, I am 
the man." Quick as lightning the. prophet drew his hatchet, 
and with unerring aim and terrific force threw it, striking the 
spy full in the breast, where it was buried to the poll. The spy 
fell dead at his feet. He now, v\'ith dexterous like motion 
drew his knife, and with full force made a plunge at Tecum- 
seli. At this instant a savage from behind struck him with a 
heavy club on the side of his head, which felled him stunned 
to the ground. His knife was now taken from him. his hands 
tied firmly behind his back, when Tecumseh cried out with a 
loud voice, "Let him be hanged to that tree." A piece of raw 
iiuft'alo hide was soon procured, and fastened round his neck. 
Several now caught and lifted him up while another in the 
tree made him fast to a limb. Thev then walked away from 
under him and the prophet was left kicking and dangling in 
the air. 

"Thus is recorded the tragic end of one of the great men of 
the Miami nation. He did not die as the coward, vet he was 


not entirely satisfied. He knew that Tecumseh had brought 
on his ruin. If the unfortunate blow on his head had been 
delayed but for a single second his knife would have cut the 
heart of Tecumseh and he would have been satisfied. As it 
was Tecumseh still lived to bring great calamity upon both 
his friends and foes. All the day long Blue Jacket hung upon 
the tree, for a while the jilt and sport of the camp. But 
toward night a reaction took place. They remembered his 
speech and his family, and the many kind acts he had per- 
formed. They had been cured of sickness by his medicines, 
shared his sumptuous fare, and his spritely conversation. He 
was now taken down from the tree, his property gathered 
about him, and early next morning nearly the whole tribe ac- 
companied his remains to the burial ground at the council 
house, which was situated on the lands now owned by Joseph 
Bryson, Esq., where his grave remains to this day." 

We close this chapter with an appropriate descriptive and 
narrative poem by the late Barney Collins, formerly of Darke 
county. This poem was published in the Greenville Courier, 
edited by ]Mr. John Calderwood, a brother of Mrs. Collins, 
and should be treasured as the work of one of the best lit- 
erary geniuses that the countv ever produced. 

A\"ithin these lovely vales, these hills around, 
There still remains of former times the trace 

When great Tecumseh and his brother bound 
By oaths in common league their war-like race, 
To drive from hence, their favorite hunting place. 

The pioneers, and boldly strike a blow 

That would them crush and ev'ry line eilface 

They had established here, so that no foe 

Could tempt again these haunts so sacred to the bow. 

Where form our tranquil streams their confluence. 

The mighty Shawnee had his cabin reared ; 
And oft upon their shores his eloquence 

To wildest rage his dusky warriors stirred, 

And gathered chiefs and tribes that list'ning heard 
Their common cause his voice persuasive plead, 

His counsels chose, and him as chief preferred. 
Their restless bands to fields of war to lead, 
\\'here ev'rv home should blaze and ev'rv inmate bleed. 


Then he who rulVl with more than regal power, 

No less did Laulewasikaw the Seer 
Who here foretold the time — the day — the hour — 

When in deep gloom the sun would disappear, 

And black, obscuring shades o'erspread this sphere! 
And where our hill embosomed waves unite, 

The prophet waiting stood with air severe, 
'Till Luna's shadow hid the orb of light 
And cried: "Have I not veiled that burning world from sight? 

Behold! ye tribes! the truth behold at last! 

Yon sun is rayless at the noon of day! 
O'er it his frown great Manito has cast 

That you might doubt no more but me obey! 

The time will come ! It is not far away I 
When he, will you, ye braves ! to victory call ! 

But here your chief must first his bands array 
In these deep wilds so sacred to us all. 
Ere yet, war's path we take where ev'ry foe shall fall !" 

They could not doubt — with awe their breasts were flll'd 
As to the darkened earth they trembling bent ; 

Nor were their souls that shook with terror stilled. 
Until this sun encumb'ring gloom was rent. 
No more to his commands they urg'd dissent. 

But what their proven prophet did direct 
They chose to do, and gave their full assent 

To ev'ry scheme of war that he'd project. 

And though they failed, on him they never would reflect. 

From here his hostile bands Tecumseh led 

To join that no less savage, heartless foe 
That Britain sent upon our shores to spread 

Ruin and war's infinity of woe ! 

A few there are who yet survive that know 
The perils that did the pioneers invest 

When tomahawk and torch and bended bow 
Their work of death perform'd with horrid zest. 
Nor age was spared, nor babe that clasp'd the mother's breast ! 

But when at Thames the red man's hopes were crushed. 
And with him here a final treaty was made — 

Here, a broad tide of emigration rush'd 

Which to improvement gave its needed aid, 


Where through the wildreness the footpath stray'd 
O'er which the foliage of the forest spread 

Broad avenues of enterprise and trade 
Were built — and progress forward swiftly sped 
Until these vales were filled with wealth unlimited. 


After the peace of Greenville in 1795, and the occupancy of 
Detroit by the Americans in 1796, a feeling of security came 
over the settlers along the Ohio. They soon left their pali- 
saded forts and blockhouse stations and advanced into the 
beautiful valleys of the Muskingum, Scioto and the two 
Miamis to establish new homes, and reclaim the land. In 
1796 the advance guard of the Miami valle_y settlers arrived 
at the junction of Mad river with the Miami and established 
the settlement of Dayton. In order to secure nails and hard- 
ware for their log cottages thej- burned the log fort and 
buildings at Greenville, which had been evacuated in the 
spring of that year. On account of accessibility by water, 
no doubt, also probably because of the more open condition 
of the country, the land immediately adjacent to the Miami 
river first became sparsely settled, with nucleii at Hamilton. 
Dayton and other well located sites. The swampy and less 
accessible lands about the headwaters of the branch streams 
awaited the establishment of a larger population in the more 
open and better known countrj' before bra\'e hearts essayed 
to explore their mysteries. 

Prof. W. H. Mcintosh speaks of conditions at this time, 
as follows : "At the close of the Greenville treaty, the coun- 
ty to the westward was a wilderness ; but, in addition to the 
Indian traces leading from the Miami to the Maumee. and 
threading their devious way to other savage villages, there 
were the broad trails cut by pioneers, trodden by horsemen 
and footmen, and marking the route of armies and the forays 
of detachments. The soldier was also the citizen and the 
settler, and his quick, appreciative glance took in the possi- 
bilities of the countries he had traveled. For him the woods 
of Darke had no charm. The conditions elsewhere were here 
wanting. Contrast the statement made concerning the Miami 
settlement to the east with the actual condition of the lands 
of this county. There the country was attractive all about 
the settlement. Nature presented her most lovely appear- 


ance ; the rich soil, mellow as an ash-heap, excelled in the 
exuberance of its vegetation. Cattle were lost from exces- 
sive feeding, and care was required to preserve them from 
this danger. Over the bottom grew the sweet annis, the 
wild nettle, the rye and the pea vine, in rich abundance, 
where the cattle were subsisted without labor, and these, 
with nutritious roots, were eaten by swine with the greatest 
avidity. In Darke lands there were found the woods, the 
endless variety of vine and shrub, impassable swamps, lack 
of roadway, and the great difficulty of making passable roads. 
Nor were the forests the only or most formidable barrier to 
early settlement. We have seen the woods to be filled with 
Indians. Their principal town was at Piqua, distant but 
eighteen miles ; their camps were along the creeks. In the 
neighborhood of larger settlements they were treated rough- 
ly, and are entitled to little consideration, and it was known 
from bitter experience that lone families were in constant dan- 
ger of the sudden wrath of the savage." * * * "Some por- 
tions of the county abounded in game, and among those timid 
and harmless anim.als were found those fierce and dangerous, 
as might be judged from the names of creek and locality. 
Still this might be regarded more as an annoyance than as 
a dread, and, later, premiums for scalps of wolf and panther 
supplied the settler with means of paying tax or buying 
necessaries. There existed a still more potent influence de- 
barring occupation, and this was ill reports of health and cli- 
mate. The men of that day were little afraid of labor ; they 
knew the Indian must give way, but they were peculiarly 
influenced by whatever partook of the mysterious, and ru- 
mor's many voices soon changed the natural to the marvel- 
ous, and Darke county was shunned as the haunt of a plagu*^, 
designated "milk sickness.'' Some implicitly believe in its 
prevalence to this day. while others assert that it is a myth, 
undeserving of credence. Endeavors to find a case have al- 
ways proved futile. It is heard of "just "over in the next 
township," but, going thither, report placed it further on in 
the next township, or perhaps in the one just left, and the 
phantom always places the breadth of a township between its 
locality and the curious investigator. But whether a myth 
or a reality, the report spread along the Miami and be^-ond ; 
the settlers believed it, and, what was worse, regarded it with 
dread. Even the Indians asserted that certain districts were 
infected with an air freighted with the odors of disease, and 


gravely told the whites, "Not live much here — too much bel- 
ly sick," and, whatever the cause, there was sickness where 
they gave this word of warning. It will thus be seen that 
the territory which afterward became Darke county had won 
an unenviable reputation, and land titles were held at low 
rates, with few bidders. These things undoubtedly dela\'ed 
settlement and caused a tardy growth, while they gave in 
compensation a class of men possessed of pluck and energy, 
well qualified to leave their impress on the soil. 

"In the settlement of Darke county, which for eight years 
was a dependency of ]\Iiami, two classes of land occupants 
were recognized — the transient and the permanent. The his- 
torian called to do justice to the worthy class finds but few 
of their descendants resident citizens of the county, and it 
is not till 1816 and later, that families came to stay and make 
their fortune blend with that of their future home. 

"Coming up the army roads, striking across the country, eli- 
gible locations caught the eye, and established the hunter at 
a creek-side home, while an unusual hard time in sickness and 
losses impelled the intended resident to move away. Thus 
theie were conversions from one class to another, and all 
shared in a certain degree of restlessness while in search of 
a home, but a strongly marked distinction between the two 
di\isions existed. There was seen to be here, as elsewhere, 
a border class of trapper and hunter affiliating with the sav- 
ages, only endured by genuine settlers and hanging upon the 
outmost fringe of advancing occupation. It matters little 
who they were, these openers or beginners, who held aloof 
from neighbors, occupied miserable" huts, raised small patches 
of corn, and left when the clearings became too numerous. 
Many poor men came into the county, put up small log cab- 
ins, cleared somewhat of ground, then, disheartened by pri- 
vation, sickness and inabilitj' to make payments, gave way to 
others, who built with better success upon their broken for- 
tunes. An old Darke count}' settler, located not far from 
Greenville, thus speaks of the actual pioneers as a class : "The 
place for the squatter is not quite among the Indians, for 
that is too savage, nor yet among good farmers, who are too 
jealous and selfish, but in the woods, partly for clearing it up 
and partly for hunting." The histories of townships, dealing 
with the first settlers, often speak of the unknown squatter, 
whose abandoned claims gave brief home to the settler, and 
whose ill-cleared vegetable patch, growing up to weeds and 


bush, made the spot seem yet more wild than the woods sur- 
rounding." * * ''' 

"In recounting the incentives to ^Vestern emigration, the 
ruling motive was the hope of improving the condition. The 
land was cheap, undoubtedly fertile, and the prospects of a 
rise in values certain. There were those who expected to 
find a 'paradise in the ^^"est,■ and journeyed thither only to 
suffer from disease, want and discouragements. Some went 
back, telling of suffering, and dissuaded those lightly influ- 
enced; others, with inherent manhood, resolved, since they 
were here, to make the best of it, and gradually won their 
way to affluence and comfort." * * * 

So far as we know, no white men penetrated the forests 
of Darke county after the burning of the fort except the 
government surveyors — the Ludlows, Cooper, Nelson and 
Chambers and their assistants — until early in the nineteenth 

In a former chapter it has been noted that a large num- 
ber of women were with St. Clair's army, many of whom were 
either killed or captured. It is supposed that these were 
wives and members of the families of men with the army 
who intended to settle in the neighborhood of the fort which 
St. Clair intended to build at the junction of the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph rivers. According to the following article by 
Mr. James O. Arnold, a prominent member of the Dayton 
Historical Society, an attempt at settlement was made by 
at least one family during AVayne's occupancy at Fort Green- 
ville. AA'e herewith quote the article because of its apparent 
authenticity, and because it paints a vivid picture of life i-i 
the wilderness. 

"Four walls of wood growth of hickory, walnut, oak, ash 
and elm, mingled with maples and undergrowth, so dense 
that a horseman could not pass, so tall that its shade cast a 
gloom around about, and between these walls a clearing and 
military fort. Beyond, another clearing and a cabin built of 
logs, lighted by a little window. The heavy oaken door 
swung on wooden hinges ; the curling smoke from the chim- 
ney made of lath, grass and clay, and 'the latchstring out,' 
bid welcome to the guest without, an invitation to enjoy the 
open fire and the hospitalities of the host. A veritable, typi- 
cal home of the pioneer in the countv of Darke, in the vil- 
lage of Greenville, O. — 'a U. S. military fort,' in the latter davs 


vi tile se\ciiteentli ceinury, where General Wayne bid the In- 
dians all adieu. 

"The military engineers then laid their roads on the 'high- 
ways' abo\e the lowlands, swamps and fallen timbers, and so 
narrow that the wheels of the connestoga wagons would 
touch the undergrowth and trees in passing to the fort. 
Through lands so wet and ruts and mud so deep that to ride 
the saddle horse of the team, and the family on horseback, in 
the trail was a lullaby in comparison to the rocking, jolting 
wagon that sheltered the . mother and her babes on their 
journey to the clearing in the forest wild. Grandfather Hard- 
man (Herdman) of Pennsylvania, his heroic wife and two 
sons, one son and his wife !M&ry, and her babe, were the pion- 
eers in such a home. True to family tradition, often told in 
later years, that made the small boy tremble with fear as he 
heard it before the great open fire in the home yet standing 
in Dayton View, The story of the hostile Indians, who 
were jealous of their rights, and would have scalped the 
family long before but for the mother, Mary Hardman, who 
knew their habits from a child and her mother's way of 
pleasing them by 'putting the kettle on' to make them soups 
whene'er she'd see them come, thus to appease their wrath 
and to afford protection. The son was doing duty as a sol- 
dier at the fort and pleaded and pleaded in vain to have them 
come within the lines and not expose themselves to fate. 
But, heeding not, they held their own opinion, determined 
to carve a home in the forest for themselves and children. 

"The morning dawned, the atmosphere so dense that smoke 
from all the clearing around seemed so depressing that boded 
the coming of the foe, and she often looked through the 
chinks toward the wagon road to sight them first, that they 
might be ready in defense. Grandfather said in niuttled 
tones: 'It is one of the old woman's scares that she cooks up 
on gloomy days." But hark! Behind the cabin footsteps of 
no uncertain sound to the practiced ear. reassured the mother 
of her alarm, and she hastened to place the kettle on the 
fire, for well she knew their stealthy tread on mischief bent. 
And when she saw the swarthy face between the cabin chinks- 
she knew their fate was sealed and called her son and bade 
him hasten to escape and alarm the soldiers at the fort, for 
all her hope was gone. The mother clasped her babe to run 
for life. Each must seek themselves a place of safety and 
ere the father crossed the fe-ice. an arrow swiftly sped, had 


laid him cold in death. The mother ran, hid by bushes, with 
her babe, until faint and wear}' with her load and finding they 
were on her trail, concealed her babe, thinking they might 
spare it, and ran to hide herself in a place of safety. So well 
she knew the woods and dens to trap the fox, she jumped in 
one of these and covered with leaves she lay hiding until 
the night passed. They had found the babe and by torture 
cruel, so that she could hear it cry, exclaiming as they passed, 
'Calf cry, cow come.' This too heartrending for a mother's 
love she raised her head and thus exposed to sight, when a 
warrior active, yet quite young, turned back to cleave her 
skull, but touched with pity followed on and left the babe i;nd 
mother to their fate, in answer to her prayer. \\'hen all was 
quiet she went her solitary way toward the fort and there 
found help and started to their forest home. O, what a 
scene. Her father, mother, slain, her husband dead beside 
the bush fence, and the son beyond." 

"They gathered all and carried them to the fort, leaving the 
desolated home. The soldiers swore in wrath their vengeance 
and pursued the Indians to their death and captured many 
who paid the penalty, "save one." And she who never forgot 
the face of him, so young, who saved her life and babe, when 
he, a captive taken, she in turn saved him from death with 
pleading tears. He, then unknown to fame, was the future 
great Tecumseh, born on the shores of Mad river, in the 
northwest territory, now the state of Ohio, U. S. A. The 
child thus saved was named INIar}-, after her mother, and lived 
to be a strong healthy woman of fine, large stature, nearly 
twenty stone in weight. She married James Bracy Oliver, of 
Augusta Springs, Va., who came to Dayton in 1802. * * * 

"Mary Hardman and James Bracy Oliver, her husband, lived 
a prosperous and happy life, raised six sons and five daugh- 
ters and left a large estate. His first farm he sold to the 
Montgomery county commissioners for an infirmary, after 
A. D. 1820. and purchased lands north of the soldiers' home, 
where the brick house and log barn is standing, owned by 
^^^illiam King. And they are buried in the family lot along- 
side the road. The graves are marked by four large stone 
ashlers set on edge, hooped with iron, marking the spot where 
the once little babe, who lived to see her grandchildren, was 
once saved from death b}' Tecumseh, near Fort Greenville, O. 
Many pass the spot thinking little of its historic lore. Uncle 
Jinimy and his wife passed away a full half centur}' ago, and 


this story has lain in manuscript fully thirty years, written in 
memory by the oddest grandson, who now resides at 629 Su- 
perior avenue, Dayton, O., in the same house where he stood 

when a child of 12, between the jams in the chimney, nine 
feet square, more than SO years ago, listening with fear and 
trembling to the Indian stories told, as "Granny's tales about 
the Injuns," by Granny's own self as she knit and knit from 
morn till night." * * * 

Likewise the first attempt to establish a business in old 
Darke county was unsuccessful. About the year 1805 a 
Frenchman built a little log cabin north of the creek, on the 
present site of Minatown (probably near the present inter- 
section of N. Main and N. Broadway) and started to traffic 
with the Indians. It is said, that he was compelled to leave 
in the summer of 1806 as the Indians associated with the 
"Prophet'' had stolen his entire stock. Probably in the fall 
of the same year, or not later than the spring of 1807, Azor 
Scribner, leaving his family temporarily near Middletown, O., 
established himself in the cabin deserted by the Frenchman 
with a stock of merchandise suited for trading with the In- 
dians, including, no doubt, powder, lead, gun-flints. Icnives. 
hatchets, rifles, tobacco, rum and fancy calicoes. These 
goods were hauled over Wayne's trace from Fort \\'ashing- 
ton on a crude drag or "mud boat" by a yoke of oxen and 
the trip is said to have taken usually from three to six weeks. 
In the spring of 1808 Scribner brought his family, consisting 
of his wife Xancy and daughters, Sarah, Elizabeth and Rhodn. 
from Middletown and established them in this little cabin. 
On the night before the arrival of the family, it is said, the 
Indians burned Prophetstown and started for their new home 
in Indiana. Scribner soon abandoned the Frenchman's cabin 
and moved into one of the buildings of old Fort Greenville, 
which had escaped the fire of the plunderers in 1796. This 
building was located somewhere near the present intersection 
of West Water and Elm streets, overlooking the old ford- 
ing place. Here he enjoyed a monopoly of the frontier trade 
until 1811 or 1812 when David Connor set up a store on the 
southeast corner of West Water and Sycamore streets, where 
he remained until after the British and Indian war. Connor 
then moved to Fort Recovery and later to the Mississinawa 
region, following up the migrating tribes with whom he 
gained considerable influence. 

The savages had this peculiar manner of trading which 


could best be learned by experience. They would enter the 
trader's cabin, each with a roll of furs, hunt convenient seats 
and await the hospitality of the trader, who soon presented 
each with some tobacco. Pipes were then lighten, and smoking 
and conversation leisurely indulged in among themselves. 
Finally one arose, secured a stick, pointed out the desired 
article and asked the price. If the price and article suited 
him he would unroll his pack of furs and pay for it forth- 
with, the muskrat skin being accepted for a quarter of a 
dollar, the raccoon for thirty-three and a third cents, the doe- 
skin for fifty cents and the buckskin for one dollar. This op- 
eration would be repeated after the selection of each ar- 
ticle until the first customer had completed his purchases. 
Each one now quietly took his turn and bought what he 
wanted without needless parley and when all were through 
they departed as they had come. 

Just how long Azor Scribner occupied the old soldiers' 
cabin is not now known, but from circumstantial evidence it 
would appear to have been until after the war. From the 
testimony of his oldest daughter it was learned that he lived 
in a double log cabin on the northeast corner cif Main and 
Elm streets. This cabin was constructed in sucli a manner 
that a team could be driven between the two lower sections 
of the building, while a loft or second story extended entirely 
across and joined together the separate cabins. The family 
lived in one end of the building and the store or tavern was 
located in the other end, while one of the rooms upstairs was 
used as a jail. It is probable that this was the building in 
which the first session of the Court of Common Pleas was 
held in 1817, as mentioned elsewhere. 

At the outbreak of the War of 1812, Scribner enlisted in 
Captain Joseph Ewing's company, Lanier's Independent Bat- 
talion of Ohio militia. His service began Aug. 9th, 1812. and 
expired Feb. 8th, 1914. He participated in the important bat- 
tle of the Thames (sometimes called the battle of Fallen 
Timbers) in the fall of 1813, in which Tecumseh was killed 
and the British General Proctor, signally defeated by the 
Americans under Gen. Wm. H. Harrison. To General John- 
ston, of Kentucky, was given the credit of shooting the great 
Shawnee chief. However, it has been handed down in Azor 
Scribner's family that he himself shot Tecumseh from am- 
bush and refused to reveal the fact to anybody during his 
lifetime, except to his wife, whom he straitly charged with 


secrecy. He knew Tecumseh personally, having traded with 
him many times at Greenville, no doubt, and feared the con- 
sequences should it be revealed to his old dusky customers 
that he had done the awful deed. His wife, who survived 
him several years, revealed the secret after his death to her 
second daughter, Elizabeth, who in turn revealed it to her 
daughter, Mrs. Marcella Avery, now living at an advanced 
age with her son Ira and daughter Prudence on North Alain 
street (Minatown) near the site of Scribner's first trading post. 

Scribner seems to have made money in his traffic with the 
Indians, but after he opened his tavern competition arose and 
he had to be satisfied with his share of the trade. He died 
in 1822 in the prime of life, leaving a wife and several daugh- 
ters. Dr. C. F. McKhann, of Greenville, is a descendant of 
his oldest daughter, Sarah. He has numerous other de- 
scendants in Darke county today, who are numbered among 
her best citizens. (See sketch in Vol. II.) 

Samuel C. Boyd has the reputation of being the first white 
man who settled with a family within the present limits of 
Darke county. He came in 1807, probably in the fall, and 
established himself on a knoll, on a branch of Stillwater, now 
known as Boyd creek, near the present site fo the Children's 
home in section 14, southeast quarter, Greenville township, 
on the farm now owned by Perry Bachman. Boyd was born 
in Maryland, but moved to Kentucky, where, it is supposed, 
he married. Later, it seems, he came to Ohio and stopped a 
year or two in Butler county, from which place he moved 
to Darke county as above noted. 

The presence of Indians, the news of occasional murders, 
and the continual fear that distressed the exposed pioneers 
just prior to the War of 1812, caused Boyd's family first to 
find refuge in a blockhouse and later to return to southwest- 
ern Ohio, ^^'hen the war was over they returned and im- 
proved their land. Airs. Boyd died about 1816 and was buried 
in the old graveyard on East Water street, Greenville, being 
the first person interred at that place. Boyd died in 1829 or 

In the spring of 1808 Abraham Studabaker came with his 
wife and one or two children and settled on the south side of 
Greenville creek (in section 25, Adams township) below the 
bridge at Gettysburg on land now belonging to A. M. Cromer. 
Mr. Studabaker was a strikinar figure in the early history of 


the county, as will be noted more fully in the sketches of not- 
able citizens. 

John Devor purchased from the U. S. government the half 
section of land on which Fort Greenville had been located 
and together with his son-in-law, Robert Gray, surveyed and 
platted the original town of Greenville in the summer of 1808. 
This plat included the territory now embraced between Elm 
street and Ash street, and betwen Water and Fourth streets, 
being about half within and half without the old fort. 
The plat was executed on August 14th, 1808, and 
sent to Miami county, of which Darke was then a part, 
to be recorded. The principal streets in this plat — Water, 
Main and Third — ran practically northeast and southwest, be- 
ing approximately parallel to the general course of the creek. 
Accordingi to the custom of the times for county seats, a large 
space was set aside for a public square at the interestction of 
Broadway and Main street, near the center of the plat, in 
which space was reserved for a court of justice. Main street, 
which, no doubt, was intended for the main business thor- 
oughfare, was m.ade six rods wide, and the other streets were 
all of ample width. The lots were six rods wide and ten 
rods long. The plat possessed many commendable features, 
and as a practical application of the old rectangular system 
to the peculiarities of the ground platted could scarcely be 
improved upon. Landscape gardening as applied to city plat- 
ting was not much in vogue in those days, however, and the 
remarkable natural beauty of the site was largely overlooked 
for purposes of expediency and utility. In these days we 
look at the beautiful high bluff facing the creek and prairie 
and regret that a driveway was not laid out overlooking the 
valle}', with avenues leading at convenient, but regular dis- 
tances toward a civic center, and park spaces left at various 

John Devor, like the practical pioneer of his day, was in- 
terested in cutting down the timber and making as large an 
opening for the sunlight as possible, and probably thought 
little and cared less for natural scenery and parks. He re- 
mained a citizen of Montgomery county, to which he had 
come from Pennsylvania, imtil 1816, at which time he moved 
his family to Darke county, and became an active citizen. 

At this late date it is impossible to state the names of all 
the pioneers of Darke countv and the order of their coming. 
Especially is this true of those who afterward left the county 

^■i^ TTT: TT 

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J5 T 


QTREE-tS V 1 LUE , O. 

_J<'^iCAl.E 1 1M0H= K.O ROP3 

T^. H. HOT<n. 


for more alluring lands farther west. Among those substan- 
tial emigrants who stayed were Thomas McGinnis and fam- 
ily, and his wife's stepfather, Barnabus Burns, all of whom 
emigrated from Tennessee and came to Greenville in 1808. 
They purchased a large tract of land on the west side of the 
prairie between Greenville and the recently abandoned 

About this time Enos Terry entered the quarter section 
northeast of Devor's town site and laid off another town plat 
which he called Greeneville. This plat comprised some twen- 
ty acres in the northwest corner of the quarter section. It 
was established as the county seat for a brief period, although 
no one built a house within its limits at that time. 

The Wilson brothers, William and Joseph, came in 1809. 
William located on a quarter section half a mile north of De- 
vor's town, and Joseph on a quarter section one mile further 
north. These men were natives of Ireland, but had emigrat- 
ed to Pennsylvania and later to the valley of the Little Miami 
from whence they came to Darke county, bringing families of 
children with them. On this account the vicinity in which 
they settled was long known as "Ireland." 

Shortly after the laying off of the town plat of Greenville 
by Devor and Gray, the latter sold his interest to an aunt, 
Mrs. Rachel Armstrong, a widow with four young children, 
who removed to and settled in Greenville late in 1809. Mrs. 
Armstrong died in 1812, leaving an estate which remained in 
the hands of her heirs and descendants for many years, until 
after the Civil ^^'ar — the Armstrong commons extended 
southward in an almost unbroken stretch from near the pres- 
ent location of IMartin street, and a line extending to the in- 
tersection of Fourth street, near Sycamore, to the south line 
of section 35 (Sater street), and from the present location 
of Central avenue to the D. & U. railway, comprisino- lOS 
acres now entirely within the city limits, and almost solidly , 
covered with substantial residences, schools, churches, etc. 

The creation of the county of Darke in 1809 seems to have 
stimulated emigration somewhat. Several families settled in 
Greenville and vicinity about this time, some of whom re™ 
mained but a short time, whilst others lingered a few years 
until attracted further westward by the promise of richer 
lands. These helped to clear the forests and open up the land 
for the permanent settlers, thereby contributing materially 


toward the early development of the countrj', but leaving no 
name or record for the chronicler. 

Among the settlers of 1809-10 were Aloses Scott and fam- 
ily, who purchased two lots adjoining the public square in 
Greenville and erected a two-story log house in which he 
conducted a first class tavern for twelve years or more. Scott 
and his son William were the first sheriffs of Darke county, 
filling the first, second and third regular terms of that office 
after the organization of the county. This family emigrated 
to Fort Wayne in 1824. 

Charles Sumtion and family, comprising wife, two sons and 
four daughters, came to the county about the time of Scott's 
advent. Later he settled along Greenville creek in Wash- 
ington township and died in 1825 near the present site of 

The Rush brothers, James, Henry and Andrew, came from 
near Circleville, O., in 1810, accompanied by their brothers- 
in-law. John Hiller and Henry Creviston. James and Henry 
settled on and near the site of Prophetstown, probably be- 
cause they found several acres of land cleared for their com- 
ing. Andrew and Hiller settled on the West branch near 
what was later known as the Hiller settlement. 

Shortly afterward Matthew Young came from Pickaway 
county, and in conjunction with Creviston, purchased a tract 
of land northeast of Coletown, where the latter resided until 
1825, when he moved to Washington township. James Rush 
served as one of the first Associate Judges of the Common 
Pleas Court for fourteen years, being chosen by the legisla- 
ture in 1817 and again in 1824. He moved to Indiana about 
1831, leaving a daughter, a Mrs. John Deardorff. 

Henry Rush died in 1813, leaving a wadow, three sons and 
one daughter. Mrs. Rush later married James Bryson, who 
has several descendants now living in Darke county. Andrew 
Rush was murdered by the Indians in 1812, as will be noted 

Linus Bascom settled north of Greenville about 1811 
and he opened a trading station. After the murder of An- 
drew Rush in the spring of 1812 he abandoned his store and 
came to Greenville, where he opened a store on the northeast 
corner of the public square, and became one of the prosper- 
ous citizens. (See sketch of J. L. Bascom in Vol. II). 

Probably the most notable addition to the new settlement 
in 1811 was Abraham Scribner. a brother of Azor Scribner. the 


pioneer merchant of the town. He was about thirty years 
old at this time, almost deaf, and of a singular disposition. 
In 1813 he enlisted in the war and later participated in the 
battle of the Thames with Harrison. In 1814 he married 
John Devor's daughter. About this time he entered some 
prairie land near the mouth of Mud creek, erected a log house 
on it, and brought his wife up from her home in ^lontgom- 
ery county. In probably two years he traded his land to 
John Compton, of Dayton, for a stock of goods, estimated to 
be worth $1,600 at retail, and opened shop. He later built 
a small building on the southwest corner of West Main and 
and Elm streets, and still later purchased the brick build- 
ing on lot Number 59. \\ ith the exception of a few 
months' residence in Henry county, Indiana, he car- 
ried on business in Greenville until his death in 1846 or 1847. 
He was married three times and raised a large family includ- 
ing several sons. Prominent mention is given to his name 
as he was closely identified with the early life of Greenville, 
being especially active in party politics as the autocrat of the 
Democratic party for several years. Speaking nolitically, 
"Whom he would he slew, and whom he would he kept alive." 

^^'e are now at the threshold of the War of 1812. At this 
time a stockade was erected at Greenville which was then a 
small outpost well known for its previous connection with 
the Wayne campaign from 1793 to 1796. It seems that four 
blockhouses were erected to protect the budding settlement ; 
one on the northern outskirts of the town, on the north side 
of East Water street between \\'alnut street and the ravine, 
formerly skirting the vv'est side of the old cemetery ; one to 
the south near the present southeast corner of Wayne avenue 
and Armstrong street; one on lot 59 West Main street (oppo- 
site the Wayne memorial tablet) ; another probably on West 
Water street just north of the intersection of Elm street, on 
the east side of the old ravine overlooking the old fording 
place. It was garrisoned first by a few men under Captain 
Wolverton and Lieutenant Fish, the soldiers being mostly 
from the neighboring counties of Miami, Montgomery, 
Greene. Warren. Butler and Preble, together with some who 
were prospective settlers. Later, Mayor Geo. Adams took 

"Among these soldiers can be enumerated John and Sam- 
uel Loring, James Cloyd, David and Peter Studabaker 
(brothers of Abraham and John Studabaker, alreadv men- 


tionedj, Jacob Aliller (who for many years was known by 
the cognomen of 'Proaps'), Joseph Gass, Asa Spencer, Thom- 
as Briggs, David Riffle, Hezekiah and Lewis Phillips, and 
John Ellis. Some of these men were married, but for the 
time being had left their wives and children 'below in the 
settlement,' as the common phrase then was, and others, 
either during the war or at its close married in the vicinity. 
John Loring had entered a quarter section adjoining Devor, 
as early as 1809, but had sold to John Stoner. A consider- 
able part ot the Loring quarter section is now part of the 
town of Greenville. Sam Loring brought his family to 
Darke county after the war, and located on the quarter sec- 
tion on Vi^hich a portion of the village of Palestine is laid out. 
James Cloyd, at the return of peace, married a daughter of 
Andrew Noffsinger, and remained a resident of German 
township, until his decease, some four or five years ago, at 
which time he was president of the Pioneer Association of 
Darke county. John Ellis was in St. Clair's army at the time 
of the defeat at Recovery, in 1791 ; was with Wayne from 
1793 to 1796, and participated in the defense of Recovery, at 
the time of the Indian attack, and in the rout of the Indians 
at Rouge de Bout, in 1794. After the second treaty of Green- 
ville, in August, 1814, he brought his family and settled at 
Castine, where he resided for a number of years, and sub- 
sequent to 1840, he removed to Mercer county near Recovery, 
where, after some years' residence, he died, at the age of over 
ninety. Ellis, in his youth, had been a prisoner with the 
Indians, and exhibited, ever after through his long life, many 
Indian characteristics. David Studabaker was killed in the 
army, during the war of 1812. Peter Studabaker, between 
1825 and 1830, removed to the Wabash, below Recovery, and 
some years later, farther down the river in Indiana, where his 
death occurred some twenty years since. 

"The Phillips brothers, about 1816, located on Miller's Fork, 
near the south boundary of Darke county, where both died in 
their old age. Joseph Gass, who was a near relation of the 
compiler of the journal of Lewis and Clark's expedition to 
the mouth of the Columbia river, at the commencement of 
this century, married a daughter of William Wilson, resided 
in several localities in Greenville township, until about 1833, 
when he left and went to Wisconsin. David Riffle, after the 
war, purchased land on Stillwater, above where Beamsville 
now is, and removed there in 1814, and after the lapse of a 


few 3-ears, died there about 1820. Thomas Uriggs married 
the Widow Wilson, relict of the William Wilson who was 
distinguished b}' the name of "Little Billy Wilson." His un- 
cle, William Wilson, the father of the children murdered by 
the Indians, being known as 'Old Billy." '' 

During the progress of the war emigration practically 
ceased and many of the early settlers returned to their former 
homes in the ^Nliami valley. Block houses were erected 
in various parts of the county at about this time, among them 
Ft. Rush, near Prophetstown ; Ft. Brier on the bend of the 
Stillwater in the southwest quarter of section 27, Richland 
township (probably named after Captain Samuel Brier, of 
Price's regiment of Ohio militiaj ; Ft. Black (now New Madi- 
son) and Ft. Studabaker on the south of Greenville creek be- 
low the present site of Gettysburg. Besides these, Ft. Nesbit, 
a military supply station, was built in section 29, Harrison 
township. These afforded a measure of security to the scat- 
tered settlements, but the hostile Indians, for the most part, 
remained in the neighborhood of the lakes. A few lamentable 
atrocities occurred, however, which sent thrills of terror 
through the community. Accounts of these have been pre- 
served and serve to illustrate the temper of the time. 

An Indian family comprising father, mother and a son 
about fourteen years of age, came from the direction of Ft. 
Recovery and camped at a spring (now on the Clate Rahn 
farm) about a mile northwest of the fort. Their presence 
was made known to the garrison by a white man who had 
traveled with them. Early the next morning Lieutenant 
Fish, with three or four men, stealthily approached the camp 
and shot the man and woman while engaged in preparing for 
the morning meal. The boy escaped after being wounded 
and the news of the cowardly act spread like wildfire among 
the Indians. As a result Ft. Meigs, in the northern part of 
the state, was beseiged by a large body of enraged savages 
before the middle of the following afternoon and fuel was 
added to th^ smoldering discontent of the northwest tribes. 

A large body of friendl}/ Indians, probably mostly of the 
Delaware and Shawnee tribes, were located on the Miami 
river above Piqua under the protection of the United States 
agent. Col. Johnston. These were supplied with white flags 
when desiring to pass outposts in safety. On one occasion 
a number of these Indians were fired upon while approaching 
a party of whites with unfeigned confidence. Two of the 


Indians were killed, one wounded, the rest taken captive and 
their property confiscated. Such dastardly deeds were, no 
doubt, largely committed by the rougher class of backswoods- 
men who thought that there was no good Indian but a dead 
one, and we are not surprised at the consequent reprisals by 
the savages. 

About the last of April, 1812, Andrew Rush set out on 
horseback from his home on the ^^'est Branch for Terry's mill 
on Greenville creek at the bend above the present site of 
the Main street bridge. After getting his grist he started 
for home but lingered a while at the home of Daniel Potter 
and Isaac Vail, who lived over a mile up the creek on the 
north side. Here he was warned of the impending danger of 
savage depredations. Rush joked about their solicitude and 
proceeded on his way at about 4 p. m. It seems that the road 
or trail which he traveled lay between the present Union City 
pike and Greenville creek, following in and out along the 
blufif. Before he had proceeded half a mile further he was 
shot, tomahawked and scalped just above the later site of 
Rush's or Spiece's mill in section 28, Greenville township. 
His mutilated body was discovered by relatives on the fol- 
lowing afternoon lying on his precious bag of meal. The 
alarm was spread throughout the neighboring settlements, 
houses were barricaded and many found refuge in the bloc'> 
houses. The news spread to Troy and Lexington. Preble 
county, and by the night of the third day two companies of 
militia were camped at Greenville. On the following day the 
Preble county militia advanced about two miles to the site 
of the tragedy and buried the body of Rush. After this they 
proceeded to Ft. Rush, to protect and relieve the families of 
the settlers who had taken refuge there, and to escort the 
women and children back to the older settlements, where they 
remained until hostilities ceased. 

In the early fall of 1812 the garrison at Greenville was 
small, comprising but three companies of militia under ]\Iajor 
Lanier. Several of the men had enlisted for service in the 
w-ar with the British and Indians and were with the army 
waiting for orders to advance to the aMumee. At this juncture 
the Indians from the region of the Mississinawa became trou- 
blesome to the pioneer settlements of western Ohio, murdering: 
any whom they found outside of the blockhouses and steal- 
ing horses and cattle. Combining various accounts it seems 
that on October 2d, Patsv and Anna Wilson, daughters of 


"Old Billy Wilson," living north of town and aged respective- 
ly fourteen and eight years, accompanied by an older broth- 
er, had gone to the woods on the north side of Greenville 
creek to gather berries or wild grapes. When near the pres- 
ent site of the pond in the Meeker woods the girls were at- 
tacked by two or three prowling Indians, within gunshot of 
Terry's stockade which was located on the opposite side of 
the creek. While the children were separated they were 
fired upon by the Indians, without effect. The girls became 
too terrified to make their escape and were soon dispatched 
by the tomahawk. The boy ran for Terry's mill pond, formed 
by the darning of Greenville creek near the foot of East Water 
street, whither he was pursued by one of the Indians armed 
with a tomahawk and scalping knife. One account says that the 
boy had laid his gun down and was unable to secure it; an- 
ther says that he had a shotgun with him, loaded with small 
pigeon shot, and that he wheeled and aimed at the Indian 
who instantly retreated, allowing him to swim the mill pond 
and spread the alarm. Abraham Scribner and A\'m. Devor 
were attracted to the scene of the murder by the cries of the 
boy and the screams of the girls. Here they found the mu- 
tilated bodies, and carried them to the fort. The scalp had 
been taken from the head of the eldest and a long cut made 
on the head of the j^ounger in an attempt to scalp her. Both. 
apparently, had been killed by the blows on the head with the 
back of a tomahawk. Their bodies were buried under a tree 
near the site of their murder, where they remained until 
July 4th, 1871, when they were disinterred and transferred 
to the new cemetery with imposing ceremonies, as elsewhere 
set forth in this volume. 

In the summer of 1813 another tragedy occurred in con- 
nection with the military operations in western Ohio. It 
seems that one Gosbary Elliot, a private in Capt. Sunderland's 
company, Second (Price's) regiment, of Ohio militia, was 
carrying a dispatch from Fort Greenville to Major Price, who 
was stationed at Lexington (near West Alexandria) in Preble 
county. He probably followed the trace leading through Fort 
Jefferson and on in the direction of the present pike to Ithaca 
and Lewisburg, and when near Beech Grove was attacked b}^ a 
roving band of Indians. Tradition says that he took refuge be- 
hind a beech tree and dispatched two or three of his assail- 
ants with a rifle, and when his ammunition was exhausted 
engaged in a hand to hand tomahawk fight until finally slain 


by one of the remaining redskins. His remains were interred 
nearby, but were disinterred some years later and placed in 
the old cemetery at Fort Jefferson, where they now lie un- 
der the shadow of the new M. E. church, unmarked save 
by a broken fragment of slate stone. The tomahawk marks 
on the beech tree behind which he fought could be seen from 
the road until the decay of the tree about thirty years ago. 
Elliot's army record is as follows : 

"Commencement of service, Feb. 16th, 1813: expiration of 
service, Aug. 15th, 1813; term of service charged 4 months 
29 days ; for Andrew Zellar killed by the Indians July 14th, 

One tradition is that Elliot was accompanied by John 
Stoner, who was chased some three miles further along tiie 
trace to the first crossing of Miller's Fork, where he also was 
slain. It is generally thought, however, that Stoner was 
slain later in the season. Stoner's army record shows that he 
served in Capt. Samuel Brier's company, Second regiment, 
Ohio militia, from April 12th, 1813, to Oct. 11th, 1813. 

This shows that he, like Elliot, enlisted for a term of six 
months. However, it is probable that tradition is right and 
that the date of his death was either not reported or through 
some error was not entered on the record. Stoner's remains 
were buried near the spot where he was killed, but were taken 
up in the fall of 1836 and reinterred in the Ithaca cemetery, 
where they still lie. 

The defeat of the British and Indians and the death of Te- 
cumseh at the battle of the Thames in the fall of 1813, damp- 
ened the ardor of the hostile Indians and made them desir- 
ous of peace with the Americans. 

Overtures were made to the representatives of the United 
States Government by some of the hostile tribes. The chiefs 
and head men began to assemble at Greenville in the spring of 
1814 and on July 22 signed a compact with General Harrison, 
as noted in Chapter 13 of this book. Concerning conditions at 
this time Judge Wharry says : 

"There was in attendance at Greenville during the time of 
the negotiations preceding the treaty and until it was signed, 
a large concourse of white men as well as Indians, ^len 
were here from Cincinnati, Dayton, Hamilton, Chillicothe 
and various other places in Ohio ; Maysville, Lexington, 
Frankfort and other places in Kentucky : from points on the 
Ohio river, and even from Marvland and Pennsvlvania. Many 


of these came to look at the country with a view to a settle- 
ment in it if they were pleased with it, and the Indian ques- 
tion so settled that they could emigrate to it and be freed 
from Indian disturbances; others to look out lands that it 
would be safe to buy as an investment of their surplus money ; 
others to see what was to be seen, and make money if they 
could out of either Indians or white men as opportunity 
should offer, and many came with no defined object. Be- 
tween the time of the treaty and the opening of the year 1816, 
many entries of land in Darke county were made at the land 
office in Cincinnati. The lands were sold by the government 
on a credit of one-eighth down and the residue in seven annual 
installments. A number of tracts in the vicinity of Green- 
ville were taken up on speculation that did not change hands 
for many years, and were kept unimproved. Among those 
who thus purchased, and probably never saw the lands they 
bought were Gen. James Taylor, of Newport ; Gen. James 
Butler, of Frankfort, Ky. ; George P. Torrence, David K. 
Este, David Wade and William Burke, of Cincinnati ; Nathan 
Richardson, of Warren county ; Joseph Hough, of Chillicothe ; 
Talbot Iddings, Andrew Hood and John Devor, of Mont- 
gomery county, and some others, whose purchases many of 
them long remained an eyesore, withheld from improvement, 
in the vicinity of Greenville. Many of these tracts, none of 
which were less than a quarter section, remained in first hands 
from twenty to forty years, brought in the end but little more 
than the purchase money and interest to those who had pur- 
chased them, and added proof, if proof were necessary, that 
the well-being and progress of society in this nation demands, 
that the title of the soil, vested in the national government or 
the states, should not be transferred save to actual settlers. 

"]\Iany other purchases were made on credit, by men who 
failed to pay out. and were compelled in the end to relinquish 
part to save the residue, or entirely forfeit their purchases. 
The United States was, in the end. under the pressure of the 
debt entailed by the war of 1812 and other causes. compelle<l 
to abandon the system of selling the national demand upon 

"Congress, however, in a year or two after the forfeiture. 
authorized the issue of what was termed land scrip, to those 
who had lost their purchases, equal in amount to what thev 
had paid, which, being receivable at any government land 
office in payment for the lands of the United states became 


for some years a part in some measure of the business cur- 
rency of the country, as the scrip could pass fron hand to 
hand until it was canceled at the land office. 

"The emigration to the town, township and county, frcmn 
the time of the 'stampede' on the breaking out of the Indian 
troubles, and until after the treaties between the United 
States and both the Indians and England, was scarcely no- 
ticeable. Although many people came here, they did not 
come to stay, and were here for transient purposes only, and 
the population of the town, township and county, after the 
departure of the crowd who were here at the treaty, and after 
the withdrawal of the garrison at Greenville and from the 
other small stockades erected for protection in the evil days 
at Fort Nesbit, Fort Black and Fort Brier, was little, if any, 
greater than in the spring of 1812. 

"It may not be amiss here to recapitulate, as well as can 
be done, who were as residents within the limits of the town- 
ship of Greenville after the treaty was signed in 1814, and 
by the term limits of the township confine the enumeration 
to the bounds of what is now Greenville township, and not, 
as then the whole county of Darke. In the town were Moses 
Scott, Azor Scribner, David Connor and John Loring, and 
the wife of the murdered John Stoner and his orphaned chil- 
dren. \\'ith these, as boarders or employers ofif and on, were 
Abraham Scribner, James Cloyd, Philder G. Lanham. Silas 
Atchison and probably some others whose residence cannot 
be definitely stated. North of the town, in Ireland, dwelt 
Enos Terry, Joe Wilson, "Old Billy" Wilson, "Little Billy" 
Wilson, Asa Spencer and in their families as dependents and 
hangerson, John Mooney, Joe Gass, and probably others not 
now remembered. Down the creek, below the town, and 
within a mile of it. was David Briggs, with whom resided his 
brother Thomas. Up Greenville creek, Aaron and Mathias 
Dean had commenced the erection of the mill in manv years 
afterward designated Dean's mill, but on the murder of Rush, 
the work ceased, and they left for the !Miami, near Middle- 
tOA\n, and did not return and complete it until after the war. 
Up Mud creek, on the west side, were Thomas McGinnis. 
Barney Burns, Henry and James Rush. The widow of An- 
drew Rush, with her two children, the oldest of whom was 
born November 28th. 1809, lived on the West Branch where 
it was crossed by the 'Squaw Road.' David Miles was on 
the knoll where Mr. Griffin now resides, about a half mile 


southwest of the mouth of ^lud creek. On the east side of 
Mud creek were Abraham Miller and John Studabaker, and 
just above the last, but outside the present township boun- 
dary, Zadok Reagan had located in the edge of the prairie, 
at what was known in after years as the 'Burnt Cabin.' On 
Bridge creek were David Thompson and George Freshour. 

"Betwen the sii;ning of the treaty of 1814 and the organiza- 
tion of the county in the spring of 1817, under the law of the 
preceding winter, the emigration to the township, as well as 
to the residue of the county, taking into view the sorry pros- 
pect of making a living in it, had increased the population 
more than threefold. In these two and a half years, George, 
Peter, John, Moses and Aaron Rush, brothers of the three 
who came in 1810. ?Ienry Hardy and Archibald Bryson, who 
had married their sisters, came to the county; James Bryson, 
who married the widow of Henry Rush, came, and John Hil- 
ler returned from j\Iiami county, to which he fled three years 
before on Indian account. Some of these parties settled out- 
side of Greenville township, and others remained but for a 
brief period. On the West Branch and Greenxille creek 
were settled John McFarland. Daniel Potter, Da\id \\'illiam- 
son, Joseph Huflfman and Isaac Dunn. \\'ith Williamson 
came his brothers James and John, who remained but for a 
brief period ; one went to Butler county, and the other re- 
turned to his father's house in Greene county to die of con- 
sumption. On the south of Greenville, between town and 
Abraham Miller's, Henry House, an old soldier of Wayne's 
army, with a family of sons and daughters, was located. In 
the southeast was located on Bridge creek, Nathan Popejoy ; 
between him and David Thompson was settled William Ar- 
nold, and south of Thompson, now came Abraham Studa- 
baker from his first location below Gettysburg. Down the 
creek were located William, George, Jacob, Andrew and Joel 
Westfall, on the north side ; and William Hays, Sr., and Wil- 
liam Hays, Jr., on the south side. Ebenezer Byram first set- 
tled up Greenville creek above Dean's mill, which, on their 
return, was completed in a year or about that after the war, 
but soon removed out of the township down the creek to 
New Harrison, as his place is now termed, but which had no 
existence until years after his death. To Ireland came David 
Douglass, James Stephenson, or Stinson, as the name was 
usually pronounced, and Robert Barnett. Over the creek, on 


the Recovery trace, was located David Irwin, and southwest 
of him, on the creek, David Ullery. East of Terry's place 
was located Alexander Smith, the first temporary sheriff of 
the county. Justice of the Peace of Greenville township for 
several years and once for a few days, owing to the non-re- 
ceipt of election returns from some locality between Green- 
ville and Maumee bay, had a seat in the state legislature, from 
which he was ejected on a contest with the far-famed Capt. 
Riley, who a few years previous, had been a prisoner riding a 
camel from Timbuctoo to Mogadore across the desert of Sa- 
hara, in Africa. Smith was afterward a candidate for the 
lower house of the state legislature, but was defeated by Gen- 
eral James Mills. Riley also again was before the people of 
the district, which then included nine or ten counties of 
northwest Ohio, for a seat in the House of Representatives, 
but failed. Subsequently, becoming more ambitious, he ran 
for congress, but was badly beaten by William McLean, a 
brother of the late Judge McLean, of the United States Su- 
preme Court. Archibald Bryson settled on the east side of 
West Branch, above and south of the 'Squaw Road' and 
east of him, toward Mud creek, were located John Whitacre, 
John Embree, who was better known by the nickname of 
'Swift,' and David Marsh, the first peddled of 'wallsweep' 
clocks in the county." * * * 

Concerning the character of the settlers in the county gen- 
erally the same writer says : 

"The character of the first settlers cannot be said to be 
either good or bad. There was no disposition among them 
to do any great wrong, but the small vices, such as drunken- 
ness, when liquor could be obtained, disregard of religious 
sentiments, and a great disposition to idleness. That there 
was any lack of honor or honesty or hospitality among these 
settlers, from anything said, must not be inferred. On the 
contrary, from what we can learn of them, they were never 
excelled in these qualities by any people. There were one or 
two natural thieves, or kleptomaniacs in the county, but they 
were detested exceptions to the mass. Defamation, and the 
biting tongue of slander was never heard nor felt. Casts, or 
quality, were not formed or regarded. One man was as good 
as another, and one woman was no better than another. All 
honest people were honorable among them. The traveler 
with his saddlebags fillfed with gold and silver could rest se- 
curely in any cabin at which he stopped." 



In the year 1909 a document was discovered in the sheriff's 
office in the county court house giving what it purports to he 
a complete enumeration of the white male inhabitants above 
21 years of age, some four hundred in number, of Darke 
county in 1825. It was compiled by Archibald Bryson and 
certified to the associate judges of the county. The docu- 
ment is of old style parchment, yellow with age, l5ut tough 
and legible. A careful perusal will reveal the fact that nearly 
every name is perpetuated by descendants still living here and 
numbered among the most prosperous families. The list is 
as follows : Abraham Studebaker, David Cole, John Jett. 
James Burkhannon, David Douglas, Archibald Bryson. Chris- 
tian Levingood, Peter Levingood, Andrew Perkins, John Hil- 
ler, David Michael. Andrew Westfall, Joseph HuiTman, Dan- 
iel Patten, Xathaniel Gillum, John Dean, Permelia Elsbury, 
David Fisher, David Cole, Mathew Young, Janet Barnes, 
Thomas Barnes, Isaac Elsbury, Samuel Cole, Jonathan Parks, 
Ranna Perrine, Thomas ]McGinnis, George Sumption, Jacob 
Keller, Eleyer Sharp. James Bryson, James Rush, David 
]\Iiller. John Rupel, John Sheets, Jacob Rupel, Michael Em- 
rick, \\illiam Folkerth, Cornwall Stephens, John Rool, James 
Howard, Vockel Clery. Selby Sumter, James Hayes, \\'illiam 
Martin, John i\Iartin, William T. Carnahan, Richard Lyons, 
\\'illiam Hayes. Sr., A\'illiam Hayes, Plenry D. Williams, 
Robert Mclntire. David Thompson, Jeremiah Mathewson. 
Abraham Miller. Isaac House, David Briggs, Lyra Thorp. 
Simeon Chapman, Cornelius I. Ryeson, W'illiam ^^'estfall. 
George Xaus. Margnet \\'estfall, Philip Manuel, Samuel Sut- 
ton, S. Laurence. xAbraham Scribner. Isaac Clay, \\'illiam 
McKhann, John Armstrong, David Moriss, William W'iley, 
Hugh Merten, A\'illiam Sape, John Brady, Lewis Passon, Sam- 
uel Oliver, David Potter, David Irwin, Joseph Guess. Samuel 
Wilson, Daniel Halley Nathan Terry, William Wilson, Samuel 
\\'ilson, Benjamin Thompson, Joseph ^^'ilson. John Wilson, 
Robert Barnet, George Westfall, Peter Crumrine, Mass Rush, 
Richard Martin, Peter Smith, Samuel Reed, John Rupel, Sr.. 
Charles Hapner, \\'illiam Chapman. Jacob Shafer, Adam Bil- 
lows, Hezekiah \^eits, Henry .Steinberger, Jacob Steinberger, 
Moses Rush. Isaac Joy, John Briggs, Abraham Smith, Abra- 
ham Weaver. John Weaver. George A\\ Fryer. Isaac Jones. 
James McGinnis. William \'ail. Thomas Stokeley. Hezekiah 
Viets. Robert Taylor. Jacob Puterbaugh. Christian Sleighty. 
Thomas Campbell. Henrv Wertz. George Huntsman. John 



Miller, John Phillips, William Decamp, Job Decamp, Charles 
Harriman, Thomas Phillips, James Wood, William Town- 
send, John Culberson, Elisha Byers, Isaac Joy, Johnston Den- 
niston, Jacob Cox, Daniel Harter, Peter Kember, Joseph 
Dixon, Ignatius Barnes, Eli Coble, Samuel Fisher, John Cox, 
Thomas Coapstick, Isaac Sweitzer, William Brady, John 
Chenoweth, Ludwick Clap, John Cable, Thomas Hynes. Sam- 
uel Touring, Donovan Reed, Smith Masteson, Samuel Bourk, 
Frederick Bowers, Daniel Harter, John Crumrine, Abraham 
Cox, Henry Cox, Daniel Waggoner, Jacob Neff, John Hilde- 
bran, Peter Harter, Peter Weaver, Peter Crumrine, Ebenezer 
Westfall, Job Westfall, Daniel Crawn, Jacob Westfall. Wil- 
liam Shoneson, David Ullery, Abraham Wells, Harrison 
McConn. James Craig, Hezekiah Fowler, Nathaniel Scidnore, 
Benjamin Murphy, James Brady, Isaac Vail, John Miller, 
Joseph Foster, Josiah Elston, John Snell, Jacob Chenoweth, 
Leonard ^^^intermote, John Clap, Philip Rarook, Daniel 
Shiveley, Abraham Miller, James Cole, Jeremiah Rogers, 
Susannah Miller, David Wasson, Samuel W^asson, Edward 
Baldin, Robert Cain, Charles Sumption, Thomas Beasley, 
John A. Addington, Jesse Gray, Samuel Martin, Ephriani 
Flemming, Isaac Byers, John C. Marquart, Julian Brown, 
Philip Brown, Benjamin Brown, Josiah Hall, John Thomas, 
John Robeson, Samuel Eddington, Charles Eddington, Philip 
Eddington, George Walker, Joseph W^inegardner, Daniel 
]\Ionbeek, Jacob Winegardner, Stoffle Shafer, John Ellis, 
Edward Edger, William Edger, Archibald Edger, Thomas 
Edger, Henry Keck, Barbery Myers, Christopher Borden, 
David Thomas, George Wilt. David W^ilt, George Wilt, John 
Wilt, Samuel Harter, John Harter. Francis Harter, Philip 
Wiggens, David Harter, Jacob Harter, Cornelius Higgings, 
John Baird, John Arthur, Andrew INIiller, William Terry, 
Jacob Puderbaugh, Mark Mills, James Mills, Christopher 
Hood, Elijah Stackenas, John Mikesel, Michael Kenell, Wil- 
liam Holt, Thomas Godfrey. Timothy IMote, George Knee, 
John Waggoner, Ernestus Putnam, Jacob Ullom, Bingham 
Simons, Christopher Bordins, Daniel Ullom, John Wade, 
William W^ade, John Ullom, John Williamson, William :\Ic- 
Farland, Elijah Simons. John French. Isaac Cherry, Henry 
Creviston. Jacob Sutton, Nicholas Tinkel, Thomas 
Lake. Caleb Vail, Eli Edwards, Hugh Laurimore, 
i\Ioses Arnold, John Ketring, John Teaford, George Teaford, 
John Knee, David Stephens, Samuel Guier, Spencer Edwards, 


\\illiam Eaker, Daniel Edwards, John Dixon, Jacob Sebring, 
Marshall Falor, Jonathan Pierson, Samuel Rhoades, James 
Woods, Henry Ross, Nathaniel Ross, Lewis Aukerman, 
James Reed, James Barney, Henry Williams, John Puter- 
baugh, John Clark, John Kendle, William Jones, Joseph 
Burdge, Jonathan Alote, John Fetters, Samuel Owens, Wil- 
liam Stone, Andrew Stone, John Rush, James Baird, Samuel 
Fisher, Jonathan Thomas, John Stephenson, Christopher 
Rush, Zachariah Fryon, Asa Rush, Aaron Rush, Henry 
Hardy, Jacob Hensler, Reed Risley, David Scott, John Doug- 
las, Alexander Smith, Alexander Irwin, Henry House, Linus 
Bascom, John Briggs, John Beers, John McNeil, Nancy 
Smith, David Cole, John Devor, James Craig, Abner Aleeks, 
Henry Lawrence, Richard Lowring, Judson Jaqua, Nathaniel 
Edsel, Richard Miller, Dennis Hart, Samuel Drove, Obediah 
Stephens. John Huston, Henry Woods, Benjamin F. W'oods, 
Robert Thompson, John Wooden, Moses Woods, John Braw- 
ley, John Purviance, Anthony Woods, William Wiley, Na- 
thaniel S. McClure, Xeal Lawrence, John McClure, Jacob 
Miller, William Brodrick, John A. Brodrick, George Miller, 
John AL Foster, Samuel McClure, John Wiley, Alexander 
AlcClure, Abraham Murray, George Roberts, Samuel Jones, 
Lloyd James, Mark Buckingham, David Gibbs, bamuel 
Roberts, Robert Campbell, Gersham P. Tiesen, Benjamin 
Snodgrass, George Gates, Moses Moore, James Harland, 
James B. Edwards, William Thompson, Thomas Sullivan, 
Thomas Wiley, John Brown, Nathan Harland, William Polly, 
Leonard Titsen, Aquillas Loveall, Josiah Guess, Jacob Guess, 
John Wilson. James Skinner, James Reeves, Amos Smith, 
William Hill, David Nockum. John Downy, Jesse Bell, 
Francis Spencer. John Cassady. Hankason Ashby, Benjamin 
Eakens. Samuel Ketring. 


Thus far this narrative has dealt mostly with the pioneers 
who settled in and around the county seat and in our desire 
to make due mention of the first families we have failed to 
notice the development of the county as a political unit. 

On January 3, 1809, the General Assembly of Ohio created 
the county of Darke from territory then belonging to Miami 
county. The original boundaries of the county were the same 
as at present with the exception of the northern, which ex- 
tended to the Greenville treaty line, thus including that por- 
tion of the present county of Mercer which lies south of a 
line extending from Fort Recovery to a point a few rods north 
of the present northeast corner of Darke. As noted before 
rival claimants laid out town sites which they desired to have 
acknowledged as the official county seat. By "pull and per- 
suasion," it seems, Terry's plat on the northeast side of the 
creek was first accepted and remained the official, though 
unoccupied, site for two or three years. At the next session 
of the Legislature, strong pressure was brought to repeal the 
previous unpopular act and a new commission was created to 
relocate the seat of justice. Besides the Devor and Terry 
sites this commission was asked to consider another located 
at what is now known as Cedar Point, at the junction of the 
Milton and Gettysburg pikes. .A.t this juncture Devor and 
Mrs. Armstrong made a proposition to the commissioners to 
convey thirty-two lots, or one-third of the entire number of 
their original plat, to the commissioners of ]\Iiami county, in 
trust for the county of Darke, when it should thereafter be 
organized, "for such public uses as might be deemed desir- 
able in the future, whether as sites for public buildings, or as 
land for sale outright, upon which to realize funds for county 
purposes." This proposition was accepted, the lots duly con- 
veyed to the county of Darke and the county seat established 
on the beautiful and historic site of Fort Greenville and 
Wayne's famous treaty, where it remains to this day. 

On account of the war of 1812, the larse amount of wilder- 


ness and swamp land, the holding of titles by non-residents, 
who refused to improve or sell their claims, and other simi- 
lar causes, final organization was postponed until December 
14, 1816, when the population justified an independent gov- 
ernment, and Darke county was then separated from Miami. 
The organization was not completed, however, until March 
1, 1817. John Purviance, Enos Terry and James Rush were 
elected the first associate judges of the court of common 
pleas, and Archibald Bryson, Abraham Studabaker and Silas 
Atchison the first commissioners of the new county. The 
latter held their first meeting in June, 1817. John Beers was 
appointed clerk, and John Devor tax collector. Moses Scott 
was appointed sheriff and William Montgomery, coroner in 
August, 1817. The first session of the court of common 
pleas was held March 13, 1817. The next session was held 
on April 7, 1817, at which Linus Bascom was appointed clerk 
pro tem. and Abraham Scribner, recorder. The first regular 
term of this court was in June, 1817, and was presided over 
by Joseph H. Crane of Dayton with the associates before 
mentioned. At this session Moses Scott was duly em- 
powered, authorized and commanded to summon fifteen good 
and lawful men to appear forthwith and serve as grand jurors. 
The first jury summoned by him was constituted as follows: 
John Loring, John Andrews, James Cloyd, Daniel Potter, 
Robert Douglas, Abraham Miller, Filder G. Lenham, Daniel 
Holley, Joseph Townsend, James Williamson. John Ryerson, 
David Briggs, Levi Elston, Martin Ruple and Peter Rush. 
Henry Bacon was appointed prosecutor at this term. The 
grand jur}' found several indictments and it was found neces- 
sary to summon twelve men to act as petit jurors. Accord- 
ingh' the following men were summoned : Charles Sumption, 
John McFarlin, James Williamson, John Break, Charles Read, 
Jacob Miller. William Montgomery, Robert Mclntyre, James 
Perry. Aaron Dean, Alexander Smith and Zachariah Hull to 
act as the first petit jury. The}' were in session a day or 
two of this court each j-ear. The first prosecutor received 
ten dollars for his services at the first term, the grand jurors 
seventy-five cents per day. and the petit jurors fifty cents, 
which latter was paid by the winning party. The first session 
was held in the bar-room of Azor Scribner ; the next one was 
called for November 14th in the bar-room of Scott's Tavern. 
By this arrangement the building of a county court house 
was postponed several years. A jail was needed, however. 


ami the commissioners entered into contract with Matthias 
Uean for the erection of the same in 1818 for the sum of 
$300.00, one-half down and the remainder on completion. As 
it was paid for in county orders which were worth but about 
sixty per cent, of the face, Dean probably got less than 
$200.00 actual cash on his contract. This jail was located nn 
the public square, about thirty feet from the mirth corner nf 
the present city hall. It was about fifteen by thirty feet in 
size, with two compartments, and was built with double out- 
side walls of sound oak timbers hewed one foot square. This 
modest structure answered the needs of the community at 
that time and might even be considered a costly structure as 
the commissioners had sold six valuable lots, Nos. 36, 62, 20, 
56, 39 and 52 out of the thirty-two donated by Devor and Mrs. 
Armstrong for the sum of $47.75 to be applied on its erection. 
This was considered a fair price for the lots at that time and 
a comparison with the present ^•alue of the same real estate 
today will indicate the progress that has been made in less 
than a century. This building was consumed by fire on the 
morning of Sunday, May 2, 1827. A new jail and jailor's resi- 
dence combined, was erected of brick on the southwest corner 
of Broadway and Third street in 1827-28 by John Armstrong 
at a cost of $520.00. The second bastile was not found satis- 
factory from the standpoint of security and was demolished 
upon the erection of the third structure on the southeast half 
of lot 25, in 1845. by Allen La^Motte and Israel Reed for ap- 
proximately $4,000. This building was disposed of after the 
erection of the present jail in 1870. It has been extended to 
the sidewalk, remodeled and used as a place of business evet 
since, being now occupied by E. R. Font's Millinery Emporium 
and the Earhart and Meeker saloon and is known as Nos. 418 
and 422 Broadway. 

John Craig erected the first court house on the south cor- 
ner of the public square in the spring of 1824. It was a two- 
story frame structure about twenty-two by twenty-eight feet, 
wnth a court room occupying the entire first floor, and a 
clerk's office and jury room on the second. 

The second court house was erected in 1834 in the center 
of the public square by James Craig for $2,524.63. upon plans 
drawn by Allen LaMotte. It was constructed of brick two 
stories high with roof four square and surmounted bv a cu- 
pola looking very much like the present city hall with the 
front tower removed. It is said that Craig lost from $1,500 to 


$2,000 on the structure by bidding too low. It stood for 
nearly forty years and was the scene of many a stormy and 
picturesque legal combat between the early legal lights of 
Darke county. The site was given by the Devor heirs as it 
had been set aside by John Devor as a place for holding court. 
An attempt was made to remodel this structure for a city hall 
upon the erection of the iiresent court house in 1873 or 1874 
but it resulted in failure and the structure was demolished to 
allow the construction of the present city building. 

Early Trails and Roads. 

One of the big problems that confronted the first commis- 
sioners was the construction of public roads. Accordingly 
we are not surprised to note that they considered the matter 
at their first meeting and ordered a road to be viewed and sur- 
ve}"ed from the county seat "across the bridge at En.:s Terry's 
(East Water street) and thence by the nearest and best route 
in a direction toward Fort I^oramie until it stri'.ces the county 

John Beers was appointed surveyor and David Briggs, 
David Thompson and Moses Scott viewers with instructions 
to begin work on June 26. 1817. This was the veritable be- 
ginning of systematic road-building which has continued to 
this day and given Darke county first place among the eighty- 
eight shires of Ohio with abmit 1,700 miles of roads and pikes. 
.•\t this time the o'llv rnads were the Indian trails, the army 
traces and the narrow winding driveways cut to the various 
scattered settlements and the cabins of the pioneers. \\'e have 
noted that St. Clair came into a distinct Indian trail near 
"Matchett's Corner," which he followed to Fort JelTerson, 
thence to Greenville and on to Fort Recovery, and that a large 
trail came into this one near Lightsville, from the east. It is 
also a matter of tradition that a well-known trail led from 
Pickawillany to Greneville creek and along that stream to the 
site of Greenville and thence on to the headwaters of \\"hite- 
water river. Also that a trail led from Greenville in a west- 
erly direction to the neighborhood of Nashville and thence 
on to the Indian settlement of Delaware county, Indiana. 
Probably other minor trails centered here about the ancient 
fording place just below the junction of Mud and Greenville 
creeks. It is known that Wayne during his occupancy of the 
fort here, cut a road along the south side of Greenville creek 


to its mouth at Covington i I'ort Rowdy i to assist in the 
transportation of supplies iwm the latter jilace which ha<l 
been brought from Fort Washington by boat up the Miami 
and Stillwater. It seems that he also cut a trail to Fort 
Loramie approximating the direction of the present Versailles 
pike except that it probably kept east of the Stillwater to the 
crossing at Fort I'.riar, liefore mentioned. He also straight- 
ened and improved the trails cut by St. Clair. These trails 
were used by the pioneers and were later straightened, par- 
tially relocated, and improved, giving us the present pikes to 
Troy, Versailles and Fort Recovery, and showing that in a 
large measure the crafty savage selected the best and most 
direct routes and located our best thoroughfares. 

In the pioneer days of Darke county all state roads were 
surveyed and established by special acts of the Legislature. 
The first road laid out in this way was the old Troy pike. 
which was cut through about 1811 from Hroy in Miami 
county. This road also became the first toll pike in 1853. 
This road ran south of Greenville creek to Gettysburg where 
it crossed and kept on the north side to Greenville, crossing 
at Boomershine fording — East Fifth street. A little later it 
was altered and crossed near the present Main street bridge. 
A road was located from Piqua to Greenville about 1817. 
which intersected the Troy road at the present site of Gettys- 
burg. A "Directory of Cincinnati," published in 1819, shows 
a road running from that place to Greenville by the way of 
Reading. Franklin and Dayton, a total distance of ninety-two 
miles. From Da^'ton to Greenville, the distance was forty 
miles, with the following stations : Razor's Mills, twelve miles : 
William's Block House, eleven miles; Studdybaker's Block 
House, nine miles; Greenville, eight miles. The Milton, 
Shanesville (Ansonia). Fort Recoverv and Fort Jefferson 
pikes were laid out shortly after the organization of the 
county, on routes approximately the same as at present. Sev- 
eral roads were laid out by the county commissioners at the 
request of the settlers in various neighborhoods to suit their 
convenience. Such roads usually followed the ridges and 
avoided the ponds and marshes, and went far afield to accom- 
modate isolated settlers. As the county became" more thickly 
settled these roads were either vacated or straightened up as 
far as feasible. The policy has been to locate the new roads 
on section lines as far as possible. As a result of these early 
and later road building enterprises Darke county has a sys- 


tem of direct diagonal pikes leading from the county seats and 
principal cities of the surrounding counties to Greenville, sup- 
plemented by cross roads and pikes on most of the section lines. 
This makes almost an ideal road system and knits the various 
sections of the county to each other and all to the county 
seat in a very efficient manner. 

Strange as it may seem no turnpikes were built before a 
railway was constructed in the county. The Greenville and 
Gettysburg pike was the first built, being completed about the 
same time as the G. & M. railway. The "Ithaca Free Turn- 
pike Road" was granted on petition in June, 1858. Ten other 
free pikes were ordered built between that date and 1868. 

By the year 1870 such remarkable progress had been made 
in road building as to call forth the following article in the 
"Ohio Farmer:" "Who would have thought thirty-seven 
years ago. when the writer first saw "old Darke county," that 
it would ever stand foremost among the counties of its state 
for its road enterprise. Why the county should have sur- 
passed every other in the State in this regard, I am unable 
to explain. It may be accounted for on the theory of extremes 
— the roads were very bad, they are very good. Perhaps the 
people thrown upon their own resources pushed their way in 
this direction. It is certain that the pike business became in 
time a local epidemic. The many rival stations fostered a 
spirit of rivalry. A condition of things that favored the en- 
terprise of turnpike construction was the tendency of the 
people to invest in what promised to be a permanent im- 
provement. Whatever may be the explanation, the secretary's 
report for 1868 puts down 393 miles of turnpike roads for 
Darke county ; Warren follows with 224 ; Clermont and 
Wood, 200 each: Hamilton. 195; Montgomery, 152: Cham- 
paign, 136; Greene, 117; Butler, 112, etc. 

"Of course the burden of taxation is heavy and not every 
farmer is in condition to pay $4 an acre road tax. Some were 
obliged to sell off the land to enable them to meet assess- 
ments, but hard as it was, even such gained in the end by the 
rise in local values. It is quite a genera! feeling among the 
people that they have taken too much upon their hands at 
once. And as wheat is their staple product, the county rank- 
ing fifth in the state, the low price at which their surplus will 
probably have to be sold, may operate somewhat discourag- 
ingly : but the resources of the county are abundant, and the 
people will no doubt come out all right, and all the better for 


their excellent system of roads. Parts of the county witli 
which I was perfectly familiar ten years ago, I did not recog- 
nize when passing through them last summer." * * * 

It is readily seen and is generally acknowledged that the 
opening and systematic improvement of roads is one of the 
most important projects in the development of any new com- 
munity, and Darke county has not proven an exception to 
this statement. Today we have some thirteen hundred miles 
of improved pikes and about seventeen hundred miles of roads 
of all descriptions — enough, if placed end to end in a continu- 
ous stretch, to reach from New York City almost to Den- 
ver. Colo. 

Early Neighborhood Settlements. 

W'e have noted previously that a large per cent, of the area 
of primitive Darke county was covered with swamps, making 
large sections unfit for habitation until properly drained and 
cleared. The settlers naturally selected the driest, healthiest 
and most promising sections, and from these points of vantage 
gradually worked out the problems of drainage, clearing and 
cultivation, etc. It seems appropriate here to note the pro- 
gress of settlement by 1825 and enumerate some of the first 
families as noted by Prof. Mcintosh. 

"Below Ithaca, in the southeast, lived Lucas and Robbins. 
At intervals along ^Miller's Fork, near Castine. were Ellis, 
Freeman, Park and Robert Phillips and J. F. Miller. On the 
east bank of the ^^^^itewater stood the cabins of Pirawley. 
Purviance, the McClures, Broderick and Jacob Miller, Zadoc 
Smith and the Wades. Near Fort Black, by the lake, were 
the Rushes, Henry Hardy, Tibbs, Falknor, and possibly the 
Kunkles. On the Middle Fork were the Tilsons, Harlans, 
Emerson, Helpenstein and Gert. Approaching the town, we 
find Spencer, the Edwards families, Wilsons and others. Fur- 
ther to the north we come to Cloyd, Pearson, Cassaday and 
Kettring. About Palestine dwelt Samuel Loring. In the 
northern part of German township lived Ludwig Clapp, re- 
puted credulous and superstitious, William Asher, of the 
same mind, Moores and Rush and John McNeil, Rarick. Snell 
and Miller, on Crout creek and its vicinity. East of the 
West Branch dwelt Martin Ruple, Archibald Bryson and 
John Whittaker. while lower down were the small clearings 
made by John Hiller and Daniel Potter. I\Iud creek passed 
by the cabin homes of Peter Weaver, Andrew NofFsinger, his 


son Joseph, James and Henry Rush. Sumption. McGinnis, 
burns and Wertz. East of the prairie, Zadoc Reagan 
had located, and traveling the stream brought in sight the 
homes of Abraham Studabaker and Abraham Miller. James 
Hay dwelt at Jeflferson, and below were Ryerson and Wine 
gardner. On Greenville creek, above town, stood three cab- 
ins occupied by Ullery, Dean and David ^^'illiamson, and 
below on the creek were those of Squire Briggs. Westfall, 
^lajor Adams, Br}an, Cunningham and Studabaker. On the 
south bank of the creek, at intervals, the enumeration finds 
Popejoy, Esq., Hayes, James Gregory and Carnahan. Chris- 
topher Martin, Alexander Fleming, James Roff, David Rifl'le 
and his sons and son-in-law, Hathaway, on Stillwater, near 
Beainsville. Conlock was at ^^'ebster, and McDonald, Mote 
and Ludwig Christie below. Ward Atchison was on the 
A-erge of the Black swamp, and Lewis Baker on Indian creek. 
From Bridge creek on to the dividing branch, were scattered 
Arnold, Townsend. the Thom]:>sons and Clay. These men had 
settled here under many difficult circumstances, but they had 
eiTected a lodgment and formed a center by which others 
could be guided and assisted. Persistent in labor, patient 
under afflictions of disease were these plain men with un- 
affected manner and kindly greetings. As the country be- 
gan to be settled, families were moving on to different loca- 
tions in the central part of the county. There was a large 
portion of the county that seemed so much of a swamp as 
to make a final occupation problematical. Along Greenville 
creek, as above named, one found at varying distances the log 
cabins of a few families, and there were others on the West 
Branch. There were cabins on the branch known as Crout 
creek, and yet others upon Mud creek. These scattered clear- 
ings were the oldest in the county, and northward there were 
few, if any. And from there, so far as means would permit, 
the newcomers received their supplies and assistance." * * * 
"In 1818, there was the commencement of a settlement on 
the east fork of Whitewater, and on Twin creek, near Ithaca, 
and several families had settled near Fort Black, now known 
as New Madison. During this year, Minatown and Fort 
JeiTerson were laid out, and, in the year following, Versailles 
was platted, making in all five villages, the germs of future 
business towns, and the only ones for full a dozen years — 
practical proof, in so large a county, of sparse and tardj' oc- 


"During the year when Fort Jefferson was platted, a ta\-- 
ern stand was occupied there, and, while the conveniences 
were far from equal to the Turpen or Wagner houses of to- 
day, yet there was an abundance of plain, palatable food and 
little ceremony. During 1818, A. Studabaker left his former 
entry, near Gettysburg, and reraoved to the farm more re- 
cently the property of his son George. AA'illiam Arnold and 
others were residing on Bridge creek. The settlements now 
became known by various names to distinguish them, such 
as 'Yankee Town ;' one called Ireland, located north of 
Green\ille, and a third is mentioned here as suggestive of the 
section, known as the Black Swamp Settlement. These nu- 
clei of the clearings in Darke each formed a distinct neighbor- 
hood and had their leading men, respected for honesty, good 
faith, and frugality in public as well as private affairs." * * * 

At this time but little progress had been made in clearing 
off the dense forest and rank growth of underljrush. The 
only openings were the garden patches and small clearings 
of a few acres each around the settlers' cabins. These rude 
habitations were "hand made" from foundation to the stick 
chimney top, and in their construction typified the homely 
virtues of the pioneers — simplicity, strength, sacrifice, hard- 
ness, industry, hospitality and love of home and neighbors. 
When a cabin was to be "raised" the settler first selected 
a favorable site, probably on a -knoll or ridge, then felled 
the timber growing upon it, picked out the choicest logs and 
cut them in proper lengths. When all was ready he notified 
his scattered neighbors and at the appointed time all assem- 
bled for a "raising bee." Some help to carry the logs where 
they will be hand}' for the builders, while the others watch 
them at the ends and raise and place them into position until 
the proper height is attained. The hea^•v work being finished 
the helpers return to their homes leaving the proprietor to 
cut and place the clapboards on the roof, to split and place 
the puncheons for a f^oor, to cut and face the openings for 
the door and fireplace, to fill the chinks with chips and mor- 
tar and to build the huge chimney of sticks and mud. After 
this he hewed out a door and table and a few three legged 
stools and made a bed of clapboards and poles supported at 
the outer corner by a forked stick and resting at the inner 
ends on the walls of the cabin at the cracks between the logs. 
The door was hung on wooden hinges and a wooden latch 
stuck on the inside, with a hook pin driven into the door cas- 


ing for a fastening. A strong leather string was then at- 
tached to the latch on the inside with one end run through a 
hole made in the door for the purpose, so as to hang down 
on the outside. When the latch string hung out the door 
could be opened by pulling on it. To secure the door the 
string was pulled back through the hole. Some clapboard 
shelves supported on pins at the back of the cabin, a few 
pegs at convenient places for supporting garments, and two 
small forks of wood or deer horn placed over the fireplace 
to support the shot pouch and rifle put a finishing touch on 
the job ready for the housewife and famil}'. 

"In houses thus built, and unplastered within and entirely 
devoid of adornment, our ancestors lived with a comfort un- 
known to the opulent occupant of many a palatial residence 
of today. Coal stoves or wood stoves were unknown, but in 
the wide fireplace were found hooks and trammel, and and- 
irons. Nearby were the bake-pan and the kettle ; and as 
homes varied there were to be seen in many a log house the 
plain deal table, the flag bottom chair, and the easy, straight, 
high-backed rocker. Carpets there were none. The beds 
contained no mattress, springs, or even bed-cord, the conch 
was often spread upon the floor, and sleeping apartments were 
separated by hanging blankets. Not infrequently, the emi- 
grant neighbor, and occasionally Indian visitor, hy upon 
blankets or robes before the huge open fireplace, with s^'ock- 
inged or moccasined feet before the constant fire. \\'ooden 
vessels, either turned or coopered, were commonly used for 
the table. A tin cup was an article of luxury almost as rare 
as an iron fork. Gourds were used at the water bucket, and 
there were not always knives enough to go around the familj-. 
The immigrant brought with him, packed upon the horse, or 
later on the wagon, some articles of better sort. Upon the 
kitchen drawers were set forth a shiny row of pewter plates, 
buck-handled knives, iron or pewter spoons, or there were 
seen a row of blue-edged earthenware, with corresponding 
cups and saucers, with teapot — articles then to grace the table 
at the quilting, social afternoon visit, or preacher's call : but 
advancing civilization has sent the plates and spoons to the 
melting pot, while knives and forks have taken less substance 
but more shapely form. * * * 

"The subject of food was all important with the settler, 
and hard labor in the open air created a keen appetite which 
made of much account the feasts of merrymakings, parties 


and public meetings. Quality was not so much regarded 
as quantity. Fish from the creek, venison and bear meat, 
bacon and even the raccoon's carcass were made available 
for food. Enormous potpies were baked containing fowls, 
squirrels and due proportions of other meats. The food was 
generally most wholesome and nutritive. There was a boun- 
teous supply of the richest milk, the finest butter and most 
palatable meat that could be imagined, and meals were eaten 
with all the relish which healthful vigor, backed by labor, 
could bestow. 

"The clothing worn in early days was generally the same 
in all seasons. The settler, standing upon the prostrate 
trunk of a huge tree, stroke following stroke of his keen axe, 
and chip after chip whirring out upon the snow, little regarded 
the winter temperature, and coatless and barefooted, the sum.- 
mer heat was not oppressive. The garments worn were 
mainly the product of home manufacture, where necessity in- 
sured effort and practice gave skill. * * *" 

Social and industrial conditions in early days are vividly 
described by Jesse Arnold in "Recollections of the Arnold 
Family," published in 1889. 

"Nor would we forget the old spinning-wheel — the larger 
one for wool, and the smaller one for flax and tow. For 
months and months have w'e seen the girls busv with their 
rude articles of domestic economy, keeping up a continuous 
whirl from sun up till dark, perhaps omitting fifteen minutes 
for each meal ; and then, after the spinning is done, the web 
is transferred to an old loom, in some lonely and desolate out- 
house, to be made up in cloth of some kind, where a continu- 
ous batting was kept up the live long day. 

"For this laborious work these girls would receive from 
fifty to seventy-five cents per week, and, if at the end of the 
month she had received enough money to buy a calico dress, 
she was very fortunate and became the subject of neighbor- 
hood talk for being able to sport a new calico dress in place 
of the linsey-woolsey usually worn." 

"Many a day have we seen the sturdy toiler go into the 
harvest field at sun up and with sickle or cradle work the 
live long day till sun down for fifty cents per day, with onlv 
an hour for nooning. Thirty-five and thirty-seven cents per 
day was the usual price for eleven and twelve hours' work, 
with goods of all kinds twice their present prices — calicoes 


twenty-five cents, muslin tuenty-fix'e cents, and all else in 

The. pioneers generally wore home-made clothing of linen 
or wool as these could be made from raw material produced 
at home or secured nearby. With coarse wool at fifty cents 
a pound, calico at forty to fift)- cents per yard and cowhide 
boots selling at seven dollars per pair, while farm produce 
brought very low prices, and girls ran the spinning wheel for 
seventy-five cents a week, it is readily seen why the dames 
of these da3's dressed much more plainly and modestly than 
they do today. Neither do we think of their dress as being 
less becoming or the conditions of their life less conducive of 
happiness than are the prevailing fashions and conditions 
of today. Labor and pleasure were often combined in the 
corn huskings, quiltings, wood-choppings, loggings and house 
raisings, and as much real enjoyment found by the lads and 
lassies at the special celebrations and big militia musters as 
is now provided by the county fair. It is needless to contrast- 
further the conditions of life today with those of a century 
ago. On the foundations laid bv these pioneers we have built 
a superstructure called civilization. 

The increase of population, the advance in education and 
invention and the changed condition under which we live 
and labor have enlarged our field of enjoyment, smoothed 
many of the rough places along the way of life and appar- 
ently made life the more worth living. However, it is doubt- 
ful whether the overfed, overdressed, overstrained and pam- 
pered youth of today are capable of extracting that true 
pleasure from life which came to the pioneers through rough 
labor, sacrifice and mutual burden bearing. \\'e turn with 
loathing from the daily newspaper of todav with its accounts 
of crimes, accidents and misdoings, its stories of high-life, 
infelicity, incompatibility and divorce to the simple, quiet, 
contented, industrious life o"" the pioneer in the rude log 
cabin, and long for a return to the pioneer and more rational 
li\'ing of early days. 

These lines from Darke county's gifted poet, Barney Collins, 
are not inappropriate here: 

Here fertile fields upon the prospect swell, 
\\ hose forests once in primal grandeur rose. 

And sounds of peace are heard where once the yell 
( )f savage broke and chilled the blood of those 


\\'ho came in early life or at its close 
To clear the wilderness and till the ground ; 

And though they were beset by cunning foes 
Whose stealthy tread of danger gave no sound. 
Still, yet they dar'd and gave the sa\-age wound for wound. 

Where with a single room the hut was rear'd, 

Which turned but ill the winter's cold and snow; 
New structures — spacious temples — have appear'd. 

With halls commodious that richly glow 

With all that art can bestow. 
.-Mas! the hardships of the pioneer! 

His wants and struggles we can never know; 
But whilst his fruits we are enjoying here 
If he be dead or living — him — let us revere. 

Here roamed in herds the elk and timid deer, 

• Here howl'd the wolf and wild the panther screamed ! 

And with them bloody conflicts happened here 

That even now are tales of fiction deemed ; 

By us too lightly is the truth esteemed, 
For with us yet are those who in the strife 

From wounds of deep infliction stream'd : 
They could not know the sweets of peaceful life 
Where prowl'd the savage beast and gleamed the scalping 

Contrasted with the rapid development of certain choice 
sections of the far west today the early development of 
Darke county seemed painfull}- slow. The census of 1820 
showed the population of the county as then constituted to 
be 3,717. Mercer county, which then embraced parts of Shel- 
by and Auglaize, was included in this enumeration, making 
the probable population of Darke county two thousand or 
less. Four years later the count}' seat had a population of 
one hundred or less, including thirteen families. 

In 1830 the census of the county still in its original form, 
was 6,204, while the county seat contained 204 inhabitant?. 
Several conditions retarded growth and development among 
which we note the large amount of swamp land, the preva- 
lence of malarial and kindred diseases, and the "farther west" 
movement which enticed many to the region of the Missis- 
sippi a few years later. In the strenuous work of clearing the 


land much hard labor and exposure were undergone and l>ut 
few escaped attacks of fevers and chills, ague, etc. 

Doctors Stephen Perrine, John Briggs, J- M. P- Bas'.cerville, 
I. N. Gard and Alfred Ayers were kept busy attending the 
sick and during the scourge of flux in 1829-1830 this force 
was found inadequate, it being found necessary to summon 
several physicians from Preble and ]\Iiami counties. Bilious 
complaints prevailed until about the middle of the century 
by which time the area of swamp lands had been greatly 
reduced and the environment of the settlers made more 
healthy generally. Vital statistics today show that Darke 
county is one of the healthiest communities in the state. 

Early Business Enterprises. 

Trade and commerce kept pace with the slow agricultural 
development. Greenville was naturally the center of trade 
and here the first merchants opened up their shops. Men- 
tion has been made of the pioneer French trader who was 
"cleaned out" by the Indians ; of Azor Scribner and Abraham 
Scrihner ; of Connor, who located on the southeast corner of 
\^'ater and Sycamore, of the Hood brothers on the north side 
of ^^'ater between Elm and Vine streets, and of Basconi and 
Scott, the tavern keepers. Connor's place was later occupied 
b}- Nicholas Greenham of Piqua ; the Hoods were succeeded 
b}' Delorac and then later by Chas. Neave. L. R. Brownell, 
of Piqua, opened a store on the south side of Main street, be- 
tween Sycamore and Ehn street, in 1826, later he moved to 
the east corner of public square, and continued in business 
until about 1833. He v/as succeeded bj' James M. Dorsey and 
' Henry Arnold. Later Dorsey withdrew and Henry Arnold 
carried on the business alone for several years. 

In 1830 W. B. Beall purchased a store which had been es- 
tablished by John McNeal in 1827. Beall was soon joined by 
Francis Waring, who several years later took over the entire 
business and continued the same until 1876. Their place of 
business was first on the corner of the public square opposite 
the present site of the James hotel, and later on the present 
site of the Masonic Temple on the east corner. .Vllen LaMott 
and Josiah D. Farrar formed a partnership and opened a 
store about 1830 on West Main street, moved later to the west 
corner of Third and Broadway and continued until 1840. 
John C. Potter opened a store in 1834 on the west side of 



Main street between the public square and Sycamore street. 
Later he built a substantial brick building on the public 
square where the postoffice now stands and continued until 
1849, when he, his wife and daughter died of cholera. His 
brother Hiram formed a partnership with Samuel Davis in 
1835 and opened a store on the present site of the fire de- 
partment. Later this firm moved to East Main street between 
the square and Walnut street. Davis soon sold out and Pot- 
ter continued until his death in 1845. Abraham Scribner, be- 
fore mentioned, started a store on the present site of the arti- 
ficial gas plant, then moved to the southwest corner of Main 
and Elm streets and finall)' to lot 59 between Sycamore and 
the square where J'lhn .Schu1)ert lately had a grocery and 
where Hezekiah Woods now lives. 

Besides those mentioned above others started stores and 
carried on business for a few months but were unable to 
become established. Stores in those days did not specialize 
on one line of goods, as the population was not sufficient to 
justify this, but carried a general line, including groceries, 
hardware, dry goods, drugs, boots and shoes, quensware, etc. 
It is interesting to note that about this time corn sold for 
15 cents per bushel; pork and beef, when it could be sold, 
at two or three cents a pound ; maple sugar at 6 to 8 cents 
per pound, while wages ranged from two to three shillings 
a day. To a large extent cloth was manufactured and cloth- 
ing made at home, and the farmer depended on the local mar- 
ket to dispose of his produce. It will be noted that the first 
stores were on West Water and Main streets, later they 
grouped about the public square, and finally invaded Broad- 
way, which has become the main business thoroughfare. Men- 
tion should be made here of other business enterprises which 
flourished in early days, but in later years practical!}' became 
extinct. Wm. Sipe conducted a pottery on the northwest 
corner of Fourth and Walnut streets, where he made crocks 
and jugs for many years. Another pottery was located on 
the rear of the lot now occupied by M. B. Trainor's residence 
on Vine street near Water, and a third on West Fourth 
street, just beyond the present site of the M. E. church. 

Early attempts were made to establish tanneries, one above 
the present site of the Mud creek bridge, and the other on the 
site of the O'Brien greenhouses, in Minatown, but both 
proved abortive. 


About 1820 a tannery was started on the southeast corner 
of Water and Walnut streets by Baldwin and AIcGregor, 
which continued under ^•arious management and with little 
or no profit until 1855. A tannery was established between 
Greenville creek and West Water street just west of Sycamore 
street by Jacob Herkimer in 1831 or 1832, which continued 
in operation for some fifty years under different owners. The 
last operators were Thos. B. Waring and F. i\I. Eidson. \\'iii. 
W. Jordan started a tannery on the west side of North Broad- 
way, just south of the present site of the O'Brien greenhouses, 
whose history covered about the same period as the above 
mentioned enterprises. This, also, changed hands until it 
came into the possession of the Porters, who operated it for 
quite a period. Fine springs were found on both the latter 
sites, which were valuable assets in the business. 

Mention should be made of David and Alexander Craig, 
twin brothers, who were blacksmith and wagonmaker re- 
spectively ; Wm. McKhann, St., and Jesse McGinnis, cabinet- 
makers; Benj. Brown, wheelwright; Wm. Lipp and Sam 
Pierce, fur and skin dressers ; Philip Stoner, basketmaker, and 
Rural Risley, wool carder, as representing occupations either 
defunct or declining. 

Early Taverns. 

In the way of taverns early Greenville seems to have been 
well supplied. As will be noted these were mostly grouped 
about the public square for the convenience of travelers and 
the general public. Early writers mention the Bascom hos- 
tlery on the present site of the fire department ; a public house 
on the opposite corner to the west, originally built by Dr. 
Perrine as a residence, later occupied by Jno. Hufnagle as a 
residence ; the Wayne House on the northwest corner of the 
square, built by Jas. Craig about 1830, later occupied by 
Dr. Aliesse, still known as the Wagner House and now in an 
enlarged and extensively remodeled condition as the Hotel 
James ; the Broadway House, built by Chas. Hutchin on the 
southwest corner of the square (Farmers' Bank site) in 1837, 
and operated by various proprietors for some forty years 
thereafter; "Travelers' Rest," erected by Joshua Howell in 
1830 on the northwest corner of Broadway and Fourth 
streets and continued for a similar period of time ; Hamilton 
House, erected in 1830 by Francis L. Hamilton on the corner 
of Main street and the square, across from the Wayne House. 


The bar seems to have been one of the principal features of 
these establishments, when practically everybody drank 
liquor. They were a place of general resort and discussion, 
where free exchange of ideas on politics and public questions 
took place and where -the news and gossip of the community 
was made public. 

Fur Trade. 

Hunting and trapping wild animals for their valuable furs 
was the employment of several men about town for at least 
part of the year. Wm. Sipe, the potter before mentioned, 
was also a professional hunter. In 1829 all the buildings in 
town, about thirty in number, were on Water and Main 
streets, including the public square, except the log house of 
Sipe on the northwest corner of Fourth and Walnut, where 
he enjoyed the seclusion coveted by the typical hunter. The 
farmers, no doubt, also did much hunting and trapping, as 
the woods and creeks abounded in fur producing animals, and 
the local merchants were eager to take furs and skins in ex- 
change for merchandise. Speaking of LaMotte and Farrar's 
store, an early writer says : "They sold goods, bought furs 
and skins, and for many years packed a large quantity of 
pork. It was a wonderful sight to be taken into the fur room 
of these men, a whole room twenty by fifty feet nearly stacked 
full of bales of raccoon, mink, muskrat, deer skins, etc." 

For a true pictur>; of the life and men of Greenville prior 
to 1830 we herewith quote the words of an old resident : 
"About one-half of them were very good and decent men for 
the rough times in which they lived. The other half were of 
the lewder sort, drinking, carousing and quarreling, with oc- 
casional fights, and as it cost but little to live in those days, 
one-half their time was spent about the taverns in gambling, 
telling hard stories, pitching quoits, throwing large stones 
from the shoulder, kicking the pole, wrestling, jumping, run- 
ning foot races, horse races, fishing, hunting, desecrating the 
Sabbath with all these practices, irreligious and semi-civilized. 
These were the men of which strangers took their idea of the 
character of Greenville, and always scored it on the bad side. 
The good, the industrious, did not go about to see. The vicious 
they could not avoid ; they were like yellow jackets at 
the cider barrel, buzzing gener?lly a little too close, putting 
in dread of being stung and hasting the time of departure, and 
retarding the progress and improvement of the town." 


No doubt the testimony of this earl\' observer is correct 
as the reputation for gambling and hard drinking in Green- 
ville lingered to almost the opening of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Neither is the biblical saying inappropriate even in 
these days : "The fathers have eaten the sour grapes, and the 
children's teeth are set on edge," as testified to by a host of 
temperance workers who have struggled long and desperately 
to improve the public sentiment and reduce the evil connected 
with these ancient practices. 

Early Mills. 

In these days of good roads and raihvays, of easy communi- 
cation and quick transportation, when the physical needs of 
the community are readily supplied, it is difficult to conceive 
of the hardships encountered by the pioneers in securing flour 
and meal for their daily bread. The earliest settlers were 
compelled to go to Montgomery or Miami county to mill on 
horseback as there were no roads suitable for wagons. It was 
a common practice to travel thirty or forty miles to mill 
seated on top of a two bushel sack of corn thrown across the 
animal's back. Such a trip would often require two or three 
days of travel through an almost unbroken ."orest, during 
which time the traveler would probably not see over five or 
six houses or clearings. 

The first mill in the county was built by Enos Terry, for- 
merly mentioned, on his land at the bend of Greenville creek 
a short distance above the present site of Main street bridge. 
A grist and saw mill were attached to the same power. 
It is said that this little mill ground corn for the Indians 
who attended the ceremonies attendant on Harrison's treaty 
in 1814, and that the dam was destroyed by the garrison at 
the fort on the pretext of military necessity, inasmuch as it 
backed water and caused the Mud creek prairie to overflow, 
thus creating a shallow, stagnant lake which bred disease. 

After the war John Dean erected a mill about three and a 
half miles above Greenville on the creek (now Weimer's) and 
John Devor started a saw mill on the West Branch half a 
mile to the south of it. Major Adams built a little mill on 
the creek five or six miles below Greenville about this time. 
This was later known as Baer's mill and now as Cromer's. 

Samuel Kelly built the first wool-carding mill about 1824 
just above the site of Terry's destroyed mill and in about a 



year prepared to grind grain also. About 1828 he sold out 
to John Swisher, who continued it until 1835 or 1836, when 
the dam was destroyed by a mob under the same pretext that 
Terry's mill had been destroyed before, and at a loss of some 
four thousand dollars to the owner. Dr. Perrine, who was a 
very eccentric character, owned land on Mud creek about a 
mile south of town and was induced to commence a suit for 
damages on account of back water. The jury in this case- 
rendered a verdict of fifty dollars' damages in favor of Perrine 
and immediately a mob leveled the dam, showing the state 
of lawlessness prevailing at that time. 

David Briggs erected a mill about a mile and a half below 
Greenville in 1825 or 1826, which was operated by different 
proprietors until 1880, when it was decided to remove the 
dam to allow the proper drainage of the Mud creek bottoms. 
William ]\Iartin built a saw mill near the mouth of the Dividing 
Branch about 1822, and operated a tan yard nearby. This 
mill was rebuilt several times and operated on and off over 
fifty years. John W. Harper built a saw mill about half a 
mile further up some fifteen years later. About 1830 Jas. 
and Benj. Devor erected a fulling mill un the West Branch on 
the site of their father's saw mill. They afterward sold to 
Wm. Akins, who greatly enlarged and improved it by adding 
a spinning jack and several powen looms. This mill did a 
large business and relieved the women of the community of 
the former drudgery of hand carding. 

About 1841 Mane Flora, Sr., erected a saw mill on the West 
Branch just north of the crossing of the present W^inchester 
pike. Later John Fox bought this property and added a 
grist mill. 

A mill was erected on Stillwater in Wayne township called 
Webster's mill ; one near the head of Mud creek in Neave 
township by Ernestus Putnam ; one on Crout creek in W^ash- 
ington township by Ludlow Clapp, who sold it to John Mc- 
Clure. At a later date John C. Potter erected a substantial 
mill on Greenville creek a mile and a half above town which 
was operated afterward by Odlin Spiece, and John Hershey 
built one at Gettysburg. 

In 1880 there were in operation in the county twe.ntA^-one 
grist mills with sixty-two run of buhrs, and valued at about 

The law enacted to clean up the streams of Ohio, no doubt, 
sounded the death knell of manv an old mill as witness the 


Knouff mill on the creek about a mile below Greenville. This 
mill caused the water to "back" up to the town and probably- 
created an unsanitary condition by interfering with the cur- 
rent and choking the channel. 

The old water power mills have long since been discon- 
tinued or remodeled and have given way to the steam roller 
flouring mills located in the larger towns which have a daily 
capacity far beyond those of early times. In a few years even 
the sites of most of the first mills will be practically unknown. 

Early Schools. 

It is difficult in these days of compulsory education and 
expensive school equipment to form a proper estimate of 
pioneer educational conditions, to conjure up a mental picture 
of the settlers' attitude toward culture and refinement. A 
hasty survey of the situation would probably lead the average 
student to the conclusion that the pioneers knew little and 
cared less for such matters. This conclusion, however, is 
scarcely just when we reflect that life in those days was, per- 
force, a constant struggle with the forces of nature, a round 
of coarse, hard labor to fell the thick timber and wrest a decent 
living from the newly plowed clearings. 

Xo doubt many of these settlers came from homes in the 
east where the school teacher and the school house were con- 
sidered prime factors in the life of the community, and longed 
to see the day when their children could enjoy educational 
privileges at least equal to their own. In this connection the 
following brief quotation from the pen of the late J. T. Martz, 
one of Darke county's most noted educators, is of interest : 
"While the early settlers of Darke county did not neglect edu- 
cation, the date of the first establishment of schools, and the 
building of school-houses is not accurately known. 

"The first teachers in Greenville township were John Beers, 
who taught in the Thompson, Studabaker and William Arnold 
settlement from 1818 or 20 to 1830 or 32 ; John Talbert, who 
taught near Prophetstown. on the Bishop farm from 1820- 
1832; and Henry D. Williams, who taught in the Hayes- 
\\'estfall-Carnahan neighborhood from 1820-1830. and in Dis- 
trict Number 14 in 1835-1838. The first teachers in the county 
were Dow Roll, Mrs. Mclntire, John Townsend and Noah 
Arnold. These must be considered the pioneer teachers in 
the countv 


"At this time there was no public school fund. The schools 
were supported by individual contributions from parents who 
sent their children to school. The teacher received a salary 
of about ten dollars per month, and boarded himself. The 
school would continue in session about three months in the 
year and this amount of thirty dollars was apportioned among 
the heads of families in proportion to the number of children 
sent, the teacher holding each parent individually responsible 
for the amount of his tuition. 

"In 1821 a law was passed by our legislature which left it 
to a vote of each township whether school districts should be 
formed, and, perhaps four years later, action in this respect 
was changed, and township trustees were required to divide 
the townships into school-districts, and a tax was levied by the 
county commissioners for school purposes, which provided a 
fund of about ten dollars yearly for each school district. This 
amount would continue the school in session for about one 
month, and the remaining two months' services of the teacher 
was paid by individual contributions as above stated. 

"During this time the teacher should be found qualified to 
teach penmanship, reading, writing and arithmetic. A 
board of county examiners for teachers' certificates was re- 
quired under the law. In 1849 the law added geography and 
English grammar to the required qualifications of the 

Referring to the earliest schools in the Studabaker neigh- 
borhood, Air. Jesse Arnold wrote : 

"AVilliam Studebaker commenced teaching in a caliin in 
the old Wyllis field, just south of the old Arnold horhestead, 
about 1823. This cabin school burned about 1824 and school 
was opened up in a similar rude cabin adjoining the residence 
of Abraham Studabaker. This was continued till about 1829 
when it was removed to the end of the Arnold lane and Henry 
D. Williams was employed to teach during the winter, having 
taught one or two winters before its removal, then as follows : 

In 1830-31 William S. Harper, teacher. 

In 1831-32 Henry D. Williams, teacher. 

In 1832-34 David Townsend, teacher. 

In 1835-6-7 Noah Arnold, teacher. 

"A little later the school was removed to a new brick school 
house at Studabaker's. Abraham Studebaker's brick house, 
but partially finished, was used as a school house in 1837 or 
1838 for a school taught bv Conrad Burgner. The little brick 


school house near Studebaker"s, hiuh by him at this time, was 
from this on my only place of school attendance in our own 
district. The teachers whom I recall in this school house 
were Daniel Hewitt, 'Master' Jelleff, Sanford Harper, M. 
Spayde and David Beers." 

"The principal books used were Webster's spelling book, 
the New Testament, the English reader and its introduction, 
and Talbot's arithmetic. Ray's arithmetic was introduced 
about the time I left school." 

The Arnold homestead referred to above was lo- 
cated on the present site of the brick house on the J. R. 
Stocker farm just north of the infirmary farm. The first 
school house mentioned was probably at the turn of the 
JaA'sville pike just south of the Stocker house. The brick 
school house mentioned is still standing on the east side of 
the Eaton pike at the turn of the Ohio Electric railway about 
three-fourths of a mile south of the fair grounds and is said 
to be the first brick building constructed in the county for 
school purposes. 

It seems incredible at this date that a man could afford to 
teach school at ten dollars per month, but we find that the 
necessities of life were much cheaper in those days, clothing 
seldom changed in style and could be worn with good form 
until threadbare, and the teacher was employed nine months 
of the year at other labor. Money was scarce in those da3'S 
and the teacher was sometimes paid in provisions as in the 
case of Dennis Hart, who located on Bridge creek in 1819. In 
the winter of that year he opened a rate school in an old log 
cabin belonging to Joseph Townsend. In the following winter 
he taught in a new log school house which had been erected 
on the Eaton pike some distance south of the present site of 
the infirmary. This man was married and agreed to accept his 
wages in corn, meat, potatoes and other produce. Needing 
some clothing to protect him from the winter's cold, he pro- 
posed to exchange some of his surplus produce with Abra- 
ham Scribner for the desired articles, but found that this mer- 
chant was well supplied with such things. Scribner informed 
him that he would exchange the clothing for whisky, however, 
whereupon Hart proceeded to a little distillery between 
Greenville and Minatown and traded his corn at less than 
market price for firewater which he disposed of in turn to 
Scribner at a reduced price, thus paying his account. "Oh, 


times. Oh, customs!" Surely things have changed since then, 
and apparently for the better. 

Professor Mcintosh, writing in 18S0, gives a vivid descrip- 
tion of early educational conditions in the settlement about 
Prophetstown as follows : "Many settlers had large families 
— as many as ten children were found in a single cabin — and, 
to provide for the future of these young people, the parents 
came to this county. There was alwaj's work to be done, and 
the services of all hands were needed ; it was only during the 
winter months that schools could be attended. At these, only 
the elementary branches were taught, and the predominant 
idea of the school master was discipline first, learning a.'ter- 
ward. No grammar nor geography were taught. Few studied 
arithmetic, and these did not proceed much beyond the rudi- 
ments; and when, at length, grammar was introduced, such 
pupils were thought well advanced. In any locality, when- 
ever sufficient families had moved in to form a school, the set- 
tlers stood ready to build a house and engage a teacher. Tall, 
strapping youths attended school, and the master had need 
of decision and courage as well as method and erudition. It 
was customary for the person applying for the school to call 
upon the parties within sending distance and canvass for 
scholars. If enough were secured, school opened. .\n illus- 
tration of the old-time method is g'i\-en as follows: ".\bout 
the year 1815, a man came into the Rush neighborhood, and 
offered his services as teacher. The settlers located along 
]\Iud Creek, \^'est Branch and Bridge Creek talked the matter 
over, and concluded to employ him. It was a light labor for 
ali to turn out with axes, handspikes and o.xen, upon the day 
appointed, to chop and draw the logs to a chosen site for the 
purpose of putting up a schoolhouse. The location was near 
Rush Fort, on i\Iud Creek. While some put up round logs, 
notched down, one layer upon another, until they were of 
sufficient elevation to form a story, split clap-boards for the 
roof, chamber floor and door, and puncheons for the floor, 
others drew stone for the fireplace and prepared sticks and 
mud for the chimney. The floor being laid, next came desks 
and seats. Large holes were bored in a log on each side of 
the room, wooden pins were driven *in. and a slab of un- 
planed plank laid on these pins. For seats, holes were bored 
in puncheons and legs driven in, two at each end. ^^'indows 
were made by cutting out a log nearl}' the whole length of 
the house, leaving a hole a foot wide. Into this was filled a 


sort of lattice work of sticks, and upon this greased paper was 
pasted to transmit the light. Such was the school house of 
sixty-five years ago. It was not much of a structure, but 
there was no great contrast between it and the homes of its 
builders. There was no lack of ventilation, and the wood 
was not too long for the fire-place. School opened in charge 
of W. H. Jones, of whom mention has been made in a pre- 
vious chapter, his services having been secured at a salary 
of $7 per month. He was severe and exacting; punishments 
were the order of the day. Whispering and other indiscre- 
tions subjected the olTender to blows with a rule upon the 
palm of the hand ; and so freely did Mr. Jones administer 
chastisement, that the patrons were obliged to request him to 
moderate his punishment, as the hands of their boys were so 
sore from repeated feruling that they were unable to use the 
ax. It was a species of torture to strike the tips of the gath- 
ered fingers with the ferule, and this was disapproved by the 
settlers, indurated to rough usages as they were. Only two 
branches of education were taught — reading and writing. The 
example of this neighborhood was contagious, and soon a 
house was built near the place of David Studabaker, and a 
man named Montgomery was hired to teach. Gradually 
school houses became more numerous, and the demand for 
teachers in some measure induced a supply. Summer schools 
were rare. Females made no application till an adventurous 
woman, named Anna Boleyn, attempted a three months" term 
during the summer of 1825, but quit in disgust before the ex- 
piration of that time. Despite liberal provisions favorable to 
education, little had been done up to 1838 toward perf^ecting 
a system of common schools, the result of the scanty means 
and constant toil incident to pioneer life. 

In many of the schools, pupils were required to studv in a 
loud tone, and hence called a loud school, the object being to 
let the teacher know they were engaged upon their lessons, 
and not in mischief. Classes in arithmetic and writing were 
never formed, but each pupil '"ciphered away at will," and 
received personal assistance from the teacher when the same 
was needed. Writing was taught by the teacher "setting the 
copy," and the pupil trying to imitate the same. The "quill 
pen" was used by the pupil, and the "master" was expected 
to make the pen. and mend the same when the pupil thought 
it unfit for use. The custom of "barring out" the teacher and 
compelling him to "treat," about the holidays, was indulged in 


by the pupils as a g-eneral custom, and sanctioned Ijy the pa- 
rents ; but this relic of barbarism has almost entirely disap- 
peared from our schools." 

Despite these untoward outward conditions our early 
schools educated some grand and stalwart men who, in ater 
life, looked back to their early school days with the longing so 
touchingly expressed bv the poet : 

"Gimme back the dear old days — the pathway through the 

To the schoolhouse in the blossoms — the sound of far-off bells 
Tinklin' 'crost the meadows ; the song of the bird an' brook, 
The old-time dictionary an' the blue-back spellin' book. 
Gone like a dream forever! A city hides the place. 
Where stood the old log schoolhouse, an' no familiar face 
Is smilin' there in welcome beneath a morning sky — 
There's a bridge across the river, an' we've crossed an' said 

good-bye !" 

Going now to the county seat we find that one of the earliest 
schools in this hamlet was conducted in a log building on the 
east side of Elm street between Third and Fourth streets (site 
of old Catholic church). This building also served as a room 
for the grand jury and once for the sitting o fthe court. Green- 
ville township was divided into school districts in 1827 and 
Greenville district chose John Beers, David Briggs and Linus 
Bascom as school directors in conformity to Guilford's law, 
recently enacted. As these men were not on friendly terms 
with each other they refused to co-operate and did nothing in 
the interest of education. In 1828 a new board was elected 
and proceeded to dismantle the old building and remove the 
logs to lot No. 3 on Fourth street (near the present site of the 
M. E. parsonage) which site had been deeded to the school 
district by \^'illiam ^^'iley in payment of a fine for assault 
and battery. 

An altercation between Abraham Schibner and Isaac Schid- 
eler prevented the erection of a building on this lot at this 
time. About 1839 or 1840 a brick schoolhouse was erected on 
lot No. 3, which was afterwards remodeled and used as a resi- 
dence by Judge Sater and is still in a good state of preserva- 
tion. Another two story brick school house was erected about 
the same time on the rear of lot 13, on the east side of Walnut 
street betwe^ Third and Fourth streets. After j^ears of service 


this building was used as a blacksmith shop and linally torn 
down about 1900. The building of two such ordinary school 
buildings instead of one good structure in a village like 
Greenville was in 1840, showed a lack of judgment which in- 
terfered with the proper development of the school system 
for several years. 

"In 1851 the first effort was made to grade the Greenville 
school by Ebenezer Bishop, who was employed at $400.00 a 
year to take general charge of the school. This effort was 
only partially successful and the schools were afterwards or- 
ganized in four grades, and for a number of years were suc- 
cessfully conducted by A. T. Bodle, L. S. B. Otwell, F. 
2\Iatchett and G. H. Martz, all efffcient teachers. Mr. ]\Iays, 
of Troy, Ohio, was afterwards employed as superintendent, 
the school was graded and has been conducted as a graded 
school in charge of a superintenent to date." 

The erection of a three-story brick school house on a newly 
purchased lot south of Fourth street between Central avenue 
and Sycamore street and the organization of a high school in 
1868 properly marks the end of the old regime and the be- 
ginning of the modern era of education which will be noted 
more fully at another place. 

Before the Civil war, private schools were taught, some- 
times by educated women, which provided opportunity for 
those who desired to take advanced studies, not pursued in the 
public schools. These were generally attended by children 
of the prominent families and were quite successful as shown 
by the number of pupils who in later life became leaders in 
the community. 

George Calderwood in the "Darke County Boy," published 
in the Courier, June 18, 1910, gives a vivid picture of his school 
da3'S a few years before the war. The article seems to have 
been inspired by the prospective coming of Judge Alex. T. 
Bodle to Greenville after long years of absence, to address the 
Pioneer Association. As noted above Mr. Bodle was a teacher 
in the Greenville schools during the fifties and had won the 
affection of his scholars. Calderwood's article reads in part 
as follows : 

"Of course we will have 'Alex' open school, call the roll, 
send Ed Waring and Volney Jenks for a bucket of water, have 
the classes recite, and then close with the spelling class, in 
which every pupil has to 'toe the mark.' The best speller will 
soon go 'up head,' and then go to the foot again, then work 

1^ Greenville, Ohio. 



School Building 

Jjk gg^ 







^^^^^^^BKsP- ^ItHI 






I. . . i ^ — •■- " 






Up head again. When he or she does so three times the prize 
shall be a 'Reward of ^lerit." printed in blue ink on a card 
three by five inches. I'll bet Helen Gilbert-Peyton gets the 
card, if she's present. 

When the class in arithmetic is called for ([uick action in 
Stoddard's ^Mental, 'Alex' will take up the liook and read : 

"If a wolf can eat a sheep in seven-eighth of an hour, and a 
bear can eat it in three-fourths of an hour, how long will it 
take both of them to eat it. after the bear has been eating 
one-half an hour?" 

I'll bet a peach against a plum that Celia Lavender-Helm 
will solve it quicker than Jim Ries. 

Then the class in Bullion's grammar will be called to parse 
this sentence : 

"John Smith is now here in this citv." 

Everybody will write it down, and Belle McGinnis will 
parse it correctly. But Jim Wharry will say : "It isn't right !" 
He will parse it differently, and yet will do it correctly, from 
his standpoint. But what is his standpoint? He reads his 
slip of paper, and it reads word for word as given out, but has 
blended two words together, to-wit : 

"John Smith is nowhere in this city." 

The joke is on Jim ; and then Taylor Dorman will be called 
forward from the second class to read a poem on "Xine Parts 
of Speech." Of course he will be barefooted ; his pants will 
be rolled up to his knees ; a round-about button at the bottom 
and open at the top : his hair combed down in front of his 
ears and curled on top. With his right hand behind his back, 
book in his left hand, he will read in a piping voice : 

Three little words vou often see 
Are articles — a or an and thee. 

A noun's a name of anything, 

As school or garden, hoop or swing. 

Adjectives tell the kind of noun — 

As great, small, pretty, white or brown. 

Instead of nouns the pronouns stand — 
Her head, his face, j^our arm, my hand. 

Verbs tell of something to be done — 

To eat, count, sing, cough, jump or run. 


How things are done the adverbs tell. 
As slowly, quickly, ill or well. 

Conjunctions join the words together. 
As men and women, wind or weather. 

The preposition stands before 

A noun, as of or through the door. 

The interjection shows surprise. 
As — Ah, how pretty! Oh. how wise! 

The whole are called nine parts of speech, 
\Miich reading, writing, speaking teach. 

Then Mollie LaMotte-AIartin will be expected to come for- 
ward, dressed in checkered ginghan.i, her hair combed back 
and plaited and tied with a blue ribbon, and read the soul- 
inspiring poem that has thrilled admiring millions of school 
children all over the United States. 

Twinkle, twinkle, little star, 
How I wonder what you are — 
Up above the world so high, 
Like a diamond in the sky. 

When the blazing sun is set. 

And the grass with dew is wet. 

Then you show your little light 

By twinkling, twinkling all the night. 

Then school will close by all the pupils singing: 

Ohio. Columbus. Ohio, Columbus — on Scioto river! 
Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana, Indianapolis — on \\'hite river. 
Illinois. Springfield, Illinois, Springfield — on Sangamon river. 
Pennsylvania, Harrisburg. Pennsylvania, Harrisburg — on Sus- 
quehanna river. 
And so on through all the states in the imion. 

You see that kind of geography has some class to it. I think 
that any child that goes to school knows what an isthmus. 


island, inlet, bay, river, creek or cape is as well as it knows 
the streets of the town it lives in. 

Oi" course it will add to the pleasure of the occasion by play- 
ing "Ring around the rosy," "Come Philander, let us be a 
marching;" "Green gravel, green gravel, the grass is so green;" 
"How oats, peas, beans and barley grow, neither j-ou nor I, 
nor anybody know;" etc. 

Of course it wouldn't be "school" at all unless we sang those 
songs the same as we did m our childhood days. \Miat is the 
use of being young again unless we act young? 

Another thing I move you, Mr. President, and that is to 
have "Alex" whip Al Gilbert, Chester Fletcher and Volney 
Jenks. I never saw such naughty boys in my life as they 
were. Lick 'em, and lick 'em good, teacher! They were so 
devilish that they often tempted me, but I was too nice a boy 
to ever get a licking — more than once or twice a day. 

And another thing, teacher, if you'll let me carry a bucket of 
water for the pupils, I will promise not to put any salt in it — 
that is, very much more than I used to. I just bet we'll have 
a good time. Won't 3^ou ccme, Mr. Bodle, and hold school for 
us just one more day? We'll all be awfully nice; none of us'll 
shcot paper wads across the room, nor make faces at you be- 
hind your back, nor write "love missives" to the girls. \\'e've 
forgotten all about such things. In fact, we never bother our 
heads about "love." No. indeed! We just let it bother us. 
and that's all it ever does to any one. It just bothers them 
and they never bother about it at all." 

* * Sc 

The following extract from a letter written by the same 
writer to James W. ]\Iartin, secretary of the committee ap- 
pointed to invite ]\Ir. Calderwood to the annual meeting of 
the Darke County Pioneer Association, September 5, 1909, 
are not inappropriate here: 

Oh, those school days ! Think of the "classics" we had to 
recite to Alex. Bodle, Caroline Hinkle— God bless her mem- 
ory!— Rachel Collins, I. W. Legg, J- T. Martz, Em. Otwell, 
Bart Otwell, Bill Otwell, and other teachers from 1856 to 

Those "classics" have been ringing in my ears for over half 
a century. (But say, Jim, right here is where I don't want you 
to tell any of the pupols how old I am, for I want them to 
think I am still a "school boy.") 


Xow to the recitations: 

Do you remember, Jim. that one Alvin Gilbert used to re- 
cite? It began with something like this: 

"Marj' had a little lamb." 

Then A'olney Jenks would follow with * 

"You'd scarce expect one of my age." 

Then Taylor Dorman would step forward with the dignity 
of one of Sam Cable's watermelons, and boldly and auda- 
ciously look into the eyes of the pupils and say : 

"Twinkle, twinkle, little star." 

You remember how Harrv Knox would stand pigeon-toed, 
and with his hands behind his back, and in a voice that 
sounded like an apple falling from one of the trees in Sam 
Pierce's public orchard, say: 

"The boy stood on the burning deck." 

I think Harry believed everv word of that story, for he soon 
after went to sea in search of Cassabianca. The prelude to 
that story was beautiful — historically so; and history never 
lies unless I write it. The words read : "There was a little 
boy, about thirteen years of age, whose name was Cassa- 

There's exactly where you get your Cassabianca : but how 
Mrs. Hemans discovered that he was thirteen years of age, 
history doesn't say, and I'll be "blowed" if I will ever say that 
I ever saw a boy thirteen years of age. 

I would give a whole lot to see McGuffey's primer, 
McGufFey's first, second and third readers. Think of James 
Bland letting that little bird out of the cage : of George Rolfe 
drowning that cat in the well : of Albert Ross and Dash, and 
the wagon that Dash was hitched up to (I always wanted to 
steal that wagon) ; of Richard and Robert, the lazy boys, who 
laid in bed until the clock struck ten ; of the three brothers — 
one went to heaven, one went to hell, and the third one got a 
job and went to work ; of the farmer and his wheat field, and 
how he drove a mother quail and her little brood out of the 
field. Many of those stories will live with me to the end of 
mv davs. 


We sat on benches in those days. 

There were two kinds — those with backs and those without. 

The big boys and girls got the former. 

There were two great blessings afforded us. One was to 
pass the water, and the other to carry in the wood. I always 
wanted to pass the water! Come to think of it, we carried 
the water, too. Sometimes from Turpen's, sometimes from 
Gilbert's, often from Gary's. 

Ah, me, but didn't we have some games ! 

"Blackman," "bullsoup," and "tag." 

We had slates, too; but I haven't see one for so long that I 
have forgotten whether they were square, oblong, or round. 

And the spelling class — I can't forget that. How proud 
the boy or girl was who 'went head," and then down to the 
foot again, then up to the head again, and received a card 
called "Reward of Merit." 

When you got five, they were exchanged for another five. 

Five of the others assured you of a prize — a little book. 

No "promotion cards" in those days. It was left to the 
teacher to put you into another class, if desired. 

Those were the days of curls for girls. A girl without a 
curl wasn't in style. 

Bullion's grammar was the text book on correct speech, but 
I couldn't understand it. and I have let grammar alone ever 
since and confined my manner of speech to the vocabulary of 
my associates. 

Another subject that puzzled me was algebra. I couldn't 
comprehend it then, and I know less of it now. 

The best reader in my class was Belle McGinnis. The best 
m.athematician was Jim Ries — next to him, Dave Girard. 

In those days, the teacher wrote the text for the copy books, 
v;hich consisted of two phrases : 

"Many men of many minds; 
Many beasts of many kinds." 

The other was : 

"Tall oaks from little acorns grow." 

However, about that time Peyton's copy books came out 
and the teachers were relieved ; but they had one task left — 
they used to walk around among the pupils and look over 
their shoulders to see if they were making any progress. 

Very few boys had coats in those davs ; most of them wore 


"roiidabouts." Few ,if an}-, of the boys wore shoes ; boots 
prevailed. The little boys had red leather tops to their boots, 
and the poor little "tad" without red tops to his boots always 
felt humiliated. 

Ray's ]\Iental Arithmetic was as far as I went in figures. I 
never learned how to calculate interest, as I forgot all tlie 
rules the next day. Now I am glad of it. Xo one will take 
my note, so what's the use in knowing anything about in- 

1 must not forget Webster's Spelling Book ! I never saw 
one that didn't have a blue cover. Up to 1858, it contained no 
definitions. Nothing but words, words, words. Then to pre- 
pare the public mind for the sale of Noah Webster's Dic- 
tionary, they put a few definitions in the speller, so as to stim- 
ulate the mind to buy the book. It was a great business 
stroke. Of course, there was the small school dictionary, but 
they wanted to sell the big one, and if they had embodied 
definitions to any great extent in the Speller, the sale of the 
big book would have been endangered. But as an educational 
proposition, the speller wojild have had far the advantage and 
the pupils of 1850-1860 would have been greatly benefitted. 
* * * 

But what I started in to say was that some of us Greenville 
folks — boys and girls — thought that we were "sum punkins" 
at spelling, and were eager to go into the country and "spell 
down" our country cousins. I don't know of a single instance 
where we won out. They knew as much about Webster's 
Spelling Book — and a little bit more — than we did. 

Probably of Jesuit Origin. Found in Washington Township. 


To the French Catholic missionaries probably belongs the 
honor of heralding the gospel among the Indian settlements 
of primitive Darke county. As before noted it is well known 
that they planted mission stations at strategic points in the 
wilderness between the great lakes and the Ohio. It is more 
than probable that they had stations at Loramie's store and 
Pickawillany, and at these places learned about the villages 
on the headwaters of Greenville creek and the upper Still- 
water. The finding of two double silver crosses of the style 
worn by members of the Jesuit order on the farm now belong- 
ing to Ira G. Blocker, in section 23, Washington township, 
lends color to this supposition. These crosses were about 
three inches in length and were plowed up by Mr. Philip L. 
Rogers near the site of a fine flowing spring — one about 1879 
and the other about 1884. Numerous arrow points, stone 
hammers and Indian relics were found from time to time on a 
knoll located near by, indicating that a camp or village had 
formerly been located hhere. One cross is now in the Katzen- 
berger collection in the Public Museum. The other has been 

The ne.xt religious teachers that penetrated Darke county 
were probabl}' the chaplains or preachers with the armies of 
St. Clair and Wayne. Fortunately, we have a printed ser- 
mon entitled "The Altar of Peace," being the substance of a 
discourse delivered in the council house, at Greenville, July 
5, 1795, before the officers of the American army and Major 
General Wayne, commander-in-chief and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary from the United States, to treat with the Indian tribes, 
northwest of the Ohio, by the Rev. Morgan, John Rhys (or 
Rhees) representing the Missionary Society of Philadelphia, 
an organization whose members "renounced" all sectarian 
names and adopted simply that of "Christian," and whose mis- 
sionaries were supposed to be "capable of practicing or teach- 
ing some useful art as well as a rational system of religion." 

At this time many representatives of distant tribes were 


present at Greenville and preparations were being made .or 
peace negotiations. Accordingly Rev. Rhees appropriately 
chose as his text Judges 6:24. "Then Gideon built an altar 
unto the Lord, and called it Jehovah Shalom ; i. e., the Lord 
give peace." Among other things he said : "All the precepts 
of Jehovah center in one syllable — Love. The laws and the 
prophets, like the rays of the sun collected to a focus, here 
shine and burn. The man who loves God as the Supreme 
good, and his neighbor as himself, surmounts every obstruc- 
tion with ease, because he is borne above earth on the wings 
of love ; the philanthropist is every person's neighbor, the 
white, the black and the red are alike to him ; he recognizes in 
each a brother, a child of the same common parent, an heir of 
immortality, and a fellow traveler to eternity. He knows how 
to make allowance for the prejudices of nations and individ- 
uals ; instead of declaiming and tyrannizing, he endeavors to 
lead (with the cords of love and the bands of men) all his 
fellowmen to think and judge for themselves what is right." 
* * * 

"In order to establish a durable peace some sacrifices must 
be made on both sides. The love of conquest and enlargement 
of territory should be sacrificed — every nation or tribe having 
an indefeasible right of soil, as well as a right to govern 
themselves in what manner they think proper, for which rea- 
son the United States purchased the right of soil from the In- 
dians. Self-interest and avarice, being the root of all evil, 
ought to be sacrificed as a burnt offering, for the good of man- 
kind. The desire of revenge should be immediately offered on 
the altar of forgiveness, although th}^ brother transgress 
against the seventy times seven in a day. Dissimulation and 
intrigue with every species of deceptive speculation and 
fraudulent practice ought to be sacrificed on the altars of 
strict honor and inflexible justice." * * * 

"Let us therefore, in the first place, follow the example of 
Gideon by erecting an altar, and offer the necessary sacrifices 
to obtain peace ; let us by acts of righteousness and deeds of 
mercy make that peace permanent ; let ever}' probable means 
be made use of to enlighten the poor heathens, that they may 
quit their childish and cruel customs, and add to their love of 
liberty and hospitalit3^ piety, industry, mechanical and lit- 
erary acquirements ; let us join them in the prayer that the 
'Great Spirit' may enlighten their eyes and purify their 
hearts, give them a clear sky and smooth water, guard them 


against the bad birds, and remove the briars from their paths ; 
protect them from the dogs of war, which are ever exciting 
them to acts of barbarous cruelty, that they may never attend 
to tlieir barking, but contiiiue to keep the bloody hatchet in 
the ground and smoke the calumet of peace until its odors per- 
fume the air." 

"Sweet peace! source o. joy, parent of plenty, promoter 
of commerce and manufactures, nurse of arts and agricul- 
ture. Angelic Peace ! Could I but set forth thy amiable qual- 
ities, who would but love thee? O, daughter of Heaven, first 
offspring of the God of Love hasten, to make thy residence 
with us on earth." Rev. Rhys is described as "The Welch 
Baptist hero of civil and religious liberty of the eighteenth 
century"^ — and from the tone of the above sermon we judge 
that the epithet is not inappropriate. 


After the settlement of the county it seems that the recently 
formed and rapidly growing sect then and long after known 
as "New Lights," but now known as Christians, furnished 
the first accredited preachers. This sect originated in Ken- 
tucky during the great religious revival of the first years of 
the nineteenth century, and naturally extended its influence 
and gained many early converts in the Miami valley. 

The Kentucky revival, above mentioned, also caused the 
starting of the Cumberland Presbyterian and the Shaker de- 
nominations. Had it not been for this manifestation it seems 
probable that Presbyterianism in the Miami valley would now 
be as strong as it is in western Pennsylvania, from which 
locality so many of the early pioneers came. Of these sects 
the Christian has exerted the most power in the Aliami valley ; 
the Shaker is now practically extinct, and the Cumberland 
Presbyterian has united with the main body of Presbyterians. 

David Purviance was one of the originators of the Chris- 
tian denomination. His son John settled in the AVhitewater 
valley near Braflfetsville with Elder Nathan Worley, an illit- 
erate but zealous worker from Montgomery county, and a 
number of like faith, where they established a communit}' of 
kindred spirits. 

To Judge John Purviance is given the credit of deli^•ering 
the first sermon to a civil congregation within the bounds of 
Darke county. This event is said to have happened at the 


house of Judge Rush (Prophetstown) in 1811. Greenville 
early became the strategic center of the various competing 
denominations. Here many of the first churches were estab- 
lished and from this point proceeded to establish missions in 
various parts of the county and encourage their develop- 
ment. On October 15, 1833, it seems that Solomon Riffle 
and wife deeded to William Martin, John Swisher, Alexander 
Craig, David Potter and John N. Parcell, trustees in trust, lot 
Xo. 23, on the south side of Third street, between Broadway 
and Walnut street, where the Hunt house now stands, "for 
the use and benefit of the first Christian church that might 
be organized in the town of Greenville for the purpose of 
erecting thereon a meeting house." A low brick edifice with 
sidewalls about eight feet high and two front doors opening 
into separate iasles, and a floor on a level with the ground, 
was erected here about 1836. Services, no doubt, were held 
here with more or less regularity, until on January 3, 1841, 
the Christian church was properly organized by Elders Elijah 
A\'illianison, John B. Robertson, Hallet Barber and Elisha 
Ashley. On July 31, 1841 it voted to become a member of the 
Eastern Bluffton conference. The charter members, who 
signed the original declaration of principles were: Elijah Wil- 
liamson, Charlotty Williamson, James R. Brandon, Anna 
Brandon. Alexander Brandon, Thomas Brandon, Rhoda Bran- 
don, Lucretia Brandon, Ma*-y Scribner aiid Ruhannah 

From the time of the cjrganization the n^embership in- 
creased in seven months from ten to eighty-eight. The fol- 
lowing elders served as pastors up to August, 1841 : J. B. 
Robertson, N. Barber, D. Purviance, L. Purviance, E. Ashley, 
I. Guston and E. W. Williamson ; John Stevenson and John 
Van Meter were appointed deacons. August 18, 1846, Elder 
\\'iIliamson was chosen pastor for one year. In April. 1848, 
the enterprise of erecting a new meeting house was launched 
as the original structure was considered unsafe. In 1850 the 
church procured a quitclaim deed from Solomon Riffle and 
wife at a cost of $24.00. so as to authorize the trustees to sell 
the property. It seems that John Vanmeter proposed to pay 
them $105.00 for the lot and to donate a strip of ground front- 
ing on the west side of Walnut street, between Third and 
Fourth streets, for the site of a new church building. This ex- 
change was effected and a substantial brick structure thirty- 
six by fiftv feet with two front doors and black walnut wood- 


work was soon erected. In 1853 the church, by request, was 
dismissed from the Bluti'ton conference and applied for ad- 
mission to the Miami conference. Elder Purviance preached 
about one year. Rev. James Elliott was pastor in 1850, Elder 
J. W. Marvin was pastor in 1853 and ended his work Septem- 
ber 1, 1854, H. K. McConnell was called as pastor May 25, 
1856, resigned August 14, 1860, and was re-elected September 
11, 1860. In 1857 there were sixty-one additions, and on Au- 
gust 25, 1859, there were one hundred and fourteen members. 
In the interval from 1861 to 1868 it appears that no regular 
pastorate was maintained.* During these years there was oc- 
casional but not continuous preaching. As a consequence the 
members became somewhat scattered although the church did 
not disband, nor cease to have its regular trustees. In 1868 
Jonathan Gilbert, Joseph ^\'illis and George Ullery were trus- 
tees, religious services were restored and a pastor supplied 
f(jr a while in the person of I. S. Palmer, whose pastorate 
closed April 28, 1868. T. M. Mc^^'hinney and D. K. McCon- 
nell both occupied the pulpit for probablj^ eighteen months 
each. The church record for April 6, 1874, reads as follows : 
"It was thought not more than six or eight members could be 
relied on to engage in the work of the church immediately 
though many more would join in the work as soon as it ad- 
vanced." Among the active and faithful workers during this 
period of depression were James Markwith, Henry Tillman, 
Mrs. Tillman, Martha Ford, E. S. Reed, Mrs. Reed, Mrs. D. H. 
R. Jobes and Harvey Howard. These were times of testing, 
but the handful of members called Elder I. T. Lynn to the pas- 
torate in June. 1874. He served a few months and was suc- 
ceeded by Elder Sample. From January 16, 1875, to July, 1876, 
there was no regular pastor, but the church was repaired at 
this time and rededicated on the fourth Sunday in July, 1876, 
by Rev. N. Summerbell, assisted by Elder McCulia. The 
former was called as pa.stor to serve one year from October, 
1876, but, being called to Dayton to assume the editorship of 
the "Herald of Gospel Liberty," he was succeeded by Elder C. 
W. Choate, a j^oung student, who served acceptably until 
September, 1878. During his pastorate the church debt was 
nearly paid off, the membership increased to seventy-eight 
(of whom fifty-one had joined since the rededication). a fair 
Sabbath school built up, regular prayer meetings, services 
maintained and preaching services held twice a month. Elder 
William A. Gross was called to succeed Choate. He first 


preached half of the time, but in 1880 was engaged to preach 
three Sundays in the month for the conference 3'ear for five 
hundred dollars. Rev. Gross served until 1882, and was suc- 
ceeded by Elder Furniss. who served a few months. Rev. C. 
W. Garoutte was called to the pastorate in the winter of 1883- 
84 and served until the fail of 1900. During his pastorate a 
great revival took place, the church increased in numbers and 
the work was carried on with zeal. The congregation was 
outgrowing the building on ^^'alnut street and it soon became 
apparent that a new edifice was needed to meet the require- 
ments of the membership. Accordingly on April 4, 1887. a 
liuilding committee was appointed consisting of the following 
members : Samuel Ullery, W. E. Moore, Samuel Ludy and 
David Beanblossom. A large new lot was purchased for 
$4,000.00 on the south side of ^^'est Fifth street just off of 
Broadway and the work of erecting the new church was soon 
begun with Mr. Beanblossom as contractor. The structure, 
when completed, cost about $7,000.00 and was at that time 
probably the largest and best church structure in the town. 
C. A. Beck succeeded Garoutte in the pastorate and was in 
turn succeeded by T. A. Brandon ; C. W. Hoeffer served from 
September, 1895, to 1896. G. W. Shane commenced a short 
pastorate in Januar}^, 1897, and was soon succeeded by W. A. 
Gross. Dissatisfaction and dissension arose during this 
period suceeding the erection of the new church, with the 
result that the membership and interest decreased greatly. 
Under the preaching of S. G. Palmer. H. A. Smith, Omer 
Thomas, E. A. Watkins. P. H. Fleming and W. D. Samuels, 
the church has again been revived and has now one of the 
largest congregations and most prosperous Sunday schools 
in the city. 

In April. 1904, IMrs. Frank Mc^^'hinnev purchased for and 
donated to the church, a nev^'ly-built two story frame house 
on East Fifth street between Walnut and Ash streets for a 
parsonage. The church has been remodeled and redecorated 
twice in late years, in order to accommodate the growing Sun- 
day school, and provide a better auditorium. The enroll- 
ment on the church record at this time is 438, which the 
Sunday School shows 677 members at the close of 1913. Rev. 
J. J- Douglass is pastor of the church and J. A. Cottrell is 
superintendent of the Sunday School and the church is in a 
prosperous condition. The Christian denomination, partly 
because of its free and informal mode of worship, its simple 


Statement of belief, its claim that the Bible alone is its creed, 
and its easy educational requirements for admission to the 
ministry, appealed to the pioneers "who sought freedom from 
restraint, and independence of thought and action, and deliv- 
erance from formal customs."' Thus it became established in 
the villages and rural districts at an early date, where it is 
today in a thriving condition, and exerting a powerful influ- 
ence for righteousness. Probably, for the same reason, this 
denomination has never become verj^ strongly entrenched in 
the cities, as witness the neighboring city of Dayton, 
where but one small congregation ■existed until with- 
in the last few years. In Darke county, it has today good 
sized congregations at Versailles, Ansonia, Hollansburg, 
Beamsville, Coletown, Woodington, Dawn, Teegarden (north- 
west of Woodington), besides active churches at Stelvideo, 
Brock, Walnut Grove (Willow DelO, The Beach, North Star, 
Sugar Grove (one and one-half miles east of Rossburg). 


The Methodist Episcopal Church, which originated in Eng- 
land in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and grew 
rapidly under the preaching of the Wesleys and ^^^litf^eld. 
early become an active and powerful factor in the evangeliza- 
tion of the Ohio valley. At the time of the settlement at 
Marietta it was in the strong vigor of its youth, and its 
zealous and aggressive preachers soon established themselves 
in the earliest communities of pioneers and eagerly braved the 
dangers and hardships of riding the circuits between the set- 
tlements. The story of their earlj^ privations and experiences 
would make many volumes of interesting reading, and the re- 
sults of their labors are readily seen today in the prosperous 
churches which ever3'where greet the traveler in the Ohio 
valley, and in the large and influential educational institu- 
tions in the states formed out of the old northwest territory. 

The great revival, which originated largely among the Cal- 
vinistic settlers of Kentucky, and which was fostered by 
Presbyterian clergymen, soon affected the Methodist church, 
which was drawn almost bodily into it. This revival was 
characterized by some of the most remarkable physical phe- 
nomena known in the history of Christendom. Great outdoor 
meetings were held in various localities for periods of a week 
or more which were attended bv multitudes from near and 


far. Strong men, as well as women and children, were greatly 
affected and manifested their agitation by jerking, dancing, 
failing, singing from their breasts and in other remarkable 

The Methodist church readily accepted and incorporated the 
camp meeting and" the revival, and adapted itself to the 
needs and conditions of pioneer life. It is said that Methodist 
sermons were preached in Greenville as early as 1812. Rev. 
John Brown preached in the county in 1817. About 1818 it 
became a point in the Eaton circuit, which included Camden, 
and Eaton, in Preble county; Greenville and Killer's (four 
miles west) in Darke county; Covington, in Miami county; 
and Union, Concord and Germantown, in ^Montgomery 
county, besides parts of Wayne and Randolph counties, in 
Indiana. At this time, it is said, there was not a Methodist in 
Greenville. John P. Durbin, who was the first preacher, held 
services in the house of Abraham Scribner, who, though 
favorable to the Unitarian doctrine, tendered his friendship 
and hospitality to the followers of Wesley. "Many manifested 
a deep interest in the new doctrine, as it was called, but Dur- 
bin had preached here only a short time when limits of the 
circuit were lessened and regular preaching was discontinued 
at Greenville by the Methodists until the year 1832, though 
during this interval sermons were occasionally preached in 
the court house, dwelling houses and such other buildings as 
could be procured for that purpose." Rev. Durbin became 
one of the most prominent preachers in the early histiiry of 
the church. 

About 1818 the Methodists erected the first meeting house 
of the county in Washington township, just across the Green- 
ville township line, about four miles west of Greenville, and 
a half mile south of the Winchester pike. It was carefully 
and substantially constructed of hewed logs, and, no doubt, 
had the typical clapboard roof, puncheon floor, rough board 
pulpit and slab seats. It was still used on funeral occasions 
as late as 1880, but has since been torn down. Many of the 
pioneers of A\'ashington and Greenville townships lie buried 
in the adjoining cemetery. This pioiieer house of worship 
was dedicated by Rev. Durbin and during early days was 
visited by the following presiding elders: Alexander Cum- 
mins, John Strange, John Collins, J. P>. Finley, John F. 
Wright, William H. Raper and ^^'illiam B. Christie. The 
"Hiiler and Livergood Class." the first "formed in the countv, 


was organized at this church in 1818. Today, except for the 
neglected burial ground, the passerby would not suspect that 
a church was ever located here. 

The Methodist churches of Darke county ought to secure 
and mark this site with an appropriate tablet or memorial for 
the instruction and inspiration of coming generations. 

"In 1833 William Oliver, living about six miles north of 
Greenville, formed the second Methodist class in Darke 
county, which comprised the following members : Mrs. M. H. 
Turpen and daughter, Emeline, Mrs. L. R. Brownell, Mr. and 
Mrs. William Barrett (nee Maria Turpen) and Mr. and JNIrs. 
William J. Birely. Francis Timmons and Ira Chase were 
the circuit preachers at this time and Greenville became the 
leading point on the "Greenville circuit" which, at times, 
comprised from ten to sixteen preaching places. A class was 
also formed at Greenville in 1833. I\Iuch opposition was ex- 
perienced by the Methodists at this time, as they were looked 
upon by some as fanatics and hypocrites, their meetings were 
disturbed and their ministers attacked. 

Jesse Prior was on the circuit in 1834. Under his ministry 
Dr. J. M. P. Baslcerville, Lovina Houp, Hiram Bell, Jane and 
Lemuel Rush and Eliza McGinnis were added to the church 
in the county. Steps for the building of the first M. E. Church 
in Greenville were taken this year. The work was begun in 
1835 and completed in 1836. In this year the Greenville 
charge was admitted to the Ohio conference, Stephen F. 
Conry and Adam Miller being on the circuit. The location of 
this church, it is said, was determined in this way: Isaac Jay, a 
Quaker, identified himself with the Methodists, and deter- 
mined to buy the northwest half of lot No. 5 on the east side 
of Sycamore between Third and Fourth streets, in Greenville, 
and upon it to erect a suitable building, claiming that he was 
moved to do this as the outcome of a dream in which he saw- 
sheep surrounded by wolves make a successful stand on this 
site, which was then a thicket of thorn bushes. He purchased 
this plot February 22, 1835, of Hiram and John C. Potter for 
forty dollars. The building erected here was a low frame, 
which cost about $600.00, Isaac Jay, William Oliver, Chris- 
topher Martin, William Folkerth, William W. Jordan, Jacob 
Chenoweth and Hiram Bell being the building committee. 
When the building was completed there remained a debt of 
seventy dollars, which was liquidated by each member of the 


above committee paying ten dollars. D. D. Davidson and 
Martin Wolf were on the circuit in 1836. 

Following the erection of this building thirty-seven mem- 
bers were added to the church. In 1837 Jesse Prior again 
followed the circuit. A revival of religious enthusiasm be- 
came manifest in public and private life and the church pros- 
pered. Eli Truitt was on the circuit in 1838 and Edward 
Williams in 1839. In 1840-1841 Wm. Morrow and Jas. Mc- 
Nabb were on the circuit which had been reduced on the ac- 
count of increasing population to the limits of the county. 
Their labors resulted in the conversion of some three hun- 
dred persons, and the addition of a like number to the church. 
Many incidents of the power of the spirit were witnessed 
during the revival. In 1840 the Greenville church was trans- 
ferred to the North Ohio Conference. 

In 1842 and 1843 Samuel M. Beatty and Eliakin Zimmer- 
man labored on the circuit. Jacob Brown and Cadwallader 
Owens labored in 1844; G. S. Phillips with C. Coleman in 
1845; and with C. B. Brandeburg in 1846; Jos. Wykes and 
P. R. Roseberry in 1847-48 : Alexander Hammond in 1849-50. 

The first M. E. parsonage, on West Fourth street, was pur- 
chased in 1848. David Rutledge and Gershom Lease had 
charge of the circuit in 1851 and it was determined to erect 
a larger meeting house as soon as practicable. Jacob Burk- 
holder and Franklin Mariott labored on the circuit in 1852 
and 1853. In 1852 the little frame church was sold to Wm. 
J. Birely for $50. Subscriptions were taken for the purpose 
of buildirig a new brick church at an estimated cost of $5,003. 
About $2,000 was subscribed at this time, only part of which 
was paid when work was commenced. Backwardness in 
paying subscriptions retarded the work. The trustees were 
compelled to borrow $1,500 to complete the work, and mort- 
gaged the property for that amount. This debt lingered and 
embarrassed the congregation for ten years, when it was as- 
sumed by members of conference in the fall o^ 1862. The 
mortgage was not canceled, however, until 1865. Franklin 
Mariott and Loring C. Webster were ministers in 1853 ; W. 
W. Winters and Patrick G. Good in 1854-55; Oliver Kennedy, 
L. C. Webster and P. B. Lewis preached on the circuit in 1856; 
A\\ J. Peck and John T. Bowers in 1858; during which year 
the congregation at Greenville was visited by one of the 
most powerful revivals it had witnessed previous to this time, 
and a large number were added to the church. The church 



was transferred from the Ohio to the Central Ohio Confer- 
ence in 1856. Isaac Newton and P. B. Lewis labored as min- 
isters in 1858-59. In 1860 Greenville was made a station with 
one appointment at Coletown. Jas. W. Alderman served this 
charge in 1860; Jacob Feghtby in 1861-62; Fielding L. Harper 
1863 ; during whose short pastorate the appointment at Cole- 
town was discontinued. Chas. Reynold, 1864; Henry E. Pil- 
cher. 1865 ; during this year the old parsonage was sold for 
$800, and another on lot No. 1, of the same street, purchased 
for $2,500. Rev. L. C. Webster was the pastor in 1866 and 
1867. The parsonage purchased in 1866 was exchanged for 
one on part of lot No. 2, the trustees receiving $100 in addi- 
tion to same. 

Amos Wilson served the charge in 1868-70; H. J. Bradley 
came in the fall of 1870 and served one year. During his 
administration the Sabbath school had an attendance of over 
two hundred and at one time had 341 members. Rev. A. 
Berry was pastor from 1871-74. During Rev. Berry's pas- 
torate a movement was started to remodel the church build- 
ing. A contract was entered into with Robison & Fryber- 
ger to remodel the church for $2,916, making the Sunday 
school ro(im separate from the main auditorium, and rais- 
ing the roof five feet. Rev. A. J- Fish served from 1874 to 
1877. During his pastorate the remodeling was completed 
and the church redecorated with a large new bell in the tower 
donated by Wm. Allen. 

Rev. L. M. Albright was pastor from 1877 to 1879, and suc- 
ceeded after much labor in paying off the debt due on the 
last improvement. Rev. J. A. Ferguson served from 1879 to 
1882 and was suceeded by J. L. Rushbridge, during whose 
pastorate the parsonage was enlarged, remodeled and en- 
closed with brick, and the church building remodeled by re- 
moving the partition, erecting a large gallery with enclosed 
rooms beneath for separate Sunday school classes and repair- 
in? the building in a suitable manner. 

Rev. David Bowers succeeded Rev. Rushbridge in 1884. 
This charge was attached to the Cincinnati Conference in 
1886 and Rev. J. W. Cassatt became the pastor. The parson- 
age was now provided with heavy furniture. A protracted 
meeting was held in the early part of 1887 during which 
scores were added to the church. ^Most of the latter became 
earnest, efificient workers and have proved a tower of strength 
to the church. Rev. Cassatt served until June. 1891, his be- 


ing the longest, and one of the most efficient pastorates to 
that date. On account of age and declining health, he with- 
drew from the ministry, and passed his remaining days in 
Greenville, where he expired, greatly beloved by the com- 

On the evening of June. 16th, 1895, the city of Greenville 
was visited by the largest conflagration ever occurring in its 
history. The fire seemed to be of incendiary origin and be- 
gan in a stable belonging to Mrs. Winner, about the middle 
of the alley running from Broadway to Sycamore street, be- 
tween Third and Fourth streets. The flames spread rapidly 
to the rooms of Dr. Wm. Matchett, the Mozart Hall, the 
Huddle Block on Fourth street and the M. E. church. The 
latter soon became a sea of flames, the roof yielded to the 
fire fiend, fell and the interior became a caldron of flame ; the 
tower, serving as the chimney to a furnace, was soon an area 
of white flame : the bell, yielding to the intense heat, was soon 
burned from its moorings, and being partially melted fell 
with a crash. After the fire was subdued nothing but the 
bare walls remained to mark the spot where the devoted 
members of this congregation had met so often for praise 
and devotion. The pulpit, stand, organ and a few books were 
all that were saved from the general ruin. Perhaps nothing 
better could illustrate the undaunted faith and zeal of this 
congregation than what happened immediately. "The official 
board met on the following morning, communications of sym- 
pathy and a desire to assist us in our time of need were freely 
tendered us by the Presbyterian, Lutheran and other church- 
es, which were received in the spirit in which they were ten- 
dered. The Board resolved at once to build a new church, but 
to locate it on lot No. 4, if the same could be purchased on 
favorable terms. Those terms were at once secured, a com- 
mittee appointed to secure the insurance ($2,500.00) from the 
fire insurance company ; a subscription list was at once cir- 
culated, a respectable amount secured, and a contract en- 
tered into for a new church. The work progressed rapidly 
and on April 21, 1896, the cornerstone of the new edifice was 
placed in position. Work was pushed rapidly and the build- 
ing was dedicated on Sunday, Feb. 20, 1897. Dr. J. F. JMarly, 
of Springfield. Dr. C. H. Payne of New York, and Dr. D. H. 
JMoore of Cincinnati, were present and participated in the 
ceremonies of the occasion. The sermon bv Dr. Pavne was 


said to have been one of the finest ever heard in Greenville. 
During the forenoon services it was announced that the build- 
ing and grounds had cost $27,025.10 and that all had been 
paid except $7,020. Dr. Payne succeeded in raising a little 
over $9,000, putting the church completely out of debt and 
having a surplus of nearly $2,000. The new structure is one 
of the largest and finest churches in Darke county. It is 
built of pressed brick with slate roof and stained glass win- 
dows. Besides a large and well fitted basement, it has a 
finely appointed auditorium with a seating capacity of about 
600, a large Sunday school with separate class rooms, bal- 
cony and assembly room, which may readily be thrown to- 
gether, besides a Board room. The large church auditorium 
is nicely furnished with pews, body brussels carpet and a 
large pipe organ, and has beautiful art glass windows. It is 
lighted by electricity and heated with a furnace. In the 
tower hangs a peal of three bells, a bequest of Mrs. Sophia 
Koop, placed in 1907. Rev. Conger, who had been largely in- 
strumental in building and financing the new church, finished 
his seven years' pastorate in September, 1901 and was suc- 
ceeded by Alpheus B. Austin, who served aceptably until 
September, 1904. Calvin W. Elliott served from this time 
until September, 1906, and was followed by Charles H. 
HaA'nes, who served four months. A. L. Brokaw served from 
January, 1907, until the summer of 1910, and was suceeded 
by Charles CliiTord Peale, who remained three years. The 
present pastor, Alerrick E. Ketcham, was assigned this charge 
in 1913 by the ^^'est Ohio Conference, which had just been, 
formed by the consolidation of the Cincinnati and Central 
Ohio Conferences. 

The following persons have acted as superintendent since 
1859: George H. Martz, 1859 to 1870; Henry A. Webb, 1870 
to 1874: Jacob T. Martz, 1874 to 1884; Wm. B. Hough, 1884 
to 1894 ; Ammon J. Mider, 1894 to 1897 ; Geo. W. Rosser, 1897 
to 1899; W. B. Hough, 1899 to 1900; Chas. M. Davenport. 
1900 to . 

At the Rally Day services, Sunday, October 30, 1910, all 
of these superintendents were present and took an active part 
in the exercises. 

The present church- officials are: Recording secretary. 
John H. Martz ; financial secretarv. Chas. ^I. Davenport : 
treasurer. R. R. Winters ; treasurer-secretary benevolences, 


Frank H. Jobes ; organist, }iliss Lottie Leas: chief usher. Z. 
T. Dorman ; janitor, C. Stubbs. 

Trustees: President. John Whiteley : Juhn H. ]\lartz, Geo. 
\V. ^[ace, J. L. Selby. \\'. A. Xewby, R. T. Humphreys, S. 
C. Reigle, C. M. Da\ enport, A. G. Keighley. 

Stewards: Jas J. Martz. A. J. Mider. Edward Martin, 
Enoch Westerfield, Geo. F. Taylor, Geo. W. Rosser, Frank 
H. Jobes, J. A. Folkerth, E. D. Irwin, F. U. Schreel, Floyd 

Superintendent of Sunday school, Chas. 'SI. Davenport ; 
president of Epworth League, Floyd Kerwood ; superintend- 
ent of Junior League, Miss Hazel Folkerth ; president of 
Home and Foreign Missionary Society, Mrs. M. E. Ketcham ; 
president of Ladies' Aid Society, Mrs. Ed Mong. 

This church now has a membership of 530 and the enroll- 
ment in the Sunday school is 428. The current expenses of 
the church for the year 1913 were $2,295.00 and the amount 
contributed for missions, $1,636.00, making the total budget 
for the year $3,931.00. 

Probably no other church in Greenville has exercised a 
more steady and powerful influence for good than the First 
Methodist Episcopal, ^^■ith its present large membership and 
excellent equipment it promises to continue in the forefront 
of local denominations for many years. 

Other congregations of this denomination are located at 
the following points : Versailles, Arcanum, Ansonia, Pitts- 
burg, Gettysburg, Rossburg, Lightsville, Gordon, A\^ebster, 
Jaysville, Fort Jefferson, Shock's Chapel (\\'abash town- 
ship), the German ^I. E. church, Greenville, O., which was 
organized in 1852, under the pastorate of Re\-. ^^'m. Floerke, 
erected a frame church building on Ash street near ^^'ater 
street in 1855 and a parsonage on Water street in 1857. Sun- 
day school and preaching services have been conducted here 
with regularity since its organization but, owing to the fact 
that the present generation of members all speak English flu- 
ently, it is generally recognized that this congregation will 
discontinue or merge with the First M. E. church within a 
few years. 

The Presbyterian Church. 

About 1818 Greenville and vicinity became a missionary 
field for the Presbyterian church. Nicholas Pittenger and 
John Ross are credited with holding meetings here at this 


period. In that year Rev. Shannon, who had served as chap- 
lain in one of Harrison's Kentucky regiments, preached at 
the residence of Wm. Martin. A Presbyterian society was 
formed as early as Feb. 14, 1821, at which time the following 
persons signed a call for the formation of a corporate body : 
L. Bascom, James Craig, William L. Wilson, John Craig, 
William McKhann, Jesse McGinnis, John Armstrong, John 
Devor, Benjamin Murphy, David Fisher, John McFarland, 
William Clark, John Beers, Robert Hood, James Buchanan, 
Heman L. Aiken, Stephen Perrine, William jNIartin, David 
Irwin, James Devor, A. Scribner, Easton Norris, James 
Stevenson (senior and junior), H. McCune, George I. Isham, 
Erastus Putnam, John Miller, William Lipe, Thomas Stoke- 
]y, Charles Steward, George W. Hight and John Briggs. 
Agreeably to legal notice, the above-named met at the house 
of Linus Bascom on ]\Iarch 10, 1821, and elected Easton Nor- 
ris, clerk, and for trustees, Benjamin Murphy, William Mar- 
tin and Linus Bascom, and they also placed the organization 
on record as the "Greenville Presbyterian Society." Septem- 
ber 9, 1825, a congregation collected at the house of Benja- 
min Murphy for the purpose of being organized into a church. 
The Rev. John Ross officiated, and, having concluded relig- 
ious exercises, he set apart Benjamin Murphy and Linus Bas- 
com as elders, and Robert Robinson was re-elected as elder. 
John Ross commenced preaching in 1825 and remained with 
the congregation till 1831. In 1833, the society, at a called 
meeting, detached a portion of their number living in Adams 
township to form the Mount Pleasant church, now the Gettys- 
burg Presbyterian, whose first pastor was Rev. Isaac Ogden. 
The society at Greenville did not have regular preaching for 
some time previous to October, 1841, when Alexander Gulick 
was installed pastor, and divided his time between the two 
societies named, remaining two years. November 31, 1844, 
Rev. Badeau was engaged, and served four years. May 12. 
1849, Rev. John A. Weeks commenced preaching, and was 
succeeded in 1853 by Rev. R. M. McCullough, who was pas- 
tor but one year. Rev. Orlando Clark was secured for the 
year 1857. Two years later D. B. WycofT served six months, 
previous to departure for India as a missionary. In June, 
1860, Rev. C. B. H. Martin became pastor, and served a year 
acceotably. Next came John W. Drake, from 1862 to August, 
This denomination worshipped in the court house until 


1850, when a substantial brick structure with four immense 
pillars on the front facade was begun on lot No. 10, on the 
north side of Fourth street, between Broadway and Walnut 
streets. This structure was not completed until about 1832. 
It served the congregation until late in the eighties, when 
a new building was determined upon. 

On account of an unfortunate division in the main Presby- 
terian body in 1837. dissension prevailed for many years, 
which resulted in the establishment of competing churches in 
various localities. As a result of this divsion a Second or 
"New School" Presbyterian church was organized in Green- 
ville, June 21, 1843. 

A small but substantial frame house of worship was erected 
on the south side of East Fourth, street, a short distance west 
of Walnut street, on the present site of the Lutheran church. 
Rev. Franklin Putnam was one of the early pastors in this 
church. He was succeeded by Rev. J. P. Kumler, under 
whose preaching the congregation increased in numbers and 
erected a substantial brick building on the northeast corner 
of Broadway and Fourth streets. Here they continued to 
worship under the pastorates of Revs. Jamison, Lyman and 
L. E. Jones until the spring of 1865, at which time the official 
■bodies of the old school and the new school churches, after 
due deliberation, agreed to unite into one organization, and 
to call a pastor. Dr. Thomas of the First church, Dayton, 
Ohio, representing the old school, and Rev. L. E. Jones, pastor 
of the Second churcii at Greenville, representing the new 
school, were authorized by their respective Presbyteries to 
form a union of the two bodies in Greenville, which union 
was consummated on the first Sunday in May, 1865. by unan- 
imous vote of both congregations. On May 8, an election 
of trustees was held which resulted in the choice of James 
B. Avery, A. Gaskill, M. Creager, Stephen Baird, Charles 
Tate and David B. John to constitute the Board. The unit- 
ed church called Rev. H. A. Newell, a man of attractive per- 
sonality, and a fine speaker as its first pastor, under whose 
ministry' it revived and made great progress. The Second 
church building was used as a place of worship for a few 
months after the union, but was afterward sold, as it was 
feared that the title to the property of the Old School church 
would revert to the heirs of the donor, who gave it as a site 
for the erection of the house of worship. Rev. Newell served 
the united church until 1868, and was succeeded by John S. 


Gourlay, who served until March 26, 1871. J. C. Eastman 
came as a temporary supply in the spring of 1872 and re- 
mained until 1880. 

The contract for the present structure was given in 1889 
to Z. Benfeldt, of Richmond, Ind., for $14,989, and it was 
expected that the additional expense for furniture, furnace, 
glass, etc. would bring the total up to $17,000.00. The plans 
and specifications were furnished by John A. Hosacoster, and 
called for a structure 84 feet deep, with a vestibule under the 
central tower, opening into the reception room, the primary 
class room, the main Sunday school room and the auditorium. 
The Sabbath school rooms occupy the eastern part of the 
building, and consist of a lecture or assembly room 28x32 
feet, and six class rooms, opening by movable partitions into 
it. This department is separated from the church auditorium 
by roller blinds, which are readily raised, throwing all into 
one audience room. The auditorium is on the west side of 
the building and has a seating capacity of about 450 with a 
gallery on the east, seating about 125. The pulpit is in the 
northwest corner with a large pipe organ immediately back 
of it. The pastor's study adjoins the pulpit in the rear. 
The auditorium is nicely furnished with body brussels car- 
pet, and adjustable seats, is beautifully frescoed, lighted with 
stained glass windows and heated and ventilated by a modern 
plant. The high ceiling with exposed beams adds to the 
beauty and harmony of the whole. 

The building committee was : Henry St. Clair, J. H. Mar- 
tin and Alex. Kerr. Rev. J. P- Hutchinson was pastor at 
this time. 

The pastors since 1880 were: Jas. Crawford, 1880-1887; 
J. P. Hutchinson, 1887 1890; C. E. Tedford, 1890-1894; 
^^^ C. Helt. 1894-1897; W. L. Swan, 1898-1903; J. R. Tones, 
1903-1908; C. C. McKinney, 1908. 

Elders or Sessions: I. 'SI. Pierson, clerk; B. F. :Metcalf, 
.M. G. Demorest, B. T. Hughes, W. L. Reece, E. :\I. Welker, 
W. M. Limbert, W. D. Craig, J. J. Matthews. 

Trustees: M. W. Westeriield, president; Gales Helm, 
clerk; Chas. J. Herr, C. C. Pitts, C. R. Leftwich and D. L. 

Treasurer, J. G. Reid. 

Women's Missionary Society: Mrs. M. W. Limbert, pres- 
ident ; Mrs. A. B. Craig, vice-president ; Mrs. M. G. Demorest, 
secretary; Mrs. I. M. Pierson, treasurer. 


The church now has an enroUment of aboiit 385, with 240 
in the Sunday school. The annual budget for all purposes 
for the last fiscal year was about $4,000.00. 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal church dates from the 
year 1832. In that year Rev. Alva Guion, recently located 
at Piqua, visited Greenville to address the people on the im- 
portance of sustaining a Sunday school, and of establishing a 
library of religious books for children. This was done, al- 
though at this time there was not an Episcopalian in the vil- 
lage. In the spring of 1833, Rev. Guion. on a visit, was 
pleased to find a convert in the person of Mrs. Eliza A. Briggs. 
In 1835, an article of association was drawn up and circulated 
in Greenville, twelve persons subscribed their names to it, 
and in 1836. nine more were added, and the next spring the 
number increased to twenty-five. The following is a copy 
of the article, and of the names attached. May 29, 1837: "We 
whose names are herewith affixed, do hereby associate our- 
selves together under the name of the Parish of St. Paul's 
church. John and Eliza A. Briggs, \V. B. and Mary A. Beall, 
Jane E. Ross, Evaline Dorsey, Margaret Kilbourne, Daniel 
R. and Ann B. Davis, Margaret Baird, Joseph Ross, Thomas 
F. Kilbourne, Stephen Perrine, ^^'. M. \\^ilson, Eliza Duncan, 
Elisha Dawes, Hiram Potter, Francis Waring, \\"illiam j\I. 
Crane, William McKhann, A. L. Northrop, John Wharry, H. 
Arnold, H. D. \\'illiams and Chloe Herkeiner." 

Pursuant to canonical notice, members assembled l\Iav 29, 
1837. at the dwelling of Dr. John Briggs, to organize a parish, 
and the following names were elected to the vestry: John 
Briggs, W. B. Beall, Thomas F. Kilbourne. Joseph Ross and 
A. L. Northrop. A building committee was chosen January 
13, 1840. which consisted of \A'illiam M. Wilson, W. B. Beall 
and Hiram Potter. In due time, the building was erected, 
completed and properly furnished. 

The original building was a small frame located on the 
northeast corner of Third and Walnut streets with front on 
the latter street. It was built in 1840 at a cost of some 
$600.00 and served the congregation until 1879 or 1880. when 
it was remodeled into a larger and more suitable frame 
structure facing on Third street. ]\Irs. E. Briggs and Eva- 
line Dorsey superintended the Sabbath school from 1832 to 


1853, and B. Hubbard from about that time until 1851. As 
in many other churches to a few zealous women must be 
given a large share of the credit for establishing and nourish- 
ing the infant congregation. Mrs. Dr. Briggs was the leader 
of a coterie of workers and to her energy, tact and perse- 
verance, aided by her daughters, Mrs. Knox, Mrs. Workman 
and :\Irs. Black, together with Mrs. Beall, Mrs. Dawes, Miss 
Evaline Dorsey and others was due the building up of the 
early church. The fairs, suppers and entertainments planned 
and executed by this band along in the forties are referred 
to as enjoyable and remarkable occasions. 

The Sunday school was reorganized in 1874 by Mr. Henry 
A. Webb. At that time it had but twelve members. Under 
his direction it grew in numbers and efficiency until today 
it is known as one of the live schools of the city. J\lr. Webb, 
although now past ninetv years of age, is still the nominal 
superintendent, having served nearly forty years. In recent 
years he has been ai)ly assisted by Mr. Frank S. Gordon 
and Judge Jas. B. Kolp. 

The Episcopal church is not relatively strong in Ohio and 
seems to thrive best in the cities. It was a common practice 
among Protestant churches for years to decry its formal mode 
of worship but in recent years these same sects are gradually 
introducing some of the same practices and the future of the 
Episcopal church in the more populous centers seems secure. 
Up to March, 1868, forty-three persons had been confirmed. 
The church in Greenville made but slow growth until re- 
cently as shown bv the fact that in 1880 the membership was 
only about forty. 

Under Rev. Chas. H. Lee's pastorate a large and very de- 
sirable lot was purchased on the southeast corner of Broad- 
way and Water street. 

A building committee was appointed comprising the fol- 
lowing named persons : J. C. Turpen, Frank S. Gordon, A. 
C. Robeson. The cornerstone was laid with appropriate Ma- 
sonic ceremonies under Grand Master M^'m. Belt, and the 
new edifice onsecrated in ]\Iay, 1906, by Bishop Vincent. 

This structure is built of rough faced limestone on a con- 
crete foundation, and cost about $20,000.00. It is Gothic in style 
with high pitched slate roof, buttresses, pointed arch win- 
dows, substantial corner tower and is arranged inside to suit 
the mode of worship practiced in this church. A wing ex- 
tends on the southeast side which is used for parish house 


and Sunday school room. It is one of the best furnished 
churches in the city, and in exterior appearance has no peer. 

The present rector is Rev. Chas. H. Gross, who has served 
since 1906. Under his pastorate the church has made a sub- 
stantial growth in membership, is well organized, has made 
good progress in paying off the debt incurred in building the 
new church, and is now recognized as one of the strong 
churches of the county. The church now has 22^ communi- 
cant members and the Sunday school 117 members. 

The annual financial budget is about $2,500.00. The vestry 
is composed of the following persons : Henry A. Webb, sen- 
ior warden; J. C. Turpen, junior warden; E. A. Grubbs, F. 
S. Gordon, Jas. B. Kolp, A. C. Robeson, D. Robeson, D. W. 
Bowman, H. C. Helm, Conrad Kipp, Joseph ]\Ienke, Jacob 
^lenke, G. A. Katzenberger. 

The Greenville church is the only one of this denomination 
in Darke county. 

The following rectors have served St. Paul's Episcopal 
church since its organization: Rev. Alvah Guion, mission- 
ary, 1833, became rector on establishment of parish in 1837 
Rev. Norman Badger, 1838-1841 ; Rev. J. J. O'Kill, 1841-1844 
Rev. D. W. Toiford, 184-1-1848; Rev. Wm. Miller, 1848-1852 
Rev. Mr. Wiggins. 1852-1855; Rev. Mr. Whittinter, 1855- 
1857; Rev. Daniel E. Brown. 1857-1860; Rev. J. N. Lee. 1860- 
1862; Rev. Mr. McElroy, 1865-1867; Rev. Mr. Butler (died 
30 days after arrival), 1867; Rev. Richard Wainwright, 1871- 
1875; Rev. Geo. B. Sturgis, 1875-1877; Rev. D. W. Cox, 1877- 
1881; Rev. Lewis Brown, 1882-1883; Rev. J. H. Logic, 1883- 
1885; Rev. Christian M. Young, 1887-1888; Rev. John W. 
Sykes, 1888-1895; Rev. J. P. Tyler, 1895-1896;. Rev. Chas. H. 
Lee, 1897-1906; Rev. Chas. H. Gross, 1906-. 

Baptist Church. 

In the early days of Ohio history the three denominations 
having the greatest number of adherents among the settlers 
were the Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist. We have no- 
ticed how the former two got an early start in Darke county 
and are not surprised to learn that the Beptists likewise 
sought to get a footing here. John Childers and John Win- 
termuth were pioneer preachers of that flenominaticm in 
Greenville and vicinity, where they held services at long in- 
tervals, beginning in 1819 to 1820. Childers is credited witli 


preaching the first sermon delivered in Richland township, 
and mention is made of a Baptist church in Versailles in 
early days. An early writer tells an interesting anecdote 
about one of these early preachers, as follows: Elder John 
Wintermuth was an old school Baptist, and had organized 
several churches in the county, with a tolerable number of 
members. He was an excellent man of great piety for the 
times and country in which he lived, and though in compari- 
son with many others was a very poor preacher, that is, he 
could not speak fluently, being no orator, but his great learn- 
ing in the scriptures, and excellent character, carried great 
weight among the people, and through a long time he did 
much good. He lived and died on his farm about five miles 
northeast of Greenville, in the year 1846. He had some pe- 
culiarities. It is recollected of being said of him that on one 
occasion he was called to marry a couple, about ten miles 
from his home. He answered the call, married the couple, 
and on his taking leave of them to go home the young mar- 
ried man handed him a bill of paper money folded up, which 
the reverend gentleman without looking at stuck into his vest 
pocket, mounted his horse and rode home. He then thought 
he would look at it and show his wife the dollar, which was 
the usual fee (dollars were scarce in those days), but great 
was his surprise when he unfolded the bill, he saw that 
instead of a dollar, it was a ten-dollar bill. Filed with mor- 
tification, and chagrined at his carelessness and lack of 
thought in not looking at the money he immediately saddled 
his horse, rode back, found the young man, presented him the 
bill, and began making the best apology he could, when the 
young man said: "I need no apology, there is no mistake, 
I intended to give a^ou that bill and did not look for any 
change. He mounted his horse again and rode back home. 
In those days there were few church buildings in the county, 
meetings were held at private houses and in the green woods. 
Many preachers from a distance of various denominations 
visited and preached to the people in various parts of the 

An old school Baptist church was organized in Greenville 
in early days, and, it seems, worshipped in a log meeting 
house on the rear of lot No. 32 on Elm street in the rear of 
the new Catholic church. Seymour Craig was one of the early 
preachers in this church, where he held occasional services 
along the forties. Rev. Cottrell served the congregation 


for a while. Herman Rush, a brother of Isaac Rush, and 
member of one of the pioneer families, preached in this church 
in the fifties. The congregation was very small, being com- 
prised largely of the Rush. Potter and Bishop families. The 
Baptists and the United Brethren, it is said, built a union 
church here about 1856, which they were unable to continue. 
The building was sold to George H. Martz and J. W. Legg. 
who opened up a "select"' school here for pupils who wanted 
to take advanced studies not included in the curriculum of the 
grade schools maintained by the city. This school was the 
forerunner of the high school. 

These early Baptists belonged to the old order, and were 
commonly called "Hardshells." They believed in predesti- 
nation, were opposed to foreign missionaries, and on the 
whole, seemed to be opposed to advanced education and pro- 
gression. About the middle of the nineteenth century, or 
before, a split occurred in this body, and those who w^ere op- 
posed to predestination and believed in missions formed a new 
denomination, called the Missionary or New Order Baptists. 
As a result the Old Order decreased rapidly in numbers and 
influence, and are now almost extinct, while the Xew Order 
made rapid strides and are today one of the strongest relig- 
ious bodies in the United .States. The Hardshells disap- 
peared from Darke county at an early date. 

The first Missionary or Regular Baptist church in Darke 
county was established at Gordon, and the organization is 
still in existence. S. M. Brower was the first preacher who 
conducted Baptist services in the Union church at this place 
about 1860. On Saturday, August 10, 1867. a number of 
brethren and sisters of the Baptist faith from the Gordon. 
Middletown. Caesar's Creek and Centerville churches met at 
the Union church four miles north of Greenville, and a'ter 
prayer and exhortation, by Elder W. R. Thomas, organized 
into council b}' appointing Elder Thomas, moderator, and 
William Hicks, secretary. At this meeting a "Baptist Church 
of Chirst" was organized and called the "Regular Baptist 
church of Greenville." Jeremiah, John and Peter Deardofif 
were elected deacons. Jeremiah. John and Peter Deardofif. 
Thompson L. Bishop and Wm. Hicks were appointed a com- 
mittee to procure a house of worship in Greenville. The 
charter members of the society were: Jeremiah. John and 
Peter DeardofT, Wm. Hicks, Jas. DeardoflF, Wm. DeardofT. 
Henry Collet. Thompson L. Bishop. Mary John, Hannah A. 


Hicks, Debbie Deardoft', Deardoff, Sarah Collet, Sarah 

Deardoff, ^laria Bishop, Cynthia A. Bishop. Elder Thomas 
was called as the first pastor. First meetings were held in 
private residences and at the court house. In 1868 the Chris- 
tian church was rented and became the place of meeting. 
About this time the church became a member of the Mad 
River Association. Services were also hold at times in the 
Union meeting house. From 1872 to 1874 meetings were 
held in the Evangelical church. In early days Elder Thomas 
was engaged to preach on one Saturday and the Sabbath 
following for $150.00 per year. $100.00 being furnished by 
the congregation and $50.00 by the JNIissionary Board of the 
]\Iad River Association. Many hardships were experienced 
in these days. Sickness in the family of Elder Thomas spe- 
cial meetings in other charges, the late arrival of trains, and 
extreme cold often prevented or interfered with regular 
meetings. The membership increased slowly and some mem- 
bers were expelled for misconduct. Elder Thomas served un- 
til 1874, when Elder James Simpson accepted a call, and 
served until 1878. St. Paul's Reformed church was rented 
for monthly meetings on Saturdays and on Sundav after- 
noons in 1875, and services were held here until Jan., 1881. 

The church was without a regular pastor from March, 1878, 
to October, 1880, when Elder B. J. George of Urbana, was 
called. Services were then resumed in the Evangelical 
church on the first and third Sabbaths of each month. A lot 
was purchased on the southwest corner of \\^ayne avenue and 
Cypress street for $500.00 in the spring of 1881 and a frame 
church building about 32x48 feet was erected thereon during 
the summer, at a cost of some thirteen hundred dollars. The 
dedication of this church took place on the first Sabbath in 
November, 1881. The dedicatory sermon was preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Fisher of Piqua, Ohio, in the morning, to a 
crowded congregation. A Sunday school was organized in 
the afternon, with T. L. Bishop as superintendent, and the 
evening sermon was delivered by Rev. T. P. Childs of Troy, 
Ohio. Rev. George served until the third Sunday in Sept., 

1882. Elder Childs served the church at intervals until Jan., 

1883, when Rev, J. L. Wyley was sent by the Ohio Baptist 
convention and was called to fill the pulpit one year, the state 
convention furnishing three hundred dollars per year toward 
his salary. In 1883 the church was dismissed from the Mad 
River Association by request, and was admitted to the Day- 


Ion Association. Evangelistic services were held in Feb., 
1886, by Rev. Palmer, which greatly revived the church and 
resulted in several additions. Rev. Wyley finished his pas- 
torate in April, 1886. There was no regular pastor until 
July. 1887, when Rev. Sherwood Fison preached his first 
sermon. He served until Jan.. 1890. During his pastorate 
of two and one-half years the church grew in numbers and 
organization. Rev. J. H. Smith entered on his ministry in 
the summer of 1891 and continued as pastor until October 1. 

B. Y. P. U. organized in Dec, 1892. Rev. J. E. Lee ac- 
cepted call in Oct.. 1893, served until Oct., 1895. Pulpit va- 
cant until May, 1897, when Rev. T. P. James accepted call. 
During his pastorate of nearly five years the church made 
substantial progress, several members were added, a new lot 
was purchased on the northeast corner of Washington avenue 
and Devor street for $1,600.00, and the church was moved. 

A substantial frame parsonage was built on Devor street 
adjoining the church about 1904. The following pastors have 
served the congregation since the moving of the church to 
Washington avenue : W. L. Lemon, January, 1902, to October, 
1902; E. M. Kessler, November, 1903, to July, 1905; E. L. 
Clevenger, October, 1904, to September, 1905 ; B. J. George, 
March, 1906, to October 1906: L. E. Smith, January, 1907, to 
July, 1908; Frederick Fisher, November, 1908, to April, 1911; 
T. J. Hall, November, 1911, to November 1912; William 

Pieffer, November, 1912, to . 

The present membership of the church is about 100 and the 
Sunday school enrollment about 80. 

John A. Miller succeeded T. L. Bishop as superintendent of 
Sunday school. A. B. Maurer served as superintendent of 
the Sunday school from 1887 to 1908. C. O. Howell has 
served since 1911. 

Trustees: W. G. Bishop, treasurer; .A. R. Guthridge, 
clerk; C. O. Howell, A. J. Klinger, A. J. Miller, G. A. Beam. 

The church is well organized, has an excellent site on 
which it is expected that a substantial church and Sunday 
school building will be built at no very distant day, and has 
exhibited a vitality and perseverance which promises to make 
it one of the strong congregations of the city. 


The Catholic Church. 

On account of the fact that the earliest settlers in Darke 
county were almost exclusively of native American stock the 
Catholic church did not become established here until a few 
French families settled in the northeastern section about the 
year 1836. At first they fanned the flame of faith and devo- 
tion in their own private homes and met at stated times for 
the public reading of the scriptures, and the recitation of mass 
prayers. This sufificed for but a short time when the zealous 
pioneer missionary, Father Louis Navarron. a priest from 
the French domains of Canada, came into their midst to min- 
ister to their spiritual wants. Shortly after his appearance 
the rude log hut inhabited by Joseph Smith, on the present 
site of Frenchtown, was used as a temporary chapel for about 
a year by the dozen families who had recently come into this 
neighborhood. Later the home of Mr. Marchal, some three 
miles eastward, was used. About this time other small col- 
onies of Frenchmen settled at Russia, some six miles east, 
just across the line in Shelby county, and at Versailles. 
Neither of these communities was large enough to maintain 
a resident pastor, so they agreed that all three should share 
the burden. It was then resolved to erect a church which 
would be of easy access to all. A committee chosen from. 
each community examined various suggested sites and 
finnally agreed to erect a house of worship where the present 
St. Valberts cemetery is located, some two miles north of the 
present site of Versailles. Here a log church was soon erect- 
ed and in the spring of 1838 the first services were held 
within its rude walls. Daily mass was still said at French- 
town, but the Sunday services for Russia, Versailles and 
Frenchtown were held at St. Valberts, in the French lan- 
guage. A church was finished at Frenchtown in 1848, and 
one in Russia about this time, and St. Valberts lost some of 
its early popularity. On Easter Sunday, 1849, it is said, the 
great Archbishop Purcell preached in the English tongue. 
using the stump of a great oak as a pulpit. The devoted. 
saintly and faithful pastor Navarron served this parish until 
the above year. Desirous of having their church nearer their 
homes the Catholics of Versailles bought an old Baptist 
meeting house in 1864, and remodeled it for their first chapel, 
leaving St. Valberts at last as a burial site. 

The further historv of the Frenchtown and Versailles 


churches, as well as that of those established in more recent 
years at Delvin and Osgood, will be found in the history of 
those villages under the proper township heads, and we will 
now consider briefly the story of the founding o. St. Mary's 
church at the county seat. 

The members o: the Cathnlic church, who were the first 
to come to the central part of the county, settled on farms 
along the Versailles pike about two miles from the city of 
Greenville. They built a small log church on a tract of land 
donated for the use of a cemetery by Mr. Caron on the east 
side of the pike in the northwest quarter of section 19, range 
3 east, Greenville township. The priests of the neighboring 
cities of Springfield, Dayton, Piqua and Minster occasionally 
visited them and held services for them. When the city of 
Greenville grew in population, several Catholic families came 
here, and religious services were at times held in one or 
other of the private homes. Among the first families re- 
called were the Carons, the Kuntzs. the O'Briens and the 
Lynchs. This was in 1854 and the succeeding years. In 
the year 1863 their number had so far increased that they 
decided to have a church in the city and to secure a resi- 
dent pastor. Accordingly, they bought a small brick church 
situated on Elm street betwen Third and Fourth streets, 
which had formerly been used by the U. R. congregation. 
This structure was enlarged, remodeled, and dedicated by 
Archbishop Purcell in the summer of 1863. About the same 
time they purchased the vacant lot on the northeast corner 
of Third and Elm streets, on which they erected a parson • 
age under the administration of the first pastor, the Re\-. 
Charles F. Schellhamer. To accommodate the growing num- 
ber of members this church building was in 1871 or 1872 en- 
larged under the direction of Rev. John F. Kalenburg, their 
second pastor. In a few ve?4rs after the vacant lot on the 
southeast corner of Third and Elm streets and adjoining the 
church was also secured. During the subsequent years the 
congregation prospered and became established on a firm 
basis. The members felt that they were in condition to 
support a parochial school for the better instruction of their 
children in religion and morality. Conse(|uently. in 1888 a 
substantial school building on the lot adjoining the parson- 
age, and a new parish house on the opposite lot were erected 
at the cost of some S5.000. In Sentember of the same vear 


tlie school -was opened under the charge of the sisters of 
charity of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

In the year 1899 it was found that the old church building 
was in need of extensive repairs. Upon deliberation it was 
determined to erect a new edifice on the southeast corner of 
Third and Elm streets. In the same year active preparations 
were begun, and in June of 1900 the cornerstone was blessed 
and set in position. Thereupon, thanks to the united efforts 
of the parish members and the generous help of several 
citizens of Greenville, the work of building could be success- 
fully prosecuted and completed in the following years of 
1901 and 1902. The solemn dedication of the new church 
took place on the 19th of October, 1902. This stately pile 
of gray brick with its two large towers, its mellow chimes, 
its stained glass windows, its interior decorations and fur- 
nishings cost about $26,000.00 and is a worthy monument 
to the zeal and devotion of the Catholic families of the coun- 
ty seat. Mr. Dennis Dewyr, one of the parishioners, was the 

Since then, though the membership has somewhat decreased, 
owing to the demise of some older members and the removal 
to dififerent localities, the congregation still continues in an 
active and prosperous condition. Rev. J- H. Brummer has 
been the faithful resident pastor since 1882, and, as above 
noted, the new school, parsonage and church have all been 
erected during his pastorate. 

The United Brethren in Christ. 

The denomination known as the Church of the United 
Brethren in Christ was founded by Philip William Otterbein, 
a German-American preacher, in the latter part of the eigh- 
teenth century. In doctrine it is Arminian and evangelical, 
and in polity it is much like that of the Alethodist Episcopal 
church. Numerically it stood ninth in the denominational 
families of the U. S. m 1912, having some three hundred and 
twenty thousand members in the two affiliated bodies. Like 
the Reformed church it is strong in Pennsylvania and is well 
represented in the upper Miami valley, having a large pub- 
lishing house and a vigorous theological seminary at Dayton. 
Ohio. Besides this denomination has recently purchased the 
large and valuable Shaker community farm in Warren coun- 
ty with the view of establishing thereon a home for the aged. 


Although it now stands second in the number of churches 
in Darke county, it seems to have appeared on this field com- 
paratively late. The oldest churches mentioned are in the 
southern part of the county, the Ithaca church having been 
founded about 1830 ; Otterbein about 1840 ; Castine, about 
1849; Abbotsville, about 1850 and Caylor's Chapel (Van 
Buran township) about 1868. Zion Chapel near ^^'eaver■s 
is one of the oldest crurches. 

A United Brethren society was organized in Greenville a 
few years before the war and built a brick church on \''ine 
street between Third and Fourth streets. This building was 
afterward sold and finally purchased by the Catholics, who 
remodeled and improved it in 1863 as noted elsewhere. The 
history of the present church dates from August 22. 1883, 
when Rev. H. A. Secrist was appointed pastor of the Green- 
ville Mission by the JMiami Conference with stations at 
Greenville, Hillgrove, Coletown and Abbotsville. Rev. Se- 
crist preached his first sermon on Sunday, Sept. 16. 1883, in 
the Evangelical church on the southeast corner of Fourth 
and Ash streets. His text in the morning was Psalm 84:1. 
"How amiiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts." His 
evening text was Hebrews 10:9. 

At first services in Greenville were held twice a month. 
Class was organized on October 14. 1883, with nine members, 
as follows : J. M. Klefeker and wife Sarah ; Samuel Klefe- 
ker and wife Lucy ; Mr. and Mrs. Worshing ; Mrs. Sarah 
Guy, Mrs. Hannah Felton and Mrs. Sarah Fuller. The first 
superintendent of its Sunday school was J. A. Gruver. A 
great revival was held in the Evangelical church in February 
and ]\Iarch, 1884, as a result of which one hundred and twen- 
ty-eight conversions were reported, and one hundred persons 
united with the church. With such an impetus the church 
went forward with rapid strides, as shown by the fact that a 
lot was purchased on the southwest corner of Wayne avenue 
and Devor street in the new section of the growing city, and 
the erection of a good sized brick church edifice begun in 
July. 1884. This church building was finished in the spring 
of 1885. and dedicated on July 12, 1885, by Bishop Jonathan 
Weaver, D.D. The site was well chosen, as it is now lo- 
cated at a strategic point in reference to the new south side 
of the city. The cost of the building and grounds was about 
six thousand dollars. The building committee was Hender- 
son Albright, Daniel Reasoner, J. M. Klefeker, J. A. Gruver, 


and N. G. Karns. A substantial frame parsonage was erect- 
ed on the lot adjoining the rear of the church during the pas- 
torate of Rev. Klinefelter in 1900. The church property has 
been considerably improved from time to time and a pipe or- 
gan added to the equipment, the gift of Mr. George Hartzell. 
a lumber merchant of Greenville and active worker in the 
church at that time. The church now has an enrollment of 
about three hundred, including several substantial farmers 
from the immediate neighborhood of Greenville. 

The trustees in January, 1914, were : Chas. Minnich, W. 

D. Brumbaugh, O. E. Young, Alvin Pierce and J. Joseph 
O'Brien. Treasurer, Jacob Young. A very efficient and ac- 
tive Sunday school is held in connection with the church, of 
which Mr. Oscar Vannoy is the superintendent. The en- 
rollment in this organization is 212 (Jan., 1914). The num- 
ber of organized classes, six. 

The president of the Ladies' Aid Society is Mrs. Margaret 
Snell ; of the Woman's ^lissionary Association, Mrs. J. H. 
Vance ; of the Y. P. S. C. E., Miss Beryl Stephens. The 
latter organization was the first Christian Endeavor Society 
organized in the county and has had a continuous history 
since its establishment, Oct. 18. 1887. It was first organized 
as a Young People's Society in 1884. J. B. Long is president 
of the Otterbein Brotherhood. 

The pastors who have served this church to date are : H. 
A. Secrist, Sept.. 1883-188.=; : S. W. ]\IcCorkle, Sept., 1885-July. 
1887; G. P. Macklin, Sept., 1887-1889; W. L. Byers. 1888- 
1889; G. P. Macklin, 1890-1891: J. W. Kilbourn. 1891-1894; 

E. W. Bowers, 1894-1895: W. J. Pruner, 1895-1897; H. H. 
Klinefelter, 1897-1901; F. G. Grigsby, 1901-1906; E. C. Petry, 
1906-1907; J. M. Replogle, 1907-1910; G. W. Self and H. F. 
White, 1910-1911 ; D. R. Wilson, 1911-1913; W. M. VanSickle, 

This denomination now has nineteen churches in the 
county, making it first in the number of stations. A late re- 
port shows the following charges, pastors and preaching sta- 
tions : 

Rossburg Charge, C. Plack, pastor, including Rossburg, 
Heistand, New Weston, Rose Hill and Zion churches ; Sa- 
vona Charge, F. H. Linville, pastor, including Mt. Zion (near 
Weaver's Station), Caylor Chapel (north of Arcanum). Ab- 
botsville and Savona ; Waterhouse Charge, M. Stein, pastor, 
including Waterhouse, Pleasant Grove and Hillgrove church- 


es; New Madison charge, including New Madison and Yan- 
keetown ; besides separate stations at Greenville, Union City, 
Arcanum, Ithaca and Castine. The above data indicate that 
this is one of the most active denominations in the county and 
bids fair to exercise a strong and salutary influence for many 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church. 

(Courtesy Mrs. Hildegarde K. Schopp.) 

About the year 1850 a small number of Lutherans in Green- 
ville, O., all Germans, feeling the need of religious worship in 
the town, called a meeting at the home of Gottfried Brom- 
bacher on Walnut street, where the Rev. Reichardt, who was 
preaching in this part of the state for the Lutheran church 
at that time, conducted the services. Subsequent meetings 
were held at the home of William Boeger on Fourth street 
and others. These meetings continued and as there was need 
of administering the holy sacraments, this handful of Luth- 
erans decided to organize and did so as "The Evangelical 
Lutheran St. Paul's congregation of Greenville, O." 

Among the charter members were : William Boeger, Gott- 
fried Brombacher, Lewis Foutz, Wm. Hiddeson, John Her- 
ter, Wm. Ollmetzer and Frederic Reinhart, Sr. 

Others of early membership were : Christian Gerstner, 
John ^^'eitb^echt, Chas. Hiddeson, Bernard Renz, Henry 

As the homes became inadequate to accommodate the peo- 
ple, the old court house on public square was used for the 
meetings. Eventually the frame building situated on the 
site of the present church on East Fourth street, and used 
by the Presbyterians as their church, was purchased from 
them, and there the German Lutherans worshipped for forty 
years. The Presbyterians taking their church bell with them 
and the Lutherans being too poor to purchase one, caused 
the removal of the little belfry and thus the plain white, un- 
assuming frame structure had to serve as a church until in 
1889 the congregation secured in the person of Rev. E. E. Ort- 
lepp a man who set about at once to prepare for a new church 

The Rev. A. Reichardt and Rev. J. Lehnert preached for 
the congregation until in 1839 Rev. John Lautenschlaeger was 
called, and most efficiently and faithfully served the congre- 
gation for ten years, when he was relieved bv Rev. K. Koe- 
berlin, who was pastor up to the time of his death, which oc- 



curred in 1876. He was followed by Rev. John Hinderer, 
who also served until his death in the year 1881. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. \N'ni. Funkey, who served the congregation 
four years, and was succeeded by Rev. Wm. Gettle, who also 
served four years, as did Rev. B. Lederer three years. 

During the pastorate of Rev. John Lautenschlaeger a 
Sunday school and the Ladies' Aid Society were organized, 
the latter in 1864. For many years Mr. John Baus was the 
faithful superintendent of the Sunday school, whilst the work 
of the Ladies' Aid Society has been far-reaching. 

On December 20, 1891, the congregation dedicated the first 
and only church they ever built, on the site of the old frame 
structure occupied for forty years. The cost of the building 
was about $7,500.00, which sum included the bell. Through 
the generosity of one of its members, Mr. Daniel Henne, Sr., 
the congregation has never carried any debts. Six years 
later, on June, 20, a splendid pipe organ of the Moeller firm 
of Hagerstown, Md., was installed. Also furnishings of white 
San Diego mahogany in the chancel, namely : pulpit, baptis- 
mal font, and a memorial altar and crucifix were added. The 
walls were beautifully frescoed. All this represented an out- 
lay of $3,500.00. The congregation next bought an additional 
lot adjoining the church in the rear at an expense of $1,900. 
In 1900 a general restoration of the church building took 
place and besides a modern steam furnace, a slate roof, and 
other necessary improvements there were added two memo- 
rial electric candelabra right and left of the altar, four oil 
paintings on the walls being the work of an artist in Wis- 
consin, and floors and walls were covered at great expense 
in a tasteful manner. A door paneled in cut glass leads from 
the modest exterior to the interior. Beautiful electric light 
effects about the altar, and its niche, were a donation as 
were the electric light chandeliers; $5,400.00 was expended 
for these improvements, making of the interior of St. Paul's 
Lutheran church a beautiful place of worship. 

The congregation, though not a large one, is active, and 
under the guidance of its beloved and able pastor, Dr. E. E. 
Ortlepp, has been singularly blessed. 

As early as 1883 occasional English services were held, and 
as the ranks of the German members are being thinned out 
by the hand of time, the work is being conducted mostly in 
English, services in German being held only every two 
weeks. There is, however, still a choir which can sing in the 


German language, having been organized in the eighties by 
IMrs. Wm. Furkey and at present conducted by Mr. \\'m. 
Kurz. Mrs. Anne Lecklider has been organist at St. Paul's for 
many years, as was her father before her in early days. 

The Sunday school is altogether English, and has for a 
number of years had a woman superintendent in Miss Ame- 
lia Koeberlin. The Luther League, a society of young peo- 
ple, organized in 1893 by Rev. Ortlepp. who is also its presi- 
dent, does valiant work for the church, and is in a flourishing 
condition. Mission work has no special organization, there 
being only a children's mission band at present. 

Mrs. Minnie Buechy is president of the Ladies' Aid So- 
ciety, and the following are the names of church officials in 
1913: Elders, Andrew Renz, William Schaefer, L H. Miller: 
trustees, Wm. Kurz, Oscar Gross, Henry Leas : deacons, 
James Schwartz, Fred Steft'en, Albert Suter. 

The congregation with its societies raised for congrega- 
tional and beneficent purposes during the year 1913 the sum 
of two thousand one hundred and fifty-three dollars ($2,153), 
and it hopes to be an influence for moral good that cannot be 
reckoned in dollars and cents in the future. 

Evangelical Lutheran St. Johns Church. 

One of the most remarkable rural congregations in the 
county is the E\'angelical Lutheran St. John's church, situated 
about two and one-half miles north of Greenville on the Ver- 
sailles pike. The early history of the German people of 
Darke county is closely interwoven with the history of this 
church. About 1838 or 1839 German immigrants began to 
settle in this neighborhood. Being poor in this world's 
goods some took up lands that had been passed over or re- 
jected by the earlier settlers and others purchased partly im- 
proved lands at $12.00 to $16.00 per acre. They were ac- 
customed to hard manual labor in the Fatherland, however. 
and took up the task of reclamation with brave hearts and 
the stoic determination characteristic of the t3'pical German 
stock. Many obstacles were encountered, and hardships, ex- 
posure and sacrifice experienced in the early years, but time 
wrought marvelous changes and today this section is one of 
the best farming communities in the county. A visitor writ- 
ing of this section in 1890, said ; "We passed a beautiful 
church and parsonage of the very latest pattern, with its 



fine painted fences and beautiful lawn well kept. Going up a 
slight ascent we came in full view of the Lutheran settle- 
ment as far as the eye could reach. \\'e saw one of the 
grandest parts of Darke county. The improvements are 
very fine, the houses fit to adorn Avondale or Clifton. The 
tobacco sheds and barns were of the very latest pattern and 
well painted. This part is very thickly settled, the most of 
the farms being about forty to eighty acres, under a very 
high state of cultivation." 

During the early years of the settlement the people wor- 
shipped at Wakefield, then known as Clapboardtown, just 
north of the present site of the children's home. Emigrants 
kept coming and in a few years there were enough families 
to establish a more conveniently located church, where they 
might worship according to the dictates of their consciences. 
Accordingly a congregation was organized in 1851 by the fol- 
lowing persons: John G. Deubner, Ferdinand Prashnn, Fred- 
erick Meier, Frederick Dohme, Christian Kruckenburg, Ferd- 
inand Krueckeberg, Henry Koester, George Ruess, Frederick 
Krueckeberg and George Martz. 

In 1852 the first church was erected of logs and furnished 
with split plank pews, It was a rude, plain structure, but as 
the historian says, "This old log church was the place of 
worship for the Lutherans until 1876, and though it was a 
rude tabernacle, visited by a plain, unpretentious people, it 
was the house of God, and the place where He recorded His 
name, and the worshippers were happy in it and loved to 
meet and greet each other after the trials and tribulations o" 
a week of hard labor ; they felt God's nearness." Revs. Paul 
Heit, Gotthilf Reichert and Joseph Lehner were the first 
pastors, each serving two years. They were succeeded by 
Rev. J. Lautenschlager and Rev. C. H. Althofif, each of 
whom served eleven years. During the period of their pas- 
torates the church had a slow but steady and substantial 
growth and the time came when a new edifice was needed to 
accommodate the overflowing congregation. Accordingly, in 
1876, under the pastorate of Rev. Althofif, a beautiful struc- 
ture was erected, which stands today as a monument to the 
thrift, zeal and devotion of these people. This building is 
fronted by a tower one hundred feet in height, has a beau- 
tifully decorated interior, a large altar-niche, with two beau- 
tiful high altars, two sacristies and side pulpit and organ loft 
with a fine pipe organ. Rev. C. H. Alayer was called to sue- 


ceed Rev. Althoff in 1880, and served until his death in 1904 
— a period of twenty-four years. He was a well beloved 
pastor, acceptable to his people, fond of the things they cher- 
ished and his demise was sincerely mourned by them. Dur- 
ing his pastorate the church increased greatly in membership, 
the old church debt was paid off, a beautiful and substan- 
tial parsonage and a parochial school built beside the church, 
and many improvements made about the site. Rev. \\ . P. 
Benzin succeeded pastor Mayer in June, 1904, and served 
acceptably until the fall of 1911, and was succeeded in No- 
vember, 1911, by Rev. August W. Zell, the present faithful 

Among the membership have been enrolled many of the 
best known German families, including such names as Beis- 
ner, Brand, Duebner, Dismeir, Dohse, Glander, Glase, 
Grewe, Grote, Hollscher, Hiddeson, HolTman, Hupe, Klopfer, 
Knick, Koester, Krueckeberg, Meier, ^lergler, Peters, Piit- 
zer, Prasuhn, Requarth, Roebke, Roesser, Sander, Schafer, 
Schwier, Schnell, Strotner. The members of the church 
council are: Rev. Zell, chairman; elders, Frank Baldschun, 
Sr., Christ Kester; deacons, Wm. Beisner, Wm. Schafifer; 
trustees, John Schafifer, Harmon Hupe, Henry Brand, John 
Ivruckeberg, Louis Dohse. The pastor is the superintendent 
of the Sunday school in which there are six teachers, three 
classes being taught in English and three in German. A 
young people's meeting is held in which all the young people 
participate. The communicant members number about 220, 
and the baptized some 300. The morning services are ao^^' 
conducted in the German language and the evening in Eng- 
lish. This church belongs to the Joint Synod of Ohio. Other 
churches belonging to this synod are located at Arcanum, 
Ansonia, Pittsburg and Ithaca besides Grace Lutheran 

This latter church is located on the corner of Water and 
Boston streets in Greenville, and was built in 1909. under 
the pastorate of Rev. Benzin, who was then also serving 
St. John's church, at a cost of some three thousand dollars. 
The present elders are Wm. Grote and Henry Schake ; the 
deacons, Henry Dismeier and Carl Dininger; trustees, John 
Meier, Harley Dininger, Henry Dismeier, Walter Stahl and 
Wm. Stevens. Rev. Paul Schillinger was pastor from the 
fall of 1910 to fall of 1913. Rev. Edgar Ebert, a graduate of 
Capitol University. Columbus, Ohio, began his pastorate on 


Easter, 1914. There is a Ladies" Aid Society in tliis consjre- 
gation, of which Airs. Frank Stauffer is president. There 
are about eighty-five communicants and about 130 baptized 
members. This church was formed by English members of 
St. John's and Emmanuel's (Dininger) congregations who de- 
sired to have a church in Greenville where the services could 
be held exclusively in the English language. The Sunday 
school has about fifty members, in four classes. The pastor 
is the superintendent. 

Old Order German Baptist Brethren. 

This body is one of three now comprising what is common- 
ly known as the Dunkers, or Dunkards, a name derived from 
the German word, "Tunken," meaning to baptize, or more 
specifically "to dip." This body arose in Germany at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century and its followers were 
driven from that country by persecution between the years 
of 1719 and 1729. They fled to America where they expected 
to be accorded the privilege of worshipping God according 
to the dictates of their own conscience, and settled in eastern 
Pennsylvania. Here they encountered many obstacles inci- 
dent to pioneer life on the border and suffered severe hard- 
ship and exposure during the early Indian A\'ars and the 
Revolution. Progress was necessarily slow, but we note 
signs of growth in the organization of their first Sabbath 
school in 1738, their first annual conference in 1742, and the 
printing of the first German bible in America in 1748. In 
these pioneer days meetings were evidently held in the homes 
of the members, as the first meeting house mentioned was 
built in Franklin county. Pa., in 1798. They believe in bap- 
tism by triune forward immersion, oppose war and litiga- 
tion, resemble the Society of Friends in requiring extreme 
plainness of language and dress, and practice feet washing 
and the kiss of charity. They are temperate, industrious, 
economical and thrifty and insist on the payment of financial 
obligations. As the natural consequence of their exemplary 
manner of living they have prospered wherever they have 
settled, and commanded the respect of their neighbors. 

As large numbers of the early emigrants to the Miami val- 
ley came from Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland, there 
were among them a goodly number of German Baptists. 
Jacob IMiller, who settled near Dayton in 1800, is credited with 


being the first brother of this order to establish himself west 
of the Miami river. He raised an exemplary family of three 
daughters and nine sons, three of the latter becoming able 
ministers, and was in this respect the forerunner of a host 
of brethren who, by industry, morality, frugality and tenacit}' 
of purpose, have made numerous prosperous settlements and 
dotted the \-alley with their homes and meeting houses. As 
the result of a progressive movement in the church a division 
was caused in 1881, and all the meeting houses and property 
went to the New Order. The Old Order now has the fol- 
lowing meeting houses in Darke county, all built since the 
separation above mentioned : Union City District — Jackson 
township, three miles east of Union City on ^^'enrick pike ; 
Pleasant Grove, German township, one mile east of Palestine : 
Oak Grove, Adams township, two miles north of Gettysburg ; 
Miller's Grove, Franklin township, two miles south of the vil- 
lage of Painter Creek ; Fourman Meeting House, two miles 
east and two north of Arcanum. Besides these a number of 
members living in the neighborhood of Castine attend Price 
Creek Meeting House, two miles south of Castine in Preble 

The Church of the Brethren. 

At the conference held in Des ]\Ioines, Iowa, in 1908, the 
conservative branch of the German Baptists who had l^een 
separated from the Old Order in 1881, as before noted, changed 
her name to "The Church of the Brethren." This body is 
numerically strong in Darke county and has a thriving church 
and home for the dependent children and old folks at Green- 
ville, besides several rural congregations. The following very 
interesting and instructive sketch, prepared by Levi Minnich, 
of Franklin township, the vice-chairman of the General Sun- 
day School Board of this body, gives a brief history of this 
organization and shows its present status in Darke county 
and elsewhere. What is said in this article about the Breth- 
ren church in Darke county prior to 1881 applies likewise 
to the Old Order. 

"Probably the first member of the Church of the Brethren 
locating in Darke county was Wm. K. ]\Iarquis, of French 
parentage. He came from Virginia and settled near the pres- 
ent site of Union City in 1821. Soon thereafter others fol- 
lowed and in 1833 the little band of pioneers elected John 
Crumrine and Wm. K. Marquis as their first ministers. Fred- 


erick Roe and John Zumbrum were the first deacons. Re- 
ligious servics were held in the homes of the members. 

In 1851 a more definite organization was efifected and 
christened "The Greenville Creek Church." This body con- 
sisted of about seventy members. There are at present six 
church houses and four congregations in this territory. 

About the year 1833 members of the church of the Breth- 
ren from Pennsylvania began to settle in Franklin and Mon- 
roe townships and formed what has ever since been known 
as the Ludlow congregation. This includes four chuich 
houses ; one near Painter Creek village, one at Pittsburg, 
one at Red River and one at Georgetown in Miami county. 
Among the first members of this church were Jacob Stauffer 
and wife, Barbara Brandt, Sallie Finfrock, David Kinsey and 
wife, Frederick Holsopple and wife, David Mishler and wife. 
At this time there were seventeen members living in the 
above townships. 

"Philip Younce was the first minister to conduct religious 
services in this part of the county. He lived about five miles 
southeast of West j\Iilton, nearly twenty miles distant, and 
made his visit on horseback every eight weeks. Services 
were held in the homes of the people, except in midsummer, 
when a well shaded spot in the forest was selected. At the 
time of one of these appointments Painter Creek had risen to 
abnormal size. A friend of Rev. Younce living east of the 
creek, desiring to spare the veteran minister this long jour- 
ney, sent a messenger the day previous to inform him he 
could not cross the raging stream. The elder, who was al- 
ready en route, hesitated a moment, and then replied, 'My 
horse can swim, and I shall try and reach my appointment.' 
On he went and sure enough the faithful horse did take him 
safely through the deep water full of floating logs, and his 
appointment was filled according to previous announcement. 
"In 1850 the young men of this community, having a desire 
for greater social and educational development, erected 
through subscription for material and labor, a building made 
of logs one mile east of the village of Painter creek on the 
farm owned by Samuel Beane. This was first used only for 
singing schools and debates, but soon after its use was also 
tendered the church in which to hold religious services. A 
few years later the building was given wholly to the church, 
and thus it became the first church building in this part of 
Darke county. With such ministers as Philip and John 


Younce, David Mishler, Abraham Younce, Eli Swank, Henry 
Jones, Frederick Stauffer, Absolem Hyer and other conse- 
crated leaders, Ludlow church grew in influence and numbers 
until it reached a membership of four hundred. For a third 
of a century its membership has remained about the same. 
Within this time even a greater number of members removed 
from its borders and became pioneer settlers in the west and 
northwest. Believing that with less territory and more con- 
centrated effort a church organization can accomplish more 
efficient work, Ludlow district in December, 1913, decided to 
divide itself into two congregations with Painter creek and 
Red river comprising one congregation and Pittsburg and 
Georgetown the other. In German township there were early 
organizations of this church, likewise in Adams township, 
where the early settlers organized a congregation known as 
the; Upper Stillwater congregation'. This also included a 
part of Miami county. The first church house built for this 
congregation was in the autumn of 1844 and the spring of 
1845, about one mile north of Bradford, on the Miami cnunty 
side. The ground was donated by Jacob Bashore and John 
Beanblossom. The ministers were Eld. Michael Etter, John 
Brumbaugh and John Cable. Deacons, Daniel Morgan, Isaac 
Hoover, David Minnich and Adam Brandt. Later Oakland 
congregation in Darke county and Covington and Newton 
congregations in Miami county were formed from this ter- 

In 1868 the first church building was taken down and the 
present large and substantial building erected. In 1908 
this building was remodeled so as to provide better Sunday 
school facilities. 

Amongst other ministers who were leaders in this congre- 
gation were Joseph Risser. S. S. Mohler, John Hershey, Adam 
Helman, Emanuel Hoover and Wm. Boogs. Ministers hav- 
ing the work in charge at present are Eld. J. C. Bright, Eld. 
J. M. Stover, Devolt Crowel, S. D. Royer, S. E. Porter and 
John Eikenberr}'. 

The Oakland congregation is mostly in Adams township 
and has a membership of 184. Its ministers are Eld. John 
Christian, Henry Smith and Elmer Ikey. 

There are nearly ICX) members of the church of the Breth- 
ren living in Bradford. An efifort is being made at present 
to raise sufficient subscription to erect a church buildinp 


There are at present twelve church houses located in Darke 
county at the following places : Beech Grove, Castine, Green- 
ville, Jordan, North Star, Oakland, Painter Creek, Pittsburg, 
Poplar Grove, Pleasant Valley, Red River and West Branch. 
Union City and Upper Stillwater congregations are partly in 
Darke county. The church membership of Darke county is 
about 1,200, and the number of ministers twenty-three. These 
are largely of Pennsylvania and Virginia parentage. There 
are organized churches in 38 of the states of the Union with 
a membership of about 100,000. 

The Gospel Messenger is the official organ of the church, 
and is published weekly at Elgin, Illinois. 

In recent years the church has greatly increased its ac- 
tivity in missions, Sunday school work, education and tem- 
perance. Each of these departments has a general board. 
Under the supervision of the General Mission Board, for- 
eign missions have ben established in Denmark, Sweden, In- 
dia and China, with other fields under consideration. The 
Missionary Visitor is the official paper published monthly at 
Elgin, Illinois. 

Under the supervision of the Educational Board there are 
nine denominational schools located as follows : Juniata Col- 
lege, Huntingdon, Pa. : Blue Ridge College, New Windsor, 
Md. : Bridgewater College, Bridgewater, Va. ; Daleville Col- 
lege, Daleville, Va. : Manchester College, Nj^rth AIaiichestei%_ 
Ind. ; Mt. Morris College. Mt. Morris, 111.; Bethany Bible 
School, Chicago, 111. ; McPherson College, McPherson, Kan. : 
Palmers College, Lordsburg, Cal. 

Under the supervision of the General Sunday School Board 
with headquarters at Elgin, 111., there has been eflfected a more 
thorough organization of the Sunday schools of the church. 
I. B. Trout is secretary of the board, and is editor-in-chief 
of the various Sunday school publications of the church. The 
enrollment of the Sunday school exceeds her membership. 

Ever since the organization of the church she has stood 
against the open saloon and the manufacture of intoxicatinL; 
liquor. She believes in the simplicity of life as found in the 
teaching of Christ in the New Testament. 

She represents a people who, as little children (Luke 18:17), 
accept the word of the new testament as a message from 
heaven ("Heb. 1 :1. 2), and teach it in full (2 Tim. 4:1, 2: Alatt. 

Who baptize believers by triune immersion fMatt. 28:19) 


with a forward action (Rom. 6:5), and for the remission of sins 
(Acts 2:38), and lay hands on those baptized, asking upon 
them the gift of God's spirit (Acts 19:5, 6). 

A\'ho follow the command and example of washing one an- 
other's feet (John 13:4, 17). 

Who take the Lord's Supper at night (John 13:20), at cue 
and the same time, tarrying one for another (1 Cor. 11 -.53. 34) 

Who greet one another with a holy kiss (Acts 20:37; Rimii, 

Who take the Communion at night, after supper, as did the 
Lord (Mark 14:17, 23). 

Who teach all the doctrines of Christ, peace ( Heb. 12:14), 
love (1 Cor. 13), unity ( Eph. 4), both faith and works (James 
2:17, 20). 

^^"ho labor for nonconformity to the world in its vain and 
wicked customs (Rom. 12:2). 

Who advocate nonswearing (I\Iatt. 5:34. 37). anti-secretism 
(2 Cor. 6:14, 17), opposition to war (John 18:36), doing good 
unto all men (Matt. 5:44, 46). 

Who anoint and lay hands on the sick (James 5:14, 15). 

Who give the Bread of Life, the message of the common 
salvation, unto all men without money or price (^latt. 10:8). 

The Church of the Brethren in Greenville. 

In our sketch of the Brethren church it has been noted 
that its early meeting houses were established in the rural 
communities. On account of their plain manner of living and 
industrious habits these people devote most of their energies 
to the cultivation of the soil. However, on account of ad- 
vancing age, a number of the brethren retired from active life 
on the farm and settled in the county seat, during the latter 
years of the nineteenth century. Being accustomed to the 
regular worship of God these devout people commenced to 
hold services in the house of Mr. Hardman on the northwest 
corner of Pine street and Central avenue about the year 1889, 
under the preaching of Elder Henry Baker. The iMission 
Board of the .Southern District of Ohio soon perceived the im- 
portance of establishing a church in Greenville, and lent en- 
couragement and financial aid to this enterprise. With its 
assistance it was then decided to erect a house of worship 
in the near future. Services were then held in the city hall, 
a lot was purchased on the east side of Central avenue be- 


tween Walker and Pine streets, and the erection of a church 
commenced. This building was pushed to completion and 
dedicated in January, 1901. It was a substantial brick struc- 
ture with pointed slate roof 38x60 feet in size, and was the 
first church located in the rapidly growing section of the city 
south of the Pennsylvania railway. At this time a society 
of twenty-four members was organized, among whom were 
the following: Henry Beck and wife, I. K. HoUinger and 
wife, David Marker and wife, John Marker and wife, George 
Puterbaugh, Sr., and wife, David Hollinger and wife. Mrs. 
Daisy Hollinger, Airs. Catharine Hopkins, Mrs. Susie Mi- 
chael, Mrs. Marg. Murphy and daughter Laura. The society 
grew in numbers and influence and in 1911 the original church 
structure was enlarged and remodeled, the roof being raised 
about ten feet, a tower added in front, three Sunday school 
rooms attached to the east end and a gallery constructed, giv- 
ing the property a value conservatively estimated at $7,000.00. 
Special emphasis has been placed on the work of the Sun- 
day school with the result that it now has an enrollment of 
about two hundred and fifty members. George D. Puter- 
baugh was superintendent of this department for se\'eral 
years and was recently succeeded by Allen Weimer. The 
school is well organized, has seven separate class rooms, be- 
sides the main assembly room, and supports a teachers' 
training class. The young people support a flourishing Chris- 
tian Workers' Societ}' of which Chas. Forror is president. 
The women of the church maintain a strong auxiliary organ- 
ization, nown as the Ladies' Aid Society, of which Mrs. David 
Hollinger is the head. The official board is constituted as 
follows: Elders, Abraham Brumbaugh, Granville Minnich, A. 
W. Weimer; deacons, Henry Beck, George Puterbaugh, Sr.. 
Elam Forror, Geo. D. Puterbaugh, Jr.. I. N. Rover, A'incent 
Halliday. Henry Hovatter, Chas. Fryman and Chas. Forror. 
Rev. David Hollinger has been pastor of this congregation 
most of the time since its organization, freely giving of his 
time and talents to the work of the ministry without financial 
remuneration at his own request. The church now' has about 
170 members and on account of the need of a central church 
of this denomination in Darke county, the character of its 
membership and its strategic location, promises to grow stead- 
ilv in numbers and influence. 


The Brethren's Home. 

In the year 1902 the Brethren churches of the southern 
district of Ohio secured a charter to erect a home for depend- 
ent orphan children and the old people under their care. 
After a careful inspection of eligible locations for the proposed 
benevolent institution, the locating committee chose a beau- 
tiful site on the east blufif of the Mud creek valley, just south 
of Oakview addition to the city of Greenville. The central 
location of Greenville, and its exceptional railroad facilities 
were determining factors in the decision of the committee. 
This site comprises forty acres of fertile prairie and upland, 
formerly known as the Rush farm, lying between the Fort 
Jefierson pike and the Pennsylvania railway, and commands 
a fine view of the country to the south and west. On. ac- 
count of proximity to Greenville and its natural advantage 
this site was well chosen and reflects credit upon the wisdom 
of its purchasers. Here two substantial pressed brick build- 
ings encircled with wide porches were erected at an approx- 
imate cost of $25,000.00, and dedicated in July, 1903, with ap- 
propriate exercises. 

The buildings are two stories in height with cemented 
basements under the entire structure, are 35x70 feet in size, 
and are equipped with electricity, city water, sanitary sewers, 
natural gas pipes and a good heating plant. 

The north building was constructed for the use of the old 
folks, and has a hallway running east and west entirely 
through its length. On the right side of this hall, down- 
stairs, are located the superintendent's office, four bedrooms 
and a sewing room. On the left side are located the old peo- 
ples' sitting room, dining room, kitchen, pantry and store 
room. Upstairs there are six rooms on each side for bed- 
rooms. At the west end are toilet rooms, and lavatories, 
with hot and cold water. 

The south building is located about sevent}'-five feet from 
its companion, with which it is now connected by a brick 
building erected for a laundry and furnace house. Like the 
northern building it is intersected by longitudinal hallways 
downstairs and up. On the north side of this hall down- 
stairs are located the rooms for the governess, and little 
girls, children's toilet room, a large dining room and kitchen 
for the accommodation of the superintendent's family, the 
help and the children. On the south side o* the hall are 


located a large sitting room, chapel, boys" room, and dairy and 
supply room equipped with cream-separator, refrigerator, etc. 
Upstairs are located the women's hospital, the men's hospital 
and four bedrooms. 

Twenty-nine adults, ranging in age from 55 to 87 years, 
were admitted during the first year. Xo children were 
admitted until 1905, when eleven came. 

Since its establishment the following persons have served 
as superintendent: A. G. Snowberger, about six months; E. 
P. Longenecker. one year; Joseph Brant, one year; M. X. 
Rensbarger. three years ; Granville W. Minnich, the present 
efficient incumbent, has served continuously since 1909. 

The lawns in front of the buildings have been nicely graded 
and planted with trees which, in time, will add greatly to the 
pleasing and home-like appearance of the grounds. The aver- 
age number of inmates has been about thirty. At present 
there are twenty-six adults and six children in the home. 

The location of this institution in Darke county indicates 
that the Brethren church is strong and influential here and is 
growing in prestige and good works. It also adds one to the 
high class benevolent institutions located in the county, and 
tends to attract and bind together the members of a church 
valued highly for their contribution to the social, moral and 
religious affairs of our people. 

First Evangelical Church. 

On account of the goodly proportion of German emigrants 
to Greenville and vicinity about 1830 to 1850 three diiTerent 
denominations were early established in Greenville, viz.. the 
Evangelical, German M. E. and Lutheran. Although the 
former denomination has lost its distinctive German character 
in late years, it was established by Germans, as shown by the 
records and the names of the early families who supported it. 
Among these were the Renschlers, Koenigs, Lutzs. Kecks and 
Schwartzs, The first services were held in private homes bv 
visiting ministers from Dayton, Cincinnati and neighboring 
places. Although a small class was formed as early as 1842, 
the membership increased slowly, and did not erect a house 
of worship until 1858. when a substantial brick church build- 
ing was erected on the southeast corner of Fourth and Ash 
streets, where the congregation Jias continued to worship 
ever since. The early growth of the church was quite slow 


as indicated by the fact that Inu twenty-eight members were 
reported in 1880, at which time regular preaching services were 
held only once in two weeks. Under the pastorate of Rev. 
Geo. D. Eastes in 1911. the church was remodeled at a cost 
of about $4,000.00. At this time a Sunday school room was 
added, the basement enlarged, the auditorium decorated and 
refurnished and other improvements made. Plans have re- 
cently been adopted whereby the society, by action of the 
annual conference, expect to build a new parsonage on the 
present site adjoining the church, in the near future. 

The trustees in 1913 were: Irvin Smith, president: C. M. 
Dunn, secretary : Henry Flurkey. treasurer : Anna Flurkey, 
president Young Peoples' Alliance : Mr. Frank Slade, superin- 
tendent of Sunday school. The enrollment in the Sunday 
school in 1913 was about 140, and the church membership 
about 100. The present zealous pastor is Rev. Ernest R. 
Roop. who is entering on the third year of his pastorate. This 
ctiurch is exceptionally well located and in a position to serve 
a large number of people in the eastern central section of the 

The Universalist Church. 

As suggested l^y it.s title, this denomination stands for the 
universal fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of all mankind, 
and the ultimate harmony of all souls with God. Its members 
accept the Bible as containing a revelation of the character of 
God and of the duty, interest and final destination of man- 
kind, and believe tliat God is revealed in Christ by the Holy 
Spirit. Both modes of baptism are practiced. 

The local congregation is independent in the management 
of its affairs. This denomination became established in the 
New England states over a hundred years ago. Although it 
has never attained a large membership it has exercised con- 
siderable influence on the religious thought of the Protestant 
denominations since its organization. From the meager 
records extant it appears that the first Universalist society in 
the county was organized in New Madison in 1859 with 
thirty-one members under the preaching of Henry Gifford. 
A large lot was purchased of John B. Schriber on the south 
side of the village in June, 1859, for $75.00 and subscriptions 
were received for a building. A stibstantial frame structure 
about forty by fifty feet in size was soon erected and dedi- 
cated in Januar}', 1860. Here the denomination has maintained 


an organization ever since, placing special emphasis on Sun- 
day school work, and is now probably stronger than at any 
other point in the county. Under the pastorate of the late J. A. 
Stoner and wife, of Eaton, Ohio, a beautiful modern briclc 
church building was erected in 1903 at a cost of some 
$8,000.00. This church now has a membership of over one 
hundred, a large active and well organized Sunday school, a 
junior Young Peoples' Christian Union and a Ladies' Aid 

The second Universalist church in the county was organ- 
ized at Palestine by Rev. Elihu Moore, a noted theologian and 
protagonist of the faith, with ten members, on June 18, 1868. 
Meetings were first held in the old Palestine school-house but 
in a few years a substantial frame church building was erected 
at a probable cost of $3,000.00 on a fine lot situated on the 
north side of the village, which had been given by Mrs. \'iola 
Kester. Harvey L. Hill, George Kester and M. M. Jefifries 
were the first deacons, and Harrod Mills the first clerk. This 
church has had as pastors some of the strongest Universalist 
preachers in this part of the field, including such men as S. P. 
Carlton, Thomas Guthrie, John Blackford, J. P. ^lacLean, 
John Richardson, Lotta D. Crosley, J. A. Stoner and wife, and 
the present pastor, O. G. Colegrove. 

Associations and other important meetings have been held 
here and this church might, with propriety, be called the 
mother of the Greenville church. At present it has a mem- 
bership of seventy-five, a "Front Line" Sunday school and an 
active Ladies' Aid Society. 

About the years 1891 and 1892 occasional Lhiiversalist ser- 
vices were held in the opera house in Greenville by Rev. S. P. 
Carlton and Rev. J. P. ]\IacLean. Considerable interest de- 
veloped which resulted in the organization of the "First Uni- 
versalist Church," at a meeting held in the city hall, on Thurs- 
day evening, January 26, 1893, at which the following named 
persons entered themselves on the roll as members : L O. 
Sinks, William P. Espy, I. N. Eakins, T. J. Dowlar, Charles 
M. Kates, A. N. Van Dyke, A. P. Sawyer, Mrs. Nina Emer- 
son, Mrs. Retta Ketring, Mrs. Jane Eakins, Mrs. Harriet K. 
Dowlar, Mrs. Belle L. Kates, Mrs. America Sinks, Mrs. L. A. 
Eidson, Mrs. A. P. Sawyer, Mrs. A. E. Shepherd, [Mrs. Sarah 
C. Wilson, Mrs. Amanda Miller and Miss Rettie Sinks. 

Rev. MacLean was called to the pastorate in February and 
the opera house was soon rented as a place for holding ser- 


vices. Meetings were held here on the first and third Sun- 
days of each month for over two years. In the meantime the 
society decided to secure a lot and erect a church building. 
Various sites were considered but before a decision was made 
^Ir. and Airs. Martin \'. Emerson purchased the southwest 
part of lot 139 on the north side of East Fifth street near 
Broadway early in 1895 and donated the front portion for the 
use of the church. An active canvass for a church building 
fund was now made with the result that the corner stone of 
the new building was laid on Sunday afternoon, July 7, 1895, 
in the presence of a large concourse of people. The services 
were participated in by Rev. L. E. Jones, Presbyterian ; Rev. 
^^'. E. Ludwick, Reformed ; Rev. J. P. Tyler, Episcopalian, 
besides the pastor, and were quite impressive. 

The structure erected was of brick and cost about $3,503.09. 
Rev. AlacLean served this congregation about four years and 
was succeeded by John Richardson, who served about twn 
years. Lotta D. Crosley came about 1900 and served some 
three years. Thomas S. Guthrie followed with a three-year 
pastorate. Leon P. and ]\Iartha Jones acted as joint pastors 
from 1906 to 1908, and were followed by E. H. Barrett. Rev. 
and Mrs. O. G. Colegrove began their pastorate in October, 
1910, and are still serving acceptably in that capacity, preach- 
ing here on the first and third Sundays of eacli month. B. M. 
AlcCabe is moderator; Mrs. Lola Aukerman, clerk: Mrs. 
Alary Horn, treasurer. The trustees are: L. C. .Au'erman, 
B. AI. AlcCabe, Robert Davidson. J. E. Rush and J. E. Owens. 

This church maintains a "Front Line"' Sunday school, an 
active Y. P. C. L^. and a A\'<T-nan's Universalist Missionary 

The Reformed Church. 

The Reformed churcli in the United States is an oft'-shoot 
of one of the oldest Protestant Christian bodies having a con- 
tinuous history since its organization, being contemporaneous 
with the Lutheran church. It arose out of the Reformation 
in Switzerland, but soon became planted in Germany, espe- 
cially in the Palatinate, where it secured control of Heidel- 
berg Laiiversity and exerted a powerful influence during the 
reformation. As a symbol of faith it adopted the Heidelberg 
catechism in 1563. In policy it is Presbyterial as the Pres- 
byterian church is Reformed in doctrine. Therefore, these 
two churches are closely related and have been kept apart 


chiefly by difference of language and tradition. However, 
these influences have grown less with time and the two com- 
munions are now negotiating a union. The local governing 
body in this denomination is called a consistory ; the district 
body a classis ; a group of classes, a synod ; the highest body, 
a general synod. 

The first Synod organized in the United States was among 
the German settlers of eastern Pennsylvania in 1743. Here 
this denomination largely became entrenched and from this 
center has followed the Pennsylvania emigrants to Ohio and 
other states. It places great stress on the educational method 
in implanting religion, has an educated ministry and a strong- 
denominational consciousness. It now has over 300,000 mem- 
bers in the United States and maintains important schools 
and missions in Japan and China. Its principal educational 
institutons in Ohio are Heidelberg University, at Tiiifin, and 
Central Theological Seminary at Dayton. It is well repre- 
sented in the latter city and in the upper Aliami valley, but 
did not get a footing in Darke county until about the middle 
of the nineteenth century. The records of 1853 show at least 
four congregations in this county, viz. : Zion (near Baker's 
Store), St. John's in German township, Beamsville and Gettys- 
burg. At a meeting of the joint consistories held in Beams- 
ville, August 6, 1853, Jesse Prugh was president ; John L. 
Darner, secretary; Philip Hartzell and Jesse Prugh, delegates 
to Synod and Classis. Rev. J. Vogt, Rev. John Stuck and 
Rev. William ]\IcCaughey were prominent early ministers in 
this denomination. Besides the above mentioned churches 
congregations were established in the course of a few j^ears, 
largely under their influence, at Beech Grove (on Ithaca 
pike); Xew Madison, ^It. Pleasant (at intersection of Xash- 
ville pike and Greenville township pike), Bethel (on Bethel 
pike about one mile southwest of Woodington) ; Hillgrove ; 
East Zion (two miles east of Greenville on Gettysburg pike), 
also at Bradford and Arcanum. Rev. Reuben Good and Rev. 
Jacob AI. LeFever were also early preachers in ^•arious 

Zion's congregation withdrew from the original charge in 
1856, and the Beamsville and Creager (Xew Harrison) 
churches became attached to the Dallas charge in 1862. By 
this time the leaders in the denomination had awakened to 
the importance of establishing a mission in the county seat 
as a strategic center of the church's activity. Accordingly 


the Old School Presbyterian church was secured ami in 
September, 1864, Rev. T. P. Bucher of Dayton, preached 
here to a large congregation. This meeting was followed by 
others conducted by Rev. \\'illiam McCaughey and Rev. A. 
Wanner, and on September 19, 1864, a society was organized 
at the home of Mrs. Clara Bartling on East Main street with 
the following members : Philip Hartzell and wife, Mrs. Clara 
Bartling. Solomon Creager, Mrs. E. E. Baer and Mrs. Mar- 
garet Webb. Rev. William ^IcCaughey was called as the 
first pastor. In the spring of 1866 a building committee was 
appointed and in October of that year the old Christian 
church on Walnut street was rented for six months. In 1869 
the Old School Presbyterian church building on the north- 
west corner of Fourth and Broadway was purchased for. 
$4,000.00. This seems to have been a premature venture as 
most of the purchase money had been borrowed and in Feb- 
ruary, 1870, this property was sold at auction. Previous to 
this the lot on the southwest corner of Third and Vine streets 
had been purchased from John Harper. This also was dis- 
posed of and on May 30, 1870, some forty-five feet by seventy 
feet ofif the rear of lot 29 on the west side of Sycamore street 
between Third and Fourth streets was purchased for $1,000.00. 
An active canvass for funds was soon commenced and the 
building of a church edifice pushed. In 1872 the new building 
was completed at a cost of some $5,400.00, and the Rev. David 
Winters of Dayton and others assisted the pastor in the dedi- 
catory services. The building was constructed of brick on a 
stone foundation, with tower, pitched roof, buttresses and 
pointed art glass windows in the Gothic style of architecture, 
was frescoed, carpeted and neatly furnished, making it prob- 
ably the best appointed church in the town at that time. 

On February 16, 1873, the first communion was observed in 
this church. Rev. McCaughey served this church for a period 
of ten years, preaching his farewell sermon on September 6, 
1874. He was succeeded by Rev. R. B. Reichard who served 
from December, 1874, till July, 1876. Other pastors were Rev. 
Jesse Steiner, spring of 1876 to the fall of 1877 ; Rev. Samuel 
Mease, 1880 and 1881 : Rev. G. H. Sonder, 1882 and 1883 : Rev. 
J. C. Beade, 1883 to 1886; Rev. J. M. Kessler, July, 1886, to 
February. 1887; Rev. William E. Ludwick, April, 1887. to 
June. 1898; Rev. ■\^'illiam H. Shults, November, 1898, to spring 
of 1900; Rev. J. Wolbach. December, 1900, to October, 1901. 

During this period of the church's existence many difficul- 



ties were encountered and its growth and progress were com- 
paratively slow until the pastorate of Rev. W. E. Ludwick, 
vsfhen the church made considerable gain financially and 

Rev. Joseph Pierce Alden. a graduate of Ursinus School of 
Theology, was called to the pastorate and in July, 1902, came 
to the church. He is still filling that position in a very ac- 
ceptable manner. During his incumbency the membership 
has increased, the organization of the church and Sunday 
school has been greatly strengthened and a feeling of har- 
mony and co-operation has prevailed. In June, 1910, the west 
half of lot No. 37 on the northeast corner of Third and Syca- 
more streets was purchased for six thousand dollars. A good 
eight room parsonage with modern improvem.ents is situated 
on the rear of this lot, facing on Sycamore street. Lot No. 
28 on the southeast corner of Third and Sycamore streets, 
was purchased from Miss McCaughey in May, 1914, for 
$8,250 and with a $5,000.00 gift set aside by Mr. Jacob New- 
baurer in memory of his wife, Emma, recently deceased, who 
was a devoted member of the congregation, as a nucleus, it is 
proposed to commence the erection of a modern and con- 
venient church and Sunday school on this site this year, it 
being the fiftieth anniversary of the organization of the 
church. The building committee appointed for hhis purpose, 
comprises the following members : C. M. White, E. T. Wag- 
ner, F. E. Wilson, H. P. Hartzell, Chalmer Brown, Mrs. W. 
W. Teegarden and Gertrude Ditman. 

The present members of the Consistory are : Rev. J. P. 
Alden, president ; Elders S. C. Vantilburg, L. S. P.roAvn and 
C. M. White ; Deacons, C. O'Brien, Jesse Bruss and F. E. 
Wilson (clerk) ; church treasurer, Gertrude Ditman. 

President of the Ladies Aid Society, Mrs. E. T. Wagner. 

President of the Woman's Missionary Society, Mrs. J. E. 

President of the Y. P. S. C. E., Omer Brodrick. 

The present church membership is 158. 

The Sunday school has an enrollment of about 150 mem- 
bers and has been largely instrumental in building up the 
church and strengthening its finances. It is graded according 
to modern standards, and has also three regularly organized 
classes, a cradle roll, a home department, a missionary and a 
temperance superintendent Jesse Bruss is superintendent 


of the school ; Elsie Black, secretary ; Paul Warner, treasurer 
and ^Myrtle Slonaker, missionary superintendent. 

There are now (1914) congregations at East Zion (two 
and one-half miles east of Greenville), West Zion (near 
Baker's), Hill Grove and Beech Grove (three and one-half 
miles west of Arcanum), under the pastorate of Rev. Scott V. 
Rohrbaugh of Greenville. There is also a church at Arcanum. 
Like other denominations, the Reformed church attempted 
to plant congregations in ill-advised localities, with the result 
that these have been discontinued after a short history of 
struggle and sacrifice. Among these were the congregations 
at Beamsville, Pikeville, St. John's, j\lt. Pleasant, Bethel and 
New ^Madison. An efifort is now being made to retrieve these 
losses by a stronger and more efificient organization of the 
remaining rural churches. By a careful survey and canvass of 
the field of the East Zion church this congregation has been 
reorganized and strengthened and is attempting to solve 
some of the pressing problems which now confront the rural 
churches, here and elsewhere, and threaten their existence. 
These problems have arisen largely on account of the moving 
of the land owners to the county seat, and their sons to the 
cities, leaving the affairs of the church to disinterested ten- 
ants, and also to the ill-advised competition of various denom- 
inations endeavoring to plant churches where thev are not 
needed. These facts are being carefully considered b}- va- 
rious denominations which are now advocating co-operation 
instead of competition, and are strixing to meet the changed 
conditions of rural life. 

The Church of Christ. 

This denomination, sometimes called Disciples, at others 
Campbellites, and in the west known as Christian, challenged 
the attention of the Christian world about one hundred 3'ears 
ago under the preaching of Alexander Campbell, who had orig- 
inally been a Presbyterian, as a protest against sectarianism 
and the extreme doctrines of Calvinism. 

The church has no regularly formulated or written creed, 
except the Bible, but requires of candidates for admission a 
statement of belief in Jesus Christ and Him crucified as a per- 
sonal and all sufficient Sa\ior. Baptism by immersion is also 
required and the members partake of the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper frequently. 


The local church was organized early in 1898 when services 
were held in the city hall. Among the charter members were 
Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Smith. ]\Ir. and Mrs. F. M. Payne, Mr. and 
Mrs. Mile Smith, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Beanblossom, Mr. and 
Mrs. Nelson Batten. Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Hindsley, Mr. and 
Mrs. S. Victor and daughter Elsie, Mrs. Morton and sons For- 
est, Walter and Earnest, iNIr. and Mrs. Geo. B. Dively and 
daughter Lou, Mrs. Geo. \\'. McClellan, Emma Deardoff, 
Sarah Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Harnish. 

Rev. P. O. Updike, who had been sent by the State [Mis- 
sionary Board, organized this church and became its first pas- 
tor, serving about two years. A lot was purchased September 
9, 1898, on the south side of East Main street, between Ludlow 
and Locust streets, and a substantial brick church erected 
thereon and dedicated Sunday, January 1. 1899. 

The pastors who have ser-\-ed this church since L'pdike 
were: W. B. Slater, A. T. Shaw, ^^"illiam Hough, A. Baker, 
Clarence Baker. Gerry Cook, W. A. McCartney, Adam Adcock, 
Rev. Hill and Charles W. Perry. 

The present membership is about seventy-fi\'e. 

The superintendent of the Sunday school is Bon Logan. 

The trustees in 1913 were: J- ^^^ Browder, president: F. M. 
Payne, clerk: W'illiam 'SI. Wenger. Xelson Batten, Aaron 
Kerst, Samuel Harnish. 

Elder, J. A. Deweese. 

Deacons : W. M. Wenger, J. H. Hoover, Perry Stonerock, 
Albert Batten. 

Other churches — Carnahan ( on the Winchester pike, one 
and one-half miles west of Sharpeye). The original Carnahan 
church was built by John Carnahan. a farmer and preacher of 
the Campbellite faith, who settled in the neighborhood about 
1830. It was built of logs and was located about one-fourth of 
a mile west of the present structure, which was erected in 
1867. Palestine, Burkettsville, Yorkshire. 

The Mennonite Church. 

One of the latest denominations to enter the Darke county 
field was the Mennonite, and as a consequence its doctrines 
and customs are not as well known here as are those of other 
sects. This body is an outgrowth of the Anabaptist movement 
which followed the Reformation and now numbers in its vari- 
ous branches about a quarter of a million adherents of whom 


some 55,000 are in the United States, being mostly located in 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia. They hold to 
the cardinal Protestant doctrines, but are opposed to taking 
oaths, to military service, to theological learning and to infant- 
baptism, and practice simplicity in life and worship. The local 
church governs itself. 

The Greenville church was organized by Rev. D. Brenne- 
man, the presiding elder, in February, 1900, as the outgrowth 
of a mission which had been held for three or four years pre- 
vious on South Broadway. 

Among the charter members were, Robert \\'right and wife, 
Curtis Swabb and wife and Wesley Gorsuch. Rev. F. C. Rudy 
was the first pastor. A neat brick church was built on the 
southeast corner of Warren and Hall street, convenient to the 
residents of the east end of the city. Several pastors have 
served this church for brief periods since its establishment, 
among whom were William Huffman. J. J. Hostetter, H. F. 
Beck and the present incumbent, Clarence F. Moore. The pres- 
ent church enrollment is about seventy, and the membership 
of the Sunday school about one hundred. S. D. Hinegardner 
is the superintendent of the latter organization. There is an- 
other church of the Alennonite Brethren in Christ which holds 
services in the Union church at the Beech, a few miles south 
of Gettysburg. 

Other Denominations. 

Besides these more or less well established denominations, 
there are representatives of the Christian Alliance, the Holi- 
ness Sect, Christian Science, and the Old Order River Breth- 
ren (sometimes called Yorkers). The latter live in a well de- 
fined community between Horatio and Bradford, where they 
commenced to settle at an early date. They are the most con- 
servative in practice of all the various denominations, living a 
simple, primitive life, and having no church, building. Among 
the early families of this sect were the Etters and Boyers. At 
present there are only about fifteen families in the county. 
The colored peoj-.k also have two churches in their settlement 
in western German townslii]) near the state line. 

County Sunday School Association. 

The first recorded Sunday school in the history of Darke 
county was organized early in 1834 at the home of Abraham 
Scribner, later called "Scribner's AMiite House," on West Main 


Street. Eleven persons enrolled representing three or four de- 
nominations. Several accessions were soon made and within 
three years the number of members had increased to probably 
one hundred and seventy-five. About this time separate de- 
nominations began to organize their own schools and the 
school was disbanded. William Barrett, a Methodist, was the 
first superintendent ; Herman Searles. a Congregationalist, was 
the first secretary; and the Presbyterian and Episcopalians 
were also represented in the teaching force, which included 
such workers as Mrs. Bell. Mrs. Sexton, Mrs. Briggs, Mrs. 
Barrett and Miss Evaline Dorsey. As noted in the separate 
church sketches, each denomination later strove ^to develop a 
denominational consciousness. This condition continued until 
about 1870 when some of the most enthusiastic Sunday school 
workers saw the propriety of holding annual conventions and 
promoting co-operation among the schools of the county, re- 
gardless of denominational affiliation. W. J. Birely was presi- 
dent ; J. R. Robinson, secretary ; and William McCaughey, H. 
S. Bradley, J. L. Gourlay, J. T. Martz, J. T. Lecklider. John 
H. Martin, Rev. Wainwright, John Clark and P. H. Davis 
prominent workers in 1871. Conventions were held at Ver- 
sailles and Arcanum during that year. j\Iuch enthusiasm pre- 
vailed for awhile but the organization finally discontinued. 
Darke county was reorganized February 11, 1882. by S. E. 
Kumler, of Dayton, Ohio, and held its first convention at 
Greenville, May 18-19, 1882. The Rev. William :McCaughey 
was the first president, and H. K. Frank the first secretary. 
The interest lapsed until 1885, when \\'. B. Hough became 
president, no convention being held in 1883-4. During the 
Hough administration from 1885-88, there was an- awakening 
and several townships were organized. L. F. Limbert, of 
Greenville, was district secretary in 1888-9. In 1890, Superin- 
tendent John S. Royer, of the Gettysburg public schools, came 
upon the scene and organized all the townships in the county, 
except Adams, which had not lapsed, and York, which had but 
one school in it, but he and James Stewart organized York in 
1894. This enthusiastic worker drove all over the countv in 
the summer of 1890, enduring exposure and hardships, paying 
his own expenses and receiving no pav for services. In 1893 
he organized eleven counties in southern Ohio, under the di- 
rection of Marion Lawrence, and that made Ohio a banner 

In 1910 Mr. Royer reached the climax in bringing Darke 


countv into the front-line rank ahead of all the other counties 
in the state. We quote from the general secretary's report to 
the State convention at Dayton in June. 1911 : 

"Of the 373 front-line schools in Ohio. 243 are in twelve 
counties and about one-sixth of these are in Darke county, 
which has seventy-four schools, and forty-one are proven-up 
front-line. This remarkable record has been achieved largely 
through the plans and labors of Professor Royer, who philo- 
sophically reasoned that the pathway to front-line townships 
and to front-line county was bv making all the schools front- 
line. It is therefore not surprising to find that of Darke 
county's twenty townships, ten are front-line. This record 
could be duplicated in every county in Ohio if the county offi- 
cers would seek to make both the townships and the county 
front-line by working the problem from the end of the front- 
line school." 

Some Workers in the Revival of 1890. 

Adams— S. D. Kissel. J. T. Hershey. P. B. Miller. James H. 
Stoltz, J. C. Harmon. 

Allen — A. J. Bussard, S. A. Ross, Philip Heistand. William 
Ewry, Joseph Zerbe. 

Butler — Calvin Xorth, Jose])h Jordon, r\[rs. Harvev Fellers. 

Brown — O. F. Johnson, R. P. \'ernier. P. C. Zemer, E. 
Schmidt. George Rahn, John Gauge. 

Franklin-^Monroe — .\. A. Penny. E. E, Beck, Levi Minnich. 

Greenville— A. J. Mider, I. X. Smith. ^^'. D. Brumbaugh, A. 
B. Maurer, Lloyd Brown. 

German — William Ludy, H. H. ^^'ebb. Elijah Wilco.x, Lee 
Woods, Ellen Perry. 

Harrison — Isaac Wenger. R. E, Thomas. ^^■. C. Mote. D. 
W. Threewits, J. W. Ketring. 

Jackson — William B. Foutz, M. F. Oliver, A. A. Hoover. 
William Arnold. 

Mississinawa— Ed Miller. Gabriel Reigle. C. R. Reprogle. 
David Minnich. 

Neave — Fred Wagner, John North. 

Patterson— J. W. Keckler, Dottie Meek (Miller), H. Swal- 
low, J. N. Supinger. 

Richland— M. L. Shafer. James Reed, G. H. Mills, B. F. 
Beery, Dennis Shafer. 

Twin — Ezra Post, S. Rynearson. B. F. Keller, Ella Town- 


Van Buren — V\'illiam Albright. J. C. Trick, James Routsong. 

Washington — E. C. \Miite, C. E. Daubenmire. B. F. Skid- 
more, William Weidman. 

Wayne — J. S. Wade, M. A. Stover, Horatio D3-e, James T. 

Wabash— C. A. Sebring. L. M. Carter, F. M. Birt, Job 

Since the revival of 1890, J. S. Royer, I. S. Wenger, Ezra 
Post. W. D. Brumbaugh, C. B. Douglas, F. M. Shuks, D. T. 
Bennett, J. A. Pantle, William Underwood, A. L. Detrick and 
others have acted as superintendent ; while Mrs. J. C. Turpen, 
Mrs. John H. Martin, Mrs. E. M. Miller, O. E. Harrison. Ella 
Calderwood, Norman Selby, Mrs. E. Foutz and Fannie Hayes 
acted as secretary. Annual meetings have been held mostly 
in the towns throughout the county, in which state workers 
have taken a prominent part. Mrs. C. J. Ratcliff of Greenville 
has been the efficient and enthusiastic secretary for several 
years. The officers at present are: 

President — A. L. Detrick, Rossburg. 

Vice-President — A. F. Little. Bradford. 

Secretary— Mrs. C. J. Ratcliff. 

Treasurer — P. B. Moul, Gettysburg. 

Superintendents of Departments — Elementary : Airs. M. M. 
Corwin, Savona. Intermediate : Odessa Bussard, Ansonia. 
Adult: J. A. Westfall, Bradford. Teacher Training: Dr. J. A. 
Detamore, Hill Grove. Missionary: Airs. Lewis Erisman, 
Gettysburg. Home and Visitation : Mrs. A. L. Neff, Green- 
ville. Temperance : Dr. W. B. Graham, Arcanum. 


From the "Darke County Boy." 

The editor of this work has been led to compile a chapter 
under the above heading from the voluminous contributions of 
George W. Calderwood, the far-famed "Darke County Boy," 
who has written articles for the Greenville Courier, of which 
he was once editor, at irregular intervals for over thirty years, 
writing probably fifteen hundred or two thousand columns to 

Mr. Calderwood is the son of the late Judge A. R. Calder- 
wood, a brother of Mayor E. E. Calderwood of ^Greenville, and 
of John Calderwood, editor of the Courier, and a brother-in- 
law of the late Barney Collins and Samuel R. Kemble. He 
was born in 1848 at Matchetts' Corner, about seven miles 
south of Greenville, and was raised in the county seat. He 
was a vigorous and jolly boy, keenly enjoying the sports of 
the days of his youth, and a close observer of the people and 
customs of those interesting times before the war. He pos- 
sesses a versatile mind, is gifted with humor, pathos and a 
remarkable and retentive memor3% making his writings a ver- 
itable mine of information and a source of much sentimental 
enjoyment to others. George was a drum-major when but 
thirteen years old and acompanied his father with the Fortieth 
Ohio which was largely recruited in Darke county. He also 
served in the One hundred and fifty-second and One hundred 
and ninety-third regiments, and knows the ups and downs of 
soldier life. 

As a temperance orator for the National Prohibition organi- 
zation he attained an extended reputation. 

In build he is stout and stalky and bears a striking resem- 
blance to his distinguished father. 

As a sentimental lover of the comrades and associations of 
bygone days, and a fluent, ready and persistent writer of pio- 
neer lore he has no equal in the county. 

Accordingly this chapter is dedicated to him by one who 
knows the meager appreciation accorded the unselfish chron- 
icler of local history. 


On account of the diversity of topics treated, the matter 
selected can only be roughly classified and is accordingly ar- 
ranged under the following heads: 

Winter Sports. 

We will now have an old-time winter talk : 

All Mud creek is overflowed and frozen up from Tecumseh's 
Point to far above Bishop's crossing. 

Hundreds of muskrat houses are to be seen stretched along 
the way. The ice is covered with snow, and rabbit tracks are 
seen galore. Greenville creek is also frozen up from Dean's 
mill to Knouflf's dam and beyond. 

Skaters everywhere. The snow isn't deep enough to annoy 
any one. 

Pete Marks leads off, because he is the "champion skater of 
the west." George Smith is next, then comes his brother Ben. 
Hen Tomlinson swings in fourth, followed by Bill Creager, 
Tip King, Dave and Bob Robey, George Coover, Les Ries, 
Clay Helm, Ed Connor, Ike Kline, Jerry Tebo, "Jont" Gor- 
such. Jack Clark, Ike Lynch, Ed Tomlinson, Gus Rothaas, Bill 
Collins, Frank (Alex) Hamilton, and a dozen others. 

Every muskrat house is assaulted and several animals are 
dead and lying on the ice. Bonfires are blazing and rabbits 
are being roasted. A lot of fish have been killed either by the 
snare, or stunned by the pole of an ax. The day is one of 
feasting, and fun of all kinds is on tap. 

Supper time finds everybody at home, but none so tired but 
that they can take in the Thespian or the dance in \\'eston & 
Ullery's hall. 

If the snow is deep enough, the older boys will be out sleigh- 
riding with the girls, while we smaller kids can be seen coast- 
ing down the hill towards Greenville bridge, but scooting off 
to the right of it and plunging down onto the ice in Greenville 

On moonlight nights the hill behind Robey 's house (now the 
Bause home on Sweitzer street), found us coasting down it, 
the sleds often running as far nut in the prairie as the old race 

One thing the boys wore in those days that I seldom see 
now, and that is knit comforts of red, yellow, green and blue. 


The boy that had the most colors in his neck com'ort was en- 
vied by all other boys. Neither do I see so many fur caps. 

A rabbit skin cap or a squirrel skin cap was not to be sneezed 
at in those days. 

The boy whose parents were rich enough to buy him a pair 
of buckskin gloves, or "mits" was envied by all boys who had 
to wear the "mits that mother knit'" or go without. 

The "holidays" in the 50"s lasted from Christmas until New 
Year. That was the great dance and "festival" week — oyster 
suppers at the churches and other places. It was the great 
coming out season for boys who could afiford overcoats, fur 
caps, skates and neck comforters. Later on it became fashion- 
able or rather aristocratic for boys to wear gloves — tur gloves 
at that — and the way they would put on style was a caution. 
Bear's oil was the favorite grease for the hair, provided it had 
plenty of cinnamon drops in it. Nearly every boy in town 
wore a round-a-bout. Long-tailed coats were for men only. 
Not every boy in town was accustomed to a pocket handker- 
chief. His coat sleeve was good enough. He would use first 
one sleeve and then the other. That kind of boy seems to have 
gone out of fashion. 

Singing School. 

Every community in Darke county had a "singing teacher" 
and O- course a "class" of singers — or those who felt that they 
had voices that should be heard around the world. 

The first thing to learn was the scale : 


That was about all they sang the first night. Most of the 
teachers had a little steel prong that they would tap on a ta1)le 
in order to get the right "pitch." Holding this to his ear the 
teacher would open his mouth as wide as the room would per- 
mit and then out would come his voice until the whole room 
was full of music. Organs and pianos were scarce in those 
days but melodious were plenty. As soon as the class was 
drilled sufficiently a concert would be given, the receipts of 
which went to the teacher as payment for his valuable ser- 
vices. He would then visit another neighborhood and "get up 
a class" and so on throughout the county. These teachers did 
lots of good and seldom anv harm. 


"School Brats." 

All those who were "school brats" from 1865 backward are 
requested to brmg their "McGuffey's Readers," "Webster's 
Elementary Speller," "Ray's Third Arithmetic," "Stoddard's 
Mental Arithmetic," "Mitchell's Geography," "Bullion's Gram- 
mar," and "Payson's Copy Book." Of course each one is ex- 
pected to bring a slate and a pencil. Don't forget your lunch 
baskets. See that they are well filled, as you may want to eat 
a bite at recess. 

The "girls" will be expected to wear sunbonnets, gingham 
aprons, short dresses (ladies', or course) and pantalettes with 
ruffles at the bottom. Those that have coppertoe shoes should 
wear them. Mohair garters are always in style — so that those 
who can't get coppertoe shoes should wear garters with rub- 
ber stretchers on each side. The "boys" should come bare- 
footed, if possible, but in case thev ha\-e bunions they should 
wear red top boots. 

^^'hen the spelling class is called every one should be pre- 
pared for it. There will be some jaw-breaking words, I know, 
such as Lat-i-tu-di-na-ti-on, In-com-pat-i-bil-i-ty. In-com-pre- 
hen-si-bil-i-ty, O-pom-po-noo-sol. Con-sti-tu-ti-on-al-i-ty, and 


^^'hen I was a boy everyliody knew what a fiddle was, but 
nowadays they call them violins — a name that was too hi-fa- 
loo-tin for the pioneer dances in Darke county. It was a com- 
mon thing in early days at a countrv dance for one fellow to 
lead as chief fiddler and one or two others to play "second 
fiddle." Later on the big bass fiddle was added, as was also 
a horn, and then the outfit was called the "orchestra." The 
orchestra business killed off the old country fiddlers, and as a 
feature at country dances they have passed into history. 

I don't know where the folks kick up their heels in Green- 
ville of late years, but when I lived there, Weston & Ullery's 
hall was the most popular assembly room in the town. It was 
as cold as a barn in the winter, although two stoves were kept 
red hot all the time. Still, everybody enjoyed themselves, 
whether the ocasion was a dance, church festival or magic lan- 
tern exhibition. I was most interested in the dances, for my 
girl was always there — about six of her. But I couldn't dance 
at all compared to "Yune" Bowman, Bill Studabaker and Jim 
Devor (Big Jim"). Taylor Fitts was an excellent dancer, and 


SO was Alf Hyde, John Deardourff, Pete Lavin, Lew Elliott. 
Tip King and several others. Among the girl dancers were 
Mollie King, "Node" Craig, Susan Minser, Mary Scribner, 
Julia Burge, Susan Gorsuch, Nettie Martin and Molly Sebring. 
Of course there were many others, but I name the above as 
the constantly "engaged" set. 

Then take the dances in Ullery & Emrick's hall. Those were 
the jolliest dances ever held anywhere. The Greenville 
"Crumrine Club" v/as composed of men of mark, viz. : Moses 
Hart, Michael Spayd, Ed Putnam, Charley Calkins, Eli Helm, 
Jack Sweitzer, Eli Hickox, Henry Horning, Dan King, John 
King, Enos Shade and General Spiece. Soup for everybody. 
Toasts and speeches. Frogs' legs and catfish. "Yum, yum." T 
wasn't old enough to be a member, but I was old enough to 
eat at many of their feasts. 

Circus Lore 

Nearly every circus that came to Greenville in those daj's 
came from Winchester, Ind-., and we boys would get up early 
in the morning to see the elephant. Sun-up generally found a 
dozen or more of us (no breakfast, mind you, for boys in those 
days hadn't time to eat on circus day) out on the pike by John 
H. Martin's setting on the fence waiting for the procession to 
form. We followed close to the elephant and when he got to 
the Mud Creek bridge he would refuse to cross it, but pre- 
ferred to wade through the water instead. When he got in 
the middle of the stream he would stop and squirt water for 
several minutes and then meander up the bank and into the 
procession. We boys would trail after the elephant or band 
wagon all over town and then hurry back to the show ground 
and ride the horses to water. This would insure us admis- 
sion to the show. We all "belonged to the show" for that day 
at least. The next morning we would be on the ground bright 
and earh^ hunting for money, which we never found. I have 
never found any since. 

The Buckeye Hotel burned down in 1856. The following 
year Spalding & Rogers' circus and \^an Amburgh's menagerie 
exhibited in Greenville on the same day. The circus was 
given on the corner of Main and Elm streets, on the corner 
where the late Michael Miller erected his residence. The 
menagerie canvass was stretched on the ground where the 
high school stands on Fourth street. 


With one of these shows was a side-show that opened on 
the lot where the Buckeye Hotel had stood and on the present 
site of William Kipp's Sons' drug store, Broadway and Public 
Square. The first Japanese I ever saw was with this show. 
His "Skit" was to throw a number of daggers and stick them 
into a board close to the neck and head of a man who stood 
up in front of the board. 

The man had his back to the board and the Jap would take 
up a dagger and throw it and stick it "Ker chuck" close to one 
side of the man's neck. .Another dagger was stuck into the 
board close to the other side of the man's neck. .-K third and 
fourth dagger was fastened into the board above the man's 
ears, while the fifth dagger was driven into the board close to 
the top of the man's head. Eli Bowman, the legless man. was 
another feature of the show, and the third one was John .Allen, 
the armless man who wrote with his toes. 


.-\nother important event took place in Greenville, a year or 
two after the completion of the Greenville & Miami Railroad. 
A crowd of Dayton roughs came up to Greenville for the pur- 
pose of licking the "backwoodsmen" of Darke county. In- 
stead of licking them they got most beautifully pummelled 
themselves. Theodore Be-ers, Ed. Potter and Bill Dewire 
licked about 16 apiece and sent them back to Dayton with 
black eyes and sore bones, .\bout 17 or 18 years later the 
"Dayton Rounders," headed by Lum Cathcart, came up to 
get revenge. Cathcart got shot in the neck, and a stray shot 
hit Dave Wise (proprietor King's Hotel) in the neck also. 

A third important event took place when several soldiers 
were at home on a furlough, and taking umbrage at the atti- 
tude of the Darke County Democrat on the war question, 
threw the material of that ofifice out of the window on to the 
sidewalk in front of Weston & Ullery's hardware store, corner 
Third and Broadway. 

Still another "important event" might be mentioned. The 
old "Butternut Corner," a building on the corner where Weis- 
enberger's drug store now is, was the rendezvous of the Darke 
County "Copperheads." A lot of .soldiers went out "skvlark- 
ing" one night when it occurred to them that it would be a 
good idea to "bombard the fort." Preliminary to the attack a 
line of boxes was extended across Broadway, from Jim Sum- 



nierville's corner (now Koester's block. Third and Broadway) 
to Moore's corner. The sharpshooters crouched behind the 
boxes and at the word of command the fusilade began. Brick- 
bats, stones, clubs, and tin cans were fired at the "fort" until 
those on the inside began to escape by twos and threes. An 
occasional shot was fired into the air by some fellow for pure 
devilment, and some cuss had the audacity to scalp wound Bill 
Barwise with a half spent bullet. It was fun for the soldiers 
but it was a close call for Barwise. 

Fall Pastimes. 

In the fall of the year we hunted red and black haws, hick- 
ory and walnuts, yes, and hazelnuts galore. The roof of our 
kitchen was covered with nuts laid out to dry. The walnut 
stain stuck to our hands tmtil the "cows came home" and 

Cider making time was here, and often we would walk out 
to Billy Bishop's and suck cider through a straw. Then came 
applebutter making and more cider to drink. When corn cut- 
ting season was over and the pumpkins were gathered, we 
would go to the woods with our little wagon and gather hick- 
ory bark for morning kindling. I yet can hear it cracking 
under the back-logs. Soon the apples, potatoes, cabbage and 
turnips would be unloaded in my father's garden, and us boys 
were put to work burying them for winter. But when we 
saw load after load of wood being corded up in the lane we 
would become seriously afiflicted with mental rheumatism. 
Oh ! the excuses we did make ! The sawbuck was always 
broke and the saw needed filing. New saws, new bucks and 
new axes every fall, and still it was a difficult job to get us to 
saw enough wood at one time to cook breakfast and to keep 
the family warm during the day. 

Cabbage enough was always saved out to make a barrel of 
sourkraut, and the man that made ours was "Old Dutch 
Thomas," as we boys knew him. That work done, "Pap" as 
we called our father, was ready to kill his hogs. He never 
failed to kill from two to four every year, ^^^hen the butch- 
ering was over then came sausage making and the salting 
down of a barrel or two of meat. The hams were "smoked" in 
the smoke house near the well. We boys who helped (?) 
do so much (?) work scrambled hard for the pig tails. These 
we roasted on the stove and the feast of eating them was 


most enjoyable. \Mien there wasn't pig tails enough to go 
around, the thought would come to me that if ever I became 
a farmer I wouldn't raise any pigs but two-tailed kind. 

Butchering time was when mother saved up fat for soap. 
We had an ashhopper in our yard and a big iron kettle to 
boil the fat out of the meat. Then came the "cracklings." I 
am not so fond of them as I once was, but many is the crack- 
ling I have "scratched," as mother used to say. Soft soap 
was all the go in those days and our folks always made 
enough to last a year. 

Children's Pastimes. 

The children in those early days who were too small to at- 
tend the revivals were left at home sitting in front of the old 
fireplace, cracking nuts and eating apples. 

Methinks I can hear those little tads singing at times : 

"\Mien the north winds do blow. 

Then we shall have snow. 

Oh! what wnll the pour roliin do then, poor thing? 

It will sit in a barn 

To keep itself warm." etc., etc. 

Or they may sing : 

"I want to be an angel 
And with the angels stand ; 
A crown upon my forehead. 
And a harp within my hand." 

That was about the onlv religious song children knew in 
those days. 

When we got tired of singing we'd play "Button, l)utton. 
who's got the button," or we'd recite some pieces. "Mary had 
a little lamb" wa.-^ a good one. "Albert Ross and his dcg 
'Dash' '' never failed to bring down the house. "Jack and 
Gill went up the hill" was never lost sight of. 

Another one of our "classics" was: 

"I wish I had a little dog, 
I'd pat him on the head. 
And so merrily he'd wag his tail 
Whenever he was fed." 



Next a boy and girl would stand out on the floor facing 
the others and the boy would take a sugar kiss (3 for a cent) 
out of his pocket and slowly unwrap the paper and pick out 
the little verse and read to his girl this beautiful two-line 
stanza : 

"As the vine grows 'round the stump, 
You are my darling sugar lump." 

Then the little girl would blush and wiggle her body a bit 
and take a verse from her sugar kiss and read it : 

"If you love me as I love you — 
No knife can cut our love in two." 

That was a clincher. Every boy in the room was envious 
of that one boy. 

Then would come this, that and the other until bedtime. 
The other would be: 

"^Monkey, monkey, barrel of beer, 
How many monkeys are there here? 
One, two three — out goes he!" 

Then this: 

"Hick-o-ry, Dick-o-ry, Dock 
The mouse ran up the clock, 
The clock struck one, 
The mouse ran down, 
Hick-o-ry, Dick-o-ry, Dock." 

Of course larger boys and girls — girls who were big enough 
to have beaus — would sing one or more of the following: Ben 
Bolt, Suwanee River, Nellie Gray, Mocking Bird, Annie 
Laurie, Comin' Through the Rye. Little Brown Jug, The Last 
Rose of Summer, Willie, We Have Missed You, Paddle Your 
Own Canoe, Swinging in the Lane, The Girl I Left Behind 
Me, Wait for the Wagon, etc., etc. 

When it came to recitations the big boys and girls could 
beat us little folks every time. Their favorite pieces were : The 
Burial of Sir John Moore, Cassabianca, Old Grimes is Dead, 
That Good Old Soul, Charles D. Moore's Remorse, Lord 
Ullom's Daughter, etc., etc. 


Sunday Observance. 

What a quiet town Greenville used to be on Sunday ! There 
was nothing to do but drink whisky, play poker, fight roosters, 
go fishing, swimming or skating (according to weather), run 
horses, pitch horse shoes, or — go to church. I almost forgot 
the latter. And yet the churches were well filled — more so 
than they are today, considering population. After the roads 
were graveled there was considerable buggy riding. In the 
spring, Sunday was a great day to gather "greens," and at 
other seasons of the year go to the woods for haws and wild 

Sassafras diggers were also plentiful at times. I suppose 
that the mania toda}^ is auto-riding. 


Townball used to be a great game. The "commons" was the 
ball ground. "Anthony" over was another game, the "mumb- 
bly" peg, quoits, seven-up in the hay mows, matching big cop- 
per cents, plump for keeps, hully gull, hop-scotch, and jumping 
the rope. At school it was "Ring around the rosy," "Black- 
man," "King William was King James' Son," and "Come Fil- 

I pine for just one minute of those old days again. 


\Miisky in the '50s was very cheap — only twelve and one- 
half cents a gallon — good whisky at that. Farmers bought it 
by the barrel — especially in harvest or log rolling time. The 
best of whisky cost from $5.25 to $8 a barrel. 

In those days Darke county had a large crop of drunkards. 
For ten cents a man could stay drunk a whole week, but now 
a "week's drunk" would cost from $25 up. I don't think there 
were as many "crazy" drunkards in early days as there are 
now, because whisky in those days was pure, while the whisky 
of today never saw a still house. 

The Old Band. 

There are some things about Greenville that I never fail to 
recall with a recollection born of boyhood sentiment. Take 
the old band, for instance : There was none better in Ohio. 
Henrv Tomlinson was the leader — great big-hearted, noble 


man. Alf Hyde, his assistant — good as they made cornet 
players in those days; Tip King, Major Hickox, Dan Zimmer- 
man, Isaac Leonard, Ike Lynch, Billy Waggoner, Ed Tonilin- 
son, John Deardourff, Les Ries, John Fryberger, Dave Vantil- 
burgh, Abe Huffman and the writer. Ah, me, but those were 
happy days ! Sometimes Jack .Sweitzer and Colonel Frizell 
would meet with lis in the room over Hufnagle's store, and 
then out would go the big water-can over to King's Hotel (now 
the Wagner House) and when it came back we would sing, 
"Sliould Auld Acquaintance be Forgot," etc. 

Early Fairs. 

It hardly seems a fact, but it is, that the first "Darke 
county fair" was held forty years ago. What an insignificant 
thing it was then, compared with the exhibits of the present 
day! Then a few hundred people made up the attendance; 
now they come by thousands. Then the sheds, halls, stables 
and fences were made of wide pine board and sold to the high- 
est bidder after the fair ; now everything in that line is of a 
permanent nature, and in some instances the buildings are 
substantial and becoming. Then the cattle were of the "old 
brindle cow" stripe ; now the exhibit contains the finest in the 
land — Shorthorns, Herefords, Jerseys, Gallaways, Polled An- 
gus, Holsteins, Durhams, etc. The old elm-peeler hog has 
been superseded by the Poland-China, the Berkshire, Ches- 
ter White, Victorias, Duroc Jerseys, Essex, Suffolk and other 
breeds. Sheep likewise have been wonderfully improved 
since the days of 1855. The chicken flocks have undergone 
wonderful changes, especially in varieties, but it is doubtful 
whether any of the new breeds surpass the old "dunghill" for 
eggs and good meat. The rest of the fowl creation has kept 
pace with the improvement spirit in other lines, and contrasts 
most admirably with the "bloods" of forty years back. 

In farm implements the advance has been astonishing. 
From the old man-killing cradle mode of harvesting advance 
was made to the reaper without a rake-off; then came the auto- 
matic rake-off, followed by the wonderful self-binder. The 
sulky corn plow, the revolving and various other styles of har- 
row, corn planter, hay baler, hay carrier, hay loader, and many 
other like improvements for the farmer. The improvements 
in grain, in fruits, in potatoes, etc., have been as great, but in 
nothing has improvement and genius been so extensive and so 
surprising as in farm implements and machinery. 


With all this for the present day, the people enjoyed the 
"Darke county fair" of forty years ago quite keenly. Twas 
the best they had ever witnessed, and the exhibits were up to 
the times — better, perhaps, considering the comparative ad- 
vantages, than those of today. The two-forty trotter was a 
wonderful nag in those days, and he was groomed and praised 
as must as the two-ten horse is of today. . 

The forty years have not diminished the ambition among' 
the people for county fairs in the least. The season is one of 
recreation and pleasure to farmers especially, and they enjoy 
these annual exhibitions, and thev come, regardless of the 
weather. They have kept pace with the world of improvement, 
and their lands, their crops, stock, farm implements and build- 
ings evidence the universal ambition to keep up with the pro- 

Log Rollings and Hooppoles. 

It won't lie many years before the timber will be thinned 
out so that the wild game will be scarce. Go into the country 
in any direction and you will see gangs of men at work burn- 
ing down trees so as to get them out of the way. Timber is 
an awful nuisance in this county, and it's so thick down around 
Arcanum that cattle and hogs get lost for days at a time. Then 
it's awful muddy down there, too, but they will have good 
roads one o' these days, for I understand they are cutting 
down all the small trees and making corduroy roads with 
them. There is some talk of the sawmill at Sampson doing 
nothing but saw heavy boards to pin down along the roads, 
and then there will be nothing but plank roads all over the 
county. There is a nice corduroy road between Dallas and 
Lightsville. It was thought here at a time that there was 
plenty of gravel to be had in this county, but it was all they 
could do to get enough to build the Winchester and Gettys- 
burg pikes. There is timber enough in this county to make 
plank roads everywhere. They will be much ''smoother" and 
cheaper than gravel. 

Was you ever at a log rolling? Well you ought to go once 
and see what an amount of work neighbors will do for one 
another. When a settler gets hold of a quarter section, or 
even forty acres of timber land and wants to build a house 
or a barn, or both, all he has to do is to let his neighbors know 
it, and they will come even ten miles to help him. 


Xearly all the log houses in Darke county were built in that 
way — neighbor helping neighbor. 

Look yonder! There comes a half dozen teams down the hill 
over there by "Squire Doty's, every wagon loaded with hoop- 
poles. They are taking them to Cincinnati to the big cooper- 
shops where they make the pork barrels for the big packing 
houses there. Those hooppoles come from away up in Mis- 
sissinawa and Allen townships, where young hickory trees are 
so thick that a deer can't get through them. Those teams will 
all be driven into Mark's barnyard, corner of Fourth and 
Broadway, and rest up tonight, and early tomorrow morning 
resume their journey. They will drive to Eaton tomorrow, and 
the next day to Hamilton, and the following day they wmII land 
in Cincinnati. They could easily make the trip in two days if 
they could travel on corduroy roads, and if on plank roads 
they could do it in less time. I expect to see the day when 
there will be a plank road from Greenville clear to Cincinnati. 
There is timber enough in Darke county to do it, and it 
wouldn't be missed. A good plank road from Greenville to 
Cincinnati would bust up that railroad that was built from 
Dayton up here a few years ago. Railroads will never amount 
to much in this country. They are very unpopular and ex- 
travagant ; besides the whistle on the engine scares all the 
horses, and not long ago the engine ran into a drove of cattle 
belonging to the Studabakers and killed about $100 worth of 

An Old Huckster. 

You see if we had plank roads in this county, Huggins' 
huckster wagon (he has four oi 'em) could travel all over 
Darke county and gather in eggs, tallow, beeswax, calamus 
root, coon skins, deer hides, sassafras bark, and leave with the 
settlers coiifee, tea, sugar, thread, pepper, salt, calico, and 
other store goods in exchange. With plank roads running all 
over the county we won't have any use for railroads. 

There comes a four-horse team down Main street. The 
wagon is loaded with lumber. It came all the way from Spar- 
tansburg, Indiana. The fellow sitting on the saddle horse 
jerking the rein is J. Wesley Clemens, from near Tampico out 
in the colored settlement. He is hauling that lumber down to 
the fair ground ("you can see it yonder in that bunch of oak 
trees on the Jefiferson road) to build the fence. Allen LaMotte 
has the job of building the fence, and when the fair is over 


they sell the lumber to Xick Kuntz who has that saw mill you 
see yonder on the banks of Green^■ille creek. 

Kerosene and Telegraph. 

Did you see that stuff they had at Burtch's grocery the other 
night for making light? It's a fluid of some kind that soaks 
into a wick and you get it afire and it burns very bright ; but it 
is dangerous and expensive stuff. There has been a great im- 
provement on candles here of late. They've got candle moulds 
down at Carter's candle factory in Huntertovv^n that will turn 
out twelve candles at a pop. I understand the Studabakers 
and other rich people have moulds of the same size. They cost 
about $2.50 and poor folks who are unable to own even a four 
candle mould can get along very well with the tallow dip. A 
person can buy a dip at Allen's tin store for twenty cents that 
has a spout on it for the wick to come through and a handle 
on it the same as some tea cups have. There is an oil used in 
some of the big cities that is called kerosene, but it blows up 
and kills people. There ought to be a law against selling such 
dangerous stuff. I heard Thomas P. Turpen say that when he 
stopped in New York city on his way home from South Amer- 
ica that he saw lights on the corners of the streets that were 
made out of some kind of gas, and even some of the big hotels 
had it to light the dining rooms. 

Have 3'OU ever been to that telegraph office over Workman's 
and Daily's dry goods store? There's a machine up there that 
a long strip of paper runs through and it has a lot of dots and 
dashes on it that take the place of letters. They are getting 
pretty hard up when they have to use signs instead of the plain 
a, b, c's. I heard Dan R. Davis say that when he was in Day- 
ton not long ago he saw a man that could tell what message 
was coming over the wire just by the sound it made; he did 
not have to look at the strip of paper at all. Well, when they 
get to doing that it will be pretty near time for the world to 
come to an end. 

An Old Fiddler. 

One of the old "land marks" of Greenville yet remains in a 
log cabin standing at the extreme south end of Euclid avenue, 
a little to the east. The writer first saw the cabin forty-five 
years ago, and it was then an old structure in appearance. A 



family by the name of Quick lived in it, the father and two 
sons earning a livelihood by cutting cord wood and splitting 
rails for the farmers nearby, this part of the country being 
then a comparative wilderness. Nine-tenths of Greenville of 
today was at that time "in the woods." One of the Quicks, 
Aaron, was a "fiddler" (called violinists now), and he made 
the "wild west" resound with "Old Dan Tucker," "Old Rosin 
the Bow,". "Jennie Put the Kettle On," and the Arkansaw 
Traveler. Aaron was a cripple, and he done little else but play 
the fiddle in a genuine old backwoodsman style. He had no 
fiddle "larnin." but nevertheless he could find an audience of 
considerable size whenever he would come up to town — 
Greenville was then a "town." Aaron made many a quarter 
playing to a street audience and was in great demand at the 
numerous country dances of those days. The old cabin ought 
to be photographed as a relic before it gives way to "fate." It 
is not improbable that the structure is nearly, if not quite, sixty 
years old, as that part of Greenville is quite "aged," and was 
"organized" by a Mr. George Hunter, an Englishman, house 
painter by trade, that part of the town bearing his name to this 
da}', as "Huntertown." 

"Coonskin" Brown. 

While we are sitting here in this belfry, we might as well 
look at some of the persons who cross the public square or 
come in or go out of town. We can't find a better place to see 
what is going on. There comes a man on horse-back around 
the corner at Fitts' tavern, corner of Broadway, that used to be 
called Mark's Tavern. That's "Coonskin" Brown ; you've 
heard of him, haven't you? He's one of the odd characters 
of Darke county. I guess he's got about a hundred coonskins 
strapped to his horse. He traps them down there in the neigh- 
borhood of New R-Iadison and when he gets one hundred or 
so he fetches them to town and sells them to Allen LaMotte. 
That's Allen's place right down there to the left on Broadway, 
where you see that pile of pelts. You see this county is nearly 
all woods and wild game is plentiful. Up around Dallas 
there's lots of deers and wild turkeys — in fact there are wild 
turkeys all over the county. Then there are lots of mink. 
muskrats. foxes, and a few wildcats, and as fast as the settlers 
can kill them ofT they bring their pelts into Greenville and seF 
them to LaMotte. 


While "Coonskin" was a great coon hunter — the most suc- 
cessful in the county — he was also fond of honey. "Joe" Bloom 
owned a good bunch of trees not far from New Madison and in 
one of these trees was a nest of bees. Bloom made up his 
mind to get hold of that honey in some way, but he w^as a little 
slow in doing it. However, the time came when he concluded 
to make an eflfort and engaged a couple of men to assist him. 
The three of them went to the woods to find that some one 
had chopped the tree down the night before and robbed the 
bees' nest of the honey. Bloom ripped and snorted and pos- 
sibly cussed a little — not because the honey was gone — but 
because the tree had been cut down. He had his suspicion 
as to who the guilty person was, but he couldn't prove it, and 
being a responsible man, he kept quiet for fear of a libel suit 
in the event he might be mistaken. One day he met Brown 
and said to him: "Coonskin," somebody cut down a bee tree 
of mine a few nights ago, and if you will find out who it was 
I will give you $5." 

"Give me your S5, Mr. Bloom, and I will tell you right now 
who cut it."' 

"Are you certain, 'Coonskin?' I want 3'ou to be sure because 
I don't want to cause an innocent man any trouble," said I\Ir. 

"Oh, I am as certain as certain can be, [Mr. Bloom, and I 
wouldn't tell you a lie for $50," said Brown. 

"Well, here's your $5, now tell me who it was." 

"Coonskin" took the $5 and slowly folded it up and after 
putting it into his pocket looked at ^Ir. Bloom and laughed. 

"Well, who was it?" said Bloom. 

"I tut your bee tree, Mr. Bloom — now prove it," said "Coon- 

Brown couldn't talk very plain but 'Sir. Bloom understood 
him and then the matter dropped. 


Early Mothers. 

The hou'^ewives of Greenville "before the war" davs, had 
their full share of hard work as well as their husbands. Xo 
sewing machines, no washing machine, no laundries, no dress- 
makers, no milliners, no bar soap made lots of hard work for 
them. They couldn't phone to the grocery or store and have 
goods delivered to them on the double quick. Some one had 


to "go up town" with the market basket and tote home all the 
supplies for the family. No gas or coal stoves — all used wood, 
and sometimes when there was no wood, they had to gather 
chips, and when the chips were all gone they had to carry 
wood or chips from the woods near by. I don't say that all 
had to sit up late at night mending her children's clothes, or 
might run short of capital letters. Many and many a mother 
had to sit up late at night mending her chiidren's clothes, or 
making new ones for them to wear to school next day. She 
would work until late in the night — husband and children 
asleep — and then be the first one out of bed in the morning to 
get breakfast and get the children ofif to school, then she 
turned her attention to dishes and washed them. Next she 
had to make the beds, sweep the house, feed the chickens, slop 
the pigs (of course she milked the cow while the water in 
the tea kettle was heating), darn stockings awhile, sew a little 
on her new calico dress, then hurry and peel potatoes and get 
other things ready for dinner for the children will soon be 
home from school. About this time she discovers that there 
isn't a bit of lard or sugar or coflfee in the house. She can't go 
to the grocery and she can't find any one to send ; what does 
she do? She borrows coffee from one neighbor, lard from an- 
other and sugar from another. You see those days neighbors 
were neighbors, and) not mere "howdy-do" acquaintances. 
Friendship was door-wide in every house in the town, ^^^^en 
the children got home from, school they were dispatched to the 
grocery immediately for sugar, cofifee and lard and the neigh- 
bors were paid back in full ; and thus it went until after the 
war. Then strangers began pouring into town. Some were 
good and some weren't ; some were honest and some weren't : 
and an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust prevailed the 
whole community. 

* :^ s{< ^ * 

In the boyhood days in my homeland it was the custom for 
women to smoke Of course there were exceptions, but my 
recollection is that the majority of the older women in Darke 
county in those days smoked pipes. If I should tell you their 
names you would be surprised, and yet I could name a dozen 
or more of them within yelling distance of our old home. 
Women have as much right to smoke as men have. I do not 
think it a bit becoming for a wom^an to chew tobacco and let 
tlie "juice" run out of the corners of her mouth and trickle 
down her chin, yet I can see no harm in it, if her husband or 


lover chews. A man who smokes or chews should never 
marry a woman who neither smokes nor chews, and vice versa. 
I hold the same opinion as to drinking or gambling. A to- 
bacco-using or whisky-drinking woman is generally as clean 
as a man with like habits. 

Clothing and Fashions. 

You see there were no dressmakers in Greenville before 
1860, and the fact of the matter was that it was cheaper and 
better in every way to engage a dressmaker from Dayton or 
Cincinnati to cut and fit garments for all these families, than 
for them to go to the city at the expense of car and hotel bills. 
But because they hired city dressmakers they were called "big 

The first Greenville dressmaker, to my recollection, was 
Sarah Shade, sister of Enos Shade, and it was along about 
1860 that she opened a shop. The first milliner of my recol- 
lection was I\Irs. Long — wife of Sheriiif Ol Long. After she 
began trimming hats, Sarah Shade added millinery to her 
dressmaking business. 

In those days there were nri such things as ladies' coats or 
jackets — no, indeed. Every woman in town wore either a 
shawl or mantello. Another thing I remember very distinctly, 
and that was the women had but two ways of fixing up their 
hair. One way was to part it in the middle and comb it down 
as flat as a pancake over the ears, hiding them completely ; the 
other way was to curl it in spiral rolls and let it hang all 
around the head like icicles from a rain spout. 

One thing I forgot to mention about the style of dresses is 
that in those days styles did not change from season to season, 
as manv' styles lasted two or three years, and few women were 
so curious as to have their hats retrimmed more than once a 
year ; so you see there was no flubdubbery in the "fifties" 
about headgear or wearing apparel. 

It used to be the custom in Darke county for newly-mar- 
ried Dunkard women to wear capes to distinguish them from 
the unmarried. I don't now whether that custom prevails 
today or not. Darke county was blessed with a large number 
of Dunkard families. Better farmers, better citizens never 
lived than the Dunkards. Hundreds, ves thousands, of these 



thrifty people have recently located in California. The more 
the better for the state. 

There were no store clothes in those days, and Sunday suits 
were a variety. "Lintsey woolsey'' for the women and home- 
spun jeans for the men, constituted the clothes of the realm. 
Coonskins were currency, and butter and eggs were a drug 
on the market. The young men all wore "wamuses" and 
galluses of the home-made variety. Only '" dudes" wore white 
shirts, and they weren't always starched. Husking bees, log 
rollings, quilting parties and apple-butter making were the 
amusements of those days. Log barns, log houses, log 
churches and log school houses— all patterned after one style 
of architecture. In school or church the females sat on one 
side and the males on the other. Some of the children had to 
go miles and miles to school, and many had to go the same 
distance to church. There were no county roads — but here 
and there logs were laid down in the muddy spots (and in the 
winter and spring all spots were muddy) and over these cor- 
duroys, it was jolt, jolt, jolt. 

Household Equipment. 

That was the period of big iron kettles used by nearly every 
farmer for cooking feed, food, and boiling clothes. There were 
a few copper kettles in the county and these were usually 
rented out at twenty-five cents a barrel for cider in apple but- 
ter seasons. They were also used for cooking fruit for canning 
purposes. The cans were made of tin by either a ]\Ir. Allen, 
I. N. Beedle, Billy Stokeley. or Fred Rehling. The latter, T 
think, struck Greenville in 1854. These cans were closed with 
red sealing wax. 

Those were also the days of sickles, scythes and grain cradles 
— the days of back-logs and andirons — the days of the spinning- 
wheel — the davs of candles and tallow dips — the days of the 
knitting needle, when every mother knit socks, stockings, and 
mittens for the whole family — the days of quilting, when the 
neighbor women all congregated at some house and helped 
the wife make her quilts. Many top quilts in variegated colors 
were woven by some women who owned a loom. That was 
the time when wool was taken to some woolen mill and carded 
into strings two or three feet in length, and these strings would 
be attached to the spinning wheel and converted into yarn. 


There were very few stoves in Darke county up to 1854. 
Many farmers' wives had to cook in the fireplaces. Pork, 
beans, hominy, potatoes, onions and mush constituted the 
"grub" leaders in many homes. 

Soon after out-door ovens became popular and numerous. 
Nearly every family had an ashhopper from which they 
drained lye to make soft soap with, and this was used for all 

V\'ild turkeys, wild geese, wild pigeons and pheasants were 
plentiful, and every Sunday game would be found on the 
tables. There were plenty of deer in the neighborhood of 
Dallas (Ansonia). Lots of coons, minks, foxes, muskrats, rab- 
bits and squirrels in all parts of the county, and their hides 
could be seen nailed to nearly every barn. 

The woods were full of hickorv nuts, walnuts, butternuts, 
haws, wild cherries, plums, Mayapples, mulberries, blackber- 
ries, hazelnuts, etc. ^^'ild flowers, roses especially, were abun- 
dant. All these are gone I understand — nothing but a sweet 
memory of them remaining. 

Log houses, log barns, log schoolhouses and log churches, 
once prevalent in the county have all passed into history. 

So have the flintlock guns, the smciothbore rifle and the tul;)e 
guns that were fired with "SB" caps. 

The old crane wells have gone the same way. Boots are no 
longer in style, and the fish oil with which they were greased 
is seldom seen nowadays. 

The only outside newspapers coming to Greenville in those 
days were Greeley's New York Tribune, Sam Medary's Ohio 
Statesman, and the Cincinnati Weekly Gazette. 

Could the pioneers of the days I have recalled gaze upon 
Greenville and Darke county today they would say: 

"F.volution, hast thou no end!" 

There were no restaurants or laundries in those days. 
Housewives, as a rule, done their own washing every Mondav. 
Nearly every yard had a well or cistern, and there were many 
ash hoppers scattered over the town. Bar soap was a rare 
article, but soft soap was abundant. There were possibly 100 
or more soap kettles in town. Very few persons were able to 
buy petroleum oil, but nearly every family in town owned a 
pair of candle moulds. Many of the aristocratic families were 
able to own brass candle snuffers. Some didn't own any 
snuffer at all— they either snufFed the candle with a pair of 
scissors or wet their thumb and finger and snapped off the 


wick. Candlesticks were plentiful — most of them were made 
of tin, some of brass and a few were coated with German sil- 
ver. There were one or two families that owned candlesticks 
that held two or more candles. Such were considered extrav- 
agant people. 

There were no wood or coal yards in Greenville in the 
fifties. I don't think I ever saw a load of coal in Greenville 
until after the war. The family that didn't own an ax, a saw- 
buck and saw with a woodpile in front of the gate, wasn't in 
style in those days. It became fashionable later on to ha^■e 
woodsheds. Horses, cattle, sheep and hogs used to roam the 
streets and often break into a garden and get a "belly full"' 
of garden truck before they were discovered. It used to be 
the custom for the owner of the garden to hold the stock in 
"hock" until the owner came and paid the damages and took 
his animal away. 

There used to be a fluid sold in Greenville — the name of 
which puzzles me. It was for lighting purposes, and was used 
in lamps before I ever heard of gasoline, petroleum, kerosene 
or coal oil. I know that people were afraid of it, although I 
never heard of it exploding. It was soon taken off the market 
when kerosene came, and if it had not been for the smell I 
would have said that it and kerosene were one and the same. 

The kerosene lamps were made beautiful to behold by put- 
ting different colors of yarn in the bowl of the lamp. The 
family that could afford most colors got the most praise. 
Then along came the lamp shades. My. but they were pretty 
— all colors and many of them escoloped around the edges. 
Of course there was one way to make them safe from explo- 
sion and to make them burn brighter, and that was by putting 
a little salt in the bowl of the lamp. 

When kerosene lamps and kerosene lanterns became pop- 
ular in Darke county it made the candle-makers mad and 
Greenville's only candle-maker — Thomas Carter — got dis- 
gusted and moved back to Kentucky where he learned the 
candle-making business. 


There were a great many teams of oxen in Darke county in 
the fifties. It was always claimed that a team of oxen could 
pull a heavier load than a span of horses. I don't know 
whether than was so or not, but I do know that a good team 



of oxen was kept at much less expense than a team of good 
horses. There was no trouble to yoke up a pair of oxen. All 
you had to do was to hold up one end of the yoke, and say 
"Come, Buck,'' and the near ox would juke his head under the 
yoke, and all you had to do was to slip the little "neck" yoke 
up through the holes m the big yoke — stick in the wooden pin 
and Buck was "hitched." Then you called "Breck," the "ofif" 
ox. and he went through the same program. 

Of course every driver used an ox gad, that is the whip 
ten or fifteen feet in length often, and mounting the wagon 
away you went. The team was guided by the voice: "Gee 
Buck — gee there!" or "haw. Buck, whoa haw!" that is all 
there was to it. 

It always paid to give A'our oxen plenty of water, for if }ou 
didn't, they'd get it if they had to run off the road with the 
wagon, load and all, and rush down hill into the creek. 

When a farmer had a lot of "clearing" to do he generally 
used two or three yoke of oxen to haul the logs to the log 
heap where they were burned to get them out of the way. I 
guess there are mit many log heaps burning in Darke county 

X^earlv every wagon in those days, '54 to '60, had a coupling- 
pole that usually stuck out behind from three to six feet, and 
on this pole hung the tar bucket which was used to grease 
the wagon wheels. I haven't seen a tar bucl-et on a wagon in 
an old coon's age. Some of the Pennsylvania Germans, espe- 
cially the Dunkards of early days, owned big wagons with 
beds on them large enough to hold the furniture of an ordi- 
nary hotel. The tires on the wheels were broad, and each 
wagon bed had a feed-box on the rear end of the bed and a 
tool box on each side, and also a box in front for curry-comb, 
harness grease and brushes. All such wagons were made in 
Reading, Pennsylvania. 

Those were the days for elderberry and dried apple pies. 
Many times I have seen the roofs of houses covered with 
elderberries and apples dr3'ing in the sunshine. Applebutter 
pies were also quite popular. But the great royal dish for 
children was mush and milk. Alany was the time I made my 
supper on mush and milk and my breakfast on fried musli and 
cane molasses. 

I made many a five-cent piece digging sassafras root and 
selling it to families for tea. 

Speaking of dried apples: It used to be the fashion to give 


an apple-cutting party at some house where all the girls and 
boys of the neighborhood would gather and make love, tell 
stories and peel apples. An apple would be sliced into several 
pieces, and the pieces would be strung on thread or cotton 
string in bunches about six feet long, and these bunches would 
be laid on the roof to dry or hung up in some out-of-the-way 
spot. I have seen them strung from wall to wall in bed- 
rooms, kitchen and garret. Perhaps that was what made 
dried apple pie such a favorite in the way of "dessert." 

Early Notables. 

For a little town — a town in the backwoods — a stuck in the 
mud town, Greenville had more lively boys and girls than 
many towns double its size. It had a Thespian club, a mili- 
tary company, a debating society and several mite societies. 
There were some mighty good lawyers in Greenville, too : 
Judge Beers, Judge Wilson, Judge Meeker, Judge Calder- 
wood, Judge Wharry, Judge Allen, Riley Knox and Charley 
Calkins, either of whom would have ranked high with the 
best lawyers in any large city. There were also several "long 
headed" men in Greenville who did not belong to any of the 
professions, namely: Moses Hart, Manning Hart, John Huflf- 
nagle, Enos Shade, Allan LaMotte, Eli Helm, Wash. Weston, 
Sam Ullery, Henry Arnold, Henry Garst, William Morning- 
star, the Katzenberger brothers, George W. Moore, Michael 
Miller, John Spayde, Isaac Rush and T. P. Turpen. And 
where will you find better physicians than Dr. Gard, Dr. 
Otwell, Dr. Lynch, Dr. Licklider, the Drs. Matchett and Dr. 
Miesse? The latter paid no attention to local practice, but 
his name and fame was scattered all over the country and he 
grew rich while few persons in Greenville had but little idea 
of his extensive practice abroad. 

Gavin Hamilton was the best auctioneer. 
Bill Williamson was the best horse-trader. 
Ezra Sharpe was the best constable. 

William Laurimore was the best squire. (Nobody knew 
what J. P. meant in those days.) 

Linus Purd^r was the best bricklayer. 
Hezekiah Owings was the best marshal. 
John ^^^harrv was the best survevor. 


Old-Time Carpenters. 

1854-1876 — Washington and ^lathias McGinnis, Enos 
Shade, Harve House, Fred Kissel, John Frybarger, David 
Hoovler, Luther Robinson, Leonard Stebbins, Al Hardman, 
Reuben Kunkle, Jacob ^leybrun, Daniel Lecklider, Daniel 
Larimer, Jack Scribner, William Tate, Alexander and ^^'illiam 
Kerr, Manning F. Hart, Alonzo Shade, Daniel Xeiswonger, 
Harve Robinson and Jerry Sanson. Who have I left out? 

Old-Time Painters. 

The back yonder painters of Greenville were : George Hun- 
ter, Bob Brown, Henry Shamo, John Cox, Bill Cox, Hen Low, 
D. O. Ma}', L. O. Galyan, Dr. J. L. Garber, Joe Nickodemus, 
John Boyd, Lum Clawson and Bill Knight. Who have I 

Old-Time Bricklayers. 

From 1854 to 1876 I recall Linus Purdy, Thomas Stokeley, 
Benjamin and Egbert Reed, John Krause, John Hamilton, 
Cash Baxter and Ike Smith. Who have I missed? 

An Early Shoemaker. 

Talking about early shoemakers, it is well to remember that 
^^'illiam J. Bireley came here as a cobbler in 1830 and worked 
for ^^'illiam IMartin, Sr. 

Early Superstitions. 

I didn't hear of any ghosts, haunted houses or Jack O'Lan- 
terns when I was in Darke county last summer. There used 
to be lots of them there when I was a boy. I didn't see or 
hear of any witches either. They used to be very plentiful 
too — to hear about. I don't think the county was any more 
superstitious than other counties in early days, but there was 
a plenty of it just the same. I will note a few: To kill a snake 
and leave it belly up to the sky was sure to fetch rain. To 
tramp on a toad and crush it would cause the cows to give 
bloody milk. To spill salt was sure to bring disaster. To 
pick up a pin — head toward you — was bad luck. To hear 
a rooster crow at the door, or drop a dish rag was a sure 
sign of some one coming. To hear a dog howl under the win- 
dow was a sign that some one near was going to die soon. To 


leave the house and forget something and go back after it, 
denoted misfortune of some kind. To hoist an umbrella in 
the house was serious disappointment if not worse. To see 
the new moon over your left shoulder was bad luck, but to 
see it over the right shoulder was good luck. To dream of the 
dead, denoted a wedding. To put on socks or stockings 
wrong side out and not know it at the time was sure to bring 
the best sort of luck. To sing before breakfast denoted sick- 
ness. To spit on fish worms and give them "dutch hecks" 
insured a good catch of fish. To plant potatoes in the "dark 
of the moon"' was sure to impair them with "dry rot." The 
above were some of the "superstitions" that once prevailed 
in Darke county. Others I may take up at another time. 

Here are a pair of superstitions that people believed in fifty 
years ago and in many places outside of Darke county they 
still believe in them, namely : If a ground hog sees his shadow 
there will be six weeks more of winter. This superstition is 
proverbial in many states, so much so that "groundhog day" 
is a fixture in the vocabulary of each community. The other 
superstition that has hung fast to so many persons all these 
years is this : "Look out for a long and severe winter when 
the squirrels begin to carry nuts and corn to their dens in the 
trees or ground." 

It was a bad sign for any one to make you a present of a 
knife, for it always "cut friendship." 

It was a bad sign to drop your fork at the table, unless the 
point happened to stick into the floor. In that case you would 
have "sharp luck all day." It was generally good luck to put 
on your left boot first, but if you happened to put on your 
hat wrong end first "great disappointments" were ahead of 
you. It was dangerous to wear hoopskirts with steel springs 
in them in rainy weather as they were "sure to draw light- 
ning," and many was the time that the "belles" of Darke 
county would jerk oiT their skirts on the double quick and 
hide them somewhere if a rain storm was approaching. And 
often and often when visiting friends of an evening, if a streak 
of lightning appeared or a roll of thunder was heard, the vis- 
iting ladies were sure to leave their hoopsirts with their 
friends and go home without them. 

When anything was lost it was best to spit in the palm of 
your left hand, hit it with the forefinger of your right hand, 
and in whatever direction the spit flew there you would find 
your lost article. 


When fishing it was always good policy to throw the very 
small fish back into the creek as soon as you took them off of 
the hook, for if you didn't the big fish wouldn't bite at all. 

Obsolete Trades, Customs, etc. 

There is not a cooper in Greenville — that is, a hoop-pole 
cooper. When wooden hoops gave way to iron ones, the draw- 
knife cooper went out of business. 

Brick moulders are just as scarce and with them went the 
"off-bearers." Greenville used to have quite a number of 
brick moulders. 

The hotel gongs and dinner bells — first and second — are no 
longer heard in Greenville. It's lonesome without them. 

Cows no longer march single file through Broadway on their 
way to the creek to drink as they used to. 

Even the "town pump" is no more. The squeaking of the 
handles was exceedingly musical (?) in days gone by. 

Boys no longer play marbles on the public square nor do 
men get out and pitch horse shoes there as they used to. 

Greenville has "society" now but there was a time there 
when "we uns were just as good as you uns" and a darned 
sight better. Greenville is very much cityfied now and socie- 
tyfied as well. 

During my last visit to Greenville I missed hearing any one 

"Oh landlord fill the flowing bowl 
Until it does run over. 

For tonight, tonight, we'll merry, merry be, 
And tomorrow we'll get sober." 

"We'll harness up our bosses, 
Our business to pursue , 

And whoop along to Greenville 
As we used for to do." 

"From Waddleton to Widdleton it's eighteen miles. 
From Widdleton to ^^^addleton it's eighteen miles." 


"We're bound to run all night. 
We're bound to run all day; 
I'll bet my money on that bob-tail hoss, 
Who'll bet on the bay?" 





"It's many days you've lingered 
Around my cabin door. 
Oh. hard times, hard times, 
Come again no more." 

Roll on silver moon, 
Guide the traveler on his way — 
Roll on, roll on, roll on." 

"There is the landlord 
Who'll feed your horse oats, corn and hay — 
And whenever your back is turned 
He'll take it all away — 
In these hard times." 

I didn't see a yoke of oxen during the whole of my stay there. 
There used to be scores of ox teams in Darke county. I didn't 
hear the crack of an ox whip, and not once did I hear any one 

"^^'hoa there, Buck. 
Gee there, Bessy." 

Not a boy in the whole town did I see walking on a pair of 

Nor did I see a game of mumble-dy peg. 

Nor a game of horse-shoes. 

I did not see a single tin lantern with holes punched through 

I didn't see a candle stick nor a tallow dip. 

Not even a pair of candle moulds could be seen. 

I didn't see a cooper shop in the town. 

Nor a gunsmith shop. 

I didn't see a pair of red-top boots on the feet of any boy or 
anywhere else. 

I didn't hear a Jew's-harp. 

I didn't see a package of saleratus. 

Nor a plug of dog-leg tobaco. 

I didn't see a goose-quill pen. 

There were lots of things I didn't see that used to be plen- 


Events of 1856. 

The Courier was not in existence then, but the editor, John 
Calderwood, was and had been here some nine years. 

He remembers two big events in that year (1856). One of 
them was a Democratic barbecue, held in Armstrong's "big 
woods," near the spot where Mrs. William Schnouse now 
resides (314 Washington avenue, near Cypress street). There 
was a big ox roasted that day and there was a big crowd to 
eat it. One of the "big" speakers was Samuel Medary. 

The other big event was a sort of double show day, that is 
to say, two shows were held here on the same day, namely, 
Spaulding & Rogers' circus and Van-Amburg's menagerie. 
The circus was held where the Michael ]\Iiller residence now 
stands, and the menagerie was held near where the high 
school building now stands. 

That year, 1856, was a great year for noted events. The 
presidential election was held that year, and John C. Freemont 
was the republican candidate, and James Buchanan the dem- 
ocratic candidate. Among the "big" men who spoke here 
during that campaign were Tom Corwin, Salmon P. Chase 
and Sam Galloway. Corwin was the leader — the most popu- 
lar. Ohio never produced his equal as a stump-speaker. For 
that matter, no other state could show an equal to Corwin. 
Ingersoll, the greatest orator that ever belonged to the United 
States, said of Corwin: "He stood peerless and alone in a 
class by himself." 

"Kentucky Point." 

Where is Kentucky Point? Gone! \Miere was it? It was 
a quarter of a mile west of the old fair grounds, and the 
waters of Mud creek surrounded it on three sides when the 
floods come. 

I do not know who gave it the name of "Kentucky Point," 
but I do know that no spot of land in Darke county produced 
more grapes than those few acres of land. There was 
prairie on three sides of it full of mud and tussicks. but on 
the south side was dry walking to the top of "Bunker Hill," a 
quarter mile south. I suppose half of the wedding engage- 
ments in those days were first "whispered" on that hill. It 
was the one — and the only one — romantic spot near town. 


The hill was probably one hundred feet high, which was verj' 
"mountainous" to we boys then. Lovers could climb to the 
top and gaze up the prairie many miles, and see the big hill 
on Peter Weaver's farm, four miles away, and then they could 
"see all over" Greenville, and see "Turner's mill on Martin's 
Hill." This "mountain" was densely wooded and "lovers' 
paths" leading hither and thither to ideal spots in which to 
tell to each other as to "how happy my love will make you." 

Another wild pigeon roost was over on "Kentucky Point," 
in Mud Creek prairie. That "point" was about one-half mile 
due west of the south end of the old fair ground. Enos Shade 
and Jack Switzer used to kill pigeons by the hundreds at that 
place. That prairie used to be full of rabbits in the winter 
time, and the creek used to be full of muskrats. I think I have 
seen as many as fiffty muskrat houses projecting through the 
ice from Mud creek bridge to Bishops Crossing. There used 
to be lots of mink in those days. I can remember seeing the 
pelts — several of them — of otters killed in Darke county. 
Allen LaMotte had them in a huge pile of other pelts that he 
had stacked on the sidewalk in front of his store on Broad- 
way. "Big Jack" Smith, who lived in the "Beach," told me 
that he killed a prairie wolf on his father's place when he was 
a boy. There used to be lots of foxes in Darke county. Yes, 
and lots of deer, too. There were wild deer in that county 
when I was a boy. ' Wild turkeys were also plentiful. There 
were lots of wild geese and wild ducks flying all over the 
county no so many years ago. I don't think there ever were 
any bear in Darke county — at least during my boyhood. 

"Armstrong's Commons." 

"What a little bit of a Jim Crow town Greenville was in 
'65 ! Now it is putting on city airs with several kinds of gas, 
electric lights, fire department, water works, telephones, and a 
street railway — electric line, I believe. 

"All that part of town south of Fifth street was a barren 
tract of land, known as 'Armstrong's Commons.' Before the 
war of the rebellion, it was covered with a thick forest. At 
the left of Central avenue, before it crosses the railroad, was 
a huge pond of water — now filled up and I undertand cov- 
ered with dwelling houses. West of that street, where there 
is now a long row of houses, w^as Jonathan Gilbert's brick 


yard, afterwards leased by Manning Hart and later to John 
Harry for brick-making. Mr. Hart finally sold it ofi in lots." 

"I can look back to the time that all that part of Greenville 
was a dense woods. I can remember when Ed Cline and Bill 
Creager shot a pheasant at about where the Pennsylvania 
depot stands. I give both of them credit for killing it as both 
shot at it at the same time. A little north of that stood se- 
veral dead trees in a bunch where wild pigeons by the hun- 
dreds used to roost. It was great sport for the Greenville 
sports in the '50s to shoot the pigeons on their roost. 

"There were but two kinds of guns in those days — the 
smooth bore rifle and the single barrel shotgun. The double 
barrel shot gun was a rare article. The possessor of a double 
barrel shot gun was envied on all sides. There were quite a 
number of flint locks too in those days. Wooden ramrods 
were in time displaced by iron ones. A gun with an iron ram- 
rod was worth twice as much as it would be if it had a wooden 
rod. Just why I can't say, but a fellow with an iron ramrod 
to his gun wouldn't trade that gun off for a gun with a 
wooden rod unless he got the worth of the other gun in cash 
to 'boot.' 

All that section of territory south of Martin street and east 
of Central avenue, was a dense forest at that time, and many 
times did I carry the game sack for hunters in that woods. 
There used to be a brick yard on that plat of ground now oc- 
cupied by the residences of Manning Hart, George Ullery and 
the Widow Meeker (200 Central avenue, opposite Fifth 
street) and more than once have I tracked rabbits in and out 
of that yard. Jim Collins was my running mate in those days, 
and while we were both good hunters, we never caught a 
single rabbit to my recollection. Yet the sport was great, and 
I look back upon those rabbit tracks with a fond memory. I 
was considered some "punkins" in those days as a wood- 
sawyer, and I shall never forget the day I was sawing wood 
for Mr. Dorman and succeeded in sawing one of my big toes 
nearly oflf. Taylor Dorman and \^olney Jenks assisted me 
in bandaging up the toe and then helped me home, where I 
remained for several weeks. 

"Old Orchard" and "Spayde's Woods." 

By the way, how many of the boys and girls of Greenville 
have knowledge of the fact that all that block west of Mrs. 



Judg-e Sater's house (218 West Fourth street) was once an 

Another thing the school children of 1856-1860 will recall is 
the fact that from Lucas's corner (southwest corner of Fourth 
street and Central avenue) to the railroad on Central avenue, 
there wasn't a house, but back a bit from the street was a 
huge brick yard. 

And right (about) where Mrs. Lizzie Shepherd lives (201 
Euclid avenue) was the center of Fletcher's nursery. And 
about one hundred feet south of the residence of Charles 
Roland, Sr. (corner Fourth street and Switzer street), was 
a tombstone factory, also owned by Mr. Fletcher. 

There was a grove of trees that extended along the side of 
the hill in the rear of the residence of the editor of the Cour- 
ier, where the boys and girls of 1856-1860 used to assemble 
in winter time and coast down hill. In summer time it was a 
great place for picnics and political meetings. Corwin, Chase, 
Galloway, and many other distinguished orators addressed 
large audiences there. 

Another picnic and public meeting ground was "Spayde's 
Woods," a little east of where T^ee Chenoweth and Newt 
Arnold live (I am taking it for granted that they are still 
living where they built many years ago). 

"Goosepasture" and "Bunker Hill." 

But one house existed east of the D. & LT. railroad — 
south of Martin street. "Martin's Hill" rose fifty or seventy- 
five feet and opposite the old IMartin tavern stood Turner's 
distillery — all gone! There was no "Mackinaw" railroad in 
those days. No LTnion school house or high school. No city 
hall, no free turnpikes, no opera house, no daily papers, no 
stenographers or typewriters or telephone girls. The pret- 
tiest part of Greenville today was known as "Goosepasture" 
in '65. The bridge at Broadway over the Greenville creek and 
the one over the same stream at East Main street were both 
covered. The latter was called the "Dutch" bridge, because 
so many Germans crossed it to and from their homes a few 
miles east of town. Mud creek was not ditched in those days, 
and every spring the water overflowed the whole prairie from 
Morningstar's tO Weaver's Station. "Bunker Hill" was the 
only real "mountain" in the coimty, but now it is no more 
forever — only as it lies spread on the streets of Greenville and 


on the railroad. At the head of the prairie was another large 
hill, near the Peter Weaver farm, but it was chopped down 
and hauled away to ballast the Panhandle railroad. 

Wayne Avenue and Wayne's Treaty. 

W'hat is now called \\"ayne a\-enue in Greenville, was the 
outpost of the old fort. \\'hat was known for years as Arm- 
strong's Commons was once heavily timbered, but was 
"cleared" off by citizens of Greenville for firewood, etc. 

The Indians were very treacherous in those days, and had 
sneaked in and murdered a number of persons throughout 
the county, who had been working in their cleared patches of 

Abraham Studabaker never went into his cornfield without 
his flint lock rifle. 

When I left Greenville in 1877, the trenches dug by 
Wayne's soldiers were still in evidence along what is known 
as Wayne avenue, and the huge rock that I spoke of in former 
letter as having been buried at the crossing of Fifth and Syca- 
more streets, was one of "Mad Anthony" W^ayne's landmarks. 

I went over this ground pretty thoroughly in 1873, in com- 
pany with David Baker of Mercer county. Mr. Baker was 
then abotit eighty years of age, and he had the benefit of his 
parents' personal knowledge of what he told me, and which he 
afterwards published in The Courier in 1875. I think Mr. 
Baker was a grand uncle to Jake, Van and Evan Baker. I 
asked him to point out to me the exact spot where Wayne 
held his treaty with the Indians, in 1795 ; he walked about for 
awhile, and finally struck his cane on the ground and said : 
"This looks to me as the spot my father declared that he saw 
the Indian chiefs and their tribes sitting in a circle when Gen- 
eral Wayne and his aids came down from the creek bank or 
the old fort, I can not now say which. But father said all the 
chiefs were smoking long pipes filled with tobacco General 
Wayne had given them." 

In company with my son George to Greenville in 1904. I 
took him down to show him where the treaty of Greenville 
was held, and found the ground was occupied by the resi- 
dence of Monroe Phillips fSycamore, Fifth and Devor 
streets). That is the spot where Mr. Baker said: "Greenville 
will some day build a monument to General Wavne, and I 
hope it will be done during mv lifetime." 


;\Ir. Baker died the following year, I believe, near Cold- 
water, Mercer county. 

Old Court House and Market House. 

The entrance of the old court house of my childhood faced 
Main street on the west. Originally a wide hall passed 
through it from east to west, but the east end was shut ofif to 
make room for the auditor's office. Immediately on the left 
as you entered the building was the stairway leading to the 
court room above. The front door to the left as you entered 
the hallway was the treasurer's office. Jim McKhann, George 
Martz, Thos. P. Turpen, Eli Helm were the treasurers in 
those days. The recorder's office was entered by a door 
facing on the north side, east corner of the building, and the 
recorders, as I remember them, were Edington, Robison, Shep- 
herd, Beers and Medford. The auditor's office, facing on the 
east side of Broadway, was presided over in succession by 
George Coover, D. B. Clew, E. H. Wright, O. C. Perry and 
Dr. John E. Matchett. The clerk's office faced Broadway on 
the west side and Doc Porterfield, Henry Miller and Ham. 
Slade were from time to time the occupants, Slade, I think, 
going from there into the new building. 

The east side of the old court house was always a shady 
spot in the summer afternoons and many a political meeting 
was held there. I have heard such men speak there as Sal- 
mon P. Chase, Thomas Corwin. George H. Pendleton. Sam 
Cary, Sam Hunt, C. L. Vallandigham. Durbin Ward, Senators 
Thurman and Sherman, Lewis D. Campbell, George A. Sheri- 
dan, General Gibson, Governor Tod, Governor Dennison, 
General Noyes and many other orators of national reputation. 
Corwin, of course, was the greatest of them all, America 
never having produced his equal on the stump. Great as In- 
gersoll was in his prime, he could not sway the masses as Cor- 
win did. 

Then the old market house stood north of the old court 
house (now the site of the city hall). 

"Many were the nights'" I played "London Loo" on that 
historic square and around that old market house. Well do I 
remember the great bonfires we used to build there on elec- 
tion nights. 


"Quicks' Spring" and "Big Woods." 

I suppose that "Quicks' Spring" has been dry many years. 
Where was it located? Just take a walk to the foot of the 
hill on the Jefferson pike to where it crosses a ravine, south 
of the old residence of the late Isaac Rush, south of the 
Brethrens' Home, and follow the rivulet in that ravine east- 
ward to its source, and you will come to the Quick Spring, or 
where it used to be when I was a boy. 

Many and many a time have I rolled up my pants and 
waded in that stream, from Rush's culvert to the Eaton road. 
Great place that was for boys to build small dams and ope- 
rate "flutter mills" made of cornstalks. I can remember when 
it was all "woods" from our home (where Smith O'Brien now 
lives), to the present fair grounds, and on to Fort Jefferson, 
with very slight breaks. In later years, when the trees were 
all cut away, mullein stalks grew up there so thick that we 
boys often "charged upon them" with sticks and beat them to 
the ground — mowing them right and left, as we "moved for- 
ward in solid phalanx upon the foe." 

Then House's "thicket," where the fair grounds are now 
located. There is where we boys of 18.^7-8-9 and '60 used to 
go hunting rabbits. 

Bishop's mill-pond (north of Prophetstown) was always an 
objective point in winter when the skating was good. I think 
Noah Helm was the best skater in Greenville after Bob Roby 
left. Bob was the champion, if my memorv is correct. Henry 
Tomlinson and his brother Ed were both good skaters. 

Indian Trail. 

(By JMrs. Barney Collins.) 

"One of the last spots I visited about old Greenville, in com- 
pany with two of my children, was to follow the old Indian 
trail as far as I could trace it, out the Panhandle railroad 
tracks, which followed and destroyed the trail for a long dis- 
tance, just west of what is now Oak View. The trail then 
was as plainly to be seen as the public road, worn deep into 
the foot of the hill that skirts Mudcreek prairie by many 
Indian feet that trod it. single-file, as the tribes traveled from 
point to point in those wild days. 

"From the hillside trail we crossed over past the spring 
(yet bubbling from the earth just below Oak View. I am told 



north, on edge of prairie) and found the old bridge and road 
built across the prairie by General Wayne's men to reach the 
block-house on the old Devor farm, just west of the prairie. 
The logs in the house were (1850) in a good state of preser- 
vation. Some of them were deeply imbedded in the soil, 
while others lay out plainly as though but recently put there. 
That old trail led on north along the brow of the hill a few 
steps west of where Sweitzer street now is, ending, as far as 
I recollect, at what is known as Tecumseh's point, at junction 
of Greenville and Mud creeks." 

"Beech Grove" and "Matchett's Corner." 

^^'hen in Darke county last summer I looked in vain for 
the "Reech." It was gone — cleared off into farms of the most 
productive kind. Even the corduroy road was gone that 
stretched for two miles below IMatchett's Corner, toward 
Twinsboro. Even Twinsboro is gone. Sampson is gone and 
Karn's school house is no more. Judge D. H. R. Jobes used 
to teach school in that old log building. I can see it now with 
its two big windows on one side and its big fire place in the 
center. And the benches — wooden ones without a back, lined 
up in front of two long tables that sloped to one side. I don't 
remember whether there was a blackboard in the house or not, 
but I do know that there were slates galore. 

Somewhere in the neighborhood of Matchett's Corner, 
crossing of Eaton and Ithaca pikes, in the Reigle district. I 
think— -was an old church that had been converted into a 
"college," by the ]\Iartz Brothers — George H. and Jacob T., 
— and for the life of me I can't remember the name of that 
college. Perhaps it was Otterbein. Xo, that can't be, for 
there was a college at \\'esterville by that name. 

That was in the days when Hen. Wikle drove stage (hack) 
from Lewisburgh and Euphema to Greenville twice a week. 
Several Greenville girls attended that college — among them 
my sister Lucinda — and these girls always rode to and from 
college in \\'ikle's hack. When the roads were good the hack 
reached Greenville about five in the afternoon, but in bad 
weather it seldom got in before ten or eleven at night. 

From the time these girls would leave the college until they 
reached Greenville they would sing such songs as: 


Roll on, silver moon, 

Guide the traveler on his way, 

Roll on, roll on, roll on, etc. 

"Where was JMoses when the light went out?" "Home, 
Sweet Home," "A life on the ocean wave," "Annie Laurie," 
"I'll hang my harp on a willow tree," "Nellie Gray," "Suwanee 
River," "The last rose of summer," "Wait for the wagon," 
"Willie, we have missed you," and many other old-time songs. 

I wish some reader of The Courier would send me the 
words to the following sons: "Welcome, old rosin, the bow," 
"Pat Malloy," "Roll on, silver moon," "Kitty Wells," and 
"Daisy Dean." I have tried a number of places to get those 
songs, but failed. 

Neimeier's Pottery. 

^^'hile we are standing on this corner (Vine and Main 
streets) let's take a peep up and down this (Vine) street. 
That house you see standing across Mud Creek yonder is 
where 'Squire Morningstar lives. He is one of the best fid- 
dlers in town. He calls oft the dances while he is fiddling 
and dancing himself. That's gretty good, isn't it? That's a 
steep hill that goes down to the bridge. The farmers often 
get stuck there when they're hauling in wood or maybe pump- 
kins. That little house to the left on the brow of the hill is 
where Sam Musser lives. He's a tailor and he can swear like 
sixty; but he's so "Dutch" nobody can understand his cuss 
words, and they are more amusing than profane. That frame 
house standing away back there to the left is Neimeier's pot- 
tery, and if we had time we'd go over there and see him make 
crocks. He's got lots of clay over there and he's got an iron 
rod that stands up about a yard, and on top of that rod is the 
top of a table, which isn't over a foot and a half in diameter. 
Then he has two dogs, and he keeps 'em in a box that tips up 
at one end. There's a floor in the box that moves under the 
dogs' feet every time they try to walk. There is a big strap 
that is fastened to a big wheel on the side of the box and it 
runs over to a small wheel that turns the little table-top 
around about a hundred times a minute. Then he pulls a 
wedge out of the side of the dog-house and the weight of the 
dogs makes the floor move under their feet and the dogs just 
keep a runnin' their legs so's they won't fall down. An' when 
the table gets to spinnin' real good. Mr. Neimeier picks up a 
"hunk" of clay about as big as a brick and he puts it on the 



table. Then he pushes his fingers into the center of the mud 
and the sides of it begin to grow right up as high as a crock. 
He puts a little paddle inside this hollow place he's made in 
the mud, and he makes it as smooth as this board here on the 
fence. He makes about one hundred and mebbe more of 'em 
in a day, and then he puts them in a furnace and bakes them 
as women do bread in their ovens in the yard. When they 
are baked real hard he takes them out one at a time and dips 
them in some red -stuff in a big box, and they come out all 
colored up. 

I'll bet them dogs get awful tired, for when he lets them out 
their tongues lall out of their mouths. I heard he was going 
to get a horse machine that will beat that dog machine all hol- 
low. I hope he will, so's to give the dogs a rest. 

You see there are no more houses on that vacant lot. but I 
heard that Lawyer Devor, who lives down in Huntertown, 
was going to build a frame house right there on that corner. 


It was the opinion of many folks in Greenville that the 
"tribe" living in Huntertown didn't amount to much. But do 
you know, my dear reader, that right in that one spot of 
Greenville, more young men and boys responded to their 
country's call in its hour of need than any other one spot per- 
haps in this whole country of ours. Think of it, will you, 
and then count them over? 

Stewart Buchanan, Melvin Shepherd, ^^'ikoff Marlatt, Billy 
Marlatt, Jerry Tebo, William Stokeley, Henry Shamo, George 
Perkins, Thomas Hamilton, Frank Pingrey, Philip Ratlift', 
Warren Ratliff. David Ratliff, Elijah Ratliff, Firman Sebring, 
Lafayette HufF, George Calderwood, John Calderwood, Enos 
Calderwood, Andrew Robeson Calderwood, Willard Pember, 
Daniel Nyswonger, William Musser, Isaac Briggs. Thomas 
McKee, William Miller, Barney Collins, Adam Sonday, John 
Hutchinson, Fred Reinhart, Mayberry Johnson, William 
I\lusselman, James and Isaac Pierce: John Hamilton, Tom 
McDowell and Thomas F. Boyd. Fourteen of the above 
named belonged to the Fortieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. The 
only men left behind were John Wilson and Wallace Shep- 
herd, Thomas Stokeley and his father (too old for war), John 
Kahle, "Dutch" Thomas, Linus Purdy. David Welch, Bob 
Brown and George Tebo. 


John Schiiaiise would have been credited to the list of vol- 
unteers above named, but he enlisted in an Iowa regiment, 
and at that time was a resident of the Hawkeye state. I doubt 
if any other town can show the same percentage of enlistment 
as that one little spot in Darke county. 

:le ;}: :lf J}: * * * 

Then why shouldn't I always be proud of the fact that I 
was a member of the "tribe of Huntertown." The founder of 
the "town" himself (George Hunter) had been a soldier in 
Great Britain. So as a military center "Huntertown" is not to 
be "sneezed" at. 

Studabaker School House. 

No one has dared to tear down that old school house — a 
brick one at that, and the first brick school house in Darke 
county. Where are the boys and girls who once learned to 
"figger" there as far and no farther than the "Rule of three?" 
Webster's Elementary Speller, with its "in-com-pre-hen-si- 
bil-i-ty" words — to all but the older schloars — was the great- 
est book of its day in any school. The spelling matches of 
fifty years ago are as potential in my mind now as they were 
then. The recollection of those days has found a tender spot 
in the heart of George Studabaker and he has kept them in- 
tact. Money can not buy them nor modern ideas efface their 
historic caste as long as he lives. I hope he will make a hun- 
dred years beg his pardon as they pass by. 

The Old "Fordin'." 

There isnt' one of the "old boys" of Greenville but will re-- 
gret to learn that the old sycamore tree that stood on the 
north side of Greenville creek at the "fordin' " was blown 
down by a storm this week, and floated down creek. Under 
the shade of that old tree the "kids" of the town used to go in 
swimming, piling their "duds" on the beautiful lawn on the 
bank. In that old swimmin' hole about all the boys in Green- 
ville in the days of forty years ago. learned to swim. The 
bottom of the creek was always delightful at this point, and 
the depth of water varied from "knee deep to neck," just the 
sort of place for amateur swimmers. Fifty yards down the 
stream is where they would go for "crawdads," after swim- 
ming was over for the day; and just above the "swimmin' 
hole" was a small district that was literally lined with stone 
toters, sucker fish and leeches; and it was always the "un- 


tutored" lad who ventured into that district ; and when he did 
he invariably came out calling for help. "Come take these 
leeches off'n me quick !" After two or three years' sojourn in 
this place, the boys who had become expert swimmers — that 
is, could "float with both feet off the bottom," why they would 
move on up creek a few rods further, to the Morningstar and 
Seitz swimmin' holes, and their places at the old fordin' would 
be taken by the ever-coming and anxious new kids. Several 
limbs of the old tree hung out over the deep water, and the 
just-learning-to-swim boy would grab a limb and use it as 
a derrick to lift him up and down in the deep water. It was a 
brave lad who could make his own way out to these limbs 
from the shallow water on the south side of the creek. My, 
how many changes have taken place around that old swim- 
min' hole ; in fact all along the old creek's banks in that 
neighborhood! The sites of the old ice house, slaughter- 
house, tannery, etc., have given way to cozy homes and beau- 
tiful streets. 



We have noted the mixed character of Darke county's 
early population, its early isolation, and backward develop- 
ment. By 1860, however, great improvements had been made, 
railway and telegraphic communications had been established 
with the older communities and the weekly "Democrat" and 
"Journal" kept the people well informed on the happenings 
of the outside world as well as on those of a local nature. 
The firing on Fort Sumpter, on April 12, 1861, and Lincoln's 
first call for volunteer troops on April 15, 1861, were soon 
heralded in Greenville. Had the inhabitants been imbued 
with the spirit of national patriotism, and would they respond 
to the President's appeal?" An extract from Beer's "His- 
tory of Darke County'' answers these questions and gives 
a graphic description of the enthusiasm of the times. "The 
response from Darke county was prompt, determined and 
practical. Union meetings were held at Greenville, Union 
and Hill Grove. Speeches, fervent and patriotic, were de- 
livered, and within a few days three full companies of volun- 
teers had been raised. On Wednesday afternoon of April 
24, three companies had left the county — two from Green- 
ville, led by Capts. Frizell and Newkirk, and one from Union, 
under Capt. Cranor, aggregating full three hundred men. 
These troops were mustered into the United States service 
as Companies C, I and K of the Eleventh Ohio, and on April 
29, went into Camp Denison, where they rapidly learned the 
discomforts and expedients of military life, shouting and 
cheering as they marked the arrival of fresh bodies of im- 
provised troops. At home, the people manifested their zeal 
by generous contributions for the support of soldiers' fami- 
lies. One hundred and sixty citizens of Darke are named 
in the Greenville Journal of May 8, for a sum subscribed to 
that end of $2,500. The mothers, daughters and sisters sent 
to camp boxes of provisions ; the men freely contributed of 
their means to aid the loyal cause. Bull Run was fought, and 
soon three months had gone by and the volunteers return- 
ing to Greenville were discharged only to re-enter the ser- 
vice for a longer term. Two companies were soon ready for 


the field. As the magnitude of the struggle developed, the 
people of Darke county became yet more resolute in their de- 
sire to assist in restoring the union of the States. ^Meetings 
continued to be held ; addresses full of fervid appeals were ut- 
tered, and a continuous stream of men gathered into camps, 
were organized and moved southward. The enlistments in 
the fall of 1861 were for three years. The Fortieth Regiment 
contained about two hundred men from Darke. In the Thir- 
ty-fourth was a company of eighty-four men who were sent 
with their regiment to \\'estern \'irginia. In the Forty- 
fourth, a company went out under Capt. J. AI. Xewkirk. On 
October 28, the ladies of Greenville met at the court house 
and organized as "The Ladies' Association of Greenville for 
the relief of the Darke County Volunteers." They appoint- 
ed as ofificers, President, Mrs. A. G. Putnam ; secretary, Mrs. 
J. N. Beedle, and treasurer, Mrs. J. L. \\'inner, and formed 
a committee to solicit donations of money and clothing. 
Public meetings continued to be held at various points ; re- 
cruiting was stimulated, and on November 6, it was reported 
that the county had turned out 200 volunteers within twenty 
days. Letters came from men in the field descriptive of 
arms, tents, rations, incidents and marches. Novelty excited 
close observation, and there were reports of duties, health, 
and all too soon came back the news of death. Heavy tidings 
is always that of death, and a sad duty to the comrade to 
tell it to the one watching and waiting at home. This was 
often done with a tact, a kindness, a language that honored the 
soldier writer, and tended to assuage the grief of the recip- 
ient. Such was the letter penned by Thomas R. Smiley, of 
the Thirt3'-fourth, from Camp Red House, West Virginia, 
to Mrs. Swartz, telling of her son's death, by fever, and clos- 
.ing with these words: "Hoping and praying that God will 
sustain you in your grief, I most respectfully subscribe myself 
your friend in sorrow." No wonder the right triumphed, up- 
held by men of such Christian and manly principles. 

"The families of soldiers began in midwinter to suffer, and 
the following extract from the letter of a wife to her hus- 
band, a volunteer from Darke county, will show a trial among 
others borne by the soldier in the sense of helplessness to 
aid his loved ones. It is commended to the perusal of any 
who think war a pastime. She wrote: "I have so far been 
able to support myself and our dear children, with the help 
that the relief committee gave me : hut I am now unable to 


work, and the committee has ceased to reliexe me. I am 
warned that I will have to leave the comfortable home which 
you left us in, and I will have to scatter the children. Where 
will I go and what will become of me? Don't leave without 
permission, as it would only be giving your life for mine. I 
will trust to God and live in hope, although things look very 
discouraging. Do the best you can, and send money as soon 
as possible." During the earlier part of the war, letters told 
of minor matters, but later accounts were brief and freighted 
heavily with tidings of battles, wounds and deaths. 

"In July, 1862, the clouds of war hung heavy with disaster. 
East and West, terrible battles were fought, and the South- 
erners, with a desperate, honorable courage, forced their way 
into Alaryland and Kentucky. New troops volunteered by 
thousands, and joined the veterans to roll back the tide of in- 
vasion. At the time, John L. A\'inner was Chairman of the 
Military Committee of Darke county, whose proportion of 
the call for 40,000 men from the State was 350 men for three 
years. The following shows by townships the number of 
electors, volunteers and those to raise : 

Electors. Volunteers. To raise. 

Greenville 925 175 10 

German 265 27 27 

Washington 255 38 13 

Harrison 370 40 34 

Butler 310 21 43 

Neave 200 17 23 

Richland 193 12 27 

Wayne 325 65 

Twin 350 32 38 

Adams 320 37 27 

Brown 215 27 16 

Jackson 260 31 21 

Monroe 175 24 11 

York 120 9 15 

Van Buren 200 32 8 

Allen 95 10 9 

Mississinewa 130 15 11 

Franklin 170 29 5 

Patterson 125 32 

Wabash 110 12 10 

Total 5,113 6S5 348 


This table, while creditable to all. is especially so to Wayne 
and Patterson. Mass meetings were called, volunteers urged to 
come forward, bounties were offered, and responding to call 
by Gov. Tod, the militia was ordered enrolled. Along in 
August, recruiting proceeded rapidly ; young and middle-aged 
flocked to the camps, and soon four companies (three of the 
94th and one of the 110th) were off to the camp at Piqua. On 
September 3. 1862, eight townships had exceeded their quota. 
There were 4,903 men enrolled and 201 to be raised by draft. 
Successive calls found hearty responses. In May. 1864, three 
townships had filled their quotas, and the draft called for 185 

"The services of the military committee of Darke deserving 
of honorable record is hereby acknowledged by a list as it 
was at the close of 1863 : Daniel R. Davis, Capt. Charles Cal- 
kins, Capt. B. B. Allen and W. M. Wilson, secretary. 

How well Darke county stood at the close of the war may 
be learned from the following statistics : The quota of the 
county in December, 1864, was 455. Of these, 384 volun- 
teered, 24 were drafted, and 408 furnished. Over 1.500 vol- 
unteers were out from the county. It is a pleasing duty to 
briefly place upon the pages of home history a record of 
those regiments wherein Darke county men rendered service 
to their country. Brief though it be. it is a worthy meed of 

The demonstrations attending the de])arture and return 
of the troops during the war can scarcely be imagined by 
one who has never witnessed such a scene. On the day of 
departure the soldiers from various parts of the county would 
assemble in the public square around the old court house. 
Fathers, mothers, wives, sweethearts and large numbers of 
children accompanied them and bid them "good bye" with 
hugs, kisses, tears and "God bless you." AVhen the time 
for departure arrived the companies fell in and marched south 
on Broadway to Third street and then east on the latter 
street one block to the station of the Dayton & Union rail- 
way, on the southwest corner of Third and Walnut streets, 
where they embarked for Columbus, or the place of encamp- 

The history of the various regiments which were com- 
posed partly of companies from Darke county would make 
intensely interesting reading, but. on account of the volume 
of such material and the limited space at the disposal of the 



writer the reader must be content with a brief s'.:etch of each 

Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Three companies of this regiment were recruited in Darke 
county, in response to the first call in April, 1861, to serve 
three months. Company C was first commanded by Capt. 
J. W. Frizell, who was succeeded by R. A. Knox, with C. Cal- 
kins and Thos. McDowell as lieutenants. Company K was 
organized by M. Newkirk with H. C. Angel and Wesley Gor- 
such as lieutenants. They joined the regiment at Camp 
Jackson (now Goodale Park), Columbus, O. Co. I was or- 
ganized at Union City, Ohio, under Captain Jonathan Cranor. 
Before seeing service the regiment was re-organized on June 
20th, mustered in for three years, and sent in July on a 
scout up the Kanawha during which the Colonel of the regi- 
ment was captured. Lieutenant-Colonel Frizell, of Greenville, 
then took charge of the regiment and soon set out for Charles- 
Ion. On the advance they drove the enemy from their 
works at Tyler Mound, and with much difficulty pursued 
them to Gauley Bridge. They participated in two skirmishes, 
near New River in August, during which one man was killed 
and several wounded. Winter quarters were established at 
Point Pleasant early in December and here the troops remained 
until April 16, 1862, when an advance was made to Gauley 
Bridge. In August the Eleventh was moved to Parkers- 
burg, and took rail for ^^^ashingto^, D, C. going into camp 
near Alexandria. From this point they proceeded beyond 
Fairfax Station in an attempt to stay the Confederate ad- 
vance from Manassas, but were compelled to fall back within 
the defenses at Washington. In September the Eleventh 
advanced into Maryland, where they successfully engaged 
the enemy near Frederick City, Sharpsburg and Antietam 
Creek. On October 8, they began a rough march to Hagers- 
town, Md., from which point they were transported to Clarks- 
burg. Here they suffered from exposure in November on 
account of shortage in tents, blankets and clothing. Later 
they were sent to an outpost in the Kanawha valley where 
they erected good winter quarters and recovered strength 
for the coming campaign. Part of the regiment remained 
stationed at this post while another part guarded the Gauley 
fords. In January, 1863, the command under Gen. Cook was 
transferred to Nashville, Tenn., via the Ohio and Cumberland 


rivers. From this point tiiey proceeded to Carthage, forti- 
fied their position, endeavored to counteract the advance of 
the Confederates in that region. On May 27, they marched 
to Murfreesboro, and were placed in the Third Division, 
Fourteenth Army Corps, under Gen. George H. Thomas. 
From this time the regiment bore an honorable part of the 
following engagements: Hoover's Gap, Tenn., June 25, 1863; 
Tullahoma, Tenn., July 1, 1863; Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19-20, 
1863 ; Lookout Mountain, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863 ; Mission 
Ridge, Tenn.. Nov. 25. 1863; Ringgold. Ga., Nov. 27, 1863; 
Buzzard Roost, Ga., Feb. 25, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 16, 1864. 
The original members of this regiment (except veterans) 
were mustered out in June, 1864, by reason of expiration of 
term of service. The veterans and recruits consolidated into 
a battalion and remained in service until June 11. 1865. 

The Thirty-Fourth Regiment. 

Company K composed of eighty-four men was enlisted by 
Capt. Thos. R. Smiley from Darke county, and regularly 
mustered into service at Camp Dennison, Sept. 10, 1861, for 
a term of three years. The regiment was ordered into West- 
ern Virginia, and posted at Gauley Bridge. It was engaged 
in the following battles : Princeton, Fayetteville, Cotton 
Hill, Charlestown. Buffalo, Wytheville, Averill's Raid, Pan- 
ther Gap. Lexington and Beverl}' in West Virginia ; ^Manassas 
Gap, Cloyd's Mountain. Clove IMountain, Piedmont, Buchanan, 
Otter Creek, Lynchburg, Liberty. Salem. Snicker's Gap, 
Winchester, Kernstown. Summit Point, Halltown, Berry- 
ville, Martinsburg, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, Strasburg and 
Cedar Creek in A^irginia and Monocacy Gap, Md. 

The Fortieth Ohio Infantry. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Chase in the fall of 
1861 to serve three years. All of Companies E and G, the 
greater portion of Company I, and parts of F and K of this 
organization were recruited from Darke county. The fol- 
lowing men from this county served as officers in this regi- 

Jonathan Cranor, colonel ; resigned. 

James B. Creviston, adjutant; resigned. 

Harrison E. McClure, adjutant; mustered out. 

William H. Matchett, assistant surgeon ; mustered out. 


John D. Gennett, captain of Company E; resigned. 

Charles G. Alatchett, captain of Company G; mustered out. 

Andrew R. Calderwood, Captain of Company I ; resigned. 

Wm. C. Osgood, first lieutenant of Company E, promoted 
to captain; resigned. 

James Allen, promoted to captain from sergeant ; mustered 

Clement Snodgrass, promoted to captain from sergeant ; 
killed at Peach Tree Creek, July 21, 1864. 

Benjamin F. Snodgrass, promoted to first lieutenant from 
sergeant : killed at Chickamauga. September 20, 1864. 

Cyrenius Van ^^later, first lieutenant of Company G ; killed 
at Chickamauga. 

John T. Ward, second lieutenant of Company E ; resigned. 

William Bonner, second lieutenant of Company G ; re- 

J. W. Smth, second lieutenant of Company I, promoted to 
first lieutenant, then to Captain ; mustered out. 

John P. Frederick, first lieutenant of Company F ; re- 

John M. Wasson, promoted to second lieutenant ; mustered 

David Krouse, second lieutenant of Company F. promoted 
to first lieutenant ; mustered out. 

Isaac N. Edwards, sergeant, promoted to lieutenant : mus- 
tered out. 

James A Fisher, sergeant, promoted to lieutenant ; mustered 

This regiment left Camp Chase for Kentucky December 
17, 1861. During the war it bore an honorable part in the 
following conflicts : Middle Creek, Ky., Pound Gap, Ky., 
Franklin River, Tenn., Tullahoma Campaign, Tenn., Chick- 
amauga, Ga., Lookout Mountain, Tenn., Mission Ridge, 
Tenn., Ringgold, Ga., Resaca, Ga., Dallas, Ga., Kenesaw 
Mountain, Ga., Peach Tree Creek, Ga., siege of Atlanta, Ga., 
Jonesboro, Ga., Lovejoy Station, Ga., and Franklin, Tenn. 

The Forty-Fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Capt. John M. Newkirk who had organized Companv K of 
the Eleventh Regiment for three months' service, as before 
noted, left that organization when it was reorganized and later 
became Captain of Company G of the Forty-Fourth Regi- 


ment. which was mustered into service at Camp Clark, 
Springfield, Ohio, in October, 1861, to serve three years. It 
soon began service in West Virginia, where winter quarters 
were established. The principal engagements in which this 
regiment took part were Lewisbnrg, W. Va., May 23, 1862, 
and Button's Hill, Ky., March 30, 1863. 

In January, 1864, its designation was changed to the Eighth 
Regiment Ohio Cavalry. 

Eighth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. 

As above mentioned, this organization was the successor 
of the 44th Regiment O. V. I., from which it was formed in 
January, 1864. This regiment was retained in service until 
Julv 30, 1865. During its short term of existence it took part 
in the following engagements ; Covington, Otter Creek, 
Lynchburg, Liberty, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, North Shen- 
andoah and Cedar Creek, Virginia ; ]\Iartinsburg and Beverly, 
W. Va. It was mustered out at Clarksburg, W. Va. 

Sixty-Ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

Two companies of this regiment were recruited in Darke 
county. Company D under Capt. Eli Hickcox, and Company E 
under Capt. David Putnam. Jas. Devor and Jas. Wharry also 
served as Captain of Company D during the course of the 
war : Jas. Tip King and Wm. S. Mead as first lieutenants ; 
J. \\'. Shively and Wm. J. Faulkner as second lieutenants. 
Geo. W. Moore and Nelson T. Chenoweth served as Captains, 
John M. Boatman, Jacob J. Rarick and Jacob Leas as first 
lieutenants in Company E. Captain Hickcox was promoted 
to Major. L. E. Chenoweth was promoted from private in 
Company E to quartermaster sergeant. J. T. King to first lieu- 
tenant ; A. N. Wilson from private to Hospital Steward. This 
regiment was organized in the state of Ohio at large, from 
October, 1861, to April, 1862, to serve three years. On the 
expiration of its term of service the original members fexcept 
veterans) were mustered out, and the organization composed 
of veterans and recruits, remained in the service until July 
17, 186.=;. 

This organization took creditable part in the following en- 
gagements : Gallatin, Stone River, Chickamauga and Mis- 
sion Ridge, Tenn. ; Resaca, Dallas, Pumpkin Vine Creek, 
Kenesaw Mountain, ^Tarietta. Chattahoochie River. Peach 


Tree Creek, Atlanta and at Jonesboro and Savannah. Ga., on 
Sherman's march to the sea. Their last engagement was at 
Bentonville, N. C. 

The Ninety-Fourth Ohio Volunteers. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Piqua, some three 
miles above Piqua, Ohio, on the farm originally owned by 
Col. John Johnson, to serve three years with Col. Joseph \\'. 
Frizell, of Greenville, as commander. Three companies were 
enrolled from Darke county as follows : Company F, with 
Thos. H. ^^'orkman as captain, W. H. Snyder, first lieutenant 
and H. A. Tomilson, second lieutenant; Company I, with 
Wesley Gorsuch as captain, G. D. Farrar, first lieutenant, 
Chas. R. Moss, second lieutenant ; Company K, with Chaun- 
cy Riffle as captain, Samuel T. Armold, first lieutenant, ]\I. G. 
Aladdox, second lieutenant. Before being equipped they were 
hurried to Lexington, Ky., late in August, 1862, and on Au- 
gust 31, became engaged at Tate's Ferry. During the course 
of the war they engaged creditably in the following battles : 
Perryville, Ky. ; Stone River, Tenn. ; Tullahoma Campaign, 
Tenn. ; Dug Gap, Chickamauga, Ga. ; Lookout Mountain, Mis- 
sion Ridge, Tenn. ; Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Pumpkin Vine 
Creek, Dallas, Kenesaw jMountain, Smyrna Camp Ground, 
Chattahoochie River, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta and Jones- 
boro, Ga. ; Bentonville, N. C. ; and Johnson's Surrender. 

One Hundred and Tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

\\'as organized at Camp Piqua. in August, 1862. and con- 
tained two companies from Darke county, Joseph C. Snod- 
grass being captain of one. Col. J. W. Keifer was in com- 
mand. This regiment was ordered to Parkersburg, Va., Oc- 
tober 19th. It served honorably in the following battles : 
LInion Alills, Winchester Heights, Stevenson's Depot, Wap- 
ping Heights, Brandy Station, Orange Grove. Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania C. H., New River, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, 
Ream's Station, Snicker's Gap, Charleston, Halltowai, Smith- 
field, Opequan. Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Cedar Springs, 
Petersburg, Jetlersville, Sailor's Creek and Appomattox in 
'N'irginia and Alonocacv, Md. 


One Hundred and Fifty-Second Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

This regiment was recruited largely in Darke county, eight 
companies being comprised of local men. Col. David Put- 
nam, who had formerly served as Captain in the 69th Regi- 
ment, was the commanding officer, and John Beers was Ser- 
geant-Major. This regiment left Greenville May 2, 1864, and 
was discharged Sept. 1, 1864, having been employed on the 
skirmish line in Virginia, to guard wagon trains and relieve 
the veteran soldiers, who were needed at the front. They 
were not in any important engagement. In Hunter's raid 
down the Shenandoah valley this regiment had charge of a 
provision train of 214 wagons, and marched from Martins- 
burg to Lynchburg, on the old Cumberland pike. It then 
marched over the Blue Ridge mountains to White Sulphur 
Springs, where it had its main engagement. From this point 
it marched to Webster, Va., a total distance of about 535 
miles entirely on foot. After this the regiment went to Cum- 
berland, Md., where it remained until the return to Camp 
Dennison and discharge. 



There are a few outstanding events in Darke county his- 
tory which should be known and cherished by every patriotic 
citizen and kept on record for the instruction and inspiration 
of coming generations. Prominent mention has been made 
of Wayne's treaty and its significance as a national afifair. 

Harrison's Treaty. 

The next event of vital importance was the treaty held by 
Gen. Wm. H. Harrison and Gen. Lewis Cass, on July 22. 1814. 
The defeat of the British and Indians and the death of Te- 
cumseh at the battle of the Thames in the fall of 1813 damp- 
ened the ardor of the hostile tribes, and made them desirous 
of peace with the Americans. At their solicitation arrange- 
ments were made for a conference and council at Greenville, 
early in the spring of 1814. Some difficulty was experienced 
in getting the tribes together as in the former extended 
treaty negotiations of Wayne in 1795. The British still held 
out strong inducements which it was hard for the wavering 
savages to resist. However, it is said, that by the latter part 
of June, 1814, some three or four thousand Indians were 
encamped around Greenville and its vicinity awaiting the 
final assembling of the council. 

The government was represented by Gen. Wm. H. Harrison 
and Gen. Lewis Cass, then governor of Michigan territory, 
together with Little Turtle, Capt. Pipe, Tarhe, Black Hoof 
and other chiefs acting on behalf of the friendly Delawares, 
Wyandots, Shawnees and Senecas. After much diplomacy 
all differences were reconciled and on July 22, 1814, the gov- 
ernment agents named above gave peace to the Miamis, Weas, 
and Eel River Indians and to certain of the Kickapoos, 
Ottawas and Pottawatomies. All agreed to espouse the 
cause of the Americans in case of a continuance of the war 
then in progress. The scene of the principal negotiations 
was a little grove on the northeast corner of Main and Elm 


Streets. A large number of people were present for this 
early date and the occasion was enlivened by the picturesque 
costumes and decorations of the Indians, who donned their 
head dresses and painted their bodies according to the tradi- 
tions of their respective tribes. 

Departure of the Tribes. 

The removal of the Indian tribes from northwestern Ohio 
in 1832 was an event of stirring interest and pathos. To the 
Redmen the final leaving of old haunts and the hunting 
grounds of their ancestors is a sad and pathetic aiTair. Ac- 
cordingly, when the government decided that the welfare of 
the tribal remnants of Ohio as well as that of the pioneers 
would be best conserved by removing the former to a new 
and more congenial home be3-ond the Mississippi the Indians 
expressed a desire to take a last and longing look at their old 
stamping ground. As this spot was near the shortest route 
this request was granted and in 1832 the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies living on the reserves about Sandusky, started on 
their long journey to Indian Territor}-. Several of these peo- 
ple had lived at Tecumseh's Point and desired to see the 
place again. They arrived here on a fine afternoon in May 
on horseback under the leadership of a government agent, 
togged out in their picturesque native garb, the bucks in their 
feathers and their gaudy attire, and the squaws with their 
papooses tied on their backs. Their arrival was the signal 
for great excitement, especially among the children, who had 
never seen it on this fashion. There were five or six hun- 
dred in this motley and grotesque band, who camped on the 
point, remaining three or four days. For the most part they 
were orderly and well behaved, and furnished much entertain- 
ment for the curious populace. It was especially amusing to 
observe the culinary operations of the squaws and one of the 
white boys, who was doubtless present when some of their 
meals were prepared, has left the following interesting de- 
scription of the proceedings : "The squaw would go to a 
ham of beef, laying on the ground in the back end of the 
tent, chase off the dogs that were gnawing at it, cut off a 
slice from the same place, take it to the fire and place it in a 
skillet, return for another, again chase ofT the dogs, and so 
on till her pot was full. 

"^^'hen the meal was cooked, or partially so, they would 


begin to eat, but without table or dishes, or even any other 
ceremony than that of helping themselves. They seemed 
to be merry, pleasant and jolly, and respectful to visitors, 
but no white folks were seen eating with them. 

"During their stay the old folks spent their time in look- 
iiig- about the country, here and there recognizing a familiar 
object, dra\\ing a sigh as of regret and moving away to some- 
thing else. .Some of them went to visit the grave of Blue 
jacket and another chief, at the council house about three 
miles southwest of this point, but were disappointed in find- 
ing them, as a party, said to be from New York, many years 
before had robbed the grave of the old chief, and the plow- 
share had passed many times over that of Blue Jacket. No 
trace of the council house, which was thirty or forty feet 
wide and seventy-five feet long, now remained. But the 
llash of a retentive memory stirred the countenances of these 
old men as the stirring events of their youthful days, one by 
one. arose and passed before their recollection. The young 
Indians amused themselves by sauntering around town, 
jumping and running foot races with the whites. These were 
sports they were accustomed to and at which they were hard 
to beat." 

The Wayne Treaty Centennial 1895. 

As the centennial 3-ear of \\'ayne's treaty approached pub- 
lic minded citizens began to advocate the proper celebration of 
this notable event. The daily and weekly press responded 
to the growing public sentiment and urged that fitting cere- 
monies mark the passing of the centenary of the peace of 
^fad Anthony. Meetings were held and an executive com- 
mittee was appointed consisting of J. T. Martz, Daniel Hun- 
ter and A. C. Robeson, all patriotic, capable and public spir- 
ited citizens, who represented three pioneer families, and had 
been identified with the history of Darke county for many 
years. Extensive preparations were made and when the glad- 
some day arrived, Saturday, August 3, 1895, the streets, stores 
and public buildings appeared arrayed in lavish and gorgeous 
decorations. The booming of cannon and the ringing of 
bells heralded the dawning day. People began to arrive from 
the surrounding towns and countrv nt an earlv hour and all 
the morning trains were crowded with curious and patriotic 
visitors. The crowd that assembled was estimated at about 
thirty thousand people. The feature of the morning was an 
' (20-) 


industrial parade worthily representing some fifty business 
firms. This was followed by a line of horsemen, various 
lodges, societies, etc. Several bands, including the noted 
military band of the Dayton National Soldiers" Home, fur- 
nished music for the occasion. A small band of Indians, 
descendants of some of the tribes who participated in the 
treaty, were present and attracted much attention. The 
afternoon program was rendered at the fair ground where 
Gov. Wm. McKinley, Hon. Samuel Hunt of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Judge Gilniore of Columbus, and Hon. Samuel H. Doyle of 
Indiana, made notable addresses. McKinley had made a 
strong and convincing address on the 18th of September, 
1891, at iMorningstar's Park during his gubernatorial cam- 
paign, and his presence at the Wayne celebration was greatly 
appreciated. Among his pregnant utterances were : "The cen- 
tennial anniversary we meet to celebrate is of far more than 
local or mere state interest. If we may judge events by their 
subsequent results, we can heartily agree with the historians 
that the signing of the peace at Greenville on August 3, 1795, 
was the most important event necessary to permanent set- 
tlement and occupation in the existence of the whole north- 
west territory. Indeed, its good effects far outstretched even 
the boundaries of that great domain. * * * To me one 
of the greatest benefits of the treaty of Greenville has seemed 
that it opened wide the gateway of opportunity' to the free 
and easy settlement of the great west. * * * 

"Greenville may justly congratulate herself that she is the 
site where the treaty was signed, that her name and fame 
are forever linked with its history. Let us keep alive those 
precious memories of the past and instill into the minds of 
the young the lessons of the stirring patriotism and devotion 
to duty of the men who were the first to establish here 
the authority of the Republic and founded on eternal prin- 
ciples its free and notable institutions. The centuries may 
come, the centuries may go. but their fame will survive forever 
on this historic ground. * * * 

"It is a great thing to make history. The men who par- 
ticipated in the Indian wars won victories for civilization and 
mankind. And these victories all of us are enjoying today. 
Nothing, therefore, could be more appropriate than that this 
great section of the country, which a centurv ago was the 
theater of war. should pause to celebrate the stirring events 


of those times and the peace which followed, and do honor 
to the brave men who participated in them. 

"It is a rich inheritance to any community to have in its 
keeping historic ground. As we grow older in statehood, in- 
terest in these historical events increases, and their frequent 
celebration is calculated to promote patriotism and a spirit 
of devoted loyalty to country. * * * 

"We cannot have too many of these celebrations with their 
impressive lessons of patriotism and sacrifice. Let us teach 
our children to revere the past, for by its examples and les- 
sons alone can we wisely prepare them for a better and nobler 
future. The city of GreenvUle, the people of Ohio, the peo- 
ple of the country, should see to it that at no distant day 
a great monument shall be erected to celebrate this great 

In concluding his long and masterful review of the events 
leading up to the great treaty Judge Hunt said : "The treaty 
of Greenville, following the spirit of the imperishable prin- 
ciples of the Ordinance of 1787, extended the hand of friend- 
ship toward the Indian, respected his liberty, paid full com- 
pensation for his lands and protected his property. It estab- 
lished a code of morals for a free people. When some future 
Bancroft shall write the history of this people, he will speak 
of the great Ordinance as the first attempt in the northwestern 
states and then of the treat_y here proclaimed, which sup- 
plants the harsher tones of military strife with the softer 
syllables of charity and love. If, too, the victories of peace 
are not less renowned than those of war, then the day will 
surely come when a grateful people, revering their traditions, 
and conscious of the maxims imperial of their glory, will erect 
on this historic ground a majestic monument, having an out- 
stretched hand rather than a fixed bayonet, and with the 
simple yet immortaMnscription, "The Treaty of Greenville." 

Judge Gilmore said among other things in his very inter- 
esting speech: "The Treaty of Greenville became a prece- 
dent, and the principles it established were those, substan- 
tially, that were subsequently applied in extinguishing the 
Indian title to the residue of the great Northwest Territory, 
which is now sufficient in itself to constitute an empire in 
population, and in all things else that constitute goodness and 
greatness in government ; lying at the bottom of which are 
the lasting effects of the Treaty of Greenville." 


Washington's Centenary. 

Another interesting and stirring event took place at the 
county seat early in 1832, the memory of which would, no 
doubt, have been consigned to oblivion but for the public 
spirit and facile pen of D. K. Swisher, who wrote the follow- 
ing readable account of the occasion for the June 12, 1880, 
issue of the Greenville "Courier (for Mr. Swisher's biography, 
see Chapter XXII "Bench and Bar") : "At the beginning of the 
year 1832, great preparations were made all over the United 
States for the proper observance of the 100th anniversary 
of the birth of Gen. George Washington, which occurred on 
the 22d day of February, of that year. The day was gener- 
ally observed by military demonstrations, orations and pro- 
cessions. The roar of cannon on the shores of the Atlantic 
was heard and imitated by the contiguous interior and south- 
western towns, till the whole populated union reverberated 
witli the sound. The day was observed by the citizens of 
Darke county, hundreds of whom assembled at Greenville. 
The day was pleasant for the season of the year, and the ex- 
ercises were chiefly outdoor. A few' months previous to 
this a small brass cannon, about a four pounder, had been 
found by some boys at Fort Recovery, by the name of Mc- 
Dowell. They had been digging along the margin of the 
Wabash river, and fortunatel}- struck upon it. The gun had 
lain there since the battle and defeat of St. Clair at that place, 
had sunk into the mud and became concealed so that it was 
not found by the soldiers, who afterward went there and 
brought away the property left by him, which the Indians 
had not carried oflf or destroyed. 

This little cannon, which was about 5j^ feet long, 6 inches 
in diameter at the muzzle, and ten at the breech, with 4 inch 
arms, about 14 inches long, and a knob on the breech, weighed 
about 400 pounds. It seemed not to be damaged in the least 
by corroding, and with little rubbing became smooth and 

The finders of it hauled it to Greenville and offered it for 
sale. But as money was very scarce here at that time, they 
were unable to sell it for cash, but Jacob Rush, a farmer just 
at the south of town, owner of the farm now owned and oc- 
cupied by his son, Isaac Rush, hearing of the matter, offered 
to give them a yoke of oxen he then had, valued at $60, for 
the cannon, which they accepted, and ATr. Rush became the 


owner of the gun. He afterward sold it to the citizens of 
Greenville for the sum of $60, the money to be raised by sub- 
scription. But when the effort was made to collect the 
money in that way it was found that but few were willing 
to subscribe anything. Frank L. Hamilton having been 
the chief contractor with Air. Rush for the gun, and not being 
able to raise the money otherwise, sold the gun to some citi- 
zens of Cincinnati for the sum of $100, as it was understood. 
Thus for the want oi a little patriotism and money in our 
people, they lost a very interesting relic. It seems to have 
been the historj' of this little gun, that it was founded in 
one of the great establishments of Great Britain, sent over to 
this country to knock the liberty out of the people, but was 
captured at Yorktown, and held by the captors, sent west by 
the government of the United States to defend her people 
against savage encroachments, but lost as before stated. And 
though it was a very pretty piece of ordnance, its misfor- 
tunes were greater than its beauty. It is understood the citi- 
zens of Cincinnati highlv prized the little unfortunate, burn- 
ished it, and engraved its history upon it, mounted it upon a 
splendid carriage, and honored it by a front position in all 
her civic military demonstrations. 

This gun formed one of the chief attractions of the cele- 
bration here. A four pound shot had been found here, with 
which the gun was charged on that day, John Wharry and 
Allen LaMotte and Benjamin Devor being the chief gunners, 
but very bad shots. Four shots were made at a large burr 
oak tree which stood just upon the north side of the creek, 
and was about three feet in diameter, at a distance of about 
150 yards. Three shots missed the tree, but the fourth struck 
it about twelve feet from the ground. The ball struck on 
the side of the tree but entered, and split the tree twelve or 
fifteen feet up, and down, to the roots. It was amusing, and 
constituted one of the excitements of the da}', to see the men 
and boys run at each discharge to hunt up and bring back 
the ball. Small bushes stood very thick along the creek in 
the bottom land and the ball could be easily traced by the 
limbs and brush it cut ofif. The ball generally went about 
the fourth of a mile. Once it struck the bank that a fallen 
tree had turned up, which was about three feet thick and 
frozen hard : it went through the bank, but was entirely 
spent so that it lay just on the other side. The ball hitting 
the tree finally, buried itself so that it could not be obtained. 


Stopped that fun. But still the gun was charged with pow- 
der and continued to be shot for perhaps 100 times. 

At that day Darke county had no orators, no man stood up 
to speak and stir the patriotic heart, so that the pleasures of 
the day were chiefly confined to the booming of the cannon. 
No procession was formed or order observed ; no military dis- 
play, not even the enlivening fife nor the rattling drum was 
heard; no song to arouse the slumbering echoes, or stir and 
quicken the fagging memory ; nor flags, nor war tattered 
banners; nor indeed were these things necessary. The tale 
of the wondrous chief, his great struggle with his little strag- 
gling army of heroes for the national independence, against 
the awful power of the most warlike and potent nations on 
earth, was not forgotten, but with each boom of the cannon 
fresh memories were enkindled and the heart swelled to full- 
ness. At that day no disturbing element had awakened a 
feeling of sectional jealousy, a spirit of national pride alike 
in Maine and Louisiana was buoyant in every heart. No 
thought of a dissolution of the union, nor the establishment 
of a plurality of governments, nor of independence of one 
section or the other, but as members of one body all living 
on the pulsations of the one great national heart. Nor had 
the root of all evil, "the love of money," grown superior 
to the love of republican government, nor had labor grown 
weary and dissatisfied with its wages, nor looked on with 
evil eye upon prosperity and wealth, nor ballot boxes stuft'ed, 
or privilege at the polls violated. All these are new, dan- 
gerous and disturbing elements now, requiring steady vigi- 
lance and watchful care. The pride of the patriot today is 
not the pride of the patriot of which we write ; "that all are 
patriots," but that a great and overwhelming majority of the 
people are patriotic, and looking for the perpetuation of the 
union, and the maintenance of our republican institutions, 
till the sun approaches his western setting on the last day 
of time. Till then may our republican institutions be pre- 
served, and only destroyed by the general wreck of nature. 

No accident happened, or other unpleasant circumstances 
during the day, and the people retired to their respective 
homes, well pleased. This was 48 years ago. In 52 years 
from now, on the 22d day of February, 1932, the 200th anni- 
versary of Washington's birth will occur. 

Will the people of Greenville and Darke county then cele- 
brate the day? Will they go over the creek into the same 


bottom, and let the roar of cannon be heard from the place? 
Will they then read this little scrap of the history of Darke 
county? I hope they will do all these things. And if we 
surelv know they would, how greatly paid we should be for 
making this record. 

At that day there was about 100 souls living in Greenville 
and about 1,000 in the county. When our children meet to 
celebrate the day. 52 years from now, they will not see any 
here who celebrated the day 48 years ago. They will not see 
the large tree used by us as a target (it has already passed 
away), the fill of the Dayton & Union R. R. covers the 
stump. They will not use the little brass cannon, nor the 
thick brush woods. But the creek will be there, and the bot- 
tom land will be there. The town will still be here ; not the 
town of 100 souls, but a city of 30,000; not a county of 1,000 
souls, but a vast community of 75,000. They will celebrate 
the day greater in proportion as their number exceed ours, by 
orations, speeches and songs, and processions and flags amidst 
the roar of many cannon and the enlivening strains of music." 

The Hard Cider Campaign of 1840. 

No other man has thus far been elected President of the 
United States, who had been so vitally connected with the 
early history of western Ohio as Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison. 
His memory is especially dear to the citizens of Darke coun- 
ty as he bore a prominent part in the campaign of Wayne 
and the Treaty of 1795 as a young man, led the forces which 
gave the final blow to the redskins in northwestern Ohio and 
Indiana during the second British war, and negotiated the 
treaty here in 1814 as before noted. No wonder that the 
announcement of his candidacy for the presidency in 1840 
was received with such an outbreak of enthusiasm in Ohio 
and Indiana as will probably never be accorded another as- 
pirant for this exalted position in this locality. The senti- 
ment of the people was expressed by the construction of log 
cabins, typifying the hardships of pioneer life, and large 
canoes suggesting the battle of Tippecanoe. The shibboleth 
of the hour among the enthused admirers of the heroic Whig 
was "Tippecanoe and Tyler too." A strong appeal was made 
to the patriotic feelings of the general populace and with 
telling effect, as shown by the result of the election. While 
campaigning in western Ohio Harrison was enthusiastically 


received, and it is pleasant tu note that he did not overlook 
the site of old Fort Greenville on this occasion. He had 
come by boat from Cairo, 111., and had made speeches at 
Louisville, Ky., Newport, Ky., and at Cincinnati. From this 
point he traveled overland through Hamilton, where he also 
spoke, and then came to Greenville. The 22d o: July. 1840, 
being the twenty-sixth anniversary of his celebrated treaty 
was happily selected as the time of his appearing. The unique 
and spectacular features connected with this event have been 
aptly described by at least two writers, and we take pleasure 
in quoting again from the pen of D. K. Swisher "The memor- 
able and lengthy campaign for the Presidency of the United 
States between Martin Van Buren and Gen. Wm. Henry Har- 
rison, was conducted with great zeal by politicians of both 
political parties (Whigs and Democrats) all over the country, 
and, of course, the citizens of Darke county and Greenville 
did not remain silent spectators at the huge combat. Not by 
any means. General Harrison was invited to return to Green- 
ville, where more than a quarter of a century before he had 
held council with the Indian tribes of the northwest. The 
invitation was accepted and great preparations were made ior 
his reception. The dav for his reception came. The town be- 
gan -to overflow with thousands of visitors from all parts of 
the country. Some had come hundreds of miles from sur- 
rounding states to see and hear the old general and future 

A committee of reception had been appointed, among whom 
was the writer. \\-Iiich at the hour of 10 o'clock a. m. proceeded 
out on the road leading to Fort JefTerson, followed by 
thousands of others on horseback, and in all kinds of vehicles, 
met the general and his party one mile north of Fort TefFer- 
son and escorted him into town. The general was seated in 
a carriage accompanied bv three other gentlemen and loo'^C'! 
very much tired and worried l)v the trip. Xobodv expectccl 
to see such a common and plain old gentleman as he was. 
but instead of this dampening the enthusiasm of his reception 
it only seemed to inflame it. When it was known surely that 
we had met the general, and heard him relate in a few words 
how glad he was to see so many at his reception in Green- 
ville, one long and continued shout of applause rent the air 
and shook the surrounding foliage as will never occur again 
on the road from Fort Jefferson to Greenville, for the road 
all the way was full of people. It has been estimated that 



more than ten thousand people heard General Harrison speak 
that da}-. General Harrison remained in town over night, 
and was the guest of Abraham Scribner, who was one of his 
soldiers in the war of 1812. In the evening of that day Har- 
rison went with others to the top of the house of Hiram 
Potter (now the Farmers' Hotel, on lot 54), which was a two- 
story with flat roof with banisters all round. Here he re- 
ceived and was introduced to several ladies of the town, and 
took quite a long view of the surroundings, in search of 
something he might recognize. The ground, indeed, was still 
here, the creek still flowed at his feet, the surrounding forest 
trees still stood, and the blue sky looked calmly down, but no 
trace of the dusky savage, no resounding of the clamor of war 
could be seen or heard. All was changed. Where the sol- 
dier boy had brightened up his arms and accoutrements in 
the former days, and where the savage had strolled, there 
stood the peaceful hamlet, calm as the great soul that sat 
upon and moved his own great heart." 

We append herewith another interesting account of Harri- 
son's reception from "Beer's History of Darke County" 

"Up to this time, political enthusiasm had never reached 
a ver}^ high pitch among the hardy settlers, but now the ex- 
citement was as great in the woods of Darke county as it 
was in Hamilton county, Ohio, or in any of the older states, 
and when it was announced, weeks in advance, that 'Old 
Tip' would address the people, the surrounding country went 
wild. Immense delegations came from Kentucky, Indiana 
and [Michigan. There were more than three hundred ladies 
present from Kentucky, and the gallants of the backwoods 
were so much smitten by their graces of person, manners and 
apparel that from that time till after the election all the young 
men were Whigs, and 'log cabins, canoes and coonskins' be- 
came the SA^mbols of their faith, and 'hard cider' the favorite 
libation. Many of the delegations were headed by log cab- 
ins on wheels, drawn by horses, and in one or two instances 
by oxen. One delegation from one of the river counties was 
headed by a monster canoe mounted on wheels, in which were 
twenty-seven young ladies, representing the twenty-six 
states and the Goddess of Liberty. This canoe was drawn by 
ten white horses. The meeting was held just west of town 
in a beautiful grove. Facing the speaker's stand, or rather 
encircling it on three sides, was a liank, well shaded and af- 


fording comfortable seats for the vast throng. This natural 
amphitheater could not have been improved had it been de- 
signed for this special occasion. The various delegations as 
they approached the town were met by one of the 'Greenville 
bands' and escorted in with honor. A brief description of 
these musical companies will not be without some degree of 
interest. The 'band' par excellence consisted of William 
Morningstar, mounted on a fine horse, and his instrument a 
violin, upon which he was no mean performer. He met each 
delegation in turn, and gave them a medley comprising sev- 
eral of the rollicking airs to which the campaign songs were 
sung: "Hail to the Chief.' 'Bonaparte's March.' with the more 
inspiring strains of 'Soldier's Joy' and 'Money Musk,' and 
thus, with the booming of cannon and the cheers of the ex- 
cited multitude, the delegations were welcomed. The other 
bands, consisting of drums and fifes, although less singular, 
were much more noisy, and far and near the martial music 
resounded, stimulating the feeling, accelerating pulsation, and 
with rattle and roll of drum and shrill, clear shriek of fife, 
performing the air of 'Yankee Doodle,' and intensifying the 
excitement with the 'double drag.' The principal speakers 
were Tom Corwin and Gen. Harrison. Corwin argued that 
tlie re-election of VanBuren would be the signal for a reduc- 
tion in the prices of labor and all American products, and, in 
support of his plea, read several advertisements of well-known 
produce dealers from Whig newspapers, somewhat after the 
following effect: 'On and after the 1st of December. 1840, 
the subscriber will pay $1 per bushel for wheat if Harrison 
be elected and 40 cents if the election "favors Van Buren.' 
Similar notices concerning corn and hogs were also read from 
the advertising columns of the partv press. Various argu- 
ments were presented by Corwin in a way and with a force 
that brought conviction to many a close listener. The speech 
of Harrison was characterized as an able and eloquent states- 
manlike eflfort in support of republican institutions. He also 
devoted considerable time to personal reminiscence, and won 
over many warm friends from the opposing party. He re- 
mained two nr three days in Greenville, the guest of Mr. 
Scribner, and. in company with his host and neighbors, vis- 
ited many points of interest in the town and its environs. 
The old merchant and tavernkeeper had been a staunch 
Democrat, but from this time on. became and continued an 
ardent supporter of the hero of Tippecanoe." From Green- 


\ille Gen. Harrison went to Dayton, Chillicothe and Colum- 
bus, O., wliere he received similar enthusiastic receptions. 

The Burial of Patsy and Anna Wilson. 

In the summer of 1871 the Darke County Pioneer Associa- 
tion prepared to observe the nation's Natal day in a most 
fitting manner. As a special feature of the day's program 
it had been decided to exhume the remains of the Wilson 
children, who had been tomahawked by the Indians in Oc- 
tober, 1812, and to re-bury them in the new cemetery with im- 
pressive ceremonies. Accordingly, good speakers were in- 
vited, an attractive program arranged and preparations made 
on a large scale for the event. The pioneer associations of 
Preble, Miami, Montgomery and other counties were invited 
to be present on this occasion, and a speakers' stand was con- 
structed in X. Hart's grove (Meeker's woods) on the north 
side of the creek near the site of the children's burial. In 
spite of the rain on the afternoon of ^Monday, July 3d, and 
in the early forenoon of the 4th, the people came from all 
directions, and by 10 o'clock a. m. the main streets were 
thronged with people. At 11 o'clock a. m. a large procession 
formed in front of the Wagner House (Public Square) es- 
corted by Col. D. Putnam, Maj. Eli Hickox, Capt. J. W. 
Smith. Capt. Jas. Creviston and Maj. Frank E. Moores, the 
officers of the day, and the Arcanum band, and proceeded to 
the grove. Upon arrival at that place, the singers, orators 
and invited guests mounted the platform and rendered the 
following program : 

Prayer — Rev. Levi Purviance. 

Music — Choir. 

Declaration of Independence — T. Riley Knox. 

Music — "Hail, Columbia" — Band. 

Oration — Hon. G. Volney Dorsey (of Piqua, O.). 

Music — "Red, White and Blue" — Choir. 

Address — Hon. George B. Holt. 

Music — "Star Spangled Banner." 

Address — Hon. George D. Hendricks (Eaton, O.). 

Music — By Choir. 

Remains of children presented to young ladies for re-in- 
terment by Col. J. W. Frizell. 

Music — Dirge. 

The address of Dr. Dorsev. which lasted over an hour, was 


pronounced a most sound, able, eloquent and brilliant ef- 
fort and was listened to with profound attention and eager- 
ness by the assembled throng. 

•After the dirge, Barney Collins, the local poet, read the 
following beautiful and appropriate poem which he had writ- 
ten especially for the occasion : 

"When Autumn tints had tinged the woods 

And dyed the grape with blue. 
By Greenville's stream two maidens stood 

\\'ith cheeks of ruddy hue ; 
Beyond the farther shore they knew 

Deep in a shady dell. 
The grape in wild profusion grew — 

The grape they lov'd so well. 

To reach these grapes their young hearts sigh'd, 

Nor could they brook delay ; 
Together they stepped in the tide 

That flashed the morning's ray, 
Xor dream'd they then that on that day 

Ere yet their sports were o'er. 
Another stream of darksome way 

Their sports would explore. 

"With mirthful laugh and joyous song 

They through the forest strayed, 
Xor thought that they were doing wrong 

In being vindismayed ; 
But, ah ! in deep and somber shade 

Two dread Wyandots stood ; 
Who had their every act surveyed. 

Yet did their sight elude. 

"^^'ith a.xe upraised and gleaming eyes 

They from their covert sprung; 
In vain were uttered mercy's cries 

And hands in vain were wrung — • 
In vain the two together clung 

.\n(l called their mother's name — 
The whetted axe that o'er them swung 

Fell swift with deadlv aim. 


"Their golden locks that in the morn 

A mother's pride had shone, 
Red dripping from their heads were torn 

To deck an Indian zone ; 
Beside a gray primeval stone 

Their mangled forms were laid, 
Where oft in sadness and alone. 

The mother wept and pray'd. 

"Yes ! on yon hill of gentle rise, 

Whose base yon brook flows round — 
The gallant Cloyd, with streaming eyes 

Low placed them in the ground ; 
And now, though time with lengthen'd bound 

Has measured sixty years — 
He comes to view this spot renowned 

And shed again his tears. 

"But O ! what changes time has wrought. 

Since here amid alarms. 
These murder'd ones he bravelj' caught 

Within his stalwart arms ; 
And braving death in all its forms. 

Wiped from each lovely face 
The gore that veil'd those youthful charms 

That death could not efiface. 

"No mother smoothed their silken hair, 

Nor deck'd the pulseless breast ; 
No funeral hymn rose on the air 

When they were laid to rest ; 
No words of solace were express'd 

When closed the lonely grave. 
All sounds save sighs were there repress'd — 

The sighs of soldiers brave. 

"Alas! the breast with grief must swell, 

The eyes with tears must flow ; 
The heart must ache, and bid farewell 

To cherish'd ones below; 
But who that mother's grief could know, ^ 

Could feel her heart's deep pain, i 

When, wild with tears and nameless woe, 

She mourned her children slain." 


The poem was well read and made a decided impression. 

After a dinner a procession was formed and a committee 
of the following representative young ladies escorted the 
coffin containing the few remains of the unfortunate children 
to the new cemetery: Lilly Perry, Adda Benham, Euma 
McGinnis, Cora VanTilburg. Isleoel Blessing, Edna Comp- 
ton, Mary McConnell, Flora Tomilson, Clara Crider, Ella 
Helm, Lizzie Biltimier and Fannie Frizell. 

A few brief and well chosen remarks were made at the 
grave by Rev. H. K. McConnell of the Christian church, ufter 
which an appropriate selection was sung by the little pall- 
bearers and the benediction pronounced by Levi Purviance. 

On the same day a large field boulder, weighing about four 
tons, was swung under a wagon drawn by six horses, and 
transported to the cemetery where it was placed over the 
new grave, where it may be seen today inscribed with the 
brief but impressive words : "In memory of Patsey and 
Anna Wilson, killed by the Indians at Greenville, O., in 1812, 
aged 14 and 8 years." 

Dedication of New Court House in 1874. 

Many notable scenes took place in the county seat dur- 
ing the stirring days of the Civil War as described and sug- 
gested eleswhere. After the close of this conflict, the resi- 
dents of western Ohio, who were tired of accounts of camps 
and battles, of slaughter, misery and hardships, eagerly de- 
voted themselves to the arts of peace, and took up the prob- 
lems of life with renewed determination. Years of hard 
labor and sacrifice ensued, but before another decade had 
closed old "Darke" had forged ahead and was assuming an 
enviable position among the counties of the state. Her prog- 
ress was well typified by the substantial new court house 
in 1874. The dedication of that structure is aptly described 
by a former attorney and historical chronicler. 

"It has been mentioned before that in the year 1874 the 
new court house was finished. In the summer of that year 
the business of the courts was transferred from the old to 
the new court house. This proceeding was done with con- 
siderable ceremony. Notice had been given that on a certain 
day the new court house would be dedicated. Quite a con- 
course of people collected in town. At one o'clock p. m. the 
people collected in the old court house, which was soon 


crowded, when \Vm. Gilmore, of Eaton, a prominent lawyer, 
and the same year elected one of the Supreme Judges of 
Ohio, and who had practiced his profession a great many 
years at this bar, and who had also been judge of this court, 
as orator of the day, ascended to the judge's seat, when he 
made the following remarks as well as can now be remem- 
bered : 'Forty years ago this very year, this old house 
then new was dedicated to the use of the courts as a tem- 
ple of justice. Here used to assemble in those early days 
of your county when this house was new such eminent judges 
and jurists as Joseph H. Grain and William Holt, who in 
succession first occupied the seat and dispensed even-handed 
justice to all. In 1840 and 1841, the seat was occupied by 
Judge Holt, then by John Beers, and in succession by Clark 
and Hume, of Hamilton, then by Judge Haines, of Eaton, 
then by W. M. Wilson and William Allen, of your own coun- 
ty, then by your humble servant, then by Jas. McKema, and 
last, though not least, by David L. Meeker, your present 

" 'Of the legal gentlemen who attended this bar from 
abroad were Joseph H. Grain, Wm. Holt, David Stoddard, 
Charles Anderson, of Dayton ; William McNut, Joseph S. 
Hawkins, David Heaton, Abner Haines and your humble 
servant, of Eaton ; John Beers, Hiram Bell, W. M. Wilson, C. 
F. Dempsey and others of your own county. Besides these, 
as accasional visitors on special legal business, your bar has 
been honored by the name of L. D. Campbell, Thomas Cor- 
win and C. L. Valandigham, whose stirring eloquence has 
reverberated around and through this room and shook and 
caused to tingle every nerve in your system. 

" 'Of those renowned judges and jurists, whom we were so 
glad to meet and see, J. H. Crain, David Stoddard. Thoiiias 
Corwin, C. L. Valandigham, Wm. McNut, J. S. Hawkins, 
Abner Haines, John Beers, Hiram Bell and W. M. WilNon 
have passed away and entered the silent shades. AVe jsliall 
hear them no more. Their eloquence will not again thrill our 
bosoms, but a voice they left in our hearts and affections is 
still felt, and long may their memories live. While remem- 
bering these legal gentlemen we would not forget another 
frequenter of this house, and though he was neither judge 
nor juist, but an humble page and constable, who so fully 
attended to our wants and comforts about the court house 
for so many years, and greatly endeared to us all. I allude 


to Eleazer Sharp. He, too, has passed away to that home 
from which no traveler returns, and which we are all nearing 
with each revolving year. These were the tenants and the 
life of this house and its business. Some of whom have 
grown old, and worn down by the cares of business, ha\e 
fell by the wayside. The tenement they occupied has also 
grown old and must soon give way for another. We have not 
met here at this hour to bid farewell to this old house, not 
the memories and pleasant incidents kindled here but to these 
old walls. And now, farewell, old court house, the honors 
that belonged to you we this day transfer to another. Your 
halls will henceforth be silent. No eloquent appeals will 
any more resound within you to listening jurors and audi- 
tors. No strife nor bickerings. No heart burnings nor back- 
bitings. No more efforts of crime to conceal itself behind a 
legal dodge or false statements of perjured witnesses. Nor 
will • wrong and oppression any more drive innocence and 
virtue to the wall. These latter we would leave and bury 
forever, and ever forget them if we could, but like the fatal 
ignatus fatuis, unbidden, feared and loathed, undesired, they 
will follow. Farewell, old court house, forever, farewell.' 
The people now left the old court house and re-assembled 
in the new house. Air. Gilmore again took the judge's stand 
and spoke somewhat as follows : 

" 'My friends, we are now in the new court house of Darke 
county, and Darke county needed a new court house. Here 
you have one, large and finished in all its compartments. I 
see no marks of either poverty or stinginess about it, nor 
yet of useless expenditures. A house suitable to the greai 
and growing country of Darke county and an honor to yru 
who have furnished the means to build it. This grand and 
magnificent building we now dedicate and to the purposes 
for which you have intended it. In this beautiful building 
you intend your courts to assemble. Here you intend that 
justice shall be administered, and the public business of your 
county be transacted. Here is your Recorder's office, the 
Probate office, the Treasurer's office, the Auditor's office, the 
Commissioner's office, the Clerk of the Court's office and 
Sheriff's office, with large and commodious rooms for the 
use of jurors, a council room, with several other rooms an- 
ticipating any further need — and this great court room, ca- 
llable of accommodating 1,000 persons, all of these are now 
set apart to their appropriate uses, and will henceforth he 
occupied by the proper officers, and that pertaining to his 


office. This court room is made large and commodious that 
the people may from time to time assemble here to see and 
hear the manner in which the courts are conducted, and that 
they may keep a watchful eye upon the manner in which 
justice is administered. This is one of your great safe- 
guards, for no court nor jurors, however corrupt in secret 
transactions, are willing to commit a flagrant outrage against 
right and justice in the face of the people. In these times of 
general intelligence it can no longer be presumed that the 
people will not see partiality or an attempt to evade the law 
by either court or juries. Justice is easily wounded, and like 
oppression will cry out, and it is woe to the man who stifles 
justice or puts the heel of oppression on innocence. The day 
was when the word of a jury court was law, and the verdict 
of a jury was not to be gainsaid, but those days have passed 
away and the decisions of courts and the verdict of juries 
are as freely mooted and criticized at this day as the conduct 
of a general in the field, or any other public officer. I would 
not intend to create, or even leave an impression that courts 
in any age of the world have been generally corrupt. But 
on the contrary history will bear me out in the broad asser- 
tion that no part of the public administration of any nation, 
ancient or modern, has sustained a better reputation for honor 
and honesty than the judiciary. It has been the good fortune 
of mankind for the ages past, as we may hope it will be for ages 
to come, to be as a general thing blessed with honest and 
competent judges. Indeed much- of the civilization and lib- 
erty enjoyed by the world at this time is due to the con- 
struction of the laws by the judges of the past. And great 
things will yet be done in the future to uphold and perpet- 
uate Christianity, civilization and liberty. The life, liberty 
and reputation of man is often held and treated by the rabble 
as things of small importance, and tyrants may and have 
ground to the dust the innocent who have fell into their 
power. But not so with the courts of justice. The great and 
leading principle with them is now and always has been to 
shield the innocent, guard the reputation and preserve the life 
and liberty of all. 

" 'Away back in the infancy of courts and of civilization 
justice was sculptured in marble in the habiliments of a fe- 
male, as less liable to corruption than the male, with a pair 
of evenly balanced scales in her hand, and blind that she 
might not be prone to favor by her sight. Such a figure you 
have affixed to the external front of your court house, not that 


322 DARKi: couxrv 

you would thereby intimate that you would have your juclge.s 
blind, but as a hint that they should see no favor on either 
side, and that they be moved neither by pity nor passion to 
the prejudice of justice, and right here in this house as year 
after year shall drop into the great reservoir of eternity, right 
here as your county shall year after year rise in her greatness 
and her commercial interests increase with her growth, may 
justice be done.' " 

Unveiling of the Wayne Treaty Memorial. 

In February, 1906, the Greenville Historical Society de- 
cided to select a suitable site and place thereon a large me- 
morial boulder commemorating Wayne's Treaty of 1795. 
Frazer E. Wilson, Jacob W. Morrison and Wm. I. Swartz 
were appointed as a committee to carry this decision into 
effect. A search was soon begun for a granite boulder large 
and shapely enough for this purpose. After diligent searcli 
a fine specimen of black diorite boulder was located in the 
Meeker woods north of Greenville creek, near the site of the 
killing of the Wilson children before mentioned. 

On the fourteenth day of March considerable snow fell, 
a 'mud sled' was improvised and the huge boulder, weighing 
nearly four tons, was transported to the lot belonging to 
Chas. Katzenberger (No. 70) on West Main street opposite 
the reputed site of the treaty, through the generosity of Mr. 
Geo. A. Katzenberger. then president of the soceity. 

By dues and special subscriptions the society then secured 

a beautiful bronze tablet 20x28 inches in size, bearing the 

following appropriate inscription, inclosed in a circle and 

surrounded bv the emblems of savage warfare and peace : 


to commemorate the 

Treaty of Greeneville, 

Signed August 3, 1795, by 

General Anthony Wayne 

representing the 

United States Government 

and the Chiefs and agents of the 

Allied Indian Tribes 

of the 

Territory Northwest 

of the Ohio River 




This tablet was firmly attached to the front face of the 
boulder and unveiled with appropriate ceremonies on August 
3, 1906, the one hundred and eleventh anniversary of the 
signing of the treaty. 

President Katzenberger delivered the speech of presenta- 
tion on behalf of the Historical Society ; Mayor Thos. C. 
Maher accepted the monument on behalf of the city, and S. 
M. Gorham, Grand Sachem of the Ohio Red Men, and Hon. 
E. O. Randall, secretary of the Ohio State Archaeological 
and Historical Society, Hon. C. R. Gilmore, of Dayton, and 
Mrs. Edward Orton, Jr., Regent of the Columbus Chapter of 
the Ohio Society. Daughters of the American Revolution, 
delivered appropriate addresses. 

The unveiling was done by Masters Sanford Irwin and Os- 
car Kerlin, Jr., descendants of Thos. Irwin and Major Adams, 
respectively, who served in the Indian wars. 

Music was furnished by the Greenville band and a salute 
fired by Company M, Third Regiment, O. N. G. 

The preliminary parade was participated in by the Green- 
ville band, Jobes Post, G. A. R., Little Turtle Tribe and visit- 
ing Red Men, Company M, Third Regiment, members of the 
Historical Society, Reppeto's drum corps and an improvised 
troop of "Redskins" led by Mr. Alvin Kerst. 

Although the day was quite sultry and a small circus ut- 
fered a counter attraction, a goodly sized crowd witnessed 
the parade and listened attentively to the dedicatory speeches, 
which were pronounced interesting, instructive and appro- 
priate to the occasion. 

The total cost of securing and placing the boulder and tab- 
let and conducting the dedicatory exercise was only aDout 
$175.00, showing what a modest sum will do toward marking 
a historic site when expended by those who are actuated by 
feelings of patriotism and local pride. 

Dedication of the Fort Jefferson Memorial. 

Encouraged by the success of the enterprise of placing the 
Wayne Treaty Memorial, the Greenville Historical Society 
next determined to erect a suitable memorial on the site of 
old Fort Jefferson, the most advanced post established by St. 
Clair on his unfortunate campaign. Accordingly, the own- 
ers of the site. Messrs. Patty and Coppock, of the Greenville 
Grave! Company, were persuaded to donate and transfer two 


lots adjoining the Neave Township House lot on the west 
to the Township Trustees in trust for a park and monument 
site. On September 12, 1907, ground was broken for the 
monument by the citizens of Fort Jefferson, granite field 
boulders were soon collected from the neighborhood and on 
October 7th the work of erection began. The shaft was 
erected by Mr. Fritz Walter, of carefully selected boulders, 
faced on one side, laid in Portland cement and pointed black. 
When completed it was six feet and six inches square at the 
ground line, with a shoulder about two feet high, surmounted 
by a tapering shaft with a total height of about twenty feet. 
To the north side of this shaft facing the road, was attached 
a neat bronze tablet secured from Paul E. Cabaret & Co., 
of New York, and bearing this inscription: 

"Fort Jefferson 

built by the army of 

General Arthur St. Clair 

in October, 1791, 

and used as a military post 

during the expedition against 

the Northwestern Indian Tribes 


The school children of the neighborhood erected a fifty 
foot flag staff near the shaft. The dedication took place on 
Ocfober 24, 1907, the one hundred and sixteenth anniversary 
of the naming of the fort, when the following program was 
rendered : 

"Hail, ColumlDia" — Deubner's Drum Corps. 

"America" — Audience. 

"Invocation" — Rev. C. H. Gross. 

Address on Ijehalf of Committee on Erection — Frazer E. 

Address of Presentation — Geo. A. Katzenberger. 

Unveiling — Elizabeth D. Robeson. 

Military Salute — Gun Squad Co. M. 

"Star Spangled Banner" — Drum Corps. 

Address of Acceptance — Prof. Jacob T. Martz. 

Historic Address — Judge Jas. I. Allread. 

"Yankee Doodle" — Drum Corps. 

Address on behalf of the Red Men — Lewis E. Wills. 

Reminiscenes — Wesley Viets. 

Benediction — Rev. G. ^^'. Berrv. 

• M 







The weather was crisp and clear and the exercises were a 
success in every way. 

A novel scene, not on the program, was enacted when an 
improvised band of motley attired "redskins" under Chief 
Scout Alvin Kerst, "attacked the fort" from the low ridge to 
the south. Flitting from bush to bush they fired random 
shots and took the crowd by surprise, making a very realistic 

The cost of the tablet was ninety dollars and the entire 
cost of the shaft, tablet and dedication about one hundred and 
ninety dollars. 

Since the erection of this appropriate memorial the ground 
has been fenced and nicely planted with trees, providing a 
nice park dedicated to the memory of St. Clair and his brave 
soldiers who suffered in the primitive wilderness. 


Every established comnninity has produced or nurtured 
men of exceptional energy and ability, who by their activity, 
local pride and steadfast devotion have made a worthy record 
for themselves which should be preserved for the instruction 
and inspiration of future generations. 

Darke county is no exception and should enroll on her 
scroll of fame the names of her citizens, who have blazed the 
way in husbandry, business, education, medicine, law, politics 
and the active affairs of men. Among the pioneers we have 
especially mentioned the names of Azor Scribner and Linus 
Bascom, the frontier merchants ; Abraham Scribner, the poli- 
tician ; John Devor, the surveyor ; Abraham Studebaker, the 
stalwart farmer, besides many others of less prominence. 
To this notable list should be added the name of 

Major George Adams." 

This man was born in Virginia, Octolser 26. 1/67; served 
as a drummer boy in the latter days of the Revolution, and 
was sent in 1790 with important dispatches to General Har- 
mar, then in command of Ft. Washington. Adams came 
down the Ohio river from Pittsburg in a canoe and when 
he arrived at Ft. Washington learned that General Harmar 
had started with an army for the ]\Iaumee town a few days 
before. Governor St. Clair, wishing Harmar to get the ex- 
press, fitted Adams out with a good horse, saddle, bridle, 
rifle, ammunition and rations and sent him forward. He 
overtook the army at the old Indian town of Chillicothe, near 
Xenia, some fifty miles out. on the fourth day. Here he de- 
livered the despatches to Harmar, joined the Kentucky 
mounted men and proceeded with the army on its eventful 
campaign,' described elsewhere in this volume. AMien the 

*The main points of this sketch are derived from an article 
by George .-\. Katzenberger in \'(iUr"c XXIT of Ohio His- 
torical .Societv Reports. 


whites and Indians met in combat on the 22d of October, 
near the present site of Ft. Wayne, Ind., a spirited engage- 
ment took place in which Adams exhibited marked bravery 
and was severely wounded. On this expedition, it is said, he 
killed five Indians and received four or five severe wounds ; 
one ball entering his thigh, one breaking his arm, another 
lodging under his arm, while the fourth cut his breast and 
lodged under his shoulder blade. The arm}- surgeons found 
him in a very weak condition on the evening after the fight, 
dressed his wounds, but said that he could not live until 
morning and ordered his grave dug. On the retreat he was 
carried on a litter betwen two horses and a grave was dug 
for him three evening in succession. However, Adams, who 
is described as being about five feet, eight inches tall, with 
a shock of red hair, had a robust constitution, and arrived 
safely at Ft. Washington where he recovered completely. 
Not daunted by these experiences he continued in the ser- 
vice of his country as a scout and was with St. Clair in his 
disastrous expedition. On this occasion he was with Captain 
Slough and party, who were sent along the trace ahead of 
the army on the evening before the battle to ascertain wheth- 
er any Indians were near. At the beginning of the retreat 
lie endeavored to form the panic stricken troops in line but 
without success. 

On January 26, 1792, he married Elizabeth Ellis, probably 
of Limestone, K3^ 

On Wayne's expedition, it is said, Adams acted as Captain 
of scouts, disguised himself in full Indian rig, and with painted 
face hung about their encampments where he secured infor- 
mation of value for his commander. It is probable that he 
continued with \\'ayne throughout his campaign and was 
present during the negotiations which resulted in the treaty 
at Greenville in 1795. 

After the wars he settled for a short time on a hundred-acre 
tract south of Hamilton, which he secured on a warrant issued 
by the government for his services in the re\'olution. Later 
he entered four hundred acres of fine land further up the 
Miami near Silver creek (Hale's), about five miles from the 
site of Dayton, which he secured on account of his services in 
the Indian war. Here, in 1797, he established himself with his 
famih' in a cabin equipped with scanty furniture and supplies, 
including his trusty axe and rifle, which he considered pre 



"In the river were fish in abundance, and in the woods, 
game and wild honey, so that even in the first year there was 
but little privation for his family. With each year his farm 
was improved and the furniture and the cabin were made more 
comfortable. In the fields were cattle and hogs, and the fer- 
tile soil yielded abundant crops. The farmer and his family 
had bread and butter, milk, meat and vegetables in plenty 
for themselves and gave freely of it to hungry travelers and 
wandering Indians." During these peaceful years of his life 
his home was used for various meetings, and the major pro- 
fessed a religious quickening and joined the Xew Light 
church. In 1806, probably after the experience, he and his 
wife united with the Baptist church, called the Union church, 
near Dayton on the Great Miami river. 

In this primitive Arcady, under his own vine and fig tree, 
enjoying for most of the time peace, prosperity and plenty, 
he lived until the outbreak of the war of 1812, when he again 
•responded to the call of his country and enlisted for service. 
On account of the hostile attitude of the Indians several 
block houses were at this time built in Montgomery county 
as rallying places for the exposed and scattered settlers of 
Preble, Darke and Miami counties. Troops assembled at 
Dayton in the spring and summer of 1812, upon the urgent 
call of Governor Meigs, and on August 26th, six companies, 
consisting of over four hundred men. were organized into a 
battalion and chose Major Adams as their commander. 
"Shortly after this time two regiments of Montgomery 
county militia were stationed at Piqua, Major Adams' bat- 
talion was ordered to St. Mary's and Col. Jerome Holt, and 
his regiment to Greenville, where they were directed to build 
a block house and stockade. Later as the Indians were 
threatening Fort Wayne, it became necessary to obtain re- 
inforcement for Major Adams' battalion, who were about to 
march to St. Mary's for the relief of that post." At St. Mary's, 
Adams' volunteers awaited reinforcements which soon ar- 
rived from Piqua. The troops thus collected at St. Mary's 
are said to have numbered four thousand and were led by Gen. 
William H. Harrison from that place on September 9th. On 
the 12th. they arrived at Fort Wayne, where thev soon de- 
stroyed the villages of the hostile Indians. Here Adams' reg- 
iment was discharged on the 23d of September after one 
month's prompt and effective service, which was highly ap- 
preciated by the people of Dayton and the Miami valley. 


Early in October Major Adams raised a company of mounted 
riflemen whom he expected to take to Fort Defiance. On the 
2d or 3d day of that month Patsey and Anna Wilson were 
murdered by the Indians near Greenville and reports of de- 
predations and hostile demonstrations by the Indians of the 
'^Mississinawa region kept coming in. Accordingly, the new 
Dayton company was ordered to Fort Greenville, where they 
soon arrived and garrisoned the stockade. On December 
11th, a detachment of regular troops left Dayton in a north- 
westerly direction and proceeded against the hostile Miami 
Indian villages near Muncie town on the Mississinawa. As a 
result of this expedition thirty Indians were killed, some sixty 
wounded and forty-three taken prisoner. Great hardships 
were suffered on the return on account of the severe cold, 
insufficient provisions and forage and almost impassable 
roads. Major Adams went to their relief with ninety-five 
men and on the 22d, met and supplied them with half rations. 
Colonel Flolt also assisted them on the 23d and enabled them 
to march to Greenville, where they arrived on the 24th, with 
forty-one prisoners. Colonel Campbell soon marched toward 
Dayton with his regulars, where he arrived on the 27th, and 
after resting several days, proceeded to headquarters at 
Franklinton (Columbus, O.). The Indians taken on this oc- 
casion were sent to Piqua on December 26th, under a guard 
of twenty-five men. 

Major Adams, it seems, remained in command of Fort 
Greenville until after Harrison's treaty July 22, 1814, and the 
conclusion of peace with Great Britain later. During his two 
years' occupancy of the stockade Adams, no doubt, recon- 
noitered the country for many miles and selected a site for 
future residence. Accordingly, it is stated that he entered 
land at this time about five miles east of Greenville on 
Greenville creek, where he built a cabin and moved his fam- 
ily. Later he erected a little mill here where he turned out a 
coarse grade of cornmeal and flour. A little grocery was soon 
established here where whisky and tobacco could be secured, 
and the place became a popular resort, where shooting 
matches, quoit throwing, and fist fights were participated in 
by the pioneers. ".^dams was a genial, fun-loving man, 
widely known and deservedly popular : a crowd of congenial 
spirits gathered around him and the little settlement took the 
name of "Adams' Mill," and when the township was finally 
orcanized nBlQl it was named in his honor. That .Adams 


chose a good site for a mill is attested by the fact that a hour 
mill is still located there (Cromer's) after nearly a century, it 
being one of the few remaining in the county. Besides his 
large circle of local acquaintances Adams retained the friend- 
ship of old comrades of the late wars, including Col. Robert 
Patterson, of Dayton, and his sons-in-law, Captain Nesbit and 
Henry Brown. In the winter of 1826-27 the Major was ap- 
pointed as associate judge for Darke county and served ac- 
ceptably in this position until his death, November 28, 1832, 
in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Major Adams and his wife 
Elizabeth were the parents of twelve children, probably half 
of whom died in infancy, or before the age of thirty-five. 
The record of these children's lives is quite incomplete, but it 
is known that Elizabeth, the first daughter, was born in 1796, 
in or near Cincinnati. She married Caleb Worley about 1816 
and in 1823 moved to Covington, Ohio, where she resided 
until she was past ninety years of age. Her granddaughter, 
Avarilla Fahnestock, of Versailles, Ohio, married Dr. O. C. 
Kerlin, of Greenville, where she still resides. They have two 
sons, Oscar, Jr., and Worley and a daughter Doris. On 
account of his descent from Major Adams, Oscar, Jr., was 
chosen to assist in the unveiling of the Wayne Memorial tab- 
let in Greenville, August 3, 1906. 

Nancy Adams, who was born in 1803, lived until near the 
close of the Civil war. Martha Adams, the last daughter, 
born in 1816, married Robert L. Harper and lived until 1894. 
The time of the death of two sons, George, born in 1794, and 
William, born in 1806, seems to be generally unknown. 

The remains of Major Adams lie buried under a humble 
headstone in the Martin cemetery about three miles east of 
Greenville, and it is hoped that patriotic citizens will soon 
erect a fitting monument here to perpetuate the memory of 
his heroic life of service. 

Abraham Studabaker. 

As an illustrious example of the stalwart pioneer, perhaps 
no better example could be taken than Abraham Studabaker. 
Born in 'V\'estmoreland county, Pennsylvania, about the year 
1785, he came in the vanguard of civilization with his father's 
family to Scioto county, Ohio, and later to Clinton or War- 
ren county, Ohio, where they settled. Here his parents 
remained until death, and in 1808 Abraham, then some 


twenty-three years of age, with his wife, settled on Congress 
land on the south bank of Greenville creek, opposite the pres- 
ent site of Gettysburg, in section 25 of Adams township. He 
is credited with being the first permanent settler in Adams 
township, and the third in the county. His nearest neighbor 
was Azor Scribner, the pioneer Indian trader at Greenville, 
about eight miles distant through the forest. He had other 
neighbors in Miami county on the Stillwater, some fourteen 
miles east. When he built his cabin he was compelled to use 
logs of such size as he could handle himself. The great In- 
dian trail connecting Piqua and the Whitewater Indian set- 
tlement passed near his door and brought him occasional 
dusky visitors. For the first three or four years these were 
mostly friendly but at times became troublesome. On one 
occasion two Indians appeared at the cabin door and de- 
manded some bacon which Mrs. Studabaker was cooking. 
Refusing to give up the precious meat which had been 
brought from the Stillwater settlement the day before, she 
held fast to one end while one of the redskins pulled at the 
other end and his companion cut the meat oflF near her hand. 
Her cries attracted her husband who was preparing ground 
for corn planting, but he arrived too late to save the bacon as 
the Indians had disappeared. 

It is said that Tecumseh, the Prophet, Little Turtle, Black 
Hoof and other noted warriors frequently visited Studa- 
baker's cabin and that he had visitors almost daily whom he 
treated with kindness and hospitality and therebj^ made his 
life secure in the lonely wilderness prior to the war of 1812. 

When Studabaker came to this spot he brought along a 
horse and a cow, and his stock was augmented before long 
by the birth of a calf. Shortly after he had harvested his first 
small crop of corn his faithful horse died of the then prevalent 
disease commonly called "milk-sickness." Not long after this 
the wolves killed the precious calf. • Desiring to catch some 
of the volves he baited a trap with the carcass of the calf 
with the sad result that the cow stuck her head in the trap, 
thereby causing it to spring and break her neck. On another 
occasion Mr. Studabaker had gone to mill at Milton in Miami 
county, leaving his family alone over night. Having butch- 
ered a hog the day before the scent seems to have attracted a 
pack of hungry wolves, who created pandemonium about the 
lonely cabin in the night until a sudden smothered cry of 
pain from a single wolf was followed bv a chorus of svmpa- 



thetic snarls and yells for a moment when all became quiet 
again. The cause of this strange procedure was discovered in 
the morning when a large wolf was found within a few feet 
of the door with his tongue frozen to the blade of the axe, 
from which he had attempted to lick the blood and bits of hog 
fiesh which had adhered to it in the butchering operations. 
It is supposed that his companions turned upon him when he 
uttered the cry of pain and soon ended his misery. The 
wolves never returned after this occasion to molest the cabin. 
The American panther inhabited this region and has left his 
name in "Painter" creek which drains the county a short dis- 
tance to the southeast. Mr. Studabaker had many thrilling 
and dangerous experiences with this stealthy animal and 
killed many of them during his residence. One specimen 
which he killed with his rifle after a very narrow escape, had 
an extreme measure of eight feet. Soon after the outbreak of 
the war of 1812, Studabaker built a block house on his land 
and made such defensive preparations as he could to resist 
any possible attack that might be made on the place. Six 
soldiers with arms and ammunition were soon sent to protect 
his family and this out station became an inn, a citadel and 
official quarters for the small garrison. It is said that 
upon one occasion he captured five armed Indians and turned 
them over to the government, but that they subsequently 
escaped and killed Elliot and Stoner in the summer of 1813, 
as before mentioned. During the latter part of the war, Mr. 
.Studabaker furnished cattle for the government to feed the 
Indians, who had gathered around Greenville awaiting peace 
negotiations. About 1816 he settled on a tract of some eight 
hundred acres located about two miles south of Greenville 
in the Bridge creek valley, which, it is said, was ceded to him 
by the United States government in payment for these cattle. 
Although his early education was very meager his natural 
talents and business qualifications early won recognition, as is 
shown by the fact that he was placed upon the first board of 
county commissioners and served thirteen years in this ca- 
pacity ; that he was a captain in the early militia ; that he did 
much toward securing the Greenville and Miami railroad for 
the county: that he advanced the money to build the first 
court house in the county, raised a large family and accumu- 
lated a competence. He is described as a man of excellent 
judgment, great sagacity, large hospitality, unquestioned in- 
tegrity and decided, outspoken convictions. He was married 


twice, was the father of twelve children and died March 16, 
1852, leaving a long record of constructive accomplishments. 

Dr. Isaac Newton Gard. 

A history of Darke county would scarcely be complete 
without a sketch of the life of the veteran pioneer physician, 
Dr. Isaac Newton Gard. \\'hile not the first, he was among 
the first physicians locating in the county, where he remained 
during a long, eventful and eminently useful life. His pa- 
rents, Stephen and Rachel (Pearce) Gard, were natives of 
New Jersey, but migrated to Ohio early in the last century. 
Stephen Gard was a Baptist minister and organized many of 
the churches of this denomination in the Miami valley. 
Rachel Gard, the mother of the subject of this sketch, died in 
Butler county in 1816. Rev. Gard married a second time and 
died in 1839. Dr. I. N. Gard was born March 20, 1811, in 
Butler county, Ohio, and was educated in the common 
schools, Miami University and the Ohio Medical College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, from which he was graduated in 1831. At first 
he practiced in his native county, but in 1834 came to Green- 
ville where he resided until his death on April 24, 1905, a pe- 
riod of seventy-one years. At the time of his arrival there were 
but few physicians in the county and his associates were prob- 
ably Drs. Briggs, Perrine and Baskerville. The county was 
very sparsely settled at that time and was covered with 
swamps, ponds and pools which bred nausea. Sickness was 
quite prevalent and the few roads were in a miserable condi- 
tion. Bilious complaints were especially prevalent. The doc- 
tors of those days rode horse back and carried their medicines 
in saddle bags. As an illustration of the manner of practice, a 
good story is told in Beer's "Historj' of Darke County," as 
follows : "Dr. Gard was called in as a family physician to min- 
ister to the wants of a sick child. Cold water was forbidden 
and calomel, as was usual, was administered. The doctor 
then retired with promise of a return next day. Cold water 
was barred; the boy begged for a drink, but entreated in 
vain, as the doctor's orders were immutable law. He then 
resorted to strategy. Feigning a desire for rest and repose, 
the family retired to permit their indulgence. Soon heavy 
breathing annotmced that all were asleep, and the patient 
arose from bed. staggered to the water bucket, and to his dis- 
may, found it empty. This discovery would ha\"e been hailed 



with imprecations that would have roused all in the house 
had not the necessity of the case demanded control. Water 
must be had, although the spring was at quite a distance. The 
coffee-pot was found, and the patient set out to assuage his 
consuming thirst. He rested several times in the wet grass, 
but finally arrived at the spring, drank heartily, and undis- 
covered, returned to his bed, having placed the well filled 
coffee-pot at the bedside. This was two-thirds emptied be- 
fore the suicidal act was known, when the doctor was hur- 
riedly summoned and soon stood with astonished and omin- 
ous look, awaiting serious results that did not happen. In a 
few days the patient had recovered." 

The doctor often had to ride long distances but he was a 
man of powerful physique and withstood the years of ex- 
posure and fatigue in a wonderful manner. The doctor was a 
big man, mentally as well as physically, and was called upon 
by a confiding public to serve in various important capacities. 
He organized the first medical society, as well as the first 
agricultural society, and acted as the first president of each. 
He was also president of the Greenville and Miami railroad 
during the period of its construction. He represented his dis- 
trict in the state legislature in 1841 or 42, and in the senate in 
1858-59. About 1862 he was appointed by the Governor as 
one of the trustees of the Dayton State Hospital (insane asy- 
lum) and held that office for sixteen years. 

On January 6, 1835, he married Lucy Tod, of Kentucky, 
and to them five children w^ere born, two of whom are now 
living, Mrs. A. Wilson Arnold and Mrs. Harry Knox. In pol- 
itics he was a Republican. He was a very sociable man upon 
all occasions and an enjoyable conversationalist. 

Dr. Gard died April 23, 1905. full of years and honors. 

Edward B. Taylor. 

On October 21, 1821, there w^as born in Lewis county, Ken- 
tucky a lad who was destined to play an important part in the 
councils of a political party then unborn and to wield a power- 
ful influence in another state during the decade just preced- 
ing the Civil war. I refer to Edward B. Taylor, who, it seems, 
was descended from the Scotch-Irish settlers of Virginia, a 
race remarkable for patriotic zeal, intelligence and strife. From 
the meager records that we have, it appears that the Tavlor 
family moved to Piqua, Ohio, when E. B. was a small bov 


and his father died not long afterwards, leaving him a waif 
wandering about the streets. One of the newspaper men of 
Piqua employed him to run errands for a mere pittance, and 
later discovered that he was a boy of exceptional feeling and 
intelligence. His schooling from this time was probably neg- 
lected but by dint of application he learned the printer's art 
and educated himself while he labored for a living. His 
progress is indicated by the fact that before the age of twen- 
ty-nine he had become editor and publisher of the Piqua Reg- 
ister. About 1848 or 1849 he removed to Greenville, Ohio, 
and soon purchased the Greenville Journal, of which he took 
charge on April 19, 1850. This paper was the ablest defender 
of Whig principles at that time in the county and at the or- 
ganization of the new Republican party in 1856 took up the 
defense of its platform. During this critical period Colonel 
Taylor gave free utterance to his personal convictions and 
became prominently identified with local Republican politics. 
During the historical Lincoln and Douglass campaign of 1860 
he acted as chairman of the Republican Central Committee 
and on November 1st issued the following ringing call: 

"Dear Sir : — 

"Tuesday, November the sixth, is the day of the presiden- 
tial election. We enclose you this circular, containing a gen- 
uine Republican ticket, for the purpose of reminding you that 
we are on the eve of a great contest, and at the same time 
guarding against the possibility of fraud. It has been an- 
nounced that our opponents are circulating spurious tickets 
throughout the state, containing the names of Lincoln and 
Hamlin for President and Vice-President, with the Douglass 
and Johnson electors, for the purpose of imposing upon unsus- 
pecting and honest voters. Enclosed is a genuine ticket — take 
it to the polls, put it in the ballot-box and you are safe against 

'■^^'e carried Ohio in October by 25.000 majority ; and we can 
carry it again, if we all vote on the 6th day of November. 
There are fifteen thousand school districts in Ohio — and two 
votes lost in each will lose us the state and decide the presi- 
dential election against us ! Will your district be one of the 
delinquents? 'One more fire and the day is ours!' 

"Vote early and see that your Republican neighbors vote. 
By order of the Republican Central Committee. 

"E. B. TAYLOR, Chairman." 


Taj-lor's patriotism, loyalty and ability attracted the atten- 
tion of the new party's leaders and in 1861 Lincoln appointed 
him register of the land office at Omaha, Neb., to which city 
he soon moved. Here he purchased the Omaha Republican 
and in 1866 became its editor. He was a member of the Na- 
tional convention that nominated Grant for president in 1868, 
was a member of the State senate of Nebraska during its first 
two terms, serving most of the time as speaker. Upon the 
death of the Governor-elect he served a short time as Gov- 
ernor of Nebraska. At this formative period in the state he 
is said to have exerted much influence on its progressive leg- 
islation, especially in framing the school laws, which were 
modeled after those of Ohio. 

Taylor's career was now reaching its climax, but before 
closing this brief sketch of his eventful life we desire to revert 
to the period of his residence in Darke county. 

This was the time of the building of the Greenville and 
Miami railway and Colonel Taylor took such interest in the 
enterprise that he was made president of the company, and 
sent to New York where he negotiated a loan of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars with which to purchase rails and 
rolling stock. The farmers, who had been hauling their grain 
over bad roads to the markets at Piqua and Dayton, freely 
donated labor and ties toward the construction of the road. 
The county voted a tax of fifty thousand dollars, and Green- 
ville an extra ten thousand dollars to subsidize the project, 
which turned out to be a great benefit to the county. 

Taylor continued to be president of this road from 1850 to 
1859, filling tliis office acceptably while at the same time 
publishing his influential paper and engaging in politics. His 
was indeed an active life and we are not surprised to learn 
that his li'e was cut short before he completed his fifty-first 
year. lie died at Omaha, May 21, 1872, after sufifering sev- 
eral strokes of paralysis. 

In a sketch written for the Historical Society in 1907, Mr. 
Calvin Young made the following thoughtful analysis of his 
character: His most striking characteristic, we should say, 
was a strong, clear, fertile brain, that grasped subjects with 
the strength of a giant, and analyzed them with the most per- 
fect clearness and precision. To know anything- with him was 
to know all about it, and no subject which attracted his atten- 
tion was left until he had mastered it, not only in a general 
way but in the minutest detail, ^^'he;^ he stated a fact he 
1 22) 


always had a reason at his command, and in times of excite- 
ment in national or political affairs, his wonderful command of 
facts and statistics rendered his opinion of very great value. 
He seemed never to forget anything, and his memory was so 
tenacious that he could refer to the minutest facts and occur- 
ences, although years had intervened since he had studied 
them, or had been an actor in the scene. As a writer he had 
few equals ; his copy was the pride and boast of the printer, 
being almost as plain as the print it was to appear in, and his 
points were made with the greatest clearness and accuracy. 
He went right forward with sis subject like a commander 
with his men, and when his editorial or important document 
was finished, or his resolution drawn, they covered the ground 
completely. There was no loop-hole of escape for his adver- 
sary and nothing wanting to make the whole matter he had in 
hand perfectly plain, reasonable and intelligible. He wrote 
with equal facility, whether surrounded bj^ a crowd or alone 
in his room, and seemed fixed to nothing but his subject, 
though there might be disturbances enough to distract a man 
less cool and self-possessed. His power of concentrating 
ideas was most remarkable. As a public officer he was always 
efficient, energetic and successful, and his course met the ap- 
proval of those by whom he was appointed, and the sober sec- 
ond thought of the people. When he held the position of 
president of the senate, the efficiency of his work was the 
constant theme of those associated with him in those ardu- 
ous and perplexing duties. His decisions were correct, his 
views on all political matters well digested, eminently prac- 
tical, and his course manly, able and impartial. For these 
reasons the people learned to admire his ability, to respect 
his judgment, and to feel for him a friendship that has never 
waned, but grown stronger with the lapse of time. His 
friends were perhaps as strongly attached to him as to any 
public man in the state, and, consequently, he could rally 
them whenever he needed their aid or council for anv enter- 
prise in which he was engaged. It is a source of consolation, 
that Col. E. B. Taylor died surrounded by his family and 
friends, who administered to him all the comforts that it was 
possible as he went down into the valley of death." 

Colonel Taylor was married on March 23, 1843. to Jane B. 
McClure. Five children were born as a result of this union. 
Of these one son, Edward A., was recently living in Portland. 
Ore., and one daughter, Mrs. George Arnold, in Indianapolis, 


Ind. Airs. Blanche Hughes, wife of Attorney Thomas J. 
Hughes, of Greenville, is a daughter of Mrs. Arnold. 

Enoch Beery Seitz and Family. 

One of the most distinguished citizens who ever lived in 
Darke county was Enoch Beery Seitz, of whom one writer 
said: "He was in mathematics what Demosthenes was in ora- 
tory, Shakespeare in poetry and Napoleon in war; the equal 
of the best, the peer of all the rest." 

This man was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, August 26, 
1846, and was the son of Daniel Seitz, a native of Rockingham 
county, Virginia, where he was born December, 1791. Daniel 
Seitz was twice married, his first wife being Elizabeth Hite, 
by whom he had eleven children ; and his second wife, Cath- 
arine Beery, by whom he had four sons and three daughters. 
He died near Lancaster, Ohio, October 14, 1864. Enoch, the 
third son of Catharine Beery Seitz, was raised on his father's 
farm and had the advantage of a common school education 
supplemented by a course in a private school in Lancaster. 
He took a mathematical course in the Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Delaware, from which he was graduated in 1870. His 
mother had moved with her family to Greenville, Ohio, in the 
fall of 1866, where she lived on West Fourth street until her 
death in February, 1904, at the advanced age of almost ninety- 
six -^-ears. It is said that while a boy on the farm Mr. Seitz 
exhibited great talent and liking for mathematics and that he 
mastered and completed algebra alone at the age of fifteen. 
His mathematical talent early became known in Darke 
Cdunty, where he had been teaching summer school during 
his course at Delaware and he was elected to the professor- 
ship of mathematics in the Greenville high school in the sum- 
mer of 1872, which position he occupied until the summer of 
1879. On June 24, 1875, he was united in marriage with Anna 
E., daughter of William K. Kerlin, at that time treasurer of 
Darke county, and later president of the Second National 
bank. Miss Kerlin had been teaching in the public schools 
for some time and was recognized as one of Greenville's most 
refined young ladies. During the period of his tutorship in 
Greenville he contributed solutions to different problems 
proposed in some of the best known mathematical magazines, 
including the School-day Magazine, the Analyst, the Mathe- 
matical Visitor and the Educational Times, of London, Eng- 


land. His specialty was average and probability problems, 
the solution of which required untiring patience, energy and 
perseverance. A great problem had been proposed by Pro- 
fessor Woolworth, the great English mathematician, in 1864, 
which he had solved with great labor and lengthy demon- 
stration. His solution stood unchallenged until Professor Seitz 
mastered the same problem and demonstrated it clearly in a 
fraction of the space required by the great English professor 
and thereby won the plaudits of the mathematicians of Eng- 
land and America. Speaking of his methods a mathematical 
writer said: "In studying his solutions, one is struck with the 
simplicity to which he has reduced the solutions of some of 
the most intricate problems. When he had grasped a prob- 
lem in its entirety, he had mastered all problems of that class. 
He would so vary the conditions in thinking of one special 
problem and in effecting a solution that he had generalized all 
similar cases, so exhaustive was his analysis. Behind his 
words he saw all the ideas represented. These he translated 
into symbols, and then he handled the symbols, with a facil- 
ity that has never been surpassed." * * * Professor 
Seitz did not gain his knowledge from books, for his library 
consisted of only a few books and periodicals. He gained 
such a profound insight in the subtle relations of numbers by 
close application, with which he was particularly gifted. He 
was not a mathematical genius, that is, as usually understood, 
one who is born with mathematical powers fully developed. 
But he was a genius in that he was especially gifted with 
the power to concentrate his mind upon any subject he wished 
to investigate. This happy faculty of concentrating all his 
powers of mind upon one topic to the exclusion of all others, 
and viewing it from all sides, enabled him to proceed with 
certainty where others would become confused and disheart- 
ened. Thread by thread and step by step, he took up and fol- 
lowed out long lines of thought and arrived at correct con- 
clusions. The darker and more subtle the question appeared 
to the average mind, the more eagerly he investigated it. No 
conditions were so complicated as to discourage him. His 
logic was overwhelming." 

As a teacher few were more successful. In the class-room 
as well as in society he was a man of few words but his con- 
versation vvas to the point. "His commanding appearance and 
amiable disposition endeared him to the heart of every stu- 



dent while the purity of his motives, soundness of his judg- 
ment, and wisdom of his instruction was not doubted." 

In March, 1880, he was elected a member of the London 
Mathematical Soiety, being the fifth American so honored. 
Greenville was highly honored in having such a distinguished 
man as a teacher in the public schools for several years, but 
his unsurpassed talent recommended him to a much higher 
position and in the summer of 1879 he moved with his family 
to Kirksville, Missouri, where he assumed a professorship in 
the State Normal School. This position he occupied with 
distinction and was marked. for a higher and more remunera- 
tive position when he was prostrated with a fever in Septem- 
ber, 1883, and died on October 8th, after an illness of twenty- 
four days, in the thirty-eighth year of his age. His death 
caused a profound sensation among the students and profes- 
sors of the State Normal school by whom he v^^as highly hon- 
ored and respected. After appropriate and impressive ser- 
vices at Kirksville, his remains were brought to Greenville, 
Ohio, whither they were accompanied by President Blanton, 
who had been appointed for this purpose by the faculty, and 
by W. T. Baird acting in behalf of the regents of the college 
and the citizens of Kirksville. 

The following extract from President J. P. Blanton's trib- 
ute which was oiifered at the funeral service indicates the 
character and disposition of Professor Seitz : "Enoch Beery 
Seitz was an etraordinary man. He commanded without 
efifort the respect of everybody. He was a man of the most 
singularly blameless life I ever knew. His disposition was 
amiable, his manner quiet and unobtrusive, and his decision, 
when circumstances demanded it, was prompt, and firm and 
unmovable as the rocks. He did nothing from impulse ; he 
carefully considered his course, and with almost infallible 
judgment came to the conclusions that his conscience ap- 
proved and then nothing could move him. While he never 
made an open profession of religion, he was a profoundly 
religious man. He rested his hopes of salvation in the sacri- 
fices of the tender and loving Savior, and I am thoroughly 
convinced he has entered that rest which remains for the 
people of God." Also this tribute from Prof. John S. Royer: 
"Professor Seitz's external life was that of a modest, deep- 
hearted, perfect gentleman. His great ambition was to be 
good and true — true to himself, true to his family, true to his 
friends, and true to his countrv's welfare. He had a thor- 


oughly health}-, well balanced, harmonious nature, accepting 
life as it came, with its joys and sorrows, and living it beau- 
tifully and hopefully without a murmur. Though the grim 
monster Death removed him from this sphere of action 
before he fully reached the meridian of his greatness, yet the 
work he performed during his short but fruitful life will be a 
lasting monument to his memory, amply sufficient to immor- 
talize his name." 

Professor Seitz was the father of four sons, one of whotn, 
Clarence, died at the age of five years. The other three 
sons, William K., Raymond and Enoch B., have all been care- 
fully reared under the guiding hand of their devoted and tal- 
ented mother. All three of the surviving sons graduated from 
the Ivirksville school. William K., who inherited his father's 
talent, made the highest average grades in mathematics in 
the University of Missouri of any student up to the time of 
his graduation on June 4, 1906. He was an assistant profes- 
sor of mathematics for two years after his graduation. Then 
he went to St. Joseph, Mo., where he acted as first assistant 
city engineer, and engineer of the utility commission, having 
in charge the parks and boulevards of that progressive city. 
In 1913, he went to St. Louis where he is now at the head of 
the Missouri Valley Construction Company, in which he is 
associated with his brothers. 

Raymond E. Seitz was born October 30. 1876, in Green- 
ville, Ohio. He moved with his parents to Missouri in 1879, 
and returned to Greenville some time after his father's death, 
continuing in the public schools until he had completed the 
freshman year. He then returned to Kirksville in 1894, and 
completed the course in the State Normal in 1898. After this 
he taught history and literature in the high school at Park 
City. Utah. He then attended the University of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Returning to Missouri he taught four years in the 
high school at Unionville and later was elected superintendent 
of the schools at Jackson, Mo., where he remained four years. 
Then he served as superintendent at Caruthersville, Mo., 
for two years, after which he became a member of the con- 
struction company above mentioned, which is now undertak- 
ing a large contract for constructing terminal facilities at 
East St. Louis for a large railway company. This company 
operates a large quarry at Alton, TIL. where they secure rock 
for construction purposes. 

Enoch Beerv Seitz. voungcst son of E. R. and .\nna E. 


Seitz, was born July 26, 1883, graduated from the Missouri 
State Normal School at Kirksville, Mo., in June, 1901 and 
taught the next four years in the high school and for two 
years acted as superintendent. From 1905 until March 15, 
1913, he was superintendent of the school at Milan, Mo. 
which position he resigned to engage in construction work 
with his brother, W. K. Seitz. 

Enoch B. Seitz was married to Miss Hazeldean Bolt, 
August 20, 1907, and has one child, Ruth, aged five years. He 
lives at Alton, 111. 

Dr. Anna E. Seitz, the widow of the subject of this sketch, 
and mother of three exceptionally able sons, is a woman of 
unusual ability. After the death of her husband she became 
principal of the Teacher Training Department, in the Mis- 
souri State Normal School at Kirksville, in which capacity 
she served very ably for four years, advising, criticising and 
supervising the work of a corps of teachers. At about this 
time the field of osteopathy was enlarging rapidly and a great 
demand developed for competent practitioners in various 
parts of the country. In response to this demand and her 
own ambitious promptings, Mrs. Seitz gave up her work in 
the State Normal and entered the Columbian School of Osteo- 
pathy at Kirksville, from which she graduated in 1899. She 
then practiced her profession at Richmond, Indiana, and later 
at Cape Girardeau, Mo., and Phoenix, Ariz. Early in 1904 
she completed a post graduate course in the American School 
of Osteopathy at Kirksville, and in February of that year 
established herself in Greenville, Ohio, her home town, where 
she has remained in the successful practice of her profession 
ever since, being first and only lady osteopathic practitioner 
in Darke county. 

Barnabas Collins and Family. 

The old saying, "Poets are born, not made," was well ex- 
emplified in Barnabas Collins, the son of \Ym. Collins, a law- 
yer and clergyman of high standing. The father had ob- 
tained a good English education although handicapped by 
poverty and adverse early conditions and became one of the 
clearest thinkers, strongest reasoners and finest speakers 
of his day. He settled in Randolph county, Indiana, in 1831, 
where, in 1832, he married Margaret Burres (who was born 
in Cecil county, Md., in 1811). About 1835 he located in 

344 DAUKli COUjN'IY 

Euphemia, Preble county, O. A\ hen quite a young man lie 
began preaching in the United Brethren denomination, but 
was condemned for joining the Masons and subsequently be- 
came a Methodist. In 1849, he moved to Greenville, Ohio, 
where he built up an extensive law practice and, at the same 
time, officiated in the pulpit. He died in 1855, leaving a 
family of six children, viz.: Ad, Barnabas, William, James, 
Lafayette and Rachel. Barnabas, the seccnd son, was born 
May 26, 1836. He became a printer when a boy and worked 
at this trade several years, thus supplementing, no doubt, 
the meager education which he had acquired b} a few years' 
study in the common schools. After a brief pupilage under 
the well known Calvin Parker, he attended the Ohio Wes- 
leyan University at Delaware for a short time. Nothing 
daunted b}' early difficulties, he continued to read extensively 
in literature and in science until he became noted for his 
marked literary attainments. After his schooling he read 
law under Calderwood and Calkins and was admitted to the 
bar in 1857, when twenty-one years of age. On March 15, 
1858, he married Mar}' J. Calderwood, a daughter of A. R. 
Calderwood of the above named firm. In 1861 he located in 
Adams county, Indiana. He was soon called to his country's 
service and enlisted in the 89th Indiana Regiment of ^''olun- 
teers, in which he acted as quartermaster. A'ter his return 
from the armv he again settled in Greenville and iiracticed 
law. He was nominated by the Republicans as a candidate 
for the Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1874. In 1876 
he represented the Fourth Congressional District in the Re- 
publican National Convention at Cincinnati, Ohio, that nom- 
inated R. B. Hayes for president. Being of a decided liter 
ary turn of mind he gratified his tastes at the expense of his 
profession and produced considerable literature of a decidedly 
high class, in the way of historical articles, poems and es- 
says. Some of his most cherished proems were on local 
themes, and are quoted in this volume. Others were espe- 
cially metrical 'and have been set to music. Barney Collins 
was a lover of the beatitiful in nature and art, a fine reader 
and reciter and an excellent lecturer and an impressive ex- 
tempore sepaker, with a fine command of the English lan- 
guage. His voice is described as strong, yet soft and mus- 
ical, and his personal appearance as fine and attractive. He 
had a florid complexion, heavy, light cohered evebrmv^. light 
silken hair and weighed about one hundred and ciehtv 


pounds, making a commanding appearance on the platform. 
His lecture on "The Rise, Progress and Influence of Poetical 
Literature" and his defense of Shakespeare in the Baconian 
controversy are classed as fine pieces of literature. About 
1879 the Collins family moved to California, where the sous, 
William, Ulric and Enos, all made their mark. 

VVm. C. Collins, later known as "VVilkie," was born at 
Decatur, Indiana, February 10, 1862, and came to Greenville 
with his father shortly afterward. Here he received his ed- 
ucation, and like his distinguished father, learned the print- 
er's trade when a boy of thirteen, setting type in the office 
of the Courier and writing locals for that paper. He went 
with the family to Chico, Cal., in 1879, and soon found em- 
ployment in the newspaper offices of that city. In 1884, he 
edited a campaign paper at Biggs, Cal., but soon returned to 
Chico, where he remained until 1886, when he accepted a 
position on the editorial staflf of the Sacramento Daily Bee. 
While at Chico he wrote articles that attracted the attention 
of newspaper men all over the state, and wrote three strik- 
ing stories that were published and illustrated in eastern 
newspapers. He was the dramatic critic of the Bee for many 
years and his "Green Room Gossip" was one of the most 
readable portions of the paper. It is said that he knew every 
distinguished man in California and was especially well ac- 
quainted with the great actors who played in his city. He 
remained on the staflf of the Bee until his death on December 
30, 1908. It was said of him by a contemporary newspaper 
man: "I always regarded him as one of the best equipped, 
squarest and most lovable men in the newspaper profession." 
The editor of the Bee, in the first issue following his death, 
uttered the following beautiful sentiments concerning him : 
"To those who had known him so long and loved him so 
well, his death was not so much of a blow as a relief. They 
had seen that staunch heart, that noble soul sufl^ering intense 
tortures daily, and yet never complaining — never a cross 
word — never a murmur from his tongue. * * * True 
friend, courageous soul, loyal heart, your brothers left behind 
stand at salute and bid you Hail and Farewell ! God rest 
you, Christ receive vou!" .^mong his noblest traits were de- 
votion to duty, sacrificing loyalty to his profession, and 
love of his family and kin. He left a son, Ray, who also 
became an actor. 

Ulric Collins, brother of Wilkie, also manifested a decided 


talent for tlie theatrical profession and has become a well 
known playwright and actor. He wrote "Hearts of Tennes- 
see" and other plays of merit and has appeared as leading 
man in various popular plays, starring in New York, Chica- 
go and the largest cities of the country and keeping at the 
top notch of his profession. 

Enos Collins, another brother, has given his attention to 
railway business, being several years in the employment of 
the Western Pacific at Beekville, Cal. 

Mrs. Bessie Dorritt. a sister, lived for several years at 
W. Berkeley, Cal. 

The mother, Mary J. Collins, is a woman of considerable 
ability, taste and refinement and is much devoted to her fam- 
ily. We close this article by an appropriate tribute from the 
pen of George Calderwood, a brother-in-law of Barney Col- 
lins, and a poem composed and recited by the latter brilliant 
genius and poet at the opening of the Greenville (now 
Trainor's) Opera House in 1873, the building having been 
just erected by Greenville Lodge I. O. O. F. Xo. 195 at con- 
siderable expense and, as proved later, an improfitable ven- 
ture : 

"Darke county prodticed some very good advocates at the 
bar — some fairly good stump speakers, but in my judgment 
but one orator — Barney Collins. The unfortunate thing 
about Barney was his timidity. He was afraid to unfold him- 
self. He had the voice, the magnetism, the platform demean- 
or, the poetry of words, the abundance of information on 
many topics, the sincerity of his convictions, but it was hard 
to get him started. But when he did start and got thorough- 
ly warmed up he was a giant. Art, science, literature, poli- 
tics, history, law and progress, each in its place, were handled 
in masterly grandeur. Had he left Greenville in his youth 
and gone to some large city and remained there he would 
have had opportunities to imfold himself dav and night and 
weave into his mannerism readiness of action. There was 
nothing in Greenville for a man of his intellect to do and so 
he just waited and waited and waited for something, he knew 
not what. He was induced to come to California and locate 
in a sparsely settled county where the people talked about 
mining, fruit culture, wheat raising and stock raising. What 
did Barney Collins know about such things? Nothing, and 
he cared less. His wasn't the kind of mind that was meas- 
ured bv the metes and bounds of a vallev ranch or a 600 foot 


ledge. No one seemed to know him and for a long time after 
he came out here he kept aloof from public gatherings. He 
appeared a few times at the county conventions and was a 
delegate to one of two state conventions. About the time 
that his fame began to spread as an orator lie was elected 
to the Assembly and died before he had an opportunity to 
address the Speaker." 

I'm no actor! Greet me with no applause! 

Nor hiss — unless you first shall find a cause. 

No prompter I, behind the scenes to call, 

When speaking ill, or failing not at all. 

No love of praise commands me here to rise; 

What! brave the critic's test and beauty's eyes? 

Proud of this temple and pleased with this stage. 

Where soon the drama will our thoughts engage. 

I. midst its richly painted scenes appear, 

To welcome wit and playing talent here ! 

Icarian Thespis, first in his day. 

Performed his plays upon a Grecian dray. 

A generous "Order" patronizing art, 

Builds here this stage to glad the public heart ! 

Our people need travel now no more abroad 

To shed tears, to laugh, condemn — applaud. 

For now, at home, a place has been supplied 

Where virtue may be praised and vice decried ! 

Where we may weep when pity wounds the breast. 

Beholding passion's burst, or grief represt. 

Yes, here tonight the rightly acted part 

May swell the breast with joy, or melt tlie heart. 

Here may our youth life's follies learn to shun, 

And riper age reverse its faults begun ! 

Happy, some breast, which Nature has inspired 

With Shakespeare's art, may here this night be fired ! 

Taste, that law which raises art, refines the senses, 

Turns fools to wits and gives them elegance. 

Which damns a play and ridicules the line — 

Though sprung from Genius, lest they purely shine. 

May, from this date, to us her pleasures bring. 

Teach us to judge — avoid the critic's sting ! 

To give, when she shall here her standard raise. 

To sterling worth the recompense of praise! 

Teach to distinguish quickly truth from fratid. 

So we may see the point, and then applaud ! 


For if the chaste, the learned, would have to act. 
We must be critics, not in name — in fact! 
The modern stage, of modern life the school. 
Paints nature true, nor varies in the rule ! 
All follies, vices, shams and things "too thin," 
With manners, fashions, worldly ways and din ; 
Before our eyes, on colors strong and bright. 
She spreads, that we may see and choose the right. 
The Stage explodes the vile imposter's claim. 
And fraud and falsehood boldly drags to shame. 
The arts, letters, eloquence, culture, lore. 
Rose with the Stage in Greece, nor rose before ! 
The hero's — patriot's — cause in every age 
Has found a friend and ally in the Stage! 
This neight behold the scene where Emmett stood, 
Who gave to Erin and Libert}' his blood. 

"Annie Oakley." 

At this time when much is being said and written con- 
cerning "woman's sphere" of activity in the various enter- 
prises of the world, it is refreshing to study the career and 
note the opinions of one who has achieved distinction in a 
unique profession. The use of firearms is not usually asso- 
ciated with the gentler sex, yet who "will question the right 
of developing talent or skill nowadays wherever found? In 
fact, is not ideal success that which allows the freest and 
fullest realization of personality consistent with the welfare 
of the individual and the greatest good of society? As civil- 
ization advances a wider scope is given to the cultivation of 
special talent, and a keener appreciation of merit is developed. 
The man or woman who can do one thing better than any 
one else is the person in demand at this hour, and the ques- 
tion of age and sex is given less consideration than formerly. 

With these reflections we study the life of "Annie Oak- 
ley" (Mozee), who has attained international fame, as a rifle 
and pistol shot. Along in the '50's her parents left the 
mountains of Pennsylvania and settled in the northeastern 
part of Darke county. Here in a wild tract of land known 
as the "fallen timbers" Annie was born in the early "sixties." 
Her mother was a Quaker and exhibited some talent for art, 
which was expressed in pencil sketches and a few paintings, 
but limited by circumstances of poverty and hard work. Her 
father was a natural athlete, fond of shooting wild game, but 





;g|[ J:, ,r ■nm^m\ 






not an expert shot. From one she probably inherited skill 
and a generous disposition ; from the other agility and a love 
of out-door sports. 

It is said that when but a small child she would secretly 
follow her brother on his hunting expeditions, and when dis- 
covered and reprimanded, would plead to remain with him 
and help shoot. One day, when a little over eight years of 
age, while her brother was away from the house, she caught 
sight of a fox squirrel frisking along the fence, and taking his 
muzzle loading rifle, she rested it on the rail of the porch, 
fired and cut the animal's throat. When the brother re- 
turned he was surprised, and in order to wreak vengeance on 
his offending sister he secretly put a double load in his shot- 
gun, and giving her the weapon, threw up his hat as a target. 
To his surprise this, too, was quickly pierced, and the sister, 
undaunted, won the day. From this time on she progressed 
in marksmanship, and at twelve years of age was given a 
light muzzle loading shotgun and a breech-loading rifle as 
a tribute to her skill. 

Anna's early education was limited, and before her ninth 
birthday she commenced to work for a living. The father 
died, leaving a family of small children, and a small, heavily 
mortgaged farm. By hunting and trapping quail and pheas- 
ants and other game and doing manual labor she saved 
enough to pay ofif the mortgage before her fourteenth year. 
Being variously employed at housework for a couple more 
years she finally went to live with a sister at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where she married Mr. Frank E. Butler, a frank, genial gen- 
tleman and an expert shot, whom she met at a shooting con- 
test, and with whom she later visited professionally nearly all 
civilized countries. Mr. Butler was at that time about $1,500 
in debt. Many interesting anecdotes might be told of their 
early trials and struggles. 

During the first year of her public life she played with 
vaudeville companies, probablv doing feats of fancy marks- 
manship. The two years following she exhibited with Sells 
Brothers circus, shooting from horseback. Then followed 
a long engagement with Buflfalo Bill's Wild West, beginning 
in the early spring of 1885, during which she shot at the 
London and Paris expositions, and the world's fair at Chica- 
go, and exhibited before nearlv all the crowned heads and the 
aristocracv of Europe. She remained with this world famed 
show seventeen years, seven of which were spent abroad, 
during which she visited fourteen countries. 


She gave five exhibitions before the Prince of \\'ales and 
shot game on his estate at Sandringham, for which she was 
richly paid. At Earl's Court, London, she exhibited before 
three kings, two princes and five other titled people. Prob- 
ably no American lady, except Mary Anderson, ever received 
as generous and enthusiastic reception in high European cir- 
cles and her impression is that the educated classes of Eu- 
rope are lavish in the recognition of talent when shown, 
while Americans, though more ready to hail aspiring genius, 
are less enthusiastic in applause. 

Her autograph album contains the names of a large num- 
ber of noted persons, among which are noticed the following: 
Princess May of Teck, the Duchess of Cumberland, Hilde de 
ClifTord, the famous English beauty ; I.adv Paget, Lord 
Windsor, Due de Orleans, Seignor Crispi, Count Spaletti, the 
Chinese Embassy at London, Dinah Salifou, Sitting Bull, 
Rain in the Face and Curly, the Crow Indian Scout and sole 
surviving member of Custer's famous braves. The names of 
Lillian Lewis, Ellen Terry, Henry Irving, Chauncey Depew 
and Thomas A. Edison appear, not to mention a great host 
of others. One of the most prized is that of H. C. Bonner, 
deceased, the founder of Puck. It reads as follows : 

"It was a pleasant day 
As near the first of May 
As days come in pleasant April weather. 
That Miss Anna Oakley shot 
Her hundred pigeon pot. 
And the record on the clays broke together. 
And may all the days she knows, 
As through the world she goes. 
Be as lucky for her all time through, 
As that pleasant day in spring. 
When she showed us she could wing. 
One hundred birds in miutes six and seconds 
thirty-two !" 

Besides being feted by Queen X'ictoria, she has received 
jewels and presents from nearly all the crowned heads of 
Europe, and her collection of trophies in the way of jewels, 
firearms and mementoes is quite elaborate. Her salary as 
early as 1900 when with the Wild West was $150 per week 
with expenses paid, and it is said she gave generously of 
this for charity, being mindful of her own early struggles. 


Strange as it may seem, she is not fond of public exhibition 
and social life, but prefers out of door sport, and yearns for 
the time when she can enjoy the seclusion of private life. 

Some of her best records with the rifles are 945 tossed balls 
out of 1,000; 96 small clay pigeons out of 100; 50 straight 
double clays; 49 live birds out of 50. 

With 5,000 balls she broke 4,772 in one day's shooting; 
and on the second thousand her best record of 984 was made. 
She is fond of swimming, walking, running and bicycle rid- 
ing', and makes a point of getting plenty of outdoor exercise, 
to which custom may be attributed her remarkable vitality 
and sustained good health. Her guns weigh about seven 
pounds, and she sometimes shoots 150 shots in a day. thus 
lifting over 1,000 pounds. She has shot wild deer in Amer- 
ica, wild boar in Germany, and roebuck in Austria. 

In personal appearance she is slight, below average height, 
with black flowing hair, keen, blue-gray eyes, clear-cut ex- 
pressive features, and a rather piquant face. One might ex- 
pect that such a life as hers would produce coarseness and 
lack of refinement, but Miss Annie has certainly resisted 
such an effect, and possesses a rare modesty and a charming 
personality. Unaffected, simple and sincere, she exhibits a 
grace and tact rarely met. With a girlish voice, a genial 
vivacious disposition and winning ways she is a ready con- 
versationalist and is, withal, charitable, thoughtful and re- 
fined. Caring naught for the privileges of suffrage she only 
asks a fair chance for her sex to develop such talents as 
nature and education gives. 

In 1893 she built a handsome residence in Xutley, New 
Jersey, not far from New York City, where she spent several 
enjoyable vacation seasons. 

On October 30, 1901, the Wild West show suffered a dis- 
astrous wreck in which Annie Oakley was severely wound- 
ed, having to undergo five operations in order to save her 
life. This ended her engagement with the big show and in 
the fall and winter of 1902 she starred in a play written es- 
pecially for herself, and, if possible, made a greater artistic 
success than she had in the shooting field. Then came the 
great libel suit against her in which fifty-seven newspapers 
participated. Two of these made immediate apology, but the 
other fifty-five were sued with the result that fifty-five ver- 
dicts were rendered in favor of Annie Oakley. Most of these 
cases were settled soon in a manner satisfactory to the plain- 


tiff, but one suit dragged on for nearly seven years. This 
closed probably the greatest chain of suits on record in the 
history of the world, costing the plaintiff about $90,009.00 
and the defendants about half a million dollars. Thus one 
little frail woman with a few thousand dollars that she had 
earned by her skill put up a wonderful fight against several 
of the most prominent newspapers in the United States rep- 
resenting a capital of several million of dollars, and manned 
by some of the brainy men of the country, and won prac- 
tically a unanimous verdict in justification of her character. 

Annie Oakley joined the "Young Buft'alo Wild West" in 
April, 1910, continuing with them three years during the 
summer seasons, and spending the winters with her_ husband 
in central Florida, shooting game and riding after the hounds. 

Having sold their former home at Nutley, N. J-. they are 
now in Cambridge, Md., where they are erecting a new home 
on Hambrooks Bay, near the Great Choptauk river. They 
are planning to spend their summer fishing and boating over 
this beautiful river and the Chesapeake Bay — going occa- 
sionally to Florida or returning to Annie's former home in 
Darke county, Ohio, where is the resting place of her be- 
loved little mother and the homes of her sisters, ]\Irs. Hulda 
Haines and Mrs. Emily Patterson. 

Henry Black. 

Henry Black was born in Harrison township, Preble coun- 
ty, Ohio, August 25, 1832, and was the son of Joseph and 
Sarah Black. On October 6, 1853, he married Catherine 
Weaver, of Lewisburg, Ohio, who died August 3, 1891. In 
1880 Mr. Black came to Darke county and located on the 
Old Sam Cable farm in section six. Western Greenville town- 
ship, along the township road. His education was very lim- 
ited but he was of a practical turn, of mind and used his 
meager schooling to good advantage. He early manifested 
a strong inclination toward mechanics and did much original 
experimenting which eventuated in various practical inven- 
tions. Probably his first patent was for a flax scutching ma- 
chine which was registered June 5, 1866. One of his most 
tiseful inventions was a railroad switch which he patented 
February 25, 1873, and from which he received very little 
financial remuneration. It is said that the principle of this 
switch was seized upon by other mechanics, who by slight 



adaptations made it one of the best ever produced, with the 
result that it was adopted by some of the large railways and 
part of it incorporated in the most successful switches now 
in use on nearly all railways. 

While living in Darke county, Mr. Black devoted much of 
his time to experimenting on a mower- and binder that would 
cut the grain close to the ground with the result that he se- 
cured a patent for a low down binder in 1885. This inven- 
tion attracted wide attention and promised to be a decided 
improvement on the ordinary binder. Mr. Black moved to 
Greenville where he equipped a machine shop in 1893 with- 
out outside financial aid. Although advanced in age he 
strove against large odds to introduce his promising inven- 
tion, but met with much discouragement and the machine 
never reached a degree of perfection to justify its general 
adoption. However, the drive chain used extensively today 
was a part of this invention. Undaunted by age and great 
obstacles Henry Black continued his labors and was' ex- 
perimenting with an improved electric and gasoline engine 
when called from the scene of his earthly labors on August 
19, 1901. He was a man of tender heart, great patience and 
forbearance, and attained much of his success by following 
the homely old rule, "If at first you don't succeed, try, try, 
again." By unselfish devotion to his ideals he helped others 
with their inventions, left the world richer in useful mechan- 
ical appliances, and, no doubt, indirectly saved many lives 
by his improved switch. He left a son, Horace C, and three 
grandchildren, one of whom. Elsie, has for several years been 
a successful teacher in the Greenville public schools. 

Other Notables. 

These are the names of only a few of the residents of Darke 
county who have wrought out exceptional careers at home 
or attained wide fame for their accomplishments. The legal 
profession has furnished several men of note whose names 
and accomplishments are recorded in the chapter on the 
"Bench and Bar" in this volume. Others appear among the 
family biographical sketches in volume two, including John 
T. Lecklider, the poet; Jacob T. Martz, the educator; Frank 
Conklin, the financier ; Harvey C. Garber, the politician ; L. 
C. Anderson, the physician ; Howard W. Swope, Frank and 
Carl W'ilson, the musical composers; Judge James I. Allread, 
(23) i 


the jurist; Orla Harrison and Clement Brumbaugh, the leg- 
islators ; Guy C. Baker, the writer of short stories, besides 
Lohmann brothers, the telescope makers and Frances Katzen- 
berger Ratliff, the author of "He Would Have Me Be Brave"' 
and "The Three Verdicts." Besides all these might be men- 
tioned a host of painters, readers, educators and musicians, 
who have helped to place Darke county in the front rank for 
native talent and worthy accomplishments. 


The people of Ohio have been noted for their genius for 
politics ever since their organization as a state in 1803. 
Probably the most stirring activity in early days was that 
caused by the '"Tippecanoe and Tyler too" log cabin cam- 
paign in 1840, as previously noted. 

In earlier days the people of Darke county were isolated 
and mostly interested in clearing the land and laying the 
foundation for future prosperity. After the middle of the 
nineteenth century interest increased and politics became an 
important theme in public and private life. Political dis- 
cussion often waxed warm in the taverns and public places 
and many brawls ensued. 

The "Darke County Boy" pictures the political condition 
at that period in the following vivid words : 

"I never hear of a Republican or a Democratic pole raising 
in Darke county any more. Those were great events in their 
day. The Republicans always raised ash poles, while the 
Democrats raised hickory poles. Noted speakers were had 
by both parties. The higher the pole, the greater the event. 
These poles were always spliced once or twice, and a flag 
and streamer were always hoisted to the top. While this 
was going on the band would play, the crowd would cheer, 
and everybody would feel good. 

"After the flag raising the speaker would talk about the 
'great fundamental principles' of the party to which he be- 
longed, when there would be more yelling and handclapping, 
'to beat the band.' 

"There would sometimes be a fist fight or two before the 
day was over, but that was to be expected. AVhiskey was 
good and cheap and plentiful, and consequently it always had 
its innings on such occasions. 

"If it was a Democratic pole raising, the old faithfuls of 
the party would drive into town good and early. As they 
drove in one would see David Edwards and his family, Wm. 
Jenkinson, William Marshall, David Thompson, John Town- 


send, 'Big' John Coppess, Joe Brush, Mike and Andy Zeek, 
George Dively, Sam Love, and Christian Schlechty, , Uncle 
Jimmy' McCoy, Johnathan Matchette, Alfred Wolf, Wm. 
Lecklider, and hundreds of others, with their families. 

"I never saw a load of Democrats in my life that didn't 
look to have twice as many in the wagon as there actually 
were. They were so discouraging for Republicans to look 
at that it gave them the shivers — and sometimes worse. 

"On such occasions the speakers would be either Sam 
Medary, Frank iMc Kinney, P'rank Le Blond, C. L. Valland- 
ingham, Geo. E. Pugh, Geo. H. Pendleton, Wm. Allen, 
Thomas Ewing, or local talent, such as D. L. Meeker, Evan 
Baker, Valentine Whitmore, John L. Winner, Thos. D. Stiles 
and Joseph McCord. These were 'before the war' days. At 
night there would be speaking up town in front of the court 
house, where a bonfire as large as a logheap would make 
light enough to read a newspaper across the public square. 

"Whence came the fuel for the bonfire? Every merchant 
in town knew — for the next morning they would discover that 
all empty barrels and boxes had suddenly disappeared. Who 
'nipped" them ? We boys, of course — sons of Democrats and 
sons of Republicans, and every one of us a 'son of a gun,' 
according to the merchant's opinion of us. 

''Pole raising day for Republicans fetched into town the 
families of David Craig, John and Aaron Hiller, Lemuel 
Rush. Henry McEowen, J. J. Markwith, Sipio Myers, Joseph 
and Samuel Cole, A. L. Northrop, Wm. Leas, Harrod Mills, 
Wm. Bishop, Morris and Joe Bryson, James McCabe, David 
Putnam, Jacob Shiveley, Reuben Lowery, and 100 other stal- 
warts and their families. 

"After the pole raising, speeches would be made by either 
Thomas Corwin, Salmon P. Chase, Louis D. Campbell (then 
a Republican), Robt. Schenck, Samuel Galloway, Samuel 
Cary, William Gibson, James Hart, Samuel Craighead, Thos. 
M. Browne, or other distinguished non-residents of the coun- 
ty. At night the local speakers would be one or more of the 
following: J. R. Knox, Dr. L N. Gard, Charles Calkins, E. 
B. Putnam. A. R. Calderwood, E. B. Taylor, Joseph Frizell. 
The usual bonfire would be blazing as brightly as at any 
Democratic meeting. 

"But pole raising is no longer fashionable. Perhaps the 
scarcity of ash and hickory trees may be the fault of it." 

Feeling ran high during the Buchanan campaign and 



throughout the Civil War, when the epithets of "Butternut" 
and "Copperhead" were contemptuously applied to those 
who sympathized with the south, while the Republicans in 
turn were called "Woolyheads.'" It was the delight of the 
Democrats to aggravate the Republicans by wearing "butter- 
nut" clothing similar to that worn in the Confederacy. Such 
conditions often resulted in severe fist fights. Vallanding- 
ham and Prugh, who were running on the state ticket, were 
stigmatized as "Vomit and Puke." Fire-eating and backbit- 
mg were the order of the day. Stump speakers and editors 
vied with each other in the use of caustic and vile adjec- 
tives, and the public mind was highly inflamed. At this period 
the office of the "Democrat" was raided, and the type thrown 
into the street. 

"The Dayton Rounders," a band of rowdies, participated 
in a Democratic meeting held in Greenville at the close of 
the war. Their presence inflamed the returned soldier boys, 
who drubbed several of them severely and drove them out 
of town after frightening them by the discharge of firearms. 
This escapade brought down on them the derision of their 
friends at home and broke up their organization. 

After the war a calmer and more sensible spirit prevailed 
and enthusiasm was expressed by barbecues, mass meetings 
and torchlight processions. This condition prevailed dur- 
ing the campaign of- Hayes and Tilden, Garfield and Han- 
cock. In recent years a calmer and more deliberate spirit 
has prevailed and more enlightened methods are used. To 
day the appeal is to the reason rather than the emotions. 

From 1836 to 1846, the congressional district was com- 
posed of Darke, Preble and Butler counties, with the result 
that Democrats were elected each term. In 1846 the district 
was changed to comprise Darke, Montgomery, Greene and 
Preble and continued so until 1852, during which time all the 
successful candidates were Whigs, including Hiram Bell of 
Greenville, elected in 1850. In 1852 the district was again 
changed to include Darke, Miami, Shelby, Auglaize, Allen 
and Mercer, with the result that a Democrat was elected in 
1852; a bolter in 1854; a Republican in 1856; William Allen, 
of Greenville, a Democrat, in 1858 by 78 majority. In 1862 
the district was composed of Darke, Warren, Shelby, Logan 
and Champaign and elected a Democrat that year, a Repub- 
lican in 1864, 1866 and 1868: and a Democrat in 1870. In 
1872 the district was composed of Darke, Preble, Greene and 


Montgomery counties, and elected a Republican in that year; 
a Democrat in 1874 and 1876. In 1878 the district was com- 
posed of Darke, Shelby, Warren, Preble, Auglaize and Mercer 
and elected B. S. Lesser, of Sidney. 

State Senators. 

Before the separation of Darke county from Miami the sen- 
atorial district included Miami and Preble counties, and was 
known as Champaign District. David Purviance represented 
these counties from 1812 to 1815 inclusive; Thos. Furnas 
from 1816 to 1819 ; Wm. K. Henderson in 1820, and W. Buell 
in 1821. 

In 1822 Darke county was included in the Preble District 
with Mercer, Van Wert, Paulding and Williams. John Alex- 
ander represented this district at the special session in 1821. 
It seems that there was no representative at the regular ses- 
sions of 1822 and 1823. David F. Heaton was the represen- 
tative in 1825 ; John G. Jamison in 1826 and 1827. Van Wert 
and Paulding counties were dropped from the district in 
1828, and David F. Heaton again represented the district 
in 1828 to June, 1832, inclusive, and John M. W. McNutt in 
December, 1832. 

In 1833 the district comprised Allen, Miami, Darke, Shel- 
by, Wood, Mercer, Williams, Lucas, Van Wert, Paulding, 
Putnam and Henry counties and was represented from 1833 
to June, 1835, by Jas, Johnson ; in the regular sessions of 
1835 and 1836 by John E. Hunt, and in 1837 by Curtis Bates. 

In 1838 the district included Miami, Darke and Mercer 
counties. In 1840 Shelby was added and in 1844 Mercer was 
detached, making the district decidedly Whig. Wm. I. 
Thomas represented the district from 1838 to July, 1842, in- 
clusive ; Jos. S. Updegrafif in 1842 and 1843 ; John O'Ferral 
in 1844 and 1845 ; Wm. W. Wilson in 1846 and 1847 : Jacob 
S. Conklin in 1848 and 1849 ; Jas. H. Hart in 1850. 

The constitution of 1851 made the sessions biennial in- 
stead of annual. Darke county was then included in the 
Twelfth District with Miami and Shelby, and was repre- 
sented by Rankin Walkup, in 1852; John McClure, in 1854; 
Wm. H. Lowder, in 1856; Isaac N. Card, in 1858; Hardesty 
Walker, in I860: Wm. B. McLung, in 1862: L. B. Gunckel, 
in 1864; J. E. Cummins, in 1866; John L. Winner, in 1868 and 
1870: John W. Morris, in 1872; Jno. D. A'Torris, in 1874: 
Nathan P. Burress, in 1876; J. M. Carson, in 1878: Geo. W. 


Moore, in 1880; Jennison Hall, in 1882; A. C. Cable, in 1884- 
1886; A. J. Robertson, in 1888-1890; Thos. A. Burns, in 1892; 
McPherson Brown, 1894-1896; Geo. S. Long, 1898-1900; Orla 
E. Harrison, H. L. Yount. 

Edward T. \\'agner, represented Darke county in the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1912. which drafted the new Con- 


The members o: the Ohio House of Representati\'es since 
1820, have been: Jas. Mills, Jacob Miller, Jas. Riley, Joll 
Wood, Mark T. Mills, Justin Hamilton, P. G. Goode, Stacy 
Tavlor. These persons represented the various districts of 
which Darke county was a part up to and including 1836. In 
1837, Darke, Mercer and Miami were included in a district 
which was represented by Hiram Bell. Justin Hamilton, Jno. 
Briggs, Thos. Shidler, M. Purviance and I. N. Gard during 
the period from that time to 1841 inclusive. Darke alone 
was represented by Jacob Counts and John McClure in 1842, 
and by D. Alexander. Jas. Bryson and Jas. W. Riley in 1843 ; 
D. J. Hostetter, in 1844 : Ezek. Thomas, in 1845 ; J. S. Pur- 
viance, in 1846; Jacob S. Conklin. in 1847; Luther Monfort, 
1848; Geo. Ward, 1849; Jno. Lenox, 1850; Peter V. Banta, 
1852; Evan Baker, 1854; J. C. Williamson, 1856; J. L. Winner, 
1856-1860; Louis B. Lott, 1862-1864; Scipio Myers, 1866; 
Jacob Baker, 1868; E. M. Walker, 1870; Thos. D. Stiles, 
1872; E. M. Walker, 1874; S. A. Hostetter. 1876-1878; Chas. 
Negley and W. Long. 1880; Chas. Negley. 1882; David Baker, 
1884-1886. Harvey C. Garber was the representative in the 
sessions of 1890 and 1892: C. A\'. Hoefifer. in 1894: W. E. 
Ludwick, in 1896 and 1898; Clement L. Brumbaugh, in 1900- 
1902; A. H. Judy. Chris Appenzeller. 

The County Commissioners. 

are now elected for a term of three years, beginning Sep- 
tember 15. They are three in number, one being elected 
each year, and their salary is $1,704.24 with an allov^'ance of 
$3.00 per diem on ditches up to $500.00. 

The first Commissioners elected in 1817 were .Archibald 
Rryson, Abraham Studabaker and Silas .Atchison. Those 
who have served in this capacity since the abuve mentioned 
during the entire history of the county are Jacob Miller. AVm. 
Curry, John McNeill, Joshua Howell, Dennis Hart. James 


Bryson, Robert Robeson, David Briggs, Jacob Harter, Solo- 
mon Riffle, John Swisher, Richard Lucas, Moses Woods, 
Wm. B. Ludd, George Ward, John McGriff, Jr., John Col- 
ville, Henry Lipp, Wm. Arnold, John Miller, Christian Har- 
shey, Adam Baker, Samuel C. Baker, Isaac Reed, Daniel Rie- 
gel, David Studabaker, Abel Slonaker, Stephen A. Greer, 
Wm. Kerr, Michael Zeek, William Wright, Riley Gard, John 
Stoltz, George Ivester, Samuel Alexander, David Oliver, 
Jesse Woods, Jas. Auld, J. R. Holland, Elisha Berry, John 
Antonides, Geo. D. Miller, Wm. Archard, Samuel Wilson, 
John Frederick, Jno. G. Deubner, John H. Corwin, Wm. 
Archard, R. K. Beem, S. J. Stapleton, Chris Appenzeller, A. 
Kercher, Jacob Eberwine, P. J. Plessinger, John H. Noggle, 
Jacob Zacharias, Geo. E. Niswonger, Jos. Alexander, Thos. 
L. Brewer, N. D. Sipple, W. H. Townsend. D. F. Amspaugh, 
Oscar Moist, A. B. Craig, Reuben Hannah, John Coblentz 
and John Wondle. 

The following is the first report of the County Commission- 
ers filed in 1818, for the year commencing on the first Mon- 
day in June, 1817, and ending on the first Monday in June, 


Cash for orders redeemed $456.44| 

Paid the Treasurer's commission 18.24f 


In full of the county tax for the year 1817 $171.00 

Store and tavern license and permits 76.57 

On account sale of county lots 177.00 

Fines 1 36.00 

On roads not established 2.25 


Leaving a balance due the Treasurer on the first Monday 
in June. 1818, of $11.77. 

The first commissioners received a total of $40.50 for their 

The three Associate Judges drew $25.00 for their labor, 
and less than fifty dollars was paid for all the expenses of 
the court. 



The grand jury was the most expensive item, drawing 

The cost of road improvement for that year was $20.00. 

It is intensely interesting to note that of the amount re- 
ceived $47.75 was for six of the lots comprising the original 
plat of the city of Greenville, out of the thirty-two. which 
had been conveyed to the County Commissioners by the pro- 
prietors of the plat for such public uses as might be deemed 
desirable. The lots were mostly 99 feet by 165 feet, and 
comprised the present very valuable sites of the Sellman and 
Hopkin homes on West Third street ; the Dorman and King 
properties on West Main street; Spidel feed and sale barn 
on East Third street ; the Opera House and saloon property 
adjoining on Third street ; the Kipp corner on the public 
square, extending probably to Laurimore's restaurant on 
Broadway, and the Cole property on the southwest corner of 
East Main and Walnut streets. At that time a tax of thirty 
cents a head was levied on horses and ten cents a head on 
cattle. Tavern keepers paid a license of $8.00 and storekeep- 
ers $10.00. John Devor was the tax collector. 

The County Auditor 

transacts a large amount of important business, including the 
issuing of Commissioners' and other warrants on the County 
Treasurer, making out the tax duplicate, auditing the ac- 
counts of all the district and village and city schools, etc. 
He is now elected for a term of three years, beginning in 
October, and his salary is $3,135.00 per year. 

Those who have filled this important position since the 
establishment of the office in 1821, were Jas. Devor, H. D. 
Williams, John Craig, John Beers, David Cole, Hiram Bell, 
David Angel, C. C. Craig, Wm. M. Wilson, David Stamm, 
John S. Winner, A. R. Doty, A. L. Northrop, Geo. W. Coo- 
ver, Joseph C. Shepherd, John E. Matchett, D. B. Clews, E. 
H. Wright, O. C. Perry, John D. Matchett, W. J. Kelly, John 
C. Turpen, Cyrus Minnich, L. C. Klipstine, George Sigafoos, 
J. W. Ditman, Ed. Culbertson, Frank Snyder and the present 
incumbent, John L. Morgan. 

The County Treasurer 

is elected for a period of three years beginning in September. 
His salary at present is $3,135.00. John Devor was the first 


Treasurer, being appointed in 1818. Others who served 
since him were : David Briggs, Linus Bascom, John Beers, 
A. Scribner, Loring R. Brownell, Henry D. Williams, Jas. 
M. Dorsey, Daniel Irwin, James Devor, Chas. Hutchins, Jas. 
Irwin, AA'm. Schmidt, Jas. McKhann, Geo. H. JMartz, Thos. 

P. Turpen, Eli Helm, John Simon, Bickel, H. C. Helm, 

J. P. ]\Ieeker, T. F. Rogers, John C. Burns. John Suter is the 
jiresent incumbent. 

The County Recorder 

is elected for a term of three years, beginning in September. 
His salary is now $2,130.00. Abraham Scribner was appoint- 
ed the first County Recorder in 1817, and was succeeded by 
Easton Morris. Those serving since were : Joseph D. Far- 
rar, Thomas Rush, John Wharry, Elias Brumminger, John 
S. Shepherd. S. C. Eddington, Daniel Stevenson, A. F. Med- 
ford, Benj. Beers. P. H. ]\Iaher, Richard Hunt, Daniel Sny- 
der, James W. Martin, Wm. Townsend, Louis Gruber. The 
present incumbent is Alva Binklev. 

The County Surveyor or Engineer 

is elected for a period of three }'ears, his term beginning 
in September. His salary is five dollars per working day. 
Those elected in recent years to this office, where accuracy 
of detail and mathematical preci=;ion are prime requisites. 
were: Eli Armacost, W. D. Brumbaugh, German Warner, 
Jas. R. Marker, Chas. Slade. The present incumbent is Harry 
Miller, who assumed office this year. 

The first surveyor was probably John Devor, who made 
the original plat of Greenville in 1808. 

The Infirmary Superintendent 

has a difficult and responsible position in caring for the de- 
ficient, aged and infirm members of the county house, and in 
taking care of the large farm attached thereto. This officer 
was formerly appointed yearly by the Infirmary Directors, 
who in turn were appointed by the Commissioners. Recent- 
ly they have been appointed by the Commissioners direct, 
thus eliminating a superfluous office. 


Court Officials. 

The Probate Judge is elected for a term of four years, 
which begins in I'ebruary. His salary is $3,135.00 per year. 

The Prosecuting Attorney is elected for a period of two 
years, beginning" in January. His salary is $2,370.00 per 

The Clerk of the Courts is elected for a term of three years 
beginning in August with a salary of $2,785.00 yearly. 

The Sheriff holds for a period of two years, beginning 
January 1, and receives a salary of $2,300.00 per year. 

In Chapter XXH, entitled "Bench and Bar," will be found 
a complete list of those serving in the above court ofHces 
since the organization of the county, with biographical 
sketches of all Probate and Common Pleas Judges. 

Darke county is now in the Fourth Congressional District, 
which includes also the counties of Allen, Auglaize, Shelby 
and Mercer. Since 1891, the following Democrats have rep- 
resented this district at Washington : F. C. Layton (Au- 
glaize), 1891-1896; Marshall (Shelby), 1897-1898; Robert 

Gordon (Auglaize), 1899-1902; Harvey C. Garber (Darke), 
1903-1906; W. E. Touvelle (Mercer), 1907-1910; J. H. Goeke 
(Auglaize), 191 1-. 

The county has uniformly gone Democratic on presidential 
elections for several years, except that it gave Theodore 
Roosevelt (Republican) a majority. 


The County Infirmary. 

Probably no public institution better illustrates the pro- 
gressive and philanthropic disposition of the people of Darke 
county than the beautiful new infirmary building, situated on 
a commanding hillside some two miles south of Greenville on 
the Eaton pike. Before the middle of the last century it was 
customary in Darke and other Ohio counties to place their 
weak, unfortunate and incompetent citizens in the homes of 
residents who hoped to profit by their keeping. It can read- 
ily be imagined that many abuses attended this pernicious 
custom and that the growing spirit of charity and humanity 
demanded a home maintained by a county tax where these 
poor people might have proper care and attention. 

Accordingly, on March 18, 1854, the County Commissioners 
purchased a farm of 248 acres located in townships 11 and 12 
in Greenville township on both sides of the Eaton pike for 
the sum of $6,000.00. The object of this purchase was to 
locate a home for the care of the infirm; sick and disabled 
poor of the county. The contract for an infirmary building 
was let on May 17, 1854, and the structure was completed 
in January, 1856, at a total cost of about $8,500.00. This 
structure was built of brick, three stories in height and was 
40x84 feet in dimensions. The building was doubled in size 
by an addition built in 1875-76, when it contained seventy- 
two rooms ; substantial separate buildings were also erected 
for a laundry and engine-house. The site chosen was on the 
slope of a hill overlooking Greenville and the valley of Bridge 
creek. This institution was opened for the reception of 
inmates March 1, 1856, and an average of eighteen inmates 
was maintained during that year. In March, 1880, the num- 
ber of inmates was 106, including fourteen idiotic persons. 

By a law enacted in recent years most of the insane patients 
are sent to the district state hospital at Dayton, O., for treat- 
ment and confinement. It has been estimated that about 
ninety per cent, of all inmates confined in the infirmary are 
there as a result of intemperance, directlv or indirectly. A 


cursory glance convinces even the superficial observer that a 
large per cent, suffer from senility or some form of mental 
or physical weakness which incapacitates them for the ard- 
uous duties of the normal citizen. 

The original building was consumed by fire on the morn- 
ing of June 2, 1897. At that time there were some seventy- 
five or eighty inmates confined in the building, all of whom 
escaped and found refuge in the large barn across the road. 
They were soon removed to the fair grounds until suitable 
temporary quarters had been erected just south of the site 
of the burned building. At this time the Count}- Commis- 
sioners and Infirmary Directors took prompt action to secure 
the erection of a new building. The contract was soon let 
to Hosacoster, of Richmond, Indiana, at about $75,000, who 
pushed the work during the following winter and spring and 
had it ready for occupancy in the fall of 1898. 

John Studebaker, L. G. Turner and G. F. Trittschuh were 
the directors ; John Noggle, Philip Plessinger and Chris Ap- 
penseller the commissioners ; T. B. Miller, the superintend- 
ent, and Dr. W. A. Rush the visiting physician at the time 
of the fire, and to these officers must be given much credit 
for the efficient manner in which they met the critical situa- 

The new building is built of red pressed brick on a stone 
foundation, has a slate roof and is two stories above the base- 
ment. The front facade is ornamented with towers 
and dormers and presents a pleasing and homelike appear- 
ance. The front part of the building is built for the use of 
the superintendent and family, and contains an office, sitting 
room, bed room, reception room and pantry on the first floor, 
five bed rooms and a bath room upstairs and a kitchen in the 
basement. There is an offset in the building between the 
superintendent's department and that of the inmates a short 
distance to the rear. The main hall runs entirely through 
the building from east to west. On the south side of this 
hall downstairs is the male inmates' department, comprising 
a large sitting room, dormitory, with some eighteen beds, 
two separate bed room, three closets, three lavatories and a 
large bath room, besides three other bed rooms on the ex- 
treme east. Upstairs above these roms are a large hospital 
room, dormitory, three or four bed rooms with four beds 
each, bath and sanitary and three additional bed rooms as 
below. The female department is situated on the north side 

(Courtesy "Advocate") 


oi the building and is arranged in abijut the same manner as 
that of the males. A large dining room and two kitchens 
occupy the rear of the main building. There is a basement 
under the entire building containing furnace, coal and food 
storage rooms besides the superintendent's kitchen. 

A short distance east of the main building is located the 
annex built to house the incurable insane. It is of brick, 
two stories high, and contains eighteen cells, one large bath 
room and nine separate cells with sanitary closet attached 
on each floor. North of the annex is a brick laundry build- 
ing equipped with modern machinery. Besides these there 
is a slaughter house, an ice house, a large bank barn capable 
of accommodating about forty head of cattle, ten horses, a 
silo with a capacity of probably seventy-five tons of ensil- 
age, a crib, a wagon shed and a hog pen. A twenty-five 
horse power gas engine with a six-inch duplex pump draws 
the water from a wonderful natural spring located just below 
the edge of the hill on the west side of the pike some five 
hundred feet from the engine house. This spring has been 
enclosed by a wall sixteen feet square and the water stands 
about five feet deep throughout the year. It is seemingly 
inexhaustible as from five hundred to seven hundred barrels 
of water have been pumped from it in one day in the summer 
season to sprinkle the lawn, etc., -without visibly diminish- 
ing the supply. 

The cost of the entire group of buildings is estimated at 
approximately one hundred thousand dollars and the land 
comprising the farm is now probably worth thirty thousand 

Shortly after the completion it was inspected bv the Sec- 
retary of the State Board of Charities, who pronounced it the 
best arranged and most complete infirmary of its size in Ohio. 

Until recently this institution was conducted by a super- 
intendent and three directors, appointed by the County Com- 
missioners. By a new law the directors have been eliminat- 
ed, and the Commissioners control it directly. Since its or- 
ganization the following persons have served in the difficult 
and responsible position of superintendent: Jacob Shively, 
three years ; David Thompson, six years ; Wm. Thompson, 
five years ; Crawford Eddington, seven years ; J. N. Braden, 
three years ; John Brandon, ten years ; T. B. Miller, eleven 
years: I. F. St. Tohn. three vears : Wm. .Smith, five vears. 


The present very efficient and popular incumbent is G. Fred- 
erick Trittschuh, who has served since 1910. 

The following extract from the report of the Board of 
County Visitors filed with the Probate Judge, December 14, 
1913, shows the present condition of this very important 
county institution : 

"The Darke County Infirmary, situated about two miles 
south of Greenville on the Dayton & Northern Traction, 
comprises a farm of 241 acres, of which 140 acres is tillable, 
25 acres is in timber, 55 acres in pasture, 10 acres in orchard, 
5 acres in lawn and barnyard, and one acre in cemetery. The 
farm land is in good condition and is valued at $125 per acre. 

"This season the farm produced 457 bushels of wheat, 409 
bushels of oats, 204 bushels of rye, 3,000 bushels of corn, 50 
tons of hay, 75 tons of ensilage, 448 bushels of Irish potatoes, 
69 bushels of sweet potatoes, 75 bushels of onions and an 
abundance of vegetables of all kinds. 

The cellar contains over a thousand cans of fruit and 85 
gallons of apple butter. 

On the farm at the present time are the following: Forty- 
six cattle, seven horses, two hundred and twenty swine, one 
hundred and fifty chickens. The stock is in good condition, 
and the barn is well filled with feed for winter use. The total 
value of the products for the year was $6,766.72. 

The estimated net annual expense, beside products, was 

Supt. G. F. Trittschuh and wife formerly received $1,200 
per year, and now $1,400 per year. 

The management of the farm and institution requires the 
assistance of the following help : Two farm hands at $26.00 
each per month ; an engineer at $50.00 per month ; six girls at 
$17.50 each per month. Dr. S. A. Hawes is emplo^^ed as 
physician for the institution at $150.00 per year. 

The capacity of the infirmary is two hundred, and the popu- 
lation is eighty-six. Of this number one is an epileptic, 
six are blind, three are insane, and the majority of the 
remainder are disaljled by old age. All the inmates who are 
able assist with the work of the institution. The women are 
employed with house work, quilt piecing, and sewing carpet 
rags while the men are engaged in care of the buildings and 
labor on the farm. The inmates seem contented and happy. 

The insane are quartered in separate rooms in the annex. 


The sexes occupy separate wings ol' the building. Aged 
couples are also separated. 

There are no soldiers or soldiers' widows at the infirmary. 

The buildings are in excellent condition and are well kept. 
The basement of the main building looks clean and sanitary, 
with all the walls newly whitewashed. The buildings are all 
lighted by electricity and heated by steam. The rooms are 
ventilated by raising and lowering the windows. 

The door yards are especially neat and clean in every part. 
The lawn, with its artistically arranged shrubs and flowers, 
]-)resent an attractive appearance. 

Industry, care and thrift are in ex'idence throughout the 

The water supplv is obtained from a spring and a driven 

Protection against fire is provided by chemical fire ex- 
tinguishers and water furnished by the tower system. 

The inmates have access to daily and weekly papers." 

The report of 1879 showed 114 inmates on August 31st of 
that year: 193 persons admitted during the year; total cost of 
ii-aintenance $8,314.49. The farm itself is now worth about 
five times its original cost and the total value of ground and 
buildings approximates $130,000.00. 

The Children's Home. 

The word home is one of the most sacred and suggestive in 
the English language, calling up ties and associations dear to 
the heart nf humanity — ties that bind old and young around 
the common hearthstone — associations that cast a potent 
spell over the entire earthly life of normal man. 

To establish and maintain a home for the unfortunate 
children of a large county is a work worthy of sincere com- 
mendation. In early days such children were placed in the 
infirmaries with the idiotic, the delinquent, the aged and in- 
firm and brought under the depressing influences of such an 
un~a\-ory environment. 

Benevolent minded citizen'^ early saw the revolting fea- 
tures of this custom and stirred up sentiment asjainst it. In 
response to this sentiment the county commissioners ordered 
that the proposition of establishing a children's home, and of 
issuing bonds in a sum not in excess of S2S.0O0 to oav for the 
requisite site and erect suitable buildings thereon, be sub- 


milted to the qualified electors of the county at a public elec- 
tion in April, 1882. The proposition was accordingly voted 
on arid carried by a large majority. Taxes were levied for 
this purpose in 1882, 1883 and 1884. The commissioners 
then invited proffers of suitable tracts and after the consid- 
eration of various propositions from owners of farms in dif- 
ferent parts of the count}' finally decided upon a tract of 
about fifty-two and one-half acres situated in adjoining cor- 
ners of sections thirteen and fourteen, township twelve, 
range two east, on the Beamsville pike about two and three- 
fourths miles north of the county seat. This property was 
purchased from George W. Manix, Sr., November 27, 1883 
for $7,357.63. This site is centrally located, is sufficiently re- 
mote from Greenville to insure quiet and home-like condi- 
tions, but not being situated on any railway or traction line 
necessitates the incurring of extra expense for the transpor- 
tation of fuel and supplies. 

The Dorman farm, nicely situated on a rising knoll skirt- 
ing the north bank of Greenville creek and facing the same 
pike, had been offered as a site, but considerable objection 
was raised on account of its proximity to the county seat, an 
objection which is not now considered sufficiently valid. 

On November 26, 1884, the commissioners appointed 
three trustees : S. A. IHlostetter, to serve three years : John H. 
Martin, two years; and Thomas McCowen, to serve one 
year. By joint action of the commissioners and trustees it 
was decided to build a structure of ample proportions with 
all modern conveniences. The contract for the main building 
was let June 8, 1888, for $17,000. The boiler house cost 
about $2,000.00. the gas fitting, heaters and radiators about 
$4,000.00 and the grading of yard and making of roads and 
walks about $800.00 in addition to the above. 

The main building is two stories high above the basement, 
is built of red brick on a stone foundation, is one htmdred and 
sixteen feet front length, ninety-one feet deep on the wings, 
about sixty feet above grade to square, has tower, steep 
pitched slate roof and dormers. The basement is cemented 
and contains a large kitchen, dining room, pantries, grocery, 
fireman's work room, besides fruit and coal rooms, and a 
large furnace. An eight-foot hall penetrates this floor for 
eighty feet. The first floor is intersected by halls running 
both ways, has a large sitting room, dining room and pan- 
tries, a commodious office with parlor and bed-room attached. 


Girls and boys have separate large play rooms with attached 
wash, bath, sanitary closet and press room, besides two sep- 
arate bed rooms and closets, contains a large room used for 
nursery and dormitory, a serving room, sev-en bed rooms, one 
large bath room, and boys' and girls' dormitories each with 
wash, toilet and bath room attached, and all connected by 
cross halls. A hospital room was furnished in the attic but 
has been condemned by the state inspector of public build- 
ings. Besides the main building there is a two-stor}' brick 
laundry building with slate roof, size twenty-four by forty 
feet, equipped with steam-washer, extracter and drying room; 
a brick slaughter house size fourteen by twenty-two feet ; a 
two-story frame building, size eighteen by thirty-four feet, 
built for a manual training shop ; a good barn forty by eighty 
feet on the fondation, with basement, in which are kept 
horses and cattle ; a hog house, and four large hen houses. 
Uesides these buildings, a neat and commodious brick school 
house with tower and two rooms, size twenty-five by thirty- 
four and twenty-eight by forty, respectively, was built in 1895, 
some distance north of the main building. On December 18, 
1913, there were sixty-three children in the home, thirty-five 
boys and twenty-eight girls, and eleven assistants were em- 

Thomas Teal was the first superintendent of the home and 
served from April, 1889, to March, 1892. He was succeeded 
by Thomas Monger and wife, who served as superintendent 
and matron respectively until 1912, a period of twenty years, 
in a very efficient and satisfactory manner. Mr. Albert Wag- 
ner and wife served from ^larch 5. 1912. to March, 1913, and 
were succeeded by Air. Alvin Gilbert and wife who are the 
present incumbents. 

S. A. Hostetter served as trustee for seventeen years, and 
was succeeded by John Suter, who served eight years, who in 
turn was succeeded by Elmer Studebaker, who now occupies 
this office. John H. Martin served a short time, was suc- 
ceeded by John C. Turpen, who served six or eight years, and 
was succeeded by J. C. Elliott, who served eiight years, 
since whose term the office has been filled for brief periods 
by James W. Martin, and W. B. Hough, both deceased, and is 
now filled by Ed Culbertson who was recently appointed. 
Thomas McCowen was succeeded by Judge J. A. Jobes. who 
was appointed to fill his unexpired term. Jacob M. Brown 


succeeded Jobes in 1892, served eleven years, and was in turn 
succeeded by W. D. Rush, who has served ever since. 

When the number of trustees was increased from three to 
four in order to make the board bi-partisan, Henry Bish was 
appointed to this position and served probably six years, 
being succeeded by John A. McEowen, who served about ten 
years. The latter resigned in 1912 and was succeeded by J. 
H. Dunham, the present incumbent. 

During the quarter of a century of the home's history over 
six hundred children have gone through its course of training 
and been placed with responsible families or in promising 
employment. The children are now kept in the home until 
they are eighteen years of age. 

The amount of service rendered to these unfortunate chil- 
dren, and through them to society, is incalculable and justi- 
fies, no doubt, all the care and expense invested in them. 
The following extract from the report of the Board of County 
Visitors filed December 14, 1913, with Probate Judge James 
B. Kolp furnishes some interesting data : 

Children's Home. 

The Children's Home is situated two and three-fourths 
miles northeast of Greenville on a farm of fifty-two and one- 
half acres. Thirty-five are tillable, eight acres are in tim- 
ber, and the remainder in orchard, garden, barn-yard and 
lawn. The farm is valued at $125.00 per acre. 

The products this year were twelve tons of hay, one hun- 
dred and sixty-four bushels rye, a silo of ensilage, one hun- 
dred twenty-five bushels of potatoes, ten bushels of beets, 
ten bushels of onions, five bushels of sweet potatoes and the 
usual garden supplies. 

On the farm at the present time are the following; Eight 
cattle, four horses, twenty-two swine, seven turkeys and two 
hundred chickens. 

The value of the products from this farm were estimated 
at $1,100.00. 

The estimated net annual expense, besides products, was 

The management of the home was changed in March. 1913. 
and Mr. and Mrs. A. Gilbert, who receive $1,000 per year sal- 
ary, are now in charge. 

A physician is employed at a salary of $100.00 per year. 

While there are accommodations for one himdred chil- 


dren, there are now only sixty-one children in the home. Of 
these there is one crippled and one feeble-minded. The boys 
and girls occupy different parts of the same building and each 
department is in charge of a governess. 

The girls' dormitory is fitted up with white iron beds and 
the boys with wooden beds. These beds are equipped with 
sheets, pillows, blankets, comforts and spreads. 

A seamstress is employed to do the sewing for the inmates. 

The older children, when out of school, assist with the work 
of the institution. Some of the girls, who are musically in- 
clined, are given instrumental lessons. 

One teacher is employed to teach the home school. 

The children have access to a library, the Youth's Com- 
panion and Sunday school papers. 

The children attend Sunday school at a church near the 

The clothing of the children is good and plentiful. 

The brick building occupied by the superintendent and 
family, the helpers and the inmates, is lighted by electricity, 
heated by steam, and ventilated by windows. 

The trustees have improved the building this year by 
making a board floor in the children's dining room and the 
kitchen, and by building fire escapes to the boys' and girls' 
dormitories and children's dining room. They have repaired, 
roofed and repainted the barn. 

Carnegie Library. 

One of the most popular and useful institutions in the 
cotmty is the Carnegie library, located on the northwest cor- 
ner of Fifth and Sycamore streets, Greenville, Ohio, on 
grounds formerly comprising a portion of the West School 
play grounds. The beginning of this excellent library- prop- 
erly dates from the administration of Prof. F. Gillum 
Cromer as superintendent of the public schools. Professor 
Cromer became superintendent in 1888 and soon began to 
plan for a library for the use of the school children. Wash- 
ington's birthday entertainments were given by the scholars of 
the public schools ("which then comprised the East (high) 
school and West school) and the money thus earned was 
used to purchase books and maintain the library, which was 
then called the "Free School Library." As the library in- 
creased in size it was deemed desirable to equip a centrally 
located room and open up the library to the general public. 


Appreciating the benefit conferred upon a community by the 
possession of such an institution, Mr. Frank M. McWhinney, 
a public spirited citizen, donated the use of the lower floor of 
his brick business room on West Fifth street, opposite the 
Christian Tabernacle, for the housing of the growing library. 
This room was nicely furnished by the board of education 
and in 1892 the books were moved into it. Mr. Henry St. 
Clair, a wholesale grocer and far-seeing citizen, added an ex- 
cellent reference library, comprising dictionaries, atlases, cy- 
clopedias, theological, historical and reference books gen- 
erally and furnished a secluded alcove for the especial use of 
the ministers, professional men and literary club women. 
Miss Josie Ford was employed as the first librarian. She 
was succeeded bv Aliss Callie Biltemier. The library in- 
creased in size and usefulness and in the early spring of 1901, 
Mr. D. L. Gaskill, representing the board of education of the 
city of Greenville, wrote Andrew Carnegie asking whether, 
if the city of Greenville would pledge itself for the support 
of a library, he would not make a donation for a library for 
that city. Within three days an answer came back from Mr. 
Carnegie stating that if the city of Greenville would provide 
for its support in the sum of $1,500.00 per year, he v>-ould be 
glad to give $15,000.00 for the erection of a library. Imme- 
diate steps were taken by the board of education and the city 
council of Greenville to pledge that amount of support for the 
library and Mr. D. L. Gaskill, Mr. L. C. Anderson and Mr. A. 
H. Brandon went to Pittsburgh to .get ideas on library con- 
struction. After looking over libraries in that city and con- 
sulting with Mr. Anderson, librarian of the libraries of 
Pittsburgh, the latter advised that Greenville should have a 
better library than $15,000.00 would build, and in reply to a 
question put to him by Mr. Gaskill, he .stated he would be 
very glad to write a letter advising Mr. Carnegie to that 
efTect. He ga\'e the committee such a letter and upon their 
return ^Ir. Henry St. Clair gave the committee another let- 
ter stating he intended to maintain the reference library as he 
had been in the past. These letters were forwarded to Mr. 
Carnegie in Xew York, but owing to the fact that Mr. Car- 
negie had gone to Scotland, they were forwarded to Skibo 
Castle and in about two months an answer was received 
from Mr. Carnegie that if the citv of Greenville would in- 
crease the amount which they pledged for its support to 
$2,500.00 he would be glad to give $25,000.00 for the library. 



The board of education immediately altered the plans and 
called for bids on a library that could be built for $25,000.00. 
When the bids were received, however, it was found that it 
would require close to $30,000.00 to construct a library in 
accordance with the plans as made and Mr. W. S. Kaufman, 
who was the architect of the building, was instructed to 
modify the plans. A few days later Mr. Gaskill, when in con- 
versation with Mr. St. Clair, stated that the plans had to be 
modified in order to reduce the cost and Mr. St. Clair, who 
was familiar with the plans, stated that it would be a great 
pity to alter the plans from what had been originally in- 
tended and that if the board of education would proceed to 
build it as originally planned, he would make up what mone}' 
Mr. Carnegie lacked in building it. The architect was imme- 
diately notified not to change the plans and the work was 
undertaken on the original plans. Mr. D. L. Gaskill was 
chairman of the building committee, and took personal 
charge of the construction. The members of the school board 
at that time were: L. C. Anderson, D. L. Gaskill, George W. 
Mannix. Jr., H. C. Jacobi, A. F. Markwith and F. T. Conklin. 

There is no building in the city for beauty and excellence 
and benefit to the citizens that exceeds the Carnegie library.' 
Mr. St. Clair contributed to its building and erection the 
sum of $3,610.50. Mr. Carnegie gave $25,000.00, and the 
board of education, from the library fund, contributed suffi- 
cient to make up the remaining cost, which totaled $31,177.50. 
At the time the construction was made, building material and 
labor was low, and the same building to be constructed ten 
years later would have cost probably $45,000.00. 

This building is about ninety feet in length and seventv 
feet in width, and is two stories in height. The outside con- 
struction of the first, or basement story, is of Bedford stone, 
while the second story is of bufif pressed brick, trimmed in 
oolitic stone, and the roof is covered with red tile. The li- 
brary' is entered by wide steps under a portico. A dnorwav 
leads from the portico into a vestibule finished in marble. 
A rise of ten steps leads to the lobby, finished in quartered 
oak and encaustic Mosaic tile. The librarian's desk is placed 
midway in the lobby and is octagonal in form. The chil- 
dren's reading room, twenty-five by thirty feet, is situated 
on the right of the lobby: the adult's reading room, of the 
same size, on the left. The St. Clair reference room is in 
the rear of the adult's reading- room, and the stack room in 


the rear of the children's reading room. In the rear of the 
lobby is the librarian's office. Large, plate-glass panels sep- 
arate these rooms from the lobby, but give excellent vision 
from the librarian's desk over the whole of the library. Cases 
are arranged around the wall with alcoves in stack room. 
The St. Clair room is elegantly furnished in Vvalnut, has a 
beautiful Shakespeare memorial window separating" it from 
the adult's room, a stained memorial window of the donor, a 
beautiful marble statuette from Paris, besides heavy and cost- 
ly furnishings and a tile floor. The whole interior is taste- 
fully and appropriately frescoed, the librarian's office being 
done in quaint Egyptian design and colors, while the lobby 
shows portraits of distinguished literary men and appropriate 

The first floor is occupied by the public museum, stack 
room for government reports, etc., heating plant and janitor's 
work room. Toilet rooms, finished in marble and tile are on 
both floors. 

The corner stone was laid with impressi^■e ^lasonic exer- 
cises on October 30, 1901, and the new building was dedicated 
March 19, 1903, the books having been transferred from the 
"McWhinney building by the school children. Miss Isabelle 
M. Rosser and Miss Lucy Gard Arnold served as librarians 
for several years. Miss ]\Iinnie J. Routzong has been librar- 
ian and ]\Iiss Minnie Bertram, assistant librarian, for some 
time. Besides the two librarians, a janitor and museum at- 
tendant are employed with a monthly pay roll of .?145.00. 
The library and museum are under the control of the city 
board of education, being regarded as an adjunct to the city 
schools, and are maintained largely by a local tax le\y. The 
librarian's report for the year ending December 31, 1913, 
shows a total of 13,731 volumes, of which 11.631 are for 
adults and 2,100 for children. Besides these boo'cs sixty-five 
current periodicals are received. Two thousand one hundred 
and twelve patrons have cards on file. A charge of one dol- 
lar per year is made for non-residents and twenty-one cards 
are held by country borrowers. The pupils in the public 
schools are the largest patrons and probably derive greatest 
benefit from this institution, although professional men, ckib 
women and the public generallv constantly patronize it also. 


The Public Museum. 

The building of the Carnegie library in the count}- seat 
suggested the propriety of establishing a puldic nuiseum 
wherein might be gathered and properly exhibited the relics 
of Indian occupancy, and the St. Clair and Wayne campaigns, 
pioneer implements, minerals, manuscripts and other mate- 
rial of an educational nature. For probably thirty years pre- 
vious to this time, Messrs. G. Anthony and Charles Katzen- 
berger had purchased and secured a large number of the most 
valuable stone and iron implements of early days, firearms, 
coins, and curios which they kept displayed in a room above 
their brick grocery on the public square where the new post- 
office building is now located. Upon the death of Anthony 
Katzenberger in 1894, the collection became the property of 
his brother Charles,, who in response to public sentiment, 
agreed to transfer the same to the new librarv building upon 
its completion, where the public might have free access to 
same. The Greenville city board of education gladly ac- 
cepted the generous ofifer of this public spirited citizen and in 
the fall of 1901 appointed three trustees to take charge of this 
collection, solicit and receive other similar collections and 
objects and provide for their proper exhibition. These trus- 
tees organized in October, 1901, by electing Frazer E. Wilson, 
president ; George A. Katzenberger, secretary, and A. C. 
Robeson, treasurer. These trustees petitioned and secured 
from the board appropriations for constructing and securing 
neat and substantial oak and glass wall cases, flat cases and 
tables from time to time in which the collections were neatly 
arranged according to kind and classification so that upon the ■ 
dedication of the librar}' in March, 1903, a fine exhibition was 
made of articles collected at that time. Since that time the 
museum has grown steadily. New collections have been 
added, new cases installed and the collections arranged and 
rearranged many times by the hand of the veteran collector, 
Mr. Charles Katzenberger, who has constantly donated his 
services for that purpose without charge. Among the rarest 
and most valuable collections added was that formerly belong- 
ing to John Slife, an old citizen of Mercer county, who li\-ed 
a short distance out of Fort Recovery near the site of the 
encampment of the I^Zentucky Militia on November 3, 1791. 
This man had been an energetic and tireless collector frr 
years and had assembled the largest and most vakial)le ml- 


lections of firearms and military relics of St. Clair and Wayne 
armies ever gotten together on the site of St. Clair's defeat. 
Upon the suggestion of Mr. Calvin Young and Mr. F. E. Wil- 
son, Mrs. F. M. McWhinney generously agreed to donate 
$125.00 for the purchase of these relics which are now con- 
sidered worth many times the price as they represent prob- 
abh- the most disastrous conflict that ever took place on Ohio 
soil. On Tuesday, January 10, 1905, Mr. George Katzen- 
berger, Mr. Wilson and j\Ir. Allen Murphy drove to Fort Re- 
covery and secured this priceless collection which comprises 
several flint lock muskets, separate locks, musket barrels, 
bayonets, knives, tomahawks, musket balls, small shot, can- 
non balls, military buttons, stirrups, a camp kettle, United 
States steel yard, besides many small but intensely interest- 
ing pieces. One of the most highly prized objects in this 
collection is a United States officer's sword, said to have been 
found in an old log in 1859. and having the name Arthur But- 
ler scratched on the blade. Dr. George I. Gunckel, an oral 
surgeon in the United States army, former^ of Greenville, 
where he married Miss Rome Turner, a descendant of Dr. 
Gabriel Miesse, the veteran collector, has made valuable 
loans of local relics from time to time, besides a wonderful 
collection of implements and curios from the Philippine 
Islands, largely pertaining to the Spanish-American war. This 
is said to be one of the most valuable collections of the kind 
in the United States, and occupies some six or eight of the 
three by eight foot cases. In addition Dr. Gunckel has loaned 
a Revolutionary cannon and numerous relics of the Civil 
war, including the cannon from Mobile harbor, four large 
pointed shells fired at Fort Sumpter and a large mortar shell 
fired from Fort Pickens, the latter objects now being mounted 
and displayed on the library lawn. 

In the Katzenberger collections are included a very select 
case of rare polished stone implements,, a case of iron imple- 
ments and relics of the St. Clair and Wayne expeditions, a 
fine case of old and new firearms, a case of old books and 
manuscripts, a case of rare and old coins, besides mixed col- 
lections of rare and interesting objects. Portions of the re- 
mains of various mastodons discovered in recent years in 
various localities in the county and the tooth of a mammoth 
are shown, besides a large and representative assortment of 
pioneer implements, selected mineral specimens, collections 
of local insects, and bird nests, collections from Mexico and 


the Holy Land, etc., etc. On the walls are exhibited various 
interesting pictures and prints including fine oil paintings of 
St. Clair, Wayne and Little Turtle, painted and donated to 
the Historical Society by Kitty Matchett Vaughan, a photo- 
graph of the original document of the treaty of Greenville, 
and a deed for the townsite of Greenville. The museum now 
occupies three of the largest rooms besides the wide hall in 
the basement of the library, and probably contains three or 
four thousand separate articles exhibited in some forty glass 
cases. It is probable that this is the finest local museum 
operated by anv city of the size in Ohio or even in the United 
States. Its value to the students in the schools of the county 
and to the public generallv as a stimulant to the study of 
local history and traditions is almost inestimable. For its 
educational and sentimental value it should continue to re- 
ceive the hearty support and patronage of our citizens for 
many years. 

At this time Mr. Charles Katzenberger is still acting as 
Curator, in which capacity he exhibits decided talent and a 
fine enthusiasm. Prof. Frank M. White, for many years in- 
structor in German and Latin in the high school, is acting as 
usher in the afternoons, and Messrs. George A. Katzenberger 
and F. E. Wilson are trustees. 

Henry St. Clair Memorial Hall. 

Through the kindness and public spirit of the late Henry 
St. Clair, the people of Greenville and the citizens of Darke 
county have received one of their most valuable public insti- 
tutions in the way of a fine modern building in wdiich are 
housed the new departments of the public schools and in 
which is provided a large, finely constructed and equipped 
auditorium for all sorts of public gatherings. For some years 
prior to his decease, Mr. St. Clair had in mind the construc- 
tion of just such a building as this, which he hoped to com- 
plete and present to the city of Greenville during his life- 
time. His untimely death on October 7, 1908, however, in- 
terfered with these plans as far as his personal participation 
was concerned. When his will was read, among the manv 
benefactions therein contained was the following: 

"I will and bequeath to the board of education of the citv 
of Greenville. Ohio, and its successors in office perpetually, 
Ihe sum of $100,000.00, to be used hv said board of education 


and its successors for the purpose of erecting a memorial 
hall for the use of large and small assemblies and for the use 
and betterment of the public schools in any manner in which 
said board mav think most practicable and beneficial to the 

Acting upon this generous bequest the board of education, 
of which Mr. St. Clair had been a member, planned a building 
in conformity to his expressed wish, which, when completed, 
was one of the most beautiful and best equipped of its type 
in the state of Ohio. Before erection various sites were dis- 
cussed and considered, and it was finally decided to place the 
building near the center of the West school grounds on ac- 
count of its central location and proximity to the Carnegie 
library and the high school building, to which latter institu- 
tion it was to be a valuable adjunct. In order to place it on 
this site it was necessary to move the three-story brick high 
school building which had stood partially on this spot since 
its erection in 1868 and originally contained over seven hun- 
dred thousand bricks. This building had originally cost 
$25,000.00, exclusive of the heating plant and gas fixtures, and 
had recently been remodeled at a cost of some $20,000. The 
gigantic task of successfully moving this building some dis- 
tance to the southwest of its original site was accomplished 
by a Pittsburg contractor in the summer of 1909 at a cost of 
some $7,000.00, which sum was furnished by ^Irs. St. Clair. 
The school board erected a new foundation on which to place 
the building and this with other improvements cost probably 
$10,000.00, making the cost of the high school building with 
its various improvements from time to time probably 
$75,000.00. In the spring of 1910 the work of excavation for 
the memorial hall was prosecuted and on Thursday, June 30, 
1910, the corner stone was laid with impressive ]\Iasonic cer- 
emonies. The dav was intensely sultrv and the services 
were performed under a canvass canopy in presence of a 
large throng. Charles J. Pretzman, right worshipful grand 
orator of the grand lodge of Ohio Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, was the orator of the day. Mrs. Clara Turpen Grimes, 
of Dayton, Ohio, was the soloist of the day and instrumental 
music was furnished b}' the National Military Home band, of 
Dayton, Ohio, under the leadership of Pearl Culbertson, both 
being descendants of pioneer Darke countv families, ^^'or': 
on the building progressed slowlv and it was not dedicated 
until Friday, !May 3, 1912, on which occasion the principal 



address was made by George W. Manix, Jr.. an orator of the 
Greenville bar, and vocal music was rendered by the well 
tramed Girls' Chorus of the Greenville high school. The 
members of the board of education when the construction of 
the building was begun were: D. W. Bowman, president; W. 
T. Fitzgerald, clerk; John Mong, F. T. Conklin, Charles J. 
Herr and Harry Vance. James J. Martz was superintendent 
of the public schools. Mr. Bowman was given charge of the 
construction on behalf of Mrs. St. Clair and carefully 
watched the progress of the building and insisted that the 
work be carried out in detail. The original plans were al- 
tered, a fine stone coping displacing the metal trimmings and 
a beautiful green tile roof being substituted. Other improve- 
ments were made and a fine two manual organ with chime 
attachments installed at a cost of some seven thousand dol- 
lars, making the total expense of constructing and furnishing 
this building and moving the high school building approxi- 
mate $135,000.00, the excess over the original estimate of 
$100,000.00 being furnished by Mrs. St. Clair. This beautiful 
building is constructed of Bedford stone and a superior qual- 
ity of gray pressed brick. The vestibule and lobby are fur- 
nished with marble pillars, wainscoting and steps with mo- 
saic tile floor, and are lighted by three large emblematic 
stained glass windows. On the east side of the basement is 
located the athletic room ; on the west side are two rooms 
equipped for the manual training department of the schools. 
On the rear beneath the stage are the boiler room and one 
dressing room. The main auditorium, which occupies the 
central portion of the building, and is equipped with a large 
balcony and private boxes, seats some eight hundred persons. 
To the left of the auditorium on the first floor are two rooms 
used by the domestic science department and so constructed 
that they can be thrown together and be used for a small 
auditorium with a seating capacity of probably two hundred 
To the west of the auditorium are the kindergarten and 
board office rooms. On the east side of second floor are the do- 
mestic science kitchen, dining room and sewing room. On 
the west side of this floor are the music room and an assem- 
bly room constructed for the use of the ministerial association 
occupies the rear of the building which can be shut off from 
and the medical association. A well equipped modern stage 
the main auditorium by an expensive fireproof curtain. With 
the possible exception of the seating capacity of the main 


auditorium this building carries out the generous designs ol 
its donors and is a very useful and ornamental institution. 
Besides its utility as a supplementary institution of the 
Greenville school system it affords unusual facilities for the 
presentation of plays and musicals of a higher order than can 
be staged in many cities of the size of Greenville and can be 
used to good advantage for chautauquas, county institutes, 
political and religious conventions and large public gather- 
ings generally. It also contributes much towards beautifying 
the city and the appropriation of ground from the school lot 
for its site could be largely compensated for bj^ the purchase 
and removal of the Matchett house, which now obstructs the 
view from the business portion of the city, thus making a fine 
central park with possibilities of future beaut}' beyond the 
dreams of the unobservant. 

Howard & Merriam of Columbus, Ohio, were the archi- 
tects of this magnificent building and E. E. Bope of the same 
citv, the contractor. 



From a material standpoint three things have probably 
contributed more toward the making of Darke county than 
all other forces and institutions combined, viz. : drainage, 
roads and railways. We have previously noted the remark- 
able results accomplished by drainage operations and road 
building and will consider briefly the effects of railway build- 
ing. The first means of transportation of supplies of food 
from the older settlements to Darke county was by means 
of pack horses over the military trails cut by St. Clair and 
Wayne. The difficulties and dangers encountered by these 
pack trains were typified in the sending back of a whole reg- 
iment by St. Clair to guard a train of supplies advancing from 
Fort Washington, October, 1791, and in the vicious attack on 
Lieutenant Lowery and his men while bringing supplies to 
Wayne's new camp at Greenville in October, 1793. It was a 
slow, tedious and hazardous process in those early days but 
the most efficient known. After the trails had been widened 
and improved, heavy wagons were used. No doubt many of 
the early settlers came into the county from distant points in 
large conestoga wagons drawn by from four to six horses 
whose combined strength was often necessary to pull the 
cumbersome vehicles over the rough corduro}' stretches and 
through the swampy places. As the roads were improved 
lighter vehicles were employed. The National road was 
finished from Cumberland Gap to the Ohio river in 1825 and 
to the Indiana line in 1830, thus furnishing a valuable out- 
let for the produce raised within its reach. The Erie canal 
was opened in 1825 and as a consequence grain soon increased 
fifty per cent, in price. The first railway in Ohio was finished 
in 1838 and it is interesting to note that the first railway 
reached Darke county thirteen years later. The significance 
of this event, its far-reaching influence and the enthusiasm 
aroused can scarcely be conceived in these days of many rail- 
ways. To give an adequate account of the bnildina: of this 


road we herewith quote from Beer's History of Darke county 
published in 1880: 

"The pioneer road of this county was known as the Dayton 
and Union Railroad. The company was chartered February 
26, 1846, as the 'Greenville and Miami Railroad Company,' for 
the construction of a railroad from the town of Greenville to 
any point on the Dayton & Western railroad, or any point 
on the Miami or Miami Extension Canal, which the directors 
might determine. The incorporators were Daniel R. Davis, 
Hiram Bell, William M. Wilson, Rufus Kilpatrick, John Col- 
ville, George Ward, John McClure, Jr., John C. Potter, Eras- 
tus Putnam, Alfred Kitchen, James Hanaway, Henry Arnold, 
^^^ B. Beall, I. N. Gard, Abraham Scribner, Russell Evans, 
John C. Shepherd, Adam Baker, Abraham Studabaker, 
Charles Hutchins, Joseph Ford and Solomon Riffle, of Darke 
county ; General -H. Bell was the first president ; Henry Ar- 
nold, Esq., first treasurer, and Hon. William M. Wilson, the 
first secretary. The capital stock of the company was 
$200,000. divided into shares of $50 each. At the expiration 
of a year. Dr. T. X. Gard was elected president, succeeded by 
David Studabaker. During 1848, the enterprise was first 
fully presented to the people of the county for their sup- 
port. Among the most acti^•e in forwarding the undertaking 
not only to obtain a favoraljle vote, but to secure means to 
do the necessary preliminarv work, were Dr. Gard, Judge 
Wilson, General Bell, i\Ir. Studabaker, Mr. Kitchen and 
Major Davis. There was then but little money in the county : 
the largest subscriptions that could be obtained were $500, 
and there were but eight or ten of these. 

On January 5, 1848, an act was passed by the legislature, 
authorizing the commissioners of Darke county to purchase 
stock in the G. & M. R. R. Co., to any amount not to exceed 
$50,000, provided a majority of the voters of the county were 
in favor thereof. On the first Monday of April, the proposi- 
tion to aid was carried by a majority of 637 votes, and on the 
13th, the commissioners subscribed the maximum amount in 
aid of the road. August 21, the auditor was authorized to 
isstie an order on the treasurer for $110.00, to pay for the sur- 
vey of the road. Februarv 2, 1849, the town council o^ 
Greenville was in like manner empowered to subscribe there- 
to any amount not exceeding $10,000. Judge Wilson contin- 
ued secretary of the company from organization to about 
1850. tliat is, during the preliminary work of the company. Tn 


ox s 








1850, a new organization was effected, with E. B. Taylor as 
president, and an act was passed authorizing the county and 
town to sell any or all stock to said company, or any other 
formed to extend the railroad from Greenville to the State 
line. Mr. Taylor went to New York, negotiated a loan of 
$150,000, bought iron and other necessaries to equipment. In 
July, 1850, the first locomotive intended to be used for laying 
the track of the road from Dayton to Greenville, arrived at 
Dayton ; it was brought from the establishment of Swinburn, 
Smith & Co., of Paterinn, New Jersey, and weighed fourteen 
tons. The first installment of iron was shipped from New 
York for Dayton on the 26th of June. The residue of the 
iron was then on the way from Liverpool to New York. It 
was of the T pattern, and weighed about nineteen pounds to 
the square foot. The bridge across the Miami river at Day- 
ton was completed and intended for use by three roads, the 
others being the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and the Day- 
ton & Western. The contract for laying the track was let 
to A. DeGraff. The depot and other buildings were placed 
under contract, and all the* work systematically pushed for- 
ward. Two additional locomotives weighing eighteen tons 
each, were contracted for delivery, one in August, the other 
in October. Two passenger cars were constructed at Dayton, 
in the establishment of Thresher, Packard & Co., The 
"burthen'" cars were manufactured at the Greenville foundry 
and machine shops of Messrs. Edmondson & Evans, and Tay- 
lor Brothers. The grain crop of 1851 was unprecedentedly 
large, and the road was expected to highly benefit all inter- 
ests, whether farming, mechanical, mercantile or commercial. 
It was stated at the time that this event "was an important 
epoch in Darke couny history," and such it has since proved 
to have been. It enhanced values and facilitated communica- 
tion. It was noted that "the running time between Green- 
ville and Dayton will be less than one hour and a half, and 
the distance may be performed with perfect safety in less 
than one hour." On February 19, 1851, DeGraff started out 
from Dayton with a train to be used for track laying. The 
train was platform cars with houses built on them — three for 
sleeping rooms, one for dining room and one for a kitchen. 
The job of laying the iron was in charge of John Horrien. On 
May 25th, the main track of the road was finished to the 
depot buildings, and a meeting was called to arrange for a 
celebration of the event. The event dulv honored, was 


marked by a large crowd, and made memorable by an emeute 
at Greenville on part of the roughs. The board of directors, 
at a meeting held at Dayton, August 30, 1853, declared a ten 
per cent, dividend from the earnings of the road, from Janu- 
ary 1st to September 1st. This dividend was declared after 
deducting expense of repairs, running interest and other ex- 
penses, and there remained a reserve fund of $5,000. The re- 
ceipts for August were for passengers $6,261 ; transportation, 
$4,215 : mail, $333 ; total, nearly $11,000. The cost of the road 
was about $550,000. Outstanding bonds, $341,000, and the 
liberal dividend to stockholders created an enthusnasm which 
greatly facilitated the induction and completion of the road to 
Union, and of other roads constructed through the county. 
Mr. Ta3dor continued to be president of the road until July, 
1855, when he resigned. Meantime, tlie compan}- had been 
authorized b}- the legislature to extend the railroad to the 
Indiana State line, by such route as the directors might select, 
within the county of Darke, "and the act had been accepted 
by resolution of the board o' director? as an amendment to 
the charter of the company. The road was built through to 
Union City three years after its completion to Greenville, that 
is, in 1853. When President Taylor resigned, the road went 
into the hands of the bondholders, by whom it was operated. 
At length, suit was brought for foreclosure of mortgage 
August, 1861, but a plan of reorganization and capitalization 
of stock, and debt was agreed upon, and the road was sold 
October 30, 1862, to H. C. Stimson and S. J. Tilden for 
$1,000, subject to the mortgage of $150,000. In 1855, Judge 
Wilson, secretary, resigned, and the chief office was removed 
to Dayton. All control of the road passed from the citizens 
of the county that year." 

The opening of the G. & 1\I. railwav was the occasion of 
much rejoicing in the county seat which was manifested in 
various ways. The social leaders got up a dance for which 
the following invitation was issued : 


The compan}- of yourself and lady is solicited to attend a 
cotillion party to be gi^en at Greenville, on Fridaj- evening, 
June 11. 1852, in honor of the opening of the Greenville and 
Miami Railroad. 


Greenville— E. B. Tavlor, \Y. H. Dailv, R. A. Knox, J. B. 


Grover, J. D. Fairer, O. A. Lymaii, J. G. Rees, T. K. Potter, 
J. R. Knox, W. R. Weston, D. Laurimore, W. C. Porterfield. 

Dayton — D. Z. Peirce, R. D. Harshman, C. B. Herrman, 
D. Beckel, J. S. ^^■esto^, J. O. Conklin, D. E. Mead, E. A. 

Greenville, June 8, 1852. 

"In the summer of 1854, the road was completed from Dod- 
son to Dayton, and the company continued to operate the 
entire line from Dayton to Union City until April, 1853, 
when, in accordance with an agreement on January 19th, pre- 
viously, the joint use of the track of the Dayton & \\'estern 
Railroad Company, from Dayton to Dodson (fifteen miles), 
was secured, between which points each company had a line 
of road running nearly parallel. By this agreement, the com- 
pany was enabled to take up and dispose of the iron between 
Dayton and Dodson. January 19, 1863, the company was re- 
organized, under the name of the Dayton & Union Railroad 
Company. When the road was opened for business, in 1850, 
land along its line might have been bought for $5.00 per 
acre ; it has since been sold for $100 per acre. The country 
■was wet, and water stood in the woods and clearings along 
the track for months at a time. This is now drained, arable 
and valuable. Then, abotit Arcanum, houses were to be seen 
at long intervals ; now fine farm houses dot the landscape in 
all directions. Arrangements are now in progress to relav the 
old track, and annul the agreement for the joint use of the 
Dayton & Western rails." 

Since the above was written, land has been sold as high 
as $300 per acre. At first but a single train, which carried 
both passengers and freight, was run during the day time ; 
now four passenger trains and one freight are run through 
each way daily. 

Mr. Dwight Irwin has been the efficient and accommodating 
agent at Greenville since 1898. The countv records in 1912 
show a total mileage of over twenty-six miles of main track 
and over three miles of siding in the countv, with propertv 
listed for taxation at the countv treasurer's office in 1912, at 

The stations on this line are Gordon, .Arcanum, Delisle. 
Jays^•ille, Green\'ille. Coletown, Hillgrove and ITninn Citv. 


. The C. C. C. & St. L., or "Big Four" Railway. 

The beginning of the Green\'ille and iNIiami rail\va_\- in- 
spired another enterprise and in 1848 the charter of the Belle- 
fontaine and Indianapolis railway was granted by the legis- 
latures of Ohio and Indiana. Mr. William M. Wilson then 
represented Darke county in the Ohio senate. The charter 
drafted for the proposed new road provided that certain 
places, as Sidney and Greenville, should be on the road "pro- 
vided" the)'- were "practicable" points. It seems that 'Sir. 
Wilson's vote was secured for the charter with the definite 
understanding that the road would be constructed through 
Piqua and Greenville, his home town. The words '"if practi- 
cable" proved to be a "sleeper" and the road was constructed 
on a "bee line" through Sidney and Versailles, leaving Piqua 
and Greenville several miles to tlie south. It is said that 
much laboring and lobbying was done on account of this road 
and Mr. George Ward, who represented both Darke and 
Shelby counties in the legislature, is credited with being 
largel}' instrumental in causing the nmre northern route to be 
adopted, ^^^ork on this road was soon commenced in Darke 
count)-, probably as early as the fall of 1848 or the spring of 
1849, making it the first line started within this territory. The 
road was not completed until 1852 or 1853, however. 

This road crosses the county line about the center of the 
eastern boundarj- o-^ W'ayne township, runs directly to Ver- 
sailles and then continues in almost a straight line, in a direc- 
tion slightly south of west, to Union City, having as inter- 
mediate stations Dawn, .\nsonia and Elroy. It was com- 
pleted in the early fifties and has proven of immense value in 
developing Wayne, northern Richland. Brown and Jackson 
townships by providing a ready market for the large quanti- 
ties of grain, timber and manufactured timber products. This 
road is also an integral part of one of the great railway sys- 
tems of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, forming a remarkable 
chain of connection between the commercial centers of these 
states. It has about twenty miles of finely graded main track 
within the county, listed for taxation in 1912 at $1,204,770.00. 
It does a large freight business and is k-nown for the well 
appointed and fast through passenger and mail trains which it 

The construction of thi^ important trunk line to the north 
of the cnuntv seat aroused the citizens of Greenville to extend 


the Greenville and Miami road to an intersecting point on the 
state line — thus giving Greenville another outlet for travel 
and traffic and laying the foundation for Union City, which 
has since developed into an important manufacturing and 
railway center. 

The Pennsylvania Railway. 

The P. C. C. & St. Louis railway now operates two lines 
which radiate from Bradford, the division point — the Logans- 
port division extending in a straight line to Union City, a. dis- 
tance of about twenty and one-half miles, and the Indianap- 
olis division, extending to Greenville and thence southwest- 
erly toward Richmond, a distance of about twenty-six and one- 
third miles. The Logansport division passes through Adams, 
northern Greenville and Jackson townships in a direction 
somewhat north of west, with intermediate stations at Hora- 
tio, Stelvideo, Pikeville and Woodington. A second track has 
recently been finished on the right of way, the grading im- 
proved, several overhead crossings constructed, and vast irn- 
provements made making this probably the most improved 
and valuable stretch of railway in the county. As it con- 
nects New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh with Chicago 
an immense amount of business is transacted. Work on this 
division in Darke county was begun in 1852 and continued 
about two years, when financial embarrassment overtook the 
enterprise. Work was resumed in 1858 and regular trains 
were running from Columbus to Union City by the last of 
April, 185Q. The road at that time was known as the Co- 
lumbus, Piqua and Indiana Railroad and was incorporated at 
?2,000,000 by Wm. Wilson and John C. Potter of Darke 
county, with others from Miami, Champaign, ]\Iadison and 
Franklin counties. 

The Indianapolis division of this road was built through 
Darke county during the years 1862 and 1863. It was organ- 
ized in 1861 as the Richmond and Covington Railroad Com- 
pany for the purpose of connecting the first division at Brad- 
ford with the Indiana Central Railroad at Richmond, Ind. 
Evan Baker, of Greenville, was president of the road at this 
time, and A. Price was the contractor. On account of the 
hills of gravel and excellent ballasting material along the 
right-of-way the cost of construction was reasonable, and the 
estimate for completing the road was seven thousand dollars 
per mile. Darke county was asked to subscribe $25,000.00 


or about one-fourth of the amount needed to put the road 
through. E. Baker, the Careys, P. Pomeroy and Thos. War- 
ing were largely instrumental in pushing the work to comple- 
tion. Through lease, purchase, manipulation and re-organ- 
ization both of these divisions finally became an integral part 
of the great Pennsylvania Railway Co., which is one of the 
greatest and most efficient railway systems in the world, con- 
necting the seaboard at New York with St. Louis and Chica- 
go, the gateways to the west and northwest. Tlie value of 
this road to Greenville and Darke county is almost ines- 
timable. The amount of business transacted by this road 
at Greenville alone is estimated at about $140,000.00 yearly. 
Eighteen heavy passenger and mail trains and sixteen sched- 
uled freight trains pass this point daily. This division 
passes through Adams, southern Greenville, Neave, north- 
western Butler and Harrison townships and has intermediate 
stations at Gettysburg, Greenville, Weaver's New Madison 
and Wiley's. The total main trackage of these tTvo divisions 
in Darke countv is over sixty-seven miles in length. The 
total value for taxation in 1912, as listed in the county treas- 
urerer's office was $3,873,450.00. 

W. J- McCurdy has been the efificient agent of this com- 
pany at Greenville since 1889. 

The Cincinnati Northern Railway. 

The main north and south railway operating in the county 
is the Cincinnati Northern, which crosses the northern boun- 
dary at Burkettsville, passes almost directly south through 
Allen, Brown and northern Greenville townships to the coun- 
ty seat, and then continues down the Mud creek prairie 
through Neave township and across the Maple swamp district 
of Butler township, leaving the county about one mile below 
Castine. The intermediate stations from the north downward 
are New Weston, Rossburg, Ansonia, Meeker. Greenville, 
Ft. JeiTerson, Savona and Castine. This road has about 
thirty-one and a third miles of main track and over seven 
miles of siding in the county, and was valued for taxation 
in 1912 at $751,570.00. It has a unique history, illustrating 
in a striking manner the difficulties encountered in early rail- 
way construction. The construction of this line was first 
agitated in 1853, it then being the object to extend it from 
the straits of Mackinac to Cincinnati. Large and enthusias- 


tic meetings were held in Van Wert, Greenville and other 
l<oints in that year, and local organizations effected. Survey 
commenced in August and Moses Hart took stock subscrip- 
tions at his store in Greenville. By October 19, $200,000.00 
had been subscribed. The estimated cost was less than $17,- 
500.00 per mile and the distance from Greenville to the 
northern line of the state was one hundred and eleven miles 
on the route proposed. From various causes the construction 
of the line was delayed, l)ut the directors did not abandon 
hope of final success. Changes were proposed in the route 
between Celina and Green\ille, a distance of thirty-two miles, 
and bids were received on this section at Greenville in 1858. 
On June 2, 1858, fifteen miles of road were placed under con- 
tract together with the trestle and culvert work of the entire 
distance between Celina and Greenville. The remaining sev- 
enteen miles were resurveyed with a view to alteration. Af- 
ter a large part of the grading had been done the enterprise 
was abandoned on account of the failure to dispose of bonds 
in the European market. The Ci^-il \\^ar ensued with the 
financial depression which followed reconstruction and the 
re\-ival of industry and the enterprise lay dormant imtil 
about 1880. Agitation was again revived and the road was 
built through Greenville in 1883 after much difficulty. J. 
L. Winner, J- W. Frizzel and Moses Hart took active part 
in the original enterprise and John Devor and L. L. Bell in 
the last. The road was finally completed from Jackson, 
Mich., to Germantown, with connections to Cincinnati, under 
the name of the Cincinnati, Jackson and Mackinaw Railway, 
and was popularly known as the "Mackinaw." Later it be- 
came known as the Cincinnati Northern Railway, and has 
lately become an important part of the New York Central 

Mr. Joe Hildebrand is the enterprising agent at Greenville 
and reports an annual business of about $125,000.00 at this 
station. On account of the road's direction and the rich ter- 
ritory which it travels it is destined to become an increasinglv 
important line. 

The Peoria & Eastern Railway. 

The Peoria & Eastern division of the Big Four, formerly 
known as the I. B. & W. Railway, extends through the south- 
ern part of the county in an east and west direction. It 
crosses the eastern county line in the northern part of 


Monroe township and runs directly west through Monroe 
and Twin to the Greenville and New Madison pike in north- 
western Butler township, then zigzags about in a northwest- 
erly direction through northern Harrison and southern Ger- 
man townships reaching the state line near the southwest 
corner of the latter township. The stations along this line 
are Pittsburg, Arcanum, Savona, Clark's Station and Glen- 
karn. It was built in and affords an outlet to the south- 
ern part of the county similar to that provided by the other 
division of the "Big Four" in the northern part. It has over 
twenty-two miles of main track and about four and a third 
miles of siding in the county, and was listed for taxation in 
1912 at $655,880.00. 

C. H. & D. Railway. 

The railway having the smallest mileage in the county is 
a branch of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton system, for- 
merly known as the "Narrow Gauge." It crosses the north- 
ern line of the county near the northwestern corner of Pat- 
terson township, runs almost due south through Patterson 
and Wayne townships to Versailles, and then curves in a 
southeasterly direction and crosses the eastern line of the 
county near the southwestern corner of Wayne township. 
The stations along this line are Osgood, Yorkshire and Ver- 
sailles. It has a main trackage of twelve and one-fifth miles 
and about a mile and a half of siding in the county. It was 
constructed about 1881. 

Ohio Electric Railwaj'. 

The practical application of electricity to the purposes of 
transportation developed about 1890. The next ten years 
witnessed a rapid improvement in knowledge, and methods 
of electrical control. By 1900 nearh' every large city in the 
United States had displaced the old horse cars by electrically 
driven cars and electrical traction lines were being projected 
from these centers to the surrounding towns, especially in 
the eastern section of the country. Dayton was one of the 
most enterprising of the Ohio cities in this respect and soon 
had about ten lines projected, with the object of increasing 
local business. Among these, was one to Greenville and 
Union City. This was fostered and vigorously pushed to 
completion by Dr. J. E. Lowes of Dayton. It was completed 


to Greenville in 1901 and to Union City in 1904, and has 
proven a great boon to travelers, especially on account of 
the many rural stops, and hourly car service. It was also 
instrumental in quickening the service on the D. & U. Rail- 
way, which it practically parallels. It had about thirty-one 
miles of main track and about one mile of siding in the coun- 
ty, when it was listed for taxation in 1912, at $639,820.00. 
Thus it will be seen that Darke county has seven railways and 
one traction line crossing it in various directions with a total 
mileage of about two hundred and ten miles, exclusive of 
sidings, and a total valuation for taxation of about $8,000,000.- 

It will be further noted that these railways enter every 
township of the twenty composing the county, except Missis- 
sinawa, Wabash, York and Franklin ; that the county seat 
is crossed by three steam lines and one electric, and that each 
one of the larger towns in the county has at least two lines. 


It used to be a common saying that the three greatest institu- 
tions of society were the home, the church and the school. 
In recent years another important institution has arisen which 
exerts a formative influence on public morals and public op- 
inion scarcely less potent than these. I refer to the public 
press. If a man have but the rudiments of an education and 
will thoughtfully and habitually peruse the daily newspaper 
he may eventually attain a fair education and a comprehen- 
sive grasp of public affairs. The railway, telegraph and tel- 
ephone have stimulated intercourse and contributed immeas- 
urably toward the unification of society wherever they have 
been installed. The newspaper has been quick to utilize 
these important factors in collecting and distributing the news 
of the world for the benefit of the masses of civilized men. 
The growth of the newspaper industry is a fair gauge of the 
development of popular education, and the fact that there 
were but thirty-seven newspapers in the United States in 1775, 
while there are more than a dozen in Darke county today is 
significant of the wonderful change that has taken place in 
the short history of our country. As before noted the agri- 
cultural and general development of Darke county was com- 
paratively slow and gave little encouragement to the estab- 
lishment of enterprises having a promise of profit. 

The pioneers represented the average Americans of their 
class in those days when illiteracy was much more prevalent 
than it is today. Many families did not take any paper and 
the more prosperous ones subscribed for the papers published 
at Dayton. Piqua, Eaton and the older established towns. 

The Journal. 

However, a printer by the name of E. Donnellan, had the 
temerity to start a weekly sheet entitled the "Western States- 
man and Greenville Courier" on June 25, 1832. The sub- 
scription price was $2.00 per year if paid in advance, $2.50 if 
paid within the year, or $3.00 if payment was deferred. News 
items of general interest were extracted from such publica- 


tions as the Detroit Journal, New Hampshire Gazette, Na- 
tional Intelligencer and the Boston Patriot, while the local 
items and advertisements, no doubt, figured inconspicuously. 
This paper seems to have been continued under various 
names and proprietors and survives toda}- as the Journal. 

About March 1, 1844, Edward B. Taylor, whose biography 
appears elsewhere in this volume, took over this paper with a 
list of 150 subscribers. In April, 1850, J. G. Reece was as- 
sociated with Taylor. The latter retired for a while on June 
1, 1851. On April 29, 1852, M. B. Reece became a co-partner 
with J. G. Reece as editor and proprietor. Later the paper 
again passed into the hands of Taylor, who published it until 
early in 1860, when it passed into the hands of Messrs. E. W. 
Otwell and James Craig. The latter retired in 1869. In 1873 
this paper was enlarged from a seven column to a nine col- 
umn folio making it the largest paper published in the county 
at that time. In 1879 E. W. Otwell turned over the publica- 
tion to his son Curtis, who continues its publication at this 
time— over eighty years after its establishment. In 1846 the 
paper appeared under the title "The Greenville Patriot." was 
published every Wednesday at original subscription prices. 
It contained the announcement that countr}- produce would 
be received on subscription at cash prices. In the issue of 
June 10, 1846, the advertisements were set in nonpareil type 
with small headlines and were only one column in width. 
News from Europe then came to Greenville in from four to 
eight weeks late. Among the names attached to advertise- 
ments, legal and otherwise, were Wm. Wilson, R. R. Sher- 
wood, T. J. McDowell, D. R. Davis, Thos. Vantilburgh. W. 
J. Birely, S. S. Arnold. D. K. Swisher, David Beers. Jacob 
Wood, Chas. Morris, Taylor & Schlenker. John Hufnagle, 
Henry Drinkwater. Wm. Arnold, Leah Vananker, Da\-id 
Stamm, A. Scribner, J. Vanmater, H. Arnold, Sawyer & 
Davis, Aaron Fleming, I. N. Beedle, James Boyd, W. B. Beall. 
F. Waring, Elisha Dawes, Wm. C. Deerii, R. Gilpatrick, C. 
Jaqua, Sarah E. Osborn, Carey & Tomlinson, Wm. R. Crozier, 
L. R. Sample, B. Powell, R. Evans, J. B. Underwood. Haines 
& Monfort, M. L. Harter, M. Spayd, A. C. Brown, Wm. Van- 
tilburgh, L. A. LaMott & Co. 

In politics the Patriot strongly advocated the Whig poli- 
cies and struck a .strong patriotic note. In those days the 
AA'higs and the Democrats divided the vote of some three 
thousand nearly equally between them. ]\Iuch space was de- 


voted to the currency and slavery questions and a strong cur- 
rent of feeling was manifested in the columns. After the 
formation of the Republican party the Journal became a 
staunch party organ advocating the candidacy of Lincoln. It 
continued steadfast in the advocacy of Republican principles 
throughout the trying times of the Civil War and is today 
aligned with those principles. 

The Democrat. 

The Democrat is the second oldest newspaper in Darke 
county with practically a continuous history. The demand 
for a local paper advocating Democratic principles caused the 
launching of the '"Democratic Herald" in April, 1847. This 
paper was published by Mehaffey and Adams, and advocated 
popular sovereignty, state rights and a simple government. 
Mehai¥ey soon sold his interest to Wm. Allen, then county 
prosecuting attorney, who with Thomas Adams, both well 
known and highly esteemed Democrats, continued the paper 
under the title of "The Greenville Telegraph." Dr. J. L. 
Sorber bought out Adam's interest in June, 1851, and con- 
ducted the paper until the fall of 1852. when Rufus Putnam 
became the proprietor. The name was soon changed to 
"Mad Anthony," and it appeared as an independent news- 
paper edited and published by R. and J. H. Putnam, with an 
office ovev Beedle & Devor's tin shop. In the summer of 
1854, the press was removed to Union City to start a paper 
in the interest of the '"American Party." Nothing daunted 
a few active Democrats raised a small fund in the fall of 
1854, purchased a new press and type, and made Thomas 
Perry publisher of a new paper under the title of the "Green- 
ville Eagle." After a few months Perry became tired of the 
unpleasant treatment accorded him by the "Know-Nothings," 
who were quite active and persistent at that period, and the 
paper was again discontinued for a short time. In the spring 
of 1855 the "Darke County Democrat" was launched by A. G. 
Clark, of Hamilton, Ohio, who sold it in July, 1856, to Henry 
Muller. The office was then located over Weston & Ullery's 
hardware store on the southeast corner of Broadway and 
Third streets, and Muller continued to edit and publish the 
paper in a very satisfactory manner until March 20, 1851, 
when he was succeeded by J. B. Price and George D. Farrar. 

The political upheaval just prior to the Civil War threw 


Darke county from the Whig to the Democratic column and 

in 1857, the entire county ticket was elected, giving the party 
organ increased prestige, in the winter of 1863-64 the office 
was sacked by a party of soldiers at home on a furlough and 
the type was thrown into the street. The proprietorship of 
the paper changed twice in the next two years until in 1866, 
j\lr. Chas. Roland removed from Lancaster, Ohio, and took 
over the property. From that time until 1910 the Democrat 
was retained by the Roland family, being ably edited by 
Chas. Roland, Jr., and Edward until July 11, 1910, when the 
property was purchased by Martin B. Trainor, a prominent 
attorney and real estate man of Greenville, who is the able 
and progressive editor and publisher today. 

The Democrat prospered and became highly influential 
among the members of that party, being the sole official 
organ of said party, fearlessly, ably and entirely advocating 
its principles until the establishment of the "Advocate" in 
1883, since which time the patronage has been divided. Air. 
Roland pro\ed himself to be a trenchant writer and a suc- 
cessful proprietor, and the present editor and proprietor is 
establishing for himself a large reputation for virile editorials, 
broad news treatment, and aggressive policies. 

At first the Democrat appeared as a four page publication 
in blanket sheet size, but under the proprietorship of the 
Roland Bros, was changed to a paper of twelve pages 15x22 
inches in size. A daily eight page morning paper known 
as the "Morning News" was started by the Roland Brothers 
in 1908, and published in a very creditable manner, but proved 
unsuccessful from a financial standpoint and was discon- 
tinued Alay 25. 1910. The office was located in the Roland 
building- on the west side of Broadway between Third and 
Fourth streets from the time of its erection until March, 
1914, when it was moved to the new Trainor building on 
South Broadway, just north of Fifth street. Under its pres- 
ent management it promises to grow in power and influence 
and increase in prestige as the vears go bv. 

The Courier. 

The Courier was started May 22, 1875, by George W. Cal- 
derwood under the title of the "Greenville Sunday Courier." 
On December 10, 1876, the ownership was transferred to 
Calderwood and .Studabaker with A. R. Calderwood as edi- 


tor. Later it passed to the proprietorship of his son, John 
Calderwood, who publishes it at this time. Air. Calderwood, 
besides continually giving much space to the discussion of 
party measures and party principles, has published an ex- 
ceptionally large amount of local historical material, includ- 
ing probably two thousand columns of personal reminiscences 
and interesting letters from the "Darke County Boy," cop- 
ious extracts from which appear in this volume. Besides 
this, Mr. Calderwood has been a fearless and persistent ad- 
vocate of temperance and prohibitory legislation, following 
the motto of his paper — "Hew true to the line, let the chips 
fall where they may." Regardless of patronage he has con- 
tinued this policy throughout many years and has become 
a clear, strong and convincing writer on these topics. From 
1880 to 1883 the Courier was published in the new Wilson 
and Hart block on Broadway just south of Third street. 
For several j'ears it was located in the Huddle block on \\'est 
Fourth street, and is now in the \A^esrerfield building on 
.South Broadway. 

The Daily Tribune. 

The first daily newspaper started in Darke county was 
"The Greenville Daily Graphic," published in 1879 by Ed- 
ward Hamilton, now city editor of the Daily Advocate, and 
William Collins, late dramatic editor on the Sacramento 
Daily Bee. Shortly after the starting of this daily venture 
Mr. Collins moved with his father's family to Chico, Cal., 
and after some six months publication, the paper was discon- 
tinued. George W. Calderwood published a daily paper 
during the exciting times of the Roberson trial and execu- 
tion in the summer of 1880. This was a short lived venture 
as was also the "Daih^ Xews" published by \\'ni. Linn aljout 
1886, and the "Morning Sun" published by Dow Bell during 
the exciting school board contest of 1892. 

The Daily Tribune was started by Samuel R. Kemble in 
1890, and is the oldest daily having a continuous history 
since its establishment. Mr. Kemble came to Greenville 
from Arcanum, where he had published the Weekly Tribune 
since 1880 and opened up an ol^ce in the Huddle block where 
the Daily Tribune made its debut in 1890. Later he pur- 
chased a room on West Fourth street adjoining the Huddle 
block and established his office there where he issued the 
paper until 1913, when it was removed to its present loca- 


tion in the Thomas building on South Broadway. Mr. Kem- 
ble had had a varied experience in life as a soldier and a typo, 
having seen service in the Civil war as well as on the plains 
of the west, and having set type on some of the leading city 
papers of the country. When he returned to Greenville he 
was well qualified for his task and by industry, tenacity and 
shrewd financial management succeeded in establishing the 
first permanent daily paper. In 1892 he resumed the pub- 
lication of the Weekly Tribune, which has appeared regular- 
ly ever since, increasing in pretige and circulation. It now 
has eight pages 18x24 inches in size. 

Mr. Kemble was a clear, concise, able and forceful writer, 
and a keen newspaper man. He died on January 25, 1913, 
and the Tribune property passed into the hands of George 
Grosshans, an experienced newspaper man and estimable 
citizen. Mr. Grosshans is stanchly Republican, liberal in 
policy in the publication of news items, broad in sympathy, 
aggressive in public affairs and friendly to advance moral 
causes. The daily is published with from four to six pages, 
size 17x24 inches. The office is equipped with a linotype 
machine and a good rotary press. In June, 1914, as the result 
of foreclosure proceedings, the Tribune was restored to the 
Kemble heirs, who now publish it at the new office on South 

The Advocate. 

The Democratic Advocate was established by Wm. A. 
Browne, Sr., formerly of Covington, Ohio, and Wm. Linn, 
of Versailles, as a weekly Democratic paper in 1883, the first 
issue appearing on May 23, of that year. The county had 
been strongly Democratic since 1857, with majorities mostly 
varying from 1,200 to 1,500, but a faction Had arisen in 
the party on the question of the election of Chas. M. Ander- 
son to congress. The Democrat refused to favor the elec- 
tion of Mr. Anderson, and as he represented a strong follow- 
ing it was decided to establish a new paper with the result 
that the Advocate was started as above stated. From its 
appearance it became a formidable rival of the older paper 
and continued so to this day. Mr. Linn retired from the 
partnership in about two years, since which time the paper 
has continued in the Browne family. The Daily Advocate 
was started January 3, 1893. as a four page daily and soon 
grew in favor and prestige, proving the advantage of pub- 


lisliing a daily and weekly paper from the same office. It 
is especially noted for the large number of local news items, 
featured articles and aggressive policy on local questions. 
The office is one of the best equipped in Darke county, con- 
taining two modern linotype machines and a large duplex 
flat bed perfecting press with a capacity of 6,500 per hour. 
Each machine is run by an individual electric motor. The 
daily now has eight pages 18x24 inches in size, and the week- 
ly is of the same size. The latter appears each Thurs- 
day. Air. Browne has been associated with- newspapers 
since he was twelve 3'ears of age, and knows the 
business like a book. His sons, William and Walter 
E., have likewise had extended experience in the busi- 
ness, and are able assistants in editing and publishing 
both papers. The office was first located on the upper floor of 
the Alatchett room on the corner of Broadway and Third 
street. Later the paper was issued for several years from 
the Meeker building on East Third street near Walnut. In 
1909 Mr. Browne purchased the two-story brick room at 307 
Broadway in order to get proper accommodations for his 
large presses and increasing equipment and the papers are 
now issued from this excellent office. 

A German newspaper was established in Greenville about 
1886, under the title "The Deutsche Umschau," and contin- 
ued to be issued for some twenty years. It was published 
for some time by a Mr. Feichtinger and later by A. T. Knorr 
and Wm. Triebold. The paper contained eight pages size 
13x22 inches and was put forth in a creditable manner. On 
account of the rapidly decreasing number of citizens who 
read German only, the paper was finally discontinued and 
the office and equipment moved to Toledo, where there was 
a larger German constituency. 

Temperance Papers. 

Papers advocating the cause of temperance and prohibiti- 
tion have been published in the county at different times. 
Probably the first of these was the "Crystal Fountain," a 
semi-weekly publication of eight pages about 8x12 inches 
in size, started in JMay, 1857, by Joseph G. lones, at 50 cents 
per year, with the motto "Moral suasion for the drunkard — 
legal suasion for the drunkard maker." The "Sons of Tem- 
perance" flourished and great changes were effected in public 


sentiment on the drink question. The temperance move- 
ment of 1877, resulted in the enlistment of many new advo- 
cates for the cause, probably the most prominent of whom 
was George Calderwood, who, in the fall of 1879, started the 
"Daily Gazette" in behalf of the cause with beneficial eiifect 
on the following spring election. 

"The American Prohibitionist" was also issued for a few- 
months from Calderwood's office, but was later removed to 
Columbus, O. "The Transcript," a weekly paper advocating 
the principles of the Prohibition party, was established by 
Frank H. Jobes in February, 1891. It was published in the 
Jobes room, South Broadway. The paper was ably edited 
and neatly printed, but the limited field of circulation made 
the venture unprofitable and it was discontinued after two 

"The Ohio Populist," edited by W. B. Cline and P. J. Fish- 
back, was issued from this office for a while beginning in 
May, 1896. It championed the free coinage of silver and the 
Populistic propaganda of the Omaha platform. 

Newspapers Published Outside of Greenville. 

'"The Versailles Policy" — The oldest and largest weekly 
paper published in Darke county outside of Greenville is the 
Versailles Policy, which was founded in 1875 by Cook and 
Wade under the name of "Versailles Independent." Later 
its proprietors were Hathaway, then Bidlack and Linn, who 
changed the name to 'The Versailles Policy." About 1883 
Wm. Linn came to Greenville and entered into a partnership 
with \\'. A. Browne, Sr., to publish the new "Democratic 
Advocate." and the Policy passed into the hands of \\^ J. 
Swisher, who published it until August 1, 1889, when it came 
into the ownership of D. W. K. Martin, the present pub- 
lisher. At the time Mr. Martin became owner of the Policy it 
was a five column quarto, but under his ownership it has 
been enlarged from time to time to meet the requirements 
of a growing community so that now it is an eight page 
18x24 inch, seven column paper built on modern lines and 
having a large subscription list. In almost a quarter of a 
century ownership Mf. Martin has proved himself an excep- 
tionally good editor and proprietor, and his paper has proven a 
valuable factor in promoting the business, social and general 


interests of the thriving village of Versailles and vicinity as 
well as the interests of the Democratic party. 

"The Versailles Leader" was established in 1903 as an 
independent newspaper by Nathan F. Fahnestock. It is an 
eigth page 15x22 inch paper, and is published on Tuesday 
and Friday of each week at $1.00 per year. Mr. Fahnestock 
is a virile writer and aggressive publisher and his paper has 
attracted considerable attention and won praise from patrons 
who desire an independent and public spirited advocate. The 
fact that such a paper has been published for more than 
ten years in a strongly Democratic community indicates that 
the editor is aggressive, persevering and determined to serve 
the public needs. 

Arcanum has had the benefit of a local press for over thir- 
ty years. The Arcanum Visitor, an independent weekly, 
was printed about 1876 to 1878 by a man named Wasson and 
in 1880 Samuel R. Ivemble founded the Tribune which he 
published for nearly ten years. In 1888, the "Arcanum En- 
terprise" was launched and has been issued for over a quar- 
ter of a century. It is a staunch Democratic sheet and is 
owned and edited by C. R. Musson, an experienced newspa- 
per man. It contains eight pages 13x20 inches in size and is 
issued every Thursday for $1.00 per year. 

The .\rcanum Times is an independent eight page paper 
of standard size, and appears regularly on Thursdaj^ It was 
established in 1899 and is owned and edited by Smith and 

Like Arcanum, Ansonia has had a newspaper since 1880. 
About that time John S. Royer, a prominent educator and 
writer, founded the Ansonia Mirror. The ownership of this 
paper passed to Frank H. Jobes, who continued to publish 
it from September 1, 1884 to the end of 1890. It was a well 
edited and newsy sheet with high ethical ideals and was very 
acceptable to the people of Brown township and vicinity. 
This paper was discontinued, however, in 1891, when Mr. 
Jobes moved the plant to Greenville, where he established 
The Transcript, following which the "Ansonia Herald" ap- 
peared. This paper was published for a while by S. H. Light 
and Son, who sold it to Collett and Allbaugh. It then ap- 
peared for two or three years as "The Climax," but was fin- 
ally discontinued. In 1899 the Herald was re-established by 
the Lights, who continued to publish it for some ten years 
when it passed to the ownership of the Herald Printing 


Company, under the editorship of Hiltor R. Millett, whose 
biography appears in Vol. II. This sheet contains eight 
pages, size 16x22 and is published every Thursday as an 
independent newspaper at $1.00 per year, giving Ansonia the 
benefit of a progressive local press at a cheap price. 

The eastern section of the county is ably served with news 
twice a week, on Wednesday and Saturday, by the Bradford 
Morning Sentinel, an independent Republican paper of eight 
pages published by A. F. Little. This sheet was also found- 
ed in 1880 and has proved to be a force in Bradford and vi- 
cinity. It contains a large amount of local items and adver- 
tisements and is well edited. 

The New Madison Herald is an eight page independent 
paper published every Friday by O. G. Murray. It was es- 
tablished in 1894 by Smith and Davis, and was purchased in 
July 1895 by C. E. Wenger, who published it for some time. 
An examination of its columns reveals the fact that local 
enterprise and public spirit are valuable assets in a com- 
munity, doing much to build up its best interests. Several 
newspaper men were of prominence, notably John Hatha- 
way, for many years foreman of the composing room of the 

The Hollandsburg News was established in 1907. and is 
now entering on the eighth year of its history. It is a stand- 
ard size eight page weekly, and is published every Thurs- 
day at $1.00 per year by the Williams Company, under the 
editorship of Dale C. Williams. Harrison and Irelan were 
the former proprietors. This paper is served by the Western 
Newspaper Union and is a remarkable illustration of what 
grit and enterprise can do in a small town to promote its 
best interests. 

Besides these papers the Union City Eagle and Times, pub- 
lished just across the state line, have some circulation in the 
county, and help to foster that healthy local pride which 
tends to strengthen and build up a community. It is doubt- 
ful if any other county in Ohio of similar population and con- 
dition has as many local papers as Darke county. This indi- 
cates an intelligent and progressive citizenship and augurs 
well for the future of the county. 



The history of the development of banks and financial in- 
stitutions in the Nation, State and County is closely inter- 
woven with the history of social progress. Banks are indis- 
pensable to the merchant, manufacturer and farmer for the 
proper transaction of their business aiTairs, and building- 
associations are a great aid to the small depositor and home 
builder. The presence of well established institutions of this 
kind in a community is an almost infallible indication of sta- 
bility and prosperity. In spite of the present unpopularity 
of Wall Street and the excessive number of multi-million- 
aires, people have generally come to acknowledge that money 
and monetary establishments are essential to advanced civil- 
ization, and a financial education is deemed desirable by those 
who conduct even a small business. 

Farmers' National Bank. 

The scarcity of money in the early history of the State 
and county has already been noted, furs and farm produce 
being the local medium of exchange. Along in the "thii:ics 
and "forties" loans were made and notes discounted by pri- 
vate individuals, among whom John Hufnagle and H. W. 
Emerson were well known. The gradual but substantial de- 
velopment of the county and the steady growth of the coun- 
ty seat, however, soon called for regular banking facilities 
and in October, 1853, the Farmers' Bank was organized by J. 
W. Frizell and J. L. Winner, with a capita! of $30,000.00. 
This bank passed safely through all the financial disturb- 
ances just prior to the Civil War and was organized April 
3, 1863, into a national bank under the title of the Farmers' 
National Bank which it bears today. The first officers of this 
bank were Washington A. Weston, president, and John L. 
Winner, cashier. With these gentlemen, H. A\'. Emerson, 
G. W. Studabaker and J. W. Frizell were associated as direc- 
tors, assuring from the beginning a strong and reliable man- 
agement of the bank's affairs. Previous to this time Mr. 
Winner had been successivelv engaged in the hotel, drug and 


dry goods business and had served in the Ohio legislature ; 
Mr. Weston likewise had an extended business experience in 
Piqua, Covington and Dayton, had established the first hard- 
ware store in Greenville in 1848, and had served in the state 
legislature ; Mr. Emerson had been a brigadier-general of 
Ohio militia, a justice of the peace, and a promiennt broker; 
Mr. Frizell had been a school teacher, a lawyer and clerk of 
the Court of Common Pleas, while Mr. Studabaker had been 
a prosperous farmer and stock buyer. 

T. S. Waring succeeded J. L. Winner as cashier in 1873, 
when the latter purchased the Exchange Bank, an institution 
v/hich had been established by Frank Mc^^'hinney in 1869, 
and continued in business until 1880, when it was closed. 
James M. Lansdowne, who had served as cashier of the Ex- 
change Bank throughout its history, became cashier of the 
Farmers' National Bank in the fall of 1889 and served until 
his death in 1898. Geo. \\'. Sigafoos who was serving his 
second term as county auditor, resigned that position and be- 
came cashier January 31, 1901, and is still serving in that 
capacity. Howard S. Kolp is assistant cashier ; Conrad Kipp 
is president, H. Ed Hufnagle, vice-president, and D. W. Bow- 
man, S. Corwin Riegel and Joseph Menke members of the 
board of trustees. This bank is a member of the American and 
state banking associations, and is reported in the Bankers' 
Register in January, 1913. with a paid-up capital of $84,000.00 
surplus and undivided profits of $140,000.00, deposits $450,- 

This bank is located on the southwest corner of Broadway 
and the public square in a handsome stone faced building 
erected in 1882. and is doing a substantial business. 

Greenville National Bank. 

The Greenville National Bank is the successor of the Bank 
of Greenville, which was organized by Hufnagle, Allen & 
Co., February 22, 1876, with a capital stock of $200,000.00, 
the stockholders being held individually liable. The first 
officers were John Hufnagle, president; Judge \^'m. Allen, 
vice-president, and L. L. Bell, cashier. The directors were 
John Hufnagle, Judge James M. Meeker, John Devor and L. 
L. Bell. ]\Iessrs. Hufnagle. IMeeker and Bell were large own- 
ers of real estate in the county. Judge Allen was a promin- 
ent attorney and had served the Fourth District in Cono-ress 



during the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh terms, and John 
Devor was prominently connected with the Greenville Arti- 
ficial Gas Company. In 1885 this bank was re-organized 
under the state law as the Greenville Bank Company, and 
opened up for business on August 10th, with a capital of $31,- 
500 and over $100,000.00 of deposits. The officials elected at 
that time were ^^m. S. Turpen, president; R. B. Jamison, 
vice-president : Geo. H. Martz, cashier and F. T. Conkling, 
teller. E. ^Y. Otv^'ell and John C. Clark served as directors 
with Turpen, Jamison and Martz. Frank T. Conkling who 
had been with the bank since its organization in 1876, was 
made cashier in 1893, and served in this capacity until his 
death in the summer of 1913. In the thirty-seven years of 
his connection with this bank he made for himself a fine 
record as a financier with a reputation extending throughout 
the county. The Greenville Bank Company was made a Na- 
tional bank February 10, 1904. The Bankers' Register in 
January, 1913, gives it a paid-up capital of $100,000.00, sur- 
plus and undivided profits $179,000.00, deposits $400,000.00, 
loans and discounts, stocks, bonds and securities $580,000.00. 
Adelbert Martz, who had been with the bank for over twenty 
years, was made cashier to succeed F. T. Conkling. deceased, 
on July 4, 1913. The other officers now are: John H. Koes- 
ter, president; T. A. Lecklider. vice-president: Thcis. Leck- 
lider, Jr.. assistant cashier A. T. Marker, teller. 

The directors are: ^Y. A. Browne, Sr., J. H. Koester, T. A. 
Lecklider. H. A. Snorf, M. A. Maher, J. C. Elliott and W. E. 
Nelson. This bank has been located on the northwest corner 
of Broadway and Fourth street in Greenville, since its or- 

The Second National Bank. 

The Second National Bank of Greenville, Ohio, was organ- 
ized May 14, 1883, was granted its charter July 3, 1883, and 
opened for business on July 31, of that year. The first offic- 
ers were Wm. K. Kerlin. president: Robert A. ShufTIeton, 
cashier; David L. Meeker, John Devor, J. H. Martin, Henry 
St. Clair and Augustus F. Koop, directors. The financial 
standing and business qualifications of these men insured a 
success of the enterprise from the beginning. Mr. Kerlin had 
been a prosperous farmer and had served two terms as county 
treasurer; R. A. Shuffleton had been a successful hardware 
merchant and man of business ; D. L. Meeker had been a sue- 


cessful attorney, and had served two terms as probate judge; 
John H. Martin had served as county clerk and had had con- 
siderable business experience; Henry St. Clair had established 
the first wholesale grocery in Darke county, and was laying 
the foundation of the largest private fortune in the county ; 
and A. T. Koop had been for several years a prosperous hard- 
ware man, and was well and favorably known in the com- 
munit}'. He succeeded R. A. Shuffleton as cashier and served 
about ten years. 

This bank has continued to do a good business since its 
establishment and has a conservative reputation. It is a 
member of both the American and State Bankers" Associa- 
tions, and is rated in the Bankers' Register of January, 1913, 
as follows : Paid-up capital, $100,000.00, surplus and undi- 
vided profit $115,000.00; deposits, $300,000.00; loans and dis- 
counts, stocks, bonds and securities, $390,000.00. The pres- 
ent officers are Jas. A. Ries, president: D. W. Bowman, vice- 
president : S. A. Hostetter, cashier : Gales I.. Helm and W. 
B. Marshall, assistant cashiers ; Rolla ^^^ Culbertson, clerk. 
The directors are J. A. Ries. D. W. Bowman, S. A. Hostetter, 
W. B. Pickering, A. J. Landis, E. E. Ortlepp and E. Culbert- 
son. This bank is located on the east side of Broadway, two 
doors north of Fourth street. 

The Citizens' Bank. 

This is a private bank and was established January- 1, 1902, 
by Westerfield Bros., well known and prosperous wholesale 
merchants and Chas. Schreel, a man of considerable business 
ability, all men of well known integrity and financial respon- 
sibility. In its twelve years of business it has transacted 
considerable business and is rated by the Bankers' Register 
of 1913 as having a financial responsibility of $150,000.00. 
Its present ofiicers are Enoch W. Westerfield. president: 
Marion W. Westerfield, vice-president : S. O. \\'esterfield, 
cashier; Wm. H. Tillman, assistant cashier. It is located in 
the Westerfield building on South Broadway, opposite Mar- 
tin street. 

The increase of the towns in the county in size and the 
gradual expansion of business and financial transactions in 
recent years has called for the establishment of more banks 
at convenient points. In response to this demand, banks 
have been established in recent vears at Versailles, New Mad- 


ison, Arcanum, Ansonia, Gettysburg, Rossburg and Pitts- 
burg. According to the Bankers' Register of January, 1913. 
tliese banks were rated as follows : 


First National Bank. Established 1891. President, R. W. 
Douglas; vice-president, D. F. Douglas; cashier, C. B. Doug- 
las. Paid-up capital, $30,000. Surplus and undivided profits, 
$8,000. Deposits, $175,000. Loans and discounts, stocks, 
bonds and securities, $150,000. 

Peoples' Bank Company (State Bank). Established 1897. 
Member American and State Bankers' Associations. Presi- 
dent, L. C. Klipstine ; vice-president, Joseph Manier, Sr. ; 
cashier, E. C. IManier, and assistant cashier, A. F. Prakel. 
Paid-up capital, $40,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $10,- 
000. Deposits, $175,000. Loans and discounts, stocks, bonds 
and securities, $175,000. 

New Madison. 

Farmers' Banking Company (private). Established 1889. 
Member of American and State Banking Associations. Pres- 
ident, Richie ; vice-president, W. R. Hageman ; cashier, 

J. D. King ; assistant cashier, C. Hartman. Paid-up capital, 
$30,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $6,100. 


Citizens' Bank Company (state bank). Established 1903. 
Member State Bankers' Association. T. J. Hostetter, vice- 
president and assistant cashier ; F. S. Kiser, cashier. Paid- 
up capital, $25,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $5,000. 
Deposits, $74,000. Loans, discounts, stocks, bonds and se- 
curities, $66,000. 

First National Bank. Established 1908. Member of State 
Bankers' Association. President, E. E. ^^ance ; vice-presi- 
dent, J. W. Hufnagle; cashier, A. J. Comstock. Paid-up cap- 
ital, $25,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $1,500. De- 
posits, $105,000. Loans and discounts, stocks, bonds and se- 
curities, $101,000. 


First National Bank. Established 1893. ■Member of Am- 
erican and State Bankers' Associations. President, M. M. 
Smith; vice-president, H. J. Niswonger ; cashier, C. C- Tay- 
lor; assistant cashier, G. F. Riegle. Paid-up capital, $50,000. 
Surplus and undivided profits, $30,000. Deposits, $213,000. 


Cash and due from banks, $49,000. Loans and discounts, 
stocks, bonds and securities, $242,000. 

Farmers' National Bank. Established 1902. President, 
W. J. Dull ; vice-president, Ed Ammon ; cashier, O. O. Smith ; 
assistant cashier, L. L. Muller. Paid-up capital, $50,000. 
Surplus and undivided profits, $24,000. Deposits, $212,000. 
Cash and due from banks, $46,000. Loans and discounts, 
stocks, bonds and securities, $240,000. 


Citizens' National Bank. President, A. F. Myers ; cashier, 
F. P. Lehman ; assistant cashier, A. W. Fair. Paid-up capi- 
tal. $30,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $19,000. De- 
posits, $119,000. Cash and due from banks, $50,000. Loans 
and discounts, stocks, bonds, securities, $134,000. 


First National Bank. Established 1909. Member of State 
Bankers' Association. President, G. Reisley ; vice-president, 
C. O. Niswong-er ; cashier, G. S. Dennison ; assistant cashier, 
C. O. Niswonger. Paid-up capital, $25,000. Surplus and un- 
divided profits, $4,000. Deposits. $60,000. Cash and due 
from banks, $12,000. Loans and discounts, stocks, bonds and 
securities. $75,000. 


Farmers" Bank (State bank). Established 1904. Member 
of State Bankers' Association. President. Geo. N. Edger ; 
vice-president, E. H. Black ; cashier, H. H. Davis. Paid-up 
capital, $12,000. Surplus and undivided profits, $2,100. De- 
posits, $60,000. Loans and discounts, stocks, bonds and se- 
curities, $45,000. 

The Greenville Building Company. 

Building and Loan Associations are corporations sprung 
up among the people themselves, organized under state laws, 
run by the people and fur their sole benefit with the chief 
object of encouraging saving and homewinning. The first 
building and loan association was organized during the big 
building boom late in the "sixties." J. T. Martz and George 
Martz acted as secretary of this compan}' which later dis- 


The history of The Greenville Building Company dates 
back to the year 1883, when in May Messrs. William Schnaus, 
Christian Knoderer, C. M. Anderson, Jno. C. Turpen, Wil- 
liam H. Hart, William Thompson, L. F. Limbert, A. F. Koop, 
M. G. Wilson, J. K. Riffel and B. F. Weaver signed articles 
of incorporation, L. E.' Chenoweth acting as notary public, 
and Jno. H. Martin, clerk of the Common Pleas Court, cer- 
tifying to the latters' commission of authority. 

The board of directors organized June 15, 1883, by elect- 
ing Geo. W. Moore as president, L. F. Limbert, secretary 
and William Schnaus, treasurer. Mr. Geo. W. Moore, who 
as senator from this district, had taken a particular interest 
in legislation affecting building companies, was continuously 
elected president until 1900, when he was succeeded by Geo. 
W. Sigafoos, and he in turn by William Thompson, who 
served from 1902-03. In 1903 G. F. Schmermund was elected 
president of the board of directors and still serves in that ca- 

L. F. Limbert was re-elected secretary in June, 1884, and 
was succeeded in September of that year by P. H. Maher. J. 

B. Kolp was elected secretary in June, 1885, and served four 
years, being succeeded by Geo. A. Jobes, who acted as sec- 
retary for eleven consecutive years. The present secretary, 
Geo. A. Katzenberger, was elected to that position in June, 

The treasurer, V\^ilHam Schnaus, served two years and was 
succeeded by William Thompson, who served until 1889. 

C. C. Stoltz was elected treasurer in June, 1889, but resigned 
in December of the same year, James L. Lansdowne being 
chosen to fill the vacancy and serving until his death in Xo- 
vember, 1899. The present treasurer. Dr. A. J. Marling, was 
elected November 13, 1899. and continuously re-elected an- 
nually since that time. 

W. Y. Stubbs has acted as attorney for the association 
continuously since 1888, and John Rentz has served as vice- 
president since 1905. 

During the past fifteen years the companv has grown very 
rapidly, its assets increasing from about sixtv thousand dol- 
lars to $240,000. The contingent or surplus fund for possi- 
ble losses was $1,100 in 1900, and is now about $6,000. The 
company has always paid 6 per cent, dividends or more, and 
has had no losses on real estate for about fifteen vears, nor 
has it in that time been required to take in any real est?te 


under foreclosure proceedings. The company has aljout nine 
hundred depositors who are well pleased with the security 
of their savings and income off of their investment, and the 
150 people who have secured loans from the association find 
the board of directors fair and lenient in their treatment. 

The association is examined annuqlly by three citizens, 
and the state bureau sends official examiners to go over the 
books and verify the annual statement made by the secre- 
tary to the State of Ohio. Officers are under bond and di- 
rectors do such service without remuneration. This asso- 
ciation also issues certificates of deposit paying three per 
cent, interest from date of deposit. 

The present board of directors consists of G. F. Schmer- 
mund, John Rentz. Dr. A. J. Marling. W. Y. Stubbs. Geo. 
W. Sigafoos. Omer S. Broderick, Geo. G. J-Iildebrand. \V\\- 
Ham E. Halley and Geo. A. Katzenberger, and ail have the 
best interests of the cimpanv at heart. 

Citizens' Loan and Savings Association. 

The Citizens' Loan and Savings Association of Greenville 
was organized in 1898 by Frank Conklin, J- P- DufTey, P. H. 
Maher, J. C. Clark, Conrad Kipp and W. A. Browne, Sr. 
Thos. Alaher was the first secretary'. This association is not 
incorporated, but is managed by a board of men of large ex- 
perience in business, law and finance. 

Its offices were in the Roland building, corner Fourth and 
Broadway, for several years, but have been located for about 
a year in the new Krickenberger building. No. 112i \\'est 
Fourth street. The fiscal year begins the first Saturday in 
March and ends the last Saturday in February, and divi- 
dends are declared on stock of record the first Tuesday in 
IVIarch annually. Any amount is received on deposit at any 
time and shares in the earnings from date of deposit. 

This company has always paid 6 per cent, dividends which 
are allowed to accumulate and share in the profits. The 
following is a statement of the standing of the company at 
the close of business January 31, 1914: 



Cash on hand $ 145.96 

Pass book loans 5,587.54 

Mortgage loans (face) 149,703.03 

Insurance, taxes, etc., paid 270.00 

Accrued interest 3,000.00 


Depositors' shares $150,668.13 

Contingent fund 476.98 

Undivided profits 7.561.42 


When compared with the report of March 1, 1913, this 
statement shows a gain of $40,000.00. At present the affairs 
of the association are managed by the following well known 
citizens: P. H. Maher, president; Conrad Kipp, vice-presi- 
dent; O. R. Krickenberger, secretary and attorney: Adelbert 
Martz, treasurer. Board of managers, W. A. Browne, St., 
Conrad Kipp, P. H. Maher, James Boyer, O. R. Ivrickenber- 
ger, John B. Maher and Adelbert Martz. 

Other Associations. 

The Versailles Building and Loan Company, of Versailles, 
Ohio, was incorporated on the 13th day of December, A. D. 
1887, with a capital stock of $300,000.00, which was afterward, 
January the 2d, 1911, increased to $1,000,000.00. 

The names of the incorporators were : John W. Starbuck, 
Thos. Fahnestock, Wm. H. Rike, J. C. Turpen, J. G. Stierle, 
Felix Manier, E. G. Frankman. J. C. Williamson and I. M. 

The names of the officers at present are : Geo. H. Worch, 
president ; H. A. Frankman, vice-president ; Emery Zechar, 
treasurer ; A. Calderwood, secretary and attorney ; board of 
directors, Geo. H. Worch, H. A. Frankman, Con. Cashman, 
A. J. Reed, Nick Alexander, Leonard Marker and Joseph 
Manier, Jr. 

Financial statement at the close of business December 31, 



Cash on hand $ 11,885.31 

Loans on mortgages 216,714.20 

Furniture and fixtures 422.11 

Insurance and taxes due 300.35 

Bonds 3,000.00 

Deposits in other B. & L.'s 5,000.00 

Total $237,321.97 


Dues on running S $ 43,104.74 

Loan credits 21,295.75 

Paid-up stock and dividends 128,315.41 

Deposits and accrued interest 36,502.99 

Reserve fund 5,018.54 

Undivided profit fund 2.084.54 

Unfinished loans 1,000.00 

Total $237,321.97 

The Arcanum Building and Loan Association was incor- 
porated August 22, 1885, and its authorized capital is $200,- 

The officers are as follows : President, W". J. Edwards ; 
treasurer, E. B. Hawley ; secretary, G. T. Reigle and attorney, 
Kirk Hoffman. Its assets are about $15,000.00, and its rate 
of dividend 4 per cent. 

The New Madison Loan and Building Association was in- 
corporated April 5, 1895, and has an authorized capital of 
$200,000.00. W. R. Hagenian is president, J. D. King treas- 
urer, and Cora Hartman, secretary. 

Assets are about $20,000.00, and its rate of dividend 5 per 


O o 




From what has been said about the depth, composition and 
fertihty of the soil of Darke county, the abundance of small 
streams, the gently rolling uplands, the beautiful valleys and 
the prairies, and level expanses of alluvial formation, it might 
readily be surmised that this county was early destined to be 
in the forefront of all the counties of the state in the pro- 
duction of agricultural products. The large area of the coun- 
ty and the presence of a goodly number of farmers of German 
descent also contributed materially to the same result. 

Before the first half century of its history had passed such 
progress had been made in agriculture that popular sentiment 
clamored for an annual exhibition of the products of the farm 
at a properly appointed time and place for the instruction, 
encouragement and entertainment of the rural population. 
Accordingly, on November 16, 18.S2, some thirty residents 
of the county met at the court house and organized the first 
County Agricultural Society. I. N. Card was appointed the 
first president, Noah Arnold the secretary, and Alfred Kitchen 
the treasurer of this society. Within a year the society 
numbered 320 members. It seems that a few acres were 
rented on the southwest side of Greenville on the present site 
of Oakview suburb where the first fair was held on the 7th, 
and 8th of September, 1853. Temporary sheds, halls, stables 
and fences were built of wide poplar boards, which were re- 
moved and sold to the highest bidder after the fair was over. 
Extensive and liberal premiums for that time were oiTered 
and the grounds vere adequately appointed for the occasion, 
reflecting great credit upon the committee having this work 
in charge. The display of stock was especially notable at 
this first fair, although the progressive farmer of today might 
look with amusement upon the live stock exhibited by his for- 
bears at that time, and be bored with the performance of the 
"wonderful" trotter with a record of "two-forty." 

Fairs were held annually thereafter. The board of direc- 
tors dected in the fall of 1857 organized as follows : Moses 


Hart, president; j. \\'. Shively, vice-president; AI. Sap\-d, sec- 
retary; Joseph Bryson, treasurer; George Elston, Isaac Funk 
and Reuben Lowery, managers. 

A constitution and by-laws were framed and adopted, the 
purchase of a substantial set of record books authorized, and 
progressive measures taken by this board preparatory to a 
successful exhibition in the following fall. Special features 
were introduced, such as a "boys' riding match" and a fine 
display of militia in full uniform under command of Gen. 

The records for this fair show total receipts frfim all sources 
of $1,594.99; premiums paid, $384.75; balance in treasury 
January 3, 1859, $275.19. 

The annual election at the above fair resulted as follows: 
J. Townsend, president ; Dr. Jas. Rubey, vice-president ; M. 
Spayd, secretary ; Geo. .Studabaker, treasurer ; Geo. Keister, 
John Plessinger, John ^IcClure, Jas. Grimes and Jas. Anlett, 
managers. The conditions prevailing about this time are 
vividly portrayed by the "Darke County Boy" as follows : 

"I do not know anything about the Darke County Fair of 
late years, but in my young days 'Fair Week' was the big- 
gest event of the season. 

"No difference how hot, dusty, muddy, or cold, the people 
came from every direction. 

"Joe Hollihan, Joe Zimmerman and Sam N^gflf were the gate 
keepers. I believe Warren RatlifT was a gate keeper later 
on. By business was to sell boiled eggs. They generally 
cost me 8 cents a dozen, and I sold them two for 5 cents, with 
salt, pepper and crackers 'thrown in.' I simply coined money 
hand-over-fist. One day I made 60 cents clear of all ex- 
pense. Oh, but I was rich! I had money to burn, but I 
didn't burn it. One fair week I cleared enough to buy a fur 
cap, a pair of gloves and a pair of store pants. I couldn't 
wait for winter to wear my fur cap, but put it on in the fall, 
and strange to say, wore it all winter, just the same. 

"Sam Cable was there with watermelons fl mean at the 
fair), Frank Scribner had his spruce beer stand, Sam Musser 
had his grocery of cheese, dried beef, crackers and 'sich.' 
Andy McKann had a grocery and Bill Crandall had a eating 

"There was a 'nigger show' and a sideshow. Several bar- 
rels of cider were on 'tap.' There was a balloon ascension 
and Ann Piatt went up in it. She had a stage name: T have 



forgotten it, but it was Ann, just the same. If she isn't dead 
she must be nearly a hundred years old. 

"Charley Wakeman was in the sideshow. He was adver- 
tised as "Professor Blake, of London.' His principal acts 
were to drive pins into his leg and swallow a 22 inch sword. 
He put beans into his nostrils and ears and stuck them down 
the back of his neck, and drew them all out of his mouth. 
It was wonderful !" 

In 1859 the grounds were considerably enlarged and a 
premium list was prepared, published in pamphlet form and 
distributed, contributing materially to the success of the fair 
which was held on October 4, 5 and 6 of that year. The re- 
ceipts for tickets at this fair were $1,332.23 and the total re- 
ceipts, including the balance in the treasury from the last 
exhibition, $2,376.86. The balance on hand January 2, 1860, 
was $869.73. The success of this fair encouraged the expen- 
diture of a goodly sum for the improvement of the grounds 
for the next exhibition, but the high political excitement pre- 
vailing in the fall of 1860 interfered with the success of the 
fair and caused a deficit of about $200. The officers elected 
for the following year were H. B. Vail, president ; Levi Gra- 
ver, vice-president ; Noah Arnold, secretary ; Robert Drew, 
Jas. McCabe. Nicholas York, John Stoltz and George Shive- 
ly, managers. 

The fair of 1861 was held on October 2, 3, 4, 5, and although 
$450 had been borrowed to finance it the receipts were suffi- 
cient to defray the expense incurred and put the society on 
a good footing. The new board chosen after this fair was 
constituted as follows : Wm. Turpen, president : John Stoltz, 
vice-president ; J. E. Matchett, secretary ; J. F. Bertch, treas- 
urer, and J. Townsend, George Shively, A. R. Doty, C. C. 
Walker and David Thompson, managers. On account of the 
excitement prevailing during the progress of the Civil War 
and the absence of so many young men in the army no fair 
was held in 1862-1863 and 1864, but upon the cessation of hos- 
tilities interest and enthusiasm were revived in the summer 
of 1865 and a successful fair was held in the old grounds on 
the 28th, 29th and 30th of September. This had been made 
possible by a temporary loan of $1,000.00 from public spirited 
citizens and the results justified the wisdom of this proce- 
dure, as there was a large attendance at this fair and there 
was a net balance of over a hundred dollars after all expenses 
had been defraved. 


The annual fair continued to grow in popularity and in 1861 
the site which had been formerly rented was purchased from 
Dawes and Turpen for $2,000 and 48,000 feet of lumber or- 
dered bought for inclosing the grounds, thus putting the in- 
stitution on a more permanent and substantial footing. In 
1868 negotiations were made for the leasing of five additional 
acres adjoining the south side of the original ground from 
Isaac Rush. In 1870 it was agreed to charge an entry fee 
of ten per cent, on all premiums of five dollars and over to 
be collected when the entries were made, and the price of 
family tickets was fixed at $1.00 each, single day tickets 
25 cents with an additional daily charge of 20 cents 
for wagons of 50 cents for the entire fair. During the 
summer a substantial picket fence and several buildings were 
erected and preparation made for a big fair. These improve- 
ments with enlarged entries of fine stock and agricultu -al 
implements conspired with the unusually fine weather to at- 
tract a large crowd of visitors from near and far — the number 
of attendants on the third day being estimated at 7,500 peo- 
ple. Following this fair Geo. D. Miller was elected presi- 
dent ; Geo. W. Brawley, vice-president, and Jas. Hopper, John 
M. Hall, Amos Hahn and George Elston, managers. 

The fair held early in October. 1871, seems even to have 
eclipsed that of the former fall with an estimated attendance 
of from eight to ten thousand people on the second day. H. 
Mills was chosen president, A. H. Van Dyke, vice-president 
and J. D. Miller. J. T. :\Iartz. Jas. McCable and X. Arnold, 
managers, to prepare for the next fair. 

The steady development of Darke county, the increase in 
population, the growing popularity of the annual fair and the 
general substantial character of the men chosen to manage 
the business of the fairs assured an increasing 3-earlv attend- 
ance and necessitated the purchase of larger grounds. Ac- 
cordingU', early in 1873 the fair board was authorized by the 
county commissioner? to sell the grounds and purchase a 
larger tract. As a result of this action the original grounds 
of some seventeen acres were soon sold to J. \V. Sater and on 
June 7, 1873, a new site, comprising forty acres lying just 
south of "Huntertown," and between the old Eaton and Jef- 
ferson pikes, was ptirchased from Cornelius O'Brien and J. 
T. Martz for five thousand dollars. Considerable expense 
was incurred in fencing and improving this newly ourchasefl 
site, but the enterprise of the board met a hearty response 


from the people, who turned out in goudly numbers during 
the five days of the fair. 

In 1874 the fair was held during the first days of Septem- 
ber and was characterized by an unusual number of entries, 
a fine speed program including several noted horses from 
other places, a ladies' equestrian performance and an un- 
successful attempt to make a balloon ascension. The esti- 
mated attendance on the third day was twelve thousand. 

In 1875 John Townsend was president ; Thos. McCowen 
vice-president; ]\Iichael Noggle, J. C. Turpen, I. N. Shively 
and A. F. Koop, managers. J. T. ]\Iartz continued as secre- 
tary, and A. F. Koop was chosen treasurer. The fair was 
held somewhat later than in 1874, the weather was chilly 
on the opening day, but became milder by the third daj'. 
Two successful balloon ascensions were made during the 
fair and the public wagers of money on the horse races called 
forth the disapproval of the masses in attendance as a scan- 
dal previously unknown. 

In 1876, G. W. Studebaker, Sr., J. N. Lowery, E. Lecklider 
and N. M. Wilson became the new managers and J. C. Turpen 
was chosen secretary. Successful fairs were held in 1876, 
1877 and 1878 under practically the same management. In 
1879 S. Rynearson was chosen a new manager and Wm. Sul- 
livan appointed secretary. Heretofore, it seems, the race 
track had been but a fourth of a mile in length, but was at 
this time enlarged to one-half a mile and numerous other im- 
provements were made. Governor Bishop spoke on the third 
day of the fair, September 18, and drew a large crowd. The 
receipts of this fair were nearly $5,700.00. 

Since 1880 the following persons have served as president 
of the board : Thos. McCown, John Townsend, H. C. Cob- 
lentz, W.C. Elston, J. P. Meeker. J. M. Brown, L. N. Reed 
and M. L. Weisenberger, all men of unusual abilit}' and rep- 
resentative of the large class of successful farmers who have 
placed Darke county in the front line as an agricultural sec- 

The following well known, capable and experienced farm- 
ers, professional and business men have acted in the im- 
portant capacity as secretary of the board since 1880: Wm. 
Sullivan, Jasper N. Lowery, J. E. Matchett, John C. Turpen, 
John P. Lucas, T. C. Maher, F. M. Eidson, O. E. Harrison, 
J. A. Tillman, J. M. Hal! and Frank Plessinger. 

Among the names of those who have ser\'ed on the board 


during this period we note some of the most progressive and 
prosperous farmers of the county. 

Since the purchase of the present grounds in 1873 vast im- 
provements have been made from time to time to accommo- 
date the increasing crowds and cater to the convenience of 
attendants. It has been the policy of the board to make these 
improvements as fast as financial conditions allowed. As a 
result we note today the following substantial and commo- 
dious buildings on the ground: Besides the large string of 
stables and pens, a gate keeper's residence, a Floral and Art 
Hall, a Fruit Hall, a Dining Hall, Officers' Quarters, a Me- 
morial Hall (erected in 1902 by Frank McWhinney as a place 
of rest and convenience for women and children), separate 
buildings for poultry, sheep, hogs and cattle and an immense 
steel and concrete frame amphitheater, size about 240 by 63 
feet erected in 1910, at a cost of over $26,000.00, and having 
a seating capacity of some 3,000. Through the co-operation 
of the Greenville Driving Club, the track has recently been 
reconstructed and improved, making it one of the fine courses 
of the state. 

Two tracts have recently been purchased, one in 1908, the 
other in 1914, and added to the northern side of the grounds, 
making the present extent of the grounds 53 67-100 acres, 
with an estimated propertv valuation of $62,000.00. 

The "Premium List" of 1913 includes the following com- 
prehensive divisions : 

Class A. Horses. Comprising the following breeds: 
Standards, Roadsters, General Purpose, Coach, Clydesdale, 
Percherons, Belgians, Grade Draft. Saddle Horses, Matched 
Horses, Farm Teams, Ponies. Mules. 

Class B. Cattle. Including Shorthorns, Herefords, Polled 
Durhams, Aberdeen Angus, Galloway, Jerseys, Red Polled, 
Holsteins. Guernsey and Ayrshires. 

Class C. Sheep. Including Shropshires, Southdowns, Ox- 
forddowns, Hampshiredowns, Catswolds, Lincolns, Dorset, 
Cheviot, Delaines, Rambouillet and Merinos. 

Class D. Swine. Including Poland Chinas, Berkshires, 
Chester Whites, Duroc Jerseys, Hampshires and other breeds. 

Class E. Poultry. Including 20 classes as follows: Amer- 
icans, Asiatics, English, Mediterranean, Polish, Hamburgs, 
French, Games, Oriental Games, Game Bantams, Oriental 
Bantams, Miscellaneous, Turkeys. Ducks, Geese, Pigeons, 



Pet Stock, Guineas, Breeding Pens and Pen Show Games and 

Class F. Farm Implements. 

Class G. Grain and Seeds. Confined to Darke county. 

Class H. Farm and Garden. Including well known vege- 
tables and garden truck. 

Class I. Fruits. Including Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, 
Grapes and Quinces. 

Class J. Canned Goods. Including Fruits and Vege- 
tables, Preserves, Jellies, Jams, Fruit Butters, Pickles, Dried 
Fruits and Vegetables. 

Class K. Culinary and Dairy. 

Class L. Domestic Manufacture. Including Household 
Fabrics, Knitting. Crochet, Needlework, Embroidery, Drawn- 
work, Silk Embroidery, Laces, Decorative Art Work, Py- 
rography, Basketry, Wood Carving, Arts and Crafts, Jew- 
elry, Tooled Leather, Stenciling, etc. 

Class M. Painting and Drawing. Including Oil Paint- 
ing, Tapestry, Water Colors, Crayons, Ink and Pencil, China 
and Porcelain. 

Class N. Cut Flowers and Plants. 

In recent years extensive educational exhibits have been 
made for the encouragement of the schools of the county, 
which in 1913 showed the following enumeration: 18 city 
and village schools, 49 specials, and 134 township and sub- 
district schools with a total enrollment of about 10,000 pupils. 
The exhibits are included in two departments, viz. : Arts and 
Agriculture. The former comprises four classes covering the 
various high, grade and elementarj' public schools of the 
county. Premiums are offered in these departments on the 
best papers, drawings, displays, maps, penmanship, manual 
arts work, etc., produced by the pupils. The Department of 
Ajgriculture was recently established with an aim of inter- 
esting young men and women in the study and improvement 
of various breeds of domesticated animals ; the culture of 
grain and vegetables and the judging of the same; also the 
ability to prepare food properly after judicious selection; the 
ability to design different articles of wearing apparel and 
sew, fit and embroider the same. Two htmdred dollars 
($200.00) was set apart for premiums in this department, 
which marks a new, extremely practical and much needed 
addition to the work of the board. 

The year 1913 was one of the most prosperous in the his- 


tory of the fair, the gate receipts being $10,261.00, the grand- 
stand admissions $1,701.10, booth rents and privilege per- 
mits $4,074.92, and the total receipts from all sources in- 
cluding per capita allowance, tax levy, cash in treasury at 
beginning of year, amount borrowed, etc., $22,783.38. The 
receipts indicated that the attendance on the principal days 
was the largest in the history of the fair. 

The Darke county fair has certainly been well managed in 
most respects for many years and stands near the top of all 
the county fairs in the state of Ohio. However, certain 
forces are in operation here as in county fairs generally which 
call for the serious consideration of right minded people. Per- 
haps it would be unfair to hold the board responsible for all 
irregularities that are practiced about the grounds during 
the crowded, busy days of the fair week. 

In the year 1912, Paul L. Vogt, Ph.D., Pro'essor of Sociol- 
ogy of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, made a rural survey 
of Darke, Montgomery, Preble and Butler counties, which 
brought out much interesting information. In commenting 
upon the conditions prevailing at the county fairs he made 
these thought stirring remarks: "At the last county fair in 
Butler county there were excellent exhibits from the experi- 
ment station, and from the farms in the different parts of 
the county ; but in addition to these were to be found the 
side shows and amusements whose presence at a county fair 
may be seriously questioned. Farmers and their wives see- 
ing the preliminary exhibits of these shows turned aside in 
disgust and did not patronize them. They were an insult 
to their dignity and to their ideals of morality. These relics 
of a ruder age should be omitted from the schedule of a mod- 
ern gathering, and the farmers, for whom the fair is pri- 
marily intended, should see to it that their desires in matters 
of this kind be respected. The cheap, questionable show is a 
side issue and detracts from true progress in fair exhibits." 

"The same thing may be said of racing, as it is conducted 
at the fairs at the present time. Racing is on a professional 
basis and is carried on among horsemen who transport their 
horses from county to county to take part in the races for the 
.<;ake of winning the large prize offered. The races have 
little direct relation to stock improvement, and in too many 
cases must be classed with the saloon, the gambling den and 
the dive in their moral influence."" These are strong words 
but seem to be justified as the State Agricultural Commission 


has recently sent out a sweeping order to the eft'ect that any 
county fair in the state which hereafter tolerates gambling 
or the sale of liquor will forfeit the per capita award of 
$800.00 granted by the state and the right to receive a maxi- 
mum of $1,500.00 from the county. In an announcement 
the commission says: "This order applies to intoxicating 
liquor of any kind and to pooling or individual gambling on 
horse racing, to cane ring, throwing contests and all other 
games into which the gambling element enters. 

"The principal object of county fairs — to encourage agri- 
culture pursuit and to dissiminate knowledge along that line 
is almost forgotten today, and cheap amusements of a de- 
nioralizing character seem to predominate. We propose to 
restore county fairs to their original sphere as educational 

To what extent the conditions above set forth prevail at 
the Darke county fair the writer does not state. The con- 
clusions reached are certainly correct and the purpose of the 
commission is worthy of hearty approval and should appeal 
forcibly to the fair boards throughout Ohio. The fair, like 
any other public institution, deserves the patronage of the 
great middle class only so long as it endeavors to carry out 
the conmiendable purposes of its organization. It should es- 
tablish high standards and elevate the moral and intellectual 
tone of the community. If it does not continue to do these 
things it will decline rapidly in patronage and influence, and 
its doom will be sealed. The writer is inclined to think that 
the moral tone of the Darke county fair is healthier than it 
was a few years since and looks for a re-adjustment to meet 
the demands of the more thoughtful class of patrons who de- 
sire to see it conducted along progressive moral lines. 

On account of the intense and sustained interest manifested 
by the general populace of the county as well as bv former 
residents, it is impossible to estimate the influence of the an- 
nual county fair. By studying and judiciously meeting the 
wants of the rural population the boards have thus far been 
able to keep up the interest of the people. Whether the an- 
nual fair has passed its meridian and is now on the wane or 
is really a permanent institution, remains to be seen. There 
is probabh^ not another county fair in Ohio equal to ours in 
legitimate attractions and proportionate attendance. In or- 
der to increase the usefulness of the grounds some satisfac- 
tory arrangement mi^ht be made with the citizens of Green- 


ville whereby the grounds would be kept open during the 
entire summer season as a park, thereby multiplying" the 
value of the grounds as a place of legitimate recreation many 
fold. The fair ground would also make almost an idei&l 
Chautauqua site for the use of the people of the entire county. 

The substantial character of the present membership of 
the board lends encouragement to the hope that they will 
respond to the quickened and enlightened public sentiment 
in these matters, and thus insure a still greater financial suc- 
cess and truer social service than ever attained heretofore. 

The present membership of the board is as follows : M. L. 
Weisenberger, president ; L. M. Reed, vice-president ; Frank 
Plessinger, secretary; Ed Ammon, treasurer; Norman Tea- 
ford, George Worch, J. E. Folkerth. Albert Harter, J. H. 
Dunham, T. C. Maher. 


Jobes Post No. 157 Grand Army of the Republic. 

Jobes Post G. A. R. was formally organized November 7, 
1881, to succeed the Greenville Memorial Association, which, 
it seems, had previously looked after the marking of de- 
ceased soldiers' graves and transacted business pertaining to 
the welfare of the veterans of the Civil War. On the even- 
ing above mentioned twenty-two soldiers who had served in 
the late conflict, assembled in the city hall, Greenville, O., 
and were mustered in by Col. Brown, of Toledo, O., as char- 
ter members: Frank Devor, S. C. Wolf, John Goloener, A. 
C. Harter, Jeremiah Jamison, Harvey House, J. H. Ries, J. 
L. Bascom, John O'Conner, D. D. Hunter, J. Tip King, 
George Gent, L. G. Dills, J. C. Craig, Daniel Murphy, W. 
C. Weaver, A. J. Arnold, H. N. Arnold, Jas. Gerard. Wm. 
Dean, I. G. Hiller and Martin Rentzler. At this meeting 
John O'Conner was elected post commander and J. T. King, 

This post was named for Allen T. Jobes, a color-bearer of 
the 69th Regiment, who was shot while bearing the stars 
and stripes at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864. 

The first post room was fitted up in Arnold's hall on 
Broadway, near Third street, and meetings were held here 
until 1895 when Frank McWhinney, a comrade and well 
known citizen, tendered the use of the second floor of his 
brick business room on West Fifth street for the use of the 
post without charge as long as enough members are left 
to form a quorum. This new room was appropriately fur- 
nished and decorated and was formally dedicated on Monda^^ 
April 14, 1894, the twenty-ninth anniversary of the surrender 
of Lee at Appomattox. The dedicatory services were held 
in the Christian Tabernacle just across the street, at which 
appropriate addresses were made by Hon. C. M. Anderson, 
T. C. Miller and Rev. J. P. McLean, of the Universalist 
church in behalf of the G. A. R. ; by W. Y. Stubbs and F. H. 


Jobes on behalf of Brandon Camp, Sons of Veterans, and by 
Mollie V. Foster on behalf of the Womans' Relief Corps. 
For nearly twenty years weekly camp-fires have been kindled 
in this commodious and convenient hall. Numerous recruits 
have been mustered in from time to time, but the ranks of 
the veterans have been greatly decimated by the Grim Reap- 
er during this period. Notwithstanding these losses the 
Post has continued active and still has about one hundred 
members enrolled. 

Other Posts were organized in the county, at Versailles, 
Arcanum, Ansonia, Palestine, but most of these have been 
practically discontinued for some time. 

The following members have served as commander of 
Jobes Post since its organization : John O'Conner, John 
Ries, A. C. Harter, Thomas Lines. A. H. Brandon, S. M. Guy, 
Isaac G. Hiller, S. W. Bishop, John Barnell, Wm. Dean, W. 
J. Martin. W. L. Reece, I. N. Smith, Henry Livingston, J. S. 
^^''alker, C. W. Rarrick. F. R. Gaskill, Adam Horine, Jason 
Penny, B. F. Wenger, J. C. Elliott, W. A. Hopkins, j. W. 
Larimer and Peter Dickey. 

The ofRcers elected for 1914 are: Commander. Peter 
Dickey ; senior vice, Joseph A^^alker ; junior vice. B. F. Wen- 
ger : Sargeant. Dr. Rarick ; chaplain, L N. Smith: officer of 
the day, Mr. Bidwell : guard, J. W. Larimer; janitor, G. W. 
Halley: trustee, Samuel Harnish. 

Enrollment of Members of Jobes Post, No. 157, Department 

of Ohio, G. A. R., Since Organization November 7, 

1881, to December 31, 1913. 

No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

17 Arnold, A. J., Co. D. 152, O. V. L 12- 7-1900 

18 Arnold, PL Newton. Co. H, 94. O. V. I 

27 Anderson, Charles M., Co. B, 71, O. V. I 12-28-1908 

129 Alspaugh, Henry. Co. G. 44, O. V. L 12-26-1896 

248 Allen, Joseph F., Co. E, 3, O. V. L 11-24-1898 

265 Adams, James B., Co. G. 183, O. V. I * 

346 Albright, Henderson, Co. A, 152, O. V. I 10-27-1908 

347 Albright, Philip S., Co. B, 110, O. V. I 3-20-1908 

y?S Albright, Wm. K.. Co. K, 78, O. V. L 

443 Atkinson, Henry, Co. C. 49, Ky. V. I 

479 Allen, Lawson, Co. L 131, O. V. L 

488 Albright, Johnson, Co. A, 152, O. V. L 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

498 Ammon, Edward, Co. B, 8, O. V. I. 

8 Bascom, Linus J., Co. H, 1, Mo. Art 6-26-1914 

23 Brandon, A. H., Co. B, 71, O. V. I 10-28-1902 

24 Bennett, J. L., 6, Wis. Lt. Art 

26 Beers, Theodore, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 1-15-1894 

77 Beers, Joseph, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 1- 8-1888 

79 Balser, Henry, Co. H, 152, O. V. I 

80 Bowman, Jonathan, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 5-20-1896 

81 Brown, Jesse P., Co. H, 48, O. V. I. 

117 Bishop. Samuel W., Co. G, 44, O. V. I 4-28-1911 

122 Barnell, John, Co. A, 178, O. V. I. 5-25-1893 

133 Brown, Ahiijah, Co. G, 110. O. V. I. 

142 Bell. William H., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 

160 Berger, Charles W., Co. F, 60, O. V. I 

178 Boomershine, Eli H., Co. F, 152, O. V. I. 1-30-1904 

181 Brooks, John, Co. I, 94, O. V. I. 12-2-1893 

191 Bell, John J., Co. E, 16, Ind. V. I 5- 5-1908 

193 Brown, Joseph, Co. F, 37, Ky. M. I. 

202 Bliss, Nathaniel, Co. B, 110, O. V. I. * 

212 Beanblossom, Enos, Co. E, 45, O. V. I. * 

225 Bunger, Andrew E., Co. B, 156, O. V. I. 

247 Beck, Cas. A., Chap. 26, Pa. V. I. 10-26-1895 

287 Baird, Andrew, Co. B. 146, O. V. I. 

294 Butt, John, Co. B, 152, O. V. I. 

295 Brown, Benjamin, Co. G, 40, O. V. I. 8- 9-1892 

299 Burtch, J. F.. Co. H, 152, O. V. I 

300 Bryson, Joseph, Co. D, 152, O. V. I. 2-19-1909 

306 Brown, Alexander, Co. B, 152, O. V. I. 4- 6-1893 

316 Barks, Samuel, Co. H, 1st Mo. Cav. * 

333 Boltin, Morrison, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 

348 Earnhardt, Lorenzo D., Co, B, 110, O. V. L -_ 3- 3-1913 

352 Boreman, Henry, Co. K, 106, O. V. I. 9- 4-1896 

363 Beers, Thomas, Co. D, 69, O. V. L 1-13-1909 

366 Burns, John C, Co. I, 152, O. V. I. 

370 Bender, Elias, Co. B, 110, O. V. I. 7-26-1909 

373 Burkholder, Hiram, Co. F, 100. Ind. V. L 

375 Broderick. James W., Co. C, 44, O. V. L 1-31-1900 

416 Biddle, William, Co. L 94, O. V. L * 

424 Beireis, George, Co. E, 5, O. V. I. 

436 Breaden, Andrew, Co. C. 114, O. V. L 10- 1-1908 

456 Brock, William P., Co. B, 110, O. V. L 

461 Briney, Adam, Co. B, 110, O. V. I. 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

466 Baumgartner, J. B., Co. C, 44, O. V. I. 12-14-1905 

468 Bidwell, Abraham, Co. M, 8, O. V. Cav. 

483 Bloom, Thomas J., Co. E, 87, O. V. I 

486 Beam, Daniel C, Co. G, 152, O. V. I — _ 

496 Brock, Allen, Co. A, 152, O. V. I. 

506 Bechtolt, Joseph, Co. G, 152, O. V. I. and Co. 

A. 39, O. V. I 

511 Baum, Christopher, Co. I, 152, O. V. I. 

14 Craig, J. C, Co. D, 152, O. V. I 

52 Crawford, James M., Co. H, 83, O. V. I. * 

60 Cunningham, Levi R., Co. G, 40, O. V. I. 

70 Cochran, A. M., Co. G, 48, O. V. I. 4-20-1904 

76 Cole, Henry M., Co. G, 152, O. V. I. 2-16-1909 

90 Collett, Henry, Co. I, 40, O. V. I. 

96 Carr, James M., Co. E, 69, O. V. I. 11 — 1909 

105 Cain, Albert, Co. B, 38, O. V. I * 

106 Calderwood, Andrew R.. Co. I, 40, O. V. I. __ 6- 7-1891 

132 Cordell, Edward M., Co. F, 34, O. V. I 

159 Cromer, P. R., Co. I, 94, O. V. I 2-13-1913 

175 Chenoweth, Joel T., Co. E, 69, O. V. I :— 

176 Coppick, Henry H., Co. G, 193, O. V. I 

186 Crick, Simeon E., Co. E, 69, O. V. I. * 

199 Chenoweth, Levi E., Co. L 69, O. V. L 

238 Caldwell, James E., Co. K. 184, O. V. L 

251 Couk, John, Co. B, 152. O. V. L 

263 Clark, J. S., Co, C, 187, O, V. I 

307 Cochran, Samuel H.. Co. G, 44. O, V, I * 

309 Cordell. L H., Co. A, 1st O. H. Art 9-10-1895 

330 Carter, William, Co. K, 94, O. V. I. 7- 1-1913 

396 Crick, John T., Co. C, 33, O. V. I * 

413 Calderwood, John R., Co, L 152, O. V. I. 

414 Cavanaugh, Patrick, Co. A, 82, O. V. L * 

449 Coombs, Wm. T., Co. E, 44, O. V, I 

458 Condon, John, Co. A, 152, O. V. L 9-27-1911 

472 Corya, Wm. T., Co. D, 44, Ind. V. L 

1 Devor, Frank, Co. H, 34, O. V. I. 

13 Dills, L. G., Co. B, 32, O, V. L 

20 Dean, William, Co, H, 115, O. V. L 

49 Deardourff, John W., Co. C, 50, O. V. I. 9-29-1913 

50 Deardourff, David, Co, C, 50, O. V. T. 4-23-1909 

118 Deerwachter, John P., Co. C, 14, 111. V. I 

146 Deitz, John, Co. D, 82, O. V. L 6-22-1891 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

151 Dmikle, Simon P., Co. H, 131, O. V. I. 

153 Deitz, Fred, Co. D, 82, O. V. I. * 

155 Dill, John W., Co. D., 93, O. V. I * 

165 Deeter, Daniel T., Co. A, 8, O. V. Cav. 

167 Dalrymple, C. L., Co. G, 121, O. V. I * 

187 Deeter, Josiah B., Co. C, 23, O. V. I. 

190 Dunker, Wm. H., Co. I, 125, O. V. I 

208 Dowler, T. T., Co. B, 156. O. V. I. 3-18-1898 

249 Dye, Smith," Co. F, 94, O. V. I 9-29-1913 

270 Dean, James, Co. I, 94, O. V. I. 5-19-1903 

281 Denise, Obadiah, Co. F, 94, O. V. I 10- 2-1911 

284 DuBoise. Nathan L., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 

290 Denise. Aaron, Co. G, 40, O. V. I. 

317 Dangler, Leonard. Co. G, 152, O. V. I * 

397 Dickey. Peter, Co. C, 51. O. V. I. 

405 Davis^ A. J.. Co. B, 89, Ind. V. I 2-10-1902 

431 Deifenbaugh, Daniel, Co. B, 35. O. V. I. 

488 Deetrick, Abraham, Co. I, 7. W. Va. V. I. — 

42 Eidson, Frank M., Co. K, 11, O. V. I. 12- 6-1900 

82 Erisman, Daniel, Co. G, 44, O. V. I. 

135 Edsall. Milton P., Co. G, 44, O. V. I. 

184 Eubanks, Aaron, Co. D, 34, O. V. I. 

230 Espy. Wm. P., Co. B, 152, O. V. I. 4-21-1903 

236 Elliott. James C. Co. A, 156, O. V. I. 

388 Eicholtz. Matthais, Co. L, 8, O. V. Cav. 4-29-1904 

455 Etter, Levi, Co. E, 48, O. V. L 

464 Edington, G. W., Co. L 152, O. V. L 4-13-1912 

493 Eichelberger. Joseph, Co. K, 34, O. V. L 

28 Fryberger, John. Co. C, 187, O. V. I * 

66 Froebe^ Philip. Co. D, 58. O. V. I. — 

87 Fleming, Henry D., Co. K, 34. O. V. L 1-23-1900 

161 Ford, Royston, Co. L 152. O. V. L 1- 1-1913 

222 Fox, Henry, Co. E, 24, O. V. L 

257 Foster, John S., Independent Co.. 4. O. V. Cav. * 

273 Firestine, Henry, 8, O. Battery. 6-28-1906 

282 Frank, Daniel. Co. F, 69, O. v' L 

292 Fryer, Clark, Co. H, 152, O. V. L * 

301 Fulkerth, Jacob, Co. G, 44, O. V. L * 

329 Farra. John. Co. G, 8th Ind. V. I. 4-19-1893 

364 Fry, John, Co. G, 8th, O. V. Cav. 4-23-1895 

432 Fleming. A. B.. Co. F, 18, O. V. I. 1-23-1900 

3 Goleanor. Tohn. Co. H, 23. O. V. L * 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

12 Gent, George, Co. F, 27, 111. V. I. 

19 Girard, James, Co. G, 10, Ind. V. I. 4-25-1910 

32 Gaskill, "Frank R., Co. B, 7, O. V. I. 4-13-1905 

55 Gruver, John A., Co. C, 13, O. V. I. 

101 Guy, Samuel M., Co. F, 94, O. V. I. 

116 Goetz, Wm. W., Co. A, 77. Pa. V. I. 

119 Carver, L. C, Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 2-17-1899 

211 Gorsuch, Wesley. Co. I, 94, O. V. I 7-19-1908 

242 Gilert, Henry, Co. C, 152. O. V. I. 7- 6-1909 

275 Goetz, Joseph, 8th O. V. Cav. 

293 Garbig," George, Co. A, 8th O. V. Cav. 

308 Gorsuch, Jonathan, Co. H, 34, O. V. I. 

325 Gauvey, G. B., Co. I, 63, O. V. I 

425 Greenwalt, Wesley, Co. F. 94, O. V. I. 2-19-1909 

458 Gottschall, Jacob, Co. C. 152, O. V. I. 10-3-1906 

462 Gibson, J. M., Co. G, 196. O. V. I. 

494 Graham, W. B., Co. A, 100, O. V. I 

495 Gift, W^ H., Co. E, 187, O. V. I. 9-29-1913 

497 Gower, T. B., Co. G. 8, O. V. Cav. 

4 Harter, A. C. Co. A, 27, Mo. V. I. 

6 House. Harvey, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 1-25-1897 

15 Hunter, Daniel D., Co. K, 94, O. V. I. 10-14-1910 

21 Hiller, Isaac G., Co. F, 94, O. V. I. * 

45 Henkle, Clark. Co. A. 94, O. V. I 4-14-1907 

72 Hartle, Abram, Co. K, 152, O. V. I 4- 1-1885 

85 Hughes, Chauncey. Co. A, 18, O. V. I. * 

97 Harter. Elam, Co.H. 110. O. V. I * 

102 Herrell, George \N ., Co. K, 1, O. V. I. 5-17-1892 

108 Hood. William, Co. A. 44, O. V. I. 

111 Hayes, John C, Co. I, 94, O. V. I. 3-10-1893 

128 Hecker, Willoughby J., Co. F, 94, O. V. I 1-11-1913 

140 Hickox, Eli J., Co. d! 69. O. V. I. 11-21-1889 

149 Hamiton, Gavin W., Co. C, 11, O. \^. I. 6-30-1894 

152 Haworth, Oren, Co. D, 94, O. V. I. 

162 Hogston, John W^, Co. G. 35, Ind. Vol. I. 

164 Hoffman, William, Co. E. 8, O. V. Cav. 11- 9-1899 

171 Henderson. G. A., Co. H, 18. Wis. V. I. 

185 Hyde, Alf. H., musician, 152, O. V, I. 5- 1-1890 

189 Harrison, Geo, W„ Co. C. 44. O. V. I. 

214 Hartzell, Philip J., Co. C. 152, O. V. I. 6-16-1904 

218 Harmon, Hanson, Co. I, 10, U. S. Reg. 

227 Hopkins, Wilson A.. Co. A, 154, O. V. I. 4-23-1910 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

255 Harris, Charles A., Co. C. 120, O. V. I. 

260 Holzapple, John, Co. A. 65. O. V. I. 9-20-1902 

278 Haines, Wilson, Co. B, 32, O. V. I. 

280 Houk, James A., Co. A, 152, O. V. I * 

285 Harnish, Samuel, Co. H, 152, O. V. I. 

288 Halley, George W., Co. A, 11, O. V. I. 

302 Hartz'ell, Jonas, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 9-19-1913 

314 Hardman, Solomon, Co. D, 69. O. V. I. 

322 Hervey, Jonathan C, 1st H. Art., O. V. I. ___ 

356 Hall. Joseph N., Co. G, 193, O. V. I. 8-27-1902 

365 Harless, Abe G., Co. G, 152, O. V. I. 

384 Holderman, Felix, Co. B, 110, O. V. I. 

385 Holderman, Joseph, Co. H, 55, O. V. I 

395 Harmon, AVilliam, Co. I, 152, O. V. I 

404 Horine, Adam, Co. H, 110, O. V. I. 

417 Hartman. David M., Co. K, 11, O. V. I. 

452 Hercules. Philip. Co. E, 40, O. V. I. 2- 7-1908 

453 Henneigh, Martin, Co. B. 74. Pa. V. I. 

460 Horner. Robert E., Co. C, 152, O. V. I. 

471 Hicks, Jonathan A., Co. E, 71, O. V. I. 

480 Herr, Martin M.. Co. D. 3, O. V. I. • 

38 Irwin, Thomas, Co. C, 187, O. V. I. 6-10-1884 

258 Irwin, Stephen. Co. K, 13, O. V. Cav. * 

5 Jemison, Jerry, Co. K, 34. O. V. I. 

33 Johnson, A. M., Co. E, 116. Ind. V. I. 8-21-1911 

64 Jobes, Dr. John A., surgeon, 152. O. V. I 5-15-1893 

109 jarber, Charles, Co. D, 69, O. V. I. 5-23-1902 

156 Jackson, Henry A., Co. H, 99, O. V. I. 

204 Jacobs, Daniel Co. H, 84, Ind. V. I 

374 Jones, Wiley B., Co. E, 11, Ind. V. I. 

445 Jay, Isaac A.. Co. F, 94, O. V. I. 1- 6-1913 

11 King, James Tip. Co. C, 11, O. V. I. 

361 Kemble, Samuel R.. Co. G, 193. O. V. I. 1-23-1903 

29 Lines, Thomas, Co. C, 11, O. V. I. 2- 5-1894 

30 Ludy. Samuel, Co. A, 32, O. V. I. 

35 Laurimore, Add, Co. D. 69, O. V. I. 1-17-1885 

51 Lansdowne, James M., Co. A, 152, O. V. I. ..10-30-1899 

53 Long, John. Co. G, 3, Pa. V. I. 

91 Larimer, John W., Co. B, 17. O. V. I. 

182 Luker, Charles, Co. T, 152, O. V. I. 1-26-1913 

183 Laurimore. Mart. W., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 

188 Living,ston, Henrv, Co. B, 6, Ind. V. Cav. ___ 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

200 Lee, William R., Co. D, 81, O. V. I 

210 Lamertson, Nelson, Co. I, 69, O. V. I. 

213 Lynch, Dr. William, Co. H, 152, O. V. I. 

217 Lamey, Joseph, Co. A, 18, O. V. I. 

231 Leftwich, Charles R., Co. F, 156, O. V. I 

237 Lowery, Jap N., Co. I, 152, O. V. I 11- 9-1891 

267 Lightheiser, William, Co. B, 110, O. V. I 3-10-1907 

371 Langston, David Co. G, 147, O. V. I 6-13-1895 

420 Lannix, Samuel. Co. F, 152. O. V. I. 3- 3-1905 

435 Little, George T., Co. D, 5, N. Y. V. I. 

450 Leven, John, Co. K, 124, Ind. V. I 

469 Leven, Henry R., Co. B, 142, Ind. V. I. 

503 Lantz. Henry R., Co. F, 16, O. V. I 2-25-1911 

10 Murphy, Daniel, Co. F, 116, Pa. V. I * 

36 Martin', W. H., 8th O. V. Cav 

Z7 Martin, J. R., Co. K, 94, O. V. I 

39 McNeal, James, Co. G, 152, O. V. L 2-10-1913 

46 Matchett, Dr. Wm. H., surgeon, 40, O. V. I.— 8-28-1898 

58 Marquette, David, Co. F, 94, O. V. L * 

68 Martin, Jerry M., Co. I, 94, O. V. L 3- 3-1908 

69 Mackley, Eli. Co. K, 34, O. V. I 11-21-1889 

75 Miller. William, Co. D, 69, O. V. I * 

89 Martin, W. I., Co. K, 94. O. V. Cav 

9Z Miller, Wm. R., Co. K, 15, O. V. I 

112 Miller. Allen T., Co. K, 34, O. V. L 

126 Mc'Closky. Wm.. Co. K, 139, N. Y. V. I 

137 Morningstar. Wm. H.. Co. C, 152, O. V. I 12-28-1886 

139 Miller. Thos. B.. Co. C, 184. O. V. I 

157 McCoy, Thos. B., Co. B. 82. O. V. L 9-14-1891 

168 McClellan, Geo. W., Co. E, 69, O. V. I 

174 Miller. Thomas C. Co. B, 110, O. V. L 

195 Morris, Theodore H.. Co. H. 50, O. V. I 

196 Mills. Harod. Co. H. 152. O. V. I. 10- 6-1894 

197 Mote. Irvin. Co. G. 44. O. V. L 2-16-1910 

198 Manor. Benj. F., Co. H, 152, O. V. I 12-18-1913 

205 Mote. Joseph. Co. E, 48, O. V. I * 

215 McConnell, Wm. P., Co. F, 94, O. V. L 5- 2-1895 

226 McWhinney. Frank, Co. B, 156, O. V. I. 6-10-1910 

268 Martin, John T., Co. A, 30. O. V. I. 

272 McCabe. James F., Co. K, 34, O. V. i: 4-17-1892 

274 Meeks. Jeremiah, Co. G, 152, O. Y. I. 8-12-1895 

289 Moore, Henrv A., Co. C, 152, O. V. I. 8-18-1896 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

315 .McKee, James. Co. G. 152. O. V. I. 1- 8-1903 

318 McKee, Thomas, Co. I, 94, O. V. I. 

341 Muck, John J., Co. I, 63, O. V. I. 2-23-1905 

344 McOua, John, Co. B, 150, O. V. I. 

354 Murphy, Frank, Co. G, 27, Pa. V. Militia 

358 :\larshall. \\'m. G., Co. K, 94, O. V. I. 

362 I\Iorningstar, B. F., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 10-29-1904 

394 i\Iedlani', George, Co. B, 71, O. V. I. 9-28-1896 

407 INIiley, Daniel, Co. D, 40, Ind. V. I. 

412 Morris, Theodore H., Co. H, 50, O. V. I. 

415 Mills, Franklin, Co. F, 131, O. V. I. 3-14-1903 

437 Morrison, Silas, Co. B, 110, O. V. I 

444 :Marcum, Thomas, Co. D, 58, O. V. I * 

463 Michael, L. J., Co. G, 47, O. V. I. 

482 Marshall, O. H., Co. D, 74, O. V. I. 3-30-1912 

492 Mullenix, Henry, Co. G, 44, O. V. I. 

499 Mundhenk, James B., Co. K, 131, O. V. I 

512 Miller, Geo. W., Co. E, 187, O. V. I. 

513 Miller, David H., Co. F, 94, O. V. I * 

54 Neff, Samuel, Co. D, 69. O. V. I. 2-28-1912 

63 Neargardner, Henry, Co. G, 1st O. V. Cav. __ 

65 Niles, Ephraim, Co. A, 110, O. V. I. 

120 Nealeigh, Daniel, Co. A, 152, O. V. I. 

207 Xorth, Thomas J., Co. A, 82, O. V. I. 7-13-1909 

235 Neiswonger, Daniel, Co. C, 187, O. V. I 11- 1-1905 

241 Noller, Fredrick, Co. C, 152, O. V. I 12- 4-1903 

296 Neeley, John H., Co. C, 131, O. V. I. 4-19-1896 

409 Nagle, Charles, Co. M, 1st Pa. L. A 12-10-1907 

.508 Nixon, Robert H., Co. D, 195, O. V. I 

9 O'Conor, John. Co. G, 110, O. V. I. 3- 3-1910 

48 OT>rien, Cornelius, Co. I, 152, O. V. I. 7-26-1907 

59 Oliver, Frank M.. Co. G, 40, O. V. I. * 

88 diver, J. S., Co. K, 34, O. V. I * 

41 Pitzenberger, Jacob, Co. R, 2, O. V. Cav. * 

47 Potter, Edwin", Co. H, 152, O. V. I. * 

83 Perry, George Vv., Co. F, 94, O. V. I. 10-25-1900 

143 Polley, James E., Co. K, 34. O. V. I. 

229 Penny, jason H., Co. E, 48, O. V. I 

310 Penny, Wm. M., Co. A, 5th O. V. Cav. 9- 8-1903 

312 Price, Abraham, Co. D, 167, O. V. I. 12-22-1913 

393 Patchett, Abram, Co. B, 26, Mo. V. I 

459 Peiffer, Jacob, Co. C, 152, O. V. I. 



No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

473 Parson, X. S., Co. F, 55, Pa. V. I. 

7 Reis, John H., 8th O. Battery 3-22-1905 

22 Rentzier, Martin, Co. G, 44, 6. V. I. 6-19-1908 

40 Reinheimer, Alfred, Co. F, 116, Pa. V. I. 11-26-1891 

b7 Rarick, Dr, Chas. W., Co. H, 100, Ind. V. I. — 

71 Rinhardt, John F., Co. D, 69, O. V. I 6-29-1914 

84 Redman, J. B., Co. C, 94, O. V. I. 

98 Rynearson, Sylvester, Co. C, 15, Iowa \'. I. __ 1- 3-1912 

99 Rasor, Nathan. Co. F, 74, O. V. I. =^ 

103 Ratliflf, David, Co. I, 152, O. V. I. 

123 Russell, W. V., Co. C, 89, Ind. V. I * 

134 Ruey, J. \V., Co. B, 7th U. S. Cav. 

136 Ray, Christian, Co. C, 50, O. V. I. 5- 1-1903 

138 Reynolds, W. C, Co. C, 185, O. V. I 

144 Ridenour, Wm.. Co. A, 152, O. V. I. 

147 Ryan, Daniel, Co. F, 94, O. V. I. 

157 Reck, E. O., Co. G, 8, O. V. I. 

179 Reigle, Geo. W., Co. I, 152, O. V. I 

192 Reppeto. Wm. H., Co. B, 29, 111. V. I 

261 Ratliff, Elijah, Co. H, 152, O. V. I. 

262 Ratliff, F. W., 8th O. Battery 

264 Reece, W. L., Co. I, 135, O. V. I. 

286 Reck, Wm. L., Co. C, 152, O. V. I. 9- 6-1909 

297 Reck, F. W., Co. C, 152,0. V. I. 

304 Ryan, Frank, Co. K, 34. O. V. I. 

305 Ruth, Jesse, Co. D. 26, O. V. I. 10-16-1912 

311 Randail, Charles T., Co. B, 180, O. V. I. 7- 4-1908 

321 Reeder, John, Co. G, 40, O. V. I. * 

i2i Rodebaugh, Simon, Co. B, 110, O. V. I 

326 Rohr, William, Co. I, 94, O. V. I * 

376 Ross, S. H., Co. G, 44, O. V. I 

411 Reis, E. B., Co. D, 22. O. V. I. 1-27-1901 

427 Rickman, J. M.. Co. K, 54, Mass. V.I 

429 Reinochle. Rev. H. H.. Co. C, 152, Ind. Y. I. — * 

447 Rightinger, Geo. W., Co. M, 11, Ind. V. C * 

448 Renshaw, Samuel, 8th O. Battery * 

474 Reck, Wilkins. Co. C, 152, O. V. I 

475 Rockey, Thomas, Co. D, 94, O. V. I 3-27-1907 

478 Randall, Cyrus D., Co. C, 2, O. V. I * 

509 Reigle, Emanuel, Co. D, 58, O. V. I 3-30-1912 

31 Seibert, John, Co. C, 187, O. V. I. 11-12-1893 

43 Smith, Tno. W., Co. 1, 40, O. V. I. * 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

56 Seitz, George, Co. F. 159, O. Mil. G'd. Inf 

67 Schuler, Joseph, Co. G, 1, K. V. I. * 

7i Snyder, Henry C, Co. G, 8, O. V. Cav. 

86 Snyder, John, Co. K, 34, O. V. I. * 

92 Sm'ith, Perry P., Co. H, 152, O. V. I. 3- 6-1900 

94 Slade, Hamilton, Co. B, 110, O. V. I. 3- 6-1913 

107 Stocker, Jacob, Co. E, 93, O. V. I. 

113 Steiger, Jacob, Co. C, 94, O. V. I. * 

115 Snyder, Augustus, Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 

150 Scherer, Ludwic, Co. A, 78, O. V. I 3-10-1904 

163 Shay, John, Co. A, 69, O. V. I. 

166 Speelman, Charles T., Co. E, 40, O. V. I. .. * 

169 Stevenson, Estep. Co. F, 94, O. V. I. April, 1913 

173 Snyder, Daniel, Co. C, 187, O. V. I. 

201 Sm'ith, Isaac N., Co. B, 149, O. V. I. 

228 Shuffleton, Robert S., Co. D, 85, O. V. I 

232 Slonaker, H. Jacob, Co. F, 165, O. V. I 10-15-1902 

239 Smith, J. W.. Co. C, 44, O. V. I. 9-25-1891 

243 Sullivan, William, Co. C. 44, O. V. I 9-25-1891 

252 Smith, John D., Co. A, 35, O. V. I 5-19-1896 

266 Smith, John, Co. A, 42, O. V. I. 4-25-1899 

276 Sawyer, Henry A., Co. K, 24, Wis. V. I 6- 5-1914 

277 Stull, John Wash., Co. G, 128, Penn. V. Cav.__ 7- 8-1909 

283 Sheppard, AsaB., Co. B, 110, O. V. I * 

298 Sheppard, Geo. W., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. * 

313 Schreel, John H., Co. E, 71,0. V. I * 

320 Stewart, David M., Co. D, 7i, O. V. I. 

334 Snouse, John, Co. G. 44, O. V. I. 

381 Smith, L. D., Co. D, 151, Pa. V. I. 

382 Sater, John W., Co. C, 20, O. V. I 3-23-1897 

390 Smith, Peter, Co. D, 62, O. V. I. 9-12-1908 

392 Sebring, McKendre, Co. H, 95, O. V. I 

408 Swartzcope, M. F., Co. A, 31, 111. V. I 3-21-1901 

418 Sater, Columbus C, Co. B, 19, Ind. V. I. 

454 Shields, William, Co. G, 8. O. V. Cav 

457 Schreel, Charles, Co. E, 71, O. V. I 4-22-1911 

476 Shelley, Thos. J., Co. D, 81, O. V. I. 

477 Scott, A. A., Co. G, 40, O. V. I 1-28-1914 

501 Snell, Jacob H., Co. A, 193, O. V. I 6-12-1909 

505 Shilt, Perry, Co. C, 152, O. V. I. 

510 Shields, Isaac N., Co. B, 110. O. V. I 

34 Turner, Joseph R., Co. K, 93, O. V. I 


No. Xame. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

110 Todd, W. J.. O. M. 8th O. Battery 

131 Traebing, Philip M., Co. L, 8th O. V. Cav.._. 12-10-1891 

145 Taylor, A. O., Co. F, 24, Mich. V. I 

148 Tucker, James Harvey, Co. E. 5, O. V. Cav.— 5- 2-1914 

177 Tucker, F. C, Co. G,'llO, O. V. I. 

233 Tombers, Albert, Co. H, 100, N. Y. V. I. 

244 Tharp, James, Co. K, 76, O. V. I 

271 Tedford, Chas. E., Co. E, Tenn. M. L 

291 Tate, Rev. AVm. H-. H., Co. G, 44, O. V. I. ___ 1-21-1897 

335 Thorn, John H., Co. I. 152, O. V. I 1-21-1897 

343 Thompson, Samuel L., Co. F, 1st O. V. I 2-10-1908 

436 Toman, Philip S., 8th Ind. Battery 11-27-1898 

490 Thatcher, Nathaniel, Co. E, 87, O. V. I 

499 Title, David, Co. H, 110, O. V. I 

502 Thatcher, Elijah, Co. A, 152, O. V. I 

514 Turrell, Charles H., Co. B, 110, O.V. I. 

25 Ullery, Ed. A., Co. I, 153, O. V. I. 

62 Ungericht, Conrad. Co. C, 187, O. V. I 1883 

125 Ullery, Samuel W., Co. G, 110, O. V. I 

406 Ullom, Marcus, Co. B, 156, O. V. I. 1-19-1914 

440 Ullom, Ellis, Co. H, 110, O. V. I. 5-17-1909 

100 Vance, Thomas W., Co. C, 110, O.V. I * 

127 Veitz, John W., Co. I, 152, O. V. I 

465 Vance, J. Harvey, Co. I, 152, O. V. I 

2 Wolf, Samuel C, Co. K, 34, O. V. I 

16 Weaver, W. C, Co. B, 4, U. S. C 

61 Witters, Jacob L.. Co. E, 17, O. V. I * 

74 Wheeler, Charles W., Co. E, 40, O. V. I 

78 Waggoner, John P., Co. D, 46, 111. V. I. 3-14-1903 

95 Wright, Edward H.. Co. C, 74, O. V. I 

104 Wyley, Rev. J. L., Co. F., 1st Iowa V. I. 

114 Williams, Samuel, 8th O. Battery * 

124 White, J. E., 8th O. Battery 2- 9-1896 

130 Wenger, A. J., Co. K, 34, O. V. I 5- 8-1897 

172 Wilson, Augustus N., Co. E, 69, O. V. I 

180 Wenger, B. F., Co. G, 152, O. V. I 

194 Warvel, Nathan S., Co. G, 152, O. V. I 

216 Welker, John, Co. A, 54, Ind. V. I 2-7-1902 

221 Wissenger, Geo. W., Co. I, 94, O. V. I. * 

224 Weaver, Abraham, Co. I, 63, O. V. I 

234 Wright, Geo. M.. Co. H., 94. O. V. I. 

246 Webber, William, Co. A. 41, O. V. I. 


No. Name. Regiment and State. Deceased. 

253 Winget, John P., Co. K, 34, O. V. I 

259 Wright, Alexander, Co. G, 110, O. V. I. * 

303 Walker, Joseph S., Co. K, 34, O. V. I. 

327 Wise, Jacob, Co. H, 152, O. V. I * 

332 Warner, Jessie, Co. C, 187, O. V. I. 1-31-1912 

359 Wiles, W. R., Co. C. 104, O. V. I 3- 8-1903 

379 Williams, Henry, Co. K, 53, O. V. I 1-25-1910 

386 W^agner, Joel, Co. I, 69, O. V. I 10-16-1900 

387 Wogerman, C, Co. B, 71, O. V. I 12-14-1912 

410 Wilson, Civilian K., Co. D., 69, O. V. I 

481 Woodbury, John S., Co. H, 152, O. V. I 

491 Wertz, Richard, Co. D, 8th O. V. Cav 

504 Wenger, Isaiah S., Co. G, 152. O. V. I 

505 Waddell, James H., Co. E., 20. O. V. I. 

209 Yost, Peter. Co. I. 152, O. V. I 

328 Youart, Wm. H., Co. C, 152, O. V. I 11-12-1913 

451 Yeo, Wm. H., Co. B, 40, O. V. I 

158 Zeller. Dr. B. F., Co. F, 8th O. V. Cav 

170 Zimmerman, Abraham, Co. G, 44, O. V. I. * 

319 Zeigler. Gen. Geo. M., Co. C. 47, O. V. I 

*Deceased, date not on Post record. 

Woman's Relief Corps. 

A Woman's Relief Corps was organized as an auxiliary to 
Jobes Post shortly after the latter body was instituted, and 
has continued in active service to this date. It has been an 
invaluable aid and inspiration to the old soldiers and deserves 
great praise for its works of friendship, charity and love. 
The officers of the Corps elected for 1914 are : President, 
Alice Nelson; senior vice-president, Mary Hartzell ; junior 
vice-president, Mary Cochran; treasurer, Anna Snyder; chap- 
lain, Uranie Snyder; conductor, Susie Snouse ; guard, Nancy 
Albright ; assistant guard, Nina Ridenous ; color bearers, Eliza 
Wagner, Margaret Katzenberger and Delia Calderwood ; dele- 
gate, Alice Nelson. 

The newly installed president named the following stand- 
ing committees for the year 1914: 

Relief Committee — Mary Culbertson, Nancy Albright, 
Mary Hartzell, Clara Dickey, Eliza Waggoner and Mary 

Executive Committee — Uranie Snyder, Anna Snyder, Mar- 


garet Katzenberger, Dema \\'oodbury, Nina Riednour, ^lary 
Bidwell, Katharine Bieries, Alary Knox and Eliza Wagner. 

Conference Committee — Mary Cochran, Clara Dickey, Su- 
san Elliott, ]\Iartha Schultz and Margaret Ryan. 

Auditing Committee — Dosia Wagoner, Susan Elliott, Josie 
Williams and Lousetta Eidson. 

Home and Employment — Lousetta Eidson, Hettie Studa- 
baker, Mollie Williams, Mary Neighley, Martha Lewis, Allie 
Smith and Tena Snyder. 

Flower Committee — Margaret Katzenberger, Usebia Sei- 
bert, Nancy Hahn, Rhoda Tucker, Anna Ruder and Sarah 

Sandusky Soldiers' Home Committee — Susie Snouse, Ura- 
nie Snyder and Katie Katzenberger. 

Press Corresopnednt — Mary Culbertson. 

Sons of Veterans. 

A lodge of Sons of Veterans was mustered in in the eighties 
under the name of Brandon Camp. Although quite active 
for several years and a valuable assistant in conducting the 
yearly memorial services, it finally disposed of its arms and 
propertv and surrendered its charter. 

Women's Christian Temperance Union and Kindred Organi- 

From the testimony of earlv settlers and numerous pub- 
lished articles, it is well known that the drinking of intoxi- 
cating liquors, especially whiskey, was quite common in 
pioneer days. The jug was prominently displayed in prac- 
tically everv cabin, was passed around freely at log-rollings, 
barn-raisings, husking-bees, in the harvest field and on-nearly 
all occasions where men came together at social gatherings 
or for hard labor with their hands. Even ministers of the 
gospel kept liquor in their homes, and consumed it with 
meals, while professional men generally held to the old Eng- 
lish idea that a man could not be a gentleman unless he used 
intoxicating beverages. A strong endorsement was also 
given to the practice by the family physicians who prescribed 
it for malaria, rheumatism, consumption, colds and nearly all 
the prevailing diseases. The mothers likewise prescribed it 
freely in all kinds of sickness and used it in various sorts of 
pies and pastries. We have already noticed the prevalence 


of brawls and rowdyism about the taverns and bars of the 
county seat and mentioned the unsavory reputation of Green- 
ville for the number of hard drinkers and gamblers in those 
days. However, these conditions were not to continue in- 
definitely as moral and discriminating men began to see the 
evil efifects of these pernicious customs. Individual and 
sporadic attempts were made at an early date to stir up senti- 
ment against the common practice but with little effect. Later 
men began to organize and refused to furnish liquor to men 
in the harvest field, at butcherings and in similar occasions. 

About 1838, Samuel Cole, Peter Kimber and Father Mur- 
phy, residing near Coleville, began a movement in this direc- 
tion. The "Washingtonians" seem to have organized the first 
strong movement of protest, in 1842. Such prominent men as 
Gen. Hiram Bell, Dr. Gilpatrick, and Judge Beers thoroug'hly 
canvassed the county and held discussions on the temper- 
ance question. Dr. I. N. Gard also lent encouragement to the 
movement as a result of which every village in the county 
became organized and Greenville was stirred as never before. 

Temperance, in the sense of moderation, had been preached 
before, but the idea of total abstinence was new to the pio- 
neers and was opposed by large numbers of well meaning 
men, thus showing the strong effect of early education and 
custom on the masses. This movement seems to have largely 
spent its force and was succeeded in 1855 by the "Sons of 
Temperance," which organization gained a membership ex- 
ceeding two hundred in Greenville alone and was instru- 
mental in moulding public opinion to a large degree for a 
few years. From 1868 to 1870 the Independent Order Grand 
Templars flourished and enrolled nearly two hundred mem- 
bers. It was succeeded by the Young Templars, who were 
organized August 17, 1870, under such leaders as Dr. Sharp, 
E. :\Iatchett and Mrs. D. Adams. On June 19, 1871, a lodge 
of the Sons of Temperance was organized by A. M. Collins, 
state deputy of Ohio, at which time the following officers 
were elected and installed: 

Rev. William McCaughey, W. P. 

Lottie Tomilson. Assistant W. P. 

Mary Webb, W. A. 

Dr. C. Otwell. Deputy. 

J. H, :\Iorningstar, R. S. 

Dianna Seitz, Assistant R. S 

John Frybarger, F. S. ' 


William M. Harper, Treasurer. 

Rev. H. S. Bradley, Captain. 

W. R. Reed, Conductor. 

Sallie Hamilton, Assistant Conductor. 

Clara Tomilson, I. G. 

E. B. Seitz, O. G. 

One hundred and eight members were enrolled in this or- 

In February, 1874, the '"crusade'' struck Greenville. Some 
seventy ladies, many of them prominent workers in the 
churches, banded together and went from saloon to saloon, 
knelt in prayer and plead with the proprietors and bar- 
tenders to close their places and quit the liquor business. Out- 
door meetings and parades were held regardless of the 
weather and public opinion was influenced to such an extent 
that all the saloons were closed until after the spring elections. 
Three years later renewed interest was manifested and many 
were converted to the cause of temperance, including George 
Calderwood, who afterwards published a paper in the interest 
of the cause and became a temperance lecturer of wide repu- 
tation. Again in the eighties temperance sentiment was 
greatly stirred b}' the "Murphy movement." Great meetings 
were held in the Mozart hall which had recently been con- 
structed on West Fourth street, at which large numbers of 
old and young pledged themselves for life to total abstinence. 
As will be noted, all these movements were of temporary 
duration. On February 19, 1880. however, there was formed 
in Greenville, an organization of a more permanent nature, 
which still exists after over thirty-four years of earnest labor 
in the cause of temperance. This organization is known as 
the "Women's Christian Temperance Union," and has prob- 
ably accomplished more in the field of systematic and pro- 
gressive temperance work than all previous organizations to- 
gether. The first officers were : President, Mrs. May Fergu- 
son ; vice presidents, Mesdames Martin, Adams, \\''ebb, East- 
man, Gross and Frances Clark ; secretary, Mrs. Ella ^Matchett ; 
corresponding secretary. Mrs. Bowman. 

On December 6, 1887, the women of the county who were 
especially interested in temperance held -a convention at the 
\L E. church in Greenville for the purpose of efi^ecting a 
county organization of the W^ C. T. U. The convention was 
called to order by the district president, Mrs. M. C. Happer- 
sett, of Urbana, Ohio. After devotional exercises and ad- 


dresses an election was held at which the following officers 
were chosen : President, ^Irs. O. A. Newton ; county organ- 
izer, Mrs. L. A. Macklin; recording secretary, Miss Clarissa 
Sinks ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Abbie D. Lecklider ; 
treasurer, Mrs. John C. Turpen. 

The object of the union as set forth in the constitution is 
"to arouse the women of this county to engage in an effort 
for the promotion of temperance in every place and family, 
and to strengthen, encourage and assist each other in this 
important work." Prominent among the workers in the or- 
ganization, besides those already mentioned have been Mes- 
dames Linda Mace, A. B. Maurer, J. W. Cassatt, L. Clawson, 
Mary Webb, M. E. Bowman, Deborah R. Adams, W. S. Rich- 
eson, Enoch Westerfield, Alex. Kerr, J. G. Reid, J. C. Weaver, 
W. B. Hough, Jno. H. Martin, John Martz, Aaron Brandon, 
Xoah Tillman. C. A. Nelson. Kitty Vaughn. Robert Jamison, 
John Klefecker. Charles Schreel, Ella Matchett. Hattie Guy, 
George W. Studebaker, Bert Martz, Stella Tillman, Will 
Cochran, George W. Hartzell. Mary Lockett, J. N. Reigle, 
Lydia Morrison, R. T. Humphreys. Mary T. Horn, D. W. 
Spidel. Cora Stokely. A. J. Landis. H. F'. Hartzell, Charles 
Minnich, T. H. Monger, Cora Along. W. D. Brumbaugh. Delia 
\\ inget, Mattie Klinger, Alice Kunkel, Mary Martin. Lizzie 
Martin, Anna Guthridge, besides the wives of several min- 
isters and others who have moved elsewhere. 

The Greenville organization is strong and active today, 
and is administered by the following officers and committees: 

President — Mrs. Celia Hershey. 

Secretary — Mrs. Catherine Teagarden. 

Treasurer — Mrs. Mary Horn. 

Antinarcotics — Mrs. Linda Mace. 

Christian Citizenship — Edith Overholser. 

Flower Mission — Laura Mathews. 

Fair Literature — Mrs. Alary Hartzell. 

Literature — Mrs. Lola Aukerman. 

Mother's Meeting — Mrs. Daisy Alartin. 

Mercy — Mrs. Jennie Halle}'. 

Prison Work — Mrs. Florence Moore. 

Press Reporter — Airs. Alinnie Colegrove. 

Parliamentarian — Alice Kunkel. 

Socials and Red Letter Days — Airs. Josie Williams and 
Airs. Laura Westerfield. 

Sabbath Observance — Airs. Pearl Owens. 


Sabbath Work — Mrs. Emma Somers. 

Temperance and Mission — Mrs. Cora Landis 

The officers of the county organization are : 

President — Mrs. Emma Mathews. 

Vice President — Laura Westerfield. 

Corresponding Secretary — Mary Mansfield. 

Recording Secretary — Ella Lowry, New Madison. 

Treasurer — W. W. Fowler, Union City. 

Advisory Committee — Mrs. Florence Jobes, IMrs. Nellie 
Sellers, Arcanum, Mrs. W. B. Rice, Gordon, Mrs. Dessie 
White, HoUansburg, Mrs. Florence Boyd. 

Besides the W. C. T. U. an active Prohibition Club was 
recently organized in Greenville. The following are now the 
officers : 

President— ^^'. C. Mote. 

Vice President — Mr. D. P. AA'hitesell. 

Secretary — Mrs. Emma Mathews. 

Treasurer — Mr. George Mace. 

Recorder — Mrs. I.. C. Somers. 

The vote for Daniel Poling, candidate for Governor of Ohio 
on the Prohibition ticket in the fall of 1912 was nearly twelve 

Perhaps the most striking evidence of the growth of the 
temperance sentiment throughout the county in recent years 
was afforded by the election held under the Rose County 
local option law on Friday, October 16, 1908. The opposing 
forces were stronglv organized, the "dry" forces being led by 
Rev. L. E. Smith of the Baptist church, whom they had em- 
ployed to superintend the campaign. The county was covered 
and guarded by an army of workers, both men and women, 
who kept the local ".Anti-Saloon League" posted on every 
mo\'e and canvassed thoroughly every district. .As a result 
the vote cast was the largest in the history of the countv up 
to that time, the total being nearly eleven thousand — more 
than a thousand votes over that cast in the Herrick-Patter- 
son campaign of 1905 in which the liquor question entered 
prominently. The result showed a majority of two hundred 
and eighty-four in favor of the temperance people who carried 
eleven in the incorporated villages and were especially 
strong in the rural precincts. Greenville, Versailles, L^nion 
City, New IMadison, Yorkshire, and Osgood showed compara- 
tive small "wet" majorities in this election. At the next 
local option the decision was reversed at the polls but it is 


readily seen, and generally acknowledged that the temper- 
ance sentiment has increased with the years and is probably 
stronger today than ever before, largely, no doubt, because 
of the persistent activity of the various forces above men- 
tioned in conjunction with the work of the state and national 
temperance organizations and the changed conditions of the 

The Pioneer Association. 

On July 4. 1870, thirteen pioneers met in Hart's Grove and 
organized the first pioneer association of Darke county. 
Over sixty years had passed since the first settlers came to 
Darke county and these patriotic survixors of early days 
realized that it was time that reliable data relating to the early 
life of the settlers be secured and preserved in order that 
future generations might in a measure learn to appreciate the 
hardships, and sacrifices incident to pioneer life and become 
acquainted with the customs of those early days. 

The following pioneers were present and signed the con- 
stitution : Henry Arnold, Aaron Hiller, Israel Cox, John S. 
Hiller, David Studabaker, John Wharry, Josiah D. Elston, 
James Cloyd, John Martin, Robert Martin, Henry W. Emer- 
son, John Stahl and William F. Bishop. James Cloyd was 
elected president, John S. Hiller and H. W. Emerson vice pres- 
idents, John \\'harry secretary and H. Arnold, treasurer. 

The first big annual basket meeting of the new society was 
held in Hart's Grove on July 4, 1871 and was a grand suc- 
cess. It was at this meeting that the ceremonies attending 
the removal of the remains of the Wilson children were per- 
formed as described elsewhere. Yearlv meetings were held 
for several j-ears thereafter at various places, including 
]\lorningstar"s grove, the fair ground, probate court room and 
city hall at which interesting addresses were made by such 
.speakers as Hon. G. V. Dorsey, of Piqua, H. K. McConnell, 
H. A\\ Emerson. Dr. I. N. Gard, Abner Haines of Eaton, G. 
D. Hendricks, Hon. Wm. Allen, A. R. Calderwood and others. 
In the intervening years many names were added to the roll 
of the society, but on account of the advanced age of the 
signers, the ranks rapidly depleted and the annual meetings 
seem to have declined in attendance and interest until the 
first generation of the descendants of the pioneers took up 
tlie work and endeavored to continue it. 

In 1907 the association reorganized and elected A. H. Gil- 


bert, president; James W. Martin, secretary; B. F. Coppess, 
treasurer. Since that time the annual meetings have been 
held in the fair grounds in September at which instructive and 
inspiring addresses have been made by George Martz, Prof. 
J. T. Martz, Hon. James I. Allread, Allen Andrews, D. L. 
Gaskill, Oscar Krickenberger, Hon. O. E. Harrison, 'George 
W. Manix, Jr., and others. 

An organization of the "Pupils of the Greenville schools 
during the fifties and sixties" has been effected and these now 
hold a joint meeting with the pioneer association. At a 
special meeting held Xovemljer 21, 1911, a movement was 
started having as its aim the erection of a log memorial 
building in the fair grounds for the purpose of housing pio- 
neer relics and holding the annual meetings. This building 
is being erected and will, no doubt, be completed before the 
annual fair of 1914. At this time A. H. Gilbert is presidnt, Z. 
T. Dorman, vice president and John C. Turpen, treasurer. 

The names of the pupils of the Greenville schools in the 
"fifties and sixties" as entered on the roll of the society is as 
follows : 

Mary Clew Alter, Greenville, O. ; John Ashley, Lincoln, 111.; 
Wilson Arnold, Greenville, O. ; Xewton Arnold, Greenville, 
O. ; W. W. Angel, Bluffton, Ind. ; Hon. Allen Andrews, Ham- 
ilton, O. : Judge M. T. Allen, Los Angeles, Gal. ; \\'ade Bier- 
ley, Harvey- Bierley, Wesley Bierley, Rachel Collins Black, 
Jennie Hiller Bell, Alexander T. Bodel, Clififord Boyd, John 
Bell, H. L. Brumbacher, Chas. Burdg. William Clew, Adeline 
Craig Cubertson, William Collins, A. \\". Compton, J. S. 
Clark, Chaney Craig, Dr. David L. Corbin, David Culbertson, 
John Calderwood, George Coover, Frank Coover, Geo. W. 
Calderwood, W. L. Collins, Mrs. W. J. Collins, G. P. Calder- 
wood, G. W. Calkins, Z. T. Dorman, Mary Brown Duboice, 
Elizabeth Derush Dye, Chester B. Fletcher, L. T. Fitz, Sadie 
Faror Sater, Charles Frizell, Henry Fox, A. H. Gilbert, Ellen 
Greenawalt, Esty, James Gorsuch, Helen Peyton Gilbert. 
Jonathan Gorsuch, Horace Garst, W. J. Gilbert, Plenny Gar- 
land, O. E. Garland, Edward Hufnagle, Emily Shepherd 
Hartzell, B. F. Howard, Celia Lavendar Helm, A. C. Helm, 
Samuel Hamilton, Helen Webb, Jinks, John Jinks, Volney 
Jinks, Jennie Krug Kitzmiller, Tip King, Harry Knox. Anna 
Coover Kenan, S. C. Keltner, Mrs. Jacob Keck, A. Kolp, John 
Keck, Emma Dorman Lewis, Nancy Calderwood Lecklider, 
T. C. Lynch, Isaac H. Lynch, Dr. William Lynch, Hon. Chas. 


Lindermood, George Lines, James Laurimore, James AIcAl- 
pine. Allen Miller, Frank Martin, Newton Martin, Dr. Ga- 
briel Aliesse, Harry ?ileans, James W. Martin, Americus 
Miesse, Percy Mackley, Pothena J. Shade Morgan, Lizzie 
^IcAlpine, Hirondo Miesse, Andrew McKhann, George Os- 
walt, Dr. ^^'m. Otwell, Bart. Otwell, John Porter, Wm. Purdy, 
Mary J. Hamilton Rush, Robert Roby, James Ries, \A'. L. 
Ries, Mar}' L. Ridan, Hall Robison, John Schnaus, Perry 
Sharp, J. A. Smith, Alex. Swisher, O. Stines, Celinda Martin 
Sebring, L W. Slawter, Lon Shade, J. Sanford Shepherd, Fla- 
vins Shepherd, John Sharp, Sarah Coovers Sweet, Phoebe 
Hamilton Sparks, Susan Mincer Studabaker, Mrs. E. M. Stev- 
enson, Odlin Speece, Philip R. Stover, Geo. W. Seitz, Jack 
Shade, Martha Wharry Turpen, John C. Turpen, Elizabeth 
Fletcher Troy, Ed Tomlinson, Lottie Tomlinson, Clara Tom- 
linson. Helen Creager Tomlinson, Wm. Vantilburg, John Van- 
tilburg. ]\Irs. ■\Iollie Vandyke. Capt. James ^^'harry, Robert 
Calvin ^^'ilson, Dottie Webster. 

The Greenville Historical Society. 

This association was organized January 23, 1903, for the 
following purposes: To further the study of local history; 
to secure a fitting memorial within the site of Fort Green- 
ville commemorating the signing of Wayne's treaty ; to co- 
operate with the curators of the public museum in collecting, 
preserving and exhibiting articles of historical interest ; to 
acquire, mark, and preserve local historical landmarks. 

Frazer E. Wilson was elected first president; Dr. George L 
Gunckel, vice president ; Dr. John E. Monger, secretary and 
Prof. Jas. J. Martz, treasurer. The other charter members 
were George A. Ivatzenberger, Osborn ^^'ilson and A. C. 

This small group of active workers soon increased the 
membership of the society and set about to accomplish its 
objects. Results were soon apparent. In the summer of 
1906 the Greenville Treaty Memorial was erected and dedi- 
cated, and in the fall of 1907 the Fort Jefferson monument was 
unveiled as described in the chapter on "Notable Events." 
Besides these worthy accomplishments the society removed 
the remains of William P. Dugan, a soldier of the Revolution, 
from the old Water street cemetery to the soldiers' plot in 
the New cemetery, secured oil portraits of St. Clair, Wayne 


and Little Turtle, and some very valuable collections for the 
museum. Indirectly it has stimulated the study of local his- 
tory in the public schools and encouraged the growth and 
proper use of the public museum by both the schools and the 
general public. It does not consider its original objects as 
fully accomplished but hopes to be instrumental in finally 
securing the erection of a large and suitable treaty memorial 
by the United States government, the marking of all the 
really historical sites in the county, and the establishment oi 
a course of local history study in the high schools of the 

The present officers are: J. J. O'Brien, president; G. A. 
Katzenberger, vice-president : F. E. Wilson, secretary ; Wil- 
liam J. Swartz, treasurer. Meetings are held at irregular 
intervals to hear specially prepared papers on local historical 
subjects or to plan for the accomplishment of its various 

The Darke County Medical Association. 

The first medical society in Darke county was organized 
July 15, 1848, for the purpose of regulating fees for services, 
raising the ethical standards of practicing physicians, dis- 
couraging quackery, promoting the interest of the profes- 
sion and planning for better healtli conditions among the 
people generall}'. 

I. \. Gard was chosen the first president and R. Gilpatrick 
vice-president, A. Koogler recording secretary, O. G. Potts 
corresponding secretary and Alfred Ayers, treasurer for the 
ensuing year. liesides these physicians Doctors J. E. 
Matchett. Otwell, Baskerville, Stiles, Dorwin. Hostetter, 
Harter, Larrimore, Howe and Evans were members. Meet- 
ings were held at intervals, but finally discontinued 
until 1855 when the society was revived. At that time 
the additional names of W. H. Matchett, E. Lynch, 
S. D. Hager. Blunt, McCandless, Early, Williamson and 
Lecklider are noticed on the records. Interest again 
waned and the society was reorganized April 6, 1863, 
at which time E. Otwell was chosen president, J. C. William- 
son vice-president, E. Lynch secretary, J. A. Jobes corre- 
sponding secretary and .\. Koogler treasurer. Drs. John Ford, 
Francis Kusnick, S. K. Sour, J. P. Gordon, C. T. Evans, W. E. 
Hooven, James Ruby and H. W. Dorwin were received as 
members during this year, Theo. LufT in 1864 and J. E. 


Fackler and O. E. Lucas in 1865. From 1848 to 1869 fifty- 
four physicians were enrolled as members of the association, 
of whom seventeen died during that period. 

The society today is active and well organized and stands 
in the front ranks of similar associations in Ohio. Meetings 
are held monthly. The present officers are: President, J. C. 
Poling; vice-president, G. W. Burnett; secretary-treasurer, J. 
E. Hunter ; delegate, J. E. Monger ; alternate, M. M. Corwin ; 
legislation, A. W. Rush ; censors, H. A. Snorf, J. S. Niederkorn 
and (J. P. Wolverton. Public health. W. T. Fitzgerald, J. E. 
Hunter and E. G. Husted. 

The membership is forty-six, viz.: J. C. Poling and C. I. 
Stevens, Ansonia ; P. W. B3fers, I. H. Hawes and W. A. Jones, 
.\rcanum ; A. M. Brandon, Beamsville ; Louis Bigler and J. 
^^^ Van Lue, Gettysburg ; L. R. Emericlc, Ithaca ; J. M. Ander- 
son. G. \\'. Burnett, W. T. Fitzgerald, W. E. Guntrum, J. K. 
Hunter, E. G. Husted, S. A. Hawes, Wm. Lynch, B. F. Met- 
calf, J. E. Monger, D. Robeson, A. W. Rush, H. A. Snorf, C. 
G. Swan, R. H. Spitler, A. F. Sarver, O. P. Wolverton, Green- 
ville : J. E. Detamore, Hill Grove ; G. W. Harley, A. \V. Meek, 
W. D. Bishop, Hollansburg; H. C. Reigle, Lightsville ; J. T. 
Patton, New Weston ; E. A. Hecker, New Madison ; J. D. 
Hartzell, North Star ; \Y. A. Cromley, Palestine ; C. F. Puter- 
baugh. Painter Creek: J. O. Starr, Pittsburg; E. H. Black 
and J. M. DeFord, Rossburg; ^I. M. Corwin, Savona ; J. B. 
Ballinger, W. C. Gutermuth, J. S. Xiederkorn, E. G. Reprogle, 
C. F. Rvan, Versailles; E. A. Fisher, Yorkshire. 


(By George A. Katzenberger, Attorney.) 

The judicial system of this country, with its vast com- 
plex, but harmonious organization, may justly be regarded as 
among the most notable achievements of the human intellect. 
Through its numerous tribunals of every grade, from that of 
the supreme court of the United States to local justices of the 
peace, it takes cognizance of every question of constitutional 
construction, or of personal and property rights, that can arise 
out of the social conditions or commercial activities of an in- 
definite number of separate communities, organized as states, 
and forming a federal union — the foremost nation of all the 
world. It reaches the daily life of the people. It protects the 
weak against the strong, the peaceable against violence, the 
innocent against wrong, the honest against fraud, the indus- 
trious against rapacit}-. By the universal consent of enlight- 
ened men, justice is regarded as a divine attribute, and such 
is its essential nature, therefore, as to impart dignity and 
purity to all those who are worthily engaged in its adminis- 
tration. The wise and just judge has, therefore, in all ages 
and societies, been held in universal esteem. 

The American lawyer can only be admitted to the practice 
of the profession upon proof of good, moral character and 
of such proficiency in knowledge of the law as to enable him 
to render valuable service in the administration of justice. 
The special law of each state prescribes the character and 
method of the examination tri which each applicant for admis- 
sion must be subjected, the length of time he must have de- 
voted to the study of the elementary principles of the law and 
the .system of its practice. 

As the judicial departments of the government, federal and 
state, can be administered only b}^ those learned in the law 
and trained in its practice, the legal profession is the one only 
calling, indispensably necessary to the continuation of our 
constitutional system. Those called to the performance of 
legislative or executive functions need not necessarilv be 


lawyers. Indeed, many of those who have most acceptably 
filled the various offices in both, have been called from other 
pursuits. It is different with the judiciary. Xo man can at- 
tain the dignity of the bench who has not demonstrated his 
fitness and learning at the bar ; and who has not displayed in 
the course of his legal practice those abilities, correct habits, 
and moral principles that commend him to the endorsement 
of his fellow-members of the profession for promotion. 

As is generally known, the first legislature, which assem- 
bled under the new state government of Ohio, passed an act 
on the 15th of April, 1803, organizing the judicial courts of 
the state. A presiding judge of the court of common pleas 
was required to be appointed in each circuit, who, together 
with three associate judges (not necessarily lawyers) consti 
tuted the courts of common pleas of the respective coun- 
ties. ^Montgomery county then comprised all the territory 
north of the line of Butler and Warren counties as far as the 
state line, and west to its western boundary, thus including 
Darke county. The same act provided that until permanent 
seats of justice should be fixed in the several new counties, 
by commissioners appointed for that purpose, tht temporary 
seat of justice, and the courts, should be held in the county of 
Montgomery, at the house of George Newcom, in the town 
of Dayton. 

The time fixed by the statutes for holding the court of com- 
mon pleas in Montgomery county was the fourth Tuesdays 
in March, July and November ; and that fixed for holding the 
supreme court was the third Tuesday of October, thus estab- 
lishing and pereptuating among us the custom of court terms, 
which still generally prevails, and which originated centuries 
before in England, under widely different conditions, when 
the sovereign, with a retinue, passed frorh county to county 
to dispense justice to his subjects. This persistent survival 
of institutions, long after the conditions in which they had 
their origin seem almost entirely obliterated, is one of the 
most suggestive phenomena of civilization. The president 
and associate judges in their respective counties, anv three of 
whom formed a quorum, had common law and chancery juris- 

Although rude surroundings characterized the inauguration 
of the first tribunals pro-\'ided for the administration of jus- 
tice in Montgomery county, it must not be inferred that the 
law? themselves, and the methods of procedure, were in like 


manner riidimental. On the contrary, the estalilishment of 
regular tribunals to hear and determine matters in dispute, 
had been from time immemorial characteristic of all phases of 
ci\-ilization. The first step, indeed, in the advance of man- 
kind from a sa\age to a civilized state, is the substitution of 
the principles of justice for the use of force, in the adjustment 
of human controversies. Among the enumerated objects for 
which the federal government itself had been organized but a 
few years before, the second in importance was declared to be 
"to establish justice." 

The principles of the English common law constituted a 
well defined system long before the colonization or even the 
discovery of the American continent, and manj' of the pro- 
visions of the great character of English libertv. forced from 
King John by the barons at Runnymede in 1215, were trans- 
planted to American soil from England and nurtured by our 
forefathers until they bore fruit in the Declaration of Amer- 
ican Independence and the ordainment of our splendid system 
of American written constitutions. 

But long before Runnymede, or even the conquest of Eng- 
land by William of Normandy, back in the sixth century, a 
celebrated Roman emperor, named Justinian, the son of an 
illiterate savage, descended from one of the conquered tribes 
that had yielded reluctant obedience to the yoke of imperial 
Rome, at the instance of the David Dudley Fields, Judge Dil- 
lons and other learned jurists of his day, had ordered a com- 
mission, composed of the most eminent lawyers of the age, to 
codify the existing common and statute laws of the expiring 

The immense body of jurisprudence, wiiich had resulted 
from the varied conditions of that wonderful people through 
the experiences of a thousand years, commencing with the 
twelve tables of the Decemvirs, and including the successive 
revisions that had been made from time to time embraced a 
monstrous and unwieldy mass, corresponding to our elemen- 
tary, statute, common law, and court decisions. This vast 
aggregate was again revised, condensed and classified into 
what are known to the profession as "the code, Pandects and 
Institutes of Justinian." 

A historical sycophancy has thus ascribed immortal honor 
to a titled monarch of ordinary capacity and gross passions 
which the world wiJl forever owe to a bod)' of illustrious 
lawyers ("most of whose names are long since forgotten), with 


the celebrated Tribonian at their head, who, by the diligent 
labor of years, achieved this mighty work, and rescued from 
the debris of a perishing empire what is known as "the civil 
law," the priceless legac}' of the dying mistress of nations 
to the modern world. 

This "civil law," together with what is known as the com- 
mon law of England, established in the colonies by legisla- 
tive enactment, or custom, being those principles, rules of 
action, and usages applicable to the government and security 
of person and property, constituted the basis of American jur- 
isprudence as it existed when the first courts were organized 
and held in ^Montgomery county in the year 1803, in the upper 
room of the log tavern of George Newcom, in the infant town 
of Dayton, Ohio. 

The adjoining country was an almost unbroken wilderness. 
The clearings were few and far between. It is to be regretted 
that even tradition has not been transmitted to us a descrip- 
tion of the occasion of the early holding of court in Dayton. 
There must have been several chairs for the judges and law- 
yers, whose duty